What does J mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Maas, Anthony J
Exegete, born Bainkhausen, Westphalia, Germany, 1858; died Saint Andrew's-on-the-Hudson, Poughkeepsie, New York, 1927. He was educated at public and private schools and the gymnasium at Arnsberg, Westphalia; the Jesuit scholasticates at Manresa, New York, Woodstock, Maryland, and Manresa, Spain. He came to the United States, entered the Society of Jesus, 1877, and was ordained, 1887. He was professor of Scripture (1891-1905) and prefect of studies (1897-1905) at Woodstock, assistant editor of "The Messenger," New York (1905-1907), rector of Woodstock College (1907-1912), and provincial of the New York-Maryland Province, resident in New York (1912-1927). His works include the "Life of Christ," "Christ in Type and Prophecy," and "Commentary on the Gospel of Saint Matthew."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - p J Kenedy And Sons
Publishers, established 1826. The company has been carried on in the ownership and active management of three generations of one family. John Kenedy, born in Ireland, founded the house in Baltimore, transferring to New York, 1838. The first books bearing a New York imprint were on Catholic biography and doctrine and several on Ireland, most important of which was The History of the Irish Insurrection of 1798. Patrick John Kenedy, succeeding his father, 1866, received from Leo XIII the honorary title, "Publisher to the Holy Apostolic See," 1895. The firm name changed to P. J. Kenedy & Sons, when Arthur and Louis Kenedy joined (1903), and on his father's death (1906) Arthur succeeded him as president, with Louis as vice president. Together they have given a strong impetus to the Catholic book trade and have made the Official Catholic Directory," which they purchased, 1911, an up-to-date source of information on diocesan statistics.
Holman Bible Dictionary - J
The sign for one of the principle sources critical scholars propose for the Pentateuch. The name derives from the personal name for God, Yahweh (German Jahveh), which characterizes this source. The source is thought to have originated in Judah earlier than the E source (about 900 B.C.). Recent research has raised radical questions about this source and theory even among critical scholars. See Pentateuch ; Bible, History of Interpretation .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Chisloth-Tabor, J
CHISLOTH-TABOR , Joshua 19:12 . See Chesulloth.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Rankine, w. J. Macquom
Physicist. Born 1820; died 1872. Considered one of the founders of the science of thermodynamics.

Sentence search

Laver - Shitrai - o Day-Spring Bright - There are twelve translations; the English title given is by J. Chadwick and J
o Light of Light - There are twelve translations; the English title given is by J. Chadwick and J
Homiletic And Pastoral Review, the - A monthly magazine published in New York City by Joseph F Wagner, Inc. , under the editorship of Charles J. , and J
Jasmine - ) A shrubby plant of the genus Jasminum, bearing flowers of a peculiarly fragrant odor. The J. The Arabian Jasmine is J. Sambac, and, with J. The yellow false Jasmine in the Gelseminum sempervirens (see Gelsemium). Several other plants are called Jasmine in the West Indies, as species of Calotropis and Faramea
Jehovah-Tsidkenu - JEHOVAH-TSIDKENU (‘J″ [1] is our righteousness,’ or ‘J″ [1] our righteousness,’ Jeremiah 23:6 ; Jeremiah 33:16 )
Zilpah - A slave-girl given to Leah by Lahan, Genesis 29:24 (P [1] ), and by her to Jacob as a concubine, Genesis 30:9 (J [2] ); the mother of Gad and Asher, Genesis 30:10-13 (J [2] ), Genesis 35:26 , Genesis 37:3 , Genesis 46:16 (all P Beor - Father of Balaam, Numbers 22:5 ; Numbers 24:3 ; Numbers 24:15 ; J [1] , Joshua 24:9 , also Numbers 31:8 , Deuteronomy 23:4 , Joshua 13:22 , Micah 6:5 , 2 Peter 2:15 ( Bosor , AV [2] and RVm Joatham - (joh' uh tham) KJV transliteration of Greek for Jotham (Matthew 1:9 ). See J otham
Iscah - A daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah, Genesis 11:29 (J Bellary, India - J
Syntyche - J
Asadias - ASADIAS (‘J″ Tubal - ...
J
Hora Novissima, Tempora Pessima Sunt; Vigilemus - Written about 1140 by Bernard of Morlaix, it was translated by J
World is Very Evil, the - Written about 1140 by Bernard of Morlaix, it was translated by J
Jabal - JABAL . Son of Lamech by Adah, and originator of the nomadic form of life, Genesis 4:20 (J Hic Breve Vivitur, Hic Breve Plangitur - It was written about 1140 by Bernard of Morlaix and translated oy J
For Thee, o Dear, Dear Country - It was written about 1140 by Bernard of Morlaix and was translated by J
o Christ, Whose Glory Fills the Heaven - There are 12 translations; the English title given is by J. Julian
o Bona Patria, Lumina Sob Ria te Speculantur - It was written about 1140 by Bernard of Morlaix and was translated by J
Hic Breve Fletur - It was written about 1140 by Bernard of Morlaix and translated oy J
Aeterna Caeli Gloria - There are 12 translations; the English title given is by J. Julian
Ishi (1) - The name which Hosea (2:16) recommends Israel to apply to J Sheleph - A son of Joktan ( Genesis 10:26 ) and therefore a tribe in Southern Arabia. ...
J
Mehujael - MEHUJAEL. A Cainite ( Genesis 4:18 ) (J [1] ), corresponding to Mahalalel of P Associationist - , Hartley, J
Emim - ...
J
Astyages - ...
J
Our Limbs Refreshed With Slumber Now - The English title given above is by J
Angelus, the - Famous painting by J
Somno Refectis Artubus - The English title given above is by J
Seth - The third son of Adam, Genesis 4:25 (J [1] ) Genesis 5:3 (P Casiphia - ...
J
Hazerim - In AV [1] a place-name, but rightly replaced by ‘villages’ in RV
J
Chautauqua System (of Education) - , by the Methodist Episcopal bishop, J
Abimael - One of the Joktanids or S. Joktan), Genesis 10:28 (J Eternal Monarch, King Most High - There, are 15 translations; the English title given is by J
Aeterne Rex Altissime - There, are 15 translations; the English title given is by J
Nox Atra Rerum Contegit - The English title given is by J
Dusky Veil of Night Hath Laid, the - The English title given is by J
Jam Christus Astra Ascenderat - The English title given is by J
Now Christ, Ascending Whence he Came - The English title given is by J
Jesu Redemptor Omnium [Perpes] - The English title given is by J
Jesu, the World's Redeemer, Hear - The English title given is by J
o Strength, And Stay Upholding All Creation - The English title given is by J
Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor - The English title given is by J
Strangled - Now blood-offerings and strangled offerings are mentioned in the OT as found among idolatrous Jews (Ezekiel 33:25, Isaiah 65:4; Isaiah 66:3; Isaiah 66:17). James fears these offerings among idolatrous Christians. America and Japan and are still used in India. J. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, p. 343, 417; J. 319, 416; J. J. Conybeare and J
Hermes - J
o Gloriosa Virgin Urn - Fourteen translations are in existence; the title given above is by J
o Glorious Lady! Throned on High - Fourteen translations are in existence; the title given above is by J
o God of Truth, o Lord of Might - About twenty translations are in existence; the English title given above is by J
Rector Potens, Verax Deus - About twenty translations are in existence; the English title given above is by J
Jesu Corona Virginum - The English title given is by J
Jesu, the Virgins' Crown, do Thou - The English title given is by J
Jubal - JUBAL. A son of Lamech by Adah, and inventor of musical instruments, Genesis 4:21 (J Julia - JULIA. J
a Solis Ortus Cardine - The English title given is by J
i. h. s - The first three letters of the Greek word for JESUS, andequivalent to the English letters J
Partition - 1: φραγμός (Strong's #5418 — Noun Masculine — phragmos — frag-mos' ) primarily "a fencing in" (akin to phrasso, "to fence in, stop, close"), is used metaphorically in Ephesians 2:14 , of "the middle wall of partition;" "the partition" is epexegetic of "the middle wall," namely, the "partition" between Jew and Gentile. J. Robinson suggests that Paul had in mind the barrier between the outer and inner courts of the Temple, notices fixed to which warned Gentiles not to proceed further on pain of death (see Josephus, Antiq. J
Uphaz - A supposed country or region mentioned in Jeremiah 10:9 , Daniel 10:5 , as a source of gold. ...
J
Cimmerians - ...
J
o Great Creator of the Sky - The English title given is by J
Immense Caeli Conditor - The English title given is by J
Gloria, Laus, et Honor, Tibi Sit Rex Christe Redem - There are twelve translations; the English title given is by J
Anamim - ...
J
All Glory, Laud, And Honor - There are twelve translations; the English title given is by J
Fast, as Taught by Holy Lore, the - There are 12 translations; the English title given is by J
Methushael - A Cainite, the father of Lamech, Genesis 4:18 (J [1] ); Methuselah in P ex More Docti Mystico - There are 12 translations; the English title given is by J
Maker of Man, Who From Thy Throne - The English title given is by J
Zebedee - Father of James and John, husband of Salome ; a comparatively rich fisherman, for he had ‘hired servants’ (see e. J
Hominis Superne Conditor - The English title given is by J
Rhoda - The name of the maid-servant in the house of Mary, John Mark’s mother, when St. J
Quem Terra, Pontus, Sidera - The English title given above is by J
God Whom Earth, And Sea, And Sky - The English title given above is by J
Plagues of Egypt - The analysis, on which critics are in the main agreed, is as follows:...
J 7:14 15 17a 18 21a 24 25 8:1 4 8 15a E 15 17b 20b 23 P 19 20a 21b 22 5 7 R J 20 32 9:1 7 13 17 18 23b 24b J Jahwist. ...
J Jahwist...
If the sources have here been rightly separated, it becomes probable that the original account of JE [3] ) and boils (P [3] ’s narrative; E [7] has elements in the 1st, 7th, 8th, and 9th, and in the 9th E [7] ’s narrative has largely displaced that of J [3] ; In the remains of E [7] the wonders have increased, while in P [3] , this consisted in the smiting of the river by J[7] the marvel is performed not directly by J[3] comes the nearest to the natural fact; a fetid exhalation killed the fish, or in Hebrew language J[3] , J[3] , J[14] Himself sends ‘swarms of flies ’; in P [2] , through the stretching out of Aaron’s staff, ‘all the dust of Egypt became mosquitoes’ (EV [24]1 lice [2] particularizes the general statement of J [3] relates that Goshen enjoyed complete immunity from the insects. P [14] , and brought a dense mass of locusts (J [14] is supreme in power over the world which He made; that He has an absolute right, if He so wills, to punish Pharaoh in order to show forth in him His power; that He does so, however, only because Pharaoh is impenitent, and consequently ‘fitted for destruction,’ for J[14] is a God who hates sin; that if a man hardens his heart, the result will be as inevitable as results in the natural world so inevitable that it may truly be said that J[14] hardens his heart; that the sin of Pharaoh, and so of any other man, may entail sufferings upon many innocent men and animals; and finally, that J Shuthelah - One of the three clans of the tribe of Ephraim ( Numbers 26:35 , [1] 36). ...
J
Zenas - learned in Jewish law, cf. J
o God, Whose Hand Hath Spread the Sky - The English title given is by J
at This Our Solemn Feast - The English title given above is composite, based on the one by J
Sacris Solemniis Juncta Sint Gaudia - The English title given above is composite, based on the one by J
Clement - ...
J
Eunice - The Jewish mother of Timothy ( 2 Timothy 1:5 , Acts 16:1 ), married to a Gentile husband, and dwelling at Lystra. J
Why, Impious Herod, Vainly Fear - There are approximately 25 translations, including the Roman Breviary and the original texts; the English title given is by J
Minni - A people named in Jeremiah 51:27 along with the Armenians (‘Ararat’) and Scythians (‘Ashkenaz’) as coming assailants of Babylon. ...
J
Eden, Children of - See Eden [1]. ...
J
Cape of Good Hope, Eastern Vicariate Apostolic of - Vicars Apostolic: Aidan Devereaux, Patrick Moran, J
Scotists - A sect of school divines and philosophers; thus called from their founder, J
Eastern Vicariate Apostolic of Cape of Good Hope - Vicars Apostolic: Aidan Devereaux, Patrick Moran, J
Lysanias - (Josephus, B. J. J
Enosh - ENOSH ( Genesis 4:26 J [2] having been known practically from the beginning of human life, the writer (J [5] ( Exodus 3:14 ) and P Sephar - Mentioned as a boundary of the descendants of Joktan in Genesis 10:30 . ...
J
Euodia - This is clearly the correct form of the name, not Euodias as AV Ampliatus - AMPLIATUS (AV Asshurim - ...
J
Den - words represented by ‘den’ signify respectively ‘hollow place’ ( Isaiah 32:14 ), ‘thicket’ ( Psalms 10:9 ), ‘place of ambush’ ( Job 37:8 ), ‘dwelling’ ( Job 38:40 ), ‘light hole’ or ‘eyeball’ ( Isaiah 11:8 ); but the last passage, may be corrupt. ...
J
Vedan - In RV
J
Epaenetus - Paul at Rome, greeted in Romans 16:5 ; he was the ‘firstfruits of Asia (RV Eumenes ii - ...
J
Hail Day! Whereon the One in Three - It was written by Saint Gregory the Great, and has about 20 translations; the English title given is by J
Ezion-Geber - EZION-GEBER , later called Berenice (Jos. Christo Profusum Sanguinem - There are five translations of the original hymn and eight of the Roman Breviary text; the English title given is from a translation by J
o Lux Beata Trinitas - This is the original text of the hymn; the Roman Breviary text is "Jam sol recedit igneus". There are 12 translations of the original text; the title given above is by J
o Trinity of Blessed Light - This is the original text of the hymn; the Roman Breviary text is "Jam sol recedit igneus". There are 12 translations of the original text; the title given above is by J
Zipporah - One of the daughters of the priest of Midian, Exodus 2:21-22 (J Avvim - Joshua 13:4 ) as primitive inhabitants of S. A Benjamite town ( Joshua 18:23 ); site unknown. ...
J
Pudens - J
Cockle - COCKLE ( bo’shâh , Job 31:40 ). AVm [1] ‘stinking weeds’ or RVm Achshaph - border of territory assigned to Asher ( Joshua 19:25 ). Its king Joined Jabin’s confederacy, which was defeated by Joshua, and the ruler of Achshaph was amongst the slain ( Joshua 11:1 ; Joshua 12:20 ). ...
J
Dodanim - Named in the MT [1] of Genesis 10:4 among the descendants of Javan, or Ionians. The LXX
J
Iowa Synod - Grossmann and Reverend J
Stephanas - Stephanas himself had Joined the Apostle at Ephesus when he wrote, and was of great assistance to him there. J
Tiras - A son of Japheth ( Genesis 10:2 ), formerly identified with Thrace , but of late much more plausibly with the Turusha , a piratical people who invaded Syria and Egypt in the 13th cent. ...
J
Zabadaeans - The name of an Arabian tribe defeated by Jonathan Maccabæus, b. ...
J
Hazeroth - A camping-ground of Israel, the second station northward in the Journey from Sinai ( Numbers 11:35 ; Numbers 12:16 ; Numbers 33:17 f. It is usually identified with the beautiful wady of ’Ain el-Khadrah , about 30 mlies north-east of Jebel Musa. ...
J
Jearim, Mount - On the northern border of Judah (Joshua 15:10). of Jerusalem, between wady Ghurab and w. ) Wady Ghurab separates from it Kirjath Jeerira, which is two miles and a half to the N J
Sisters of Our Lady of Perpetual Help - A congregation founded at Saint Damien, Canada in 1892 by Abbe J
Mahalalel - Son of Kenan and great-grandson of Seth ( Genesis 5:12-13 ; Genesis 5:15-17 [1] ] = 1 Chronicles 1:2 , Luke 3:37 Mahalaleel ); = Mehujael in J Mary Sadlier - She emigrated to Montreal in 1844, and in 1846 married James Sadlier of the publishing house of D. J
Elisabeth - The wife of Zacharias and mother of John the Baptist ( Luke 1:5 ff. ...
J
Eden - It is not certain that Eden is the true form of the name: LXX [1] has Jodan in the first, Odom in the second passage. ...
J
Sadlier, Mary Anne Madden - She emigrated to Montreal in 1844, and in 1846 married James Sadlier of the publishing house of D. J
Evolution, Cultural - Among proponents of the theory are Sir John Lubbock, J. Taylor, J. Their arguments, though still quoted in many text-books of sociology, are rejected by most later students of ethnology and anthropology
Laetare Medal - It is conferred on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the name being taken from the first word of the Introit of the Mass of the day, Laetare; rejoice. " Following is a partial list of the recipients of the award: ...
1883 - John Gilmary Shea, historian
1884 - Patrick J Keeley, architect
1885 - Eliza Allen Starr, artist
1886 - General John Newton, army engineer
1887 - Edward Preuss, Journalist
1888 - Patrick V Hickey, founder "Catholic Review"
1889 - Anna Hanson Dorsey, novelist
1890 - William T Onahan, organizer Catholic Congress
1891 - Daniel Dougherty, orator
1892 - Henry F Brownson, philosopher
1893 - Patrick Donahoe, founder "Boston Pilot"
1894 - Augustin Daly, theatrical manager
1895 - Mrs James Sadlier, writer
1896 - General William S Rosecrans, leader Army of Cumberland
1897 - Thomas Addis Emmett, surgeon
1898 - Timothy E Howard, Jurist
1899 - Mary Gwendolin Caldwell, benefactor Catholic University
1900 - John Creighton, founder Creighton University
1901 - William Bourke Cockran, orator
1902 - John B Murphy, surgeon
1903 - Charles J Bonaparte, attorney-general
1904 - Richard C Kerens, philanthropist
1905 - Thomas B Fitzpatrick, business man
1906 - Francis Quinlan, medical specialist
1907 - Katherine E Conway, author
1908 - James C Monaghan, lecturer
1909 - Frances Tiernan, (Christian Reid), litterateur
1910 - Maurice Francis Egan, writer
1911 - Agnes Repplier, essayist
1912 - Thomas M Mulry, charity worker
1913 - Charles G Herbermann, editor-in-chief "Catholic Encyclopedia"
1914 - Edward Douglas White, chief Justice of the United States
1915 - Mary V Merrick, founder, Christ Child Society
1916 - James J Walsh, physician and author
1917 - William Shepherd Benson, admiral
1918 - Joseph Scott, lawyer
1919 - George Duval, philanthropist
1920 - Lawrence F Flick, physician
1921 - Elizabeth Nourse, artist
1922 - Charles P Neil, economist
1923 - Walter George Smith, lawyer
1924 - Charles D Maginnis, architect
1925 - Albert Francis Zahm, scientist
1926 - Edward N Hurley, business man
1927 - Margaret Anglin, actress
1928 - Jack J Spalding, lawyer
1929 - Alfred Emmanuel Smith, statesman
1930 - Frederick P Kenkel, director of Central Bureau of the Central Verein
1931 - James J Phelan, philanthropist
1932 - Stephen J Maher, tuberculosis expert
1933 - John McCormack, vocalist
1934 -
1935 - Frank H Spearman, author
1936 -
1937 -
1938 -
1939 -
1940 -
1941 -
1942 - Helen Constance White, teacher and author
1943 -
1944 -
1945 -
1946 -
1947 -
1948 -
1949 -
1950 -
1951 -
1952 -
1953 -
1954 -
1955 - George Meaney, labour leader
1956 -
1957 -
1958 -
1959 -
1960 -
1961 -
1962 -
1963 -
1964 -
1965 - Frederick Dominic Rossini, teacher and scientist
1966 -
1967 -
1968 -
1969 -
1970 -
1971 -
1972 - Dorothy Day, activist
1973 -
1974 -
1975 -
1976 -
1977 -
1978 -
1979 -
1980 -
1981 -
1982 -
1983 -
1984 - John T Noonan, Jurist
1985 - Guido Calabresi, Jurist
1986 -
1987 -
1988 -
1989 -
1990 -
1991 -
1992 - Daniel Patrick Moynihan, US senator
1993 - L John Durney, teacher and Journalist
1994 -
1995 -
1996 - Sister Helen Prejean, anti-death penalty activist
1997 - Father Virgilio Elizondo, theologian and writer
1998 -
1999 -
2000 - Andrew J McKenna, businessman
2001 - Monsignor George G Higgins, labour activist priest
2002 - Father John Smyth, educator
2003 - Peter and Peggy Steinfels, writers
2004 - Father Bryan Hehir, theologian
2005 - Joseph E Murray, organ transplant pioneer
East, Children of the - A common designation of the inhabitants of the Syrian desert, who were partly Aramæan and partly Arabian ( Judges 6:3 ; Judges 8:10 , Ezekiel 25:4 ; Ezekiel 25:10 , Isaiah 11:14 , Jeremiah 49:28 , Job 1:3 ). ...
J
Institute of Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy - Founded at Mechlin, 1839, by Canon J
Er - The eldest son of Judah by his Canaanitish wife, the daughter of Shua. For wickedness, the nature of which is not described, ‘J″ Methuselah - (P [1] ), 1 Chronicles 1:3 , Luke 3:37 = Methushael in J Damaris - J
Arba - ARBA is named ‘the father of the Anak’ in Joshua 14:15 (so read also Joshua 21:11 , cf. Joshua 15:13 ). ...
J
Mendel's Law - A principle governing the inheritance of many characters in animals and plants, discovered by Gregor J
Brute - 1: ἄλογος (Strong's #249 — Adjective — alogos — al'-og-os ) translated "brute" in the AV of 2 Peter 2:12 ; Jude 1:10 , signifies "without reason," RV, though, as J
Publius - J
Dorcas - Persepolis - ...
J
Tripolis - ...
J
Ulai - ...
J
Heth - A ‘son’ of Canaan, Genesis 10:15 (J [2] ) ‘daughters of Heth’; and in Genesis 23:3 ff; Genesis 25:10 ; Genesis 49:32 (all P Nod - 14 (RV
J
Jehovah-Shammah - JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH (‘J″ Demas - J
Parvaim - ...
J
Jether - Slain by Abimelech (Judges 8:20; Judges 9:5). Hebrew in Paralipomena makes Ezra Amram, J
Sabteca - But this is improbable, since that region did not come within the Cushite domain, as Judged by the names of the other sons of Cush. ...
J
Sepharad - A country in which was a community of exiles from Judah in the days of the prophet Obadiah ( Obadiah 1:20 ). ...
J
Tubal-Cain - ’...
J
Hirah - The Adullamite with whom Judah, according to the story of Genesis 38:1-30 (J Calaveras Skull - J
Ben-Ammi - of Jordan. ...
J
Erastus - An Erastus sends greetings in Romans 16:23 , and is called ‘the treasurer (AV ad - It remains unchanged before vowels, and before d, h, J, m, v. Examples: adduce, adhere, adjacent, admit, advent, accord, affect, aggregate, allude, annex, appear, etc
Achaicus - As slaves were often named from the country of their birth, it is a probable conjecture that he was a slave, born in Achaia. ...
J
Ahiman - One of the sons of Anak, at Hebron ( Numbers 13:22 ): the three claus, of which this was one, were either destroyed by Judah ( Judges 1:10 ), or expelled by the clan Caleb ( Joshua 15:14 ). )...
J
Andronicus - J
Assassins, the - In the time of Felix a band of robbers so named disturbed Judæa. They are mentioned in Acts 21:38 ( sicarii , AV [2]. J
ad - It remains unchanged before vowels, and before d, h, J, m, v. Examples: adduce, adhere, adjacent, admit, advent, accord, affect, aggregate, allude, annex, appear, etc
Jethro - JETHRO (once, Exodus 4:18 a Jether ). (E [1] ), as Reuel in the present text of Exodus 2:18 (J [2] ), and as Hobab in Numbers 10:29 (also J [4] of Judges 1:16 ; Judges 4:11 ). The name Jethro (Heb
Chebar - ) beside which the principal colony of the first Exile of Judah was planted. ’...
J
Chesed - One of the sons of Nahor and Milcah ( Genesis 22:22 J Jesu Redemptor Omnium [Quem] - The one given in Britt is by J
Jesus, the Ransomer of Man - The one given in Britt is by J
Claudia - J
Hermogenes - Paul wrote (note RV Belteshazzar - The LXX
J
Cyrene - Africa ( Acts 2:10 ), the home of numerous Jews who with the ‘Libertines’ (freedmen from Rome?) and Alexandrians had a synagogue of their own at Jerusalem ( Acts 6:9 ). J
Letushim - In this verse LXX [1] adds two other tribes; but in the parallel passage, 1 Chronicles 1:32 , the sons of Dedan are omitted altogether both in MT [2] and in most MSS of LXX
J
Agabus - A Christian prophet of Jerusalem ( Acts 11:27 ff; Acts 21:10 f. ), whose prediction of a famine over the (civilized) world occasioned the sending of alms from Antioch to Jerusalem. Jeremiah 13:1 ff. J
Ahasuerus - Complaints against the Jews were addressed to him ( Ezra 4:6 ). ...
J
Ecarte - ) A game at cards for two persons, with 32 cards, ranking K, Q, J, A, 10, 9, 8, 7
Arkite - ...
J
Chicago, Illinois - The earliest history of Chicago mentions James Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, who with two companions reached the mouth of the Chicago River, December 4, 1674; he is reported, however, to have passed through this colony during the summer of 1673. In 1849 an orphan asylum was erected by Reverend James Oliver Van de Velde, in order to care for the children whose parents died during the cholera epidemic of that year. Incidental to the World's Congress Auxiliary of the Columbian Exposition and World's Fair in Chicago, the sessions of the Second Catholic Congress of the United States were held in the fall of 1893, presided over by Archbishop Feehan and William J. The delegates to the convention were welcomed by President Bonney of the World's Congress Auxiliary "on behalf of the World's Exposition and the fifty million non-Catholics who loved Justice and religious liberty. J. " Catholics distinguished in public life in Chicago are: Eliza Allen Starr, convert, artist and teacher of Christian art; Judge Gibbons; Judge Clifford, both of the Circuit Court of Chicago; Judge Marcus Kavanaugh of the Superior Court; Dr. J. Murphy, surgeon of world fame; ex-Judge Edward F. J. J. Lewis, J. J
Dallas, Texas, Diocese of - Father Joseph Martinere (later vicar-general) ministered there for many years before the diocese was established. Brennan (1891-1892), Edward J. Dunne (1893-1910), Joseph P
Secundus - Paul on his Journey to Jerusalem ( Acts 20:4 ), perhaps as a delegate to carry alms from his city. J
Sheshach - A cryptic name of Babel, found in the received text of Jeremiah 25:26 ; Jeremiah 51:41 . The word is, however, no part of the original text of Jeremiah, being a conceit of later editors.
J
Solomon's Porch - John 10:23. A portion of the temple which according to Josephus (B. J
Bible - : J
Cossaeans -
J
Junias - JUNIAS or JUNIA. As Junias and Andronicus (wh. Junias (short for Junianus) was a ‘kinsman’ of St. a Jew. J
Haran - ...
J
Achmetha - , Jdt 1:1 ff. ...
J
Agur - Son of Jakeh; author of the whole or part of Proverbs 30:1-33 , one of the latest sections of the book. [2] ‘the prophecy,’ RV
J
Ahava - None of the conjectures as to the exact locality can be verified. It was here that Ezra mustered his people before their departure for Jerusalem ( Ezra 8:15 ; Ezra 8:21 ; Ezra 8:31 ). ...
J
Canaan - Stephen, in making reference to the famine which sent Jacob’s sons into Egypt; and by St. ...
J
Sisters of Charity of Jesus And Mary - J
Veni Sancte Spiritus - The English title given is by J Austin; the fourth verse reads: ...
Lord, wash our sinful stains away,...
Refresh from heaven our barren clay,...
Our wounds and bruises heal;...
To Thy sweet yoke our stiff necks bow,...
Warm with Thy fire our hearts of snow,...
Our wand'ring feet repeal
Tribute - Although the amount to be collected on different articles was probably in most cases fixed by law (see especially the Palmyrene inscription edited by Schroeder in SBAW [2] 180ff. Grenfell and J. Schürer, GJV [4] 474ff. J
Christian Union -
The movement, which spread rapidly, had among its leaders J. Given, J
Union, Christian -
The movement, which spread rapidly, had among its leaders J. Given, J
Bible: Cause of Interest in it - : J
College - This stands in AV
J
Achzib - A town in Asher ( Joshua 19:29 ), from which the natives could not be dislodged ( Judges 1:31 ): it lay on the coast between Acre and Tyre. of the Shephelah ( Joshua 15:44 ), near Mareshah. Micah 1:14 predicts that Achzib shall be to the kings of Judah achzab (‘deceptive’), a stream whose waters fail when most needed (cf. Jeremiah 15:18 ). ...
J
Siloam, Tower of - above the fountain of Siloam" (Josephus B. J. Jotham "built much on the wall of Ophel" (2 Chronicles 27:3); "Manasseh compassed about Ophel" (2 Chronicles 33:14); a "tower lay (projecting) out" in Ophel (Nehemiah 3:26); such a projection might easily fall
al-Modad - AL-MODAD was, according to Genesis 10:26 ( 1 Chronicles 1:20 ), the oldest son of Joktan (wh. Joktan is the eponym of the tribes and peoples of eastern and southern Arabia. ...
J
Aristobulus - J
Paddan, Paddan-Aram - The name used hy P [1] for the region (or a part of it) designated by J Egyptian, the - This man is also mentioned by Josephus as a leader defeated by Felix, but not as connected with the ‘Assassins’ ( Ant . The discrepancies between Josephus and St. J
Jeroham - Head of a family dwelling in Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 8:27), as distinguished from the Benjamites dwelling in Gibeon (1 Chronicles 8:28-29), probably the J
Grief, Grieving - The Son of God is a man of sorrows, acquainted with grief (Isaiah 53:3-10 ; Matthew 23:37-39 ; Luke 13:34-35 ; John 11:35 ). Rather, the subject of divine grief addresses the very essence of God as a person and the image of God in all persons. His anguished response to sin is evidenced in two main ways: divine Judgment and compassion for the sinner. Yet his chastening hand relents and ultimately brings restoration (Psalm 106:45-46 ; Jeremiah 26:19 ; Amos 7:3-6 ; Jonah 3:10 ). ...
The punitive and salvific aspects of God's grief coalesced in the person and work of Jesus Christ. In Judgment he condemned the creation of his own hands. Yet in grief and through grief he redeemed the world by his Son (John 3:16 ). Jesus wept at the death of Lazarus, pleaded with Jerusalem, and agonized in the garden (John 11:33 ; Matthew 23:37-39 ; Luke 13:34-35 ; Matthew 26:38 ; Mark 14:34 ; Luke 22:44 ). J. Kuyper, SJT 22 (1969): 257-77; J. Mozley, The Impassibility of God ; J. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 1-39 ; J. J
Tiphsah - Tiphsah should be corrected to Tappuah , with the Lucian LXX
J
Apollonia - ...
J
en-Hakkore - 1 Samuel 26:20 , Jeremiah 17:11 ). The name of a fountain at Lehi ( Judges 15:19 ). The narrator (J [1] ) of the story characteristically connects hakkôrç with the word yikrâ (‘he called’) of Judges 15:18 , and evidently interprets ‘En-hakkôrç as ‘the spring of him that called. Eutychus - The incident is described in parallel terms with the raising of Dorcas and of Jairus’ daughter. J
Agag - Numbers 24:7 , probably a copyist’s error: LXX
J
Wryneck - ) Any one of several species of Old World birds of the genus Jynx, allied to the woodpeckers; especially, the common European species (J
Sisters of the Holy Humility of Mary - Poitier under the direction of Father John J
Sisters of Charity of Providence - Also known as the Daughters of Charity or Servants of the Poor, founded by Bishop Bourget with the co-operation of Mme J
Dioscuri - DIOSCURI (RVm [1] ), or The Twin Brothers (RV [2] ), or Castor and Pollux (AV Orontes River - The Orontes, modern Asi (Turkish), Nahr el Assi (Arabic), rises near Heliopolis (Bealbek) in the Beka's valley of Lebanon, and flows north some 250 miles through Syria and Turkey before turning southwest through the great city of Antioch to reach the coast Just south of ancient Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch. ...
Colin J
Hivites - One of the tribes of Palestine which the Israelites displaced ( Exodus 3:8 ; Exodus 3:17 [2] ) says that they were the people who, fearing to meet the Israelites in battle, by a ruse made a covenant with them ( Joshua 9:7 ). A Deuteronomic editor states that their villages were Gibeon, Chephira, Kiriath-jearim, and Beeroth ( Joshua 9:17 ). of Jerusalem, and Beeroth ten miles N. Probably, therefore, they inhabited a region north of Jerusalem. Genesis 34:2 (P Judgment Hall - Latin praetorium Graecized (John 18:28; John 18:33; John 19:9; Acts 23:35). " It is Pilate's residence when at Jerusalem, where Jesus was examined, scourged, and mocked. The Jews, to avoid defilement before the Passover, waited outside, near the Judgment seat which was erected on the pavement before the Praetorium, and on which Pilate sat in pronouncing sentence. ...
Herod was then at Jerusalem, doubtless in his father's palace, which therefore is distinct from the Praetorium (Luke 23:7). However Josephus (B. J. 2:14, section 8) represents the Roman governor as sometimes residing in Herod's palace, and setting up his Judgment seat in front of it. (See JERUSALEM. ) In Acts 23:35 Herod's Praetorium was part of the magnificent buildings erected by king Herod (Josephus, J
Calf, Golden - Deuteronomy 9:7-21 ), a chapter which belongs to the composite Prophetic source of the Pentateuch (JE
With regard to the religious significance of this action on the part of Jeroboam, it is now admitted on all hands that the bulls are to be recognized as symbols of J[2] ), as revealed through the prophets who succeeded Hosea, the Deuteronomic editor of the Books of Kings repeatedly characterizes the introduction of the bull images into the cult of J[2] as the sin wherewith Jeroboam made Israel to sin ( 1 Kings 14:18 ; 1 Kings 15:26 etc
Agagite - Josephus ( Ant. The epithet in Esther indicates that, as Agag was Saul’s adversary, so Haman was the foe of this other Benjamite. The LXX
J
Rosh - A descendant of Benjamin ( Genesis 46:21 [1]). AVm
J
Sabta, Sabtah - It was probably a region on or near the east coast of Arabia, but in spite of several conjectures it has not been identified with any historical tribe or country. ...
J
Senaah - The children of Senaah, or more correctly Hassenaah , were a clan or family who, according to Ezra 2:35 , Nehemiah 7:38 , 1Es 5:23 [1], were among the exiles of the first Restoration under Zerub. They are elsewhere unknown, unless they should be identified with Hassenuah of Benjamin ( 1 Chronicles 9:7 , Nehemiah 11:9 ). Other conjectures are less probable. ...
J
Zemarite, the - ...
J
Toleration - Furneaux, on Toleration; Milton's Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes; Hints on Toleration, by Philagatharches; Reflexions Philosophiques et Politiques sur la Tolerance Religieuse, par J
Jairus - JAIRUS (= Jair). Est 11:2) for Mordecai’s father Jair ( Esther 2:5 ); and ( 1Es 5:31 ) for the head of a family of Temple servants. In NT it is the name of the ruler of the synagogue whose daughter Jesus raised from the dead ( Mark 5:22 , Luke 8:41 ). J
Eden, House of - A place or district connected politically with Damascus ( Amos 1:5 RVm
J
Raamah - RAAMAH is called ( Genesis 10:7 = 1 Chronicles 1:9 [1]) a son of Cush, and father of Sheba and Dedan ( Genesis 10:28 ). ...
J
Rufus - ’ It has been conjectured that these two are the same person, that Simon’s widow (?) had emigrated to Rome with her two sons, where they became people of eminence in the Church, and that this is the reason why the brothers are mentioned by St. J
Saramel - SARAMEL (RV
J
Tychicus - Paul on the Journey to Jerusalem ( Acts 20:4 ). J
Rechab - Leader, together with his brother, of a band of Benjaminite raiders. Father or ancestor of J[1]onadab, a supporter of Jehu's purge of the family of Ahab and other worshipers of Baal (2Kings 10:15,2 Kings 10:23 ). Father or ancestor of Malchijah, who assisted in Nehemiah's repair of Jerusalem's walls (Nehemiah 3:14 ), possibly identical with 2
Zobah - Zobah was certainly east of Jordan, and probably the most southerly of the kindred peoples. ...
J
Science - ...
J
Latchet - LATCHET (ἱμάς, Luke 3:16, Mark 1:7, John 1:27). John the Baptist counted himself unworthy to perform this service for Christ. ...
J
Jehovist - ) The writer of the passages of the Old Testament, especially those of the Pentateuch, in which the Supreme Being is styled Jehovah. those of the Hexateuch, in which God is styled Yahweh, or Jehovah; the author of the Yahwistic, or Jehovistic, Prophetic Document (J); also, the document itself. ) One who maintains that the vowel points of the word Jehovah, in Hebrew, are the proper vowels of that word; - opposed to adonist
Parthians - But the exact form of the language of the Jews or proselytes who came to Jerusalem from Parthia, referred to in Acts 2:9 , cannot be ascertained. ...
J
Jasper - J`ASPER, n. Its varieties are common Jasper, striped Jasper, Egyptian Jasper, &c. ...
Jasper is a subspecies of rhomboidal quartz, of five kinds, Egyptian, striped, porcelain, common, and agate Jasper
Pethor - of Assyria regarding a certain city which he calls Pitru , that it lay on the river Sâgûr (modern Sâjûr ), near its Junction with the Euphrates. ...
J
Numbers, Book of - The book is composed of writings from the prophetic schools of J [1] and E [2] , and the Priestly school of P [1] , E [2] , and P [3] , but also separating the different strata of P [3] ); Miriam died at Kadesh (JE [8]2 ); want of water (JE [8]2 ); the sin of Moses and Aaron at Meribah (P [3] ); circuit round Edom; and the bronze serpent (JE [8]2 and of P [11] appeared, and the people were condemned to wander 40 years, in which all over 20 years of age, except Caleb and Joshua, should die. ( m ) Distinct incidents from JE [8]2 and from P [11] ’s challenge they burned incense on censers in front of the Tabernacle; the whole congregation were present, and the glory of J[1] and P [2] is combined with a Massah story from J Catholic Encyclopedia - The need of a Catholic Encyclopedia in English was manifest for many years, emphasized by the fact that subjects of interest to Catholics were either ignored or erroneously treated in other encyclopedias. , Thomas J. , and John J. J. Actual work was begun January, 1905, and completed April, 1914
Shechem - Stephen’s address we read that Jacob and the fathers were carried over unto Shechem and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought of the sons of Hamor in Shechem (Acts 7:16). Jacob was buried at Machpelah (Genesis 50:13), which Abraham bought from the sons of Heth (23). Jacob himself bought ground from the children of Hamor, and in it Joseph was buried (Joshua 24:32). Here Jacob established his residence for some time, and his people entered into the closest relations with the natives. A well, said to have been dug by his orders, was in existence in Christ’s day, and here at Jacob’s well our Lord had His famous interview with the Samaritan woman (John 4). Shechem became famous as a Levite city, and a city of refuge, and still later as the capital of the ten tribes under Jeroboam. Its situation was between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, and it lay on the Roman road from Jerusalem to Galilee. J. ...
J
Ancient of Days - ”...
Several biblical passages are related in terms and ideas with Daniel 7:1 ( Genesis 24:1 ; Job 36:26 ; Psalm 50:1-6 ; Psalm 55:19 ; 1 Kings 22:19-20 ; Isaiah 26:1-27:1 ; Isaiah 44:6 ; Ezekiel 1:1 ; Joel 3:2 ). ”...
Coupled with the figures of speech in the context of Daniel 7:1 , Ancient of days suggests age, antiquity, dignity, endurance, Judgment, and wisdom. ...
Disliking the anthropomorphic picture of God in Daniel 7:1 , Jephet, an 11th century Qaraite Jew, identified the Ancient of days as an angel like other angels in the Book of Daniel. ...
J. J
Encyclopedia, Catholic - The need of a Catholic Encyclopedia in English was manifest for many years, emphasized by the fact that subjects of interest to Catholics were either ignored or erroneously treated in other encyclopedias. , Thomas J. , and John J. J. Actual work was begun January, 1905, and completed April, 1914
Faithfulness - Just as God is both faithful and loving, those who believe in God need to exhibit faithfulness and steadfast love in their lives (Proverbs 3:3 ). John declares that Jesus is the faithful and true witness (Revelation 3:14 ), the Faithful and True (Revelation 19:11 ). J. Nixon, ZPEB, 2:479-91; J. Payne, The Theology of the Older Testament ; J
Amorites - 2500, but Johns ( Expos . KIB [3] document originated in the southern kingdom and the E [2] document in the northern, some have inferred that the Amorites were especially strong in Northern Palestine; but even the J [3] document ( Judges 1:34-35 ) recognizes that the Amorites were strong in the Valley of Aijalon. In Judges 1:36 ‘Amorites’ is probably a corruption of ‘Edomites. Moore in SBOT [3] ( Numbers 32:39 ) and E [2] ( Numbers 21:13 ) represent the trans-Jordanic kingdom of king Sihon, the capital of which was at Heshbon, and which extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok, as Amoritic, and several later Biblical writers reflect this view
Abiel - One of David’s heroes ( 1 Chronicles 11:32 ), from Beth-arabah in the wilderness of Judah ( Joshua 15:6 ; Joshua 15:61 ; Joshua 18:22 ). Abi-albon ( 2 Samuel 23:31 ) is a transcriber’s error, the eye having fallen on albon below: some codices of the LXX
J
Rehoboth - A well dug by the servants of Isaac and finally conceded to him, after two others, dug also by them, had become a subject of quarrel with Abimelech, king of Gerar ( Genesis 26:22 ). ’ ‘The River’ here may not be, as usually, the Euphrates, but the ‘River of Egypt’ (see Egypt [1]). ...
J
Dies Irre, Dies Ilia - Wingfield, and in part by J
Synzygus - J
Coherer - J
Jeberechiah - Josephus mentions another Zachariah, son of Baruch, slain by the Jews in the temple shortly before the last siege (B. J. If Berechiah was father of the house, not of the individuals, the "Zachariah son of Baruch" in Matthew 23:35 (where "Zechariah the son of Jehoiada," 2 Chronicles 24:20, in the individual sense is meant) may be identical with Zechariah, son of Je ("Jah ") berechiah
Bathsheba - Bathsheba, instigated and supported by Nathan, successfully combated Adonijah’s attempt to secure the throne ( 1 Kings 1:11-53 ). Acting as Adonijah’s intercessor in the matter of Abishag, she was most respectfully received by Solomon, but her unwise request was refused ( 2 Samuel 11:27 ). ...
J
Beriah - A Benjamite at Aijalon, who, with Shema, put the Gathites to flight (cf. He and his brother Jeush had not many sons, and therefore were counted as a single family. ...
J
Fortunatus - J
Gaius - John ( 3 John 1:1 ), were probably different men. J
Keturah - Genesis 25:6 ), after the death of Sarah; named only by J Minaeans - In all these passages the LXX
J
Dedan - Jeremiah 25:23 ; Jeremiah 49:8 ). ’...
J
Rehoboth-ir -
J
Saint Gregory, Society of - Founded in England on Saint Gregory's day 1929 by Father J
Society of Saint Gregory - Founded in England on Saint Gregory's day 1929 by Father J
Dura, Plain of -
J
Presbyter - The word occurs only once in EV
J
That Day of Wrath, That Dreadful Day - Wingfield, and in part by J
Libertines - It consists, as Hort says, of ‘a long compound phrase,’ the Greek of which is ‘not smooth and correct on any interpretation’ (Judaistic Christianity, p. Paul? The mention made of Cilicia in the list is in favour of this conjecture. Was there a synagogue in Jerusalem of which it is more likely that Saul of Tarsus had been a member or a leader than that which Cilician Jews frequented? The Apostle had, in the days of his unbelief, been one of the bitterest opponents of the Christian movement, and the part he had taken in St. Stephen’s death was a subject of life-long self-reproach (Acts 22:20). ...
Should this conjecture be well founded, it would help to settle the vexed question of whether five synagogues are specified in the list, or two, or only one. ...
The synagogue of the Λιβερτῖνοι doubtless consisted, at least in the first instance, of Jews who had been prisoners of war, and had afterwards been set free and admitted to Roman citizenship (Chrysostom, Hom. ad Caium, 23) that most of the Jews of Rome were enfranchised captives, and the passages usually quoted from Tacitus (Ann. Those freedmen who had returned to Palestine, and their descendants, must have formed a synagogue to which they gave their name, and most probably Jews from other parts of the world came in time to be affiliated to them. Although this statement is not supported by independent historical evidence, it may be regarded as a Just inference from the text, when conjoined with other known facts. A large part of the population of Jerusalem consisted of foreign Jews, who had come to reside permanently there, that they might be near the Temple, and might be buried in the land of their fathers. Those Jews were most zealous in fulfilling their ritual obligations, and attached themselves to ‘the straitest sect’ of the Jews of Palestine (Acts 26:5, Galatians 1:14; cf. ; J. 4788; J. The first accusation brought against our Lord was based upon a misrepresentation of words of His about the Temple (John 2:19, Mark 14:58), and in Acts 6:13-14; Acts 7:48-50 we see that St. ...
It is uncertain whether we should read τῆς λεγομένης (TR [3] appellet ex conditione, caeteros vero ex gente ac patria. -J. ; Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , article ‘Libertines’ (J. J. Woodhouse), ‘Stephen’ (J. [4] (W. [5] (J. [6] 437b; Thayer Grimm’s Gr.
James Donald
Lasciviousness - -The Greek word occurs 10 times in the NT (Mark 7:22, Romans 13:13, 2 Corinthians 12:21, Galatians 5:19, Ephesians 4:19, 1 Peter 4:3; 1 Peter 2:2; 1 Peter 2:7; 1 Peter 2:18, Judges 1:4). It is 7 times translated by ‘lasciviousness’ (AVm [2]), or from ασ (‘satiety’) + ελγ, or from α + σαλαγ (σελας), in which case the primary meaning would be ‘foul’ (J. Jude (International Critical Commentary , 1901), 168. ...
ἀσέλγεια or ἀκαθαρσία (‘a man may be ἁκάθαρτος and hide his sin; he does not become ἀσελγὴς until he shocks public decency’ [4] designed to denote lewdness or lasciviousness it would have been added to μοιχεῖαι and πορνεῖαι, vices of a like kind, in the preceding verse. But as it is Joined with δόλος-deceit-he interprets it in general-an injury of a more remarkable and enormous kind; and shows that Polybius has in several passages used the word in this sense; cf. also Wetstein’ (J. 154): ‘Here the reference is probably to the dissolute life of the Herodian court, and of the Greek cities of Galilee and the Decapolis; if δόλος characterized the Jew, his Greek neighbour was yet more terribly branded by ἀσέλγεια. ’ In 1 Peter 4:3 the word is definitely used as a general term of the ‘will of the Gentiles,’ and is evidently the licentiousness which accompanied heathen feasts and lawless idolatries, while in Jude and 2 Peter it is the typical sin of the cities of the plain, which the libertines, under the guise of a spurious freedom, followed, and into which they inveigled others. Findlay, Ephesians [5], 272). ; J. J. Ellicott, J. Swete (on Mark 7:22), J
Cornerstone - Architectural term used twice in the New Testament (Ephesians 2:20 ; 1 Peter 2:6 ) to speak of the exalted Jesus as the chief foundation stone of the church, the cornerstone on which all the building depends. In Isaiah 28:16 the prophet speaks God's words directly to the rulers in Jerusalem who boasted that they were immune to the scourges of life because they were secure in themselves. Zechariah expands this promise by saying that the cornerstone will come from the tribe of Judah (10:4). Paul builds on this concept in Ephesians 2:20 by saying that Jesus Christ is the chief cornerstone, the apostles and prophets are foundation stones, and the whole building (the church) is a holy temple in the Lord. The metaphor seems obvious: the cornerstone is either a source of blessing or Judgment, depending on a person's attitude toward it. Some modern interpreters, beginning with J. Jeremias in 1925, take a different tack, separating the two stones and making the cornerstone one thing and the stone at the "head of the corner" another, that is, a capstone or keystone. In any case, the point is that the very foundation of the church is Jesus Christ. J. Jeremias, TDNT, 1:791-93; H. J
Eternal Punishment - A study of God's major Judgments (e. Sheol therefore, takes us beyond the primary Judgment passages and speaks of life after death, although in vague terms. Jesus' Teaching . The doctrine of hell ultimately derives from Jesus. He uses images of darkness and separation to communicate God's rejection of unbelievers and their exclusion from his blessed presence (Matthew 7:23 ; 8:12 ; 22:13 ; 25:30 ; Luke 13:27-28 ). It is significant that Jesus uses the "weeping and gnashing of teeth" image to qualify other images: "the fiery furnace" (Matthew 13:42,50 ), darkness and separation (Matthew 8:12 ; 22:13 ; 25:30 ; Luke 13:28 ), and being cut into pieces (Matthew 24:51 ). ...
Jesus teaches that the suffering of the ungodly in hell is "eternal punishment" (Matthew 25:46 ; cf. John 5:28-29 ). The apostles reinforce Jesus' teaching, although they mention the topic less frequently. Paul combines pictures of punishment, destruction, and separation in 2 Thessalonians 1:5-9 : God will "punish those who do not know God, and do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. They will be punished with everlasting destruction and shut out from the presence of the Lord and from the majesty of his power. "...
Jude speaks of hell in terms of fire when he cites Sodom and Gomorrah as an earthly example of "those who suffer the punishment of eternal fire" (v. , Psalm 75:7-8 ; Jeremiah 25:15-29 ) with hell-fire to depict the perpetual, conscious torment of the wicked (Revelation 14:10-11 ). They had not been annihilated; in fact, John says that all three "will be tormented day and night for ever and ever" (20:10). Why does God teach such a terrible doctrine in his Word? For two reasons: to provide believers with powerful motivation for evangelism, and to make us grateful to him who redeemed us by suffering the pains of hell for us, both negatively (poena damni, the deprivation of the Father's love, Matthew 27:45-46 ) and positively (poena sensus, the positive infliction of torments in body and soul, Matthew 26:38-39,42 , 44 ; John 18:11 , against the Old Testament background of the cup of God's wrath ). Crockett and J. Edwards and J. J. Fudge, The Fire That Consumes ; J. Pinnock, A Wideness in God's Mercy ; J. Robinson, In the End God ; J
Senir - The Arab
J
Suph - A place-name in Deuteronomy 1:1 ‘In the Arabah over against Suph’; AV [1] is almost certainly correct; the expression was so understood also by LXX
J
Tertius - J
Trophimus - Paul to Jerusalem. The Jews, seeing Trophimus with the Apostle in the city, hastily concluded that St. Paul had brought him into the inner court of the Temple, separated from the outer ‘Court of the Gentiles’ by a barrier on which were inscriptions in Greek and Latin forbidding any non-Jew to enter on pain of death. J
Ceremonial - A "Handbook of Ceremonies" by J. J
Fortunatus - 2 [1] 305) suggests, or that all were slaves (so T. ...
J
Dies Irae - J. It seems to be a poetic and devotional embodiment of thewords to be found in Hebrews 10:27, "a certain fearful looking forof Judgment and fiery indignation," and is much used during Advent. JohnB
Lubim - The name of a people, standing in EV
J
Lysanias - Josephus speaks of ‘Ahila of Lysanias’ and of a tetrarchy of Lysanias; he is confirmed on the latter point by a medal and an inscription. J
Nodab - The name of a tribe mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:19 , along with Naphish and Jetur, as among the foes encountered and subdued by the Reubenites. A comparison with various readings of LXX
J
Barzillai - After the death of Absalom, Barzillai went across Jordan with the king, but declined to go to court ( 2 Samuel 19:31 ff. The Meholathite whose son Adriel is said ( 2 Samuel 21:8 ) to have married Michal
J
Alexander - The would-he spokesman of the Jews in the riot at Ephesus, which endangered them as well as the Christians ( Acts 19:33 ); not improbably the same as the coppersmith ( 2 Timothy 4:14 ) who did St. Paul ‘much evil,’ and who was probably an Ephesian Jew; possibly the same as the Alexander of 1 Timothy 1:20 (see Hymenæus), in which case we may regard him as an apostate Christian who had relapsed into Judaism. J
Phase Rule - J
Abigail, - At Hebron she bore him a son, whose name may have been Chileab ( 2 Samuel 3:3 ), or Daniel ( 1 Chronicles 3:1 ), or Dodiel (the LXX
J
Eben-Ezer - EBEN-EZER (‘the stone of help’ (LXX [1] and Syriac) is the modern ‘Ain Semije a little N. Samuel s explanatory words should be read thus: ‘This is a witness that Jahweh hath helped us. ’...
J
Rest - It is promised to Israel in Canaan ( Exodus 33:14 , Deuteronomy 3:20 ), and Zion is the resting-place of J Rimmon (1) -
In Assyria, both the Aram J. ...
The emblem of Rammân was the bull, and the widespread cult of the air-god may have had something to do with nationalizing the worship of Jahweh as represented by that animal. ...
J
Tryphaena - The two are generally supposed to have been sisters, ‘or at least near relatives, for it was usual to designate members of the same family by derivatives of the same root’ (J. Similar twin-names, in which a slight modification of the consonants or vowels is sufficient to distinguish one from the other, are Huz and Buz (Genesis 22:21), Muppim and Huppim (Genesis 46:21), Yama and Yami (Rigveda), Romulus and Remus, Baltram and Sintram (see J
Zenas - In Titus 3:13 Titus is urged to ‘set forward (πρόπεμψον) Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their Journey diligently (σπουδαίως), that nothing be wanting unto them. It is likely, therefore, that he was a convert from the ranks of Jewish lawyers-men skilled in the Jewish law. It is significant that he is found in the company of Apollos, whose preaching had a Jewish tinge (cf. May it be that these men were chosen as messengers to Crete because they were known to have influence amongst Jewish converts from whom the troubles in Crete seem to have chiefly arisen (cf. 782b; J. Jones, article ‘Zenas’ in Smith’s Dict. [1] 329. ...
J
Dictionaries - (Nelson, 1894); J. 1900); J. , based on Herzog’s PRE Moses - Jos. [1] and Philo derive it from the Copt, mo ‘water,’ and ushe ‘saved’; this is implied in their spelling Mouses , also found in LXX [9] ’s story of Massah are preserved ( Exodus 17:3 ; Exodus 17:2 c, Exodus 17:7 a, c), and parts of the account of the visit of Moses’ father-in-law, which it is difficult to separate from E [4] gave him directions respecting precautions to be taken ( Exodus 19:20-22 ; Exodus 19:24 ; Exodus 19:11-13 ; Exodus 19:18 ) [15]. Moses stayed forty days and nights on the mountain ( Exodus 34:28 a); J″ [4] descended, and Moses ‘invoked the name of J″
The reason for the insertion of the laws so late in the book was that the compiler of JE [19] , finding laws in both J [9] and E [12] , and noticing the strong similarity between them, considered the J [4] ; it is doubtful if the original narrative has been preserved; but J [9] and to E Sosthenes - Ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, whom ‘they all’ (RV Tema - J
Tertullus - This name (a diminutive of Tertius ) is that of the advocate hired by the Jews to speak for them against St. From his name we should Judge him to be a Roman; probably he was not a Jew. It has been conjectured (Dean Milman) that his speech is a translation from the Latin, though Greek was allowed in the law courts. It is a gross piece of flattery, for the Jews were in constant opposition to Felix. J
Tob - It was in Tob that Jephthah lived as an outlaw ( Judges 11:3 ; Judges 11:5 ). Tob Joined the rest of the Aramæans, except those of Hamath ( 2 Samuel 8:9 f. Possibly Tob is meant in the region alluded to in 1Ma 5:13 [1], 2Ma 12:17 [2]. ...
J
Ignorance: Possible in Most Constant Hearers - ' ...
'So much,' says John Wesley, who related it on the authority of Dr. J
Lehabim - ...
J
Laver - ’ For patristic references confirming the translation ‘washing,’ see J. ...
James Strahan
Alexander Balas - In their struggle for the throne the rivals sought to outbid each other for the support of Jonathan Maccabæus, who elected to side with Alexander, and was appointed high priest by him (b. Jonathan defeated Apollonius, one of the generals of Demetrius, and received still further honours ( 1Ma 10:1-89 ). ...
J
Arvad - ...
J
Hadadezer - ...
J
Artemas - ...
J
Augustus - J. Augustus was the emperor who appointed the enrollment, Luke 2:1, causing Joseph and Mary to go to Bethlehem, the place where Jesus was born. He also closed the temple of Janus, in token of the rare occurrence, a universal peace; thus unconsciously celebrating the coming of the Prince of Peace
Linen - Sir J. Wilkinson says of it: "The quality of the fine linen fully Justifies all the praises of antiquity, and excites equal admiration at the present day, being to the touch comparable to silk, and not inferior in texture to our finest cambric
Pollution - (ἀλίσγημα, only found as noon in Acts 15:20; as verb in Daniel 1:8, Malachi 1:7; Malachi 1:12, Sirach 40:29 [1])...
ἀλίσγημα is probably from a root meaning ‘smear with fat or blood’ (cf. linere), and is therefore a natural word for Jews to use of idol offerings (Leviticus 3:17). It is a real ‘Jewish Greek’ word, very rare, and is a translation of (gâ’al, root-meaning ‘loathe,’ afterwards ‘pollute’). J. 77, LXX_ translation of Jeremiah 9:5, A. James use a peculiarly biting word, ‘a loathed smearing. The Council did not adopt it, and changed it to the more colourless εἰδωλόθυτον, ‘idol offering,’ wishing perhaps to avoid a racial word which might suggest a separation in the matter of ordinary food between Jew and Gentile, such as afterwards actually happened (Galatians 2:9) under the influence of those who ‘came from James. J
Rei - REI (‘J″
The reading, however, is not above suspicion, and Jos. Sepharvaim - Probably it answers to the Shabara’in named in the Babylonian Chronicle as taken Just before the fall of Samaria. ...
J
Sopater, Sosipater - In Acts 20:4 we read that Sopater, son of Pyrrhus (RV [2]. fellow-countryman [3], of St. J
Teman - Its inhabitants were renowned for wisdom ( Jeremiah 49:7 ), and the chief of Job’s counsellors was Eliphaz ‘the Temanite ’ ( Job 2:11 ). ...
J
Zalmon - The hill near Shechem where Abimelech and his followers cut wood for the burning down of the stronghold of Baal-berith ( Judges 9:48 ). Possibly the same mountain is meant in Psalms 68:14 , where a snowstorm is apparently referred to as contributing to the scattering of ‘kings’ opposed to the people of Jehovah. 143, when he attempted to relieve the Syrian garrison in Jerusalem and was prevented by a heavy fall of snow ( 1Ma 13:22 ). ...
J
Hermas - For the disputed date of the book, which professes to record visions seen in the episcopate of Clement ( c Preaching: Its Force the Main Consideration - When a tradesman came who understood his work, I noticed that he filed off all the points of the nails, the very points upon whose sharpness J had relied; and when he had quite blunted them, he drove them in as far as he pleased
Cornelius - An inscription recently discovered near Vienna shows that an Italic cohort was stationed in Syria c Elisha - —The famous disciple, companion, and successor of Elijah. Jesus, preaching in the synagogue at Nazareth, reminds His fellow-townsmen, who were unwilling to receive His teaching because He was one of themselves, that Elisha, who was an Israelite, healed but one leper, and he was a Syrian. He leaves them to draw the obvious inference as to the probable consequence of their rejection of Him. It is clear, however, that in this warning our Lord was looking far beyond Nazareth, and that He had in view the casting away of the Jews through unbelief, and the call of the Gentiles. ...
J
Sinai - In the Jewish tradition it was sacred to Jahweh, and was memorable as the place where God gave to Moses the ‘lively oracles’ (Acts 7:38). ...
J
Anak, Anakim - Early inhabitants of the high levels of Judah, whom tradition credited with colossal height. ’ In the genealogizing narrative of Joshua 15:13-14 there were three sons or clans of Anak; Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai. Judges 1:20 ). Joshua 11:21 gives them a wider habitat , as scattered over the hill-country of Palestine generally, whence they were exterminated by Joshua. In Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod some remnants were to be found after Joshua’s time ( Joshua 11:22 ). ...
J
Pedrail - The tread consists of a number of rubber shod feet which are connected by ball-and-socket Joints to the ends of sliding spokes. J
Hobab - In E [3] in Judges 1:16 ; Judges 4:11 attempts to harmonize the two by rendering hôthçn ‘brother-in-law. [1] ) and Hobab (J Trogyllium - (Τρωγύλλιον, WH
James Strahan
Security - It is only in Acts 17:9 that the word concerns us at present: ‘And when they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go. τὸ ἱκανὸν ποιῆσαι in Mark 15:15, which occurs ‘as early as polybius’ (J. ’ It is uncertain also whether the security was for the ‘good behaviour’ of Jason and the rest, for the production of St. J. Paul and Silas, but also of Jason and the rest, because of ‘the security’ given to the politarchs. It is not open to make a charge of cowardice here against either Jason or St. It was a practical question of how to meet an emergency due to Jealousy and prejudice
Lot (2) - ...
Lot’s Wife—to whom in Jewish tradition the name ערית Edith is given—is recorded in Genesis 19 to have been turned into a pillar of salt as a result of her looking back upon Sodom while escaping to the mountain. ...
Our Lord’s word ‘Remember’ neither confirms nor rejects the tradition. The folly of unreadiness, of the longing for things left behind, of the desire to retain a transient little in the face of impending Judgment and at the cost of a greater and eternal loss, is the lesson He would teach in connexion with His Parousia, from the remembrance of Lot’s wife. —Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible , Smith’s DB
J
Purification - Paul was Jew enough to respond to these forms, and Christian enough to extract value out of them (Acts 18:18)-to make them ‘days of separation’ (Numbers 6:4, Hebrews 7:26) in the religious life. ...
The Jewish sacrificial system is the specially Divine one among the primitive systems of sacrifice and tabu. ; J. Frazer, GB_2 [1] ii. The final act of this mystery is when ‘God made Jesus Christ to be sin,’ a sin-offering, a setting forth of man’s guilt and God’s purification. -An exhibition on a great scale of an act of Justice purges a people. -Personal identification with His suffering cleanses (J. John, 1883, p. 18; J. Scott Lidgett, The Spiritual Principle of the Atonement, 1897; J
Ashkenaz - In Jeremiah 51:27 Ashkenaz is coupled with Ararat and Minni. ...
J
Pange Lingua Gloriosi [Lauream] - For Breviary use it is divided into two parts: ...
"Pange lingua gloriosi," hymn for Matins from Passion Sunday to the Wednesday of Holy Week (inclusive), and for Matins on May 3, and September 14, Feasts of the Finding, and of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross
"Lustra sex qui Jam peregit," hymn for Lauds for the same days as above.
It was written by Venantius Fortunatus (530-609) and has approximately twenty-five translations; the one given is by J
Salecah - SALECAH ( Deuteronomy 3:10 , Joshua 13:11 ; Joshua 12:5 , 1 Chronicles 5:11 ) was the most easterly of the towns claimed by Israel. ...
J
Shibboleth - In the strife that arose between the Gileadites, under Jephthah, and the Ephraimites, an episode occurred which is recounted in Judges 12:1-6 . According to this, the Gileadites were holding the fords of Jordan in order to cut off the fugitive Ephraimites; but the only way of differentiating between friend and foe was to test a fugitive as to his pronunciation of such a word as ‘Shibboleth,’ in which the Ephraimite peculiarity of pronouncing sh as s would immediately be noticed. In this way there fell, according to the obviously exaggerated account in J Biblical Institute of Jerusalem, the - J. " The Biblical Institute of Jerusalem still remains an active and progressive school of thoroughly sound scientific biblical research
Caesar - The common title of the successive Roman emperors, taken from Julius Caesar. Roman citizens as Paul had the right of "appeal to Caesar," and in criminal cases were sent for Judgment to Rome, where was the emperor's court (Philippians 4:22; compare Philippians 1:13); Nero is the emperor meant. John's exile to Patmos (Revelation 1:9) was probably in Domitian's reign. The current coin bore Caesar's image, the argument which Jesus used to show Caesar could claim tribute (Matthew 22:17, etc. Though Caesar did not call himself "king," the Jews did (John 19:15), in which respect Josephus (B. J
Marshal - For AV [1] ‘scribe’ RV [2] of Judges 5:14 has ‘marshal. In later times he kept a register of their names ( 2 Kings 25:10 , Jer 52:25 , 2 Chronicles 26:11 , where the same Heb. The staff (not ‘pen’) in his hand was an emblem of authority ( Judges 5:14 ; cf. [1] ‘ captain ,’ RV [6]). ...
J
Calah - Jonah 4:11 and the Greek writers) were supposed to make up that city. ...
J
Stachys - Ahimaaz - He and Jonathan were stationed outside Jerusalem to learn Absalom’s plans; after an adventurous Journey they succeeded in warning David ( 2 Samuel 15:27 ; 2 Samuel 15:36 ; 2 Samuel 17:17-21 ). Ahimaaz was eager to carry the tidings of Absalom’s defeat; but Joab preferred to send by an Ethiopian slave the unwelcome news of the prince’s death. ...
J
Ahithophel - Being Bathsheba’s grandfather, he had been alienated by David’s criminal conduct ( 2 Samuel 11:3 , 2 Samuel 23:34 ), and readily Joined Absalom ( 2 Samuel 15:12 ). ...
J
Arpachshad - ...
J
Ear - Hence ‘to uncover the ear’ (RVm
J
Sing, my Tongue, the Glorious Battle - For Breviary use it is divided into two parts: ...
"Pange lingua gloriosi," hymn for Matins from Passion Sunday to the Wednesday of Holy Week (inclusive), and for Matins on May 3, and September 14, Feasts of the Finding, and of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross
"Lustra sex qui Jam peregit," hymn for Lauds for the same days as above.
It was written by Venantius Fortunatus (530-609) and has approximately twenty-five translations; the one given is by J
Chinese Mission Society of Saint Columban - Founded in 1916, at Dalgarn Park, Ireland, by the Right Reverend Edward J
Missionary Sisters at Saint Columban - Founded in 1916, at Dalgarn Park, Ireland, by the Right Reverend Edward J
Maynooth Mission to China - Founded in 1916, at Dalgarn Park, Ireland, by the Right Reverend Edward J
Medan - In Genesis 37:36 ‘Medanites’ is miswritten for Midianites (see RVm
J
Rabbi - In Matthew 23:7 it is referred to as ‘the usual form of address with which the learned were greeted’ (Dalman, Words of Jesus , p. ’ John the Baptist is once called ‘Rabbi’ by his disciples ( John 3:28 ). Elsewhere in the Gospels it is our Lord who is thus addressed: by His disciples ( Matthew 26:25 ; Matthew 26:49 , Mark 9:5 ; Mark 11:21 ; Mark 14:45 , John 1:38 ; John 1:49 ; John 4:31 ; John 9:2 ; John 11:8 ), by others ( John 3:2 ; John 6:25 ). [1] form of the word; it occurs twice, namely in Mark 10:51 and John 20:16 . ...
J
Zacchaeus - An officer put to death by Judas Maccabæus for treachery ( 2Ma 10:18-22 ). A ‘chief publican’ of Jericho who entertained our Lord ( Luke 19:1-10 ). He was a rich man, a Jew ( Luke 19:8 ), of a higher grade than St. Being short of stature, he had climbed up into a ‘fig-mulberry’ tree to see Jesus; our Lord called him down and invited Himself to his house. On hearing the murmuring of the people at the distinction conferred on a publican, Zacchæus Justifies himself. Jesus passes this by, but in effect replies to the murmurers: ‘If he is a sinner, I have come to save him. J
Catholic Theater Movement - A society founded, 1912, by John Cardinal Farley, to conduct an organized effort against irreligious and immoral tendencies in public amusements. The society receives the enthusiastic support of His Eminence Cardinal Hayes, its honorary president, and is under the immediate direction of Monsignor Michael J
Bibliomancy - J. Davidius, a Jesuit, has published a bibliomancy under the borrowed name of Veridic Christian
Christ: the Preacher's Theme - We may roll the thunders of eloquence, we may dart the coruscations of genius, we may scatter the flowers of poetry, we may diffuse the light of science, we may enforce the precepts of morality, from the pulpit; but if we do not make Christ the great subject of our preaching, we have forgotten our errand, and shall do no good. Satan trembles at nothing but the cross: at this he does tremble; and if we would destroy his power, and extend that holy and benevolent kingdom, which is righteousness, peace, and Joy in the Holy Ghost, it must be by means of the CROSS. –J. James
Carchemish - It was shown by George Smith to have lain on the site of the modern Jerablus or Hierapolis. 605, and thus ended the latest native Egyptian rçgime in Asia ( Jeremiah 46:2 , 2 Chronicles 35:20 ). ...
J
Festus, Porcius - Procurator of Judæa after Felix. His short term of office was marked by a much better administration than that of Felix or of Albinus his successor (Jos. Zoar - The southern division of the Dead Sea (apparently of comparatively recent formation), abounding with salt, and throwing up bitumen, and its shores producing sulphur and nitre, answers to the valley of Siddim, "full of slime pits,"; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; Zephaniah 2:9; 2 Peter 2:6). Josephus speaks of Sodomitis as burnt up and as adjoining the asphaltite lake (B. J. ...
Jeremiah 48:34). ...
Genesis 13:10; Genesis 12:8) is not to be pressed as though he could see all the plain of Jordan as far as to the S
Aristarchus - He was ‘a Macedonian of Thessalonica’ ( Acts 19:29 ; Acts 27:2 ), and a convert from Judaism ( Colossians 4:10 f. Paul on his departure for Jerusalem at the close of the third missionary Journey ( Acts 20:4 ); he also embarked with the Apostle on his voyage to Rome ( Acts 27:2 ). Philippians 1:23 , where Epaphras, not Aristarchus, is styled ‘my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus’). ...
J
Artaxerxes - By him Ezra was permitted to go to Jerusalem from Babylon and restore the affairs of the Jewish community ( Ezra 7:1 ff; Ezra 8:1 ). ...
J
Hadadrimmon - According to a notice by Jerome, it would be equivalent to Megiddo itself. An equally good translation would be ‘as the mourning for Hadadrimmon,’ and it has been plausibly conjectured that it is the weeping for Tammuz referred to in Ezekiel 8:14 , that is here meant. There is no ground for supposing an allusion to the mourning for king Josiah, which, of course, took place in Jerusalem, not in the valley of Megiddo. ...
J
Society of Saint Columban For Missions Among the c - Founded in 1916, at Dalgarn Park, Ireland, by the Right Reverend Edward J
Eutychus - preaching at Troas on his final Journey to Jerusalem (Acts 20:7-12). J. J
Abimelech - According to E [1] ( Genesis 20:1-18 ) he took Sarah into his harem, but on learning that she was Abraham’s wife, restored her uninjured and made ample amends. J
J
Hand, Right Hand - This symbolism is carried into the New Testament, when Jesus and the apostles heal and deliver through the touch of the hand (Matthew 8:3 ; Acts 3:7 ). Mourning can involve the slashing of the hand (Jeremiah 48:37 ). ...
The right hand can be used interchangeably with the hand in poetic texts (Judges 5:26 ; Psalm 74:11 ). It is the favored position for the firstborn of Joseph to receive Jacob's blessing (Genesis 48:13-18 ), for the bride of the king (Psalm 45:9 ), and for the chosen one who sits at God's right hand while Judgment is rendered upon the earth (110:1; Jeremiah 22:24 ). This is applied to Jesus (Mark 14:62 ; 16:19 ). In other cases the position at the right hand has no apparent advantage over the left (1 Chronicles 6:39,44 ; Jonah 4:11 ). In Hebrew, the direction "south" is designated by the word for "right hand" (yamin [1]). J. Ackroyd, TDOT, 5:393-426; J. -J. Lohse, TDNT, 9:424-37; J
Abraham - The change of name recorded in Genesis 17:5 (P [1]7 , E [3] , and P
In the proper Jahwistic tradition the starting-point of the Exodus was Harran in Mesopotamia, but in Genesis 11:28 ff. ...
Arrived in Canaan, Abraham builds altars at Shechem, where he receives the first promise of the land, and Bethel, where the separation from Lot takes place; after which Abraham resumes his southern Journey and takes up his abode at Hebron (ch. This connexion is broken in Genesis 12:10-20 by the episode of Abraham’s sojourn in Egypt, which probably belongs to an older stratum of Jahwistic tradition representing him as leading a nomadic life in the Negeb. 21, which have been amalgamated with the fuller narrative of E [3] , we come to the last scene of J [3] the incident follows, while in J [1] , the biography of Abraham is mostly reduced to a chronological epitome, based on the narrative of J J
Lessius, Leonard - Jesuit theologian, born Brecht, Belgium, 1554; died Louvain, 1623. Having gained his doctorate of philosophy at Louvain when only seventeen, he entered the Society of Jesus, 1573. His most valuable treatise, however, is his De Justitia et Jure, marked by clearness of mind, sound Judgment, and common sense. J
Leonard Lessius - Jesuit theologian, born Brecht, Belgium, 1554; died Louvain, 1623. Having gained his doctorate of philosophy at Louvain when only seventeen, he entered the Society of Jesus, 1573. His most valuable treatise, however, is his De Justitia et Jure, marked by clearness of mind, sound Judgment, and common sense. J
Seba - ...
J
Tetrarch - , Herod Philip, the brother of Antipas, who ruled over the Ituræan and Trachonitic territory; and Lysanias, who was Tetrarch of Abilene ‘in the fifteenth year of Tiberius’ (see Schürer, HJP
J
Massa - This view is confirmed by the fact that 1619168496_12 is addressed to ‘ Lemuel , king of Massa’ (see RVm
J
Hermas - , common among members of the Imperial household (J. It is conjectured that together they formed a separate ἐκκλησία or ‘church,’ the locality of which we shall suppose to have been Rome or Ephesus, according to our view of the destination of these salutations
Damaris - 161; J
Dumah - The region thus indicated is supposed to be the oasis formerly called by the Arabs Dûmat el-Jendel and now known as el-Jôf , about three-fourths of the way from Damascus to Medina. The same place may be referred to in the obscure oracle Isaiah 21:11 , but the LXX
J
Authors of Articles - John S. John S. James A. James Gilroy, D. J. Johns, M. James A. J. J. Arthur John Maclean, M. John T. , Jerusalem, Syria. J. J. James Hope Moulton, M. Wilfrid J. ; Organizing Secretary to the Parochial Missions to the Jews, and Lecturer to the Palestine Exploration Fund. James Orr, D. James Patrick, M. James G. John Skinner, M. John Merlin Powis Smith, D. J. John G. John Taylor, M. John’s Wood Presbyterian Church, London. J. , Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. John’s College, Oxford
Aaron's Rod - As representing his tribe, it had been deposited by Divine command before the ark along with 12 other rods representing the 12 secular tribes, in order that the will of J p j Kenedy And Sons - John Kenedy, born in Ireland, founded the house in Baltimore, transferring to New York, 1838. Patrick John Kenedy, succeeding his father, 1866, received from Leo XIII the honorary title, "Publisher to the Holy Apostolic See," 1895. J. Kenedy & Sons, when Arthur and Louis Kenedy Joined (1903), and on his father's death (1906) Arthur succeeded him as president, with Louis as vice president
Rages - In Judith ( Jdt 1:5 ; Jdt 1:15 ) it is said that in Ragau (evidently the same place) Nebuchadnezzar slew in battle ‘Arphaxad’ prince of the Medes. ...
J
Rizpah - A three years’ famine was divined to be due to the displeasure of Jehovah at the slaughter of the Gibeonites by Saul. When David inquired what expiation he should make, the Gibeonites refused money compensation, but demanded descendants of Saul to expose before Jehovah. Rizpah spread sackcloth on the rock, a sign that the land repented, and watched the dead till the anger of Jehovah relented and the rain came. ...
J
J
Shem - ’ In one of the two traditions combined in J Samson - (Σαμψών)...
Samson was the popular hero of the tribe of Dan who began to deliver Israel from the Philistines, the Nazirite whose secret of strength lay in his hair, the blinded giant who prayed for power to avenge himself and his country in the hour of his death (Judges 13-16). -For solar myth theory see Commentaries on Judges by G. Budde (Das Buch der Richter, 1897); J. Jeremias, The OT in the Light of the Ancient East, Eng. ...
James Strahan
Manna - ...
New Testament Jesus assured the Jews that He, and not the wilderness food, was the true Bread from heaven which conferred eternal life on those who partook of it (John 6:30-58 ). ...
Barbara J
Lime - LIME ( sîdh , LXX [1] konia ) is mentioned by name in EV
J
Chloe - Her name is an epithet of a goddess and was often given to slaves; hence it has been conjectured that she was a freedwoman of property. ...
J
Harmonies of the Gospels - James, Harmony of the Gospels in the words of the RV
J
Abishai - His brothers were Joab and Asahel ( 2 Samuel 2:18 ). An editorial addition ( 2 Samuel 3:30 ) associates him with Joab in the blood-revenge taken on Abner. ...
J
Earnest - ’ Rabbi Greenstone ( JE
J
Clement - -J. ...
J
Gulf - Some commentators have discovered in Jesus’ employment of this term (‘chasm’), as well as in His assertion of the possibility of conversation, an approval in general terms of a current Rabbinical belief that the souls of the righteous and of the wicked exist after death in different compartments of the same under world (see J. It is not possible, however, to construct a theory of Jesus’ belief as to the intermediate state from evidence so scanty. Having reminded the Rich Man of the contrast between his condition and that of Lazarus in their earthly lives, and of its reversal in their respective conditions at present, Abraham is made to say, ‘In all these things (see RVm
J
Profane - Judaism from behind and Gnosticism coming on in frond are the worst offenders. J. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, p. [1] 129-153; J
Midian, Mtdianites - ...
According to E [1] they were traders, who sold Joseph into Egypt (Genesis 37:28 ; Genesis 37:36 ). Jethro (E [1] ) or Hobab (J
The next we hear of the Midianites is in the period of the Judges, when they invaded the territory of central Palestine in hordes, and were put to rout by Gideon and his three hundred men (Judges 6:1-40 ; Judges 7:1-25 ; Judges 8:1-35 ). These Midianites seem to have lived to the east of Palestine, and to have gained access to the west Jordan lands through the valley of the Jabbok. This corresponds with the statement of Genesis 25:6 (JE [3] preserves as Zebah and Zalmunna ( Judges 8:18 ), while E [1] calls them Oreb and Zeeb ( Judges 7:25 ). ( KIB Love Feast - The only certain biblical reference to the love feast comes in Jude 12 , where the plural form of the word "love" with the definite article (hai agapai ) probably denotes a communal celebration in the church (there is another possible reference in 2 Peter 2:13 , but it is probably not genuine ). But there is no reason to think that the practice of a communal fellowship meal, conceived of as a normal aspect of church life or worship, could not have developed in the church addressed by Jude. The importance of eating together in Jewish culture is well known, and in Greco-Roman culture communal meals often played an important role in the life of organizations. ...
Whether Jude 12 alludes to a fellowship meal or to the Lord's Supper, the term chosen to describe it reveals that it was to be an event in which love was expressed and fellowship confirmed. In the Greco-Roman or Jewish household of that day sharing in a meal signified acceptance and fellowship, and the love feast in the church was to be a living example of unity. 5), which is much later than the New Testament, gives the fullest description of what had come to be called the agape Whether these developments are relevant to an understanding of the love feast as it occurs in Jude cannot be determined. J. Bauckham, Jude, 2Peter ; J. Lietzmann, Mass and Lord's Supper: A Study in the History of the Liturgy ; J. Peter and Jude
Manaen - , Acts 21:9 , 1 Corinthians 14:31 ), yet there was in NT a class of official prophets ( Ephesians 2:20 ; Ephesians 3:5 , Revelation 18:20 , perhaps 1 Thessalonians 2:15 ); and so in the Didache ( c Soap - SOAP ( bôrîth ) occurs in EV [1] (AV [2] ‘ sope ’) only in Jeremiah 2:22 (washing of the person) and Malachi 3:2 (operations of the fuller). ’ The cognate word bôr is commonly rendered ‘cleanness,’ but in Job 9:30 , Isaiah 1:25 RVm [2] ‘nitre’
J
Tamar - ...
J
Translation - Mamre - The chieftain had planted the terebinths, or was associated with them as his tenting place; so "the oak of Deborah" (Judges 4:5). Mamre was less than a mile from Hebron (Josephus, B. J
Nahash - A king of Ammon, who demanded the surrender of the men of Jabesh-gilead, with the loss of the right eye of each ( 1 Samuel 11:1 f. ...
J
Advocate - Translation (consistently in NRSV and JB) of the Greek work parakletos [16:2) it is used for Job's "comforters. The Gospel passages certainly mean that the Holy Spirit is Helper, "another" Parakletos [ John 14:16 ), because Jesus had truly been that. The Spirit was promised to remain with Jesus' disciples always (14:16), to "teach" (14:26), to "testify" about Christ and to enable them to testify (15:26), and to "convict the world of guilt" (16:7). Then 1 John 2:1 speaks of Jesus as our continuing advocate with the Father, because we who are sinful find in him the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and thus have our acceptance with the Father. J. Morris, The Gospel according to John
Crocodile - (1) livyâthân , Psalms 74:14 , Isaiah 27:1 , Job 41:1 f. The last reference is almost certainly to the crocodile, which is adopted in RVm Ephphatha - Mark 7:34 , where Jesus says to a man who was deaf and had an impediment in his speech, ‘Ephphatha,’ that is, ‘Be opened. Jerome also reads ephphetha . ...
It is not certain whom or what Jesus addressed when He said ‘Be opened. One gate of knowledge being closed, the man is conceived of as a bolted room, and ‘Jesus said to him . ’...
J
Michal - ...
J
Midian - Its chief was Jethro (or Reuel), whose daughter Moses married (v. In the days of the Judges they extended further north and made inroads into central Palestine. But they were severely defeated by Gideon (Judges 6, 7), and are soon after lost to history. Midian is probably used by later Jewish writers with a spiritual reference, symbolizing the Church’s final triumph over its foes (e. ...
J
Gennesaret, Sea of - to the steep hill behind Mejdel on the S. J. of the lake, where the feeding of the 5,000 took place (John 6:1; John 6:17; John 6:24-25)
Candace - we read Κανδάκην Αἰθίοπες πᾶσαν τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως μητέρα καλοῦσιν (J
Interesting Facts About the Bible - ...
Micah and Nahum...
Middle chapter of...
Job 29:1-25. ...
3 John. ...
3 John. ...
John 11:35. ...
John 11:35. ...
Ezra 7:21 has all the letters of the alphabet except J. ...
The word Jehovah occurs 6853 times in the Bible; the word and 35,543 times in the Old Testament, and 6853 times in the New Testament The shortest chapter in the Bible is Psalms 117:1-2
Ahiah - ” Variant spelling of Ahijah but not used consistently by English translations to reflect Hebrew spellings: 1. The variation occurs because the Hebrew divine name Yahweh can be abbreviated several ways when Joined with another word to form a proper name. Still more complicating is the English system of transliterating the Hebrew letter yodh sometimes with y, sometimes with J, and sometimes with i. See Ahijah
English in English Bibles, the - Title of a book by J. The majority of these Latinisms were anglicized by Bishop Challoner in the 18th century, making the Bible which English-speaking Catholics now use
Tinneh - They form three groups: the Southern, composed of the Apaches, the Navajo, and several Mexican tribes; the Pacific Denes of Washington, Oregon, and California; and the Northern, the most important, to which the Loucheux, Chippewayans, Montagnais, Sekanais, Babines, and Nahanais belong. As early as 1842Father J
Paulinus of Pella - also J. ...
Pharaoh Pharaohis Daughter - In biblical history several Pharaohs are met with, especially in connexion with Abraham, Joseph, and Moses. Stephen proves God’s care for Joseph and Moses by the confidence Pharaoh placed in the former, and the protection given to the latter by the daughter of the reigning king. ‘Just as the career of Moses exhibits the Divine mercy, so the career of Pharaoh exhibits the Divine severity, and in both cases the absolute sovereignty of God is vindicated’ (Sanday-Headlam, ICC_, ‘Romans’5, Edinburgh, 1902, on 9:17). ...
J
Oil - The most common word for "oil" in the Old Testament is the Hebrew word shemen
The term yitshar [ 2 Chronicles 32:28 ; Jeremiah 31:12 ; Hosea 2:8,22 ; Joel 2:19,24 ) while the loss or lack of it was a sign of his Judgment (Deuteronomy 28:51 ; Joel 1:10 ; Haggai 1:11 ). Zechariah 4:14 uses this word to refer to Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel the governor as "the two who are anointed (lit. , Deuteronomy 8:8 ; 33:24 ; 2 Kings 20:13 ; Psalm 92:10 ; Proverbs 21:20 ; Isaiah 39:2 ; Joel 2:19,24 ). , Deuteronomy 28:40 ; Joel 1:10 ). As a sign of Judgment Micah predicted that the nation of Israel "will press olives" but not have the opportunity to "use the oil" (6:15). , for fertility and prosperity [2] "oil of Joy" [3]). ...
Jacob anointed his memorial pillar at Bethel with oil and thus sanctified it as "the house of God" (Genesis 28:18 ; 35:14 ). J. J. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible ; J. Schlier, TDNT , 2:470-73; J. Thompson, IDB, 3:593-95; J
Robbery - However valuable for health reasons the Journey to the higher land may have been, it involved positive dangers, ‘perils of rivers’ not less than ‘perils of robbers. ...
Emphatic statements respecting the prevalence of robbers during the stormy period preceding the fall of Jerusalem, and an account of the measures adopted by Felix in consequence, may be found in Josephus-‘as to the number of the robbers he caused to be crucified, and of those who were caught among them, and whom he brought to punishment, they were a multitude not to be enumerated’ (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. J. Skeel, Travel in the First Century after Christ, Cambridge, 1901; J. Sterrett, Epigraphic Journey in Asia Minor, Boston, 1888; W
Lawyer - His functions were three-fold: to study and interpret the Law (and the traditions arising from it), to hand it down by teaching, and to apply it in the Courts of Justice. The Roman lawyers, were more secular in their interests, and applied themselves more directly to the practical aspects of Jurisprudence. The opinion of Jurisconsulti, or professional students of law, could also be laid before the Judges. ...
In the NT lawyers appear as νομικοί, ‘jurists’ (freq. These lawyers are all of the Jewish type. -On Jewish lawyers cf. , with references; and on Roman Jurists and orators see A. J. J
Lawyer - His functions were three-fold: to study and interpret the Law (and the traditions arising from it), to hand it down by teaching, and to apply it in the Courts of Justice. The Roman lawyers, were more secular in their interests, and applied themselves more directly to the practical aspects of Jurisprudence. The opinion of Jurisconsulti, or professional students of law, could also be laid before the Judges. ...
In the NT lawyers appear as νομικοί, ‘jurists’ (freq. These lawyers are all of the Jewish type. -On Jewish lawyers cf. , with references; and on Roman Jurists and orators see A. J. J
Month - The civil year was used in reckoning their Jubilee, the reign of kings, and birth of children. The names of the Hebrew months follow:...
Synzygus - 2 [1] 282) suggests that the name may have been assumed at baptism as a proper name. Meyer, who regards it as the name of a person, points out that many names occur only once, and that the adjective γνήσιε, ‘real,’ ‘true,’ ‘genuine,’ emphasizes the fact that the character of the man was well expressed by his name (cf. ’ We may also compare Abigail’s use of her husband’s name ‘Nabal,’ to describe his character: ‘Nabal [2] is his name, and folly is with him’ (1 Samuel 25:25). ...
The suggestion of some early commentators that the Apostle was addressing his wife is impossible, both historically, in the light of 1 Corinthians 7:8, and grammatically, as the adjective is masculine. über die Briefe an die Philipper …3, Göttingen, 1865; J. , 1895; J. [3] 1ff. 465; J
Epaphroditus - (= ‘favoured by Aphrodite [1],’ ‘comely’)...
Epaphroditus was a loading member and delegate or messenger of the Philippian Church, mentioned only in Philippians 2:25; Philippians 4:18. Paul describes him as ‘my brother, and fellow-worker, and fellow-soldier,’ implying at once ‘common sympathies, labours undertaken in common, and community in suffering and struggle’ (J. Seekings, Men of Pauline Circle, 1914; J. 230; J. [2] 64ff
Adam - [2] has rightly substituted ‘man’ or ‘the man’ in some verses where AV [4] ) and Genesis 2:7 (J Virtue - -Ἀρετή (translation ‘virtue’ in Philippians 4:8, 2 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 1:5 [1]; pl. [2] ‘virtues’ AVm [4]); (3) the promise of faith, reinforced by the inspiration of ancient heroes and the general exemplarship of Jesus (Hebrews 11, 12); the example of Jesus is specifically a motive for humility (Philippians 2:5 f. ) and generosity (2 Corinthians 8:9); (4) the inspiration of Christian idealism-‘the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus’ (Philippians 3:14), the recognition of a Divine mission (‘Necessity is laid upon me; for woe is unto me, if I preach not the gospel’ [5]); (5) highest of all, the imperative of the love of God (1 Jn. ); hence also the Justification of St. ...
(b) The guiding principle of Christian virtue is the ‘royal law’ (James 2:8)-the loving one’s neighbour as oneself. , Romans 14:15; Romans 15:1 f; 1 Corinthians 8; 1 Corinthians 10:24, Galatians 5:13, 1 Jn, etc. ...
(e) The communistic spirit of the early Church created its own set of virtues-mutual hospitality, contribution to the Church’s poor, the ignoring of distinction between rich and poor believers (James 2:1-4). One also notes the stress laid upon loyalty to Church rule (1 Thessalonians 5:13, Hebrews 13:17, Judges 1:17) and avoidance of Church divisions (see article Murmuring). Christian principles abide, yet ‘New occasions teach new duties; Time makes ancient good uncouth’ (J. , London, 1888; J. Strong:, Christian Ethics (BL [1]0 ), London, 1896; T. Kilpatrick, Christian Character, Edinburgh, 1899; J. Carmichael, London, 1856; J
Neighbor - Once a lawyer, in an attempt to rationalize his own racial prejudice, asked Jesus, "And who is my neighbor?" (Luke 10:29 ). This lawyer-scribe unknowingly expresses a fundamental issue in all of ethics: For whom are we responsible in issues of Justice and mercy? Jesus' answer was the parable of the Good Samaritan and the fundamental ideas of the parable find their roots in both Old Testament and Jewish soil. ...
The problem of "neighborliness" was acute in Judaism because of the people's self-consciousness of being the chosen people (Genesis 12:1-3 ; 15:1-6 ; 17:1-8 ), sealed in the rite of circumcision (17:9-14). With such tendencies, it is not surprising that legislation had to be given to Israel to encourage compassion and Justice for the non-Jew. Deuteronomy 24:19-22 ) and every third year a tithe was to be shared with the sojourners (Deuteronomy 14:29 ; 26:12-13 ). The fundamental basis for this is that at one time Israel was also a sojourner while in Egypt; therefore, Israel is to treat its sojourners with compassion and Justice (Leviticus 19:33-34 ; Deuteronomy 10:19 ; 24:22 ). Essentially, then, the Mosaic laws demand both compassion and Justice to be guaranteed for the foreigner because God loves the sojourner (Deuteronomy 10:18 ). It is impossible for us to know Just how Israel treated the foreigner who decided to live with, or near, them. ...
In spite of this insistence of the law that Israel was to be kind to foreigners and treat them with compassion and Justice, the preponderance of emphasis is on the "neighborliness" to be shown to fellow members of the covenant with Israel. Jeremiah 31:34 ): at the end of seven years release was granted from debts owed to a "neighbor-brother" but this same privilege of release was not granted to foreigners (Deuteronomy 15:2-3 ). ...
Thus, when we enter into the New Testament period we are to understand the biblical laws of the Old Testament that speak of neighborliness as injunctions for special treatment of fellow Jews. Jews showed special love for fellow Jews because they were covenantally and racially bound together. The social realities of Jewish history, with the constant battering of the people of Israel by other nations, also inclined the Jewish people to favor their own. Social realities also reveal that Jews were kind to Gentiles in general and for those Jews who lived in the diaspora there was also a general social friendliness to be observed. Early Christianity showed a similar kind of "prejudiced love" (Galatians 6:10 ) and it would be wrong to vilify either Jews or Christians for their "prejudiced love" unless that love becomes neglect, or even contempt, of outsiders in need. ...
Jesus sought to expand the concept of "neighbor" to include non-Jews; while this is not contrary to Jewish law or to Jewish practice, it clearly was challenging to many in Judaism. Jewish practice had come to the general conviction that a "neighbor, " in purely legal terms, was a Jew or proselyte to Judaism. For Jesus, a neighbor was anyone with whom you came into contact—whether Jew, Samaritan, or Gentile (Luke 10:25-37 ). In fact, this focus on an expanding definition led to the breaking down of Jewish barriers that were constructed around the traditional interpretations of cleanness and uncleanness. At the time of Jesus, various restricting movements, like the Pharisees and Essenes at Qumran, naturally tended to show favoritism to members of their own social groups. Thus, we are to understand the parable of the good Samaritan as addressing the issue of the "limits" of one's responsibility and we are to see Jesus saying that there are no limits; one cannot exclusively exercise compassion or Justice for one's own kind. ...
This profound parable of Jesus, with its teaching on the importance of showing love for anyone within one's reach, along with Jesus' command to love one's enemies (Matthew 5:43-48 ) and his overt friendliness to Gentiles become foundational for the early church's missionary efforts and for interpersonal relationships within the largely Gentile churches of Paul. Paul urges the Galatians to love their neighbors as themselves and here the implication is that it involved both Jewish and Gentile Christians (Galatians 5:14 ) and we find in Matthew an emphasis on loving one's enemy (=Gentile Matthew 5:43-48 ). Once again, while this idea is not new to Judaism, the emphasis of seeing neighbors as Gentiles as well clearly expanded the Jewish horizons. Paul can say that one is to do good especially to other believers (Galatians 6:10 ) and James can see the principle of Leviticus 19:18 applying to what was probably Jewish Christians (2:1-14). Furthermore, Paul urges his congregations to be neighborly, and we are probably Justified in seeing such exhortations applying primarily to Christian fellowship ( Romans 13:8-10 ; 1 Corinthians 10:24 ; Ephesians 4:25 ). J. Dunn, Jesus' Call to Discipleship ; H. Greeven and J. Carson, NIDNTT, 1:254-60; J. J. J. McKnight, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, pp. 259-65; idem, A Light among the Gentiles: Jewish Missionary Activity in the Second Temple Period ; E. Sanders, Judaism: Practice and Belief
Nature - … With the revelation of the sons of God humanity would attain its end, and nature too’ (J. There is, therefore, a standard by which they may be Judged although they do not possess the written Law which is the Jews’ glory. Paul had an altogether persuasive and beautiful word for the supernatural, which he was never weary of using, and which the Church should count one of her chief treasures-the Grace of God’ (J. James 5:17). -J. Walker, Christian Theism and a Spiritual Monism, Edinburgh, 1906; J. ...
J
Jareb - JAREB . If we adhere to the current text, we must regard Jareb (or Jarîb ) as a sobriquet coined by Hosea to indicate the love of conflict which characterized the Assyrian king. Thus ‘King Jarib’ = ‘King Warrior,’ ‘King Striver,’ ‘King Combat,’ or the like; and the events referred to are those of b. , LXX [1] ‘King Jareim’; Symm.
J
Julius - JULIUS. Paul was committed with other prisoners to the charge of a centurion named Julius, ‘of the Augustan band’ or cohort ( Acts 27:1 ). Julius showed much kindness to the Apostle, and evidently treated him as a man of importance, though he did not take his advice on a matter of navigation ( Acts 27:3 ; Acts 27:9 ; Acts 27:11 ; Acts 27:21 ; Acts 27:31 ; Acts 27:43 , Acts 28:16 ). 323) that, as Julius rather than the captain or ‘sailing master’ (not ‘owner’) had supreme command ( Acts 27:11 ), the ship must have been a Government vessel. J
Nephilim - V in the only two places where it occurs in OT (AV
J
Talitha Cumi - —The words occur in Mark 5:41, and were uttered by our Saviour over the daughter of the Jewish ruler, Jairus. ’ We thus reproduce the words of Jesus accurately, if we render them, ‘Lambkin, arise. ...
J
Church - Francis J
Hymenaeus - J
Lovingkindness - [1] (30 times in the AV [2] , 42 times in the RV
J
Anoint - The Hebrew term for "anoint, " masah [ Isaiah 21:5 ), smearing paint on a house (Jeremiah 22:14 ), or anointing the body with oil (Amos 6:6 ). Jesus is the promised deliverer (John 1:41 ; 4:25 ), anointed with the Holy Spirit and with power (Acts 10:38 ). ...
Louis Goldberg...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
Bibliography . Hamilton, TWOT, 1:1255-56; J
Sapphire - (σάπφειρος, from מַפיר)...
Sapphire is the second foundation stone of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19), an idea probably suggested by Isaiah 54:11. 38) alludes to its ‘aureus pulvis,’ and again (39), ‘in iis [1] enim aurum punctis conlucet caeruleis. The modern sapphire is probably the ancient ὑάκινθος, or ‘jacinth’ (q.
James Strahan
Reviling - In Matthew 5:11 (|| Luke 6:22) Jesus pronounces a blessing upon those who are reviled for His sake (ὀνειδίζω here is the same word as is used in Mark 15:32 of the reproaches of the Cross). That the secret of the blessedness lies in the spirit in which the abuse is borne is shown by the ‘Rejoice and be exceeding glad’ of the following verse, as well as by St. Peter (1 Peter 2:23) says of Jesus that ‘being reviled, he reviled not again’ (λοιδορούμενος οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει). And the author of Hebrews suggests that the best preservative against hasty reprisals and a violent temper is a contemplation of the patient silence of Jesus. ...
J
Red Sea - The passage of the Red Sea with the destruction of Pharaoh’s army was one of the great miracles of Jewish history which the people loved to recall. ...
J
Behemoth - The hippopotamus ( Job 40:15 ), as leviathan ( Job 41:1 ) is the crocodile. This is doubtful, but the myth undoubtedly reappears in later Jewish literature: ‘And in that day will two monsters be separated, a female named Leviathan to dwell in the abyss over the fountains of waters. But the male is called Behemoth, which occupies with its breast [1] an immeasurable desert named Dendain’ (En 60:7, 8; cf. The LXX
J
Jason - JASON . This Greek name was adopted by many Jews whose Hebrew designation was Joshua (Jesus). Jason of Cyrene, an author, of whose history 2 Mac. Joshua the high priest, who ousted his brother Onias iii. a Jason was St. The Jason who sends greetings from Corinth in Romans 16:21 , a ‘kinsman’ of St. a Jew), is probably the same man. J
Meshech - The name of a people of Asia Minor mentioned after Tubal as among the sons of Japbeth ( Genesis 10:2 ). These two peoples, possibly kindred, appear almost always in conjunction in OT; so even in Isaiah 66:18 , where read ‘Meshech’ instead of ‘that draw the bow’ (the word for ‘bow’ being a supplementary gloss). In Psalms 12:6 Meshech and Kedar appear as types of barbarous and warlike people, Just as Meshech and Tubal are represented in Ezekiel 32:28 ; Ezekiel 38:2 ; Ezekiel 39:1 . Genesis 10:23 )...
J
Divine - ) Proceeding from God; as, divine Judgments. ) To conjecture or guess; as, to divine rightly. ) To foresee or foreknow; to detect; to anticipate; to conjecture. Sir J
Apollonius - [1] renders odiosum principem , AV [2] ‘detestable ringleader,’ RV
J
Beach - ’ In the Gospels the word occurs only in Matthew 13:2; Matthew 13:48 and John 21:4. On such a beach, if the traditional scene be correct, the multitude was gathered listening as Jesus spoke from the boat; and on such a ‘beach’ He stood waiting for the disciples to come ashore in the morning, when for ‘the third time he was manifested to them after that he was risen from the dead’ (John 21:14). ...
J
Abner - He set Ish-bosheth on his father’s throne, and fought long and bravely against David’s general, Joab ( 2 Samuel 2:1-32 ). Dreading the loss of his own position, and thirsting for revenge, Joab murdered him at Hebron ( 2 Samuel 3:26 f. David gave him a public funeral, dissociated himself from Joab’s act ( 2 Samuel 3:31-37 ), and afterwards charged Solomon to avenge it ( 1 Kings 2:5 ). ...
J
Perizzites - Exodus 3:8 ; Exodus 3:17 ; Exodus 23:23 ; Exodus 33:2 ; Exodus 34:11 , Deuteronomy 20:17 , Joshua 3:10 ; Joshua 24:11 ). Because in Genesis 15:20 and Joshua 17:15 they are mentioned with the Rephaim, some have inferred that they were one of the pre-Semitic tribes of Palestine. In the J [1] document the Perizzites are three times mentioned with the Canaanites ( Genesis 13:7 ; Genesis 34:30 , Judges 1:4 ). The name ‘Perizzite’ (in AV [2] and RV [3] of 1Es 8:69 , Esther 1:21 Esther 1:21 , and AV [2] of Jdt 5:16 Pherezite(s)) is in Hebrew almost identical with a word meaning ‘dweller in an unwalled village,’ hence Moore (on Judges 1:5 ) has suggested that they were Canaanite agriculturists, living in unwalled towns, and not a separate tribe
Patrobas - [1] 398f. For the occurrence of the name Patrobas on inscriptions of the Imperial household see J
Way - ’ Saul, if he finds at Damascus ‘any that were of the Way’ (ἐάν τινας εὕρῃ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντας), is to bring them to Jerusalem (Acts 9:2). ’ In the NT we are familiar with ‘way of the Lord,’ ‘of salvation,’ ‘of God,’ ‘of truth’; ‘I am the way’ (John 14:6); ‘the narrow and the broad way’ (Matthew 7:13 f. J. The teaching of Paul and Peter, John and James is no less practical than that of the Master. ’...
J
Vanity - There is, however, an adjective, rendered ‘vain,’ which has no corresponding substantive, namely κενός. , where he defines κόπος κενός [1] as ‘labour which yields no return’) that the distinction cannot always be pressed. J. Jude, and the Second Epistle of St. Psalms 4:3; Psalms 39:6 and the famous Ecclesiastes 1:2 (‘vanity of vanities’), and concludes that in these cases, as in 2 Peter 2:10, the word approximates to the Pauline use in Romans 8:20 (‘the creation was subjected to vanity’) and denotes what is simply passing and transient. הֶבֶל, though in Septuagint the word is also a rendering of שָׁוְא), denotes ‘either absence of purpose or failure to attain any true purpose’ (J
Enoch - Chăn ôk ) is the ‘seventh from Adam’ ( Judges 1:14 ) in the Sethite genealogy of Genesis 5:1-32 (see Genesis 5:18-24 ). The resemblances between the two lists seem to show that they rest on a common tradition, preserved in different forms by J
J
Jebus, Jebusites - JEBUS, JEBUSITES . The former is a name given to Jerusalem by J [1] in Judges 19:11 and imitated by the Chronicler ( 1 Chronicles 11:4 ); the latter is the tribe which inhabited Jerusalem from before the Israelitish conquest till the reign of David. It was formerly supposed that Jebus was the original name of Jerusalem, but the letters of Abdi-Khiba among the el-Amarna tablets prove that the city was called Jerusalem ( Uru-salim ) about b. No trace of Jebusites appears then. J [1] states that at the time of the Israelite conquest the king of Jerusalem was Adoni-zedek ( Joshua 10:3 ), and that the Israelites did not expel the Jebusites from the city ( Joshua 15:63 , Judges 1:21 ). During the time of the Judges he tells us that it was in possession of the Jebusites ( Judges 19:11 ), and gives a brief account of its capture by David ( 2 Samuel 5:6-8 ). E [3] mentions the Jebusites only once ( Numbers 13:29 ), and then only to say that, like the Hittite and Amorite, they inhabit the mountain. The favourite list of Palestinian nations which D [4] and his followers insert so often usually ends with Jebusite, but adds nothing to their history. P [5] mentions them once ( Joshua 15:8 ). They are mentioned in Nehemiah 9:8 and Ezra 9:1 in lists based on D [4] , while Zechariah 9:7 for archaic effect calls dwellers in Jerusalem ‘Jebusite’ (so Wellhausen, Nowack, and Marti). The name of the king, Adoni-zedek , would indicate that the Jebusites were Semitic, probably related to the Canaanite tribes. Jerusalem) it is clear that the Jebusite city was situated on the southern part of the eastern hill of present Jerusalem, and that that hill was called Zion. Its situation was supposed by the Jebusites to render the city impregnable (2 Samuel 5:6 ). ...
One other Jebusite besides Adoni-zedek, namely, Araunah, is mentioned by name. It would seem from this narrative that the Jebusites were not exterminated or expelled, but remained in Jerusalem, and were gradually absorbed by the Israelites
Aristarchus - Paul on his third missionary Journey. [1] ) to convey the contributions of the Church to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4). [4] 414
Benjamin - BENJAMIN . The youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, and the only full brother of Joseph ( Genesis 30:22 f. [1] ] Genesis 35:17 [2] ] Genesis 35:24 [4] ( Genesis 35:16 ) puts his birth near Ephrath in Benjamin. P [5] , however ( Genesis 35:22-26 ), gives Paddan-aram as the birth-place of all Jacob’s children. Jacob changed this ill-omened name to the more auspicious one Benjamin , which is usually interpreted ‘son of my right hand,’ the right hand being the place of honour as the right side was apparently the lucky side (cf. Pressed by a famine, his ten brothers went down to Egypt, and Jacob, solicitous for his welfare, did not allow Benjamin to accompany them; but Joseph made it a condition of his giving them corn that they should bring him on their return. When Judah ( Genesis 43:9 J [4] ) or Reuben ( Genesis 42:37 E [4] ) gave surety for his safe return, Jacob yielded. Throughout the earlier documents Benjamin is a tender youth, the idol of his father and brothers. A late editor of P [5] ( Genesis 46:21 ) makes him, when he entered Egypt, the father of ten sons, that is more than twice as many as Jacob’s other sons except Dan, who had seven. Ben-oni may be connected with On in the tribe of Benjamin. The two names may point to the union of two related tribes, and the persistence of the traditions that Benjamin was the full brother of Joseph, whereas the other Joseph tribes (Manasseh and Ephraim) are called sons, would indicate not only a close relationship to Joseph, but also a comparatively early development into an independent tribe. On the other hand, J [4] E [4] P [5] all make Benjamin the youngest son, and P
The limits of the tribal territory are given by P [5]
in Joshua 18:11-28 . Jericho, where in early times there may have been a cult of the moon-god ( Jârçach = ‘moon’), and Jerusalem are also assigned to Benjamin. Deuteronomy 33:12 , as commonly but not universally interpreted, also assigns Jerusalem to Benjamin, though later it belonged to Judah. Anathoth, the birth-place of Jeremiah, also lay in Benjamin ( Joshua 21:18 James A
Judah - JUDAH (‘he is to be praised’; the popular etymologies seem to regard the name as an unabbreviated Hoph. of Jâdâh , ‘to praise’). Judah is represented as the fourth son of Leah by Jacob ( Genesis 29:35 [1] ] Genesis 35:23 (P [3] ) nevertheless gives him precedence over Reuben, the firstborn, who is favoured by the later Ephraimite document E [3] , it was Judah who proposed to sell Joseph in order to avert the danger which threatened him at the hands of his brethren ( Genesis 37:26 ff. Similarly, when they return to Joseph’s house with the silver cup, J [3] gives the pre-eminence to Judah, and makes him spokesman for all in his pathetic appeal to Joseph ( Genesis 44:14-34 ). Genesis 35:22 ), and Simeon and Levi, because of their barbarous conduct towards the Shechemites, fall before their enemies and into disfavour with their brethren, and Judah succeeds to the primogenitureship. Judah is there said to have withdrawn himself from his brethren and to have gone down to a certain Adullamite whose name was Hirah. Er and Onan were slain by Jahweh for their wickedness. Er’s widow, Tamar, a Canaanitess also, it seems, posing by the wayside as a hierodule, enticed Judah to intercourse with her, and of her the twin sons Perez and Zerah were born to Judah. This story is usually held to be based upon facts of tribal history, though cast in the form of personal narrative, and also to prove clearly that Judah, like other tribal names, is but the eponymous head of the tribe. It points to the settlement of Judah in the region of Adullam and its union with foreign stock. Hirah is a Canaanite clan; Er and Onan stand for two other clans which became united to Judah, but early disappeared; the other three continued to exist as constituents of Judah. Besides these it would appear that in the time of David the Calebite and Jerahmeelite tribes, mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:1-55 as descendants of Perez, were incorporated into the tribe. In 1 Samuel 27:10 ; 1 Samuel 30:14 they still appear to be independent, though the Chronicler makes both Caleb and Jerahmeel descendants of Judah through Perez and Hezron, to whom also he traces David. In Numbers 13:1-33 (P [2] ) Caleb, who is sent by Moses as one of the spies, belongs to Judah; but in Numbers 32:12 , Joshua 14:6 ; Joshua 14:14 (R [8] ), Judges 3:1-31 etc. From the last passage we see that Othniel, whose chief centre was Kiriathsepher (Debir), was another closely related tribe, and both appear from Genesis 36:16 ; Genesis 36:42 (P
Of all these foreign elements by which the tribe of Judah was increased, the Calebite was the most important. In fact the Chronicler makes the Judahite stock consist largely of the descendants of Hezron. It was the Calebite capital, Hebron, that under David (himself said to be Hezronite) became the capital of Judah. ...
P
The territory of the tribe is described in Joshua 15:1 ff. (P James A. ...
JUDAH.
Nehemiah 12:8 ) = 1Es 5:58 Joda. A Levite, Ezra 10:23 = 1E Esther 9:23 Judges 1:4 . Luke 1:39 ; see Jutah . ...
JUDAH ‘upon (AV [13] ) or at (RV [14] ) Jordan’ ( Joshua 19:34 ) is a very doubtful site. It is the general opinion that the text of this passage must be corrupt, and that the name of some place near Jordan, perhaps Chinneroth, may have been lost
Maps - Rezon - 1 Kings 11:23-25 a have evidently been interpolated between 1 Kings 11:22 and 1 Kings 11:25 b, and in the best MSS of the LXX
J
Nebraska - One of the earliest Catholic settlements of Nebraska was founded in Dakota County in 1855 by a group under the leadership of Reverend J. It was known as Saint Patrick Settlement, and from his church of Saint John, Father Tracy attended similar colonies in Omaha, and in Nebraska City, where there was soon a German group under the Benedictine, Father Hartig. In 1874 a group of Catholics from Boston, led by General John O'Neill, settled in Holt County and founded the town which still bears their leader's name. Some members of this settlement moved shortly into Greeley County, to a site still known as O'Connor, named in honor of Bishop James O'Connor of Omaha
Word - Both in the OT and in the NT the original terms employed may pass from the meaning ‘speech’ to signify ‘the subject matter of speech.
J
Biography - We shall only, therefore, point out some of the best pieces, which the reader may peruse at his leisure:...
Hunter's Sacred Biography; Robinson's Scripture Characters; Hunter's History of Christ; J. Brainerd; Gibbon's Life of Watts; Brown's Life of Hervey; Fawcett's Life of Heywood; Brown's Lives in his Student and Pastor; Burnet's Life of Rochester; Hayley's Life of Cowper; Benson's Life of Fletcher; Jay's Life of Winter; Cecil's Life of Newton; Priestley's Chart of Biography, with a Book describing it, 12mo
Lud, Ludim - This reading would suit equally well Jeremiah 46:9 , and even the singular form Lud might with advantage be emended into Lub in Ezekiel 27:10 ; Ezekiel 30:5 , Isaiah 66:19 . ...
J
Lydia - Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians, and unless we identify her with Euodia or Syntyche, she had probably left the city when the Apostle wrote; for a conjecture of Renan’s, see art. J
Benaiah - BENAIAH (‘Jah hath built’). A brave soldier from Kabzeel in Judah ( 2 Samuel 23:20 ff. He played an important role in the young king’s coronation ( 1 Kings 1:38 ; 1 Kings 1:44 ), and was subsequently ordered to dispatch Joab, whose place as commander-in-chief he then filled ( 1 Kings 2:28-35 ). Judges 12:15 ). ...
J
Conversation - In EV [3] and RVm [3] and RVm
J J
Kenizzites - According to J [1] ( Joshua 15:17 , Judges 1:13 ), Caleb and Othniel were descended from him. ) R [2] in Joshua 14:6 ; Joshua 14:14 definitely calls Caleb a Kenizzite, as P Kittim - KITTIM (AV [1] Chittim , which is retained by RV [2] in Malachi 1:1 Malachi 1:1 ; 1Ma 8:5 ) designates properly the island of Cyprus, and is to he so understood in the geographical list of the descendants of Javan (wh. ...
J
Doctrine - The message includes historical facts, such as those regarding the events of the life of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 11:23 ). As J. Gresham Machen pointed out years ago, Jesus' death is an integral historical fact but it is not doctrine. Jesus' death for sins (1 Corinthians 15:3 ) is doctrine. They were adamant about the protection, appropriation, and propagation of doctrine because it contained the truth about Jesus Christ. They encouraged believers to be faithful to that body of information they had heard and received in the beginning (1 John 2:7,24 , 26 ; 3:11 ), that "faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints' (Jude 3 ). The apostle John developed three tests for discerning authentic spirituality: believing right doctrine (1 John 2:18-27 ), obedience to right doctrine (2:28-3:10), and giving expression to right doctrine with love (2:7-11). ...
Sam Hamstra, Jr. J
Abel - The ancient writer of the story (J) evidently wished to teach that animal sacrifice alone was pleasing to God (Gunkel, Genesis , 38; Skinner, 105). Job 16:18, Isaiah 26:21, 2 Kings 9:26; also Revelation 6:9-10): it was such a cry as is sounded in Milton’s sonnet, ‘Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints’; but the blood of the eternal covenant intercedes for mercy. John (1 John 3:12) uses the murder of Abel by his brother to illustrate the absence of that spirit of love which is the essence of goodness. 164; J. [1] p. [2] 45; A. [3] 44. ...
James Strahan
Asher - border of Manasseh ( Joshua 17:7 ). The eighth son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah’s handmaid. Leah, Joyful over his birth, named him ‘Happy’ ( Genesis 30:13 ). This ‘popular etymology’ dominates J [1] ’s thought in the ‘Blessing of Jacob’ ( Genesis 49:20 ) and in the ‘Blessing of Moses’ ( Deuteronomy 33:24 ). A predominance of the Gentile element thus introduced would account, in a measure at least, for the non-participation of the Asherites in the war against Sisera, although they are said to have sent a contingent to the support of Gideon in his war with the Midianites ( Judges 6:35 ; Judges 7:23 ), and, according to the Chronicler, went 40,000 strong to Hebron to aid David in his struggle for the kingship ( 1 Chronicles 12:36 ). , the Song of Deborah, the other northern tribes, Zebulun to the south and Naphtali to the east of it, flung themselves with fierce abandon against the army of Sisera, while ‘Asher sat still at the haven of the sea’ ( Judges 5:17 f. According to P
P [2]
gives also the territorial boundaries, including the names of 22 cities and their dependent villages, the majority of which are unidentified (Joshua 19:24-30 ; cf. Judges 1:31-32 , and Joshua 17:11 J James A
Abel - The ancient writer of the story (J) evidently wished to teach that animal sacrifice alone was pleasing to God (Gunkel, Genesis , 38; Skinner, 105). Job 16:18, Isaiah 26:21, 2 Kings 9:26; also Revelation 6:9-10): it was such a cry as is sounded in Milton’s sonnet, ‘Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints’; but the blood of the eternal covenant intercedes for mercy. John (1 John 3:12) uses the murder of Abel by his brother to illustrate the absence of that spirit of love which is the essence of goodness. 164; J. [1] p. [2] 45; A. [3] 44. ...
James Strahan
Natural - Judges 1:10 ‘naturally’) ‘natural’ is the rendering of φυσικός. History confirms the Apostle’s Judgment that ‘natural’ instincts and passions unbridled by reason and conscience lead to unnatural crimes which are dishonouring alike to man and to God. Paul, using figurative language, describes the Jews as ‘natural branches’ in contrast with the Gentiles, who are represented as artificially grafted into the tree of God’s people. 24), and the force of his reproof to the presuming Gentile turns on the fact that the process was an unnatural one’ (J. In 2 Peter 2:12 ‘mere animals’ is in the Revised Version text, but in Judges 1:19 ‘sensual’ is found, ‘animal’ being a second marginal rendering.
(b) In James 1:23 ‘his natural face’ is the rendering of the phrase πρόσωπον τῆς γενέσεως, lit. J
Citizenship - As a citizen of Tarsus he must have belonged to a particular tribe, and it has been plausibly conjectured by W. J. The constant conferment of this limited ciuitas added greatly to the Roman army and territory, and was not intended for the subjects’ good. , and a law of Julius Caesar (49 b. Such communities were created also outside Italy by Julius Caesar, Claudius, Vespasian, and others, until in a. ...
The inhabitants of coloniae required no grant of citizenship because they were of necessity Roman citizens from the first; a colonia was in origin simply a bit of Rome set down in a foreign country, to keep a subject people in check. It was probably either from him or from Julius Caesar that the father or grandfather of St. Jevons, A Manual of Greek Antiquities, London, 1895, bk. 2 [1], ii. [2] (Eng. 6 [4]. -On Roman citizenship: J. Goudy, 1899); J. Reid, ‘On Some Questions of Roman Public Law,’ in Journal of Roman Studies, i. [5] 68-99; J. 1 (J
Israel - The sources of Jewish political and religious history are the OT, the so-called Apocryphal writings, the works of Josephus, the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions, allusions in Greek and Roman historians, and the Mishna and Talmud. Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua (the Hexateuch) are the product of one long literary process. The documents are the Jahwistic (J [1] ), composed in Judah by J [1] 2 ; the Elohistic (E [4] 2 ; the Deuteronomic code (D [7] ), composed by D [7] 2 prefixed a second preface about ninety years later; the Code of Holiness, compiled by P
The dates here assigned to these documents are those given by the Graf-Wellhausen school, to which the majority of scholars in all countries now belong. The Ewald-Dillmann school, represented by Strack and Kittel, still hold that P [10]
is older than D Judges 1:1-36 and 2 Samuel 1:1-27 and 2Kings were also compiled by one literary process. The compiler was a follower of D [1] and E [4] documents in Judges 5:1-31 a poem composed about b. In the synchronous history ( 1 Kings 12:1-33 - 2 Kings 17:1-41 ) the principal sources are the ‘Book of the Chronicle of the Kings of Israel’ and the ‘Book of the Chronicle of the Kings of Judah,’ though various other writings have been drawn upon for the narratives of Elijah and Elisha. The concluding portion ( 2 Kings 18:1-37 ; 2 Kings 19:1-37 ; 2 Kings 20:1-21 ; 2 Kings 21:1-26 ; 2 Kings 22:1-20 ; 2Ki 23:1-37 ; 2 Kings 24:1-20 ; 2 Kings 25:1-30 ) is dependent also upon the Judæan Chronicle. on the Books of Judges, Samuel, and Kings. See Ezra and Nehemiah [18]. ...
Josephus is for the earlier history dependent almost exclusively upon the OT. The Mishna and Talmud are compilations of traditions containing in some cases an historical kernel, but valuable for the light they throw upon Jewish life in the early Christian centuries. Winckler, it is true, would dissolve these narratives into solar and astral myths, but the majority of scholars, while making allowance for legendary and mythical elements, are confident that important outlines of tribal history are revealed in the early books of the Bible. If countries and peoples are here personified as men, the same may be the case elsewhere: and in Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Esau, and the twelve sons of Jacob, we may be dealing not with individuals but with tribes. (For the classification as to origin see Paton, AJTh The sons of Jacob are divided into four groups. Six Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun are said to be the sons of Leah. ’ The tribes of Manasseh, Ephraim, and Benjamin traced their descent from Rachel. Judah was, in the period before the conquest, a far smaller tribe than afterwards, for, as will appear later, many Palestinian clans were absorbed into Judah. Benjamin is said to have been the youngest son of Jacob, born in Palestine a long time after the others. The name Benjamin means ‘sons of the south,’ or ‘southerners’: the Benjamites are probably the ‘southerners’ of the tribe of Ephraim, and were gradually separated from that tribe after the conquest of Canaan. Four sons of Jacob Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher are said to be the sons of concubines. This less honourable birth probably means that they Joined the confederacy later than the other tribes. ), this tribe probably Joined the confederacy after the conquest of Palestine. The original Israel, then, probably consisted of the eight tribes Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Manasseh, and Ephraim, though perhaps the Rachel tribes did not Join the confederacy until they had escaped from Egypt (see § 6). to the Exile , 6) regards the Khabiri, who in the el-Amarna tablets lay siege to Jerusalem, as Hebrews who made an incursion into Palestine, c [4] document, which originated among the Ephraimites, is the first one that remembers that the name Jahweh was, until the Exodus, unknown to them (cf. The J [1] , E [4] , and P [10] documents agree in their main picture of the Exodus, although J [1] differs from the other two in holding that the worship of Jahweh was known at an earlier time. Moses, they tell us, fled from Egypt and took refuge in Midian with Jethro, a Kenite priest (cf. Judges 1:16 ). Here, according to E [4] and P [10] , at Horeb or Sinai, Jahweh’s holy mount, Moses first learned to worship Jahweh, who, he believed, sent him to deliver from Egypt his oppressed brethren. After various plagues (J [1] gives them as seven; E [4] , five; and P [1] makes this escape the result of Jahweh’s control of natural means ( Exodus 14:21 ). Moses then led them to Sinai, where, according to both J [1] and E [4] , they entered into a solemn covenant with Jahweh to serve Him as their God. According to E [4] with a few additions from J [1] writer would see in such an event, as he did in the action of the winds upon the waters of the Red Sea, the hand of Jahweh. These stories explained the origin of a circle of sacred stones called Gilgal , which lay on the west of the Jordan, by the supposition that the priests had taken these stones from the bed of the river at the time of the crossing. The first point of attack after crossing the Jordan was Jericho. In Joshua 6:1-27 J [1] ’s account and E [4] ’s account of the taking of Jericho are woven together (cf. the Oxford Hexateuch , or SBOT [7] and P [10] strata of the book of Joshua, which form the main portion of it, represent Joshua as gaining possession of the country in two great battles, and as dividing it up among the tribes by lot. The J [1] account of the conquest, however, which has been preserved in Judges 1:1-36 and Joshua 8:1-35 ; Joshua 9:1-27 ; Joshua 10:1-43 ; Joshua 13:1 ; Joshua 13:7 a, Joshua 13:13 ; Joshua 15:14-19 ; Joshua 15:63 ; Joshua 16:1-3 ; Joshua 16:10 ; Joshua 17:11-18 ; Joshua 19:47 , while it represents Joshua as the leader of the Rachel tribes and as winning a decisive victory near Gibeon, declares that the tribes went up to win their territory singly, and that in the end their conquest was only partial. ...
According to J [1] , there seem to have been at least three lines of attack: (1) that which Joshua led up the valley from Jericho to Ai and Bethel, from which the territories afterwards occupied by Ephraim and Benjamin were secured. (2) A movement on the part of the tribe of Judah followed by the Simeonites, south-westward from Jericho into the hill-country about Bethlehem and Hebron. (3) Lastly, there was the movement of the northern tribes into the hill-country which borders the great plain of Jezreel. J [1] in Joshua 11:1 ; Joshua 11:4-9 tells us that in a great battle by the Waters of Merom (wh. see) Joshua won for the Israelites a victory over four petty kings of the north, which gave the Israelites their foothold there. J [1] distinctly states ( Judges 1:1-36 ) that the conquest was not complete, but that two lines of fortresses, remaining in the possession of the Canaanites, cut the Israelitish territory into three sections. Taanach, Ibleam, and Beth-shean, and gave the Canaanites control of the great plain of Jezreel. while, holding as they did Jerusalem, Aijalon, Har-heres (Beth-shemesh), and Gezer, they cut the tribe of Judah off from their northern kinsfolk. J [1] tells us (Judges 1:34-35 ) that the Danites struggled for a foothold in the Shephçlah, where they obtained out an insecure footing. As they afterwards migrated from here ( Judges 17:1-13 ; Judges 18:1-31 ), and as a place in this region was called the ‘Camp of Dan’ ( Judges 13:25 ; Judges 18:12 ), probably their hold was very insecure. We learn from Judges 15:1-20 that they possessed the town of Zorah, where Samson was afterwards born. Period of the Judges
Cherethites And Pelethites - Benaiah, whom Josephus calls ‘captain of the guard’ ( Ant . They accompanied David in his retreat from Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 15:18 ), fought against Absalom ( 2 Samuel 20:7 ; 2 Samuel 20:23 ), acted as Solomon’s bodyguard at his coronation ( 1 Kings 1:38 ; 1 Kings 1:44 ). Unwillingness to believe that foreigners stood so near the national hero led certain Jewish scholars to assert that the two clans were Israelites. The LXX
J
Serpent, Brazen - Numbers 21:4-9 relates that Moses was commanded by God to make a serpent of brass (or rather, of bronze) and to set it upon a standard (RV
J
Theudas - Josephus ( Ant. 1) speaks of a Theudas who misled the people and gave himself out for a prophet, at least ten years after Gamaliel’s speech; and also a little afterwards (§ 2) speaks of the sons of Judas the Galilæao, the instigator of a rebellion in the time of Quirinius. Luke ( Acts 5:37 ) speaks successively of Theudas and Judas, and it is alleged that he erroneously put their names into Gamaliel’s mouth owing to a misreading of Josephus. Luke depends on Josephus, where did he get his number ‘400 men’ from? There may have been more than one Theudas, and Lightfoot suggests that the name might be used as the Greek equivalent of several different Hebrew ones. There certainly were, as Josephus tells us, many rebellions at this period. Or the name may be an interpolation in Josephus, taken from Acts by some Christian scribe (Blass); or one of the writers may have made a mistake in the name. J
Cecil, William, Baron Burghley - His cruel treatment of Catholics and his employment of a band of ruthless spies who seemed to draw the line at nothing in acquiring information, have caused him to be severely and Justly criticized; in 1583 he published a pamphlet entitled "The Execution of Justice" which popularized the calumny that the Catholics executed by his orders and by those of the other ministers had been guilty of treason against their sovereign, while in reality most of them had been executed solely because of their attachment to the Catholic faith. The historian J
Epistle - A letter affords a writer more freedom, both in subject and expression, than does a formal treatise. " * Time - ...
See Shower on Time and Eternity; Fox on Time; J
Nebaioth - see), Just as in the genealogy of Genesis. ...
J
North Country, Land of the North - The source or region from which dangerous foes were to come upon Palestine (so in Jeremiah 6:22 ; Jeremiah 10:22 , Zechariah 6:6 ; Zechariah 6:8 ). The regions to which the people of Israel or Judah had been exiled, and whence they were to be restored (so in Jeremiah 3:18 ; Jeremiah 16:16 ; Jeremiah 23:8 ; Jeremiah 31:8 , Zechariah 2:6 ). Northern Syria (so Jeremiah 46:10 ). ’...
J
Osnappar - OSNAPPAR (so written in RV
J
Shammah - Third son of Jesse, present when Samuel sought a successor to Saul ( 1 Samuel 16:9 ); with Saul in the battlefield when David visited the camp ( 1 Samuel 17:13 ). He is the same as Shimeah , father of Jonadab ( 2 Samuel 13:3 ), the Shimea of 1 Chronicles 2:16 , and the Shimei , father of Jonathan who slew the giant ( 2 Samuel 21:21 ). In 1 Chronicles 20:7 Jonathan is called son of Shimea. 2 Samuel 23:38 should read ‘Jonathan son of Shammah, the Hararite. ’ Read, with Lucian, ‘son of Jonathan. ...
J
Salmone - -J. ...
James Strahan
Secundus - (Σεκοῦνδος [1] ], Σέκουνδος [2] , Blass])...
Secundus was a Macedonian Christian belonging to the church of Thessalonica, by which he and Aristarchus were deputed to convey to Jerusalem the contributions of the Thessalonians on behalf of the poor brethren of the mother church. Paul on his last Journey to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4). It is more probable, however, that they had been previously instructed to Join the Apostle at Troas, where we find them along with deputies from Asia (Acts 20:5). He is never again mentioned in the NT, but the name occurs in the well-known inscription of Thessalonica (CIG [4] 422; also articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica
Bar-Jesus - BAR-JESUS . The name of ‘a certain Magian, a false prophet, a Jew’ ( Acts 13:6 ) whom St. In the Apostolic age such men often acquired great influence, and Bar-jesus represents, as Ramsay ( St. Paul’s Judgment on this false prophet ( Acts 13:10 ) there is a play upon words: Elymas was full of deceit and not of wisdom; Bar-jesus, i. ‘son of Jesus,’ had become a ‘son of the devil. ...
J
Breastplate (1) - The fuller designation ‘the breastplate of Judgment’ ( Exodus 28:15 , Sir 45:10 ) is significant of the purpose of the breastplate, which was to form a fitting receptacle or pouch for the Urim and Thummim (wh. see), by means of which Judgment was pronounced. Attached to the outer side were four rows of precious stones in gold settings, twelve in all, each stone having engraved upon it the name of a tribe ‘for a memorial before J Caphtor - The region whence the Philistines came to Palestine ( Amos 9:7 , Jeremiah 47:4 ). of Egypt ( c
J
Sabbath Day's Journey - Distance a Jew in Jesus' day considered ritually legal to walk on the seventh day. This phrase appears only once in the Bible (Acts 1:12 ), describing the distance from the Mount of Olives to Jerusalem. Scholars have surmised that the expression came from God's instruction to the children of Israel as they prepared to cross the Jordan into Canaan (Joshua 3:4 ). That was the farthest that a loyal Jew should be from his center of worship on the Sabbath. Then, by eating it on the Sabbath, he could claim that place as a “legal” home and go another Sabbath day's Journey. J
Lasea - The conjecture of Captain Spratt in 1853 as to its site was confirmed by G. They said at once, “Lasea,” so there could be no doubt’ (J. ...
James Strahan
Lamp - In John 5:35 the same word is applied to John the Baptist, who is not the eternal light (φῶς, John 1:8), but the burning and shining lamp kindled by it and bearing witness to it. ...
The word λαμπάς occurs in John 18:3, where it is rendered ‘torch. J
Confirmation - ’ In Hebrews 6:17 μεσιτεύω is rendered in Authorized Version ‘confirm,’ in Revised Version and AVm William Cecil, Baron Burghley - His cruel treatment of Catholics and his employment of a band of ruthless spies who seemed to draw the line at nothing in acquiring information, have caused him to be severely and Justly criticized; in 1583 he published a pamphlet entitled "The Execution of Justice" which popularized the calumny that the Catholics executed by his orders and by those of the other ministers had been guilty of treason against their sovereign, while in reality most of them had been executed solely because of their attachment to the Catholic faith. The historian J
Doctrine - The only word in the OT that RV [1] as well as AV [1] has usually retained ‘doctrine’ of AV
J
Intermediate State - J. By that Parable He has taught us that the livingsouls of the departed live in a condition of happiness or miserysuitable to the Judgment which the all-seeing eye of God has passedupon their lives; the good Lazarus at rest in 'Abraham's Bosom,' thewicked Dives 'in torments. ' At the same time our Lord has clearlyrevealed by His own words and those of His Apostles that there willbe a general Judgment at the last day, when all, good and bad, willhave to stand before the Throne of God, not as bodiless souls, butwith soul and body. And further, the Book of Revelation follows upthe words of Christ and His Apostles with some very distinctdisclosures as to the increased happiness of the good and theincreased misery of the wicked after the final and open award ofthe Judge has been given in the general Judgment. The separateexistence of the soul between death and the Judgment Day is,therefore, called the Intermediate State!" (See HADES, also DESCENTINTO HELL
Proportion - The Greek word ἀναλογία is of frequent occurrence in classical writings, but in the NT it is found only in Romans 12:6, ‘Whether prophecy [1] according to the proportion of faith’ (AV_; ‘according to the proportion of our faith’; RVm_ ‘according to the proportion of the faith’). Interpreters are divided as to whether ‘the faith’ is to be taken subjectively (Meyer, Sanday-Headlam) or objectively (Vaughan, Liddon). ’ It is, however, found in Judges 1:5; Judges 1:20, and is one of the indications of its late date. The ἀναλογία τῆς πίστεως must be taken as parallel with, and not different from, μέτρον πίστεως (Judges 1:3). (For an elaborate examination of ‘Analogy considered as a guide to Truth’ see the work of J. )...
John Reid
Noble - ’ The negative phrase is not to be taken as if it meant ‘none’ (see J. In its secondary sense, it is applied to the Jews of BerCEa, who were ‘nobler,’ i. The use of the comparative does not imply that the Jews of Thessalonica had any nobility of spirit. ...
John Reid
Ham - It has been derived from an Egyptian word kem , ‘black,’ in allusion to the dark soil of Egypt as compared with the desert sands (but see Ham [1]). Great difficulty is caused by the fusion (in J
J
Blood And Water - BLOOD AND WATER (John 19:31-37). —When the soldier, whom tradition names Longinus,* [3] Jesus died literally of a broken heart—of ‘agony of mind, producing rupture of the heart. 34, comments (in Joan Ev. § 2): ‘Vigilanti verbo Evangelista usus est, ut non diceret, Latus ejus percussit, aut vulneravit, aut quid alind; sed, aperuit: ut illis quodammodo vitae ostium panderetur, unde Sacramenta Ecclesiae manaverunt, sine quibus ad vitam quae vera vita est, non intratur. in Joan. J
Abbreviations - ...
J Jahwist. ...
J Jahweh. ...
Jos. Josephus. ...
Jth Judith. ...
AJTh American Journal of Theology. ...
GJV Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes. ...
HJP History of the Jewish People. ...
JAOS Journ. ...
JBL Journ. ...
JE Jewish Encyclopedia. ...
JQR Jewish Quarterly Review. ...
JThSt Journal of Theological Studies. ...
OTJC The Old Test. in the Jewish Church. ...
REJ Revue des Études Juives. ...
A small superior number designates the particular edition of the work referred to: as KAT [1] 2 , LOT Lewd Lewdness - (Acts 17:5; Acts 18:14)...
The English word occurs twice in the NT, once as an adjective (Gr. In neither of these cases has it anything to do with sexual passion-the sense in which the word is now used; it Just means ‘vulgar,’ ‘worthless. -The word πονηρός (Authorized Version ‘lewd,’ Revised Version ‘vile’) is used to characterize the ἀγόραιοι or loafers in the market-place whom the unbelieving Jews in Thessalonica incited to an act of popular insurrection against St. They were so far successful as to prevail on the politarchs to exact bail from Jason for peaceful behaviour, with the consequence that St. ...
This class is well described by the adjective πονηρός. He is positively malignant and injurious to others. He concludes, however, that the reference is to the attitude of the politarchs, who, by exacting security for good behaviour from Jason, prevented the return of St. The distinction is probably to be maintained here, as Gallio is speaking Judicially with reference to a definite charge. Paul is guilty neither of the one nor of the other, but according to Gallio the question is a mere dispute about words-a Jewish squabble. The latter word occurs in papyri in the sense of ‘theft’ (see J. [1] 477). -J. J
Promise - ‘for this is a word of promise … Sarah shall have a son’ [2], ‘strangers from the covenants of the promise’ [2]9). Faith is the general condition of receiving: ‘the scripture hath shut up all things under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe’ (Galatians 3:22). Among the Messianic blessings the promise is sometimes identified with the gift of the Holy Ghost: ‘that upon the Gentiles might come the blessing of Abraham in Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit’ (Galatians 3:14; also Acts 2:39, Ephesians 1:13). Among these we must include ‘life’ (2 Timothy 1:1), ‘eternal life’ (1 John 2:25), ‘the crown of life’ (James 1:12), ‘new heavens and a new earth’ (2 Peter 3:13, etc. _ ‘Promise’ in HDB_ (J. Denney) and CE_ (J. Driscoll); J. ...
John Reid
New Heavens And a New Earth - ...
The concept of new things is a major motif in redemptive history, especially in eschatological passages. The crescendo for redemptive history is stated in verse 5, "everything new"! The Journey toward this climax includes a new covenant ( Jeremiah 31:31 ), a new name (Isaiah 62:2 ; cf. Revelation 2:17 ; 3:12 ), a new song (Isaiah 42:10 ; Revelation 5:9 ; 14:3 ), a new spirit/heart (Ezekiel 11:19 ; 18:31 ; 36:26 ), new wine (Matthew 9:17 ; Mark 2:22 ; Luke 5:37-38 ), and the new Jerusalem (Revelation 3:12 ; 21:2 ). The use of bara [1] (to create) in 65:17 probably calls to mind the creation account of Genesis 1 . The apostle John was more impressed with the fact and nature of the new order than by how it will come about. Mark 13:31 ; Luke 16:17 ) and 1 John 2:17 . ...
The renewal (also called renovation) view is more widely represented in the literature on this subject. Beasley-Murray, Revelation ; J. J. J. McClain, The Greatness of the Kingdom ; J
Genesis - The name ‘Genesis,’ as applied to the first book of the Bible, is derived from the LXX
(1) Practically the whole of Genesis is resolved into three originally separate documents, each containing a complete and consecutive narrative: ( a ) the Jahwistic (J [2]
), characterized by the use of ‘Jahweh,’ commencing with the Creation ( Genesis 2:4 b ff. ) and continued to the end of the book; ( b ) the Elohistic (E [2] and E [3] into a single work (JE [7] ); and second, the amalgamation of the combined work JE [7] with P [4] (an intermediate stage; the combination of JE [2] and E [3] , which represent slightly varying recensions of a common body of patriarchal tradition, to which J [2] are strikingly absent from E [3] , where the element of theological reflexion is come-what more pronounced than in J [4] , reproduces the traditional scheme of history laid down in JE [4] used other sources than JE J
Deluge - The Biblical story , Genesis 6:5 to Genesis 9:17 [2] and P [3] have been combined; the verses are assigned by Driver as follows: J [2] Genesis 6:5-8 , Genesis 7:1-5 ; Genesis 7:7-10 ; Genesis 7:22-235 ; Genesis 7:16 b, Genesis 7:17 b, 1619168496_85 , Genesis 8:2-3 a, Genesis 8:6-13 b, Genesis 8:20-22 ; P [2] alone relates the sending out of the birds, and the sacrifice with which J″ [3] one pair of every kind of animal ( Genesis 6:18-20 ) in J [2] ’s representation conform to that of P [3] the cause of the Deluge is not only rain, but also the bursting forth of the subterranean abyss ( Genesis 6:11 ); J [3] the water begins to abate after 150 days ( Genesis 8:3 ), the mountain tops are visible after 8 months and 13 days ( Genesis 7:11 , Genesis 8:5 ), and the earth is dry after a year and 10 days ( Genesis 8:14 ); in J Thigh - The hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained as he wrestled at Peniel ( Genesis 32:25 ), and to this is attributed the Jewish custom (enjoined in the Mishna) of not eating ‘the sinew of the hip’ ( Genesis 32:32 ). On the thigh the sword was girded ( Exodus 32:27 , Psalms 45:3 , Song of Solomon 3:8 ); Ehud’s on the right thigh because he was left-handed ( Judges 3:16 ; Judges 3:21 ). Under the Jealousy ordeal the woman’s thigh falls away if she has been guilty of adultery ( Numbers 5:21 ff. ‘leg upon thigh’) is a phrase denoting utter discomfiture accompanied by great slaughter ( Judges 15:8 ). Is Jeremiah 31:19 and Ezekiel 21:12 smiting upon one’s thigh is a gesture of sorrow or terror. AVm [1] ) of Genesis 46:25 , Exodus 1:5 , Judges 8:30 a man’s children are described as coming out of his thigh. ...
J
Theudas - Josephus describes such a Theudas (44 A. As Theudas preceded Judas the Galilaean according to Luke, he must have revolted at the close of Herod's reign (for Judas appeared in 6 A. after Archelaus' dethronement), a very turbulent period in which Josephus names three disturbers, leaving the rest unnamed; among the latter was probably Theudas; it is not strange that 50 years later another Theudas, an insurgent in Claudius' time, should arise. ...
Or Luke's Theudas may be Josephus' Simon, one of the three whom, he names in the turbulent year of Herod's death (B. J. Thus, Theudas would be his name, long borne, and so best known to Gamaliel and the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem; Simon the name wherewith he set up as king, and so given by Josephus writing for Romans
Leaven - Unleavened bread was also prepared in times of haste (1 Samuel 18:24 ) and was required for the Feast of Unleavened Bread which was celebrated in conjunction with the Passover festival (Leviticus 23:4-8 ). Jesus warned His disciples against the leaven of the Pharisees, their teaching and hypocrisy (Matthew 16:5-12 ; Luke 12:1 ). Jesus also used leaven to illustrate the pervasive growth of the kingdom of God (Matthew 13:33 ). ...
Barbara J
Ben-Hadad - At the instance of Asa of Judah he intervened against Baasha of Israel, and took from him valuable territory on his northern border. ...
J
Inner Man - John 3:16 ). ...
J
Daniel - 592 and 587, mention a certain Daniel as an extraordinarily righteous and wise man, belonging to the same class as Noah and Job, whose piety availed with God on behalf of their unworthy contemporaries. A priest who accompanied Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem ( Ezra 8:2 , Nehemiah 10:6 ). ...
J
Appius, Market of - (Ἀππίου φόρον, Acts 28:15; Authorized Version Appii Forum)...
A town on the Via Appia, the usual resting-place for travellers from Home at the end of the first day’s Journey, though Horace says of himself and his companion; ‘Hoc iter ignavi divisimus’ (Sat. Strabo says that travellers from the South usually sailed up the canal by night, ‘embarking in the evening, and landing in the morning to travel the rest of their Journey by rood’ (v. ...
J
Abba - [1] word Abba ; as the Jews in prayer borrowed Kyrie mou (‘my Lord’) from the Greek, and used it along with Heb. ...
J
Achaicus - Paul rejoices ‘at the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus. 2 [1] pp. [3] 341f. ...
J
Thompson, William -
heat, which treats of the effects produced by the force of the form of energy known as heat
optics, which treats of all connected with the phenomena of sight
electricity and magnetism, which treat of the agency of electricity and phenomena caused by it, and of the laws of magnetic force
Among those who have made important contributions to the science are: ...
CATHOLICS ...
Ampere, Andre Marie
Babinet, Jacques
Beccaria, Giovanni Battista
Becquerel, Antoine Cesar
Becquerel, Antoine Henri
Branley, Edward
Coulomb, Charles Augustin
Delany, Patrick Bernard
Fizeau, Armand Hippolyte Louis
Foucault, Jean Bernard Leon
Fraunhofer, Joseph van
Fresnel, Augustin-Jean
Galilei, Galileo
Galvani, Luigi
Gramme, Zenobe Theophile
Grimaldi, Francesco Maria
Haüy, René Just
Mariotte, Edme
Matteucci, Carlo
Melloni, Macedonio
Nobili, Leopoldo
Regnault, Victor
Torricelli, Evangelista
Volta, Alessandro
OTHER CHRISTIAN PHYSICISTS ...
Boyle, Robert
Brewster, David
Faraday, Michael
Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand van
Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf
Huygens, Christian
Joule, James Prescott
Maxwell, James Clerk
Mayer, Julius Robert
Newton, Isaac
Oersted, Hans Christian
Ohm, Georg Simon
Rankine, W. J. Macquom
Siemens, Werner von
Stokes, George Gabriel
Strutt, John William
Thompson, Benjamin
Thompson, William
Young, Thomas
William Thompson -
heat, which treats of the effects produced by the force of the form of energy known as heat
optics, which treats of all connected with the phenomena of sight
electricity and magnetism, which treat of the agency of electricity and phenomena caused by it, and of the laws of magnetic force
Among those who have made important contributions to the science are: ...
CATHOLICS ...
Ampere, Andre Marie
Babinet, Jacques
Beccaria, Giovanni Battista
Becquerel, Antoine Cesar
Becquerel, Antoine Henri
Branley, Edward
Coulomb, Charles Augustin
Delany, Patrick Bernard
Fizeau, Armand Hippolyte Louis
Foucault, Jean Bernard Leon
Fraunhofer, Joseph van
Fresnel, Augustin-Jean
Galilei, Galileo
Galvani, Luigi
Gramme, Zenobe Theophile
Grimaldi, Francesco Maria
Haüy, René Just
Mariotte, Edme
Matteucci, Carlo
Melloni, Macedonio
Nobili, Leopoldo
Regnault, Victor
Torricelli, Evangelista
Volta, Alessandro
OTHER CHRISTIAN PHYSICISTS ...
Boyle, Robert
Brewster, David
Faraday, Michael
Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand van
Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf
Huygens, Christian
Joule, James Prescott
Maxwell, James Clerk
Mayer, Julius Robert
Newton, Isaac
Oersted, Hans Christian
Ohm, Georg Simon
Rankine, W. J. Macquom
Siemens, Werner von
Stokes, George Gabriel
Strutt, John William
Thompson, Benjamin
Thompson, William
Young, Thomas
Philologus - Philologus is coupled with Julia (q. If this be so, Philologus and Julia were perhaps the parents of ‘Nereus and his sister and Olympas,’ and this family were the nucleus of the Christian community which met under their leadership in their house (cf. the salutation to Prisca and Aquila, a married couple, ‘and the church that is in their house’ [1]; see, however, J. The relationship of Philologus to the persons mentioned also by name is, however, purely conjectural, as nothing further is known of any member of this group. Another group of five persons (none of whom are women) ‘and the brethren that are with them’ are saluted in the preceding verse, and it is reasonable to suppose that in each case the persons named were, by virtue of seniority as Christians, either leaders of a single ἐκκλησία, or heads (jointly if a married couple) of separate churches
Hades - The New Testament use of Hades (hades [1]) builds on its Hebrew parallel, Sheol (se'ol), which was the preferred translation in the Septuagint. These conscious souls face a lethargic existence, apparently without reward or retribution (Job 10:21 ; Ecclesiastes 9:10 ; Isaiah 14:10 ). Since death is not a natural occurrence but invaded creation through the fall and Satan's destructive work (Genesis 2-3 ), the Old Testament personifies Sheol as the power of Satan and his demonic hosts (Job 18:14 ; Psalm 18:4-5 ; Isaiah 28:15 ; Jeremiah 9:21 ). This indeterminate picture of Sheol and its Greek translation, Hades, allowed varying interpretations by intertestamental Jews. In this sense even Jesus enters Hades. Following David's prophecy in Psalm 16:10 , Peter interprets the resurrection as God delivering Jesus from Hades (Acts 2:27,31 ). Similarly, Jesus prophesies that the Son of Man will be delivered from the heart of the earth, Just as God delivered Jonah from Hades (Matthew 12:40 ). ...
The New Testament does not explore Jesus' precise residence or activity while in Hades, unlike the later church traditions of the "harrowing of hell" or a "Hades Gospel. However, Jesus' descent to Hades is theologically important. Finally, Jesus' deliverance from Hades establishes the new life for humanity (1 Corinthians 15 ). ...
Jesus' parable of the rich man and Lazarus portrays additional features of this state (Luke 16:19-31 ). In this case Jesus' vivid description of the basic conditions of the godly and ungodly dead is indispensable to the parable's point. This is the intermediate state, for the bodily resurrection and the final Judgment are still future. Jesus' point is that Hades foreshadows the rich man's final Judgment. Similarly, Lazarus rests at Abraham's side, connoting the Joyous abode of the righteous dead (Luke 16:23 ). The unrighteous are held in punishment and wicked angels are imprisoned in Tartarus, a Greek term designating the lowest part of Hades (1 Peter 3:19 ; 2 Peter 2:4,9 ; Jude 6 ). Jesus' woe to unrepentant Capernaum that it will be brought down to Hades is not simply a prophecy of its earthly demise, but its Judgment ( Luke 10:15 ). The godly dead are with Jesus in a disembodied state also called Hades. This further development, however, concurs with Jesus' lordship over the living and the dead. When Jesus promises that the "gates of Hades" will never overcome the church (Matthew 16:18 ), this phrase parallels Old Testament expressions tied to evil's power and persecution (Psalm 9:13 ; 107:17-20 ). Jesus' reference to the future in Matthew 16:18 concurs with Revelation's vision of Satan's final attack on God's people (19:19; 20:7-9). Jesus has promised that he will conquer Hades so that it will not defeat the church. Jesus is the conqueror of all powers, the exalted One, and as such he has graced his church (Ephesians 4:7-10 ). They still await the next act in the history of salvation, when Jesus consummates his kingdom. Then Hades will release its dead for the final resurrection and Judgment (Revelation 20:13 ). (Hades has only a limited existence; Gehenna or hell is the final place of Judgment for the wicked. " Hades also denotes the vanquished stronghold of Satan's forces whose end is certain and the intermediate place of punishment for the wicked dead until the final Judgment. J. J. J. Hoekema, The Bible and the Future ; J. Jeremias, TDNT, 1:146-49,657-58; 6:924-28; T. J
Grave Gravity - [2]8 of the boundary† [5] 470). Christians are not to imitate the Jews, who brought on themselves Roman hostility by their religious contempt of authority (Jos. Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. xvi) which such objects produce. 130), of being indifferent to the public weal (ῥᾳθυμία), of being incapable of action, of looking superciliously on enjoyment, and of easting disdainful looks on those who did not philosophize (cf. Hadley’s note [6] on Eur. ‘By this the apostle seems to advert to that in which religious persons are too often deficient, who by an austere and ascetic demeanour not a little prejudice the cause of religion’ (S. ‘Truth is the basis, as it is the object of reverence, not less than of every other virtue’ (H. John, 1883, p. For a discussion on Reverence, see J. For Kant’s view, see The Metaphysic of Ethics, translation Semple3, Edinburgh, 1871; J
Daniel - (dan' iehl) Personal name meaning, “God is Judge” or “God's Judge. This Daniel was a storied figure of antiquity mentioned with Noah and Job. ...
Daniel was transported from Judah to Babylon in his early youth at the battle of Carchemish, 605 B. He recognized that God was continuously Judging him. ...
J. J
Issachar - The fifth son of Leah, born after Gad and Asher, the sons of Zilpah, and the ninth of Jacob’s sons ( Genesis 30:18 [4] and E [5] , however, both connect it with the root sâkhar , ‘to hire’: J [4] , because Leah ‘hired’ Jacob from Rachel with Reuben’s mandrakes; E [5] , because she gave Zilpah to Jacob. ...
P [8] ’s lot ( Joshua 19:17-23 ) assigns to the tribe sixteen cities and their villages, scattered throughout the eastern end of the rich Plain of Esdraelon and the Valley of Jezreel. The tribe participated in the war against Sisera ( Judges 5:15 ), and Deborah perhaps belonged to it. Baasha, the son of Ahijah, who succeeded Nadab, was ‘of the house of Issachar’; and, possibly, also Omri, who gave his name to the Northern Kingdom. The references in the Blessing of Jacob ( Genesis 49:1-33 ) would indicate that during the early monarchy Issachar lost both its martial valour and its independence. Tola the Judge, the grandson of Dodo, was a man of Issachar ( Judges 10:1 ). ...
James A
Scythian - Jeremiah’s description of ‘the evil coming from the north’ (1:13, 4:6, 5:15ff. The memory of this invasion was perpetuated in the name Scythopolis, which was given to the old town Beth-shean (Σκύθων πόλις, Judith 3:10; cf. J. ...
To the Jews the name ‘Scythian’ became synonymous with ‘barbarian. ’ Just as terrors which are only partially known assume gigantic proportions, so these Scythians, by their rapid descent on Palestine, their unwonted appearance, their savage cruelty, and their short sojourn, impressed the imagination. [2] 742-748; J
Kadesh-Barnea - ...
Descent Into Hell (Hades) - ...
Jesus himself used Jonah 2:6 to describe his death as three days and three nights in the heart ( en te kardia ) of the earth. This corresponded with contemporary Jewish representations of Sheol as the belly of the fish, when speaking of death and the world of the dead. ...
So also the apostles understood the death and resurrection of Jesus "according to the scriptures, " even as he instructed them (Luke 24:46 ; cf. Peter quoted Psalm 16:8-11 when he declared that God had released Jesus from the pangs of death by resurrecting him. And the author of Hebrews (2:14-16) declared that Just as Jesus shared fully in the humanity of Abraham's seed, so also he shared the entire experience of death, by which he destroyed the power of Satan. Or it may reflect a developing understanding in contemporary Judaism that there was a distinction between the abode of the unrighteous dead (Hades) and the abode of the righteous dead (cf. J. Grudem, JETS 34/1 (1991): 103-13; J. 624-25; J. Scaer, JETS 35/1 (1992): 91-99
Gospels (Uncanonical) - One is, that while the Church had only four Gospels in the sense of Scriptures relating to the life of Jesus, which were authorized to be used in public worship and for purposes of doctrine, the early Christians did not by any means confine their reading to the canonical Gospels. The Church might have its four Gospels as classical and standard documents for the life and teaching of Jesus; fortunately, it felt obliged to stamp these with the special mark of inspired authority. But it is also to do them, or some of them, an injustice. Some of them are documents of ‘heresy,’* [6]); B. Pick (paralipomena: Remains of Gospels and Sayings of Christ, Chicago, 1908), Two French treatises overshadowed any English criticism during this period, one a critical study by M, Nicolas (Études sur les évangiles apocryphes, Paris, 1865); the other a Roman Catholic counterpart by Joseph Variot (Las Evangiles apocryphes, Paris, 1878). Wright’s Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament, London, 1865, Syriac versions of the protevangelium Jacobi (a fragment) and the Gospel of Thomas the Israelite were published and translated with notes. Otherwise, the main contributions to the subject during the last century were monographs upon special points and aspects, like P. J. Tappehorn’s Ausserbiblische Nachrichten, oder die Apokryphen über die Geburt, Kindheit und das Lebensende Jesu und Mariä, Paderborn, 1885: and J. Hayer’s Die apokryphischen Evangelien, auch ein Beweis für die Glaubwürdigkeit der kanonischen, Halberstadt, 1898-99;‡
The older monographs upon their relation to the sources for the life of Jesus, by R. Hofmann (Das Leben Jesu nach den Apokryphen, Leipzig. 1851); J. Sagen über das Leben Jesu, Gütersloh, 1905) have been largely superseded by the exhaustive work of W. Bauer (Das Leben Jesus im Zeitalter der neutest. Kozak in JPTh [9]
, p. ...
The principal general articles on the subject are by G. [10] 961f. Lipsius in DCB [12] 700-17; B. ; Movers in Wetzer-Welte [16] 225-29); M. James in Encyclopaedia Biblica i. [17] 258-59; Batiffol, in Vigouroux’s Dict. [17] 2114-18; A. [19] § 31; J. [20] 420-38; A. [21] 671-85; J. [22] § 21; R. Knopf in RGG [24] 543ff. Jordan, Gesch. In the prologue to his commentary upon Matthew, Jerome (a. ’ Also, the word of John 10:8 : ‘all who came before me were thieves and robbers. ’ Note, says Jerome, ‘they came’; not ‘they were sent’!...
In pope Innocent’s Epistle (a. 405) to Jerome’s friend. Bishop Exsuperius of Toulouse, the canonical list is followed by a note of ‘cetera autem quae uel sub nomine Mathiae siue Iacobi minoris; uel sub nomine Petri et Iohanuis, quae a quodam Leucio scripta sunt; uel sub nomine Andreae, quae a Xenocaride et Leonida philosophic;* Finally, the so-called ‘Decretum Gelasianum de libris recipiendis et non recipiendis’‡ ‘Evangelium nomine Mathiae...
Evangelium nomine Barnabae||
Evangelium nomine Jacobi minoris...
Evangelium nomine Petri apostoli...
Evangelium nomine Thomae quibus Manichei utuntur...
Evangelia nomine Bartholomaei...
Evangelia nomine Andreae...
Evangelia quae falsavit Lucianus...
Evangelia quae falsavit Hesychius...
Liber de infantia salvatoris...
Liber nativitate salvatoris et de Maria vel obstetrici. ’...
By a gross blunder, arising perhaps from a misreading of Jerome’s prologue to the Gospels, the writer mistakes the textual recensions of the Gospels made by Lucian and Hesychius for apocryphal Gospels. This does not encourage hopes of accurate information with regard to the other works, particularly when this blunder is regarded as a misunderstanding of what Jerome had written. Some, no doubt, were not Gospels at all;*
Covet, Covetous - After Israel's defeat at Ai, Achan confessed that his selfish desire for treasure was so great that he disobeyed God's specific commandment (Joshua 7:21 ). In defense of Judah's poor, Micah declared the Lord's Judgment against the land-grabbers for coveting small farms and actually seizing them from their powerless owners (Micah 2:2 ). ...
In the New Testament the same Greek word is translated “covet” in the King James Version and “earnestly desire” in the Revised Standard Version (1 Corinthians 12:39 ). In the Luke passage Jesus said that the covetous man will not be “rich toward God. ...
William J
Baptism of Fire - As John the Baptist preached in the Judean wilderness, he declared, "I baptize you with water for repentance. ...
Throughout Scripture, fire often represents Judgment (Genesis 19:24 ; 2 Kings 1:10 ; Amos 1:4-7 ; Matthew 7:19 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:8 ; James 5:3 ), including everlasting punishment (Matthew 18:8 ; Jude 7 ). ...
In the context of John's preaching, it is natural to associate the baptism of fire with Judgment (cf. On the other hand, John is first of all addressing believers—those who are receiving his water-baptism. But the grammatical construction in Greek (the use of one preposition to govern two objects) is most naturally taken as referring to only one baptism that involves both blessing and Judgment (cf. Pentecost may well represent the firstfruits of purgation for believers, but the baptism is not complete until all people experience final Judgment. J
Ahijah - AHIJAH . 1 Samuel 14:3 ; 1 Samuel 14:18 is (AV [1] Ahiah ), a priest, son of Ahitub, who had charge of the oracular ephod and consulted it for Saul [2]. Ahijah is probably to he identified with Ahimelech ( 1 Samuel 21:1 ). , 1 Kings 12:15 , 2 Chronicles 10:15 , a prophet of Shiloh, who foretold the division of the kingdom and the elevation of Jeroboam. Subsequently he predicted the death of Jeroboam’s son ( 1 Kings 14:2 ff. 1 Chronicles 2:25 has an Ahijah, son of Jerahmeel, but is hopelessly corrupt. The LXX [1] Ahiah ), son of Ehud, a Benjamite: at 1 Chronicles 8:4 Ahoah , but LXX [3] Ahijah , 7 . Nehemiah 10:26 (RV [6] Ahiah ), a layman who Joined Nehemiah in signing the covenant. ...
J
Calf - It was certainly for this reason that the bull was chosen as the symbol of Jahweh by Aaron (Acts 7:41) and Jeroboam (B. 337; J. 8) associate the living creatures with the four evangelists, and holds that the ‘calf,’ signifying the priestly and sacrificial character of Jesus, is the symbol of St
Ananias - , Jdt 8:1 . Peter, was the signal proof of God’s anger on this Judas-like hypocrisy. Paul was arrested at Jerusalem ( Acts 23:2 ff. In the Jewish war he was murdered by his countrymen in Jerusalem, out of revenge for his pro-Roman tendencies. J
Adramyttium - (Ἀδραμύττιον; in the NT only the adjective Ἀδραμυττηνός [1] is found; Westcott-Hort’s Greek Testament Ἀδραμυτηνός). district of the Roman province of Asia, and the head of a conventus Juridicus. Luke sailed from Caesarea by Sidon and under the lee (to the east) of Cyprus to Myra in Lycia, where they Joined a corn-ship of Alexandria bound for Italy (Acts 27:2-6). ; J. ...
James Strahan
Pastor - ’ This exceptional translation is Justified, because here only is ποιμήν used of some kind of Christian minister. It is used of Christ as ‘the great shepherd of the sheep’ (Hebrews 13:20 from LXX_ of Isaiah 63:11), as ‘the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls’ (1 Peter 2:25), and as ‘the chief Shepherd’ (1 Peter 5:4)-expressions suggested by Himself (John 10:11; John 10:14). Peter (John 21:16), in St. J
Tongue - * [1] Here, as in primitive thought generally, to which the nervous system and the more minute structure of the tissues were unknown, the tongue was thought to possess an inherent faculty of speech, and the ethical qualities attaching to what was said were attributed to the organ itself (ethnic parallels in J. Frazer, GB
Early Christian ethics seems to have found it necessary to emphasize the control of the tongue; it is even made the sine qua non of religion (James 1:26) and the condition of life (1 Peter 3:10; 1 Peter 3:1 Clem. Job 5:21) was a very real evil in early Christian communities. We may also note the rebuke of hypocrisy and insincerity, as shown by the contrast between the inner life and its outer expression: ‘let us not love in word, neither with the tongue’ (1 John 3:18)
Restoration of Offenders - Ramsay) reject this idea. ...
καταρτίζω (to make ἄρτιος, ‘fit,’ ‘sound,’ ‘complete’) is a surgical term used of setting a broken bone or a dislocated Joint. Lion - They are, among other things, strong (Proverbs 30:30 ), especially in their teeth (Job 4:10 ) and paws (1 Samuel 17:37 ), fearless (Proverbs 28:1 ; 30:30 ), stealthy (Psalm 17:12 ), frightening (Ezra 19:7 ; Hosea 11:10 ; Amos 3:8 ), destructive (1 Samuel 17:34 ; Micah 5:8 ), and territorially protective (Isaiah 31:4 ). Yet for all its seeming autonomy, the lion is ultimately dependent on God (Job 38:39-40 ; Psalm 104:21 ), answerable to him (Job 4:10 ), and subdued in the millennial age (Isaiah 11:6-7 ). The king is frightening in his anger (Proverbs 19:12 ; 20:2 ), the soldier courageous (2 Samuel 17:10 ), national leaders vicious (Ezekiel 22:25 ; Zephaniah 3:3 ), enemy nations destructive (Isaiah 5:29 ; Jeremiah 2:15 ) and protective of their conquests (Isaiah 5:29 ), and personal enemies stealthy in their pursuit to harm (Psalm 10:9 ; 17:12 ). He is strong (Isaiah 38:13 ), fearless in protecting his own (Isaiah 31:4 ), stealthy in coming upon his prey (Jeremiah 49:19 ; Hosea 13:7 ), frightening (Hosea 11:10 ; Amos 3:8 ), and destructive (Jeremiah 25:38 ; Lamentations 3:10 ; Hosea 5:14 ; 13:8 ). ...
The idea of a Lion of the Tribe of Judah is problematic because the fundamental passage (Revelation 5:5 ) is grammatically ambiguous and because there is no exact antecedent parallel. First, it is unclear whether in Revelation 5:5 we have one title of Christ (Lion of the Tribe of Judah) or two titles standing in apposition (The Lion; The One of the Tribe of Judah). In Genesis 49:9 there is no lion of Judah; rather, Judah is a lion. In 2 (4) Esdras 11:37; 12:1,31 the Messiah is pictured as a lion, but not specifically of Judah. In the Testament of Judah 24:5 the Messiah is from Judah but not specifically as a lion. Given the imprecision in the alleged parallels, the cautious interpreter would not make much of the tradition that combines "lion" and "of the Tribe of Judah" into one idea, but rather would understand Jesus the Lamb to be called Messiah under two images derived from separate traditions. J. Michaelis, TDNT, 4:251-53; J
Har-Magedon - The primary reference, no doubt, would be to Israel’s victory ‘by the waters of Megiddo’ over the kings of Canaan (Judges 5:19), which might be taken as typical of the triumph of God and His Kingdom over the hostile world-powers; but the defeat and death of Saul and Jonathan at the eastern extremity of the plain (1 Samuel 31:1), the disastrous struggle of Josiah on the same field against Pharaohnecoh (2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:22), and Zechariah’s reference to ‘the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon’ (Zechariah 12:11), would heighten the suggestion of a great day of overthrow and destruction. The chief objections offered to this interpretation are that a mountain is an unsuitable battlefield, and that the historical battles are described as taking place ‘by the waters of Megiddo’ (Judges 5:19) or ‘in the valley of Megiddo’ (2 Chronicles 35:22). Against this, however, must be set the statements that Barak with his 10,000 men ‘went down from mount Tabor’ to meet Sisera (Judges 4:14), that Zebulun and Naphtali ‘jeoparded their lives unto the death in the high places of the field’ (Judges 5:18), and that Saul and Jonathan fell ‘in mount Gilboa’ (1 Samuel 31:1; 1 Samuel 31:8; cf. ’...
Of recent years considerable support has been given to the view, first propounded by Gunkel (Schöpfung und Chaos, 268), that ‘Har-Magedon’ preserves the name of the place where in the Babylonian creation-myth the dragon Tiämat was overthrown by Marduk, the passage Revelation 16:13-16 being presumably a fragment from some Jewish apocalypse in which the Babylonian mythology had been adapted to an eschatological interest. -The articles ‘Har-Magedon’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and ‘Armageddon’ in Encyclopaedia Biblica ; J. ...
J
Works of the Law - ...
Various interpretations of this phrase include: "good works, " in the sense of humankind's striving for self-achievement apart from God; observances of Mosaic Law that seek to earn God's favor; and distinctive Jewish identity markers (i. Judaism was "nomistic, " observing the Law not as a means of Justification but as a response to a gracious God, who Acts on behalf of his people and requires that they in turn identify themselves as his people by keeping his ordinances (covenantal nomism). Paul's polemical argument in Galatians, however, is concerned with the inherent legalism of the Judaizers, who required Gentile converts to observe Jewish traditions in order to qualify as members of God's covenant people. Thus, when Paul uses erga nomou, he is not Just referring to nomistic practices, but to merit-amassing observance of the Law as well. Any attempt to Justify oneself before God based on meritorious action is counted as "loss" or "refuse. Thus, the cross of Christ, as the sole basis of Justification, becomes an "offense, " because it repudiates any other means of obtaining righteousness (1 Corinthians 1:23 ; Galatians 5:11 ; cf. David Rightmire...
See also Galatians, Theology of ; Grace ; Judaizers ; Law ...
Bibliography . Bruce, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 57 (1974-75): 259-79; C. Cranfield, Scottish Journal of Theology 17 (1964): 43-68; W. Davies, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism ; J. Dunn, Jesus, Paul and the Law ; J. Fuller, WTJ 38 (1975): 28-42; R. Sanders, Paul and Palestinian Judaism ; idem, Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People ; S
Archippus - ...
The message conveyed to Archippus (‘Take heed [1] to the ministry,’ etc. -J. de Archippo, Altdorf, 1751; J
Dinah - The daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of Simeon and Levi, according to Genesis 30:21 . , where the birth stories of Jacob’s children are given, of other daughters of Jacob; but Genesis 37:35 (J [1] ) and Genesis 46:7 (P
The story, like many others, introduced as episodes in the family history of Jacob, should probably receive a tribal interpretation. ...
James A
Tongue - * [1] Here, as in primitive thought generally, to which the nervous system and the more minute structure of the tissues were unknown, the tongue was thought to possess an inherent faculty of speech, and the ethical qualities attaching to what was said were attributed to the organ itself (ethnic parallels in J. Frazer, GB
Early Christian ethics seems to have found it necessary to emphasize the control of the tongue; it is even made the sine qua non of religion (James 1:26) and the condition of life (1 Peter 3:10; 1 Peter 3:1 Clem. Job 5:21) was a very real evil in early Christian communities. We may also note the rebuke of hypocrisy and insincerity, as shown by the contrast between the inner life and its outer expression: ‘let us not love in word, neither with the tongue’ (1 John 3:18)
John the Baptist - Apart from Jesus Christ, John the Baptist is probably the most theologically significant figure in the Gospels. As was the case with Jesus, his birth was meticulously recorded (Luke 1:5-25 ). John's birth not only parallels that of Jesus, but echoes the momentous occasion of the birth of Isaac to Abraham and Sarah (Genesis 17:15-22 ; 21:1-7 ). John is clearly a pivotal figure in the salvation history of God. John was that voice crying in the wilderness preparing the way for the coming Messiah (Isaiah 40:3 ; Matthew 3:3 ; Mark 1:2-3 ; Luke 3:3-6 ). In this sense his message and ministry marked the culmination of the law and the prophets, but heralded the inbreaking of the kingdom of God (John 1:35-37 ; Luke 16:16 ). So John was truly a transitional figure, forming the link between the Old and New Testaments. ...
John was an end-times prophet. He taught that Judgment is at hand. ...
John's lifestyle was as austere as his message. Unlike Jesus, he expected people to come to him, rather than he going to them (Matthew 3:5 ). ...
John was no "crowd pleaser. ...
All of these characteristics portray John as a fiery prophet proclaiming the apocalyptic message of God. Indeed, Luke says that John came "in the spirit and power of Elijah" (Luke 1:17 ). He goes on to allude to Malachi 4:5 , which states that Elijah will return "before that great and dreadful day of the Lord. " In fact, some contemporaries of John inquired if he were Elijah (John 1:21 ). ...
The belief that Elijah would return and prepare the way of the Lord can be traced to Malachi 3:1,4:5 . The Gospels also indicate that many believed that Elijah would come first, and then the Christ (Matthew 11:14 ; 17:10 ; Mark 6:15 ; 9:11 ; Luke 9:8 ). ...
John flatly denied that he was Elijah reincarnated (John 1:6-9 ). Nevertheless Jesus affirmed that Elijah must come first and that he had come in the person of John the Baptist (Matthew 17:11-13 ; Mark 9:12-13 ). John fulfilled Malachi's prophecy in a spiritual sense, rather than in a literal way. ...
In this way Jesus acknowledges the central role that John played in God's plan of salvation. He was the greatest born among women because he had the privilege of pointing to the Lamb of God (John 1:29-34 ). ...
John fully accepted his subordinate role to Christ. He denied that he was the Christ and repeatedly emphasized that he was simply a witness to the Light (John 1:19-23 ; cf. also John 1:21,25 ; John 3:27-30 ). John stated that Jesus was greater than he, and that Jesus had a more powerful ministry and baptism (Mark 1:7-8 ; Luke 3:16 ; John 1:26-27 ). He did not want to baptize Jesus, but rather desired to be baptized by Jesus (Matthew 3:13-14 ). John allowed his disciples to leave his own leadership and follow after Jesus (John 1:35-39 ). ...
But for all of his greatness, John was merely human. In this sense he too Joined in the popular speculations about the identity of Christ. It may be that John's vision of the Messiah varied so much from what he heard and saw in Jesus, that he came to question if Jesus were really the Christ (Matthew 11:1-2 ; Luke 7:18 ). The fact that Jesus was not an ascetic, and that he actively sought the fellowship of publicans and sinners may have been an offense to John and his disciples (Matthew 9:9-17 ; Matthew 11:18-19 ; Luke 7:33-34 ). Jesus may have rebuked John in this regard when he said, "Blessed is the man who does not fall away on account of me" (Matthew 11:6 ; Luke 7:23 ). ...
Finally, even though John was merely a witness serving as a transitional figure, the impact of his life and ministry should not be underestimated. John's disciples survived his death and spread throughout the Mediterranean world. Apollos was from Alexandria in North Africa and at one point knew only of the baptism of John (Acts 18:24-25 ). Similarly, upon arriving in Ephesus, Paul encountered about a dozen disciples of John. They too had only experienced the baptism of John (Acts 19:1-7 ). ...
In recent scholarship, the historical relationship between Jesus and John has been the subject of study. How did Jesus view John and what did John make of Jesus' ministry? In this type of study, John often serves as a paradigm for interpreting the life and ministry of Jesus. For example, the inclusion of the suffering and death of John may foreshadow the pain and death of Jesus on the cross. Also, to what extent did John influence the life and ministry of Jesus? Indeed, the ill treatment of John by Herod Antipas may have had a significant impact upon Jesus' early ministry in Galilee and in his final days in Jerusalem. ...
The early Christian traditions that form the Gospel material on John are also the focus of modern research. For example, the scathing accusations and warnings of John are associated with the ministry of Jesus (Luke 3:7-18 ), but in the end are not typical of his message. Also there appears to have been an early tradition that John had been raised from the dead (Mark 6:14-16 ). What possible sources may have given rise to these traditions?...
Even the topographical setting of John's ministry may be of theological significance. The desert setting may underscore the stark nature of John's message or may be symbolic of Israel's struggle in the desert. ...
And finally, the psychological and sociological analysis of John is of interest here. In accordance with the criteria of the sociology of deviance, John's behavior and message could be classified as "deviant. " In this light, Matthew's use of Isaiah 40:2-3 in 3:7-10 may seek to Justify John and endorse the legitimacy of his ministry. ...
In conclusion, John the Baptist is of great theological importance in the New Testament. In the spirit of Elijah, he preached a message of repentance and baptism. In his darkest hour he questioned if Jesus was the One who was to come, or whether there would be another. Simmons...
See also Elijah ; Jesus Christ ...
Bibliography . Faierstein, JBL 100 (1981): 75-86; R. Kazmierski, Bib 68 (1987): 22-40; J. J. Meier, JBL 99/3 (1980): 383-405; J. J. Nortje, Neotestamentica 23 (1989): 349-58; P. Parker, Perspectives in Religious Studies 8 (1981): 4-11; J. Scobie, John the Baptist ; W. Wink, John the Baptist in the Gospel Tradition
Self-Denial - —Self-denial is undoubtedly an essential part of the religious life as set before men by Jesus Christ. Peter’s denial (Matthew 26:34-35; Matthew 26:75, Mark 14:30-31; Mark 14:72, Luke 22:61, John 13:38); and in our Lord’s denunciation of apostasy (Luke 12:9). It must be understood to include a conquest of the insistent and unruly demands of the body, denial of the lower self; and a bringing into subjection of the ambitions and emotions of the intellect and spirit, denial of the higher self.
J
Offence - offendere, ‘to strike against’ or ‘to injure’ (O. nouns, in the sense of an injury, a trespass or a fall, or as an occasion of unbelief, doubt, or apostasy. In 2 Corinthians 6:3 προσκοπή is that which causes stumbling, and the Christians are enjoined to place no stumbling-block in the way of others. As an adjective, ἀπρόσκοπος is used in Acts 24:16 with respect to the conscience, also in 1 Corinthians 10:32 and in Philippians 1:10 as giving no occasion of stumbling. The rejection of His claims by the Pharisees was attended by some irritation and the spirit of opposition (Matthew 15:12); thus they were offended or caused to stumble. Its disgrace and ignominy made it difficult for the Jews to accept Christ as their Messiah, and it also roused their animosity to the preachers of the gospel (Galatians 5:11). J. ; J. Moffatt, ‘Jesus upon “Stumbling-blocks,” ’ in Expository Times xxvi. [1] 407 ff. ...
J. James
Seed, Seedtime - , Luke 1:55 , John 7:42 etc. In 1 John 3:9 ‘seed’ denotes the indwelling principle of the Divine life by which the Christian is kept from sin. ...
J
Seleucus - He founded Antioch and its fortified port Seleucia ( 1Ma 11:8 ), and is said by Josephus ( Ant. 1) to have conferred on the Jews the privileges of citizenship. He is the ‘one of his
J
Covetousness - Jesus listed covetousness or greed along with many of the sins from within, including adultery, theft, and murder, which make a person unclean (Mark 7:22 ). James warns that people kill and covet because they cannot have what they want (4:2). Achan admitted to coveting a robe and silver and gold, so he stole them, which was a sin against the Lord (Joshua 7:20-22 ). Thus covetousness is the root of all kinds of sins, so that Jesus gave the warning, "Be on your guard against all kinds of greed" (Luke 12:15 ). ...
William J
Joab - (joh' ab) Personal name meaning, “Yahweh is father. He was loyal to David and ruthless in achieving his objectives. Joab, whose brother had been slain in battle by Abner, deceived Abner and murdered him. Joab's exploits in the capture of Jerusalem led David to name him commander (1 Chronicles 11:4-8 ). Joab successfully led David's armies against the Ammonites (2 Samuel 10:1 ). ...
Joab was instrumental in the reconciliation of David and Absalom (2 Samuel 14:1 ). When Absalom led a rebellion, Joab remained loyal to David. Joab killed Absalom against the clear orders of David (2 Samuel 18:14 ). Joab murdered Amasa, whom David had named commander (2 Samuel 20:10 ). ...
When David was dying, Joab supported Adonijah's claim to the throne (1 Kings 1:1 ). David named Solomon king and told him to avenge Abner and Amasa by killing Joab. Although Joab fled to the tabernacle for sanctuary, Solomon ordered Benaiah to kill Joab (1 Kings 2:1 ). ...
Robert J
Hormah - At a later time it was taken and destroyed by Israel ( Numbers 21:3 , Joshua 12:19 ), this feat being attributed in Judges 1:17 to Judah and Simeon. ’ It was one of ‘the uttermost cities of Judah, towards the borders of Edom in the south,’ and is named between Chesll and Ziklag ( Joshua 15:30 ), also between Bethul (or Bethuel) and Ziklag ( Joshua 19:4 , 1 Chronicles 4:30 ), in the territory occupied by Simeon. The probability is increased if Ziklag is correctly identified with ‘Aslûj , 14 miles north of es-Sebaitâ . On the other hand, Naqb es-Safâ agrees better with the position of Arad; but it seems too far from Kadesh, being more than 40 miles to the north-east (Robinson, BRP Nimrod - ...
J
Onias - was son of Jaddua and father of Simon the Just ( Sir 50:1 , where, however, the Heb. reads John in place of Onias ).
J
Julius - Paul to Rome, he was entrusted to the care of a ‘centurion named Julius of the Augustan cohort’ (Acts 27:1-3). On arriving in Rome Julius handed over his prisoner to the ‘captain of the guard’ (Acts 28:16). Much discussion has gathered round the phrase ‘Augustan cohort’ to which Julius belonged. Ramsay regards it as probable that Julius belonged to the corps of official couriers, employed as emissaries to various parts of the Empire-the peregrini; and the ‘captain of the guard’ is supposed to have been their commanding officer (see articles Band, Augustan Band). ...
As Julius was the family name of the members of the Roman Imperial house, it was assumed by many of the vassal kings from the days of Julius Caesar onwards. It was borne by all the Jewish princes from Antipater, the father of Herod the Great. Josephus mentions a Julius Archelaeus, son-in-law of Agrippa I. J. Schürer, GJV [2] 460-462
Gadara, Gadarenes - —In the Authorized Version in Mark 5:1 and Luke 8:26 Jesus is said to have come into the ‘country of the Gadarenes. As Thomson says (LB
J
Holy Thing - ; but Meyer objects to this as requiring to be more precisely designated, and urges that Christ has in view ‘the holy’ in general, and that what is meant by this is the holy, because Divine, evangelic truth by which men are converted. ...
J
Jews - JEWS. —This term, originally perhaps applied only to men of the tribe of Judah, ‘men of Judaea,’ is employed in the Gospels (1) in opposition to Gentiles, proselytes, or Samaritans: Mark 7:3, John 2:6; John 2:13; John 4:9; John 4:22; John 5:1; John 6:4; John 7:2; John 19:40; John 19:42; (2) specially of Jews as antagonistic to our Lord, a usage which is characteristic of Jn. as distinguished from the Synoptics: Matthew 28:15, John 6:41; John 6:52; John 8:48-57; John 9:18; John 10:19; John 11:19; John 11:31; John 11:33; John 11:36; John 12:9; John 12:11. John (Gospel of). ‘The Jews’ in this sense were blind followers of the Pharisees, and bitter opponents of Christ. (Mark 7:3-4, John 5:10 etc. ‘For fear of the Jews’ men hesitated to confess Christ (John 7:13; John 9:22). ...
For customs of the Jews see art. Israel and Jerusalem. John, Introd. ; Andrews, Life of our Lord
J
Alexander the Great - A Jewish tradition, reported by Josephus and the Talmud, relates that whilst the renowned Macedonian conqueror was besieging Tyre (b. 333), rival embassies from the Jews and the Samaritans solicited his protection. At the close of the siege he set out for Jerusalem, and was met outside by the entire population, with the high priest at their head. He then entered the city, offered sacrifice, was shown the passages in Daniel relating to himself, granted the people unmolested use of their customs, promised to befriend their eastern settlements, and welcomed Jews to his army ( Ant . The objections to this story are: (1) that although there are references to Alexander and his successors in Daniel ( Daniel 2:40 ff. It is also most likely that when Josephus declares that Alexander gave to the Jews in Alexandria equal privileges with the Macedonians ( c. ...
The deep impression made by Alexander’s successes is evinced by the numerous legends connected with his name in later Jewish literature. But his real importance to the Biblical student consists in this he brought the Jews into contact with Greek literature and life. ...
J
Amen - A Hebrew form of affirmation usually translated in the LXX [1] by an equivalent Greek expression ( Numbers 5:22 , Deuteronomy 27:15 ‘so be it,’ Jeremiah 28:6 ( Jeremiah 36:6 ) ‘truly’), but sometimes transliterated ( 1 Chronicles 16:36 ) as in English. The Fourth Gospel reduplicates a form which, though Christ may Himself have varied the phrase in this manner, is nevertheless stereotyped by this Evangelist ( John 1:51 ; John 1:24 other places), and marks the peculiar solemnity of the utterances it introduces. Jesus Christ as preached) is the Amen’ the seal of God’s promises. ...
J
Hardening - Paul confines his thought when he insists on the sovereignty of God as manifested in the election of grace ( Romans 9:18 ); but having vindicated the absolute freedom of the Divine action, the Apostle proceeds to show that the Divine choice is neither arbitrary nor unjust. ‘The attempt to understand the relation between the human will and the Divine seems to lead of necessity to an antinomy which thought has not as yet succeeded in transcending’ (Denney, EGT
J
Bitterness - [2] bîtan, ‘to bite’), and πικρός, ‘sharp’ (from the same root as pungo, ‘pike,’ ‘peak’), τὸ πικρόν, as that which has an acrid, pungent taste, is opposed to τὸ γλυκύ (James 3:11). Moses says that the man or woman, family or tribe, that turns from Jahweh will be ‘a root that beareth gall and wormwood’ (ῥίζα ἄνω φύουσα ἐν χολῇ καὶ πικρίᾳ, Deuteronomy 29:18). J. In Romans 3:14 bitterness of speech is Joined with cursing, and in Ephesians 4:31 πικρία is an inward disposition (cf. ζῆλον πικρόν, James 3:14) which all Christians are to put away in order that they may be ‘kind one to another, tender-hearted. ’...
James Strahan
Abiathar - At 2 Samuel 8:17 (so also 1 Chronicles 18:16 [1] 1 Chronicles 24:6 ) the names of Abiathar and his father have been transposed. Abiathar’s adhesion to Adonijah ( 1Ki 1:7 ; 1 Kings 1:19 ; 1 Kings 1:25 ) was of great importance, not only because of his position as priest, but also owing to his long friendship with king David. ...
J
Codex - ...
William J
Palladias, Bishop of Ireland - Palladius (11) , July 6, the first bp. J. 1879), has discussed with vast resources of legendary lore the different localities in Wicklow and Kildare where Palladius is said to have preached and built churches, but his authorities have little historical value, being specially the Four Masters and Jocelyn. ...
Immortality - Job 10:20-22 anticipates only a sheol-like state after death, but 19:25-26 seems to look for something more. ...
The New Testament writers present the idea of immortality with (1) the nouns aphtharsia [ Romans 2:7 ; 1 Corinthians 15:42,50 , 53-54 ; Ephesians 6:24 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 ); and athanasia [ 1 Corinthians 15:53-54 ; 1 Timothy 6:16 ); (2) the adjective aphthartos [ Romans 1:23 ; 1 Corinthians 9:25 ; 15:52 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 1 Peter 1:4 ); and (3) the phrase "eternal life" (lit. "Eternal life" is a favorite expression of John (3:15,16, 36; 10:28; 17:2-3; 1 John 1:2 ; 2:25 ; 5:11,13 , 20 ) and is frequently used by Paul (e. ...
Jesus assumes a continuing existence after death throughout his teachings. He speaks of it directly in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31 ) and in the Judgment scene of Matthew 25:31-46 . To make "everlasting life" available is at the heart of Jesus' mission: "I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full" (10:10; John 14:1-3 assumes not only a continuing existence but also that for believers it will be with Jesus. ...
Peter says Christians have been given "new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade" (1 Peter 1:3-4 ). The Judgment scenes of Revelation 20-22 display eternal life of bliss for believers and punishment for the rest. This fact, along with the bodily resurrection, Paul sees as assured because of the Spirit's guarantee, the defeat of death, and the ultimate victory of God through Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15:54-57 ). ...
J. Julius Scott, Jr. Bruce, Scottish Journal of Theology 24 (1971): 457-72; J. Habermas and J. J. Nickelsburg, Jr. , Resurrection, Immortality and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism
Foreknowledge - Paul uses the verb in his speech before Agrippa, when he tells him how his manner of life was known to all the Jews, ‘having knowledge of me from the first, if they be willing to testify’ (Acts 26:5); and in this sense also St. ...
In the remainder of the references given above it is the Divine foreknowledge which is in the mind of the Apostle, the object or objects being not facts or things but persons-these persons being objects of favourable regard-and the theme under consideration being some aspect of the Divine purpose of grace towards men. Peter, in addressing the Jewish multitudes on the day of Pentecost, describes them as having by the hand of lawless men crucified and slain Jesus of Nazareth, he speaks of Him as ‘delivered up by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God’ (Acts 2:23). ’ And he notes the pregnant sense of ‘know’ in such passages as Jeremiah 1:5, ‘Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee’; Isaiah 49:1, ‘The Lord hath called me from the womb; from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name’; and Exodus 33:12 (spoken of Moses), ‘I know thee by name, and thou hast found grace in my sight’ (cf. ...
‘This knowledge,’ says Hort in his note on the expressions, ‘is not a knowledge of facts respecting a person, but a knowledge of himself; it is, so to speak, a contemplation of him in his individuality, yet not as an indifferent object but as standing in personal relations to Him who thus “foreknows” him. Paul’s more exact and precise exposition of doctrine we see that ‘foreknowledge’ is still directed to poisons as its object, and also that ‘prescience,’ ‘knowing beforehand,’ is inadequate to the expression of the mysterious thought convoyed. Paul ‘foreknowledge’ is the first link in the chain of the Divine purpose of grace, the first step in the spiritual history of the believer (Romans 8:29, οὔς προέγνω), ‘foreordination’ the second, ‘effectual calling’ the third, ‘justification’ the fourth, ‘glory’ the fifth and last. ...
‘Mere prescience [1] of human volition,’ says O. J. J. J. J. Hodge, Systematic Theology, i [2] 397-400, 545; A
Aaron - In J
In other passages, which cannot be assigned either to E [2]
or P It is noteworthy that there is not a word so far either in J [1] or E [3] relates the 2nd plague (combined with J Abortion - Key Hebrew terms in this connection include tselem [ Genesis 1:26,27 a, b; 9:6) and demut [ Jeremiah 20:14-18 ; 5:1 ). As James Barr has shown, the writer's choice of selem [ Genesis 1:24-28 ; 2:7 ; 2:19 ), a discontinuity reiterated when, after the flood, God affirms the killing and eating of animals but prohibits murder (Genesis 9:6 ). 1Col 11:7; James 3:9 ); neither does Scripture support equating the divine-human resemblance with capacities not present until later stages of human development. Acts 17:28 finds Paul enlisting Stoic support to establish essential links between God and humankind, in order to demonstrate the absurdity of likening God to inanimate objects. James 3:9 underlines the tongue's hypocrisy when it praises God while cursing God's image-bearers. It underlies God's curse of Cain (1619168496_62 ), is explained in God's covenant with Noah (Genesis 9:5-6 ), is exemplified in the lives of Jacob (Genesis 27:41-42 ; 32:11-12 ), Joseph (Genesis 37:21,22 , 27 ; 42:22 ), and Moses (Exodus 2:12-14 ), and finally is encoded as the sixth commandment (Exodus 20:13 ; Deuteronomy 5:17 ). '" This manifestation of divine blessing in the form of posterity is echoed in God's Judgment upon the serpent ( Genesis 3:15 ), and continues as the heart of God's commitments to Abraham (Genesis 17:6,16 ; 21:1-2 ), Isaac (26:3-4,24), Jacob (28:14; 30:18,20; 33:5) and Israel (Deuteronomy 7:13 ); as the reward to Shiphrah and Puah, the Hebrew midwives, for their refusal to commit infanticide (Exodus 1:20-21 ); and as an assurance to wives who, being falsely accused of unfaithfulness, pass the ritual test for impurity (Numbers 5:28 ). Job's restoration is marked by the blessing of offspring (42:12-17); and the psalmist depicts the blessing, particularly of sons, in terms of inheritance and divine reward, legal protection, and prestige (127:3-5; John the Baptist as a sign of the Lord's magnified mercy toward her (1:25,58), and in the angel's words to Mary foretelling the conception of "the Son of the Most High, " blessings of the Messiah's arrival and of promised fertility stand together (Luke 1:28-38 ). Most striking are the accounts of the three mothers of the Jewish nation, Sarah, Rebekah, and Rachel, each of whom saw barrenness give way to fruitfulness as God set out to fulfill his promises to Abraham. But within a cultural context that valued childbirth and children so highly as a tangible sign of God's blessing it is more likely that, for the Jewish family, the intentional termination of pregnancy was unknown, distasteful, or even unconscionable than that their stance was casual, tolerant, or positive toward the practice. Subsequent Jewish literature abundantly confirms Israel's widespread rejection of both exposure and induced abortion. As in the Old Testament, the answer probably has more to do with the occasional nature of New Testament documents and the moral framework the church inherited from Judaism. In the second and third centuries, as the church's Jewish heritage was matched or surpassed by Roman and pagan influences, explicit condemnations of abortion became necessary. Although the versatile yasa (go out, come out, come forth) routinely describes normal, live birth (Genesis 25:25-26 ; 38:28-30 ; Job 1:21 ; 3:11 ; Ecclesiastes 5:15 ; Jeremiah 1:5 ; 20:18 ; cf. Deuteronomy 28:57 ; Job 38:8,29 ), it may on occasion refer to stillbirth (Numbers 12:12 ); the flexibility of the term allows for both. But given that yasa is linked with yeled [1], the common Hebrew word for child, and that another word, sekol [2], is available if the writer wants to point clearly to the bereavement of miscarriage, live birth seems slightly more likely. ...
A second ambiguity builds upon the first and concerns the harm or injury envisioned in verses 22-23. Versions like the NASB that speak of "any further injury" imply that the fetus is already dead, and that only harm done to the mother is in view. According to this reading, maternal injury or death requires parallel retribution while fetal death incurs only a fine. Job, with powerful rhetorical flourish, laments his present plight by cursing the day of his birth (3:1-19; 10:18-19; cf. The reader knows the end of the story and feels compelled to challenge Job's quality of life argument, as do other passages, which confirm that God's people will not and cannot escape suffering in this life. Jeremiah 1:5 ), God's care for the former assures his continued care for the latter. And when verse 16 pushes back to the very earliest, unformed stages of life (golem [3], embryo, formless thing), and perhaps even earlier, it is to celebrate God's limitless foreknowledge and providential involvement with each individual. And Jeremiah's prophetic commission originates before birtheven before conception (1:4-5). ...
Both Testaments refer to the fetus in terms routinely applied to the young child (Genesis 25:22 ; 38:27-30 ; Job 1:21 ; 3:3,11-16 ; 10:18-19 ; 31:15 ; Psalm 51:5 ; Isaiah 49:5 ; Jeremiah 20:14-18 ; Hosea 12:3 ; Luke 1:15,41 , 44 ; Romans 9:10-11 ), implying continuity between the two and distinct individuality for the fetus. Nowhere is this more clearly shown than in the prebirth rivalry between Jacob and Esau, and in the encounter between John and Jesus recorded in Luke's birth narrative. Jacob's struggle with Esau in the womb prophetically anticipated events later in life (Deuteronomy 22:22 ), and when John the Baptist, as a fetus of six months, leapt in the presence of the newly conceived Jesus, he inaugurated his witness to the One who is to come (Luke 1:39-45 ). As the Word become flesh (John 1:14 ) and the last Adam (1Col 15:45; cf. 22Rom 5:14), Jesus fully embraced humanity to redeem it. But unlike the first Adam who emerged fully formed from the earth, Jesus' entrance into humanity was as a zygote in Mary's womb. In the Old Testament, both orphan (or fatherless; yatom [ Deuteronomy 14:29 ; 24:17-21 ; 26:12-13 ; 16:11,14 ) were echoed by prophets whose demands for social Justice showed they considered orphans, widows, and the like particularly defenseless. Job contended strenuously, against the charges of Eliphaz (22:9), that his conduct toward orphans and widows had been exemplary (29:12-13; 31:16-23). ...
The New Testament echoes many of the same themes, but perhaps in a higher key for, alongside unambiguous texts like jas 1:27,1 Timothy 5:3-16 , several Synoptic sayings move well beyond concern for children's needs; the child becomes the paradigm for entrance into, and life within, the kingdom (1619168496_6 ; and Matthew 19:13-15 and parallels ). In Jesus' rejection of human standards of greatness, he not only turns on its head the conventional wisdom of the day, but also affords children unprecedented worth and dignity. A Just society will shape its laws to protect, in particular, pregnant women and unborn children, and will provide refuge for both in times of crisis. J. Barr, Bulletin of the John Rylands UNIVersity Library of Manchester 51 (1968-69): 11-26; M. J. Brown, Death Before Birth ; J. J. Fowler, Abortion: Toward an Evangelical Consensus ; J. J. Gorman, Abortion and the Early Church: Christian, Jewish and Pagan Attitudes in the Greco-Roman World ; G. Grisez, Abortion: The Myths, the Realities, and the Arguments ; J. House, WTJ 41 (1978): 108-23; B. Jackson, VT 23 (1973): 273-304; D. Jones, Brave New People: Ethical Issues at the Commencement of Life ; O. O'Donovan, Begotten or Made ; J. J. Sider, Completely Pro-Life: Building a Consistent Stance on Abortion, the Family, Nuclear Weapons, the Poor ; J
Haran - Son of Terah, younger brother of Abram, and father of Lot, Genesis 11:26 (P [1] ), also father of Milcah and Iscah, Genesis 11:29 (J Milwaukee, Wisconsin, City of - Jesuit missionaries were early visitors to the region, but the first record of a white man's arrival on the site of the present city is in the Journal of the Recollect missionary, Reverend Zenobe Membre, who accompanied Robert Chevalier de la Salle to the Illinois country in 1679. In 1699 Jean Francois Buisson de Saint Cosme "arrived at Melwarik," then an Indian village, from which in 1818 Solomon Juneau founded the city of Milwaukee. The first Mass was celebrated in 1837 in the home of Juneau by Reverend J Bonduel, a missionary from Green Bay. In 1847 the foundation was laid for the new cathedral of Saint John, built by contributions from Cuba and Mexico and consecrated in 1853. In 1856 the seminary of Saint Francis of Sales was founded by Dr Joseph Salzmann, who was also founder of the first Catholic normal school in the United States, and Pio Nono College in the suburb of Saint Francis (1871). The Jesuits, established in Milwaukee in 1856, opened Marquette College, now Marquette University, in 1880, and have charge of the Gesu, one of the handsomest churches in the northwest
Sceva - ), certain itinerant Jews (RV [1] ‘strolling’ perhaps conveys too much the idea of ‘vagabond’) endeavoured to exorcise evil spirits by naming over them the name of Jesus. Among them were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish ‘chief priest’ (probably one of the high-priestly family). In Acts 19:16 the demoniac overcomes ‘both of them’ (RV [3] ) substitute ‘them’ for ‘both of them,’ and the Bezan Codex (D Ignorance - It appears to be in accordance with natural Justice that ignorance should be regarded as modifying moral responsibility, and this is fully recognized in the Scriptures. So ‘ ignorances ’ are spoken of in 1Es 8:75 (RV
J
Luke (Evangelist) - 2), which perhaps has this meaning; but it may be a mere conjecture. Luke Joined St. Paul on his Second Missionary Journey, apparently for the first time, at Troas. Chrysostom and Jerome take him for ‘the brother whose praise in the gospel’ is spread abroad ( 2 Corinthians 8:18 ; see art. J
Nathan - In Luke 3:31 the genealogy of Jesus is traced through Nathan to David. Later, in token that an atonement has been made, he adds to Solomon’s name the significant title Jedidiah (‘beloved of Jah’). Adonijab had planned a coup by which to grasp the sceptre, now falling from the hands of his aged father. The text of 1 Chronicles 11:38 reads, ‘Joel brother of Nathan. A Judahite ( 1 Chronicles 2:36 ). ...
J
Middle Wall - Term is found in Ephesians 2:14 and variously translated: “middle wall of partition” (KJV); “dividing wall of hostility” (NRSV; NIV); “barrier of the dividing wall” (NASB); “barrier of enmity which separated them” (REB). Investigation of the term has yielded several possible interpretations: (1) The wall that separated the inner and outer courts of the Temple and prevented Jews and Gentiles from worshiping together. This curtain was rent at the death of Jesus (see Mark 15:38 ) and is representative of the separation of all humanity from God. In reality, the fenced-in law generated hostility between Jews and Gentiles and further divided them, as well as furthering the enmity between God and humanity. Destruction of the law's mediators opens a new and living way to God through Christ Jesus (Ephesians 2:18 ; Ephesians 3:12 ; Hebrews 10:20 ). The writer of Ephesians stressed that every conceivable barrier that exists between persons and between God and humanity has been destroyed by God's definitive work in Jesus Christ. ...
William J. Ireland, Jr
Trophimus - (Τρόφιμος)...
Trophimus was a Christian convert belonging to Ephesus (Acts 21:29) and a companion of the apostle Paul on his third missionary Journey (Acts 20:4). He is called along with Tychicus an Asian (Ἀσιανοί), and the two appear together as deputies of the Ephesian church, by which they were appointed to carry their contribution to the poorer brethren of Jerusalem. Paul in Macedonia and accompanied him to Asia, and thence preceded him to Troas, where they were Joined by the delegates from the other churches-Sopater of Berœa, Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica, Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy. After the Apostle’s arrival at Troas the whole company seem to have Journeyed together to Jerusalem. We find from Acts 21:29 that Trophimus had been seen in the Apostle’s company in Jerusalem, and the riot raised against the Apostle was made ostensibly on the ground that St. J
Seed - Metaphorically, ‘seed’ (σπέρμα) was used (1) of the nucleus of the Jewish race left from the Captivity (Romans 9:29); (2) of offspring in general, either (a) taken literally (Matthew 22:24 f. , Mark 12:19-22, Luke 1:55; Luke 20:28, John 7:42; John 8:33; John 8:37, Acts 3:25; Acts 7:5 f. 1 Peter 1:23) and His Spirit (1 John 3:9). , he concluded that the promise made to Abraham pointed to Christ as an individual and not collectively to Jews. J
Robbers of Churches - , 1893; J
Branch - words rendered by our ‘branch’ may be gathered from the following list of passages, in each of which a different term is used: Genesis 40:10 , Exodus 25:33 , Numbers 13:23 , Isaiah 16:8 ; Isaiah 27:10 , Jeremiah 11:16 , Zechariah 4:12 , Psalms 104:12 , Job 15:32 ; Job 18:16 . In the following verses RV [1] or RVm [2] points out that ‘layers of leaves’ are meant at Mark 11:8 , and at John 12:13 palm -branches are in question. ‘Branch’ is used figuratively for human offspring ( Job 15:32 ), especially for the scion of a royal house ( Daniel 11:7 ); also for persons in lofty station ( Isaiah 9:14 ). We have the same English term at Jeremiah 23:5 ; Jeremiah 33:15 , where another word, tsemach , is a title of the Messiah, intimating that this ‘shoot’ should arise out of ‘the low estate’ of the restored remnant. Zechariah 3:8 ; Zechariah 6:12 , following Jeremiah, actually makes Tsemach a proper name. on Jer. ’...
J
Courage - The corresponding verb is rendered uniformly in the RV [2] in RV
J
Brothers, Jesus - Jesus grew up in a normal family with parents and brothers. Jesus' Nazareth critics listed them in Mark 6:3 as James, Joses, Juda, and Simon. Their names appear again in the parallel passage of Matthew 13:55 , except Joseph is used as the alternate spelling of Joses (see NAS). His brothers may have been among the friends in Mark 3:21 who thought Jesus was “beside himself”; ten verses later Mark 3:31 “his brethren and his mother” tried to get His attention while He was teaching in a house. Furthermore, John 7:5 reports that “neither did his brethren believe in him. ” After the resurrection, however, they changed their minds and Joined the disciples in times of prayer ( Acts 1:14 ). The risen Christ appeared to one of them, James, and he became the leader of the church in Jerusalem (Acts 12:17 ; 1 Corinthians 15:7 ). One of them, often called the Gospel of James, tells the life story of Mary, using much fanciful material. It claims that Jesus' brothers were the sons of Joseph by an earlier marriage. Later a famous scholar, Jerome, argued that Jesus' brothers were really his cousins because their mother was Mary of Cleophas and the sister of Mary the mother of Jesus (see John 19:25 ). Jesus was born of the virgin Mary. Mary and Joseph then had four sons in the way all humans normally do. J
Liver - In the great majority of cases where the liver is mentioned, it is in connexion with the law of sacrifice as prescribed in P [2] , followed by Josephus ( Ant . Because of its sacredness the liver with its fat was not to be eaten, but was to be offered in sacrifice to J″
J
Longsuffering - In the OT the RV [1] uses this word only in Jeremiah 15:15 , where it is the translation of a phrase usually rendered ‘slow to anger’ (cf. Exodus 34:6 , Numbers 14:18 , Psalms 86:15 , in which passages AV [1] improves on AV [6]) and of his faithfulness ( 2 Peter 3:9 ; 2 Peter 3:15 ); it is manifested in the gracious restraint which characterizes His attitude towards those who deserve His wrath ( Romans 9:22 , 1 Peter 3:20 ). ...
J
Millstone - (μύλος; in Revelation 18:21 Textus Receptus , following B, has μύλον; L WH
James Strahan
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object. In Acts 28:11 ‘a ship whose sign was the Dioscuri’ renders πλοίῳ παρασήμῳ Διοσκούροις, where παρασήμῳ is either an adjective (= ‘marked’) or else, less probably, a substantive with Διοσκούροις in apposition (but in that case it means a ship’s flag in classical Greek; see Liddell and Scott, s. J
Assos -
James Strahan
Liberty - Liberty of conscience is freedom from restraint in our choice of, and Judgment about matters of religion. John 8:36 . 283; Jon. J
Frankincense (2) - Isaiah 60:6, Jeremiah 6:20, where ‘incense’ in Authorized Version ought to be ‘frankincense,’ and is so rendered in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885). 9 [1] art. J
Apostasy - Paul of teaching all the Jews who are among the Gentiles ‘to forsake Moses’ (lit. [3] , with bettor textual Justification, ‘lawlessness’) be revealed. [4] 472) that ἡ ἀποστασία in this passage should be taken as a translation of the Heb. בְּלִיַעַל (Belial
J
Bahamas - The first time a Catholic priest visited the Bahamas was in 1845 when Father Duquesney sojourned six weeks at Nassau and conducted services in a private residence for a few Catholic Cubans and Haitians. In 1863Reverend J. Northrop stopped here, and at his suggestion the Bahamas were placed under the Jurisdiction of the Archbishop of New York
Dizahab - The writer of Deuteronomy 1:1 thought of this as a town on the further side of the Jordan, in the ‘Arabah, on the border of Moab, ‘over against Suph,’ and as belonging to a group of places which he names. If ‘Ain el-Huderah , between Jebel Musa and ‘Akabah, represents a Hazeroth , and if Laban = Libnah ( Numbers 33:20 ), not far from ‘Ain el-Huderah , these are at too great a distance from the ‘Arabah. At Numbers 21:14 we find Suphah ( Deuteronomy 1:1 Samuph) in conjunction with Vaheb (see RV [1] ); and Vaheb , in the original, is almost the same as Zahab , which, indeed, the LXX
J
Judea - On the return from Babylon the Jews, besides Judah, included large portions of Benjamin, Levi, Ephraim, and Manasseh (Ezra 1:5; Ezra 10:5-9; Nehemiah 11:4-36; 1 Chronicles 9:3; "Israel," Ezra 2:70; Ezra 2:59; Ezra 3:1; Ezra 10:5; Nehemiah 7:73), and many whose pedigree could not be found. The amalgamation began when Jeroboam's idolatry drove the godly of northern Israel to Judah, again it took place under Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 30-33). Anna was of Asher (Luke 2:36); Paul of Benjamin (Romans 11:1); Barnabas of Levi (Acts 4:36). The "twelve tribes" appear Acts 26:7; James 1:1. ...
Judea is strictly the region W. of Jordan, S. of Samaria (though "beyond Jordan" is vaguely included in it Mark 10:1, and Galilee Luke 23:5). The village Anuath marked its northern boundary (Josephus, B. J. 3, section 5), Jardan its southern boundary: comprising the territory of Judah, Dan, Simeon, and Benjamin, 100 miles long, 60 broad. 6, Judaea was ruled by a procurator subject to the governor of Syria; he resided at Caesarea on the coast. Judea was little frequented by our Lord, except Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Bethany (compare John 7:1 for the reason in part). Jeremiah's prophecy (Jeremiah 34:22) is fulfilled; "the cities of Judaea" are "a desolation without inhabitant," the vine-clad terraces and grainfields have only left their traces behind, ruins alone abound, and the scenery has but little beauty
Place (His Own) - Peter states that Judas, into whose place he was being appointed, ‘fell away’ (παρέβη, Vulg. also Job 2:11, where the three friends came each ‘from his own place. ’ In both passages Rabbinic interpreters appear to have taken this to mean hell, though, of course, without any Justifification according to our modern methods (see J. 35) with his characteristic ingenuity and large-heartedness, have suggested that Judas’s motive for hurrying away from this world to the other was not remorse but contrition; having failed to obtain Christ’s pardon here, he hastened to meet Him and obtain it in the place of the departed
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object. In Acts 28:11 ‘a ship whose sign was the Dioscuri’ renders πλοίῳ παρασήμῳ Διοσκούροις, where παρασήμῳ is either an adjective (= ‘marked’) or else, less probably, a substantive with Διοσκούροις in apposition (but in that case it means a ship’s flag in classical Greek; see Liddell and Scott, s. J
Lives of Christ - The Jesuit Father de Ligny published at Avignon before 1788, his "Histoire de la Vie de Notre Seigneur Jesus Christ," which was again published in Paris, 1830. A famous German work, translated into French, was "Das Leben Christi," by J. Henry J. J. Griffeth (Longmans, 1891); "The Life of Christ," by Monsignor Le Camus, translated by Father (later Bishop) Hickey (New York, 1907); "Jesus Christ," by Pere Didon, O. , entitled "L'Evangile de Jesus Christ" (Paris, 1928). J. , "Jesus Christ, Sa Personne, Son Message, Ses Preuves" (Paris, 1928). ...
The text of the "Life of Jesus Christ" by the late Father Maas, S. J. J. , "The Life of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Meditation" (Herder, 1909). Giovanni Papini, a novelist who respects Catholic tradition, but whose training hardly fitted him for his task of writing a history of Our Lord, has succeeded, thanks to his literary skill, in producing on the subject a best-seller. " The preface of Papini betrays insufficient concern about the historical reliability of the Gospels; in the course of the work Saint John's Gospel is neglected. While the interpretation of Our Lord's words is orthodox, it is frequently too subjective. The books we have spoken of are for adults; the needs of younger people are provided for by Mother Loyola's "Jesus of Nazareth," Father Cornelius Holland's "The Divine Story," and Mother Imogen Ryan's "Come and See
Soul - Psalm 107:9 ; Proverbs 6:30 ; Isaiah 5:14 ("desire"); 29:8; (h) persons, individuals, Acts 2:41,43 ; Romans 2:9 ; James 5:20 ; 1 Peter 3:20 ; 2 Peter 2:14 ; cp. , "soul for soul;" (i) the equivalent of the personal pronoun, used for emphasis and effect:, 1st person, John 10:24 ("us"); Hebrews 10:38 ; cp. Genesis 12:13 ; Numbers 23:10 ; Judges 16:30 ; Psalm 120:2 ("me"); 2nd person, 2 Corinthians 12:15 ; Hebrews 13:17 ; James 1:21 ; 1 Peter 1:9 ; 2:25 ; cp. Exodus 30:12 ; Job 32:2 , Heb. "self;" (j) an animate creature, human or other, 1 Corinthians 15:45 ; Revelation 16:3 ; cp. Matthew 10:39 ); 1 Peter 2:11 ; 3 John 1:2 . ...
"With (j) compare a-psuchos, "soulless, inanimate," 1 Corinthians 14:7 . ...
"With (f) compare di-psuchos, "two-souled," James 1:8 ; 4:8 ; oligo-psuchos, "feeble-souled," 1 Thessalonians 5:14 ; iso-psuchos, "like-souled," Philippians 2:20 ; sum-psuchos, "joint-souled" (with one accord"), Philippians 2:2 . ...
"Body and soul are the constituents of the man according to Matthew 6:25 ; 10:28 ; Luke 12:20 ; Acts 20:10 ; body and spirit according to Luke 8:55 ; 1 Corinthians 5:3 ; 7:34 ; James 2:26 . In Matthew 26:38 the emotions are associated with the soul, in John 13:21 with the spirit; cp. In Psalm 35:9 the soul rejoices in God, in Luke 1:47 the spirit. "* Tent, Tent-Making - σκηνῶμα (2 Peter 1:13-14) and the metaphor underlying τὸ ἀναλῦσαι (Philippians 1:23), ἀνάλυσις (2 Timothy 4:6), ‘breaking up’ (an encampment); see J. It may be objected, however, that the manipulation of the web for the specific purpose of tent-making was not sufficient to call for special artisans. Schürer, HJP [2] 44 n. [4] 109, 153, 286
Tiberius (2) - it is stated that a word of God came upon John the Baptist, in the 15th year of the rule of Tiberius Caesar. ...
Tiberius Claudius Nero, named after his adoption Tiberius Julius Caesar, on the monuments bears the name Tiberius Caesar Augustus. In their youth they were entrusted to the care of Tiberius, who was forced to divorce his wife and marry Augustus’ daughter Julia (b. In the second half of his reign he was much under the influence of one Sejanus, an accomplished schemer, whose duplicity and crime he realized only after much evil had been wrought by him. —J. Bury, A History of the Roman Empire (London, 1893 and later); J. Cagnat, Cours d’Epigraphie Latine3 [1] (Paris, 1898), p. Vine - James (James 3:12) and the Apocalypse (Revelation 14:18). In 1 Corinthians 9:7 a vineyard supplies the subject for one of St. ...
In the apocalyptic vision, as elsewhere in the NT, the work of Judgment is compared to the vintage. In the OT both the vintage and the wheat-harvest are used as similes of the overthrow of the enemies of Jahweh, but here the wheat-harvest represents the ingathering of the faithful (see article Harvest). Within the last century, however, it has revived under European influence, and large numbers of imported vines have been planted by German and Jewish colonists. ; the bearing shoots supported by poles are carried horizontally across to the adjoining row. ...
No doubt many of the large quantities of grapes produced in olden days were used for dibs, a thick sweet Juice which is still made in Syria, and which was probably used to a much greater extent in ancient times when cane-sugar was unknown. , 1881-86, passim; J. John 2, do. : J. James 3, do. Jude,’ Edinburgh, 1901, p. [1] 776; R
Vengeance - The word ‘vengeance’ (ἐκδίκησις), with its corresponding substantive ‘avenger’ (ἔκδικος, 1 Thessalonians 4:6, Romans 13:4), is an essentially NT word and never carries with it the suggestion of arbitrary or vindictive reprisals: it is always a Just retribution, and a retribution inflicted by God Himself or His instruments (1 Peter 2:14). If the idea of wrath is associated with the use of the word, as in Romans 3:5; Romans 13:4, such ‘wrath’ (ὀργή) is the eternal righteousness or Justice of God acting in harmony with His revealed will. The verb (ἐκδικέω) occurs in the parable of the Unjust Judge (Luke 18:3; Luke 18:7-8) in the sense of affording protection from a wrong-doer and so vindicating the right of the injured person. It is then applied by our Lord to the Divine vindication of the ‘elect,’ the phrase used being ποιεῖν τὴν ἐκδίκησιν τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν, which suggests the protection of persevering saints as well as the Just penalty inflicted on their aggressors. It borrows the language of private revenge Just as the love of God borrows the language of sensuous affection. ’...
Punishment, if it is to carry any moral weight, must involve the vindication of law, and consequently the new ethic of Christianity which controlled the conduct of the Apostolic Church is based on love, which rules out of revenge the element of private and personal malevolence (see some cogent remarks by J. The private individual has not to assume Judicial functions which properly belong to a recognized legal tribunal or ‘powers’ regarded as Divinely ordained (Romans 13:1-6). ...
On the relation of the subject to war, E. Will-more (J. Hibbert Journal xiii. [1] 340) describes how the doubts of a friend-a Territorial soldier-as to the moral Tightness of war (based on ‘Vengeance is mine,’ etc. ’ War as a method of giving expression to the law of international righteousness is admittedly repugnant to the Christian conscience; but until the method is superseded as the result of a consensus gentium, a Christian nation is not absolved from the duty of vindicating either by offensive or by defensive warfare the eternal principles of right and Justice
Reconciliation - ...
Reconciliation is the objective work of God through Christ ( 2 Corinthians 5:19 ). But it is also a subjective relationship: "Be reconciled to God" ( 2 Corinthians 5:20 ). ...
Reconciliation is also related to Justification. It is related to Justification in Romans 5 . We have been Justified through faith (v. ...
Reconciliation is also subjective in that the sinner is spoken of as being reconciled. It is a relationship that comes between man and wife as well as Jew and Gentile. Reconciliation is something done by the one who offers it; it is not Just something that happens to the estranged people. It is the cross of Christ that reconciles both Jew and Gentile. Because of this, Jew and Gentile have access to the Father by one spirit. Gentile and Jewish believers are reconciled to God and the middle wall of partition is broken down; both are brought near by the blood of Christ. The ultimate aim is that we are not only Justified, but that we might become the righteousness of God (v. This brings peace with God, access to God through Christ, rejoicing in the hope of the glory of God, making us rejoice in suffering, and having the love of God poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit (Romans 5:1-5 ). We rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation (Romans 5:11 ). ...
William J. Woodruff...
See also Faith ; Justification ; Redeem, Redemption ; Salvation ...
Bibliography . Baillie, God Was in Christ ; J
Immanuel - When the angel appeared to Joseph in a dream, he learned that his fianc Mary was "with child through the Holy Spirit" and would give birth to a son named "Immanuel" (Matthew 1:18,23 ). "Immanuel" is a Hebrew word meaning "God with us" and expresses the wonder of the incarnation, that God "became flesh and made his dwelling among us" (John 1:14 ). Christ's glory was revealed through the miracles he performed (John 2:11 ). And in 8:8 the two boys may be identified as Isaiah addresses Immanuel as if he were already present in Jerusalem. " The prophet was challenging Ahaz to trust God, who was "with" his people Just as he had promised to be with them constantly. In Numbers 14:9 Joshua and Caleb had urged the Israelites to acknowledge that the Lord was with them and to begin the conquest of Canaan, but Just like Ahaz the people chose the path of unbelief with its tragic consequences. An earlier king of Judah, Abijah, believed that God was with his people as they faced the numerically superior army of Jeroboam. Abijah's faith was honored as the Lord gave him a resounding victory ( 2 Chronicles 13:12-15 ). Matthew's use of this verse was extraordinarily appropriate in light of Mary's unique virginity and the incarnation of Jesus, who was God in the flesh. Matthew ends his Gospel with Jesus' own assurance to his disciples that he was Immanuel: "And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age" (28:20). J. Lindblom, A Study of the Immanuel Section in Isaiah ; J
Gallio - Junius Gallio, a Roman orator, and took his name. * [1] Angered by the conversion of prominent members of the synagogue, the Jews took advantage of the new governor’s arrival to lay a charge against St. He elicited the true nature of their complaint, and, cutting short the trial, he abruptly dismissed the case as referring only to interpretations of Jewish law, not to any civil wrong or any moral outrage of which Roman law took cognizance. (a) It was a snub which gave the Greek bystanders grounds for venting their animus against the Jews, by seizing and beating Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue. This seems the true interpretation of a scene which has been supposed to describe Jews beating a Christian-or even their own leader-in revenge for their defeat. But such a savage and illegal protest against Gallio’s decision could not have passed unnoticed by him; on the other hand, a public demonstration against the unpopular and disputatious Jews whom he had Just dismissed might appear to him a rough sort of Justice which he could afford to overlook, especially as it put the seal of popular approval on his action (see Sosthenes). Gallio being governor of Achaia, his Judgment would become a precedent and would have far-reaching influence. Although Judaism was a religio licita, evidently the Imperial Government did not consider Christian preaching illegal. From this point of view Gallio’s treatment of the Jewish complaint was a landmark in St. He was very lovable and fascinating; amiable, virtuous, Just, and witty. No doubt he had more than a touch of the Roman aristocrat’s contempt for religious quarrels and for all Jews. But he appears as an astute Judge, seeing quickly into the heart of things, firm in his decisions, and not too pompous or punctilious to turn a blind eye to a bit of rough popular horseplay. J. ...
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Jannes And Jambres - 5) in the warning given to Pilate by Nicodemus that he should not act towards Jesus as Jannes and Jambres did to Moses. was derived from a ‘secret book’ (perhaps the ‘Liber qui appellatur Paenitentia Jamnae et Mambrae,’ an apocryphon referred to in the Decretum Gelasianum), as he suggests was the case with 1 Corinthians 2:9 and Matthew 27:9 itself (Patr. 8 as relating the story to Jannes and Jambres, two ‘Egyptian scribes’ (cf. [1] 268) makes the two apostles warn Nero against Simon Magus by the example of Pharaoh, who was drowned in the Red Sea through listening to Jannes and Jambres. 1) compares the action of Jannes and Jambres to that of Annas and Caiaphas. It is possible that the two magicians were identified by hostile Jews with John and Jesus (cf. ...
The licentious play of fancy which meets us everywhere in the superstitions about magicians throughout the two centuries before and the two centuries after Christ, is responsible for the variegated and contradictory legends about Jannes and Jambres. They were sons of Balaam, and accompanied him on his Journey to Balak; they perished in the Red Sea; they were among the ‘mixed multitude’; they were killed in the matter of the golden calf; they flew up into the air to escape the sword of Phinehas, but were brought down by the power of the Ineffable Name and slain. The first has been identified with Johannes or John, and may have contained an allusive reference to Heb. Jambres occurs in the form Mambres also (the b in both is probably euphonic only), and may have been treated as if from Aram. J. 77), and J. In 1 Maccabees 9:36 the ‘children of Jambri’ are mentioned, an Arab tribe, and perhaps not Amorites, but there is no good ground for tracing Jambres to this. ...
We can only conclude, therefore, that all that is certain about Jannes and Jambres is that they were the names of two men who were believed in the Apostolic Age to have been the leaders of the magicians who withstood Moses, and that they have been made the centre of pious legends and the cause of much critical ingenuity
Carnal - In two cases (Romans 8:7, Hebrews 9:10) the adj. ...
On the other occasions when ‘carnal’ is found in the Epistles it represents the adjectives σάρκινος and σαρκικός, which, according to their strict meanings, correspond respectively to the Lat. ’ Belonging to the general class of proparoxytone adjectives in -ινος which are used to denote the material of which a thing is made (cf. In the view of some scholars, σάρκινος, which was much the more familiar word of the two, has been substituted in some cases for σαρκικός, an adjective almost wholly unknown outside of biblical Greek (Winer, Gram. Paul used the two adjectives indiscriminately. The ‘carnal mind’ or ‘mind of the flesh’ is the mind which is not subject to the law of God (Romans 8:7) because it has not received the Spirit of God (1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 2:14). of Alford and Meyer on passages referred to; J. ...
J
Philosophy - But, as Christianity claims the whole realm of human thought and life as its sphere, it could not be indifferent to so important a subject. Moreover, as Hatch points out, the majority of those to whom Christianity was preached were not concerned with philosophy, and the former appealed to a standard which the latter did not recognize (Influence of Greek Ideas, p. This insisted on some obsolete Jewish practices, inculcated ‘a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels’ (Colossians 2:16-18), and was concerned with fables and genealogies, knowledge ‘falsely so called,’ and asceticism (1 Timothy 1:4; 1 Timothy 4:1-4; 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 6:20, Titus 1:14; Titus 3:9). The ideas and practices condemned are partly Jewish, and the philosophy is in an undeveloped state. The errors are probably an amalgam of later Jewish speculations regarding an angelic hierarchy (cf. ...
The writer (or writers) of the Gospel of John and 1 John deals with the contention that Jesus Christ did not come ‘in the flesh’ (1 John 4:1-3)-a theory which is perhaps to be attributed to Cerinthus, a contemporary of St. John. ...
The Epistles of Jude (Judges 1:4; Judges 1:7; Judges 1:10; Judges 1:19) and 2 Peter (2 Peter 2:2; 2 Peter 2:10; 2 Peter 2:21-22) denounce a specially obnoxious type of antinomianism. J. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894; A. ...
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Simeon - The second son of Jacob and Leah ( Genesis 29:33 [4] ( Genesis 37:35 ) speaks of ‘all’ Jacob’s ‘daughters,’ but their names are nowhere recorded (cf. Genesis 46:7 [4] , who is specially inclined to etymologizing (see RVm [7] of Genesis 3:20 ; Genesis 4:1 ; Genesis 4:25 ; Joshua 19:1-90 ; Genesis 11:9 ; Genesis 16:11 ; Genesis 16:14 etc. ), connects the name, as in the case of Reuben, with Jacob’s ‘hatred’ of Leah: ‘Because Jahweh hath heard ( shâma ‘) that I am hated, etc. ...
In the Blessing of Jacob (Genesis 49:1-33 ) Simeon is coupled with Levi (wh. see) as sharing in the curse of Jacob and in the consequent dispersion of the tribe among the other tribes of Israel. P
James A
ir-ha-Heres - In Isaiah 19:18 the name to be given in the ideal future to one of the ‘five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah of hosts’; AV [1] and RV [4] , in which the ancient rites of his people might be carried on without molestation, and which might form a religions centre for the Jews settled in Egypt. Ptolemy granted him a site at Leontopolis, in the ‘nome,’ or district, of Heliopolis; and there Onias erected his temple (Jos. [5] BJ . of Heliopolis, near which there are remains of a Jewish necropolis (Naville, The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias , pp. In support of his plan, Onias had pointed to Isaiah 19:18 and its context as a prediction that a temple to J[4] was to be built in Egypt (Jos. [4] , but of Jewish colonies in Egyp. maintaining their national language and religion, suppose Isaiah 19:16-25 to have been written in the latter years of the first Ptolemy (Lagi), c [11] ), and then further, by the Jews of Palestine, as a counter-blow, into ‘city of destruction’ (Heb
Babylon - The land was named after its chief city, Babylon, which earlier was known as Babel (Genesis 11:9; Jeremiah 51:31; see BABEL). ...
Temple - The biblical authors from Moses through Ezekiel and Haggai to John of Patmos never describe a complete temple, but offer a vision of what the temple was to be: the locus of the presence of God. Thus "Jerusalem, " where centralization of the cult eventually took place, figures prominently in two key texts that address "cultic" issues: in Genesis 22 with the "binding" (sacrifice) of Isaac ("Moriah" cf. God appears to the newly created covenantal community, a community formed by the exodus and, now at Sinai (which parallels Jerusalem as a place par excellence for "visions" of God), given an identity, including instructions where Yahweh's presencewith the full implication of both blessing and dangerwould be manifest (Exodus 24-26 ; 33:12-17 ). ...
The tent of the meeting in the Pentateuch, and the priestly tabernacle, is not, however, a projection (or retrojection!) of the temple, but an independent dwelling reflecting the life of Israel prior to settlement and the centralization of worship. The biblical authors were not oblivious to these explanations (1 Kings 5:13-18 ), but characteristically pass theological Judgment (1 Chronicles 22:8-9 ), or, more important, God himself divulges his feelings on the matter: "Did I ever say Why have you not built me a house of cedar'?" (2 Samuel 7:7 ). God does not require an immutable dwelling, but the metaphoric associations are kept open, even those of monarchal Justification (i. The paradox is softened by "quoting" the Deuteronomic "name" formula: "My Name shall be [1]" (v. Moreover, a labor force is needed to complete the project, a force not unlike what the Israelites experienced in Egypt. Finally, Solomon is portrayed as the central figure in the planning and implementation of the project: "As for this temple that you are building " ( 1 Kings 6:12 ). No editorial Judgment from the author is forthcoming from these contrasts, but the reader is left with the impression that Solomon's project is equivocal before God. ...
The equivocal nature of the project is supported by the Lord's response to it in 1619168496_26 . Although Jeremiah held little esteem for the ark/temple, he nevertheless prophesied that God's throne would be Jerusalem itself (3:17), and Torah would be written in their hearts (31:31-34). The relativizing of the temple and moral earnestness that we see in Jeremiah were precisely the points of the Deuteronomic theology that influenced the short-lived reforms of Josiah. In Ezekiel's new temple a remarkable event takes place: water flows from the temple (in Jerusalem) with such abundance that it calls to mind the rivers of paradise (see also Psalm 46:4 ; Revelation 21:6 ). ...
Jesus, Paul, and Judaism . In Judaism the temple was the religious, cultural, and national center; indeed, the temple was a microcosm of the universe. ...
According to the Gospels, Jesus participated fully in the practices and ethos of the temple. Jesus' birth was announced in the temple (Luke 1:17 ; 2:27-32 ), where he was also circumcised and studied with the rabbis as a lad (Luke 2:46 ). Later, of course, Jesus taught in the temple himself (John 7:14 ). It is not without significance that while Jesus is teaching in the temple precincts, he says, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me" (John 7:37 ), and the next day offers forgiveness to the woman taken in adultery (John 8:1-11 ). Blessing and forgiveness, priestly functions, are pronounced by Jesus in the shadow of the temple. ...
Jesus is not only a communicant and priest of sorts; he is also a prophet. Thus, when the temple practices are compromised, Jesus assails those who Jeopardize the sanctity of the temple: "My house will be called a house of prayer But you have made it a den of robbers" (Mark 11:17 ). Jesus, while teaching in its precincts, preserves the sanctity of the temple by his ethical admonitions. Even the forgiven woman is told to sin no more (John 8:11 ; see also John 4:23 ). Jesus employs a wordplay equivocating on the term "body" to break the parochial thinking of his audience (John 2:19 ). John characteristically points out the error of their literal-mindedness: "But the temple he had spoken of was his body" (John 2:21 ). Thus, in Jesus' acts and words we see the temple once again as a place of holiness, of danger (words of Judgment; Jesus's own death) as well as blessing, and further extensions of the symbol are generated. ...
Anthony J. J. Josipovici, The Book of God ; K. J. Kraus, The Theology of the Psalms ; J. Levenson, Sinai and Zion ; J. Moberly, The Old Testament of the Old Testament ; J. Neusner, Wrong Ways and Right Ways in the Study of Formative Judaism ; W. Renwick, Paul, the Temple, and the Presence of God ; J. Smith, The Prophets of Israel and Their Place in History ; idem, The Religion of the Semites ; J
Jew, Jewess - The term ‘Jew’ (Heb. Ἰουδαῖος) originally signified an inhabitant of the province of Judaea , or, more strictly, a member of the tribe of Judah in contrast with the people of the Northern Kingdom of the ten tribes. Josephus, referring to Nehemiah, use of the term in addressing the returned exiles, says: ‘That is the name they are called by from the day that they came up from Babylon, which [1] is taken from the tribe of Judah, which came first to these places; and thence both they and the country gained that appellation’ (Ant. The Jew himself preferred to be called an ‘Israelite,’ as the latter was the name of national honour and privilege (cf. article Israel), and we find ‘Jew’ to be the designation usually applied by foreigners to members of the Chosen People. The Jews themselves divided the whole world into Jews and Gentiles; and we find the Apostle Paul using this contrast in speaking of God’s Judgment on sin: ‘tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile’ (Romans 2:9). Again the term is used in contrasting Jews and Samaritans (John 4:9), the latter being descended from the mixed race of ancient Israelites and the settlers introduced by the Assyrian conquerors (cf. ...
The Jew is also contrasted with the proselyte who was a Jew by his adopted religious beliefs, but not by birth (Acts 2:10). In the Fourth Gospel we find the term ‘Jews’ applied to those who opposed the teaching of Jesus, as contrasted with believers in Christ, whatever their nationality might be; but generally the Jewish rulers seem to be indicated by the name in this Gospel. Thus ‘the Jews’ censure the man for carrying his bed on the Sabbath (Acts 5:10), and contend with the man born blind (Acts 9:22). Perhaps this usage of the Fourth Gospel arose from the influence of later times, when the Jews, and especially the Jewish authorities, were bitterly opposed to the teaching of Jesus. Thus in Galatians 2:13 ‘the Jews’ are the Christians of Jewish race. In the Epistle to the Romans (Romans 2:28-29) we find a distinction made between a Jew who is such outwardly and a Jew who is such inwardly. Here, as also in Romans 3:1, the Apostle uses the term ‘Jew,’ where we should naturally expect to find ‘Israelite,’ to designate a member of the Chosen People as a recipient of special Divine favour. Some who belong to the Jewish race are not spiritually partakers of the blessings which attach to it. In the passage where the writer of the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9) speaks of those ‘who say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan,’ he may be referring to men who made a false claim to belong to the Jewish nation, or to Jews by race who were far from belonging to the true Israel of God. ...
One of the most remarkable features in connexion with the Jews in the apostolic times was their world-wide dispersion. From Spain in the West to the Persian Gulf in the East Jews had settled in every large city. Wherever the apostolic missionaries went, they found a Jewish synagogue, where they had access not merely to the Jewish population, but to the more earnest among the heathen who had been attracted by the monotheism and the moral characteristics of Judaism, and who often formed the nucleus of a Christian Church. The Jewish religion was tolerated in the Roman Empire, being regarded as a religio licita; and, so long as Christianity grew up and flourished in the shelter of the synagogue, it too might be regarded as enjoying the same toleration. In the Acts of the Apostles we see how the Roman proconsul Gallio (Acts 18:12-17) simply regards Christianity as an insignificant variation of Judaism, and the same view is taken by King Agrippa (Acts 26:32), as well as by the town-clerk of Ephesus (Acts 19:37). Probably, however, the popular hatred of the Jews, which was always smouldering and ready to burst forth at any moment among the excitable populace, was one of the first causes of Christian persecution, as it took some considerable time before Christianity was fully recognized as an independent religion. The Jews themselves became the most persistent and implacable persecutors of the Christians. Probably the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius (Acts 18:2) was the result of dissensions regarding the new religion, which had sprung from Judaism and threatened to overwhelm it. J. ...
In Rome, as well as in many other cities of the Empire, Jews obtained considerable influence, in spite of the popular aversion to them. Jews, and especially Jewesses, were to be found in many prominent Roman families, and intermarriage between Jewish women and Gentiles was by no means uncommon. Thus Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1), was a Jewess who had married a Greek, while Drusilla, the wife of Felix the governor of Syria (Acts 24:24), is also described as a Jewess. Milman, History of the Jews3, 1863; J. J. Döllinger, Heidenthum und Judenthum, 1857; O. Schürer, GJV
Scripture, Unity And Diversity of - Modern liberal scholars claim to reject such a procedure, denying unity by highlighting the diversity of the data within the Bible. It is a mirror in which we see ourselves, whether observing the struggles of the first family, the patriarchs, David and the kings, the prophets, or Jesus and the apostles. The Ten Commandments, the Sermon on the Mount, James, and 1John present a harmonious voice for what constitutes godly character. Jesus as Messiah brings both together and presents not only a unity but provides information for the final chapter—the eschaton. , the call narrative of Jeremiah 1 reflects Deuteronomy 18 ) and the Old Testament in the New Testament illustrates this interdependence. ...
The preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus did not totally take Israel by surprise because it was in concord with the Old Testament prophets. The genealogies of Jesus rehearse ethnic origins and God's plan. Jesus and Paul go to the "Jews first. It is also interesting that the Gospel authored by the apostle John (assuming he also authored Revelation) focuses on the creation motif in its prologue. From Abraham to James, righteousness by faith is functional (a point also noted by Paul in Ephesians 2:10 ; Titus 3:3-8 ). ...
The concept of covenant provides a major framework for unity and diversity within the record of God's redemptive work. The statement in Romans 9:13 , "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated, " is best understood in terms of an established covenant with Jacob and not with Esau. The New Testament correlates with the Old Testament concerning Jesus' place of birth, family line, forerunner, suffering, death, and future kingdom. Matthew is so conscious of this correlation that he creates a quotation from the Old Testament on a very broad analogy of Jesus as the rejected one in order to Justify Jesus being raised in Nazareth (Matthew 2:23 ). The baptism of Jesus marks him as the anointed servant of the Lord. Jesus adopts a particularly messianic title"son of man"from Daniel 7 as his favorite way of referring to himself. All Bible students wish Luke would have recorded more than a mere reference of Jesus' exposition of himself from the Old Testament (24:25-27; 24:44). The correlation of Jesus with the Passover Lamb at the beginning and end of his earthly ministry presents a most prominent Jewish imagery of salvation. One major flaw in evaluating what constitutes unity is to assume that unity means unanimity. Jesus warned about a variety of tensions that accompany times of transition when he described old and new wine, old and new cloth, family members turning against each other, and many other aspects of conflict over the revelation of God's developing program. An example by analogy is the matter of Luke's record of the Quirinius census at the time of Jesus' birth. , the JEDP theory), assumed antitheses between Jesus and Paul, and discontinuity between the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ (which means the Christ preached by the early church without any necessary connection with what Jesus of Nazareth actually said). One striking example occurs between Paul and John's description of gospel proclamation. John never uses any form of this term in his Gospel or epistles (the occurrences in Revelation 10:7 and Revelation 14:6 ; are merely good news in general ). John utilizes the martur- word-group ("witness") and thereby images his proclamation of the gospel as a "witness. " Since John's Gospel was probably written after Paul's influential mission, does this mean that he disagreed with Paul? No, he merely chose another term to suit his purposes. Jesus and Paul and James and Paul do not contradict one another; they merely provide a variety of perspectives upon a larger issue. The Acts of Yahweh in the Old Testament (Joshua 6:15-21 ), and the teaching of the God-Man (Luke 9:54-55 ) in the New Testament appear on opposite ends of a continuum to many. Biblical diversity is not to be rejected or simply explained away. Baker, Two Testaments, One Bible ; J. Barr, The Bible in the Modern World and Fundamentalism ; J. , Inerrancy ; J. Goldingay, VT 34 (1984):153-68; J. Grier, GTJ 1ns (1980); C. J. Nash, The Word of God and the Mind of Man ; J. Packer, JETS 25 (1982):409-14; V. Schaeffer, Escape From Reason ; J
High Place, Sanctuary - In the narrower sense ‘sanctuary’ is used of every recognized place of worship, provided with an altar and other apparatus of the cult, the special designation of which in OT is bâmâh , EV
It is impossible within present limits to describe fully this important discovery, or to discuss the many problems which it raises (see, for details, PEFSt
Several examples of another type of high place have been discovered on a rocky summit overlooking Petra ; the most complete is that described in Hastings’ DB [2]
‘guest-chamber’), where the worshippers Joined in the sacrificial feast (cf. At these local sanctuaries, and at these alone, the early Hebrews worshipped J While this was the state of matters in the Northern Kingdom, the unique position which the sanctuary at Jerusalem had acquired in the south, and the comparative purity of the cultus as there practised, gradually led, under the Divine guidance, to the great thought that, as J[10] Himself was one, the place of His worship should also be one , and this place Jerusalem. Whatever may have been the extent of Hezekiah’s efforts in this direction, it was not until the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah (622 621 b. With the early death of Josiah the local cults revived, and it needed the discipline of the Exile to secure the victory of the Deuteronomic demand for the centralization of the cultus. For them, accordingly, the worship at the local sanctuaries became illegal from the date of the erection of Solomon’s Temple ‘only the people sacrificed in the high places, because there was no house built for the name of the Lord until those days’ ( 1 Kings 3:2 RV Knowledge - The distinctive sense in which the apostles speak of knowledge has reference to the knowledge of God, and especially to the knowledge of God and the world through Jesus Christ. Perhaps this attitude may have been accentuated for the Apostle by the fact that in his own experience so much of his knowledge should have come directly in visions, as in the vision of Jesus, the Exalted Christ (Acts 9:3), in the vision of the man of Macedonia (Acts 16:10), and in the vision of the third heaven (2 Corinthians 12:1). John declares that all men have the organ of spiritual vision by which God, who is light, is revealed to them. Those who keep the commandments of God come to a growing knowledge (1 John 2:3), and only those in whom love is abiding really possess this Divine knowledge (1 John 4:7). Whoever persists in sinning does not know God (1 John 3:6). The object of knowledge. -Much of the earliest teaching of the apostles was to demonstrate that Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ of God (Acts 2:36), and the object of all their knowledge and preaching might be summed up in the phrase of St. Paul; ‘to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ’ (2 Corinthians 4:6). Thus the object that is made known to all Christians is the glory of God as revealed in the person, character, and work of Jesus Christ, so that what was only dimly discerned before is now clearly seen. This is the μυστήριον that was hidden for long ages but is now revealed, so that the Divine plan of redemption is no longer a secret but is heralded forth in Jesus Christ (Romans 16:25, 1 Corinthians 2:7). Paul conceives of the glory of God as having been long concealed by the clouds of earth, but at last having shone forth in undimmed splendour; and those who believe that Jesus is the Lord receive a vision of God’s glory that illuminates all life, history, and experience. John also Jesus Christ is the source of light on all the great matters of life. Through Him we know God (1 John 2:3), and this provides the key to all knowledge. Thus individuals learn the outstanding features of their own characters (James 1:23), the sanctity of their lives as being the temples of God (1 Corinthians 3:16), the value of their bodies as members of Christ (1 Corinthians 6:15), and the consecration of all the powers of body and mind as an acceptable service to God (Romans 12:1). Servants are expected to render a whole-hearted service because they know that their real master is Jesus Christ, by whom they are to be recompensed. Masters are required to carry out all their duties with Justice and fairness, for they know that they have to account to their Unseen Master, the Lord in heaven (Colossians 3:22 ff. Even minor social problems like those of eating and drinking have new light cast upon them (Romans 14:14), for the light of Jesus Christ has illuminated all life and brought knowledge where formerly there was doubt or ignorance. John this Christian gnosis has a predominant place, and it is interesting to note how wide and vital this knowledge becomes according to the Apostle. The knowledge of God is at the centre, and it radiates forth in every direction to a wide circumference, for it includes the knowledge of truth (1 John 2:21), of righteousness (1 John 2:29), of love (1 John 3:16), of spiritual life and inspiration (1 John 3:24, 1 John 4:2), and of the state of those beyond the grave (1 John 3:2). To reach its fullness it must be accompanied by abnegation (Philippians 3:6), by fellowship with God and with brethren (1 John 1:3), by obedience to God’s commands (1 John 2:3), by attention to apostolic teaching (1 John 4:6), and by faith, virtue, temperance, patience, godliness, love of the brethren, and love (2 Peter 1:6). ‘Every one that loveth is begotten of God and knoweth him’ (1 John 4:7). ‘Knowledge puffeth up, but love edifieth,’ and in matters that are intimately concerned with the feelings and prejudices of others love is the safer guide. This higher philosophy has been hidden from the sight of men, otherwise they would not have crucified the Lord Jesus Christ. Just as the spirit of man alone can understand the things of a man, so the Spirit of God in man alone can understand the Divine philosophy. ‘The merely intellectual man’ rejects this philosophy, as he does not possess the spiritual insight to discern its Divine wisdom. It is unnecessary for the present purpose to decide whether these heresies arose from a latent Gnosticism or from certain features of Judaism; but, if Judaism was the source, it was a Judaism influenced by the thought and spirit of the Diaspora. This may be Judged by the kind of speculations in which they indulge, especially in the cosmical dualism that they shadow forth and in the belief in an endless series of angelic beings as mediators between God and men. Paul does not denounce all speculative knowledge, but opposes it by a higher knowledge of Jesus Christ. J. 161; J. 11; J. 198; J. Macgregor, Jesus Christ the Son of God, 1907, p. 1; articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) (J. Dictionary of the Bible (J. J
Exorcism - Such indwelling in its highest form is inspiration (Job 32:8). [2] σε κατὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος (Matthew 26:63), he thereby brought the prisoner into such effective touch with Jahweh that the latter could punish him if he did not speak the truth. Jevons, ‘Defixionum Tabellae,’ in Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions, 1908, vol. A heathen amulet has the inscription ἐξορκίζω ὑμας κατὰ τοῦ ἁγίου ὀνόματος θεραπεῦσαι τὸν Διονύσιον; and ‘the adjective is of constant occurrence in the magic papyri’ (Moulton and Milligan, ‘Lexical Notes from the Papyri’ in Expositor, 7th ser. [3] 376). Jevons, Comparative Religion, 1913, p. * [7] Exorcism, it must be observed, is not nearly so prominent in the First Gospel as in the Third, and all instances of its use are omitted in the Fourth (J. 13, 120; J. It is especially noteworthy that our Lord in expelling evil spirits employed no outward means (except once, the spittle [8]); He simply commanded and it was done. *
The Twelve, after being chosen, were ordained to be with Jesus in order that they might go forth (a) to preach, (b) to have power to heal diseases, and (c) ἐκβάλλειν τὰ δαιμόνια (Mark 3:14-15, Matthew 10:1). John reported to Jesus that he and other disciples saw one casting out daemons in His name (Mark 9:38, Luke 9:49); while, on the other hand, the disciples sometimes failed in their efforts at expulsion (Matthew 17:19). When they returned, they reported that the spirits were subject to them in His name‡ [11] of Jesus Christ,’ commanded the spirit to come out of her, which it immediately did (Acts 16:16-18). Paul seems to have cast out spirits in the name‡ of Jesus. Further cures of a somewhat uncommon (οὐ τὰς τυχούσας) character were effected, for on certain articles of dress which had been in immediate contact with the body (ἀπὸ τοῦ χρωτός¶ Such success roused a competitive spirit in the minds of other exorcists and revealed to them the power which lay in the use of the name of Jesus. Seven sons of Sceva, a Jewish high priest, who formed a company of strolling exorcists, determined to utilize the new power. The effort proved more than futile, for the recitation of the formula, instead of bringing Jesus into such effective touch with the man that the evil spirit had to yield possession to Him, roused the spirit to stir into activity that abnormal muscular strength often possessed by those mentally deranged (cf. The men who had become Christians realized the incompatibility of loyalty to Jesus and the practice of such magical arts, and they publicly burned their copies of the famous Ἐφέσια γράμματα (Acts 19:19). The words which shed light on the struggle from the higher Christian standpoint are those in James 4:7 : ‘resist the devil, and he will flee from you’-words which were an exhortation to the Christians not to resort to exorcism, but to rely on the successful resistance which sprang from a strong exertion of their sanctified wills aided by the power of God. Four only are referred to in the Apostolic Age-hands, cloths, the name of Jesus, and shadowing. Their work was the care of the possessed, the εὐεργούμενοι, the catechists, heretics, and schismatics, the exorcism being in each case connected with the rites of exsufflation and insufflation (see J. liii; J
Golden Rule - The term "Golden Rule" is not found in Scripture, but is the popular way of referring to the words of Jesus in Matthew 7:12 and Luke 6:31 . Jesus states, "Do to others as you would have them do to you. ...
Matthew 22:37-40 may serve as the "hermeneutical bridge" that Joins the Golden Rule with the message of the Old Testament. When asked what was the greatest commandment, Jesus claimed that to love God totally and to love one's neighbor as oneself was the sum of the Law and the Prophets (cf. Impartiality in Judgment and forbidding vengeance is applicable to a "brother" ( Leviticus 19:17 ). From a Jewish perspective the words "fellow covenant member, " "brother, " and "neighbor" were synonymous. Yet within the same chapter the injunction to love one's neighbor as oneself is directed toward noncovenant members. So Jews must love noncovenant members Just as themselves. Impartial Judgment is to be meted out to both Israel and alien alike. The classic example of God's love for the alien can be found in the Book of Jonah. Jonah laments the extraordinary grace and love shown to the Godless Ninevites (4:2). Jehu inquires, "Should you help the wicked and love those who hate the Lord? Because of this the wrath of the Lord is upon you" (2 Chronicles 19:2 ; cf. " So the question of "Who is my neighbor?" was hotly debated in Jesus' day. And Just as the Golden Rule is the sum of the law and prophets, it can be argued that it also summarizes Jesus' teachings here. And with regard to the burning question, "Who is my neighbor?" Jesus responds with the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-36 ). 1; J. J. J
Theudas - This incident is said to have taken place some time before the days of Judas of Galilee, who led a revolt at the time of ‘the enrolment. It is only when they are placed beside similar statements in Josephus that any problem arises. Josephus mentions a certain Theudas who set himself up as a prophet and persuaded a large number of persons to follow him to the Jordan, where he said he would stay the waters by his word and lead his followers across on dry land. But Fadus, the procurator of Judaea (from a. [1] 46), sent out a band of horsemen, who scattered or slew Theudas’s followers, captured their leader, cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. Soon afterwards Fadus’s successor, Alexander, put to death two sons of Judas of Galilee-the Judas who had raised an insurrection when Quirinius made an enrolment of the Jews. In another connexion Josephus describes this revolt, which occurred in a. 1, 6, Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. ...
The agreement between Acts and Josephus with respect to Judas is apparent, although it is not certain that they have exactly the same date in mind (cf. Josephus places him nearly forty years after Judas, and thus subsequent to the time of Gamaliel, while Acts makes Theudas precede Judas. ...
Various solutions of the problem have been proposed:...
(1) It has often been assumed that Acts and Josephus refer to two different persons, and that Josephus’s failure to mention the incident recorded in Acts is not a sufficient reason for doubting the latter. ...
(2) Others, while also believing that Acts 5:36 and Jos. 1 refer to different events, seek to discover elsewhere in Josephus an incident corresponding to that of Acts. Theudas is thought to have been one of the many revolutionists mentioned in Josephus by some other name. 6, Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. This was the opinion of Sonntag (‘Theudas der Aufrührer’ in SK [3] 622-652). 2-4, Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) I. ...
(3) Still other interpreters think the Theudas incidents of Acts and of Josephus are so similar in general content that they must have been originally identical, but it is Josephus, they hold, rather than Acts that is erroneous. So J. ), who says that Josephus is correct in mentioning an uprising under Fadus, but wrong in making Theudas the leader. 89) explains the difficulty by assuming a textual corruption in Josephus. [6] 85-93 and xx. [8] 1-78 (esp. Schürer, GJV [10] 566 (and literature cited in note 6). J
Ephraim - A grandson of Jacob, and the brother of Manasseh, the first-born of Joseph by Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of On ( Genesis 41:50 f. [3] connects the name with the verb pârâh , ‘to be fruitful,’ and makes it refer to Joseph’s sons. In the Blessing of Jacob ( Genesis 49:22 ) there may be a play upon the name when Joseph, who there represents both Ephraim and Manasseh, is called ‘a fruitful bough. (J [4] ) tells an interesting story of how Jacob adopted his Egyptian grandsons, Ephraim and Manasseh, into his own family, and at the same time, against the remonstrances of Joseph, conferred the blessing of the firstborn upon Ephraim hence Ephraim’s predestined superiority in later history. ...
P
The appearance of Joseph in the Blessing of Jacob, with no mention of his sons, who according to J [4]
had been adopted as Jacob’s own, and were therefore entitled on this important occasion to like consideration with the others, points to a traditional echo of the early days in the land when Ephraim and Manasseh were still united. In the Song of Deborah (Judges 5:1-31 ) it is the ‘family’ Machir, the firstborn ( Joshua 17:1 ), the only ( Genesis 50:23 ) son of Manasseh, that is mentioned, not a Manasseh tribe. Benjamin) it is plain that Shimei still regarded himself as of the house of Joseph; and, despite the traditional indications of a late formation of Benjamin (wh. At all events, Jeroboam the Ephraimite, who afterwards became the first king of Israel ( c The traditions in the Book of Joshua are notably uninforming. Canaanites remained in the territory until a late date, as is seen from Judges 1:29 and the history of Shechem (ch. Eli, priest of Shiloh and Judge of Israel, Samuel, and Jeroboam I. Shechem, Tirzah, and Samaria, the capitals of the North, were within its boundaries; and it was at Shiloh that Joshua is said to have divided the land by lot. ...
James A. of Jerusalem, somewhere in the neighbourhood of Sinjil and el-Lubbân . It probably gave its name in later times to the district of Samaria called Aphærema ( 1Ma 11:34 , Jos. [3]6 with RV James, the Lord's Brother - In Mark 6:3 (|| Matthew 13:55) James is mentioned first, presumably as the eldest, among the brethren of Jesus. ) we hear of an attempt on the part of Jesus’ mother and His brethren to restrain Him as being ‘beside himself. ’ In John 7:5 we are told that ‘his brethren did not believe on him’ In 1 Corinthians 15:7, however, St. Paul mentions an appearance of the risen Jesus to James. ...
According to the curious story which Jerome (de Vir. ) quotes from the Gospel of the Hebrews, James (represented as present at the Last Supper) had vowed not to eat until he should see Jesus risen from the dead. Jesus accordingly appeared to him first and took bread and blessed and brake, saying, ‘My brother, eat thy bread, for the Son of Man is risen from them that sleep. ’...
In Galatians 1:19 we find James closely associated with the apostles at Jerusalem, and in Galatians 2:9 we hear how those who were ‘accounted pillars’-James and Cephas and John-wished God-speed to Paul and Barnabas in their mission to the Gentiles. Peter’s vacillation in the matter of intercourse with the Gentiles is attributed to the fear of certain who came ‘from James,’ though it does not follow that they represented his attitude. In Acts, James always appears as a leader. Peter sends the news of his escape ‘to James and the brethren’ (Acts 12:17). Paul at the close of his Third Missionary Journey, and, it is implied, approves the fateful proposal designed to conciliate the legalist Christians. ...
He in understood to be meant by the modest self-designation ‘James the servant of the Lord’ (James 1:1), and the author of the Ep. of Jude is content to describe himself as the ‘brother of James. ’ In view of the fact that he seems to have remained constantly at Jerusalem, it is at least uncertain whether he is included among the brethren of the Lord who ‘led about’ a wife (1 Corinthians 9:5). ...
That the ‘brethren of the Lord’ were the sons of Mary and Joseph is the natural, though not inevitable, inference from the language of Scripture (Matthew 1:25, Luke 2:7, Mark 6:3, etc. Those who prefer to believe otherwise, hold either (1) that they were the sons of Joseph by a former marriage, or (2) the sons of Mary’s sister. (For discussion see J. James 3, pp. vi-xxxvi; J. )...
Turning to the extra-canonical references, we find in Josephus (Ant. 1) an account of the circumstances of the death of James. 62) and the arrival of his successor Albinus to bring to trial ‘James the brother of Jesus who was called Christ and some others’ as law-breakers, and delivered them to be stoned. It is sometimes rejected as an interpolation, on the ground that Josephus makes no other mention of Jesus or of Christianity; but it may be noted that F. Burkitt has lately defended, the genuineness of the famous reference to Jesus in Josephus, Ant. Tijdschrift xliii. [1] pp. [1] pp. 23) gives a much more highly coloured account of James’s martyrdom, representing him as hurled from the pinnacle of the Temple because he refused to make a pronouncement against Jesus (which the Scribes and Pharisees had confidently expected of him!). Among other personal traits Hegesippus mentions that James was a Nazirite and strict ascetic, and that, so constant was he in prayer, his knees had become hard as a camel’s. , where, after James has shown ‘by most abundant proofs that Jesus is the Christ,’ a tumult is raised by an enemy, and he is hurled from the Temple steps and left for dead, but recovers. ...
The tendency to exalt the position of James in later times is seen in the statement of Clem. 1) that Peter and James and John chose him to be bishop of Jerusalem; while in the letter of Clement prefixed to the Clem. -To J. James3, 1910, Introduction, ch. Zahn, ‘Brüder und Vettern Jesu,’ in Forschungen zur Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, vi
Liberality - These were collected at different centres abroad, and then sent by certain specially appointed ‘ambassadors’ to Jerusalem, where they were placed in three large chests within the Temple, which were opened with great solemnity at certain seasons of the year. ...
In the Court of the Women, within the Temple, were the shopharoth, or ‘trumpets,’ vessels whose shape is indicated by their name, in which contributions for religious purposes and for charitable objects might be placed. The whole life and teaching of Christ may be regarded as a protest against prejudice and narrow-mindedness, and therefore as an appeal for liberality. His injunctions to love enemies (Matthew 5:44-46, Luke 6:27-28), to refrain from passing Judgment on others (Matthew 7:1-5, Luke 6:37), and indirectly, the parable of the Good Samaritan, afford instances in which He condemns the spirit of prejudice and inculcates an open mind and generous bearing towards others. While liberality is assured of a reward, the reward, or even return, is not to be the object of the giver (Luke 6:35, where μηδὲν ἀπελπίζοντες may be ‘hoping for nothing again,’ as in Authorized Version ; or ‘never despairing,’ as in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ; or, if read μηδένα, ‘driving no one to despair,’ or ‘despairing of no man,’ as in (Revised Version margin) ). * Captain - This word is the Authorized Version rendering of two Greek terms in the Gospels:—(1) χιλίαρχος, properly ‘leader of a thousand’ (John 18:12, Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘chief captain,’ (Revised Version margin) ‘military tribune’; see also Mark 6:21, Acts 21:31-33; Acts 21:37; Acts 22:24; Acts 22:26-29; Acts 23:10; Acts 23:15; Acts 23:17-19; Acts 23:22; Acts 24:7; Acts 24:22-23, Revelation 6:15; Revelation 19:18). The Roman garrison in the citadel at Jerusalem, consisting of a cohort (τάγμα = NT σπεῖρα, ‘band’
Literature—Josephus, Ant. 2, BJ v. 3; Schurer, HJP But when Jesus is called ἀρχηγὸς τῆς σωτηρίας (Hebrews 2:10), the meaning is not merely that He is the Author of our salvation. [7] p. For a full treatment of the subject in its apologetic and homiletic aspects, Bruce’s chapter on ‘The Captain of Salvation’ (op. [8] ii. [9] ii. J. Westcott on Hebrews 2:10; J. ...
J
Covetousness - In the Gospels, as elsewhere in Scripture [1], the term is confined to a reference to property; the verb (πλεονεκτέω) is wider in sense. ...
To the mind of Jesus what stands condemned is, characteristically, the possession of a certain spirit—the spirit of grasping selfishness. The man with the great possessions (Mark 10:17), who attracted Jesus, had yet one luxury to discover—that of doing good, giving to the poor, and so coveting wealth of the right kind. With Jesus, in these passages, the first postulate of religious worth is, that people must be single-minded and whole-hearted in service—‘Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also’ (Matthew 6:21). With exquisite insight Jesus points to the fowls of the air and the lilies of the field as eloquent at once of the minuteness of Divine Providence, and the trust we may place in a Heavenly Father’s care. ...
On a question arising of family inheritance (Luke 12:13-15), Jesus warns against covetousness, and for impressive depth nothing excels the summary there—‘A man’s life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth’ (Luke 12:15). As one concerned with the spiritual domain, Jesus refuses to touch the civil matter of property. The point which Jesus presses is the falsity of the vulgar notion that it is ‘possessions’ which make life worth living. Devotion to the outward is, in His gospel, vanity; the loving and discerning soul has God for its possession, and from sheer sympathy of heart Joys in His work amongst men. ‘So is he,’ saith Jesus, ‘that layeth up treasure for himself, and is not rich towards God’ (Luke 12:21). of 1st series); J. Service on ‘Profit and Loss’ in Salvation Here and Hereafter; J. 16; J
Pillar - -Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάνης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στύλοι εἶναι, ‘James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars. Paul’s idea then is that each living society of Christian men is a pillar and stay of “the truth” as an object of belief and a guide of life for mankind, each such Christian society bearing its part in sustaining and supporting the one truth common to all’ (cf. [1] 471). J. But, though there is no insuperable objection to this, it is not needful. 2 [2] p. 188) says: ‘Quis non desideret illam civitatem, unde amicus non exit, quo inimicus non intrat?’...
The majority of commentators, followed by the RV_, take the name as written upon the victor and not on the pillar (the metaphor being dropped), but De Wette adopts the latter rendering, so that στῦλοι become also στῆλαι. J. J
Samuel, Books of - In doing so he was in part following the text of the Septuagint and the Vulgate, in which the Books of Samuel and Kings are described as the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Books of Kingdoms (LXX [2] and E [2] indicate later elements; in E [3] they designate the older portions of the document]: ...
J
E Hospitality - Widows, orphans, the poor, or sojourners from other lands lacked the familial or community status that provided a landed inheritance, the means of making a living, and protection. In its literature, Israel alone seems to have included the foreign sojourner along with those other alienated persons who were to receive care: the widow, the orphan, and the poor. Although the narratives of the patriarchal period advocate receiving the foreigner/stranger at least on a temporary basis (Genesis 18-19 ), landed Israel showed some ambivalence toward foreign strangers by favorably distinguishing the sojourner, who made some allegiance to the Israelite community of faith, from the foreigner, who might represent some threat to cultic purity. For the early church, hospitality remained an important expression of lovingkindness, one that received support in the teaching of Jesus (Matthew 25:31-46 ; Luke 10:30-37 ; 14:16-24 ; 16:19-31 ). Acts of hospitality included the humble and gracious reception of travelers into one's home for food, lodging, and protection (Genesis 18:2-8 ; 19:1-8 ; Job 31:16-23,31-32 ), permitting the alienated person to harvest the corners of one's fields (Leviticus 19:9-10 ; Deuteronomy 24:19-22 ; Ruth 2:2-17 ), clothing the naked (Isaiah 58:7 ; Ezekiel 18:7,16 ), tithing food for the needy (Deuteronomy 14:28-29 ; 26:1-11 ), and including the alien in religious celebrations (Exodus 12:48-49 ; Deuteronomy 16:10-14 ). Hence, God's meal with the elders of Israel (Exodus 24:1-11 ), Jesus' meals with tax collectors and sinners (Luke 11:37 ; 15:1 ; 19:5-6 ), the Lord's Supper (Mark 14:17-26 ), Jesus' postresurrection meals (Luke 24:30-31,40-43 ; John 21:12-13 ; cf. God graciously received the alienated Israelites and met their needs, redeeming them from Egypt and feeding and clothing them in the wilderness (Exodus 16 ; Deuteronomy 8:2-5 ), bringing them as sojourners into God's own land (Leviticus 25:23 ), where God offered them health, long life, peace, and fertility (Deuteronomy 11 ). When the angels Journeyed to Sodom and Gomorrah in search of a righteous man, only Lot and his family were set apart to be saved. God or the angel of the Lord at times unexpectedly appeared in the person of the stranger (Genesis 18:1,10 ; 19:1 ; Judges 6:11-24 ; 13:2-23 ). Jesus as Guest . Symbolically Jesus came as an alien figure to "tabernacle" in a world that did not recognize or receive him (John 1:10-14 ). On a literal level, Jesus' itinerant ministry placed him in dependence on the hospitality of others (Luke 9:58 ; 10:38 ). In his capacity as guest, Jesus bound himself to the lost, sharing table fellowship with tax collector, "sinner, " and Pharisee alike (Mark 2:15 ; Luke 14:1 ; 19:1-10 ). Jesus equates himself with the needy alienated person (Matthew 25:31-46 ). ...
Jesus as Host . Jesus, the guest, also becomes the host who receives an alienated world. The Old Testament allusions in the feeding of the 5,000 (Mark 6:30-44 ) reveal the identity of Jesus. Taking the role of host to the multitude, Jesus is portrayed as one like Yahweh, who fed the people in the wilderness (Exodus 16 ); as one like the prophets of Yahweh, who fed his disciples and had food left over (2 Kings 4:42-44 ); as one like the coming Davidic shepherd, who would care for his flock in the wilderness (Ezekiel 34:11-31 ). In the institution of the Lord's Supper, Jesus not only serves as host, washing the disciples' feet (John 13:3-5 ) and directing the meal, but becomes the spiritually sustaining "meal" itself (Mark 14:12-26 ; see also John 6:30-40 ; 1 Corinthians 10:16-17 ). Identifying himself with the symbolic elements of the Passover meal, Jesus associated his body with the bread of affliction that was offered to all who were hungry and needy, and he associated his blood with the third cup of wine, the cup of redemption. Moreover, by halting the meal before the traditional fourth cup, Jesus anticipates his role as eschatological host, when he will drink again at the messianic banquet celebrating the consummation of the kingdom of God (Isaiah 25:6 ; Matthew 8:11 ; Luke 14:15 ; Revelation 19:9 ). In postresurrection appearances the disciples perceive the identity of Jesus when he takes the role of host (Luke 24:13-35 ; John 21:1-14 ). As persons originally alienated from God, Christians are invited to respond to Jesus as host in the celebration of the Eucharist and in anticipation of the eschatological messianic feast. Those who confess Jesus as Christ become aliens and strangers in the world (John 15:18-19 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ; 2:11 ). Itinerant Christian ministers and refugees often found themselves in need of sympathetic hosts (Romans 16:1-2,23 ; 1 Corinthians 16:10-11 ; Titus 3:13-14 ; Philippians 22 ; 3 John 5-8 ). 13,20; Hebrews 13:1-3 ; 1 Peter 4:8-11 ; 3 John 5-8 ). Certainly, held up before the Christian is the model of Jesus, who serves as host to an alienated world, who commended hospitality in his teaching, and who himself is encountered as one receives the alienated person (Matthew 10:40 ; 25:31-46 ). Duke, "Toward an Understanding of Hospitality in the Old Testament"; J. Jewett, Letter to Pilgrims: A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews ; D. Kellermann, TDOT, 2:439-49; J. J. J. 171-94; J
Cuneiform - Because the documents were written on tablets of moist clay, the scribes soon found it more convenient to indicate objects with stylized pictures composed of wedges made by a stylus. Hincks, and J
Deborah - ” Deborah is the name of two women in the Bible, Rebekah's nurse (Genesis 35:8 ; Genesis 24:59 ) and a leader of pre-monarchic Israel (Judges 4:1;b15 ). She had been part of the household of Jacob, Rebekah's son. Deborah, the leader of Israel, is identified as a prophetess, a Judge, and the wife of Lapidoth (Judges 4:4 ). Deborah is described in Judges 5:7 as “a mother in Israel” because of her role in delivering God's people. After Moses, only Samuel filled the same combination of offices: prophet, Judge, and military leader. ...
Deborah served regularly as a Judge, hearing and deciding cases brought to her by the people of Israel. She held court at “the palm tree of Deborah,” in the southern part of the territory of Ephraim, between Ramah and Bethel (Judges 4:4-5 ). Nothing is said about the procedures at her court or about the extent of her Jurisdiction. ...
As a prophet, Deborah summoned Barak and delivered an oracle giving him God's instructions for a battle in the Jezreel Valley against the Canaanite army commanded by Sisera (Judges 4:6-9 ; compare Samuel in 1 Samuel 15:2-3 and the unnamed prophet in 1 Kings 20:13-15 ). Some scholars believe that Deborah as prophet also composed the victory poem she and Barak sang in Judges 5:1 . Deborah's authority under God was evidenced by Barak's desire to have her present with him in the army camp (Judges 4:8 ,Judges 4:8,4:14 ) and by the testimony to her leadership in the song (Judges 5:7 ,Judges 5:7,5:12 ,Judges 5:12,5:15 ). ...
Pamela J
Riblah - Here Judgment was pronounced upon Zedekiah and his officers ( 2Ki 25:6 ; 2 Kings 25:20-21 , Jeremiah 39:5 f. , Jeremiah 52:9 ff. ...
The statement of 2 Kings 23:33 , that Pharaoh-necho put Jehoahaz in bonds at Riblah in the land of Hamath, is to be corrected by the parallel passage 2 Chronicles 36:3 , where the transaction is said to have taken place in Jerusalem itself. The true reading is, ‘and Pharaoh-necho removed him from reigning in Jerusalem’ (cf. also the LXX
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Simon - The subject of the encomium in Sir 50:1 ff. A Benjamite, guardian of the Temple in the time of Onias III. John 12:2 ), possibly husband or father of Martha, doubtless cured of his leprosy at some time before the anointing by Mary (cf. Father, or brother, of Judas Iscariot, himself surnamed Iscariot ( John 6:71 ; John 13:26 ‘Judas of Simon Iscariot,’ John 13:2 ‘Judas Iscariot of Simon’). said that Simon was crucified instead of Jesus. The tanner, Peter’s host at Joppa ( Acts 9:43 ). J
Simplicity - In Proverbs ‘the simple’ are represented as needing ‘prudence’ ( Proverbs 1:4 RVm [1] ), and they are exhorted to ‘understand prudence’ ( Proverbs 8:5 RVm [1] , Romans 16:19 ) to describe the character in which there is ‘no foreign admixture’; the RV
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Reveal - " "The NT occurrences of this word fall under two heads, subjective and objective. The subjective use is that in which something is presented to the mind directly, as, (a) the meaning of the acts of God, Matthew 11:25 ; Luke 10:21 ; (b) the secret of the Person of the Lord Jesus, Matthew 16:17 ; John 12:38 ; (c) the character of God as Father, Matthew 11:27 ; Luke 10:22 ; (d) the will of God for the conduct of His children, Philippians 3:15 ; (e) the mind of God to the prophets of Israel, 1 Peter 1:12 , and of the Church, 1 Corinthians 14:30 ; Ephesians 3:5 . ...
"The objective use is that in which something is presented to the senses, sight or hearing, as, referring to the past, (f) the truth declared to men in the gospel, Romans 1:17 ; 1 Corinthians 2:10 ; Galatians 3:23 ; (g) the Person of Christ to Paul on the way to Damascus, Galatians 1:16 ; (h) thoughts before hidden in the heart, Luke 2:35 ; referring to the future, (i) the coming in glory of the Lord Jesus, Luke 17:30 ; (j) the salvation and glory that await the believer, Romans 8:18 ; 1 Peter 1:5 ; 5:1 ; (k) the true value of service, 1 Corinthians 3:13 ; (l) the wrath of God (at the Cross, against sin, and, at the revelation of the Lord Jesus, against the sinner), Romans 1:18 ; (m) the Lawless One, 2 Thessalonians 2:3,6,8 . " * Danger, Dangerous - A — 1: κινδυνεύω (Strong's #2793 — Verb — kinduneuo — kin-doon-yoo'-o ) properly signifies "to run a risk, face danger," but is used in the NT in the sense of "being in danger, Jeopardy," Acts 19:27,40 . It is translated "were in Jeopardy" in Luke 8:23 , and "stand we in Jeopardy," 1 Corinthians 15:30 . ...
B — 1: ἔνοχος (Strong's #1777 — Adjective — enochos — en'-okh-os ) lit. , "held in, contained in" (en, "in," echo, "to have, hold"), hence, "bound under obligation to, liable to, subject to," is used in the sense of being in "danger" of the penal effect of a misdeed, i. , in a forensic sense, signifying the connection of a person with (a) his crime, "guilty of an eternal sin," Mark 3:29 , RV; (b) the trial or tribunal, as a result of which sentence is passed, Matthew 5:21,22 , "the Judgment," "the council;" enochos here has the obsolete sense of control (J. Hastings); (c) the penalty itself, Matthew 5:22 , "the hell of fire," and, with the translation "worthy" (AV, "guilty"), of the punishment determined to be inflicted on Christ, Matthew 26:66 ; Mark 14:64 , "death;" (d) the person or thing against whom or which the offense is committed, 1 Corinthians 11:27 , "guilty," the crime being against "the body and blood of the Lord;" James 2:10 , "guilty" of an offense against all the Law, because of a breach of one commandment. ...
Apart from the forensic sense, this adjective is used of the thing by which one is bound, "subject to" (bondage), in Hebrews 2:15 . See GUILTY , SUBJECT , WORTHY. ...
B — 2: ἐπισφαλής (Strong's #2000 — Adjective — episphales — ep-ee-sfal-ace' ) lit
Tertullus - Tertullus, a diminutive of Tertius, was the name of the ‘orator’ employed by the Jews to lay their case against St. The term ‘orator’ indicates that the man belonged to the class of hired pleaders often employed in the provincial courts by those ignorant alike of Roman law and of the Latin tongue, in which as a rule all Judicial procedure was carried on (but see Lewin, St. He seeks to conciliate the Judge by flattering, if not very truthful, allusions to his actions as governor, particularly to his having established peace in the province (v. 2), no doubt a reference to the suppression of the bands of robbers that infested the country (Jos. 5, Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. In all probability Tertullus was a Roman, and not a Jew, as has been supposed by Blass (Com. The fact that in his speech Tertullus uses the plural form and speaks of ‘our law’ does not by any means prove Jewish birth or nationality. J
Massah And Meribah - Exodus 17:1-7 (JE [1] ) tells of a miraculous gift of water at a spot near Horeb, which was called Massah and Meribah (‘testing’ and ‘contention’) because the people tested Jahweh by doubting His providence and contended with Moses. Numbers 20:1-18 , a later narrative (P
J
Window - 98), it was apparently never used by them or their Jewish neighbours for windows, which were mere apertures-or apertures fitted with lattice-work-in the walls of houses. In the houses of the East, which still differ but little from those of ancient times, windows do not usually look out upon the street, but balconies project from the upper stories over the street, with windows in which the lattice-work is often of a highly ornamental kind. In the case of houses built upon the city wall, the window has always afforded a ready means of escape into the country (Joshua 2:15, 2 Maccabees 3:19, 2 Corinthians 11:33). ...
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Rainbow - In other words, mercy tempers Justice: ‘Deus in Judiciis semper foederis sui meminit’ (Grotius, quoted by H. When the dread storm, in which the lightnings were Jahweh’s arrows and the thunder His voice, was passing, His bow appeared in the clouds as a sign that His anger was appeased. ‘The brilliant spectacle of the upturned bow against the dark background of the retreating storm naturally appeals to man as a token of peace and good-will from the god who has placed it there’ (J. The Jewish Rabbis would have agreed with the English pcet who apostrophizes the rainbow:...
‘I ask not proud Philosophy...
To teach me what thou art’...
(T. ...
James Strahan
Contentment - ...
J
Crete, Cretans - Arthur J Cush - It was conquered and annexed by Egypt under the 12th Dynasty ( c
J. He is described as a Benjamite, and was probably a follower of Saul who opposed David
Jannes And Jambres - JANNES AND JAMBRES . ‘Jannes’ is probably a corruption of ‘Johannes’ (John); ‘Jambres’ is almost certainly derived from a Semitic root meaning ‘to oppose’ (imperfect tense), the participle of which would give ‘Mambres. 23 79) mentions ‘Moses, Jamnes (or Jannes), and Jotapes (or Lotapes)’ as Jewish magicians ( Hist. ); thus ‘Jannes,’ at least, must have been a traditional name before the Christian era. Apuleins ( c Line - Jeremiah 31:39 , Ezekiel 47:3 , Zechariah 1:16 ). The LXX [3] gives ‘ pencil ,’ RVm [3] ‘rule,’ RV [3] ‘province,’ RVm
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Keys - The authority Christ delegated to His disciples to proclaim forgiveness and pronounce Judgment. In late Judaism, this key imagery was extended to angelic beings and to God as keepers of the keys of heaven and hell. The risen Christ holds the key of David and controls access to the New Jerusalem (Revelation 3:7 ). ...
In Matthew 16:18-19 , Jesus delegated the power of the keys to His disciples, combining the imagery of keys with that of binding and loosing. When Peter confessed that Jesus was the Son of God, Jesus proclaimed that the gates of death would have no power over His church. [1]...
With the other apostles, Peter also received the power of binding and loosing (Matthew 16:19 ; Matthew 18:18 ), a phrase used to describe the work of scribes who sought God's will through a study of Scripture and declared it through teaching and Judging. In their place, through the gift of the Spirit, the disciples received the authority to proclaim forgiveness and Judgment (John 20:23 ). ...
Barbara J
Jot - JOT. The Greek trisyllable being pronounced ‘jota’ (cf. Spanish ‘jota,’ German ‘jota,’ ‘jodt,’ ‘jott,’ ‘jot’), the reduction to the monosyllable ‘iote’ (pronounced ‘jote’) with its variants ‘ioyt,’ ‘ioit’ (Scots form: see J. The German authorized version is still Luther’s paraphrase: ‘der kleinste Buchstabe’ for which Weizsäcker prefers the transliteration: ‘ein Jota,’ while the French versions also transliterate: ‘un (seul) iota. in DB [1] ), the yod being more distinctively the smallest, provides an argument in favour of those who regard Aramaic as the language of Jesus
Sowing - Jesus is here quoting a familiar proverb of the ancient world, which was current in several forms (e. Several ancient parallels, both from Jewish (cf. Taylor’s Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, 1897, p. Micah 6:15, Psalms 126:5-6) sayings upon sowing, in a figurative sense, are preserved in John 4:36-37. Taken as part of the story of Jesus at Sychar, the passage starts from the responsiveness of the Samaritans to the gospel (their full-grown faith being contrasted with the indifference and unbelief of Judaism upon the whole). The sight of the Samaritans streaming out of the city suggests to Jesus that a rich harvest of souls is to be reaped here, and reaped apparently without the usual delay and interval. ...
J
Age, Aged, Old Age - The aged man is zâqen , perhaps ‘grey-bearded’ ( Genesis 48:10 , 2 Samuel 19:32 , Job 12:20 ; Job 32:9 , Psalms 71:18 , Jeremiah 6:11 ); ‘old age’ is also sêbhâh , i. But in Job 15:10 (cf. Job 29:8 ) yâshîsh , i. The idea that ‘hale old age’ ( kelach ) is a blessing is expressed in Job 5:26 ; the contrast is furnished by the gloomy picture ( Job 30:2 ) of the ‘fathers’ whose old age lacks vigour. ...
The wisdom of the old was proverbial (Job 12:12 ; Job 32:7 ), though there were exceptions ( Job 32:9 , Psalms 119:100 ). ...
J
Deaconess - The word does not occur in EV [1] except as a RVm [3] and RV [4] render ‘servant,’ RVm [3] misleads us by making it appear that the wives of deacons are spoken of; RV
J
Destruction (2) - In Matthew 26:8 and in the parallel passage in Mark 14:4 ἀπώλεια is translated ‘waste’ in both Versions, and in John 17:12, the only other instance where the word is used in the Gospels, both render it ‘perdition. ’...
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Congregation - J. [1] 386). The associations of συναγωγή were against its Christian use, though it is retained in James 2:2 to describe an assembly of Jewish-Christians; but this is explained by the destination of the letter-‘to the twelve tribes which are of the Dispersion. Paul’s address to the elders of Miletus (Acts 20:17) we see the old Jewish συναγωγή in the process of passing into the more distinctively Christian ἑκκλησία
Anger - (once ‘angered’ is used transitively, Psalms 106:32 ), and adjs.
J
Aretas - Jerahmeel - JERAHMEEL (‘May El have compassion!’) 1. After Saul’s death the Jerahmeelites formed part of the little principality over which he reigned in Hebron. How indistinct the recollection of them was appears from the various forms assumed by their name in MSS of the LXX [1] : Jesmega, Isramelei, Aermon, Israel, Jeramelei . Subsequently they were considered to have been a Judahite clan ( 1 Chronicles 2:9 ; 1Ch 2:25 ff. , 1 Chronicles 2:35-42 : here Jerahmeel is Caleb’s elder brother; the list of his descendants in 1 Chronicles 2:35-42 is of later origin than 1 Chronicles 2:9 ; 1 Chronicles 2:25-27 and brings them down to the Chronicler’s day). We have no historical or other records connected with these names, save that Molid ( 1 Chronicles 2:29 ) is a town mentioned elsewhere ( Joshua 19:2 , Nehemiah 11:26 ). LXX [3] is an abbreviated form, like Jacob for Jacob-el , or the Yarkhamu found in a Babylonian list of Hammurabi’s time. One of the three men ordered by Jehoiakim to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch ( Jeremiah 36:26 ). AV [5] ( filio Amelech ), calling him ‘son of Hammelech’: RV [3] , with LXX
J
Zealot - Recent studies seek to distinguish among several features of intertestamental Judaism to which the term "zealot" might be applied. The term could also be applied to a general attitude and movement illustrated by Judas of Gamala and Saddok, a Pharisee, who led an abortive revolt against a Roman census in a. " The Jewish historian Josephus calls the movement, "The Fourth of the Philosophies, " and says it agreed with the Pharisees, differing only in their "passion for liberty convinced that God alone is their leader and master"; they were willing to die for this conviction (Ant 18. 4 [1]). Josephus also speaks of "The Zealots" (first in War 4. 9 [2]) as one of several Jewish revolutionary factions, one he says was a coalition of bandits and miscreants, who fought between themselves and against the Romans in the Judeo-Roman war (a. He names such leaders as Eleazer son of Simon and John of Gischala. ...
Some scholars associate Jesus with the zealot movement. The title over the cross, "This is the King of the Jews, " may indicate Pilate condemned him as a violent nationalist. The whole of Jesus' teaching and actions indicate to the contrary. ...
J. Julius Scott, Jr. Farmer, Maccabees, Zealots, and Josephus ; M
Pitch - The town Ιs (Hit), eight days' Journey from Babylon, supplied from springs the bitumen which was used as mortar in building that city (Genesis 11:3; Herodotus i. The asphalt crust on the bed of the lake is cast out by earthquakes and other causes (Josephus B. J. Κopher means also a "ransom" or "atonement" (Job 33:21 margin). As the pitch covered the ark from the overwhelming waters, so the atonement covers the believer in Jesus from the blood of God's wrath
Adversary - ἀντικείμενος, used in Luke 13:17 of our Lord’s Jewish opponents, and in Luke 21:15 of all adversaries of the disciples, is employed by St. Purity - The Jewish law prescribed various regulations by means of which outward defilement might be removed and the ‘unclean’ person be restored to fellowship with God. But the OT recognizes that moral purity is essential to acceptable worship of the Holy God ( Psalms 24:4 ); the question of Eliphaz expresses the conviction of those who know how absolute is the Divine holiness: ‘Shall a man be pure before his Maker?’ ( Job 4:17 RVm [3] ‘pureness’ in 2 Corinthians 6:8 (RV
J
Persia, Persians - They were for long subject to the more numerous and powerful northern branch (see Medes), from whom, however, they were separated by the country of Elam, through their settlement in the district later called Persis, east of the Persian Gulf. 6 ‘Elam’ stands for Persia, into which it was incorporated; see above) 41, 44 47, Jeremiah 50:1-46 ; Jeremiah 51:1-64 . Asian empire of antiquity, whose power, moreover, was upon the whole consistently employed for the protection of the subject peoples, including in the great satrapy ‘beyond the River’ the Hebrew community in Palestine which was reestablished by the generosity of Cyrus himself (see Ezra and Neh. ...
J
What - , Matthew 21:23,24,27 ; 24:42,43 ; Luke 5:19 ; 6:32-34 ; 20:2,8 ; 24:19 ; John 12:33 , "what manner of;" so in John 18:32 ; 21:19 ; Romans 3:27 ; 1 Corinthians 15:35 ; in James 4:14 , "what;" 1 Peter 2:20 ; Revelation 3:3 (ditto); 1 Peter 1:11 , "what manner of;" (c) hopoios, "what sort of," 1 Corinthians 3:13 ; "what manner of," 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ; (d) hosos, "how great," Mark 6:30 (twice), RV, "whatsoever;" Acts 15:12 ; Romans 3:19 , "what things soever;" Jude 1:10 (1st part), "whatsoever things," RV; (2nd part) "what;" (e) posos, "how great, how much," 2 Corinthians 7:11 , "what (earnest care)," RV (posos here stands for the repeated words in the Eng. versions, the adjective not being repeated in the original); (f) hostis, "what (things)," Philippians 3:7 ; (g) in Matthew 26:40 , houtos, "thus, so," is used as an exclamatory expression, translated "What" (in a word immediately addressed by the Lord to Peter), lit. , "So;" (h) for potapos, rendered "what" in Mark 13:1 (2nd part), AV, see MANNER; (i) in 1 Corinthians 6:16,19 , AV, the particle e, "or" (RV), is rendered "What?;" in 1 Corinthians 14:36 , AV and RV, "what?" (j) in 1 Corinthians 11:22 , gar, "in truth, indeed," has its exclamatory use "What?" (3) In John 5:19 "but what" translates a phrase, lit
Nemesius, Bishop of Emesa - He is also quoted, though without his name, by Joannes Damascenus, Elias Cretensis, Meletius, Joannes Grammaticus, and others. The treatise is an interesting work which will well reward perusal, and has received much praise from able Judges of style and matter. Wilkes (1636 and 1657), German by Osterhammer (Salzburg, 1819), and French by J. ...
Spiritual - A — 1: πνευματικός (Strong's #4152 — Adjective — pneumatikos — phyoo-mat-ik-os' ) "always connotes the ideas of invisibility and of power. In the NT it is used as follows: (a) the angelic hosts, lower than God but higher in the scale of being than man in his natural state, are 'spiritual hosts,' Ephesians 6:12 ; (b) things that have their origin with God, and which, therefore, are in harmony with His character, as His law is, are 'spiritual,' Romans 7:14 ; (c) 'spiritual' is prefixed to the material type in order to indicate that what the type sets forth, not the type itself, is intended, 1 Corinthians 10:3,4 ; (d) the purposes of God revealed in the gospel by the Holy Spirit, 1 Corinthians 2:13 , and the words in which that revelation is expressed, are 'spiritual,' 1 Corinthians 2:13 , matching, or combining, spiritual things with spiritual words [1]; 'spiritual songs' are songs of which the burden is the things revealed by the Spirit, Ephesians 5:19 ; Colossians 3:16 ; 'spiritual wisdom and understanding' is wisdom in, and understanding of, those things, Colossians 1:9 ; (e) men in Christ who walk so as to please God are 'spiritual,' Galatians 6:1 ; 1 Corinthians 2:13 [2],15; 3:1; 14:37; (f) the whole company of those who believe in Christ is a 'spiritual house,' 1 Peter 2:5 ; (g) the blessings that accrue to regenerate men at this present time are called 'spiritualities,' Romans 15:27 ; 1 Corinthians 9:11 ; 'spiritual blessings,' Ephesians 1:3 ; 'spiritual gifts,' Romans 1:11 ; (h) the activities Godward of regenerate men are 'spiritual sacrifices,' 1 Peter 2:5 ; their appointed activities in the churches are also called 'spiritual gifts,' lit. , such as is suited to the heavenly environment, 1 Corinthians 15:44 ; (j) all that is produced and maintained among men by the operations of the Spirit of God is 'spiritual,' 1 Corinthians 15:46 . , of the man who because of immaturity and inexperience has not yet reached spirituality, and that of the man who by permitting Jealousy, and the strife to which Jealousy always leads, has lost it. The spiritual state is reached by diligence in the Word of God and in prayer; it is maintained by obedience and self-judgment. Such as are led by the Spirit are spiritual, but, of course, spirituality is not a fixed or absolute condition, it admits of growth; indeed growth in 'the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ,' 2 Peter 3:18 , is evidence of true spirituality. " * [3] ...
B — 1: πνευματικῶς (Strong's #4153 — Adverb — pneumatikos — pnyoo-mat-ik-oce' ) "spiritually," occurs in 1 Corinthians 2:14 , with the meaning as (j) above, and Revelation 11:8 , with the meaning as in (c)
Age, Ages - The Greek aion [1] in the Septuagint and New Testament corresponds to the Hebrew olam [2] of the Old Testament. In some contexts olam [2] and aion [1] are translated "age" ("world" in the av); the Greek chronoi [5] may also mean "ages. "...
Ages as Epochs of Time Both Testaments speak of "ages" as undefined periods of history over which God rules ( Psalm 90:2 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; Jude 25 ). This theme is later taken up by Paul in Ephesians 2:7 : "that in the coming ages he might show the incomparable riches of his grace, expressed in his kindness to us in Christ Jesus. "...
This Age and the Age to Come The Old Testament predicts the future coming of God or the Messiah; most forms of postbiblical Judaism (see esp. But so long as Christians remain in the world, they are cheered by the spiritual presence of Jesus until the close of this age (Matthew 28:20 ). ...
Cataclysmic signs will signal the close of the present era (synteleia [6]aionos, Matthew 24:3 ). According to the New Testament, the end of the age will bring the return of Christ and the Judgment of the wicked (Matthew 13:39-40,49 ). Jewish and later Christian apocalypticists loved to speculate about the blessings of this future age, but the simple message of the Bible is that the coming age will bring a good inheritance (Mark 10:30 ; Luke 18:30 ). J. Cullmann, Christ and Time ; J. Russell, The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic ; H
Religion - Ἰουδαϊσμός is twice translated ‘the Jews’ religion. Paul reminds the Galatians that they had heard of his manner of life aforetime when he followed Judaism, and that they knew his proficiency in Judaism. In this context the literal rendering ‘Judaism’ is to be preferred, for the factious rather than the religious aspect of Judaism is prominent. The English Version ‘Jews’ religion ‘is an unfortunate’ translation, because ‘it implies a definite separation between the two religions which did not then exist, … and it puts this view into the mouth of Paul, who steadfastly persisted in identifying the faith of Christ with the national religion. … Here Ἰουδαϊσμός denotes Jewish partisanship, and accurately describes the bitter party spirit which prompted Saul to take the lead in the martyrdom of Stephen and the persecution of the Church, … He advanced beyond his fellows in sectarian prejudice and persecuting zeal’ (F. The Greek adjective δεισιδαίμων is rendered in Acts 17:22 ‘superstitious’ (Revised Version ) and ‘religious’ (Revised Version margin). It does not, however, follow that ‘religion’ is an impossible rendering in the address of Festus to the Jewish king, Agrippa, who paid outward deference to the Jewish religion. J. In Acts 26:5 and James 1:26 f. In James 1:6 f. James asserts of such works is that they are ‘the body, the θρησκεία, of which godliness, or the love of God, is the informing soul. ...
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Gain - ‘Qui invenit Jesum,’ says Thomas à Kempis, ‘invenit thesaurum bonum; immo bonum, super omne bonum. ’ The thought finds its simplest and at the same time its fullest expression in the parables of the Hidden Treasure and the Pearl of Great Price, whose finder sells ‘with Joy’ all that he has, to buy what he has discovered. Here there is the need of sacrifice, the sacrifice of pride, of social and racial prejudice; and there is also the need of faithfulness and diligence. ’ The Joy of this gain is anticipated in Daniel 12:3 (cf. James 5:19-20). Winkworth); Jeremy Taylor, Holy Living; Goulburn, Thoughts on Personal Religion; H. J. J. Southey, Life of John Wesley; Lives of eminent modern missionaries. ...
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Governor - Examples of Imperial provinces are Syria, the Gauls (except Narbonensis), Judaea, and Egypt. ...
Governors of provinces had certain powers of Jurisdiction delegated to them, which it is now impossible accurately to define. They administered the law with a competence and a Justice which have never been surpassed. As the provinces had an appeal from their decisions to the Senate in the case of Senatorial provinces, and to the Emperor in the case of Imperial, it was dangerous for a governor to go against the strongly expressed wish of the subjects of Rome. ; J. J. Cagnat, Cours d’Epigraphie Latine3 [1] (1898, with Supplement 1904), pp. 86–155; Schürer, HJP Dream - In the OT dreams are described somewhat in detail, especially those of Jacob (Genesis 28:10-22), of Joseph (Genesis 37:5-10), of Nebuchadrezzar (Daniel 2, 4), and of Daniel (Daniel 7). In the NT, the only instances given are those of the appearance of the angel to Joseph (Matthew 1:20-23; Matthew 2:13; Matthew 2:19-20), the dream of the Magi (Matthew 2:12), and the notable dream of Pilate’s wife (Matthew 27:19). ...
The only references to dreams or dreaming in the apostolic writings are Acts 2:17 ‘your old men shall dream dreams’ (quoted from Joel 2:28), and Judges 1:8 ‘these also (the false teachers of v. and Jude [1]), following von Soden and Spitta, to be to the attempt of the false teachers to support their doctrines by revelations. Many recent writers enjoin the cultivation of restfulness and repose of the soul in order that sleep may be beneficial and may not be disturbed by unpleasant dreams. of Christ and the Gospels , and ‘Dreams and Sleep’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ; J. Sully, Illusions (ISS [1] p. ...
J. James
Oil (Olive) - The same is true of the ‘anointing’ of 1 John 2:20 (Authorized Version ‘unction’). -With this must be connected in some sense the much-discussed passage (James 5:14) where the elders of the Church are directed to pray over the sick brother, ‘anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. ’ The general use of oil in ancient times as a remedy for disease and injury is illustrated in Isaiah 1:6, Luke 10:34. The treatment applied to Herod the Great during his last illness (Jos. 5, Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) I. Daiches (Babylonian Oil Magic in the Talmud and in the later Jewish Literature, 1913). The exact bearing of such facts on James 5:14 must remain obscure, but it is interesting to observe that the procedure here enjoined was anticipated by the Twelve (Mark 6:13), though without any express injunction from Jesus. that in James the healing of the sick is ascribed directly to ‘the prayer of faith’ (v. James and St. Jude, p. In the latter it was finally transformed into the sacrament of Extreme Unction, of which it need only be said that it is administered when recovery is supposed to be hopeless, whereas in James the anointing is expected to be followed by a cure. -On the medicinal use see the Commentaries on James of A. J. , 1904), and J. ...
James Patrick
Tiberius - In 48 he distinguished himself as quaestor and admiral of the fleet to Julius Caesar in the Alexandrian war. [2] p. At the very beginning of it there were serious mutinies of the troops in Pannonia and Germany, and Germanicus, the adopted son of the Emperor, proved so brilliant a general as to arouse the Emperor’s Jealousy. The project of the Elbe frontier was, however, abandoned and Germanicus was recalled. Piso, under strong and perhaps Justifiable suspicion of complicity in the death of Germanicus, was compelled by his own troops to leave Syria, and, being next year charged with this crime and with treason, committed suicide. The year 21 saw the rising of Julius Floras and Julius Sacrouir in Gaul. At last his Imperial master’s Jealousy was aroused against him, and he, his family, and his adherents were put to death. For the historian Luke tells us that it was in the 15th year of the rule of Tiberius Caesar that ‘the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias’ (Luke 3:1-2). Neither Jesus nor (so far as we know) any of the apostles came into personal contact with Tiberius. The nearest approach made by Jesus to the Imperial throne was on the occasion when He was tried before the Emperor’s procurator, or agent, Pilate (Pontius Pilatus). 21) states, what is intrinsically probable, that Pilate sent a report of the trial of Jesus to Tiberius. 5) alleges that Tiberius himself proposed to the Senate the enrolment of Jesus among the gods, and that, on the proposal being rejected, he himself remained of the same opinion, and threatened persecutors of Christians with trial. These statements are now regarded as historically valueless, and may have been taken from some apocryphal work, possibly the original Acts of Pilate, known to Justin (Apol. Some, however, are of opinion that Justin is referring to official documents, and this is certainly the more natural interpretation to put upon his language. Tertullian, in that case, is probably borrowing from Justin. [3] 196 ff. [4] 59-132; E. J. [5] 27). , 1909; J. [6] 248-303; H. Furneaux’s edition of the Annals of Tacitus2 [4], 100-160; A. 251-319; chronology of principal events by J. Reid in J. ; an English monograph on Tiberius, J. Tarver, Tiberius the Tyrant, London, 1902; J. Münzer in Pauly-Wissowa Fatherhood of God - There God is specifically called the Father of the nation of Israel (Deuteronomy 32:6 ; Isaiah 63:16 ; [1] 64:8; Jeremiah 3:4,19 ; 31:9 ; Malachi 1:6 ; 2:10 ) or the Father of certain individuals (2 Samuel 7:14 ; 1 Chronicles 17:13 ; 22:10 ; 28:6 ; Psalm 68:5 ; 89:26 ) only fifteen times. (At times the father imagery is present although the term "Father" is not used [2]). There its use is also rare: Apocrypha ( Wisdom of Solomon 2:16 ; 14:3 ; Tobit 13:4 ; Sirach 23:1,4 ; 51:10 ); Pseudepigrapha (Jub 1:24,28; 19:29; 3Macc 5:7; 6:4,8; T. Judah 24:2); and Dead Sea Scrolls (1 QH 9:35f. ...
The teaching of the Fatherhood of God takes a decided turn with Jesus, for "Father" was his favorite term for addressing God. It appears on his lips some sixty-five times in the Synoptic Gospels and over one hundred times in John. The exact term Jesus used is still found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15-16 ; Galatians 4:6 ) but elsewhere the Aramaic term Abba is translated by the Greek pater [3]. The uniqueness of Jesus' teaching on this subject is evident for several reasons. There is no evidence in pre-Christian Jewish literature that Jews addressed God as "Abba . " A second unique feature about Jesus' use of Abba as a designation for God involves the intimacy of the term. "...
A third unique feature of Jesus' teaching concerning the Fatherhood of God is that the frequency of this metaphor is out of all proportion to what we find elsewhere in the Old Testament and other Jewish literature. (Note 165+ times in the four Gospels compared to only 15 times in the entire Old Testament!) This was not Justa way Jesus taught his disciples to address God; it was the way. They used this foreign title for God because Jesus had used it and taught his followers to do so. It should be pointed out that although Jesus addressed God as "Father" and taught his disciples to do the same, he never referred to God as "our Father. " (Matthew 6:9 is not an exception, for here Jesus is teaching his disciples how they [4] should pray. This is clearly seen in John 20:17 in the distinction between "my" God and "your" God. It is also seen in Matthew 5:16,45 , 48 ; 6:1,4 , 6 ; 7:21 ; 10:32-33 , where Jesus refers to "your" (singular and plural ) and "my" father but never "our" father. ...
Because of Jesus' use of this metaphor, it is not surprising that the rest of the New Testament also emphasizes the Fatherhood of God. For Paul this fatherhood is based not so much on God's role in creation but rather on the redemption and reconciliation he has made available in Jesus Christ. This is why Paul refers to "the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Romans 15:6 ; 2 Corinthians 1:3 ; 11:31 ). " It is through Christ that grace and peace have resulted and we have become God's children (Romans 15:6 ; 1 Peter 1:3-4 ; 1 John 3:1 ). He is a Spirit (John 4:24 ) without sexual parts. Yet to avoid the metaphor of father as a description and designation for God is to lose sight of the fact that Jesus chose this as his metaphor to address God and that he taught this as the metaphor by which his disciples should address God. J. Barr, JTS 39 (1988): 28-47; R. Hamerton-Kelly, God the Father ; J. Jeremias, The Prayers of Jesus ; J
New Jerusalem - The eternal climax of redemptive history is previewed in John's description of the new Jerusalem in Revelation 21-22 . The new Jerusalem is the focus for activity on the new earth. The new Jerusalem motif provides an elaboration of the nature of the new heavens and new earth introduced in Revelation 21:1 . The first explicit reference to the new Jerusalem is in the message to the Philadelphia church in Revelation 3:12 , where it is promised as a reward to those who overcome (a synonym for believers, cf. 1 John 5:4-5 ). Jerusalem provides an image of continuity that brings together earth and eschatological history in regard to where God and his people dwell together. The general image of a future Jerusalem symbolizes the fulfillment of many of God's promises to his people (cf. Isaiah 2:1-5 ; 49:14-18 ; 52 ; 54 ; 60-62 ; 65:17-25 ; Jeremiah 31:38-40 ; Micah 4:1-4 ; Zechariah 14 ). The idea of an idealized and/or eschatological Jerusalem is referred to in other ways than the phrase "new Jerusalem. " Although the Old Testament contains no explicit reference to a new Jerusalem, Isaiah includes Jerusalem in his new heavens and new earth statements (65:17-19; 66:22). Paul's allegory of the "above Jerusalem" in Galatians 4:25-26 , provides an idealized imagery for Jerusalem. Hebrews 12:22 speaks of the "heavenly Jerusalem. " Revelation 21:2,10 refer to the new Jerusalem as the "Holy City" (cf. Revelation 2:7 , "paradise of God, " may anticipate the new Jerusalem of Revelation 21-22 . ...
The concentration on a restored Jerusalem as a symbol of the fulfillment of God's promises to the Jewish people is also present in noncanonical literature. These occurrences highlight the Jewish hope for a new world where their ideals would be fulfilled. First Enoch 90:28-29 relates a vision of a transformation of the "old house" into a new one, representing a transformed Jerusalem. ...
The contextual setting of the new Jerusalem in Revelation 21-22 is closely related to the evil city, Babylon, of the Great Harlot in Revelation 17-19 . God's answer to the evil structures of this world is the paradise regained in the new Jerusalem. Isaiah 61:10 ; Hosea 1-3 ; John 3:29 ; Ephesians 5:25-33 ). The stones (21:19-21) solicit remembrance of the high priest's breastplate (Exodus 28:17-21 ; 39:10-14 ) and Ezekiel's garden of God (28:13), although the lists are not the same and John applies the stones to the twelve apostles. The new Jerusalem is a cube of enormous proportions (12,000 furlongs is about 1,500 miles), although the use of the number 12 could be symbolic. It is noteworthy that the new Jerusalem has no sun or moon but is illuminated by the effulgence of God's glory. ...
How is the reality of the new Jerusalem on the new earth of Revelation 21-22 to be understood? Is it merely an allegorical description of the final state of the church with no real future new earth locality in view? Is it a literal city that may hover over the millennial earth and house the glorified church-age saints during that period and then be transferred for expanded purposes into the eternal state after the renovation of the earth (some dispensationalists; but, some nondispensationalists also apply it to the millennial period)? Is it a literal city distinctly designed as a center focus for all the redeemed in the eternal state? Is the vision of John, given in apocalyptic motifs, merely a statement in sophisticated symbolism that God will be victor in the climax of history? These and other proposals appear in the literature that addresses this interpretive aspect of the new Jerusalem. Boring, Revelation ; J. J. Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John ; J. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ
Community of Goods - There are two passages in the Acts of the Apostles which seem to suggest that there was established in the Church in Jerusalem a system of community of goods. , but a statement of Justin Martyr must be cited. James seems to indicate that the Christian communities are composed of poor people, while the rich are their enemies. ‘Hearken, my beloved brethren; did not God choose them that are poor as to the world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to them that love him?… Do not the rich oppress you, and themselves drag you before the Judgment-seats?’ (James 2:5 f. ...
When, however, we examine the passages in the Acts more carefully, it seems to be clear that the evidence does not warrant us in concluding that there was any definite system of community of goods, even in the Church in Jerusalem. Paul constantly exhorts his converts to liberality to the poor, especially to those in Jerusalem (1 Corinthians 16:1 f. The same thing is implied in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 13:16), and seems to be the most natural interpretation of the phrase in 1 John (1 John 3:17). ...
It cannot be said that the references in the NT Justify us in asserting that a system of community of goods was part of the normal constitution of the primitive Christian communities; but it is not impossible that the conception that this was the most perfect form of the religious life may have come into Christianity from such contemporary forms of Judaism as that of the Essenes, among whom the community of goods was apparently practised. Gregory the Great rightly interprets the spirit of the NT when he says that when we give what they need to those who are in want, we give them that which is their own; we are not giving away what is ours, we are rather discharging an obligation of Justice than performing a work of mercy (Lib. J. J. Schürer, GJV [2] 564ff. J
Manasseh - In MT [1] and AV [2] of Judges 18:30 Manasseh is a scribal change for dogmatic purposes, the original being Moses (see Gershom, 1). A son of Pahath-moab ( Ezra 10:30 [3]). The firstborn son of Joseph, and full brother of Ephraim ( Genesis 41:51 f. [3] ]), by Asenath, the daughter of Poti-phera, priest of On (v. 48
In our oldest source bearing upon the early tribal settlement (Judges 5:1-31 ) the name of Manasseh does not appear, though that of Ephraim does. Machir there ( Judges 5:14 ) seems to take the place of Manasseh. In Joshua 16:1-35 (E [9] ) he is the only son of Manasseh; so also Numbers 26:29 ; Numbers 26:34 (P [10] ), but in Joshua 17:1 b (perh. J [3] added to P [10] ’s story of Reuben’s and Gad’s settlement on the East Jordan, which tells us that the children of Machir, the son of Manasseh, went to Gilead and took it. Jair, it is said, and Nobah, two other descendants of Manasseh, also look towns in Gilead, to which they gave their own names. Joshua 13:29 ff. In P As we have already seen, the tribe on the West was represented by Machir (Judges 5:1-31 ). J [11] , the next oldest document, includes Ephraim and Manasseh in the phrase ‘sons of Joseph’ ( Joshua 16:1-4 ), ‘house of Joseph’ ( Joshua 17:17 [16] Joshua 18:5 , Judges 1:22-23 ; Judges 1:25 ). One lot only is consequently assigned to them, the limits of which are roughly sketched in 1619168496_51 , Joshua 17:1-18 gives Gilead and Bashan to Machir (making no mention of Jair and Nobah), and Joshua 17:2 begins to tell of the assignments to the remainder of the Manassite clans, but fails to do so. It is clear from what is said of the cities which were in Issachar and Asher ( Joshua 17:11 ff. ’ When they made their complaint to Joshua ( Joshua 17:14-18 ) that they were too cramped in their abode to better themselves, he sententiously replied that being a great people as they boasted, they could clear out the mountain forests and develop in that way, and so ultimately get the upper hand of the Canaanites in the plains. ...
Whether Joseph was a tribe has been doubted, because there is no mention of it in Judges 5:1-31 , and the fact that the name Machir appears to be from the root mâchar , ‘to sell,’ has raised the question whether the story of Joseph’s sale into Egypt did not arise in connexion with it. ...
For the clans see Joshua 17:1-2 (J [11] ), Numbers 26:28-34 (P James A. In restoring the old altars he doubtless thought he was returning to the early religion of the nation, and the Baal whom he worshipped was probably identified in the minds of the people with the national God Jahweh. The ashçrah was a well-known accompaniment of the altars of Jahweh down to the time of Hezekiah. On account of these sins, Manasseh is represented by later writers as the man who filled the cup of Judah’s iniquity to overflowing, and who thus made the final catastrophe of the nation inevitable
Poor And Poverty, Theology of - Justice was neither to be withheld from the poor (Exodus 23:6 ) nor distorted because a person was poor (23:3; Leviticus 19:15 ). During the Sabbatical year debts were to be canceled (Deuteronomy 15:1-9 ) and Jubilee provided release for Hebrews who had become servants through poverty (Leviticus 25:39-41,54 ). ...
Poverty is not a frequent subject of the Old Testament historical books but striking instances are recorded. Hannah's prayer reveals the plight of the poor along with their dependence upon the Lord (1 Samuel 2:5-8 ), while Nathan's parable to David shows the nature of oppression, the relativity of poverty (this poor man was not destitute), and the concern of the king to provide Justice for the poor (2 Samuel 12:1-4 ). This situation was further accentuated with the influx of idolatry and increase of injustice during the divided monarchy. The psalmist understood that God was the Just Judge of the poor. He rescued (35:10), raised (113:7), and satisfied them (132:15); it was the Lord who secured Justice for the poor and the needy (140:12). Poverty is a result of laziness (6:10-11; 10:4; 20:13; 24:33-34), lack of discipline (13:18), idleness (14:23; 28:19), haste (21:5), excess (21:17; 23:20-21), and injustice (13:23). Poverty is quite realistically presented in Job 24 , where the poor are portrayed as hungry, thirsty, naked, and suffering from various kinds of injustice and oppression including the loss of poverty, family, and life. Those who help the poor are the righteous (Job 29:12-17 ; Proverbs 29:7 ; 31:20 ) while the wicked do not (Job 20:19 ; Proverbs 29:7 ; 30:14 ). The key terms for "poor" are used almost exclusively by Isaiah, Amos, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Zechariah while Hosea and Micah, who also showed great sensitivity to the needs of their people, do not use the terms at all. The poor are bought and sold, trampled, crushed, oppressed, forced, and denied Justice by those who are in a position to do otherwise. They trample on the heads of the poor as upon the dust of the ground and deny Justice to the oppressed" (2:6-7). Instead of defending the poor and upholding the Law of God they took bribes and gifts to pervert Justice (Isaiah 1:23 ). Neglecting the clear call of Scripture to provide for the poor, they passed unjust laws and deprived the poor of their rights (10:1-2; Jeremiah 5:27-28 ), taking their goods and their land (Isaiah 3:13-15 ; 5:8 ). Ezekiel, for example, reminded the people that they had Joined with the leaders in such oppression (22:26-29) and pointed out the primary responsibility of the individual was to obey God (18:16-17). Jesus understood the reality of poverty in society (Matthew 26:9-11 ) and the difficulties of the poor (Mark 12:42-44 ). Jesus himself identified with poor people and, like many poor persons, did not have a home (Luke 9:58 ). ...
Paul's sensitivity to the poor is consistent with the teaching of Jesus and the agenda of the early church. His stress on the collection for the Jerusalem church exhibits this concern in a practical way (Romans 15:26 ; 1 Corinthians 16:3 ; 2 Corinthians 8-9 ; Galatians 2:10 ). ...
The equality of persons before God is an important principle of the New Testament with the most powerful statement of the equality of rich and poor coming from James, who emphasizes God's sensitivity to the poor and their faith (2:5). The believer's model for this action is the life of Jesus and the Word of God, which grounds such sensitivity in the very nature of God himself. J. J. Coggins, ExpT 99 (1987): 11-14; H-J. Kaiser, Jr. , Trinity J 9 (1988): 151-70; B. J
Peace (2) - uses it to describe how Jesus put the Sadducees to silence (Matthew 22:34); and in the parable of the Wedding Garment it is used (Matthew 22:12) to express the speechless condition to which the intruder was reduced when challenged by the king (cf. NT1 [1] , ‘the man was dumbfounded’). This also is the connotation of ‘Peace!’ when used as a form of salutation (Matthew 10:12-13 = Luke 2:29; Luke 24:36, John 20:19; John 20:21; John 20:26); though, as employed by our Lord, and by His disciples according to His instructions, the salutation is weighted with the larger Messianic meaning (see below). But in its predominating and characteristic use in the NT, εἰρήνη is distinctively a Christian word, being employed especially to describe the mission, the character, and the gospel of Jesus Christ. ‘Have peace one with another’ was one of His injunctions (Mark 9:50), while of those who not merely live in peace, but are peace-makers (εἰρηνοποιοί), He said that they shall be called sons of God (Matthew 5:9). ); it was the word spoken by Jesus Himself in dismissing those whom He had healed of their physical or moral plagues (Mark 5:34, Luke 7:50; Luke 8:48); and again the greeting with which He met His disciples after He was risen from the dead (Luke 24:36, John 20:19; John 20:21; John 20:26). And in all these cases it seems evident that ‘Peace be unto you!’ and ‘Go in peace!’ are not merely conventional forms of salutation or farewell, but refer to the blessings guaranteed by Jesus as the Christ of God. ...
And yet there is a sense in which Jesus came ‘not to send peace, but a sword’ (Matthew 10:34, cf. For there is a false peace (Jeremiah 6:14; Jeremiah 8:11); and with that He could have nothing to do. Jesus would never compromise, or permit His followers to compromise, with falsehood or error or sin; and so, in a world where these things abound, His coming inevitably meant division and struggle and suffering (cf. —The words ‘Peace I leave with you; my peace I give unto you’ (John 14:27) strike one of the fundamental notes of His personal being as that is revealed to us in the Gospels. Men have been known to make bequests when they had nothing to leave; but peace was a blessing which Jesus had power to bestow, because it was His own peculiar possession. It was, without doubt, the magnetism of this peace-possessing and peace-diffusing strength of Jesus that drew troubled hearts around Him; and it was the consciousness of having it and being able to bestow it that inspired that most characteristic invitation, ‘Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest’ (Matthew 11:28). ...
This personal peace of Jesus must be distinguished, of course, from the peace of outward circumstances. When He said, ‘My peace I give unto you,’ He was Just about to go forth to Gethsemane and the Judgment-hall and the cross. But the peace He was conscious of lay deeper than all trials and sufferings, for it came from the assurance of a perfect union in thought and heart and will with His Father in heaven (John 14:11; John 14:20; John 14:31). Peter in the Acts speaks of those who publish the message of salvation as ‘preaching good tidings of peace by Jesus Christ’ (Acts 10:36). ‘Peace,’ indeed, becomes, like grace, a virtual summary for gospel blessings, and so in the benedictory salutations of nearly every Apostolic writer it is combined with ‘grace’ as the distinctive gift of ‘God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Romans 1:7, 1 Corinthians 1:3, 2 Corinthians 1:2, Galatians 1:3, Ephesians 1:2, Philippians 1:2, Colossians 1:2, 1 Thessalonians 1:1, 2 Thessalonians 1:2, 1 Timothy 1:2, Titus 1:4, Philemon 1:3, 1 Peter 1:2, 2 Peter 1:2, 2 John 1:3, Judges 1:2). (a) First, there is an objective peace—the peace of reconciliation with God through our Lord Jesus Christ—which follows as the result of being Justified by faith (Romans 5:1 [2], Ephesians 2:14-17; cf. (b) Next, there is a subjective peace—the peace of conscious fellowship with God—which results from a living union with Christ the Saviour. This subjective peace finds its ground in the objective peace of reconciliation, but it is clearly distinguished from it. This inward peace is one of the fruits of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22), it forms part of our Joy in believing (Romans 15:13), it is a power that guards our hearts and thoughts in Christ Jesus (Philippians 4:7). And it is of this peace, as a glad sense of sonship and trust wrought in the soul by Jesus Christ, that the Apostle is thinking when he writes: ‘The Lord of peace himself give you peace at all times, in all ways’ (2 Thessalonians 3:16). ; Sanday-Headlam, ‘Romans’ in ICC
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Hamath - Hieroglyphic inscriptions first discovered by J. ...
The southern boundary of Hamath served as the northern boundary of Israel during the reigns of Solomon (1 Kings 8:65 ; 2 Chronicles 8:4 ) and Jeroboam II (2Kings 14:25,2 Kings 14:28 ). The “entrance of Hamath” was treated as the northern border of Israel (Numbers 34:8 ; Joshua 13:5 ; Ezekiel 47:15-17 ,Ezekiel 47:15-17,47:20 ; Ezekiel 48:1 ) and served as an accepted geographical expression (Numbers 13:21 ; Judges 3:3 ). King Irhuleni of Hamath Joined a coalition including Ben-hadad II of Damascus and Ahab of Israel which successfully thwarted the advance of Shalmaneser II of Assyria into northern Syria. From this time, Hamath's history seems to merge with that of Damascus (Jeremiah 49:23 )
Horn - Horns are mentioned being used as trumpets (Joshua 6:5 ). Horn-like projections were built onto the corners of the altar of burnt offerings in the Temple and in tabernacles (Exodus 27:2 ). ...
J
Raca - It is a Semitic word, probably a popular pronunciation of the Rabbinic rçqâ , a noun formed from the adjective rçq ‘empty. ...
While the general force of our Lord’s words in Matthew 5:21-22 is clear enough, the significance of the Judgments referred to is obscured in the present text. the supreme Jewish Court, the Sanhedrin) in Matthew 5:22 , implying its possession of the power of life and death, is especially difficult. It was after all only a provisional institution devised by the Rabbis; whereas the ‘Gehenna of fire’ is a Messianic Judgment. ...
The true meaning and real antithesis emerge clearly if a slight re-arrangement of the text, first suggested by J. Peters (in JBL Sarah - ‘Sarai’ is the form used previous to Genesis 17:15 , and ‘Sarah’ afterwards, in harmony with the change of name there narrated (by P Tribute, Toll, Taxing - In OT the subject is obscure. ; see RV [3] ‘custom’; telônion ‘ place of toll ,’ AV
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Kansas - The 34th state to be admitted to the United States, January 29, 1861. The proto-martyr of the United States, the Franciscan Father Juan de Padilla, slain by the Indians, 1541, is thought to have shed his blood within the limits of the present Kansas, although the exact spot has never been determined. 1825,to transplant beyond the Mississippi many eastern tribes of Indians who aroused the zeal of devoted Jesuits. At about the same time Father Schoenmakers founded a mission for the Osages on the Neosho J River. When white settlers began to enter Kansas, their needs were looked after by Right Reverend John B Miege, SJ; appointed Vicar Apostolic of the so-called Indian Territory (including Kansas), 1850. ...
Archdioceses, past and present, include ...
Kansas City
Dioceses, past and present, include: ...
Concordia
Dodge City
Leavenworth
Salina
Wichita
Catholic influence on the place-names of the state is shown in the following: ...
Holyrood
Olivet
Saint Clere
Saint Francis
Saint George
Saint John
Saint Marys
Saint Paul
See also, ...
patron saints index
Euraquilo - It was doubtless coined by the sailors and traders of the Levant, whose successors at the present day still call the dreaded wind the ‘Gregalia’-the final form of the corruption of ‘Euraquilo,’ Just as ‘Egripou’ is of ‘Euripus. ’...
εὐροκλύδων (TR
James Strahan
Essenes - A sect of the Jews who practiced a strict ceremonial asceticism, discouraging marriage, having community of goods, temperate, industrious, charitable, opposed to all oaths, slavery, and war, like the modern Society of Friends, and also, unlike t temple of the soul, tinged their deep veneration for Moses' laws, which in every way favor marriage. (Judas being the earliest mentioned), but are never noticed in New Testament, the reason doubtless being their isolation from general society. See Josephus, B. J. The novitiate was for a year, and then a two years probation before membership, which, on oath of an awful kind (the only oath permitted), bound them to piety, Justice, obedience, honesty, and secrecy as to the books of the sect and the names of the angels. - Keble See John 17:15; Colossians 2:18-23
Felicitas, Martyr at Carthage - While the pangs of labour were upon her, the Jailer, hearing some exclamations of pain, said, "If thy present sufferings are so great, what wilt thou do when thou art thrown to the wild beasts? This thou didst not consider when thou refusedst to sacrifice. Augustine, while their burial at Carthage, in the Basilica Major, is asserted by Victor Vitensis, lib. of Dean J. ...
Timothy - A native of Lystra, he may have been converted on Paul's first missionary Journey (Acts 14:6-23 ). When Paul came to Lystra on his second Journey, Timothy was a disciple who was well-respected by the believers (Acts 16:1-2 ). Because they would be ministering to many Jews and because Timothy's mother was Jewish, Paul had Timothy circumcised (Acts 16:3 ). ...
Robert J
Nicolas - Among the Seven chosen in Acts 6:1-15 to minister to the Hellenists or Greek-speaking Jews, was Nicolas, a ‘proselyte of Antioch. ’ The remaining six, we infer, were of Jewish birth, for ‘ proselyte ’ is the emphatic word ( Acts 6:5 ). At a later age the Jews divided converts to Judaism into two classes, ‘proselytes of righteousness,’ who were circumcised and who kept the whole Law, and ‘proselytes of the gate,’ who had only a somewhat undefined connexion with Israel. of the latter class; (3) the direct admission of heathen to the Church without their having had any connexion with Judaism. J
Reformation - by a quotation from Jeremiah 31:31-34. Jeremiah 7:3; Jeremiah 7:5, Wisdom of Solomon 9:18). -J
Rest (2) - Christ’s gift is life abundant (John 10:10), but the bestowal involves asking, and faith’s exertion of knocking is expected at the entrance into life (Matthew 7:7). —The subject is treated homiletically in many vols. Allon, Indwelling Christ (1892), 41; Stopford Brooke, Gospel of Joy (1898), 123; R. Rainy, Sojourning with God (1902), 37; J. Jowett, Apostolic Optimism (1901), 87. See also ExpT Right - That norm is found in the common ethical Judgment of men; but the NT accentuates the norm as fixed by God (Acts 4:19). Higher ethical Judgments, too, many under certain circumstances demand the waiving of undoubted rights. ...
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Sickle - Joel 3:13, Jeremiah 51:33. The flints projected from the hafts about half an inch or less. J. John 2, London, 1907, pp
Importunity - ’ In the companion parable, Coverdale (1535) uses the cognate adjective, Luke 18:5 ‘yet seynge this weddowe is so importune vpon me, I will delyner her. Luke ‘three times uses bad men to represent God, or to be examples to us: (1) here, (2) the unjust steward, (3) the unjust Judge. ’...
J
Stephanas - The Corinthian Christians are urged to ‘be in subjection unto such,’ and to ‘acknowledge them that are such. ...
J
Loaf - The Passover loaf—a large round thin cake—probably preserves the shape of the loaf in use among the Jews of our Lord’s time. ’ They may also be baked on heated stones or on the outside of a Jar within which a fire has been kindled. , were of this kind, inasmuch as such bread is almost always carried on a Journey, and by workmen, because of its keeping properties. ...
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Hadad - The eighth son of Ishmael, 1 Chronicles 1:30 , and also Genesis 25:15 according to RV
J
Eve - (Εὔα)...
Eve was (according to J, Genesis 3:20; Genesis 4:1) the wife of Adam (q.
James Strahan
Master - ) A male person having another living being so far subject to his will, that he can, in the main, control his or its actions; - formerly used with much more extensive application than now. (j) The controller of a familiar spirit or other supernatural being. ) To become the master of; to subject to one's will, control, or authority; to conquer; to overpower; to subdue
Rezin - Pekah , one of Menahem’s successors, Joined Rezin in the attempt to throw off the yoke. Failing to secure the co-operation of Ahaz, they turned their arms against Judah (b. 2 Kings 16:6 mentions, among the incidents of the campaign, that Rezin ‘recovered Elath to Syria, and drave the Jews from Elath. ’
J
Poor Poverty - In the great majority of instances it is obvious that these words describe the man who has little material wealth, but there are certain passages which suggest a larger meaning. ...
In the Epistle of James and in the Gospel of Luke the word ‘poor’ (πτωχός) is used occasionally in a manner which suggests that, while it has in part its literal sense, it may also denote one who possesses certain virtues which may have been conceived of as usually associated with poverty. Do not the rich oppress you, and themselves drag you before the Judgement-seats?’ (James 2:5-6). In Matthew 5:3 our Lord’s words are repeated in a different form-‘Blessed are the poor in spirit’; and while we may be inclined to think that Luke gives us the more original form of the words, the gloss, if it be such, of Matthew’s Gospel is very possibly Just in substance. ...
It has been suggested that this points to some relation between the NT conception of the poor and some supposed body of Ebionites or pious men who are also called poor, but the material is too scanty to enable us to form any very positive Judgment. J
Alms - The duty of kindliness to and provision for the poor is constantly taught in the OT; in the later Jewish literature, and especially in Sirach and Tobit, it is even more emphatically asserted. Our Lord says to the rich young ruler, ‘Sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven’ (Mark 10:21); in the parable of the Judgment, the place of men is decided on the ground that they have or have not helped and relieved the Lord’s brethren (Matthew 25:34-46), and in St. In the Acts we read of the Church of Jerusalem: ‘All that believed were together, and had all things common; and they sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all, according as any man had need’ (Acts 2:44-45; cf. What relation this may have to the community of goods is considered elsewhere (see article Community of Goods); but it is at least clear that the Church in Jerusalem recognized the paramount obligation of the maintenance of the poor brethren, and it is worthy of notice that the first officers of the Christian community of whose appointment we have direct mention are the Seven who were appointed to carry out the ministrations of the Church to the poor widows of the community (Acts 6:1-4). Romans 12:13, Ephesians 4:28, 1 Timothy 6:18), and in certain letters we find him specially occupied with the collections which were being made for the poor Christians in Jerusalem (Galatians 2:10, Romans 15:25-26, 1 Corinthians 16:1-2, 2 Corinthians 8, 9). John, however, that the principle of the responsibility of Christian men for the maintenance of their brethren is most emphatically expressed: ‘Whoso hath this world’s goods, and beholdeth his brother in need, and shutteth up his compassion from him, how doth the love of God abide in him?’ (1 John 3:17). John the notion that any man can love God without loving his brother is a falsehood (1 John 4:20). 1893; J. J
Respect of Persons - In three of these instances (Romans 2:11, Ephesians 6:9, Colossians 3:25) it is used with reference to God, in the fourth (James 2:1) with reference to man. The cognate verb προσωπολημπτἑω occurs once only in the NT in James 2:9. Alternative expressions with a similar meaning are βλέπειν εἰς πρόσωπον (Matthew 22:16, Mark 12:14) and θαυμάζειν πρόσωπον (Judges 1:16). James, the noun in James 2:1 and the corresponding verb in James 2:9. In James 2:1 the noun is used in the plural, ἐν προσωπολημψίαις, with probable reference to the many ways in which partiality may display itself. 58; J. 230; J. Major, James 3, do
Wicked (2) - —Wickedness (πονηρία) is sin contemplated, not in the light of Judicial guilt, or even of moral badness, but of the active mischief which it works. J. J. —(a) The wicked one (Matthew 13:19; Matthew 13:38, Ephesians 6:16, 1 John 2:13-14; 1 John 3:12, perh. ), and is ever found in antagonism to Christ’s dominion (Matthew 13:37; Matthew 13:39, 1 John 5:18-20 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ). This is the permanent condition of the world apart from Christ (1 John 5:19, Galatians 1:4). violence (Matthew 5:39, Acts 17:5, 2 Thessalonians 3:2), hypocrisy (Matthew 22:18), an unforgiving spirit (Matthew 18:32), idleness (Matthew 25:26), unbelief (Hebrews 3:12), self-sufficiency (James 4:16), spite (3 John 1:10); everything, in fact, that is unlike Christ, flourishes in the devil’s Eden—the lost world. And further, he may not only be completely ransomed from the slavery in which he was formerly held (Matthew 6:13, John 17:15, 2 Thessalonians 3:3, 1 John 5:18 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), but may become actually victorious, through the imparted power of Christ, over the evil one, who is now bitterly antagonistic to his former subject (1 John 2:13-14, Luke 11:39,)
Cain - ( a ) Genesis 4:1-16 (J
( b ) Genesis 4:17-24 seem to contain a different tradition, but incorporated also by J Judgment Seat of Christ - The word we translate "judgment seat" (bema [ Acts 7:5 ). It is used of a raised platform on which the Judge sat during Judicial proceedings (and from which he pronounced his verdict) or of the seat itself. Most of the examples of the use of the term in the New Testament refer to human tribunals, but we have one explicit reference to the Judgment seat of Christ (2Col 5:10; there are also references to Christ's activity in final Judgment as 1Col 4:5; 1 Thessalonians 2:19 ). We also read of God's Judgment seat in a passage where several manuscripts have "Christ's Judgment seat" (Romans 14:10 ). These passages clearly refer to the Judgment at the end of the world. ...
"We must all" appear before Christ's Judgment seat, where "must" points to a compelling divine necessity: There is no escaping it. Other passages make it clear that there is a Judgment for nonbelievers also, but that is not the apostle's concern at this point. People will not be able to hide anything or disguise themselves at Christ's Judgment seat; they will be made known for what they really are and have done. ...
The Judgment seat is, of course, more than a place where people are known for what they have done. There is a purpose involved; they will be there "in order that" Judgment be passed on them for what they have done or failed to do. "Each" (the word is important as showing the universality of the Judgment) "will receive what is due, " which makes it clear that Justice will be done; there will be nothing capricious or half-hearted at that tribunal. That "each" will receive what is due makes it clear that Christ's Judgment is to be an individual matter. ...
The Judgment given will concern the things done while in the body or perhaps by means of the body (the Greek could mean either). The day of Judgment is like a fire that will purify the first group and consume the second (1 Corinthians 3:10-15 ). ...
The passage where some manuscripts refer to "the Judgment seat of Christ" but most to that of God (Romans 14:10 ) forbids us to Judge one another and tells us that God or Christ will Judge us all. Probably we should understand this to mean that the Father will Judge us all through the Son (cf. John 5:22 ). ...
That we are all to stand before Christ's Judgment seat is a reminder that we are accountable and that in the end we must render account of our stewardship to none less than Christ. ...
Leon Morris...
See also Judgment ; Judgment, Day of ; Reward ...
Bibliography . J. Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament ; J. Martin, The Last Judgment ; B
Mind - In the Authorized Version of Acts 14:2, Philippians 1:27, Hebrews 12:3 ‘mind’ represents ψυχή, which in the Revised Version is properly rendered ‘soul’; in Philemon 1:14, Revelation 17:13 it stands for γνώμη, ‘judgment,’ ‘opinion’; in Romans 8:7; Romans 8:27 for φρόνημα, which denotes not the mental faculty itself, but its thoughts and purposes. βούλεσθαι), Acts 27:17 (Textus Receptus βουλεύεσθαι, WH
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Paraclete - -One result of the authoritative place held by the Law among the Jews was that figures of speech borrowed from the sphere of Judicial procedure came to play an important part in religious life. ’ In Greek usage a paraclete was one who accompanied an accused person to the Judge’s tribunal, and supported him by testifying and interceding on his behalf. The frequent use of the term ‘paraclete’ in the religious phraseology of the Jews is confirmed by the fact that when the term, as a Greek loanword, at length found a place in the Hebrew writings of the Synagogue, it was employed not in a literal but in a figurative sense, as, e. Jesus Himself as the Paraclete (of Christians who fall into sin). John, in his First Epistle (1 John 2:1), applies the term to Jesus Christ. Still, this does not do away with the possibility of their choosing falsely and again doing evil; hence there arises the need of a fresh Judicial act on God’s part to decide what portion such a sinner retains in Him. This power, moreover, rests also upon the fact that Jesus has by His Cross purchased the world’s forgiveness from God. -In the last discourse of Jesus, as found in the Fourth Gospel, the name ‘Paraclete’ is given to the power that secures for the disciples the presence of the Holy Spirit (John 14:16; John 14:26; John 15:26; John 16:7). Abstractly, it is not impossible that the Spirit Himself is here called the Paraclete because He too keeps the disciples within the Divine grape through which they are forgiven; here, in point of fact, the term applies to Jesus no less than to the Spirit, for the latter is called ‘another Paraclete’; and thus the intercessory function of the Spirit on behalf of the disciples is conjoined with that exercised by Jesus until His departure. The leading thought underlying the passages in question, however, is in conflict with this interpretation, as Jesus is there speaking of how His disciples shall be enabled to complete their task and, as His messengers, to gather His community together. The relation of the disciples to God is regulated and assured by their union with Jesus, and no account is taken of the possibility that they may rupture that relation by fresh transgression. The parting utterances of Jesus speak of His fellowship with His disciples as indestructible; as perfected, not impeded by His death. This brings them, however, to take part in a d