What does Jesus Christ mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jesus Christ, Passion of
(1) A devotion paid to Christ in memory of His Passion through pious exercises commemorating His sufferings, such as the Way of the Cross; in several Masses of the Passion, in countless prayers; also through art, pictures and statues depicting various phases of the Passion; and through a vast literature, mostly ascetical and devotional in nature. This devotion is of ancient origin, though it did not flourish in the early Church as it does today. The devotion as it exists today dates from the time of Saint Bernard and Saint Francis of Assisi.
(2) A feast celebrated on the Tuesday after Sexagesima Sunday. Its object is to honor the sufferings Christ endured for the salvation of mankind. It originated in the 16th century, and was reintroduced by Saint Paul of the Cross. There are also other feasts commemorating special mysteries of the Passion.
(3) In the four Gospels, the Passion is so recorded that one account supplements the other. The Synoptic Gospels contain a brief narrative, in substance common to all. Matthew and Mark have additional passages in common. The further passages which are found separately in the three synoptists quite easily harmonize with the intention that particular narrator had in mind, and with the peculiarities elsewhere noted in the same narrator; this is likewise true of John's account of the Passion. Both by the omission of mysteries recorded by the Synoptists, and by the narration of others omitted by them, the fourth Gospel is true to its traditional character as being of later date.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jesus Christ, Knowledge of
Our Lord as God is omniscient, since this is a property of the Divine nature. This is infinite knowledge. But as man, His human knowledge is finite. Like us, He acquired knowledge by experience, information, reasoning; otherwise the Gospel would be unintelligible. But, besides this experimental knowledge, He had also what theologians call infused knowledge, such as the prophets of old received. It is only natural that His human nature, being hypostatically united to the Word of God, would receive a participation of God's knowledge; but He regulated it according to the needs of His mission. During His mortal life, He even had the beatific vision which the elect enjoy in heaven. This too is a consequence of His Hypostatic Union. The Church has lately insisted on the truth of this theological doctrine as to the threefold human knowledge of Christ, a doctrine which involves no contradiction and is in no real opposition to any text from the Holy Scriptures, although some delicate problems may be connected with the explanation of various texts.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Knowledge of Jesus Christ
Our Lord as God is omniscient, since this is a property of the Divine nature. This is infinite knowledge. But as man, His human knowledge is finite. Like us, He acquired knowledge by experience, information, reasoning; otherwise the Gospel would be unintelligible. But, besides this experimental knowledge, He had also what theologians call infused knowledge, such as the prophets of old received. It is only natural that His human nature, being hypostatically united to the Word of God, would receive a participation of God's knowledge; but He regulated it according to the needs of His mission. During His mortal life, He even had the beatific vision which the elect enjoy in heaven. This too is a consequence of His Hypostatic Union. The Church has lately insisted on the truth of this theological doctrine as to the threefold human knowledge of Christ, a doctrine which involves no contradiction and is in no real opposition to any text from the Holy Scriptures, although some delicate problems may be connected with the explanation of various texts.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ
(jee' zuhss krisst) Greek form of Joshua and of title meaning, “Yahweh is salvation” and “the anointed one” or “Messiah.” Proper name of the Savior of the world. The title “Christ” gathers all of the Old Testament prophetic hopes and infuses into them the meaning associated with the proper name Jesus, Man of Galilee—Man of sorrows. Jesus is the clearest picture of God the world has ever seen—that is the affirmation of believing hearts. In Jesus Christ are united the vertical of God's revelation and the horizontal of history's meaning. Christians see in this one proper name a conjunction of God and man. The believers of the New Testament did not first “read” Jesus Christ chronologically. That is, they did not set down to construct a doctrine called Christology that would move from preexistence to parousia (final coming). Rather, they were caught up in the historical reality of what God was doing for them and all the world through Jesus Christ. Looking at the different episodes of the Christ event should show the New Testament understanding of Jesus, God's Christ.
Resurrection Jesus' resurrection grasped the early believers. The walk of the risen Christ with those burning hearts en route to Emmaus, the appearance of the risen Christ first to Mary Magdalene, the appearance and commissions of the risen Christ to His disciples—these things which no other experience can duplicate nor any other religious movement validate claimed the Christians' attention in an unforgetable way. People of the first century had seen people die before. None before or since had seen a person bring God's resurrection life to bear on this world's most pressing problem, death. The resurrection of Jesus Christ is the center of the Christian gospel (1 Corinthians 15:1 ).
The Death of Jesus Christ He who was raised on the first day of the week was the same as the One who had died three days earlier. His was not simply a natural death. It was a ritual murder carried out by the authorities of Rome, engineered by the religious leaders of that day, but made necessary by the sins of all who ever lived. Jesus was delivered up by His own people and put to death by a cruel political regime, but the earliest New Testament communities saw in this tragedy the determinate will of God (Acts 1-12 ). Paul connected Jesus' death to the sacrificial ideas of the Old Testament and saw in the giving of this life a vicarious act for all humankind. Jesus' death was a major stumbling block for Israel. How could God's Christ be “hung on a tree” and fall under the curse of the law (Galatians 3:1 ) when He did not deserve it.
Jesus as Doer of God's Mighty Works This One who was raised, the same One who died, had performed the miracles of God's kingdom in our time and space. John testified that in the doing of God's mighty works Jesus was the prophet sent from God (John 6:14 ). He healed all kinds of persons, a sign of God's ultimate healing. He raised some from the dead, a sign that He would bring God's resurrection life to all who would receive it. He cast out evil spirits as a preview of God's final shutting away of the evil one (Revelation 20:1 ). He was Lord over nature, indicating that by His power God was already beginning to create a new heaven and a new earth (Revelation 21:1 ). The spectacular impact of His mighty works reinforced and called to mind the power of His teachings.
Jesus' Teachings “Never man spake like this man” with such authority (John 7:46 ; compare Matthew 7:29 ). His teachings were about “the Father,” what He wanted, what He was like, what He would do for His creation. Jesus' teachings required absolute obedience and love for God and the kingdom of God. He dared claim that the kingdom had begun in His ministry but would not be culminated until Christ's final coming. Until that coming, Christians were to live in the world by the ethical injunctions He gave (Matthew 5-7 ) and in the kind of love He had shown and commanded (John 14-16 ). To help earthly people understand heavenly things, He spoke in parables. These parables were from realistic, real-life settings. They were about the kingdom of God—what it was like, what was required to live in it, what was the meaning of life according to its teachings, what the kingdom promised. One of the promises of the kingdom was that the King would return and rule in it.
Jesus' Ultimate Coming Just as the first coming of Jesus Christ was according to prophecy, so the final coming of Christ is to be by divine promise and prediction. The earliest Christians expected Christ's coming immediately (1 Thessalonians 4:1 ). This must be the expectation of the churches in every age (Revelation 1-3 ). It was the same Jesus who ascended who will return (Acts 1:1 ). His return heralds the end and brings an end to the struggle of good and evil, the battle between the kingdoms of this world which must become the kingdom of our God and of His Christ (Revelation 11:15 ). In the meanwhile His followers must work to eat (2 Thessalonians 3:1 ). His followers must go and tell; His followers must unite the hope of eschatology and the life of ethics in a fashion that will share the gospel with all the world (Matthew 28:19-20 ). The time of His final coming is not a Christian's primary concern (Acts 1:5-6 ). Natural calamities, man-made tragedies, and great suffering will precede His coming (Matthew 13:1 ; Matthew 24-25 ). All of these will find His people faithful, even as He is to His promise—found faithful even as God was to God's promises in sending this Child of promise to the world.
The Birth of Jesus Christ The Gospels began in the heart of God and in the resurrection faith of the writers, but Matthew and Luke begin with the story of Jesus' birth. His conception was virginal. His advent was announced by angels. His actual birth occurred in a place and time that seemed to be no place and time for a baby to be born. Angels announced. Shepherds heard, came, and wondered. Magi came later to bring gifts. A wrathful and jealous King (Herod) killed many innocent children hoping to find the right one. The “right One” escaped to Egypt. Upon returning, He went to Nazareth, was reared in the home of the man Joseph, was taken to Jerusalem where His knowledge of His Father's business surprised and inconvenienced them all—the doctors and the parents. At birth He seemed destined for death. At baptism He was sealed to be a suffering Messiah. Those were times in which He and the Father were working things out, so that when ministry came Jesus could “work the works of him that sent me, while it is day” (John 9:4 ). But Bethlehem was not the beginning of the story.
Jesus' Preexistence Eternity began the story. If this one is the Son of God, then He must be tied on to the ancient people of God. He must be in the beginning. with God (John 1:1 ). Preexistence was not the first reflection of the early church about Jesus Christ, nor was it merely an afterthought. The purpose of Jesus' preexistence is to tie Him onto God and to what God had been doing through Israel. Matthew 1:1 established by His genealogy that Jesus is related to David, is related to Moses, is related to Abraham—one cannot be more integrally related to Israel than that. Luke 3:1 established by His genealogy that Jesus is vitally related to all humans. Jesus came from Mary; but ultimately He came from God via a lineage that extends back to Adam, who was the direct child of God. Paul spoke of the fully divine Son of God who came down from God, who redeems us, and who returns to God ( Ephesians 3:1 ). This heavenly Christ emptied Himself and became like us for our sake (Philippians 2:1 ). God determined, before the foundation of the world, that the redemption of the world would be accomplished through Jesus, the Lord of Glory (Ephesians 1:1 ). John began a new Genesis with his bold assertion that “in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the word was God” (John 1:1 ). This Word (Greek, logos ) has become flesh (John 1:14 ) so that qualified witnesses can see, touch, and hear the revelation of God (1 John 1:1-4 ). It may have been in this way from resurrection to preexistence that early Christians stitched together, under the guidance of God, the story of Jesus. But His story lay also in His names, His titles, what He was called.
The Names and Titles of Jesus Jesus' own proper name is a Greek version of the Hebrew “Joshua,” salvation is from Yahweh. His very name suggests His purpose. “He shall save his people from their sins” (Matthew 1:21 ). This One is Immanuel, God with us (Isaiah 7:14 ; Matthew 1:23 ). Mark began his brief Gospel in some manuscripts by introducing Jesus as the Son of God (Mark 1:1 ). Luke's shepherds knew Him as “a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord” (Luke 2:11 ). John pulled out all the stops in his melodic introduction of Jesus Christ: the Word who made the world (John 1:1-3 ), the Life (John 1:4 ), the Light (John 1:5 ), the Glory of God (John 1:14 ), One full of grace and truth (John 1:17 ), the Son who makes the Father known (John 1:18 ). Paul addressed Him as “the Lord”—the earliest Christian confession was that Jesus (is) Lord. The lordship of Christ is tied to the reverence for the name of God and is an assessment of Jesus' worth as well as Paul's relationship to Him. Since Christ is Lord (kurios ), Paul is servant (doulos ). The Gospels herald the message of the Son of Man, He who was humbled, who suffered, who will come again. Hebrews cast Jesus in the role of priest, God's great and final High Priest, who both makes the sacrifice and is the sacrifice. Thomas, known for his doubting, should also be remembered for faith's greatest application about Christ: “My Lord and my God” (John 20:28 ). The metaphors of John's Gospel invite us to reflect on Jesus Christ, God's great necessity. John portrays Jesus as the Water of life (John 4:14 ); the Bread of life (John 6:41 ); the Light (John 8:12 ); the Door (John 10:7 ); the Good Shepherd (John 10:11 ); the Resurrection and the Life (John 11:25 ); the Way, the Truth, the Life (John 14:6 ).
Summary Christ is the way to God. His way of being in the world was a way of obedience, faithfulness, and service. The earliest Christians saw who He was in what He did. In the great deed of the cross they saw the salvation of the world. The inspired writers offered no physical descriptions of the earthly Jesus. The functional way the New Testament portrays Him is found in the statement that He was a man “who went about doing good” (Acts 10:38 ). The good that He did came into dramatic conflict with the evil all mankind has done. This conflict saw Him crucified, but a Roman soldier saw in this crucified One (the) Son of God (Mark 15:39 ). God did not “suffer thine Holy One to see corruption” (Acts 2:27 ). With the one shattering new act since creation, God raised Jesus from the dead. See Christ; Christology.
J. Ramsey Michaels
Holman Bible Dictionary - Resurrection of Jesus Christ
The bodily, living appearance of Jesus of Nazareth after He died and was buried, providing certain hope for resurrection of believers. The Greek term for resurrection, anastasis , literally means, “to stand again.” In the pagan world it was associated with the cycle of nature and the nature gods, or the survival of a “spiritual part” of a person after death. Because of Jesus Christ and His standing up again from the dead, resurrection has come to mean the restoration of the whole self by God who gave life and creates it anew in the heavenly kingdom. New Testament accounts of the resurrection fall into three categories: the empty tomb, appearances of Jesus before His ascension, and appearances of Jesus after His ascension.
The earliest written account of the resurrection of Jesus is 1 Corinthians 15:3-8 . Paul emphasized the appearances of the resurrected Christ to His followers. Paul mentioned an appearance to Cephas (compare Luke 24:34 ). Then Jesus appeared to the twelve (compare Luke 24:36-43 ). The appearance to the five hundred, some of whom had died by the time Paul wrote 1Corinthians, is supposed by some to refer to the ascension (Acts 1:9-11 ). The appearance of James is nowhere else recorded. Tradition asserts that this was James the brother of Jesus, the author of the Book of James (see Acts 15:13 ). The second appearance to the disciples may be equated with Jesus' presentation of Himself to Thomas a week after the first appearance to the apostles (John 20:24-29 ). Paul mentioned last the appearance of the ascended Christ to Paul himself, an obvious reference to Saul's conversion experience (Acts 9:1-9 ).
Matthew reported that two Marys, Magdalene and the mother of James and Joses (Matthew 28:1-2 ; see Matthew 27:56 ,Matthew 27:56,27:61 ) came to the tomb and witnessed a violent earthquake. The angel who rolled away the stone covering the tomb entrance told the women that Jesus was risen. They were invited to view the empty tomb, then to go and tell the disciples that Jesus was risen and was going to Galilee. Immediately, the resurrected Christ greeted them, urged them not to be afraid, to go and tell the “brothers” that He would meet them in Galilee. The soldiers posted at the tomb reported to their employers, the chief priests, “everything that happened”; and the entire guard was bribed to keep silent. It is not clear whether the soldiers actually saw the resurrected Christ Himself. It is assumed because of the other New Testament accounts that the resurrected Christ appeared only to believers. Matthew's final report of Jesus' resurrection is on a mountain in Galilee to His eleven disciples where He gave them the Great Commission (Matthew 28:16-20 ).
Mark's account of the resurrection (Matthew 16:1 ) reports that three women came to the tomb wondering how they would have access to the body in order to use the spices applied to the dead. They discovered the stone rolled away and a young man in white in the tomb. He calmed their fears, told them that Jesus was risen, and that Jesus would meet the disciples in Galilee. The women left bewildered and frightened. The most ancient and reliable manuscripts of Mark end with Matthew 16:8 . The long ending of Mark records several other appearances of Jesus: to Mary Magdalene (see John 20:11-18 ); to two walking in the country (see Luke 24:13-32 ); to the eleven as they were eating (see Luke 24:36-43 ).
Luke 24:1 records the visit of three women to the tomb where two angels said that He was risen. The angels reminded the women of Jesus' teachings about His death and resurrection. The women told the unbelieving disciples about the empty tomb, and Peter investigated the empty tomb. Jesus appeared to Cleopas and another disciple on the way to Emmaus and gave them a prophetic overview concerning the Messiah. At supper He was revealed as the risen Christ and disappeared. The two returned to Jerusalem to tell the disciples and heard that Simon had seen the risen Lord. After the report of the two, Jesus appeared to the apostles and assured them He was not a ghost. He showed His hands and feet, and in the most physical act of the resurrection He ate a piece of fish ( Luke 24:43 ). He then reminded them of prophecies of the Messiah and commissioned them on the mission task. Luke's closing paragraph is the account of the ascension. The Lukan narrative is taken up in Acts (Luke 1:6-11 ). Jesus taught for forty days. He told the disciples to await the Spirit in Jerusalem. When the disciples asked questions about the kingdom, He said it was a question beyond their comprehension, repeated His missionary commission, and ascended as they watched and were assured by angels of His return.
John's Gospel adds remarkable details to the other three. In the fourth Gospel another disciple (John?) accompanied Peter to the tomb. Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene and told her not to detain him—a better translation than “do not touch me.” Jesus appeared twice to the disciples in the upper room, the second time a week after the first for the sake of the unbelieving Thomas. His classic confession “my Lord and my God” (John 20:28 ) became the appropriate response of all believing hearts. In John 21:1 Jesus appeared to seven disciples in Galilee and prepared their breakfast. The occasion was the commissioning of Peter to his special ministry after Peter's three-time confession of his love for Christ, paralleling his earlier three-time denial of Christ.
The risen Christ appeared to Stephen (Acts 7:55-56 ), to Saul/Paul (Acts 9:1-6 ), and to John the Seer (Revelation 1:1 ). All of these accounts are not easy to correlate, but a composite picture reveals the following facts. The tomb was empty. Jesus appeared to many believing disciples, women and men, on numerous occasions. Jesus instructed the earliest believers about the prophetic and theological meaning of His death and resurrection. The resurrection of Jesus involved His physical body; but His resurrected life was a new kind of life called into being by God, the Effector of the resurrection (Acts 2:24 ). Paul, who gave the first account of the resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:3-8 ), provided the full meaning and importance of the resurrection of Christ. Because of the resurrection of Christ, we have assurance of the resurrection of all persons—some to salvation; some to perdition—vouchsafed in the resurrection of Christ. That is God's ultimate answer to the problem of death (1 Corinthians 15:12-58 ). See Ascension ; Christ; Jesus; Resurrection .
William L. Hendricks
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Ascension of Jesus Christ
Event, recorded most fully in Acts 1:1-11 , by which Christ concluded his postresurrection appearances, left the earth, and was taken up into heaven, not to return physically until his second advent. The New Testament authors theologically distinguish the event by connecting it to the atoning work of Jesus on the cross, the high priestly ministry of the exalted Christ, the regaining of Christ's glory with the Father, the sending of the Holy Spirit, the present power of Christ as ruler over all authorities and dominions in heaven and earth, and the fact that Jesus ascends for the benefit of his people.
The Old Testament The Old Testament contains several stories of, and references to, "ascension" that may prefigure the ascension of Jesus. While the Old Testament contains stories of ascension that take place in dreams or visions ( Genesis 28:12 ), straightforward narratives like that of the angel of the Lord ascending in the flame of the altar while Manoah and his wife look on (Judges 13:20 ), and particularly of Elijah ascending to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:11-12 ), although not related directly in the New Testament to the ascension of Jesus, are rightly seen as fundamental to the New Testament understanding that Jesus physically came down from heaven and returned there. Most of the Old Testament references to ascension into heaven emphasize that it is a divine act done only by God's power and not to be thought of as possible by mere humanity (Deuteronomy 30:11-12 ; Proverbs 30:4 ; Isaiah 14:12-15 ).
The New Testament There is very little reference to the ascension in the New Testament, although reference abounds to the exaltation of Christ. In virtually all these passages, a literal ascension from earth to heaven seems assumed, although some scholars have challenged whether Paul believed in such an ascension because of his movement from resurrection directly to exaltation in such passages as Romans 1:4 ; 8:34 ; and 1 Corinthians 15:12-28 . Ephesians 4:10,1 Timothy 3:16 contradict this opinion, and it can be safely said that, given the clear references to Christ's ascension in other New Testament documents and the plain and relatively uniform witness of the New Testament to a bodily resurrection of Christ, that Paul and indeed all the New Testament authors would agree with Luke that after forty days of appearances to his disciples, Jesus experienced a literal, physical ascension into heaven, albeit in his "spiritual body" as the firstfruits of the final resurrection that is envisioned for us all at the end of time (cf. 1Col 15:20-28; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 ).
Clear references to the ascension are found scattered throughout the New Testament so that it cannot be claimed that only Luke believed it happened. The most important passages are of course in Luke's writings: Luke 24:51 (textually in some dispute, but generally accepted) and Acts 1:1-11 recount the event in historical narrative, and Acts 2:31-35 assumes it. The Johannine references ( John 3:13 ; 6:62 ; 14:3-4 ; 16:5-7 ; 20:17 ), when taken as a whole, clearly teach it, as do Hebrews 4:14 ; 6:20 ; and 1 Peter 3:21-22 . Whatever theological conclusions are made by the New Testament authors about the ascension, they are made in the context of a belief in a historical event.
Ascension and Atonement Particularly for the author of Hebrews, the ascension bridges the gap between the earthly work of Jesus Christ on the cross and his heavenly ministry as high priest, offering his sacrifice on the altar before the throne of God. This high priest is now seated "at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven" (8:1), signifying that there is no more act of sacrifice necessary; he neither sacrifices perpetually in heaven, nor is there any sacrifice on earth that can add to his death on the cross (10:11-14). The ascension is, however, viewed in some respects as the completion of that atoning work: it was necessary for Christ to "enter heaven to appear once for all at the end of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself" (9:24-26). The author of Hebrews does not deny the significance of the historical crucifixion but argues that it is not complete until the blood is brought into the Most Holy Place and sprinkled in the appropriate way before the altar of God. Thus the ascension becomes an essential part of the atonement, allowing the historical Jesus who is now the reigning Priest/King to finish in heaven, the "true tabernacle, " the sacrificial work necessary to accomplish our redemption.
Other New Testament authors explore this connection. The use of anapherein [ John 7:39 ; 12:20-33 ; 17:5 ). The mention of extremes in Paul's use of the descent/ascent motif in Ephesians 4:10-11 calls to mind Paul's view that the nadir of Christ's descent was certainly the cross ( Philippians 2:8 ); this "descent" is then connected in the passage with its opposite, his ascending "higher than all the heavens" to emphasize that Christ has the right to give gifts to men because he paid the price for them (cf. 1Col 6:20). Romans 8:34 connects the present intercessory work of Christ with his work on the cross, viewing the death, resurrection, and exaltation (implying the ascension) of Jesus as one continuous event.
Ascension and Power Clearly the greatest theological emphasis of the New Testament regarding the ascension is that Christ now regains the glory he had with the Father before the world began, is now able to send his powerful Spirit into the world, and reigns from heaven over every authority and power in heaven and earth. Thus, in John, Jesus connects attaining his glory and the sending of the Spirit with ascending to the Father (6:61-63; 7:39; 12:12-16; 16:5-11). Similarly, Acts 2:33-36 presents the ascended Jesus as the one who has been placed on the throne of David; the appearances of the ascended Christ are exclusively in Acts those of a powerful, enthroned Christ ( Acts 7:56 ; 9:3-9 ; and pars. ). Paul writes that God put his "mighty strength" to work "in Christ when he seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given, not only in the present age but also in the one to come" (Ephesians 1:20-21 ). It is from this exalted position that he "gave gifts to men" (Ephesians 4:8-10 ). Peter, too, emphasizes the power that is now Christ's because of the ascension: " [1] has gone into heaven and is at God's right hand—with angels, authorities and powers in submission to him" (1 Peter 3:21-22 ).
The author of Hebrews shows this in his unique analogy between the exalted Son of God (4:14) who has "entered the inner sanctuary" and the priest/king Melchizedek (6:16-20). Melchizedek blessed Abraham, was king of righteousness and peace, and was without father, mother, genealogy, beginning of days or end of life (7:1-3). Only the ascended Jesus is powerful enough as the one who, like Melchizedek, has the power of an indestructible life (7:16) to enter before the throne of grace as a high priest who is "exalted above the heavens" to offer himself once for all (7:26-27).
The theological emphasis of the ascension story itself also lies in the concept of the newly gained power of the risen Son of God (Acts 1:1-11 ). The story's setting is one in which Jesus has been speaking to his disciples of the kingdom (1:3). He now appears in Jerusalem, the Old Testament seat of God's power and presence, in order to take final leave of them. They ask him if this is the time that he will restore the kingdom to Israel. His answer is his commission to them to be his witnesses, followed by his ascension. His authority over them is emphasized by the abundance of imperatives and promises in his brief dialogue with them: Six times in four sentences he either commands them to do something or promises something will happen to them (1:4-5,7-8), and his chief promise to them is one of power (1:8).
The actual event itself demonstrates his power at every turn. He ascends in a cloud, echoing Daniel 7:13 with its connotations of power ( Ephesians 4:8-106 ). The "intense gaze" (atenizein [1:10), as does their rebuke by the two men dressed in white (1:11). Finally, the link with the second coming of Jesus both in the way Jesus ascends (in a cloud) and in the words of the two men ("This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way") describes the ascension of an exalted, seated King of heaven who will come back "in power and great glory" ( Mark 13:26 ).
Ascension and Love A little noticed aspect of the New Testament's theology of the ascension is the emphasis placed on Jesus' ascending for his people . This love manifests itself in the sending of his Spirit, an act dependent upon Jesus' ascension. Thus, in John, he tells the disciples that he goes to prepare a place "for you" (14:3) and that "it is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you" (16:7). The references to the ascension in Acts 1,2 both come in the context of a giving Christ who bestows the Spirit on his people, as does the reference in 1618106267_42 . Hebrews emphasizes that his going into the "inner shrine" was "on our behalf" (6:20; 9:24 NRSV), and that since we have "a great high priest who has passed through the heavens let us hold fast to our confession" (4:14 NRSV). These references to Jesus ascending "on our behalf" further connect the ascension with Jesus' atoning work, implying that, far from being a self-oriented, power-seeking act, the ascension is to be viewed as flowing from the same self-sacrificial love Jesus demonstrated for his people in his incarnation (2 Corinthians 8:9 ) and crucifixion (Romans 5:6-8 ).
Andrew H. Trotter, Jr.
See also Jesus Christ
Bibliography . J. G. Davies, He Ascended into Heaven ; W. Milligan, The Ascension and Heavenly Priesthood of Our Lord ; G. C. Nicholson, Death as Departure ; M. C. Parsons, The Departure of Jesus in Luke-Acts ; H. B. Swete, The Ascended Christ ; K. C. Thompson, Received Up into Glory ; P. Toon, The Ascension of Our Lord .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Jesus Christ
By anyone's account, Jesus of Nazareth is the most significant person who has ever lived. He has influenced more lives and had more written about him than any other person in history. He is the only one who ever made a credible claim to being more than just another human being and to this day almost a billion people revere him as the supreme revelation of God. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of Jesus' life and his basic teachings, with each topic being introduced by a short account of the modern discussion that surrounds it. Introducing the whole is a brief discussion of the nature of the sources from which Jesus' life and teachings are derived and concluding it is a discussion of who Jesus understood himself to be.
The Nature of the Sources . The primary sources for the life of Jesus are and will probably always be the four Gospels of the New Testament. New discoveries are made periodically, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Gnostic Scriptures at Nag Hammadi, but immensely valuable as they are, they tell us nothing new about Jesus. They are either too late in time, too tangential, too geographically distant, or too obviously a distortion of more traditional Christian thought to be of much value. Some of this material has been available for a long time and has been made available in such works as R. McL. Wilson's New Testament Apochrypha (2 vols.), but no one was inclined to rewrite the story of Jesus on the basis of that. Other fragmentary material from Jewish and pagan sources is also well known and has a certain corroborative value that is quite helpful. We learn that Jesus lived during the reign of Tiberius Caesar (a.d. 14-37) somewhere in Palestine; that he was a religious leader who worked miracles and exorcised demons and was later regarded as a deity by his followers; that he was executed by crucifixion by the Jewish and Roman authorities during a Passover season; that reports circulated about his resurrection from the dead. All of this is very helpful, even if the Christian faith is sometimes described by these very sources as an unfounded superstition, because in its own way it reflects what Christians believes. It does not add anything new to what we know about Jesus, however. For that, one must turn to the four Gospels.
Because the Gospels are basically the only sources we possess for the life of Jesus, the question inevitably arises concerning reliability. Regarding this, four things can be said. First, there is no agreed definition of reliability. Everyone approaches sources from a point of view that either includes, excludes, or leaves open the possibility of what is recorded. Given Christian presuppositions, the story makes perfect sense; given non-Christian presuppositions, the rejection of the sources as unreliable is understandable. It is not really a question of the sources, but a question of the interpreter of the sources. Second, the Gospel writers and their subject matter argue in favor of their truthfulness. They were attempting to present a true account of the One who claimed to be the Truth, did so on the basis of careful research (Luke 1:1-4 ), and were willing to die for the results of their efforts. That does not necessarily make it true, but it does mean they were not inventing things they knew to be false. Third, the church from the beginning believed that God had a hand in the writing of the material and that guaranteed its trustworthiness. This does not make it so, but that belief did arise from contact with those who knew Jesus and contact with the risen Jesus who confirmed in their own experience what the sources said about him as incarnate. If they were right in this, it confirms the reliability of the sources. Fourth, the Gospels are all we have. If they are allowed to speak for themselves, they present a consistent picture that gave rise to the Christian faith and has been confirmed in the lives of believers from that day to this. The simple fact is, there is no other Jesus available than the one presented in the Gospels. Either that is accepted or one creates his or her own Jesus on the basis of what is thought to be possible or likely. It might be a Jesus acceptable to the modern or postmodern mind, but it will not be the Jesus of the Gospels.
The Gospels as sources are what they are, shot through with supernatural occurrences from beginning to end and they present a Jesus who is both powerful and puzzling to our modern mind. They ought to be examined with the utmost care, but allowed to speak for themselves and appreciated for what they are, documents written from within the faith, honestly depicting what they believed Jesus said and did, to the best of their recollection.
The Life of Jesus . The Search for the Real Jesus . From the time when Jesus lived until the eighteenth century it would never have occurred to anyone to search for a real Jesus. The Gospels were considered to be divinely inspired, accurate accounts of Jesus' life; hence, the real Jesus was found by reading them. A change occurred with the coming of the Enlightenment that no longer saw the truth of the Gospels as guaranteed by God. They were to be read as any other book; the supernatural elements were to be discounted entirely or taken as myths or symbols of some higher truth. This meant that the real Jesus, a Jesus fully explainable in human terms, had to be disentangled from the pious, but historically inaccurate elements that smothered him.
During the nineteenth century an enormous number of lives of Jesus were written that attempted to reconstruct who Jesus really was, some of them showing real insight but most straying so far from the Gospels as to make Jesus virtually unrecognizable. A few achieved immense popularity because of their radical originality, like D. F. Strauss's The Life of Jesus Critically Examined (1835) and E. Renan's Life of Jesus (1863), but most came and went and in fact are almost unknown today. In 1903Albert Schweitzer surveyed over two hundred such lives and convincingly showed that none of them had found the real Jesus.
This earliest attempt to find the real Jesus, which came to be known as "the Old Quest, " was set aside in the early twentieth century by a group of theologians led by Rudolph Bultmann, who felt that the "historical" Jesus was essentially irrelevant to Christian faith. Christians were to put their faith in the risen Christ, not a reconstructed historical Jesus. They also believed that none of the supernatural elements of the Gospels, such as the virgin birth, the miracles of Jesus, or his bodily resurrection was true, anyway, but only an ancient way of describing an existential experience of the present day.
The extreme skepticism of this movement brought about a strong reaction in the 1950s, called the "New Quest of the Historical Jesus, " led by some of Bultmann's students, notably E. K emann and G. Bornkamm. Bornkamm's Jesus of Nazareth (1956) and J. M. Robinson's A New Quest of the Historical Jesus (1959) were the high points, but this quest also faded away, itself being too problematic and inconclusive to help much.
Following this, numerous renewed attempts to find the real Jesus were made, which are together called the "Third Quest." They include everything from depicting Jesus as a magician (M. Smith, Jesus the Magician, 1979), a Marxist (M. Machorec, A Marxist Looks at Jesus, 1976), to an outright fraud (B. Thiering, Jesus the Man, 1992). Others wrote of Jesus along more traditional lines (D. Guthrie, Jesus the Messiah, 1972; B. F. Meyer, The Aims of Jesus, 1979) and yet others wrote scholarly attempts to understand what could be known purely as history about Jesus, such as E. P. Sanders (The Historical Figure of Jesus, 1995) and J. P. Meier (A Marginal Jew, 2 vols., 1991,1995). John Reumann has attempted to classify all of this (taking it back to 1900) into twenty different categories as "Types of Lives … Some Key Examples" (The New Testament and its Modern Interpreters, eds. E. J. Epp and G. W. MacRae, pp. 520-24).
This confusing welter of lives raises the question whether there is a "real" Jesus. The answer to that, in the end, must go back to the only real sources that we have, namely, the four Gospels of the New Testament. Any reconstruction that differs fundamentally from what is depicted there will not qualify, nor strengthen the church, nor stand the test of time. Jesus will always elude us if we look for him only in history and any attempt to depict him as simply another part of history will inevitably be unconvincing.
The Life of Jesus. Jesus' Birth and Youth . Two of our four canonical gospels (Matthew and Luke) contain material dealing with Jesus' earthly life prior to the beginning of his public ministry. Matthew's basic emphasis is on Jesus as descendant of David; hence he focuses on Joseph's line, Jesus being the legal heir of Joseph. Luke presents information gathered from Mary's side, either from Mary herself or from those who knew her. There is very little overlap between the accounts.
The events that precede Jesus' birth concern primarily two miraculous conceptions, that of John the Baptist and, of course, Jesus. John's father, the priest Zechariah, was told by the angel Gabriel that his aged wife Elizabeth would bear a son in her old age. Mary was told by the same angel, Gabriel, that she would bear a son, though a virgin. Zechariah's response was incredulity, where Mary's was respectful joy and acceptance (Luke 1:18,38 ).
A census decreed by Caesar Augustus sent Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem where, during the last years of Herod the Great, Jesus was born to the acclaim of angels and shepherds. The exact date of Jesus' birth is debated by any time from late 7 to 5 b.c. is possible. Jesus was circumcised on the eighth day (Luke 2:21 ) and on the fortieth day taken to the temple in Jerusalem, where he was presented to the Lord and his parents were ceremonially purified according to levitical custom (Luke 2:22-38 ; Leviticus 12:1-8 ). They returned to Bethlehem were, apparently, they intended to stay. Magi came from the east, following a miraculous star. They found Jesus after making inquiries in Jerusalem, upsetting the rulers there. This visit could have been up to two years after Jesus' birth. Herod's desire to kill the child Jesus was thwarted by God and the family escaped to Egypt. After Herod the Great's death in 4 b.c., the family decided to return to Nazareth after hearing that Archelaus was ruling over Judea (where Bethlehem was) in place of his father. Only one episode is recorded of Jesus' early years. When he was twelve years old, on the eve of adulthood according to Jewish custom (Luke 2:41-50 ), he showed his profound identification with the temple and the things of God.
These events are characterized by the miraculous and the extraordinary. Modern attempts to make them pious fiction or mythological are only required if one is unable to accept God's direct intervention in human affairs. They are wholly consistent with the rest of Jesus' extraordinary career and, indeed, make an appropriate introduction to it.
The Year of Obscurity . James Stalker described the three-year public ministry of Jesus as the year of obscurity, the year of public favor, and the year of opposition. Although not wholly accurate, this does serve as a handy guide to those years.
The year of obscurity began sometime in a.d. 26. John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness near the Dead Sea preaching a message of baptism and repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Some scholars have connected John with the Qumran community. Although this is possible, the message of John is altogether different from theirs. He was an exceptional figure, recalling the days of Elijah. He spoke out against false trust in one's Jewishness, demanded conversion in the light of the coming judgment, required a changed life as evidence of conversion, and spoke of the coming Messiah, of whom he was the forerunner. John's denunciation of Herod Antipas's illegal marriage to his brother's wife provoked her ire, his imprisonment, and ultimately his death. Jesus spoke in the highest possible terms of John and his ministry, in spite of John's troubled questionings while in prison at Machaerus.
Jesus went from Nazareth to be baptized by John in order "to fulfill all righteousness" (Matthew 3:15 ). Jesus showed his sense of mission by identifying with the sins of the world at the very beginning of his ministry. Divine confirmation came from heaven with the voice of God and the descent of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove (Matthew 3:16-17 ). This affirmation of the Trinity will later by repeated at the end of Matthew's Gospel (28:19).
A time of severe testing in the wilderness followed Jesus' baptism, in which Jesus' commitment to his task and understanding of his mission were resolved.
After a short trip to Cana in Galilee where the water was turned into wine Jesus returned to Jerusalem for the Passover of a.d. 27. His expulsion of the moneychangers from the temple was more than just a rejection of corrupt practices. He was rejecting the temple itself by offering himself as a new temple for a new people of God (John 2:18-21 ).
Sometime in the fall of a.d. 27 John the Baptist was arrested. Jesus took this as a sign to return to Galilee to begin his own ministry. As long as John was preaching, he held back. Now that John was gone, the time of fulfillment had arrived. On the trip back to Galilee, Jesus rather openly declared to the woman at Jacob's well in Samaria some of his challenging, new ideas. The time has arrived when true worship of God will not concern where it takes place, whether in Samaria or Jerusalem, but how it takes place. God seeks the right attitude, spirituality, and truth, not the right location (John 4:21-24 ).
Jesus was warmly received upon his arrival in Galilee (John 4:45 ) and everyone praised him as he began to preach the gospel of the kingdom of God (Mark 1:15 ; Luke 4:14-15 ).
The Year of Public Favor . Jesus' ministry in Galilee and the regions to the north of it are described in some detail by the Gospel writers and, although, in general, it was a time of public acclaim by the people, the clouds of opposition were arising from official quarters in Jerusalem.
After an initial rebuff in his hometown of Nazareth, Jesus settled in at Capernaum by the Sea of Galilee, using it as a base of operations for his ministry in Galilee. Large crowds began to follow Jesus because of the miraculous events and healing that were taking place, but also because of the gracious words that he spoke. Rather than focusing on the minute regulations that had grown up along with biblical tradition, Jesus stressed the love and nearness of God to everyone personally. Rules were made for people, not people for the rules. The Good News of the kingdom is that the power of God is available for all who put their trust in God and are poor in spirit, pure in heart, loving, merciful, and followers of peace. Jesus saw himself as the embodiment and establisher of that kingdom and offered himself to the people as the one who was bringing that kingdom to pass (Matthew 11:25-30 ). Matthew summarizes this by saying "Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and sickness among the people" (4:23).
Jesus made at least three major preaching tours through Galilee at this time, as well as two that took him into Gentile territory to the north and east. In one instance, he felt it necessary to send out his recently appointed leaders, the apostles, to engage in ministry in his name, because the task was too large to be done single-handedly (Mark 9:1-2 ).
It would be hard to say which of the many episodes that are recounted in the Gospels are the most important, because what we have are a selection of those deemed most important to begin with. However, four stand out as particularly instructive. First, Jesus chose twelve of his followers to become a nucleus of leadership (Mark 3:13-19 ). This was to establish a new Israel that would in time replace the old Israel as the people of God. Second, when John the Baptist asked Jesus from prison if he was the Messiah, Jesus replied with a definition of messiahship that was one of service and suffering rather than of immediate triumph (Matthew 11:2-19 ). Here, again, Jesus pointed out that the old age was drawing to a close and that the new age was dawning. Third, at the miraculous feeding of the five thousand and the subsequent sermon in Capernaum reflecting on that event, Jesus offers himself as the essence of the kingdom, as the bread come down from heaven and a new manna in a new wilderness (Matthew 14:13-21 ; John 6:1-69 ). Fourth, during Jesus' second trip outside of Galilee, he disclosed at Caesarea Philippi and at his transfiguration who he really was and what his ultimate task was to be (Mark 8:27-38 ; 9:2 ). He was the eternal Son of God who had come to die for the sins of the world.
The Year of Opposition . As Jesus' ministry in Galilee was drawing to a close, he was preparing to move south to continue his work in the regions of Perea and Judea. He knew that he was moving into dangerous territory. Even while he was in Galilee spies and representatives were being sent from Jerusalem to observe his actions and, perhaps, to find some grounds for legal action against him. In three areas they were dissatisfied with what he was doing: he was violating the Sabbath rules (Matthew 12:1-8 ; Mark 3:1-6 ); his miraculous healings were attributed to demonic activity, rather than to divine intervention (Mark 3:22-30 ); and he set aside traditional rules regarding hand washing, and, adding insult to injury, accused the leadership of being hypocritical (Mark 7:1-13 ). While he was in Galilee, he was more or less out of their jurisdiction, but traveling to Jerusalem would provoke open conflict.
Jesus arrived in time for the feast of Tabernacles (September-October) in a.d. 29. Conflict immediately broke out, some saying he was the Messiah or a Prophet, others denying it (John 7:11-13,40-43 ). Jesus proclaimed himself to be the water of life, the light of the world, the special representative of the Father, the dispenser of eternal life, and timeless in his existence (John 7:16,37-38 ; 8:12,16 , 28,51 , 56-58 ). Further controversy arose after Jesus healed a man who had been born blind. This could not be denied by the rulers and only deepened their hostility toward him.
Jesus traveled throughout Judea and Perea, teaching, preaching, and healing, as he had done in Galilee. At one point he sent out a group of seventy-two disciples, by twos, to preach and heal in his name, knowing that his time was growing short. He spent some time in Bethany, where another notable miracle took place (the raising of Lazarus from the dead). After a short trip back north, taking him to the border of Galilee once more, Jesus returned by way of Jericho to Jerusalem for the last time.
During this time Jesus was preparing his disciples for what was coming, although they had a difficult time accepting the fact that he was going to Jerusalem to die and rise again. Their thoughts were full of coming glory and the power that Jesus so manifestly displayed. For Jesus triumph in Jerusalem meant death and resurrection; for the disciples it meant a special and obvious place in God's kingdom. Jesus tried to explain what the cost of discipleship would be, but his disciples seemed incapable of hearing it (Luke 14:25-35 ).
The Trial and Death of Jesus . Jesus arrived in Jerusalem on the Sunday before Passover (March-April) of a.d. 30, entering the city to the acclaim of the people and in triumphal glory. He repeated his actions of three years earlier, again demonstrating his authority over the temple. This created a great stir among the people and a murderous hatred in the hearts of the leaders.
During that week there was public and unresolved conflict with the authorities and they made plans to do away with Jesus, penetrating the group by way of Judas, one of the twelve apostles.
On Thursday night Jesus ate a Passover meal with his followers and established a communal ceremony for them that consisted of a participation in his coming death, concretized in the partaking of bread and wine. This was the establishment of the New Covenant that had been prophesied by Jeremiah (Luke 22:17-20 ; see Jeremiah 31:31-34 ).
Jesus' agony began in the garden of Gethsemane where he was arrested after going there to pray. He was taken to the high priest's compound where he was interviewed, first by Annas, then by Caiphas, then when it had fully gathered, by the whole Sanhedrin, the ruling body of the Jews. It was difficult to get the witnesses to agree, but a charge of blasphemy was settled on, because Jesus had claimed to be equal to God (Matthew 26:63-68 ). By now it was near morning and Peter had disgraced himself by denying publicly that he even knew Jesus.
The Jewish authorities took Jesus to Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator, for him to ratify their sentence of death (they did not have the authority to execute it). The grounds of their condemnation of Jesus had expanded considerably on their way to Pilate. They charged that Jesus had actively misled the people, opposed payment of taxes to Caesar, and claimed to be the Messiah, a king (Luke 23:2 ). They later added a fourth charge—Jesus was a revolutionary, inciting people to riot (Luke 23:5 ). Pilate made a series of attempts to release Jesus, including the offer to release a prisoner (they chose Barabbas instead) and the flogging of Jesus as punishment, but death by crucifixion was their ultimate demand. With mingled contempt and fear, Pilate granted them their wish when they accused him of being unfaithful to Caesar, by allowing one who claimed to be a king to live.
Jesus was crucified at 9 a.m. on Friday morning, the actual day of Passover, and died at 3 p.m. that afternoon. He prayed forgiveness for his tormentors, went through a sense of abandonment by God, and expired with "It is finished; Father, into your hands, I commit my spirit." Jesus had finished the work he had come to do — to die for the sins of the world.
Jesus' body was hastily placed in a tomb by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, because the day ended at 6 p.m. according to Jewish reckoning and everything must be finished before the Sabbath. A seal was set on the tomb and the women were waiting for the Sabbath to end so they could prepare the body properly for permanent burial.
Jesus' Resurrection and Ascension . Early on Sunday morning, when the women went to visit the tomb, they were startled to see that the tomb was empty and an angel announced the good news: "He has risen! He is not here" (Mark 16:6 ). There followed that day a confusing set of actions that included other visits to the tomb, visits to the apostles, and appearances of Jesus. Three of these appearances are especially noteworthy. First, Jesus appeared to two disciples as they were on their way out of town in utter dejection and nearing Emmaus. Jesus explained the Scriptures to them, especially the necessity of his suffering, in order to enter his glory (Luke 24:35 ). Jesus fellowshiped together with them and their eyes were opened to see the truth. Second, a special appearance was granted to the apostle Peter (Luke 24:34 ; cf. John 21:15-23 ) in order to strengthen him after his ignominious failure. Third, Jesus appeared to the eleven (minus Judas) in Jerusalem to show that the reports were true; he had, indeed, risen and was the same Jesus, now glorified. He was not a ghost or spirit, but risen in a body capable of being seen, touched, and participating in events related to this life (Luke 24:36-43 ).
Other appearances followed over a period of forty days, both in Jerusalem and in Galilee. There were appearances to individuals, groups of individuals, and in one case to over five hundred people at one time (1 Corinthians 15:6 ). They occurred in various places and at various times of day. All of this was to remove any doubt whatsoever about the reality of what had taken place. Jesus had risen and the once fearful flock was now emboldened and empowered to preach the message of the risen Christ as the salvation of the world. In the end neither rejection, nor persecution, nor death could shake their conviction that Jesus had conquered death. He had risen, indeed.
After forty days Jesus left this earth as miraculously as he had come. During the forty days Jesus had confirmed the fact of his resurrection, instructed his disciples about his new relationship to them, and promised them a new work by the Holy Spirit in their lives. His ascension was the return to his Father that he had spoken about (Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of
In our culture names serve primarily to distinguish one person from another. In Bible times names had other significant functions. In the New Testament, names that were applied to Jesus often had special meanings that went back into Old Testament and intertestamental times.
"Name" in the Ancient Near East . Outside Israel knowledge of the name of a god or goddess was important in the performance of magical rites, by which a person could get control of the deity. Benevolent deities would reveal their names and protect or aid their human contacts; unwilling or malevolent deities would be reluctant to reveal their names and thereby come under the control of the magician.
Though it is anachronistic to speak of "secular" Greek, non-Christian Greek literature used "name" in a number of different ways. For example, if a stranger expected hospitality, he first had to indicate to his host what his name was. Philosophers such as Plato attacked the widespread idea that the root meaning of the names of gods or humans revealed their character. Though Stoicism argued that there was really only one god, it also held that the deity was known by many different names. At the other extreme, the seventeen tractates of the Greco-Egyptian god Hermes Trismegistos argue that he is so lofty that no name is appropriate for him and that, as in rabbinic Judaism, human beings should not attempt to utter his name at all.
The Old Testament uses the word, shem [
Genesis 32:28 ).
Of special importance is shem Yahweh, "the name of the Lord" (or similar expressions such as "in the name of [1] God"). Though some scholars suggest that the "name" is somehow a being separate from the Lord who is present in the angel of the Lord (Exodus 23:20-21 ) or in the temple (1 Kings 8:14-30 ), such a conclusion was contradicted by the monotheistic history of Israel.
The name of God was significant to the ancient Hebrews because it comprehended in itself all that God is. In fact, "the name" was a synonym for God; hence believers are not to take the name of the Lord in vain (Exodus 20:7 ). The name of God is holy and awesome (Psalm 99:3 ; 111:9 ) and signifies his personal presence (2 Chronicles 7:16 ; Psalm 75:1 ). God's people are to reverence (Psalm 86:11 ), love (Psalm 5:11 ), praise (Psalm 97:12 ), trust (Isaiah 50:10 ), call upon (Isaiah 12:4 ), and hope in the divine name (Psalm 52:9 ). In God's divine name is the ultimate salvation of his people.
In the pseudepigraphical and rabbinic writings of later Judaism, two significant developments centering on the "name" of God occur, though in general the tendency is to repeat the practices of the Old Testament. The apocalyptic literature of the period tends to focus on the meaning of the names of saints and angels, not God. Seven divine names are mentioned in 4Esdras 7:132-39. The rabbinic writings mention the healing of a rabbi "in the name of" another person. The most important development was the substitution of "Adonai" (Lord) for "Yahweh" in synagogue usage and the use of hashem, "the name, " for both "Yahweh, " "Elohim" (God), and even "Adonai" in the rabbinic schools, at least when quoting the Tanach, so the rabbis forgot how YHWH was orginally pronounced.
The "Name" of Jesus . The expression the "Name" of Jesus is frequent and highly significant in New Testament usage in that it parallels the use of the name of God in the Old Testament. The early Christians had no difficulty substituting the name of Jesus for the name of God. Indeed, for them the divine name, YHWH, was given to Jesus, that every knee should bow to him and every tongue confess that he is Lord (Philippians 2:9-11 ; cf. Isaiah 45:20-23 ). New Testament believers are to live their lives in Jesus' name just as the Old Testament believers were to live in the name of God the Lord.
People who hear the gospel and respond positively, call upon Jesus' name for salvation (Acts 2:21 ), put their faith in Jesus' name (John 1:12 ; 1 John 5:13 ), are then justified (1Col 1:6-10 ) and forgiven in Jesus' name (Acts 10:43 ; 1 John 2:12 ), and are then baptized into Jesus' name (Acts 2:38 ; 10:48 ; 19:5 ). Having then, life in his name (John 20:31 ), believers are to glorify the name of Jesus (2 Thessalonians 1:12 ) and give thanks for and do everything in the name of Jesus (Ephesians 5:20 ; Colossians 3:17 ). Just as in the Old Testament where the name of God represents the person of God and all that he is, so in the New Testament "the Name" represents all who Jesus is as Lord and Savior.Leslie R. Keylock
The Titles of Jesus . In addition to the comprehensive idea that is found in the idea of Jesus' name there are also a number of significant titles that are ascribed to Jesus in the New Testament. Each one has something special to say about who Jesus is and together they constitute a definition of his person and work, and become as it were his "name."
Author-Prince . Jesus is called "Author" in Acts 3:15 and Hebrews 2:10 ; 12:2 and "Prince" in Acts 5:31 ( NIV ). In each case the Greek word is the same: archegos [2]. Uses of the term in the Greek Old Testament (LXX) and nonbiblical Greek suggest it carries a threefold connotation: (1) path-breaker (pioneer) who opens the way for others, hence, "guide" or "hero"; (2) the source or founder, hence "author, " "initiator, " "beginning"; and (3) the leader-ruler, hence, "captain, " "prince, " "king." The ideas may well overlap or be combined. In its fullest sense the Greek word denotes someone who explores new territory, opens a trail, and leads others to it. The archegos [2] builds a city or fortress for those who follow and leads them in defense against attackers. When the peace has been won he remains as their ruler and the city or community bears his name. He is thereafter honored as the founding hero.
In Acts 3:15 Peter accuses the Jews of killing the "author ( archegos [2]) of life, " suggesting that Jesus is not only the orgin of biological life, but also of "new life" and the provider-proctor of those identified with him. Later Peter speaks of Jesus as the "Prince (archegos [2]) and Savior" who gives repentance to Israel (5:31). The word "Savior" was associated with the Judges of old. Jesus is the one who meets the emergency situation caused by the sin of God's people and he comes to bring not only deliverence but also the continuing service of Author (archegos [2]). The writer to the Hebrews speaks of the suffering "Author (archegos [2]) … of salvation" (2:10) and the "author (archegos [2]) and perfecter of our faith" (12:2). In each case Jesus not only initiates and provides the new life for his people but remains with them through it; they bear his name, he is their king.
J. Julius Scott, Jr.
The Chosen One . Jesus is referred to as God's chosen in Luke's account of the transfiguration (9:35) and by Matthew (12:18) as he applies 1 Corinthians 6:113 to Jesus. In 1Peter he is designated as the one "chosen before the creation of the world … revealed in these last times" (1:20) and as the "living stone—rejected by men but chosen by God" (2:4).
In the Old Testament Israel's leaders—Abraham (Genesis 18:19 ), Moses and Aaron (Psalm 105:26 ; 106:23 ), priests and Levites (Deuteronomy 2:5 ), Saul (1 Samuel 10:24 ), David (1 Kings 8:16 ; 2 Chronicles 6:6 ; Psalm 89:3 ), and the Servant of the Lord (Isaiah 42:1 ; 43:10)— ;are said to be chosen by God. Israel as a whole is frequently designated as God's chosen (Deuteronomy 7:6 ; Isaiah 41:8 ; 44:1 ; Amos 3:2 ). All of these were earthly persons or groups through whom God carried on his work of revelation and redemption.
Jesus is "The Chosen One" par excellence and been appointed by God to accomplish his task on earth. He embodies all that Old Testament chosen ones were to have been. He is the special object of God's love and the perfect divine messenger-redeemer.
Jesus refers to his apostles as those whom he has chosen (John 6:70 ; 13:18 ; 15:19 ), and church is also called God's "chosen" (Ephesians 1:11 ; Colossians 3:12 ; James 2:5 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ; 2:9 ), by virtue of being Christ's body. As the church abides "in Christ" she shares that special designation of being "chosen." The church is the object of Christ's love and redemption, called to have fellowship with him and to continue his work on work.
J. Julius Scott, Jr.
Christ, Messiah, Anointed One . The title "Christ" or "Anointed One" (Heb. masiah [ Exodus 29:1-9 ), kings (1 Samuel 10:1 ; 2 Samuel 2:4 ; 1 Kings 1:34 ), and sometimes prophets (1 Kings 19:16 b) as a sign of their special function in the Jewish community. The prophet Isaiah recognizes his own anointing (to preach good news to poor, Isaiah 61:1 ) and that of Cyrus, king of Persia (to "subdue nations, 45:1), apparently as coming directly from the Lord without the usual ceremony of initiation. As a noun, the Lord's "Anointed" usually refers to a king (1 Samuel 12:3,5 ), while designation of a priest (Leviticus 4:5 ) or the partriarchs (Psalm 105:15 ) is less common.
The word "anointed, " however, is not used directly in the Hebrew Bible as a title for a future messianic person, who would save Israel. The word "Messiah, " therefore, does not appear in major English translations of the Hebrew Bible such as the Revised Standard Version or the New International Version. "Messiah" appears only twice in the New Testament (John 1:41 ; 4:25 ) as an explanation of the Greek word "Christ."
By the time Jesus was born, however, a number of passages in the Hebrew Bible were understood to refer to a specific anointed person who would bring about the redemption of Israel, and that person was called "the Christ" (Acts 2:27,31 ). The Samaritans were looking for him (John 4:24 ). The Jews looked for him and expected him to perform great miracles (John 7:31 ). He was to be the son of David (Matthew 22:42 ) and, like David, come from Bethlehem (John 7:41-42 ). Even criminals condemned to death on a cross knew about a Christ and asked Jesus if he was that person (Luke 23:39 ).
The word "Christ" is used to identify Jesus of Nazareth as that person whom God anointed to be the redeemer of humanity. It thus often appears as a title in the phrase "Jesus the Christ" (Acts 5:42 ; 9:22 ; 17:3 ) or "the Christ was Jesus" (Acts 18:28 ). Peter referred to him as "both Lord and Christ" (Acts 2:36 ). Very frequently the word is coupled with the name of Jesus and appears to be virtually a second name "Jesus Christ" (Acts 2:38 ; 3:6 ; 9:34 ; 10:36 ; Romans 1:6-8 ; 1618106267_12), through not a surname, because "Christ Jesus" is also commonly used (1Col 1:1-30; Galatians 2:4 ). In close proximity in the same chapter, Jesus can be called "Jesus Christ" (Galatians 3:22 ), "Christ" (3:24), and "Christ Jesus" (3:26).
In Paul's writings "Christ" is used both with and without the definite article (1Col 6:15; Galatians 2:17 ), in combination with the title Lord (kyrios [ Romans 10:9 ), as well as combined with such ideas as gospel (Romans 1:16 ) or faith (Galatians 2:16 ).
Elsewhere in the New Testament, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews picks up on the Old Testament anoiting of priests and applies the same in relation to Jesus (1:9; 5:8-10; 7:1-28). The name occurs also in the Petrine Epistles (1 Peter 1:13 ; 3:15 ; 2 Peter 1:1-2,16 ; 3:18 ), as well as those of James (1:1; 2:1) and Jude (1,17, 21,25). The Apocalypse of John describes Jesus as the Anointed One when looking forward to the end when the kingdom and salvation of the Lord and his Messiah will enjoy an eternal and full dominion (11:15; 12:10; 20:4,6).
The significance of the name "Christ" lies in the fact that it was a title granted to Jesus by virtue of his fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy and by his resurrection from the dead. The name "Jesus" was a common Hebrew name (the Greek form of Joshua, cf. Luke 3:29 ; Hebrews 4:8 , ; where Jesus in the Greek text is translated Joshua ) and is borne by other people in the New Testament including Barabbas (Matthew 27:17 ) and Justus (Colossians 4:11 ). But no one else bears the name Christ. It is significant that early disciples of Jesus were not called "Jesusites" but "Christians, " followers of Christ (Acts 11:26 ; 26:28 ; 1 Peter 4:16 ).James A. Kelhoffer and John McRay
Firstborn . Jesus is referred to by the singular form of the word "firstborn" (prototokos [ Matthew 13:55 ). In a spiritual sense, he is called firstborn to differentiate him from the angels (Hebrews 1:6 ). He is the firstborn of all creation (Colossians 1:15 ), and to those who believe in him he is the "firstborn among many brothers" (Romans 8:29 ). He is unique among human beings, among other reasons, because of his resurrection from the dead. He was the first one resurrected to die no more, and thus he has the preeminence (Colossians 1:18 ; Revelation 1:5 ).
John McRay
God . The New Testament rarely calls Jesus "God" as such (Gk. theos). "Lord, " stressing his co-regency with the Father as Son, or "Christ, " hallowing the kingly function he fulfilled, is preferred. Still, references to Jesus as God are not absent. John 1:1 clearly equates "the word" with God; in 1:14 it becomes clear that "the word" is Jesus. Arguments by Jehovah's Witnesses and others proposing different renderings of John 1:1 are untenable. In John 1:18 some translations call Jesus "God the One and Only" ( NIV ). The King James and other translations, however, follow a manuscript tradition that calls him "Son" here, not God.
Other passages, too, explicitly name Jesus as God. Romans 9:5 speaks of "Christ, who is God over all, forever praised!" Grammatical rules permit rending 2 Thessalonians 1:12 as " the grace of our God and Lord, Jesus Christ." The same holds true of Titus 2:13 ("our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ") and 2 Peter 1:1 ("our God and Savior Jesus Christ"). Hebrews 1:8 calls the Son God; 1 John 5:20 says of Jesus, "He is the true God and eternal life." Such texts confirm the impression given indirectly in other places that Jesus merits the name "God" by virtue of his mastery over wind and sea ( Mark 4:41 ), personification of God's kingdom (Luke 11:20 ), ability to forgive sins (Mark 2:7 ), and intimacy with the invisible Father by which, enemies charged, he presumed to be "equal with God" (John 5:18 ). They could not accept that this was not effrontery but his due and possession (Philippians 2:6 ) from all eternity (John 17:24 ). It can be concluded that belief in Jesus' essential divinity (along with his obvious full humanity) extends to all levels of early Christian confession.
At the same time New Testament writers are not indiscriminate in speaking of Jesus as "God." They realized that despite the Father's virtual presence through his Son, "no one has ever seen God" in terms of mortals on earth beholding the unmediated fullness of God in heaven (John 1:18 ). They intuited, if they did not spell out and reflect on, the subtle offsetting truths of later Trinitarian affirmations. Their restraint in predicating full deity of Jesus is due, among other thing, to his humanity (which the good news of the incarnation [9]; was bound to emphasize ) and to their theological sophistication: Jews imbued with the sacred truth of God's oneness—Deuteronomy 6:4 , "the Lord is one, " rang out daily in worship—were not so callow as to label fellow humans "God."
Their own Scriptures, in fact, forbade this (Deuteronomy 4:15-16 ), violation of which was blasphemy. Those same Scriptures sternly denounced any man "hung on a tree" (Deuteronomy 21:23 ). Yet the crucified Jesus must be hailed as redeemer, not censured as a crimal (Galatians 3:13-14 ). By the same logic he must be granted his apparent divine parity. Thus was the man Jesus hailed rightly as God.Robert W. Yarbrough
Holy One of God . In the Old Testament, "the Holy One of God" is a divine epithet common in the prophets and poetic literature used to communicate the separateness of the Lord. The New Testament applies this name to Jesus on two occasions in the Gospels (Mark 1:24 ; = Luke 4:34 ; John 6:69 ), once in Acts (3:14) and possibly on two other occasions (1 John 2:20 ; Revelation 3:7 ).
In the Gospel of Mark, Jesus begins his public ministry teaching in a Capernaum synagogue (1:21-22). Someone possed with an evil spirit then cries out, "What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God!" (1:23-24). The event is probably best understood in light of the secrecy motif of Mark's Gospel, whereby human beings rarely comprehend the true identity of Jesus. Instead, it is usually God (1:11; 9:7) or, as in this passage, demons (5:7) who know who Christ is before the crucifixion. In addition, knowing someone's "name" can communicate that an individual possesses power over that person. In spite of the demon's knowledge of his potential exorcist as "the Holy One of God, " Jesus casts him out with a short command and amazes the crowd by his teaching and authority (Mark 1:25 ).
John contrasts the turning away of "many" disciples with the faith of the Twelve (John 6:66-69 ). Peter responds to Jesus, "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life. We believe and know that you are the Holy One of God." First John 2:20 can refer to either God or Jesus when writing, "But you have an anointing from the Holy One. "The above reference to the Gospel of John makes it possible that Jesus is the giver of this anointing, but the author may intentionally leave this designation unclear.
In the Book of Acts Peter addresses the curious crowd on the role they played in the crucifixion of Jesus. Nothing could be worse than denying "the Holy and Righteous One" and asking for the release of a murderer instead (3:14). Finally, in the letter to the angel presiding over the church at Philadelphia, Jesus is him who is holy and true, who holds the key of David" (Revelation 3:7 ). This verse, like Acts 3:14 , illustrates how the full epithet ("the Holy One of God") could be abbreviated and combined with other descriptions of Jesus to enhance the main thrust of the passage. In Acts Peter aims to convict his audience, while the apocalyptic writer offers multiple images of Jesus to encourage the congregation in a time of intense persecution.
James A. Kelhoffer
Lord . Scripture ascribes glory to Jesus Christ in numerous ways, but in naming him "Lord" (Gk. kyrios [ Exodus 3:14 ), a name held in such high esteem that by New Testament times it was rarely spoken out loud.
The truth of God's holy oneness, a nonnegotiable Old Testament affirmation (Exodus 20:3 , ; Deuteronomy 6:4 ; Isaiah 43:10-11 ), would seem to rule out, at least among Jews, any application of kyrios [ Philippians 2:9-11 ). "Lord" thus serves as the name par excellence for Jesus Christ.
But Paul was by no means the first to apply this sacred title to Jesus. The Old Testament had predicted that a deliverer would come in the name of Lord. He would somehow be the Lord himself. Jesus invites reflection on this logically difficult truth in asking what David meant by affirming, "The Lord [4] says to my Lord (LXX kyrios [11] [ John 20:28 ).
Writing in the middle of the a.d. 50s Paul could already draw on an older tradition hailing Jesus as Lord: "Come, O Lord!" (1 Corinthians 16:22 ) is not Greek (the language of Paul's Corinthian readers) but the Aramaic maranatha (one of the languages of Jesus' Palestinian surroundings). The confession is therefore rooted in the earliest days of church life where the prevailing linguistic milieu was Semitic. This rules out an older but still popular theory that the name "Lord" was projected back onto Jesus only long after his death by Gentile Christians whose pagan religious background caused them to have no scruples about applying the title kyrios [2] to a mere human being.
While kyrios [2] was common as a polite, even honorific title for "sir" or "master, " calling Jesus "Lord" to imply divine associations or idenity was by no means a convention readily adopted from the Roman world. In Jesus' more Eastern but militantly monotheistic Jewish milieu, where the title's application to humans to connote divinity was not only absent but anathema, the title is an eloquent tribute to the astoning impression he made. It also points to the prerogatives he holds.
Since Jesus is Lord, he shares with the Father qualities like deity (Romans 9:5 ), preexistence (John 8:58 ), holiness (Hebrews 4:15 ), and compassion (1 John 4:9 ), to name just a few. He is co-creator (Colossians 1:16 ) and co-regent, presiding in power at the Father's right hand (Acts 2:33 ; Ephesians 1:20 ; Hebrews 1:3 ), where he intercedes for God's people (Romans 8:34 ) and from whence, as the Creed states, he will return to judge the living and dead (2 Thessalonians 1:7-8 ). Just as it is impossible to overstate the power, grandeur, and goodness of the kyrios [ Isaiah 8:13 ; LXX ), which Peter tellingly restates as "sanctify Christ as Lord" (1 Peter 3:15 ; NASB ).Robert W. Yarbrough
One and Only, Only Begotten . Jesus is called monogenes [ Joh
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Genealogies of Jesus Christ
GENEALOGIES OF JESUS CHRIST
1. There is no evidence that any special stress was laid upon the Davidic descent of Jesus, either by Himself or in the preaching of the Apostles. It was assumed that He was ‘Son of David,’ and the title was given to Him as the Messiah; nor does it appear that His claim was ever seriously contested on the ground that His Davidic descent was doubtful. St. Paul in Romans 1:3 speaks of Christ as ‘born of the seed of David according to the flesh,’ and in 2 Timothy 2:8 he names this descent, along with the Resurrection, as one of the salient points of the gospel he preached: ‘Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel.’ Similarly in his speech at the Pisidian Antioch, as recorded in Acts 13:23, he says: ‘Of this man’s (i.e. David’s) seed hath God according to promise brought unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus.’ St. Peter in his speech on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:30) mentions God’s promise to David, ‘that of the fruit of his loins he would set one upon his throne,’ and points to its fulfilment in Christ; but in addressing Cornelius (Acts 10:38) he speaks of Christ as ‘Jesus of Nazareth’; and this would seem to imply that the birth at Bethlehem, which brought into prominence the claim to Davidic descent, did not form part of his ordinary missionary preaching. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 7:14) says: ‘It is evident that our Lord hath sprung out of Judah.’ In the Second Gospel blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:47 f., cf. parallels) uses the title ‘Son of David’ in addressing Christ, and the crowds at the Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem (Mark 11:10, cf. Matthew 21:9 ‘Hosanna to the Son of David’) speak of the ‘kingdom that cometh’ as the ‘kingdom of our father David’; but in a difficult passage (Matthew 12:35-37, cf. parallels) Jesus appears to raise difficulties as to the appropriateness of the current application of the title to the Messiah (see Holtzmann, Hdcom.2 [1] ad loc.). In the Apocalypse the Davidic descent is apparently assumed (Revelation 22:16) as well as the birth from the tribe of Judah (Revelation 5:5); but the use of the phrase ‘the root of David ‘in both passages shows that the essential and spiritual priority to David was more prominent in the writer’s mind than the physical descent from him. The evidence to be derived from the Fourth Gospel is of a doubtful character; in John 7:27 we find traces of the phase of Jewish thought according to which the Messiah would appear suddenly and his origin would be secret: the answer of Jesus implies that the people did indeed know His human, but not His spiritual, origin. It is clear from John 7:41 f., 52 that He was regarded by both the crowd and the rulers at Jerusalem as being of Galilaean, and therefore presumably not Davidie, parentage; it is by no means certain, and to many it may seem in no way probable, that the writer, in the interest of a ‘tragic irony’ (see Westcott, Speaker’s Commentary on John 7:42), refrained from noting the fact of the birth at Bethlehem, and the Davidie lineage of Joseph or Mary. Jesus’ words in John 7:28 f. show clearly that He did not choose to support His claim by an appeal to fleshly parentage; while the words of Philip (John 1:45 ‘We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph’), and of the crowd at Capernaum (John 6:42 ‘Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know?’), left, as they are, without comment by the Evangelist, suggest that he was unacquainted with the story of the birth at Bethlehem, and laid no stress on the Davidie descent.
In all the books thus far mentioned no intimation is given whether the descent of Jesus is traced through Mary or Joseph: this fact must be recognized, however it is explained. In the Catholic Epistles there is no reference, direct or indirect, to the tribe or family of the Lord. The First and Third Gospels, which (at all events in their present form) teach the doctrine of the birth from a virgin, also contain formal pedigrees of Joseph, with the evident intention of proving that Jesus was the heir of David. In this lies the most important problem which the genealogies of Jesus present for solution.
2. The general facts in regard to the divergences of the two pedigrees of Joseph are well known. St. Matthew (Matthew 1:2-17) begins with Abraham, and traces the line in fourteen generations to David; then through Solomon in fourteen generations to Jechoniah at the time of the carrying away to Babylon: then in fourteen (or thirteen according to our present text) generations through Shealtiel and Zerubbabel to Matthan, Jacob, Joseph, and Jesus. Thus he brings the Messiah into relation with all who, whether in a literal or a spiritual sense, could call Abraham their Father.
St. Luke (Luke 3:23-38) makes Joseph the son of Heli, and grandson of Matthat (by some identified without any proof with Matthan of Matthew 1:15), and traces his descent through Zerubbabel and Shealtiel to Nathan the son of David; then (with only slight or textually doubtful divergences from Mt.) back to Abraham; but, not stopping there, he carries the pedigree back to ‘Adam the son of God,’ thus bringing the Son of man into relation with all men whom God has created. A more detailed examination of the main characteristics of the two genealogies will show the fundamental differences of conception and treatment that exist between them, and prepare us for extracting whatever may be of value from the attempts that have been made to harmonize them.
3. St. Matthew’s genealogy.—The heading is translated in the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘The book of the generation (βίβλος γενέσεως) of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham’: in the margin the alternative rendering is given ‘the genealogy of Jesus Christ.’ If, as seems probable, the latter rendering is right, this heading will refer only to the pedigree which follows; the phrase βίβλος γενέσεως is most likely taken from Genesis 5:1 (αὕτη ἡ βἱβλος γενέσεως ἀνθρώπων: cf. Genesis 6:9 αὖται δὲ αἱ γενἑσεις Νῶε, and Genesis 10:1), where it introduces a list of Adam’s descendants, and thus practically forms the title of a genealogieal table. Zahn (Einlcitung in d. NT2 [1] , ii. pp. 270 f. and 290) argues without much cogency that the phrase could not be applied to a table of ancestors, and takes it as a title of the whole book; he is, however, no doubt right in rejecting the view that it refers to the narrative of the birth, or of the birth and infancy. Taken as the title of the pedigree, it indicates clearly the intention of the writer—to show that in Jesus, as the heir of David and of Abraham, were fulfilled the promises made to them: the pedigree itself is intended to illustrate this, rather than to prove it, and it is not easy to avoid the conclusion that it is quite artificial, as is indeed implied by the more or less arbitrary division into 3 sections containing twice seven names apiece.
Confining our attention for the moment to the direct male line, we note that in the first section the names are taken from 1 Chronicles 2:1-15, and that if Salmon was the younger contemporary of Joshua (as is implied by his marriage with Rahab), there are only four generations to cover the 300 or 400 years between that time and David’s reign. In the second section the names are from 1 Chronicles 3:1-16, but Joash, Amaziah, and Azariah are omitted before Jotham, and Jehoiakim before Jechoniah (= Jehoiachin). In the third section only Shealtiel and Zerubbabel are mentioned in the OT [3]. We have no hint as to the source from whence the remaining names were drawn. For about 460 years, from David to the Captivity, we have 14 names, and know there should be 18; for about 590 years, from the Captivity to Christ, we have, against all reasonable probability, only 13 (perhaps originally 14) names.
We now turn to the notes inserted at different points in the pedigree. A very small point may perhaps guide us to a true conclusion in regard to these. Holtzmann (op. cit. on Matthew 1:6) points out that the articles before Δαυεὶδ τὸν βασιλἐα in Matthew 1:6, and before Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἄνδρα Μαρίας in Matthew 1:16, are incorrect: it seems probable that the compiler of the Gospel had a pedigree before him in which each step was given in the simple form ‘Abraham begat Isaac’ (Ἀβραὰμ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰσαάκ), and that he added notes to this at certain points; in Matthew 1:6; Matthew 1:16 he did not notice that the use of the article became incorrect when the notes were added. This original document may or may not have ended ‘Joseph begat Jesus’ (Ἰωσὴφ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν): it is perhaps the easiest solution of the difficulties of this verse to suppose that, if it did so end, the compiler omitted the last step, as in conflict with his belief in the Virgin-birth, and added a note to the previous step to explain the relation in which Jesus stood to Joseph. If in Westcott and Hort’s edition of the NT the notes be struck out, it will be seen that a perfectly symmetrical pedigree of Joseph is left.
Mr. F. C. Burkitt, in a very important note on Matthew 1:16-25 (Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, Cambridge, 1904, vol. ii. pp. 258–266), argues with great force that the genealogy is an integral part of St. Matthew’s Gospel, and that the compiler himself drew it up; but really his arguments apply only to the notes inserted in the genealogy. He discusses fully the reading in Matthew 1:16, and concludes that we cannot look on the reading of the Sinaitic Syriac (‘Jacob begat Joseph; Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the Virgin, begat Jesus, who is called the Christ’) as containing traces of an original text. Zahn (op. cit. ii. p. 292 f.) thinks that the Curctonian Syriac (‘Jacob begat Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the Virgin, who bore Jesus Christ’) represents the Greek from which the Syriac version was made more closely than does the Sinaitic. If, therefore, the compiler followed a pedigree ready to hand, he did so only as far as the step ‘Jacob begat Joseph’; and textual criticism will not help us to reconstruct the presumed original document beyond that point. In the usual text stress is laid on Joseph being the husband of Mary, probably to show that, as he recognized his wife’s son as in a legal sense his own, Jesus was legally the heir of David. In the reading that probably underlies the Ferrar group of MSS [2]1 (‘Jacob begat Joseph, to whom being betrothed the Virgin Mary begat Jesus that is called Christ’), and also the Old Latin and Syriac versions, this point is missed, and there is little doubt that the Received Text is right.
Added to Matthew 1:6; Matthew 1:11 are notes which mark important turning-points in the history of the family: with David it attained to royal standing, which it lost under Jechoniah at the Captivity. In Matthew 1:2 the addition of ‘and his brethren’ to the name Judah marks the beginning of the tribe, in that Judah is chosen from among his brethren as founder of the royal tribe. The addition of Zerah to Perez in Matthew 1:3 marks the division of the tribe, and it is interesting to notice that we find an allusion to the house of Perez in Ruth 4:12; perhaps, too, the compiler may have had in mind the strange story of Genesis 38:28 ff., around which some Rabbinic lore may have clustered. The addition of ‘and his brethren’ to the name Jechoniah is more puzzling. Zahn (op. cit. p. 273) thinks it is meant to mark the fact that till then the fortunes of the Davidic house centred in the reigning monarch, who was heir of all the promises, but that from that time onward a number of Davidic families existed, any one of which might be destined to receive the inheritance. Thus it would mark the change from the reigning family of the second section to a family of royal descent in the third section. But it is not clear from the OT that Jechoniah (= Jehoiachin) had any brothers, for the text of 1 Chronicles 3:16 seems suspicious. According to 2 Chronicles 36:10 his successor Zedekiah was his brother, according to 2 Kings 24:17 his father’s brother. Possibly there has been some confusion with Jehoiakim, who had three brothers (including a Zedekiah) according to 1 Chronicles 3:15; more probably the compiler has added the note, for the purpose indicated by Zahn, without regard for strict genealogical data.
The four notes not yet referred to are of special interest, naming four of the ancestresses of Solomon. The selection of these names was evidently made with a purpose; it seems as if the compiler wished to show that in the pedigree of the greatest of Jewish kings could be found instances of the breach of laws usually considered most binding. Tamar became a mother through incestuous intercourse with her father-in-law; Rahab was a harlot; Ruth was a Moabitess, and according to the Deuteronomic law (Deuteronomy 23:3, cf. Nehemiah 13:1) no Moabite was ever to enter into the congregation; Bathsheba was an adulteress. Some have thought that these references to acknowledged breaches of morality in the pedigree of David’s first great son form some kind of answer to the charges of immorality brought by the Jews against the Virgin: the argument would be that, if they did not reject Solomon in spite of acknowledged moral blots in his ancestry, they ought not to reject Jesus because of unfounded scandal. But this explanation is obviously unsatisfactory; there is no real force in such an argument, even supposing it to be worked out and not merely vaguely indicated; and all must feel that the compiler would have shrunk from drawing a parallel between the Mother of Jesus and notoriously sinful women; also the reference to Ruth remains unexplained, as she was guilty of no immorality. Burkitt (op. cit. vol. ii. p. 260) suggests a different explanation, that these four women are thrust upon our notice ‘as if to prepare us for still greater irregularity in the last stage.’ But again a comparison between the Virgin-birth and incestuous or adulterous intercourse can hardly have been possible for the compiler.
The simplest explanation is probably the right one: the God about whom Jesus taught had shown Himself ready, in the history of the royal family, to accept strangers and sinners. In the case of Ruth this is fully satisfactory; and the conduct of the other three women is represented in Scripture as justified or pardoned, Judah was obliged to say of Tamar, ‘She is more righteous than I’ (Genesis 38:26); the remembrance of Rahab’s former life was blotted out by her subsequent faith (James 2:25, Hebrews 11:31); there is no intimation in Scripture that Bathsheba was morally responsible for the sin into which she was forced by a powerful king, and certainly the birth of Solomon is not represented as in any way displeasing to God, but rather the contrary (see 2 Samuel 12:25, where Nathan named the child ‘Jedidiah [5] for the Lord’s sake’; cf. the prophecy of 2 Samuel 7:13 f.). Probably the thought uppermost in the mind of the compiler would be God’s acceptance of these women, and not their sin.
In regard to Rahab, there is no evidence for her marriage with Salmon, nor is anything known that would be likely to have suggested the idea: it would seem that the compiler was determined to introduce the name, and therefore, without evidence and against all chronological probability, made her the wife of the father of Boaz.
This examination compels us to conclude that the genealogy is essentially and intentionally artificial; the word ‘begat’ (ἐγέννησεν) is not intended necessarily to imply physical birth, but merely marks the descent; the compiler was more interested in the throne-succession than the actual lineage, and used his material to illustrate and enforce his main proposition that Jesus Christ was the son of David and of Abraham, and he joined to the bare pedigree a sort of running commentary of notes.
Codex Bezae in Luke 3 gives a pedigree in the Lukan form, but the names from Joseph to David are taken from Mt.; the names Jehoiakim and Eliakim are inserted between Jechoniah and Josiah as if they referred to two different persons, instead of being two names for the same man; and also Amaziah, Joash, and Ahaziah between Uzziah and Joram (see Resch, TU [6] x. 5, pp. 182–201, and Graefe in SK [7] , 1898, 1).
4. St. Luke’s genealogy.—The descent of Joseph is traced through Nathan the son of David. It is possible that the family is referred to in Zechariah 12:12, where ‘the family of the house of Nathan’ is distinguished from ‘the family of the house of David,’ the latter phrase perhaps meaning the royal line. The rejection of the descent through Jechoniah may have been due to the influence of the prophecy of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 22:30): ‘Thus saith the Lord, Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days: for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah’: but there is no apparent reason why the line of Nathan should be selected, unless St. Luke had evidence of the fact before him; and, in the case of a writer who so evidently based his work upon the results of careful research, it is only fair, and therefore scientific, to assume that he had such evidence. The agreement with St. Matthew’s genealogy in the names Zerubbabel and Shealtiel has not been satisfactorily explained; it is, of course, open to any one to assume, without the possibility of either proof or refutation, that Jechoniah was actually childless, and adopted Shealtiel, a descendant of Nathan; but even so the further divergence in the descent from Zerubbabel remains as difficult as ever, for the pedigrees disagree with each other, and with the names given in 1 Chronicles 3:19 ff. The number of derivatives of the name Nathan, and the repetition of the names Melchi, Joseph, and Jesus in the Lukan pedigree, can be taken equally well to prove its genuineness or the ingennity of its compiler. Apart from small variations of little interest, there is nothing to notice in the names from David to Adam, except the insertion in Luke 3:36 of a second Canaan in agreement with the LXX Septuagint of Genesis 10:24.
5. Historical value of the two genealogies.—From what has been said above, it appears that St. Matthew (or the compiler of the First Gospel in its present form) did not aim at historical accuracy; but from what we know of St. Luke’s methods it may be assumed that he would not have inserted matter in his Gospel unless he had had satisfactory evidence of its genuineness and historical accuracy, and we have seen that the character of the list of names he gives, from David to Joseph, agrees well with this view. Attempts to harmonize the two genealogies have not been successful, and it is only necessary to indicate the general lines they have followed, and to collect such pieces of evidence as may throw light on the possible transmission of the pedigree.
The question was first discussed by Julius Africanus, who flourished early in the 3rd cent. after Christ, in a letter addressed to an unknown correspondent Aristides, of which a considerable portion has been preserved by Euseb. HE i. 7 (cf. Routh, Reliq. Sacrœ, vol. ii. p. 228 ff.). In his text of St. Luke the names Matthat and Levi were evidently left out, so that he regarded Melchi as grandfather of Joseph. He supposed that Matthan, a descendant of Solomon, married a woman named, according to tradition, Estha, by whom he had a son Jacob. On Matthan’s death, Melchi, a descendant of Nathan, married his widow, who bore him a son Heli. Heli died without children, and Jacob, in accordance with the levirate law, raised up seed to his brother, and begat Joseph. Thus Joseph was physically son of Jacob, legally of Heli. The difficulties of this theory are sufficiently discussed by Dr. B. W. Bacon in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, art. ‘Genealogy of Jesus Christ.’ The various modifications of this theory that have been proposed (see, e.g., Farrar’s St. Luke in the Cambridge Bible for Schools, Excursus II.) in no way increase its probability, and practically no evidence can be adduced in support of it. Eusebius does indeed speak of a narrative (ἰστορία) which Africanus had received by tradition (HE i. 7; cf. vi. 31); Africanus, however, does not assert this in the fragments preserved, and himself admits that the conjecture is unsupported by evidence (εἰ καὶ μὴ ἐμμάρτυρός ἐστι), but claims that it is worthy of acceptance till a better or truer one is proposed.
Africanus does, however, mention people called ‘Desposyni’ on account of their kinship with the Saviour, and applies to them the epithet ‘the before-mentioned,’ so that in those parts of the letter that are now lost he may have specified more exactly how fa
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ
Is his existence before he was born of the Virgin Mary. That he really did exist before, is plain from John 3:13 . John 6:50 . &c. John 17:1-26 : John 8:58 . 1 John 1:4 : but there are various opinions respecting this existence. Some acknowledge, that in Jesus Christ there is a divine nature, a rational soul, and a human body. His body, they think, was formed in the Virgin's womb; his human soul, they suppose, was the first and most excellent of all the works of God; was brought into existence before the creation of the world, and subsisted in happy union in heaven with the second person in the Godhead, till his incarnation. These divines differ from those called Arians, for the latter ascribe to Christ only a created deity, whereas the former hold his true and proper divinity: they differ from the Socinians, who believe no existence of Christ before his incarnation: they differ from the Sabillians, who only own a trinity of names: they differ, also, from the generally received opinion, which is, that the human soul began to exist in his mother's womb, in exact conformity to that likeness unto his brethren, of which St. Paul speaks, Hebrews 2:17 . The writers in favour of the pre-existence of Jesus Christ's human soul recommend their thesis by these arguments. I. Christ is represented as his Father's messenger, or angel, being distinct from his Father, sent by his Father long before his incarnation, to perform actions which seem to be too low for the dignity of pure Godhead. The appearances of Christ is to the patriarchs are described like the appearances of an angel, or man really distinct from God; yet such a one, in whom God, or Jehovah, had a peculiar indwelling, or with whom the divine nature had a personal union. 2. Christ, when he came into the world, is said, in several passages of Scripture, to have divested himself of some glory which he had before his incarnation. Now if there had existed before this time nothing but his divine nature, this divine nature could not properly divest itself of any glory. I have glorified thee on earth; I have finished the work thou gavest me to do. And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.
Ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich, John 17:4-5 . 2 Corinthians 8:9 . It cannot be said of God that he became poor: he is infinitely self-sufficient; he is necessarily and eternally rich in perfections and glories. Nor can it be said of Christ as man, that he was rich, if he were never in a richer state before, than while he was on earth. It seems needful that the soul of Christ should pre-exist, that it might have an opportunity to give its previous actual consent to the great and painful undertaking of atonement for our sins. It was the human soul of Christ that endured the weakness and pain of his infant state, all the labours and fatigues of life, the reproaches of men, and the sufferings of death. The divine nature is incapable of suffering. The covenant of redemption between the Father and the Son is therefore represented as being made before the foundation of the world. To suppose that simple deity or the divine essence, which is the same in all the three personalities, should make a covenant with itself, is inconsistent. Christ is the angel to whom God was in a peculiar manner united, and who in this union made all the divine appearances related in the Old Testament. God is often represented in Scripture as appearing in a visible manner, and assuming a human form.
See Genesis 3:8 ; Genesis 17:1 ; Genesis 28:12 ; Genesis 32:24 . Exodus 2:2 , and a variety of other passages. The Lord Jehovah, when he came down to visit men, carried some ensign of divine majesty: he was surrounded with some splendid appearance. Such a light often appeared at the door of the tabernacle, and fixed its abode on the ark, between the cherubims. It was by the Jews called the Shekinah, 1: e. the habitation of God. Hence he is described as dwelling in light and clothed with light as with a garment. In the midst of this brightness there seems to have been sometimes a human shape and figure. It was probably of this heavenly light that Christ divested himself when he was made flesh. With this he was covered at his transfiguration in the Mount, when his garments were white as the light; and at his ascension into heaven, when a bright cloud received, or invested him: and when he appeared to John, Revelation 1:13 . and it was with this he prayed his Father would glorify him. Sometimes the great and blessed God appeared in the form of a man or angel. It is evident that the true God resided in this man or angel; because on account of this union to proper deity, the angel calls himself God, the Lord God. He assumes the most exalted names and characters of Godhead. And the spectators, and sacred historians, it is evident, considered him as true and proper God: they paid him the highest worship and obedience. He is properly styled the angel of God's presence.
The (messenger or) angel of the covenant, Isa 72: 1. Malachi 3:1 . The same angel of the Lord was the particular God and King of the Israelites. It was he who made a covenant with the patriarchs, who appeared to Moses in the burning bush, who redeemed the Israelites from Egypt, who conducted them through the wilderness, who gave the law at Sinai, and transacted the affairs of the ancient church. The angels who have appeared since our blessed Saviour became incarnate, have never assumed the names, titles, characters, or worship, belonging to God. Hence we may infer that the angel who, under the Old Testament, assumed divine titles, and accepted religious worship, was that peculiar angel of God's presence, in whom God resided, or who was united to the Godhead in a peculiar manner; even the pre-existent soul of Christ, who afterwards took flesh and blood upon him, and was called Jesus Christ on earth. Christ represents himself as one with the Father: I and the Father are one, John 10:30 ; John 14:10-11 . There is, we may hence infer, such a peculiar union between God and the man Christ Jesus, both in his pre-existent and incarnate state, that he may be properly called God-man in one complex person. Among those expressions of Scripture which discover the pre-existence of Christ, there are several from which we may derive a certain proof of his divinity. Such are those places in the Old Testament, where the angel who appeared to the ancients is called God, the Almighty God, Jehovah, the Lord of Hosts, I am that I am, &c. Dr. Watts supposes, that the doctrine of the pre-existence of the soul of Christ explains dark and difficult scriptures, and discovers many beauties and proprieties of expression n the word of God, which on any other plan lie unobserved: For instance, in Colossians 1:15 , &c. Christ is described as the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every creature. His being the image of the invisible God cannot refer merely to his divine nature; for that is as invisible in the Son as in the Father: therefore it seems to refer to his pre-existent soul in union with the Godhead. Again: when man is said to be created in the image of God, Genesis 1:2 . it may refer to the God-man, to Christ in his pre-existent state. God says, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. The word is redoubled, perhaps to intimate that Adam was made in the likeness of the human soul of Christ, as well as that he bore something of the image and resemblance of the divine nature. On the other side it is affirmed, that this doctrine of the pre-existence of the human soul of Christ weakens and subverts that of his personality.
1. A pure intelligent spirit, say they, the first, the most ancient, and the most excellent of creatures, created before the foundation of the world, so exactly resembles the second person of the Arian trinity, that it is impossible to show the least difference, except in name.
2. The pre-existent intelligence supposed in this doctrine, is so confounded with those other intelligences called angels, that there is great danger of mistaking this human soul for an angel, and so of making the person of Christ to consist of three natures.
3. If Jesus Christ had nothing in common like the rest of mankind except a body, how could this semi-conformity make him a real ?Prayer of Manasseh 1:1 :
4. The passages quoted in proof of the pre-existence of the human soul of Jesus Christ are of the same sort with those which others allege in proof of the pre-existence of all human souls.
5. This opinion, by ascribing the dignity of the work of redemption to this sublime human soul, detracts from the deity of Christ, and renders the last as passive as the first active.
6. This notion is contrary to Scripture. St. Paul says, in all things it behoved him to be made like his brethren: he partook of all our infirmities, except sin. St. Luke says, he increased in stature and in wisdom, Hebrews 2:17 . Luke 2:52 .
See articles JESUS CHRIST, and INDWELLING SCHEME; Robinson's Claude, vol. 1: p. 214, 311; Watts's Works, vol. 5: p. 274, 385; Gill's Body of Div. vol. 2: p. 51; robinson's Plea, p. 140; Fleming's Christology; Simpson's Apology for the Trin. p. 190; Hawker's Ser. on the Divinity of Christ, p. 44, 45.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Genealogy of Jesus Christ
Needed, to show that redemption was no afterthought, but designed from the first. Abraham and David in Matthew's Gospel are singled out to prove the fulfillment in Christ of the promises made to Abraham 2,000 years previously, and to David 1,000. The Old Testament begins with "Genesis" ("generation"); so also the New Testament begins with the genesis ("generation," Matthew 1:1) of Jesus Christ. Matthew's Gospel contains, not Joseph's direct ancestors, but the succession of heirs to David's and Solomon's throne. The tracing of Christ's descent through Judah's royal line harmonizes with the kingly aspect of Jesus Christ in Matthew's Gospel. The steps of Joseph's direct parentage did not coincide with those of the succession to the throne. Solomon's line failed, and Nathan's and Neri's succeeded as legal heirs.
Hence the need of two genealogies, one (Matthew) of the succession, the other (Luke) of the parentage. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 22:30) declares Jeconiah, Coniah, or Jehoiachin was to be childless. He cannot therefore have been lineal progenitor of Jesus Christ. It is at this point in the genealogy, i.e. after Jehoiachin, the same names occur in both lists, Salathiel and Zerubbabel taken (in Matthew) from the line of Nathan (Luke) to supply the failure of Jehoiachin's issue. The promise was, Messiah was to be "of the fruit of the loins of David" (Acts 2:30), but to Solomon only that "his throne should be established evermore" (1 Chronicles 17:14). So a double genealogy of Jair is given, one of the inheritance, the other of birth (1 Chronicles 2:4-5; 1 Chronicles 2:21-22; Numbers 32:41). Matthew appropriately, as writing for Jews, gives Christ's legal descent; Luke, for Gentiles, the natural descent.
Matthew downward, from Abraham the father of the Jews (naturally, but of the Gentiles also spiritually: Genesis 17:5; Romans 4:16-17); Luke upward, to Adam, "who was the son of God" and the father of Gentiles and Jews alike. The words "as was supposed" (Luke 3:23) imply that Christ's sonship to Joseph was only a reputed not a real one. Yet He was God's extraordinary gift to Joseph through his proper wife Mary, and the fruit of his marriage to her, not as natural offspring of his body but as supernatural fruit. Hence attention is drawn to Joseph's being "son of David" (Matthew 1:20), "of the house and lineage of David" (Luke 2:4, compare Luke 1:32). Matthew omits three links of the pedigree. "Joram begat Ozias," i.e. Uzziah. But Joram really begat Ahaziah, Ahaziah Jehoash, Jehoash Uzziah. If the two genealogies contained anything false or mutually contradictory, Christ's enemies would have convicted them from the public documents.
Clearly men in that day saw nothing irreconcilable in them. From Abraham to David both agree, thenceforward the names differ. Luke has 42 names from David, Matthew only 27 names. The less number in Matthew is intelligible, if he be only tracing the heir's to the throne; for "the heir of my heir is my heir." So intermediate heirs are omitted without risk of misconception, for spiritual reasons; e.g., Simeon is omitted in Moses' blessing (Deuteronomy 33) on account of his cruelty, Dan in Revelation 7 for his idolatry. The full number is given in Luke, as naming the natural line. Mary must have been of the same tribe and family as Joseph, according to the law (Numbers 36:8). Isaiah 11:1 implies that Messiah was the seed of David by natural as well as legal descent. Probably Matthan of Matthew is the Matthat of Luke, and Jacob and Heli were brothers; and Heli's son Joseph, and Jacob's daughter Mary, first cousins. Joseph, as male heir of his uncle Jacob, who had only one child, Mary, would marry her according to the law (Numbers 36:8).
Thus the genealogy of the inheritance (Matthew's) and that of natural descent (Luke's) would be primarily Joseph's, then Mary's also. The number 14 has some mystic signification (compare Numbers 29:13; 1 Kings 8:65). It is the double of seven the number for completeness; the periods of 14 in Matthew are the sacred three. The period from Abraham to David is that of patriarchs; from David to the Babylonian captivity that of kings; from the captivity to Christ private individuals. The first and second tessaradecade have an illustrious beginning; the third not so, that its ending in Messiah might stand forth pre-eminent above all that went before.
The first is that of promise, beginning with. Abraham and ending with David, the receivers of the promise; the second adumbrates Christ's eternal kingdom through the temporary kingdom of David's line; the third period is that of expectation. On Cainan in Luke's Gospel, (See CAINAN. The name Jehoiakim seemingly has dropped out, Josiah's son and Jeconiah's father; otherwise David would have to be counted twice to make up the second 14. Five females are in Matthew's Gospel: incestuous Tamar, Rahab the Moabitess and a harlot, Ruth, Uriah's wife Bathsheba the object of David's adulterous love, and above all Mary; all extraordinary monuments of God's grace, that chooses out of the vilest to make vessels unto honor, for the bringing forth of the promised Seed, who was to save sinners of every type and race.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Jesus Christ
See Christ, Christology.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ. The name of the Saviour, signifying his work and authority; Jesus (the Greek form of the Hebrew Joshua) means Jehovah saves, or Saviour, Matthew 1:21. Christ (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Messiah) means anointed. Jesus was his common, name during his life on earth) generally used in the gospels. Christ is his official name, frequently used alone or with Jesus in the epistles. Jesus occurs in the Bible 711 times; Christ 304 times; Jesus Christ, Lord Jesus Christ, and Christ Jesus (anointed Saviour), 244 times, and Messiah 4 times. He has many other titles and names in Scripture, as "Immanuel," Matthew 1:23; "Son of God," John 1:34; "Son of man," John 8:28; "Son of David," etc., Mark 10:47-48; in all, upwards of 100 titles, indicating his character, life, and work.
The predictions concerning Christ were many—about 150 or more—and were made at various periods of Old Testament history. He was to be born in Bethlehem, a small village, Micah 5:2; he was to be a king with a universal and perpetual empire, Psalms 2:6; Psalms 45:2-7; Psalms 72:1-20; Isaiah 9:6-7; yet would be despised and rejected. Isaiah 53:1-12. He was to open the eyes of the blind and the ears of the deaf, Isaiah 35:5-6, and yet to be betrayed, sold and slain and his grave appointed with the wicked. Yet his sufferings should make many righteous. Isaiah 11:1-9; Isaiah 60:1-11. He was to do the work of a prophet, Isaiah 42:1-7; of a priest, Psalms 110:4; Zechariah 6:13; and of a king. Daniel 7:14. These predictions, and many others of like nature, were all fulfilled in Jesus the Son of Mary.
He is the centre of all Jewish and Christian history; the "Holy of Holies" in the history of the world. There is space here for the briefest outline only of his human life, Ms mysterious person, and his work.
His Life.—While Augustus was emperor of Rome, and Herod the Great king in Jerusalem, Jesus was born four years before 1 a.d., the Christian era having been fixed by Dionysius Exiguus of the sixth century, four years too late. Mary, a virgin, betrothed to Joseph of Nazareth, gave birth to Jesus at Bethlehem according to Micah's prophecy. Micah 5:2. Angels celebrated it with songs, and wise men from the East brought precious gifts to the new-born babe. To escape Herod's threats, the child Jesus was taken to Egypt, but later settled with his parents at Nazareth. Only one event of his childhood is known—a visit when 12 years old to Jerusalem, when he astonished the doctors by his words and questions. He was trained as other Jewish lads of his station. At three the boy was weaned, and wore for the first time the fringed or tasselled garment prescribed by Numbers 15:38-41 and Deuteronomy 22:12. His education began at first under the mother's care. At five he was to learn the law, at first by extracts written on scrolls of the more important passages, the Shemà or creed of Deuteronomy 2:4; the Hallel or festival psalms, Psalms 114:1-8; Psalms 118:1-29; Psalms 136:1-26, and by catechetical teaching in school. At 12 he became more directly responsible for Ms obedience to the law; and on the day when he attained the age of 13, put on for the first time the phylacteries which were worn at the recital of his daily prayer. In addition to this, Jesus learned the carpenter's trade of Joseph.
Ministry.—His public ministry is usually regarded as lasting upwards of three years. John records more of the Judæan ministry, Luke more of his Peræan ministry, while Matthew and Mark give his Galilean ministry, as does Luke also. John the Baptist, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, Luke 3:1, produced a deep impression by preaching repentance. Jesus sought baptism at his hands, and was tempted of the devil. He then went to Cana of Galilee, where he worked his first miracle at a wedding. With some disciples, he set out for Jerusalem to keep the passover. His first work was the cleansing of the temple from traffickers and money-changers—which he repeated near the close of his ministry. Matthew 21:12. He received a visit by night from Nicodemus. Presently the Baptist was thrown into prison and the Saviour withdrew to Galilee. On his way through Samaria he conversed with a woman at Jacob's well. At Nazareth ho was rejected by the people, and went to Capernaum, which henceforth became "his own city." Here he called Peter and Andrew and James and John, and made his first tour through Galilee, performing many miracles. Early in the second year of his ministry Jesus went up to Jerusalem to a feast of the Jews, John 5:1, and healed a lame man at the pool of Bethesda, explained the right use of the Sabbath, a subject which he resumed when his disciples were plucking ears of corn on Ms return to Galilee. When he reached the Sea of Galilee multitudes followed him. He appointed the twelve apostles and delivered the Sermon on the Mount, and commenced a second tour in Galilee, during which he delivered the series of parables in Matthew 13:1-58, stilled the storm on Galilee, healed the demoniacs of Gadara, raised the daughter of Jairus, and after other miracles came again to Nazareth, where he was again rejected. He then made a third tour in Galilee, and sent forth the apostles, giving the instructions recorded in Matthew 10:11. After an interval of some months the twelve returned, and with them he retired to the Sea of Galilee, fed the 5000, walked on the water, and delivered his sermon on the bread or life, John 6:1-71, in the synagogue at Capernaum. Early in the third year of his ministry, Jesus disputed with the Pharisees about eating with unwashed hands, and went toward the northwest, healed the daughter of the Syrophœnician woman, and then passed around to Decapolis, where he wrought many miracles and fed 4000. Near Cæsarea Philippi Peter made his confession of faith, and then Jesus foretold his own death and resurrection and the trials of Ms followers. The transfiguration followed, and the next morning the healing of an epileptic child. On the way back to Capernaum he again foretold his sufferings, and exhorted the disciples to humility, forbearance, and brotherly love. About this time he instructed and sent out the 70 on their mission. Then he left Galilee, and having cleansed ten lepers came to Jerusalem at the Feast of Tabernacles. John 7:2. Here he taught in public, and answered a lawyer's question with the parable of the Good Samaritan. The healing of the man born blind led to a long discourse, which aroused the rulers, and Jesus retired beyond Jordan. In Peræa, on his way to Jerusalem, he uttered the parables of the lost sheep, the unjust steward, the rich man and Lazarus, and the pharisee and the publican; five precepts concerning divorce: blessed little children; taught the rich young ruler. He raised Lazarus at Bethany. A third time he foretold his death and resurrection, and approaching Jericho healed blind men, called Zacchæus, and gave the parable of the pounds. He arrived at Bethany six days before the passover. At supper, in Simon's house, he is anointed. At the beginning of the last week before the crucifixion Jesus made a public entry into the city, spoke parables and warnings, lamented over Jerusalem, praised the widow's mite, met certain Greeks and predicted his second coming with solemn warnings confirmed by the parables of the ten virgins, the five talents, and the sheep and the goats. At the last or fourth passover with the twelve, Jesus instituted the Lord's Supper, delivered his farewell discourses, and withdrew to Gethsemane. After the agony in the garden he was arrested and in the night brought before Annas, and then Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin, and in the morning before Pilate and Herod. Pilate yielded to the Jews, delivered Jesus to be mocked and crucified. He was buried and a watch set upon the tomb. On the morning of the third day the tomb was found empty, and soon he appeared to the women, then to the disciples, who could hardly believe the fact. During 40 days he taught them, and then, near Bethany, ascended to heaven in their sight.
Mysterious Person.— The great peculiarity of the Scripture doctrine of the person of Christ is that he is God and man united, two natures forming one personality. "He is not divine alone, nor human alone, but divine-human." He is the Eternal Word, John 1:1-51, the Son of God, and he is also the Son of man. Mark 11:13. This may be difficult for us to comprehend; but if a finite mind could comprehend the whole of Christ's nature, Christ could not be the infinite God he is declared to be. John 1:4.
Work and Offices of Christ.— These are usually presented as threefold. The Bible and Evangelical creeds describe the Mediator as a prophet, priest, and king. As prophet he perfectly reveals the will of the Father to man; as priest he is the perfect offering for sin, procuring redemption for all who will accept of it; as king, he is and will become rightful ruler and judge of this world, and be exalted above every name that is named, putting all things under him, receiving the praises of all created intelligences.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Genealogy of Jesus Christ
GENEALOGY OF JESUS CHRIST
1. The two genealogies . Both the First and Third Evangelists (here for brevity referred to as Mt. and Lk.) give our Lord’s ancestry, but they differ from one another very largely. Lk. traces back the genealogy to Adam, Mt. to Abraham only. Both lists agree from Abraham to David, except that Aram or Ram in Matthew 1:3 = Arm in Luke 3:33 (best text); but between David and Joseph the lists have only Shealtiel and Zerubbabel, and possibly two other names (see below), in common.
( a ) The Matthæan list from Perez to David is taken almost verbatim from Ruth 4:18-22 LXX [1] (inserting Rahab and Ruth, and calling David ‘the king’), and agrees with 1 Chronicles 2:1-16 ; it then gives the names of the kings to Jechoniah, from 1 Chronicles 3:10-15 , but inserts ‘the [2] of Uriah’ and omits kings Abaziah, Joash, and Amaziah between Joram and Uzziah (= Azariah), and also Jehoiakim son of Josiah and father of Jechoniah (Coniah, Jeremiah 22:24 ) or Jehoiachin ( 2 Chronicles 36:8 ). This last omission may be merely a mistake, for the list is made up of three artificial divisions of fourteen generations each, and Jechoniah appears both at the end of the second and at the beginning of the third division, being counted twice. Perhaps, then, originally Jehoiakim ended the second division, and Jehoiachin began the third, and they became confused owing to the similarity of spelling and were written alike (as in 1 Chronicles 3:15 , Jeremiah 52:31 LXX [1] ); then the synonym Jechoniah was substituted for both. In the third division the names Shealtiel, Zerubbabel (both in Lk. also) are from Ezra 3:2 , 1 Chronicles 3:17 ; 1 Chronicles 3:19 but we notice that in Mt. and Ezra Zerubbabel is called son of Shealtiel, whereas in 1 Ch (except in some MSS of the LXX [1] ) he is his nephew. Both in Mt. and 1 Ch. Shealtiel is called son of Jechoniah. Between Zerubbabel and Joseph the names are perhaps from some traditional list of the heirs of the kings, but some names here also have been omitted, for in Mt. ten generations are spread over nearly 500 years, while Lk. gives nineteen generations for the same period. The Mt. genealogy ends with Matthan, Jacob, Joseph.
( b ) The Lukan list , which inverts the order, beginning at Jesus and ending at Adam, takes the line from Adam to Abraham, from Genesis 5:1-32 ; Genesis 10:21-25 (to Peleg), 1 Chronicles 1:1-27 , but inserts Cainan between Arphaxad and Shelah, as does the LXX [1] in Gn. and 1 Ch.; it practically agrees with Mt. (see above) from Abraham to David, but then gives the line to Shealtiel through David’s son Nathan, making Shealtiel the son of Neri, not of king Jechoniah (see 2 below). The names between Nathan and Shealtiel are not derived from the OT, and those between Zerubbabel and Joseph are otherwise unknown to us, unless, as Plummer supposes ( ICC [6] , ‘St. Luke,’ p. 104,) Joanan ( Luke 3:27 RV [7] ) = Hananiah son of Zerubbabel ( 1 Chronicles 3:19 ) the name Rhesa being really a title (‘Zerubbabel Rhesa’ = ‘Z. the prince’), misunderstood by some copyist before Lk. and Joda ( Luke 3:26 RV [7] ) = Abind ( Matthew 1:18 ) = Hodaviab ( 1 Chronicles 3:24 RV [7] , a descendant of Zerubbabel, not son of Hananiah). Some think that Matthat ( Luke 3:24 ) = Matthan ( Matthew 1:15 ).
2. Reason of the differences . It is not enough merely to say that theories which endeavour to harmonize the four Gospels are failures, and that, as is shown in art. Gospels, 2 ( b ), Mt. and Lk. wrote each without knowing the work of the other. We have to consider why two independent writers, both professing to give our Lord’s genealogy, produced such different lists. Jewish genealogies were frequently artificial; that of Mt. is obviously so; for example, its omissions were apparently made only so as to produce an equality between the three divisions. Burkitt ( Evangelion da-Mepharreshe , ii. 260f.) and Allen ( ICC [6] , ‘St. Matthew,’ p. 2 ff.) think that Mt. compiled his genealogy for the purpose of his Gospel. The details about Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Bathsheba, not to be expected in a genealogy, but suitable for that purpose (see below), and the artificial divisions, seem to point to this view. The object of the Mt. genealogy would be to refute an early Jewish slander that Jesus was born out of wedlock a slander certainly known to Celsus in the 2nd cent. (Origen, c. Cels . i. 28 etc.). In this connexion Burkitt ( l.c. ) shows that Matthew 1:2 are by the same hand as the rest of the Gospel (see also Hawkins, Horæ Synopticæ , p. 4ff.). This view may, however, perhaps be modified a little by the hypothesis that the Mt. list is due to a Christian predecessor of the First Evangelist, perhaps to one of his sources; this modification would allow for the corruption of Jeboiakim and Jeboiachin (above, 1).
In any case, in spite of the argument to the contrary by Bacon in Hastings’ DB [9] ii. 139, we must probably agree with Westcott ( NT in Greek 2 , ii. 141), Barnard (Hastings’ DCG [12] i. 638), Allen, and Burkitt, that the word ‘begat’ in this list expresses legal heirship and not physical descent. The same is true in some cases in 1 Chronicles. Mt. clearly believed in the Virgin Birth, and puts the genealogy immediately before the assertion of it; if physical descent is intended, the genealogy through Joseph is unmeaning. He wishes to prove that Jesus is legally descended from David, and therefore gives the ‘throne succession,’ the list of regal heirs. On the other hand, it may be supposed that Lk. states Jesus’ heirship by giving Joseph’s actual physical descent according to some genealogy preserved in the family. According to this view, Joseph was really the son of Heli ( Luke 3:23 ) but the legal heir of Jacob ( Matthew 1:16 ). It is not difficult to understand why Shealtiel and Zerubbabel appear in both lists. Jechoniah was childless, or at least his heirs died out ( Jeremiah 22:24 ; Jeremiah 22:30 ), and Shealtiel, though called his ‘son’ in 1 Chronicles 3:17 , was probably only his legal heir, being son of Neri ( Luke 3:27 ). This theory is elaborated by Lord A. Hervey, Bishop of Bath and Wells ( The Genealogies of our Lord , 1853, and in Smith’s DB [9] 2 ).
The reason of the insertion of the names of the four women in the Mt. list is not quite obvious. It has been suggested that the object was to show that God accepts penitents and strangers. Burkitt, with more probability, supposes that the mention of the heirs being born out of the direct line or irregularly is intended to prepare us for the still greater irregularity at the last stage, for the Virgin Birth of Jesus ( l.c. p. 260). We note that in the OT Rahab is not said to have been the wife of Salmon as in Matthew 1:5 .
3. Other solutions . ( a ) Africanus, perhaps the earliest writer to discuss Biblical questions in a critical manner ( c [9]8 . a.d. 220), treats of these genealogies in his Letter to Aristides (Euseb. HE i. 7, vi. 31). He harmonizes them (expressly, however, not as a matter of tradition) on the theory of levirate marriages, supposing that two half-brothers, sons of different fathers, married the same woman, and that the issue of the second marriage was therefore legally accounted to the elder, but physically to the younger brother. It is a difficulty that two, or even three, such marriages must be supposed in the list; and this theory is almost universally rejected by moderns. Africanus bad no doubt that both genealogies were Joseph’s.
Africanus says that Herod the Great destroyed all the Jewish genealogies kept in the archives, so as to hide his own ignoble descent, but that not a few had private records of their own (Euseb. HE i. 7). Here clearly Africanus exaggerates. Josephus says that his own genealogy was given in the public records, and that the priests’ pedigrees, even among Jews of the Dispersion, were carefully preserved ( Life , 1, c. Ap . i. 7). There is no reason why LK. should not have found a genealogy in Joseph’s family. Africanus says that our Lord’s relatives, called desposyni , prided themselves on preserving the memory of their noble descent.
( b ) A more modern theory, expounded by Weiss, but first by Annius of Viterbo ( c [9]8 . a.d. 1490), is that Mt. gives Joseph’s pedigree, Lk. Mary’s. It is necessary on this theory to render Luke 3:23 thus: ‘being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph [4] of Heli.’ This translations rightly pronounced by Plummer to be incredible ( l.c. p. 103); and a birthright derived through the mother would be ‘quite out of harmony with either Jewish ideas or Gentile ideas.’ The important thing was to state Jesus’ birthright, and the only possible way to do this would be through Joseph.
It must, however, be added that Joseph and Mary were probably near relations. We cannot, indeed, say with Eusebius ( HE i. 7) that they must have been of the same tribe, because ‘intermarriages between different tribes were not permitted.’ He is evidently referring to Numbers 36:6 f., but this relates only to heiresses, who, if they married out of their tribe, would forfeit their inheritance. Mary and Elisabeth were kinswomen, though the latter was descended from Aaron ( Luke 1:5 ; Luke 1:36 ). But it was undoubtedly the belief of the early Christians that Jesus was descended, according to the flesh, from David, and was of the tribe of Judah ( Acts 2:30 ; Acts 13:23 , Romans 1:3 , 2 Timothy 2:8 , Hebrews 7:14 , Revelation 5:5 ; Revelation 22:16 ; cf. Mark 10:47 ; Mark 11:10 ). At the same time it is noteworthy that our Lord did not base His claims on His Davidic descent. In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs , an apocryphal work written in its present form c [9]8 . a.d. 120, we find ( Sym . 7, Gad , 8) the idea that the Lord should ‘raise (one) from Levi as priest and from Judah as king. God and man, an Inference, as Sanday-Headlam remark ( ICC [6] , ‘Romans,’ p. 7), from Luke 1:36 .
4. The Matthæan text . In Matthew 1:16 the reading of almost all Greek MSS, attested by Tertullian, is that of EV [19] , ‘Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus,’ etc. The lately discovered Sinaitic-Syriac palimpsest has ‘Jacob begat Joseph: Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the Virgin, begat Jesus.’ This reading is carefully discussed by Prof. Burkitt ( l.c. p. 262 ff.), who thinks that it is not original, but derived from a variant of the ordinary text: ‘Jacob begat Joseph, to whom being betrothed the Virgin Mary bare [20] Jesus’ [12]8. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the Sinaitic palimpsest has the original reading of a source of our Mt. which did not believe in the Virgin Birth. If so, it is strange that the First Evangelist should place it in such close juxtaposition to his assertion of that belief. In view, however, of what has been said above, that the word ‘begat’ in Mt. implies only legal heirship, the question has no real doctrinal significance. On purely literary grounds, Prof. Burkitt seems to the present writer to have established his point.
A. J. Maclean.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Jesus Christ
JESUS CHRIST . There is no historical task which is more important than to set forth the life and teaching of Jesus Christ, and none to which it is so difficult to do justice. The importance of the theme is sufficiently attested by the fact that it is felt to be His due to reckon a new era from the date of His birth. From the point of view of Christian faith there is nothing in time worthy to be set beside the deeds and the words of One who is adored as God manifest in the flesh, and the Saviour of the world. In the perspective of universal history. His influence ranks with Greek culture and Roman law as one of the three most valuable elements in the heritage from the ancient world, while it surpasses these other factors in the spiritual quality of its effects. On the other hand, the superlative task has its peculiar difficulties. It is quite certain that a modern European makes many mistakes when trying to reproduce the conditions of the distant province of Oriental antiquity in which Jesus lived. The literary documents, moreover, are of no great compass, and are reticent or obscure in regard to many matters which are of capital interest to the modern biographer. And when erudition has done its best with the primary and auxiliary sources, the historian has still to put the heart-searching question whether he possesses the qualifications that would enable him to understand the character, the experience, and the purpose of Jesus. ‘He who would worthily write the Life of Jesus Christ must have a pen dipped in the imaginative sympathy of a poet, in the prophet’s fire, in the artist’s charm and grace, and in the reverence and purity of the saint’ (Stewart, The Life of Christ , 1906, p. vi.).
1. The Literary Sources
(A) Canonical
(1) The Gospels and their purpose . It is now generally agreed that the Gospel according to Mk . is the oldest of the four. Beginning with the Baptism of Jesus, it gives a sketch of His Public Ministry, with specimens of His teaching, and carries the narrative to the morning of the Resurrection. The original conclusion has been lost, but there can be no doubt that it went on to relate at least certain Galilæan appearances of the risen Lord. This Gospel supplies most of our knowledge of the life of Jesus, but its main concern is to bring out the inner meaning and the religious value of the story. It is, in short, a history written with the purpose of demonstrating that Jesus was the expected Messiah. In proof of this it is sufficient to point out that it describes itself at the outset as setting forth the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God ( Mark 1:1 ), that the faith of the disciples culminates in Peter’s confession that He is the Christ ( Mark 8:29 ), that the ground of His condemnation is that He claims to be ‘the Christ, the Son of the Blessed’ ( Mark 14:61-62 ), and that the accusation written over His cross is ‘The King of the Jews’ ( Mark 15:26 ).
The Gospel according to Mt . is now usually regarded as a second and enlarged edition of an Apostolic original. The earlier version, known as the Logia on the ground of a note of Papias (Euseb. HE iii. 39), was a collection of the Memorabilia of Jesus. As the Logia consisted mainly of the sayings of our Lord, the later editor combined it with the narrative of Mk. in order to supply a more complete picture of the Ministry, and at the same time added fresh material from independent sources. Its didactic purpose, like that of Mk., is to exhibit Jesus as the Messiah, and it supports the argument by citing numerous instances of the fulfilment in the life of Jesus of OT prediction. It is sometimes described as the Gospel of the Jewish Christians; and it appears to have addressed itself specially to the difficulties which they felt in view of the destruction of Jerusalem. Could Jesus, they may well have asked, be the Messiah, seeing that His mission had issued, not in the deliverance of Israel, but in its ruin? In answer to this the Gospel makes it plain that the overthrow of the Jewish State was a punishment which was foreseen by Jesus, and also that He had become the head of a vaster and more glorious kingdom than that of which, as Jewish patriots, they had ever dreamed ( Matthew 28:18-20 ).
The Gospel according to Luke is also dependent on Mk. for the general framework, and derives from the original Mt. a large body of the teaching. It follows a different authority from Mt. for the Nativity, and to some extent goes its own way in the history of the Passion; while ‘the great interpolation’ ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 18:14 ), made in part from its special source, forms a priceless addition to the Synoptic material. Lk. approached his task in a more consciously scientific spirit than his predecessors, and recognized an obligation to supply dates, and to sketch in the political background of the biography ( Luke 2:2 , Luke 3:1 ; Luke 3:23 ). But for him also the main business of the historian was to emphasize the religious significance of the events, and that by exhibiting Jesus as the Saviour of the world, the Friend of sinners. He is specially interested, as the companion and disciple of St. Paul, in incidents and sayings which illustrate the graciousness and the universality of the gospel. Prominence is given to the rejection of Jesus by Nazareth and Jerusalem ( Luke 4:16-30 , Luke 19:41-44 ), and to His discovery among the Gentiles of the faith for which He sought ( Luke 17:18-19 ). It is also characteristic that Lk. gives a full account of the beginnings of the missionary activity of the Church ( Luke 10:1-20 ).
The author of the Fourth Gospel makes considerable use of the narratives of the Synoptists, but also suggests that their account is in important respects defective, and in certain particulars erroneous. The serious defect, from the Johannine point of view, is that they represent Galilee as the exclusive scene of the Ministry until shortly before the end, and that they know nothing of a series of visits, extending over two years, which Jesus made to Jerusalem and Judæa in fulfilment of His mission. That there was a design to correct as well as to supplement appears from the displacement of the Cleansing of the Temple from the close to the beginning of the Ministry, and from the emphatic way in which attention is drawn to the accurate information as to the day and the hour of the Crucifixion. And still more designedly than in the earlier Gospels is the history used as the vehicle for the disclosure of the secret and the glory of the Person of Jesus. The predicate of the Messiah is reaffirmed, and as the Saviour He appears in the most sublime and tender characters, but the Prologue furnishes the key to the interpretation of His Person in a title which imports the highest conceivable dignity of origin, being, and prerogative: ‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us (and we beheld his glory, glory as of the only-begotten from the Father), full of grace and truth’ ( John 1:1 ; John 1:14 ).
Trustworthiness of the Gospels . It is impossible to proceed on the view that we possess four biographies of Jesus which, being given by inspiration, are absolutely immune from error. The means by which they were brought into shape was very different from the method of Divine dictation. The Evangelists were severely limited to the historical data which reached them by ordinary channels. They copied, abridged, and amplified earlier documents, and one document which was freely handled in this fashion by Mt. and Lk. was canonical Mk. That mistakes have been made as to matters of fact is proved by the occurrence of conflicting accounts of the same events, and by the uncertainty as to the order of events which is often palpable in Mt. and Mk., and which to some extent baffled Lk. in his attempt ‘to trace the course of all things accurately.’ There is also considerable diversity in the report of many of our Lord’s sayings, which compels us to conclude that the report is more or less inaccurate. Whether giving effect to their own convictions, or reproducing changes which had been made by the mind of the Church on the oral tradition, writers coloured and altered to some extent the sayings of our Lord. At the same time the Synoptics, when tested by ordinary canons, must be pronounced to be excellent authorities. They may be dated within a period of forty to fifty years after the death of Christ Mk. about a.d. 69, Mt. and (probably) Lk. not later than a.d. 80. ‘The great mass of the Synoptic Gospels had assumed its permanent shape not later than the decade a.d. 60 70, and the changes which it underwent after the great catastrophe of the fall of Jerusalem were but small, and can without difficulty be recognized’ (Sanday, Outlines ). Further, that Gospels composed in the second generation can be trusted to have reproduced the original testimony with general accuracy may be held on two grounds. There is every reason to believe the ecclesiastical traditions that the contents of original Mt. were compiled by one of the Twelve, and that the reminiscences of Peter formed the staple of Mk. (Euseb. HE iii. 39). It is also certain that the Synoptic material was used throughout the intervening period in the Christian meetings for worship, and the memory of witnesses must thus have been in a position to ensure the continuity of the report, and to check any serious deviations from the oldest testimony. The general trustworthiness is further supported by the consideration of the originality of the Synoptic picture of Jesus and His teaching. The character of Jesus, and the acts in which it is revealed, form a whole which has the unmistakable stamp of historical reality, and forbids us to think that to any great extent it can have been the product of the collective Christian mind. Jesus, in short, is needed to explain the Church and cannot be Himself explained as the product of His own creation. It is also to be noticed that the Synoptic teaching has a clear-cut individuality of its own which shows that it has sturdily refused to blend with the Apostolic type of theology.
With the Fourth Gospel the case stands somewhat differently. If it be indeed the work of John the ‘beloved disciple, its authority stands higher than all the rest. In that case the duty of the historian is to employ it as his fundamental document, and to utilize the Synoptics as auxiliary sources. In the view of the present writer the question is one of great difficulty. It is true that there is a powerful body of Patristic testimony in support of the tradition that the Fourth Gospel was composed by the Apostle Johnin Ephesus in his old age about a.d. 95. It is also true that the Gospel solemnly stakes its credit on its right to be accepted as the narrative of an eye-witness (John 19:35 ; John 21:24 ). And its claim is strengthened by the fact that, in the judgment even of many unsympathetic witnesses, it embodies a larger or smaller amount of independent and valuable information. On the other hand, it is a serious matter that a Gospel, appearing at the close of the century, should practically recast the story of Jesus which had circulated in the Church for sixty years, and should put forward a view of the course of the Ministry which is not even suspected in the other Apostolic sources. Passing to the teaching, we find that the process which was in discoverable in the Synoptic report has here actually taken place, and that the discourses of Jesus are assimilated to a well-marked type of Apostolic doctrine. There is reason to believe that for both history and doctrine the author had at his disposal Memorabilia of Jesus, but in both cases also it would seem that he has handled his data with great freedom. The treatment of the historical matter, it may be permitted to think, is more largely topical, and the chronological framework which it provides is less reliable, than is commonly supposed. The discourses, again, have been expanded by the reporter, and cast in the moulds of his own thought, so that in them we really possess a combination of the words of Jesus of Nazareth with those of the glorified Christ speaking in the experience of a disciple. The hypothesis which seems to do justice to both sets of phenomena is that John was only the author in a similar sense to that in which Peter was the author of Mk., and Matthew of canonical Mt., and that the actual composer of the Fourth Gospel was a disciple of the second generation who was served heir to the knowledge and faith of the Apostle, and who claimed considerable powers as an executor. In view of these considerations, it is held that a sketch of the life of Jesus is properly based on the Synoptic record, and that in utilizing the Johannine additions it is desirable to take up a critical attitude in regard to the form and the chronology. There is also much to be said for expounding the teaching of Jesus on the basis of the Synoptics, and for treating the Johannine discourses as primarily a source for Apostolic doctrine. It is a different question whether the interpretation of Christ which the Fourth Gospel supplies is trustworthy, and on the value of this, its main message, two remarks may be made. It is, in the first place, substantially the same valuation of Christ which pervades the Pauline Epistles, and which has been endorsed by the saintly experience of the Christian centuries as answering to the knowledge of Christ that is given in intimate communion with the risen Lord. Moreover, the doctrine of Providence comes to the succour of a faith which may be distressed by the breakdown of the hypothesis of inerrancy. For it is a reasonable belief that God, in whose plan with the race the work of Christ was to be a decisive factor, took order that there should be given to the after world a record which should sufficiently instruct men in reply to the question, ‘What think ye of Christ?’
(2) The Epistles . From the Epistles it is possible to collect the outstanding facts as to the earthly condition, the death, and the resurrection of Christ. Incidentally St. Paul shows that he could cite His teaching on a point of ethics ( 1 Corinthians 7:11 ), and give a detailed account of the institution of the Lord’s Supper ( 1 Corinthians 11:23 ff.). It is also significant that in allusions to the Temptation ( Hebrews 4:15 ), the Agony ( Hebrews 5:7 ), and the Transfiguration ( 2 Peter 1:17 ), the writers can reckon on a ready understanding.
(B) Extra-Canonical Sources
(1) Christian
( a ) Patristic references . The Fathers make very trifling additions to our knowledge of the facts of the life of Jesus. There is nothing more important than the statement of Justin, that as a carpenter Jesus made ploughs and yokes ( Dial . 88). More valuable are the additions to the canonical sayings of Jesus (Westcott, Introd. to the Gospels 8 , 1895; Resch, Agrapha 2 , 1907). Of the 70 Logia which have been claimed, Ropes pronounces 43 worthless, 13 of possible value, and 14 valuable ( Die Sprüche Jesu , 1896). The following are deemed by Huck to be noteworthy ( Synopse der drei ersten Evangelien 3 , 1906):
(1) ‘Ask great things, and the small shall be added to you; and ask heavenly things, and the earthly shall be added to you’ (Origen, de Orat . § 2).
(2) ‘If ye exalt not your low things, and transfer to your right hand the things on your left, ye shall not enter into my kingdom’ ( Acta Philippi , ch. 34).
(3) ‘He who is near me is near the fire, he who is far from me is far from the kingdom’ (Origen, Hom. in Jeremiah 20:3 ).
(4) ‘If ye kept not that which is small, who will give you that which is great?’ (Clem. Rom. ii. 8).
(5) ‘Be thou saved and thy soul’ (Exc. e. Theod. ap . Clem. Alex. [1] § 2).
(6) ‘Show yourselves tried bankers’ (Clem. Alex. [1] Strom . i. 28).
(7) ‘Thou hast seen thy brother, thou hast seen God’ ib. i. 19).
More recent additions to the material are to be found in Grenfell and Hunt, Sayings of our Lord (1897) and New Sayings of Jesus (1904).
( b ) Apocryphal Gospels . These fall into three groups according as they deal with the history of Joseph and Mary ( Protevangelium of James ), the Infancy ( Gospel of Thomas ), and Pilate ( Acts of Pilate ). They are worthless elaborations, with the addition of grotesque and sometimes beautiful fancies (‘Apocryphal Gospels, Acts and Revelations,’ vol. xvi. of the Ante-Nicene Library , 1870). Of more value are the fragments of the Gospels of the Hebrews , the Egyptians , and Peter (Hilgenfeld, NT extra canonem receptum 2 , 1876 84; Swete, The Akhmim Fragment of the Gospel of Peter , 1903).
(2) Jewish sources . Josephus mentions Jesus ( Ant . XX. ix. 1), but the most famous passage (XVIII. iii. 3) is mainly, if not entirely, a Christian interpolation. The Jews remembered Him as charged with deceiving the people, practising magic and speaking blasphemy, and as having been crucified; but the calumnies of the Talmud as to the circumstances of His birth appear to have been comparatively late inventions (Huldricus, Sepher Toledot Jeschua , 1705; Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud , 1900).
(3) Classical sources . There is evidence in the classical writers for the historical existence, approximate date, and death of Jesus, but otherwise their attitude was ignorant and contemptuous (Tac. Ann . xv. 44; Suetonius, Lives of Claudius and Nero ; the younger Pliny, Epp . x. 97, 98; Lucian, de Morte Peregrini ; Celsus in Origen; cf. Keim, Jesus of Nazara [3] ], 1876, i. pp. 24 33).
2. Presuppositions . It is impossible to write about Christ without giving effect to a philosophical and religious creed. The claim to be free from presuppositions commonly means that a writer assumes that the facts can be accommodated to a purely naturalistic view of history. As a fact, there is less reason to construe Christ in naturalistic terms than to revise a naturalistic philosophy in the light of ‘the fact of Christ.’ A recent review of the whole literature of the subject (Schweitzer, Von Reimarus zu Wrede , 1906) shows how profoundly the treatment has always been influenced by a writer’s attitude towards ultimate questions, and how far the purely historical evidence is from being able to compel a consensus sapientium . There are, in fact, as many types of the Life of Christ as there are points of view in theology, and it may be convenient at this stage to indicate the basis from which the work has been done in the principal monographs.
Types of the Life of Christ
I. Elimination of the supernatural, from the standpoint of (1) Eighteenth Century Deism Paulus, Das Leben Jesu , 1828; (2) Modern Pantheism D. F. Strauss, Leben Jesu , 1835 36 (Eng. tr. [4] 1846); (3) Philosophical Scepticism Renan, La Vie de Jésus , 1863 (Eng. tr. [4] 1864).
II. Reduction of the supernatural, with eclectic reservation, from the standpoint of Theism Seeley, Ecce Homo , 1866; Hase, Die Gesch. Jesu , 1876; Keim, Die Gesch. Jesu von Nazara , 1867 72 (Eng. tr. [4] 1873 77); O. Holtzmann, Das Leben Jesu , 1901 (Eng. tr. [4] 1904).
Within the rationalistic school there have emerged somewhat radical differences in the conception formed of Jesus and His message. One group conceives of Him as a man who is essentially modern because the value of His ideas and of His message is perennial (Harnack, Das Wesen des Christenthums , Eng. tr. [4] 1901); another regards Him as, above all, the spokesman of unfulfilled apocalyptic dreams (J. Weiss, Die Predigt Jesu vom Reiche Gottes , 1892). Bousset mediates between the two views ( Jesus . 1906).
III. Reproduction of the Biblical account in general agreement with the faith of the Church Neander, Das Leben Jesu Christi , 1837 (Eng. tr. [4] 1848); B. Weiss, Das Leben Jesu , 1882 (Eng. tr. [4] 1883); Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah , 1884; Didon, Jesus Christ , 1891; Sanday, Outlines of the Life of Christ , 1906.
The books of this group have a second common feature in their acceptance of the Fourth Gospel as a valuable history. The works of Weiss and Sanday dispose of the arrogant assumption of Schweitzer ( op. cit. ) that competent scholarship now regards the cardinal questions as settled in a negative sense. (For a full bibliography see Schweitzer, op. cit. , art. ‘Jesus Christ’ in PRE [11] 3 ).
3. The Conditions in Palestine (Schürer, GJV [12] 3 [13] ii. i. 1 ff.]). The condition of the Jews at the birth of Christ may be summarily described as marked by political impotence and religious decadence.
(1) The political situation . From the age of the Exile, the Jews in Palestine were subject to a foreign domination Persian, Greek, Egyptian, Syrian, in rapid succession. Following upon a century of independence under the Maccabees, the country was incorporated in the Roman Empire as a division of the province of Syria. In certain circumstances, which have a parallel in British India, the Romans recognized a feudatory king, and it was with this status that Herod the Great reigned over Palestine. At his death in b.c. 4, his dominions were divided among his three sons; but on the deposition of Archelaus in 6 a.d., Judæa and Samaria were placed under a Roman procurator. Herod Antipas and Philip continued to rule as vassal princes, with the title of tetrarchs, over Galilee and Ituræa respectively. The pressure of the Roman rule was felt in the stern measures which were taken to suppress any dangerous expressions of national feeling, and also in the exactions of the publicans to whom the taxes were farmed. Internal administration was largely an affair of the Jewish Church. To a highly spirited people like the Jews, with memories of former freedom and power, the loss of national independence was galling; and their natural restlessness under the foreign yoke, combined as it was with the Messianic hopes that formed a most vital element of their religion, was a source of anxiety not only to the Roman authorities but to their own leaders.
(2) The religious situation . From the religious point of view it was a decadent age. No doubt there is a tendency to exaggerate the degradation of the world at our Lord’s coming, on the principle that the darkest hour must have preceded the dawn; and in fairness the indictment should be restricted to the statement that the age marked a serious declension from the highest level of OT religion. It had, in fact, many of the features which have re-appeared in the degenerate periods of the Christian Church. ( a ) One such feature was the disappearance of the prophetic man, and his replacement as a religious authority by representatives of sacred learning. As the normal condition of things in the Christian Church has been similar, it cannot in itself be judged to be symptomatic of anything worse than a silver age that the exponents of the Scriptures and of the tradition were now the chief religious guides of the people (see Scribes). Moreover, a very genuine religious originality and fervour had continued to find expression in the Apocalyptic literature of later Judaism (see Apocalyptic Literature). ( b ) A more decisive proof of degradation is the exaltation of the ceremonial and formal side of religion as a substitute for personal piety and righteousness of life. This tendency had its classic representatives in the Pharisees. The best of their number must have exhibited, as Josephus shows, a zeal for God and a self-denial like that of Roman Catholic saints otherwise the veneration of the people, which Josephus shared, would be inexplicable ( Ant . XVII. ii. 4); but as a class our Lord charges them with sins of covetousness and inhumanity, which gave the colour of hypocrisy to their ritualistic scruples ( Matthew 24:1-51 ; see Pharisees). ( c ) A further characteristic of decadence is that the religious organization tends to come in the place of God, as the object of devotion, and there appears the powerful ecclesiastic who, though he may be worldly and even sceptical, is indispensable as the symbol and protector of the sacred institution. This type was represented by the Sadducees in their general outlook men of the world, in their doctrine sceptics with an ostensible basis of conservatism, who filled the priestly offices, controlled the Sanhedrin, and endeavoured to maintain correct relations with their Roman masters. It can also well be believed that, as Josephus tells us, they professed an aristocratic dislike to public business, which they nevertheless dominated; and that they humoured the multitude by an occasional show of religious zeal (see Sadducees).
In this world presided over by pedants, formalists, and political ecclesiastics, the common people receive a fairly good character. Their religion was the best that then had a footing among men, and they were in earnest about it. They had been purified by the providential discipline of centuries from the last vestiges of idolatry. It is noteworthy that Jesus brings against them no such sweeping accusations of immorality and cruelty as are met with in Amos and Hosea. Their chief fault was that they were disposed to look on their religion as a means of procuring them worldly good, and that they were blind and unreceptive in regard to purely spiritual blessings. The influence which the Pharisees had over them shows that they were capable of reverencing, and eager to obey, those who seemed to them to speak for God; and their response to the preaching of John the Baptist was still more to their honour. There is evidence of a contemporary strain of self-renouncing idealism in the existence of communities which sought deliverance from the evil of the world in the austerities of an ascetic life (Jos. [14] Ant . XVIII. i. 5; see Essenes). The Gospels introduce us to not a few men and women who impress us as exemplifying a simple and noble type of piety nourished as they were on the religion of the OT, and waiting patiently for the salvation of God. Into a circle pervaded by this atmosphere Jesus was born.
4. Date of Christ’s Birth (cf. art. Chronology, p. 135 b , and in Hastings’ DB [15] ). If John began to baptize in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Cæsar ( Luke 3:1 ) being a.d. 29 and if Jesus Was thirty years of age when He was baptized (v. 23), the traditional date fixed by Dionysius Exiguus would be approximately correct. But it is probable that the reign of Tiberius was reckoned by Lk. from his admission to joint-authority with Augustus in a.d. 11 12, so that Jesus would be thirty
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Jesus Christ
The Lord and Saviour of mankind. He is called Christ (anointed, ) because he is anointed, furnished, and sent by God to execute his mediatorial office; and Jesus (Saviour, ) because he came to save his people from their sins. For an account of his nativity, offices, death, resurrection, &c. the reader is referred to those articles in this work. We shall here more particularly consider his divinity, humanity, and character. The divinity of Jesus Christ seems evident, if we consider,
1. The language of the New Testament, and compare it with the state of the Pagan world at the time of its publication. If Jesus Christ were not God, the writers of the New Testament discovered great injudiciousness in the choice of their words, and adopted a very incautions and dangerous style. The whole world, except the small kingdom of Judea, worshipped idols at the time of Jesus Christ's appearance. Jesus Christ; the evangelists, who wrote his history; and the apostles, who wrote epistles to various classes of men, proposed to destroy idolatry, and to establish the worship of one only living and true God. To effect this purpose, it was absolutely necessary for these founders of Christianity to avoid confusion and obscurity of language, and to express their ideas in a cool and cautious style.
The least expression that would tend to deify a creature, or countenance idolatry, would have been a source of the greatest error. Hence Paul and Barnabas rent their clothes at the very idea of the multitude's confounding the creature with the Creator, Acts 14:1-28 : The writers of the New Testament knew that in speaking of Jesus Christ, extraordinary caution was necessary; yet, when we take up the New Testament, we find such expressions as these: "The word was God, John 1:1 . God was manifest in the flesh, 1 Timothy 3:16 . God with us, Matthew 1:23 . The Jews crucified the Lord of glory, 1 Corinthians 2:8 . Jesus Christ is Lord of all, Acts 10:36 . Christ is over all; God blessed for ever, Rom.ix. 5." These are a few of many propositions, which the New Testament writers lay down relative to Jesus Christ. If the writers intended to affirm the divinity of Jesus Christ, these are words of truth and soberness; if not, the language is incautious and unwarrantable; and to address it to men prone to idolatry, for the purpose of destroying idolatry, is a strong presumption against their inspiration. It is remarkable, also, that the richest words in the Greek language are made use of to describe Jesus Christ. This language, which is very copious, would have afforded lower terms to express an inferior nature; but it could have afforded none higher to express the nature of the Supreme God.
It is worthy of observation, too, that these writers addressed their writings not to philosophers and scholars, but to the common people, and consequently used words in their plain popular signification. The common people, it seems, understood the words in our sense of them; for in the Dioclesian persecution, when the Roman soldiers burnt a Phrygian city inhabited by Christians; men, women, and children submitted to their fate, calling upon Christ, THE GOD OVER ALL.
2. Compare the style of the New Testament with the state of the Jews at the time of its publication. In the time of Jesus Christ, the Jews were zealous defenders of the unity of God, and of that idea of his perfections which the Scriptures excited. Jesus Christ and his apostles professed the highest regard for the Jewish Scriptures; yet the writers of the New Testament described Jesus Christ by the very names and titles by which the writers of the Old Testament had described the Supreme God. Compare Exodus 3:14 . with John 8:58 . Is. 44: 6. with Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 1:17 . Deuteronomy 10:17 . with Revelation 17:14 . Psalms 24:10 . with 1 Corinthians 2:8 . Hosea 1:7 . with Luke 2:1-52 . Daniel 5:23 . with 1 Corinthians 15:47 . 1 Chronicles 29:11 . with Colossians 2:10 . If they who described Jesus Christ to the Jews by these sacred names and titles intended to convey an idea of his deity, the description is just and the application safe; but if they intended to describe a mere man, they were surely of all men the most preposterous. They chose a method of recommending Jesus to the Jews the most likely to alarm and enrage them. Whatever they meant, the Jews understood them in our sense, and took Jesus for a blasphemer, John 10:33 .
3. Compare the perfections which are ascribed to Jesus Christ in the Scriptures, with those which are ascribed to God. Jesus Christ declares, "All things that the Father hath are mine, " John 16:15 . a very dangerous proposition, if he were not God. The writers of revelation ascribe to him the same perfections which they ascribe to God. Compare Jeremiah 10:10 . with Isaiah 9:6 . Exodus 15:13 . with Hebrews 1:8 . Jeremiah 32:19 . with Is. 9: 6. Psalms 102:24 ; Psalms 102:27 . with Hebrews 13:8 . Jeremiah 23:24 . with Ephesians 1:20 ; Ephesians 1:23 . 1 Samuel 2:5 . with John 14:30 . If Jesus Christ be God, the ascription of the perfections of God to him is proper; if he be not, the apostles are chargeable with weakness or wickedness, and either would destroy their claim of inspiration.
4. Consider the works that are ascribed to Jesus Christ, and compare them with the claims of Jehovah. Is creation a work of God? "By Jesus Christ were all things created, " Colossians 1:1-29 . Is preservation a work of God? "Jesus Christ upholds all things by the word of his power, " Hebrews 1:3 . Is the mission of the prophets a work of God? Jesus Christ is the Lord God of the holy prophets; and it was the Spirit of Christ which testified to them beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow, Nehemiah 9:30 . Revelation 22:6 ; Revelation 22:16 . 1 Peter 1:11 . Is the salvation of sinners a work of God? Christ is the Saviour of all that believe, John 4:42 . Hebrews 5:9 . Is the forgiveness of sin a work of God? The Son of Man hath power to forgive sins, Matthew 9:6 . The same might be said of the illumination of the mind; the sanctification of the heart; the resurrection of the dead: the judging of the world; the glorification of the righteous; the eternal punishment of the wicked; all which works, in one part of Scripture, are ascribed to God; and all which, in another part of Scripture, are ascribed to Jesus Christ. Now, if Jesus Christ be not God, into what contradictions these writers must fall! They contradict one another: they contradict themselves. Either Jesus Christ is God, or their conduct is unaccountable.
5. Consider that divine worship which Scriptures claim for Jesus Christ. It is a command of God, "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve, " Matthew 4:20 . yet the Scriptures command "all the angels of God to worship Christ, " Hebrews 1:6 . Twenty times, in the New Testament, grace, mercy, and peace, are implored of Christ, together with the Father. Baptism is an act of worship performed in his name, Matthew 28:19 . Swearing is an act of worship; a solemn appeal in important cases to the omniscient God; and this appeal is made to Christ, 2 Timothy 3:1-17 . The committing to the soul to God at death is a sacred act of worship: in the performance of this act, Stephen died, saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit, Acts 7:59 . The whole host of heaven worship him that sitteth upon the throne, and the Lamb, for ever and ever, Revelation 5:14 ; Revelation 15:1-8 :
6. Observe the application of Old Testament passages which belong to Jehovah, to Jesus in the New Testament, and try whether you can acquit the writers of the New Testament of misrepresentation, on supposition that Jesus is not God. St. Paul says, "We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ." That we shall all be judged, we allow; but how do you prove that Christ shall be our Judge? Because, adds the apostle, it is written, "As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God, " Romans 14:10-11 , with Is. 45: 20, &c. What sort of reasoning is this? How does this apply to Christ, if Christ be not God? And how dare a man quote one of the most guarded passages in the Old Testament for such a purpose? John the Baptist is he who was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, Prepare ye the way, Matthew 3:1 ; Matthew 3:3 . Isaiah saith, Prepare ye the way of THE LORD; make straight a highway for OUR GOD, Is. 40: 3, &c. But what has John the Baptist to do with all this description if Jesus Christ be only a messenger of Jehovah, and not Jehovah himself? for Isaiah saith, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah. Compare also Zechariah 12:10 . with John 19:1-42 . Is. 6: with John 12:39 . Is. 8: 13, 14. with 1 Peter 2:8 . Allow Jesus Christ to be God, and all these applications are proper. If we deny it, the New Testament, we must own is one of the most unaccountable compositions in the world, calculated to make easy things hard to be understood.
7. Examine whether events have justified that notion of Christianity which the prophets gave their countrymen of it, if Jesus Christ be not God. The calling of the Gentiles from the worship of idols to the worship of the one living and true God, is one event, which, the prophets said, the coming of the Messiah should bring to pass. If Jesus Christ be God, the event answers the prophecy; if not, the event is not come to pass, for Christians in general worship Jesus, which is idolatry, if he be not God, Isaiah 2:1-22 : Zephaniah 2:11 . Zechariah 14:9 . the primitive Christians certainly worshipped Him as God. Pliny, who was appointed governor of the province of Bithynia by the emperor Trajan, in the year 103, examined and punished several Christians for their non-conformity to the established religion of the empire. In a letter to the emperor, giving an account of his conduct, he declares, "they affirmed the whole of their guilt, or their error, was that they met on a certain slated day, before it was light, and addressed themselves in a form of prayer to Christ as to some God."
Thus Pliny meant to inform the emperor that Christians worshipped Christ. Justin Martyr, who lived about 150 years after Christ, asserts, that the Christians worshipped the Father, the Son, and the Spirit. Besides his testimony, there are numberless passages in the fathers that attest the truth in question; especially in Tertullian, Hippolytus, Felix, &c. Mahomet, who lived in the sixth century, considers Christians in the light of infidels and idolaters throughout the Koran; and indeed, had not Christians worshipped Christ, he could have had no shadow of a pretence to reform their religion, and to bring them back to the worship of one God. That the far greater part of Christians have continued to worship Jesus, will not be doubted; now, if Christ be not God, then the Christians have been guilty of idolatry; and if they have been guilty of idolatry, then it must appear remarkable that the apostles, who foretold the corruptions of Christianity, Romans 9:1 : should never have foreseen nor warned us against worshiping Christ. In no part of the Scripture is there the least intimation of Christians falling into idolatry in this respect. Surely if this had been an error which was so universally to prevail, those Scriptures which are able to make us wise unto salvation, would have left us warning on so important a topic. Lastly, consider what numberless passages of Scripture have no sense, or a very absurd one, if Jesus Christ be a mere man.
See Romans 1:3 . 1 Timothy 3:16 . John 14:9 ; John 17:5 . Philippians 2:6 . Psalms 110:1 ; Psalms 110:4 . 1 Timothy 1:2 . Acts 22:12 ; Acts 9:17 .
But though Jesus Christ be God, yet for our sakes, and for our salvation, he took upon him human nature; this is therefore called his humanity. Marcion, Apelles, Valentinus, and many other heretics, denied Christ's humanity, as some have done since. But that Christ had a true human body, and not a mere human shape, or a body that was not real flesh, is very evident from the sacred Scriptures, Is. 7: 12. Luke 24:39 . Hebrews 2:14 . Luke 1:42 . Philippians 2:7-8 . John 1:14 . Besides, he ate, drank, slept, walked, worked, and was weary, He groaned, bled, and died, upon the cross. It was necessary that he should thus be human, in order to fulfil the divine designs and prophecies respecting the shedding of his blood for our salvation, which could not have been done had he not possessed a real body. It is also as evident that he assumed our whole nature, soul as well as body. If he had not, he could not have been capable of that sore amazement and sorrow unto death, and all those other acts of grieving, feeling, rejoicing, &c. ascribed to him. It was not, however, our sinful nature he assumed, but the likeness of it, Romans 8:2 . for he was without sin, and did no iniquity. His human nature must not be confounded with his divine; for though there be an union of natures in Christ, yet there is not a mixture or confusion of them or their properties.
His humanity is not changed into his deity, nor his deity into humanity; but the two natures are distinct in one person. How this union exists is above our comprehension; and, indeed, if we cannot explain how our own bodies and souls are united, it is not to be supposed we can explain this astonishing mystery of God manifest in the flesh.
See MEDIATOR. We now proceed to the character of Jesus Christ, which, while it affords us the most pleasing subject for meditation., exhibits to us an example of the most perfect and delightful kind. "Here, " as an elegant writer observes "every grace that can recommend religion, and every virtue that can adorn humanity, are so blended, as to excite our admiration, and engage our love. In abstaining from licentious pleasures, he was equally free from ostentatious singularity and churlish sullenness. When he complied with the established ceremonies of his countrymen, that compliance was not accompanied by any marks of bigotry or superstition: when he opposed their rooted prepossessions, his opposition was perfectly exempt from the captious petulance of a controversialist, and the undistinguishing zeal of an innovator. His courage was active in encountering the dangers to which he was exposed, and passive under the aggravated calamities which the malice of his foes heaped upon him: his fortitude was remote from every appearance of rashness, and his patience was equally exempt from abject pusillanimity: he was firm without obstinacy, and humble without meanness.
Though possessed of the most unbounded power, we behold him living continually in a state of voluntary humiliation and poverty; we see him daily exposed to almost every species of want and distress; afflicted without a comforter, persecuted without a protector; and wandering about, according to his own pathetic complaint, because he had not where to lay his head. Though regardless of the pleasures, and sometimes destitute of the comforts of life, he never provokes our disgust by the sourness of the misanthrope, or our contempt by the inactivity of the recluse. His attention to the welfare of mankind was evidenced not only by his salutary injunctions, but by his readiness to embrace every opportunity of relieving their distress and administering to their wants. In every period and circumstance of his life, we behold dignity and elevation blended with love and pity; something, which, though it awakens our admiration, yet attracts our confidence. We see power; but it is power which is rather our security than our dread; a poser softened with tenderness, and soothing while it awes. With all the gentleness of a meek and lowly mind, we behold an heroic firmness, which no terrors could restrain. In the private scenes of life, and in the public occupation of his ministry; whether the object of admiration or ridicule, of love or of persecution; whether welcomed with hosannas, or insulted with anathemas, we still see him pursuing with unwearied constancy the same end, and preserving the same integrity of life and manners.
" White's Sermons, ser. 5. Considering him as a Moral Teacher, we must be struck with the greatest admiration. As Dr. Paley observes, "he preferred solid to popular virtues, a character which is commonly despised, to a character universally extolled, he placed, in our licentious vices, the check in the right place, viz. upon the thoughts; he collected human duty into two well-devised rules; he repeated these rules, and laid great stress upon them, and thereby fixed the sentiments of his followers; he excluded all regard to reputation in our devotion and alms, and, by parity of reason, in our other virtues; his instructions were delivered in a form calculated for impression; they were illustrated by parables, the choice and structure of which would have been admired in any composition whatever: he was free from the usual symptoms of enthusiasm, heat, and vehemence in devotion, austerity in institutions, and a wild particularity in the description of a future state; he was free also from the depravities of his age and country; without superstition among the most superstitious of men, yet not decrying positive distinctions or external observances, but soberly recalling them to the principle of their establishment, and to their place in the scale of human duties; there was nothing of sophistry or trifling, though amidst teachers, remarkable for nothing so much as frivolous subtilties and quibbling expositions: he was candid and liberal in his judgment of the rest of mankind, although belonging to a people who affected a separate claim to divine favour, and, in consequence of that opinion, prone to uncharitableness, partiality, and restriction; in his religion there was no scheme of building up a hierarchy, or of ministering to the views of human governments; in a word, there was every thing so grand in doctrine, and so delightful in manner, that the people might well exclaim
Surely, never man spake like this man!" As to his example, bishop Newcome observes, "it was of the most perfect piety to God, and of the most extensive benevolence and the most tender compassion to men. He does not merely exhibit a life of strict justice, but of overflowing benignity. His temperance has not the dark shades of austerity; his meekness does not degenerate into apathy; his humility is signal, amidst a splendour of qualities more than human; his fortitude is eminent and exemplary in enduring the most formidable external evils, and the sharpest actual sufferings. His patience is invincible; his resignation entire and absolute. Truth and sincerity shine throughout his whole conduct. Though of heavenly descent, he shows obedience and affection to his earthly parents; he approves, loves, and attaches himself to amiable qualities in the human race; he respects authority, religious and civil; and he evidences regard for his country, by promoting its most essential good in a painful ministry dedicated to its service, by deploring its calamities, and by laying down his life for its benefit. Every one of his eminent virtues is regulated by consummate prudence: and he both wins the love of his friends, and extorts the approbation and wonder of his enemies.
Never was a character at the same time so commanding and natural, so resplendent and pleasing, so amiable and venerable. There is a peculiar contrast in it between an awful greatness, dignity, and majesty, and the most conciliating loveliness, tenderness, and softness. He now converses with prophets, lawgivers, and angels; and the next instant he meekly endures the dulness of his disciples, and the blasphemies and rage of the multitude. He now calls himself greater than Solomon; one who can command legions of angels; and giver of life to whomsoever he pleaseth; the Son of God, who shall sit on his glorious throne to judge the world: at other times we find him embracing young children; not lifting up his voice in the streets, nor quenching the smoking flax; calling his disciples not servants, but friends and brethren, and comforting them with an exuberant and parental affection. Let us pause an instant, and fill our minds with the idea of one who knew all things, heavenly and earthly; searched and laid open the inmost recesses of the heart; rectified every prejudice, and removed every mistake of a moral and religious kind; by a word exercised a sovereignty over all nature, penetrated the hidden events of futurity, gave promises of admission into a happy immortality, had the keys of life and death, claimed an union with the Father; and yet was pious, mild, gentle, humble, affable, social, benevolent, friendly, and affectionate. Such a character is fairer than the morning star. Each separate virtue is made stronger by opposition and contrast: and the union of so many virtues forms a brightness which fitly represents the glory of that God 'who inhabiteth light inaccessible.'"
See Robinson's Plea for the Divinity of Christ, from which many of the above remarks are taken; Bishop Bull's Judgment of the Catholic Church; Abbadie, Waterland, Hawker, and Hey, on the Divinity of Christ; Reader, Stackhouse, and Doyley's Lives of Christ; Dr. Jamieson's View of the Doctrine of Scripture, and the Primitive Faith concerning the Deity of Christ; Owen on the Glory of Christ's Person; Hurrion's Christ Crucified; Bishop Newcome's Observation on our Lord's Conduct; and Paley's Evidences of Christianity.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Jesus Christ
One of the glorious names of him which is, and, which was, and which is to come. (Revelation 1:8; Rev 1:11) The name of Jesus, which is originally so called in the Greek tongue, signifies a Saviour. Hence the Hebrews call him, Jehoshuah, or Joshua, or Joshuah, he who shall save; and as Christ means, anointed of JEHOVAH, the Sent, the Sealed of the Father; full of grace and truth; both names together carry this blessed meaning with them, Jesus Christ the Saviour of the world by the anointing of JEHOVAH to all the purposes, of salvation. See Christ. I only detain the reader just to remark on the blessed name, that all that bore it in the Old Testament church became types, more or less, of the Lord Jesus. Joshua the successor of Moses, and Joshua the high priest in the church, after the church was brought back from Babylon. (See Zechariah 3:1)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ
is his existence before he was born of the Virgin Mary. That he really did exist, is plain from John 3:13 ; John 6:50 , &c; John 8:58 ; John 17:5 ; John 17:24 ; 1 John 1:2 ; but there are various opinions respecting this existence. Some acknowledging, with the orthodox, that in Jesus Christ there is a divine nature, a rational soul, and a human body, go into an opinion peculiar to themselves. His body was formed in the virgin's womb; but his human soul, they suppose, was the first and most excellent of all the works of God; was brought into existence before the creation of the world, and subsisted in happy union in heaven with the second person of the Godhead, till his incarnation. These divines differ from those called Arians, for the latter ascribe to Christ only a created deity, whereas the former hold his true and proper divinity. They differ from the Socinians, who believe no existence of Jesus Christ before his incarnation; they differ from the Sabellians, who only own a trinity of names: they differ also from the generally received opinion, which is, that Christ's human soul began to exist in the womb of his mother, in exact conformity to that likeness unto his brethren of which St. Paul speaks, Hebrews 2:17 . The writers in favour of the preexistence of Christ's human soul recommend their opinion by these arguments:
1. Christ is represented as his Father's messenger, or angel, being distinct from his Father, sent by his Father, long before his incarnation, to perform actions which seem to be too low for the dignity of pure Godhead. The appearances of Christ to the patriarchs are described like the appearance of an angel, or man really distinct from God; yet one, in whom God, or Jehovah, had a peculiar indwelling, or with whom the divine nature had a personal union,
2. Christ, when he came into the world, is said, in several passages of Scripture, to have divested himself of some glory which he had before his incarnation. Now if there had existed before this time nothing but his divine nature, this divine nature, it is argued, could not properly have divested itself of any glory, John 17:4-5 ; 2 Corinthians 8:9 . It cannot be said of God that he became poor: he is infinitely self-sufficient; he is necessarily and eternally rich in perfections and glories. Nor can it be said of Christ, as man, that he was rich, if he were never in a richer state before than while he was on earth.
3. It seems needful, say those who embrace this opinion, that the soul of Jesus Christ should preexist, that it might have an opportunity to give its previous actual consent to the great and painful undertaking of making atonement for our sins.
On the other side, it is affirmed that the doctrine of the preexistence of the human soul of Christ weakens and subverts that of his divine personality.
1. A pure intelligent spirit, the first, the most ancient, and the most excellent of creatures, created before the foundation of the world, so exactly resembles the second person of the Arian trinity, that it is impossible to show the least difference except in name.
2. This preexistent intelligence, supposed in this doctrine, is so confounded with those other intelligences called angels, that there is great danger of mistaking this human soul for an angel, and so of making the person of Christ to consist of three natures.
3. If Jesus Christ had nothing in common, like the rest of mankind except a body, how could this semi-conformity make him a real man?
4. The passages quoted in proof of the preexistence of the human soul of Jesus Christ, are of the same sort with those which others allege in proof of the preexistence of all human souls.
5. This opinion, by ascribing the dignity of the work of redemption to this sublime human soul, detracts from the deity of Christ, and renders the last as passive as the first is active.
6. This notion is contrary to the Scripture. St. Paul says, "In all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren," Hebrews 2:17 : he partook of all our infirmities, except sin. St. Luke says, "He increased in stature and wisdom," Luke 2:52 . Upon the whole, this scheme, adopted to relieve the difficulties which must always surround mysteries so great, only creates new ones. This is the usual fate of similar speculations, and shows the wisdom of resting in the plain interpretation of the word of God.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Jesus Christ
the son of God, the Messiah, and Saviour of the world, the first and principal object of the prophecies, prefigured and promised in the Old Testament, expected and desired by the patriarchs; the hope of the Gentiles; the glory, salvation, and consolation of Christians. The name Jesus, or, as the Hebrews pronounce it, יהושוע , Jehoshua or Joshua, ‘Ιησους , signifies, he who shall save. No one ever bore this name with so much justice, nor so perfectly fulfilled the signification of it, as Jesus Christ, who saves even from sin and hell, and hath merited heaven for us by the price of his blood. It is not necessary here to narrate the history of our Saviour's life, which can no where be read with advantage except in the writings of the four evangelists; but there are several general views which require to be noticed under this article.
1. Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ or Messiah promised under the Old Testament. That he professed himself to be that Messiah to whom all the prophets gave witness, and who was, in fact, at the time of his appearing, expected by the Jews; and that he was received under that character by his disciples, and by all Christians ever since, is certain. And if the Old Testament Scriptures afford sufficiently definite marks by which the long announced Christ should be infallibly known at his advent, and these presignations are found realized in our Lord, then is the truth of his pretensions established. From the books of the Old Testament we learn that the Messiah was to authenticate his claim by miracles; and in those predictions respecting him, so many circumstances are recorded, that they could meet only in one person; and so, if they are accomplished in him, they leave no room for doubt, as far as the evidence of prophecy is deemed conclusive. As to MIRACLES, we refer to that article; here only observing, that if the miraculous works wrought by Christ were really done, they prove his mission, because, from their nature, and having been wrought to confirm his claim to be the Messiah, they necessarily imply a divine attestation. With respect to PROPHECY, the principles under which its evidence must be regarded as conclusive will be given under that head; and here therefore it will only be necessary to show the completion of the prophecies of the sacred books of the Jews relative to the Messiah in one person, and that person the founder of the Christian religion.
The time of the Messiah's appearance in the world, as predicted in the Old Testament, is defined, says Keith, by a number of concurring circumstances, which fix it to the very date of the advent of Christ. The last blessing of Jacob to his sons, when he commanded them to gather themselves together that he might tell them what should befall them in the last days, contains this prediction concerning Judah: "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be," Genesis 49:10 , The date fixed by this prophecy for the coming of Shiloh, or the Saviour, was not to exceed the time during which the descendants of Judah were to continue a united people, while a king should reign among them, while they should be governed by their own laws, and while their judges should be from among their brethren. The prophecy of Malachi adds another standard for measuring the time: "Behold, I send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall come suddenly to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts," Malachi 3:1 . No words can be more expressive of the coming of the promised Messiah; and they as clearly imply his appearance in the second temple before it should be destroyed. In regard to the advent of the Messiah before the destruction of the second temple, the words of Haggai are remarkably explicit: "The desire of all nations shall come, and I will fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of Hosts. The glory of this latter house shall be greater than that of the former, and in this place will I give peace,"
Haggai 2:7 . The Saviour was thus to appear, according to the prophecies of the Old Testament, during the time of the continuance of the kingdom of Judah, previous to the demolition of the temple, and immediately subsequent to the next prophet. But the time is rendered yet more definite. In the prophecies of Daniel, the kingdom of the Messiah is not only foretold as commencing in the time of the fourth monarchy, or Roman empire, but the express number of years that were to precede his coming are plainly intimated: "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy. Know, therefore, and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem, unto Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks and threescore and two weeks,"
Daniel 9:24-25 . Computation by weeks of years was common among the Jews, and every seventh was the sabbatical year; seventy weeks, thus amounted to four hundred and ninety years. In these words the prophet marks the very time, and uses the very name of Messiah, the Prince; so entirety is all ambiguity done away. The plainest inference may be drawn from these prophecies. All of them, while, in every respect, they presuppose the most perfect knowledge of futurity; while they were unquestionably delivered and publicly known for ages previous to the time to which they referred; and while they refer to different contingent and unconnected events, utterly undeterminable and inconceivable by all human sagacity; accord in perfect unison to a single precise period where all their different lines terminate at once,—the very fulness of time when Jesus appeared. A king then reigned over the Jews in their own land; they were governed by their own laws; and the council of their nation exercised its authority and power. Before that period, the other tribes were extinct or dispersed among the nations. Judah alone remained, and the last sceptre in Israel had not then departed from it. Every stone of the temple was then unmoved; it was the admiration of the Romans, and might have stood for ages. But in a short space, all these concurring testimonies to the time of the advent of the Messiah passed away. During the very year, the twelfth of his age, in which Christ first publicly appeared in the temple, Archelaus the king was dethroned and banished; Coponius was appointed procurator; and the kingdom of Judea, the last remnant of the greatness of Israel, was debased into a part of the province of Syria. The sceptre was smitten from the tribe of Judah; the crown fell from their heads; their glory departed; and, soon after the death of Christ, of their temple one stone was not left upon another; their commonwealth itself became as complete a ruin, and was broken in pieces; and they have ever since been scattered throughout the world, a name but not a nation. After the lapse of nearly four hundred years posterior to the time of Malachi, another prophet appeared who was the herald of the Messiah. And the testimony of Josephus confirms the account given in Scripture of John the Baptist. Every mark that denoted the time of the coming of the Messiah was erased soon after the crucifixion of Christ, and could never afterward be renewed. And with respect to the prophecies of Daniel, it is remarkable, at this remote period, how little discrepancy of opinion has existed among the most learned men, as to the space from the time of the passing out of the edict to rebuild Jerusalem, after the Babylonish captivity, to the commencement of the Christian era, and the subsequent events foretold in the prophecy.
The predictions contained in the Old Testament respecting both the family out of which the Messiah was to arise, and the place of his birth, are almost as circumstantial, and are equally applicable to Christ, as those which refer to the time of his appearance. He was to be an Israelite, of the tribe of Judah, of the family of David, and of the town of Bethlehem. That all these predictions were fulfilled in Jesus Christ; that he was of that country, tribe, and family, of the house and lineage of David, and born in Bethlehem, we have the fullest evidence in the testimony of all the evangelists; in two distinct accounts of the genealogies, by natural and legal succession, which, according to the custom of the Jews, were carefully preserved; in the acquiescence of the enemies of Christ in the truth of the fact, against which there is not a single surmise in history; and in the appeal made by some of the earliest Christian writers to the unquestionable testimony of the records of the census, taken at the very time of our Saviour's birth by order of Caesar. Here, indeed, it is impossible not to be struck with the exact fulfilment of prophecies which are apparently contradictory and irreconcilable, and with the manner in which they were providentially accomplished. The spot of Christ's nativity was distant from the place of the abode of his parents, and the region in which he began his ministry was remote from the place of his birth; and another prophecy respecting him was in this manner verified: "In the land of Zebulun and Naphtali, by the way of the sea beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the nations, the people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined," Isaiah 9:1-2 ; Matthew 4:16 . Thus, the time at which the predicted Messiah was to appear; the nation, the tribe, and the family from which he was to be descended; and the place of his birth,—no populous city, but of itself an inconsiderable place,—were all clearly foretold; and as clearly refer to Jesus Christ; and all meet their completion in him.
But the facts of his life, and the features of his character, are also drawn with a precision that cannot be misunderstood. The obscurity, the meanness, and the poverty of his external condition are thus represented: "He shall grow up before the Lord like a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form or comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. Thus saith the Lord to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship," Isaiah 53:2 ; Isaiah 49:7 . That such was the condition in which Christ appeared, the whole history of his life abundantly testifies. And the Jews, looking in the pride of their hearts for an earthly king, disregarded these prophecies concerning him, were deceived by their traditions, and found only a stone of stumbling, where, if they had searched their Scriptures aright, they would have discovered an evidence of the Messiah. "Is not this the carpenter's son? Is not this the son of Mary? said they; and they were offended at him." His riding in humble triumph into Jerusalem; his being betrayed for thirty pieces of silver, and scourged, and buffered, and spit upon; the piercing of his hands and of his feet; the last offered draught of vinegar and gall; the parting of his raiment, and casting lots upon his vesture; the manner of his death and of his burial, and his rising again without seeing corruption, were all expressly predicted, and all these predictions were literally fulfilled, Zechariah 9:9 ; Zechariah 11:12 ; Isaiah 50:6 ; Psalms 22:16 ; Psalms 69:21 ; Psalms 22:18 ; Isaiah 53:9 ; Psalms 16:10 . If all these prophecies admit of any application to the events of the life of any individual, it can only be to that of the Author of Christianity. And what other religion can produce a single fact which was actually foretold of its founder?
The death of Christ was as unparalleled as his life; and the prophecies are as minutely descriptive of his sufferings as of his virtues. Not only did the paschal lamb, which was to be killed every year in all the families of Israel, which was to be taken out of the flock, to be without blemish, to be eaten with bitter herbs, to have its blood sprinkled, and to be kept whole that not a bone of it should be broken; not only did the offering up of Isaac, and the lifting up of the brazen serpent in the wilderness, by looking upon which the people were healed, and many ritual observances of the Jews, prefigure the manner of Christ's death, and the sacrifice which was to be made for sin; but many express declarations abound in the prophecies, that Christ was indeed to suffer. But Isaiah, who describes, with eloquence worthy of a prophet, the glories of the kingdom that was to come, characterizes, with the accuracy of a historian, the humiliation, the trials, and the agonies which were to precede the triumphs of the Redeemer of a world; and the history of Christ forms, to the very letter, the commentary and the completion of his every prediction. In a single passage, Isaiah 52:13 , &c; 53, the connection of which is uninterrupted, its antiquity indisputable, and its application obvious, the sufferings of the servant of God (who under that same denomination, is previously described as he who was to be the light of the Gentiles, the salvation of God to the ends of the earth, and the elect of God in whom his soul delighted, Isaiah 42:10 ; Isaiah 49:6 ) are so minutely foretold, that no illustration is requisite to show that they testify of Jesus. The whole of this prophecy thus refers to the Messiah. It describes both his debasement and his dignity; his rejection by the Jews; his humility, his affliction, and his agony; his magnanimity and his charity; how his words were disbelieved; how his state was lowly; how his sorrow was severe; how he opened not his mouth but to make intercession for the transgressors. In diametrical opposition to every dispensation of Providence which is registered in the records of the Jews, it represents spotless innocence suffering by the appointment of Heaven; death as the issue of perfect obedience; God's righteous servant as forsaken of him; and one who was perfectly immaculate bearing the chastisement of many guilty; sprinkling many nations from their iniquity, by virtue of his sacrifice; justifying many by his knowledge; and dividing a portion with the great and the spoil with the strong, because he hath poured out his soul in death. This prophecy, therefore, simply as a prediction prior to the event, renders the very unbelief of the Jews an evidence against them, converts the scandal of the cross into an argument in favour of Christianity, and presents us with an epitome of the truth, a miniature of the Gospel in some of its most striking features. The simple exposition of it sufficed at once for the conversion of the eunuch of Ethiopia. To these prophecies may, in fact, be added all those which relate to his spiritual kingdom, or the circumstances of the promulgation, the opposition, and the triumphs of his religion; the accomplishment of which equally proves the divine mission of its Author, and points him out as that great personage with whom they stand inseparably connected.
2. But if Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah, in that character his Deity also is necessarily involved, because the Messiah is surrounded with attributes of divinity in the Old Testament; and our Lord himself as certainly lays claim to those attributes as to the office of "the Christ." Without referring here to the Scriptural doctrine of a Trinity of divine Persons in the unity of the Godhead, (see Trinity, ) it is sufficient now to show that both in the Old and New Testament Scriptures, the Messiah is contemplated as a divine Person. In the very first promise of redemption, his superiority to that great and malignant spirit who destroyed the innocence of man, and blighted the fair creation of God, is unquestionably implied; while the Angel of the Divine Presence, the Angel of the Covenant, who appears so prominent in the patriarchal times, and the early periods of Jewish history, and was understood by the early Jews as the future Messiah, is seen at once as a being distinct from Jehovah and yet Jehovah himself; bearing that incommunicable name; and performing acts, and possessing qualities of unquestionable divinity. As the "Redeemer" of Job, he is the object of his trust and hope, and is said to be then a "living Redeemer;" to see whom at the last was to "see God." As "Shiloh," in the prophecy of Jacob, he is represented as having an indefinitely extensive reign over "the people" gathered to him; and in all subsequent predictions respecting this reign of Christ, it is represented so vast, so perfect, so influential upon the very thoughts, purposes, and affections of men, that no mere creature can be reasonably supposed capable of exercising it. Of the second Psalm, so manifestly appropriated to the Messiah, it has been justly said, that the high titles and honours ascribed in this Psalm to the extraordinary person who is the chief subject of it, far transcend any thing that is ascribed in Scripture to any mere creature. But if the Psalm be inquired into more narrowly, and compared with parallel prophecies; if it be duly considered, that not only is the extraordinary person here spoken of called "the Son of God," but that title is so ascribed to him as to imply, that it belongs to him in a manner that is absolutely singular, and peculiar to himself, seeing he is said to be begotten of God, Psalms 40:7-9 , and is called, by way of eminence, "the Son," Isaiah 40:9-11 ; that the danger of provoking him to anger is spoken of in so very different a manner from what the Scripture uses in speaking of the anger of any mere creature, "Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way when his wrath is kindled but a little;" that when the kings and judges of the earth are commanded to serve God with fear, they are at the same time commanded to kiss the Son, which in those times and places was frequently an expression of adoration; and, particularly, that, whereas other Scriptures contain awful and just threatenings against those who trust in any mere man, the Psalmist nevertheless expressly calls them blessed who trust in the Son here spoken of;—all these things taken together make up a character of unequivocal divinity: and, on the other hand, when it is said, that God would set this his Son as his King on his holy hill of Zion, Isaiah 49:6 , this, and various other expressions in this Psalm, contain characters of that subordination which is appropriate to that divine Person who was to be incarnate, and engage in a work assigned to him by the Father. The former part of the forty-fifth Psalm is by the inspired authority of St. Paul applied to the Christ, who is addressed in these lofty words, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom." In the same manner Psalms 102:25-28 , is applied to Christ by the same authority, and there he is represented as the creator of all things, changing his creations as a vesture, and yet himself continuing the same unchanged being amidst all the mutations of the universe. In Psalm cx, David says, "Jehovah said unto my Lord, ( Adonai, ) Sit thou upon my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool." And in Isaiah vi, the same Adonai is seen by the prophet "seated upon a throne, high and lifted up," receiving the adoration of seraphs, and bearing the title, "Jehovah, Lord of Hosts," of which passage St. John makes a direct application to Christ. Isaiah predicts his birth of a virgin, under the title of "Immanuel, God with us." The same prophet gives to this wonderful child the style of "the Mighty God," "the Everlasting Father," and the "Prince of Peace;" so that, as Dr. Pye Smith justly observes, "if there be any dependence on words, the Messiah is here drawn in the opposite characters of humanity and Deity,—the nativity and frailty of a mortal child, and the incommunicable attributes of the omnipresent and eternal God." Twice is he called by Jeremiah, "Jehovah our righteousness." Daniel terms him the "Ancient of Days," or "The Immortal;" and Micah declares, in a passage which the council of the Jews, assembled by Herod, applied to the Messiah, that he who was to be born in Bethlehem was "even he whose comings forth are from eternity, from the days of the everlasting period." Thus the prophetic testimony describes him, as entitled to the appellation of "Wonderful," since he should be, in a sense peculiar to himself, the Son of God, Psalms 2:7 ; Isaiah 9:6 ; as existing and acting during the patriarchal and the Jewish ages, and even from eternity, Isaiah 49:7 ; Micah 5:2 ; as the guardian and protector of his people, Isaiah 49:12 ; as the proper object of the various affections of piety, of devotional confidence for obtaining the most important blessings, and of religious homage from angels and men, Psalms 2:12 ; Psalms 97:7 ; and, finally, declares him to be the eternal and immutable Being, the Creator, God, the Mighty God, Adonai, Elohim, Jehovah.
In perfect accordance with these views, does our Saviour speak of himself. He asserts his preexistence, as having "come down from heaven;" and as existing "before Abraham;" and as being "in heaven" while yet before the eyes of his disciples on earth. In the same peculiar manner does he apply the term "Son of God" to himself, and that with so manifest an intention to assume it in the sense of divinity, that the Jews attempted on that account to stone him as a blasphemer. The whole force of the argument by which he silenced the Pharisees when he asked how the Messiah, who was to be the Son of David, could be David's Lord, in reference to the passage in the Psalms before quoted, arose out of the doctrine of the Messiah's divinity; and when he claims that all men should honour him as they honour the Father, and asserts that as the Father hath life in himself, so he has given to the Son to have life in himself, that he "quickeneth whom he will," that "where two or three meet in his name he is in the midst of them," and would be with his disciples "to the end of the world;" who does not see that the Jews concluded right, when they said that he made himself "equal with God,"—an impression which he took no pains to remove, although his own moral character bound him to do so, had he not intended to confirm that conclusion. So numerous are the passages in which divine titles, acts, and qualities, are ascribed to Christ in the apostolical epistles, and so unbroken is the stream of testimony from the apostolic age, that the Deity of their Saviour was the undoubted and universal faith of his inspired followers, and of those who immediately succeeded them, that it is not necessary to quote proofs. The whole argument is this: If the Old Testament Scriptures represent the Messiah as a divine Person; the proofs which demonstrate Jesus to be the Messiah, demonstrate him also by farther and necessary consequence to be divine. Yet, though there is a union of natures in Christ, there is no mixture or confusion of their properties: his humanity is not changed into his Deity, nor his Deity absorbed by his humanity; but the two natures are distinct in one Person. How this union exists, is above our comprehension; and, indeed, if we cannot explain how our bodies and souls are united, it is not to be supposed that we can comprehend the mystery of "God manifest in the flesh." So truly does Christ bear the name given to him in prophecy,— "Wonderful."
3. The doctrine of the Deity of Christ derives farther confirmation from the consideration, that in no sound sense can the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments be interpreted so as to make their very different and often apparently contradictory statements respecting him harmonize. How, for instance, is it that he is arrayed in the attributes of divinity, and yet is capable of being raised to a kingdom and glory?—that he is addressed, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever," and yet that it should follow "God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows?"—that he should be God, and yet, by a human birth, "God with us?"—that he should say, "I and my Father are one," and, "My Father is greater than I?"—that he is supreme, and yet a servant?—that he is equal and yet subordinate?—that he, a man, should require and receive worship and trust?—that he should be greater than angels, and yet "made lower than the angels?"—that he should be "made flesh," and yet be the Creator of all things?—that he should raise himself from the dead, and yet be raised by the power of the Father? These and many other declarations respecting him, all accord with the orthodox view of his person; and are intelligible so far as they state the facts respecting him; but are wholly beyond the power of interpretation into any rational meaning on any theory which denies to him a real humanity on the one hand, or a real and personal divinity on the other. So powerfully, in fact, has this been felt, that, in order to evade the force of the testimony of Scripture, the most licentious criticisms have been resorted to by the deniers of his divinity; such as would not certainly have been tolerated by scholars in the case of an attempt to interpret any other ancient writing.
4. Being, therefore, not only "a teacher sent from God," but the divine Son of God himself, it might be truly said by his wondering hearers, "Never man spake like this man." On our Lord's character as a teacher, therefore, many striking and just remarks have been made by different writers, not excepting some infidels themselves, who, in this respect, have been carried into admiration by the overwhelming force of evidence. This article, however, shall not be indebted to a desecrated source for an estimate of the character of his teaching, and shall rather be concluded with the following admirable remarks of a Christian prelate:—
"When our Lord is considered as a teacher, we find him delivering the justest and most sublime truths with respect to the divine nature, the duties of mankind, and a future state of existence; agreeable in every particular to reason, and to the wisest maxims of the wisest philosophers; without any mixture of that alloy which so often debased their most perfect production; and excellently adapted to mankind in general, by suggesting circumstances and particular images on the most awful and interesting subjects. We find him filling, and, as it were, overpowering our minds with the grandest ideas of his own nature; representing himself as appointed by his Father to be our Instructer, our Redeemer, our Judge, and our King; and showing that he lived and died for the most benevolent and important purposes conceivable. He does not labour to support the greatest and most magnificent of all characters; but it is perfectly easy and natural to him. He makes no display of the high and heavenly truths which he utters; but speaks of them with a graceful and wonderful simplicity and majesty.
Supernatural truths are as familiar to his mind, as the common affairs of life are to other men. He revives the moral law, carries it to perfection, and enforces it by peculiar and animating motives: but he enjoins nothing new beside praying in his name, mutual love among his disciples, as such, and the observance of two simple and significant positive laws which serve to promote the practice of the moral law. All his precepts, when rightly explained, are reasonable in themselves and useful in their tendency: and their compass is very great, considering that he was an occasional teacher, and not a systematical one. If from the matter of his instructions we pass on to the manner in which they were delivered, we find our Lord usually speaking as an authoritative teacher; though occasionally limiting his precepts, and sometimes assigning the reasons of them. He presupposes the original law of God, and addresses men as rational creatures. From the grandeur of his mind, and the magnitude of his subjects, he is often sublime; and the beauties interspersed throughout his discourses are equally natural and striking. He is remarkable for an easy and graceful manner of introducing the best lessons from incidental objects and occasions. The human heart is naked and open to him; and he addresses the thoughts of men, as others do the emotions of their countenance or their bodily actions. Difficult situations, and sudden questions of the most artful and ensnaring kind, serve only to display his superior wisdom, and to confound and astonish all his adversaries. Instead of showing his boundless knowledge on every occasion, he checks and restrains it, and prefers utility to the glare of ostentation. He teaches directly and obliquely, plainly and covertly, as wisdom points out occasions. He knows the inmost character, every prejudice and every feeling of his hearers; and, accordingly, uses parables to conceal or to enforce his lessons; and he powerfully impresses them by the significant language of actions. He gives proofs of his mission from above, by his knowledge of the heart, by a chain of prophecies, and by a variety of mighty works.
"He sets an example of the most perfect piety to God, and of the most extensive benevolence and the most tender compassion to men. He does not merely exhibit a life of strict justice, but of overflowing benignity. His temperance has not the dark shades of austerity; his meekness does not degenerate into apathy. His humility is signal, amidst a splendour of qualities more than human. His fortitude is eminent and exemplary, in enduring the most formidable external evils and the sharpest actual sufferings: his patience is invincible; his resignation entire and absolute. Truth and sincerity shine throughout his whole conduct. Though of heavenly descent, he shows obedience and affection to his earthly parents. He approves, loves, and attaches himself to amiable qualities in the human race. He respects authority, religious and civil; and he evidences his regard for his country by promoting its most essential good in a painful ministry dedicated to its service, by deploring its calamities, and by laying down his life for its benefit. Every one of his eminent virtues is regulated by consummate prudence; and he bot
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ
The Son of God, the Messiah and Savior of the World, the first and principal object of the prophecies; who was prefigured and promised in the Old Testament; was expected and desired by the patriarchs; the hope and salvation of the Gentiles; the glory, happiness, and consolation of Christians. The name JESUS, in Hebrew JEHOSHUAH or Joshua, signifies Savior, or Jehovah saves. No one ever bore this name with so much justice, nor so perfectly fulfilled the signification of it, as Jesus Christ, who saves from sin and hell, and has merited heaven for us by the price of his blood. It was given to him by divine appointment, Matthew 1:21 , as the proper name for the Savior so long desired, and whom all the myriads of the redeemed in heaven will for ever adore as their only and all-glorious Redeemer.
JESUS was the common name of the Savior; while the name CHRIST , meaning the Anointed One, The Messiah, was his official name. Both names are used separately, in the gospels and also in the epistles; but JESUS generally stands by itself in the gospels, which are narratives of his life; while in the epistles, which treat of his divine nature and of his redeeming work, he is called CHRIST , CHRIST JESUS, or THE LORD JESUS CHRIST. See CHRIST .
Here, under the Redeemer's human name, belong the facts relating to his human nature and the history of his life upon earth. His true and complete humanity, having the soul as well as the body of man, is everywhere seen in the gospel history. He who is "God over all, blessed forever," was an Israelite "as concerning the flesh," Romans 9:5 , and took upon him our whole nature, in order to be a perfect Savior. As a man, Jesus was the King of men. No words can describe that character in which such firmness and gentleness, such dignity and humility, such enthusiasm and calmness, such wisdom and simplicity, such holiness and charity, such justice and mercy, such sympathy with heaven and with earth, such love to God and love to man blended in perfect harmony. Nothing in it was redundant, and nothing was wanting. The world had never produced, nor even conceived of such a character, and its portraiture in the gospels is a proof of their divine origin, which the infidel cannot gainsay. Could the whole human race, of all ages, kindreds, and tongues, be assembled to see the crucified Redeemer as he is, and compare earth's noblest benefactors with Him, there would be but one voice among them. Every crown of glory and every meed of praise would be given to Him who alone is worthy-for perfection of character, for love to mankind, for sacrifices endured, and for benefits bestowed. His glory will forever be celebrated as the Friend of man; the Lamb sacrificed for us.
The visit of JESUS CHRIST to the earth has made it forever glorious above less favored worlds, and forms the most signal event in its annals. The time of his birth is commemorated by the Christian era, the first year of which corresponds to about the year 753 from the building of Rome. It is generally conceded, however, that the Savior was born at least four years before A. D. 1, and four thousand years after the creation of Adam. His public ministry commenced when he was thirty years of age; and continued, according to the received opinion, three and a half years. Respecting his ancestors, see GENEALOGY .
The life of the Redeemer must be studied in the four gospels, where it was recorded under the guidance of supreme wisdom. Many efforts have been made, with valuable results, to arrange the narrations of the evangelists in the true order of time. But as neither of the gospels follows the exact course of events, many incidents are very indeterminate, and are variously arranged by different harmonists. No one, however, has been more successful than Dr. Robinson in his valuable "Harmony of the Gospels".
The divine wisdom is conspicuous not only in what is taught us respecting the life of Jesus, but in what is withheld. Curiosity, and the higher motives of warm affection, raise numerous questions to which the gospels give no reply; and in proportion as men resort to dubious traditions, they lose the power of a pure and spiritual gospel. See further, concerning Christ, MESSIAH, REDEEMER, etc.
Jesus was not an uncommon name among the Jews. It was the name of the father of Elymas the sorcerer, Acts 13:6 ; and of Justus, a fellow-laborer and friend of Paul, Colossians 4:11 . It is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, or Jeshua, borne by the high priest in Ezra's time, and by the well-known leader of the Jews in to the Promised Land. See also 1 Samuel 6:14 2 Kings 23:8 . The Greek form of the word, Jesus, is twice used in the New Testament when Joshua the son of Nun is intended, Acts 7:45 Hebrews 4:8 .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Genealogy of Jesus Christ
The New Testament gives us the genealogy of but one person, that of our Saviour. This is given because it was important to prove that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies spoken of him. Only as the son and heir of David should he be the Messiah. The following propositions will explain the true construction of these genealogies:--
They are both the genealogies of Joseph, i.e. of Jesus Christ as the reputed and legal son of Joseph and Mary.
The genealogy of St. Matthew is Joseph's genealogy as legal successor to the throne of David. St. Luke's is Joseph's private Genealogy, exhibiting his real birth as David's son, and thus showing why he was heir to Solomon's crown. The simple principle that one evangelist exhibits that genealogy which contained the successive heir to David's and Solomon's throne, while the other exhibits the paternal stem of him who was the heir, explains all the anomalies of the two pedigrees, their agreements as well as their discrepancies, and the circumstance of there being two at all.
Mary, the mother of Jesus, was in all probability the daughter of Jacob, and first cousin to Joseph her husband. Thus: Matthan or Matthat Father of Jacob, Heli Jacob Father of Mary = Jacob'e heir was (Joseph) Heli Father of Joseph JESUS, called Christ. (Godet, Lange and many others take the ground that Luke gives the genealogy of Mary, rendering (Luke 3:23 ) thus: Jesus "being (as was suppposed ) the son of Joseph, (but in reality) the son of Heli." In this case Mary, as declared in the Targums, was the daughter of Heli, and Heli was the grandfather of Jesus. Mary's name was omitted because "ancient sentiment did not comport with the mention of the mother as the genealogical link." So we often find in the Old Testament the grandson called the son. This view has this greatly in its favor, that it shows that Jesus was not merely the legal but the actual descendant of David; and it would be very strange that in the gospel accounts, where so much is made of Jesus being the son and heir of David and of his kingdom his real descent from David should not be given.--ED.)
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ
‘Jesus’ was a common Jewish name and appears in the Greek language of the New Testament as the equivalent of the Hebrew ‘Joshua’ in the Old Testament. The name meant ‘Yahweh (Jehovah) is our Saviour’, and therefore was a fitting name to give to the one who would save his people, Yahweh’s people, from their sins (Matthew 1:21). ‘Christ’ was a Greek word equivalent to the Hebrew ‘Messiah’ (Matthew 22:42). (For the significance of this name see MESSIAH.)
Life of Jesus
The writers of the four Gospels provide most of the information concerning Jesus’ life and teaching, but they make no attempt to give a detailed biography of Jesus. They wrote at different times, for different people, in different places, for different purposes, and they selected their material accordingly (Luke 1:1-4; John 20:30-31). Yet there is no disagreement in the picture of Jesus they present: he is God in human flesh, the Lord and Saviour of the world. (See also GOSPELS.)
For convenience we can divide the Gospels’ record of Jesus’ life into three main sections. The first has to do with his birth and early childhood, the second concerns his public ministry (i.e. his teachings, healings, miracles and other recorded activities) and the third centres on the events of his death and resurrection.
Stories that describe events surrounding Jesus’ birth are recorded at some length. Nothing more is recorded of Jesus’ childhood till he was twelve years old. Even at that early age Jesus knew that he existed in a special relation with God; for he was God’s Son (Luke 2:42; Luke 2:49).
There is no record of the next eighteen years or so of Jesus’ life. Then, when about thirty years of age (Luke 3:23), he was baptized and began his public ministry. His baptism showed on the one hand his complete willingness to carry out all God’s purposes, and on the other his complete identification with the people whose sins he would bear. God then showed, through the descent of the Spirit in the form of a dove upon Jesus, that he had equipped him for this task (Matthew 3:13-17; Matthew 13:10-160; see BAPTISM; HOLY SPIRIT). Jesus had the Spirit’s power in unlimited measure (John 3:34), but he had to exercise it in keeping with his position of willing submission to the Father.
Almost immediately after Jesus received this special power from the Father, Satan tempted him to use it according to his own will, independently of the Father; but Jesus overcame the temptation (Matthew 4:1-11; see TEMPTATION). He then began to move about doing the work that his Father had entrusted to him.
This public ministry of Jesus seems to have lasted about three and a half years. He did much of his work in the northern part of Palestine known as Galilee (Acts 1:9-119; Matthew 4:23), though he met his fiercest opposition in Judea in the south, particularly in Jerusalem, which was the centre of Jewish religious power.
The Jewish leaders considered that Jesus’ claim to be the Son of God was blasphemy (Mark 2:7; Mark 3:22; Mark 14:61-64; John 7:25; John 7:40-44; John 8:56-59; John 11:55-57). Jesus knew that he eventually would be killed by the Jews in Jerusalem (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 20:18-19; John 4:3-69), but he knew also that first he had to complete the work his Father had sent him to do (John 4:34; John 9:4). Only when he had finished that work and the time appointed by his Father had come would he allow the Jews to take him and crucify him (John 7:30; John 10:18; John 13:1; John 17:4-11).
Jesus’ final week in Jerusalem was full of tension and activity and is recorded in greater detail than any other part of his life. He entered Jerusalem as Israel’s Messiah-King, cleansed the temple, debated with the Jews and gave teaching to his disciples on many subjects. He then allowed his enemies to arrest him, treat him cruelly, condemn him falsely and finally crucify him. Three days later he rose from the dead and during the next six weeks appeared to his disciples and others on a number of occasions in various places (Acts 1:3). His final appearance concluded with his ascension to heaven, though heavenly messengers reassured his disciples that one day he would come again (1618106267_43; cf. John 14:3).
God in human form (the Incarnation)
In Jesus Christ, God became incarnate; that is, he took upon himself human form. Jesus Christ was the embodiment of God and, by coming into the world, made God known to the world. This shows that Jesus must have existed as God before he was born into this world; for only one who was previously with God could make God known (John 1:1; John 1:18; John 3:13; John 12:41; Matthew 13:41-43; 1 Corinthians 10:4). When he came into the world, Jesus added humanity to the deity that he always had (John 1:14; Acts 10:38).
As the eternally existent Son of God, Jesus had no beginning (John 8:58; Colossians 1:17; Revelation 1:8), but as a human being he had a beginning when he was born as a baby in Bethlehem. God became flesh (John 1:14; Galatians 4:4; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 1:1-4; see SON OF GOD; WORD). This came about through the miraculous work of God’s Holy Spirit in the womb of the virgin Mary, so that the child who was born, though having no human father, was nevertheless fully human. He was not an ordinary person whom God adopted as his Son, but a unique person who was actually God’s Son (Luke 1:27; Luke 1:31; Luke 1:35).
In becoming a human being, Jesus did not cease to be God. His deity was not lessened in any way. When Philippians 2:7 says that Jesus, in being born into the world, ‘emptied himself’, it does not mean that he lost, voluntarily or otherwise, any of his divine attributes or qualities. Its meaning is well explained in the verses before and after, where it is clear that to empty oneself means to deny oneself totally, to sacrifice all self-interest.
Jesus from all eternity had existed as God, yet he willingly sacrificed the supreme glory of heaven and took instead the place of a servant. What he sacrificed was not his deity, but the heavenly glories that were his by right. The limitation that he accepted in being born a human being was not a lessening of his divine powers or being, but the limitation of living like other human beings in a world of imperfection and suffering (Philippians 2:5-8; cf. John 17:5; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Hebrews 2:9).
Not only Jesus’ physical form but also his human nature was like that of human beings in general; except that, whereas the human nature common to all other people is infected by sin from birth, Jesus’ human nature was not. Because his oneness with humankind was complete, he was able to die for his fellow human beings and so free them from the evil results of sin (Romans 8:3; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 2:14-15).
Fully divine yet fully human
Though human, Jesus retained his divine being and powers (Colossians 1:19; Colossians 2:9; Titus 2:13). His human and divine natures existed together – complete, united and inseparable – without either one lessening the other.
Jesus was still the creator and controller of the universe (Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:2-3), the Lord of life (Luke 7:22; John 5:21; John 5:26; John 8:51; John 10:10; John 10:28), the forgiver of sins (Mark 2:5; Mark 2:7; John 7:16-18; 2 Corinthians 5:19), and the judge of the world (Matthew 4:23-240; Matthew 25:31-32; John 5:26-27; 2 Corinthians 5:10). He was still the originator of divine truth (Matthew 5:22; Matthew 5:28; Matthew 5:32; Matthew 5:34; Matthew 5:39; Matthew 5:44; Matthew 12:5-8; Mark 13:31; John 14:6; John 14:10), the possessor of superhuman knowledge (John 6:64; John 11:14; John 18:4), the satisfier of people’s deepest needs (Matthew 11:28-30; John 4:14; John 6:35; John 11:25) and the object of people’s worship (Matthew 2:11; John 5:23; John 9:38).
Being the Son of God, Jesus was equal in deity with the Father (John 10:30). So completely were they united that Jesus could say that whoever saw him saw the Father (John 14:9; cf. Matthew 1:23; 2 Corinthians 4:4; Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 1:3). Therefore, whoever received him received the Father and whoever rejected him rejected the Father (Matthew 10:40; Luke 10:16; John 12:44; Matthew 27:3-4; 1 John 2:23). Because he was God, Jesus demanded that total allegiance which only God could demand (Matthew 10:37-39; Mark 8:34-35; John 3:36).
At the same time Jesus was fully human (1 Timothy 2:5; 1 John 1:1). He knew how it felt to be hungry, thirsty and tired (Matthew 21:18; John 4:6; John 19:28). He experienced poverty and sorrow as well as joy (Luke 9:58; Luke 10:21; John 11:33-36; John 15:11; Hebrews 5:7). He showed some of the emotional reactions common to human nature such as astonishment, disappointment, pity and anger (Mark 3:5; Mark 6:6; Mark 8:2; Mark 10:14; Mark 14:32-415). He was inwardly troubled as he saw his crucifixion drawing near, and he desired the sympathetic company of his closest friends during his time of spiritual conflict in Gethsemane the night before his death (1618106267_30; Luke 12:50; John 12:27).
A person who can help
Jesus exercised self-control in all aspects of his life and behaviour, and had the same sorts of temptations that other people have (Matthew 4:1-11; Hebrews 2:17-18; John 9:35-368; 1 Peter 2:23). Yet through it all he never sinned (Hebrews 4:15). Those who lived closest to him, and who saw more of him than anyone else, asserted that he never sinned (1 Peter 1:19; 1 Peter 2:22; 1 John 3:5). Even his enemies, when challenged to accuse him of sin, were unable to do so (John 8:46; cf. John 15:23).
On account of Jesus’ endurance and obedience through all his temptations and sufferings, his life was one of continuous yet perfect development and maturing. The perfect boy grew into the perfect man, who thus became the perfect Saviour for all people (Luke 2:40; Luke 2:52; Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 5:8). He can sympathize with the human weaknesses that people normally experience, but more than that he can help them triumph over those weaknesses (Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 4:15). Their Saviour is God, but he is a God who has lived as one of them in their world.
To deny that Jesus was either fully divine or fully human is to deny that which is basic to Christian faith (1 John 2:22-25; 1 John 4:2-3; 1 John 5:6-12). Only because of the divine oneness between Father and Son can Jesus bring God to the people of the world, and only because of the human oneness between Jesus and his fellow humans can he bring people back to God (John 14:6-10; 1 Timothy 2:4-6).
The obedient servant
In becoming human Jesus accepted the limitations that his humanity required. If, for example, he wanted to go from one place to another, he travelled the same as others and put up with the weariness of the journey. He did not use his divine powers to avoid the trials of human existence (Romans 11:34). He had taken upon himself the nature of a servant and he lived in obedience to and dependence on his Father. That was one reason why he prayed constantly (Mark 1:35; Mark 6:46; Luke 6:12).
Jesus’ acceptance of the limitations of human life meant also that if he wanted information he asked questions (Luke 2:46; Mark 5:30; Mark 6:38; Mark 9:21). Being God, he must have had all knowledge, but his human consciousness of that knowledge and the way he used it were always in submission to his Father’s will.
Certain areas of Jesus’ knowledge, therefore, may have been deliberately kept below the level of his human consciousness so that he could have no unnatural advantage over his fellows. But if his Father directed, Jesus could draw upon that knowledge (John 12:49; John 14:10; John 14:24). As the obedient Son who took the humble place of a servant, he knew, and desired to know, only what his Father wanted him to know (Mark 13:32; John 8:55).
This may help to explain why on some occasions Jesus’ knowledge was limited but on other occasions it was not. The Father allowed him certain knowledge that was in keeping with the mission for which the Father had sent him into the world. In these cases Jesus’ superhuman knowledge was not to give him a kind of magical solution to a problem, but to enable him to carry out the specific work that his Father required him to carry out at that particular time (Luke 6:8; John 1:47-49; John 2:25; John 4:18; John 4:29; John 11:11-14; John 12:49).
The superhuman knowledge that Jesus showed on such occasions was fully in keeping with the divine knowledge he repeatedly displayed in relation to the work his Father had sent him to do. That is why none of the events surrounding his death took him by surprise. He knew in advance that those events were part of his Father’s will for him (Matthew 12:40; Matthew 16:21; Matthew 20:18; John 3:14; John 6:64; John 12:7; John 13:38; John 14:29; John 16:32).
In summary, then, Jesus exercised his divine knowledge in the same way as he exercised his divine power – always in complete dependence upon and obedience to his Father. He never exercised it for his personal benefit (John 5:19; John 5:30; John 7:16; John 12:49; cf. Matthew 26:53-54).
If Satan tempted Jesus to use his divine powers for his own benefit, Jesus must have possessed those powers (Matthew 4:3-4; Matthew 26:53-54). Any limitation on Jesus’ physical capacity or knowledge was an indication not of a lessening of his divinity but of his submission to his Father’s will (John 8:28-29). Although Jesus lived a genuinely human life, he did so in the perfection that his deity demanded.
Mission and teaching
All that Jesus did and said was in some way a revelation of who he was. He was not simply a doer of good works or a teacher of religious truths, but the Son of God who came into the world to be its Saviour. His works and words are inseparably tied up with the nature of his person and mission (John 5:19; John 5:24; John 5:30; John 5:36; John 14:7; John 14:10; see SON OF GOD).
A central theme in all the works and teaching of Jesus was that in him the kingdom of God had come visibly into the world. The kingdom of God is the kingly rule of God, and Jesus proclaimed and exercised that rule as he released sick and demonized people from the power of Satan (1618106267_22; Matthew 12:28). Even among people who were not diseased, Jesus preached the kingdom, urging them to enter the kingdom voluntarily in humble faith and so receive eternal life (Mark 1:15; Matthew 6:33; Matthew 18:3; Matthew 19:16; Matthew 19:19-23; see KINGDOM OF GOD). He assured the repentant and the unrepentant that they would stand before him, for better or for worse, when he returns at the end of the age to bring the kingdom to its triumphant climax (Matthew 13:47-50; Matthew 19:28; Matthew 25:34; Matthew 25:41; cf. 2 Corinthians 5:10).
In relation to the kingdom of God, Jesus often referred to himself as the Son of man. This title was taken from the heavenly figure of Daniel 7:13-14, to whom the Almighty gave a kingdom that was worldwide and everlasting (Matthew 24:30-31; Matthew 25:31; Mark 8:38; Mark 14:62; see SON OF MAN). Jesus rarely referred to himself as the Messiah, probably because of the widespread misunderstanding among Jews concerning the sort of Messiah they wanted.
Jesus preferred the title ‘Son of man’ because it made people think about who he was. He wanted people to see for themselves that he, the Son of man, was both a heavenly figure and the Davidic Messiah (Matthew 16:13-16; Mark 2:10; Mark 2:28; John 6:62; 1618106267_19; John 12:23; John 12:34; see MESSIAH). He wanted people to see also that he was the Lord’s suffering servant. The Messiah had to die before he could reign in the full glory of his kingdom (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 20:28; see SERVANT OF THE LORD).
Likewise Jesus’ miracles were directed towards revealing who he was, though in a way designed to lead people to saving faith (Mark 2:9-12; Luke 4:18; John 9:16-17; John 20:30-31; see MIRACLES). His parables had a similar purpose. They made people think, and those who understood and accepted their message entered the kingdom of their Saviour-Messiah (1618106267_97; see PARABLES).
Having entered that kingdom, people had to live by its standards. Jesus’ moral teaching, however, was not a code of legal regulations like the law of Moses; nor was it like the burdensome system of the rabbis. He wanted to change people inwardly and so produce a quality of life and character that no law-code could ever produce (Matthew 5:21-22; Matthew 5:27-28; Matthew 7:29; see ETHICS; SERMON ON THE MOUNT).
Jesus’ teaching had authority because he came from God, made known the character of God, brought people into a relationship with the living God, and enabled them to reproduce within themselves something of the character of God (Matthew 5:48; Matthew 11:25-27; Mark 2:10).
Jesus as Lord
The Greek word kurios (i.e. Lord) in the New Testament is the same word that was used in the Greek translation of the Old Testament for the Hebrew word yahweh (i.e. Jehovah) (cf. Psalms 32:2 with Romans 4:8; cf. Isaiah 40:13 with 1618106267_27). In the original Hebrew, Yahweh, the name of God, was a mysterious name that Jews of later times considered so sacred that they refused to speak it. The name was linguistically connected with the words ‘I am’ and referred to the eternal, unchangeable, ever-present God (Exodus 3:13-16; see YAHWEH). Jesus identified himself with Yahweh by calling himself ‘I am’ (
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ, Genealogy of
(See JESUS CHRIST.)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ, the Arrest And Trial of
(See JESUS CHRIST.)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ
(See JESUS.) ("Jehovah salvation"); for "He Himself (autos , not merely like Joshua He is God's instrument to save) saves His people from their sins" (Matthew 1:21). CΗRΙSΤ , Greek; ΜΕSSΙΑΗ , Hebrew, "anointed" (1 Samuel 2:10; Psalms 2:2; Psalms 2:6 margin; Daniel 9:25-26). Prophets, priests, and kings (Exodus 30:30; 1 Kings 19:15-16) were anointed, being types of Him who combines all three in Himself (Psalms 91:11-12,09; Zechariah 6:13). "By one offering He hath perfected forever them that are being sanctified" (Hebrews 10:5; Hebrews 10:7; Hebrews 10:14; Hebrews 7:25). "Christ," or the Messiah, was looked for by all Jews as "He who should come" (Matthew 11:3) according to the Old Testament prophets. Immanuel "God with us" declares His Godhead; also John 1:1-18. (See IMMANUEL.) The New Testament shows that Jesus is the Christ (Matthew 22:42-45).
"Jesus" is His personal name, "Christ" is His title. Appropriately, in undesigned confirmation of the Gospels, Acts, and epistles, the question throughout the Gospels is, whether Jesus is "The" (the article is always in the Greek) Christ (Matthew 16:16; John 6:69), so in the first ministry of the word in Acts (Matthew 20:32-241; Acts 9:22; Acts 10:38; Acts 17:3). When His Messiahship became recognized "Christ" was used as His personal designation; so in the epistles.
"Christ" implies His consecration and qualification for the work He undertook, namely, by His unction with the Holy Spirit, of which the Old Testament oil anointings were the type; in the womb (Luke 1:35), and especially at His baptism, when the Holy Spirit (as a dove) abode on Him (Matthew 3:16; John 1:32-33). Transl. Psalms 45:7; "O God (the Son), Thy God (the Father) hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows." Full of this unction without measure (John 3:34) He preached at Nazareth as the Fulfiller of the scripture He read (Isaiah 61:1-3), giving "the oil of joy for mourning," "good tidings unto the meek" (Luke 4:17-21). Jesus' claim to be Messiah or "the Christ of God" (Luke 9:20), i.e. the anointed of the Father to be king of the earth (Psalms 2:6-12; Revelation 11:15; Revelation 12:10), rests:
(1) On His fulfilling all the prophecies concerning Messiah, so far as His work has been completed, the earnest of the full completion; take as instances Isaiah 53; Psalm 22; Micah 5; Hosea 6:2-3; Genesis 49:10, compare Luke 2; "the testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of prophecy" (Revelation 19:10; Luke 24:26; Luke 24:44-46; Acts 3:22-25).
(2) On His miracles (John 7:31; John 5:36; John 10:25; John 10:38). Miracles alleged in opposition, or addition, to Scripture cannot prove a divine mission (2 Thessalonians 2:9; Deuteronomy 13:1-3; Matthew 24:24), but when confirmed by Scripture they prove it indisputably.
"Son of David" expresses His title to David's throne over Israel and Judah yet to be (Luke 1:32-33). "King of Israel" (John 1:49), "King of the Jews" (Matthew 2:2; Matthew 21:5), "King of Zion." As son of David He is David's "offspring"; as "root of David" (in His divine nature) He is David's "lord" (Revelation 22:16, compare Matthew 22:42-45). His claim to the kingship was the charge against Him before Pilate (John 18:37; John 19:3; John 19:12). The elect of God (Luke 23:35, compare Isaiah 42:1). The inspired summary of His life is, "God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil, for God was with Him" (Acts 10:38). To be "in Christ," which occurs upward of 70 times in Paul's epistles, is not merely to copy but to be in living union with Him (1 Corinthians 15:18; 2 Corinthians 12:2), drawn from Christ's own image (John 15:1-10). In Christ God is manifested as He is, and man as he ought to be. Our fallen race lost the knowledge of man as utterly as they lost the knowledge of God.
Humanity in Christ is generic (1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Corinthians 15:47), as the second "man" or "last Adam," "the Son of man" (a title used in New Testament only by Himself of Himself, except in Stephen's dying speech, Acts 7:56; from Daniel 7:13; marking at once His humiliation as man's representative Head, and His consequent glorification in the same nature: Luke 22:50-51; Matthew 26:64.) Sinless Himself, yet merciful to sinners; meek under provocation, yet with refined sensibility; dignified, yet without arrogance; pure Himself, yet with a deep insight into evil; Christ is a character of human and divine loveliness such as man could never have invented; for no man has ever conceived, much less attained, such a standard; see His portraiture, Matthew 12:15-20. Even His own brethren could not understand His withdrawal into Galilee, as, regarding Him like other men, they took it for granted that publicity was His aim (John 7:3-4; contrast John 5:44). Jesus was always more accessible than His disciples, they all rebuked the parents who brought their infants for Him to bless (Luke 18:15-17), they all would have sent the woman of Canaan away.
But He never misunderstood nor discouraged any sincere seeker, contrast Matthew 20:31 with 1618106267_66. Earthly princes look greatest at a distance, surrounded with pomp; but He needed no earthly state, for the more closely He is viewed the more He stands forth in peerless majesty, sinless and divine. (On His miracles, see MIRACLES and on His parables, see PARABLES.) He rested His teaching on His own authority, and the claim was felt by all, through some mysterious power, to be no undue one (Matthew 7:29). He appeals to Scripture as His own: "Behold I send unto you prophets," etc. (Matthew 23:34; in Luke 11:49, "the Wisdom of God said, I will send them prophets".) His secret spring of unstained holiness, yet tender sympathy, was His constant communion with God; at all times, so that He was never alone (John 16:32), "rising up a great while before day, in a solitary place" (Mark 1:35).
Luke tells us much of His prayers: "He continued all night in prayer to God," before ordaining the twelve (Luke 6:12); it was as He was "praying, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Spirit descended, and (the Father's) voice came from heaven, Thou art My beloved Son," etc. (Luke 3:22); it was "as He prayed, the fashion of His countenance was altered, and His raiment was white and glistering" (Luke 9:29); when the angel strengthened Him in Gethsemane, "in an agony He prayed more earnestly," using the additional strength received not to refresh Himself after His exhausting conflict, but to strive in supplication, His example confirming His precept, Luke 13:24 (Luke 22:44; Hebrews 5:7). His Father's glory, not His own, was His absorbing aim (John 8:29; John 8:50; John 7:18); from His childhood when at 12 years old (for it was only in His 12th year that Archelaus was banished and His parents ventured to bring Him to the Passover: Josephus, Ant. 17:15) His first recorded utterance was, cf6 "Wist ye not that I must be about My Father's business?" or else "in My Father's places" (Luke 2:49; Psalms 40:6; Psalms 40:8).
Little is recorded of His childhood, but as much as the Spirit saw it safe for us to know; so prone is man to lose sight of Christ's main work, to fulfill the law and pay its penalty in our stead. The reticence of Scripture as remarkably shows God's inspiration of it as its records and revelations. Had the writers been left to themselves, they would have tried to gratify our natural curiosity about His early years. But a veil is drawn over all the rest of His sayings for the first 30 years. "He waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom ... He increased in wisdom" (Luke 2:40; Luke 2:52), which proves that He had a" reasonable soul" capable of development, as distinct from His Godhead; Athanasian Creed: "perfect God and perfect man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting." His tender considerateness for His disciples after their missionary journey, and His compassion for the fainting multitudes, outweighing all thought; of His own repose when He was weary, and when others would have been impatient of their retirement being intruded on (Mark 6:30-37), are lovely examples of His human, and at the same time superhuman, sympathy (Hebrews 4:15). Then how utterly void was He of resentment for wrongs.
When apprehended, instead of sharing the disciples' indignation He rebuked it; instead of rejoicing in His enemy's suffering, He removed it (Matthew 20:28); instead of condemning His murderers He prayed for them: cf6 "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do" (Luke 23:34). What exquisite tact and tenderness appear in His dealing with the woman of Samaria (John 4), as He draws the spiritual lesson from the natural drink which He had craved of her, and leads her on to convict herself of sin, in the absence of His disciples, and to recognize Him as the Messiah. So in the account of the woman caught in adultery. When "every man went unto his own house" He who had not where to lay His head "went to the mount of Olives," His wonted resort for prayer; "early in the morning He came again into the temple." Then followed the scribes' accusation of the woman from the law, but He who wrote on stone that law of commandments now writes with His finger on the ground (the law of mercy), showing the power of silence to shame the petulant into self recollection, the censorious into self condemnation. His silent gesture spoke expressively.
Then His single speech, cf6 "he that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her" (John 8:7). followed by the same silent gesture, made them feel the power of conscience and withdraw. Then she stays, though her accusers were gone, awaiting His sentence and is made to feel the power of His holiness, condemning her sin yet not herself, cf6 "Go and sin no more." John 8:11. The same spirit appears here as in His atonement, which makes sin unspeakably evil, yet brings the sinner into loving union with God in Christ. Other systems, which reject the atonement, either make light of sin or else fill the sinner with slavish and unconquerable dread of wrath. Stoning was the penalty of unfaithfulness in one betrothed. If Jesus decided she should be stoned, He would be opposing Rome which claimed power of deciding all capital cases (John 18:31). If Jesus decided to let her off, He would forfeit the favor of the Jews, as a setter aside of Moses' law. His reply maintained the law, but limited its execution to those free from sexual uncleanness, which none of her accusers were. The lesson is not for magistrates, but for self constituted judges and busybodies, whose dragging of filthy stories against others into the social circle is only defiling.
They were not witnesses in court; there was no judicial trial. The context (John 8:12, cf6 "I am the light of the world", referring to the rising sun and the lighted lamps at the feast of tabernacles, Luke 2:8-18; and John 8:15, cf6 "ye judge after the flesh, I judge no man".) confirms the genuineness of the passage, which is omitted from good manuscripts. His birth was in the year 750 from Rome's foundation, four before the era "Αnno Domini ", some months before Herod's death. The first Adam was created, and not born; the Second Adam, in His manhood, both born and created with a body free from the inherited taint of original sin (Hebrews 10:5). The census of the Roman empire ordered by Augustus led Joseph and Mary from Nazareth to Bethlehem, the city of David their ancestor, in fulfillment of Micah's prophecy (Micah 5). Spring was probably the season for the shepherds beginning to watch over their flocks by night. The season when winter deadness gives place to new vegetation and life was the appropriate birth time of Him who "maketh all things new." So Song of Solomon 2:10-13. Spring was the Passover season, Israel's national birthday. So that the spiritual, national, and natural eras, in this view, coincide.
To allow time between the presentation in the temple and the arrival of the wise men and the other events before Herod's death, perhaps February may be fixed on. The grotto at Bethlehem is mentioned by Justin Martyr in the second century as the scene of His birth. The humble (1 Corinthians 1:26-31) Jewish shepherds were the earliest witnesses of the glory which attended His birth. For in every successive instance of His voluntary humiliation, the Father, jealous for the honour of His co-equal on, provided for His glorification (John 7:37; so Luke 22:43; Luke 23:4; Luke 23:40-43; Luke 23:47; Matthew 3:14-17; John 12:28). Simeon and Anna were the divinely appointed welcomers of the Son of God at His lowly presentation in the temple, the former discerning in Him" God's salvation," the "light to lighten the Gentiles and the glory (especially) of His people Israel"; the latter "speaking of Him to all who looked for redemption in Jerusalem."
The Gentile wise men of the East (Persian magi possibly, the Zend religion teaching the expectation of a "Ζoziosh" or "Redeemer"; or magoi being used generally, these wise men coming from Balaam's region, the East, and knowing his prophecy, "there shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel": Numbers 24:17; Numbers 23:7, whence they ask for the "King of the Jews" and mention the "star") came later, and found Him no longer in a manger where the shepherds found Him, but in a "house" (Matthew 2:11). They were the firstfruits of the Gentile world; their offering of gold is thought to mark His kingship, the frankincense His priesthood, and the myrrh His coming burial, in God's purpose if not theirs. Herod, being an Edomite who had supplanted the Jewish Asmonaeans or Maccabees, was alarmed to hear of one "born king of the Jews," and failing to find Jesus slew all children from two years old and under (Herod fixed on this age as oriental mothers suckle infants until they are two years old). (See HEROD.) God saved His Son by commanding the mother and Joseph to flee to Egypt, the land of the type Israel's sojourn, when fleeing from famine, and the land from whence God called His Son Israel (Hosea 11:1; Matthew 2:15); not by miracle, but by ordinary escaping from persecution, as sharing His people's trials (Matthew 10:23).
His interview with the doctors in the temple shows that His human consciousness already knew His divine mission and was preparing for it. Stier describes His one utterance in childhood as "a solitary floweret out of the wonderful enclosed garden of 30 years, plucked precisely there where the swollen bud at the distinctive crisis bursts into the flower." The description "He increased ... in stature ... and in favor with God and men," (Luke 2:52) combined with Psalms 45:2, "Thou art fairer than the children of men, grace is poured into Thy lips," implies that His outward form was a temple worthy of the Word made flesh. Isaiah 53:2 expresses men's rejection of Him, rather than the absence of graces inward or outward in Him to cause that rejection. In the 15th year of the emperor Tiberius, dating from his joint rule with Augustus (15 years from 765 after the founding of Rome, i.e. two years before Augustus' death in 767), i.e. 780 (30 counted back bring our Lord's birth to 750), when Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea and Annas and Caiaphas jointly in fact exercised the high priesthood, Caiaphas being nominally the high priest (John 18:13), John Baptist, as last prophet of the Old Testament dispensation, by preaching repentance for sin and a return to legal obedience, prepared the way for Messiah, the Saviour from sin; whereas the people's desire was for a Messiah who would deliver them from the hated foreign, yoke. (See ANNAS; CAIAPHAS.)
Wieseler thinks John's preaching took place on the sabbatical year, which, if it be so, must have added weight to his appeals. We know at all events that he came "in the spirit and power of Elias." Jesus received His solemn consecration to His redeeming work by John's baptism with water (to which He came not, as all others, confessing sin, but undertaking to "fulfill all righteousness") and at the same time by the Holy Spirit's descent permanently, accompanied by the Father's acceptance of Him as our Redeemer, "this is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased," namely, as undertaking to become man's Saviour. Thus "Christ glorified not Himself to be made an high priest, but He that said Thou art My Son" (Psalms 2:7; Hebrews 5:5; Matthew 3:14). John, though knowing His goodness and wisdom before, as he must have known from the intimacy between the cousin mothers, Mary and Elisabeth (Luke 1), and knowing that Messiah should come, and when Jesus presented Himself feeling a strong presentiment that this was the Messiah, yet knew not definitely Jesus' Messiahship, until its attestation by God the Father with the Holy Spirit at His baptism (John 1:31-33).
Under the power of the Spirit received at His baptism He encountered Satan in the wilderness. The mountain of Quarantania, a perpendicular wall of rock 1,400 feet above the plain, on this side of Jordan, is the traditional site. Satan's aim was to tempt Him to doubt His sonship, "if Thou be the Son of God," etc. The same voice spoke through His mockers at the crucifixion (Matthew 27:40). Faith answers with Nathanael (Numbers 32:13-141). Mark 1:13 says "He was with the wild beasts," a contrast to the first Adam among the beasts tame and subject to man's will. Adam changed paradise into a wilderness, Jesus changed the wilderness into paradise (Isaiah 11:6-9). Jesus' answer to all the three temptations was not reasoning, but appeal to God's written word, "it is written." As Christ was "holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners" (Hebrews 7:26), the temptation must have been from without, not from within: objective and real, not subjective or in ecstasy. The language too, "led up ... came ... taketh Him up ... the Spirit driveth Him" (ekballei , a necessary though a distasteful conflict to the Holy One), etc., implies reality (Matthew 4:1; Matthew 4:3; Matthew 4:5; Mark 1:12).
In fallen man suggestions of hatred of God, delight in inflicting pain, cruel lust, fierce joy in violating law, are among the inward temptations of Satan; but Jesus said before His renewed temptation in Gethsemane, cf6 "the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in Me" (John 14:30). As 40 is the number in Scripture implying affliction, sin, and punishment (Genesis 7:4; Genesis 7:12; Numbers 14:33; 1618106267_52 Psalms 95:10; Deuteronomy 25:3; Ezekiel 29:11; Ezekiel 4:6; Jonah 3:4), Christ the true Israel (Deuteronomy 8:3; Deuteronomy 8:16; Deuteronomy 9:9; Deuteronomy 9:11-25) denied Himself 40 days, answering to Israel's 40 years' provocation of God and punishment by death in the wilderness. Not by His almighty power, but by His righteousness, Jesus overcame. First Satan tried Him through His sinless bodily wants answering to "the flesh" in fallen man. But Jesus would not, when hungry, help Himself, though He fed multitudes, for He would not leave His voluntarily assumed position of human absolute dependence on God. He who nourished crowds with bread Would not one meal unto Himself afford O wonderful the wonders left undone, And scarce less wonderful than those He wrought!
O self restraint passing all human thought, To have all power and be as having none! O self denying love, which felt alone For needs of others, never for His own! The next temptation in the spiritual order (Matthew gives probably the chronological order) was, Satan tried to dazzle Him, by a bright vision of the world's pomps "in a moment of time," to take the kingdoms of the world at his hands (as "delivered" to him, owing to man's fall) without the cross, on condition of one act of homage to him "the prince of this world." But Jesus herein detected the adversary, and gives him his name, cf6 "Get thee behind Me, Satan" (His very words to Peter, who, as Satan's tool, for the moment urged the same avoidance of the cross: Matthew 16:23), for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord," (Luke 4:8) etc. The kingdom of the world shall come to Him, just because His cross came first (Philippians 2:5-11; Revelation 11:15; Isaiah 53:12). To the flesh and the world succeeds the last and highest temptation, the devil's own sin, presumption. Satan turns Jesus' weapon, the word, on Himself, quoting 1618106267_5 and omitting the qualification "in all thy ways," namely, implicit reverent faith and dependence on God, which were "Christ's ways."
Christ would no more presume because He was God's Son than doubt that He was so. To cast Himself from the temple S.W. wall pinnacle, then 180 feet above the valley before soil accumulated, or the topmost ridge of the royal portico, to test God's power and faithfulness, would be Israel's sin in "tempting Jehovah, saying, Is Jehovah among us or not?" though having had ample proofs already (Exodus 17:7; Psalms 78:18-20; Psalms 78:41; Deuteronomy 6:16, which Jesus quotes). All His quotations are from the same book, which rationalism now assails. Thus the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life, which lured the first Adam, could not entice the Second (Genesis 3:6; compare 1 John 2:16-17). The assault against man's threefold nature, the body (the lack of bread), the soul (craving for worldly lordship without the cross), and the spirit (the temptation on the temple pinnacle), failed in His case. It was necessary the foundation should be tested, and it stood the trial (Isaiah 28:16). Satan left Him "for a (rather until the) season," namely, until he renewed the attack at Gethsemane, "and angels came and ministered unto Him," God fulfilling the promise of Psalm 91: in Christ's, not Satan's, way.
Then began His p

Sentence search

j.c. - = Jesus Christ ...
Deity of Christ - See Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ, Genealogy of - (See Jesus Christ
Saviour - See Jesus Christ
p.h.j.c. - = Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ ...
Person of Christ - See Christ, Christology ; Jesus Christ
Christ - See Jesus Christ, and Messiah
Chosen One - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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Anointed One - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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Holy One of God - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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Lord - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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One And Only, Only Begotten - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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Son of David - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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Son of Man - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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Evangelist - A writer of the history, or doctrines, precepts, actions, life and death of our blessed Savior, Jesus Christ as the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. A preacher or publisher of the gospel of Jesus Christ, licensed to preach, but not having charge of a particular church
d.n.j.c. - = Dominus Noster Jesus Christus (Our Lord Jesus Christ)
Christ Messiah - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
...
Nativity of Christ - See Jesus Christ ; Jesus, Life and Ministry of
Son of God - See Adoption ; Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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Great Pastor of the Sheep - Title given Our Lord Jesus Christ (Hebrews 13)
Taxing - (See Jesus Christ; CYRENIUS; CENSUS
Addi - —An ancestor of Jesus Christ, Luke 3:28
Ascension - See Jesus Christ, sub-heading ‘Resurrection and exaltation of Jesus’
Melchizedezians - They affirmed that Melchizedeck was not a man, but a heavenly power superior to Jesus Christ; for Melchizedeck, they said, was the intercessor and mediator of the angels; and Jesus Christ was only so for man, and his priesthood only a copy of that of Melchizedeck
Son, Sonship - See Adoption ; Christians, Names of ; Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
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ma'Ath - (small ), son of Mattathias in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Lord of Glory - In the Epistle of Saint James 2:1, we read, "My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory, with respect of persons. " In this passage, glory is regarded as an essential attribute of Christ (John 11,5); some commentators think that the genitive of quality "of glory" is connected only with "our Lord," but more likely it goes with "our Lord Jesus Christ
Glory, Lord of - In the Epistle of Saint James 2:1, we read, "My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory, with respect of persons. " In this passage, glory is regarded as an essential attribute of Christ (John 11,5); some commentators think that the genitive of quality "of glory" is connected only with "our Lord," but more likely it goes with "our Lord Jesus Christ
Redeemer - ) Specifically, the Savior of the world, Jesus Christ
Abi'ud - (father of praise ), descendant of Zorobabel in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
ss.d.n. - = Sanctissimus Dominus Noster (Our Most Holy Lord [1]; also a title of the pope) ...
Elmadam - An ancestor of Jesus Christ (Luke 3:28 )
Redeemer - The Savior of the world, Jesus Christ
jo'se - (another form of JOSES ), son of Eliezer, in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Mele'a - the son of Menan, and ancestor of Joseph in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Incarnation - The word ‘incarnation’ is commonly used to denote the truth that God became a human being in the person of Jesus Christ. (For details see Jesus Christ, sub-heading ‘God in human form’
Just One - A well-known name and character of the Lord Jesus Christ: (Acts 3:24; Act 7:52)...
See Christ...
Saviour - Thus Jesus Christ is called the Saviour, as he delivers us from the greatest evils, and brings us into the possession of the greatest good. ...
See Jesus Christ, LIBERTY, PROPITIATION, REDEMPTION
Latter-Day Saint - A Mormon; - the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints being the name assumed by the whole body of Mormons
Mel'Chi -
The son of Janna, and ancestor of Joseph in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Mediator - But the Lord Jesus Christ is the only mediator in the highest sense between God and man; so that we and this special designation given him. See Jesus Christ
Second Coming - See Jesus Christ, sub-heading ‘Christ’s return and final triumph’
Heli - (See GENEALOGY OF Jesus Christ
Jerusalem - ) The chief city of Palestine, intimately associated with the glory of the Jewish nation, and the life and death of Jesus Christ
King - Song of Solomon 1:4 (c) In this way we see the Lord Jesus Christ in His glory as the sovereign ruler of His church
Monophysite - ) One of a sect, in the ancient church, who maintained that the human and divine in Jesus Christ constituted but one composite nature
Atonement - The satisfaction offered to divine justice for the sins of mankind by the death of Jesus Christ; by virtue of which all true penitents believing in Christ are reconciled to God, are freed from the penalty of their sins, and entitled to eternal life. The atonement by Jesus Christ is the great distinguishing peculiarity of the gospel, and is presented in a great variety of terms and illustrations in both the Old Testament and the New. This is actually effected by the death of Christ; while the ceremonial offerings of the Jewish church only secured from impending temporal judgments, and typified the blood of Jesus Christ which "cleanseth us from all sin
Sem'ei - (Esther 11:2 ) ...
The father of Mattathias in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Energici - A denomination in the sixteenth century; so called because they held that the eucharist was the energy and virtue of Jesus Christ; not his body, nor a representation thereof
Christ - ...
See Jesus Christ
God, Son of - Second Person of the Blessed Trinity; Jesus Christ the Redeemer: "Indeed thou art the Son of God" (Matthew 14), "Thou art Christ, the Son of the Living God" (16)
Deicide - ) The act of killing a being of a divine nature; particularly, the putting to death of Jesus Christ
Son of God - Second Person of the Blessed Trinity; Jesus Christ the Redeemer: "Indeed thou art the Son of God" (Matthew 14), "Thou art Christ, the Son of the Living God" (16)
Humanity of Christ - ...
See Jesus Christ
Kinsman - Ruth 4:14 (c) This may be taken as a type of our Redeemer, Jesus Christ
Jesse - (Ruth 4:17) He is memorable in the genealogies of the Lord Jesus Christ
Savior - ) Savior, he who brings salvation to men; Jesus Christ, the Redeemer
Word - The, is one of the titles of Jesus Christ
Ransom - Job 33:24 (b) The Lord Jesus Christ is the only ransom that can deliver us. ...
Job 36:18 (b) This represents the great price which GOD accepted from the Lord Jesus Christ at Calvary where the Saviour paid the debt for the sinner. Jesus Christ only can pay the debt and set us free
Antipas, Saint - In the Apocalypse he is called the "faithful witness" of Jesus Christ
Gabbatha - a place in Pilate's palace, from whence he pronounced sentence of death upon Jesus Christ, John 19:13
Naashon - The son of Aminadab, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus Christ
sa'Doc - (Ezra 7:2 ) ...
A descendant of Zerubbabel in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Christology - The branch of theology dealing specially with the nature and personality of Jesus Christ, His realization of the types and prophecies of the Old Testament, and His life and teachings as narrated in the Gospels
Gaianitae - A denomination which derived its name from Gaian, a bishop of Alexandria, in the sixth century, who denied that Jesus Christ, after the hypostatical union, was subject to any of the infirmities of human nature
Mission - Thus Jesus Christ gave his disciples their mission, when he said, "go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature
Captain - We are soldiers of Jesus Christ as we find in Hebrews 2:10
Barabbas - A well-known name, rendered memorable from being preferred by the Jews to the Lord Jesus Christ, though a murderer and a thief
Lord - For the use of ‘Lord’ among the followers of Jesus in New Testament times see Jesus Christ, sub-heading ‘Jesus as Lord’
Docetae - They believed and taught that the actions and sufferings of Jesus Christ were not in reality, but only in appearance
Talitha-Cumi - the words that Jesus Christ made use of when he raised up the daughter of Jairus, chief of the synagogue of Capernaum
Last - One of the characters of the Lord Jesus Christ
Aphthartodocites - A denomination in the sixth century; so called from the Greek incorruptible, and to judge; because they held that the body of Jesus Christ was incorruptible, and not subject to death
Adoptionists - The followers of Felix of Urgil and Epiland of Toledo, who, towards the end of the eighth century, advanced the notion that Jesus Christ in his human nature is the Son of God, not by nature, but by adoption
Hermiani - One of their distinguishing tenets was, that God is corporeal; another, that Jesus Christ did not ascend into heaven with his body, but left it in the sun
Incarnation - The act whereby the Son of God assumed the human nature; or the mystery by which Jesus Christ, the Eternal Word, was made man, in order to accomplish the work of our salvation
Pillow - Ezekiel 13:18 (b) This figure describes the path of ease which some people make for the people of GOD to keep them comfortable and at rest when they should be active in the service of the King, as soldiers of Jesus Christ
Nain - a city of Palestine, in which Jesus Christ restored the widow's son to life, as they were carrying him out to be buried
Ader - Jerom observes, that the place where the angels declared the birth of Jesus Christ to the shepherds, was called by this name, Luke 2:8-9
Epaphras - Supposed to have founded the church at Colosse, and denominated by Paul his "dear fellow-servant" and "a faithful minister of Jesus Christ
Coat - Genesis 3:21 (c) We usually use these coats of skins to represent the imputed righteousness of GOD which is given to us through the death of the Lord Jesus Christ. Just as human babies are born with no clothes and must obtain clothing from an outside source so new babes in CHRIST have no garment of their own, but must receive the garment of salvation, the robe of righteousness from GOD through faith in Jesus Christ
Savior - Is a term applied preeminently to our Lord Jesus Christ, because, as the angel expressed it, he came to "save his people from their sins," Matthew 1:21
Remission - ' The forgiveness or remission of sins is through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ and on the ground of His sacrificial death
Sardis - One of the seven churches to whom the Lord Jesus Christ sent the solemn message in the second and third chapters of the book of the Revelations
Alogians - A sect of ancient heretics who denied that Jesus Christ was the Logos, and consequently rejected the Gospel of St
Dalmanutha - Mark says that Jesus Christ embarked with his disciples on the lake of Tiberias, and came to Dalmanutha, Mark 8:10 , but St
Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament - This doctrine follows logically from two revealed truths: that Jesus Christ, even in His humanity, on account of His Divine personality is worthy of Divine homage; and that Jesus Christ is really present in the Blessed Sacrament
Immanuel - ...
The promise given to Ahaz was quoted in the New Testament by Matthew in relation to the birth of Jesus Christ. In Jesus Christ, God actually came and lived as a man among the inhabitants of earth (Matthew 1:18-23; John 1:14)
Savior - 1: παρεκτός (Strong's #3924 — Adverb — soter — par-ek-tos' ) "a savior, deliverer, preserver," is used (a) of God, Luke 1:47 ; 1 Timothy 1:1 ; 2:3 ; 4:10 (in the sense of "preserver," since He gives "to all life and breath and all things"); Titus 1:3 ; 2:10 ; 3:4 ; Jude 1:25 ; (b) of Christ, Luke 2:11 ; John 4:42 ; Acts 5:31 ; 13:23 (of Israel); Ephesians 5:23 (the sustainer and presever of the church, His "body"); Philippians 3:20 (at His return to receive the Church to Himself); 2 Timothy 1:10 (with reference to His incarnation, "the days of His flesh"); Titus 1:4 (a title shared, in the context, with God the Father); 2:13, RV, "our great God and Savior Jesus Christ," the pronoun "our," at the beginning of the whole clause, includes all the titles; Titus 3:6, 2 Peter 1:1 , "our God and Savior Jesus Christ; RV, where the pronoun "our," coming immediately in connection with "God," involves the inclusion of both titles as refering to Christ, just as in the parallel in 2 Peter 1:11 , "our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (AV and RV); these passages are therefore a testimony to His deity; 2 Peter 2:20 ; 3:2,18 ; 1 John 4:14
Lamb - The Lamb of God, in Scripture, the Savior Jesus Christ, who was typified by the paschal lamb
Monothelites - (compounded of "single, " and volo, "I will, ") an ancient sect which sprung out of the Eutychians; thus called, as only allowing of one will in Jesus Christ. They were condemned by the sixth general council in 680, as being supposed to destroy the perfection of the humanity of Jesus Christ, depriving it of will and operation
Marrow - (Psalms 63:5) And the prophet Isaiah represents the salvation of the Lord Jesus Christ as "a feast of fat things, and full of marrow
Wisdom - Proverbs 8:12 (b) It is quite clear that this word is used to describe the Lord Jesus Christ Himself
Salvation - Means the safety or preservation of any thing that has been or is in danger; but it is more particularly used by us to denote our deliverance from sin and hell, and the final enjoyment of God in a future state, through the mediation of Jesus Christ
Nathanael - And the eminent Nathaniel, so highly spoken of by the Lord Jesus Christ, John 1:47
Allegorical Sense - Thus, the serpent raised by Moses in the desert to heal the Israelites from their wounds represented, in an allegorical sense, Jesus Christ raised upon the Cross for the redemption of mankind
Generation - So in Genesis 2:4 , "The generations of the heavens and of the earth," that is, their genealogy, so to speak, the history of the creation of heaven and earth; also in Matthew 1:1 , "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ," that is, the genealogy of Jesus Christ," that is, the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the history of his descent and life
Scepter - Genesis 49:10 (b) Here is a symbol of the sovereignty of the Lord Jesus Christ who was to become King of kings, and Lord of lords. In a coming day Jesus Christ will rule the entire earth with a rod of iron
Cerdonians - The first they called the Father of Jesus Christ; the latter the Creator of the world
Prudence - Proverbs 8:12 (a) This is one of the titles of the Lord Jesus Christ
Winepress - Revelation 19:15 (a) This is typical of the acts of the Lord Jesus Christ wherein He will tread down all His enemies, crush His opponents, and in His anger would tread upon all those who live in rebellion against Him
Assemblies of the Clergy - In this assembly his majesty is represented by his commissioners, who dissolves one meeting and calls another in the name of the king, while the moderator does the same in the name of Jesus Christ
Real Presence - In the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist after the consecration of the bread and wine, our Lord Jesus Christ, True God and True Man, is truly, really, substantially, and abidingly contained under the species of these sensible things, i
Abel - He goes to the innocent and holy Lamb of GOD, Jesus Christ, by faith. He believes the Word of GOD that the "blood of Jesus Christ, His Son, c1eanseth us from all sin," 1 John 1:7
Corner Stone - In 1 Corinthians 3:11 we are told "other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ;" and in Ephesians 2:20 we read "Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone
Light - This is another of the characters of the Lord Jesus Christ; for as Jesus is the life, so is he the light of men. In like manner, he is the first to cause light to shine out of darkness in the new creation, when the day spring from on high first shines in upon the soul, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ
Simeon - The Holy Ghost had assured him, that he should not die before he had seen the Christ of the Lord; he therefore came into the temple, prompted by inspiration, just at the time when Joseph and Mary presented Jesus Christ there, in obedience to the law. It is believed, with good reason, that he died soon after he had given his testimony to Jesus Christ. Some have conjectured, that Simeon, who received Jesus Christ into his arms, was the same as Simeon the Just, the son of Hillel, and master of Gamaliel, whose disciple St
Mormons - A large group who refused the leadership of Young formed the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Both bodies accept the following doctrines: belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son, and in the Holy Ghost; belief that men will be punished for their own sins, not for Adam's, and that through the atonement of Christ all men can be saved by obeying the ordinances of the gospel. The ecclesiastical organization is based upon the priesthood, which is "the power delegated to man by virtue of which he has authority to act or officiate in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ as His representative. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints advocates the doctrine of polygamy
Latter Day Saints - A large group who refused the leadership of Young formed the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Both bodies accept the following doctrines: belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son, and in the Holy Ghost; belief that men will be punished for their own sins, not for Adam's, and that through the atonement of Christ all men can be saved by obeying the ordinances of the gospel. The ecclesiastical organization is based upon the priesthood, which is "the power delegated to man by virtue of which he has authority to act or officiate in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ as His representative. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints advocates the doctrine of polygamy
Aera - The aera in general use among the Christians is that from the birth of Jesus Christ, concerning the true time of which chronologers differ; some place it two years, others four, and again others five, before the vulgar aera, which is fixed for the year of the world 4004: but Archbishop Usher, and after him the generality of modern chronologers, place it in the year of the world 4000. The aera of the first olympiad is placed in the year of the world...
3228, and before the vulgar aera of Jesus Christ 776. The taking of Troy by the Greeks, in the year of the world 2820, and before Jesus Christ 1884. The aera of Alexander the Great, or his last victory over Darius, in...
3674, and before Jesus Christ 330
Life, Bread of - The Eucharist, the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, contained really and substantially under the appearances of bread and wine
Barnabas, Epistles of - ...
The Gospel of Barnabas is another apocryphal work ascribed to Barnabas, wherein the history of Jesus Christ is given in a different manner from that of the evangelists
Salvation - In the New Testament it is specially used with reference to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin wrought out by Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" (Hebrews 2:3 )
Evidently - Acts 10:3 ‘He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day’; Galatians 3:1 ‘before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth
Impeccability - Divines have distinguished several kinds of impeccability: that of God belongs to him by nature: that of Jesus Christ, considered as man, belongs to him by the hypostatical union; that of the blessed, in consequence of their condition, &c
Jesus - ...
"'Jesus Christ' occurs only in Matthew 1:1,18 ; 16:21 , marg. 'Lord Jesus' is the normal usage, as in Acts 8:16 ; 19:5,17 ; see also the reports of the words of Stephen, Acts 7:59 , of Ananias, Acts 9:17 , and of Paul, Acts 16:31 ; though both Peter, Acts 10:36 , and Paul, Acts 16:18 , also used 'Jesus Christ. In the Epistles of James, Peter John, and Jude, men who had companied with the Lord in the days of His flesh, 'Jesus Christ' is the invariable order (in the RV) of the Name and Title, for this was the order of their experience; as 'Jesus' they knew Him first, that He was Messiah they learnt finally in His resurrection. Thus 'Christ Jesus' describes the Exalted One who emptied Himself, Philippians 2:5 , and testifies to His pre-existence; 'Jesus Christ' describes the despised and rejected One Who was afterwards glorified, Philippians 2:11 , and testifies to His resurrection. 'Christ Jesus' suggests His grace, 'Jesus Christ' suggests His glory
Christ Jesus: the Marrow of Theology - On his death-bed, he was heard to say to a friend, 'Ah, my theology is reduced to this narrow compass: Jesus Christ came into the world to save
Raven - Isaiah 49:16 (a) The indelible and ineffaceable marks of Calvary are forever to be seen in the hands of the Lord Jesus Christ
Room - Psalm 31:8 (a) No doubt this refers to the liberty, power and freedom which that soul experiences which meets Jesus Christ, and is set free by the Son of GOD
Leaven - (See Exodus 12:15-19) No doubt this had a gospel signification, and was intended to teach, that nothing would be permitted to leaven or mingle with the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ, for acceptance before God
Immortality - ...
--Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel
Resurrection - ) Especially, the rising again from the dead; the resumption of life by the dead; as, the resurrection of Jesus Christ; the general resurrection of all the dead at the Day of Judgment
Justify - The act of God's free grace, whereby he freely pardons the sinner, and justifies him in Christ notwithstanding all his own unworthiness and transgressions; delivering him both from the guilt of sin, the dominion of sin, and the punishment due to sin; accepting him in Christ, and thus blessing him in and through the finished salvation of Jesus Christ our Lord
Lord - Jesus Christ, as the Messiah, the Son of God, and equal with the Father, is often called Lord in Scripture, especially in the writing of Paul
Raven - Isaiah 49:16 (a) The indelible and ineffaceable marks of Calvary are forever to be seen in the hands of the Lord Jesus Christ
Ancient of Days - (Daniel 7:9; Dan 7:13; Dan 7:22) Some have thought that the person of God the Father is meant, and it should seem to be so, because it is also said, that One like the Son of man, (a well known character of the Lord Jesus Christ) came to him. But others, considering the thrones spoken of in this chapter as the thrones of the house of David, and all judgment being committed to the Son, for the Father judgeth no man, (see John 5:22) they have concluded, that it must be the Lord Jesus Christ which is spoken of under this glorious name
Red Scapular of the Passion - This scapular owes its origin to a series of apparitions of Jesus Christ to a Sister of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul in 1846 in which He showed the sister a scapular, and promised to all who should wear it on every Friday a great increase of faith, hope, and charity. On one half is a picture of Our Crucified Lord with the implements of His Passion and the words "Holy Passion of Jesus Christ, Save Us"; on the other are represented the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and above these a cross with the inscription: "Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, protect us
Scapular of the Passion (Red) - This scapular owes its origin to a series of apparitions of Jesus Christ to a Sister of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul in 1846 in which He showed the sister a scapular, and promised to all who should wear it on every Friday a great increase of faith, hope, and charity. On one half is a picture of Our Crucified Lord with the implements of His Passion and the words "Holy Passion of Jesus Christ, Save Us"; on the other are represented the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and above these a cross with the inscription: "Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, protect us
Cornelius - God saw that Cornelius was seeking a better understanding of him, so sent Peter to tell him of Jesus Christ and lead him to complete salvation (Acts 10:1-8). ...
Peter told Cornelius of what Jesus Christ had done for the world through his life, death and resurrection
Ancilla Domini Sisters - (Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ) A community founded by Catherine Kaspar, at Dernbach, Germany, 1851, for the education of the young and the care of the aged and infirm
Shiloh - Genesis 49:10 (a) This name is given to the Lord Jesus Christ
Ark - For the same apostle elsewhere saith, that he "saw no temple in heaven? (Revelation 11:19 with Revelation 21:22) The ark of Noah, as well as that of Moses, were types of the Lord Jesus Christ. " Faith in what? Surely, faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Never is it said in the word of God of more than one ark; no more than one Lord Jesus Christ
Lives of Christ - The Jesuit Father de Ligny published at Avignon before 1788, his "Histoire de la Vie de Notre Seigneur Jesus Christ," which was again published in Paris, 1830. Griffeth (Longmans, 1891); "The Life of Christ," by Monsignor Le Camus, translated by Father (later Bishop) Hickey (New York, 1907); "Jesus Christ," by Pere Didon, O. , entitled "L'Evangile de Jesus Christ" (Paris, 1928). , "Jesus Christ, Sa Personne, Son Message, Ses Preuves" (Paris, 1928). ...
The text of the "Life of Jesus Christ" by the late Father Maas, S. , "The Life of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Meditation" (Herder, 1909)
Detachment - Beyond these is that of the highest perfection, carried often to renunciation and actual privation, imitating through love the perfect poverty of Jesus Christ
Good Friday - A fast of the Christian church, in memory of the sufferings and death of Jesus Christ
Adder - Hence, when the Lord Jesus Christ is said to bruise Satan, it is described under the similitude of "treading on the lion and the adder
Nicodemus - a disciple of Jesus Christ, a Jew by nation, and a Pharisee, John 3:1 , &c
Eutychians - He did not, however, seem quite steady and consistent in his sentiments; for he appeared to allow of two natures, even before the union, which was apparently a consequence he drew from the principles of the Platonic philosophy, which supposes a pre-existence of souls: accordingly he believed that the soul of Jesus Christ had been united to the Divinity before the incarnation; but then he allowed no distinction of natures in Jesus Christ since his incarnation
Sethians - Heretics who paid divine worship to Seth, whom they looked upon to be Jesus Christ, the Son of God, but who was made by a third divinity, and substituted in the room of the two families of Abel and Cain, which had been destroyed by the deluge
Ephra - The Lord, he saith, will give them Pheer for Epher; that is, beauty for ashes; meaning the blessed change wrought by grace in the soul, when from sin they are brought to salvation in the Lord Jesus Christ
Jude, Theology of - Jude wrote this urgent letter to counter ungodly persons who turned the grace of God into lawlessness, and by their audacious blasphemy denied the Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore they continue to engage in spiritual discipline and anticipate the coming of Jesus Christ, at which time God will present the faithful to himself as a holy and rejoicing people. It is motivated by the love of God, implemented by the Spirit, and completed by the mercy of Jesus Christ. ...
The called are required to be faithful by adhering to the apostolic faith, living under the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ (vv. In contrast, the unfaithful—like Israel in the wilderness—place themselves under the judgment of God by presuming on his grace, neglecting spiritual discipline, and repudiating Jesus Christ in word and deed (v. He keeps the faithful for Jesus Christ (v. ...
Jesus Christ is the sovereign Lord over the church. It is evidenced by Jude, who addresses these churches as a servant of Jesus Christ and as a brother of James, the renowned leader of the church in Jerusalem (Acts 15:13 ; 21:18 ). ...
The second person of the Trinity is "our Lord Jesus Christ" (vv. Jude emphasizes this by the use of two nouns, both "Master" (despotes [5,9, and especially 14), Jude's use of "Lord" may imply a reference to Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of the typological message of the texts, and the unity of Father and Son. ...
Jesus Christ is the Lord of the Church, and the mediator between God and the faithful. It is for Jesus Christ and his day that God is keeping the faithful (v
Solomon - But the greatest improvement we can make of the view of Solomon, is to consider him in those features of his character which were typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. "Remember (saint Paul to Timothy) that Jesus Christ, of the seed of David, was raised from the dead according to my gospel. " (Zechariah 6:13)...
But when we have looked at Solomon, king of Israel, as in those and the like instances, as becoming a lively type of the ever-blessed Jesus, and see in our Lord Jesus Christ a greater than Solomon in every one, I would request the reader to detach from the person and character of David's son all that belongs not to him in those Scriptures, and particularly in the book of the Psalms, which are as if directed to him and spoken of him, but certainly with him have nothing to do. I know that some commentators have supposed that what is there said is said first of Solomon, king of Israel, and secondly in an higher sense of the Lord Jesus Christ. But oh, what a degradation of the subject is it thus to suppose! Oh, what indignity is thereby offered to the Lord Jesus Christ! I have said so much on this point in my Poor Man's Commentary on the Book of the Psalms, that I think it unnecessary in this place to enlarge; but I could not suffer the subject even in this little work, while speaking of Solomon, to pass by without remarking the great perversion of the Scripture to suppose that there is in those things the least reference to Solomon, king of Israel
Christ the King, Feast of - Iesu Christi universorum Regis...
Our Lord Jesus Christ King of All ...
Memorial last Sunday in the liturgical year...
formerly the last Sunday in October ...
About the Feast Instituted to give public homage to Christ, the Ruler of the world, by Pope Pius XI, 1925
Feast of Christ the King - Iesu Christi universorum Regis...
Our Lord Jesus Christ King of All ...
Memorial last Sunday in the liturgical year...
formerly the last Sunday in October ...
About the Feast Instituted to give public homage to Christ, the Ruler of the world, by Pope Pius XI, 1925
Shiggaion - But as both prophets, David and Habakkuk, are celebrating things of higher moment than what relates to themselves, I cannot but be led to believe the word itself hath a reference, and the Scriptures connected with this title, to the Lord Jesus Christ
Incorruptibles - Their distinguishing tenet was, that the body of Jesus Christ was incorruptible; by which they meant, that, after and from the time wherein he was formed in the womb of his mother, he was not susceptible of any change or alteration; not even of any natural or innocent passion, as of hunger, thirst, &c
Evangelical Protestant Association of Congregation - They believe in the Gospel of Jesus Christ, protesting against any compulsion in matters of faith and conscience, and granting to everyone the privilege of individual examination and research
Evangelical Protestant Churches of North America - They believe in the Gospel of Jesus Christ, protesting against any compulsion in matters of faith and conscience, and granting to everyone the privilege of individual examination and research
German Evangelical Ministers' Conference - They believe in the Gospel of Jesus Christ, protesting against any compulsion in matters of faith and conscience, and granting to everyone the privilege of individual examination and research
German Evangelical Protestant Ministers' Associati - They believe in the Gospel of Jesus Christ, protesting against any compulsion in matters of faith and conscience, and granting to everyone the privilege of individual examination and research
Centurion - Some even became believers in Jesus Christ (Matthew 8:5-13; Matthew 27:54; Acts 10:1-2; Acts 23:17-18; Acts 27:43)
New Life - God has brought his people salvation in Jesus Christ, a gift that is described throughout the Scriptures as new life. Used in conjunction with zoe [2], kainos [3]describes the essence of what God has done through Jesus Christ: he has given his children new life. The new age promised by the prophets came in Jesus Christ, the new Adam
Saviour - The peculiar name and character of our Lord Jesus Christ, including most evidently both natures, God and man, and thereby forming one Christ. Had he not been God, how should he have been able to save, for who less than God can save? And had he not been man, there would not have been a suitability in the Lord Jesus Christ for such an office, justice so requiring that the same nature which sinned, and broke the divine law, should atone and make ample restoration. "...
In this view of the Lord Jesus Christ as a Saviour, it is blessed to behold not only the ability, in perfection of character and completeness of work, in the person of the Lord Jesus, but also the authority by which he came and accomplished the glorious office of a Saviour
Blessing - The Christian can say, God hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in the heavenlies in Christ," Ephesians 1:3 ; but the same verse says, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," meaning "Thanks be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ
Generation - "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David," Matthew 1:1 , is the genealogy of Jesus Christ, and the history of his life
Uphaz - (Song of Song of Solomon 5:11) And John's account of the Lord Jesus Christ is much to the same amount
Gospel: Jesus the Sum of - Jesus Christ must be set forth evidently crucified among them
Obed - He was an ancestor of Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:5 ; Luke 3:32 )
Hay - Many of these activities in the name of Christianity will not stand the test of GOD's judgment, but will be destroyed in the day when GOD judges the secrets of men by Jesus Christ
Crucify - Romans 6:6 (b) This expression is used to impart the wonderful truth that when the sinner believes GOD, confesses his need, and trusts in the Lord Jesus Christ, GOD reckons that he died with CHRIST on the Cross, and therefore has been punished in the person of CHRIST for his sins
Mount Horeb - ) Here the Lord seemed to stand, as if to intimate that the law was given by Moses, "but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ
Ammin'Adab -
Son of Ram or Aram, and father of Nahshon, or NAASSON (as it is written) (Matthew 1:4 ; Luke 3:32 ); (Numbers 1:7 ; 2:3 ; Ruth 4:19,20 ; 1 Chronicles 2:10 ) One of the ancestors of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ - The divinity of Jesus Christ seems evident, if we consider, ...
1. If Jesus Christ were not God, the writers of the New Testament discovered great injudiciousness in the choice of their words, and adopted a very incautions and dangerous style. The whole world, except the small kingdom of Judea, worshipped idols at the time of Jesus Christ's appearance. Jesus Christ; the evangelists, who wrote his history; and the apostles, who wrote epistles to various classes of men, proposed to destroy idolatry, and to establish the worship of one only living and true God. Hence Paul and Barnabas rent their clothes at the very idea of the multitude's confounding the creature with the Creator, Acts 14:1-28 : The writers of the New Testament knew that in speaking of Jesus Christ, extraordinary caution was necessary; yet, when we take up the New Testament, we find such expressions as these: "The word was God, John 1:1 . Jesus Christ is Lord of all, Acts 10:36 . " These are a few of many propositions, which the New Testament writers lay down relative to Jesus Christ. If the writers intended to affirm the divinity of Jesus Christ, these are words of truth and soberness; if not, the language is incautious and unwarrantable; and to address it to men prone to idolatry, for the purpose of destroying idolatry, is a strong presumption against their inspiration. It is remarkable, also, that the richest words in the Greek language are made use of to describe Jesus Christ. In the time of Jesus Christ, the Jews were zealous defenders of the unity of God, and of that idea of his perfections which the Scriptures excited. Jesus Christ and his apostles professed the highest regard for the Jewish Scriptures; yet the writers of the New Testament described Jesus Christ by the very names and titles by which the writers of the Old Testament had described the Supreme God. If they who described Jesus Christ to the Jews by these sacred names and titles intended to convey an idea of his deity, the description is just and the application safe; but if they intended to describe a mere man, they were surely of all men the most preposterous. Compare the perfections which are ascribed to Jesus Christ in the Scriptures, with those which are ascribed to God. Jesus Christ declares, "All things that the Father hath are mine, " John 16:15 . If Jesus Christ be God, the ascription of the perfections of God to him is proper; if he be not, the apostles are chargeable with weakness or wickedness, and either would destroy their claim of inspiration. Consider the works that are ascribed to Jesus Christ, and compare them with the claims of Jehovah. Is creation a work of God? "By Jesus Christ were all things created, " Colossians 1:1-29 . Is preservation a work of God? "Jesus Christ upholds all things by the word of his power, " Hebrews 1:3 . Is the mission of the prophets a work of God? Jesus Christ is the Lord God of the holy prophets; and it was the Spirit of Christ which testified to them beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow, Nehemiah 9:30 . The same might be said of the illumination of the mind; the sanctification of the heart; the resurrection of the dead: the judging of the world; the glorification of the righteous; the eternal punishment of the wicked; all which works, in one part of Scripture, are ascribed to God; and all which, in another part of Scripture, are ascribed to Jesus Christ. Now, if Jesus Christ be not God, into what contradictions these writers must fall! They contradict one another: they contradict themselves. Either Jesus Christ is God, or their conduct is unaccountable. Consider that divine worship which Scriptures claim for Jesus Christ. But what has John the Baptist to do with all this description if Jesus Christ be only a messenger of Jehovah, and not Jehovah himself? for Isaiah saith, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah. Allow Jesus Christ to be God, and all these applications are proper. Examine whether events have justified that notion of Christianity which the prophets gave their countrymen of it, if Jesus Christ be not God. If Jesus Christ be God, the event answers the prophecy; if not, the event is not come to pass, for Christians in general worship Jesus, which is idolatry, if he be not God, Isaiah 2:1-22 : Zephaniah 2:11 . Lastly, consider what numberless passages of Scripture have no sense, or a very absurd one, if Jesus Christ be a mere man. ...
But though Jesus Christ be God, yet for our sakes, and for our salvation, he took upon him human nature; this is therefore called his humanity. We now proceed to the character of Jesus Christ, which, while it affords us the most pleasing subject for meditation
Christ - After the Resurrection He was spoken of as Jesus Christ, and pagans who knew not the import of the word for anointed often referred to Him not as Christos, but, regarding His character and leadership, as Chrestus (the excellent one)
Nathanael - (Hebrew: God has given) ...
A disciple of Jesus Christ, from Cana in Galilee (John 21), praised by Our Divine Lord as "an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile" (John 1), and enumerated among the Apostles as a witness to the miraculous draught of fishes, after the Resurrection (John 21)
End - (Revelation 21:6) And when we consider in how many ways the Lord is, both the beginning and the end, the Alpha and the Omega, surely it is very blessed to make him, what the Father hath made him, as the Mediator and head of his church and people, the first and the last in all our pursuits, affections, and designs: Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, today, and for ever
Lord - ln Acts 10:48, He is referred to as the Lord Jesus Christ
Petrojoannites - His opinions were, that he alone had the knowledge of the true sense wherein the apostles preached the Gospel; that the reasonable soul is not the form of man; that there is no grace infused by baptism; and that Jesus Christ was pierced with a lance on the cross before he expired
Week - In this way they called attention to the resurrection of their Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 24:1-7 )
Powder - ...
Luke 20:18 (a) By this figure the Lord is explaining to us the tragedy of being an enemy of Jesus Christ
Word - John 1:1 (a) This is a personification of the Lord Jesus Christ
Unreproveable - That point is settled the moment Jesus Christ becomes the Lord and the Saviour of the believer
Marcosians - Out of these they picked several idle fables touching the infancy of Jesus Christ, which they put off for true histories
Ages of the World - AGES OF THE WORLD...
There have been generally reckoned six ages from the creation of the world to the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ
Ambassador - Ministers of the Gospel are called ambassadors, because, in the name of Jesus Christ the King of kings, they declare his will to men, and propose the terms of their reconciliation to God, 2 Corinthians 5:20 ; Ephesians 6:20
Revelation - Isaiah 25:7 ; (b) 'the mystery,' the purpose of God in this age, Romans 16:25 ; Ephesians 3:3 ; (c) the communication of the knowledge of God to the soul, Ephesians 1:17 ; (d) an expression of the mind of God for the instruction of the church, 1 Corinthians 14:6,26 , for the instruction of the Apostle Paul, 2 Corinthians 12:1,7 ; Galatians 1:12 , and for his guidance, Galatians 2:2 ; (e) the Lord Jesus Christ, to the saints at His Parousia, 1 Corinthians 1:7 , RV (AV, 'coming'); 1 Peter 1:7 , RV (AV, 'appearing'),13; 4:13; (f) the Lord Jesus Christ when He comes to dispense the judgments of God, 2 Thessalonians 1:7 ; cp
Abraham - The servant represents the Holy Spirit, and Isaac represents the Lord Jesus Christ. The Holy Spirit knocks at the heart's door, tells of the loveliness, the riches and the glory of the Son of GOD, and thus wins the stranger and makes him willing to leave his old haunts and companions to live for and with Jesus Christ, the Son
Burnt Offering - It represents our entire self being acceptable to GOD in the person of the perfect Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Isaiah 40:16 (c) If all the thousands of animals on the broad slopes of Lebanon were gathered together to make a burnt offering to GOD, this tremendous sacrifice would not be sufficient to put away one sin, nor would it equal the offering of the Lord Jesus Christ for our sins
Epoch - The first epoch is the creation of the world, which, according to the Vulgate Bible, Archbishop Usher fixes in the year 710 of the Julian period, and 4004 years before Jesus Christ. 536; and the birth of Jesus Christ, A
Grace - Divine grace is the free and undeserved love and favor of God towards man as a sinner, especially as exhibited in the plan of redemption through Jesus Christ, John 1:17 3:16 Romans 3:24-26 . With it are united "the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ," who gave himself for sinners; and that of "the Spirit of grace," by whom alone the grace offered by the Father and purchased by the Son is effectually applied
Leper - ...
Leviticus 13:44 (b) It is quite evident that the decision concerning the state of any man must come from the High Priest Himself, Jesus Christ. ...
Leviticus 14:2 (b) Every sinner must come to Jesus Christ for cleansing. Jesus Christ alone has the final and the official word
Jude, Epistle of - The Epistle is addressed to "the called ones, beloved in God the Father and preserved in Jesus Christ. Ungodly ones had crept in, who abused the grace of God, and denied their only Master and Lord Jesus Christ. The saints were to build up themselves on their most holy faith; and by prayer in the Holy Spirit to keep themselves experimentally in the love of God, awaiting the mercy of the Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life
Holiness as a Mark of the Church - One of the four marks by which the true Church of Jesus Christ can be recognized and distinguished from false Churches
Samson - A well-known character in the Old Testament: in one grand instance, as a Nazarite, a type of the Lord Jesus Christ
Mercy Seat - Exodus 25:17 (a) Here we see a type of the Lord Jesus Christ in Whom centers all the mercy of GOD and through Whom we receive mercy from GOD
Mammon - We meet with this word two or three times in the gospel, as used by our Lord Jesus Christ in a figurative manner
Sockets - Evidently the spiritual meaning of the passage is that our Lord Jesus Christ, concerning whom this passage was written, will never fail, will never weaken, and they in turn are supported by the pure gold of Deity
Stakes - Isaiah 33:20 (c) By this lovely type we learn how secure is that one who belongs to the Lord Jesus Christ and is kept by the power of GOD through faith unto salvation
Ungodly - He may be quite religious in his outward actions, and yet have no knowledge personally of Jesus Christ
Adonai - This is one of the names peculiarly applied to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ
Breath - This word is sometimes made use of in Scripture in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ
Augustus - This is the emperor who appointed the enrolment mentioned Luke 2:1 , which obliged Joseph and the Virgin Mary to go to Bethlehem, the place where Jesus Christ was born
Anathema Maranatha - "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha," 1 Corinthians 16:22
Duke - 137), ‘Jesus Christ, duke of oure batel
Pha'Rez - From Hezron's second son Ram, or Aram, sprang David and the kings of Judah, and eventually Jesus Christ
Son of God - This title is continually given to the Lord Jesus Christ, and as appropriated by him it is a full proof of his divinity. See Jesus Christ
Armour - We are to put on the Lord Jesus Christ ( Romans 13:14). Our faith is in the Lord Jesus Christ ( Acts 20:21). The sword is the Word which comes from the mouth of our Lord Jesus Christ ( Revelation 19:15)
Malachi - The point cannot be determined, for it is well known, that the Lord Jesus Christ himself, as well as his messenger, is spoken of by this same word in the third chapter and first verse. And as we well know that Jesus Christ is the all in all of the covenant, both the angel or messenger of it; the fulfiller of it; the sum and substance of it; the administrator of it; in all present and everlasting concerns; we do no violence to the expression, when we express Christ's personal offices in the great work of redemption, by all and every term of character that can tend to bring home the Lord Jesus to our affections, in the most endeared and endearing manner. ...
It may not be improper to observe respecting Malachi, the prophet, that his services were exercised about three hundred and fifty years before the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ
Seleucians - He taught, with the Valentinians, that Jesus Christ assumed a body only in appearance
Gospel (Simple): the Need of the Wisest - ' 'What!' said Bengel, 'a divinity student, and not able to communicate a word of scriptural comfort!' The student, abashed, contrived to utter the text, 'The blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, cleanseth us from all sin
Consistency - ' ...
Carnal ease and worldly wisdom are not becoming in the soldier of Jesus Christ
Onion - The world seeks to feed on these things rather than on the Lord Jesus Christ, His Word, and His Work
Supper - It is typical of the fulness of grace set forth in our Lord Jesus Christ, to enjoy which Israel were first invited, and afterwards the poor and outcast were compelled to come and taste in God's house
Preachers: Not to Preach Themselves - Francis of Assisi, who nevertheless was represented as saying, 'God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ
Galilee - It was the native land of Jesus Christ, the cradle of the Christian Faith, where He began His ministry and performed many of His miracles, and from whence came His Apostles
Zeal - We can have no lively idea of this word, but as it is made use of by the Lord Jesus Christ
Orpah - Ruth's Seed - Jesus Christ - is the name at which every knee shall bow (Philippians 2:10)
Acrostic - The poem of the Erythrrean Sibyl thus produced the Greek words for "Jesus ChrIst, Son of God, Saviour, which also in turn yielded the letters ICHTHUS (fish), a mystical symbol of Our Lord
Needlework, - It is typical of the graces and glories which combine in the person of our great High Priest the Lord Jesus Christ
Dreamer of Dreams - as to the gospel and the confession of Jesus Christ come in flesh
Heifer - Genesis 15:9 (c) In this way we may understand the service character of the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Numbers 19:2-4 (c) This may be taken as a picture of the Lord Jesus Christ as a strong, vigorous youth
Renew - His is the blessed act to bring the heart savingly acquainted with the person, offices, characters, and relations of the Lord Jesus Christ. " I hope the reader hath not now for the first time to learn acquaintance with this divine office of the Holy Ghost, but can say with the apostle, "the Lord, according to his mercy, hath saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost, which he hath shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour
Socinians - They maintain "that Jesus Christ was a mere man, who had no existence before he was conceived by the Virgin Mary; that the Holy Ghost is no distinct person; but that the Father is truly and properly God. They own that the name of God is given in the holy Scriptures to Jesus Christ, but contend that it is only a deputed title, which, however, invests him with a great authority over all created beings. Some of the writers on the Socinian doctrine, besides the above-mentioned, have been, Haynes in his Scripture Account of the Attributes and Worship of God, and of the Character and Offices of Jesus Christ; Dr. Hornbeck's Confutation of Socinianism; Calovius's Ditto; Macgowan's Socinianism brought to the Test; and books under articles ARIANS and Jesus Christ
Fellowship - ...
First, the fact and experience of Christian fellowship only exists because God the Father through Jesus Christ, the Son, and by/in the Spirit has established in grace a relation (a "new covenant") with humankind. And those who are thus "in Christ" (as the apostle Paul often states) are in communion not only with Jesus Christ (and the Father) in the Spirit but also with one another. ...
By his sacrificial death and glorious resurrection/exaltation, Jesus Christ brought into being a new creation, a new order, and a new epoch. That is, they point specifically to the supernatural life of God given to and shared with humankind through Jesus Christ in the Holy Spirit. Perhaps the clearest theological use of koinonia [1] is in 1 John 1:3-6 , where we read that when we walk in the light truly our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ and that this relation of grace has profound implications for daily living. ...
In Paul's letters we find that the apostle emphasizes the faithfulness of the call of God the Father in the gospel "into fellowship with his Son Jesus Christ our Lord" (1 Corinthians 1:9 ). The character of this fellowship is made clear in the celebration of the Lord's Supper, the Holy Communion, where there is intimate fellowship or communion with Jesus Christ, the exalted Lord, and with those who are "in Christ, " for those who faithfully participate (1 Corinthians 10:16-17 ). Here is not a mere act of historical memory and imagination but a real and vital union and communion with Jesus Christ, the exalted Head of the Body. ...
Fellowship with Jesus Christ also entails fellowship in his sufferings (Philippians 3:10 ; cf. ...
Paul also points to a fellowship in the Spirit (2 Corinthians 13:14 ; Philippians 2:1 ), a dynamic experience that is inextricably related to receiving the love of the Father and the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son
Ministry, Minister - It is reasonably clear in Scripture that (1) ministry means the service of God and his creatures; (2) the one essential ministry is that of Jesus Christ; (3) the whole membership of the old and the new Israel is called to share in ministerial service, of which there are many forms; and (4) certain persons in both the old new Israel are set apart for special ministry, within the total ministry. Each of these ministries comes to fulfillment in Jesus Christ, who is himself the Prophet, Priest, and King. At the same time, the corporate ministry of Israel as a people finds fulfillment first in Jesus Christ as the new Israel and then in his body, the church. Jesus Christ came not to be ministered to but to minister (Matthew 20:28 ). ...
This diaconal ministry of Jesus Christ continued after his exaltation into heaven. ...
By three basic wordsdoulos [1]) of Jesus Christ. The Twelve were chosen, appointed, ordained, and sent by Jesus Christ himself. They facilitated the ministry of the whole church by being servants of Jesus Christ. Whether in the Old or New Testaments, ministry finds its meaning and expression in Jesus Christ
Monotheism - First and foremost in this system comes Christian Monotheism which began with the establishment of Christianity by Jesus Christ
Fish - These form what is called an acrostic, being the initial letters of Iesous CHristos, THeou Uios, Soter (Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour)
Palmarian Catholic Church - In 1978 he announced that he had been crowned Pope by Jesus Christ in a vision, and established his own Holy See in Seville, taking the name Gregory XVII and naming cardinals
Icthus - These form what is called an acrostic, being the initial letters of Iesous CHristos, THeou Uios, Soter (Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour)
Concubinage - 2 Chronicles 11:21 ; but ever since the abrogation of polygamy by Jesus Christ, and the reduction of marriage to its primitive institution, concubinage has been forbidden and condemned among Christians
Irdle - No doubt it is primarily a prophecy concerning the Lord Jesus Christ
Ospel - ) One of the four narratives of the life and death of Jesus Christ, written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
Captain - We meet this title in one passage of the word of God, and but one, as far as my memory chargeth me, applied to the Lord Jesus Christ; and that is in the second chapter of Hebrews, and the tenth verse
Anathema Maranatha - The apostle, therefore, in allusion to this custom, when speaking of those who love not the Lord Jesus Christ, as if no punishment he could think of would be equal to such horrible ingratitude and impiety, exclaims, Let him be Anathema Maranatha! The want of that love will be to him an everlasting source of bitterness
Adam, the Last - In contrast to the first man, Adam, who was made a living soul, the last Adam, the Lord Jesus Christ, was a life-giving Spirit: the first was natural; the second spiritual: the first man was of the earth, earthy; the second Man was out of heaven
Eutychians - The Nestorians having explained the two natures in Christ in such a manner as, in the opinion of many, to make them equivalent to two persons, which was an evident absurdity, Eutyches, to avoid this error, fell into the opposite extreme, and maintained that there was only one nature in Jesus Christ, the divine nature, which, according to him, had so entirely swallowed up the human, that the latter could not be distinguished
Ebionites - Ancient heretics, who rose in the church in the very first age thereof, and formed themselves into a sect in the second century, denying the divinity of Jesus Christ. Eusebius, with a view to the same etymology, is of opinion they were thus called, as having poor thoughts of Jesus Christ, taking him for no more than a mere man. for this reason, Origen distinguishes two kinds of Ebionites in his answer to Celsus; the one believed that Jesus Christ was born of a virgin; and the other, that he was born after the manner of other men
Mediator - The only person who can really do this is Jesus Christ. ...
With the coming of Jesus Christ, the covenant with Israel had fulfilled its purpose. God has now established a new and eternal covenant, Jesus Christ being the mediator (Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24)
Fall - The Christian is a part of the body of Jesus Christ, as is described fully in Ephesians. Professing Christians are attached to the church, or the people of GOD, as Judas was, but they are not a part of that living group known as the Church of Jesus Christ, or the body of the Lord JESUS
Foundation - Well might the apostle in the contemplation of it say, "Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, Jesus Christ. " (1 Corinthians 3:11) And blessed is the corresponding experience and testimony of true believers in the heart, when built upon the foundations of apostles and prophets, "Jesus Christ being the chief corner-stone; they are in all the building fitly framed, and growing together unto an holy temple in the Lord
Antichrist - Towards the end of the first century, certain false teachers denied that Jesus Christ was fully divine and fully human. He is destined to perish in judgment at the return of Jesus Christ, and is therefore called also ‘the son of perishing’ (2 Thessalonians 2:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Revelation 19:20)
Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ - Some acknowledging, with the orthodox, that in Jesus Christ there is a divine nature, a rational soul, and a human body, go into an opinion peculiar to themselves. They differ from the Socinians, who believe no existence of Jesus Christ before his incarnation; they differ from the Sabellians, who only own a trinity of names: they differ also from the generally received opinion, which is, that Christ's human soul began to exist in the womb of his mother, in exact conformity to that likeness unto his brethren of which St. It seems needful, say those who embrace this opinion, that the soul of Jesus Christ should preexist, that it might have an opportunity to give its previous actual consent to the great and painful undertaking of making atonement for our sins. If Jesus Christ had nothing in common, like the rest of mankind except a body, how could this semi-conformity make him a real man?...
4. The passages quoted in proof of the preexistence of the human soul of Jesus Christ, are of the same sort with those which others allege in proof of the preexistence of all human souls
John, Letters of - He had been influenced by Gnostic ideas concerning the relation between spirit and matter, and as a result developed wrong beliefs concerning Jesus Christ. Believing God to be pure and matter to be evil, he denied that Jesus Christ could be heavenly and earthly at the same time. ...
Contents of 1 John...
From the beginning of his letter, John emphasizes the two areas of Christian truth that were under attack – the eternal godhead yet full manhood of Jesus Christ (1:1-4) and the obligation on Christians to live pure, disciplined, obedient lives (1:5-2:6). ...
God’s people must recognize that those with wrong teaching about Jesus Christ are of the devil (2:18-29), and so too are those who encourage Christians to sin (3:1-10). Right belief is also necessary for assurance (5:1-5), and this belief centres on the uniqueness of Jesus Christ and his work (5:6-12)
Eighth Day - Luke records the fact that both Jesus Christ (Luke 2:21) and His forerunner John the Baptist (Luke 1:59 ff
Christ: Our Only Rest - My heart can have no rest, unless it leans on Jesus Christ wholly, and then it feels his peace
Biddelians - He taught that Jesus Christ, to the intent that he might be our brother, and have a fellow-feeling of our infirmities, and so become the more ready to help us, hath no other than a human nature; and therefore in this very nature is not only a person, since none but a human person can be our brother, but also our Lord and God
Reproach - All good men have thus suffered, Jesus Christ himself especially
Holocaust - The chief purpose of the holocaust was ...
to recall vividly to the Hebrews of old the supreme dominion of God over His creatures;
a means of atonement for sin; and
to foreshadow the sacrifice which Jesus Christ, the true Lamb of God, was to offer in fulfilment of all the bloody sacrifices of the first covenant (Hebrews 9)
Distraction - On the supposition of the truth of the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, irreligion is nothing better than distraction
Photinians - He asserted that Jesus Christ was born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary; that a certain divine emanation, which he called the Word, descended upon him: and that, because of the union of the Divine Word with his human nature, he was called the Son of God, and even God himself; and that the Holy Ghost was not a person, but merely a celestial virtue proceeding from the Deity
Medicine - Only that which is provided by GOD through Jesus Christ, and administered by the Holy Spirit will succeed in curing the ills of society
Believer - " The same Greek word is constantly used for those that believe on the Lord Jesus Christ to the saving of their souls, as in John 3:15-18
Skin - We are clothed with the garments of salvation, and with the robe of righteousness when we trust Jesus Christ, and He becomes the Lord of our lives
Almaricians - His adversaries charged him with having taught that every Christian was obliged to believe himself a member of Jesus Christ, and that without this belief none could be saved
Acts of Pilate - A relation sent by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, concerning Jesus Christ, his death, resurrection, ascension, and the crimes of which he was convicted before him
Jacobites - As to their belief, they hold but one nature in Jesus Christ with respect to purgatory, and prayers for the dead, they are of the same opinion with the Greeks and other eastern Christians
Jordan - That sacred river where the Lord Jesus Christ was baptized
Romans - This epistle is designed to correct certain misapprehensions, and to show that the system of Jewish rites and ceremonies is done away by the gospel dispensation, and that the way of salvation through Christ is opened alike to Jews and Gentiles, and that whosoever will may come directly and hopefully to Jesus Christ for salvation and pardon from sin
Perez - His importance consists in his being the ancestor of David through Boaz and Ruth, and then of Jesus Christ
Victory - Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ
Nathan'Ael - (gift of God ), a disciple of Jesus Christ, concerning whom, under that name at least, we learn from Scripture little more than his birthplace, Cana of Galilee, ( John 21:2 ) and his simple, truthful character
Apostle - The term is applied to Jesus Christ, who was God's envoy to save the world, Hebrews 3:1 ; though, more commonly, the title is given to persons who were envoys commissioned by the Savior himself. ...
The apostles of Jesus Christ were his chief disciples, whom he invested with authority, filled with his Spirit, entrusted particularly with his doctrines and services, and chose to raise the edifice of his church
Book of Life - Those whose names are in the book have been born into God's family through Jesus Christ (Hebrews 12:23 ; Revelation 13:8 ); remain faithful in worship of God (Revelation 13:8 ; Revelation 17:8 ); are untouched by the practice of abomination and falsehood (Revelation 21:27 ); are faithful through tribulation (Revelation 3:5 ); and are fellow workers in the work of Jesus Christ (Philippians 4:3 )
Feed - (Isaiah 44:20)...
But the general and principal use of the term in Scripture of feeding, is applied to the Lord Jesus Christ. " (Isaiah 44:11) And as feeding is a comprehensive expression, to denote every thing relating to the office of a shepherd, so whenever this act of love and attention is spoken of in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, it means to convey the whole of his character, both in his relation as a shepherd to his people, and the tenderness of his care over them
Dativus, Celebrated Senator - They confessed Jesus Christ, were chained, and sent to Carthage. He went on praying and begging Jesus Christ for patience
Adoption - In a much higher sense, since redemption has been wrought, those who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ are in the new creation sons by adoption, and the Spirit of God's Son is given them so that they can call God Abba Father, and not only be sons but know and enjoy the relationship with all its blessed privileges. All this is certain as to believers, for having been chosen in Christ Jesus they have been predestinated unto adoption by Jesus Christ to Himself according to the good pleasure of His will
Paul in Arabia - Now, it was something like that between Paul and Jesus Christ. Only, it was far better than that between Paul and Jesus Christ at the time, and it was far more lasting with them than it has been with you. Luther, who was almost as great a lover of Jesus Christ as Paul was, has this over and over again about Paul and Jesus Christ. "Jesus Christ is never out of Paul's mouth. Indeed, there is nobody and nothing now and always in Paul's mouth but Jesus Christ and His Cross. For, as often as Paul opens his Moses in Arabia, and finds the place he is seeking for, he cannot see the place when he has found it for Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ comes between Paul and everything. To Paul to read, and to meditate, and to pray, is Jesus Christ. So much so, that as soon as he finds the place at the very first verse of Genesis, he immediately goes off at the word, and exclaims, till the Arabs all around listen to his rapture,-the mystery! he exclaims, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ. And at this,-Let there be light! For God, he exclaims again, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts in the face of Jesus Christ. It was not Jesus Christ, so much, distinguishes Paul, that God revealed in him. Jesus Christ had revealed Himself to Paul already at the gate of Damascus, but God's revelation of His Son in Arabia was a revelation of far more than of Jesus Christ whom Paul was persecuting. The one, that grand and epoch-making revelation made on the way to Damascus, and made immediately by Jesus Christ, whom Paul was at that moment persecuting
Word - This Word is Jesus Christ, who came into the world as a human being. (For details see Jesus Christ; SON OF GOD. )...
The written and spoken Word...
Because God has spoken to the world through Jesus Christ, Jesus Christ is the Word
Father - By grace, however, He lovingly pardons us, adopts us as sons, and destines us to share in the life and beatitude of His only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ
Father, God the - By grace, however, He lovingly pardons us, adopts us as sons, and destines us to share in the life and beatitude of His only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ
John, First Epistle of - The purpose of the apostle (1:1-4) is to declare the Word of Life to those to whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ
Semi-Arians - They would not allow, with the orthodox, that the Son was of the same substance, but only of a like substance with the Father; and thus, though in expression they differed from the orthodox in a single letter only, yet in effect they denied the divinity of Jesus Christ
Liberty, Liberation - In the New Testament, God is the one who liberates people from bondage to sin through Jesus Christ
God the Father - By grace, however, He lovingly pardons us, adopts us as sons, and destines us to share in the life and beatitude of His only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ
Familiar - We cannot be on familiar terms with anyone who has died except our Lord Jesus Christ for He came back from the dead and called on us to have fellowship with Him
Gospel - ...
The history of the birth, life, actions, death, resurrection, ascension and doctrines of Jesus Christ or a revelation of the grace of God to fallen man through a mediator, including the character, actions, and doctrines of Christ, with the whole scheme of salvation, as revealed by Christ and his apostles
Hardness - Endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ
Japheth - And as from Shem, after the flesh, sprung Christ; so Japheth, who is supposed to be the father of the Gentiles, and as such, in this prophecy, may be supposed to represent the whole body of the Gentile church given to the Lord Jesus Christ, could only be brought into Christ's fold by Christ's power
Anathema - ' The solemn passage in 1 Corinthians 16 is "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be accursed, Maranatha (the Lord cometh)
Redeemer - See GOEL , See MEDIATOR , and See Jesus Christ
Access - It is used three times, (a) Romans 5:2 , of the "access" which we have by faith, through our Lord Jesus Christ, into grace; (b) Ephesians 2:18 , of our "access" in one Spirit through Christ, unto the Father; (c) Ephesians 3:12 , of the same "access," there said to be "in Christ," and which we have "in confidence through our faith in Him
Swedenborgians - The first and principal distinguishing doctrine contained in the writings of Baron Swedenborg, and maintained by his followers, relates to the person and character of Jesus Christ, and to the redemption wrought by him. On this subject it is insisted that Jesus Christ is Jehovah, manifested in the flesh; and that he came into the world to glorify his human nature, by making it one with the divine. It is therefore resisted farther that the humanity of Jesus Christ is itself divine, by virtue of its indissoluble union with the indwelling Father, agreeably to the testimony of St. Paul, that, "in Jesus Christ dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily," Colossians 2:9 ; and that thus, as to his humanity, he is the Mediator between God and man, since there is now no other medium of God's access to man, or of man's access to God, but this divine humanity, which was assumed for this purpose. Thus it is taught, that in the person of Jesus Christ dwells the whole Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; the Father constituting the soul of the above humanity, while the humanity itself is the Son, and the divine virtue or operation proceeding from it is the Holy Spirit; forming altogether one God, just as the soul, the body, and operation of man, form one man. They who receive this testimony concerning Jesus Christ therefore acknowledge no other God but him; and believe that in approaching his divine humanity, they approach, at the same time, and have communication with, all the fulness of the Godhead, seeing and worshipping the invisible in the visible, agreeably to the tenor of those words of Jesus Christ: "He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me; and he that seeth me, seeth him that sent me,"...
John 12:44-45 . It is farther endeavoured to be shown that Jesus Christ spake continually according to this same doctrine, veiling divine and spiritual truths under natural images, especially in his parables, and thus communicating to man the most important mysteries relative to himself and his kingdom, under the most beautiful and edifying figures taken from the natural things of this world. On this subject it is strongly and repeatedly insisted that evil must of necessity remain with man, and prove his eternal destruction, unless it be removed by sincere repentance, leading him to note what is disorderly in his own mind and life; and, when he has discovered it, to fight resolutely against its influence, in dependence on the aid and grace of Jesus Christ. A fourth doctrine inculcated in the same writings, is the cooperation on the part of man with the divine grace or agency of Jesus Christ. On this subject it is insisted that man ought not indolently to hang down his hands, under the idle expectation that God will do every thing for him in the way of purification and regeneration, without any exertion of his own; but that he is bound by the above law of cooperation to exert himself, as if the whole progress of his purification and regeneration depended entirely on his own exertions; yet, in exerting himself, he is continually to recollect, and humbly to acknowledge, that all his power to do so is from above, agreeably to the declaration of Jesus Christ, "Without me ye can do nothing," John 15:5 . In all such places particular forms of prayer have been adopted, in agreement with the ideas of the worshippers, as grounded in the religious sentiments above stated especially respecting the supreme object of adoration, who is acknowledged to be the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, in his divine humanity
Impute - and Saviour Jesus Christ" (the Greek, 2 Peter 1:1). Our advocate is not merely the gracious but "Jesus Christ the righteous" (1 John 2:1). "The righteousness of God, by faith of Jesus Christ, is unto all and upon all them that believe" (Romans 3:22; Romans 4:5-6), "faith (not for its own worthiness, but for that of Him on whom it rests) is counted for righteousness" (Romans 10:4; 1 Corinthians 1:30)
Surety - This is a very important term to be perfectly understood, from being the very character of our Lord Jesus Christ, who became the Surety for his church and people. (See Job 17:3; Proverbs 6:1-2) But I should not have thought it necessary to have introduced the subject in this place, had it not been with a view to have brought the reader into a more intimate acquaintance with the nature of a surety as it concerns the person of our Lord Jesus Christ. (Hebrews 7:22) By which we understand that in the antient settlement of eternity, the Lord Jesus Christ stood up at the call of his Father, the covenant Head and Surety of his people, to answer both for their debt and their duty
Lamp - , "Jesus Christ God
Trinity - That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit
Peace - This peace is the gift of God through Jesus Christ, 2 Thessalonians 3:16
Perfume - ...
Song of Solomon 3:6 (c) This no doubt refers to the loveliness of the Lord Jesus Christ who is admired by His people, and whose Name is as ointment poured forth
Mediation, Mediator - that the true nature of mediation is understood in the person of Jesus Christ
Eternal Life - "This is eternal life, that they may know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou has sent" (John 17:3)
Image - I should not have thought it necessary to have noticed this word, being in the general acception of it so very plain and obvious, had it not been so peculiarly made use of in relation to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, as "the Image of the invisible God
Cyprus - While they continued at Salamis, they preached Jesus Christ in the Jewish synagogues; from thence they visited all the cities of the island, preaching the Gospel
Access - Our access to God is by Jesus Christ, the way, the truth, and the life, Romans 5:2 ; Ephesians 2:18
Loins - at the revelation of Jesus Christ" (the present participle, "girding," is introductory to the rest of the verse)
Anathema - Another kind of anathema, very peculiarly expressed, occurs in 1 Corinthians 16:22 : "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be anathema
Son of Man - See Jesus Christ
Scapular of the Passion (Black) - It bears on the front half an exact replica of the badge of the Passion, namely a heart above a cross, on which is written "Jesu XPI Passio" and below "sit semper in cordibus nostris" (May the Passion of Jesus Christ be always in our hearts)
Supernatual Adoption - Unlike natural or legal adoption which alters the standing of the adopted one externally or socially, supernatural adoption affects our very life by transforming our soul into the likeness of Jesus Christ and making us His co-heirs to the kingdom of heaven
Manual Acts - "There cannotbe too great exactness and reverent formality on the part of thecelebrant in consecrating the elements by means of which, whenconsecrated, an acceptable sacrifice is to be carried up to theFather, and the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ receivedby the communicants
Peter, Second, Theology of - Jesus Christ will certainly appear, and those who have fallen from the faith will be judged along with this evil world. They have compounded their guilt and punishment by turning against Jesus Christ and by luring recent converts back into their original corruption (2:20-22). ...
Salvation is God's ability to protect the righteous and deliver them from their evil environment, like Noah and Lot (2:5,7-8), which will be completed at the appearing of Jesus Christ. It is the means by which the faithful increase in godly grace and in the true knowledge of Jesus Christ (3:17). ...
Jesus Christ is the beloved Son of the Father (1:17), the Lord over the apostles (1:10), the Lord and Savior of the church (1:8,11; 2:20), and the Lord of the eternal kingdom (1:11). ...
The church is governed by the authority of Jesus Christ mediated through the apostles (1:1; 3:2). Their primary task is to remind the churches of the apostolic teaching received from Jesus Christ (3:2) and to transmit it in a manner that will be effective even after their death (1:15)
Servant - I have another, and as I hope, a higher object for its introduction; I mean in relation to the person, work, and offices of the Lord Jesus Christ, as JEHOVAH'S servant, and the servant of his people, as set forth in these unequalled words of humility and tenderness, and which are Jesus own, when he said. " (Matthew 20:28)...
This view of the Lord Jesus, as JEHOVAH'S Servant, in the great work of redemption, and the servant of his people, opens to our contemplation, one of the most endearing and most affectionate in all the office-characters of our Lord Jesus Christ. "Listen O isles unto me; and harken ye people from far! the Lord hath called me, from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name; and said unto me, Thou art my Servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified?"...
Such then being plainly and evidently the case, that the Lord Jesus Christ is JEHOVAH'S Servant, it will be highly proper and important that every follower of the Lord Jesus Christ should have a just and right conception of the sense in which this is meant in Scripture. ...
And so far was this act of humiliation from lessening the infinite dignity of the Lord Jesus Christ, or in a single circumstance departing from his own essential power and GODHEAD, that had he not been God as well as man, he could not have been a suited person of JEHOVAH'S Servant. "...
I hope the reader will be able from this short relation of the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God, God and man united, to form full and just ideas of the sense in which it is, that our dear Redeemer is JEHOVAH'S Servant. And he is so fully and so completely JEHOVAH'S Servant, out of zeal to his Father's glory, and out of pure free unpurchased love to his church, his Spouse, that the proper knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ in his character, among all his other offices and characters, is life eternal
Justification - It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by God himself of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of his Representative and Surety, Jesus Christ (Romans 10:3-9 ). ...
The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or credited to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus Christ
Unpardonable Sin, the - It happens when a person sees a work that is without question God's work and not human work, but says it is Satan's work!...
What is the Holy Spirit's work? To point one to Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. That is why the invitation to trust Jesus Christ is always now
Melchizedek - A song of lavish praise, extravagant when applied to David, was fitting when applied to Jesus Christ. ...
Jesus Christ is a high priest after the order of Melchizedek, and his priesthood is complete and eternal
Propitiation - That propitiation made by Jesus Christ is that which atones for and covers our guilt, as the mercy-seat did the tables of the law; or it may be defined thus: "It is the averting the punishment due to any one, by undergoing the penalty in the room of the guilty. " Thus Jesus Christ is called the propitiation or atonement, as his complete righteousness appeases his Father, and satisfies his law and justice for all our transgressions
Birth - ...
John 3:3 (a) This figure is used to describe the miraculous change which takes place when a person is saved by the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Galatians 4:19 (a) The soul exercise of Paul over the needs of the Galatians for full consecration to the person of Jesus Christ is compared to a birth
Advocate - 1John portrayed a courtroom scene in which Jesus Christ, the righteous One, intercedes with the Father on behalf of sinners. See Helper ; Paraclete ; Intercession ; Jesus Christ , High Priest
Lord - To believers collectively He is 'Our Lord Jesus Christ. one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him
Shiloh - " All Christian commentators agree, that this word ought to be understood of the Messiah, that is, of Jesus Christ. If Jesus Christ and his Apostles did not make use of this passage to prove the coming of the Messiah, it was because then the completion of this prophecy was not sufficiently manifest
Lamb - Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God, achieves what all the animal sacrifices could not achieve. ...
In the visions of the book of Revelation, the Lamb again symbolizes Jesus Christ
Redeemer - One of the blessed names of our Lord Jesus Christ: and sweetly doth the Holy Ghost bear witness to it—"For thy Maker is thine husband, the Lord of hosts is his name: and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; the God of the whole earth shall he be called. " (Genesis 23:16) Now such was the redemption by the Lord Jesus Christ of our nature. " And lastly, having delivered us from all evil, and brought us into all good, he hath accomplished the whole purposes of redemption, so as to obtain favour and peace with God, through Jesus Christ our Lord. ...
Such are the outlines of redemption, and such the wonderful work which the Son of God hath in our nature accomplished by his blood! And what tends to endear the Lord Jesus Christ yet infinitely more under his character of Redeemer is, that in the whole of this immense transaction all he hath accomplished is in our nature
Crucified - Indeed, in respect to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, it is very unlikely to have been done, for "a bone of Him was not to be broken. Over this view only, let the reader and writer for a moment pause, while listening to the call of the Holy Ghost by his servant the Baptist, "Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29)...
Was there ever such an object proposed to the mind of contemplation as the Lord Jesus Christ on the cross? It should seem as if the Lord Jesus, thus stretched forth and thus lifted up, was inviting, with his arms extended and his heart bleeding, all his redeemed to come to him. Oh, for grace, with Paul, to determine "to know nothing among men, save Jesus Christ and him crucified!" And with the same holy indignation as he felt, against every thing that would check the ardour of his love, to cry out, "God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me and I unto the world!" (Galatians 6:14)...
Pre-Existence - ...
In the more ‘popular’ teaching of Jesus Christ which is recorded in the Synoptic Gospels, though His continued existence, even to the end of time, is clearly stated, there are but few hints of His pre-existence before His human birth. John was profoundly convinced of the eternal pre-existence of Jesus Christ as the personal Logos. And in the discourses of Jesus Christ which are contained in this Gospel, addressed apparently to a different type of audience from that of the Synoptics, and conveying a fuller self-revelation, there are most startling claims to pre-existence. ...
The sermons in the Acts confine themselves to the historical manifestation of Jesus Christ, the prophetical preparation for it, and the Second Advent. ‘Jesus Christ’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ; Liddon, Divinity of our Lord (Bampton Lectures for 1866); Westcott, Gospel of St
Incarnation - (Latin: in, in; caro, flesh) ...
The word used to express the union of the Divine nature of the Son of God with human nature, in the Person of Jesus Christ
Son of God - A term applied in the Scriptures not only to magistrates and saints, but more particularly to Jesus Christ
Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed - It is more complete than the Apostles' Creed and expresses explicitly the consubstantiality of Jesus Christ with God the Father, which the Arians denied, and the Divinity of the Holy Ghost, which the Macedonians rejected
Anoint - Hence the peculiar application of the term anointed to Jesus Christ
Pilate - So unjust in his judgment, while acting as the Governor of Judea, that in the very moment he pronounced sentence of death upon the Lord Jesus Christ, he solemnly declared his innocency; and in confirmation of our Lord's holiness and his own guilt, took water nod washed his hands before the people in token of the deed
Bernice - Acts 25:13, Acts 25:23; Acts 26:30 (c) This woman is surely a type of some pet sin which is nourished and protected in the life in order to keep a person from accepting Jesus Christ as his Lord and Saviour
Ephod - It may represent that part of our Christian experience in which and through which we show forth the virtues of our Lord Jesus Christ
Hang(ed) - GOD ascribes power and beauty to His Son, and so do all of those who know and love Jesus Christ
Predestinate - " And elsewhere the same apostle, speaking of the church in Christ, saith, "that he hath predestinated them to the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will
Maranatha - In addition to what was then observed under this head, it may not be improper to remark yet farther, that when the apostle Paul useth this form of expression, which signifies, Let the offender that loves not the Lord Jesus Christ be punished when the Lord comes, he useth it not as a matter that was new, or a form that was never heard of before, but rather one well known
Anne Catherine Emmerich - In 1833 appeared the first work he had written at her dictation, "The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ
Foundation - ...
Other foundation can no man lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ
Albanenses - They denied the divinity, and even the humanity of Jesus Christ, asserting that he was not truly man, did not suffer on the cross, die, rise again, nor really ascend into heaven
Emmerich, Anne Catherine - In 1833 appeared the first work he had written at her dictation, "The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ
Kirharaseth - Oh, the blessedness of that recovery by the Lord Jesus Christ!...
Adore - JEHOVAH, in his threefold character of person, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, can be the only object of adoration; and this, through the glorious mediator, the Lord Jesus Christ
Clean - But the apostle John, commissioned by God the Holy Ghost, tells the church in a sweetness and fulness of expression indescribably blessed, that the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin
Sadducees - A Jewish sect, contemporary with Jesus Christ
Testament - The name is equivalent to covenant, and in our use of it, we apply it to the books which contain the old and new dispensations that of Moses, and that of Jesus Christ
Sin, Remission of - Unlimited power of remitting sin was promised and conferred upon the Apostles and their successors by Jesus Christ (Matthew 16,18; John 20)
Remission of Sin - Unlimited power of remitting sin was promised and conferred upon the Apostles and their successors by Jesus Christ (Matthew 16,18; John 20)
Atonement - These describe the means (in and through the person and work of the Lord Jesus Christ, in His death on the cross by the shedding of His blood in His vicarious sacrifice for sin) by which God shows mercy to sinners
Advocate, the, - "If any man sin we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous
Gospel - " The term refers to the good news of the new dispensation of redemption ushered in by the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The "good news" is denominated either simply the "gospel," Matthew 26:13, or else "the gospel of the kingdom," Matthew 9:35; of "Jesus Christ,"...
Mark 1:1; "of peace," Romans 10:15 A. For I determined not to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified
Eschatology - More specifically it is concerned with issues relating to the return of Jesus Christ and the new age that will follow (see Jesus Christ, sub-heading ‘Christ’s return and final triumph’). ...
Human history is tied up with the mission of Jesus Christ
Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit - Overt, verbal, and conscious repudiation of the fact that God is at work in Jesus Christ accomplishing his designs through the power of the Holy Spirit. First, the object of this "blasphemy" is the Holy Spirit, who is clearly distinguished in the context from Jesus Christ, the Son of Man, who may be blasphemed by someone who yet is forgiven ( Matthew 12:32 ). While the Spirit is the object, however, it is the Spirit's work in Jesus Christ that is the focus of the passage. ...
Luke puts this same saying in a slightly different context: the public acknowledgment of Jesus Christ. ...
After the earthly ministry and death of Christ, the emphasis on the Spirit as the object of the blasphemous words and attitudes will give way to an emphasis on Jesus Christ (cf. Thus, apostasy is acceptance followed by repudiation of Jesus Christ (Hebrews 6:4-6 ; 10:29-39 ; 1 John 5:16-17 ); blasphemy against the Spirit is not preceded by acceptance
Justification - The major difference is that, in the New Testament, God dealt with the sin of humankind by the highest and most intimate form of revelation, His Son Jesus Christ. The earliest Christians believed that they were “made right” with God through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Romans 3:21-26 ; Romans 4:18-25 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; 1 Corinthians 6:11 ; 1 Timothy 3:16 ; 1 Peter 3:18 ). ” The main character who effected this divine plan was Jesus Christ. He declares that trusting faith in Jesus Christ puts people in the right with God, bringing eternal life now and forever. ...
Paul taught that faith in Jesus Christ is an obedient response which results from hearing the Gospel (Romans 10:17 ). Abraham's faith in God can be seen as an exemplary foreshadowing which would find ultimate expression in every Christians' relationship to God through Jesus Christ. No justification within the law would allow anyone (Jew or not) to sidestep faith in Jesus Christ. Paul's concept of faith emphasized a shift of focus from the world to Jesus Christ on the part of the believer
Titus, Theology of - " Paul implies that when we are saved by faith in Jesus Christ, we then become free from the bondage of sin so that we can serve God and righteousness by holy living. Paul's epistle to Titus contains one of the strongest statements in all of Scripture regarding the divinity of Jesus Christ. This concept of redemption has as its background the need of ancient slaves for freedom from one master (sin) to become bondservants of another master (righteousness through Jesus Christ). The agent of salvation, in accord with the other pastoral epistles, is said to be "God our Savior" three times (1:3; 2:10; 3:4) and "Jesus Christ our Savior" two times (2:13; 3:6). Jesus Christ "gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his very own, eager to do what is good" (2:14). While other New Testament verses stress the present possession of eternal life by the Christian, Paul emphasizes the future consummation of that eternal life with the return of Jesus Christ in glory and power. It is significant that the hope of the church is the revelation of Jesus Christ, when he will return to this earth in power and glory to reign; and it is for this return that the church of Jesus Christ is to continue waiting
Lake of Genesareth - There took place the two miraculous draughts of fishes, after the first of which the Apostles were called (Luke 5) and after the second Peter was made Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth (John 21)
Anathema - ...
Another kind of anathema, very peculiarly expressed, occurs 1 Corinthians 16:22 : "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ let him be Anathema, Maranatha
Mire - ...
Psalm 69:2,14 (b) This is a type of the deep trouble, the great sorrow, and the anguish of heart of the Lord Jesus Christ as He went through Gethsemane and Calvary
Face - The "face of Jesus Christ" (2 Corinthians 4:6 ) is the office and person of Christ, the revealer of the glory of God (John 1:14,18 )
Cerinthians - Ancient heretics, who denied the deity of Jesus Christ; so named from Cerinthus
Revenge - It is forbidden by the Scriptures, and is unbecoming the character and spirit of a peaceful follower of Jesus Christ
Pentecost - Christ the Passover lamb had been sacrificed; then, fifty days later, God poured out his Spirit on that small group of disciples who were the firstfruits of his new people, the church of Jesus Christ (Acts 2:1-4; cf
Proselyte - Many of these Gentile proselytes and God-fearers, having already come to know and worship the God of Israel, readily became Christians when they first heard the gospel of Jesus Christ (Acts 13:43; Acts 14:1; Acts 17:4)
Corruptions: Overcome Gradually - If our prayers and repentances do not appear to overcome our corruptions, we must continue still to use these gracious battering-rams, for in due time by faith in Jesus Christ the power of evil shall be overthrown
Christian - ) One who believes, or professes or is assumed to believe, in Jesus Christ, and the truth as taught by Him; especially, one whose inward and outward life is conformed to the doctrines of Christ
Consubstantial - ...
See articles ARIANS, and Jesus Christ
Holy Shroud - This name is given primarily to a relic, preserved at Turin, Italy, since 1578, for which the claim is made that it is the actual "clean linen coat" in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ (Matthew 27), after the Crucifixion
Pearl - ...
Matthew 13:45 (b) This gem is a type of the church which is hidden in the world, and sought out by our Lord Jesus Christ who paid the great price at Calvary to purchase us with His own Blood
Galilee, Sea of - There took place the two miraculous draughts of fishes, after the first of which the Apostles were called (Luke 5) and after the second Peter was made Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth (John 21)
Sin - If this doctrine, which is wholly Scriptural, were but thoroughly and fully understood by all men, what humbling views would it induce in all, and how endeared to all would be the person, blood, and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ! I beg to leave this on the reader's mind
Extreme Unction - A Sacrament of the New Law, instituted by Jesus Christ, in which the sick who are seriously ill,by the anointing with holy oil, and by the prayer of the priest, receive the grace of God for the good of their souls and often also for the good of their bodies
Curse - And the apostle's hymn of praise becomes the hymn of every regenerated believer, that "as sin hath reigned unto death, even so doth grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord
Jesus Christ - Hence the Hebrews call him, Jehoshuah, or Joshua, or Joshuah, he who shall save; and as Christ means, anointed of JEHOVAH, the Sent, the Sealed of the Father; full of grace and truth; both names together carry this blessed meaning with them, Jesus Christ the Saviour of the world by the anointing of JEHOVAH to all the purposes, of salvation
Genesareth, Lake of - There took place the two miraculous draughts of fishes, after the first of which the Apostles were called (Luke 5) and after the second Peter was made Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth (John 21)
Sister - In the Gospels, the brothers and sisters of Jesus Christ are his cousins, children of the sisters of the holy virgin, Matthew 13:56 ; Mark 6:3
Barsabas - Joseph Barsabas, surnamed Justus, was one of the first disciples of Jesus Christ, and probably one of the seventy
Bondman, Bondmaid - In calling himself, however, a "bondslave of Jesus Christ," e
Concubine - Since the abrogation of polygamy by Jesus Christ, and the restoration of marriage to its primitive institution, concubinage is ranked with adultery or fornication
Sea of Galilee - There took place the two miraculous draughts of fishes, after the first of which the Apostles were called (Luke 5) and after the second Peter was made Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth (John 21)
Gentiles - Since the promulgation of the gospel, the true religion has been extended to all nations; God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, having fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is composed principally of Gentile converts, the Jews being too proud of their privileges to acknowledge Jesus Christ as their Messiah and Redeemer
Unction, Extreme - A Sacrament of the New Law, instituted by Jesus Christ, in which the sick who are seriously ill,by the anointing with holy oil, and by the prayer of the priest, receive the grace of God for the good of their souls and often also for the good of their bodies
Shroud, Holy - This name is given primarily to a relic, preserved at Turin, Italy, since 1578, for which the claim is made that it is the actual "clean linen coat" in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ (Matthew 27), after the Crucifixion
Shroud of Turin - This name is given primarily to a relic, preserved at Turin, Italy, since 1578, for which the claim is made that it is the actual "clean linen coat" in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ (Matthew 27), after the Crucifixion
Turin, Shroud of - This name is given primarily to a relic, preserved at Turin, Italy, since 1578, for which the claim is made that it is the actual "clean linen coat" in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ (Matthew 27), after the Crucifixion
Enemy - Although Christians are to try to live peaceably with everyone (Romans 12:18), their identification with Jesus Christ means that some will oppose them
Christian - The citizens of Antioch in Syria were the first people to give the name ‘Christian’ to believers in Jesus Christ (Acts 11:26)
Sacrifice - The sacrifices under the Old Testament dispensation were all shadowy representations and types of that one great and all-sufficient sacrifice of the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, whereby "he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. To Jesus Christ, "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world," they all referred, and in him the whole had their accomplishment
Peter, Second Epistle of - The object of this epistle appears to be primarily the confirmation of the minds of Jewish believers in the certainty of the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ. Saints, knowing these things before, were not to fall from their stedfastness, but to grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ
Gentile - God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, has fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is now composed principally of Gentile converts; and the Jews, too proud of their particular privileges, and abandoned to their reprobate sense of things, have disowned Jesus Christ, their Messiah and Redeemer, for whom, during so many ages, they had looked so impatiently. Paul is commonly called the Apostle of the Gentiles, 1 Timothy 2:7 , or Greeks; because he, principally, preached Jesus Christ to them; whereas Peter, and the other Apostles, preached generally to the Jews, and are called Apostles of the circumcision, Galatians 2:8
Light - ...
Just as the uniqueness of God is symbolized by light, so is the uniqueness of Jesus Christ, who is God in human form (Matthew 17:2; Acts 9:3-5; Revelation 1:16). They become lights in the world, as they take the good news of Jesus Christ to those who are still in darkness (Matthew 5:14-16; Acts 13:47; Philippians 2:15; Revelation 11:4; see WITNESS)
Salvation - This salvation comes from God through Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:21; Luke 2:11; Luke 19:10; John 3:17; John 12:47; Acts 4:12; 1 Timothy 1:15) and it is possible only because Jesus Christ atoned for sin in his death on the cross (1 Corinthians 1:18; Titus 2:14; see ATONEMENT; SIN). The future aspect is that believers will experience the fulfilment of their salvation at the return of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:24; Romans 13:11; Philippians 3:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:9; Hebrews 9:28; 1 Peter 1:5; see RESURRECTION)
Evidence: Experimental - Putting down her basket and umbrella, she began and said, 'I paid threepence to hear of something better than Jesus Christ, and I have not heard it. Now,' she said, 'I have been a widow thirty years, and I was left with ten children, and I trusted in the Lord Jesus Christ in the depth of poverty, and he appeared for me and comforted me, and helped me to bring up my children so that they have grown up and turned out respectable. Jesus Christ has been all this to me, and I could not sit down in the hail and hear you talk against him without speaking up for him, and asking you whether you could tell me something better than what he has done for me
Rams Horns - Let the reader connect with this view what Moses, in his dying moments, when the spirit of prophecy was upon him, spake of Joseph typical of the Lord Jesus Christ: "His glory (said he) is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of unicorns with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth; and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and the thousands of Manasseh. " (Deuteronomy 33:17) And Habakkuk, under the same spirit of prophecy, speaks of the Lord Jesus Christ, (Habakkuk 3:4. I would not speak pre sumptuously on this or any other subject connected with matters of such infinite moment; but as the Lord Jesus Christ is the visible JEHOVAH in our nature for all the purposes of redemption, and as every part of the Bible testifies that the grand design of all revelation is to exalt him, I humbly conceive that it is of Jesus wholly the Holy Ghost is continually speaking in all the great events connected with his church and people
Jesus Christ - In Jesus Christ are united the vertical of God's revelation and the horizontal of history's meaning. The believers of the New Testament did not first “read” Jesus Christ chronologically. Rather, they were caught up in the historical reality of what God was doing for them and all the world through Jesus Christ. The resurrection of Jesus Christ is the center of the Christian gospel (1 Corinthians 15:1 ). ...
The Death of Jesus Christ He who was raised on the first day of the week was the same as the One who had died three days earlier. ...
Jesus' Ultimate Coming Just as the first coming of Jesus Christ was according to prophecy, so the final coming of Christ is to be by divine promise and prediction. ...
The Birth of Jesus Christ The Gospels began in the heart of God and in the resurrection faith of the writers, but Matthew and Luke begin with the story of Jesus' birth. Preexistence was not the first reflection of the early church about Jesus Christ, nor was it merely an afterthought. John pulled out all the stops in his melodic introduction of Jesus Christ: the Word who made the world (John 1:1-3 ), the Life (John 1:4 ), the Light (John 1:5 ), the Glory of God (John 1:14 ), One full of grace and truth (John 1:17 ), the Son who makes the Father known (John 1:18 ). The metaphors of John's Gospel invite us to reflect on Jesus Christ, God's great necessity
John, First Epistle of - The believer's joy might be full, through being in communion with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ by means of inspired and apostolic revelation, He as Advocate maintaining the same. The apostles' fellowship was with the Father and His Son Jesus Christ. What is inconsistent and consistent with the light is then referred to, leading on to the unfolding of the advocacy of "Jesus Christ the righteous" with the Father, and its effects in case any one sinned. ...
Jesus Christ is set forth as the perfect pattern both of righteousness and of love. ...
1 John 4 gives a test for distinguishing spirits, namely, the confession of Jesus Christ come in flesh, which could only be by the Spirit of God. They know moreover that they are in God's Son, Jesus Christ, who is the true God and eternal life
Nazarene - The attempt to connect the word with ‘Nazirite’ is etymologically impossible, and has no meaning as applied to Jesus Christ
Christ, Portraits of - The early Christians represented Christ symbolically as the Lamb, the Dove, and especially the Fish, the Greek name for which is a compound of the initial letters of five Greek words for Jesus Christ, God's Son, Saviour
Serpentinians - Or OPHITES, heretics in the second century, so called from the veneration they had for the serpent that tempted Eve, and the worship paid to a real serpent: they pretended that the serpent was Jesus Christ, and that he taught men the knowledge of good and evil
Amen - " It is used as an epithet of the Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 3:14 )
Nazarenes - The word Nazarene was given to Jesus Christ and his disciples; and is commonly taken in a sense of derision and contempt in such authors as have written against Christianity
Conception of Christ - The supernatural and miraculous formation of the human nature of Jesus Christ
Old Testament - Christians see its complement in the New Testament, which reveals Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy
Oods - They can only be released from Satan's chains by the power of the Lord Jesus Christ through His Gospel, and by the convicting power of the Holy Spirit
Ubiquitarians - Formed from ubique, "every where, " in ecclesiastical history, a sect of Lutherans which rose and spread itself in Germany; and whose distinguishing doctrine was, that the body of Jesus Christ is every where, or in every place
Arianism - The heresy propagated by Arius denying the Divinity of Jesus Christ
Respect - So again, it is said, God is no respecter of persons, (Acts 10:34) Certainly not: for it is not the person of the believer, but the Lord Jesus Christ in that believer, or by virtue of JEHOVAH beholding the person of Christ in that believer, that is the sole cause of acceptation
Washing - It will be enough for all our purposes however to consider in general, that it had in spiritual concerns a blessed intimation in those that were washed of being partakers in the pardoning and sanctifying blood of the Lord Jesus Christ
Captive - The blood of bulls and of goats covered their sins, but it took the Blood of Jesus Christ to blot out their sins
Sanctuary - The sanctuary for the Christian consists in the light of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ
Branch - From the vast importance of this word in Scripture, as it refers to the Lord Jesus Christ, it is marked by the prophet Zechariah in capitals
Moses - It is Jesus alone that can do this; "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ
Urim - Hence when Moses in his dying prediction of the children of Israel, declared that JEHOVAH'S Urim and Thummim should be with his Holy One, none could be alluded to but the Lord Jesus Christ, and in him, the whole tendency of both, had their accomplishment
Ephod - Nothing could more aptly represent our great High Priest, the Lord Jesus Christ, going in before the presence of JEHOVAH with the names of his people on his breast
Breastplate - " (Exodus 28:15) The design of it seems to have been to typify the Lord Jesus Christ, the great and almighty High Priest of his redeemed, who going in before JEHOVAH, bears the names, and persons, and concerns of all his people
Gittith - The Psalms which bear this name in the title, are not less blessed for our ignorance on this point; though if it be, as it is possible it may have, a reference to the Lord Jesus Christ, it would be gratifying to know it
Ahava - The history of Izates, king of the Adiabenians, and of his mother Helena, who became converts to Judaism some years after the death of Jesus Christ, sufficiently proves that there were many Jews still settled in that country
Disciple - The proper signification of this word is a learner; but it signifies in the New Testament, a believer, a Christian, a follower of Jesus Christ
Corban - Jesus Christ reproaches the Jews with cruelty toward their parents, in making a corban of what should have been appropriated to their use
Comforter - This title is given to our Savior: "We have an advocate (paraclete) with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous," 1 John 2:1
Offerings - How blessed is it for us to observe under every one of them direct references to the person and offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, whereby "he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified!" Without him the whole was an unmeaning service; but considered as typical of Jesus, how infinitely important doth that all-sufficient sacrifice of Christ on the cross appear, when we behold it introduced with such vast solemnity and expense through so many ages to the coming of Christ
John, the First Epistle General of - (1 John 1:1-4 ) the apostle states the purpose of his epistle: it is to declare the word of life to those whom he is addressing, in order that he and they might be united in true communion with each other, and with God the Father and his Son Jesus Christ
Brotherhood of st. Andrew - The members have two rules for their guidance (1) TheRule of Prayer; to pray daily that the object of the Society may beaccomplished, and (2) The Rule of Service; to make an earnest efforteach week to bring at least one man within the hearing of the Gospelof Jesus Christ
Cornerstone - Paul builds on this concept in Ephesians 2:20 by saying that Jesus Christ is the chief cornerstone, the apostles and prophets are foundation stones, and the whole building (the church) is a holy temple in the Lord. In any case, the point is that the very foundation of the church is Jesus Christ
Counselor - ...
The Counselor, the Spirit of truth, teaches and reminds believers regarding the things of Jesus Christ. One cannot know the Counselor by any means other than belief in and submission to Jesus Christ
Prostitution - Christians in particular should have no union with prostitutes, since they already are spiritually united with Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 6:15-20). It will find its fullest expression in the days of the world’s final great rebellion prior to the return of Jesus Christ (Revelation 17)
Golgotha - "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance, incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away
Miraculous Conception - By this is meant, that the human nature of Jesus Christ was formed, not in the ordinary method of generation, but out of the substance of the Virgin Mary, by the immediate operation of the Holy Ghost. According to this view of the matter, the miraculous conception gives a completeness and consistency to the revelation concerning Jesus Christ
Unity, Church - Again, in the New Testament the Church is calledthe Body of Christ, the kingdom of heaven, the Bride, and its peopleare declared to be branches of the one Vine Jesus Christ Himself. "O Lord Jesus Christ, who saidst unto Thine Apostles, Peace I leave with you, My Peace I give unto you: Regard not our sins, but the faith of Thy Church; and grant her that Peace and Unity, which is agreeable to Thy Will, Who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end
Slander - Still more dreadful is this evil when it is found among those who are the professed disciples of Jesus Christ. Ah! the church formerly held in horror the exhibitions of gladiators, and denied that believers, brought up in the tenderness and benignity of Jesus Christ, could innocently feast their eyes with the blood and death of these unfortunate slaves, or form an harmless recreation of so inhuman a pleasure; but these renew more detestable shows; for they bring upon the stage not infamous wretches devoted to death, but members of Jesus Christ, their brethren; and there they entertain the spectators with wounds which they inflict on persons" who have devoted themselves to God
Righteousness - None but the Lord Jesus Christ. If there be not in me a total renunciation of every thing the mistaken calculation of men calls righteousness, yea, more than this, if there be not a full and unreserved confession of universal sin and unworthiness in me, I cannot be wholly looking for acceptance to, and living wholly upon, the Lord Jesus Christ as the Lord my Righteousness. " Blessed and happy souls who, from a deep conviction of the total corruption and depravity of their own nature, are resting all their high hopes of acceptance and justification before God in the perfect and complete righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ; who behold him, and accept the authority of JEHO VAH for this well-grounded confidence of beholding him, and rest with full assurance of faith in him, as the Lord their righteousness; and to whose spirits the Holy Ghost bears witness that "he is made of God to them wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, that, according as it is writ ten, he that glorieth let him glory in the Lord
Kinsman - Now then we come to the marrow of the whole subject, as it relates to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ in the redemption, of our nature. Hence he hath proved himself to be our Goel in the full sense of the word, our kinsman, and our Redeemer, and our kinsman-Redeemer; and very blessed it is to know the Lord Jesus Christ in those united characters. " (Job 19:25-26) Reader! if you can join the man of Uz in this precious testimony, and his creed and your creed on this great point are the same, you will enter into the beauty and blessedness of this relationship of kinsman as belonging to the Lord Jesus Christ, and enjoy the privilege of it in your heart
Gospel - ...
Based on facts...
The gospel that Jesus Christ proclaimed was that the promises God gave to Old Testament Israel were now fulfilled in him. It is called the gospel of Christ, or the gospel of the glory of Christ, to emphasize that it comes only through Jesus Christ (Romans 15:19; 2 Corinthians 2:12; 2 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Corinthians 9:13). Sometimes the single word ‘gospel’ is used for the body of Christian truth, or even for the whole new way of life that comes through Jesus Christ (Romans 16:25; Philippians 1:7; Philippians 1:27)
Faith - ...
Saved by faith...
Whether in the era before Christ or after, people have been saved only through faith in the sovereign God who in his mercy and grace forgives sin; and the basis on which God forgives sin is the death of Jesus Christ (Romans 3:24-26; Romans 4:16; Romans 4:22-25; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Galatians 3:11; see JUSTIFICATION; SACRIFICE). All the merit lies in the object of faith, God, who through Jesus Christ has become the Saviour of sinners (John 3:16; John 3:18; John 7:31; John 17:20; Acts 20:21; 1 John 5:12-13). It is not just accepting certain things as true (for even God’s enemies may have that sort of belief; James 2:19), but trusting in a person, Jesus Christ. Some may say they have a general faith in God, but if they refuse to have specific faith in Jesus Christ, their ‘faith’ is a form of self-deception (John 5:24; John 14:6; 1 John 2:23). The strength of the faith by which they live depends largely on the strength of their personal relationship with Jesus Christ (Romans 14:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Peter 1:5-8; 2 Peter 3:18)
Dedicate, Dedication - The individual believer is one of a dedicated, sanctified, consecrated, priestly people; set apart “to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ” (1 Peter 2:5 )
Consolation - " And he it is that sheds abroad the love of God the Father in the heart, and directs the minds of the people into the patient waiting for Jesus Christ
Hypostasis - ...
See Jesus Christ
Davidists - He rejected marriage with the Adamites; held with Manes, that the soul was not defiled by sin; and laughed at the self-denial so much recommended by Jesus Christ
Anoint - ...
Louis Goldberg...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
Bibliography
Albigensianism - To deliver souls from this evil and punishment, the good spirit, God, sent Jesus Christ who is only a creature
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - And though the captivity of Babylon lay between, yet the glorious redemption from sin, death, hell, and the grave, by the Lord Jesus Christ, was seen beyond it
Trinity - in his Son Jesus Christ
Means of Grace - Jesus Christ, when on earth, used means: he prayed, he exhorted, and did good, by going from place to place
Keys - The Romanists say that the pope has the power of the keys, and can open and shut paradise as he pleases; grounding their opinion on that expression of Jesus Christ to Peter...
"I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, " Matthew 16:19
Albigenses - To deliver souls from this evil and punishment, the good spirit, God, sent Jesus Christ who is only a creature
Babe - I should not have noticed this article, being so perfectly understood in its common sense and meaning, but for the peculiar use that is made of it, in reference to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, and to his church in him
Impurity - Think how dear, and endeared in every way, and by every means, is the Lord Jesus Christ when brought home to the heart, and formed "in the heart the hope of glory
John - ...
John the Baptist hath the priority in point of time, being born six months before the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ
Aaron - But the great eminency of his character is formed from his becoming so illustrious a type of the Lord Jesus Christ
David - The Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, is spoken of as the seed of David; and as such, the covenant runs in his name
Demons - They have a separate consciousness; they know the Lord Jesus Christ, Luke 4:41; Luke 8:28, and are addressed by Christ as personal beings, Mark 1:24; Mark 5:9; and they are looking forward to the day of judgment, to them the day of torment Matthew 8:29; James 2:19
Devils - They have a separate consciousness; they know the Lord Jesus Christ, Luke 4:41; Luke 8:28, and are addressed by Christ as personal beings, Mark 1:24; Mark 5:9; and they are looking forward to the day of judgment, to them the day of torment Matthew 8:29; James 2:19
Evangelist - One who travels as a missionary everywhere and from house to house to teach and preach Jesus Christ
Annas - He was father-in-law to Caiaphas; and Jesus Christ was carried before him, directly after his seizure in the garden of Olives, John 18:13
Salome - She was the person who requested of Jesus Christ, that her two sons, James and John, might sit on his right and left hand when he should enter upon his kingdom, having then but the same obscure views as the rest of the disciples; but she gave proof of her faith when she followed Christ to Calvary, and did not forsake him even at the cross, Mark 15:40 ; Matthew 27:55-56
Amen - ...
Since the promises of God find their true fulfilment (their ‘yes’, their ‘amen’) in Jesus Christ, he may be called ‘the Amen’
Incarnation, the - Thistruth is embodied for us in the Creed, in the words, "Jesus Christ,His Only Son our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, Born ofthe Virgin Mary
Example - " The life of Jesus Christ forms the most beautiful example the Christian can imitate. ...
See article Jesus Christ
Throne - ...
Jesus Christ, having come into the world and having lived obediently to his Father even to death, has now been exalted to the highest place in heaven. Jesus Christ, therefore, in being pictured as seated on his throne, is King of kings and Lord of lords
Monophysites - (from solus, and natura, ) a general name given to all those sectaries in the Levant, who only own one nature in Jesus Christ; and who maintain that the divine and human nature of Jesus Christ were so united as to form only one nature, yet without any change, confusion, or mixture of the two natures
Marcionites - These two conflicting powers exercised oppressions upon rational and immortal souls; and therefore the supreme God, to deliver them from bondage, sent to the Jews a Being more like unto himself, even his Son Jesus Christ, clothed with a certain shadowy resemblance of a body: this celestial messenger was attacked by the prince of darkness, and by the god of the Jews, but without effect. Marcion denied the real birth, incarnation, and passion of Jesus Christ, and held them to be apparent only
Firstborn - In New Testament, times believers in Jesus Christ are God’s firstborn, his chosen and privileged ones (Hebrews 12:23). ...
The Bible speaks of Jesus Christ as the firstborn of his Father
Adam - ...
Only Jesus Christ can undo the damage that Adam has caused. As Adam was the first of a race of people fitted for the physical life of the present age, so Jesus Christ is the first of a race of people fitted for the spiritual life of the age to come
Jude, the Epistle of - As John (second and third Epistles) calls himself "the elder," so James and Jude call themselves "servants of Jesus Christ. 1007) says, "Jude through reverential awe did not call himself brother, but servant, of Jesus Christ, and brother of James. The persons stigmatized were heretics in doctrine, "denying the only Lord God and our Saviour Jesus Christ," and libertines in practice. announced beforehand, namely, by Peter's written prophecy) to this condemnation, ungodly men, denying the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ
Day of Atonement - ...
Jesus Christ, the great high priest, offered not an animal as a sacrifice; he offered himself. Entrance into the presence of God, which was restricted under the Old Testament system, is now available to all God’s people through their high priest, Jesus Christ (Hebrews 10:19-22; cf. Likewise Jesus Christ, having dealt with sin fully and having obtained eternal forgiveness for sins, will reappear to bring his people’s salvation to its glorious climax (Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:28; see also BLOOD)
Missionaries, Montfort - It is composed of priests and lay-brothers, who strive to draw the faithful to Jesus Christ through devotion to the Blessed Virgin
Missionaries of the Company of Mary - It is composed of priests and lay-brothers, who strive to draw the faithful to Jesus Christ through devotion to the Blessed Virgin
Montfort Missionaries - It is composed of priests and lay-brothers, who strive to draw the faithful to Jesus Christ through devotion to the Blessed Virgin
Eternal Life - It is the "gift of God in Jesus Christ our Lord" (Romans 6:23 )
Gospel - It is taken also for the history of the life, actions, death, resurrection, ascension, and doctrine of Jesus Christ
Minister - The perfect minister, who is an example to all others, is Jesus Christ (Matthew 20:28; John 13:14-16; Romans 15:8)
Needlework - The first robe of wrought gold we receive by faith when we trust Jesus Christ, and make Him the Lord of our lives
Merchandise - Men are only free in those groups where the Lord Jesus Christ is loved and trusted, and His Word is believed, accepted and practiced
Witness - He it is that causeth the glory, the beauty, the suitableness, and all-sufficiency of the Lord Jesus Christ, to appear to the soul what Jesus is, and at the same time persuades the soul into the love of him
Side - ...
Ezekiel 1:17 (b) In this peculiar expression, the Lord is informing us that the Lord Jesus Christ, who is represented by the four animals, and the Holy Spirit, who is represented by the eyes, would influence and affect every part of the earth
Thirst - ...
John 6:35 (b) This is a type of the longing for peace and rest which is fully satisfied when one trusts his soul and life to the Lord Jesus Christ
Invocation - The council of Trent expressly teaches, that the saints who reign with Jesus Christ offer up their prayers to God for men, and condemn those who maintain the contrary doctrine
Word, the - In John 1 it is ' the Word who is in view,' and what is stated asserts clearly three things concerning the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ
Crown - " (Hebrews 1:6) And the crown of salvation put upon the sacred head of Christ by the church in one full body, and also by every individual of the church, multiplies the crowns of Jesus to an infinite extent, when any and every poor sinner is brought from darkness to light, and willingly and cheerfully ascribes the whole of his own personal salvation to the Lord Jesus Christ
Gospel - The word itself, as used in modern language, means the proclamation of pardon, mercy, and peace, in and through Jesus Christ our Lord
Elimelech - This man was the husband of Naomi, whom we read of with such honourable testimony for her faith in God, in the book of Ruth; and as so much is contained in that sweet fragment of sacred Scripture, in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, I thought it proper to notice in this place, this name
Promise - All true believers, who are born again by the supernatural power of God, and who by faith lay hold on the promise of salvation in Jesus Christ
Lord - ) The Savior; Jesus Christ
Chronology of the New Testament - ...
see Jesus Christ, p
Revelation - For neither did I receive it of man; nor did I learn it but by the revelation of Jesus Christ
Repentance - This is that repentance which always accompanies true faith, and to which is promised the free forgiveness of sin through the merits of Jesus Christ, Matthew 4:17 Acts 3:19 11:18 20:12
Society of the Holy Name - The primary object of the Holy Name Society is to honor and reverence the Holy Name of God and of Jesus Christ; this is accomplished by directing the members to practises of piety, to frequent prayer and to group action in worship
Righteousness - God the Father is righteous (just); Jesus Christ his Son is the Righteous (Just) One; the Father through the Son and in the Spirit gives the gift of righteousness (justice) to repentant sinners for salvation; such believing sinners are declared righteous (just) by the Father through the Son, are made righteous (just) by the Holy Spirit working in them, and will be wholly righteous (just) in the age to come. ...
God's righteousness is, for Paul, God's saving activity in and through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, his Son. The acceptance of the unique saving deed of God at Calvary by faith in the person of Jesus Christ is that which God has ordained to be the means for sinners (the unrighteous and the disobedient ones) to enter into the right with God, the Father, and receive the forgiveness of sins. God as the Judge justifies believing sinners by declaring them righteous in and through Jesus Christ; then he expects and enables these sinners to become righteous in word and deed. ...
So God as the righteous Judge justifiesplaces in a right relation with himself within the new covenant of gracethose who believe the gospel of the Father concerning his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. Though they could never become righteous before God by their efforts to conform their lives to his will, out of gratitude and love they are to serve him because he has given them the gift of salvation through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is in anticipation of what God will do for the sake of his Son Jesus Christ at the last day that he pronounces guilty sinners righteous now in this evil age. At the last day, God the Father will be vindicated and all will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord. Now and before the new age arrives, by the proclamation of the gospel and by the presence of the Spirit, that which is not yet (the fullness of righteousness of the age to come) is actually made available by the will and declaration of the Father, through the mediation of Jesus Christ the Lord and by the presence and operation of the Holy Spirit. In 1John the doing of righteousness in terms of following Jesus Christ, the righteous One, who came in flesh and will come again in glory, is what vital Christianity is all about
Knowledge - The distinctive sense in which the apostles speak of knowledge has reference to the knowledge of God, and especially to the knowledge of God and the world through Jesus Christ. Paul; ‘to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ’ (2 Corinthians 4:6). Thus the object that is made known to all Christians is the glory of God as revealed in the person, character, and work of Jesus Christ, so that what was only dimly discerned before is now clearly seen. This is the μυστήριον that was hidden for long ages but is now revealed, so that the Divine plan of redemption is no longer a secret but is heralded forth in Jesus Christ (Romans 16:25, 1 Corinthians 2:7). John also Jesus Christ is the source of light on all the great matters of life. Servants are expected to render a whole-hearted service because they know that their real master is Jesus Christ, by whom they are to be recompensed. Even minor social problems like those of eating and drinking have new light cast upon them (Romans 14:14), for the light of Jesus Christ has illuminated all life and brought knowledge where formerly there was doubt or ignorance. This higher philosophy has been hidden from the sight of men, otherwise they would not have crucified the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul does not denounce all speculative knowledge, but opposes it by a higher knowledge of Jesus Christ. Macgregor, Jesus Christ the Son of God, 1907, p
Doctrine - The message includes historical facts, such as those regarding the events of the life of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 11:23 ). They were adamant about the protection, appropriation, and propagation of doctrine because it contained the truth about Jesus Christ
Scripture - The ultimate focus of Scripture is the incarnation and redemptive work of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is the center to which everything in Scripture is united and bound together—beginning and end, creation and redemption, humanity, the world, the fall, history, and future
Oil - ...
...
Numbers 6:15 (c) In this passage the oil again seems to represent the Holy Spirit actuating the life, filling the soul, and especially the coming of the Spirit upon the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Deuteronomy 32:13 (b) It is quite evident in this passage that the oil again represents the Holy Spirit given from and by the Lord Jesus Christ, who is the eternal Rock of ages
Honor - God the Father has bestowed honor on his Son, Jesus Christ (John 5:23 ). As a participant in the church, the believer is also called to honor Jesus Christ, the head of the church (John 5:23 ), fellow believers (Romans 12:10 ), and widows (1 Timothy 5:3 )
Day of Christ - It is spoken of indiscriminately as the ‘day of Christ’ (Philippians 1:10), ‘day of the Lord’ (1 Thessalonians 5:2), ‘day of Jesus Christ’ (Philippians 1:6), ‘day of our Lord Jesus Christ’ (1 Corinthians 1:8), and ‘day of our Lord Jesus’ (2 Corinthians 1:14)
Adoption - This is possible only through the death of Jesus Christ, and it is true only of those who have faith in him (Galatians 3:26; Galatians 4:4-5). They can look forward to the full and unhindered enjoyment of these blessings at the return of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:23; 1 John 3:2)
Bezer - What makes it particularly meriting our attention is, that in the design and appointment of it we see clear traces of its being typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. But when we see six cities expressly set apart for this one purpose only, and placed in certain situations convenient for the poor murderer to get most easily at; when we read so much as is said concerning it, and call to mind how much the Holy Ghost delighted in shadowing forth Christ, under the Old Testament Scripture, in type and figure; and when we observe, moreover, how very strikingly the things here marked down in the city of refuge point to the Lord Jesus Christ, we cannot hesitate to conclude, that it was thus, among a great variety of other ways, Christ was preached to the people. "...
I cannot forbear adding, what hath been always considered, by pious believers, as a farther testimony that these cities of refuge had an eye to Christ, and were plainly typical, namely, that the name given to each became expressive of somewhat significant in relation to the Lord Jesus Christ. All these were so many express types of the Lord Jesus Christ
Light - ...
The Johannine writings gather up the Old Testament understanding of light and show its summation in Jesus Christ (thirty-three of the seventy-two occurrences of phos [ 1 John 1:5-7 ). Through the Word of God light came into existence (Genesis 1:1-3 ), and through the revelation of God in Jesus Christ the Word brought light to humanity. Jesus Christ is life-giving light, in whom is life (John 1:4 ), and those who follow him "will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life" (John 8:12 ). The one who has come into the light of Jesus Christ is brought into the ethical life characterized by light (cf. At the future appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ all darkness will be dispelled, and believers will walk in purity, peace, and joy in the light of the living God
Feasts - The feast of the Passover, typical of the Lord Jesus Christ, on their going out of Egypt. For surely, nothing could be more striking as typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. But of all the subjects in the Jewish church, which pointed in a direct allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, there is not one more striking. " (Isaiah 52:3)...
I think it highly proper, before I dismiss this article concerning the Jewish feasts, to remark to the reader, the distinguishing privilege we enjoy in the Christian church, in having all in one the sum and substance of every feast in the person, work, grace, and glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. " (Revelation 20:5) And is not God the Holy Ghost glorified and honoured in the Christian sabbath, at the renewal of the sacred day, in that then is celebrated his first open and visible display of his love and mercy over the church, when at Pentecost he came down upon the people? Doth not every regenerated child of God here also, as in the other instances, testify, that it is by the sovereignty of his power and grace, he is quickened to a new and spiritual life, and now waits again on the Lord, in his holy ordinance of the sabbath, for the renewing of the Holy Ghost to be shed on him abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Lord? (Titus 3:5-6)...
Surely, these are very clear and incontestible evidences of the true commemoration of the Christian sabbath, when, in the observance, special and distinct acts of praise and honour, are given to each glorious person of the GODHEAD, as they are represented to us in the Scriptures of truth, in the several character-offices of their divine agency
Conversion - ...
The Character of Conversion Christian conversion is the experience of an individual in which one turns from sin and trusts in Jesus Christ for salvation. Surely every person's conversion will not be as dramatic as someone else's may be, but every person must personally come face to face with Jesus Christ to claim a conversion. Confrontation is saying to Jesus Christ, “I accept You as my Lord. ” Confrontation is a personal transaction between me and Jesus Christ. The clear presentation of God's requirements, man's failures, and God's provision for sinful man in Jesus Christ creates the opportunity for conversion as well as the opportunity for rejection. The numerous admonitions of Scripture are to believe on the Lord Jesus Christ for salvation (John 3:16 ; Acts 16:31 ; 1 John 5:13 )
John - The Lord Jesus Christ is but a name and a notion to us; a sacred name and notion, it may be, but still only a name and a notion. The thought of Jesus Christ seldom or never quickens, or overawes, or gladdens our heart. Whereas, when we once become men of meditation, Jesus Christ, and the whole New Testament concerning Him, and the whole New Jerusalem where He is preparing a place for us, will become more to us than our nearest friend: more to us than this city with all its most pressing affairs. Our conventional morning chapter about what Jesus Christ did and said, and is at this moment doing and saying, will then be far more real to us than all our morning papers and all our business letters. You may be the most unlearned man in this learned city tonight, and yet such is John's Gospel, and such is the power and the blessedness of meditation on it, that John will look down on you after your house is asleep tonight, and will say over you, as you now sit, and now stand, and now kneel with his Gospel in your hands-"That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that you may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ. And its noblest use is to be filled full of Jesus Christ, as John's inward eye was
James, Epistle of Saint - The author calls himself "James, the servant of God and of our Lord Jesus Christ
Master - ...
All Christians are servants of this divine Master and must give him their total allegiance (Matthew 6:24; see Jesus Christ, sub-heading ‘Jesus as Lord’)
Salvation: in Christ - Even so Jesus Christ has taken my poor guilty soul ever since I believed in him, and has wrapped around me the blood-red flag of his atoning sacrifice, and before God can destroy me or any other soul that is wrapped in the atonement, he must insult his Son and dishonor his sacrifice, and that he will never do, blessed be his name
Personal Work - If we want to conquer the world for the Lord Jesus Christ, rest assured we must do it in the Yankee's fashion; we must take men one by one, and these ones must be brought to Christ, or otherwise the great mass must remain untouched
Epistle of Saint James - The author calls himself "James, the servant of God and of our Lord Jesus Christ
Tamar - " (Isaiah 55:8) It is a very remarkable circumstance also, that in the genealogy given by the Evangelist Matthew, under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the first chapter of his gospel, no mention is made of any women but of this Thamar, Matthew 1:3; of Rachab or Rahab the harlot, Matthew 1:5; Ruth the poor Moabitess, Matthew 1:5; and Bathsheba the wife of Uriah, Matthew 1:6
Board - He must die in the person of his Substitute, the Lord Jesus Christ
Born - ...
John 3:3 (a) The transformation which takes place when a lost sinner trusts Jesus Christ is compared to the birth of a child
Bethany - He wanted them to remember, and never forget, that only the Lord Jesus Christ can give life to those who are dead (Example of Lazarus)
Built - ...
1 Corinthians 3:14 (a) Here we find represented a substantial work of GOD erected by a saint of GOD on the person and work of Jesus Christ
Leopard - ...
Revelation 13:2 (a) This animal represents the antichrist, who though pretending to be a man of peace will really be a cruel monster, killing all his enemies, violating his oath and showing swift and certain vengeance on those who belong to Jesus Christ
Angel - The Lord Jesus Christ himself is called the Angel or Messenger of the covenant
Asher - Hence, in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, he is the blessedness, the Asher of his people
Chosen of God - Concerning the person of the Lord Jesus Christ as chosen, and set apart from all eternity, the glorious Head and Mediator of his people, these portions are some among the many
Vision - Jesus Christ manifested himself to his Apostles, in his transfiguration upon the mount, and on several other occasions after his resurrection
Rahab - Thus Jesus Christ condescended to reckon this Canaanitish woman among his ancestors
Redeemer - A name given to Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world, because he redeems mankind from the bondage and guilt of their sins, by dying in their place, and thus paying their ransom, Matthew 20:28 Galatians 3:13 Ephesians 1:7 1 Timothy 2:6 Titus 2:14 1 Peter 1:18,19 Revelation 5:9
Melchizedek - Scripture tells us nothing of his father or mother, of his genealogy, his birth, or his death; he stands alone, without predecessor or successor, a royal priest by the appointment of God; and thus he was a type of Jesus Christ, who is "a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek," and not after the order of Aaron, whose origin, consecration, life, and death, are known, Psalm 110:4 Hebrews 7:1-28
Lion - ...
"The Lion of the tribe of Judah," Revelation 5:5 , is Jesus Christ, who sprung from the tribe of Judah and the race of David, and overcame death, the world, and the devil
Firstborn - Thus Jesus Christ is "the firstborn of every creature," Colossians 1:15 , inasmuch as he was the "Only begotten" of the Father before any creature was produced
Treasure - 1: θησαυρός (Strong's #2344 — Noun Masculine — thesauros — thay-sow-ros' ) denotes (1) "a place of safe keeping" (possibly akin to tithemi, "to put"), (a) "a casket," Matthew 2:11 ; (b) "a storehouse," Matthew 13:52 ; used metaphorically of the heart, Matthew 12:35 , twice (RV, "out of his treasure"); Luke 6:45 ; (2) "a treasure," Matthew 6:19-21 ; 13:44 ; Luke 12:33,34 ; Hebrews 11:26 ; "treasure" (in heaven or the heavens), Matthew 19:21 ; Mark 10:21 ; Luke 18:22 ; in these expressions (which are virtually equivalent to that in Matthew 6:1 , "with your Father which is in Heaven") the promise does not simply refer to the present life, but looks likewise to the hereafter; in 2 Corinthians 4:7 it is used of "the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ," descriptive of the Gospel, as deposited in the earthen vessels of the persons who proclaim it (cp
Anxiety - They refuse to give their serious attention to the one thing that can save them from anxiety, namely, the gospel of Jesus Christ (Matthew 13:22)
Hosea - ...
I cannot take leave of the history of Hosea without first desiring the reader to remark with me, what numberless things we discover in this man's writings, pointing to the person, offices, relation, and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. What grace, mercy, love, and condescension in the Lord marrying our adulterous nature! What blessedness is set forth in that betrothing nature, for ever! What sweet views of Jesus doth this man's writings give concerning his recoveries of his people under all their backslidings, and departures, and rebellions, and ingratitude! Surely, it is impossible for any enlightened eye to read the records of the prophet, and not perceive the Saviour in almost every chapter and verse, from beginning to end, And how blessed was it and gracious in God the Holy Ghost, in those distant ages from Christ, when the prophecy of Hosed was delivered; and how blessed and gracious now in our day, upon whom "the ends of the world are come;" that this man's ministry should be made instrumental to comfort and refresh both, concerning the glorious person, love, grace, and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ
Melchizedek - ...
Jesus Christ as the Great High Priest after the Order of Melchizedek . The Book of Hebrews presents Jesus Christ, Lord and Savior, as a priest after the order of Melchizedek (4:14-7:28, Manger - We find this word no where in the Bible but when made use of in relation to the Lord Jesus Christ. " (Philippians 2:7) The great object for which the Son of God became man, was to restore the divine glory, which, sin had obscured; so that it was not enough for the Lord Jesus Christ to give all glory to God in a way of obedience and death, but he will give away, for a time, his own glory, to make the satisfaction to God more abundant
Hierocles (1), Neoplatonic Philosopher - He wrote a book against Christianity, entitled Λόγος φιλαλήθης πρὸς τοὺς Χριστιανούς , in which he brought forward various scriptural difficulties and alleged contradictions and instituted comparisons between the life and miracles of Jesus Christ and of Apollonius of Tyana. To this Eusebius replied in a treatise yet extant, Liber contra Hieroclem , wherein he shews that Apollonius was "so far from being comparable to Jesus Christ that he did not deserve to be ranked among the philosophers" (Du Pin, H
Predestination - God has "predestinated" believers "unto the adoption of sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the glory of His grace. God the Father gives us salvation by gratuitous election; the Son earns it by His blood-shedding; the Holy Spirit applies the Son's merits to the soul by the gospel word (Calvin): Galatians 1:4; Galatians 1:15; 1 Peter 1:2; the element IN (Greek) which we are elected is "sanctification of (consecration once for all by) the Spirit unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ" (the end aimed at by God as regards us)
Feet - ...
But if these things were so, and every action relative to the feet carried with it somewhat of a special nature, think what unequalled humbleness that was in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of life and glory, when he condescended to wash the feet of poor fishermen. And it were to be wished, that every poor, tried, and humble believer, would never lose sight of this feature of character in the Lord Jesus Christ
Transfiguration of Christ - " The Apostle Peter, adverting to this memorable occurrence, says, "We have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eye- witnesses of his majesty. " It has been observed, with much truth, that the condition in which Jesus Christ appeared among men, humble, weak, poor, and despised, was a true and continual transfiguration; whereas the transfiguration itself, in which he showed himself in the real splendour of his glory, was his true and natural condition
Revelation - God himself took human form and made himself known perfectly through Jesus Christ (1 Peter 1:10-12; John 1:18; John 14:8-9; Hebrews 1:2). The gospel of Jesus Christ reveals how God, through Christ, is able to forgive guilty sinners, declare them righteous and build them into a unified body, the church (Romans 1:17; Romans 16:25-26; Ephesians 3:5-6; see GOSPEL; MYSTERY). This does not mean that later revelations contradict those that were earlier; it means rather that later revelations develop the earlier, as God works towards the completion of his purposes through Jesus Christ (Ephesians 1:9-12; Ephesians 3:3-11; John 1:14; see INTERPRETATION, sub-heading ‘Progressive Revelation’)
Preaching - Teaching is necessary also for those who do not believe (Luke 4:31; Luke 5:3; Luke 21:37; Acts 4:2; Acts 5:21; Acts 5:25; Acts 18:11; 2 Timothy 2:24-26), while preaching the great facts of the gospel of Jesus Christ is still necessary to challenge the believer (Romans 1:15; Romans 16:25; 2 Corinthians 4:5; Colossians 1:28; Jeremiah 20:8-9). The gospel is more than just the message of salvation; it is the whole new life in Jesus Christ (1618106267_85; 1 Corinthians 15:1-2; 1 Corinthians 15:11-12; 2 Corinthians 1:19-22; 2 Corinthians 4:5-6; see GOSPEL). He has done this dramatically through his Son Jesus Christ, but he has also given a written revelation through the Scriptures (John 1:1; John 1:14; 2 Timothy 3:16-17; Hebrews 1:1-2; 2 Peter 1:20-21)
Glory - ...
The glory of Christ and his people...
Jesus Christ is the greatest revelation of God’s glory. The God whom no person could see, except in visions, now revealed himself in Jesus Christ (John 1:18; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Hebrews 1:3). ...
One promise given to believers in Jesus Christ is that, as they share in Christ’s sufferings in this life, so they will share in his glory in the life to come (Romans 8:17-18; 2 Corinthians 4:17; Philippians 3:21; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; Hebrews 2:10; 1 Peter 5:1; 1 Peter 5:10)
Resurrection of Christ - "If the body of Jesus Christ, " says Saurin, "were not raised from the dead, it must have been stolen away. Who committed it? The enemies of Jesus Christ? Would they have contributed to his glory by countenancing a report of his resurrection? Would his disciples? It is probable they would not, and it is next to certain they could not. People of this character, would they have dared to resist the authority of the governor? ...
Would they have undertaken to oppose the determination of the Sanhedrim, to force a guard, and to elude, or overcome, soldiers armed and aware of danger? If Jesus Christ were not risen again (I speak the language of unbelievers, ) he had deceived his disciples with vain hopes of his resurrection. It must be supposed that guards, who had been particularly cautioned by their officers, sat down to sleep; and that, however, they deserved credit when they said the body of Jesus Christ was stolen
Blood - This relationship only comes about through personal faith in Jesus Christ. When we believe in and trust the Lord Jesus Christ, GOD and CHRIST apply His sacrifice to our record of sins, and to ourselves in order to blot out all these sins and iniquities. " Any person who believes in and accepts the Lord Jesus Christ may and does receive the benefits of that precious blood. This church reveled in this carnage, and still rejoices in every opportunity to injure and destroy true believers in the Lord Jesus Christ
Family - Jesus Christ, along with the New Testament writers, used family images to describe the nature of faith and the church. The focus of family structure and family lineage changed from the “earthly father” and was replaced by a lineage from “God the Father,” accessible to anyone through Jesus Christ. The father was no longer the central figure of the family but was replaced by God the Father and faith in Jesus Christ. The authority of the male became like the sacrificial, servant authority of Jesus Christ (Ephesians 5:25-33 ). Her identity and personhood were discovered in her faith commitment to Jesus Christ and in doing the will of the Father. ...
Commitment The Old Testament concept of covenant became the foundation for the new covenant in Jesus Christ. All relationships were guided by grace and the sacrificial love of Jesus Christ (1 John 3:16 ). The family was guided by Christlike love, and the purpose of the family was to give witness to the love of God and bring people to a saving relationship with God through Jesus Christ, thus creating the larger family of God
Truth - ’ While these various aspects of truth are suggested in the apostolic writings, it would be a mistake to suppose that the apostles regarded truth as consisting of separate entities; rather they regarded it as a unity embodied in Jesus Christ, so that intellectual sincerity, ethical purity, doctrinal enlightenment, and spiritual experience were all manifestations of the one living and true God. ...
Truth was fully embodied and expressed in Jesus Christ, but before His coming there had been partial revelations of truth ‘by divers portions and in divers manners’ (Hebrews 1:1), and St. Paul in his special experience learned on the way to Damascus and in the solitude of the desert that the gospel came to him through no human means but through revelation of Jesus Christ (Galatians 1:12). The more usual method of illumination was by the Spirit’s interpreting the life of Jesus Christ to the needs of human experience, and making the Scriptures of the OT radiate a new meaning in the light of the sacrifice and work of the Saviour. Paul especially this fact of experience brought the assurance of God’s readiness to save and bless all men through faith in Jesus Christ without the necessity of their submitting to any rite of Jewish origin. Stephen in his defence charged those who denied Jesus Christ and His gospel with the crime of resisting the Holy Ghost as their fathers had been guilty likewise in persecuting the prophets (Acts 7:51-52), while St
Holy Day - On the other side it is observed, that if holy days had been necessary under the present dispensation, Jesus Christ would have observed something respecting them, whereas he was silent about them; that it is bringing us again into that bondage to ceremonial laws from which Christ freed us; that it is a tacit reflection on the Head of the church in not appointing them; that such days, on the whole, are more pernicious than useful to society, as they open a door for indolence and profaneness; yea, that Scripture speaks against such days, Galatians 4:9-11
Advent: Looking For the - I was told of a poor peasant on the Welsh mountains who, month after month, year after year, through a long period of declining life, was used every morning, as soon as he awoke, to open his casement window, towards the cast, and look out to see if Jesus Christ was coming
Transubstantiation - The conversion or change of the substance of the bread and wine in the eucharist into the body and blood of Jesus Christ, which the Romish church suppose to be wrought by the consecration of the priest
Building - 2 Chronicles 3:3 (c) This is probably a type of the Lord Jesus Christ who was the most magnificent and the most glorious person ever to dwell on earth
Alive - ...
Romans 6:11 (a) Here the word "alive" refers to the presence of the new eternal life in the soul which is given to any person when he trusts Jesus Christ
Abba - and to My God and (therefore) your God"; Galatians 3:28, "there is neither Jew nor Greek, for ye are all one in Jesus Christ"; Ephesians 2:18, "through Him we both have access by one Spirit unto the leather
Snow - ...
Isaiah 1:18 (a) By this we see the beautiful, stainless character of the one who is cleansed by GOD through the Blood of Jesus Christ, His Son
Spoil - The one who enters the house is the Lord Jesus Christ who alone is able to bind and to conquer Satan
Teacher, Teaching - On the contrary, the apostle said, "I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgement
Horn - Certainly it is more than once spoken of in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ
Blasphemy - It is not that the blood of Jesus Christ could not cleanse such a sinner, but that the man defeats the kind purpose that would lead him to it
Comforter - " The Greek term is applied to Christ: "We have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous
Spirit - Jesus Christ appearing to his disciples, said to them, Luke 24:39 , "Handle me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have
Key - Jesus Christ says that he has the key of death and hell, Revelation 1:18 ; that is, it is in his power to bring to the grave, or to deliver from it; to appoint to life or to death
Quick - The Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead
Fish, Fisher - ...
The early Christians, in times of persecution, used to engrave the form of a fish on their medals, seals, and tombs, as a tacit confession of their faith; as the five letters of the Greek word for fish are the initial letters of five words, signifying "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Savior
Testify - Testifying both to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, repentance towards God and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ
Shakespeare, Religion of - The most definite declaration which has been brought forward as yet is Shakespeare's will, which opens with the name of God, into whose hands Shakespeare commends his soul, hoping and believing, through the merits of Jesus Christ, to partake of life everlasting
Religion of Shakespeare - The most definite declaration which has been brought forward as yet is Shakespeare's will, which opens with the name of God, into whose hands Shakespeare commends his soul, hoping and believing, through the merits of Jesus Christ, to partake of life everlasting
Elea'Zar - (Ezra 8:33 ) ...
The son of Eliud, in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Peter, First, Theology of - ...
The author calls himself Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1), a fellow elder, a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and a participant in the eschatological glory (5:1). In contrast the church will share in the glory that belongs to Jesus Christ when he is revealed to the entire world (5:1,10). ...
The church lives under the authority of Jesus Christ through his apostle (1:1) and the elders (5:1-4). ...
Jesus Christ is the cornerstone (or capstone) of the church, and the priest through whom she offers spiritual sacrifices to God (2:5-7). Jesus Christ is the Son of God (1:3), seated at his right hand; he shares with God the title of Lord (1:25; 2:3; 3:12,15)
Prophecy - Their most essential characteristic is that they were instruments of revealing God's will to man, as in other ways, so specially by predicting future events, and, in particular, by foretelling the incarnation of the Lord Jesus Christ and the redemption effected by Mm. We have a series of prophecies which are so applicable to the person and earthly life of Jesus Christ as to be thereby shown to have been designed to apply to him
Innocence - In this sense it is an attribute of Jesus Christ alone among men, who ‘was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin’ (Hebrews 4:15); ‘who knew no sin’ (2 Corinthians 5:21); who could address to His watchful foes the challenge, ‘Which of you convicteth me of sin?’ (John 8:46). Trial of Jesus Christ)
Head - But the term Head when applied to the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Head of his body the "church," opens so sweet a subject for contemplation, that in a work of this kind it would be unpardonable to pass it by. All the persons of the GODHEAD engaged in this plan of grace, and set the wheels agoing from all eternity; and hence God the Father is called the God and Father"of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family, in heaven and earth, is named
Amen - One of the distinguishing names of the Lord Jesus Christ, as Christ God-man Mediator. And surely, the Lord Jesus Christ is all these, and infinitely more, JEHOVAH'S Yea and Amen, as he saith himself; the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God; that is in his mediatorial character
Father - Jesus Christ is called the Son of David, though David was many generations distant from him. Since the coming of Jesus Christ, we have a new right to call God our Father, by reason of the adoption which our Saviour has merited for us, by clothing himself in our humanity, and purchasing us by his death: "Ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father
Body - In this they will be following the example of Jesus Christ (Matthew 14:14-16; Mark 1:40-42); though like Jesus Christ they will realize that ‘life is more than food and the body more than clothing’ (Matthew 6:25)
Confession - The confession of faith that Christians make is an open acknowledgment of their belief in Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Messiah, the chosen one of God who died on the cross and rose victoriously to be crowned Lord of all (Matthew 16:16; John 1:49; Romans 10:9; 1 Timothy 6:12; 1 John 4:2; 1 John 4:15). One day all people will confess Jesus Christ as Lord, to the glory of God (Philippians 2:11)
Pilate - Luke acquaints us, that Pilate had mingled the blood of the Galileans with their sacrifices; and that the matter, having been related to Jesus Christ, he introduced the subject into his discourse, Luke 13. This was enough to justify Jesus Christ, as Calmet observes, and to prove that he held him as innocent; but it was not enough to vindicate the conscience and integrity of a judge, whose duty it was as well to assert the cause of oppressed innocence, as to punish the guilty. And Pilate, in compliance with the custom, having sent word to Tiberius of what had passed relating to Jesus Christ, the emperor wrote an account of it to the senate, in a manner that gave reason to judge that he thought favourably of the religion of Jesus Christ, and showed that he should be willing for them to confer divine honours upon him; but the senate was not of the same opinion, and so the matter dropped
Day - ...
The phrases "the day of Christ," Philippians 1:10 ; 2:16 ; "the day of Jesus Christ," Philippians 1:6 ; "the day of the Lord Jesus Christ," 1 Corinthians 5:5 ; 2 Corinthians 1:14 ; "the day of our Lord Jesus Christ," 1 Corinthians 1:8 , denote the time of the Parousia of Christ with His saints, subsequent to the Rapture, 1 Thessalonians 4:16,17
Godly, Godliness - "Make every effort to add to your faith goodness; and to goodness, knowledge; and to knowledge, self-control; and to self-control, perseverance; and to perseverance, godliness; and to godliness, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness, love" (2 Peter 1:5-7)— ;qualities which, in turn, deepen one's "knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ" (1:8). ...
Godliness in both respects (knowledge of God and holiness of life) is jeopardized by the propagation of falsehood: "If anyone teaches false doctrines and does not agree to the sound instruction of our Lord Jesus Christ and to godly teaching, he is conceited and understands nothing. Grace teaches us "to say No' to ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this present age, while we wait for the blessed hopethe glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (Titus 2:12-13 )
Mediator - Thus Jesus Christ is the Mediator between an offended God and sinful man, 1 Timothy 2:5 . Jesus Christ, therefore, was the appointed Mediator to bring about reconciliation, Genesis 3:12 . In the person of Jesus Christ the object of trust is brought nearer to ourselves; and those well-known tender affections which are only figuratively ascribed to the Deity, are in our great Mediator thoroughly realized
Jesus Christ - No one ever bore this name with so much justice, nor so perfectly fulfilled the signification of it, as Jesus Christ, who saves from sin and hell, and has merited heaven for us by the price of his blood. Both names are used separately, in the gospels and also in the epistles; but JESUS generally stands by itself in the gospels, which are narratives of his life; while in the epistles, which treat of his divine nature and of his redeeming work, he is called CHRIST , CHRIST JESUS, or THE LORD Jesus Christ. ...
The visit of Jesus Christ to the earth has made it forever glorious above less favored worlds, and forms the most signal event in its annals
Profession - In the specific sense of confessing faith in Jesus Christ it is the technical term. ‘Every spirit which confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God’ (1 John 4:2, also 1 John 4:3, 2 John 1:7). It fitly expresses the condition necessary for joining the company or society of those who believed in Jesus Christ
Nazarene - 1) A native or inhabitant of Nazareth of Galilee, especially applied to Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ's citizenship of Nazareth offered his detractors a motive to hurl contempt at him
Mediator - The Council of Trent defines that "we were saved through the merits of one mediator Our Lord Jesus Christ"
Truth - " (Proverbs 23:23)...
Who can contemplate the Lord Jesus Christ under this most blessed character, without joining the apostle in his expressive account of Jesus—"This is the true God and eternal life
Devotion - "Wherever the vital and unadulterated spirit of Christian devotion prevails, its immediate objects will be to adore the perfections of God; to entertain with reverence and complacence the various intimations of his pleasure, especially those contained in holy writ; to acknowledge our absolute dependence on and infinite obligations to him; to confess and lament the disorders of our nature, and the transgressions of our lives; to implore his grace and mercy through Jesus Christ; to intercede for our brethren of mankind; to pray for the propagation and establishment of truth, righteousness, and peace, on earth; in fine, to long for a more entire conformity to the will of God, and to breathe after the everlasting enjoyment of his friendship
Discipline - In ecclesiastical affairs, the execution of the laws by which the church is governed, and infliction of the penalties enjoined against offenders, who profess the religion of Jesus Christ
Betrothal - This miracle gave emphasis to the unique human and divine nature of Jesus Christ
Robe - to those who, coming as lost sinners to GOD by Jesus Christ, are saved by grace, and washed white in the Blood of the Lamb
God, Presence of - In the Human Nature of Jesus Christ, the presence of God in creatures reaches all possible perfection
Balances - We must have the imputed righteousness and righteous life which GOD gives to those who belong to Jesus Christ by faith
Key - Isaiah 22:22 (b) By this figure our Lord is describing the right of Jesus Christ to rule and to reign
Sit (Downsitting) - ...
Luke 8:35 (c) We may learn from this posture that when a soul meets Jesus Christ, his restlessness ceases, and he begins to rest in the presence of his Lord
Lectures Bampton - ...
According to the directions in his will they are to be preached upon either of the following subjects:...
To confirm and establish the Christian faith, and to confute all heretics and schismatics; upon the divine authority of the holy Scriptures; upon the authority of the writings of the primitive fathers, as to the faith and practice of the primitive church; upon the divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; upon the divinity of the Holy Ghost; upon the articles of the Christian faith as comprehended in the Apostles' and Nicene creeds
Armenians - The inhabitants of Armenia, whose religion is the Christian, of the Eutychian sect; that is, they hold but one nature in Jesus Christ
Epistle to the Colossians - After a fitting introduction (1:1-14) he establishes the right of Jesus Christ to the titles of Creator, Preserver, and End of all things
Goliath - But in reading the history of this battle we stop short of the chief glory of it, if we do not eye the Lord Jesus Christ, the almighty David of his Israel, conquering hell, death, and the grave, in all his Goliahs which come forth to defy the army of the living God
Judges - Some have thought that the Sanhedrim, which was a council consisting of seventy elders, always presided beside those judges, and regularly continued from the time of the Lord's appointment (see Numbers 11:16-17) until the days of the Lord Jesus Christ
Jehoiachin - But this was so far from being the case, that in the generations of the Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, we find his son Salathiel enumerated
Beer-Elim - " (Isaiah 12:2-3) And hence, if, with an eye to the Lord Jesus Christ, who is himself, in the souls of all his redeemed, a well of water springing up unto everlasting life, (John 4:14) we accept those Beer-elim in the word, we then join the Lord's song, in the Lord's own words, as he directed Moses
Servant - Philip, and the rest, were servants of Jesus Christ
Benedicite - All Mankind, from verse 26 to the end; this last division beinga call to mankind in general—the people of Israel, Priests andservants of the Lord, Spirits and Souls of the Righteous, and all"holy and humble men of heart," to praise the Lord and magnify Himforever,—followed in Christian Worship by the Gloria Patri, as anact of high praise of the holy, blessed and adorable Trinity, madeknown to us by the Revelation of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ
Greeting - ...
Paul transformed the customary greeting charein into an opportunity for sharing the faith, substituting “grace [1] to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” (Romans 1:7 ; 1 Corinthians 1:3 ; 2 Corinthians 1:2 ; Galatians 1:3 ; Ephesians 1:2 ; Philippians 1:2 ; Titus 1:4 ). Some of the most familiar benedictions used in Christian worship come from such closing greetings: “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost” (2 Corinthians 13:14 ); “Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep make you perfect in every good work to do his will
Human Free Will - ...
Through Jesus Christ and the salvation, regeneration, and sanctification that He brings, the will can be freed to function as God created it (John 8:32-36 ). ...
Since God gave mankind the privilege of a free will and then intervened through Jesus Christ when sin changed this freedom to bondage, He gives mankind the privilege to make individual choices
Lamb - Genesis 22:7 (b) It is quite evident that this lamb is a type of the Lord Jesus Christ who was described by John as "the Lamb of God. ...
Proverbs 27:26 (c) It may be that this also is a picture of the Lord JESUS in that we must be clothed with Him as the Scripture say; "Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ
Call, Calling - Effectual calling has been more particularly defined to be " the work of God's Spirit, whereby, convincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds with the knowledge of Christ, and renewing our wills, he doth persuade and enable us to embrace Jesus Christ freely offered to us in the Gospel. On the whole, the design of God in giving this common call in the Gospel is the salvation of his people, the restraining of many from wicked practices and the setting forth of the glorious work of redemption by Jesus Christ
Predestination - The entire life and work of Jesus Christ was according to the pre-determined purpose of God (Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17; Luke 24:44-47; Acts 4:25-27; 1 Peter 1:20). That plan is designed to bring an end to all the conflict in the universe and restore all things to perfect unity through Jesus Christ (Ephesians 1:10; Ephesians 3:9-11)
Repentance - Faith means complete trust in Jesus Christ and his atoning death. But the preaching of repentance, like the preaching of faith, must be related to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Luke 24:46-47)
Instruction - The church of Jesus Christ, therefore, is a teacher, instructing men and women in Christian faith and discipleship. New Christians are not to remain “babes in Christ,” but to increase in “grace, and in the knowledge” of the Lord Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 3:1-3 ; Hebrews 5:13 ; 2 Peter 3:18 )
Offering - The offerings and that which they represent are given as follows:...
Wave Offering Exodus 29:24 (c) This is typical of presenting before GOD all the beauties and the virtues of the Lord Jesus Christ as the One in whom we trust and in whom we delight in lieu of anything in ourselves. ...
Meat Offering Leviticus 2:1 (c) This is a picture of the beautiful, smooth life of the Lord Jesus Christ offered to GOD instead of the horrible, rough life that we have lived
Foot - There is nothing at all in a human being that is acceptable to GOD until we trust Jesus Christ and become GOD's children. ...
Ezekiel 1:7 (b) These are types of the walk of our Lord Jesus Christ
Door - By faith the individual is to take his place under the precious Blood of CHRIST, applying it to his own heart by faith and acknowledging to GOD that he is taking refuge under the shed Blood of Jesus Christ, the Lamb of GOD. ...
John 10:1 (a) Entrance to Heaven can be obtained only by and through the Lord Jesus Christ
White - ...
Song of Solomon 5:10 (c) In this way we may understand the sinless character of the Lord Jesus Christ in all His perfection. ...
Isaiah 1:18 (a) The Blood of the Lord Jesus Christ removes all the stain of sin that is on the soul, and all the record of sin that is in the book
Sprinkling - And hence, when the Holy Ghost is recording the faith of Moses, in his view, of the Lord Jesus Christ, the blessed Spirit expresseth the whole of Moses's dependance upon Christ by this one act of the ordinance appointed—"Through faith he kept the passover, and the sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the first born should touch them. ) And the apostle Peter expresseth the whole of the fulness of Christ's salvation, and the two grand branches of it, the obedience and the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ
Titus, Epistle to - The grace of God that carries salvation for all has appeared, teaching how a Christian is to live, awaiting the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of the great God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who died to redeem such from all lawlessness, and to purify to Himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. Matthew 19:28 ), and renewal of the Holy Spirit, which He had richly poured out upon them through Jesus Christ their Saviour (the 'renewal' is more than new birth, it is the Spirit's active energy in the believer), that, having been justified by His grace, they should become heirs according to the hope of eternal life
Hope - " (Ephesians 2:12) And it is very blessed to turn over the Scriptures of God, and behold the Lord Jesus Christ set forth under this endeared character, in a great variety of figures and representations, throughout the whole Bible. In him our flesh is said to rest in hope," when returning to the dust; and all our high expectations of life and immortality are expressed, in "looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the Great God, and our Saviour, Jesus Christ
Elect - It is in the first and highest instance spoken of, and applied to, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God. Think what a glorious, blessed Almighty Lord the christian's Lord is! Well might the apostle Peter, under the deep impression of this sacred truth made upon his heart, cry out with holy rapture, "Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctification of the Spirit unto obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ, grace unto you, and peace be multiplied
Antichrist - In verse 22 we and, "he is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son;" and still more positively, "every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of antichrist. , as the way of salvation, in place of salvation by faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, is pre-eminently Antichrist
Providence - Jesus Christ taught that the laws of nature are the established methods of His Heavenly Father’s working, and that they fulfil as well as reveal His will ( Matthew 6:25 ff; Matthew 10:29 ff. Belief in Providence means to the Christian, trust in the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has so clearly revealed His will in His Son as to make it plain to His children that natural laws may not only subserve moral and spiritual ends in this present time, but may also further His unerring purposes which are not bounded by this mortal life ( Romans 8:28 , 2 Corinthians 4:11 ff
Predestination - In Jesus Christ, God has set the pattern. Believers are to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ. ...
Ephesians 1The first chapter of Ephesians is first and foremost about Jesus Christ. When people hear the gospel message and believe that message (Romans 9:13 ,Romans 9:13,9:15 ), they live on earth under the leadership of Jesus Christ as Head of the body. Jesus Christ is first and foremost God's chosen. Jesus Christ embodies the way, the will, and the good pleasure of God
Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ - Some acknowledge, that in Jesus Christ there is a divine nature, a rational soul, and a human body. The writers in favour of the pre-existence of Jesus Christ's human soul recommend their thesis by these arguments. ...
Ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich, John 17:4-5 . Hence we may infer that the angel who, under the Old Testament, assumed divine titles, and accepted religious worship, was that peculiar angel of God's presence, in whom God resided, or who was united to the Godhead in a peculiar manner; even the pre-existent soul of Christ, who afterwards took flesh and blood upon him, and was called Jesus Christ on earth. If Jesus Christ had nothing in common like the rest of mankind except a body, how could this semi-conformity make him a real ?Prayer of Manasseh 1:1 :...
4. The passages quoted in proof of the pre-existence of the human soul of Jesus Christ are of the same sort with those which others allege in proof of the pre-existence of all human souls. ...
See articles Jesus Christ, and INDWELLING SCHEME; Robinson's Claude, vol
Ephesians, Epistle to the - ...
The key note is struck in Ephesians 1:3 , where God is blessed as "the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" — the God , when our Lord Jesus Christ is looked at as man; the Father, when He is viewed as Son of God. " It will be seen that the prayer at the close of Ephesians 1 is founded on the title 'the God of our Lord Jesus Christ,' while that in Ephesians 3 is on the title 'Father. ' The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ has blessed believers with every spiritual blessing in the heavenlies in Christ. ...
The prayer at the close of Ephesians 1 is that the saints might have the spiritof wisdom and revelation in the full knowledge of the God of the Lord Jesus Christ: that they might know the hope of His calling, His inheritance in the saints, and the greatness of the power towards them which He wrought in raising Christ (a Man) from the dead, and setting Him at His right hand in the heavenly places (cf
je'Sus Christ - "The life and character of Jesus Christ," says Dr. Other names are sometimes added to the names Jesus Christ, thus, "Lord," "a king," "King of Israel," "Emmanuel," "Son of David," "chosen of God. --Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, God being his father, at Bethlehem of Judea, six miles south of Jerusalem. Jesus Christ, being both human and divine, is fitted to be the true Saviour of men. Jesus Christ is the centre of the world's history, as he is the centre of the Bible
Praise - ...
The reference to ‘marvellous light’ suggests a reminiscence of the Transfiguration, and the idea is paraphrased in Clement of Rome (36): ‘Through Him [1] let us gaze into the heights of the heavens; through Him we behold as in a mirror His spotless and supernal countenance; through Him the eyes of our heart were opened; through Him our dull and darkened mind burgeons anew into the light’ (quoted by Hort, ib. To the only wise God through Jesus Christ [4] be the glory for ever. To whom [8] be the glory for ever and ever. To whom [9] is the glory and the dominion for ever and ever. To him [11] be the glory both now and for ever. To the only God our Saviour through Jesus Christ our Lord be glory, majesty, dominion and power before all time, and now, and for evermore. 61: ‘O Thou, who alone art able to do these things, and things far more exceeding good than these for us, we praise Thee through the High Priest and Guardian of our souls, Jesus Christ, through whom be the glory and the majesty unto Thee both now and for all generations and for ever and ever. Edersheim, The Temple: its Ministry and Services as they were at the Time of Jesus Christ, do
Faith - ...
(2) More frequently the faith is directed to Jesus Christ. Paul enjoins the Philippian jailer: ‘Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Acts 16:31). In all these cases the faith is directed to the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul when he promises to the jailer salvation for himself and his household as the blessing given to faith in Jesus Christ. More generally the gift of the Holy Spirit follows baptism and the laying on of hands, as in the case of the disciples of John the Baptist (Acts 19:2) and the Samaritans whom Philip had led to believe in Jesus Christ (Acts 8:17). This declaration agrees with the writer’s whole attitude, for throughout this letter he insists that the practical carrying out of ‘the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ’ is found in obedience to ‘the royal law’; ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Occasionally faith is spoken of as being directed to God, but commonly it is directed to Jesus Christ. Paul writes: ‘Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, save (but only, ἐὰν μή) through faith in Jesus Christ, even we believed on Christ Jeans that we might be justified by faith in Christ. Paul the only faith that is of value is the faith that rests on Jesus Christ our Lord, who was made in the likeness of men, died for our sins, and rose again from the dead. The Death of Christ occupies so large a place in his thought that he is determined to know nothing save Jesus Christ and Him crucified (1 Corinthians 2:2), while he insists so strongly on the Resurrection as to declare: ‘If Christ hath not been raised; your faith is vain’ (1 Corinthians 15:17). Paul had sought justification with God by a religious obedience to the Law, bat Faith in Jesus Christ changed his whole attitude and revolutionized his whole thought. ’ Faith and love are presented as twin commands: ‘This is his commandment, that we should believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and love one another’ (1 John 3:23). With all its problems and mysteries, this book has proved in times of despair the means of begetting and sustaining faith in Jesus Christ as ‘the ruler of the kings of the earth’ (Revelation 1:5). -In whatever ways the apostles differ in their method of regarding faith, they agree in the underlying thought that in and by it there is oneness with Jesus Christ
Faith - ...
(2) More frequently the faith is directed to Jesus Christ. Paul enjoins the Philippian jailer: ‘Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Acts 16:31). In all these cases the faith is directed to the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul when he promises to the jailer salvation for himself and his household as the blessing given to faith in Jesus Christ. More generally the gift of the Holy Spirit follows baptism and the laying on of hands, as in the case of the disciples of John the Baptist (Acts 19:2) and the Samaritans whom Philip had led to believe in Jesus Christ (Acts 8:17). This declaration agrees with the writer’s whole attitude, for throughout this letter he insists that the practical carrying out of ‘the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ’ is found in obedience to ‘the royal law’; ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Occasionally faith is spoken of as being directed to God, but commonly it is directed to Jesus Christ. Paul writes: ‘Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, save (but only, ἐὰν μή) through faith in Jesus Christ, even we believed on Christ Jeans that we might be justified by faith in Christ. Paul the only faith that is of value is the faith that rests on Jesus Christ our Lord, who was made in the likeness of men, died for our sins, and rose again from the dead. The Death of Christ occupies so large a place in his thought that he is determined to know nothing save Jesus Christ and Him crucified (1 Corinthians 2:2), while he insists so strongly on the Resurrection as to declare: ‘If Christ hath not been raised; your faith is vain’ (1 Corinthians 15:17). Paul had sought justification with God by a religious obedience to the Law, bat Faith in Jesus Christ changed his whole attitude and revolutionized his whole thought. ’ Faith and love are presented as twin commands: ‘This is his commandment, that we should believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and love one another’ (1 John 3:23). With all its problems and mysteries, this book has proved in times of despair the means of begetting and sustaining faith in Jesus Christ as ‘the ruler of the kings of the earth’ (Revelation 1:5). -In whatever ways the apostles differ in their method of regarding faith, they agree in the underlying thought that in and by it there is oneness with Jesus Christ
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - The Old Testament begins with "Genesis" ("generation"); so also the New Testament begins with the genesis ("generation," Matthew 1:1) of Jesus Christ. The tracing of Christ's descent through Judah's royal line harmonizes with the kingly aspect of Jesus Christ in Matthew's Gospel. He cannot therefore have been lineal progenitor of Jesus Christ
Stone - In both the Old Testament and the New, it represents the Lord Jesus Christ, or the child of GOD, or the truth of GOD. ...
Genesis 49:24 (a) This represents the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Psalm 118:22 (b) There is no doubt but that this type represents the Lord Jesus Christ as the One in whom we trust for eternity
Moravian Church - " Accepting the Apostles' Creed as formulating the prime articles of faith found in the Scriptures, it emphasizes the personal mediatorship of Jesus Christ as true God and true Man, in His life, sufferings, death, and resurrection
Devotion to the Sacred Heart - On the feast of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King, the last Sunday of October, an act of consecration of the human race is prescribed
Bohemian Brethren - They allowed no adoration but of Jesus Christ in the communion
Sobriety - The example of Jesus Christ, and 4
Revelation, Book of - In both Jesus Christ is the central figure, whose victory through defeat is the issue of the conflict
New - God again acted in a new way in Jesus Christ who offered a new teaching with authority ( Mark 1:27 ) and whose ministry could be compared to new wine bursting old expectations of God's involvement in human salvation (Mark 2:22 )
Nest - ...
Jeremiah 48:28 (a) This type represents the believer who finds his home, his life, and all his affairs wholly resting in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Rock of Ages
Jesus - Jesus Christ; see article Christ, Christology
Feet (Under) - ...
Psalm 8:6 (a) GOD has made the Lord Jesus Christ the sovereign Lord over all creation
Son of Man, the - See Jesus Christ
Peace - Hence the believer is justified by faith, and has peace (peace of conscience) with God through the Lord Jesus Christ
Amen - Jesus Christ as preached) is the Amen’ the seal of God’s promises
Academics - Jesus Christ, therefore, is with great propriety called the Day Spring from on High, the Sun of Righteousness, that arose upon a benighted world to dispel the clouds of ignorance and error, and discover to lost man the path of happiness and heaven
Baptist - Such, in comparison to the Lord Jesus Christ, was this greatest of all prophets, born among women
Girdle - "Wherefore (saith one of the apostles,) gird up the loins of your mind; be sober, and hope to the end; for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ
Finish - This is a blessed word in Scripture language in application to the Lord Jesus Christ
Life, Eternal - The Lord said to His Father, "This is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent
Abib - " Ravanelli observes, that as this deliverance from Egypt was a figure of the redemption of the church of Jesus Christ, who died and rose again in this month, it was made the "beginning of months," to lead the church to expect the acceptable year of the Lord
Unitas Fratrom - " Accepting the Apostles' Creed as formulating the prime articles of faith found in the Scriptures, it emphasizes the personal mediatorship of Jesus Christ as true God and true Man, in His life, sufferings, death, and resurrection
Unity of Brethren - " Accepting the Apostles' Creed as formulating the prime articles of faith found in the Scriptures, it emphasizes the personal mediatorship of Jesus Christ as true God and true Man, in His life, sufferings, death, and resurrection
Sacred Heart, Devotion to the - On the feast of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King, the last Sunday of October, an act of consecration of the human race is prescribed
Through - ...
The gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord
Jesus - Jesus Christ; see article Christ, Christology
Revelation of God - ...
Biblical emphasis points to Jesus Christ as God's final revelation. Through calling people, miracles, the Exodus, covenant making, and ultimately through Jesus Christ, God has revealed Himself in history. ...
The ultimate point of God's personal revelation is in Jesus Christ. The redemptive revelation of God is that Jesus Christ has borne the sins of fallen humanity, has died in their place, and has been raised to assure justification. ...
We can thus affirm that special revelation has three stages: (1) redemption in history, ultimately centering in the work of the Lord Jesus Christ; (2) the Bible, written revelation interpreting what He has done for the redemption of men and women; (3) the work of the Holy Spirit in the lives of individuals and the corporate life of the church, applying God's revelation to the minds and hearts of His people. As a result, men and women receive Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and are enabled to follow Him faithfully in a believing, covenant community until life's end. God has manifested Himself incarnationally through human language, human thought, and human action as ultimately demonstrated in the incarnation of Jesus Christ
Lord's Supper, the - So the Lord's Supper is both a proclamation and a remembrance (memorial) of what God the Father has done in his Son, Jesus Christ, just as the Passover is a proclamation and a remembrance of what Yahweh did for Israel through the slaughter of the lambs in Egypt. So the Lord's Supper is a remembrance of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ and an expection of the joy of being with him in his kingdom. For the Evangelist the presence of Jesus Christ in the Lord's Supper/Eucharist is more real than was his physical presence to the disciples in Palestine. ...
Finally, the piercing of the side of Jesus and the coming forth of blood and water (19:34) graphically state that the two sacraments, baptism and Eucharist, flowed from the atoning and liberating death of Jesus Christ (see also 1 John 5:6-8 ). Third, the early church encountered the vital presence of Jesus Christ not in the bread and wine as such but in his presence in their midst and in their hearts. The purpose of the elements (which are truly holy and indispensable for they replace the Passover lamb) is to symbolize and recall the once-for-all and unrepeatable death of Jesus Christ. ...
Peter Toon...
See also Church, the ; Death of Christ ; Jesus Christ ; Love Feast ...
Bibliography
Nazarene - As this name was given to our Lord Jesus Christ, and we are told by the evangelist, that his residence in Nazareth was on this account, that he might be so called, it will certainly merit particular attention. "Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?" (John 1:46) But we shall find that this title, Jesus Christ of Nazareth, was all along designed of God, as of the highest import, and among the strongest testimonies to this peculiarity of character, as the one, yea, the only one great Nazarite of God. ...
The next enquiry is, which of the sacred writers is it that thus predicted Christ should be called a Nazarene? To which I answer, in type and figure; Jacob and Moses both represented this great truth in their dying testimonies concerning Joseph, the typical Nazarite of the Lord Jesus Christ. And lastly, and above all, as the angel concerning Samson declared, that he should be a Nazarite to God from the womb, and should begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines, so eminently did the angel announce to the Virgin Mary concerning the Lord Jesus Christ, that he should be that Holy Thing, and be called the Son of the Highest, and should deliver "his people from their sins. Jesus Christ of Nazareth, said Peter, in his sermon on the day of Pentecost, a man approved of God among you; as if to insist upon this glorious feature of the man, the Nazarite. And I trust that the reader will also see with me from the Lord's own teaching, that the law of the Nazarites, (Numbers 6:1-27) and especially the striking typical representation in the case of Samson, had no other meaning but to set forth the feature of the Lord Jesus Christ. Hail, thou precious blessed Lord Jesus Christ of Nazareth! Blessings for ever be on the head of him that was separated from his brethren! Verily, "thy father's children shall bow down before thee:" here, and to all eternity, thou shalt be called the Nazarite of God!...
Christ in the Early Church - Its interest is therefore chiefly practical, but it should be noted that at least once a doxology is addressed directly to Christ as to a Divine Person (20); that His unique dignity and pre-existence are evidently assumed in such a phrase as ‘the sceptre of the majesty of God, even our Lord Jesus Christ, came not in the pomp of arrogance, or of pride, though He might have done so’ (16); and that Christ is spoken of as shedding His blood for the salvation of the whole world (7). With Ignatius, Jesus Christ is ‘our God’ (Ephesians 1:18, and elsewhere). Ignatius speaks in significant language of the Incarnation, of the human life, sufferings, resurrection, and continued existence of Christ; and of His double nature; ‘There is one only physician, of flesh and of spirit, born and unborn, God in man, true life in death, Son of Mary and Son of God, first passible and then impassible, Jesus Christ our Lord’ (Eph. 125), addressing the emperor Hadrian, speaks of Jesus Christ as ‘God’ who ‘came down from heaven, and from a Hebrew virgin took and clad Himself with flesh; and in a daughter of man there dwelt the Son of God. This slight sketch of pre-Nicene theology should, however, be sufficient to show that, despite the absence of any statement of faith common to the whole Church, there is an overwhelming consensus of Church belief from the first to the effect (1) that the historic Jesus Christ was truly God, pre-existent with the Father; (2) that He was also truly man; (3) that in Him are permanently united God and man in one Person. From the very first Jesus Christ stands out in all the records of the early Church as the personal, living Master, not merely the Shepherd and High Priest of His faithful ones, but the true Lord and King of the Universe. ...
(b) The unknown author of the Second Epistle of Clement opens his sermon with a burst of enthusiastic gratitude: ‘What recompense then shall we give to Him (Jesus Christ)? or what fruit worthy of His own gift to us? And how many mercies do we owe Him! For He bestowed the light on us; He spake to us, as a father to his sons; He saved us when we were perishing—He called us when we were not, and from not being He willed us to be. ‘Jesus Christ’ is ‘our inseparable life’ (Ephesians 3); true Christians are ‘arrayed from head to foot in the commandments of Jesus Christ’ (ib. 9); faith and love in Jesus Christ are ‘the beginning and the end of life’ (ib. The blood of Jesus Christ is ‘eternal and abiding joy’ (Philippians 1). Those who ‘speak not concerning Jesus Christ’ he looks on as ‘tombstones and graves of the dead, on which are inscribed only the names of men’ (ib. To Ignatius, ‘the Eucharist is the flesh of Jesus Christ,’ though the false teachers deny it (Smyr. ‘There is one flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, and one cup unto union with His blood’ (Philippians 4). How then can I blaspheme my King and Saviour!’ And the apparently contemporary record of the martyrdom of polycarp closes with the significant words: ‘The blessed Polycarp was apprehended by Herodes, when Philip of Tralles was high priest, in the proconsulship of Statius Quadratus, but in the reign of the Eternal King, Jesus Christ. Maximus, who suffered under Decius, declared, ‘These are not torments, but anointings which are laid upon us for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ’ (Ruinart, Acta Martyrum, p. Phileas of Thmuis, put to death in Diocletian’s persecution, said in his last words: ‘Now we begin to be disciples of our Lord Jesus Christ
Children of God - —The teaching of Jesus Christ about the children of God cannot be understood apart from His teaching about the Fatherhood of God: indeed, it is from the latter standpoint that it must be approached. ...
The blessings enjoyed by the children of God are all the good that Jesus Christ came on earth to offer to men. ...
This identification of the blessings enjoyed by the children of God with the good of the Kingdom, leads naturally to the statement that the ethical attitude characteristic of the children of God can be secured by faith in Jesus Christ. One is that the Fatherhood of God is made accessible to men in Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is the mighty deliverer who can lift men out of death in sin and bring them to the Father. But a brief reference must be made to that teaching in so far as it involves a distinct reference to Jesus Christ. The children of God are possessors of a new life that has come to them by faith in Jesus Christ: John 4:23 Galatians 2:20, 1 John 2:23; 1 John 5:13. In both eases, however, the adoption is due to the redeeming work of Jesus Christ, ministered to men by the Holy Spirit. (γ) As King, Jesus Christ bestows a rich inheritance upon all His brethren. —Articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible on ‘God, Children of,’ ‘Jesus Christ,’ ‘Romans,’ and ‘Regeneration’; Commentaries on the NT, especially those of Sanday-Headlam, Westcott, and Lightfoot; Fairbairn, Christ in Modern Theology; Watson, The Mind of the Master; Bruce, Kingdom of God, and St
Preaching - ’ Sometimes the full expression κηρύσσειν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, ‘to proclaim the gospel’ (Galatians 2:2, 1 Thessalonians 2:9), occurs, while εὐαγγελίζειν frequently characterizes the content of the good tidings, specifically as ‘the gospel’ (τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, 1 Corinthians 15:1, 2 Corinthians 11:7, Galatians 1:11), or more variously as ‘Jesus Christ’ (Acts 5:42), ‘peace’ (Ephesians 2:17), or ‘the word’ (Acts 15:35). ) and ‘testify the gospel (διαμαρτύρεσθαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον) of the grace of God’ (Acts 20:24), help to make clear that preaching was primarily the proclamation of good tidings from God, the heralding of Jesus Christ as the Saviour of men. It was rather the spontaneous, authoritative announcement of a truth felt to be new to the experience of man, and explicable only in the light of the incarnation, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ as Saviour of men. But, even so, a clearly marked distinction is made in the case of Paul ‘preaching (κηρύσσων) the kingdom of God, and teaching (διδάσκων) the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Acts 28:31). But the message of the early Christian preachers was more in the nature of a Divine summons to the human heart to trust in the fatherly love of God and to believe in Jesus Christ as the pledge of His redeeming grace. But beneath all differences a unity was preserved round the central theme of the Person and work of Jesus Christ in human redemption. The positive element was the proclamation of Jesus Christ as the Saviour of all men. The very Person of Jesus Christ constituted a gospel worth preaching. ‘I determined not to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified’ (1 Corinthians 2:2). ’ if to ‘preach Moses’ meant to proclaim the validity of the whole Mosaic legislation, then to ‘preach Christ’ involves not only the proclamation of the religions significance of Jesus Christ but the whole evangelical scheme of redemption and reconciliation that centres in Him
Helper - ...
In line with the history of the term, 1 John 2:1 employs parakletos in a forensic sense, portraying a courtroom scene in which Jesus Christ, the righteous “Advocate,” intercedes with God on behalf of sinners
Cornerstone - The symbolism is clear: Jesus Christ is the only sure foundation of faith
Fish - ...
John 21:6 (c) Some say that these fish represent the miracles performed by our Lord Jesus Christ while He was on the earth
Gethsemane - Gethsemane will always be memorable, and always sacred, to the mind of the true lover of the Lord Jesus Christ
Purim - "...
(See Jesus Christ on "the feast of the Jews," John 5:1, not probably Purim (which the Vaticanus and the Alexandrinus manuscripts reading, "a," favors), but the Passover (which the Sinaiticus manuscript, "the," indicates)
Hattemists - The founders of these sects deduced from the doctrine of absolute decrees a system of fatal and uncontrollable necessity; they denied the difference between moral good and evil, and the corruption of human nature; from whence they farther concluded, that mankind were under no sort of obligation to correct their manners, to improve their minds, or to obey the divine laws; that the whole of religion consisted not in acting, but in suffering; and that all the precepts of Jesus Christ are reducible to this one, that we bear with cheerfulness and patience the events that happen to us through the divine will, and make it our constant and only study to maintain a permanent tranquillity of mind
Tabernacles, Feast of - ", Valling's Jesus Christ, p
Philip - He then travelled south towards Gaza and led a God-fearing Ethiopian official to faith in Jesus Christ (Acts 8:26-39)
Whole - " Not until one realizes his sinful condition and his need of the power of GOD will he come to Jesus Christ for salvation, admitting that he is helpless and hopeless
Middle Wall - The writer of Ephesians stressed that every conceivable barrier that exists between persons and between God and humanity has been destroyed by God's definitive work in Jesus Christ
Will (2) - Our Lord Jesus Christ has given us a perfect example of how our great possession of freedom should be used, has shown us by His own perfect subordination of His will to the will of His Father, that the goal at which we should aim is to have our wills in perfect accord with the will of God, whether it be His will as to our enduring or His will as to our doing
Lot (2) - Alexander, Gospel of Jesus Christ, 38; H
Avenger, Avenger of Blood - Now it is the day of grace; but there is a day of vengeance coming for those that "know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ
Wash - ...
Revelation 7:14 (b) It represents the act of faith whereby the believing sinner trusts in the Lord Jesus Christ who, by His own Blood, makes the believer clean and white in GOD's sight
Queen of Heaven - While we behold such things, what cause of thankfulness ought it to call forth towards God, who by the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ, hath opened to us the knowledge of himself, that "we might turn from idols to serve the living and true God!" Beautifully hath Moses pointed out to us, in his dying benediction to Israel, the blessedness of the Israel of God beyond the precious fruits brought forth by the sun, and the precious things put forth by the moon, "in the good will of him that dwelt in the bush
Fellowship, - Being brought into such association, it follows that as regards the gospel for the world, the welfare of the saints, and the maintenance of the truth, the believer has the same aims and objects before his soul as the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ have
Day - (Sabbath)...
Jeremiah 17:21 (b) This time of rest was a picture of the real and true rest which the believer has in Jesus Christ
Church - But, Lord, a term applied by the early Christians to Jesus Christ and the house in which they worshipped was named from the title
Adoration - In this sense the Romanists profess to adore the cross not simply or immediately, but in respect of Jesus Christ, whom they suppose to be on it
Genealogy - ...
Genealogy of Jesus Christ
Ecclesiastical Property - Jesus Christ instituted the Church as a perfect, independent, and visible society whose end is the sanctification and salvation of men, to be accomplished by the exercises of religion
Epistle to the Hebrews - Its purpose is to encourage the Christians to perseverance in the faith, and to warn them against apostasy to Judaism; to accomplish this purpose, it sets forth the excellence of Jesus Christ and the superiority of the New Law
Banner - And what Lord but Christ? Were not both the altar and the banner tokens of the Lord Jesus Christ? (Exodus 17:15) Hence, the church speaks, in allusion to Christ, "In the name of our God, we set up our banners
Hell - The Lord hath declared, that the "wicked, and those that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and the glory of his power
Boaz - Both Gentiles, and yet brought into the genealogy of the Lord Jesus Christ
Chariot - "There can be no doubt, but that this is designed to speak of the Lord Jesus Christ, whose chariot of love, founded in himself, both in his GODHEAD and manhood, whose acts of grace, are richer than gold and silver, and whose whole heart is full of love to his beloved Jerusalem
Ascension - With peculiar reference to our Lord Jesus Christ, the Psalmist demands, "Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord?" (Psalms 24:3) And in answer to the enquiry, we may truly say, that the glorious doctrine of the ascension is never cordially received, nor indeed properly understood, until that we are taught by the Lord the Spirit, to have both a just apprehension of his person who is ascended, and the blessed purposes included in that ascension for his church and people
Andrew - an Apostle of Jesus Christ, a native of Bethsaida, and the brother of Peter
Philip - Jesus Christ having seen him, said to him, "Follow me," John 1:43-44
Reconciliation - Reconciliation will extend in result to all things in heaven and on earth, Colossians 1:20 ; not to things under the earth (the lost), though these will have to confess that "Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father
Dominion - A third explanation is also possible, and is favoured by the mention in Judges 1:4 of ‘our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ
Persecution - Jesus Christ frequently warned His disciples that persecution would be the lot of all who followed Him ( John 15:18 ; John 15:20 )
Truth - Jesus Christ is called the truth
Hebrews, Epistle to the - Its purpose is to encourage the Christians to perseverance in the faith, and to warn them against apostasy to Judaism; to accomplish this purpose, it sets forth the excellence of Jesus Christ and the superiority of the New Law
Which - (4) In Philippians 2:21 , AV, "the things of Jesus Christ" (RV, is rendered "the things which are Jesus Christ's
Lord's Day - , hasgiven us the following clear statement concerning the first day ofthe week observed as the Lord's Day: "Our Saviour Jesus Christ, inthe exercise of this His Lordship over the day, has first of allabolished the ordinance of the Seventh Day, and substituted, by theHoly Spirit guiding His Church into all Truth, the ordinance of theFirst Day, as that one day in seven which the Fourth Commandmentenjoins to be kept sacred to God as a moral obligation
Fundamental Theology - ...
The questions answered, the apologete addresses himself to the demonstratio Christiana, the demonstration that Jesus Christ claimed and proved Himself to be a legate sent by God to teach a doctrine of salvation obligatory on all men. In the course of this demonstration the four Gospels are used merely as historical documents, in which we read what Jesus Christ explicitly claimed to be, what doctrines He taught, what Divine credentials (working of miracles, uttering and fulfilling of prophecies) He presented in proof of His claim
Righteousness - In 2 Peter 1:1 , 'the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ,' is the righteous dealing of God with sin and with sinners on the ground of the Death of Christ. But for the most part he uses it of that gracious gift of God to men whereby all who believe on the Lord Jesus Christ are brought into right relationship with God
Hate - And the love of our near and dear connections in nature, every one knows that is brought acquainted with the feelings of his own heart, is but too often leading us on the confines of sin and corruption, Hence, to hate whatever opposeth the best and purest desires of the soul, is among the clearest evidences of a follower of the Lord Jesus Christ. And since every thing in nature is hostile to a life of grace, so that my own corrupt heart is a much greater enemy to my soul's enjoyment in Christ, than either the world, or the powers of darkness, I do hate all, and every tie of nature, yea, and my own life also, in every degree, and by every way in which they are found to oppose, or run counter, to the pursuit of the soul in her desires after the Lord Jesus Christ
Naaman - I refer the reader to the article Leper, for farther remarks on the nature of the disease itself, and shall only add on that subject, that if such was the power of the servant of the prophet in his Master's name, instantly to cure this Syrian, what may we suppose, is the sovereign power and grace of the Lord God of the prophets, to heal all the leprosies of the souls of his people! Would to God (I would say in the words of the poor captive to her mistress) every poor sinner convinced by the Holy Ghost of his leprous state of sin, were with the Lord Jesus Christ, the Almighty prophet of his church and people, for He would recover him of his leprosy! (See 2 Kings 5:1-27 throughout. How doth the faith of this man, and so immediately wrought as it was in the mind of this poor idolater, reproach the supposed followers of the Lord Jesus Christ, who, after all the miracles, and evidences, and testimonies, with which the truth, as it is in Jesus, is brought home and confirmed to the heart, can hardly keep alive, from day to day, a suitable dependence upon Him! May we not take up the words of the Lord Jesus upon this occasion, and say, as he did: "Nevertheless, when the Son of man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth?" (Luke 18:8)...
Theology, Fundamental - ...
The questions answered, the apologete addresses himself to the demonstratio Christiana, the demonstration that Jesus Christ claimed and proved Himself to be a legate sent by God to teach a doctrine of salvation obligatory on all men. In the course of this demonstration the four Gospels are used merely as historical documents, in which we read what Jesus Christ explicitly claimed to be, what doctrines He taught, what Divine credentials (working of miracles, uttering and fulfilling of prophecies) He presented in proof of His claim
Self- Examination - Paul uses both words together: ‘Try yourselves (πειράζετε) if you are in the faith; prove yourselves (δοκιμάζετε)’; and he proceeds, ‘or do you not see when you look at yourselves (ἐπιγινώσκετε, ‘know ye not as to your own selves,’ Revised Version ) that Jesus Christ is in you? unless it should be that you fail in the test’ (αδόκιμοι). 103), who explains that ‘the examination enjoined must lead to one of two results: either the convert must conclude that what is required of him is too much; then he does not stand the test, he is not fit for the kingdom; Jesus Christ is not so much a part of his life that he must give up everything in order to be with Him; or he will conclude, on putting the necessary questions to himself, that Jesus Christ is in him and must dominate his whole life and action
Grace - ‘Grace’ designates the principle in God of man’s salvation through Jesus Christ . Paul writes of ‘the grace of God ’ (or ‘his grace’); In fifteen, of ‘the grace of Christ ’ (‘the Lord Jesus Christ,’ etc. Ten of the latter examples belong to salutation-formulæ (so in Revelation 22:21 ), the fullest of these being 2 Corinthians 13:14 , where ‘the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ’ is referred to ‘the love of God’ as its fountain-head; In the remaining five detached instances the context dictates the combination ‘grace of Christ’ (‘our Lord,’ etc. the grace of the one man Jesus Christ ,’ who is the counterpart of the sinful and baleful Adam: the generous bounty of the Man towards men , shown by Jesus Christ, served an essential part in human redemption
Confession - Probably the little creed put into the mouth of the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:37 ‘I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God’) is an interpolation, and represents the creed of some Church in Asia Minor, since it was known to Irenaeus. The true inspiration of the Spirit is shown in confession of ‘Jesus Christ come in the flesh’ (1 John 4:2 f. 7, where he urges confession of Jesus Christ come in the flesh, echoing 1 John 4:2. 7): ‘There is one only physician, of flesh and of spirit, generate and ingenerate, God in man, true Life in death, Son of Mary and Son of God, first passible and then impassible, Jesus Christ our Lord. 9): ‘Be ye deaf therefore, when any man speaketh to you apart from Jesus Christ, who was of the race of David, who was the Son of Mary, who was truly born and ate and drank, was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, was truly crucified and died in the sight of those in heaven, and those on earth, and those under the earth; who moreover was truly raised from the dead, His Father having raised Him, who in the like fashion will so raise us also who believe on Him-His Father, I say, will raise us,-in Christ Jesus, apart from whom we have not true life. He calls it the beautiful confession to which Christ Jesus has borne witness before Pontius Pilate, and charges Timothy ‘before God, who quickeneth all things, to keep the commandment undefiled, irreproachable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ. ’ ‘Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel’ (2 Timothy 2:8), We can safely say that that gospel included teaching about God who quickeneth all things, reference to Pontius Pilate, to the resurrection, and to the return to judgment; but the inference is most precarious by which Zahn puts them all into the creed with confession of the Holy Spirit, who is named in 2 Timothy 1:14, but not with emphatic correlation of His Person to the Persons of the Father and the Son (cf. Paul’s creed: ‘The living God who created all things sent his Son, Jesus Christ, born of the seed of David, who died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and was buried, who was raised the third day according to the Scriptures and appeared to Cephas and the Twelve, who sat at the right hand of God in the heavens, all rules and authorities and powers being made subject unto him, and is coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory
Baptism - His baptism prepared the way for Jesus Christ, who would bring the blessings that John’s baptism symbolized. The object of saving faith is Jesus Christ and what he has done through his death and resurrection. Paul, the great interpreter of Christian belief and practice, saw baptism as more than just a declaration of faith; he saw it as having meaning that is tied up with the unique union that believers have with Jesus Christ (Romans 6:3; Galatians 3:27). Christians are disciples of Jesus Christ, and he alone is their Lord (Acts 2:38; Acts 8:12; Acts 10:48; Acts 19:5; Romans 10:9)
Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life - ...
This means that the temporal order has redemptive potential as the sphere in which God's Spirit, the Spirit of the incarnate and risen Jesus Christ, works out his will in human affairs. Eternal life is available through study of the Scriptures as they relate to Jesus Christ (5:39). Next he furnishes a succinct description of what eternal life involves: "Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent" (17:3). Paul refers, of course, to the Spirit of the living God, the Spirit of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:9-11 ). Through Christ grace reigns "through righteousness to bring eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord" (5:21; Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life" (Jude 21 ). ...
The writer of Hebrews speaks of Jesus Christ as "the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him" (
Hebrews 5:9 ). The ultimate outcome of rejection of Jesus Christ is "eternal fire" (Matthew 18:8 ; 25:41 ; Jude 7 ), "eternal punishment" (Matthew 25:46 ) and "eternal [NIV: "everlasting"; the Greek word is aion [1]] destruction. ...
Sinners receive access to God's everlasting throne (Psalm 45:6 ; Hebrews 1:8 ), promised to David's descendants (2 Samuel 7 ) on behalf of Abraham's heirs (Luke 1:33,55 ), through the priestly ministrations of Jesus Christ, "a priest forever" (Hebrews 5:6 ; 6:20 ; 7:21 ). The exalted Jesus Christ declares that he is "alive for ever and ever" (1:18)
Arminians - Arminius had been educated in the opinions of Calvin; but, thinking the doctrine of that great man with regard to free will, predestination, and grace, too severe, he began to express his doubts concerning them in the year 1591; and, upon farther enquiry, adopted the sentiments of those whose religious system extends the love of the Supreme Being and the merits of Jesus Christ to all mankind. That Jesus Christ by his sufferings and death, made an atonement for the sins of all mankind in general, and of every individual in particular; that, however, none but those who believe in him can be partakers of divine benefits. That true faith cannot proceed from the exercise of our natural faculties and powers, nor from the force and operation of free will; since man, in consequence of his natural corruption, is incapable either of thinking or doing any good thing; and that, therefore, it is necessary, in order to his conversion and salvation, that he be regenerated and renewed by the operation of the Holy Ghost, which is the gift of God through Jesus Christ
Tree - ...
Exodus 15:25 (c) Perhaps this tree represents the Lord Jesus Christ who certainly does sweeten the bitter things of life, and make the sorrows of earth a blessing to the soul. Those who really trust Jesus Christ and are true Christians form only a very small part of that great institution we call Christendom. ...
Revelation 2:7 (b) We find no indication of the meaning of this type, but we may assume that it refers to the blessings that come from the Lord Jesus Christ to those who walk with GOD, dwell in His presence, and are planted in His courts
Borrow - (Exodus 3:22)...
And might there not be somewhat typical in the thing itself, in reference to the future call (as was all along intended) of the Gentile church? I beg the reader to read that sweet passage of the prophet Isaiah 19:18-25; and see the rich promises of the call of Egypt with Assyria, when the Lord shall set up the New Testament altar, even the Lord Jesus Christ, in the midst of the land of Egypt; and five cities shall speak the language of Canaan, even the gospel language of salvation by the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ. And I would ask, Is not that day, yea, that very day, at hand? Hath not the Lord, even now, been planting the gospel in Egypt? Hath not our God, when working by terrible things in righteousness, as he doth in the present awful war, caused even the Musselmen and inhabitants of Egypt to look on the congregations and prayer meetings of some of our pious soldiers who have been there? The writer of this hath himself received testimony to this striking providence of our God from a faithful soldier of the Lord Jesus Christ, as well as a faithful servant of his king and country, who was there, and an eye-witness to such characters looking in upon them, when he and a few of his devout comrades met together to read the Scriptures, and pray, and sing praises to the Lord
Brother - Thus, as in the instance of our Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, James and Joses were called the brethren of Christ, but in fact, were not so, but only relations of that tribe to which Jesus belonged. " (Proverbs 18:9)...
But when the reader hath carefully marked the application of the name brother to these and the like characters, there is a view of the subject perfectly foreign to every other, and above all, in which when the name of brother is considered as applied to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our relationship in him, it forms the sweetest of all thoughts. Brethren in Christ are all brethren by the Father's side, for they have all one father, "even the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named. " (Leviticus 25:25-35)...
Who is the brother waxen poor, having fallen into decay, and sold away some of his possession, but our poor ruined nature; ruined by the fall, and by sin, having sold away our possession? And who is the brother to whom the precept is given, and by whom it hath been fulfilled, and is fulfilling, but the Lord Jesus Christ? Who but him could redeem our mortgaged inheritance? Who but him had a right so to do, as the nearest of all kin, and the most compassionate of all relations? And do observe in those gracious precepts how blessedly provision is made, in this almighty Brother's obedience to this precept, for all the relations of Jesus, both Jew and Gentile; "Yea, (saith the command of JEHOVAH,) though he be a stranger, or a sojourner, that he may live with thee. For, although, all the glorious persons of JEHOVAH took part in our redemption, yet to neither can we look up as brother but to the Lord Jesus Christ
Begotten - ...
But in relation to the Son of God, as the first begotten and the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth, if those terms are confined to the person of the Lord Jesus in his character and office as Mediator, here all difficulty vanisheth to the proper apprehension of our mind; and under divine teaching, we are not only brought to the full conviction of the glorious truth itself, but to the full enjoyment of it, in knowing the Lord Jesus Christ in his mediatorial character, God and man in one person, the Head of union with his people, and the Head of communication also to his people, for grace here and glory for ever. For when the Holy Ghost would describe the eternal nature of the Lord Jesus Christ, he speaks of him in the past, present, and future; "Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever. And if so, and my view of this sublime subject is agreeable to the unerring word of the holy Scripture, and if the reader's apprehension of this doctrine corresponds with mine, he will find (what I bless the Lord I have found,) much sweetness in such precious views of the Lord Jesus Christ. I shudder to think to what lengths this misapplication of the words begetting souls to Christ, and spiritual fathers, have hurried men, when I have heard it hath been said from the pulpit, or committed to the press, that such preachers, at the last day, will have to say, "Behold I, and the children which the Lord hath given me!" Words which can belong to none but the Lord Jesus Christ, and never were intended to be used, or can with truth be used, by any other
Immanuel - It does announce the great fulfillment in Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:22-23 )
Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel - An ancient order which venerates as its founder the Prophet Elias, who lived nine centuries before Our Lord Jesus Christ
Covering the Head - To be insensitive to the culture in which one lives causes one to offend many of the people whom the church is trying to win to Jesus Christ
Carmelite Order - An ancient order which venerates as its founder the Prophet Elias, who lived nine centuries before Our Lord Jesus Christ
Carmelites - An ancient order which venerates as its founder the Prophet Elias, who lived nine centuries before Our Lord Jesus Christ
Name - Wallmark...
See also God, Name of ; Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
...
Mahanaim - Though "one" (Song of Solomon 6:9) she is nevertheless "two," the family of Jesus Christ in heaven and that on earth, that militant and that triumphant
Regeneration - It takes place when people humbly submit to Jesus Christ and trust him for forgiveness, salvation and life (John 1:12-13; John 3:3-6; Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:5; Titus 3:5)
Blasphemy - " ...
By the English laws, blasphemies of God, as denying his being or providence, and all contumelious reproaches of Jesus Christ, &c
Coming to Christ: as a Sinner (2) - 'Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners
Exorcism - Then follow the litanies, psalms, and prayer; after which the exorcist asks the devil his name, and adjures him by the mysteries of the Christian religion not to afflict the person any more; then, laying his right hand on the daemoniac's head, he repeats the form of exorcism, which is this: "I exorcise thee, unclean spirit, in the name of Jesus Christ: tremble, O Satan, thou enemy of the faith, thou foe of mankind, who hast brought death into the world; who hast deprived men of life, and hast rebelled against justice, thou seducer of mankind, thou root of all evil, thou source of avarice, discord, and envy
Works, Good - ...
Good works of the most sincere believers are all imperfect, yet like their persons they are accepted through the mediation of Jesus Christ (Colossians 3:17 ), and so are rewarded; they have no merit intrinsically, but are rewarded wholly of grace
Testament, New - The religious institution of Jesus Christ, says Mr
Judgment, the Final - The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator
War - ’ While, therefore, Jesus Christ did not condemn war in the abstract, the whole spirit of Christianity is against it (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible , art
Messiah - See Jesus Christ
Carnal - Jesus Christ in human flesh overcame the condemnation of the fleshly way to offer the free life of the Spirit's way
Foundation - In 1 Corinthians 3:10 the metaphor is slightly different, the preaching of Jesus Christ being the one foundation (cf
Likeness - God's purpose for humanity was fulfilled in Jesus Christ who is in a unique sense the likeness of God (2 Corinthians 4:4 ; compare John 1:14 ,John 1:14,1:18 ; John 14:9 ; Hebrews 1:3 )
Philemon, Theology of - In Philemon, as in the beginning of every letter in the Pauline corpus except Titus, the readers are reminded that every Christian is a slave of the Lord Jesus Christ
Armageddon - ” Revelation promises that in the face of defeat of God's saints by military forces from the east, south, and the north, the Lord Jesus Christ will return to defeat His enemies and deliver His people
Manoah - When the reader hath turned to the chapter which relates this wonderful transaction, and read it, I beg him to pause over it, and consider the several interesting circumstances connected with it; and then let him judge for himself, who this person could be that appeared to the man and his wife but, the Lord Jesus Christ
Face - ...
Ezekiel 1:6 (b) These four faces represent four aspects of the Lord Jesus Christ
Mary Magdalene - And what is more remarkable, the Holy Ghost is particular to tell the church this, in the same moment he speaks of the mercy; for so the sweet and gracious words run" Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary, Magdalene, out of whom he cast seven devils;"Did the kind compassionate, Lord mean to say by this condescending act of grace, that there he will be most gracious where Satan hath been most, cruel? Did he thereby mean to intimate to all his disciples, that the poor lamb of his fold shall have, the softest lying down in his bosom, whom the prowling wolf hath most torn and worried with his claws? Oh! that every deeply-exercised follower of the Lord Jesus would frequently think of this; and, as often as this Magdalene riseth to their recollection, would behold the Lord Jesus in this unequalled act of mercy, that "where sin abounded, grace doth much more abound; that as sin hath reigned unto death, so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord?" (Romans 5:21)...
Lamech - And yet more particularly hear what the Lord Jesus Christ saith upon this subject, Matthew 19:3-10
Confession - Every tongue will have to confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father
Tower - ...
Luke 14:28 (b) This is a type of any great work of GOD which a man of GOD builds for the honor of the Lord Jesus Christ
Absolution - But supposing the passage in question to apply to the successors of the apostles, and to ministers in general, it can only import that their office is to preach pardon to the penitent, assuring those who believe that their sins are forgiven through the merits of Jesus Christ; and that those who remain in unbelief are in a state of condemnation
Abyssinian Church - They are a branch of the Copts, with whom they agree in admitting only one nature in Jesus Christ, and rejecting the council of Chalcedon; whence they are also called Monophysites and Eutychians, which see
Token - It is also a type of the evidence against wicked sinners, manifested in the wounds of Jesus Christ, and His subsequent glory
Kingdom of Christ - " So that to speak of this kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ in a comprehensive manner, he hath universal, unceasing, unchanging, and everlasting supremacy, in the kingdom of grace here, and glory to all eternity
Hazael - The heart that is not conscious of this, is not conscious of the preciousness of the Lord Jesus Christ
Isaiah - But how truly blessed are the predictions of Isaiah to the believer who hath lived to see the whole fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the Holy Ghost is led to discover not only the correspondence between them, but his own personal interest therein
Father - " (John 8:44)...
But while we carefully attend to these distinctions, respecting the application of the name of father in Scripture it should be always kept in remembrance that the name Father is in a peculiar and blessed sense had in special reference to God, as "the father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named
Day - It is also called 'the day of Christ' and 'the day of Jesus Christ
Benediction - " The great Christian benediction is, "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God the Father, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with you always
Vocation - or CALLING, is a gracious act of God in Christ, by which, through his word and Spirit, he calls forth sinful men, who are liable to condemnation and placed under the dominion of sin, from the condition of the animal life, and from the pollutions and corruptions of this world, 2 Timothy 1:9 ; Matthew 11:28 ; 1 Peter 2:9-10 ; Galatians 1:4 ; Romans 10:13-15 ; 2 Peter 2:20 ; 1 Peter 3:19 ; Genesis 6:3 , unto "the fellowship of Jesus Christ," and of his kingdom and its benefits; that, being united unto him as their head, they may derive from him life, sensation, motion, and a plenitude of every spiritual blessing, to the glory of God and their own salvation, 1 Corinthians 1:9 ; Galatians 2:20 ; Ephesians 1:3 ; Ephesians 1:6 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14
Mount Sinai - What a blessedness that we are not come to it; but delivered from it, by the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all!"...
Adoption - In Ephesians 1:5 they are said to have been foreordained unto "adoption as sons" through Jesus Christ, RV; the AV, "adoption of children" is a mistranslation and misleading
Kingdom of Heaven - An expression used in the New Testament to signify the reign, dispensation, or administration of Jesus Christ
God - See Jesus Christ , and HOLY, HOLINESS SPIRIT
Holy Communion - It is the great Commemorative Sacrifice of the Church,unbloody, mystical and spiritual; accompanying the PerpetualOblation of Himself which our great High Priest, Jesus Christ,makes in Heaven, where He ever liveth and intercedes for us
Good Friday - The mind of the Church seems always tohave been, "this day is not one of man's institution, but wasconsecrated by our Lord Jesus Christ when He made it the day of Hismost Holy Passion
Wisdom: to Win Souls - Would to God that preachers and other workers for God had a tithe as much common- sense as Cheap-Jack, and were half as earnest to bring men to Jesus Christ as Cheap-Jack is to bring them to buy that tea-tray and set of real china! 0 that we were as wise to win the ear and heart of the particular case with which we have to deal, as he is in extorting a laugh and compelling the
Peace - ...
Peace with God through Jesus Christ...
No matter what expressions of salvation people of Old Testament times experienced, the fulness of salvation awaited the coming of Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6; Luke 1:79)
Epistle - Paul dictated his to an amanuensis, authenticating them with his autograph at the close, wherewith be wrote the salutation "grace be with thee," or "the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ," etc. John after Paul's death takes up his closing benediction, "the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all," at the end of Revelation
Swedenborgians - He carried his respect for the person and divinity of Jesus Christ to the highest point of veneration, considering him altogether as "Godmanifested in the flesh, and as the fulness of the Godhead united to the man Christ Jesus. " ...
With respect, therefore, to the sacred Trinity, though he rejected the idea of three distinct persons as destructive of the unity of the Godhead, he admitted three distinct essences, principles, or characters, as existing in it; namely, the divine essence or character, in virtue of which he is called the Father or Creator; the human essence, principle, or character, united to the divine in the person of Jesus Christ, in virtue of which he is called the Son and Redeemer; and, lastly, the proceeding essence or principle, in virtue of which he is called the Holy Ghost
Discipline - Becoming like Christ is the result of the discipline of the Lord Jesus Christ, exercised in and through His church. Within “the discipline of the Lord,” expressed in and through the Lord Jesus Christ, one can live the kind of life which is pleasing to God and of benefit to others
Universalists - It is the purpose of God according to his good pleasure that mankind universally, in consequence of the death of his Son Jesus Christ, shall certainly and finally be saved, Romans 5:12 . The Scripture language concerning the reduced or restored, in consequence of the mediatory interposition of Jesus Christ, is such as leads us into the thought, that it is comprehensive of mankind universally, Revelation 5:13
Ear - ...
Psalm 40:6 (b) This is one of the prophetic Psalm in which it is indicated that the Lord Jesus Christ was a permanent servant of GOD the Father, and that His ears were only open to GOD's call. ...
Isaiah 50:4 (a) This passage is spoken prophetically of our Lord Jesus Christ is saying that He was constantly listening for His Father's voice, and the messages from His GOD
Cedron - And God the Holy Ghost was graciously pleased to make Cedron again memorable, as typical of the Lord Jesus Christ, when Asa, Hezekiah, and Josiah, burnt and destroyed the idols of the land, and cast the accursed things of the groves into this brook. Oh! the blessedness of beholding it thus explained to us by God the Holy Ghost, in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ! Here would my soul take frequent wing, and by faith, alight near the hallowed spot
Faith - Faith is no more than the sincere and hearty assent and consent of the mind to the belief of the being and promises of God, as especially revealed to the church in the person and redemption, work of the Lord Jesus Christ. And these blessings are all declared to be in the person, and procured to the church by the sole undertaking of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the glorious Head of his body the church, the fulness of him "that filleth all in all
Age - ...
The period preceding the birth of Jesus Christ has been generally divided into six ages. The sixth age, from the Babylonish captivity to the birth of Jesus Christ, A
Father - ...
Father of Jesus Christ...
The highest sense in which God is Father is as the Father of Jesus Christ (John 1:18; John 5:36; Romans 15:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3)
God - The personal Creator worthy of human worship because of His holy nature and His perfect love revealed in creating the universe, electing and redeeming His people, and providing eternal salvation through His Son Jesus Christ. ...
God as Mystery Revealed in Christ The personal presence of God in Jesus Christ is the central and normative source of knowledge about God. Even as it is revealed, God's revelation in Jesus Christ remains mysterious (Romans 16:25-26 ; Ephesians 3:1-10 ; Colossians 1:24-27 ; Colossians 4:2-4 ). Thus Christian preaching echoes Paul: “we do not proclaim ourselves; we proclaim Jesus Christ as Lord; and ourselves as your slaves for Jesus' sake” (2 or. God is known in Scripture as Father in three separate senses that must not be confused: (1) He is Father of Jesus Christ in a unique sense—by incarnation (Matthew 11:25-27 ; Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15 ; Galatians 4:6 ; 2 Peter 1:17 ); (2) He is Father of believers—by adoption or redemption (Matthew 5:43-48 ; Luke 11:2 , Luke 11:13 ; Galatians 3:26 ); (3) He is Father of all persons—by creation (Psalm 68:5 ; Isaiah 64:8 ; Malachi 2:10 ; Matthew 5:45 ; 1 Peter 1:17 ). He redeemed Israel in the Exodus from Egypt ( Exodus 1-15 ); through the prophets He promised a Messiah who would save His people, and in Jesus Christ provided that salvation (John 3:16 )
Manichees - A rich widow, whose servant he had been, dying without issue, left him stores of wealth; after which he assumed the title of the apostle or envoy of Jesus Christ. Manes was not contented with the quality of apostle of Jesus Christ, but he also assumed that of the paraclete, whom Christ had promised to send; which Augustine explains, by saying, that Manes endeavoured to persuade men that the Holy Ghost did personally dwell in him with full authority. He combined these two systems, and applied and accommodated to Jesus Christ the characters and actions which the Persians attributed to the god Mithras. ...
Those souls who believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, renounce the worship of the god of the Jews, who is the prince of darkness, and obey the laws delivered by Christ, and illustrated by Manes the comforter, are gradually purified from the contagion of matter; and their purification being completed, after having passed through two states of trial, by water and fire, first in the moon and then in the sun, their bodies return to the original mass (for the Manicheans derided the resurrection of bodies, ) and their souls ascend to the regions of light. They denied that Jesus Christ, who was only God, assumed a true human body, and maintained it was only imaginary; and therefore they denied his incarnation, death, &c. The general assembly of Manicheans was headed by a president, who represented Jesus Christ
God - They have an increased appreciation of God’s character through their understanding of Jesus Christ; because, in the person of Jesus Christ, God took upon himself human form and lived in the world he had created (John 1:14; John 1:18; John 14:9; Colossians 1:15; see Jesus Christ). God is the Father of Jesus Christ (Mark 14:36; John 5:18; John 8:54) and through Jesus Christ he becomes the Father of all who believe (Romans 8:15-17; see FATHER). All this is possible only because of what Jesus Christ has done on behalf of sinners (Romans 3:24; see PROPITIATION)
Witness (2) - The witness of Jesus Christ the Son, supported by the witness of the Father and of the Spirit. The witness of the disciples to Jesus Christ the Son of God, supported by the witness of the Holy Spirit. Consciousness), and all the works of God preparatory to and accompanying the life of Jesus Christ on earth designed to lead men to the certainty of faith in Him as Redeemer and Lord. It cannot be too strongly emphasized that the Person and work of Jesus Christ are the object of this testimony. ...
What constitutes, according to the NT, the equipment and competence of a witness of Jesus Christ? Were His original disciples the only genuine witnesses? Are not those also ‘who have not seen and yet have believed’ (John 20:29) competent witnesses? In the first place, then, let us inquire how the original witnesses were prepared for their office. Those who through their association with Christ in the flesh had apprehended the life manifested, bear witness to others, that these also may enter into the same fellowship with them—the glorious fellowship with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ. The essence of the word is the promise of fellowship, grace, eternal life through Jesus Christ. An approach to the analogous use of μαρτυρέω is probably to be found in 1 Timothy 6:13 ‘Jesus Christ, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed the good confession
Hussites - Lord Jesus Christ, assist and help me, that with a firm and present mind, by thy most powerful grace I may undergo this most cruel and ignominious death, to which I am condemned for preaching the truth of thy most holy Gospel. " ...
When the chain was put upon him at the stake, he said with a smiling countenance, "My Lord Jesus Christ was bound with a harder chain than this for my sake, and why should I be ashamed of this old rusty one?" When the faggots were piled up to his very neck, the duke of Bavaria was officious enough to desire him to abjure. "Jesus Christ, thou Son of the living God, have mercy upon me
Supremacy - ’ The narrative of his martyrdom contrasts the brief authority of Jewish and Roman officials with ‘the reign of the eternal King, Jesus Christ’ (Letter of the Smyrnaeans, 21). 1891); Seeley, Ecce Homo, 1866; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 1883; Père Didon, Jesus Christ, 1891; Sanday, art. ‘Jesus Christ’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ; Westcott, Christus Consummator, 1887; Ellicott, Christus Comprobator, 1891; Stubbs, Christus Imperator, 1894
Exaltation - In the Bible "exaltation" most often refers to the lofty position of God and of Jesus Christ, but sometimes the term is applied to human beings, especially to Israel and her king. As the God-man, Jesus Christ entered the world to redeem humankind from their sinful condition. Wolf...
See also Ascension of Jesus Christ ; Pride ; Worship ...
Bibliography
Shekinah - This identification may be seen more clearly, perhaps, in (c) James 2:1 τὴν κίστιν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῆς δόξης, which not improbably = ‘the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Shekinah’ (Mayor). also 2 Corinthians 4:6 ‘God that said, Out of darkness light shall shine, is he who shone in our hearts for the illumination of the knowledge of the glory of God in face of Jesus Christ. ’ The last phrase may = the glory of God made manifest in the presence of Jesus Christ, i
Wisdom - The "wisdom of men" was human understanding as compared with the "hidden wisdom of God, " which was a knowledge of God's plan of salvation through Jesus Christ foreordained before the world began. The ultimate manifestation of wisdom was Jesus Christ. Ultimately God revealed his wisdom in the person of his own Son, Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 1:24,30 )
Cross - This way, it is said, Peter chose, out of respect to his master, Jesus Christ, not thinking himself worthy to be crucified like him; though the common way of crucifying was by fastening the criminal with nails, one through each hand, and one through both feet, or one through each of them; for this was not always performed in the same manner; the ancients sometimes represent Jesus Christ crucified with four nails, and sometimes with three. The text of the gospel shows clearly that Jesus Christ was fastened to the cross with nails, and the Psalmist (Psalms 22:16 , ) had foretold long before, that they should pierce his hands and his feet; but there are great disputes concerning the number of these nails. Pilate was amazed at Jesus Christ's dying so soon, because naturally he must have lived longer, if it had not been in his power to have laid down his life, and to take it up again. The Roman soldiers, who had crucified Jesus Christ and the two thieves, continued near the crosses till the bodies were taken down and buried
Immanence - ...
This article has to do mainly with the idea of immanence as it appears in the Gospel narratives, and specially as it is exhibited in the teachings of Jesus Christ. ...
But it is in Jesus Christ that the Fourth Gospel finds the immanence of God in a special manner. In several 0f these passages the term λόγος is used concerning Jesus Christ. Suffice it to say that Jesus Christ, as the eternal Logos, is regarded by many as the Divine principle by whose agency the operative intelligence of God is manifested and made effective in the entire universe
Red Heifer - Among all the laws of the Levitical priesthood concerning sacrifices, there is hardly one more striking in all the particulars of it: as referring to the Lord Jesus Christ; and yet there is not one so generally little understood, or attended to. I would now beg to call the reader's attention to the service itself, in order to remark the prominent features of the ordinance, as typical of the person and offering of the Lord Jesus Christ,...
And first, the heifer was to be red. " (1 Timothy 2:6) And as we do not read in any other part of this ordinance being appointed to be observed but once, so nothing could more blessedly point out the everlasting efficacy of that "one offering of the body of Jesus Christ once offered, whereby he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. And it is doubly blessed, under the gospel, to behold the whole fulfilled in the person, blood, and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ
Advocate - In a very particular manner, the Scripture applies this to the Lord Jesus Christ. Hence, the apostle saith, "If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propitiation for our sins. " (1 John 2:1-2)...
It is very blessed to see the personal and peculiar fitness and suitability of the Lord Jesus Christ to this office, and in how endeared and affectionate a manner he is thereby recommended, and comes home with all the warmth of tenderness to our hearts. It is most blessed, therefore, to see that in the person of our Lord Jesus Christ all these different qualifications meet and centre, and shine forth in one full constellation
Christ in Reformation Theology - He meant not merely that the Schoolmen played with the outsides of doctrines, and asked and solved innumerable trivial questions, but also that the imposing edifice they erected was hollow within, and had nothing to do with the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. All this sophistry he swept away, and then declared that he stood on the ground occupied by the theologians of the ancient Church, whose faith was rooted in the triune God, and in belief in Jesus Christ the Revealer of God. The old theology had nothing to do with Mariolatry or with saint-worship; it revered the triune God and Jesus Christ, His Son, the Saviour of mankind. ...
In the second article on the Creed in his Catechism, he says, ‘This means that I believe that Jesus Christ, true God … is my Lord who has redeemed me,’ and again: ‘We must have a Saviour who is more than a saint or an angel; for if He were no better and greater than these, there were no helping us. This is our Christian faith, and therefore we rightly confess: “I believe in Jesus Christ His only Son, our Lord, who was born of Mary, suffered and died. ...
Jesus Christ was for Luther the mirror of the fatherly heart of God, and therefore was God; God Himself was the only Comforter who could bring rest to the human soul burdened by sin and grief; and the Holy Spirit was God. It is what makes us cease to trust all work-righteousness, and to confide ourselves to God alone, as He has revealed Himself in Jesus Christ. ’ The historical Jesus Christ is for Luther the revealer, and the only revealer, of the Father. ...
The reader of the second part of the second book of the Summa Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas cannot help seeing that the really evangelical aspirations of the great Schoolmen are everywhere thwarted and finally slain outright because the theologian has to start with the thought that God has been first defined as either the Absolute, or the Primum Movens, or the Causa efficiens prima, or the Intelligens a quo omnes res naturales ordinantur in finem—conceptions which can never imprison, without destroying, the vision of the Father who has revealed Himself to us in Jesus Christ. ...
The older theology had never grasped the thought that Jesus Christ filled the whole sphere of God. The influence of Christ was exhausted, they thought, when bare forgiveness had been won; and the grace needed for all holy living came from operations of the grace of God which did not necessarily come through Jesus Christ. They actually suggest to worshippers to pass by Jesus Christ the only Mediator, and betake themselves to some patron who has struck their fancy. They bring it about that the Divine offices are distributed among the saints as if they had been appointed colleagues to our Lord Jesus Christ; and they are made to do His work, while He Himself is kept in the background like some ordinary person in a crowd. This Christ is to be invocated, and He hath promised that He will hear our prayers, and liketh this worship, to wit, that He be invocated in all afflictions: “If any man sin, we have an advocate with God, Jesus Christ the righteous” ’ (1 John 2:1)
Trinity - ...
The revelation through Jesus Christ...
When God took human form in the person of Jesus Christ, much that was previously secret and hidden became open. ...
Through Jesus Christ, God was now physically present in the world. ...
Faith of the New Testament writers...
The early disciples reached a fuller understanding of the Trinity through the life, teaching, death and triumph of Jesus Christ. ...
Jesus Christ, for example, could not be humankind’s Saviour if he were not the unique person that he is
Trinity - While the term trinity does not appear in Scripture, the trinitarian structure appears throughout the New Testament to affirm that God Himself is manifested through Jesus Christ by means of the Spirit. This same vocabulary is given distinct personality in John's prologue (John 1:1-4 ) in the person of Jesus Christ. ...
Paul, in 2 Corinthians 13:14 , finalized his thoughts to the Corinthian church with a pastoral appeal that is grounded in “the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit” (NIV). The approach of the New Testament is not to discuss the essence of the Godhead, but the particular aspects of the revelatory event that includes the definitive presence of the Father in the person of Jesus Christ through the Holy Spirit. See God ; Jesus Christ ; Holy Spirit
Adoption - All the blessings of grace are treasured up in Jesus Christ for them, Ephesians 1:3 . As the master of a family is engaged to defend and secure all under his roof, and committed to his care, so Jesus Christ is engaged to protect and defend his people. They enjoy the most intimate communion with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ. "Through Jesus Christ we have access by one Spirit unto the Father. From the consideration of the whole of this doctrine, we may learn that adoption is an act of free grace through Jesus Christ
Peace (2) - But in its predominating and characteristic use in the NT, εἰρήνη is distinctively a Christian word, being employed especially to describe the mission, the character, and the gospel of Jesus Christ. Peter in the Acts speaks of those who publish the message of salvation as ‘preaching good tidings of peace by Jesus Christ’ (Acts 10:36). ‘Peace,’ indeed, becomes, like grace, a virtual summary for gospel blessings, and so in the benedictory salutations of nearly every Apostolic writer it is combined with ‘grace’ as the distinctive gift of ‘God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Romans 1:7, 1 Corinthians 1:3, 2 Corinthians 1:2, Galatians 1:3, Ephesians 1:2, Philippians 1:2, Colossians 1:2, 1 Thessalonians 1:1, 2 Thessalonians 1:2, 1 Timothy 1:2, Titus 1:4, Philemon 1:3, 1 Peter 1:2, 2 Peter 1:2, 2 John 1:3, Judges 1:2). (a) First, there is an objective peace—the peace of reconciliation with God through our Lord Jesus Christ—which follows as the result of being justified by faith (Romans 5:1 [2], Ephesians 2:14-17; cf. And it is of this peace, as a glad sense of sonship and trust wrought in the soul by Jesus Christ, that the Apostle is thinking when he writes: ‘The Lord of peace himself give you peace at all times, in all ways’ (2 Thessalonians 3:16)
Mediation Mediator - On the strength of the claim that Jesus is both Lord and Messiah as shown by His resurrection, Peter urges repentance and baptism in the name of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is central in Christianity. The work of Christ comes out incidentally, but very clearly: ‘For God appointed us not unto wrath, but unto the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him’ (1 Thessalonians 5:9 f. ‘For I determined to know nothing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified’ (1 Corinthians 2:2). Jesus Christ, not baptism and not the Lord’s Supper, is the Mediator. So then the Christian, the one in Christ (ὁ ἐν Χριστῷ), is victorious over sin and death ‘through our Lord Jesus Christ’ (1 Corinthians 15:57). The face of Jesus Christ gives the knowledge of God’s glory
Christianity - ) had come to be the specific designation of a follower of Jesus Christ, it was inevitable that the word ‘Christianity’ should sooner or later be used to denote the faith which Christians profess. But for 1800 years it has been the regular term for the religion which claims Jesus Christ as its founder, and recognizes in His Person and work the sum and substance of its beliefs. But apart from that, the view taken in the present article is that, in seeking to discover Christianity in its essential nature, we must accept the NT as our authority and norm, inasmuch as there alone we find the historical record of the life and self-witness of Jesus Christ, and also the writings of that Apostolic group which moved in the immediate light of His manifestation as that was given not only in His life on earth, but in His death and resurrection and their extraordinary spiritual results. Paul seized on this truth when he saw in the altar at Athens inscribed ‘To an Unknown God,’ an unconscious appeal to the Christian missionary to declare the God and Father of Jesus Christ ( Acts 17:22 ff. When, with the NT as our guide, we seek for the essential features of objective Christianity, the following characteristics present themselves: ...
( a ) It is a revelation of God through the life and in the Person of Jesus Christ . And so, as we read the Gospels, the assurance grows that in looking on the face of Jesus Christ we are seeing right into the heart of the invisible God. If, on the other hand, we take the Gospels and Epistles as our authorities, we must hold upon their evidence not only that ‘God was in Christ,’ but that He so dwelt in Christ that Christ Himself was God; and that historical Christianity is nothing less than an immediate revelation of the Divine nature through the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ. What is it then that constitutes men Christians, and so translates the historical fact of the revelation of Jesus Christ into the religion which has lived through the centuries and surrounds us to-day?...
1. Peter called upon the Jews in Jerusalem to repent and be baptized ‘in the name of Jesus Christ unto the remission of sins’ ( Acts 2:38 )
Faith - Christians find their security and hope in God as revealed in Jesus Christ, and say "amen" to that unique relationship to God in the Holy Spirit through love and obedience as expressed in lives of discipleship and service. In Jesus Christ, the living Word of God, and the gospel, the true message of God, people are called to say "yes" to God and to recognize the messenger and the message as true (Mark 1:15 ). Mark opens his Gospel with the simple assertion that this is "the gospel about Jesus Christ, the Son of God" (1:1). In its record of the statements and activities of the early church, Acts emphasizes that Jesus Christ is the focus of faith. Gentiles (11:21; 13:12,48; 15:7; 17:34; 21:25), Jews (6:7; 15:5; 16:1; 18:8; 21:20) and people of both genders (5:14) will be saved when they believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. By means of the ministries of Peter and Paul, Luke paints a vivid picture of the internal and external struggles of the Christian community as both the synagogue and the Jerusalem church resist breaking from the strict keeping of the law and the limitations of racial descent to acknowledge the claim that salvation is by faith in Jesus Christ alone (4:12; 15:14). The Gospel of John alone stresses what it means to believe into (eis [ δανειστής , δανιστής ]'>[3]) Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ, as the object of faith, is first portrayed as the Word become flesh who comes into the world to make it possible for all to become children of God by believing/receiving him (1:10-14), and finally shown to be the risen Christ who in belief is acknowledged as Lord and God (20:28-29). ...
The Book of Revelation, with its stress on that which is to come, sees faith almost entirely from the perspective of the end and the exalted role of the martyr as a faithful witness (2:10,13, 19; 14:12) who is compared with Jesus Christ who is also designated as faithful (1:5; 3:14; 19:11)
Lambe, Alphonsus - We ask this through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, Amen
Christ, Humanity of - Jesus Christ as man was in every respect like unto us, except in sin and the consequences of sin
Impute, Imputation - Likewise, it is taught that the sins of humanity were imputed to Jesus Christ (2 Corinthians 5:21 ), although the exact nature of this divine imputation remains a mystery
Development of Doctrine - New truths, hitherto entirely unknown, or understood but imperfectly, were revealed through the ancient prophets, but more especially through Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of the Father
Doctrine, Development of - New truths, hitherto entirely unknown, or understood but imperfectly, were revealed through the ancient prophets, but more especially through Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of the Father
Testing - ...
The Bible tells Christians to test, or examine, themselves, to make sure they are really living by faith in Jesus Christ (2 Corinthians 13:5)
Sinai - It comes into being through Jesus Christ and is identified not with Sinai but with heaven (Galatians 4:24-27; Hebrews 12:18-29; see COVENANT)
Humanity of Christ - Jesus Christ as man was in every respect like unto us, except in sin and the consequences of sin
Meekness - Together they represent a quality of human nature that was found perfectly in Jesus Christ (2 Corinthians 10:1), and that is desirable in all those who follow him (Ephesians 4:1-2)
Sacrament - Since God became flesh in Jesus Christ, it follows that God can use anything He chooses in His created order to convey His truth and saving power to the one who believes in Him
Corner, Corner-Stone - In NT this passage and Isaiah 28:16 receive a Messianic application, Jesus Christ being both the foundation and the head of His Church ( Matthew 21:42 ||, Acts 4:11 , 1 Peter 2:6 f
Whippers - They held, among other things, that whipping was of equal virtue with baptism, and the other sacraments; that the forgiveness of all sins was to be obtained by it from God without the merits of Jesus Christ; that the old law of Christ was soon to be abolished, and that a new law, enjoining the baptism of blood to be administered by whipping, was to be substituted in its place: upon which Clement VII
Foundation - ...
Isaiah 28:16 (a) GOD has appointed the Lord Jesus Christ, His Son, to be the One on and in whom all His works rest
Salvation - A blessed word of a most blessed doctrine founded in the Lord Jesus Christ, who is JEHOVAH'S salvation to the ends of the earth
Bullock - None can provide this except Jesus Christ Himself
Bruise - ...
Luke 4:18 (a) This is a type of the injury caused by sin in the lives of men and which would be healed and mended by the wonderful grace and power of the Lord Jesus Christ
Wine - ...
Isaiah 55:1 (b) This symbol represents the joy of the Christian life which GOD gives to those who trust Jesus Christ, and honor the Holy Spirit
Life - This is one of the characters of the Lord Jesus Christ
Master - We use this term upon various occasions, and it is very commonly received among men, such as servants to their employers, children to their teachers, and the like; but strictly and properly speaking, it belongs to none but to the Lord Jesus Christ
Priest, Priesthood - ...
Christians are priests by calling, as being risen together with Christ, and have access to God: "an holy, priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ
Concern - Preaching the kingdom of God and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ
Treasure - ...
2 Corinthians 4:7 (a) The treasure is the gift of eternal life, divine grace, the knowledge of GOD, and belonging to Jesus Christ, the Saviour
Inghamites - It happened in a few years, that some individuals, who were much respected, and who applied for admission, instead of speaking of their own attainments, or the comfortable impressions on their minds, which they only considered as productive of strife and vain glory, declared their only hope was the finished work of Jesus Christ, and as to themselves they were sensible of their own vileness
Ascension of Christ - The ascension of Jesus Christ was not only presignified by many Scripture types, but also by many remarkable Scripture prophesies
Interim - The controverted points were, the state of Adam before and after his fall; the redemption of mankind by Jesus Christ; the justification of sinners; charity and good works; the confidence we ought to have in God; that our sins are remitted; the church and its true marks, its power, its authority, and ministers; the pope and bishops; the sacraments; the mass; the commemoration of saints; their intercession; and prayers for the dead
Benjamin - Moses, the man of God, viewing, most probably, Benjamin typically in relation to the Lord Jesus Christ, makes a beautiful observation in his dying blessing, which he gave to the tribes of Israel; "And of Benjamin he said, the beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by him; and the Lord shall cover him all the day long, and he shall dwell between his shoulders
Alfie Lambe - We ask this through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, Amen
Seceders - They admit that the people have a right to choose their own pastors; that the Scriptures are the supreme judge by which all controversies must be determined; and that Jesus Christ is the only Head of his church, and the only King in Zion
Cleopas - He was therefore uncle to Jesus Christ, and his sons were first cousins to him
Zechariah - Like his contemporary Haggai, Zechariah begins with exhorting the Jews to proceed in the rebuilding of the temple; he promises them the aid and protection of God, and assures them of the speedy increase and prosperity of Jerusalem; he then emblematically describes the four great empires, and foretels the glory of the Christian church when Jews and Gentiles shall be united under their great High Priest and Governor, Jesus Christ, of whom Joshua the high priest, and Zerubbabel the governor, were types; he predicts many particulars relative to our Saviour and his kingdom, and to the future condition of the Jews
Bishop - Peter calls Jesus Christ "the Shepherd and Bishop of our souls," 1 Peter 2:25 ; and St
Church - The real Church consists of all who belong to the Lord Jesus Christ as his disciples, and are one in love, in character, in hope, in Christ as the head of all, though as the body of Christ it consists of many parts
Lamb - Throughout the Scriptures, from the beginning to the end, the lamb and the sacrifice of a lamb are used as a type of the Lord Jesus Christ and of his blood shed for our sins
Messiah or Messias - ...
That Jesus Christ was the true MESSIAH of the Old Testament, the "Shiloh" of Jacob, the "Redeemer" of Job, the "Angel of the Covenant," is abundantly clear
Chronicles - The details of these books may be studied with interest, in view of their bearing upon the coming and the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - of Jesus Christ as the reputed and legal son of Joseph and Mary
Ishmael - ...
In New Testament times, Paul saw this as a picture of those who try to achieve salvation through law-keeping instead of through faith in Jesus Christ
Advocate - )...
While the Holy Spirit is within believers on earth, Jesus Christ appears before the Father as their advocate in heaven
Salvation, Saviour - ‘Salvation’ is the generic term employed in Scripture to express the idea of any gracious deliverance of God, but specially of the spiritual redemption from sin and its consequences predicted by the OT prophets, and realized in the mission and work of the Saviour Jesus Christ. ‘saved thee’), but most generally it is employed as a comprehensive term for the spiritual and eternal blessings brought to men by the appearance and redeeming work of Jesus Christ
Christ, Miracles of - Fillion in Les Miracles de Notre Seigneur Jesus Christ (Paris, 1909), and more recently, from an apologetic point of view, by Loonce de Grandmaison in Jesus Christ, Sa Personne, Son Message, See Preuves
Miracles of Christ - Fillion in Les Miracles de Notre Seigneur Jesus Christ (Paris, 1909), and more recently, from an apologetic point of view, by Loonce de Grandmaison in Jesus Christ, Sa Personne, Son Message, See Preuves
Evangelism - The active calling of people to respond to the message of grace and commit oneself to God in Jesus Christ. ” This might be stated: evangelism is the Spirit-led communication of the gospel of the kingdom in such a way or ways that the recipients have a valid opportunity to accept Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and become responsible members of His church
Reconciliation - Thus God is said to reconcile us to himself by Jesus Christ, 2 Corinthians 5:18 . And our being reconciled to God, by approving and accepting of his method of reconciliation by Jesus Christ, and, on that encouragement, turning to him, is distinguished from his reconciling us to himself, and not imputing our trespasses to us, on account of Christ's having been made sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him, 2 Corinthians 5:18 ; 2 Corinthians 5:21
Priesthood of the Believer - First Peter compares Christian believers to living stones “built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ” (Hebrews 2:5 NIV). Here the emphasis is not upon our coming directly to God without a human priest, but rather upon the priestly function of all believers as they offer “spiritual sacrifices” to God through Jesus Christ
Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer - ...
New Testament The New Testament centers redemption in Jesus Christ. ...
In other ways and language the centrality of redemption through the death of Jesus Christ is expressed throughout the New Testament from the Lamb of God who lifts up and carries away the sin of the world (John 1:29 ) to the redeeming Lamb praised by a multitude because He was slain and by His blood redeemed unto God's people of every kindred, tongue, and nation (Revelation 5:8-14 )
Baptism - ...
1 Corinthians 12:13 (b) In this place the believer is in a mysterious way put into the body of CHRIST, the church, by the Holy Spirit as soon as he trusts his soul to Jesus Christ
Lion - ...
1 Kings 7:29 (c) These figures represent various aspects of the Lord Jesus Christ. These indicate the four great attributes and characteristics of the Lord Jesus Christ
Judge - I wish, while directing the reader both to the judgment that is to follow the present life, and the Judge who is to preside at the grand tribunal, to offer a short remark with an eye to the Lord Jesus Christ upon those subjects which under grace will not fail, I hope, to be profitable. Awful, therefore, as the process of that day may be, (and most tremendously awful it will be to the unregenerate and unredeemed) yet to the saints of God it is called, and must be found, "the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ
Alpha And Omega - Charles and Müller agree that Patristic commentators invariably referred all these passages to the Son, and in so doing they plainly claimed the Divine privilege of eternity for the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ, and established the claim set forth in the later creeds that the Word of God was equal with God. It is significant to note that in none of those hundreds of examples do the letters (often rudely scrawled by poor peasants) refer to any one but Jesus Christ
Salvation - It is to spend eternity in the most noble and hallowed employments, in viewing and contemplating the wonderful works of God, admiring the wisdom of his providence, adoring his infinite love to the sons of men, reflecting on our own inexpressible happiness, and singing everlasting hymns of praise, joy, and triumph to God and our Lord Jesus Christ for vouchsafing all these blessings. It is to converse with the most perfect society, to be restored to the fellowship of our friends and relations who have died in the faith of Christ, and to be with Jesus Christ, to behold his glory, to live for ever in seeing and enjoying the great God, in "whose presence is fulness of joy, and at whose right hand are pleasures for evermore
Church - , that of the law by Moses, and that of the gospel by Jesus Christ, yet the religion of the Bible is one religion: whether before or after the coming of Christ, true believers are all one in Christ Jesus. Of this church or company of the redeemed, the Lord Jesus Christ is now the Head, and the Church is therefore called the body, Colossians 1:18; Colossians 1:24, and comprises the redeemed who are gone to heaven, as well as those who are, or will be, on the earth
Onesimus - How truly blessed doth the epistle open, after subscribing himself as the prisoner of the Lord, in praying that grace and peace to Philemon might flow from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ! And how blessedly doth the apostle close his letter, in a similar prayer, that the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ might be with his spirit! Amen
Eternity - It is a life that shares in some way the nature of God and that God gives through Jesus Christ (John 1:4; John 5:21; John 5:24; John 8:51; John 17:2-3; see LIFE, sub-heading ‘Eternal life’). Even in the present age, believers in Jesus Christ have the life of the age to come – eternal life, the life of the kingdom of God (Matthew 19:16; Matthew 19:24; John 3:3; John 3:5; John 3:15; Colossians 1:13; see KINGDOM OF GOD)
Colossians, Letter to the - This meant, in their view, that Jesus Christ could not be both divine and human. ...
According to this teaching, Jesus Christ was one of these part-divine beings
Philippians, Theology of - ...
And this "Jesus Christ" whom he preaches is also Lord (1:2; 3:8; 4:23), declared to be so by God himself (2:11). Because of the willingness of Jesus Christ to humble himself, to pour himself out for others, to obey the will of his Father even to the point of accepting deathbecause of this attitude and action on his part, God highly exalted him and gave him the name that is above every name, "Lord, " so that at this name every knee should bow in reverence and awe (2:6-11). "Lord, " then, is the title that for Paul best puts into perspective who Jesus Christ is. "Jesus Christ is Lord" becomes Paul's creed, the creed he lives by. As Lord, Jesus Christ is to be served. It is a righteousness that comes from God freely and without charge through the faithfulness of Jesus Christ and through faith in Jesus Christ (3:9). For Paul faith is a glad and open admission that we cannot earn God's approval by meritorious effort but rather a simple reaching out of empty hands to receive God's free offer of forgiveness, grace, and love in Jesus Christ
Jude, Epistle of - The letter opens moat appropriately with the prayer that mercy, peace, and love may increase among the readers, who are guarded by the love of God unto the day when Jesus Christ will appear. With affectionate greeting Jude informs his readers that he was engaged upon an epistle setting forth the salvation held by all Christians Jews and Gentiles when he was surprised by news which showed him that their primary need was warning and exhortation; for the one gospel which has been entrusted to the keeping of the ‘saints’ had been endangered in their case by a surreptitious invasion of false teachers, who turned the gospel of grace into a plea for lust, thereby practically denying the lordship of Jesus Christ. God alone, who can guard the waverer from stumbling, and can remove the stains of sin and perfect our salvation through Jesus Christ, is worthy of all glory. Jude probably called himself ‘servant’ and not ‘brother’ of Jesus Christ ( Matthew 13:55 , Mark 6:3 ), because he felt that his unbelief in Jesus in the days of His flesh did not make that term a title of honour, and he may have come to understand the truth that faith, not blood, constitutes true kinship with Christ
Love - ...
This was seen clearly in Jesus Christ, who throughout his life helped those in need and by his death saved helpless sinners. Salvation originates in the love of God, and that love found its fullest expression in the cross of Jesus Christ (Matthew 14:14; Mark 10:21; Luke 7:13; John 3:16; John 15:13; Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 2:4-7; Ephesians 5:25; 1 John 4:9; see also MERCY). Jesus Christ could perfectly express God’s love, because he and the Father are bound together in a perfect unity in which each loves the other (John 3:35; John 10:30; John 14:31; John 15:9; John 17:24). He has done this by becoming a human being in the person of Jesus Christ and taking the punishment himself on the cross (John 1:14-18; John 3:16; Romans 5:8; Galatians 2:20; 1 John 4:10; see ATONEMENT)
Touch - The New Testament takes up these same themes of touching, but now expresses them mainly through Jesus Christ. ...
Satan's Touch as Limited by Jesus Christ. In the New Testament, Satan's power to harm believers is also limited by deity; but in this instance, it is by "the one who was born of God, " Jesus Christ (1 John 5:18 )
Refuge - " (Deuteronomy 33:27) And the Lord Jesus Christ is the immediate refuge of his people, for he is said to be their hiding place and their covert from the storm and tempest. ...
If, as we cannot but conclude from all the other parts of Scripture, that as every thing under the law typified the Lord Jesus Christ, so these cities of refuge had an eye to him, as the only shelter for soul-murderers, then we shall find somewhat remarkable in the names of those cities. And when sinners are brought into an union with Jesus, they are said to "have fellowship with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ
Firstborn - " It is astonishing to what minute circumstances every thing in the church of the Old Testament had a reference, by way of typifying the Lord Jesus Christ in this pre-eminency of character, as the first, and first-born, and first-fruits, and the firstlings of the flock, and of the herd. " (Exodus 19:6) And therefore, in every thing, and by every way, both in a single tribe and in the whole people, as the Lord's chosen, as shall be typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. "Every knee shall bow before him, and every tongue confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father
James - When certain Samaritans refused to admit Jesus Christ, James and John wished for fire from heaven to consume them, Luke 9:54 ; and for this reason, it is thought, the name of Boanerges, or sons of thunder, was given them. James before the judges was so much affected with his constancy in confessing Jesus Christ, that he also declared himself a Christian, and was condemned, as well as the Apostle, to be beheaded. ...
JAMES THE LESS, surnamed the brother of our Lord, Galatians 1:19 , was the son of Cleopas, otherwise called Alpheus, and Mary, sister to the blessed virgin; consequently, he was cousin-german to Jesus Christ
Pastor - But whereas the shepherd-leaders of Israel were often concerned only for themselves (Ezekiel 34:2-6), the Christian’s example of a shepherd-leader, Jesus Christ, gave himself for the flock (John 10:1-150; Matthew 10:6; 1618106267_41; 1 Peter 5:1-4)
Intercession - "We (who walk in the light as He is in the light) have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ, the righteous" (1 John 2:1, compare 1 John 1:7; Romans 8:33-34; Hebrews 7:25)
Apostasy - Those who fall out of fellowship with the saints are restored to full communion through confession of sin and reaffirmation of faith in Jesus Christ
Mercy - This characteristic showed itself clearly in Jesus Christ who, though God, lived in the world as a human being and demonstrated the mercy that God has towards a needy human race (Matthew 9:36; Matthew 14:14; Luke 7:13)
Mind - Therefore, when people repent and believe the gospel, their minds are renewed because of their union with Jesus Christ (Romans 8:5-6; Ephesians 4:22-24)
Divination - Divination of all kinds being the offspring of credulity, nursed by imposture, and strengthened by superstition, was necessarily an occult science, retained in the hands of the priests and priestesses, the magi, the soothsayers, the augurs, the visionaries, the priests of the oracles, the false prophets, and other like professors, till the coming of Jesus Christ, when the light of the Gospel dissipated much of this darkness
Order - Jesus Christ was a most beautiful example of regularity
New Order - Expression found in Hebrews 9:10 that refers to the greatness of salvation provided in Jesus Christ
Refreshing, Times of - The stunned amazement of the people at the temple who saw a crippled beggar healed in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth (Acts 3:10-11 ) prompted Peter to deliver a two-part sermon in which he traced the source of the miracle to the power of Jesus (vv
Israelite - This rejection of his message by those who wore Israelites by birth caused the Apostle to conceive of a true or spiritual Israelite as equivalent to a believer in Jesus Christ-one after the type of Nathanael of John 1:47, an Israelite indeed in whom is no guile (cf
Drunk - Even to this day, those who love our Lord Jesus Christ are murdered by orders of this church in those countries where they control the government
Ascension - This term is constantly applied to the return of the Lord Jesus Christ to heaven from whence He came
Christ, the Christ, - ' In the Gospels it is nearly always 'the Christ,' and often in the Epistles, except where it is Jesus Christ, or Christ Jesus which has more the character of a name
Way - ...
John 14:6 (a) Here we see a beautiful description of the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ, the only one who can bring us to the Father
Isaiah (2) - 53 applies to no other person in history, with any degree of propriety, but to Jesus Christ
Spot - Numbers 19:2 (c) By this type we understand the spotless character of our Lord Jesus Christ on whom there was no sin nor fault, and in Him no evil of any kind
Libertines (2) - They likewise said that Jesus Christ was nothing but a mere je ne scai quoi, composed of the spirit of God and the opinion of men
Meekness - Observe the many examples of it; Jesus Christ, Matthew 11:28 ; Abraham, Genesis 13:1-18 : Genesis 16:5-6 ; Moses, Numb
Mercy of God - His mercy is infinite; it pardons offences committed against an infinitely holy Being, and bestows an infinite good on all who believe, even Jesus Christ, Luke 1:78
Philosophy - What Greek philosophy in vain tried to effect through the intellect, to know God, one's self, and our duty to God, man, and ourselves, and to do from the heart what we know, God by His Spirit revealing His Son Jesus Christ in the heart thoroughly effects by the motive of love (2 Corinthians 10:4-5; Colossians 2:3)
Bread - And concerning leavened bread, with which the blood of the sacrifice was never to be offered, what a beautiful type was this of the untainted, pure offering of the body of Jesus Christ, once for all
Circumcision - It evidently appears, from the first moment of its institution, that the ordination was with an eye to Christ, for the covenant of redemption by Jesus had this token or seal, and it is expressly said, "that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promise made unto the fathers
Age, - Again, from Moses to Christ formed a definite period: "the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ," John 1:17 ; "the law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it
Daniel, the Stylite - The following is his prayer before he began his life on the pillar: "I yield Thee glory, Jesus Christ my God, for all the blessings which Thou hast heaped upon me, and for the grace which Thou hast given me that I should embrace this manner of life
Lord's Table, the; the Lord's Supper - It is introductory to the assembly's proper privilege as brought, in company with the Lord Jesus Christ as the leader of its praises, to know and enjoy God revealed as Father, and to worship Him by the Spirit
Cocceians - Cocceius also taught, that the covenant made between God and the Jews was of the same nature as the new covenant by Jesus Christ; that the law was promulgated by Moses, not merely as a rule of obedience, but also as a representation of the covenant of grace; that when the Jews had provoked the Deity by their various transgressions, particularly by the worship of the golden calf, the severe yoke of the ceremonial law was added as a punishment; that this yoke, which was painful in itself, became doubly so on account of its typical signification; since it admonished the Israelites from day to day of the imperfection of their state, filled them with anxiety, and was a perpetual proof that they had merited the righteous judgment of God, and could not expect, before the coming of the Messiah, the entire remission of their iniquities; that indeed good men, under the Mosaic dispensation, were, after death, made partakers of glory; but that, nevertheless, during the whole course of their lives they were far removed from that assurance of salvation, which rejoices the believer under the dispensation of the Gospel; and that their anxiety flowed from this consideration, that their sins, though they remained unpunished, were not yet pardoned; because Christ had not as yet offered himself up to make an atonement for them
Mount Nebo - Oh! for grace then in lively exercise in views more bright and clear than the Pisgah sights from mount Nebo, to set the Lord always before us, and daily to walk by faith in the closest communion and fellowship with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ, till the Lord shall take us home to himself in everlasting fruition, that "where he is, there we may be also
Zebulun - They had also the advantage of hearing and seeing Jesus Christ in their country, oftener and longer than any other of the twelve tribes, Isaiah 9:1 ; Matthew 4:13 ; Matthew 4:15
an'Tichrist - 22 we find, "he is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son;" and still more positively, "every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of antichrist
Flood - It is a reminder that, at the return of Jesus Christ, sudden judgment will again fall on an ungodly world, though again God will preserve the righteous (Matthew 24:36-39; 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 2:9; cf
Conscience - Therefore the conscience, like the rest of human nature, needs cleansing from the effects of sin, and this comes about only through the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ (Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 10:22)
Doubt - "...
Jude 22 raises the issue of evangelistic apologetics toward the serious doubter who denies Jesus Christ as the only sovereign Lord (v. Here doubt is a settled denial and rejection of both the person (Jesus Christ) and propositions affirmed about him (he is sovereign and Lord)
King, Christ as - ...
When Jesus Christ was born, His birth was announced in these categories. Jesus Christ, the King, will reign as the God-man and will forever exercise His power for the benefit of the redeemed and for the glory of His kingdom
New Birth - ...
First Peter 1:23 adds a more explicit dimension to the means whereby the new birth is produced: the preached message of the truth of Jesus Christ. The Old Testament saints were born again when they responded in faith to God's revealed message; New Testament saints, when they respond in faith to Jesus Christ
Pillar - I do not presume to say as much, or to decide upon a subject of such infinite importance; but, when we take into one mass of particulars, all that we read of the Lord Jesus Christ in those early ages of the church, methinks I cannot hesitate to believe, that it was Christ that they went before, and that thus surrounded his people during their whole eventful history. " (See Galatians 2:9) And very blessed it is to see, that while Christ is the foundation stone JEHOVAH hath laid in Zion, all his redeemed ones are built upon this foundation, and are lively stones and pillars in this spiritual house, "to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God, through Jesus Christ
Glory - The moral glory of the Lord Jesus Christ shone out in all His pathway on earth. We have now the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ
Lamp - ...
Ezekiel 1:13 (a) The living creatures represent four aspects of the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Daniel 10:6 (a) This may be another representation of the Lord Jesus Christ whose eyes shine with the glory of GOD, and penetrate the heart and soul of those with whom He deals
Fall - God created all things, we are told, by Jesus Christ. The whole cause for which JEHOVAH went forth in acts of creation, as relating to our world, was for the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ
Union With God - -The apostolic idea of union with God, in the highest degree of intimacy and perfection, is most clearly illustrated and exemplified in the case of the historic personality of Jesus Christ, whose union with God is so intimate and complete that He can say with truth, ‘I and the Father are one’ (John 10:30). ...
(a) From the metaphysical point of view, the oneness is explained as being due to the fact that the historic personality of Jesus Christ is the incarnation of a pre-existent Divine principle, or power of Deity, termed in the Fourth Gospel the Word or Logos, which belongs to the Divine essence, or eternally co-exists with God, and in the fullness of time becomes man (John 1:1-2, ‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Paul this pre-existent Divine principle or power of Deity, termed in the Fourth Gospel ‘the Word,’ is represented as already personal, and as becoming man by an act of voluntary condescension or ‘self-emptying’ motived by love (2 Corinthians 8:9, ‘Ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might become rich’; cf. This conception of the nature and origin of the human personality of Jesus Christ, supplemented by the definite personification of a third principle or power of Deity, viz. Union with God, metaphysically conceived of as predicated of Jesus Christ and of the Holy Spirit, was thus regarded not as equivalent to simple identity, but as admitting of plurality and distinctness within the fullness of the one God. From this ethical and spiritual point of view, the oneness of Jesus Christ with God is not conceived of as a oneness completed from the first, apart from historical and ethical process, but as a oneness progressively realized or exhibited in a truly human life lived under human conditions. That perfect spiritual union of man with God which the natural head of our human race, the first Adam, failed to attain to, through sin, has, however, been attained to and realized in the Person of Jesus Christ the second Adam, who is the perfect ‘son of man’ and also ‘son of God’ (1 Corinthians 15:22; 1 Corinthians 15:45-49). And for sinful men the only way of attainment is through union by faith with Jesus Christ the ‘one mediator between God and men’ (1 Timothy 2:5)
John the Baptist - Nevertheless, he was at first unacquainted with the person of Jesus Christ; only the Holy Ghost had told him that he on whom he should see the Holy Spirit descend and rest was the Messiah. When Jesus Christ presented himself to receive baptism from him, this sign was vouchsafed; and from that time he bore his testimony to Jesus, as the Christ. ...
The baptism of John was much more perfect than that of the Jews, but less perfect than that of Jesus Christ. John promised what that of Jesus Christ executed. John did not enjoin his disciples to continue the baptism of repentance, which was of his institution, after his death, because, after the manifestation of the Messiah, and the establishment of the Holy Ghost, it became of no use; yet there were many of his followers who still administered it, and several years after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, did not so much as know that there was any other baptism than that of John. Paul came after Apollos to the same city, there were still many Ephesians who had received no other baptism, and were not yet informed that the Holy Ghost was received by baptism in the name of Jesus Christ, Acts 19:1 . Some have thought that he was a disciple of John the Baptist before he attended Jesus Christ. He himself tells us that he "was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ;" and Irenaeus, speaking of the vision which he had there, says, "It is not very long ago that it was seen, being but a little before our time, at the latter end of Domitian's reign
Antiochus - and before Jesus Christ 223. To defray these charges, he resolved to seize the treasures of the temple of Belus, at Elymais; but the people of that country, informed of his design, surprised and destroyed him, with all his army, in the year of the world 3817, and before Jesus Christ 187. He died, overwhelmed with pain and grief, in the mountains of Paratacene, in the little town of Tabes, in the year of the world 3840, and before Jesus Christ 164. Antiochus Eupator reigned only two years, and died in the year of the world 3842, and before Jesus Christ 162. Tryphon seized his elephants, and rendered himself master of Antioch, in the year of the world 3859, and before Jesus Christ 145. Thus Tryphon was left master of Syria, in the year of the world 3861, and before Jesus Christ 143. The king entered the city, beat down the breast work above the walls, and returned to Syria, in the year of the world 3870, and before Jesus Christ 134. This event took place in the year of the world 3874, and before Jesus Christ 130
Sin - God, however, has not left sinners in this helpless condition, but through the one fully obedient human being, Jesus Christ, has reversed the effects of Adam’s sin (Romans 5:6; Romans 5:8; Romans 5:15; Romans 5:18). If ‘condemn’ means ‘declare guilty’, ‘justify’ means ‘declare righteous’; and this is what God, in his immeasurable grace, has done for sinners who turn in faith to Jesus Christ (Romans 5:16; Galatians 5:17-216; see JUSTIFICATION). ...
Just as Adam is the representative head of humankind as sinful and separated from God, so Jesus Christ is the representative head of humankind as declared righteous and brought back to God. It is made possible through the death of Jesus Christ, and is effectual in the lives of all those who in faith turn from their sin to God (John 1:13; John 1:29; John 6:44-45; Acts 3:19; Romans 3:24-25; Ephesians 2:8-9)
Messiah - This king, this Messiah, was Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:1; Matthew 9:27; Matthew 12:22-23; Matthew 21:9; Luke 1:32-33; Luke 1:69-71; Matthew 11:4-59). The two names were often joined as Jesus Christ or Christ Jesus, and frequently the name ‘Christ’ was used without any direct reference to messiahship at all (Philippians 1:15-16; Philippians 1:18; Philippians 1:21). ...
In the eyes of unbelieving Jews, Jesus was not the Messiah, and therefore they would not call him Jesus Christ. (See also Jesus Christ
Church - That plan is for the ultimate removal of all conflict and all evil from the universe, and the establishment of perfect peace and unity through Jesus Christ (Ephesians 1:9-10; Ephesians 2:13-16; Ephesians 3:8-11). Through his resurrection and ascension, Jesus Christ became head over the church and the source of its life and growth (Ephesians 1:20-23; Ephesians 4:15-16; Colossians 1:18; Colossians 2:19; Colossians 3:1-4). ...
Each local church, though in fellowship with other local churches (Acts 11:27-30; 1618106267_57; Colossians 4:15-16), is responsible directly to the head, Jesus Christ, in all things. From the church they must go out to spread the gospel to others, baptizing those who believe, bringing them into the church, teaching them the Christian truths and making them true disciples of Jesus Christ (Matthew 28:19-20; 1618106267_41; Acts 8:4; Romans 10:14-17)
Elect, Election - In this passage Paul is admonishing Timothy in the presence of God, Jesus Christ, and the elect angels to live a godly life. Just as God and Jesus Christ are unalterably good, so are these angels of God, and we are to live in the presence of every form of ultimate goodness with that as a reference point. The Messiah, his own Son Jesus Christ, was the Chosen One, par excellance. None who is ultimately redeemed can boast that they saved themselves or that they added anything to the salvation that they received through Jesus Christ. ...
Those who are saved, the believers in Jesus Christ, are called "the elect (chosen)" (Matthew 24:22 ; Romans 8:33 ; Colossians 3:12 ; Titus 1:1 ; Revelation 17:14 ). As God's chosen ones they are protected by himGod works everything together for their good (Romans 8:28 ), none can bring any charge against them (Romans 8:33 ), and nothing can separate them from the love of God in Jesus Christ the Lord (Romans 8:39 )
Joseph, Litany of Saint - It is a time-honored prayer in honor of the holy foster-father of Jesus Christ and was sanctioned in March, 1909, by Pius X, who was tenderly devoted to Saint Joseph whose name he bore from Baptism
Litany of Saint Joseph - It is a time-honored prayer in honor of the holy foster-father of Jesus Christ and was sanctioned in March, 1909, by Pius X, who was tenderly devoted to Saint Joseph whose name he bore from Baptism
Sight - I beg the reader to connect this idea all along with what is said concerning this feature of character in the Lord Jesus Christ giving sight to the blind, for, it is literally giving eyes also, and consequently a new creation
Renew, Renewing - " The "renewal" here mentioned is not that of the mind itself in its natural powers of memory, judgment and perception, but "the spirit of the mind," which, under the controlling power of the indwelling Holy Spirit, directs its bent and energies Godward in the enjoyment of "fellowship with the Father and with His Son, Jesus Christ," and of the fulfillment of the will of God
Supply - , "by the supply of every joint," metaphorically of the members of the church, the body of which Christ is the Head, and Philippians 1:19 , "the supply (of the Spirit of Jesus Christ)," i
Redemption - The procuring cause, Jesus Christ, 1 Peter 1:18-19
Reader - —The Gospels frequently refer to private reading of Scripture, and Jesus Christ assumes that His hearers have the sacred books and read them for themselves, e
Israel, Spiritual - The kingdom is presented as an actual entity ruled by God, a spiritual acceptance of the rule of God, or Jesus Christ, the One fully in submission to God and a personification of the kingdom
God of the Fathers - The God revealed in Jesus Christ is the same as the God revealed to the patriarchs (Matthew 22:32 ; Mark 12:26 ; Acts 3:13 ; Acts 5:30 ; Acts 7:32 ; Acts 22:14 )
Mysteries - How there are three persons in God, how God became man in the Incarnation, how the Eucharist is Jesus Christ, we do not know; but on God's word we know that these mysteries are true
Christianity - (See Jesus Christ
Tribute - (See MONEY; Jesus Christ; PETER
Cocceians - Cocceius also taught, that the covenant made between God and the Jewish nation, by the ministry of Moses, was of the same nature as the new covenant, obtained by the mediation of Jesus Christ
Palace - The devil uses these to keep his children, the unsaved, from Jesus Christ
Lamb - It would have been needless to have paused over this word, or inserted it in this place, but from the very earnest and special use made of it in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ, as typical of his person and nature; but considered with an eye to him, nothing can be more interesting than to behold how unceasingly the Holy Ghost is glorifying our Lord under this beautiful figure through the whole word of God
Sealing - On the day of Pentecost, after Peter had proclaimed the death, resurrection, and exaltation of Christ, the hearers being "pricked in their heart," said, "What shall we do?" Peter replied, "Repent, and be baptised every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost
Dark (Darkness) - " The soul who turns his back on GOD and rejects Jesus Christ who is the light of life enters eternity with no light and shall remain in utter darkness and outer darkness forever
Aristarchus - While the idea in the Apostle’s mind may be that Aristarchus, like himself, was taken captive by Jesus Christ, it is more probable that Aristarchus shared St
Timotheus, Timothy - The last word to him in his epistles is "The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit: grace be with you
Lukewarmness - To overcome such a state of mind, we should consider how offensive it is to God: how incongruous with the very idea and nature of true religion; how injurious to peace and felicity of mind; how ungrateful to Jesus Christ, whose whole life was labour for us and our salvation; how grievous to the Holy Spirit; how dreadful an example to those who have no religion; how unlike the saints of old, and even to our enemies in the worst of causes; how dangerous to our immortal souls, since it is indicative of our want of love to God, and exposes us to just condemnation, Amos 6:1
Messenger - There would have required no notice of the office of a messenger, by way of explaining the nature of it, being perfectly well understood, and it not been that our Lord Jesus Christ, when becoming our Redeemer, condescended to submit to this office also; but as the Lord Jesus, in his unequalled humility, vouchsafed to be the servant and messenger of JEHOVAH, every motive of affection and duty demands our attention to behold Jesus in this most gracious character
Elijah - For while it will be "to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe," it is no less said to be "in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ
Armenia - ...
The religion of the Armenians is a corrupt Christianity of the sect of Eutyches; that is, they own but one nature in Jesus Christ
Caiaphas - 4037, which was the year of Jesus Christ's death. When the priests deliberated on the seizure and death of Jesus Christ, Caiaphas declared, that there was no room for debate on that matter, "because it was expedient that one man should die for the people, that the whole nation should not perish,"...
John 11:49-50
Philosophy - In Athens, the Epicurean, and Stoic philosophers made a jest of Paul's discourse; and in many places of his epistles, he opposes the false wisdom of he age, that is, the pagan philosophy, to the wisdom of Jesus Christ, and the true religion, which to the philosophers and sophists seemed to be mere folly, because it was built neither on the eloquence nor the subtlety of those who preached it, but on the power of God, and on the operations of the Holy Ghost in the hearts and minds of believers; and because it did not amuse and flatter man, but probed him a guilty rebel against God, in perishing need of a Savior
an'Tioch - The chief interest of Antioch, however, is connected with the progress of Christianity among the heathen, Here the first Gentile church was founded, ( Acts 11:20,21 ) here the disciples of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ) It was from Antioch that St
Paul - ...
Concerning this great apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ, it would form a place more suited for the separate volume of an history, than as an article of a mere explanatory memorandum in a Concordance, to enter into a detail of Paul's life and ministry
Ancestors - The clearest expression of this mercy is in Jesus Christ
Antioch in Syria - It was there in Antioch, during the stay of Paul and Barnabas, that people first gave the name ‘Christian’ to the followers of Jesus Christ (Acts 11:19-26; for the significance of the name see CHRISTIAN)
Veronica - This statue they say is a statue of Jesus Christ and it has remained even until our times so that we ourselves saw it whilst tarrying in that city
Names of Our Lord - ...
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT ...
Almighty Word, Wisdom of Solomon 18:15
Brightness of Eternal Light, Wisdom of Solomon 7:26
Child, Isaiah 9:6
Counsellor, Isaiah 9:6
Desire of Eternal Hills, Song of Solomon 18:15
Desired of all nations, Aggeus 2:8
Emmanuel, Isaiah 7:14
Expectation of nations, Genesis
Father of World to Come, Isaiah
God the Mighty, Isaiah 9:6
Holy One of Israel, Isaiah 43:3
Holy One, Psalms 15:10
Just Branch, Jeremiah 23:5
Just, Isaiah 45:8
King of Glory, Psalms 23:7
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 9:7
Lord Our Just One, Jeremiah 23:6
Man of Sorrows, Isaiah 53:3
Man, Michah 5:5
My Just One, Isaiah 41:10
Orient, Zachariah 6:12
Prince of Peace, Isaiah 9:6
Root of Jesse, Isaiah 11:10
Ruler of the Earth, Isaiah 16:1
Sun of Justice, Malachi 4:2
Wonderful, Isaiah 9:6
USED BY HIMSELF ...
Bread of Life, John 6:35
Door, John 10:9
Good Shepherd, John 10:11
Life, John 11:25
Light of the World, John 9:5
Lord, John 13:13
Master, John 13:13
Resurrection and Life, John 11:25
Son of Man, Matthew 8:2O
Son, John 5:22
Vine, John 15:1
Way, Truth, and Life, John 14:6
USED BY THE APOSTLES and EVANGELISTS ...
Advocate, 1 John 2:1
Almighty, Apocalypse 1:8
Alpha and Omega, Apocalypse 1:8
Amen, Apocalypse 3:14
Author and Finisher of Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Author of Life, Acts 3:15
Beginning and End, Apocalypse 1:8
Blessed God, Mark 14:61
Child Jesus, Luke 2:43
Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 1:1
Christ, Matthrew 1:18
Corner-Stone, Epheisans 2:21
Day Star, 2 Peter 1:19
Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Faithful Witness, Apocalypse 1:5
First and Last, Apocalypse 1:17
First Born from the Dead, Apocalypse 1:5
Galitean, Matthew 26:69
God of the Jews, Romans 3:29
Great Pastor, Hebrews 13:20
He that is to come, Hebrews 10:37
Head, Ephesians 4:15
High Priest, Hebrews 2:17
Jesus Christ the Just, 1 John 2:1
Jesus, Matthew 27:17
Key of David, Apocalypse 3:7
King of Kings, Apocalypse 19:16
Lamb of God, John 1:29
Life Eternal, 1 John 1:2
Lion of the Tribe of Juda, Apocalypse 5:5
Living Stone, 1 Peter 2:4
Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 10:48
Lord of All, Galatians 4:1
Lord of Lords, Apocalypse 19:16
Lord Our God, Apocalypse 4:11
Mediator, Hebrews 9:15
Messias, Genesis 49:26 (passim)
Only Begotten of the Father, John 1:14
Our Lord Jesus Ghrist, Romans 1:4
Pascha Nostrum, 1 Corinthians 5:7
Power of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Priest, Hebrews 8:4
Prince of the kings of the earth, Apocalypse 1:5
Rabbi, John 1:18
Rock of Scandal, Romans 9:33
Root of David, Apocalypse 5:6
Saviour of the world, John 4:42
Saviour, Luke 2:11
Son of David, Mark 12:86
Son of God, Matthew 8:29
Son of Joseph, Luke 3:23
Son of the Living God, Matthew 16:16
Star of the morning, Apocalypse 2:23
Stone of stumbling, 1 Peter 2:8
Stone, Matthew 21:42
Teacher, John 3:2
That which was from the beginning, 1 John 1:1
Victim, Ephesians 5:2
Wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Word, John 1:1
Word of God, Apocalypse 19:13
Word of Life, 1 John 1:1
USED BY OTHERS ...
Adonai, O Antiphons
Angel in the liturgy of the Mass
Captain of our salvation, Ephiphany, Matins
Captain of the Martyrs, Octain of Saint Stephen, Matins
Carpenter's Son, Matthew 13:55
Christ our King, First Wednesday in Advent, Matins
Christ the Lord, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Eagle, Saint Maximus, Homily 42
Eternal, Christmas Day, Lauds
Eternal Word of God made Flesh, Ember Saturday in Advent, Martins
Glory of Thy people Israel, Luke 2:32
God of God, title in Gloria
God our Saviour, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
God the Son, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Great Prophet, First Sunday in Advent, Lauds
Heavenly Bridegroom, Epiphany, Lauds
Holy, Luke 1:35
Holy One of God, Luke 4
King of all the earth, Second Monday in Advent, Vespers
King of Angel Hosts above, Circumcision, Matins
King of Heaven, Christmas Day, Matins
King of Israel, Mark 15:32
King of Righteousness, Third Thursday in Advent, Matins
King of the Gentiles, O Antiphons
King of the Jews, Matthew 2:2
King Peaceful, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, Luke 2:32
Light of Light, title in Gloria
Lord of Angels, Eve of Epiphany, Matins
Lord Our King, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Lawgiver, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Saviour, Circumcision, Matins
Lord that shall rule, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord the King, Ephiphany, Matins
Lord the Ruler, Second Sunday in Advent, Matins
Faith - It cannot be better defined than in the words of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism: "Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel. But the special act of faith which unites to Christ has as its object the person and the work of the Lord Jesus Christ (John 7:38 ; Acts 16:31 )
Preaching in the Bible - Human presentation through the Holy Spirit's power of God's acts of salvation through Jesus Christ. Peter's sermon in Acts 2:1 affirms the atoning nature of Jesus' death and the reality of His resurrection together with a clear call to faith and repentance forming a balanced argument framed around the central proposition that “Jesus Christ is Lord
Wisdom - ...
The wisdom of God in salvation was expressed in Jesus Christ, both in his life and in his death (Matthew 12:42; Matthew 13:54; 1 Corinthians 1:23-24; 1 Corinthians 1:30; Colossians 2:3). Rather they will command people to repent of their sins and trust in the death of Jesus Christ for their salvation (1 Corinthians 2:1-5)
Hope - Various objects worthy of hope are mentioned, such as salvation (1 Thessalonians 5:8), eternal life (Titus 1:2; Titus 3:7), the glory of God (Romans 5:2, Colossians 1:27), the resurrection of the dead (Acts 24:15; Acts 23:6); but all these different blessings are summed up in Jesus Christ. She is ever ‘looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ’ (Titus 2:13), for then she shall lie like Him, for she shall see Him as He is; ‘and every one that hath this hope set on him purifieth himself’ (1 John 3:2-3)
Circumcision - ...
No longer necessary...
Circumcision was a sign of God’s covenant with Abraham, and that covenant reached its fulfilment in Jesus Christ. It is the cleansing from sin and uncleanness that comes through Jesus Christ (Romans 3:30)
Hope - Various objects worthy of hope are mentioned, such as salvation (1 Thessalonians 5:8), eternal life (Titus 1:2; Titus 3:7), the glory of God (Romans 5:2, Colossians 1:27), the resurrection of the dead (Acts 24:15; Acts 23:6); but all these different blessings are summed up in Jesus Christ. She is ever ‘looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ’ (Titus 2:13), for then she shall lie like Him, for she shall see Him as He is; ‘and every one that hath this hope set on him purifieth himself’ (1 John 3:2-3)
Cross, Crucifixion - He claims to have not come to them with eloquence or superior wisdom, but as one who resolves to know nothing except "Jesus Christ and him crucified. Those who are compelling others to be circumcised are avoiding being persecuted "for the cross of Christ" (6:12), and Paul expressly declares that he will never boast in anything except "the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world" (v. ...
See also Death of Christ ; Jesus Christ ...
Bibliography
Revelation, Book of - Many were confused, for it seemed that Jesus Christ, the almighty king whom they expected to return in triumph, was either unable or unwilling to save them from the power of Rome. Opposition will continue till the world’s last great crisis comes and Jesus Christ returns. The triumph of God and his people is pictured in a wedding feast, the victorious reign of Jesus Christ, the defeat of Satan and the last great judgment (19:6-20:15)
Son of God - ...
Acknowledging the Son...
One sign of the work of God in people’s lives is their acknowledgment that Jesus Christ is the Son of God (Matthew 11:27; Matthew 16:16-17; 1 John 5:10). It seems that in the early church, an open confession of Jesus Christ as the Son of God was a formal declaration that a person was a true believer (Acts 8:37; Hebrews 4:14; 1 John 2:23; 1 John 4:15). (See also Jesus Christ; SON OF MAN
Womanliness - For the characteristic of Jesus Christ, and so the regulative principle of Christian morality, is completeness, symmetry, harmony, balance. Other men are known and loved for this or that excellence; but of Jesus Christ, with respect to His personal perfection, we can say what was said of Shakspeare with regard to his artistic pre-eminence, ‘His speciality is everything. Hence Jesus Christ is not a pattern merely for one sex, or one age, or one time, or one temperament, or one class
Doxology - In several Jesus Christ is associated more or less directly with God the Father (Romans 16:27; 1 Peter 4:11, Judges 1:25, Revelation 5:13). Romans 9:5 and Hebrews 13:21 present battling evidence as to the recipient; but in 2 Timothy 4:18; 2 Peter 3:18, Revelation 1:6 glory is ascribed to Jesus Christ. This is, as we have seen, most frequently God the Father, though Jesus Christ is associated with Him
Apocalyptic - The first sentence of the Book of Revelation is noteworthy in this connection: “The Revelation of Jesus Christ , which God gave to him , to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass ; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John : who bare record of all things that he saw . John's “apocalypse” is specifically stated to be a Christian revelation: it is “the revelation of Jesus Christ ,” received from God; accordingly it is described as “the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ
Sanhedrim - Whatever may be the origin and establishment of the sanhedrim, it is certain that it was subsisting in the time of our Saviour, since it is spoken of in the Gospels, Matthew 5:21 ; Mark 13:9 ; Mark 14:55 ; Mark 15:1 ; and since Jesus Christ himself was arraigned and condemned by it; that it was held at Jerusalem; and that the decision of all the most important affairs among the Jews belonged to it. This gave occasion to the question which the Pharisees put to Jesus Christ upon that head, Matthew 19:3 . To Hillel succeeded Simeon his son, who by some is supposed to have been the person who took Jesus Christ in his arms, Luke 2:28 , and publicly acknowledged him to be the Messiah
Doxology - In several Jesus Christ is associated more or less directly with God the Father (Romans 16:27; 1 Peter 4:11, Judges 1:25, Revelation 5:13). Romans 9:5 and Hebrews 13:21 present battling evidence as to the recipient; but in 2 Timothy 4:18; 2 Peter 3:18, Revelation 1:6 glory is ascribed to Jesus Christ. This is, as we have seen, most frequently God the Father, though Jesus Christ is associated with Him
Word - From the divine point of view, it consists of God revealing something about himself through his spoken word, which is ultimately and perfectly personified in his Son, Jesus Christ. In view of Jesus' life and work, the word of God now especially refers to God's consummate message of salvation to all people, the gospel of Jesus Christ. The gospel as the saving message of Jesus Christ is the living and enduring word of God (1 Peter 1:18-23 ). Although the Old Testament never uses the concept of word to describe the expected coming of the messiah, the New Testament significantly develops its theological meaning by equating the Old Testament concept of word of God with the person and work of Jesus Christ. To preach the gospel of Jesus Christ is to preach in its fullness the word of God. God's word as his creative power and revelation is perfect and all-sufficient, especially as it is personified in his Son, Jesus Christ. Douglas Buckwalter...
See also Bible, Authority of the ; Bible, Inspiration of the ; Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; John, Theology of ...
Bibliography
Sanctification - The blood of Jesus Christ sanctifies (Hebrews 13:12 ) because his substitutionary atonement reversed all of the dysfunctional, as well as legal (i. ...
Jesus Christ: The Sanctifier and Model of Sanctification . The singular means of God's sanctifying grace is Jesus Christ: "We have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" (Hebrews 10:10 ). First, Jesus Christ was the only human being since the fall to live a continuously, perfectly sanctified life. In his character, therefore, Jesus Christ was morally sanctified. Jesus Christ, therefore, is the model human being for both moral and vocational sanctification (Philippians 2:5-11 ). Yet, unlike justification, sanctification also continues until it will be consummated when Jesus Christ returns
Second Coming of Christ - Paul can speak of waiting for "the blessed hope, " which he goes on to explain as "the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (Titus 2:13 ). There will be "praise, glory and honor when Jesus Christ is revealed" (1 Peter 1:7 ; cf. Paul speaks of "the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" and says plainly, "that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed" (2 Thessalonians 2:1-3 ). Christians wait for "the blessed hope—the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (Titus 2:13 ). He exhorts his readers: "set your hope fully on the grace to be given you when Jesus Christ is revealed" (1 Peter 1:13 ). Thus Paul assures the Corinthians that Christ will be "revealed" and that he "will keep you strong to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ" (1 Corinthians 1:7-8 ). Paul prays for the Thessalonians that their "whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" (1 Thessalonians 5:23 ). This confidence Paul can speak of as "the blessed hope" which he proceeds to explain as "the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (Titus 2:13 ). And Jude adds the thought that "you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life" (v
Gospels (2) - The word ‘Gospels’ in Christian terminology, and as employed in this article, signifies accounts of the earthly life of our Lord Jesus Christ, of His manifestation in the historical sphere, narratives of His words and works, it being unimportant whether such narratives were delivered by word of mouth or committed to writing. Jesus Christ was, of course, a great—we would say the greatest—moral teacher of mankind; yet the Christian consciousness has always felt that what Jesus was, and did, and suffered, has an importance and significance far transcending that which He taught. It is not that Jesus Christ is important and significant to the historian as the originator and promulgator of a singularly lofty code of morals, but rather that in the days of Caesar Augustus, ‘the eternal life which was with the Father was manifested unto us’ (1 John 1:2); and from that life so manifested certain new commandments of love resulted as a necessary consequence, and ‘old commandments which we had from the beginning’ (1 John 2:7) awoke into new life, and put on a strength which they had not had before. But in Apostolic references to the life of Jesus Christ His human ancestry is co-ordinated with His resurrection, e. Romans 1:1-4 ‘the gospel of God … concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David …, who was declared to be the Son of God … by the resurrection of the dead’; and 2 Timothy 2:8 ‘Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel. ’...
Romans 2:16 ‘God shall judge the secrets of men, according to my gospel, by Jesus Christ. ’...
2 Timothy 2:8 ‘Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel. Paul’s use of the word ‘gospel’ as meaning the substance of his evangelic preaching, would naturally suggest the application of the term to a narrative embodying all that it was necessary to know of the life of Jesus Christ as a means of salvation. Paul’s knowledge of the Gospel narrative? To many, perhaps most, Christians this question may appear superfluous, in view of the Apostle’s own explicit statements: Galatians 1:11 ‘The gospel which was preached by me … came to me through revelation of Jesus Christ,’ and 1 Corinthians 11:23 ‘I received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you
Mediator - Repentance, faith, baptism, the gift of the Holy Spirit, are the distinctive gifts which flow from the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. God offers forgiveness to those who are baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, and He offers the bestowal of the Holy Spirit to make a new life possible (Acts 2:38). Christians are ‘elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ’ (1 Peter 1:2). He mentions the Holy Spirit, God, and our Lord Jesus Christ together (Judges 1:21), and ascribes glory to ‘God our Saviour’ through Jesus Christ. The writer describes himself as ‘the bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ’ (2 Peter 1:1), describes Jesus as ‘Lord and Saviour’ (2 Peter 2:20), speaks of growing ‘in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ’ (2 Peter 3:18), and of entrance into His ‘eternal kingdom’ (2 Peter 1:11). There is no developed Christology, but the writer who calls himself a ‘bond-servant of God and of Jesus Christ,’ and is so faithful both to the letter and to the spirit of Christ’s moral teaching, must necessarily have believed that He is the Mediator between God and man. God is ‘the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ’ (2 Corinthians 1:3), and the Son shares in the spiritual immaterial nature of the Father
Pre-Eminence - For He is God’s Son in a unique sense (Colossians 1:3; Colossians 1:13—the phrase ‘the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ’ in the former being common in St. Paul’s mind these ideas are bound up inseparably with Him, and the probability is that he meant to express them in the full title—the Lord Jesus Christ—which he so frequently employs. It should further be noted that in practically all these letters the comprehensive title—Lord Jesus Christ—is applied to Him, and that frequently the strongest statements are made incidentally in such a way as to indicate that they belong to the common Christian conviction. Paul’s preaching as the Kingdom of God and the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ, where the full title is significantly given, as it is by St
Sanctification - In the NT this God is the God and Father of Jesus Christ. The determining agent in sanctification everywhere, both in experience and in the conduct that follows from it, is God, as revealed in the Cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ. the redemptive work of Jesus Christ, and the human response to it of faith which worketh by love (διʼ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη, Galatians 5:6). -Faith is a judgment of the whole personality that God means what He said and did in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Through the death of Jesus Paul is delivered from the ‘authority’ of sin, which is broken, and is made subject to the ‘constraint’ or ‘authority’ of the love of God manifested in Jesus Christ, the Κύριος. The acceptance by faith of this ‘authority’ of Jesus Christ, in response to His grace and love, is the condition of being ‘in Christ,’ which is the characteristic Pauline phrase for the state of sanctification. ’ This authority that so speaks in Jesus Christ is the authority and the power of the Creator. The incarnation of Jesus Christ realized in perfection the prophetic teaching, and for ever made men aware that God is the Father, whose holiness is also love, and who reasserts His claim on each individual soul by an act of redemption. To him, ‘sin’ is a personal power, the arch-demon; ‘grace’ is the grace of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. For the Christian, for those that are ‘sanctified,’ the ‘law’ of sin and death is done away altogether, and obedience to the law of God is merged in a higher and nobler loyalty to the God and Father of Jesus Christ, and above all in a sense of supreme indebtedness
Bible, Authority of the - And, in light of the fact that every doctrine believed by the church is in turn authorized by appeal to Holy Scripture (theological proposals are grounded "according to the Scriptures, " in the words of the creed), it is no exaggeration to say that the entire structure of Christian theology stands or falls by the authority of Scripture, the major premise for every theological statement that would claim the allegiance of the canonical community that is the church of Jesus Christ. The canonical claim takes the form of interlocking claims and evidences that include the phenomena of the divine speech, the particular testimony of Jesus Christ to the character of what we call the Old Testament, and the authoritative use of canonical books by the writers of others. For the teaching of Jesus Christ extends to the question of bibliology. It draws our attention to the character of the church of Jesus Christ as a canonical communitythe people of the book. We are persuaded that to deny it is to set aside the witness of Jesus Christ and of the Holy Spirit and to refuse that submission to the claims of God's own Word which marks true Christian faith
Church - Church is the term used in the New Testament most frequently to describe a group of persons professing trust in Jesus Christ, meeting together to worship Him, and seeking to enlist others to become His followers. When the early Christians understood themselves as constituting a church, no doubt exists that they perceived themselves as called out by God in Jesus Christ for a special purpose and that their status was a privileged one in Jesus Christ (Ephesians 2:19 ). ...
Major characteristics of the life of the church The preeminent characteristic of the church in the New Testament is devotion to Jesus Christ as Lord. ...
“Apostle” usually designated one appointed as the authorized representative of Jesus Christ, and the term in the New Testament is most frequently applied to one of the Twelve (Acts 1:15-26 ) or to Paul (Galatians 1:1-24 )
Spirit - In the phrases ‘Spirit of God,’ the ‘Spirit of the Lord,’ the ‘Spirit of Jesus Christ,’ the ‘Holy Spirit,’ the ‘Spirit of Truth,’ the third Person in the Godhead is described (see Holy Spirit)
Branch - Schaefer...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
Bibliography
Magic - ...
Jesus Christ has triumphed over all the unseen powers of evil, and through him believers too can triumph (Ephesians 1:19-21; Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 2:8-10; Colossians 3:1-3)
Nathan - He is in the genealogy of Jesus Christ (Luke 3:31 )
Spirits in Prison - ...
Verses 19-21 appear in the middle of a christological confession of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (v
Ascension - Experienced by Enoch (Genesis 5:24 ) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:1-2 ) but supremely by Jesus Christ (Acts 1:9 )
Blind - ...
Romans 2:19 (b) This describes those who are groping for the light and need someone to teach them the truth and to guide them to Jesus Christ
Rainbow - Men who study nature may see God in the works of nature; and they who study providences may see God in the works of his providences; but they who study the works of grace; when taught of God, will discover Christ in the whole of those great designs, and behold the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ!...
Shiloh - (Genesis 49:10) It is worthy remark, however, that unless it be applied to the Lord Jesus Christ, it can be applied to no other
Confidence - He is ‘confident of this very thing, that he which began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Jesus Christ’ (Philippians 1:8)
Affliction - ...
To endure during times of affliction, Christians should: (1) pray to the Lord (Psalm 25:18 ; Lamentations 1:9 ; James 5:13 ); (2) comfort others (James 1:27 ; Philippians 4:14 ); (3) remain faithful through the patient endurance of suffering (2 Corinthians 6:4 ; 1 Timothy 4:5 ; James 1:2 ,James 1:2,1:12 ; 1 Peter 4:13 ); (4) cultivate an attitude of joy (James 1:2 ); and (5) follow the example of Jesus Christ (1 Peter 2:19-23 )
Lift - ...
Psalm 110:7 It represents the constant, buoyant, radiant faith of the Lord Jesus Christ as He walked on earth among His enemies
Baptism - Concerning the personal baptisms of the Lord Jesus Christ, we hear Jesus speaking of them during his ministry
Flesh - " (Genesis 37:26-27) And there is yet a far more endearing sense in which the word flesh is used in Scripture, when spoken of in the person of our Lord Jesus Christ; the nearest of all types, and the tenderest of all brothers
Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix, Bishop of Pavia - He speaks of divine grace as descending "de Superis," and sets the Fates side by side with Jesus Christ
Forgive - In the typology of the Old Testament, sacrifices foreshadowed the accomplished work of Jesus Christ, and the Old Testament believer was assured of “forgiveness” based on sacrifice: “And the priest shall make an atonement [2]” ( Grace - Without the inward grace of Jesus Christ, man is not able to do the least thing that is good
Apollos - However, he acknowledged that Jesus Christ was the Messiah, and declared himself openly as his disciple
Of - Jesus Christ," 1 Corinthians 3:11 )
ma'ry the Virgin, - She was betrothed to Joseph of Nazareth; but before her marriage she became with child by the Holy Ghost, and became the mother of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world
Hope - ...
The great hope for Christians is the return of Jesus Christ, when they will experience the fulness of their salvation and enter with Christ into the glory of the new age (1 Corinthians 15:19-23; Ephesians 1:18; Colossians 1:27; 1 Thessalonians 5:8; 1 Peter 1:13)
Deliver - The answer to Paul's cry is "Jesus Christ our Lord" (v. All pleas for deliverance are answered by the person and work of Jesus Christ
New Command - The great command of Jesus is to believe in the name of the Son, Jesus Christ, and to love one another (1 John 3:23 ). As such it is the decisive command because it fulfills the will of God for his people and displays God's gift of love in the Lord Jesus Christ
Arment - All of his own natural person is covered by the Lord Jesus Christ so that we are found "in Him," not having our own righteousness, but the righteousness of GOD which is by faith of Jesus Christ
Joseph - And as then the Zapnathpaaneah of Egypt revealed secrets, and the cry was, Go unto Joseph, what he saith unto you do: so now, in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, we do, indeed, behold our Wonderful Counsellor, who hath made known to us his and his Father's will, and the one desire of every soul is, to go unto Jesus, whatsoever he saith unto us is blessed, and our duty to obey. ...
Under the article of Joseph we must not forget to observe, that there are several more of the name mentioned in Scripture, and of some importance:...
·Joseph the husband of Mary, the mother of the Lord Jesus Christ, Matthew 1:15; Mat 1:18
Bethesda - John was added to the other memoirs of the Lord Jesus Christ, was purposely to relate some circumstances, which Matthew, Mark, and Luke, had not done. And I humbly conceive, that the pool itself was specially intended, by the mercy of the Lord, to be a standing miracle among his people during their dark estate from the departure of the Spirit of prophecy, which ended with Malaichi to the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ; as is to shew, that the Lord "had not cast away his people whom he foreknew
Image - It will reach its fullest expression at the return of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15:49; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Colossians 3:10; 1 John 3:2). Only at the final triumph of Jesus Christ will humanity, through Christ, enter its full glory (Hebrews 2:5-9; Romans 8:19-23)
Incarnation - It is a distinguishing feature of Christianity that it consists in faith in a person, Jesus Christ, and in faith or self-committal of such a character that faith in Him is understood to be faith in God. The fact on which the whole of the Christian religion depends is therefore the fact that Jesus Christ is both God and man. In these Epistles we find Jesus Christ ‘co-ordinated with God in the necessarily Divine functions, in a manner impossible to the mind of a Jewish monotheist like St. At first, no doubt, they were so much absorbed in the fact itself that they did not at once reason out all that it meant to their beliefs; and in teaching they had to adapt their message to the capacities of their hearers; but there can be no question about the place which the belief in the Resurrection took in determining their creed (see Jesus Christ, p. The Apostles bore witness to their own experience and to the growth of their own faith, and they knew Jesus Christ first as a man. Apollinaris taught that the Word of God took the place of the human mind or spirit in Christ, as at a later period the Monothelites held that He had no human will; Nestorius practically denied an Incarnation, by holding that the Son of God and Jesus Christ were two separate persons, though united in a singular degree; Eutyches taught that the manhood in Christ was merged in the Godhead so as to lose its proper and distinct nature
Peter, Second Epistle of - They are therefore urged to enrich their character with virtues, because only from such a soil will a full knowledge of Jesus Christ grow; and entrance into His eternal Kingdom depends upon forgiveness of sins, and the zealous effort of the believer to make the gospel call effective by a life of virtue ( 2 Peter 1:6-11 ). Safety lies in watchfulness and in growth in the grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ ( 2 Peter 1:8-18 ). The writer aims to impress on his readers: (1) that saving knowledge of Jesus Christ is granted only to the virtuous heart; (2) that Jesus Christ is a present power for a godly life, and is certain to return for judgment; (3) the hideous character of the false teachers and the self-evident doom of themselves and their victims; (4) that delay in the Return of the Lord must be used for repentance, for that Day will surely come. Both teach that Jesus Christ is progressively revealed to the believer, the Parousia being the fulfilment of the Transfiguration or the Resurrection ( 1 Peter 1:13 ; 1 Peter 4:13 ; 1Pe 5:1 , 2 Peter 1:3-4 ; 2 Peter 1:16 ). and in 2Peter Jesus Christ is the strong Son of God, whose death ransomed sinners, and whose return to judgment is described in generally similar outlines
Worship - Inquiry revealed to them forms of worship in the Christian Church austere in their simplicity, but hallowed alike by their association with the sacred traditions of Jewish worship and by the vivid consciousness of the presence of God to whom they could draw near as their Father through Jesus Christ, their Saviour, in the power of His Holy Spirit poured out upon all flesh. ”...
‘The service, and probably each part of the service, began with the benediction: “Grace be to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ,” which was followed by an invocation of Jesus and the confession that He is Lord. As this broken bread was scattered over the mountains, and has been gathered together and made one, so may thy Church be gathered from the ends of the earth into thy kingdom; for thine is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ for ever. 7: ‘And attempt not to think anything right for yourselves apart from others: but let there be one prayer in common, one supplication, one mind, one hope, in love and in joy unblameable, which is Jesus Christ, than whom there is nothing better. Hasten to come together all of you, as to one temple, even God; as to one altar; even to one Jesus Christ, who came forth from One Father, and is with One and departed unto One. For we do not receive these [4] as common bread and common drink, but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the word of God, bad both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of the word which comes from Him, and from which our blood and flesh are nourished by transmutation, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. Constant reference to the mediation of Christ in the familiar ending of prayers ‘through Jesus Christ our Lord’ kept this ever in mind
Religious Experience - Jesus Christ was the source of this change of personality. ...
That Jesus Christ was the Saviour every man needed, One who could save up to and beyond the limit of the man’s best hope, was the common thought of those who most thoughtfully observed His influence and reported His words. The earliest Christians are unanimous in the declaration that in coming to Jesus Christ they had found the Father, and that He was not afar off but within; and after Pentecost they speak of the inward Presence either as ‘God,’ ‘Spirit of God,’ ‘Holy Spirit,’ or ‘Spirit of Christ. Salvation, according to the earliest Christian Gospel, is proved not by personal experience but by practical morality, a compassionate spirit, and obedience to the inner law—this inner law being objectified in Jesus Christ when He is known (Matthew 25:14-45). Schleiermacher centred religion in the feelings, Hegel in the intellect, Kant in the will; but Jesus Christ centred it in the man. It is not only an epidemic universal and fatal (John 1:29), a blood-poisoning (John 9:41, John 15:22; John 15:24), worse than a lifelong paralysis (John 5:14), which may be eternal (Mark 3:29), a slavery (John 8:34), and an insanity (Luke 15:17); it is ungrateful (Luke 16:6), traitorous (Mark 14:56), unfilial (Luke 15:11); the assassination of one’s higher self (Luke 9:25), and a fratricidal blow at Jesus Christ (Matthew 21:38, Luke 9:22). The testimonies to conscious personal trust in Jesus Christ as the supreme standard of right and the never-failing and ever-present Helper of all sin-sick souls, fill every page of the NT. The new life which one consciously obtains through faith in Jesus Christ is likened to that which would be needed in quickening a corpse or bringing about a resurrection from the dead (1 Corinthians 15:22, Colossians 2:13, Ephesians 2:5)
Appear, Appearance - These appearances announce and confirm the good news of God's deliverance in Jesus Christ. While reference is made to Christ's presently appearing before God in a priestly capacity on behalf of believers (Hebrews 9:24 ), the major referent is to the post-resurrection earthly appearances of Jesus Christ. While Christ's appearing is connected with the abolition of death (2 Timothy 1:10 ), it is not a confirmation of the resurrection so much as of the truth of the gospel and the worthwhileness of witnessing to Jesus Christ (2 Timothy 4:1 )
Satan - " (John 13:27)...
Hence, therefore, when the Lord Jesus Christ is spoken of in the holy Scriptures as coming for the redemption of his people, this great feature of character is intimately linked with it; "for this purpose was the Son of God manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil. " (Colossians 1:13)...
And there is another and a open display of victory: which the Lord Jesus Christ will obtain over Satan, before a whole congregated world, when he will set up a visible kingdom upon earth before the final judgment, during which period the Scriptures tell us Satan will be shut up, and his power restrained from tempting any of Christ's church, as he now is permitted to do, neither will he during that period be allowed to deceive the world and make the ungodly harrass and afflict Christ's people any more. "...
To this succeeds the accounts of the final and everlasting triumph, of the Lord Jesus Christ over Satan, when bringing this infernal spirit to open trial before the whole world of angels and of men at the last day, the day of judgment
Mediator - What, but for the Lord Jesus Christ becoming our Mediator, must have been the hopeless state of man to all eternity! Though under the article of Christ, (to which I refer the reader) so much hath been said concerning the person of Christ as God and man, and God-man united, the only possible suited Mediator for poor sinners, yet methinks the very name, at every renewed mention of it, calls up a thousand new endearments to prompt the heart to dwell upon it with unceasing rapture and delight. "...
And every one those heart is convinced of sin, and of the total inability in himself ever to come to God in any thing of his own, or by any way of acceptance in himself, how will he hail the Lord Jesus Christ in this most blessed and lovely and endearing of all characters, the only "Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus!" If the reader be of the number of truly convinced sinners, the peculiar fitness of Christ, as God and man in one person, for this office, will strike him with full conviction. " And then, as if to put to silence the ignorance of foolish men, who allow Jesus Christ to be the Mediator, but deny him that GODHEAD by which alone the Lord Christ could be competent to this high office of Mediator, be adds "I am the Lord, that is my name, and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images:" hereby plainly proving, that as this office of Mediator is carried on and exercised to the glory of JEHOVAH, so none but one in JEHOVAH could be competent to perform it
King - ...
Jesus Christ was this promised king (Matthew 2:2; Matthew 21:5; Matthew 21:9). ...
Through the resurrection and exaltation of Jesus, God showed that Jesus Christ was indeed his chosen king, and the early preachers enthusiastically proclaimed his kingship and his kingdom (Acts 2:36; Acts 4:26-27; Acts 5:31; Acts 8:12; Acts 17:7; Acts 19:8; Acts 28:23; Acts 28:31; Philippians 2:9-11). This kingship will be displayed openly on the day when Jesus Christ returns in glory as King of kings and Lord of lords (Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:15-16; cf
Timothy, Epistles to - Timothy was to be a good minister of Jesus Christ in teaching the right use of things which God in His beneficence has given to man. He is again charged before God and before Jesus Christ, that he keep the command spotless until the appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ: which the blessed and only ruler shall show in its owntime, the King of kings and Lord of lords: who only hath immortality; dwellingin unapproachable light; whom no man hath seen or cansee: to whom be honour and eternal might. Paul charges Timothy before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom, to fulfil his mission
Divine Retribution - The standard has been revealed to all creation in the events surrounding the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ
Conscience - God judges persons by His standards as revealed in Jesus Christ
Apostle - This word is once used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father (Hebrews 3:1 ; John 20:21 )
Trinity - " ...
See articles Jesus Christ and HOLY GHOST; also Owen, Watts, Jones, S
Reconciliation - People are brought into a right relationship with God only through the outworking of God’s grace in the death of Jesus Christ (1618106267_4; Ephesians 2:12-16; Colossians 1:20; Colossians 1:22)
Enemy - Because of this severed relationship, God has made provision for our forgiveness in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ
Presence of God - ...
New Testament Usage The primary New Testament manifestation of the presence of God is in Jesus Christ, Emmanuel, “God with us” (Matthew 1:23 ; John 1:14 ; Hebrews 1:1-3 )
Blindness - ...
Spiritual blindness, then, refers in some instances to the inability of unbelievers to comprehend spiritual truth, specifically failure to recognize the true identity of the incarnate Word, Jesus Christ
Spirits in Prison - This event, unmentioned elsewhere in the Bible, is closely associated with the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead (1Peter 3:18,1 Peter 3:21 )
Gospel - In NT the word means ‘good tidings’ about the salvation of the world by the coming of Jesus Christ
House - This house must have a right foundation, Jesus Christ:...
...
a heating plant to keep the heart and soul on fire for GOD;...
a kitchen so that the food may be prepared for the soul;...
a library for the education and instruction of the mind;...
a music room to keep the heart singing;...
a parlor for hospitality;...
a bedroom for rest;...
a bath room for cleansing;...
an attic for storage;...
and also the light of the Word and the water of the Spirit
Rahab - (See Matthew 1:1-17) What subjects of wonder the glorious redemption by the Lord Jesus Christ involves in it! Here, as in a thousand instances beside, we learn that the Lord's ways are not our ways, nor his thoughts as our thoughts! I pray the reader to give a diligent attention to her history, Joshua 2:1-24 throughout
Unclean - Peter was being taught that every man is eligible to be made clean by the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ
Dragon - But what is characteristic is that the figure and functions of the dragon are turned to Christian uses, so that they have a bearing upon Christ’s earthly birth and heavenly glory (Revelation 12:5), upon the present conflict of Christianity with the world’s evil powers and its victory over them by ‘the blood of the Lamb’ and ‘the testimony of Jesus Christ’ (Revelation 12:11; Revelation 12:13; Revelation 12:17), and above all upon the assurance of Christian faith that God will destroy the dragon’s present power to accuse His people and persecute them even unto death (Revelation 12:10-11; Revelation 12:13; Revelation 12:17), and will at the appointed time send forth His angel to subdue him utterly (Revelation 20:1-3)
Alogians, or Alogi - According to his representation they denied in ardent opposition to the Gnosticism of Cerinthus on the one hand and to the Montanists on the other that Jesus Christ was the eternal Logos as taught in Joh_1:1-14 ; and rejected the Fourth Gospel and the Apocalypse as productions of Cerinthus
Ear - (Exodus 21:2; Exo 21:5) And in allusion to this, (for this was a beautiful type of the Lord Jesus Christ), the Lord Jesus saith, Mine ears hast thou opened, or as the margin of the Bible hath, it, mine ears hast thou digged
Face - In all those manifestations it is, as the apostle speaks, giving the church "the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ
House - " (1 Peter 2:5; Hebrews 3:6) But in a more general way, a family is called an house, such as the house of the Rechabites, (Jeremiah 35:2) the house of David, (Zechariah 13:1) But amidst all these, and more to the like import, that undoubtedly is the highest and the best sense of the word which considers the Lord Jesus Christ himself as the High Priest and Head of his body the church, and the bodies of his people the temple of his indwelling residence by his Spirit
Fear - "...
I will only add, for the comfort and encouragement of the Lord's timid and tried ones, who, in the midst of strong faith, feel at times much natural fear, that it is sweetly accommodating to consider the Lord Jesus Christ, in the days of his flesh, was graciously pleased in this, as in all other points of grace, to be our example
Apries - Zedekiah, therefore, relying on his forces, revolted from Nebuchadnezzar, in the year of the world 3414, and before Jesus Christ 590
Covenant - ...
In common discourse, we usually say the old and new testaments, or covenants-the covenant between God and the posterity of Abraham, and that which he has made with believers by Jesus Christ; because these two covenants contain eminently all the rest, which are consequences, branches, or explanations of them
Genealogy - Matthew, where "the book of the generation of Jesus Christ" includes the whole history contained in that Gospel
Maximianus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - Cyril remains, with its high eulogium on Cyril's constancy in defending the cause of Jesus Christ
Scillitan Martyrs - The proconsul asked the martyr Speratus what books they kept laid up m their bookcases? He replied, Our books, or, as the Latin version puts it, the four Gospels of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in addition the Epistles of Paul the holy man
Evangelist - ...
Although all Christians should make known the good news of Jesus Christ to others (Acts 4:20; Acts 8:4; Acts 11:20), evangelists are particularly gifted by God for this task
Vigilius Thapsensis - The Athanasian Creed has also been attributed to him, chiefly because both in the creed and in his treatise against Eutyches the union of two natures in man is brought forward as an explanation of the union of two natures in the one person of Jesus Christ
Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - Satan and the demonic forces have been overcome by the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. We must remember that the main thrust of Christianity is on the availability of God's power and love in Jesus Christ and the Spirit
Servant of the Lord, the - Could part of Israel be the real Servant? Or might it really point to One who must come out of Israel—One who could represent Israel in accomplishing the task? Matthew 12:17-21 quotes Isaiah 42:1-4 as fulfilled in Jesus Christ. See Christology; Isaiah ; Jesus Christ ; Slavery; Son of God ...
Allan A
Peace - Peace with God came through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Romans 5:1 ; Ephesians 2:14-17 ; Colossians 1:19-20 ; see Hebrews 13:20 ). Peter declared to Cornelius: "You now the message God sent to the people of Israel, telling the good news of peace through Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all" (Acts 10:36 )
Minister - The scheme of salvation by Jesus Christ should be well understood, with all the various topics connected with it. Let the ministers of Christ, then, pity the weak, forgive the ignorant, bear with the sincere though mistaken zealot, and love all who love the Lord Jesus Christ
Indulgences - According to the doctrine of the Romish church, all the good works of the saints, over and above those which were necessary towards their own justification, are deposited, together with the infinite merits of Jesus Christ, in one inexhaustible treasury. The form of these indulgences was as follows:...
"May our Lord Jesus Christ have mercy upon thee, and absolve thee by the merits of his most holy passion
Love - ...
"Agape and agapao are used in the NT (a) to describe the attitude of God toward His Son, John 17:26 ; the human race, generally, John 3:16 ; Romans 5:8 ; and to such as believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, particularly, John 14:21 ; (b) to convey His will to His children concerning their attitude one toward another, John 13:34 , and toward all men, 1 Thessalonians 3:12 ; 1 Corinthians 16:14 ; 2 Peter 1:7 ; (c) to express the essential nature of God, 1 John 4:8 . ...
"Love had its perfect expression among men in the Lord Jesus Christ, 2 Corinthians 5:14 ; Ephesians 2:4 ; 3:19 ; 5:2 ; Christian love is the fruit of His Spirit in the Christian, Galatians 5:22
Bible - " The threefold division of the Old Testament into the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, mentioned by Josephus, was expressly recognised before his time by Jesus Christ, as well as by the subsequent writers of the New Testament. We have therefore sufficient evidence that the Old Testament existed at that time; and if it be only allowed that Jesus Christ was a teacher of a fearless and irreproachable character, it must be acknowledged that we draw a fair conclusion, when we assert that the Scriptures were not corrupted in his time: for when he accused the Pharisees of making the law of no effect by their traditions, and when he enjoined his hearers to search the Scriptures, he could not have failed to mention the corruptions or forgeries of Scripture, if any had existed in that age. We have, however, unquestionable testimony of the genuineness of the Old Testament, in the fact that its canon was fixed some centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ. During the life of Jesus Christ, and for some time after his ascension, nothing on the subject of his mission was committed to writing. Immediately after the resurrection of Jesus Christ, his disciples, in the most public manner, and in the place where he had been crucified, proclaimed that event, and the whole of the doctrine which he had commanded them to preach. This book, commencing with a detail of proceedings, from the resurrection of Jesus Christ, carries down the evangelical history till the arrival of Paul as a prisoner at Rome. " The fifth was the Apostle Paul, who, as he expresses it, was "one born out of due time," but who had likewise seen Jesus Christ, and had been empowered by him to work miracles, which were "the signs of an Apostle. 96, addressed to seven churches in Asia, containing Epistles to these churches from Jesus Christ himself, with various instructions for the immediate use of all Christians, together with a prophetical view of the kingdom of God till the end of time. Several apocryphal writings were published under the name of Jesus Christ and his Apostles, which are mentioned by the writers of the first four centuries, most of which have perished, though some are still extant. In the same manner, when Jesus Christ set up his kingdom in the world, of which the nation of Israel was a type, he first made known his will by means of verbal communication, through his servants whom he commissioned and sent out for that purpose; and when, through their means, he had prepared his subjects and collected them into churches, to be the depositaries of his word, he caused it to be delivered to them in writing
Death of Christ - Paul could say to the Corinthian Christians, "I resolved to know nothing while I was with you except Jesus Christ and him crucified" (1 Corinthians 2:2 ). To the Galations he says, "before your very eyes Jesus Christ was clearly portrayed as crucified" (Galatians 3:1 ). In particular it is hard for us to begin to understand the agony of our Lord Jesus Christ in Gethsemane, and his words about the drinking of the "cup, " other than through his consciousness of approaching, not just the physical pain and the shame of crucifixion, but the reality of what it meant for him to be the Suffering Servant, "pierced for our transgressions, crushed for our iniquities, " and "the iniquity of us all" "laid on him" (Isaiah 53:5-6 ). of 4:14-16 puts it, "since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, " which means that through him "we have now received reconciliation" ( Romans 5:11 ). It is also a death to self: "he died for all, that those who live should no longer live for themselves but for him who died for them and was raised again" (2 Corinthians 5:15 ); and it is a death to the world, as the apostle says, "May I never boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world" (Galatians 6:14 ). " Thus the sacraments of the gospel indicate the lifestyle to which Christians are called, but also indicate and recall (requiring the response of repentance and faith) what Jesus Christ did once and for all for us by his death and resurrection. ...
Francis Foulkes...
See also Atonement ; Cross, Crucifixion ; Jesus Christ ; Lamb, Lamb of God ...
Bibliography
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - Very frequently the word is coupled with the name of Jesus and appears to be virtually a second name "Jesus Christ" (Acts 2:38 ; 3:6 ; 9:34 ; 10:36 ; Romans 1:6-8 ; 1 Kings 1:34), through not a surname, because "Christ Jesus" is also commonly used (1Col 1:1-30; Galatians 2:4 ). In close proximity in the same chapter, Jesus can be called "Jesus Christ" (Galatians 3:22 ), "Christ" (3:24), and "Christ Jesus" (3:26). Romans 9:5 speaks of "Christ, who is God over all, forever praised!" Grammatical rules permit rending 2 Thessalonians 1:12 as " the grace of our God and Lord, Jesus Christ. " The same holds true of Titus 2:13 ("our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ") and 2 Peter 1:1 ("our God and Savior Jesus Christ"). Scripture ascribes glory to Jesus Christ in numerous ways, but in naming him "Lord" (Gk. "Lord" thus serves as the name par excellence for Jesus Christ
Genealogies of Jesus Christ - GENEALOGIES OF Jesus Christ...
1. Paul in Romans 1:3 speaks of Christ as ‘born of the seed of David according to the flesh,’ and in 2 Timothy 2:8 he names this descent, along with the Resurrection, as one of the salient points of the gospel he preached: ‘Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel. —The heading is translated in the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘The book of the generation (βίβλος γενέσεως) of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham’: in the margin the alternative rendering is given ‘the genealogy of Jesus Christ. ) thinks that the Curctonian Syriac (‘Jacob begat Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the Virgin, who bore Jesus Christ’) represents the Greek from which the Syriac version was made more closely than does the Sinaitic. ...
This examination compels us to conclude that the genealogy is essentially and intentionally artificial; the word ‘begat’ (ἐγέννησεν) is not intended necessarily to imply physical birth, but merely marks the descent; the compiler was more interested in the throne-succession than the actual lineage, and used his material to illustrate and enforce his main proposition that Jesus Christ was the son of David and of Abraham, and he joined to the bare pedigree a sort of running commentary of notes. ‘Genealogy of Jesus Christ
Adam - In one word, and to speak out the whole of my disappointment and complaint in one word, what about sin? What in sin? When and where did sin enter in the evolution of the human race and seize in this deadly way on the human heart? Why do you all so avoid and shut your eyes to sin? And, still more, what about Jesus Christ? Why do I find nothing in your best text-books about Him who was without sin? About Him who is more to me, and to so many more of your best readers, than all Nature, and all her suns, and systems, and laws, and processes put together? Far more. ...
In every epistle of his the apostle's immediate, supreme, and alone subject is Jesus Christ. Paul has not a moment of his time, nor a corner of his mind, nor a beat of his heart, nor a stroke of his pen for any other person, great or small, but Jesus Christ. And Paul is in the very heat and at the very heart of one of his greatest chapters on Jesus Christ, and on the atonement that we sinners of mankind have received through Jesus Christ, when, if I may say so, the very sweep and grasp of Paul's mind, the very philosophical necessity of Paul's great intellect, all compel him to go back and take up Adam into his great argument and great gospel. As the best expositor of Paul I know of anywhere says, Adam and Jesus Christ, to Paul's heaven-soaring eye, stand out before God with all other men 'hanging at their girdles. ' The 'second man' and the 'last Adam' are most happy names and most illustrious titles of Paul's bold invention for his Master, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ
Lord - They worship many so-called gods and lords, but the Christian has but the ‘one God, the Father, of whom are all things and we unto him, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him. )]'>[2] every knee should bow, of things in heaven and things on earth and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 8:2), and probably long before that time, on the lips of those who repeated it, if not by the men who first employed it, the formula ‘our Lord Jesus Christ’ was uttered with an emphasis on the word our which suggested repudiation of the claims made on behalf of the Emperor (Weinel, Die Stellung des Urchristentums zum Staat, p. We hear the same protest in the claim of Judges 1:4, ‘our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ,’ and in a milder form in the subtle distinction made in 1 Peter 2:17, ‘Fear God, honour the king,’ i. Mackintosh, The Person of Jesus Christ, 1912, bk
Peter - And when he came to be a disciple of Jesus Christ he entered on, and continued to hold, that natural and aboriginal supremacy over all inferior men, till a still more superior and supreme man arose and took Peter's supremacy away from him. But by degrees, and under the teaching, the example, and the training of his Master, Peter's too-hot heart was gradually brought under control till it became the seat in Peter's bosom of a deep, pure, deathless love and adoration for Jesus Christ. And there is no surer sign that the same mind that was found in Jesus Christ is taking possession of one of His disciples than that he more and more manifests a keen, kindling, enthusiastic temper toward whatsoever persons and causes are honest, and just, and pure, and lovely, and of good report; just as there is nothing more unlike the mind and heart of Jesus Christ than the mind and heart of a man who cares for none of these things. But grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom be glory both now and for ever
Nicodemus - But there is no deceiving of Jesus Christ. ...
At the same time, Nicodemus that night was in Martha's house beside Jesus Christ, and not out at the Jordan beside John the Baptist. And Jesus Christ did not open the door and dismiss Nicodemus as John the Baptist would certainly have done. Jesus Christ is still among His enemies in many ways. Recognise and acknowledge Jesus Christ, and stand up for Him in your Sanhedrim like Nicodemus
Roman Catholics - That seven sacraments were instituted by Jesus Christ, namely, baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony; and that they confer grace. That in the mass, or public service, there is offered unto God a true and propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and dead; and that in the sacrament of the eucharist, under the forms of bread and wine, are really and substantially present the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that there is a conversion made of the whole substance of the bread into his body, and of the wine into his blood, which is called transubstantiation; according to our Lord's words to his disciples, "This is my body," &c, Matthew 26:26 ; wherefore it becomes with them an object of adoration. I profess also that there are truly and properly seven sacraments of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and for the salvation of mankind, (though all are not necessary for every one,) namely, baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, and matrimony; and that they confer grace; and of these, baptism, confirmation, and order cannot be reiterated without sacrilege. I profess, likewise, that in the mass, is offered to God a true,...
proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead; and that in the most holy sacrament of the eucharist there is truly, really, and substantially the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that there is made a conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood, which conversion the Catholic church calls transubstantiation. Peter, prince of the Apostles, and vicar of Jesus Christ
Logos - ]'>[5] Word ) is applied to Jesus Christ, and is used to set forth His peculiar glory as the only-begotten Son of God, who is also the Life and Light of men. The Logos is the true Light, and the mediator of Divine life to all who believe on His name, ( c ) Finally ( John 1:14-18 ), the author describes the incarnation of the Logos in the flesh, and declares His identity with the historical Jesus Christ, the bringer of grace and truth. John 1:1 ), but his readers now understand that the eternal Logos is one with Jesus Christ, the Son of God. The Logos, who is Identified with Jesus Christ, comes forth from the bosom of the Father, bringing life and light to men
Holiness - ...
As strictly and properly speaking, the term "holy" can belong to none but JEHOVAH, and so the song of Hannah beautifully set forth, (1 Samuel 2:2) so none but the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God, can be holy. (Luke 1:35) And Peter, in his sermon, peculiarly denominates the Lord Jesus Christ, in his mediatorial character, the Holy One, and the Just. (Acts 3:14) All which, and more to the same amount, are expressly spoken of the Lord Jesus Christ, in his person and character as the Head of his body the Church, God and man in one person. " (Hebrews 7:26) Such, then, is the personal holiness of the Lord Jesus Christ—an holiness higher than the angels, be cause the infinite holiness of the GODHEAD in him is underived. Secondly, as the same in the personal holiness of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God, and the glorious Head of his body the church
Jesus Christ - Jesus Christ. Jesus occurs in the Bible 711 times; Christ 304 times; Jesus Christ, Lord Jesus Christ, and Christ Jesus (anointed Saviour), 244 times, and Messiah 4 times
Galatians, Epistle to the - Paul would have them know that his apostleship was not by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father; that the gospel he preached was by the revelation of Jesus Christ. But the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ was his only boast, through whom the world was crucified unto him, and he to it
Offering - These offerings all had a typical significance, and prefigured the atonement of Jesus Christ, on whom was laid the iniquity of us all, and "his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree
Devotion to the Holy Family - Since the three holiest persons the world has ever beheld, Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Son of God, His immaculate mother, Mary, and His foster-father, Saint Joseph, dwelt together for many years in the humble home of Nazareth, it is natural that Catholics should venerate them not only as individuals but also as a family
Family, Holy - Since the three holiest persons the world has ever beheld, Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Son of God, His immaculate mother, Mary, and His foster-father, Saint Joseph, dwelt together for many years in the humble home of Nazareth, it is natural that Catholics should venerate them not only as individuals but also as a family
Ram - ...
Exodus 29:22(c) This ram represents the Lord Jesus Christ as an offering of consecration for us
Pastor - PASTOR, SHEPHERD...
A well-known office of the Lord Jesus Christ
Father - , Matthew 11:27 ; 25:34 ; John 20:17 ; Revelation 2:27 ; 3:5,21 ; so the Apostles spoke of God as the "Father" of the Lord Jesus Christ, e
Perseverance - ...
The outcome of Christian endurance will be the experience of salvation in its fullest expression at the return of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:24-25; 2 Timothy 4:7-8; 1 Peter 1:6-9; Revelation 2:26-28)
Power - The life and ministry of Jesus Christ provide particularly clear evidence of God’s power (Luke 4:14; Luke 4:36; Luke 5:17; Luke 9:1; see MIRACLES; KINGDOM OF GOD)
Firstborn - ...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
Bibliography
Quartus - simply ‘fellow-Christians,’ members of the one great spiritual family of which God is Father and Jesus Christ the Elder Brother, ‘the firstborn among many brethren’ (Acts 8:29)
New Platonics - ...
The ancient philosophy of the east: and he asserted that his project was agreeable to the intentions of Jesus Christ, whom he acknowledged to be a most excellent man, the friend of God; and affirmed that his sole view in descending on earth, was to set bounds to the reigning superstition, to remove the errors which had crept into the religion of all nations, but not to abolish the ancient theology from which they were derived
Cup - But also, conversely, for the bitter lot of the wicked, Psalms 11:6 (cf ( c ) below), and in particular for the sufferings of Jesus Christ, Matthew 20:22-23 , Mark 10:38-39 ; Mark 14:36 , Luke 22:42 , John 18:11
Saints - ...
Biblically, though, the term saint is correctly applied to anyone who believes Jesus Christ is Lord
Holy Family, Devotion to the - Since the three holiest persons the world has ever beheld, Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Son of God, His immaculate mother, Mary, and His foster-father, Saint Joseph, dwelt together for many years in the humble home of Nazareth, it is natural that Catholics should venerate them not only as individuals but also as a family
Stewardship - ...
Thus, the New Testament concept of stewardship centers in our commitment to Jesus Christ
Ift - " This is usually described as referring to the Lord Jesus Christ
Shepherd - I should not have paused at this word, being in itself so very well understood, but only to remark the very great blessedness and tenderness of it as assumed by the Lord Jesus Christ
Meat - It is a lovely picture of the sweet, precious and delightful food which we find in the Lord Jesus Christ as we partake of Him for the blessing of our souls
Peter - "Where sin aboundeth, grace doth much more abound; that as sin hath reigned unto death, so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord
Ark of Noah - It is thus referred to in 1 Peter 3:20,21 , "into which few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water: which figure also now saves you, [1] baptism, not a putting away of [2] filth of flesh, but [2] demand as before God of a good conscience, by [2] resurrection of Jesus Christ
Ransom - " (Job 33:24) And hence, in proof that this one offering of the body of Jesus Christ, once for all, hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified, the prophet Isaiah is appointed to describe the happy effects of redemption in the everlasting salvation of all Christ's people
Travail - They had become so occupied with law keeping, that they had forgotten the precious presence of the Lord Jesus Christ
Baal - And when he hath duly contemplated the unequalled subject, let him add to it the farther consideration, how the Lord Jesus Christ hath really, and indeed, fulfilled all he here promised, in becoming the Husband of his church and people
Child - But these things are so obvious and plain, that I should not have thought it necessary, in a work of this kind, purposely contracted into the narrowest compass, to have noticed the word Child, but for the introducing a short observation on the term itself, as applied to the Lord Jesus Christ
Artaxerxes - Artaxerxes reigned forty-seven years, and died in the year of the world 3579, and before Jesus Christ 425
Tribute - Matthew 22:16-17 , &c, the answer that Jesus Christ returned to the Pharisee, who came with an insidious design of tempting him, and asked him, whether or not it was lawful to pay tribute to Caesar? and in John 8:33 , where the Jews boast of having never been slaves to any body, of being a free nation, that acknowledged God only for master and sovereign
Devil - He exerts himself, especially with his angels, to draw away the souls of men from embracing salvation through Jesus Christ
Joy - ...
Joy in a special sense becomes the possession of believers when by faith they come into union with Jesus Christ (John 15:4; John 15:11)
Repentance - Hence God's testimony is "repentance toward God, and faith towardour Lord Jesus Christ
Simon Magus - We are told that he ‘believed,’ which cannot mean less than that he recognized that the Evangelist exerted, in the name of Jesus Christ, powers the reality of which he could not deny, and the efficacy of which ‘amazed’ him. Another form of the tradition represented Paul as a companion of Peter in the contest, and as praying while Peter adjured the demons that supported Simon in his flight, in the name of God and of Jesus Christ, to uphold him no longer
Body - ...
But I should not have thought it necessary on this account to have made any pause at the word body, it not been in reference to a subject of an infinitely higher nature; I mean, in relation to the body of our Lord Jesus Christ. ...
In speaking, therefore, or having a right conception of the body of the Lord Jesus Christ; this is the point of view in which the Scriptures of God teach us to regard that holy body
Oracle - It has been generally held, indeed, that oracles ceased at the birth of Jesus Christ: yet some have endeavoured to maintain the contrary, by showing that they were in being in the days of Julian, commonly called the apostate, and that this emperor himself consulted them; nay, farther, say they, history makes mention of several laws published by the Christian emperors, Theodosius, Gratian, and Valentinian, to punish persons who interrogated them, even in their days; and that the Epicureans were the first who made a jest of this superstition, and exposed the roguery of its priests to the people. For example, such was the voice that was heard at the baptism of Jesus Christ, saying, This is my beloved Son, &c
Slave - )...
Those who are true slaves of Jesus Christ will also be true slaves of one another (Matthew 20:26-27; John 13:4-15; 1 Corinthians 9:19; 2 Corinthians 4:5). This is because of the new life they have through Jesus Christ (Galatians 5:13; Philippians 2:5-7)
Fatherhood of God - For Paul this fatherhood is based not so much on God's role in creation but rather on the redemption and reconciliation he has made available in Jesus Christ. This is why Paul refers to "the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Romans 15:6 ; 2 Corinthians 1:3 ; 11:31 )
Ignorance - The latter condition was much dwelt upon, for to all the apostles the Coming of Jesus Christ was the shedding forth of so great a light that all who had not seen that light dwelt in darkness, while they insisted also that light sufficient was given in the world to learn about God, if only men had not been led away by evil desires (Romans 1:20). Paul’s own experience, the persecution of the followers of Jesus Christ (Acts 26:9)
Confession - ...
(2) Coming to the NT, we find that ‘confess’ is of frequent occurrence in the sense we are considering, and that confession now gathers expressly round the Person and the Name of Jesus Christ. In the Johannine Epistles it is essential to confess, on the one hand, that ‘Jesus Christ is come in the flesh’ ( 1 John 4:2-3 , 2 John 1:7 ), and, on the other, that ‘Jesus is the Son of God’ ( 1 John 4:15 )
Song of Solomon, Theology of - Early Christian interpreters also desexed the Song in this way, but, of course, identified the main characters with Jesus Christ and the church and/or the individual Christians. So Christians should read the Song in the light of Ephesians and rejoice in the intimate relationship that they enjoy with Jesus Christ
Redeem, Redemption - Humankind is held in the captivity of sin from which only the atoning death of Jesus Christ can liberate. When reflecting on the work of Jesus Christ, New Testament writers more frequently utilize different images (e
Melchizedek - Thereupon the writer proceeds to develop the comparison in the interest of his conception of the supreme and permanent priesthood of Jesus Christ. -The apparent object of the writer was to mark the adequate and final character of the priesthood of Jesus Christ
Mouth - The rod is also mentioned as a sword proceeding from the mouth of the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Revelation 12:15 (a) By this figure is represented the power of Satan by which he endeavors to destroy the nation of Israel, and to blot out all trace of the Lord Jesus Christ
Atonement - Is the satisfying Divine Justice by Jesus Christ giving himself a ransom for us, undergoing the penalty due to our sins, and thereby releasing us from that punishment which God might justly inflict upon us, Romans 5:11 . As a spring of love to God, and to his Son Jesus Christ
Fellow - I should not have thought it necessary to have called the reader's attention to this word, had it not been to remark to him, the great beauty of it in a double sense, when applied to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ in relation to his fellowship with his Father in the nature and essence of the GODHEAD, and in relation to his fellowship with his church in the human nature; under both which the Lord Jesus appears so lovely and so endeared to his people, as to render him most interesting indeed. How truly blessed, therefore, is the word as applied by JEHOVAH himself to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ
Access - ’ Here that revelation of God, not as universal King but as the All-Father, which came through Jesus Christ, is included in the benefit secured by Him for mankind at large, and the reconciliation of humanity at variance with itself as well as with God is brought into the circle of mediation (cf. Macgregor, Jesus Christ the Son of God, 1907, p
Prophet - Their most essential characteristic is that they were instruments of revealing God's will to man, as in other ways, so specially by predicting future events, and in particular foretelling the incarnation of the Lord Jesus Christ and the redemption effected by him. We have a series of prophecies which are so applicable to the person and earthly life of Jesus Christ as to be thereby shown to have been designed to apply to him
Access - ’ Here that revelation of God, not as universal King but as the All-Father, which came through Jesus Christ, is included in the benefit secured by Him for mankind at large, and the reconciliation of humanity at variance with itself as well as with God is brought into the circle of mediation (cf. Macgregor, Jesus Christ the Son of God, 1907, p
Priest - The implications of the word with either origin may be conveniently examined in its application in turn to Jewish officials, to Jesus Christ, to Christians generally, and to the ministry of the Church. The priesthood of Jesus Christ. -According to apostolic teaching, Jesus Christ (a) gathered to Himself all the ideas essential to the conception of a sacerdotal person or ministry; (b) particularly was the antitype, in regard alike to qualification and to function, of all the distinctive features of the Jewish institution, but stood eternally above all His predecessors, closing the line of development in Himself in such a final and complete way that no other priest is needed, and no real want of the human soul is left unmet. For Jesus Christ as Priest and High Priest the NT claims this doubly representative character. -It has been seen already that, according to early belief, all sacrificial institutions and ministries were gathered up into Jesus Christ, whose Priesthood is complete, admitting no rivalry, with no residue of opportunity or work for a successor. The nearest is probably Romans 15:16 RVm_: ‘a minister of Jesus Christ unto the Gentiles, ministering in sacrifice the gospel of God. There is no such parallel, as far as our period is concerned; for the line of typological development from the OT conception, as we have seen, runs up directly to Jesus Christ and terminates in Him, while the circle of analogy encompasses all the faithful, investing them with common privileges and the same obligations, and recognizing no distinction between the classes of clergy and of laity
Ebionism And Ebionites - Hence such Ebionites tended to exalt the Old at the expense of the New to magnify Moses and the Prophets and to allow Jesus Christ to be "nothing more than a Solomon or a Jonas" (Tertull. The Ebionites divided the life of Jesus Christ into two parts—one preceding the other following His Baptism. Peter James and John; they repudiated his Apostolical authority because (as they affirmed) he had not been "called of Jesus Christ Himself," nor trained in the Church of Jerusalem. was omitted, the supernatural character of the narrative being contradictory to their views about the person of Jesus Christ. Circumcision was sacred to them from the practice of the patriarchs and of Jesus Christ; and they declined all fellowship with the uncircumcised but repudiated the sacrifices of the altar and the reverence of the Jew for the Temple. These works are the production of the Essene Ebionites; and where they speak of Jesus Christ and His Apostles, His sayings and their lives, they do so, not in the words of the canonical Gospels and Epistles, but with additions or omissions, and a colouring which transforms (e
Adam - Such is the view of the apostle Paul; who everywhere contrasts the death introduced into the world through Adam, with the life which is procured for our race through Jesus Christ, Romans 5:1-21
Darkness - It is only through the light of God in Jesus Christ that darkness can be dispelled
Confidence - ...
Jesus Christ is alive for Christians and he will return to claim his own, both those who have died and those who are still living (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 )! In this confidence the early Christians coined their Aramaic trademark prayer/greeting: Maranatha, "Come, our Lord!"/"Our Lord is coming!" (1 Corinthians 16:22 ; Revelation 22:20 )
Save, Saving - , "saved"); so Mark 5:34 ; Luke 8:48 ; James 5:15 ; (b) of the spiritual and eternal salvation granted immediately by God to those who believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, e
Fratricelli - Francis was the evangelical rule observed by Jesus Christ and his apostles
Jude, the Book of - ...
He tells the believers to:...
(1) pray in the Spirit (2) keep themselves in the love of God (3) await the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ
Lord's Day - 98), writes: "on Sunday we hold our joint meeting, for the first day is that on which God, having removed darkness, made the world, and Jesus Christ our Saviour rose from the dead
Sheol - This confidence grew into bold assurance through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ
Pilate, Pontius - (pi' luhte, pahn' shuhss) Roman governor of Judea remembered in history as a notorious anti-Semite and in Christian creeds as the magistrate under whom Jesus Christ “suffered” (1 Timothy 6:13 )
Anthropomorphism - Later, this agreement is transformed into a new covenant through Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:26-29 )
Envy - Nevertheless, in the providence and foreordination of God, what the wicked intended for evil was destined to be the instrument of God's redemption of his elect through the shed blood of Jesus Christ
Mary - She was betrothed to Joseph of Nazareth; but before her marriage she became with child by the Holy Ghost, and became the mother of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world
Kenosis - The best example of selfless love and humility of which Paul was aware was the example of Jesus Christ
Judas - Judas), where he styles himself ‘the servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James’ ( Judges 1:1 ), and, like James, exhibits a stern zeal for morality
Grief, Grieving - ...
The punitive and salvific aspects of God's grief coalesced in the person and work of Jesus Christ
Manna - Arnold...
See also Jesus Christ ; John, Theology of ...
Bibliography
Peace: of a Believer - And even thus, come night1, come day, come sickness, come health, come what will, the peace of God which passeth all understanding will keep the Christian's heart and mind, through Jesus Christ
Joseph - The son of Heli and reputed father of Jesus Christ
Scriptures - Doth the Old Testament shadow forth by type and figure the person work, character, and relation of the Lord Jesus Christ? And what is the New Testament record but the sum and substance of the same? Doth the Old Testament relate the prophecies, hold forth the promises, and insist upon the doctrines, which were to be revealed openly, and completed in the person of Jesus? And is not Jesus, in the testimony given of him in the New Testament, the spirit of prophecy, the yea and amen of all the promises, and the pardon and remission of sins, the glorious doctrine in his blood and righteousness fully proclaimed and confirmed to his church and people? In short, the former prefigured, and the latter realized, the immense event of salvation, and all in Christ
Thigh - And if this should have been the allusion, what a blessed testimony doth it hold forth of the patriarch's esteem of the salvation by Jesus Christ, and of their faith and assurance concerning it! And why may we not suppose that that early song of the royal nuptial feast of Christ with his church, which was sung by the psalmist a thousand years before Christ's incarnation, had an eye to the same, when Jesus was called upon to gird himself with his sword upon his thigh? (Psalms 65:3) We lose numberless beauties of the holy Scriptures, in our ignorance of the customs and manners of the East
Saints - If this be true, let the reader contemplate, if he can, the personal glory of the Lord Jesus Christ in this holiness of his nature, and his redeemed in him, Such honour have all his saints! And when he hath duly pondered this most blessed of all subjects, let him add this to it, namely, that it is an holiness that never can be lost, sullied, or lessened
Linen - Have we not reason therefore to believe, that somewhat of an higher nature is implied than the mere dress of the body? May it not be intended as figurative respecting the covering, of the soul? Certain it is, that under the law almost every thing became a shadowy representation of the gospel; and not only sacrifices and washings, but numberless other appointments preached the Lord Jesus Christ
Temple - ...
This second temple continued until the manifestation of the Lord Jesus Christ in substance of our flesh, thereby confirming and fulfilling the prophecy of Haggai 2:9 "The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the Lord of hosts
Book (2) - In Matthew 1:1 ‘The book of the generation of Jesus Christ’ means simply the record of, or writing about, the genealogy of Jesus
Vine - ...
Revelation 14:18 (a) This vine refers to the people of the earth of every kindred and nation who are enemies of GOD, enemies of Israel, and reject the authority of Jesus Christ
Dominion - 395) combines (b) and (c) above: ‘the railing at dignities, though its first exhibition might be made against the Apostles and those set in authority in the Church, yet went further and resulted in the denial of our only Master, God Himself, whose dominion these sinners were disregarding, and our Lord Jesus Christ, whose glory these men speak evil of or rail at
Antichrist - In 2 John 1:7 , the antichrists are identified as deceivers who teach that Jesus Christ did not come in the flesh
Moloch - Oh, how blessed is it to discover, from the relation of such things, the preciousness of that one sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, whereby "he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified
Flies - Oh, what unspeakable mercy is it to be free from all dunghill deities and superstitious foolishness, in the knowledge of the true God and our Saviour Jesus Christ
Hand - But what I would yet more particularly remark on this subject, is the sacredness of the action in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ
Covenant - For so the apostle was commissioned by the Holy Ghost, to inform the church concerning that eternal life which was given us, he saith, in Christ Jesus, "before the world began?" (Titus 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:9) So that this everlasting covenant becomes the bottom and foundation in JEHOVAH'S appointment, and security of all grace and mercy for the church here, and of all glory and happiness hereafter, through the alone person, work, blood-shedding, and obedience of the Lord Jesus Christ
Jansenists - That whoever affirms that Jesus Christ made expiation, by his sufferings and death, for the sins of all mankind, is a Semi-Pelagian
Claudius - ...
While the Apostle was thus detained, Felix, with his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess, sent for him, and desired him to explain the religion of Jesus Christ
Crown - ...
Pilate's guard platted a crown of thorns, and placed it on the head of Jesus Christ, Matthew 27:29 , with an intention to insult him, under the character of the king of the Jews
Mount Zion - )...
Pause over the solemn and most interesting question? Souls that are come, know their privilege, and are conscious of their high calling; and having found peace in the blood of the cross, have constant access to a mercy-seat, and enjoy the sweet Bethel visits, of daily communion with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ
Outcasts - " So that it should seem, that there is a peculiar meaning in the term outcasts, as if the outcasts of other nations had a reference to that part of the Gentile church which is to be brought into one fold, under one shepherd, Jesus Christ the Lord
Fish - It was formed from the initial letters of the Greek words, ‘Ιησους , Ξριστος , Θεου Υ ιος , Σωτηρ , "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, our Saviour
Jesus - ", Stalker's Life of Jesus Christ, p
Acts of the Apostles - " The personal presence of the Lord Jesus Christ with his church adding to its numbers, calling Paul, speaking with him, and also of the Holy Ghost directing the church, are especially noticeable in the Acts of the Apostles
Alexandria - In Alexandria originated the Arian heresy denying that Jesus Christ was divine, and there Athanasius, the "father of orthodoxy," firmly opposed the false and defended the true doctrine of the deity of our Lord
Soul of the Church - The encyclical Satis Cognitum of Pope Leo XIII, after having shown how the Church is at one and the same time visible and spiritual, teaches that the Body of Jesus Christ, which is the visible Church, is a body living and animated
Peace - 10, also 2 Corinthians 5:18-21 , Ephesians 2:13-18 , Colossians 1:20 ; see article on Justification): ‘peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ’ is the state and the experience of those who have been ‘reconciled’ to the Father through the sacrifice offered by the Son of His love, whose ‘trespasses’ are ‘forgiven’ and in whose heart ‘the spirit of adoption’ dwells
Preface - The space has been so carefully husbanded that it has been found possible to allow 24 pages to the article on Israel; 23 pages to the article on Jesus Christ; and half that number to a further article on the Person of Christ
Galatians, Letter to the - In it Paul pointed out that there was only one gospel, the one he preached, and that the law of Moses has no authority over believers in Jesus Christ
Jovinianus, Heretic - 42), that Jovinian maintained tenets as to the Virgin Mary's virginity in giving birth to Jesus Christ in opposition to the orthodox view
Humility - ...
Jesus Christ is the great example of humility
Grace - ...
Paul’s practice was to begin and end his letters by speaking of the grace of God, or the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ
Prince - ...
The title ‘Prince’ (ἄρχων) is applied to Jesus Christ in Revelation 1:5, ‘firstbegotten (RV_ ‘firstborn’) of the dead, and the prince (RV_ ‘ruler’) of the kings of the earth’ (cf
John, the Letters of - Whereas the Gospel was written “that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God” (John 20:31 ), 1John insists that one must confess that Jesus Christ has come in flesh (1 John 4:2 ). 2 John 1:7 likewise identifies as deceivers those who do not confess “Jesus Christ come [1] in flesh. His real concern, however, was to warn “the elect lady” (2 John 1:1 ) about those “who confess not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh” (2 John 1:7 )
Unbelief - Unhappily, it was only too clear that the Jews not only had brought Jesus Christ to the Cross through their representative leaders, but also after Pentecost had refused to listen to the gospel preached by the apostles, and had become the main opponents of the Christian faith. As unbelief sprang from moral causes it could be removed best by the declaration of the gospel wherein Jesus Christ was made known as meeting the moral and spiritual needs of life. They accepted the common faith in the personal resurrection of Jesus Christ, but they seemed to have assumed that this was a unique occurrence, and to have rejected the general truth of the recovery and resurrection of the body as sharing in the Christian salvation
Priest - Strictly and properly speaking, there is but one priest of JEHOVAH, and he the great High Priest of his church, the Lord Jesus Christ. These holy men of old offered all their offerings by faith; faith in whom but the Lord Jesus Christ, that Lamb of God slain before the foundation of the world? (Revelation 13:8) Hence, therefore, every priest typified and represented Christ. Every lamb slain, every sacrifice offered, every propitiation set forth, all shadowed forth the person, work, blood-shedding, and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ
Mary - It is thought she was the sister of the Virgin Mary, and that she was the mother of James the less, of Joses, of Simon, and of Judas, who in the Gospel are named the brethren of Jesus Christ, Matthew 13:55 ; Matthew 27:56 ; Mark 6:3 ; that is, his cousin-germans. She was an early believer in Jesus Christ, and attended him on his journeys, to minister to him. She lived with her brother and her sister Martha at Bethany; and Jesus Christ, having a particular affection for this family, often retired to their house with his disciples
Bible, Theology of - For instance, the practice of sacrifice which began as early as Genesis 4:4 (apparently without any divine command) and became an officially commanded practice of the Old Testament under the law given through Moses, was carried through to the climactic once-for-all sacrifice of Jesus Christ as the Lamb of God slain from the foundation of the world. Except for Jesus Christ, each person who has lived since Adam and Eve has followed in their footsteps, sinning against God. The whole Bible is the unfolding story of how God has met each of these needs through the salvation that unfolded finally in its completed form through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. ...
Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is the eternal Son of God who took on human life, living as one Person who was both God and human in a single human life on this earth
Eternal Life (2) - Compare also the suggestive language of Romans 5:17 ‘shall reign in life through Jesus Christ. ...
In John 17:3 we read what has to some extent the manner of a definition: ‘This is life eternal, that (ἵνα) they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, even Jesus Christ. He also has a wonderful appreciation of the heavenly illumination which ‘shined in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ’ (2 Corinthians 4:6). It is a present possession, a glorious reality, a steadfastness of conscious living fellowship with the Eternal Father, and with His Son, Jesus Christ. Each individual life, whose ‘fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ’ (1 John 1:3), is conceived as continuing eternally in that heavenly fellowship
Paul the Aged - "And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house in Rome, and received all that came in unto him, preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence, no man forbidding him. "I, Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ. For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto His glorious body, according to the working whereby He is able even to subdue all things unto Himself. ...
And every day and every night over your Paul and your Bunyan and your Rutherford and your Baxter, and suchlike, practise, as they all did, your imagination and your heart upon Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ either is, or He is not
Eutyches And Eutychianism - The synod professed its belief in "Jesus Christ the only-begotten Son of God, perfect God and perfect man, of a reasonable soul and body subsisting, begotten before all ages, without beginning; of the Father according to the Godhead, but in these last days for our sake and for our salvation born of the Virgin Mary, according to the manhood; consubstantial with the Father, as touching His Godhead, and consubstantial with the mother, as touching His manhood. " "We confess that Jesus Christ, after the Incarnation, was of two natures in one Hypostasis and in one Person; one Christ, one Son, one Lord. that the Logos had brought His body from heaven—and next asserted his inability to find in the writings of the Fathers their belief that our Lord Jesus Christ subsisted of two Persons united in one Hypostasis; adding, that even if he did find such a statement, he must decline to accept it, as not being in Holy Scripture. Cyril's letter to John of Antioch was again read, in which occurred the following: "We confess our Lord Jesus Christ . Therefore we, lamenting his perverseness, have decreed, through our Lord Jesus Christ, blasphemed by him, that he be excluded from all priestly functions, from our communion, and from his primacy in his monastery. Angry words were again interchanged when the reader continued: "I (Eutyches) anathematize all who say that the flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ came down from heaven. We then," was the conclusion, "following the holy Fathers, all with one consent teach men to confess one and the same Son, one Lord Jesus Christ; the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable soul and body; consubstantial with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the manhood; in all things like unto us without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably (ἐν δύο φύσεσιν ἀσυγχύτως, ἀτρέπτως, ἀδιαιρέτως, ἀχωρίστως γνωριζόμενον ), the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one person and one hypostasis, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the prophets from the beginning have declared concerning Him, and the Lord Jesus Christ Himself has taught us, and the creed of the holy Fathers has delivered to us
Salvation Save Saviour - To believe, to hear the word, to eat the flesh of the Son of Man, to drink His blood, to be growing in the knowledge of God and of Jesus Christ, are all acts and conditions possible and realized in the present life. Peter’s speech in Acts 4:12 it is said that ‘in none other’ than ‘Jesus Christ of Nazareth’ ‘is there salvation; for neither is there any other name under heaven that is given among men whereby we must be saved. Peter’s speech at the Council of Jerusalem in Acts 15:11 belief is expressed ‘that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we [2] shall be saved, even as they [3]. ’ ‘Our Lord Jesus Christ gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil world’ (Galatians 1:4<
Last Day(s), Latter Days, Last Times - For them the supremely great event had taken place in the coming of Jesus Christ into the world to effect the salvation of all believers. " The days in which it is possible for people to put their trust in Jesus Christ and to enter into the fullness of the salvation he has brought about differ from all the days that went before. ...
The New Testament makes it clear that the coming of Jesus Christ was the critical event. ...
For the New Testament writers the coming of Jesus Christ into the world to bring about our salvation was the decisive happening in the entire history of the world
the Merchant Man Who Sold All That he Had And Bought the Pearl of Great Price - All good books are really good books to us, just in the measure that they speak to us about Jesus Christ. All our doctrines also of wh