What does Jahweh mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jahweh
Modern pronunciation of the name of God, Jehovah.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Jahweh
See Yahweh.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Jahweh
JAHWEH . See God, § 2 ( f ).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Angel of the Lord (Jahweh)
ANGEL OF THE LORD (JAHWEH) , called also the ‘Angel of God.’ He occupies a special and unique position; he is not merely one among the angels, albeit a great one, but one sui generis , in a special way Jahweh’s representative among men. He may be regarded as in some sense the guardian-angel of the nation of Israel, in that he appears to be the nation’s representative at important crises ( e.g. Genesis 22:11 ; Genesis 22:15 ff., Exodus 3:2 ; Exodus 14:19 ; Exodus 23:23 , Numbers 22:22 , Jdg 6:11 , 2 Kings 1:3 , Zechariah 1:9 ).
He appears in human form, and most of the characteristics of angels generally are his. The main difficulty with regard to him is that while in some passages he is identified with Jahweh Himself ( e.g. Genesis 48:15-16 , Judges 6:11-24 ), in others there is a distinct differentiation, ( e.g. Genesis 16:11 ; Genesis 21:17 ; Genesis 24:7 ; in this last he is spoken of as having been sent from Jahweh); this differentiation becomes more and more marked in the later books ( e.g. Zechariah 1:12 ). The contradiction here presented can be adequately explained only on the supposition that the evolution of thought on the subject must have run somewhat on the following lines. From the earliest angelology of the Hebrews, itself the offspring of still earlier Animistic conceptions (see Angel), there emerged the figure of Jahweh; originally, i.e. long before the time of Moses, Jahweh must, in the popular mind, have been regarded as belonging to the angelic host, and by degrees He assumed a more and more exalted position; as subjective revelation increased, the more fully did the personality of Jahweh become realized, and His superiority to the angels recognized, though in the process it was inevitable that the differentiation should not always be complete. When ultimately, under the Mosaic dispensation, the holy character and the real nature of Jahweh began to be apprehended, the belief that He personally appeared among men necessarily became more and more untenable; hence, while Jahweh Himself receded further from men, His messenger, or angel, appeared in His stead, and became His representative in all His dealings with men. What must have been such a revolution in the time-honoured faith would meet with many retrograde movements before it finally triumphed, as is shown by such passages as Judges 6:19 ff. Some such process must be predicated in order to understand the otherwise unaccountable contradiction referred to above.
The angel of the Lord spoken of in the NT ( e.g. Matthew 1:20 , Luke 2:9 ) must not be confounded with the OT ‘Angel of Jahweh’; an OT parallel is to be found rather in such a passage as Zechariah 3:6-7 , where the angel is one of a kind, not the only one of his kind.
W. O. E. Oesterley.

Sentence search

Jahweh - Jahweh
Jehovah-Tsidkenu - JEHOVAH-TSIDKENU (‘J″ [1] is our righteousness,’ or ‘J″ Hasadiah - HASADIAH (‘J″ Haggiah - HAGGIAH (‘feast of J″ Bealiah - BEALIAH (‘J″ Asadias - ASADIAS (‘J″ Angel of the Lord (Jahweh) - ANGEL OF THE LORD (JAHWEH) , called also the ‘Angel of God. ’ He occupies a special and unique position; he is not merely one among the angels, albeit a great one, but one sui generis , in a special way Jahweh’s representative among men. The main difficulty with regard to him is that while in some passages he is identified with Jahweh Himself ( e. Genesis 16:11 ; Genesis 21:17 ; Genesis 24:7 ; in this last he is spoken of as having been sent from Jahweh); this differentiation becomes more and more marked in the later books ( e. From the earliest angelology of the Hebrews, itself the offspring of still earlier Animistic conceptions (see Angel), there emerged the figure of Jahweh; originally, i. long before the time of Moses, Jahweh must, in the popular mind, have been regarded as belonging to the angelic host, and by degrees He assumed a more and more exalted position; as subjective revelation increased, the more fully did the personality of Jahweh become realized, and His superiority to the angels recognized, though in the process it was inevitable that the differentiation should not always be complete. When ultimately, under the Mosaic dispensation, the holy character and the real nature of Jahweh began to be apprehended, the belief that He personally appeared among men necessarily became more and more untenable; hence, while Jahweh Himself receded further from men, His messenger, or angel, appeared in His stead, and became His representative in all His dealings with men. Matthew 1:20 , Luke 2:9 ) must not be confounded with the OT ‘Angel of Jahweh’; an OT parallel is to be found rather in such a passage as Zechariah 3:6-7 , where the angel is one of a kind, not the only one of his kind
Ishi (1) - The name which Hosea (2:16) recommends Israel to apply to J″ Jedidiah - JEDIDIAH (‘beloved of J″ Imla - The father of Micaiah, a prophet of J″ Jerubbaal - It is = ‘Baal strives,’ Baal being a name for J″ Dodavahu - DODAVAHU (‘beloved of J″ Anaiah - ANAIAH (‘J″ Habaiah - HABAIAH (‘J″ Enosh - In the days of Enosh men began to ‘call with the name of J″ Baal (1) - Thus Saul, a zealous worshipper of Jahweh, names (1 Chronicles 8:33 ) one of his sons Eshbaal , and one of David’s heroes is called ( 1 Chronicles 12:5 ) Bealiah (‘J″ Bithiah - worshipper, ‘of J″ Vows - Vows were made from a variety of motives: Jacob vows a vow according to which he will please Jahweh by becoming His worshipper, on condition that Jahweh will keep him safe during his journey and give him food and raiment ( Genesis 28:20-22 ). Jephthah vows to offer to Jahweh the first person he sees coming out of his house on his return from battle, provided he is victorious ( Judges 11:30-31 ). Hannah vows that if Jahweh gives her a son, she will dedicate him to the service of God ( 1 Samuel 1:11 ). But there was another class of vows which were of a more disinterested character; the most striking here would be the Nazirite vow, according to which a man undertook to lead a strenuously austere life, which was supposed to approximate to the simple life of the patriarchs; that was done out of protest against the current mode of life, which had been largely adopted from the Canaanites; indeed, the Nazirite vow implied, and was intended to be, a life of greater loyalty to Jahweh. ...
There are two words in Hebrew for a vow though they do not necessarily correspond to the two ideas just mentioned: neder , which is a vow whereby a man dedicates something, even himself, to God; ’issar , a vow by which a man binds himself to abstain from enjoyment, or to exercise self-denial, in honour of Jahweh. ...
In making a vow in which something was promised to Jahweh, only such things could be promised as were truly the property of him who vowed; for this reason a man might not promise a firstling or the like, as that was already the property of Jahweh (cf
Er - For wickedness, the nature of which is not described, ‘J″ Meroz - A place which the angel of Jahweh bids men curse, together with its inhabitants, because they did not come to fight Jahweh’s battle against Sisera
Jehovah-Shammah - JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH (‘J″ Pekahiah - The record tells us nothing about him except that he displeased Jahweh by walking in the sins of Jeroboam i
Ichabod - The name means ‘inglorious,’ but probably should be ‘Jahweh is glory,’ from an original Jochebed
Servant of the Lord - ]'>[1] of the OT, ‘Lord’ is substituted for ‘Jahweh,’ the proper name of the God of Israel, which stands in the Hebrew text. In the first instance, the phrase ‘the servant of Jahweh’ merely defines a man as one who acknowledges Jahweh as his god; it corresponds closely to what we might rather call a worshipper of Jahweh. Naturally, therefore, it may stand in antithesis to a similar phrase in which the name of another deity takes the place of that of Jahweh. Thus the ‘servants of Jahweh’ and ‘the servants of the (Tyrian) Baal’ are contrasted in 2 Kings 10:23 , though the fact that the same word is used in both phrases is obscured by the RV [2] in Isaiah 49:5 is grammatically correct, it is not necessary; other grammatically correct translations are: ‘and now Jahweh that formed me to be his servant hath determined to bring back Jacob again to himself, and that Israel should be gathered to him,’ or ‘and now saith Jahweh that formed me from the womb to be his servant in that he brought Jacob again to him, and drew Israel unto him. But the strongest argument for the correctness of this identification is to be found in the fact that it does fuller justice to the general tenor of the passages: this is perfectly clear in Isaiah 42:1-4 ; here the Divine speech and the writer’s mind are alike filled with two subjects the Servant and the Nations of the world; the servant is to instruct the nations in the religion of Jahweh: granted that the servant is Israel, we have here a constantly recurring contrast, Israel and the nations; otherwise Israel is totally disregarded. In Isaiah 49:1-6 the servant addresses the nations of the world, and the function of the servant, which on some interpretations (see above) alone is mentioned, and on any interpretation alone receives prominence , is that of spiritually illumining the nations; in Isaiah 52:13-15 Jahweh states that, as the past humiliation of the servant by its very extent attracted far-spread attention, so his coming exaltation will impress nations and kings. certain speakers make a confession that they had misjudged the servant of Jahweh, terming him not the righteous one but a sinner, and regarding the unparalleled sufferings which they now perceive had been horne for them, as due to the fact that he was abandoned by Jahweh
Kidneys - (1) The choice portions of animals sacrificed to J″ [2] ‘formed’) by J″ [1] ( Psalms 139:13 ), and are, metaphorically, wounded by J″ Molech, Moloch - ...
Melech is a title of many Semitic deities, and in the OT is frequently applied to Jahweh. This is likewise a title of numerous Semitic divinities, and is sometimes used of Jahweh (see Baal). But does this necessarily prove that Melech was a false god? Jeremiah’s protest that Jahweh had not required these sacrifices ( Jeremiah 7:31 ; Jeremiah 19:5 ; Jeremiah 32:35 ) would seem to imply that the people did not regard this as the worship of another god. Indeed, Ezekiel goes further, and claims that Jahweh Himself gave them these ‘statutes that are not good,’ and sacrifices of the firstborn, because they had rejected purer worship ( Ezekiel 20:25 f. On the whole, the evidence seems to indicate that this cultus was due to Phœnician influence, and was introduced because of popular misunderstanding of the laws relating to the giving of the firstborn to Jahweh. The origin of such a cult, together with a possible more or less complete identification with Melkarth, would explain the constant use of the titles ‘Melech’ and ‘Baal’ rather than the name ‘Jahweh
Gideon - Apostasy from Jahweh again resulted in their being oppressed, this time by the neighbouring Bedouin tribes, the Midianites and Amalekites. A return to obedience, and recognition of Jahweh the national God, ensures His renewed protection; relief from the oppressor is brought about by some chosen instrument, of whom it is always said that Jahweh is ‘with him’; this is also the case with Gideon ( Judges 6:18 ). that it was the result of their having forsaken Jahweh and served the gods of the Amorites. Gideon is now convinced that it was the ‘Angel of the Lord’ who had been speaking to him, and at Jahweh’s † [2] command he destroys the altar of Baal in Ophrah and builds one to Jahweh, to whom he also offers sacrifice. ...
Gideon’s victory , Judges 7:23 Judges 7:23 , Judges 8:4-14 : Allegiance to Jahweh being thus publicly acknowledged, the Israelites are once more in a position to assert their political independence; so that when the Midianites again invade their land, Gideon raises an army against them, being moreover assured by the miracle of the dew on the fleece that he will be victorious. At the command of Jahweh his army is twice reduced, first to ten thousand men, and then to three hundred. At the command of Jahweh again, he goes with his servant, Purah, down to the camp of the Midianites, where he is encouraged by overhearing a Midianite recounting a dream, which is interpreted by another Midianite as foreshadowing the victory of Gideon. ...
The offer of the kingship , Judges 8:22-28 : On the Israelites offering to Gideon and his descendants the kingship, Gideon declines it on theocratic grounds, but asks instead for part of the gold from the spoil taken from the Midianites; of this he makes an image ( ephod ), which he sets up at Ophrah, and which becomes the cause of apostasy from Jahweh
Othniel - Othniel is the first mentioned among the ‘Judges’ of Israel; Cushanrishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, had oppressed the Israelites for eight years, when Jahweh ‘raised up a saviour’ in the person of Othniel, who fought against the oppressor and overcame him, thus bringing rest to the land
Massah And Meribah - ]'>[1] ) tells of a miraculous gift of water at a spot near Horeb, which was called Massah and Meribah (‘testing’ and ‘contention’) because the people tested Jahweh by doubting His providence and contended with Moses. The scene is now laid at Kadesh , which receives the name Meribah from the contention of Israel with Jahweh. Deuteronomy 33:8 regards the events at Kadesh in a peculiar light: here Jahweh proves Levi at Massah and strives with (or for) him at Meribah
Caleb - He represented the tribe of Judah, and, together with Joshua, advocated an immediate attack upon the land; the fear of the people he denounces as rebellion against Jahweh ( Numbers 14:9 ); this, however, is resented by the people, who threaten to stone both him and Joshua. As a reward for his faithfulness Caleb is specially singled out for Jahweh’s favour ( Numbers 14:24 ; Numbers 14:30 ; Numbers 14:38 , Deuteronomy 1:36 ). He is thus one of the great champions of Jahweh
Calf, Golden - A ‘feast to J″
With regard to the religious significance of this action on the part of Jeroboam, it is now admitted on all hands that the bulls are to be recognized as symbols of J″ [2] ), as revealed through the prophets who succeeded Hosea, the Deuteronomic editor of the Books of Kings repeatedly characterizes the introduction of the bull images into the cult of J″ God - ]'>[5] into Greek, Luke 1:32 ; Luke 1:35 ; Luke 1:76 ; Luke 6:35 ), and with ‘Elohim’ in Psalms 57:2 , in close connexion with ‘El’ and with ‘Shaddai’ in Numbers 24:15 , and with ‘Jahweh’ in Psalms 7:17 ; Psalms 18:13 etc. ...
( f ) Jehovah , properly Yahweh (usually written Jahweh ), perhaps a pre-historic name. ]'>[1] meant only that the patriarchs did not understand the full meaning of the name ‘Jahweh,’ although they used it. ]'>[1] is consistent in not using the name ‘Jahweh until the Exodus. , and only once (12:9) ‘Jahweh’ (Driver, p. The name ‘Jahweh’ was so sacred that it was not, in later Jewish times, pronounced at all, perhaps owing to an over-literal interpretation of the Third Commandment. In reading ‘Adonai’ was substituted for it; hence the vowels of that name were in MSS attached to the consonants of ‘Jahweh’ for a guide to the reader, and the result, when the MSS are read as written (as they were never meant by Jewish scribes to be read), is ‘Jehovah. ]'>[15] ‘the Lord’ is the usual rendering of ‘Jahweh. ...
( g ) Jah is an apocopated form of Jahweh , and appears in poetry ( e. For Jah Jahweh see Isaiah 11:2 ; Isaiah 26:4 . ...
( h ) Jahweh Tsĕbâôth (‘Sabaoth’ of Romans 9:29 and James 5:4 ), in Ev ‘Lord of hosts’ (wh. Jahweh was known as God, not only of the armies of Israel, but of all the hosts of heaven and of the forces of nature (Cheyne, Aids to Devout Study of Criticism , p. ...
We notice, lastly, that ‘Jahweh’ and ‘Elohim’ are joined together in Genesis 2:4 to Genesis 3:22 ; Genesis 9:26 , Exodus 9:30 , and elsewhere. Jahweh is identified with the Creator of the Universe (Ottley, BL p. ), was a heathen sanctuary converted to the religion of Jahweh. 201) truly remarks on the difficulty in primitive times of realizing deity apart from a local abode; later on, the Ark relieved the difficulty without representing Jahweh under any form, for His presence was attached to it (but see below, § 4 ). Traces of ‘Totemism,’ or belief in the blood relationship of a tribe and a natural object, such as an animal, treated as the protector of the tribe, have been found in the worship of Jahweh under the form of a molten bull ( 1 Kings 12:28 ; but this was doubtless derived from the Canaanites), and in the avoidance of unclean animals. Moses proclaimed Jahweh as the God of Israel, supreme among gods, alone to be worshipped by the people whom He had made His own, and with whom He had entered into covenant. But the realization of the truth that there is none other God but Jahweh came by slow degrees only; henotheism , which taught that Jahweh alone was to be worshipped by Israel, while the heathen deities were real but inferior gods, gave place only slowly to a true monotheism in the popular religion. The old name Micah (= ‘Who is like Jahweh?’, Judges 17:1 ) is one indication of this line of thought. ) Jahweh, therefore, is proclaimed as a personal God; and for this reason all the older writers freely use anthropomorphisms. The wars and victories of Israel are those of Jahweh ( Numbers 21:14 , Judges 5:23 ). Did Moses tolerate images of Jahweh? On the one hand, it seems certain that the Decalogue in some form or other comes from Moses; the conquest of Canaan is inexplicable unless Israel had some primary laws of moral conduct (Ottley, BL p. But, on the other hand, the Second Commandment need not have formed part of the original Decalogue; and there is a very general opinion that the making of images of Jahweh was thought unobjectionable up to the 8th cent. , though Kautzsch believes that images of wood and stone were preferred to metal ones because of the Canaanitish associations of the latter ( Exodus 34:17 , but see Judges 17:3 ); he thinks also that the fact of the Ark being the shrine of Jahweh and representing His presence points to its having contained an image of Jahweh (but see § 3 above), and that the ephod was originally an image of Jahweh ( Judges 8:26 f. At least the fact remains that images of Jahweh were actually used for many generations after Moses. More spiritual conceptions of God are taught; images of Jahweh are denounced; God is unrestricted in space and time ( e. The prophets, though they taught more spiritual ideas about God, still used anthropomorphisms: thus, Isaiah saw Jahweh on His throne ( Isaiah 6:1 ), though this was only in a vision. The same idea is expressed by the teaching that Jahweh rules not only His people but all nations, as in the numerous passages in Deutero-Isaiah about the Gentiles, in Jeremiah 10:7 , often in Ezekiel ( e. The earlier prophets had recognized Jahweh as Creator (though Kautzsch thinks that several passages like Amos 4:13 are later glosses); but Deutero-Isaiah emphasizes this attribute more than any of his brethren ( Isaiah 40:12 ; Isaiah 40:22 ; Isaiah 40:28 ; Isaiah 41:4 ; Isaiah 42:5 ; Isaiah 44:24 ; Isaiah 45:12 ; Isaiah 45:18 ; Isaiah 48:13 ). ]'>[6] the name ‘Man of war’ (of Jahweh) disappears; in Exodus 19:3 LXX Moses - The king of Egypt died ( Exodus 2:23 a), and at J″ [4] descended, and Moses ‘invoked the name of J″ Lord - In the Old Testament Greek version and those dependent on it, as the Vulgate in this matter, it is used in place of Jahweh (Jehovah), the proper name of God among the Israelites
Araunah - This spot was indicated by the prophet Gad as the place where an altar should he erected to J″ Rahab - After their pursuers have left, Rahab comes to them, professes her belief in Jahweh, and adjures them to spare her and her kinsfolk when the attack on Jericho is made; this they promise shall be done; and after arranging that a scarlet thread is to be hung from her window, in order to denote which house is to be spared when the sack of the city takes place, the two spies escape from her house by a rope ( Joshua 2:1-24 ). In Isaiah 30:7 the old myth that Jahweh in the beginning subdued Rahab (= Tĕhôm , the ‘Great Deep,’ the Bab. ]'>[1] Tiamat ) is employed to show that Jahweh will in like manner subdue Egypt (cf. The belief is also expressly stated that in ‘the days of old’ there was a conflict between Jahweh and Rahab, and that the latter was overcome
Asaiah - ASAIAH (‘J″ Sabaoth - ‘Lord of Hosts,’ יְהֹוָה צְבָאֹוח) is a common title for Jahweh in the prophets, with the exception of Hosea and Ezekiel. Some take the ‘Hosts’ in question as the armies of Israel which Jahweh leads on to victory (Judges 4:14), while others find an allusion to the stars, the host of heaven, or to the armies of angels (but it is contended that in the plural צְבָאוֹת is used only of earthly warriors)
Abomination - ’ In almost all cases (for exceptions see Genesis 43:32 ; Genesis 46:34 ) the reference is to objects and practices abhorrent to J″ Hosea - Then he recognized (1) that the impulse that had led him that day was from Jahweh, and (2) that the new suggestion of the potter’s wheel was a word from Jahweh. describes what we should term a presentiment; after it was realized, it was recognized to have been a word from Jahweh ( Jeremiah 32:8 ). Driven by true love in which, probably enough, Hosea at the time felt the approval, not to say the direct impulse of Jahweh, Hosea married Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim. After marriage she proved unfaithful, and Hosea heard that the woman whom he had been led by Jahweh to marry had had within her all along the tendency to unfaithfulness. She was not at the time of marriage an actual harlot, but, had Hosea only fully understood, he would have known when he married her, as these years afterwards he has come to know, that when Jahweh said, ‘Go, marry Gomer,’ He was really saying ‘Go, marry a woman who will bestow her love on others. Not only through the love of youth, but even more through the conflict and the treachery and the ill-return which his love has received, Jahweh is speaking. Then I knew that this was the word of Jahweh, and Jahweh said unto me: Even as the bride of thy youth has played the harlot, even so has My bride, Israel, played the harlot: even as thy children are children of harlotry, even so are the children of Israel children of harlotry, sons of the Baals whom they worship. At the same time, it is important not to exaggerate the difference between Amos and Hosea, of to lose sight of the fact that Hosea not less than Amos or Isaiah or Micah insisted on the worthlessness of religion or of devotion to Jahweh which was not ethical ( Jezreel , Hosea 1:4 ; Hosea 6:6 )
Ark - In ( a ) we find chiefly ‘the ark of J″ [1] ,’ doubtless the oldest name of all, and ‘the ark of God’; in ( b ) the characteristic title is ‘the ark of the covenant’ alone or with the additions ‘of J″ [1] which, as a fuller manifestation of the Deity than even the ‘angel of J″ Moloch - Moloch is spoken of in the OT as the god of the Ammonites, and is evidently the national deity, just as Chemosh is the god of Moab, and Jahweh the God of Israel, though the worship of other gods is not precluded
Eben-Ezer - Samuel s explanatory words should be read thus: ‘This is a witness that Jahweh hath helped us
Rest - It is promised to Israel in Canaan ( Exodus 33:14 , Deuteronomy 3:20 ), and Zion is the resting-place of J″ Meonenim, Oak of - There is a cognate Arabic word, however, which is used of the hum of insects and the whispering of leaves, and it is tempting, therefore, to connect me‘ônĕnîm with such a phenomenon as the ‘sound of a marching in the tops of the balsams’ of 2 Samuel 5:24 , where the rustling of the leaves is the sign of the presence of Jahweh, as the rustling of the leaves of the oaks of Dodona proclaimed the will of Zeus
Rei - REI (‘J″ Hallelujah - ‘Hallelujah,’ ‘Praise ye Jahweh,’ is used as a doxology in some OT Psalms, e
Sinai - In the Jewish tradition it was sacred to Jahweh, and was memorable as the place where God gave to Moses the ‘lively oracles’ (Acts 7:38)
Pedaiah - PEDAIAH (‘J″ Persecution - The prophets of this early age advocated the sole worship of Jahweh. Moses impressed upon Israel the two-fold truth-Jahweh is Israel’s God, and Israel is Jahweh’s people. The burden of early prophecy was ‘Israel for Jahweh’ and ‘Jahweh for Israel. They opposed the popular tendency to worship the gods, and imitate the religion, of Canaan, as it indicated disloyalty to Jahweh. They were not fully aware of any profound difference between Jahweh and other gods, except that Jahweh was the God of Israel, and, as such, interested in the welfare of Israel and entitled to their undivided homage. We have seen that Elijah, like his predecessors, advocated the sole worship of Jahweh. It was easy to persuade the people that the alliance with Tyre was not complete unless the Tyrian Baal shared with Jahweh the homage of Israel. The conflict between Elijah and Ahab was not simply whether one god or another should be worshipped-Jahweh of Israel or Melkarth of Tyre. He spoke in the name of Jahweh, and therefore in the name of righteousness. The prophet’s predecessors identified the cult of Jahweh with patriotism. Elijah identified the worship of Jahweh with social morality. The religion of Jahweh issues in social righteousness. As a worshipper of Jahweh he could only ‘do justly. ’ Jahweh’s will was everlasting right. The problem raised by the king’s seizure of Naboth’s estate was not social or economical, but religious, for it fell within the scope of the religion of Jahweh. For Jahweh requires of His worshippers that they do justly (Micah 6:8). The false prophet was concerned with the question ‘What does the king want?’ The true prophet was concerned with the question ‘What does Jahweh your God require?’ The latter was sure of his ground and of the Divine approval as the former was of his reward and of the royal favour. The prophets thus came into collision with current theology, for they declared that Jahweh was not simply the God of Israel, but the God of righteousness, and they came up against popular religion, for they identified religion with the practice of social justice. Their theology played havoc with the current belief that Jahweh was simply the God of Israel, as well as with the prevalent view that religion was ritual. If Jahweh was a moral governor, and if, further, the national life was totally at variance with the requirements of ethical religion, the expected ‘day of Jahweh’ would be darkness and not light-disaster, not deliverance (Amos 5:18). The power that worked for righteousness in national and international affairs would wreck any society which ignored or violated the fundamental principle of moral government, for the will of Jahweh must prevail. Judah had become once more the people of Jahweh; in possession of a Bible which embodied the will of God, and controlled her whole life, she stood over against the Gentile world, with its idols and superstitions. To the former Jahweh alone was God, and Israel was His servant and His missionary to the ends of the earth. No God but Jahweh-no religion but the religion of Judah: a people that held that view dwelt alone in the ancient world with its easy-going polytheism and its indolent syncretism. The cause of Judah was the cause of Jahweh. It was during the exile in Babylon that the Jew thoroughly mastered the prophetic doctrine of the uniqueness of Jahweh and of His religion
Joy - In the OT, as between J″ Jehonadab - Jehonadab was thoroughly in sympathy with the measures adopted by Jehu for the vindication of the religion of J″ Micah, Micaiah - MICAH, MICAIAH (‘Who is like Jahweh?’). Micaiah, the son of Imlah ; a prophet of Jahweh who is called by Ahab, at the request of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, to prophesy concerning the result of a projected expedition against the Syrians. Micaiah is then commanded to be imprisoned until the king returns in peace; but, undaunted, the prophet replies,’ If thou return at all in peace, Jahweh hath not spoken by me. Micaiah , one of the teachers sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the commandments of Jahweh in the cities of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 17:7 )
Uzza - Uzza’s death was attributed by the popular mind to anger on the part of Jahweh at his having presumed to handle the sacred emhlem too familiarly
Aaron's Rod - As representing his tribe, it had been deposited by Divine command before the ark along with 12 other rods representing the 12 secular tribes, in order that the will of J″ Rebecca - In the OT those preferences were regarded as purely arbitrary, Jahweh having the right to do as He pleased with any mother’s sons; but the Apostle discerns in His sovereign decrees a gracious design which embraces all mankind-‘the purpose of God working by means of election’ (ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις)
Joshua - (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, later יֵשׁוּעַ, ‘Jahweh is deliverance or salvation’)...
Joshua, the successor of Moses in the leadership of Israel, was named Ἰησοῦς in the Septuagint and NT, and therefore ‘Jesus’ in the English Authorized Version ; but the Revisers, in accordance with their rule of reproducing OT names in the Hebrew rather than the Greek form, have changed this into ‘Joshua
Deborah - The Song is divided into four distinct sections:...
Praise to Jahweh, and the terror of His approach, Judges 4:2-5 . ...
The chief importance of the Song lies in the historical data it contains, and in the light it throws on some of early Israel’s conceptions of Jahweh. ...
Of the latter, the main points are: that Jahweh has Hi a dwelling-place on the mountains in the South; that, therefore, He has not yet come to dwell among His people, though He is regarded as specifically the God of Israel; that He comes forth from His dwelling-place to lead His people to battle; and that His might and strength are so great that the very elements are shaken at His approach
Lord of Hosts - LORD OF HOSTS ( Jahweh lsbĕâ’ôth ) appears in the OT as a title of God 282 times, of which all but 36 are found in the Prophetical writings. It is possible that at one time the title suggested the idea of Jahweh as the leader of the Israelite forces . There is no doubt that in the early stages of the history of the nation the popular view of the functions of Jahweh was concentrated to a large extent on this point that He was the guider and commander of the armies in warfare; and the same idea lingered late, and lies at the bottom of the objection to the institution of the monarchy which is put in Samuel’s mouth (cf. And once more there is evidently a special connexion between the title ‘Lord of hosts’ and the Ark which is regarded as the habitation of Jahweh in His capacity as War-God (cf
Deuteronomy - 5 11 elaborate those principles concerning Jahweh and His relation to His people which give a peculiar character to the Hebrew polity; chs. Again, Josiah purified the Jahweh-worship from baser elements, destroying the Asherah ( 2 Kings 23:6 , cf. left vague: the ‘every place where Jahweh records his name’ ( Exodus 20:24 ) has become ‘the place which Jahweh shall choose to put his name there’ (Deut. insists throughout on one sanctuary, at which legitimate worship can be offered to Jahweh. Elijah, far from condemning the high places, is indignant at the sacrilege which has thrown down the altars of Jahweh (1 Kings 19:10 ). When he leaves the polluted land to seek Jahweh, he makes his way not to Jerusalem, but to Horeb (contrast Isaiah 2:2 f. , again, forbids the erection of pillars beside Jahweh’s altars ( Deuteronomy 13:1-18 f. ); it is difficult to understand how Isaiah ( Isaiah 19:19 ) could have associated a pillar with Jahweh-worship, had this law been accepted in his day. The deliverance of Jerusalem from Sennacherib threw a glory round the sanctuary of which Jahweh had so signally vindicated the inviolability. ( a ) The fundamental principle of the book is the unity of Jahweh , who is God of the whole earth ( Deuteronomy 10:14 ), and who is more than the God of Israel, since He has relations to other nations apart from their relations to Israel ( Deuteronomy 9:5 , Deuteronomy 12:31 )
Marks - This is an instance (among many) of the taking-over of a preexisting rite, and adapting it to Jahweh-worship; whatever it may have meant in its origin and opinions differ very widely on this point it became among the Israelites the mark par excellence of a Jahweh-worshipper (cf. (2) There is the analogy of circumcision; just as among the Israelites this was the distinguishing mark of the people of Jahweh, so those who, like the prophets, were more especially His close followers also had a special mark, a distinctive sign, which differentiated them from other men. When one remembers how rife anthropomorphisms were among the Israelites, it is perhaps not fanciful to see here an analogy: just as the owners of herds marked their own property, so Jahweh marked His own people; and as the prophets were differentiated from the ordinary people, so they would have their special mark. Marks connected with Jahweh-worship . There can be little doubt that originally the signs on the hand and the memorial between the eyes ( Exodus 13:9 ; Exodus 13:16 ) were marks cut into hand and forehead ; this custom was taken over by the Israelites from non-Jahweh-worshipping ancestors, and was regarded as effectual against demoniacal onslaughts; hence in later days the use and name of ‘phylacteries,’ which took the place of the actual cuttings in hand and forehead ( Deuteronomy 6:8 ; Deuteronomy 11:18 etc
Jashar, Book of - In the OT there are two quotations from this book ( a ) Joshua 10:12-13 ; the original form must have been a poetical description of the battle of Gibeon, in which would have been included the old-world account of Jahweh casting down great stones from heaven upon Israel’s enemies
Bezalel - ]'>[1] ’s representation, Bezalel was expressly called by J″ Kir - In 9:7 he declares that Jahweh brought them from Kir
Achan - It is brought home to Joshua ( Joshua 7:8-12 ) that the defeat at Ai was due to the fact of Jahweh’s covenant having been transgressed. devoted to Jahweh, and was therefore unlawful for man to touch
Jethro - ), heard with wonder and delight of the doings of Jahweh on behalf of Israel ( Exodus 18:9 ff
Baalzebub (Beelzebub) - On the other hand, if the NT spelling, ‘Baal of the mansion (temple),’ is to be preferred, it would seem to indicate that the OT form is a deliberate perversion originating with some pious scribe, who was perhaps offended at such a title being given to any other than Jahweh
Ban - In Hebrew the verbal root acquired the more specialized meaning of devoting to J″ Sanctification, Sanctify - With this broad signification it is applicable to whatever is devoted to the public service of J″ [8] ), even a ‘war’ is ‘sanctified’ and the warriors are J″ [7] ’s ‘sanctified ones,’ when it is put under J″ [7] , which hallow you ’ ( Leviticus 22:32 ); ‘to sanctify’ J″ Zabad - ’ The fuller form is Zabdiel or Zebadiah (‘my gift is J″ Samuel - That he played a highly important rôle, religious and political, as representative of Jahweh and as king-maker, at a turning-point in Hebrew history is a fact which criticism leaves unshaken
Tithes - ...
Among the Israelites this ancient custom was taken advantage of by the Levitical priesthood, who, as those employed in the sanctuary of Jahweh, claimed for themselves, on behalf of Him, a tithe of all. According to Numbers 18:21-24 the Levites were to receive this in lieu of the inheritance of land which fell to all the other tribes; but they received the tithe on behalf of Jahweh; stress is laid on this point in Numbers 18:24 : ‘For the tithe of the children of Israel, which they offer as an heave-offering unto the Lord, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance’; the ‘heaving’ of an offering towards the altar was the substitute for the actual consuming of it upon the altar
Mercy, Merciful - This attribute of J″ [5] , His gracious disposition towards His chosen regarded in their dependence and necessities, His readiness to help, bless, relieve, forgive them J″ Exodus - , Exodus 2:23-25 ), and describes the call of Moses, which takes place in Egypt, the revelation of the name Jahweh , and the appointment of Aaron ( Exodus 12:21-2755 to Exodus 7:13 ). ) is represented as deliberately chosen in order that Israel and Egypt may witness Jahweh’s power over Pharaoh ( Exodus 12:37 , Exodus 12:29-346 , Exodus 14:1-4 ). ...
On the arrival at Sinai, Jahweh’s glory appears in a fiery cloud on the mountain. As no priests have been consecrated, and the people must not draw near, Moses ascends alone to receive the tables of the testimony (Exodus 24:15-18 a) written by Jahweh on both sides. He remains (probably for 40 days) to receive plans for a sanctuary, with Jahweh’s promise to meet with Israel (in the Tent of Meeting) and to dwell with Israel (in the Tabernacle) ( Exodus 25:1 to Exodus 31:18 a, Exodus 32:15 ). It is dominated by two leading interests: (1) to insist in its own way that everything which makes Israel a nation is due to Jahweh, so that the religion and the history are interwoven; (2) to give a history of the origins, especially of the ecclesiastical institutions, of Israel. For (1) with the revelation of the name of Jahweh, one of our criteria, the avoidance of this name by E Joel, Book of - The Book of Joel clearly falls into two parts: (1) a call to repentance in view of present judgment and the approaching Day of Jahweh, with a prayer for deliverance ( Joel 1:1 to Joel 2:17 ); (2) the Divine answer promising relief, and after that spiritual blessing, judgment on the Gentile world, and material prosperity for Judah and Jerusalem ( Joel 2:18-32 ; Joel 3:1-21 ). This fearful calamity, which is distinctly represented as present (‘before our eyes’ Joel 1:16 ), heralds ‘the great and very terrible day of Jahweh’ ( Joel 2:11 ), which will be ushered in by yet more fearful distress of the same kind ( Joel 2:1-11 ). Jahweh’s people have turned away from Him (implied in Joel 2:12 ). This Divine pity, proceeds the prophet, speaking in Jahweh’s name, will express itself in the removal of the locusts ( Joel 2:20 ), and in the cessation of the drought, which will restore to the land its normal fertility, and so replace famine by plenty ( Joel 2:22-26 ). But higher blessings yet are in store for the people of Jahweh. And when the Day of Jahweh comes in all its terror, it will be terrible only to the Gentile world which has oppressed Israel The gathered hosts of the former, among whom Phœnicians and Philistines are singled out for special condemnation ( Joel 3:4-8 ), shall be destroyed by Jahweh and His angels in the Valley of Jehoshaphat ( Joel 3:11 b f. ]), and then Jerusalem shall be a holy city, no longer haunted by unclean aliens ( Joel 3:17 ), and Judah, unlike Egypt and Edom, will be a happy nation dwelling in a happy because well-watered land, and Jahweh will ever abide in its midst ( Joel 3:18-21 ). ( b ) The thought of ‘the day of Jahweh’ as a day of terror is common to both ( Joel 1:15 and Joel 2:31 ). (6) The history of Judah and Jerusalem includes a national catastrophe when the people of Jahweh were scattered among the nations and the land of Jahweh was divided amongst new settlers ( Joel 3:2 )
Angel - It must therefore not cause surprise if we find that in its earlier stages the differentiation between Jahweh and angels should be one of degree rather than of kind (see Angel of the Lord). in Genesis 18:1-33 ; here Jahweh is one of three who are represented as companions, Jahweh taking the leading position, though equal honour is shown to all; that the two men with Jahweh are angels is directly asserted in Genesis 19:1 , where we are told that they went to Sodom, after it had been said in Genesis 18:33 that Jahweh ‘went his way. ’ Moreover, Jahweh’s original identity with an angel, according to the early Hebrew conception, is distinctly seen by comparing, for example, such a passage as Exodus 3:2 with Exodus 3:4 ; in the former it is the ‘angel of the Lord’ who appears in the burning bush, in the latter it is God; there is, furthermore, direct identification in Genesis 16:10 ; Genesis 16:13 ; Genesis 21:17 ff. ]'>[2] , the earlier document, represents Jahweh in a less exalted form, who Himself comes down to earth, and personally carries out His purposes; by degrees, however, more exalted conceptions of Him obtain, especially as the conception of His characteristic of holiness becomes realized, so that His presence among men comes to appear incongruous and unfitting, and His activity is delegated to His messengers or angels (see Angel of the Lord). There are also the three expressions: ‘the host of Jahweh’ ( zeba’ Jahweh ), Joshua 5:14 ; ‘the host of the height’ ( zeba’ marom ), Isaiah 24:21 ; ‘the host of heaven’ ( zeba’ shamaim ), Deuteronomy 17:3 (see also Cherubim, Seraphim). Secondly, Persian influence was of a marked character in post-exilic times; the Zoroastrian belief that Ormuzd had a host of pure angels of light who surrounded him and fulfilled his commands, was a ready-made development of the Jewish belief, handed down from much earlier times, that angels were the messengers of Jahweh. One further important fact remains to be noted: they are almost invariably the benefactors of man, their power far transcends that of man, sometimes an angel is identified with God, yet in spite of this, with one possible exception, 2Ma 4:10-13 , no worship is ever offered to them; this is true also of the OT, excepting when an angel is identified with Jahweh; in the NT there is at least one case of the worship of an angel, Revelation 22:8-9 , cf
Most High - , Genesis 14:20 ; Genesis 14:22 , Psalms 78:35 ), o r Jahweh ( Psalms 7:17 ); or it stands by itself as a title of God ( Numbers 24:16 , Deuteronomy 32:8 , Psalms 21:8 etc. Hence the name of the God whom he worshipped ( El Elyon ), which may possibly, in the first instance, have had reference merely to the lofty situation of Jerusalem, became in later generations a mysterious and exalted title of Jahweh
War - Israel’s wars of old were ‘the wars of J″ [2] ’ ( Numbers 21:14 ), and was not Jahweh Tsĕbâ’ôth , especially ‘the God of Israel’s battle-array’ ( 1 Samuel 17:45 ). ? His presence with the host was secured by ‘the ark of J″ [2] , and to J″ Serpent, Brazen - In the absence of a direct statement we cannot say whether it was Jahweh who was worshipped under the form of the bronze serpent of 2 Kings 18:4 the Nehushtan , or piece of bronze, as it was called
Breastplate (1) - Attached to the outer side were four rows of precious stones in gold settings, twelve in all, each stone having engraved upon it the name of a tribe ‘for a memorial before J″ Shewbread - In one of the oldest historical documents preserved in the OT we find, in a passage telling of David’s flight from Saul, the first mention of an offering in the shape of ‘holy bread,’ which was presented to J″ Ishbosheth - In 1 Samuel 14:49 Ishbaal has become Ishvi , which in its turn is a corruption for Ishiah , or ‘man of Jahweh
Rechab, Rechabites - He evidently held that civilization and settled life inevitably led to apostasy from Jahweh, the ancestral Deity of his tribe. A genuine tradition is probably embodied in the Chronicler’s statement ( 1 Chronicles 2:55 ), that the clan of the Rechabites was connected with the Kenites , and this would square admirably with the view that the Jahweh-religion was communicated to Israel by Kenite influence
Queen of Heaven - In Arabia, cakes were offered to the goddess of the evening-star and to the sun-god; and the Israelites offered bread and cakes to Jahweh (see ‘Meal-offering’ and ‘Shewbread’ in art
Rimmon (1) - ...
The emblem of Rammân was the bull, and the widespread cult of the air-god may have had something to do with nationalizing the worship of Jahweh as represented by that animal
Calf - It was certainly for this reason that the bull was chosen as the symbol of Jahweh by Aaron (Acts 7:41) and Jeroboam (B
Amariah - AMARIAH (‘J″ Peace - Psalms 72:3 ; Psalms 72:7 , Isaiah 2:4 ; Isaiah 9:5-7 ; Isaiah 11:5-9 , Haggai 2:9 , Zechariah 9:10 ); and (3) it signified a sound and settled understanding between J″ Isaiah - Like Hosea, he gave to his children, Shear-jashub ( Isaiah 7:3 ) and Maher-shalai-hash-baz ( Isaiah 8:3 ), names which briefly stated characteristic elements in his teaching; his own name, though of a normal and frequent Hebrew type, also happened to have a significance (‘help of Jahweh’ or ‘Jahweh helps’) of which he could have made use; that he actually did so we may perhaps infer from Isaiah 8:18 , if we do not rather interpret that statement, so far as Isaiah himself is concerned, of such symbolic conduct as that which he pursued when he went ‘half-clad and barefoot’ (ch. This judgment of Jahweh on His people was to be executed by means of Assyria, which, since the accession of Tiglath-pileser in 745, had entered on a course of conquest, and, as early as 740, had achieved marked success in Northern Syria. Isaiah 1:8 , Isaiah 5:1-7 ) of the people to Jahweh, and in their failure to trust Him or to understand that what He required was not sacrifice, which was offered by the people in wearisome abundance, but justice and humanity (cf. But, so far as we can see, he exercised a more direct, immediate, and decisive influence, owing to the fact that over a long period of years he was able to apply this teaching to the changing political conditions, insisting, for example, at the several political crises mentioned above, that the duty of Jahweh’s people was to trust in Jahweh, and not in political ailiances, whether with Assyria, Egypt, or Ethiopia (cf
High Place, Sanctuary - It was inevitable, however, that in the circumstances heathen elements should mingle with the purer ritual of Jahweh worship
Lots - ]'>[6] Later on, kleromancy was largely and regularly employed with the sanction of Jahweh, so that, apart from all human influence, passion, bias, or trickery, He might be able to dictate His will: ‘The lot בַּחֵיק יוּטַל but the whole decision thereof comes from Jahweh’ (Proverbs 16:33). ]'>[11] Kleromancy had, of course, its largest sphere in acts directly connected with Jahweh. The decision as to which goat should be for sacrifice to Jahweh and which to Azazel was determined by lot (Leviticus 16:8-10). A war was the war primarily not of Israel but of Jahweh, and that specially if it was for the punishment of wrong-doing; hence the members of a punitive expedition were chosen by lot (Judges 20:9), hence also the spoil taken in war (Judges 5:30), whether captives (2 Samuel 8:2, Nahum 3:10, 1 Samuel 14:41-42) or sections of a conquered city (Obadiah 1:11), The services of the sanctuary were sacred; hence the priestly functions were assigned to the orders by lot (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 24:7, Luke 1:9), Shemaiah the scribe writing out the lots in the presence of a committee consisting of the king, the high priest, and other functionaries (1 Chronicles 24:6; 1 Chronicles 24:31). As the king was the official representative of Jahweh, Saul was chosen by lot (1 Samuel 10:19-21). ] As the Semites regarded the land inhabited by a nation as the possession of the god of the nation, Palestine belonged, as an allotment, to Jahweh (Deuteronomy 32:9); hence it was His right and duty to put His people into actual possession (Psalms 105:11, 1 Chronicles 16:18), which He did (Psalms 78:55; Psalms 135:12, Acts 13:19), and to divide it up by kleromancy into allotments to the various tribes (Numbers 26:55-56; Numbers 33:54; Numbers 36:2). This was done ‘before Jahweh’ (Joshua 18:6) and under the direction of a committee consisting of the high priest, the political chief, and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the tribes (Joshua 14:1-2)
Firstborn - And thus the word ‘firstborn’ could be used figuratively of Israel as the firstborn of J″ Jesus - This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua (‘salvation of Jahweh’), as we find it in the Septuagint and NT writings
Ahaz - It was perhaps at this time of need that he sacrificed his son as a burnt-offering to Jahweh
Bitterness - Moses says that the man or woman, family or tribe, that turns from Jahweh will be ‘a root that beareth gall and wormwood’ (ῥίζα ἄνω φύουσα ἐν χολῇ καὶ πικρίᾳ, Deuteronomy 29:18)
Jesus - This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua (‘salvation of Jahweh’), as we find it in the Septuagint and NT writings
Obadiah - For the meaning of the name, ‘servant of Jahweh,’ see art. Ahab’s steward, the protector of Jahweh’s prophets against Jezebel ( 1 Kings 18:3-16 )
Rephan - Stephen’s purpose, namely, to show that the foreign idolatrous planet-worship had crept in and meant apostasy from the true worship of Jahweh
Liver - Because of its sacredness the liver with its fat was not to be eaten, but was to be offered in sacrifice to J″ Gog - pictures as leading a great host of nations from the far North against the restored Israel, and as being ignominiously defeated, by J″ Jezebel - Jezebel’s evil influence in the land of Israel, especially in combating the religion of Jahweh in the Interests of Baal-worship, was exercised not only during the twenty-two years of Ahab’s reign, but also during the thirteen years of the rule of her two sons, Ahaziah and Joram; moreover, this influence extended, though in a less degree, to the Southern Kingdom of Judah, where Athaliah, the daughter of Jezebel, seems to have followed in the footsteps of her mother ( 2 Kings 8:18 )
Cuttings in the Flesh - With the growth of loftier conceptions of J″ [2] and His worship, these practices, with their animistic background and heathen associations, were seen to be unworthy of a people who owed exclusive devotion to their covenant God, a thought implied in the concluding words of Leviticus 19:28 ‘I am Jahweh. Unto the Lord,’ or, better, as one word, ‘Jahweh’s
ir-ha-Heres - 175 ( 2Ma 4:7-9 ), despairing of better times in Judah, sought refuge in Egypt with Ptolemy Philometor; and conceived the idea of building there a temple dedicated to J″ Name, Names - Turning now to the two great groups in which El or Jahweh forms part of the name, it is to be noted that the former had the first run of popularity. 163), 157 in one of the abbreviations of Jahweh Numbers, Book of - They are accepted by J″ [11] ’s challenge they burned incense on censers in front of the Tabernacle; the whole congregation were present, and the glory of J″ Uriah - He was a Hittite, but, as the name indicates, doubtless a worshipper of Jahweh ( 2 Samuel 11:1-27 ; 2 Samuel 12:9-10 ; 2 Samuel 12:15 ; 1 Kings 15:6 , Matthew 1:6 )
Jealousy - In the OT Jahweh is the husband of Israel, loving her and claiming all her love; in which sense He is a jealous God
King of Kings And Lord of Lords - It had been applied by the Jews to their God (2 Maccabees 13:4, 3 Maccabees 5:35), and is combined with the appellation ‘Lord of lords’ (bestowed on Jahweh in Deuteronomy 10:17, Psalms 136:3) to form the supreme title ‘King of kings and Lord of lords,’ with which God is invested in 1 Timothy 6:15
Lots - ]'>[6] Later on, kleromancy was largely and regularly employed with the sanction of Jahweh, so that, apart from all human influence, passion, bias, or trickery, He might be able to dictate His will: ‘The lot בַּחֵיק יוּטַל but the whole decision thereof comes from Jahweh’ (Proverbs 16:33). ]'>[11] Kleromancy had, of course, its largest sphere in acts directly connected with Jahweh. The decision as to which goat should be for sacrifice to Jahweh and which to Azazel was determined by lot (Leviticus 16:8-10). A war was the war primarily not of Israel but of Jahweh, and that specially if it was for the punishment of wrong-doing; hence the members of a punitive expedition were chosen by lot (Judges 20:9), hence also the spoil taken in war (Judges 5:30), whether captives (2 Samuel 8:2, Nahum 3:10, Joel 3:3) or sections of a conquered city (Obadiah 1:11), The services of the sanctuary were sacred; hence the priestly functions were assigned to the orders by lot (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 24:7, Luke 1:9), Shemaiah the scribe writing out the lots in the presence of a committee consisting of the king, the high priest, and other functionaries (1 Chronicles 24:6; Joshua 14:1-23). As the king was the official representative of Jahweh, Saul was chosen by lot (1 Samuel 10:19-21). ] As the Semites regarded the land inhabited by a nation as the possession of the god of the nation, Palestine belonged, as an allotment, to Jahweh (Deuteronomy 32:9); hence it was His right and duty to put His people into actual possession (Psalms 105:11, 1 Chronicles 16:18), which He did (Psalms 78:55; Psalms 135:12, Acts 13:19), and to divide it up by kleromancy into allotments to the various tribes (Numbers 26:55-56; Numbers 33:54; Numbers 36:2). This was done ‘before Jahweh’ (Joshua 18:6) and under the direction of a committee consisting of the high priest, the political chief, and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the tribes (1618649743_22)
Corner, Corner-Stone - The corrected text of Isaiah 28:16 speaks of ‘a precious foundation corner-stone,’ which is neither Zion (as usually interpreted), nor the future Messiah, but a calm trust in J″ Hananiah - HANANIAH (‘Jahweh has been gracious’)
Nations - These are contrasted with Israel ‘the people of Jahweh’ in 2 Samuel 7:22 , 1 Chronicles 17:21 etc. ...
This contrast between Israel (united or divided into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah) as Jahweh’s people, and all the rest of the human race designated ‘nations,’ runs right through the OT. But when the belief in Jahweh’s absolute and exclusive claims possessed the mind of Israel, as it began to do in the time of the earliest literary prophets (see Amos 9:1-15 ff. ...
The feeling of national exclusiveness and antipathy was intensified by the captivity in Babylon, when the prophetic and priestly instructors of the exiled Jews taught them that their calamities came upon them on account of their disloyalty to Jahweh and the ordinances of His religion, and because they compromised with idolatrous practices and heathen nations. They are ‘uncircumcised,’ ‘having sold themselves to do evil’ ( 1Ma 1:15 ); they break the Sabbath, offer no sacrifice to Jahweh, eat unclean food and such as has been offered to idols ( 2Ma 5:6 ; 2Ma 5:9 ; 2Ma 5:18 ; 2Ma 15:1 f
Rainbow - The rainbow may be J″ Zerubbabel - Zechariah 3:8-10 ) we learn that Zerubbabel was looked upon as the coming Messiah; in this night-vision it is pointed out that Joshua and his fellows are a pledge and an earnest of the near approach of the Messiah the ‘Branch,’ as he is here called; the stone which is to adorn his crown is ready, and Jahweh Himself is about to engrave thereon a fitting inscription; when the Messiah comes, God will obliterate all guilt from the people, and peace shall rest upon the land (see Branch)
Matthew (Apostle) - ’ The name ‘Matthew’ probably means ‘Gift of Jahweh’ (cf
Leaven - The further exclusion of leaven from the offerings placed upon the altar of J″ Lip - Psalms 45:2 ), once (anthropomorphically of J″ Mitre - For ornament it had ‘a plate of gold,’ on which were engraved two Hebrew words signifying ‘holiness to J″ Alliance - It is ‘the hiring of lovers’ in place of J″ Abel - of Abel’s moral character, or of the reason why his offering excelled Cain’s in the eyes of J″ Naphtali - The Blessings of Jacob ( Genesis 49:21 ) and of Moses ( Deuteronomy 33:23 , ‘Satisfied with favour, and full with the blessing of Jahweh’) dwell only upon its productivity. , whom Solomon brought from Tyre to work on the house of Jahweh, was the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali Messiah - Jahweh);...
Have made princes, but I knew them not’ (Hosea 8:4). ...
It is not surprising, amid the rapid changes of rulers and the disasters wrought by foreign invasion, that Hosea should have prophesied the discipline of exile for his faithless countrymen, and as its final issue that they should return and seek Jahweh their God and ‘David their king. be converted) to Jahweh, and Jerusalem would be preserved from the onslaughts of the Assyrian foe. On the other hand, the reign of Josiah reawakened the hopes of the faithful adherents of Jahweh, and it is significant that Messianic expectation revives in the oracles of Jeremiah. In his days Judah shall be saved and Israel dwell secure, and the name by which he shall be called is ‘Jahweh is our righteousness’ This fragment probably belongs to the earlier utterances of Jeremiah, and upon it Zechariah in the opening years of the post-exilic period bases his well-known prophecies (Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12), in which Joshua and his comrades are addressed as tokens of the coming of Jahweh’s servant ‘the branch’ (Zechariah 3:8). In the closing verses (14–20) of Zephaniah (obviously an addition belonging to the late-exilic or early post-exilic period) it is Jahweh who is Israel’s King in the midst of His people, their mighty Hero who wards off the nation’s foes (Haggai 2:15-19). In place of the national-Messianic King we have the national-prophetic ideal of the Suffering Servant of Jahweh, through whose humiliation and sorrow the sinning nation shall find peace
Judges (1) - There follows then an enumeration of the districts which the Israelites were unable to conquer; the reason for this is revealed by the messenger of Jahweh; it is because they had not obeyed the voice of Jahweh, but had made covenants with the people of the land, and had refrained from breaking down their altars. The people thereupon lift up their voices and weep (whence the name of the place, Bochim ), and sacrifice to Jahweh. The following is an outline of the contents of these chapters: ...
There is, first of all, an introduction (Judges 2:6 to Judges 3:6 ) which contains a brief but comprehensive résumé of the period about to be dealt with; as long as Joshua was alive, it says, the children of Israel remained faithful to Jahweh; but after his death, and after the generation that knew him had passed away, the people for sook Jahweh, the God of their fathers, and served Baal and Ashtaroth; the consequence was that they were oppressed by the surrounding nations. A section, which is of great interest archæologically ( Judges 11:30-40 ), tells then of a vow which Jephthah made to Jahweh, to the effect that if he returned victorious from the impending struggle with the Ammonites, he would offer up in sacrifice the first person whom he met on his return coming out of his dwelling. 13) tells of the wonderful experiences of the parents of the hero prior to his birth; how an angel foretold that he was to be born, and that he was to be a Nazirite; and how the angel ascended in a flame from the altar on which Manoah had offered a sacrifice to Jahweh; Judges 13:24-25 record his birth and hie growth to manhood, the spirit of Jahweh being upon him. ...
Judges 2:6 to Judges 3:6 , which forms the introduction to the main body of the book, is, with the exception of isolated notes such as Judges 2:9 , Judges 3:5 , of very little historical value; when, every time the people are oppressed, the calamity is stated to be due to apostasy from Jahweh, one cannot help feeling that the statement is altogether out of harmony with the spirit of the book itself; this theory is too characteristic of the ‘Deuteronomic’ spirit to be reckoned as belonging to the period of the Judges
Jonah - Book of Jonah...
(1) Analysis...
Jonah, the son of Amittai, is commanded by Jahweh to go to Nineveh and announce there impending judgment (Jonah 1:1 f. ) the fear that Jahweh will repent of His purpose, and spare the Ninevites he refuses to obey, and in order to escape from. Jahweh’s immediate jurisdiction goes down to Joppa, and books himself in a ship manned by heathen, almost certainly Phœnicians, for Tarshish , probably the Phœnician colony in the S. Jonah is swallowed by a fish appointed for the purpose by J″ Salt - The presence of salt, therefore, with every sacrifice may have come to symbolize the irrevocable character of J″ Urim And Thummim - The latter runs thus: ‘And Saul said, O J″ [6] God of Israel, why hast thou not answered thy servant this day? If the iniquity be in me or in my son Jonathan, J″ Israel, Israelite - ‘the Angel of Jahweh or of God,’ i. His presence manifesting itself in outward act (Exodus 3:2; Exodus 14:19; Exodus 22:23); ‘the Captain of Jahweh’s host,’ who is also called Jahweh (Joshua 5:14 f. —The monolatry which preceded monotheism was calculated to give birth to the idea that between Jahweh and His people there was a close and mutual agreement. But the earlier prophets, though they do not expressly mention a covenant—except Hosea (Hosea 6:7 doubtful, Hosea 8:1)—all teach the truth that Jahweh requires moral, ethical service from His people
Eunuch - Deuteronomy 23:1 excluded them from public worship, partly because self-mutilation was often performed in honour of a heathen deity, and partly because a maimed creature was judged unfit for the service of Jahweh ( Leviticus 21:20 ; Leviticus 22:24 )
Abbreviations - ...
J″ Jahweh
Israel - ]'>[4] document, which originated among the Ephraimites, is the first one that remembers that the name Jahweh was, until the Exodus, unknown to them (cf. ]'>[1] differs from the other two in holding that the worship of Jahweh was known at an earlier time. ]'>[10] , at Horeb or Sinai, Jahweh’s holy mount, Moses first learned to worship Jahweh, who, he believed, sent him to deliver from Egypt his oppressed brethren. ]'>[1] makes this escape the result of Jahweh’s control of natural means ( Exodus 14:21 ). ]'>[4] , they entered into a solemn covenant with Jahweh to serve Him as their God. After this the Rachel tribes probably allied themselves more closely to the Leah tribes, and, through the aid of Moses, gradually led them to adopt the worship of Jahweh. Religion was at this period purely an affair of ritual and material success, and since clans had escaped from Egypt through the name of Jahweh, others would more readily adopt His worship also. Because of his preeminence in the knowledge of Jahweh he acquired this paramount influence in all their counsels. This they did with the more confidence, because Jahweh, their new God, had just delivered a portion of them from Egypt in an extraordinary manner. ]'>[1] writer would see in such an event, as he did in the action of the winds upon the waters of the Red Sea, the hand of Jahweh
Eschatology (2) - —of a reign of Jahweh Himself through His law written on the hearts of His people. that the Messiah was of one metaphysical being with Jahweh. ...
(a) Who were the heirs of the Kingdom? There were people ‘just and devout’ (Luke 2:25) who ‘waited for the consolation of Israel,’ the still surviving type of Jahweh’s ‘poor ones’ who ‘cried unto him and he heard them’ (Psalms 34:6). that the Messiah would come when Jahweh’s people, the Jews, were found generally and carefully observing the Law. ) had in view mainly (we cannot say exclusively) those Israelites who had sealed their fidelity to the law of Jahweh with their blood, but it may be taken for certain that, long before the time represented by the Gospels, all idea of the blessings of the Kingdom being restricted to members of the holy nation who had suffered death for their fidelity (if such an idea was ever entertained), had completely disappeared. Historically, doubtless, the experience of suffering under the various oppressors of the nation (Assyrian, Chaldaean, Graeco-Syrian) had much to do with the development of this protest; but it is probably a mistake to suppose that it was when they were actually suffering under the yoke of the world-powers that the people of Jahweh adopted from foreign sources much or anything that bore on the problem of what lay beyond death. onwards) to place the peculiar stamp of the Jahweh faith on mythical ideas or pictures, which in some cases it had carried with it since the days of its infancy in Mesopotamia. It represented the fate of those who should still be enemies of Jahweh in that day when Jerusalem should be renewed by righteousness, and all flesh (i. Under this view of things the prevailing conception of judgment in OT times is that of a manifestation of Jahweh’s righteousness (whether it be through His ‘messenger’ [16] or through the Messianic ‘Son of David’ Day of Judgment - In the case of the Hebrews it is to be seen in the ‘Day of Jahweh,’ which formed so large and important an element of the prophetic message. In its earliest forms the expectation of this day involved simply the punishment of the enemies of Israel by Jahweh the God of the nation. As the moral content of prophetism developed, however, this punishment inflicted by Jahweh was foretold to include the punishment of the Hebrew nation. Amos and the great prophets who succeeded him warned a luxurious nation that it had grown guilty and degenerate, and would be destroyed as an indication of Jahweh’s righteousness (Amos 2:6-8; Amos 3:9-15; Amos 5:10-13; Amos 6:4-8). After Amos the Day of Jahweh never lost its religious colouring, but its use was extended until it included in its scope not only wicked Israel but a wicked world (Zephaniah 1:2-18; Zephaniah 2:4-15; Zephaniah 3:8; Zephaniah 3:14-20). Ezekiel conceived of it as a day of battle in which Jahweh would conquer Israel’s foes (Ezekiel 30:2 ff; Matthew 11:22-2313; Ezekiel 39:8 ff. Jahweh was never conceived of by the prophets in terms of natural law, but always in terms of this analogy. The Day of Judgment of Messianism is the prophet’s Day of Jahweh given new content by the appropriation of certain elements from the cosmic myths of Babylon, and new colour because of the new literary vehicle, the apocalypse. ...
Thus the Day of Judgment as a form of the Day of Jahweh became the central point in Messianic eschatology and the nomistic morality of Judaism
Job - 38 42:6) is devoted to Jahweh’s answer to Job’s complaint, calling attention to the Divine power, wisdom, and tenderness revealed in creation, in the control of natural forces and phenomena, in the life of birds and beasts, and in the working of Providence in human history, and suggesting that He who could do all this might surely he trusted to care for His servant; and Job’s penitent retraction of his ‘presumptuous utterances. Bickell, for instance, in his search after the original text, expunges not only the speeches of Elihu and the Prologue and Epilogue, but also the whole of the speeches of Jahweh, and many smaller portions. ]'>[7] ) seems to find four main elements in the book, as we have it, ‘which has grown, not been made’: (1) the Prologue and the Epilogue; (2) the dialogue; (3) the speeches of Jahweh; (4) the speeches of Elihu. 28 31, and the speeches of Jahweh; (3) the speeches of Elihu; (4) the references to the heavenly council in chs. The chief object of the poet to whom we owe the dialogues, and probably the Prologue and the Epilogue, and the speeches of Jahweh, and we may add, of the compiler or editor of the whole book, is to give a better answer to the question, ‘Why are exceptionally good men heavily afflicted?’ than that generally current in Jewish circles down to the time of Christ. The poet’s answer, as stated in the speeches of Jahweh, seems at the first reading no answer at all, but when closely examined is seen to be profoundly suggestive. Instead of reasoning with His servant, Jahweh reminds him of a few of the wonders of creation and providence, and leaves him to draw the inference. ‘The prophet Jeremiah in his persecutions, Job who is called by Jahweh “my servant Job” ( Job 42:7 ), and the suffering Servant of Jahweh in the exilic prophet are figures which seem to stand in the connexion of a definite period’ (Baudissin, Einleitung , 768), and so point at the earliest to the Exile and the decades immediately preceding it
Sabbath - The distinctive characteristics of the Hebrew Sabbath were mainly these two: it was, first, a day sacred to Jahweh, and second, a day of rest. The idea of the Sabbath as a covenant between Jahweh and Israel, which is elaborated in Ezekiel and the code called the Law of Holiness, is foreshadowed in Deuteronomy 5:15 ; and even the more imposing conception of it as a memorial of the Creation finds expression in Exodus 20:11 , which is quite possibly of older date than the Priestly account of Creation in Genesis 1:1-31 . In Ezekiel and the Law of Holiness the Sabbath (as has just been observed) is conceived as an arbitrary sign of the covenant between Jahweh and Israel, and of the individual’s fidelity to that covenant
Cup - The reference is to the wine of the thank-offerings, part of the ritual of which was the festal meal before J″ Heifer - Discarding all magical ideas, the worshipper of Jahweh thus endeavoured to change the antique ritual into an object-lesson or sacramental means of grace
Joel - He is not fascinated either by Isaiah’s visions of Israel as the light of the Gentiles, or Malachi’s of the heathen waiting upon Jahweh. Nothing less will satisfy him than the fulfilment of Moses’ wish: ‘Would to God that all Jahweh’s people were prophets
Cherubim - ...
When the later Hebrews wished to represent the presence of Jahweh among them in the Temple at Jerusalem, they adopted the cherubim as the awful symbols alike of His nearness and of His unapproachableness
Rock - Both apostles boldly apply to Christ what is spoken by the prophet of Jahweh, and they point to the prophet’s words as a prediction of their own people’s spiritual blindness and consequent failure. As Jahweh is a firm foundation to those who trust in Him, so is Jesus; but to those who disbelieve, both He and His Son may be a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence
David - David is here represented as having been designated by Jahweh as Saul’s successor; Samuel is sent to Bethlehem to anoint him; all the seven sons of Jesse pass before the prophet, but the Spirit does not move him to anoint any of them; in perplexity he asks the father if he has any more children, whereupon the youngest is produced, and Samuel anoints him. David gathers these details from different people in the camp, and, feeling sure of the help of Jahweh, determines to fight the giant. He communicates his purpose to Saul, who at first discourages him, but on seeing his firmness and confidence arms him and bids him go forth in the name of Jahweh. The first presents him as the beloved of Jahweh (cf. ), intending to build a permanent temple for it ( 2 Samuel 7:2 ), but the prophet Nathan declares to him that this is not Jahweh’s will. David’s disappointment is, however, soothed, for the prophet goes on to tell him that though he may not build this house, Jahweh will establish the house of David ( i. David then enters in before Jahweh and offers up his thanksgiving ( 2 Samuel 7:18-29 )
Shemaiah - SHEMAIAH (‘Jahweh has heard’)
Fringes - ) In the passage in Nu, it is expressly said that the object of this ordinance was to furnish the Hebrews with a visible reminder of the obligation resting upon them, as J″ Hair - In the Apocalyptic vision of Christ, His hair is said to be ‘while as white wool, as snow’ (Revelation 1:14), a detail of dignity borrowed from the OT picture of Jahweh, as ‘ancient of days’ (Daniel 7:9)
Amalek, Amalekites - The battle which ensued produced such a profound impression, that one of the few things which the Pentateuch claims that Moses wrote is the ban of Jahweh upon Amalek ( Exodus 17:14 )
Joab - JOAB (‘Jahweh is father’)
Possession - A strong belief in such a deity in some cases almost attained to, and in the case of Jahweh actually reached, monotheism, or at least what Hogarth calls ‘super-Monotheism. These were iéiÄéú, Lilith (the night-hag, Isaiah 34:13-14), a female night-demon who sucked the blood of her sleeping victims;_ äÇîÌÇùÑÀçÄéú, a demon servant of Jahweh warded off by a blood-talisman (Exodus 12:23);_ Asmedai, the Asmodeus of Tobit 3:8-17, who is called in the Aramaic and Hebrew versions of Tobit 3:8 ‘king of the Shçdîm,’ a demon borrowed from Zarathustrianism, who is identified with Ἀπολλύων (Revelation 9:11). _ The continuous and persistent efforts of the prophets to extricate Jahweh from the other gods and to exalt His power and importance inevitably diminished those of the demons; and, as His holiness and goodness became clearer, their malevolence became more marked. Jahweh Himself smites with disease: diseases of the abnormal type are arrows shot from the hand of God. _ Leprosy was clearly sent by Jahweh, and therefore His priests were the judges of the presence and of the cure of that disease, and the patient when cured had to offer sacrifice. _ At other times Jahweh employed a subsidiary spirit like the Satan (Job 2:7) or some other of his messengers,_ Saul’s case is instructive. _ These latter types of disease, differing from the other by suddenness of attack or other abnormal feature, were still, owing to ignorance of their real nature, attributed to the action of superhuman beings such as Jahweh,_ one of His messengers. Further, it explains how these wonders, while attracting the crowd, did not impress the majority of the people with the fact that He was a Divine Being, any more than the miracles of Moses led the Egyptians to think of him as a messenger from Jahweh
Reuben - She called his name Reuben: for she said, because Jahweh hath looked upon my affliction ( râ’âh be‘onyi ). ’ The names given here must be the original names, as it is improbable that the author would allow the worshippers of Jahweh to couple with the names of their cities the gods Nebo and Baal
Nazirite - But, above all, the name belongs to a class of persons devoted by a special vow to Jahweh ( Amos 2:11 f. Hence it was a point of honour with the zealots of Jahweh to turn away from it utterly
Lake of Fire - ...
(2) The conception of a fiery stream issuing from Jahweh, or from His throne; cf. This form may possibly have links of connexion with the ancient conception of Jahweh as a volcano-god
Priests And Levites - 4); the turban with the crown or plate engraved ‘Holy to Jahweh’ ( Exodus 28:36 ). ]'>[1] appears to be in direct contradiction to the oft-repeated statement that the Levites had no portion in the land because Jahweh was their portion ( Deuteronomy 10:9 , Numbers 18:20 ; Numbers 26:62 etc. ) a statement explained as meaning in practice that they were to depend for their support upon their tithes and priestly dues, which were all regarded as offerings to Jahweh ( Deuteronomy 18:2 , Numbers 18:8-32 , Leviticus 27:30 ). They were set apart by Jahweh for Himself in lieu of the firstborn of the Israelites, when He slew the firstborn of the Egyptians ( Numbers 3:12 ; Numbers 8:17 ; Numbers 8:19 ). The calves of Jeroboam were probably Canaanitish, though he probably meant them as symbols, not rivals, of Jahweh. The cult of the ‘high places’ seems gradually to have relapsed into familiar and popular types of Semitic worship; and in the books of the early prophets Amos and Hosea it is not always easy to distinguish between heathenism and a heathenish worship of Jahweh
Genesis - The clue to the analysis was obtained when (in 1753) attention was directed to the significant alternation of two names for God, Jahweh and Elohim . The attempts to determine the relation of the several components to one another proved more or less abortive, until it was finally established in 1853 that the use of Elohim is a peculiarity common to two quite dissimilar groups of passages; and that one of these has much closer affinities with the sections where Jahweh is used than with the other Elohistic sections. ]'>[2] ), characterized by the use of ‘Jahweh,’ commencing with the Creation ( Genesis 2:4 b ff
Name - ]'>[29] A great number of personal names in the OT are compounded of Jahweh, El, or Baal. חֲנַנְיָח (‘Jahweh hath been gracious’); Ματθαῖος (Matthias), Vine - In the OT both the vintage and the wheat-harvest are used as similes of the overthrow of the enemies of Jahweh, but here the wheat-harvest represents the ingathering of the faithful (see article Harvest)
Ahab - It is clear that Ahab had no idea of displacing Jahweh altogether, for he gave his children names which indicated his devotion to Him. The champion of Jahweh’s exclusive right to the worship of Israel was Elijah
Jonathan - JONATHAN (‘J″ First-Fruit - Its significance depends largely on the belief, which the Hebrews shared with many ancient nations, that first-fruits were peculiarly sacred, and on the custom which prescribed them for the services of Jahweh
Judgment Damnation - -Long before the days of the great prophets, Israel worshipped Jahweh as a God of judgment. Jahweh avenged not only insults against His own honour, but also deeds of violence and wrong (Genesis 4:11, Judges 9:56 f. ...
The prophetic conception of Divine judgment can be summed up in a few sentences, Jahweh is the World-ruler and Judge: not only Israel but all nations of the earth stand at His bar (Amos 1:2). Though individuals are occasionally spoken of as suffering for their private sins, in the main it is not with the individual but with the nation that Jahweh reckons. Good and bad alike descend to Sheol and share the same bodyless, pithless existence in separation from Jahweh (Isaiah 14:4-18, Psalms 6:5). Judgment, at least so far as Israel is concerned, never appears, except perhaps in Amos, as an end in itself and the ultimate law of Jahweh’s working. Israel has a worth in Jahweh’s eyes; He refuses to give her up; and, when His judgments have accomplished their disciplining work, salvation will surely follow (Isaiah 40:1-2). But their faith finds refuge in the conception of a great day in the near future, ‘the day of the Lord,’ in which Jahweh will interpose in a decisive way in human affairs, to overthrow His enemies and inaugurate a new and happier era
Chariot - They were doubtless dedicated originally to J″ Oaths - The use of oaths was not restricted to judicial procedure, but was also connected with a variety of everyday matters; to swear by the name of Jahweh was regarded as a sign of loyalty to Him (cf
Milk - Opinion is still divided as to whether we have here a piece of purely humanitarian some would say sentimental legislation, or the prohibition of a magical rite incompatible with the religion of J″ Crimes And Punishments - ...
The penal offences of the Pentateuch may be conveniently grouped under the three heads of crimes against J″ Manasseh - In restoring the old altars he doubtless thought he was returning to the early religion of the nation, and the Baal whom he worshipped was probably identified in the minds of the people with the national God Jahweh. The ashçrah was a well-known accompaniment of the altars of Jahweh down to the time of Hezekiah
Atonement, Day of - He next selected two he-goats and a ram for the people’s offerings, and proceeded to ‘cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for J″ Sinai - ’ Here Moses was granted the vision of the burning bush ( Exodus 3:1 ), whereby he first received a call to lead the Israelites to adopt Jahweh as their covenanted God; and here took place the tremendous theophany which is the central event of the Pentateuch, wherein the covenant was ratified
Cain - When Cain was condemned to be a fugitive and a wanderer, he feared death in revenge for his murder of Abel; but Jahweh ‘appointed a sign’ for him
Kin - Hence arose an extensive use of the verb and its participle in a figurative sense, by which J″ Ark - , was historic ally later than ‘the ark of Jahweh,’ and ‘the ark of God’ (Jewish Encyclopedia ), and earlier than ‘the ark of the testimony’ (P)
Angels (2) - We have then, doubtless, a very primitive conception of angels in the words of Micaiah to Ahab, in 1 Kings 22:19 ‘I saw Jahweh sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him, on his right hand and on his left. ’ A second and quite distinct feature of the Angelology of the OT is found in the appearances of one who is called ‘the Angel of Jahweh’—who is described as undistinguishable from man in appearance, and yet claims to speak and act in the name of Jahweh Himself (Genesis 18:2; Genesis 18:16-17; Genesis 32:24; Genesis 32:30, Judges 13:3; Judges 13:6; Judges 13:22). Luke and Acts on the one hand, and of Genesis on the other; but in the NT the angel never identifies himself with Jahweh as is done in Genesis; and there are in the NT some phases of Angelology which belong, not to ‘the early narratives,’ but to post-exilic conceptions
Grace - The OT passages coming under (2) above, employ ‘grace’ chiefly in the idiom ‘to find grace ( or favour),’ which is used indifferently of favour in the eyes of J″ Agriculture - According to the priestly theory, the land was the property of J″ Pillar - That the local sanctuaries, in most cases taken over from the Canaanites, at which the Hebrews worshipped J″ Shekinah - of J″ Unknown God - ’ Such suggestions as that there is a reference in ‘unknowable’ to Jahweh, who was spoken of by Gentile writers as ‘wholly hidden’ (Justin Martyr, Apol
Jephthah - On his way he makes a vow that if he returns from the battle victorious, he will offer up, as a thanksgiving to Jahweh, whoever comes out of his house to welcome him
Idolatry - ( a ) Thus, on Israel’s settling in Canaan, the existing shrines, whether natural (hills, trees, wells each understood to have its own tutelary baal or lord) or artificial (altars, stone pillars, wooden poles), would be quite innocently used for the worship of J″ Jachin And Boaz - Jahweh
Judah - Er and Onan were slain by Jahweh for their wickedness
Asherah - ...
When the Hebrews occupied Canaan, the local sanctuaries became seats of the worship of J″ Haggai - His name is perhaps a short form of Haggiah ( 1 Chronicles 6:30 ), as Mattenai ( Ezra 10:33 ) is of Mattaniah ( Ezra 10:26 ), and may mean ‘feast of J″ Blasphemy - ...
According to the Levitical law the punishment for blaspheming the name of Jahweh was death by stoning (Leviticus 24:10-16); but as Roman subjects the Jews had not power to put any man to death
Lord - ” The Tetragrammaton YHWH appears without its own vowels, and its exact pronunciation is debated (Jehovah, Yehovah, Jahweh, Yahweh)
Samson - ( a ) The narrative seems to belong entirely to J″ Ten Commandments - Thus in Judges 17:3 we find Micah making an image of Jahweh, without any disapproval by the writer
Deluge - ]'>[2] alone relates the sending out of the birds, and the sacrifice with which J″ Simeon - ), connects the name, as in the case of Reuben, with Jacob’s ‘hatred’ of Leah: ‘Because Jahweh hath heard ( shâma ‘) that I am hated, etc
Jairus - ‘Jahweh enlightens’), the LXX Septuagint equivalent of which is variously Ἰαείρ, Ἰαήρ, Ἰαΐρ by simple transcription
Solomon - The name given him by Nathan ( 2 Samuel 12:25 ), Jedidiah (‘beloved of J″ Poetry - ...
How shall I curse whom God hath not cursed?...
And how shall I defy whom Jahweh hath not defied? (Numbers 23:8 ). ...
Till thy people pass over, Jahweh,...
Till thy people pass over, which thou hast purchased. For when Jahweh could be addressed as the God of the hosts of Israel, poems composed to incite or reward bravery could not fail to make use of religious as well as of patriotic emotions to secure their end
Temple - The first Temple mentioned in connexion with the worship of J″
On the completion of the Temple, the sacred memorial of earlier days, the already venerable ark of J″ Kings, Books of - He walked in all the way of Asa, his father; he turned not from it, doing right in the eyes of Jahweh. He did evil in the eyes of Jahweh, and he walked in the ways of Jeroboam, and in his sin by which he made Israel sin. The Northern Kingdom had perished why? Because kings and people had from the first been disobedient to Jahweh, revolting from His legitimate sanctuary at Jerusalem, and provoking His wrath by the hulls of Bethel
Red Heifer - ]'>[2] ), in token of the dedication of the animal to J″ Truth - But not far away is the sense of ‘living reality’ in distinction from the ‘lying vanities’ in which those trust to whom Jahweh is unknown ( Psalms 31:6 ; cf
Hatred - ) attributes to Jahweh: ‘Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated
Ezra - EZRA (perhaps an abbreviation of Azariah = ‘Jahweh helps’), 1
Ananias - חָנָן ‘Jahweh is gracious’)...
A very common name in later Jewish times, corresponding to Hananiah or Hanani of the OT
Access - In the OT, Jahweh, especially in the Psalms, is often represented as the King of His people Israel (cf
Philistines - During the time of Eli these invaders were trying to make their way into the central ridge of Palestine, and in one of the battles captured the ark of Jahweh, which a pestilence (probably bubonic plague) induced them to return ( 1 Samuel 4:1-22 ; 1 Samuel 5:1-12 ; 1 Samuel 6:1-21 )
Access - In the OT, Jahweh, especially in the Psalms, is often represented as the King of His people Israel (cf
Tabernacle - ( a ) Exodus 25:1-40 ; Exodus 26:1-37 ; Exodus 27:1-21 ; Exodus 30:1-38 ; Exodus 31:1-18 , which are couched in the form of instructions from J″ Jealousy (2) - are sealed in Isaiah 9:7 by ‘The jealousy of Jahweh of hosts shall do this
Habakkuk - It may be divided into six sections, the first four containing two dialogues between Jahweh and the prophet, while the last two contain confident declarations springing from and expanding the Divine reply
Aaron - At Meribah-kadesh he, with Moses, sinned against J″ Moab, Moabites - The references to Chemosh in Mesha’s inscription are very similar to references to Jahweh in Israelitish writings of the same period
Call, Called, Calling - The Prophets, moreover, had visions of the day when the Gentiles should be called into the covenant and service of Jahweh (Isaiah 55:4-5)
Praise - It was called forth by the acts of Jahweh upon which the Israelites were especially wont to dwell in different periods
Joshua - The most likely rendering of the name is ‘Jahweh is salvation. ...
Modern criticism has insisted on connecting the book more closely with the Pentateuch, on the ground that, since all the Pentateuch documents look forward to the fulfilment of Jahweh’s promise of Palestine, Joshua, which relates the conquest, is a necessary sequel. He brought out certain features in connexion with the passage of Jordan the fear inspired in the Canaanites, the presence of the 2 1 / 2 tribes, the exaltation of Joshua by Jahweh (Joshua 2:10 f
Antichrist - And when, by a process or synthesis, the scattered elements of Messianic prophecy began to gather round the figure of a personal Messiah, a King who should represent Jahweh upon earth, it was natural that the various utterances of OT prophecy regarding an evil power which was hostile to God and His Kingdom and people should also be combined in the conception of a personal adversary. And the preoccupation of the later Judaism with utterances like these, sharpened as it was by hatred of the heathen conquerors not merely as political enemies but as enemies of Jahweh and His Kingdom, would render all the easier that process of personalizing an Antichrist over against the Christ which appears to have completed itself within the sphere of Judaism (cf
Song of Songs - ’ The opening words of the Targum are equally strong: ‘Songs and praises which Solomon the prophet, the king of Israel, spake by the Holy Spirit before Jahweh, the Lord of the whole world. ’ The theme was supposed to be the reciprocal love of Jahweh and Israel, and the story of that love in the history of the Chosen People
Number - ’...
One , suggesting the idea of uniqueness, self-sufficiency, and indivisibility, is specially emphasized in relation to the Divine Unity: ‘Jahweh our God, Jahweh is one’ ( Deuteronomy 6:4 ); and similarly Ephesians 4:5 f
Truth - Thus the Suffering Servant of Jahweh of Deutero-Isaiah led to a better understanding of the Crucified Lord (Acts 8:35), and prophets as well as private Christians learned the truth better through examination of the Scriptures (Acts 17:11)
Abraham - 21 is occupied with the narrative of Abraham’s adventures in the Negeb especially his covenant with Abimelech of Gerar which leads up to the consecration of the sanctuary of Beersheba to the worship of Jahweh. ‘He goes through life,’ it has been well said, ‘listening for the true tôrâ , which is not shut up in formal precepts, but revealed from time to time to the conscience; and this leaning upon God’s word is declared to be in Jahweh’s sight a proof of genuine righteousness
Living (2) - It is perhaps the title of God that comes nearest in significance to Jahweh, and it seems to have been used at times of great emotion as a substitute for it, particularly when the name Jahweh had disappeared from popular use (cf
Surname - ]'>[3] Similar changes are recorded of Abram, Joseph, Jacob, Solomon, Daniel, Pashhur, Tophet, and even of Jahweh Himself
Hope - words thus rendered, (1) signifying restful hope ( leaning on J″ Ecclesiastes - He never uses the personal name ‘Jahweh
Holiness Purity - Jahweh, as holy, in Hebrew thought is not originally opposed to the universe, but rather is guarded or guards Himself, on the one hand against the arrogance and presumption of man (1 Samuel 6:20) and, on the other, against the false deity of the national gods (Joshua 4:19 ff. The Hebrews, in transferring the epithet to Jahweh, also took over the ancient idea involved in it, and persisting in the NT, that any thing or person that comes into any relation with Deity is ipso facto holy
Justification (2) - We can trace the development of the idea of righteousness before God in the prophets, who from the first judge Israel by the standard of the absolutely righteous demands of Jahweh. Further, this age being also that of the development of the Law, whose authors aimed at embodying the demands of Jahweh in a practical form, we find the idea connected with the fulfilment either of the Law as a whole (Deuteronomy 6:25), or of a single commandment contained in it (Deuteronomy 24:13)
Samaria - Only the most rigid Jewish exclusiveness could refuse to the Samaritans as a whole the right to the sacred name and traditions of Israel, and so to an equal share in the worship of Jahweh
Sacrifice - The indications here of the stricter motive of expiation are very slight, although awe of the Divine Presence finds early and constant expression; and there is little doubt that Israel in all ages believed in the effectiveness of sacrifice to preserve or restore the favour of Jahweh. Eventually this type of sacrifice appears to have overshadowed the other great type represented by the peace-offerings, which assumed that the covenant relations with Jahweh were undisturbed
Salutations - 2 Kings 4:34), as Jahweh makes man a living soul by breathing (Genesis 2:7)
Lord - In time a formal designation, adonai Jahweh (“the Lord Yahweh”), developed
Creation - ), the earth as originally made by Jahweh was an arid lifeless waste, in which no plant could grow for lack of moisture, and where there was no man to till the ground (vv
Leviticus - 17 prescribes that all animals suitable for sacrifice must be slain at the sanctuary, that such animals, when sacrificed, must be offered to Jahweh alone, that blood and the flesh of carcases must not be eaten
Hosanna - ): ânnâ Jahweh hôshî‘âh-nnâ (‘I beseech thee, O Lord, save now’)
Glory - In the OT, when Jahweh lifts the veil that hides Him from mortal eyes, the medium of theophany is always Light, a supra-mundane but actually visible radiance (which is localized and assumes a definite uniformity in the Shekinah-glory)
Kindness (2) - Hesed is the bond uniting Jahweh and Israel in one covenant relation: the hesed of J″ Hardening - It is stated that his heart was hardened (Exodus 7:13-14; Exodus 7:22; Exodus 8:19; Exodus 9:7; Exodus 9:35), that he hardened his heart (Exodus 8:15; Exodus 8:32, Exodus 9:34), and that Jahweh said He would harden (Exodus 4:21, Exodus 7:3, Exodus 14:4), and did harden (Exodus 9:12, Exodus 10:1; Exodus 10:20; Exodus 10:27, Exodus 11:10, Exodus 14:8), his heart
Death - Those that are in Sheol have no communion with Jahweh; see the Song of Hezekiah in Isaiah 38:1-22 , and elsewhere
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - It was the spoken utterance of the man of vision and inspiration; it was a declaration of the ‘word of Jahweh’; it was a revelation of the Divine will not so much in the sense of prediction-an aspect of prophecy not original, but subordinate-but rather in the sense of spiritual instruction involving a special degree of religious and ethical insight
Profaning, Profanity - Through a mistaken interpretation of Leviticus 24:16 they forbade the very utterance of the name Jahweh, and so, in the reading of the OT, Adonai or Elohim was invariably substituted
Jerusalem - Whether his be the ‘land of Moriah ’ of Genesis 22:2 is doubtful: it has been suggested that the name is here a copyist’s error for ‘land of Midian,’ which would be a more natural place for Jahweh worship in the days of Abraham than would the high place of the guardian numen of Jerusalem. As soon as David had established himself in his new surroundings, his first care was to bring the ark of Jahweh into the city ( 2 Samuel 6:1-23 ), but his desire to erect a permanent building for its reception was frustrated by Nathan the prophet ( 2 Samuel 7:1-29 )
Retribution (2) - ’ Pious Jews here and there might remember that forgiveness and free grace were part of the character of Jahweh, ‘but with most Jews this mode of view was overshadowed by the legalistic conception, whereby every act of obedience was regarded as having an exact recompense, and every blessing to be obtained as requiring previous service
Widows - 4), who speaks of widows as a θυσιαστήριον, ‘altar of sacrifice,’ on which Christians should lavish their offerings as of old worshippers of Jahweh placed their gifts on the altar in the Temple
Infancy - ...
In the Pentateuch this devotion of the male firstborn of both man and beast to Jahweh, carrying with it the necessity of redemption in the case of sons, is traced as to its institution to the smiting of the firstborn in Egypt at the Exodus (Exodus 13:15, Numbers 3:13)
Star (2) - ) traces the association of light in connexion with the Servant of Jahweh, who is represented as the Light of the World in Deutero-Isaiah (Isaiah 49:6; Isaiah 51:4) to the mythical representation of the World-Ruler as a solar hero in the old Saga
Sepulchre - It was there that Abram first settled when he came into Canaan; there he built an altar to Jahweh (Genesis 23:9); and it is only reasonable to suppose that he also purchased the ground on which it stood; otherwise it would have been exposed to desecration and destruction
Divination - Besides mentioning Jahweh, the God of the Hebrews, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit, worshipped by the Christians, and some of the innumerable ethnic deities, the literature of the Apostolic Age contains references to angels, archangels, living creatures, Satan, the Devil, the Wicked One, the Antichrist, demons, unclean and evil powers, dominions, principalities, authorities, thrones, and glories
Exorcism - ]'>[2] σε κατὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος (Matthew 26:63), he thereby brought the prisoner into such effective touch with Jahweh that the latter could punish him if he did not speak the truth
Ships And Boats - The mention in Isaiah 2:16 of ‘ships of Tarshish’ among the objects against which J″ Lord - ), and, as we have seen, the practice of the Septuagint had made this term the familiar one to the Jew for his God Jahweh
Virgin Virginity - ) as the bride of Jahweh, so St
Galilee - They said that Jahweh had created seven seas, and of these had chosen the Sea of Gennesaret as His special delight
Confession - Paul here implies that the Lord Jesus is one with the Lord Jahweh on whom the prophet Joel bade men call when he predicted ‘this word of faith
Clean And Unclean - It has been suggested that this provision was due to the notion that the high priest, the temporary representative of Jahweh, was regarded as suffering from the defilement of murder as God suffered, and as the land suffered ( Deuteronomy 21:1 )
Psalms of Solomon - He will enjoy the old title of the Hebrew kings-the anointed of Jahweh (or the Lord); for the phrase ‘Christ (the) Lord’ (cf
Prayer - Jahweh wanted more than mere ritual and ceremony, notwithstanding Israel's elected status
Descent Into Hades - It was the region to which all souls passed after death, there to live a shadow-like existence, incapable of the higher forms of spiritual activity, such as the praise of Jahweh (Psalms 6:5)
Philo - Long before Astruc he remarked the interchange of the two Divine names in the Law-‘God’ (θεὸς = Elohim) and ‘Lord’ (κύριος = Jahweh); he explains them as indicating the two main powers in God-goodness and might, the former creating and saving, the latter judging and punishing
Food - ), may be ranged under the two categories, domestic animals , which alone were admitted as sacrifice to the ‘table of J″ Wandering Stars - Jahweh was a ‘man of war,’ and Israel fought their way from the Red Sea into freedom
Lord's Day - ) also favours this view, identifying ‘the Lord’s Day’ here with ‘the day of Jahweh,’ the day of judgment-in the Septuagint ἡ ἡμέρα τοῦ κυρίου (as also in St
Gospel (2) - In Isaiah 61:1 the prophet describes the function of the Servant of Jahweh (or perhaps his own function) in these words: ‘The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek. He is Jahweh’s Anointed sent to bring good tidings of great joy to all the people (Luke 2:10)
Apocalypse - The apocalyptists are the instructors and encouragers of the people in the name of God in reference to that Kingdom which, in spite of the greatness of the world-powers that are their rivals and the enemies of Jahweh, is yet to come to them from God and to be realized in the world
Samaria, Samaritans - From the Jewish point of view another offence against the Law was that they pronounced the Sacred Name—Jahweh—with its own vowels (Jerus
Science (2) - Psalms 24 gives another type, where Jahweh is praised for His power and skill in making the solid and immovable earth to rest upon the fluid and fluctuating sea. The Torah was an actual and definite direction given in Jahweh’s name by the priest, and was either judicial, ceremonial, or moral
Sanctification - On the one hand, through the influence of the prophets, first the nation and then the individual (as in Jeremiah) are regarded as ‘holy’ in the eyes of Jahweh, who, unlike other gods, has more than a mere proprietary interest in ‘His own. ’ On the other hand, through the influence of the priestly caste, Jahweh’s service became more and more a matter of correct ritual and observance of certain rules, and the result is a Holy God afar off whose name dare not be mentioned, and who lives in a state of moral neutrality
Vicarious Sacrifice - In the discourse of the Last Supper the symbolism used is not drawn from the Paschal lamb, but rather from Exodus 24, where the sacrifice established to celebrate the new covenant between Jahweh and Israel at Mount Sinai is described
Church - Qâhâl or ἐκκλησία is the more sacred term; it denotes the people in relation to Jahweh, especially in public worship
Freedom of the Will - Paul carries the supremacy of God further than his opponents; his argument is similar to that of the prophets, who had to oppose the rooted Israelite belief that Jahweh must save His people
Apocrypha - Jerusalem; but evidently this Redeemer is Jahweh)
Odes of Solomon - Thousands of Greek words were introduced into Aramaic, which had come to be the vernacular of all the Semitic tribes, inclusive of the remnants of the once prosperous people of Jahweh
Paul (2) - ...
Already in the infant Church, following, as we believe, hints of the Lord Himself, there was a tendency to explain the death of the Crucified by means of principles inherent in the OT, by the idea of sacrifice and by the idea of vicarious suffering; on the one hand, by the analogy of the Levitical sacrifices, and, on the other hand, by the description of the Servant of Jahweh in Deutero-Isaiah