What does Isaiah mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἠσαΐας a famous Hebrew prophet who prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah 10
ἠσαΐου a famous Hebrew prophet who prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah 9
יְשַׁעְיָ֖הוּ the major prophet 5
יְשַֽׁעְיָ֔הוּ the major prophet 4
יְשַׁעְיָ֔הוּ the major prophet 4
יְשַֽׁעְיָ֣הוּ the major prophet 4
יְשַֽׁעְיָ֥הוּ the major prophet 3
ἠσαΐαν a famous Hebrew prophet who prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah 2
יְשַׁעְיָ֨הוּ the major prophet 2
יְשַׁעְיָ֣הוּ the major prophet 2
יְשַֽׁעְיָ֤הוּ the major prophet 1
יְשַֽׁעַיָֽהוּ the major prophet 1
וִֽישַֽׁעְיָ֧הוּ the major prophet 1
יְשַׁעְיָ֗הוּ the major prophet 1
יְשַׁעְיָ֥הוּ the major prophet 1
ἠσαΐᾳ a famous Hebrew prophet who prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah 1
יְשַֽׁעְיָ֖הוּ the major prophet 1
יְשַׁעְיָֽהוּ the major prophet 1
יְשַׁעְיָהוּ֒ the major prophet 1

Definitions Related to Isaiah

G2268


   1 a famous Hebrew prophet who prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah.
   Additional Information: Isaiah = “Jehovah’s help”.
   

H3470


   1 the major prophet, son of Amoz, who prophesied concerning Judah and Jerusalem during the days of kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah; author of the prophetic book by his name; tradition has it that he was sawn asunder in the trunk of a carob tree by king Manasseh and that this is the incident referred to in Heb 11:37.
   2 son of Hananiah, brother of Pelatiah, and grandson of Zerubbabel.
   3 a Benjamite.
   4 one of the 6 sons of Jeduthun.
   5 son of Rehabiah, a descendant of Moses through Gershom, and an ancestor of a Levite treasurer in the time of David.
   6 son of Athaliah and chief of the house of Elam who returned with Ezra.
   7 a chief of the descendants of Merari who returned with Ezra.
   Additional Information: Isaiah or Jesaiah or Jeshaiah = “Jehovah has saved”.
   

Frequency of Isaiah (original languages)

Frequency of Isaiah (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Isaiah
Prophet, son of Amos, and himself father of two sons, called to the office of prophet 738 B.C. as he describes in his prophecy (Isaias 6). He was probably a counselor at court under Ezechias. Jewish tradition makes him a martyr for his religion some time after 693. Jerome regards him as more evangelist than prophet because of his frequent explicit references to the Messias and His Kingdom. He prophesied at a time of religious disorder and excitement. Ezechias was suppressing the idolatry fostered by Achaz. The Assyrians were invading Galilee and Palestine. Babylon fell, 689 B.C. Political parties were advocating relations with Egypt, Babylonia, Ethiopia. It was part of the prophetic office of Isaias to guide Juda in all this. He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel. Chapters 36,37 are historical. The remaining 19 chapters foretell that Cyrus will liberate Israel from Babylonia, the sufferings of the Messias, and His Kingdom. The historian Josephus narrates that Cyrus knew of the prophecy and was moved by it to free Israel. The Biblical Commission, June 29, 1908, decided that Isaias is the real author of the book attributed to him and that he uttered real prophecies, not merely political conjectures. The prophecies are read in the Divine Office during Advent, and are a good preparatibn for Christmas. They are often quoted and contain many sublime passages concerning the birth, office, characteristics, and Kingdom of Christ, and passages of great pathos concerning His Passion.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Isaiah
(a) (7th century BCE) One of the greatest prophets, a contemporary of Hosea, Amos and Micah. His prophecies include the vision of the Merkavah and many descriptions of the Messianic Era.
Isaiah, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Isaiah's prophecies, including his vision of the Merkavah and many prophecies regarding the Messianic Era.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Isaiah
(i zay' uh) Personal name meaning, “Yahweh saves.” Prophet active in Judah about 740 to 701 B.C. The Historical Background Isaiah's ministry spanned the period from his call vision (about 740 B.C.) until the last years of Hezekiah (716-687) or the early years of Manasseh (687-642). The prophet lived during the reigns of the Judean kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and perhaps the first years of Manasseh. He was contemporary with the last five kings of Israel: Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, and Hosea. The tragic fall of Samaria to the Assyrian King Sargon II in 722 B.C. occurred during his ministry.
In northwest Mesopotamia, the energetic monarch Tiglath-pileser III (745-727) founded the mighty Assyrian Empire. A series of vigorous successors succeeded him: Shalmaneser V (726-722), Sargon II (721-705), Sennacherib (704-681), and Esarhaddon (680-669). With Asshurbanipal (668-627) the empire began to crumble and ultimately fell to the Babylonians in 612-609 under the command of Nabopolassar (625-585).
During this same period Egypt experienced a resurgence of power in the 25th Dynasty (about 716-663) and occasioned international intrigue among the Palestinian states to overthrow Assyria. The petty states of Palestine—Syria, Philistia, Moab, Edom, Ammon, Arabia, Tyre, Israel, and Judah—were ultimately conquered or made tributary to Assyria. With strong feelings of nationalism these states fomented rebellion and duplicity, a world of intrigue born of political and economic frustrations. In this era Isaiah exercised his prophetic ministry, a large part of which was politically involved with Judah and to a lesser extent Israel. He advocated policies of state in line with the religious creed of authentic prophetism.
Personal Life of Isaiah Isaiah, the son of Amoz, was born in Judah, no doubt in Jerusalem, about 760 B.C. He enjoyed a significant position in the contemporary society and had a close relationship with the reigning monarchs. His education is clearly evident in his superb writing that has gained him an eminence in Hebrew literature hardly surpassed by any other. He had a thorough grasp of political history and dared to voice unpopular minority views regarding the state and the economy. His knowledge of the religious heritage of Israel and his unique theological contributions inspire awe. He was alive to what was transpiring in the court, in the marketplace, in high society with its shallowness, and in the political frustrations of the nation.
Isaiah was called to be a prophet of Yahweh in striking visions which he experienced in the Temple about 740 B.C., the year that the aged Judean king Uzziah died (Isaiah 6:1 ). The elements in that vision forecast the major themes of his preaching, particularly the transcendent nature of Yahweh, which may serve as a modern translation of Hebraic “holiness.” God warned him that his ministry would meet with disappointment and meager results but also assured him that forgiveness would ever attend the penitent (Isaiah 6:5-7 ; Isaiah 1:19-20 ) and that the ultimate promises of God would be realized (Isaiah 6:13 ).
The prophet was married and was the father of two sons whose names symbolized Isaiah's public preaching: Mahershalalhashbaz (the spoil speeds; the prey hastes), a conviction that Assyria would invade Syria and Israel about 734 B.C., and Sherajashub (a remnant shall return), a name that publicized his belief in the survival and conversion of a faithful remnant in Israel (Isaiah 1:9 ; Isaiah 7:3 ; Isaiah 8:1 ,Isaiah 8:1,8:4 ; Isaiah 10:20-23 ).
During the dark days when the Assyrians took over one Palestinian state after another, Isaiah firmly contended that the Judean monarchs ought to remain as neutral as possible, to refrain from rebellious acts, and to pay tribute. When the Israelites and Syrians jointly attacked Judah for refusing to join the anti-Assyrian coalition (Isaiah 7:1-9 ; Isaiah 8:1-15 ), he deplored the dangerous policy of purchasing protection from the Assyrians. In 711 B.C. when the city of Ashdod rebelled against Assyria, Isaiah assumed the garb of a captive for three years calling on Hezekiah not to take the fatal step of joining the rebellion. No doubt he was instrumental in influencing Hezekiah to reject the seditious plot (Isaiah 20:1-6 ). That same resolute policy assured Isaiah that Jerusalem would not fall to Sennacherib in 701 B.C. despite the ominous outlook the Assyrian envoys forecast (Isaiah 36-37 ). Isaiah soundly castigated Hezekiah for entertaining the seditious Babylonian princelet whose real purpose was to secure military aid for a rebellion in south Babylonia in an effort to overthrow Sennacherib (Isaiah 39:1 ).
Literary and Theological Pronouncements Israel made no clear separation of church and state; accordingly most of the utterances of Isaiah are religious and political in character in spite of their literary diversity. Underlying his conceptual world was his inaugural vision: Yahweh was the ultimate King; His nature was infinite holiness or transcendence; His holiness manifested itself in righteousness (Isaiah 5:16 ). Yahweh was the electing, endowing, forgiving God, possessing plans and purposes for His servant Israel by which they might secure the Abrahamic promise of world blessedness. The vision of Isaiah indicated the resistance this program would encounter but concluded with the certainty of its performance.
With this theological perspective Isaiah inveighed against the errant nation of Judah (Isaiah 1:2-9 ; Isaiah 2:6-22 ; Isaiah 3:1-4:1 ) even using the guise of a love song (Isaiah 5:1-7 ). He pronounced six “woes” on the immoral nation. His wrath also attacked Israel (Isaiah 9:8-21 ; Isaiah 28:1-29 ). Among other travesties, Judah was rebellious, evil, iniquitous, alienated, corrupters, a sick people, unfilial in attitude, purposeless in their excessive religiosity, idolaters, proud ones whose land was filled with esoteric charlatans, brass in their defection, thankless and unappreciative, drunkards, monoplists of real estate, wise in their own eyes, morally indiscriminate. The character of true religion was absent; they needed to desist from evil, to learn to do good, to seek justice, correct oppression, defend the fatherless, plead for the widow (Isaiah 1:17 ).
Though the indictments were severe, Isaiah still held out the hope of forgiveness to the penitent (Isaiah 1:18-31 ) and pointed to days coming when God would establish peace (Isaiah 2:1-4 ; Isaiah 4:2-6 ). He promised the Messiah, the son of David, who would assume the chief role in the fulfillment of the Abrahamic-Davidic covenantal promises (Isaiah 9:2-7 ; Isaiah 11:1-9 ).
Isaiah is remembered for his magnificent conception of God. The thrice-repeated term “holy” is equivalent to holiness to the nth or infinite degree ( Isaiah 6:3 ). Yahweh is Lord of all, King of the universe, the Lord of history who exhibits His character in righteousness, that is, in self-consistent acts of rightness (Isaiah 5:16 ). The prophet criticized the vanity and meaninglessness of religion's pride. He demanded social and religious righteousness practiced in humility and faith. He strongly affirmed God's plans that would not lack fulfillment, announcing that the Assyrian king was but the instrument of God and accountable to Him. He stressed, too, the Day of Yahweh, a time when the presence of God would be readily discoverable in human history. Isaiah was certain that a faithful remnant would always carry on the divine mission (Shearjashub, Isaiah 1:9 ). The messianic hope was considered the blueprint of history fulfilled, the hope of humankind toward which all creation moves.
The Disciples of Isaiah During the ministry of Isaiah when the Judeans discounted his stern warnings, he ordered that his “testimony” and “teaching” be bound and sealed—no doubt in a scroll—and committed to his disciples until history proved his words true (Isaiah 8:16 ). Most people did not accept Isaiah's message, but he had disciples who did. They formed the backbone of a prophetic party in Judah who preserved his writings, sustained his political and religious power so that he had access to the person of the king, and arranged the final form of his preaching in written form as can be seen by constant referral to the prophet in third person rather than first.
In Isaiah's time the great military power that threatened the Palestinian states was Assyria. In much of the book that now bears the name of Isaiah, the reigning power was Babylon, which did not rise to power until after 625 B.C., over 50 years after Isaiah's death. Some Bible students think that the writings that reflect the Babylonian period may be the work of the disciples of Isaiah, who projected his thought into the new and changed situation of the Babylonian world. Others would say in the Spirit Isaiah was projected supernaturally into the future, thus able to know even the name of Cyrus, King of Persia (Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 56:9-579 ).
The Prophetic Critique of Foreign Affairs Israel's prophets such as Amos, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah devoted considerable attention to political pronouncements regarding foreign nations. Those thus singled out included Babylon (Isaiah 13-14 ), Moab (Isaiah 15-16 ), Damascus (Isaiah 17:1-14 ), Ethiopia (Isaiah 18:1 ), Egypt (Isaiah 19-20 ), and Tyre (Isaiah 23:1 ). The importance of these prophetic utterances are historical, though political and religious principles can be profitably drawn from them.
Every national capital hosted embassies of other friendly nations with their diplomatic staffs. Such visiting ambassadors were responsible to their home governments to report the relevant news. These prophetic speeches to the nations proved significant in that they represented a strong minority group feeling, the religious and political thought of a traditional Yahwistic block with strong backing from the right wing of the government. The speeches of Isaiah or his disciples would be relayed to the foreign capitals as a significant utterance on foreign affairs. They also informed God's people of His world plans, giving encouragement of final victory.
The “Little Apocalypse” (Isaiah 24–27 ) Midway between prophetic prediction and apocalypticism are these four chapters. Apocalypticism is an expressive term which denotes the unveiling of the future. Portions of Ezekiel, Joel, and Daniel are written in this style marked by cosmological orientation, proximate pessimism, symbolism with few historical allusions, suprahistorical perspective—that is, the future was so bewildering and the events so vaguely perceived that the writer penned his forecast in the symbolic language of faith, pointing to a resolution of world history. In Isaiah 24-27 two opposing forces were pitted in conflict: they were presented as two cities. In the tension of history when the city of chaos triumphs, the city of God laments; when it suffers defeat, the city of God breaks forth into song. Some four hymns are in Isaiah 24-27 . Ultimately, the kingdom of God is victorious with such blessing as the removal of national hatred, the overcoming of sorrow, the overcoming of death, the resurrection, in short, the resolution of history as the kingdom of God.
A Collection of Prophetic Oracles (Isaiah 28–35 ) Since five in this series of prophecies commence with an introductory “woe,” it suggests that much of this block of materials will be negative in its criticism. Thus in Isaiah 28:1 the inebriated aristocracy of Israel failed to discern the fading flower of their nation; and they were supported in their dereliction by the priests and prophets. Indeed, they mimicked sarcastically Isaiah's plain speech as childish prattle, to which he retorted that if they did not understand simple Hebrew, Yahweh would speak to them in Assyrian! Yet, those that trusted in God stood on a firm foundation, a foundation laid in righteousness and justice. It alone would stand ( Isaiah 28:16-22 ).
Isaiah 29-35 are largely directed to Judah; elements of severe censure are often followed by oracles of comfort. The Judeans were reproved for their rejection of the authentic voice of prophecy, their defiant atheism, their meaningless parade of religion, their rebellious plotting with the Egyptians, and their buildup of the military. Such passages as Isaiah 28:5-6 ; Isaiah 29:5-8 ,Isaiah 29:5-8,29:17-24 ; Isaiah 30:18-33 ; Isaiah 31:4-9 ; Isaiah 32:1-5 ,Isaiah 32:1-5,32:8 ,Isaiah 32:8,32:15-20 ; Isaiah 33:2-6 ,Isaiah 33:2-6,33:17-24 contrast with these passages. The conclusion of this segment includes the juxtaposition of a negative oracle against Edom, here symbolic of evil, with a paradisiacal contrast involving Israel ( Isaiah 34-35 ). Much like the theme of Isaiah 24-27 , it forecasted the ultimate fulfillment of divine purposes in history.
The Historical Appendage With the exception of Isaiah 38:9-21 , an original thanksgiving song of Hezekiah after a severe illness, the rest of Isaiah 36-39 duplicates 2 Kings 18:13-20:19 . A similar insertion of historical materials from the Book of Kings (2 Kings 24:18-25:30 ) concludes the Book of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 52:1 ). It provides the reader of the prophet with an historical background for the understanding of the book.
The Book of Consolation (Isaiah 40–55 )
Its Historical Background. The setting of these chapters is incontestably that of the later years of the Babylonian Exile when Cyrus (Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1 ) was beginning his conquests which would ultimately overthrow the Babylonian power (550 B.C.). The city of Jerusalem and its Temple had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 B.C., and a considerable segment of the upper classes had been forcibly exiled to Babylon. The writer hailed Cyrus as the shepherd of Yahweh who would build Jerusalem and set the exiles free (Isaiah 44:26-45:1 ). For some forty years the Judeans had lived as hostages in a strange land; they were discouraged by the seeming unimprovable situation. Was it their unforgivable guilt; had God forgotten them? The stunning victory of Cyrus over the mighty Babylonian power (538 B.C.) and his decree of liberation for the Jewish exiles were events too joyous to recount. But what of the long, arduous journey through the desert with its multiplied dangers? The prophetic voice assured the exiles that God would prepare a level highway for their journey, provide for their sustenance, and lead them back to their homeland (Isaiah 40:1 ). The exiles were assured of divine pardon, comforted in every major problem area, and promised the restoration of Zion and its Temple.
Its Literary Structure. The prophetic voice of Isaiah 40-55 affirmed the purpose of God in the dark days of the Babylonian Exile. Most of the chapters articulate the various theological affirmations designed to comfort, challenge, and advise the hostage people. However, arising from the messages of comfort and dialogue are four so-called Servant Songs ( Isaiah 42:1-4 ; Isaiah 49:1-6 ; Isaiah 50:4-9 ; and Isaiah 52:13-53:12 ). These songs reiterate the role of Israel as the chosen servant of God, the nation that would evangelize all nations, whose endowment by the Spirit would provide the enablement for that mission and the concomitant suffering attendant the people of God addressing a sinful society, and the ultimate success of the divine mission by his faithful servants. There can be no doubt but that the authentic Israel was the servant the prophet had in mind (Isaiah 49:3 ). While these songs unquestionably identify the Suffering Servant as the godly in Israel, they find their ultimate fulfillment in the life, death, and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior of the world. The cross-bearing Christian church (Galatians 6:14-16 ) carries on the Servant's mission.
The religious affirmation of Isaiah 40–55 . The overwhelming majesty of these chapters have ever impressed the faithful with its sublime consolation. Against the gloom of Exile, the prophet portrayed the One Sovereign God, Creator, incomparable, unfailing, the Lord of history. What a sorry contrast was the Babylonian idolatry with its vaunted pretensions (Isaiah 46-47 ).
The prophetic announcement disclosed the movement of God in history—the Exile was over. The Persians were about to take over the Babylonian power; they would be trustworthy and friendly to the exiles. The difficulties of the journey would be provided for by the God who programmed the Exodus and would once more duplicate that performance in the release of the exiles from Babylonian tyranny. It was Yahweh who had stirred up Cyrus, and through him His purpose would be secured. Assured of divine forgiveness and comforted in their grief, the exiles were exhorted to identify with their ancient role in the blessing of the earth's population through the dissemination of the religion through which the world would be blessed (Genesis 12:3 ). The Servant Songs were the blueprint for Israel's devotion and adherence—to love, to serve, to suffer, to teach the knowledge of God for the salvation of humankind.
The Concluding Prophetic Oracles (Isaiah 56–66 )
Its Historical Setting. Here is a change of venue from Isaiah 40-55 ; no longer was Babylon the focus; Palestine was, with the Temple restored and sacrifice and worship being conducted. Many scholars place this collection sometime around 460 B.C. and attribute the diverse fields of interest, style, and religious affirmation to prophetic voices of this period addressing themselves to major issues of their day. Others think God transported the eighth century prophet into the fifth century setting.
Its Literary Structure. The subjects handled in this section include an oracle on sabbath keeping (Isaiah 56:1-8 ), censure of civil and religious leaders (1619110985_51:12 ), an analysis of the meaning of fasting (Isaiah 58:1 ), the dilemma of the unfulfilled divine promises (Isaiah 59:1 ), hopeful encouragement to be anticipated (Isaiah 60-64 ), the grievous sin of Judah and the blessedness of the righteous remnant (Isaiah 65:1 ), and brief fragments on a number of subjects (Isaiah 66:1 ).
Its Theological Affirmation. This portion of inspired Scripture contains some very remarkable and advanced concepts. It places the reader in the midst of a discordant community where the righteous struggle against their powerful opponents. It censures the moral depravity of rulers, of those who succumb to pagan practices, of those who practice external rites without true identification with their meaning. A most interesting affirmation regards foreigners and eunuchs (
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Isaiah, the Book of
(See ISAIAH.).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Isaiah, Martyrdom of
A Jewish narrative elaborating the sins of Manasseh (2 Kings 21:16 ). The original was probably written in Hebrew or Aramaic and then translated into Greek in the pre-Christian era or perhaps in the first or early second century A.D. The narrative concerns Isaiah who makes predictions concerning the evil deeds of Manasseh. An evil priest offers Isaiah freedom if he will retract his prophecies of judgment. Empowered by God's Spirit, Isaiah resists and suffers martyrdom by being sawn in two. Hebrews 11:37 is a likely allusion to such a tradition of the faithfulness and martyrdom of Isaiah. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and the Talmud are similarly aware of such a tradition. The familiarity of Origin (about A.D. 225) and IV Baruch (about A.D. 200) with details of the tradition suggests their dependence on the Martydom of Isaiah. See Pseudepigrapha .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Isaiah
Υeshayahu or Ιsaiahuw (?), Hebrew "the salvation of Jehovah," his favorite expression, which means the same as the name "Jesus", who is the grand subject of his prophecies, and in whom in the New Testament the name Jehovah merges, being never found in Scripture after the Old Testament. The Υahu (or Jahu ) in Υeshayahu shows that Υahweh (or Jahveh ) is the more correct form than Jehovah . Son of Amoz (not Amos), a younger contemporary of Jonah, Amos, and Hosea in Israel, and of Micah in Judah. His call to the full exercise of the prophetic office (Isaiah 6:1) was in the same year that king Uzziah died, probably before his death, 754 B.C., the time of the building of Rome, Judah's destined scourge, whose kingdom was to stretch on to the Messianic times which form the grand subject of Isaiah's prophecies. Whatever prophecies were delivered by Isaiah previously were oral, and not recorded because not designed for all ages.
(1) Isaiah 1-6, are all that were written for the church universal of the prophecies of the first 20 years of his ministry. New epochs in the relations of the church to the world were fittingly marked by revelations to and through prophets. God had given Judah abundant prosperity during Uzziah's reign of 52 years, that His goodness might lead the people to loving obedience, just as in northern Israel He had restored prosperity daring the brilliant reign of Jeroboam II with the same gracious design. Israel was only hardened in pride by prosperity, so was soon given over to ruin. Isaiah comes forward at this point to warn Judah of a like danger. Moreover, in the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah Israel and Judah came into conflict with the Asiatic empires. (See AHAZ; HEZEKIAH.) The prophets were now needed to interpret Jehovah's dealings, that the people might recognize His righteous judgments as well as His merciful longsuffering.
(2) Isaiah 7 - Isaiah 10:4 relate to Ahaz' reign.
(3) Isaiah 10:5 - Isaiah 12 to the first 15 years of Hezekiah's reign probably.
(4) As also Isaiah 13-23 as to foreign nations.
(5) Isaiah 24-27 on the last times of the world, and of Judah, the representative and future head of the churches.
(6) Isaiah 28-33 concern Ephraim's overthrow, Judah's impious folly, the danger of the league with Egypt, their straits and deliverance from Assyria; Isaiah 28 before the sixth year of Hezekiah, when Israel fell; the rest before his 14th year of reign.
(7) Isaiah 34-35, denounce God's judgments against His people's enemies of whom Edom is representative, and the blessed state that shall follow.
(8) The historical section (Isaiah 36-39) as to Sennacherib, Assyria, and Babylon, forms the fitting appendix to the prophecies concerning Assyria mainly, and the preface to the latter portion of the book, concerning the deliverance from Babylon. Isaiah's generation had before their eyes the historical fact of the Assyrian invasion, and the extraordinary deliverance from it, as recorded by Isaiah. The prophet further announced to Hezekiah that all his treasures which he had ostentatiously shown to the Babylonian ambassadors should be carried off to that very land, and his descendants be made eunuchs in the Babylonian king's palace, the world on which Judah rested instead of on God being made her scourger. Fittingly, then followed the cheering prophecy, "Comfort ye My people," etc. Ages should elapse before the realization of this comforting assurance of deliverance.
The history of the deliverance from Assyria, accomplished according to the previous prophecy, was the pledge that the far off deliverance from Babylon also, because foretold, would surely come to pass. Thus, the historical section, midway between the earlier and later parts of Isaiah's book, forms the connecting link spiritually and historically between the two; it closes the one epoch, and introduces the other, so combining all Isaiah's prophecies in one unity. The fulfillment of his past prophecies constituted the prophet's credentials to the unborn generation on which the Babylonian captivity should fall, that they might securely trust his word. foretelling the future deliverance by Cyrus. "It is incredible that the latter chapters, if not Isaiah's but of a later date, should have been tacked on to his existing prophecies with the interval of the four historical chapters: thrown in as a connecting link to complete the unity of his alleged writings as a whole" (Stanley Leathes).
The "comfort" applies mainly to ages subsequent to his own; this accords with the principle stated 1 Peter 1:10-1; 1 Peter 1:9; 2 Peter 1:20-21. But it also applied to his own and all ages before Christ's consummated kingdom. For the law of prophetical suggestion carried him on to the greater deliverance from the spiritual Babylon and the God-opposed world power and Satan, by Cyrus' Antitype, Messiah, the Saviour of the present elect church gathered from Jews and Gentiles, and the Restorer of Israel and Head of the worldwide kingdom yet to come.
Even in the former part Babylon's downfall through Elamite and Persian assailants is twice foretold (Isaiah 13 and Isaiah 21). The mellowness of tone in the second part implies that it was the ripe fruit of his old age, some time after the beginning of Hezekiah's last 15 years. He is no longer the godly politician taking part in public life in vindication of the truth, but is far away in the spirit amidst the Babylonian exiles whom he cheers. More contemplative and ideal in this part, he soars aloft in glorious visions of the future, no longer tied down to the existing political circumstances of his people, as in the former part.
The threefold theme of this latter part is stated at the outset (Isaiah 40:2):
(1) Jerusalem's warfare is accomplished;
(2) her iniquity is pardoned;
(3) she hath received of the Lord's hand double for all her sins. The divisions are marked by the ending twice the "salvation" foretold is not for the unfaithful, but for the believing and waiting true Israelites; for, "there is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked."
(9) Isaiah 40 - Isaiah 48:22;
(10) Isaiah 49-57;
(11) Isaiah 58-66, which exchanges the previous refrain for the awful one that with moving pathos describes the apostates' final doom, "their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring to all flesh!"
The first of the three concerns the outward deliverance from Babylon by Cyrus. The second, Messiah's advent prefigured by Cyrus. The third, the coming glory of God's kingdom on earth, along with judgments on the ungodly. The contemporary Micah (Micah 4:8-10) foretells the same exile in Babylon and the return from it, so that it is no objection to the genuineness of Isaiah 40-66, that herein Isaiah passes from Assyria to the restoration from Babylon much more than a century later.
Moses' general prophecy (Leviticus 26:33; Deuteronomy 28:64) had assumed more definiteness in Ahijah's specification of the direction of the exile, "beyond the river," in Jeroboam's time 1 Kings 14:15), and Amos 5:27, "beyond Damascus"; and now the place is defined, Babylon. Moreover, Isaiah's reproof of the prevailing neglect of the temple worship, and his allusion to the slaying of children in the valleys (Isaiah 57:5), and mention of Hephzibah (Hezekiah's wife) in Isaiah 62:4, all accord with the times of Isaiah. The former part ends with the Babylonian exile (Isaiah 39:6); the latter part begins with the deliverance from it, to remove the deep gloom which the prophecy of the captivity caused to all who looked for redemption in Israel. Isaiah 40-66, has no heading of its own, which is accounted for best by its connection with the previous part, bringing it under the same heading, Isaiah 1:1.
The whole book falls into the sacred seven divisions:
(1) Isaiah 1-12;
(2) Isaiah 13-27, the burdens and their sequel;
(3) Isaiah 28-35;
(4) Isaiah 36-39; and
(5-7) the three divisions (a sacred ternary) of Isaiah 40-66. The former part itself also, before the historic, may be divided into seven; see above.
The return of the Lord's ransomed with everlasting joy in the last chapter of the former part (Isaiah 35:10) is the starting point of and the text expanded in the latter part; compare Isaiah 51:11. Josephus (Ant. 11:1, section 1-2) says that Cyrus was indued by Isaiah's prophecies (Isaiah 44:38; Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 45:13) to help the Jews to return and rebuild their temple. Ezra 1 confirms this. Cyrus in his edict refers to the prophecies of the latter portion, which assign him the kingdoms from Jehovah and the duty of rebuilding His temple. Probably he adopted from them his historical name Cyrus (Κoresh ). Subsequent prophets imitate the latter portion (Jeremiah 1:34, compare Isaiah 47:4; Jeremiah 51:6; Jeremiah 51:45 with Isaiah 48:20). "The Holy One of Israel" is a characteristic phrase in the latter as in the former parts, and occurs but three times elsewhere in Old Testament. It marks God's holy faithfulness to His covenanted promises. Jeremiah borrows it.
Luke (Luke 4:17) quotes Isaiah 61 as Isaiah's, the passage read by Jesus Christ in the Nazareth synagogue. The definiteness of the prophecies makes it impossible that they were shrewd political guesses from probabilities. Thus Isaiah foretells Judah's deliverance from the Assyrian invasion, not by Egyptian aid (the only seeming possible deliverer), but by the Lord directly. On the other hand Isaiah announces the captivity in Babylon when as yet it was but a secondrate power and moreover in alliance with Judah, and further the return of the exiles. Eichhorn admits that they are not vague poetical fancies, but "veiled historical descriptions." Blunt (Undesigned Coincidences) notices the absence of such allusions as one in the Babylonian captivity would have made and the presence of allusions to idolatry which had almost no place in Judah after the captivity.
This and such allusions as that to the stopping of the water fountains outside the city, the display of Hezekiah's treasure, all accord with Isaiah's prophesying under Hezekiah. Isaiah 53 minutely depicts Messiah's sufferings ages before the event, as Jews, unwilling witnesses, admit, while evading the acceptance of Jesus by various makeshifts. Its testimony convinced the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8) and must convince all who seek the truth. Israel in the Babylonian exile, suffering as God's representative amidst pagan conquerors, is viewed as "the servant of Jehovah"; but as the mass of Jews were suffering for their sins the idea of "servant of Jehovah" limited itself to the elect, the holy seed of Israel's future. Then in the fullest sense Israel, the "elect servant of Jehovah," becomes concentrated in MESSIAH, the innocent sufferer atoning for the guilty, the seed of an everlasting and holy generation (Isaiah 42:1-7; Isaiah 44:1; Isaiah 49:3-25; Isaiah 49:52; Isaiah 49:53).
Messiah appears as Prophet (Isaiah 42:4), as Priest (Isaiah 53), as King (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 52:15). His sufferings are the appointed path to His glory (Isaiah 53:11-12). They are borne as a vicarious penalty for us: "the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; ... the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all" (Isaiah 53:4-6). The mystical union of Messiah the Head and the members is implied in His being called "Israel," just as the New Testament church is called "Christ" (1 Corinthians 12:12; Romans 16:7). He is the top-most "Branch" of which Israel is the body of the tree. He is also "the Root of David" as well as the "rod out of the stem of Jesse" (Isaiah 11:1; Revelation 22:16), "a tender plant, a root out of a dry ground" (Isaiah 53:2). Prophecy is not soothsaying at random. It rests on law, and that law the character of God.
Having deep insight into the eternal principles on which God governs the world, that sin entails judgment but that God's covenant mercy to His people is unchangeable, the prophets speak accordingly. Babylon was then under Assyria. It had revolted unsuccessfully, but the elements of its subsequent greatness were existing. The Holy Spirit enlightened Isaiah's natural powers to foresee its rise and his spiritual faculties to foresee its fall, the sure result, in God's ways, of the pride which pagan success generates; also Judah's restoration as the covenant people with whom God according to His immutable faithfulness would not be wroth forever. Isaiah's politics consisted in insisting on conversion as the only remedy for the nation's disorders. Rebuke, threatening, invitation, and promise succeed in regular order. The fundamental idea is in Isaiah 26:7-9; compare Leviticus 10:3; Amos 3:2.
His wife is called "the prophetess," and must therefore have had the prophetic gifts. His children "were for signs." (See IMMANUEL.) Shearjashub, "the remnant shall return," and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, "speeding to the spoil he hasteth to the prey," intimate the two chief points of his prophecies, Jehovah's judgments on the world yet His mercy to the elect. Isaiah's garment of sackcloth was a silent preaching by action, he embodied the repentance he taught. History as written by the prophets is retroverted prophecy. Spiritual insight into the past, inspired by God, implies insight into the future and vice verse. Hence the Old Testament histories (1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings) were written by contemporary prophets, Samuel, Nathan, Iddo, Isaiah, etc., and are classed with the prophetic books. The Chronicles are not classed so, and therefore can hardly be their composition, but probably Ezra's, gathered from the public records and historical monographs of the prophets (as Isaiah's life of Uzziah and of Hezekiah: 2 Chronicles 26:22; 2 Chronicles 32:32). (See CHRONICLES.)
The historical books from Joshua onwards and the prophetic books from Isaiah form a bipartite whole of prophetic writings called "the prophets"; for the history of the past in the former part is as prophetic as the history of the future in the latter part. His ministry was exercised at Jerusalem. "The valley of vision" (Isaiah 22:1) may imply that it was in "the lower city" he resided and saw visions, though "valley" may refer to Jersalem generally, surrounded by hills higher than Zion and Moriah. The Talmud, from an old genealogical roll found in Jerusalem, and from the Palestinian Targum on 2 Kings 21:16, states that king Manasseh "sawed Isaiah asunder" with a wooden saw, to which the allusion may be in Hebrews 11:37. Isaiah 1:1 shows that none of the collection of prophecies of which that is the heading were written under Manasseh. They were collected by Isaiah himself in the close of Hezekiah's reign.
Then at the beginning of Manasseh's reign Isaiah fell a victim to the persecuting idolatry which superseded Jehovah's worship. The pretext was that Isaiah had said he had seen Jehovah (Isaiah 6), in opposition to Exodus 33:20. This agrees with 2 Kings 21:16, "Manasseh shed innocent blood very much." That Isaiah served Hezekiah appears implied in 2 Chronicles 32:32. The chronological arrangement favors the view that Isaiah himself collected his prophecies into one volume. Excepting a few of similar contents grouped together, the several portions are placed according to their dates. The former part ending with the historical section was more for the public in general; the latter part is his prophetic legacy to the faithful few, analogous to Moses' last speech and our Lord's closing discourses to His chosen disciples. The Messianic hopes in Isaiah are so vivid that Jerome (Ad Paulinum) calls his book not a prophecy but the "Gospel," "he is not so much a prophet as an evangelist."
The "Shiloh " ("tranquilizer") of Genesis 49:10 appears in Isaiah as "the Prince of peace" (Isaiah 9:6). He is represented as "King" in Psalm 2, Psalm 45, Psalm 72, Psalm 110. Isaiah develops most His priestly and prophetic offices; Psalm 110. His royal priesthood, Isaiah His suffering priesthood; this last, especially in the latter portion, addressed to the faithful elect, whereas in the former part, addressed to the whole people, he dwells on Messiah's glory, the antidote to the fears of the people and the pledge to assure them that the kingdom of God, represented by Judah, would not be overwhelmed by Syria, Israel, and Assyria; so that they should trust wholly in Him and not in Egypt. His style is simple and sublime, intermediate between the lowly tenderness of Jeremiah and the bold exuberance of Ezekiel.
The variation of style in the latter portion proves, not its spuriousness, but Isaiah's power to vary his style with his subject. In it he is tender, and abounds in repetitions such as suit comforting exhortations. The many epithets attached to God's name are designed as so many stays whereon faith may rest and repel despair. Peculiarities which are characteristic of Isaiah occur in the latter portion as in the former, e.g. "to be called," i.e. to be; instead of synonyms the same words repeated in the parallel members of verses; hymns interspersed; "the remnant of olive trees," etc., for the remnant of people who escape judgments. Compare also Isaiah 65:25 with Isaiah 11:6; Isaiah 51:11 with Isaiah 35:10. The form is Hebrew poetical parallelism, varied however according to the subject. Judah and Jerusalem, not the more apostate and doomed Israel, are the people addressed.
No prophet is quoted so frequently by our Lord and His apostles. His sacred scows are a prominent feature. Thus, Isaiah 12, closing the section of Isaiah 7-12, aptly called "the book of Immanuel," is the future song of redeemed Israel, answering to that at the Red Sea (Exodus 15; compare Revelation 15:2-3). Again Isaiah 25-27, is the lyric prophecy of the downfall of the world city, the coming blessed personal epiphany of the Lord to His people, and the destruction of the foe (Isaiah 25), Judah's and Israel's resurrection politically and spiritually (Isaiah 26), the church vineyard ever kept by Jehovah (Isaiah 27); it forms the finale to Isaiah 13-23, concerning the pagan foes of Israel. The frequent alliteration of like sounds in Isaiah 25-27, effectively realizes to the ear, as well as the eye and the understanding, the deeply moving finale. His elegiac power appears in Isaiah 15-16, concerning Moab.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Isaiah
ISAIAH . Of the four prophets of the 8th cent. b.c., some of whose prophecies are preserved in the OT, Isaiah appeared third in the order of time some twenty years after Amos preached at Bethel, and a few years after Hosea had begun, but before he had ceased, to prophesy. Isaiah’s prophetic career apparently began before, but closed after, that of Micah. Hosea was a native of the Northern Kingdom, and addressed himself mainly, if not exclusively, to his own people. Amos was a native of Judah, but prophesied in and to Israel; and thus Isaiah is the earliest of these four prophets who addressed himself primarily to Judah, and even he in his earlier years, like his fellow-countryman Amos, prophesied also against Israel (see Isaiah 9:7 to Isaiah 10:4 ; Isaiah 5:26-30 ; Isaiah 17:1-11 ).
Our knowledge of the life and teaching of Isaiah rests on the book that bears his name, which, however, is not a book compiled by him, but one containing, together with other matter, such of his prophecies as have been preserved, and narratives relating to him; see, in detail, next article.
Isaiah received the call to be a prophet ‘in the year that king Uzziah (or Azariah) died’ (Isaiah 6:1 ). The year is not quite certain. If Azariah king of Judah and the Azriau king of Jaudi mentioned in Tiglath-pileser’s annals of the year 738 be identical, Isaiah’s call cannot be placed earlier than 738. But if the identification be not admitted, and it is by no means certain, his call may with more probability be placed a few years earlier. His activity extended at least down to the invasion of Sennacherib in 701, and some years later, if the theory be correct that chs. 36 39 refer to two invasions of Sennacherib, of which that in 701 was the first. In any case Isaiah’s public career covered at the least close on forty years, whence we may infer that, like Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 1:6 ), he became a prophet in early life. Unlike his contemporary Micah, his life, so far as we can trace it, was spent in Jerusalem. Not improbably he was a man of rank, at least he had easy access to the king ( Isaiah 7:1 ff.), and was on terms of intimacy with persons of high position ( Isaiah 8:2 ). His father’s name, Amoz , has in Hebrew no resemblance to that of the prophet Amos . Isaiah was married, and his wife is termed the prophetess ( Isaiah 8:3 ). Like Hosea, he gave to his children, Shear-jashub ( Isaiah 7:3 ) and Maher-shalai-hash-baz ( Isaiah 8:3 ), names which briefly stated characteristic elements in his teaching; his own name, though of a normal and frequent Hebrew type, also happened to have a significance (‘help of Jahweh’ or ‘Jahweh helps’) of which he could have made use; that he actually did so we may perhaps infer from Isaiah 8:18 , if we do not rather interpret that statement, so far as Isaiah himself is concerned, of such symbolic conduct as that which he pursued when he went ‘half-clad and barefoot’ (ch. 20).
It is impossible either to construct a complete biography of the prophet or to trace with any elaboration developments in his thought and teaching. His prophecies have obviously not come down to us in chronological order, and many are without any clear indication of the date when they were delivered; any attempt to date accurately much of the material must therefore be exceedingly uncertain, and the numerous attempts that have been made naturally differ widely in their results. But there are four periods at which we can clearly trace the prophet and his thought or teaching: these are the time of his call, about b.c. 740 (ch. 6); of the Syro-Ephraimitish War (b.c. 735 734: Isaiah 7:1 to Isaiah 8:18 ); of the siege of Ashdod in b.c. 711 (ch. 20); and of the invasion of Sennacherib in b.c. 701 (chs. 36 39). The last-mentioned narratives are, however, of a later age than that of Isaiah, and require to be carefully used.
At the time of his call Isaiah became conscious that he was to be a teacher whose primary task was to warn his people of judgment to come, of judgment which was to issue in the extermination of his nation (Isaiah 6:10-13 the last clause is absent from the LXX [1] , and probably not original). This judgment of Jahweh on His people was to be executed by means of Assyria, which, since the accession of Tiglath-pileser in 745, had entered on a course of conquest, and, as early as 740, had achieved marked success in Northern Syria. The causes of this coming judgment, Isaiah, like Amos before him, and not improbably in part owing to the influence on him of the teaching of Amos, found in the prevalent social and moral disorder (see e.g. Isaiah 2:6 to Isaiah 4:1 , Isaiah 5:8-24 for the kind of offences which he denounced), in the ingratitude ( e.g. Isaiah 1:8 , Isaiah 5:1-7 ) of the people to Jahweh, and in their failure to trust Him or to understand that what He required was not sacrifice, which was offered by the people in wearisome abundance, but justice and humanity (cf. e.g. Isaiah 1:2-31 ). In this teaching, as in his lofty conception of God, Isaiah did not fundamentally advance beyond the already lofty moral and religious standpoint of Amos and Hosea, though there are naturally enough differences in the details of the presentation. But, so far as we can see, he exercised a more direct, immediate, and decisive influence, owing to the fact that over a long period of years he was able to apply this teaching to the changing political conditions, insisting, for example, at the several political crises mentioned above, that the duty of Jahweh’s people was to trust in Jahweh, and not in political ailiances, whether with Assyria, Egypt, or Ethiopia (cf. e.g. Isaiah 7:4-9 ; Isaiah 7:20 , and [2] Isaiah 30:1-6 ; Isaiah 30:15 , Isaiah 31:1-3 ); and to the fact that from the first he set about the creation of a society of disciples who were to perpetuate his teaching (cf. Isaiah 8:16 ).
Although judgment to come was the fundamental note of Isaiah’s teaching, there was another note that marked it from the outset: Israel-Judah was to perish, but a remnant was to survive. This at least seems to be the significance of the name of Shear-jashub , who must have been born very shortly after the call, since in 735 he was old enough to accompany his father on his visit to Ahaz ( Isaiah 7:3 ). Beyond the judgment, moreover, he looked forward to a new Jerusalem, righteous and faithful ( Isaiah 1:26 ). How much further was Isaiah’s doctrine of the future developed? Was he the creator of those ideas more particularly summed up in the term ‘Messianic,’ which exercised so powerful an influence in the later periods of Judaism, and which are doubtless among those most intimately connected with the prophet in the minds of the majority of students of the Bible? In particular, was the vision ( Isaiah 9:1-6 ) of the Prince of Peace with world-wide dominion his? Or, to take another detail, did he hold that Zion itself was invincible, even though hostile hosts should approach it? These are questions that have been raised and have not yet received a decisive answer. On the one hand, it is exceedingly probable that in the several collections of the ancient prophecies later passages of promise have in some instances been added to earlier prophecies of judgment; that later prophecy in general is fuller than the earlier of promises; and that several of the Messianic passages, in particular, in the Book of Isaiah, stand isolated and disconnected from passages which bear unmistakably the impress of Isaiah or his age. On the other hand, Isaiah’s belief in a remnant, which seems secured (apart from individual and perhaps doubtful passages) by the name of his son, forms a certain and perhaps a sufficient basis for the more elaborate details of the future. Further, from the very fact that they deal with the future, the passages in question, even if they were by Isaiah, might naturally bear less unmistakable evidence of their age than those which deal with the social and political conditions of his own time. And again, had Isaiah prophesied exclusively of judgment and destruction, we might have expected to find his name coupled with Micah’s in Jeremiah 26:18 f.
G. B. Gray.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Isaiah, Ascension of
ISAIAH, ASCENSION OF . See Apocalyptic Literature, No. 6 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Isaiah, Book of
ISAIAH, BOOK OF . The Book of Isaiah is one of the four great collections of Hebrew prophecies. Like the book of ‘The Twelve Prophets’ another of these great collections (see Micah [1]) it was formed by incorporating with one another smaller and earlier collections, and contains prophecies of many prophets living at different periods; with the exception of Isaiah’s, the prophecies contained in the collection are anonymous, the term ‘Deutero-Isaiah,’ applied to the author of chs. 40 66 (or 40 55), being of course nothing more than a modern symbol for one of these anonymous writers.
1. Composition and literary history of the present book . The Book of Isaiah, substantially as we now have it, probably dates, like the ‘Book of the Twelve Prophets,’ from towards the end of the 3rd cent. b.c. But the external evidence is scanty and some of it ambiguous; and the internal evidence of certain sections is differently interpreted; if, as the interpretation of Duhm and Marti would require us to infer, ch. 33 and ch. 34f. were not written till towards the middle of the 2nd cent., and chs. 24 27 not until after b.c. 128, it is obvious that the collection which contains these sections did not attain its present form and size till some (possibly considerable) time later than b.c. 128.
The most important piece of external evidence is contained in Sir 48:22-24 . In this passage the author, writing about b.c. 180, refers to Isaiah as one of the godly men of Israel, worthy of praise, and, as afterwards (Isaiah 49:6-8 ) In the case of Ezekiel and of Jeremiah, he cites, or alludes to, certain sections which now stand in the book that bears the prophet’s name. Thus he says: Isaiah 49:22 ‘For Hezekiah did that which was pleasing to the Lord, and was strong in the ways of David his father, which Isaiah the prophet commanded, who was great and faithful in his vision’; Isaiah 49:23 ‘In his days the sun went backward; and he added life to the king’; Isaiah 49:24 ‘By a spirit of might be saw the end, and comforted the mourners in Sion’; Isaiah 49:25 ‘For ever he declared the things that should be, and hidden things before they came.’ Possibly the last clause of Isaiah 49:22 refers to the title ‘The vision of Isaiah’ ( Isaiah 1:1 ); certainly Isaiah 1:23 refers to the narrative of Isaiah 38 (= 2 Kings 20:1-21 ), and Isaiah 1:24 f. shows familiarity with the recurrent arguments from prophecy in Is 44 48 (see e.g. Isaiah 41:21-24 , Isaiah 43:9 , Isaiah 46:9 , Isaiah 48:4 ff.), while 48:24b is somewhat clearly reminiscent of the actual phraseology of Isaiah 40:1 , Isaiah 61:2-3 . Though it would be possible to invent somewhat different explanations of these facts, much the most probable inference is that, by the beginning of the 2nd cent. b.c., some (if not all) of the prophecies in chs. 1 35 had already been brought into a book, and to these had been appended, not necessarily or even probably at the same time, ( a ) chs. 36 39, ( b ) chs. 40 66 (or the most part thereof), and that the whole book at this time was attributed to Isaiah. Actual citations from the Book of Isaiah by name , which would help to prove the extent of the book at given periods, are not numerous before the 1st cent. a.d., when we find several in the NT: Isaiah 1:9 is cited in Romans 9:29 ; Isaiah 6:9 f. in Matthew 13:14 f., John 12:40 , Acts 28:25 f.; Isaiah 9:1 f. in Matthew 4:14 ff; Matthew 10:22 f. in isa 9:27 f.; Romans 11:10 in isa 15:12; Isaiah 29:13 in Mark 7:6 f.; Isaiah 40:3-5 in ( Mark 1:3 ) Matthew 3:3 ; 42:1 4 in Matthew 12:17-21 ; 53:1, 4, 7f. in Romans 10:16 , Matthew 8:17 , Acts 8:30 ; Acts 8:32 f.; Isaiah 61:1 f. in Luke 4:17-19 ; Isaiah 65:1 f. in Romans 10:20 f. There are also some twenty-five unnamed citations in NT (Swete, Introd. to OT in Greek , 385 f.), some of which, like the unnamed citations from the Greek text of Isaiah 3:10 ; Isaiah 44:20 in Wis 2:12 ; Isaiah 2:2-4 (about b.c. 50), are, taken in conjunction with the named citations, not without significance. Still, rigorous proof that the Book of Isaiah contained all that it now contains much before the final close of the Canon (see Canon of OT), is wanting. The general considerations which, taken in conjunction with the proof afforded by Sir 48:17-25 that (most or all of) chs. 40 66 ranked as Isaiah’s as early as b.c. 180, make it wisest, failing strong evidence to the contrary, to reckon with the probability that by about that time the book was substantially of the same extent as at present, are ( a ) the history of the formation of the Canon (see Canon of OT), and ( b ) the probability, created by the allusions in the prologue (about b.c. 132) to Sirach to translations of prophecies, that our present Greek version dates from before 132. This version appears to proceed from a single age or hand, and yet it is, apart from brief glosses, of the same extent as the present Hebrew text of the book.
If we may adopt the most natural inference from 2 Chronicles 36:22 f. = Ezra 1:1 f., external evidence would go far to prove that chs. 40 66 were not included in the Book of Isaiah much before the close of the 3rd cent. b.c. For the Chronicler here attributes the prophecy of Cyrus, which forms so conspicuous a feature of Is 40 48 (see Isaiah 41:1 f., Wis 15:10 to Isaiah 45:7 , and esp. compare 2 Chronicles 36:23 with Isaiah 43:28 ), not to Isaiah but to Jeremiah, which he would scarcely have done if in his time (not earlier than b.c. 300) these anonymous chapters were already incorporated in a book entitled Isaiah. If we reject this inference, we are thrown back entirely on the evidence of the Book of Isaiah itself for the determination of the earliest date at which it can have been compiled.
Turning then to the internal evidence, we note first the structure of the book: ( a ) chs. 1 35 prophecies, some of which are attributed to Isaiah ( Isaiah 1:1 ; Isaiah 2:1 etc.), interspersed with narratives by or about Isaiah (chs. 6, 7, 8, 20); ( b ) chs. 36 39 historical narratives of the life and times of Isaiah, identical in the main with 2 Kings 18:1-37 ; 2 Kings 19:1-37 ; 2 Kings 20:1-21 ; ( c ) chs. 40 66 anonymous prophecies. Comparison with the Book of Jeremiah, which concludes with a chapter (52) about the times of Jeremiah derived from 2 Kings 24:18 ff., suggests that our present book has resulted from the union of a prophetic volume, consisting (in the main) of prophecies by or attributed to Isaiah, with an historical appendix and a book of anonymous prophecies. This union, as we have seen above, took place before b.c. 180: if any parts of chs. 1 39 are later than this, their presence in the book is due to subsequent interpolation.
If it were possible to write a full history of the literary process which culminated in the Book of Isaiah as we now have it, it would be necessary to trace in detail first the growth of chs. 1 39, then that of chs. 40 66, and lastly the causes which led to the union of the two. But this is not possible; in particular, we do not know whether chs. 40 66 were added to chs. 1 39 owing to the triumph of an Isaianic theory over the Jeremianic theory or tradition of the origin of these chapters (2 Chronicles 36:22 f.; see above), or whether, as some have supposed, they were added to make the Book of Isaiah more nearly equal in size to the other prophetic collections Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and the Twelve with the result that as early as b.c. 180 these chapters came to be attributed to Isaiah; or whether something else, which we cannot conjecture, was the real cause of this union. But, apart from internal evidence pointing to the different periods in which different sections originated, certain indications of the complexity of the literary process do exist, particularly in the case of chs. 1 39; these we may consider. (1) The matter is not arranged chronologically: the call (cf. Ezekiel 1:1-28 , Jeremiah 1:1-19 ) of Isaiah, which naturally preceded any of his prophecies, is recorded not in ch. 1, but in ch. 6. Similarly, in the Koran the record of Mohammed’s call does not occur till Sura 96; in this case the reason is that the editors of the Koran followed the rather mechanical principle of arranging the suras according to their size. The cause of the order in the case of the Book of Isaiah may in part be found in the fact that (2) the occurrence of several titles and indications of different principles of editorial arrangement points to the fact that chs. 1 35 (39) is a collection of material, some of which had previously acquired a fixed arrangement; in other words, chs. 1 35 is a book formed not entirely, or perhaps even mainly, by the collection and free re-arrangement of prophetic pieces, but rather by the incorporation whole of earlier and smaller books. Following these clues, we may first divide these chapters thus: (1) ch. 1 with title ( Isaiah 5:1 ), probably intended to cover the larger collection; (2) chs. 2 12 with title Isaiah 2:1 ; (3) chs. 13 23 with title Isaiah 13:1 naming Isaiah, and corresponding sub-titles not mentioning Isaiah, in Isaiah 15:1 , Isaiah 17:1 , Isaiah 19:1 , Isaiah 21:1 ; Isaiah 21:11 ; Isaiah 21:13 , Isaiah 22:1 , Isaiah 23:1 (cf. elsewhere Isaiah 30:6 ); (4) chs. 24 27, distinguished from the preceding sections by the absence of titles, and from the following by the absence of the opening interjection; (5) chs. 28 31 (33) a group of woes; see Isaiah 28:1 , Isaiah 5:8-24 (RV [2] ‘Ho’ represents the same Hebrew word that is translated ‘Woe’ in Isaiah 28:1 etc.) Isaiah 30:1 , Isaiah 31:1 , Isaiah 33:1 ; (6) chs. 34, 35, which, like chs. 24 27, are without title. Some even of these sections seem to have arisen from the union of still smaller and earlier booklets. Thus it is reasonable to suppose that ch. 6 once formed the commencement of a booklet; again, chs. 2 4 are prophecies of judgment enclosed between Messianic prophecies Isaiah 2:2-7 and Isaiah 4:2-6 ; ch. 5 contains a brief group of ‘Woes’ (Isa 4:8, 11, 18, 20, 21, 22).
It is impossible to enter into details here as to the dates when these several booklets first appeared, or as to the various processes of union or re-arrangement or interpolation or other modifications. Merely to state theories which have been put forward, without adducing proof or offering criticism, would require more space than is available. And from the nature of the case it would be impossible to offer any complete theory that would not be in many respects uncertain. It is more important to appreciate the general fact, which is clear, that the Book of Isaiah is the result of a long and complex literary history, than to be ready to subscribe to any particular theory of this history. But two points may be briefly touched on. (1) Much of the literary process just referred to lies after the Exile. As will he shown below, chs. 40 55 were not written till the last years of the Exile; chs. 56 66 are certainly of no earlier, and probably of later, origin. The union of chs. 1 39 and 40 66 cannot therefore fall before the close of the Exile, and, as shown above, it need not, so far as the external evidence is concerned, fall much before b.c. 180. But even 1 39 was not a volume of pre-exilic origin; for the appendix 36 39 is derived from Kings, which was not completed till, at the earliest, b.c. 561 (cf. 2 Kings 25:27 ), or even in what may be regarded as its first edition (cf. Driver, LOT [3] 6, 189) before about b.c. 600. On this ground alone, then, the completion of chs. 1 39, by the inclusion of the appendix 36 39, cannot be placed earlier than the Exile, and should probably be placed later. It must indeed be placed later, unless we regard all the sections in chs. 1 35 which are of post-exilic origin (see below) as interpolations rather than as what, in many cases at least, they probably are, original parts of the booklets incorporated in chs. 1 39. Thus chs. 2 12 and 13 23 (apart from subsequent interpolations or amplifications) as they lay before the editor who united them, probably owed their form to post-exilic editors. (2) The earliest stage of this long literary process falls in the lifetime of Isaiah ( c [4] . b.c. 740 701). But even in its earliest stage the literary process was not uniform. In chs. 6 and Isaiah 8:1-8 we have what there is no reason to question are pieces of Isaiah’s autobiography; Isaiah here speaks of himself in the first person. Chs. 7 and 20 may have the same origin, the fact that Isaiah is here referred to in the third person being perhaps in that case due to an editor; or these chapters may be drawn from early biographies of the prophet by a disciple. Thus chs. 1, 2 12, 13 23 and 28 33 consist in large part of prophetic poems or sayings of Isaiah; many of them were (presumably) written as well as spoken by Isaiah himself, others we not improbably owe to the memory of his disciples. There is no reason for believing that the present arrangement of this matter, even within the several booklets, goes back to Isaiah himself; the division into chapters and verses is of course of very much later origin, and in several cases does violence to the original connexion, either by uniting, as in ch. 5, originally quite distinct pieces, or dividing, as in the case of Isaiah 9:8 to Isaiah 10:4 , what formed an undivided whole. Justice can he done to the prophetic literature only when the brevity of the several pieces is recognized, instead of being obscured by treating several distinct pieces as a single discourse. Unfortunately, we have not for the teaching of Isaiah, as for that of Jesus, a triple tradition. But the analogy of the diverse treatment of the same sayings in the different Gospels may well warn us that sayings which lie side by side (as e.g. in Isaiah 29:1 ) in the Book of Isaiah were not necessarily spoken in immediate succession.
But how far, if not in the order in which he spoke or wrote them, have the words of Isaiah reached us substantially as he spoke them. The question is not altogether easy to answer, particularly in one respect. Isaiah was pre-eminently a prophet of judgment; but intermingled with his warnings are many passages of promise: see e.g. Isaiah 43:24 and Isaiah 4:2-6 , enclosing Isaiah 2:7 to Isaiah 4:1 , Isaiah 9:1-6 concluding the warnings of ch. 8, and the constant interchange of warning and promise in chs. 28 31. Are these passages of promise Isaiah’s, or the work of some later writers with which later editors sought to comfort as well as to exhort their readers? These questions in general, and in detail with reference to each particular passage, are still far from settled. The general question of Messianic prophecy in Isaiah is briefly referred to in preceding art.; for details see Cheyne’s Introd. to the Book of Isaiah , or commentaries such as those of Duhm and Marti, or, on a smaller scale and in English, of Whitehouse. Here this alone can be said: the period over which and down to which the history of the growth of the Book of Isaiah extends, and the complexity of that growth, would easily allow of these passages being incorporated as suggested by the theory; and we have the presumption created, for example, by the absence of the last clause of ch. 6 from the Greek text, that short consolatory annotations were still being made as late as the 2nd cent. b.c. Once the significance of the complexity of the Book of Isaiah is grasped, this at least should become clear, that the question, is such and
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Isaiah
ISAIAH.—There are seven instances recorded in the Gospels in which Jesus quotes from the prophecies of Isaiah, besides numerous other cases in which His language is more or less manifestly reminiscent of expressions in the book. The most notable passages are two in which our Lord applies to Himself the terms used by the prophet of the Exile with regard to the Servant of Jehovah, viz. Luke 4:16-22, where Jesus reads and expounds the words of Isaiah 61:1-2; and Luke 22:37, where He adopts as a prediction of His own experience a clause of Isaiah 53:12. Our Lord thus plainly taught that, alike in the mission and in the vicarious suffering of the ideal Servant of Deutero-Isaiah, His own person and work were typified and foreshadowed. More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7). All three Synoptists record the quotation from Isaiah 56:7 with which He rebuked the temple-traders (Matthew 21:13 ||). St. John alone gives the quotation of a general character from Isaiah 54:13 (John 6:45), while St. Mark records an expression which manifestly comes from Isaiah 66:24 (Mark 9:48). In only three of the above seven cases is Isaiah mentioned by name, and in no case is there any indication that bears in the slightest degree upon the question as to the authorship of the various parts of the book.
In addition to these more direct references, there are many expressions in the discourses of Jesus in which we have echoes of Isaiah’s language. Our Lord’s mind was filled with the OT, and it was to be expected that His utterances should be cast in the mould, and often expressed in the very words, of psalm and prophecy. In Matthew 5:34-35 we perceive a reminiscence of Isaiah 66:1; Matthew 21:33 ff., || at once suggests Isaiah 5:1-2. Other less obvious instances are probably to be found in Matthew 11:23 (cf. Isaiah 14:13; Isaiah 14:15) Matthew 16:19 (Isaiah 22:22) Matthew 6:6 (Isaiah 26:20); and various expressions in the eschatological discourses of Matthew 24 and Luke 21. To these others might possibly be added; but it is not warrantable to find in every case of verbal similarity a reference to, or even a reminiscence of, the words of the OT. But apart from doubtful cases, it will be seen that the Book of Isaiah, both in its earlier and in its later portions, is fully acknowledged and used in the teaching of Jesus.
It is not less so with the Evangelists themselves. All four quote Isaiah 40:3 with regard to the mission of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:3 and ||); while Mt., who uses the OT so largely in connexion with the ministry of Jesus, applies to His coming and mission the passages Isaiah 7:14 (Matthew 1:23) Isaiah 9:1-2 (Matthew 4:14-16) Isaiah 53:4 (Matthew 8:17) Isaiah 42:1-4 (Matthew 12:18-21). St. John (John 12:38-41) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the language of Isaiah 42:1.
As with the words of Jesus Himself, so, in the case of the Evangelists, no theory with regard to the actual authorship of any part of the book can claim to be supported by the manner of the references. ‘Isaiah,’ even when named, stands manifestly for the reputed author, and (as in John 12:38) the mode of expression is naturally and rightly that popularly used and understood. No critical conclusions can be drawn from any of the references.
With regard to the original Messianic import of the passages applied in the Gospels to Jesus Christ and His work, there is no difficulty in those cases where the ‘Servant of Jehovah’ is identified with the Messiah. And even in such passages as Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:1-2 quoted by Mt., we must recognize, beneath and beyond the immediate prophetic reference, an ideal element which permitted and justified the specific application by the Evangelist. Especially is this so with the prophetic conception of ‘Immanuel,’ an ideal figure in whom we find the earliest portraiture of the Messianic King (Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 8:10; Isaiah 9:6-7). Though it might in some cases be without historical or critical exactitude (as in Matthew 4:15-16 from Isaiah 9:1-2), it was quite legitimate to find unexpected correspondences between the earlier and the later stages of Providence and Revelation, based on the deep underlying unity and consistency of the Divine purpose and methods.
J. E. M‘Ouat.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Isaiah, Book of
Nothing more is known of the ancestors of Isaiah than that he was the son of Amoz. He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, all kings of Judah. From the closing years of Uzziah to the death of Hezekiah would be from about B.C. 765 to 700, embracing a period of 65 years. The first verse says that the vision was concerning Judah and Jerusalem. Had due attention been paid to this, it would have prevented many things being ascribed in the headings of the chapters to the church, and the prophecy would have been the better understood. In few words the prophecy may be said to treat of the failures of the nation of Judah and the judgements upon it. Assyria is used as God's rod to punish them, and is then destroyed. Judgements are pronounced against the nations around the promised land that had been enemies to God's people. The Messiah is prophesied of and His rejection, and universal blessing is spoken of.
The following seven divisions are distinctly marked:
Isaiah 1 — Isaiah 12 : The sinful condition of the people as still in possession of the land; various pleadings and chastisements culminating in the Assyrian; the introduction of Immanuel; ends with a song.
Isaiah 13 — Isaiah 27 : Judgements on Babylon and the nations where Israel was captive and outcast; ends in deliverance from their outcast condition and worship at Jerusalem.
Isaiah 28 — Isaiah 35 : Five woes on unfaithful Israel; ends with deliverance from the Assyrian and the confederacy of nations, and the joy of the kingdom.
Isaiah 36 — Isaiah 39 : Historical, but typical; the way of blessing for Jerusalem and the house of David.
Isaiah 40 — Isaiah 48 : Controversy of God with Israel on account of idolatry. Cyrus (type of Christ) the deliverer.
Isaiah 49 — Isaiah 57 : Controversy of God with Israel on account of the rejected suffering Messiah.
Isaiah 58 — Isaiah 66 : Final results; the remnant delivered and blessed.
Isaiah 1 — Isaiah 4 . are introductory. The 'sinful nation' was completely corrupt, and had been sorely chastised; there was no soundness from head to foot; though chastened, there was no contrition, and God's judgements must still follow. There is also grace in store for the latter days: Zion will be a centre of blessing, and a remnant will be saved.
Isaiah 5 . Israel was God's vineyard and the men of Judah His pleasant plant: the people were judged in view of the care God had bestowed on them, no remnant is mentioned: cf. Matthew 21:33-41 .
Isaiah 6 . The people were unfit for their Messiah, but will be judged in view of His coming glory: a remnant is acknowledged.
Isaiah 7 . Immanuel, Son of David, is introduced as a sign for faith, when unbelief was seeking a confederacy. The house of David after the flesh is judged: still there is hope. See IMMANUEL.
Isaiah 8 — Isaiah 9:7 . The Assyrians overrun the land, and the confederacy of nations is to be brought to nought. A remnant, 'my brethren,' is attached to Immanuel, who is a stone of stumbling to the unbelieving nation, but a light amid the darkness until He is received in power and glory.
Isaiah 9:8 — Isaiah 10 . The national history is resumed from the end of Isaiah 5 . Various judgements from the Lord are detailed until the last judgement by means of the Assyrian, who is used as a rod by God, and then is punished for his pride in the last days.
Isaiah 11 . Messiah, the 'Branch,' and His reign the source of millennial blessing.
Isaiah 12 . Israel's song of triumph in that day: compare with Exodus 15 .
Isaiah 13 — Isaiah 24 . 'Burdens' are pronounced. They are judgements on Babylon and the nations, especially on those who were in relationship with Israel. Moab, Damascus, "the land shadowing with wings which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia," Egypt, "the desert of the sea," Dumah, Arabia, "the valley of vision" (Jerusalem), Tyre, "the earth [1] made empty and waste, and turned upside down;" and finally the hosts on high and kings on the earth punished.
Isaiah 25 , Isaiah 26 . A song in which God's intervention is celebrated, even to the swallowing up of death in victory.
Isaiah 27 . The power of Satan, "leviathan, the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent" is destroyed, and worship established in Jerusalem.
Isaiah 28 — Isaiah 35 . give details of all that will happen to the Jews in the last days. They make a covenant with death and with hell, but their covenant will be disannulled. Security is in the Stone laid in Zion, all else will perish.
Isaiah 29 . Judgements are pronounced against Jerusalem under the name of Ariel, 'lion of God'; deliverance comes when at the last extremity, but a far worse judgement, a spirit of blindness, rests on the people. In the day of deliverance the remnant will come to understanding, the scorner being consumed.
Isaiah 30 , Isaiah 31 . They seek counsel of and trust in Egypt instead of in God.
Isaiah 32 . Christ will reign in righteousness: desolation is followed by restoration.
Isaiah 33 . The attack of a spoiler in the character of Gog (Ezekiel 38 ), but the Lord, having filled Zion with judgement and righteousness, arises and the enemy is destroyed, and Zion is in peace.
Isaiah 34 , Isaiah 35 . Final judgement pronounced upon Idumaea and other nations (cf. Psalm 83 ); and the blessings that will succeed the judgement.
Isaiah 36 — Isaiah 39 . treat of Hezekiah and Sennacherib. Waiting upon the Lord is enforced. The deliverance wrought is figurative of the outward deliverance there will be from the Assyrian for Jerusalem and the house of David in the last days. Hezekiah's personal history is appended to this, as figurative of the nation's sense of the judgement of God upon them, leading to repentance and recovery, and inward or moral deliverance.
Isaiah 40 - 43. begin another part of the book. The Messiah is but little introduced: it is rather a question of God and idols. There is comfort for those who have an opened ear. The Lord Jesus, Jehovah's servant and His elect, shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles.
Isaiah 44 . Jehovah reasons with Jacob and Jesurun: cf. Deuteronomy 32:15 ; Deuteronomy 33:26,27 ; Israel, embracing the twelve tribes.
Isaiah 45 - 47. Cyrus is God's servant, and He would subdue nations before him. God would keep open the two-leaved gates (of Babylon, which were left open in their festivity). The idols of Babylon could not save her: she should be brought to shame for her pride.
Isaiah 48 . God pleads with Israel.
Isaiah 49 — Isaiah 57 . introduce Christ, and show the people's guilt in respect to Him.
Isaiah 50:1-9 . Israel had been as divorced, but Messiah had come to them suitably, to instruct them and take up their cause. Who would contend with Him?
Isaiah 50:10 — Isaiah 51 . The character of the remnant: they are owned as 'my people' by the Lord God, and He will comfort and redeem them.
Isaiah 52:1-12 . Zion is called to awake and put on her strength, the feet of messengers with glad tidings were beautiful.
Isaiah 52:13 — Isaiah 53 . These refer to the work of Christ in a five-fold way, including the atonement.
Isaiah 54 , Isaiah 55 . Jerusalem is called upon to sing: through the sure mercies of David there are blessings in store for her, and full free grace to every one that thirsts.
Isaiah 56 , Isaiah 57 . Exhortations follow in view of the restoration of Israel; and those, even of Israel, are denounced that walk contrary to God's will.
Isaiah 58 , Isaiah 59 . Indignation of the Spirit at the condition of Israel at the time the prophecy was uttered, but goes on to the end, when the Redeemer shall come to Zion.
Isaiah 60 . The glory of Jerusalem in the times of blessing.
Isaiah 61 , Isaiah 62 . Christ, in the full grace of His person, is concerned in the blessing of Israel.
Isaiah 63 , Isaiah 64 . Christ returns from the judgements of Isaiah 34 with garments stained with the slaughter of His enemies; followed by the intercessions of the Spirit of prophecy.
Isaiah 65 . God's answer to those pleadings.
Isaiah 66 . Judgements introducing the millennium, ending with these solemn words: "They shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh."
This prophecy embraces a very large field. The condition of the people was sinful when the prophecy was written, and though God had long patience with it, yet the condition was such that judgement must be executed upon it unless there was true repentance. Judgement did follow, but the consummation of evil was not reached until their Messiah had come, and had been rejected ; indeed Antichrist will yet be received. Judgement followed the rejection of their Messiah, but the great tribulation is yet to come.
Quotations from Isaiah in the N.T. (nearly forty in number) show that his words applied to the times that then were; such as the condition of the people; the unprofitableness of the rites and ceremonies; and that grace to the Gentiles had been foretold. The climax of Israel's sin, and of their judgement, and of God's blessing are still future. Christ coming in humiliation is revealed in the prophet as well as His glory; indeed, all the ways of God in dealing with His people Israel, on to the end — though some subjects are expanded elsewhere — are to be found in this comprehensive prophecy: clearly it could only have been written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Isaiah
Isaiah (î-zâ'yah or î-zä'yah), salvation of Jehovah. One of the great Hebrew prophets. Of Ms personal history very little is known. He was the son of Amoz, Isaiah 1:1, whom rabbinical tradition represents as the brother of king Amaziah. He was married, his wife being called "the prophetess," Isaiah 8:3, not because she exercised the prophetic gift herself, but simply because she was married to a prophet. He had at least two sons, with symbolical names, Shear-jashub and Maher-shalalhash-baz. Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 8:1-3. It is presumed that he ordinarily wore a hair-cloth garment, Isaiah 20:2; but there is no reason for believing that he was an ascetic. He probably resided at Jerusalem, where he exercised his prophetic ministry during a long course of years. Isaiah prophesied under Uzziah, receiving the divine call in the last year of that monarch's reign, Isaiah 6:1-13; and under the succeeding kings, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. Isaiah 1:1. Whether he lived on into Manasseh's reign is uncertain. Jewish tradition asserts that he did, and that he was martyred by being sawn asunder; and this has been supposed to be alluded to in Hebrews 11:37. Isaiah is the evangelist among the Old Testament prophets. He is more frequently quoted in the New Testament than any other. In him the Messianic prophecies reach their highest perfection. He draws the picture of the suffering and triumphing Saviour of Israel and the world, until at last he stands before us in unmistakable clearness and fulness. Isaiah is also one of the greatest of poets. "Everything conspired to raise him to an elevation to which no prophet, either before or after, could as writer attain. Among the other prophets each of the more important ones is distinguished by some one particular excellence and some one peculiar talent; in Isaiah all kinds of talent and all beauties of prophetic discourse meet together, so as mutually to temper and qualify each other; it is not so much any single feature that distinguishes him as the symmetry and perfection as a whole.... In the sentiment he expresses, in the topics of his discourses and in the manner, Isaiah uniformly reveals himself as the king prophet."—Ewald.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Isaiah (2)
Isaiah, Book of. Isaiah is divided into two parts. The first, comprising the first 39 chapters, is composed of a variety of individual prophecies against nations and denunciations of sin. Social vices, chap. 3, and idolatry, chap. 8, are rebuked without mercy. Assyria, Babylon, 13:19 sq., Moab, 15; Ethiopia, 18; Egypt, 19; and Tyre, 23, pass successively before the prophet's mind, and their doom is predicted. The prophecies of Babylon's desolation and of Tyre's ruin are among the most poetic and the sublimest passages in all literature. Chaps. 36-39 are concerned with Sennacherib's invasion and episodes in the life of Hezekiah. The second part of Isaiah begins abruptly with the fortieth chapter: "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people." It takes its position at the close of the Babylonian captivity, and prophesies its close and the glories of the Messianic period of Israel's history. Of all the prophetic writings, none are more evidently inspired and truly evangelical than these last 27 chapters. Isaiah prophesies of the Messiah with distinctness and in a way that his predecessors had not done. We find prophecies of his birth, 7-14; 9:6, of his Davidic descent, 11:1, 2 etc. But the fullest as well as the most distinct of the predictions is contained in the fifty-third chapter. It may be called the gospel of the Old Testament, on account of the graphic and faithful picture it gives of the Messiah, as the "Man of sorrows," suffering in the stead of mankind. This chapter of itself will stand always as an evidence of prime importance for the divine mission of Christ. "The authenticity of the second part of Isaiah, from chaps. 40-66," says Schaff, "has been assailed by modern critics, who regard it as a later production of some 'great unknown prophet' at the end of the Babylonian exile. But it is characteristic of prophetic vision to look into the far future as if it were present; and it makes not much difference, for the divine character of the prophecy whether it was uttered 500 or 700 years before its fulfilment. The description of the servant of God who suffers and dies for the sins of the people in chap. 53 applies to no other person in history, with any degree of propriety, but to Jesus Christ."
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ascension of Isaiah
ASCENSION OF ISAIAH . See Apoc. [1] Lit., p. 41 a .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Ascension of Isaiah
This is an apocryphon now extant in a complete form in the Ethiopic Version alone. It is composite in structure, and contains three separate parts of different authorship, one being of Jewish and two of Christian origin, but all alike apparently composed during the 1st cent. a.d. It is thus of considerable importance in the light which it throws upon the views held in certain circles of the Christian Church of the apostolic period with regard to the doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection, the Seven Heavens, the Antichrist, angels and demons. It adds, moreover, to our knowledge of the internal and external conditions of the Church, and of the stage which had been reached in the development of its organization. In phraseology and ideas it presents interesting parallels with the New Testament.
1. Composite character.-The title ‘Ascension of Isaiah’ is strictly appropriate only to the latter part of the work, chs. 6-11, in which Isaiah is successively led through the firmament and six lower heavens to the seventh heaven, and receives disclosures regarding the descent, birth, works, crucifixion, and ascension of the Beloved. The first five chapters deal in the main with Manasseh’s wickedness and Isaiah’s martyrdom, with a curious insertion (3:13b-4:18) which claims to be a vision foretelling the life of Christ and the fortunes of His Church, awkwardly introduced as explaining the wrath of Beliar which occasioned the martyrdom of Isaiah. A careful examination of the diction and subject-matter of each section leads to the clear discrimination of three distinct sources.
(a) The Martyrdom of Isaiah (1:1, 2a, 6b-13a; 2:1-3:12; 5:1b-14). This narrates how in the twenty-sixth year of his reign Hezekiah called Manasseh to receive accounts of visions which he had seen (1:1, 2). Isaiah, who is present, warns the king of Manasseh’s future wickedness, and foretells his own martyrdom (1:7-13). After Hezekiah’s death, Manasseh, as foretold, forsakes the service of God and serves Satan, whereupon Isaiah withdraws first to Bethlehem and then to the desert with his companions (2:1-11). Meanwhile Belchira, a brother of the false prophet Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, accuses Isaiah and his fellow-prophets to the king, of prophesying evil against Jerusalem, and claiming to have seen God, and calling Jerusalem Sodom, and the princes the people of Gomorrah (2:12-3:10). Manasseh seizes Isaiah and has him sawn asunder with a wood-saw. Isaiah dies with wonderful firmness and constancy, communing with the Holy Spirit till the end. This narrative is mainly historical in form, and contains nothing specifically Christian. In its outlook it might well be Jewish, and this supposition is confirmed by the Patristic references (e.g. in Origen and Jerome) which attribute the account of the sawing asunder of Isaiah to Jewish traditions, and also by the fact that the Talmud contains a similar account of Isaiah’s death. Further, the original was probably written in Hebrew. In 2:1 a play upon words appears when the passage is re-translated into Hebrew (מְנַשָׁה נָשָׁה). The name ‘Malchira’ in 1:8 is a transliteration of מַלְכִּי רע, as S. A. Cook has observed. Above all, the curious term ‘a wooden saw’ can hardly he explained except as a misrendering of מַשׂוֹר עֵץ, ‘a wood-saw.’
(b) The Vision of Isaiah (6-11). In the twentieth year of Hezekiah, Isaiah, in the presence of the king, when speaking in the Holy Spirit, is taken up in mind (cf. 2 Corinthians 12:2-4) through the firmament and each of the six lower heavens in turn, and finally arrives at the seventh heaven, to which he is admitted by special command of the Lord Christ. There he sees all the righteous from the time of Adam, including Abel, Seth, and Enoch, stript of the garments of the flesh, not sitting on their thrones nor as yet wearing their crowns of glory, until the Beloved has descended to earth (9:12, 13) and ascended again (9:18). He sees the Great Glory, and on His right the Lord (the Beloved) and on His left the Holy Spirit. He worships the three, and his Lord and the Holy Spirit worship the Great Glory. The Father commissions the Son to descend to earth, and tells of His ascension and final judgment. The Son descends through each heaven in turn, assuming in each the form of the angels who dwell in them, and finally passes through the firmament and then the air to the earth. There Isaiah beholds His wonderful birth, miracles, and crucifixion, resurrection, mission of the Twelve, ascension, and session on the right hand of the Great Glory. Isaiah returns to his body and binds Hezekiah to secrecy concerning the vision.
The date of this narrative is probably in the 1st cent. a.d. The vision is quoted not only by Jerome, Com. in Isaiam, 64:4 (Vallarsi, iv. 761), but also by the Actus Petri Vercellenses, ch. xxiv. (p. 72, ed. Lipsius), and by Hieracas the heretic, according to Epiphanius, Hœr. lxvii. 3. There is also a remarkable parallel between Ignatius, Ep. ad. Ephes. xix. and Asc. Is. 11:16. There appears to be a reference to the sawing asunder in Hebrews 11:37. The author wrote in Greek, and was a Christian with a Docetic tendency and a crude conception of the Trinity.
The title ‘Ascension of Isaiah’ properly belongs to this section of the work. Jerome so quotes it. Epiphanius refers to it as τὸ Ἀναβατικὸν Ἡσαΐου. The Ethiopic, Slavonic, and Latin texts of 6:1 imply the title ‘Vision of Isaiah,’ and so does Montfaucon’s Canon.
(c) The Testament of Hezekiah, a Christian Apocalypse (3:13b-4:18). This title is given in Cedrenus i. 120-121 (ed. Bonn), and is appropriate only to the above section. As Charles observes: ‘that such a work was incorporated in the Ascension might also be inferred from 1:2b-5a, which describe the contents of Hezekiah’s vision.’ It describes, briefly stringing together various details in the manner of an epitome, the coming and death of the Beloved; the descent of the angel of the Christian Church; the ascension; the falling away of the Church, and the prevalence of error, impurity, strife, and covetousness; the coming of Beliar in the likeness of a lawless king, a matricide, who claims to be God, and demands Divine worship, and persecutes the saints for three years, seven months, and twenty-seven days. This persecution is ended by the second coming of the Lord, who drags Beliar into Gehenna, and gives rest to the godly, sets up a kingdom of the saints, who afterwards are transformed, and ascend, apparently, to heaven. The final judgment follows, and the godless are annihilated.
The date cannot be later than a.d. 100, for 4:13 presupposes that there were a few still alive who had seen the Lord in the flesh. The fusion of the three originally distinct conceptions of the Antichrist, of Beliar, and of Nero Redivivus cannot well be put earlier than a.d. 88 (see Charles, Asc. Is. pp. li-lxxiii). So the date of this section falls between a.d. 88 and 100.
2. Importance for New Testament study
(a) The Trinity.-i. The First Person is called ‘the Great Glory’ (9:37; 10:16; 11:32), ‘the Most High’ (6:8; 7:23; 10:6, 7); and ‘Father’ (8:18; cf. 7:8; 10:6, 7 in Charles’ restored text).
ii. The Second Person is generally referred to as ‘the Beloved’ (1:4, 5, 7, 13; 3:13, 17, 18; 4:3, 6, 9, 18, 21; 5:15, 7:17, 23; 8:18, 25; 9:12) or ‘my Lord’ (8:13; 9:37; 10:7, 16, 17), and also once as ‘Lord of all those heavens and these thrones’ (8:9). His name is as yet unknown. He is ‘the Only-Begotten, … whose name is not known to any flesh’ (7:37), ‘the Elect One whose name has not been made known, and none of the heavens can learn His name’ (8:7). The title ‘Christ,’ and the phrase ‘who will be called Jesus’ (Matthew 27:52-531 note in Charles’ ed.) are probably original to the work. The title ‘Son of Man’ in the Latin and Slavonic versions of 11:1 is probably original, and was excluded by the editor of the present Greek version for doctrinal reasons (see Charles, Asc. Is. p. xxvi).
It is noteworthy that the title ‘the Beloved’ is bestowed on Christ by the Bath Qol in Mark 1:11; Mark 9:7, and it is used by St. Paul in Ephesians 1:6. As Armitage Robinson (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ii. 501) points out, it was probably a pre-Christian Messianic title. It is used in the OT of Israel, and so would naturally be transferred from the people to the Messiah, like the titles ‘Servant’ and ‘Elect.’ It was, moreover, a term interchangeable with the Messianic title ‘the Elect,’ as Luke (9:35) substitutes ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος (א B, etc.) for ὁ ἀγαπητός (Matthew 17:5, Mark 9:7). In early Christian writings also the title is applied to Christ, e.g. Ep. Barn. iii. 6, iv. 3, 8; Clem. Rom. lix. 2f.; Ign. Smyrn. inscr.; Herm. Sim. ix. 12. 5. No doubt the writer thought the term most appropriate in a work claiming to be an ancient Jewish prophecy of Christ, but its vagueness also betrays the undeveloped Trinitarian conceptions of the period. The Son and the Holy Spirit receive worship (9:33-36), but they in turn worship the Great Glory (9:40). They stand, one on His right band and the other on His left (9:35). (We may compare the Hieracite doctrine in Epiph. Hœr. lxvii. 3.) The command to descend to earth is given by the Father (10:8). The conception of the gradual descent from heaven to heaven, with corresponding transformation in form, suggests a Gnostic colouring, and possibly a Docetic tendency, as do also the statement that the Beloved escaped recognition at each stage, and the miraculous appearance of the born babe two months after the Virgin’s conception. The Protev. Jacobi and the Actus Petri have interesting parallels to the narrative here (11:3-14), while we can hardly doubt that it is the source of Ignatius’ words in ad. Ephes. xix. καὶ ἔλαθεν τὸν ἄρχοντα τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἡ παρθενἱα Μαρἱας καὶ ὁ τοκετὸς αὐτῆς, ὁμοίως καὶ ὁ θάνατος τοῦ Κυρίου. ‘The concealment of the real nature of Christ is the entire theme of 10:8-11:19.’ He is, however, really crucified, and descends to the angel of Sheol (11:19, 20; cf. 10:8). In His ascension He has resumed His proper form, and all the angels of the firmament and the Satans see Him and worship Him (11:23; cf. 10:15). On arriving in the seventh heaven, He sits down (not stands, as in 9:35) on the right hand, and the Holy Spirit on the left (11:32, 33). His session with God, however, will not be realized by the angels of the world until the final judgment (10:12).
The significance of the crucifixion is nowhere noticed, but in 9:16 the ‘plundering of the angel of death’ (cf. Ign. ad. Magn. ix.; 1619110985_4; Evang. Nicodemi, i. i, xi. 1 [1]) is regarded as the result of the descensio in inferna (cf. 1 Peter 3:19; 1 Peter 4:6). In the Test. Hez. (i.e. 3:13b-4:18) His work includes the founding of the Church (‘the descent of the angel of the Christian Church,’ 3:15), and, after coming forth from the tomb on the shoulders of Gabriel and Michael, the sending out of the Twelve. Those who believe in His cross will be saved, and many who believe in Him will speak through the Holy Spirit. The Ascension, not the Resurrection, is the distinctive object of faith to the believer in 2:9; 3:18. At His second coming the Lord will Himself drag Beliar into Gehenna (4:14), and give rest to the godly still alive in the body (cf. 2 Thessalonians 1:6-7, 1 Thessalonians 4:17). The saints (i.e. the departed) will come with the Lord (1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:14) and descend and be present in this world (4:16), and the Lord will minister to those who have kept watch in this world (cf. Luke 12:37). Apparently an earthly Messianic Kingdom is implied (cf. Revelation 20:1-6). It is followed by a spiritual translation to heaven, the body being left in the world (4:17). Then follows ‘[2] a judgment,’ and the godless are entirely destroyed by fire from before the Beloved (4:16).
iii. The Third Person is spoken of as an angel, the angel of the Spirit (4:21; 9:39, 40; 10:4; 11:4) or the angel of the Holy Spirit (3:16; 7:23; 9:36; 11:33). In communion with Him, Isaiah endures his martyrdom, and also is carried in spirit to the third heaven. The Holy Spirit stands (9:35), and after the Ascension sits (11:33) on the left hand of the Great Glory. The angel of the Holy Spirit in 3:16 must be regarded as Gabriel, and in 11:4 He performs the part of Gabriel in the Annunciation.
(b) The Resurrection is apparently a spiritual one. The ‘garments,’ i.e. spiritual bodies, are reserved for the righteous, with the robes and crowns in the seventh heaven (4:16; 7:22; 8:14, 26). These garments are received at once after death (8:14; 9:11), the thrones and crowns not till after the Ascension of Christ (9:12, 13). The living whom the Lord finds on His return will be ‘strengthened in the garments of the saints.’ There is a temporary Messianic Kingdom, and (?) a feast (4:16), followed by a spiritual consummation in heaven (cf. Philippians 3:21, 1 Corinthians 15:52-53). The righteous from Adam downwards are already in the seventh heaven, stript of the garments of the flesh, though not yet seated on their thrones and crowned (9:9). The Final Judgment is referred to in 4:18 and 10:12.
(c) Beliar.-The idea of demonic possession is very prominent in the Martyrdom of Isaiah. Beliar is regarded as served by Manasseh and ruling in his heart (1:8, 9, 11; 2:1, 4, 7; 3:11; 5:1, 15), and as aiding Belchira (5:3), The name ‘Beliar’ is absent from the Vision, and in the Test. Hez. it has quite another meaning, the Beliar Antichrist appearing in the form of a man-Nero (4:2, 14, 16, 18). In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Beliar appears in both meanings, at times as the source of immoral deeds, and at times as the Antichrist (see Charles, Asc. Is. 1:6n.). In the Sibylline Oracles, ii. 167 he is to come as the Antichrist, working signs; in iii. 63-73 to proceed from the Roman Emperors, deceive the elect, and finally be burnt up. He is also called Matanbuchus (2:4) and Mechembechus (5:3). His relation to Sammael is puzzling. In part the two seem identical; both dwell and rule in the firmament (7:9; 4:2), take possession of Manasseh (2:1; 1:9; 3:11; 5:1), are wroth with Isaiah for his visions (5:15; 3:13; 5:1), and cause Isaiah to be sawn asunder (11:41; 5:15). But in part Sammael seems to be subordinate. He exerts himself to win Manasseh as the subject of Beliar (1:8). Beliar has kings under him (4:16), and is the prince of this world (1:3; 4:2; cf. 4:18). He will finally be cast into Gehenna with his armies (4:14). In 2 Corinthians 6:15 St. Paul asks ‘What concord hath Christ with Beliar?’ Hero either meaning of Beliar is possible. In 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 the two ideas appear to be fused with yet a third-that of a human sovereign with miraculous powers. The ‘man of lawlessness’ is possibly a translation of ‘Beliar’ (cf. Septuagint : ἄνδρες παράνομοι in Deuteronomy 13:13 etc.). In Asc. Is. 2:4 Beliar is the angel of lawlessness, and makes Manasseh strong in apostatizing and lawlessness (cf. 2:7). The sins specified are witchcraft, magic, divination and auguration, fornication, and the persecution of the righteous. The ‘falling away’ of 2 Thessalonians 2:3 is referred to in Asc. Is. 3:21; ‘on the eve of His approach, His disciples will forsake … their faith and their love and their purity.’ Cf. ‘few in those days will be left as His servants’ (4:13; cf. Luke 18:8),
(d) The Antichrist and Nero Redivivus.-In 4:2 we are told:
‘Beliar the great ruler, the king of this world [3] will descend, who hath ruled it since it came into being; yea he will descend from his firmament [4] in the likeness of a man, a lawless king, the slayer of his mother [5] … will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles … have planted [6]. Of the Twelve, one [7] will he delivered into his hands.… There will come with him all the powers of this world [8].… At his word the sun will rise at night [9].… He will say “I am God” [10] … and all the people in the world will believe in him, and they will sacrifice to him [8].… And the greater number of those who shall have been associated together to receive the Beloved, he will turn aside after him [12].… And he will set up his image … in every city [13].’
The time of his sway will be 3 years, 7 months, and 27 days (4:12). This period points back to Daniel 7:25; Daniel 12:7 (cf. Revelation 12:14); but in 4:14 the time is given as (one thousand) three hundred and thirty-two days. During this period the few believers left flee from desert to desert (4:13; cf. Revelation 12:6; Revelation 12:14). Beliar is finally destroyed, not by Michael but by the Lord Himself (4:14).
(e) Angels.-While there is no reference to the functions of good angels as mediators or intercessors, spiritual powers are conceived of as the true cause of all action. Manasseh and Belchira are only agents of Beliar and Sammael and Satan. Nero Redivivus is only an embodiment of Beliar (4:2). Angels, authorities, and powers rule in this world under Beliar their prince (1:3; cf. Ephesians 1:21; Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 6:12, Colossians 1:16; Colossians 2:10; Colossians 2:15, 1 Peter 3:22). The angel of the Christian Church (cf. Revelation 2:1; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 2:12 etc.) descends from heaven after our Lord’s passion. The Holy Spirit and the angel of the Holy Spirit (see under ‘Trinity’) are identical, except perhaps in 3:16 and 11:4 There is an angel of death (9:16; 10:14), and an angel of Sheol (11:19). Each heaven has its angels, with the superior ones to the right of the throne. The sun and the moon also have each an angel (cf. Revelation 19:17). The judgment of the angels is referred to in 1:5; 4:18; 10:12.
(f) The Seven Heavens.-The conception of the seven heavens which we find e.g. in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and in Slavonic Enoch is not to be found in the Asc. Is. Evil is found only in the firmament and the air; It is entirely absent from all the heavens. Nor is these any reference to natural phenomena or heavenly bodies in them. Each heaven is merely a duplicate of the one above, with no distinction, except of glory, until the sixth and seventh are reached (8:1, 7). The sixth is not under any subordinate angel or ‘throne,’ but is ruled by the Great Glory in the seventh. There is an angel over the praise-giving of the sixth heaven, however, who challenges Isaiah when proceeding to the seventh (9:1, 4). In the seventh are the Patriarchs, the righteous, the crowns and thrones and garments of the righteous, the Great Glory, the Beloved, and the angel of the Holy Spirit.
(g) The Christian Church and its circumstances.-The angel of the Christian Church which is in the heavens will be summoned by God in the last days (3:15). The Church is the plant planted by the Twelve Apostles (4:3). It consists of those who are ‘associated together to receive the Beloved’ at His Second Coming (4:9). A great persecution is regarded as imminent, in which the few faithful remaining will ‘flee from desert to desert, awaiting the coming of the Beloved.’ For the expectation of the Coming, cf. 1 Thessalonians 1:10, 1 Corinthians 1:7, Philippians 3:20, Hebrews 9:28. The Neronic Antichrist is regarded ad destroying one of the Twelve Apostles (4:3), and deceiving many of the faithful (4:9). In 3:21-31 we have a contemporary picture of the Christian Church regarded as guilty of serious declension from its high calling. Church organization is not yet developed. We have mention of pastors and elders (3:24, 29). There is a general disbelief in the Second Coming and in prophecy generally (3:26, 27, 31), but prophecy is still existent, though there are ‘not many prophets save one here and there in divers places.’ The ‘faith’ (3:21) is spoken of objectively, as in the Pastoral Epistles (e.g. 1 Timothy 1:19). Faith, love, and purity are the distinctive Christian virtues (as in 1 Timothy 4:12). There are lawless elders (3:24), and much hatred exists among the Church leaders (3:29). Covetousness and slander are common vices (cf. 2 Timothy 3:1-2), The ‘spirit of error’ (3:28) is at work among Christians (cf. 1 John 4:6, 1 Timothy 4:1). Caesar-worship is already a difficulty (4:7-11).
(h) Apocryphal work.-The only reference to another apocryphon occurs in 4:22, where the book ‘Words of Joseph the Just’ is probably to be identified with the Προσευχὴ τοῦ Ἰωσήφ (Fabricius, Cod. Pseud. V.T. i. 761-769; see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ii. 778).
3. The text
(a) In its complete form the Asc. Is. is found only in the Ethiopic Version, and even this needs to be corrected and at times supplemented by other authorities. Of this Version there are three Manuscripts , one at the Bodleian, and two inferior ones in the British Museum.
(b) There are two Latin Versions.-(i.) The fuller of the two was printed. at Venice in 1522 from a manuscript now unknown, and reprinted by Gieseler in 1832.-(ii.) The other version occurs in two fragments discovered by Mai in 1828 in the Codex Rescriptus of the Acts of Chalcedon, Vat. 5750, of the 5th or 6th century.
(c) The Greek Versions are likewise twofold; (i.) a lost Greek text on which the Greek Legend was based; (ii.) the Greek text from which the Slavonic and the fuller Latin Versions wore derived. Of this text 2:4-4:4 have been recovered in the Amherst Papyri by Grenfell and Hunt.
The Greek Legend was found by O. von Gebhardt in a Greek manuscript of the 12th cent. (no. 1534, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). This work is really a lection for Church use, and so takes liberties in the way of rearranging and abbreviating the text. The Martyrdom is brought to the end, and other details are added. It is, however, very valuable for correcting and restoring the text.
(d) The Slavonic Version is extant in a manuscript in the Library of the Uspenschen Cathedral in Moscow. It belongs to c. [10] a.d. 1200.
In all these authorities two recensions may be traced. The Greek Papyri, the Ethiopic, the Slavonic, and the fuller Latin Version follow the second recension of the Greek; the Greek Legend and the Latin fragments support the first Greek recension. Charles in his edition of the Asc. Is. (1900) has produced a critical text founded on all these authorities. To this work the present writer would express his deep indebtedness.
Literature.-I. Critical Inquiries.-R. Laurence, Ascensio Isaiae Vatis, Oxford, 1819, pp. 141-180; K. I. Nitzsch, SK [9] , 1830, pp. 209-246; G. C. F. Lücke, Einleit. in die Offenbarung des Johannes2, Bonn, 1852, pp. 274-302; A. Dillmann, Ascensio Isaiae, Lelpzig, 1877, pp. v-xviii; G. T. Stokes, article ‘Isaiah, Ascension of, in DCB [16] iii. [17] 298-301; W. J. Deane, Pseudepigrapha, Edinburgh, 1891, pp. 236-275: A. Harnack, Gesch. der altchristl. Litteratur, Leipzig, 1893ff., i. 854-856, ii. 573-579, 714; C. Clemen, ‘Die Himmelfahrt des Jesaja,’ Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie , 1896, pp. 388-415, also 1897, pp. 455-465; J. A. Robinson, article ‘Isaiah, Ascension of,’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , ii. 499-501; G. Beer, in Kautzsch’s Apok. und Pseudepig., Tübingen, 1900, ii. 119-123; R. H. Charles, Ascension of Isaiah translated from the Ethiopic Version, which, together with the New Greek Fragment, the Latin Versions, and the Latin Translation of the Slavonic, is here published in full, London, 1900, also Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, Oxford, 1913, ii. 155-158; E. Littmann, Jewish Encyclopedia vi. [7] 642f.
II. Editions.-(a) Ethiopic Version.-R. Laurence, A. Dillmann, and R. H. Charles, opp. cit. supra. (b) Latin Versions.-(i.) J. K. L. Gieseler, in a Göttingen programme, 1832; (ii.) A. Mai, Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, Rome, 1825-38, iii. 238f.; both are given in the editions of Dillmann and Charles as above. (c) Greek Versions.-(i.) The Greek Legend-a free recension: O. v. Gebhardt, in Hilgenfeld’s Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie , 1878, p. 330ff.; R. H. Charles, Asc. of Isaiah, pp. xviii-xxxiii, 141-148; (ii.) Papyrus fragment: Grenfell and Hunt, Ascension of Isaiah, London, 1901; R. H. Charles, Asc. of Isaiah, pp. xxviii-xxxi, 84-95. (d) Slavonic Version.-R. H. Charles, Asc. of Isaiah, pp. xxiv-xxvii, 98-139.
A. Ll. Davies.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Isaiah
The salvation of the Lord
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Isaiah
The prophet, the son of Amos. Highly, under God the Holy Ghost, is the church indebted to the ministry of this man. Amidst many events in this man's life, was that of this walking three years barefoot and naked. (See Isaiah 20:2) Was not this also typical of Christ's three years ministry? His name signifies salvation of the Lord; from Jashah, salvation; and Jah, the Lord. I cannot forbear mentioning the commonly-received opinion, that Isaiah was sawn asunder, in the beginning of the reign of Manasseh, and that his body was buried near Jerusalem, under the fuller's oak near Siloam. And the tradition concerning this event is, that it was brought upon him by the event of his publishing his vision, (Isaiah 6:1-13) in which he saith, "he saw the Lord sitting on a throne high and lifted up." Manasseh said, that this was blasphemy, as Moses had recorded the Lord's words, Exodus 22:20. "No man shall see me and live."
Isaiah prophesied many years, not less than threescore, though some make his ministry to have extended to four-score. Who can read the prophecy of Isaiah without the most profound admiration! It is not only unequalled in point of language, but it contains so much of Christ, that it looks more like an history than a prophecy. It is more like the writings of a person who was present at Pilate's hall, and Herod's judgment-seat, when describing the sufferings of Jesus, than of one who wrote those events, by the spirit of prediction, more than seven hundred years before the things there spoken of came to pass. St. Jerom calls Isaiah's prophecy, an abridgment of the holy Scriptures. And Grotius prefers Isaiah to all the writers of Greece and Rome. But how truly blessed are the predictions of Isaiah to the believer who hath lived to see the whole fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the Holy Ghost is led to discover not only the correspondence between them, but his own personal interest therein.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Isaiah
Though fifth in the order of time, the writings of the Prophet Isaiah are placed first in order of the prophetical books, principally on account of the sublimity and importance of his predictions, and partly also because the book which bears his name is larger than all the twelve minor prophets put together. Concerning his family and descent, nothing certain has been recorded, except what he himself tells us, Isaiah 50:1 , namely, that he was the son of Amos, and discharged the prophetic office "in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah," who successively flourished between A.M. 3194 and 3305. There is a current tradition that he was of the blood royal; and some writers have affirmed that his father Amoz or Amos was the son of Joash, and consequently brother of Uzziah, king of Judah. Jerom, on the authority of some rabbinical writers, says, that the prophet gave his daughter in marriage to Manasseh, king of Judah; but this opinion is scarcely credible, because Manasseh did not commence his reign until about sixty years after Isaiah had begun to discharge his prophetic functions. He must, indeed, have exercised the office of a prophet during a long period of time, if he lived to the reign of Manasseh; for the lowest computation, beginning from the year in which Uzziah died, when he is by some supposed to have received his first appointment to that office, brings it to sixty-one years. But the tradition of the Jews, which has been adopted by most Christian commentators, that he was put to death by Manasseh, is very uncertain; and Aben Ezra one of the most celebrated Jewish writers, is rather of opinion that he died before Hezekiah; which Bishop Lowth thinks most probable. It is, however, certain, that he lived at least to the fifteenth or sixteenth year of Hezekiah; which makes the least possible term of the duration of his prophetic office to be about forty-eight years. The name of Isaiah, as Vitringa has remarked after several preceding commentators, is in some measure descriptive of his high character, since it signifies the salvation of Jehovah; and was given with singular propriety to him, who foretold the advent of the Messiah, through whom "all flesh shall see the salvation of God," Isaiah 40:5 ; Luke 3:6 ; Acts 4:12 . Isaiah was contemporary with the Prophets Amos, Hosea, Joel, and Micah.
Isaiah is uniformly spoken of in the Scriptures as a prophet of the highest dignity: Bishop Lowth calls him the prince of all the prophets, and pronounces the whole of his book to be poetical, with the exception of a few detached passages. It is remarkable, that his wife is styled a prophetess in Isaiah 8:3 ; whence the rabbinical writers have concluded that she possessed the spirit of prophecy: but it is very probable that the prophets' wives were called prophetesses, as the priests' wives were termed priestesses, only from the quality of their husbands. Although nothing farther is recorded in the Scriptures concerning the wife of Isaiah, we find two of his sons mentioned in his prophecy, who were types or figurative pledges; and their names and actions were intended to awaken a religious attention in the persons whom they were commissioned to address and to instruct. Thus, Shear-jashub signifies, "a remnant shall return," and showed that the captives who should be carried to Babylon should return thence after a certain time, Isaiah 7:3 ; and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, which denotes, "make speed (or run swiftly ) to the spoil," implied that the kingdoms of Israel and Syria would in a short time be ravaged, Isaiah 8:1 ; Isaiah 8:3 . Beside the volume of prophecies, which we are now to consider, it appears from 2 Chronicles 26:22 , that Isaiah wrote an account of "the acts of Uzziah," king of Judah: this has perished with some other writings of the prophets, which, as probably not written by inspiration, were never admitted into the canon of Scripture. There are also two apocryphal books ascribed to him, namely, The Ascension of Isaiah, and The Apocalypse of Isaiah; but these are evidently forgeries of a later date, and the Apocalypse has long since perished.
The scope of Isaiah's predictions is threefold, namely,
1. To detect, reprove, aggravate, and condemn, the sins of the Jewish people especially, and also the iniquities of the ten tribes of Israel, and the abominations of many Gentile nations and countries; denouncing the severest judgments against all sorts and degrees of persons, whether Jews or Gentiles.
2. To invite persons of every rank and condition, both Jews and Gentiles, to repentance and reformation, by numerous promises of pardon and mercy. It is worthy of remark, that no such promises are intermingled with the denunciations of divine vengeance against Babylon, although they occur in the threatenings against every other people.
3. To comfort all the truly pious, in the midst of all the calamities and judgments denounced against the wicked, with prophetic promises of the true Messiah, which seem almost to anticipate the Gospel history, so clearly do they foreshow the divine character of Christ.
Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the evangelical prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the advent and character, the ministry and preaching, the sufferings and death, and the extensive permanent kingdom, of the Messiah. So explicit and determinate are his predictions, as well as so numerous, that he seems to speak rather of things past than of events yet future; and he may rather be called an evangelist than a prophet. No one, indeed, can be at a loss in applying them to the mission and character of Jesus Christ, and to the events which are cited in his history by the writers of the New Testament. This prophet, says Bishop Lowth, abounds in such transcendent excellencies, that he may be properly said to afford the most perfect model of prophetic poetry. He is at once elegant and sublime, forcible and ornamented; he unites energy with copiousness, and dignity with variety. In his sentiments there is uncommon elevation and majesty; in his imagery, the utmost propriety, elegance, dignity, and diversity; in his language, uncommon beauty and energy; and, notwithstanding the obscurity of his subjects, a surprising degree of clearness and simplicity. To these we may add, that there is such sweetness in the poetical composition of his sentences, whether it proceed from art or genius, that, if the Hebrew poetry at present is possessed of any remains of its native grace and harmony, we shall chiefly find them in the writings of Isaiah: so that the saying of Ezekiel may most justly be applied to this prophet:—
"Thou art the confirmed exemplar of measures, Full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty."
Ezekiel 28:12 .
Isaiah also greatly excels in all the graces of method, order, connection, and arrangement: though in asserting this we must not forget the nature of the prophetic impulse, which bears away the mind with irresistible violence, and frequently in rapid transitions from near to remote objects, from human to divine. We must likewise be careful in remarking the limits of particular predictions, since, as they are now extant, they are often improperly connected, without any marks of discrimination; which injudicious arrangement, on some occasions, creates almost insuperable difficulties.
Bishop Lowth has selected the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth chapters of this prophet, as a specimen of the poetic style in which Isaiah delivers his predictions, and has illustrated at some length the various beauties which eminently distinguish the simple, regular, and perfect poem contained in those chapters. But the grandest specimen of his poetry is presented in the fourteenth chapter, which is one of the most sublime odes occurring in the Bible, and contains the noblest personifications to be found in the records of poetry. The prophet, after predicting the liberation of the Jews from their severe captivity in Babylon, and their restoration to their own country, Ezekiel 28:1-3 , introduces a chorus of them, expressing their surprise and astonishment at the sudden downfall of Babylon, and the great reverse of fortune that had befallen the tyrant, who, like his predecessors, had oppressed his own, and harassed the neighbouring kingdoms. These oppressed kingdoms, or their rulers, are represented under the image of the fir trees and the cedars of Libanus, which is frequently used to express any thing in the political or religious world that is supereminently great and majestic: the whole earth shouts for joy; the cedars of Libanus utter a severe taunt over the fallen tyrant, and boast their security now he is no more, Ezekiel 28:4-8 . This is followed, Ezekiel 28:9 , by one of the boldest and most animated personifications of hades, or the regions of the dead, that was ever executed in poetry. Hades excites his inhabitants, the shades of princes, and the departed spirits of monarchs. These illustrious shades rise at once from their couches as from their thrones; and, advancing to the entrance of the cavern to meet the king of Babylon, they insult and deride him on being reduced to the same low state of impotence and dissolution with themselves, Ezekiel 28:10-11 . The Jews now resume the speech, Ezekiel 28:12 ; they address the king of Babylon as the morning star fallen from heaven, as the first in splendour and dignity, in the political world fallen from his high state: they introduce him as uttering the most extravagant vaunts of his power and ambitious designs in his former glory; these are strongly contrasted, in the close, with his present low and abject condition, Ezekiel 28:13-15 . Immediately follows a different scene, and a most happy image, to diversify the same subject, and give it a new turn and additional force. Certain persons are introduced, who light upon the corpse of the king of Babylon, cast out and lying naked upon the bare ground, among the common slain, just after the taking of the city, covered with wounds, and so disfigured, that it is some time before they know him. They accost him with the severest taunts, and bitterly reproach him with his destructive ambition, and his cruel usage of the conquered; which have deservedly brought upon him this ignominious treatment, so different from what those of his high rank usually meet with, and which shall cover his posterity with disgrace, Ezekiel 28:16-20 . To complete the whole, God is introduced, declaring the fate of Babylon; the utter extirpation of the royal family, and the total desolation of the city; the deliverance of his people, and the destruction of their enemies; confirming the irreversible decree by the awful sanction of his oath, Ezekiel 28:21-26 . How forcible, says Bishop Lowth, is this imagery, how diversified, how sublime! How elevated the diction, the figures, the sentiments! The Jewish nation, the cedars of Lebanon, the ghosts of departed kings, the Babylonish monarch, the travellers who find his corpse, and last of all Jehovah himself, are the characters which support this beautiful lyric drama. One continued action is kept up, or rather, a series of interesting actions are connected together in an incomparable whole: this, indeed, is the principal and distinguished excellence of the sublimer ode, and is displayed in its utmost perfection in this poem of Isaiah, which may be considered as one of the most ancient, and certainly one of the most finished, specimens of that species of composition which has been transmitted to us. The personifications here are frequent, yet not confused; bold, yet not improbable; a free, elevated, and truly divine spirit pervades the whole; nor is there any thing wanting in this ode to defeat its claim to the character of perfect pathos and sublimity. There is not a single instance in the whole compass of Greek and Roman poetry which, in every excellence of composition, can be said to equal or even to approach it.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Isaiah
The son of Amoz, (not Amos,) one of the most distinguished of the Hebrew prophets. He began to prophesy at Jerusalem towards the close of the reign of Uzziah, about the year 759 B. C., and exercised the prophetical office some sixty years, under the three following monarchs, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Isaiah 1:1 . Compare 2 Kings 15:1-20:21 2 Chronicles 26:1-32:33 . The first twelve chapters of his prophecies refer to the kingdom of Judah; then Isaiah 13:1-23:18 , directed against foreign nations, except Isaiah 22:1-23 , against Jerusalem. In Isaiah 24:1-35:10 , which would seem to belong to the time of Hezekiah, the prophet appears to look forward in prophetic vision to the times of the exile and of the Messiah. Isaiah 36:1-39:8 gives a historical account to Sennacherib's invasion, and of the advice given by Isaiah to Hezekiah. This account is parallel to that in 2 Kings 18:13-20:19 ; and indeed Isaiah 37:1-38 is almost word for word with 2 Kings 19:1-37 . The remainder of the book of Isaiah, Isaiah 40:1-66:24 , contains a series of oracles referring to the future times of temporal exile and deliverance, and expanding into glorious views of the spiritual deliverance to be wrought by the Messiah.
Isaiah seems to have lived and prophesied wholly at Jerusalem; and disappears from history after the accounts contained in Isaiah 39:1-8 . A tradition among the Talmudist and fathers relates that he was sawn asunder during the reign of Manasseh, Hebrews 11:37 ; and this tradition is embodied in an apocrtphal book, called the "ascension of Isaiah;" but it seems to rest on no certain grounds.
Some commentators have proposed to divide the book of Isaiah chronologically into three parts, as if composed under the three kings, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. But this is of very doubtful propriety; since several of the chapters are evidently transposed and inserted out of their chronological order. But a very obvious and striking division of the book into two parts exists; the first part, including Isaiah 1:1-39:8 , and the second, the remainder of the book, Isaiah 40:1-66:24 .
The first part is made up of those prophecies and historical accounts which Isaiah wrote during the period of his active exertions, when he mingled in the public concerns of the rulers and the people, and acted as the messenger of God to the nation in reference to their internal and external existing relations. These are single prophecies, published at different times, and on different occasions; afterwards, indeed, brought together into one collection, but still marked as distinct and single, either by the superscriptions, or in some other obvious and known method.
The second part, on the contrary, is occupied wholly with the future. It was apparently written in the later years of the prophet, when, having left all active exertions in the theocracy to his younger associates in the prophetical office, he transferred his contemplations for the present to that which was to come. In this part therefore, which was not, like the first, occasioned by external circumstance, it is not so easy to distinguish in like manner between the different single prophecies. The whole is more like a single gush of prophecy. The prophet first consoles his people by announcing their deliverance from the approaching Babylonish exile, which he had himself predicted, Isaiah 39:6,7 ; he names the monarch whom Jehovah will send to punish the insolence of their oppressors, and lead back the people to their home. But he does not stop at this inferior deliverance. With the prospect of freedom from the Babylonish exile, he connects the prospect of deliverance from sin and error through the Messiah. Sometimes both objects seem closely interwoven with each other; sometimes one of them appears alone with particular clearness and prominency. Especially is the view of the prophet sometimes so exclusively directed upon the latter object, that, filled with the contemplation of the glory of the spiritual kingdom of God and of its exalted Founder, he loses sight for a time of the less distant future. In the description of this spiritual deliverance also, the relations of time are not observed. Sometimes the prophet beholds the Author of this deliverance in his humiliation and sorrows; and again, the remotest ages of the Messiah's kingdom present themselves to his enraptured vision-when man, so long estranged from God, will have again returned to him; when every thing opposed to God shall have been destroyed, and internal and external peace universally prevail; and when all the evil introduced by sin into the world, will be for ever done away. Elevated above all space and time, the prophet contemplates from the height on which the Holy Spirit has thus placed him, the whole development of the Messiah's kingdom, from its smallest beginnings to its glorious completion.
Isaiah is appropriately named "the evangelical prophet," and the fathers called his book "the Gospel according to St. Isaiah." In it the wonderful person and birth of "Emmanuel-God with us," his beneficent life, his atoning death, and his triumphant and everlasting kingdom, are minutely foretold, Isaiah 7:14-16 9:6-7 11:1-10 32:1-20 42:1-25 49:1-26 52:13-15 53:1-12 60:1-21 61:1-3 . The simplicity, purity, sweetness, and sublimity of Isaiah, and the fullness of his predictions respecting the Messiah, give him the preeminence among the Hebrew prophets and poets.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Isaiah
(Heb. Yesh'yahu, i.e., "the salvation of Jehovah").
The son of Amoz (Isaiah 1:1 ; 2:1 ), who was apparently a man of humble rank. His wife was called "the prophetess" (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judges 4:4 ) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20 ), or simply because she was the wife of "the prophet" (Isaiah 38:1 ). He had two sons, who bore symbolical names. He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). Uzziah reigned fifty-two years (B.C. 810-759), and Isaiah must have begun his career a few years before Uzziah's death, probably B.C. 762. He lived till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, and in all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died B.C. 698), and may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least sixty-four years.
His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded. A second call came to him "in the year that King Uzziah died" (Isaiah 6:1 ). He exercised his ministry in a spirit of uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard to all that bore on the interests of religion. He conceals nothing and keeps nothing back from fear of man. He was also noted for his spirituality and for his deep-toned reverence toward "the holy One of Israel."
In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q.v.), 2 Kings 15:19 ; and again, twenty years later, when he had already entered on his office, by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser and his career of conquest. Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused to co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to the Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5 ; 2 Chronicles 28:5,6 ). Ahaz, thus humbled, sided with Assyria, and sought the aid of Tiglath-pileser against Israel and Syria. The consequence was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and many of the people carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 ; 16:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). Soon after this Shalmaneser determined wholly to subdue the kingdom of Israel. Samaria was taken and destroyed (B.C. 722). So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by the Assyrian power; but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah (B.C. 726), who "rebelled against the king of Assyria" (2 Kings 18:7 ), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isaiah 10:24 ; 37:6 ), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isaiah 30:2-4 ). This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of Judah, and at length to invade the land. Sennacherib (B.C. 701) led a powerful army into Palestine. Hezekiah was reduced to despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16 ). But after a brief interval war broke out again, and again Sennacherib (q.v.) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem (Isaiah 36:2-22 ; 37:8 ). Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7), whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the Lord" (37:14). The judgement of God now fell on the Assyrian host. "Like Xerxes in Greece, Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern Palestine or Egypt." The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign were peaceful (2 Chronicles 32:23,27-29 ). Isaiah probably lived to its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh, but the time and manner of his death are unknown. There is a tradition that he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the time of Manasseh (q.v.).
One of the heads of the singers in the time of David (1 Chronicles 25:3,15 , "Jeshaiah").
A Levite (1 Chronicles 26:25 ).
Ezra 8:7 .
Nehemiah 11:7 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Isaiah, the Book of
Consists of prophecies delivered (Isaiah 1 ) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz ((7-14:28),), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated above. The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts:
The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King.
Four chapters are historical (36-39), relating to the times of Hezekiah.
Prophetical (40-66), Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and lowly. The genuineness of the section Isaiah 4066-66 has been keenly opposed by able critics. They assert that it must be the production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of the Babylonian captivity. This theory was originated by Koppe, a German writer at the close of the last century. There are other portions of the book also (e.g., ch. 13; 24-27; and certain verses in ch. 14,21) which they attribute to some other prophet than Isaiah. Thus they say that some five or seven, or even more, unknown prophets had a hand in the production of this book. The considerations which have led to such a result are various:
They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible that Isaiah, living in B.C. 700, could foretell the appearance and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the Jews free from captivity one hundred and seventy years after.
It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present; and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from it. The diversity of subjects treated of and the peculiarities of the prophet's position at the time the prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for this. The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite conclusive. When the LXX. version was made (about B.C. 250) the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz. It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have it. Many prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the New Testament as the words of Isaiah ( Matthew 3:3 ; Luke 3:4-6 ; 4:16-41 ; John 12:38 ; Acts 8:28 ; Romans 10:16-21 ). Universal and persistent tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author.
Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian origin. The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book, much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained. The book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it bears.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Isaiah
By the time of Isaiah, the Israelite nation had long been divided into two kingdoms – the northern kingdom Israel whose capital was Samaria, and the southern kingdom Judah whose capital was Jerusalem. Isaiah lived in Jerusalem, where he was an adviser to Judah’s royal court (Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 37:2; Isaiah 38:1; Isaiah 39:3). He was married and had at least two sons (Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 8:3; Isaiah 8:18).
Isaiah
ISAIAH.—There are seven instances recorded in the Gospels in which Jesus quotes from the prophecies of Isaiah, besides numerous other cases in which His language is more or less manifestly reminiscent of expressions in the book. The most notable passages are two in which our Lord applies to Himself the terms used by the prophet of the Exile with regard to the Servant of Jehovah, viz. Luke 4:16-22, where Jesus reads and expounds the words of Isaiah 61:1-2; and Luke 22:37, where He adopts as a prediction of His own experience a clause of Isaiah 53:12. Our Lord thus plainly taught that, alike in the mission and in the vicarious suffering of the ideal Servant of Deutero-Isaiah, His own person and work were typified and foreshadowed. More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7). All three Synoptists record the quotation from Isaiah 56:7 with which He rebuked the temple-traders (Isaiah 9:1-22 ||). St. John alone gives the quotation of a general character from Isaiah 54:13 (John 6:45), while St. Mark records an expression which manifestly comes from Isaiah 66:24 (Mark 9:48). In only three of the above seven cases is Isaiah mentioned by name, and in no case is there any indication that bears in the slightest degree upon the question as to the authorship of the various parts of the book.
In addition to these more direct references, there are many expressions in the discourses of Jesus in which we have echoes of Isaiah’s language. Our Lord’s mind was filled with the OT, and it was to be expected that His utterances should be cast in the mould, and often expressed in the very words, of psalm and prophecy. In Matthew 5:34-35 we perceive a reminiscence of Isaiah 66:1; Matthew 21:33 ff., || at once suggests Isaiah 5:1-2. Other less obvious instances are probably to be found in Matthew 11:23 (cf. Isaiah 14:13; Isaiah 14:15) Matthew 16:19 (Isaiah 22:22) Matthew 6:6 (Isaiah 26:20); and various expressions in the eschatological discourses of Matthew 24 and Luke 21. To these others might possibly be added; but it is not warrantable to find in every case of verbal similarity a reference to, or even a reminiscence of, the words of the OT. But apart from doubtful cases, it will be seen that the Book of Isaiah, both in its earlier and in its later portions, is fully acknowledged and used in the teaching of Jesus.
It is not less so with the Evangelists themselves. All four quote Isaiah 40:3 with regard to the mission of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:3 and ||); while Mt., who uses the OT so largely in connexion with the ministry of Jesus, applies to His coming and mission the passages Isaiah 7:14 (Matthew 1:23) Isaiah 9:1-2 (Matthew 4:14-16) Isaiah 53:4 (Matthew 8:17) Isaiah 42:1-4 (Matthew 12:18-21). St. John (John 12:38-41) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the language of Isaiah 42:1.
As with the words of Jesus Himself, so, in the case of the Evangelists, no theory with regard to the actual authorship of any part of the book can claim to be supported by the manner of the references. ‘Isaiah,’ even when named, stands manifestly for the reputed author, and (as in John 12:38) the mode of expression is naturally and rightly that popularly used and understood. No critical conclusions can be drawn from any of the references.
With regard to the original Messianic import of the passages applied in the Gospels to Jesus Christ and His work, there is no difficulty in those cases where the ‘Servant of Jehovah’ is identified with the Messiah. And even in such passages as Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:1-2 quoted by Mt., we must recognize, beneath and beyond the immediate prophetic reference, an ideal element which permitted and justified the specific application by the Evangelist. Especially is this so with the prophetic conception of ‘Immanuel,’ an ideal figure in whom we find the earliest portraiture of the Messianic King (Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 8:10; Isaiah 9:6-7). Though it might in some cases be without historical or critical exactitude (as in Matthew 4:15-16 from 1619110985_21), it was quite legitimate to find unexpected correspondences between the earlier and the later stages of Providence and Revelation, based on the deep underlying unity and consistency of the Divine purpose and methods.
J. E. M‘Ouat.

Sentence search

Shear-Jashub - SHEAR-JASHUB (‘a remnant shall return,’ Isaiah 7:3 ). A symbolical name given to a son of Isaiah to signify the return of the remnant to God after the punishment at the hands of the Assyrians. See Isaiah 8:18 , Isaiah 10:20-21 . Isaiah 7:14 , Isaiah 8:1-4 , and art. Isaiah, p
Obscurity - KJV term for gloom or darkness (Isaiah 29:11 ; Isaiah 58:10 ; Isaiah 59:9 )
Shebna - He was denounced by God through the prophet Isaiah; apparently he afterwards became scribe or secretary. 2 Kings 18:18,26,37 ; 2 Kings 19:2 ; Isaiah 22:15 ; Isaiah 36:3,11,22 ; Isaiah 37:2
Hut - Modern translations' rendering for a lean-to or temporary shelter; shack (Isaiah 1:8 ; Isaiah 24:20 ). The image of Isaiah 1:8 stresses the isolation of Jerusalem, the sole survivor of the cities of Judah ( Isaiah 1:7-9 ). Isaiah 24:20 illustrates God's power in judgment in the picture of the earth's swaying like an unstable hut before the Lord
Shebna(h) - ” Royal scribe (2Kings 18:18,2 Kings 18:37 ; 2 Kings 19:2 ; Isaiah 36:3 ,Isaiah 36:3,36:22 ; Isaiah 37:2 ) and “comptroller of the household” (Isaiah 22:15 REB) under King Hezekiah about 715 B
Amoz - Father of Isaiah (Isaiah 1:1)
Adamant - ]'>[3] of shâmir , which is elsewhere rendered either ‘brier’ ( Isaiah 5:6 ; Isaiah 7:23-25 ; Isaiah 9:18 ; Isaiah 10:17 ; Isaiah 27:4 ; Isaiah 32:13 ) or ‘diamond’ ( Jeremiah 17:1 )
Servant of the Lord, the - Title Jesus took up from the Old Testament, especially Isaiah 40-55 . It assumes a special significance in Isaiah 40-55 . Isaiah 41:1 pictures a great crisis, as a powerful army moves westward from Persia, conquering many nations and filling all with terror. Thou art my servant; I have chosen thee, and not cast thee away” ( Isaiah 41:8 ,Isaiah 41:8,41:9 ). ...
Isaiah 50:4-100 gives a remarkable picture of the ideal Servant of the Lord and the great work that God intends Him to accomplish. He is to “bring forth judgment to the Gentiles” ( Isaiah 42:1 ). He must “set judgment in the earth,” and the distant “isles shall wait for his law” (Isaiah 42:4 ). He is to bring God's justice to all the nations (Isaiah 42:1 ,Isaiah 42:1,42:4 ). He will have such an understanding of His overwhelming power that He can be absolutely gentle as He does His work (Isaiah 42:2-4 ) even toward those whose efforts have failed. This first part of Isaiah 42:1 pictures the ideal Servant—the goal for which Israel was to be preserved. In Isaiah 42:19 He says, “Who is blind, but my servant? or deaf, as my messenger that I sent?” Israel had a responsibility to fulfill this ideal, but to do so was far beyond its power. Still, the Lord says: “Ye are my witnesses, and my servant whom I have chosen” ( Isaiah 43:10 ; compare Isaiah 44:1-2 ,Isaiah 44:1-2,44:21 ). Could part of Israel be the real Servant? Or might it really point to One who must come out of Israel—One who could represent Israel in accomplishing the task? Matthew 12:17-21 quotes Isaiah 42:1-4 as fulfilled in Jesus Christ. ...
Isaiah 49:1 presents the work of the Servant in more detail. The Servant tells the “isles” and the “people, from far;” that God called Him before His birth, even mentioning His name: Israel ( Isaiah 49:3 ). Isaiah 49:4 describes the godly in Israel who know what God wants but feel their own inadequacy and provides assurance that the work belongs to God, and He will bring it to pass. Isaiah 49:5 and Isaiah 49:6 distinguish between the One who will fulfill the work of the Servant and the nation of Israel, to which this One belongs and which He represents. Not only is He to bring judgment to all the world—He is “to bring Jacob again to him” ( Isaiah 49:5 ) and “to restore the preserved of Israel” (Isaiah 49:6 ). He is to be “a light to the Gentiles” and “my salvation unto the end of the earth” (Isaiah 49:6 ). ...
All this leads up to the triumphal picture in Isaiah 52:13-53:12 , showing the sufferings of the Servant (Isaiah 52:14 ; Isaiah 53:2-5 ,Isaiah 53:2-5,53:7-8 ,Isaiah 53:7-8,53:10 ), their vicarious and redemptive nature (Isaiah 52:15 ; Isaiah 53:4-6 ,Isaiah 53:4-6,53:8 ,Isaiah 53:8,53:10-12 ; compare 1 Peter 1:1-2 ). Isaiah 54:1 shows the outreach of the Servant's work, and Isaiah 55:1 gives the glorious call to receive the salvation won by the Servant's redemptive work, “without money and without price” ( Isaiah 55:1 ). ...
After Isaiah 53:1 , Isaiah never again used “servant” in the singular; rather he spoke of the blessings that the followers of the Servant will receive, calling them “the servants of the Lord” (Isaiah 54:17 ); “his servants” (Isaiah 56:6 ; Isaiah 65:15 ; Isaiah 66:1 ;Isaiah 66:1;14:1 ); and “my servants” (Isaiah 65:8-9 ,Isaiah 65:8-9,65:13-14 ). ...
The New Testament pictures Jesus as the Suffering Servant fulfilling the glorious descriptions of Isaiah. See Christology; Isaiah ; Jesus Christ ; Slavery; Son of God ...
Allan A
Tabeal - A party in Jerusalem (Isaiah 7:5-6; Isaiah 8:6; Isaiah 8:9; Isaiah 8:12) favored the project
Shebna - Hezekiah, whose treasurer or prefect, of the palace Shebna was (Isaiah 22:15); also see Eliakim. ) For pride (Isaiah 22:16), luxury (Isaiah 22:18), oppression (in contrast to Eliakim a "father" to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Isaiah 22:21), and alienation from God (contrasted with "God's servant," Isaiah 22:20), he was doomed to be "tossed" away as a ball. Repenting, he was only degraded to the lower post of scribe (Isaiah 36:3)
Seraphim - The name given by Isaiah to the spirits waiting on the Lord, and which axe apparently the most exalted of the angelic host. Isaiah 6:2; Isaiah 6:6
Highway - A road, especially an elevated road (Isaiah 62:10 ). In addition to literal uses, there are figurative uses, especially in Isaiah. The highway of Isaiah 11:16 and Isaiah 35:10 is an assurance that the exiles will have safe and speedy passage home. Isaiah 40:3 speaks of preparing a highway for the Lord
Arm - Exodus 15:16 ; Psalm 77:15 ; Isaiah 51:9 ; Isaiah 53:1 . ; gathers His own, Isaiah 40:11 ; and rules for Him, Isaiah 40:10 , as in the kingdom. It is a holy arm, Isaiah 52:10 ; Psalm 98:1 ; and it is a glorious arm, Isaiah 63:12 . Isaiah 53:1 ; Romans 10:16 . Isaiah 51:5
Isaiah, Book of - Nothing more is known of the ancestors of Isaiah than that he was the son of Amoz. ...
The following seven divisions are distinctly marked:...
Isaiah 1 — Isaiah 12 : The sinful condition of the people as still in possession of the land; various pleadings and chastisements culminating in the Assyrian; the introduction of Immanuel; ends with a song. ...
Isaiah 13 — Isaiah 27 : Judgements on Babylon and the nations where Israel was captive and outcast; ends in deliverance from their outcast condition and worship at Jerusalem. ...
Isaiah 28 — Isaiah 35 : Five woes on unfaithful Israel; ends with deliverance from the Assyrian and the confederacy of nations, and the joy of the kingdom. ...
Isaiah 36 — Isaiah 39 : Historical, but typical; the way of blessing for Jerusalem and the house of David. ...
Isaiah 40 — Isaiah 48 : Controversy of God with Israel on account of idolatry. ...
Isaiah 49 — Isaiah 57 : Controversy of God with Israel on account of the rejected suffering Messiah. ...
Isaiah 58 — Isaiah 66 : Final results; the remnant delivered and blessed. ...
Isaiah 1 — Isaiah 4 . ...
Isaiah 5 . ...
Isaiah 6 . ...
Isaiah 7 . ...
Isaiah 8 — Isaiah 9:7 . ...
Isaiah 9:8 Isaiah 10 . The national history is resumed from the end of Isaiah 5 . ...
Isaiah 11 . ...
Isaiah 12 . ...
Isaiah 13 — Isaiah 24 . ...
Isaiah 25 , Isaiah 26 . ...
Isaiah 27 . ...
Isaiah 28 — Isaiah 35 . ...
Isaiah 29 . ...
Isaiah 30 , Isaiah 31 . ...
Isaiah 32 . ...
Isaiah 33 . ...
Isaiah 34 , Isaiah 35 . ...
Isaiah 36 — Isaiah 39 . ...
Isaiah 40 - 43. ...
Isaiah 44 . ...
Isaiah 45 - 47. ...
Isaiah 48 . ...
Isaiah 49 — Isaiah 57 . ...
Isaiah 50:1-9 . Who would contend with Him?...
Isaiah 50:10 Isaiah 51 . ...
Isaiah 52:1-12 . ...
Isaiah 52:13 Isaiah 53 . ...
Isaiah 54 , Isaiah 55 . ...
Isaiah 56 , Isaiah 57 . ...
Isaiah 58 , Isaiah 59 . ...
Isaiah 60 . ...
Isaiah 61 , Isaiah 62 . ...
Isaiah 63 , Isaiah 64 . Christ returns from the judgements of Isaiah 34 with garments stained with the slaughter of His enemies; followed by the intercessions of the Spirit of prophecy. ...
Isaiah 65 . ...
Isaiah 66 . ...
Quotations from Isaiah in the N
Amoz - The father of Isaiah, 2 Kings 19:2 ; Isaiah 1:1
Arpad - A city of Syria north-west of Aleppo ( 2 Kings 18:34 ; 2 Kings 19:13 , Isaiah 10:9 ; Isaiah 36:19 ; Isaiah 37:13 , Jeremiah 49:28 )
Jeberechiah - The father of Zechariah, a friend of Isaiah ( Isaiah 8:2 )
Saviour - Salvation from all kinds of danger and evil, bodily, spiritual, temporal, and eternal (Matthew 1:21; Ephesians 5:23; Philippians 3:20-21), including also the idea restorer and preserver, giver of positive life and blessedness, as well as saviour from evil (Isaiah 26:1; 2 Samuel 8:6; Isaiah 60:18; Isaiah 61:10; Psalms 118:25), deliverer, as the judges were saviours (margin Judges 3:9; Judges 3:15; Nehemiah 9:27; Jeroboam II, 2 Kings 13:5; Obadiah 1:21). ) Isaiah, Joshua or Jeshua, Jesus, Hoshea, Hosea, are various forms of the is associated with the idea, and the term Redeemer (goel ) implies how God can be just and at the same time a saviour of mall (Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 43:11; Isaiah 45:15; Isaiah 45:21-24; Isaiah 45:25; Isaiah 41:14; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 9:16-17; Zechariah 9:9; Hosea 1:7). The temporal saviour is the predominant idea in the Old Testament; the spiritual and eternal saviour of the whole man in the New Testament Israel' s saviour, national and spiritual, finally (Isaiah 62:11; Romans 11:25-26)
Isaiah - ISAIAH. —There are seven instances recorded in the Gospels in which Jesus quotes from the prophecies of Isaiah, besides numerous other cases in which His language is more or less manifestly reminiscent of expressions in the book. Luke 4:16-22, where Jesus reads and expounds the words of Isaiah 61:1-2; and Luke 22:37, where He adopts as a prediction of His own experience a clause of Isaiah 53:12. Our Lord thus plainly taught that, alike in the mission and in the vicarious suffering of the ideal Servant of Deutero-Isaiah, His own person and work were typified and foreshadowed. More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7). All three Synoptists record the quotation from Isaiah 56:7 with which He rebuked the temple-traders (Matthew 21:13 ||). John alone gives the quotation of a general character from Isaiah 54:13 (John 6:45), while St. Mark records an expression which manifestly comes from Isaiah 66:24 (Mark 9:48). In only three of the above seven cases is Isaiah mentioned by name, and in no case is there any indication that bears in the slightest degree upon the question as to the authorship of the various parts of the book. ...
In addition to these more direct references, there are many expressions in the discourses of Jesus in which we have echoes of Isaiah’s language. In Matthew 5:34-35 we perceive a reminiscence of Isaiah 66:1; Matthew 21:33 ff. , || at once suggests Isaiah 5:1-2. Isaiah 14:13; Isaiah 14:15) Matthew 16:19 (Isaiah 22:22) Matthew 6:6 (Isaiah 26:20); and various expressions in the eschatological discourses of Matthew 24 and Luke 21. But apart from doubtful cases, it will be seen that the Book of Isaiah, both in its earlier and in its later portions, is fully acknowledged and used in the teaching of Jesus. All four quote Isaiah 40:3 with regard to the mission of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:3 and ||); while Mt. , who uses the OT so largely in connexion with the ministry of Jesus, applies to His coming and mission the passages Isaiah 7:14 (Matthew 1:23) Isaiah 9:1-2 (Matthew 4:14-16) Isaiah 53:4 (Matthew 8:17) Isaiah 42:1-4 (Matthew 12:18-21). John (John 12:38-41) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the language of Isaiah 42:1. ‘Isaiah,’ even when named, stands manifestly for the reputed author, and (as in John 12:38) the mode of expression is naturally and rightly that popularly used and understood. And even in such passages as Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:1-2 quoted by Mt. Especially is this so with the prophetic conception of ‘Immanuel,’ an ideal figure in whom we find the earliest portraiture of the Messianic King (Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 8:10; Isaiah 9:6-7). Though it might in some cases be without historical or critical exactitude (as in Matthew 4:15-16 from Isaiah 9:1-2), it was quite legitimate to find unexpected correspondences between the earlier and the later stages of Providence and Revelation, based on the deep underlying unity and consistency of the Divine purpose and methods
Isaiah - ISAIAH. —There are seven instances recorded in the Gospels in which Jesus quotes from the prophecies of Isaiah, besides numerous other cases in which His language is more or less manifestly reminiscent of expressions in the book. Luke 4:16-22, where Jesus reads and expounds the words of Isaiah 61:1-2; and Luke 22:37, where He adopts as a prediction of His own experience a clause of Isaiah 53:12. Our Lord thus plainly taught that, alike in the mission and in the vicarious suffering of the ideal Servant of Deutero-Isaiah, His own person and work were typified and foreshadowed. More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7). All three Synoptists record the quotation from Isaiah 56:7 with which He rebuked the temple-traders (Matthew 21:13 ||). John alone gives the quotation of a general character from Isaiah 54:13 (John 6:45), while St. Mark records an expression which manifestly comes from Isaiah 66:24 (Mark 9:48). In only three of the above seven cases is Isaiah mentioned by name, and in no case is there any indication that bears in the slightest degree upon the question as to the authorship of the various parts of the book. ...
In addition to these more direct references, there are many expressions in the discourses of Jesus in which we have echoes of Isaiah’s language. In Matthew 5:34-35 we perceive a reminiscence of Isaiah 66:1; Matthew 21:33 ff. , || at once suggests Isaiah 5:1-2. Isaiah 14:13; Isaiah 14:15) Matthew 16:19 (Isaiah 22:22) Matthew 6:6 (Isaiah 26:20); and various expressions in the eschatological discourses of Matthew 24 and Luke 21. But apart from doubtful cases, it will be seen that the Book of Isaiah, both in its earlier and in its later portions, is fully acknowledged and used in the teaching of Jesus. All four quote Isaiah 40:3 with regard to the mission of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:3 and ||); while Mt. , who uses the OT so largely in connexion with the ministry of Jesus, applies to His coming and mission the passages Isaiah 7:14 (Matthew 1:23) Isaiah 9:1-2 (Matthew 4:14-16) Isaiah 53:4 (Matthew 8:17) Isaiah 42:1-4 (Matthew 12:18-21). John (John 12:38-41) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the language of Isaiah 42:1. ‘Isaiah,’ even when named, stands manifestly for the reputed author, and (as in John 12:38) the mode of expression is naturally and rightly that popularly used and understood. And even in such passages as Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:1-2 quoted by Mt. Especially is this so with the prophetic conception of ‘Immanuel,’ an ideal figure in whom we find the earliest portraiture of the Messianic King (Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 8:10; Isaiah 9:6-7). Though it might in some cases be without historical or critical exactitude (as in Matthew 4:15-16 from Isaiah 9:1-2), it was quite legitimate to find unexpected correspondences between the earlier and the later stages of Providence and Revelation, based on the deep underlying unity and consistency of the Divine purpose and methods
Exactor - The KJV term for a taskmaster or a tax collector used only at Isaiah 60:17 . Most often the KJV translated the underlying Hebrew word as oppressor (Job 3:18 ; Isaiah 3:12 ; Isaiah 9:3 ; Isaiah 14:2 ,Isaiah 14:2,14:4 ; Zechariah 9:8 ; Zechariah 10:4 ). Isaiah's picture is striking. In the future God is preparing the only “rule” known will be peace, the only “oppression” known will be righteousness (Isaiah 60:17 )
Brier - Used metaphorically of the enemies of Israel (Ezekiel 28:24 ) and of land which is worthless (Isaiah 5:6 ; Isaiah 7:23-25 ; Isaiah 55:13 ; compare Micah 7:4 )
Esaias - (ih ssay' uhss) KJV transliteration of Greek spelling of Isaiah in New Testament. See Isaiah
Peep - Not "look" curiously, but "chirp" as young birds (Isaiah 8:19; Isaiah 10:14). The same Hebrew is translated "chatter" (Isaiah 38:14)
Faith: the Summary of Virtue - Isaiah brings them to six, Isaiah 33:4; Micah to three, Micah 6:8; Isaiah, again, to two, Isaiah 46; Habakkuk to this one, 'The just shall live by faith
Shebna - A major-domo or palace-governor of king Hezekiah, against whom is directed one of the recorded utterances of Isaiah ( Isaiah 22:15-25 ). see) to the post of palace-governor ( 2 Kings 18:18 ; 2 Kings 18:26-27 ; 2 Kings 19:2 = Isaiah 36:3 ; Isaiah 36:11 ; Isaiah 37:2 )
She'ar-ja'Shub - a remnant shall return ), the symbolical name of the son of Isaiah the prophet. ( Isaiah 7:3 )
Shearjashub - Symbolical name given to the elder son of the prophet Isaiah, signifying 'a remnant shall return. ' Isaiah 7:3
Hezekiah - And so very important was the life of this prince considered, to form a part in the records of the church, that the Holy Ghost directed the prophet Isaiah to give it again in his prophetical writings. (See Isaiah 36:1-22; Isaiah 37:1-38; Isaiah 38:1-22; Isaiah 39:1-8) The miraculous effect wrought on the sun-dial, in confirmation of the Lord's promise to Hezekiah, is an evident testimony of the Lord's favour to this prince. Hezekiah's hymn is beautiful, Isaiah 38:10-20
Servant of the Lord - ’ Such fuller significance attaches to the phrase when prophets ( Amos 3:7 , Isaiah 64:1-12 , Isaiah 42:1-44 , and often) or priests and Levites ( Psalms 134:1 ) are specified as ‘the servant of Jahweh’; so also when particular individuals are thus described. , and often), Joshua ( Joshua 24:29 ), Caleb ( Numbers 14:24 ), Job ( Job 1:8 ), David ( 2 Samuel 3:18 and often), Eliakim ( Isaiah 22:20 ), Zerubbabel ( Haggai 2:23 ), and the person who is termed ‘the Shoot’ (EV [1] text ‘the Branch,’ Isaiah 42:1-44 ). The use of the term in Deutero-Isaiah ( Isaiah 40:1-31 ; Isaiah 41:1-29 ; Isaiah 42:1-25 ; Isaiah 43:1-28 ; Isaiah 44:1-28 ; Isaiah 45:1-25 ; Isaiah 46:1-13 ; Isaiah 47:1-15 ; Isaiah 48:1-22 ; Isaiah 49:1-26 ; Isaiah 50:1-11 ; Isaiah 51:1-23 ; Isaiah 52:1-15 ; Isaiah 53:1-12 ; Isaiah 54:1-17 ; Isaiah 55:1-13 ) is peculiar. ’ These passages are Isaiah 41:8 f. , Isaiah 44:21 , Isaiah 49:3 , Isaiah 44:1 f. , Isaiah 45:4 . The same use of the term is found in Psalms 136:22 , which was written much later; but it does not occur in any extant literature that is unquestionably earlier than the Deutero-Isaiah, for Jeremiah 30:10 (not found in the Greek text) = Jeremiah 46:27 f. But though the particular character of ‘the servant of Jahweh’ in which the nation is personified may be peculiar to the Deutero-Isaiah, and one or two writers influenced by him, similar personifications are common enough with Hebrew writers, and are sometimes so remote from our habits of thought and expression that the RV
It must suffice to refer briefly here to one or two of the chief points for or against the two main alternatives that in these passages, as elsewhere in Deutero-Isaiah, the servant is Israel, or something less than Israel (whether a section of the nation or an individual). One of these, Isaiah 53:8 , as already stated, certainly does demand it, if the text be sound; but this is doubtful. The other passage is Isaiah 49:5-6 , which follows the statement in the present text that the servant is Israel ( Isaiah 49:3 ). ]'>[2] in Isaiah 49:5 is grammatically correct, it is not necessary; other grammatically correct translations are: ‘and now Jahweh that formed me to be his servant hath determined to bring back Jacob again to himself, and that Israel should be gathered to him,’ or ‘and now saith Jahweh that formed me from the womb to be his servant in that he brought Jacob again to him, and drew Israel unto him. In Isaiah 49:5 RV
(2) Apart from the passages just discussed, which are either textually open to suspicion or ambiguous in meaning, there is nothing that directly forbids identifying the servant with Israel in Isaiah 42:1-4 , Isaiah 49:1-6 , Isaiah 50:4-9 , Isaiah 52:13 to Isaiah 53:12 , as he is unmistakably identified with Israel by the Deutero-Isaiah in many passages (see § 4 ). In the present text of Isaiah 49:3 the identification is actually made. In Isaiah 49:1-6 the servant addresses the nations of the world, and the function of the servant, which on some interpretations (see above) alone is mentioned, and on any interpretation alone receives prominence , is that of spiritually illumining the nations; in Isaiah 52:13-15 Jahweh states that, as the past humiliation of the servant by its very extent attracted far-spread attention, so his coming exaltation will impress nations and kings. In Isaiah 53:1 ff. Again, the least difficult view as to the speakers who make this confession is that they are the nations referred to in Isaiah 52:15 , and that the servant is the Hebrew nation. That Israel suffered for the nations is certainly a remarkable idea, but that all the sufferings of Israel were not due to its own sins appears to be the thought of Deutero-Isaiah in Isaiah 40:2 . in Isaiah 40:27 . Skinner in the Cambridge Bible for Schools , ‘ Isaiah 40:1-31 ; Isaiah 41:1-29 ; Isaiah 42:1-25 ; Isaiah 43:1-28 ; Isaiah 44:1-28 ; Isaiah 45:1-25 ; Isaiah 46:1-13 ; Isaiah 47:1-15 ; Isaiah 48:1-22 ; Isaiah 49:1-26 ; Isaiah 50:1-11 ; Isaiah 51:1-23 ; Isaiah 52:1-15 ; Isaiah 53:1-12 ; Isaiah 54:1-17 ; Isaiah 55:1-13 ; Isaiah 56:1-12 ; Isaiah 57:1-21 ; Isaiah 58:1-14 ; Isaiah 59:1-21 ; Isaiah 60:1-22 ; Isaiah 61:1-11 ; Isaiah 62:1-12 ; Isaiah 63:1-19 ; 2 Kings 9:7 ; Isaiah 65:1-25 ; Isaiah 66:1-24 ,’ pp. Smith’s ‘Isaiah,’ vol. In NT some of the passages in the Deutero-Isaiah are frequently cited or referred to: and in most cases, though not in all (see Acts 13:47 , cf
Isaiah - The Historical Background Isaiah's ministry spanned the period from his call vision (about 740 B. In this era Isaiah exercised his prophetic ministry, a large part of which was politically involved with Judah and to a lesser extent Israel. ...
Personal Life of Isaiah Isaiah, the son of Amoz, was born in Judah, no doubt in Jerusalem, about 760 B. ...
Isaiah was called to be a prophet of Yahweh in striking visions which he experienced in the Temple about 740 B. , the year that the aged Judean king Uzziah died (Isaiah 6:1 ). ” God warned him that his ministry would meet with disappointment and meager results but also assured him that forgiveness would ever attend the penitent (Isaiah 6:5-7 ; Isaiah 1:19-20 ) and that the ultimate promises of God would be realized (Isaiah 6:13 ). ...
The prophet was married and was the father of two sons whose names symbolized Isaiah's public preaching: Mahershalalhashbaz (the spoil speeds; the prey hastes), a conviction that Assyria would invade Syria and Israel about 734 B. , and Sherajashub (a remnant shall return), a name that publicized his belief in the survival and conversion of a faithful remnant in Israel (Isaiah 1:9 ; Isaiah 7:3 ; Isaiah 8:1 ,Isaiah 8:1,8:4 ; Isaiah 10:20-23 ). ...
During the dark days when the Assyrians took over one Palestinian state after another, Isaiah firmly contended that the Judean monarchs ought to remain as neutral as possible, to refrain from rebellious acts, and to pay tribute. When the Israelites and Syrians jointly attacked Judah for refusing to join the anti-Assyrian coalition (Isaiah 7:1-9 ; Isaiah 8:1-15 ), he deplored the dangerous policy of purchasing protection from the Assyrians. when the city of Ashdod rebelled against Assyria, Isaiah assumed the garb of a captive for three years calling on Hezekiah not to take the fatal step of joining the rebellion. No doubt he was instrumental in influencing Hezekiah to reject the seditious plot (Isaiah 20:1-6 ). That same resolute policy assured Isaiah that Jerusalem would not fall to Sennacherib in 701 B. despite the ominous outlook the Assyrian envoys forecast (Isaiah 36-37 ). Isaiah soundly castigated Hezekiah for entertaining the seditious Babylonian princelet whose real purpose was to secure military aid for a rebellion in south Babylonia in an effort to overthrow Sennacherib (Isaiah 39:1 ). ...
Literary and Theological Pronouncements Israel made no clear separation of church and state; accordingly most of the utterances of Isaiah are religious and political in character in spite of their literary diversity. Underlying his conceptual world was his inaugural vision: Yahweh was the ultimate King; His nature was infinite holiness or transcendence; His holiness manifested itself in righteousness (Isaiah 5:16 ). The vision of Isaiah indicated the resistance this program would encounter but concluded with the certainty of its performance. ...
With this theological perspective Isaiah inveighed against the errant nation of Judah (Isaiah 1:2-9 ; Isaiah 2:6-22 ; Isaiah 3:1-4:1 ) even using the guise of a love song (Isaiah 5:1-7 ). His wrath also attacked Israel (Isaiah 9:8-21 ; Isaiah 28:1-29 ). The character of true religion was absent; they needed to desist from evil, to learn to do good, to seek justice, correct oppression, defend the fatherless, plead for the widow (Isaiah 1:17 ). ...
Though the indictments were severe, Isaiah still held out the hope of forgiveness to the penitent (Isaiah 1:18-31 ) and pointed to days coming when God would establish peace (Isaiah 2:1-4 ; Isaiah 4:2-6 ). He promised the Messiah, the son of David, who would assume the chief role in the fulfillment of the Abrahamic-Davidic covenantal promises (Isaiah 9:2-7 ; Isaiah 11:1-9 ). ...
Isaiah is remembered for his magnificent conception of God. The thrice-repeated term “holy” is equivalent to holiness to the nth or infinite degree ( Isaiah 38:9-2108 ). Yahweh is Lord of all, King of the universe, the Lord of history who exhibits His character in righteousness, that is, in self-consistent acts of rightness (Isaiah 5:16 ). Isaiah was certain that a faithful remnant would always carry on the divine mission (Shearjashub, Isaiah 1:9 ). ...
The Disciples of Isaiah During the ministry of Isaiah when the Judeans discounted his stern warnings, he ordered that his “testimony” and “teaching” be bound and sealed—no doubt in a scroll—and committed to his disciples until history proved his words true (Isaiah 8:16 ). Most people did not accept Isaiah's message, but he had disciples who did. ...
In Isaiah's time the great military power that threatened the Palestinian states was Assyria. In much of the book that now bears the name of Isaiah, the reigning power was Babylon, which did not rise to power until after 625 B. , over 50 years after Isaiah's death. Some Bible students think that the writings that reflect the Babylonian period may be the work of the disciples of Isaiah, who projected his thought into the new and changed situation of the Babylonian world. Others would say in the Spirit Isaiah was projected supernaturally into the future, thus able to know even the name of Cyrus, King of Persia (Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1 ). ...
The Prophetic Critique of Foreign Affairs Israel's prophets such as Amos, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah devoted considerable attention to political pronouncements regarding foreign nations. Those thus singled out included Babylon (Isaiah 13-14 ), Moab (Isaiah 15-16 ), Damascus (Isaiah 17:1-14 ), Ethiopia (Isaiah 18:1 ), Egypt (Isaiah 19-20 ), and Tyre (Isaiah 23:1 ). The speeches of Isaiah or his disciples would be relayed to the foreign capitals as a significant utterance on foreign affairs. ...
The “Little Apocalypse” (Isaiah 24–27 ) Midway between prophetic prediction and apocalypticism are these four chapters. In Isaiah 24-27 two opposing forces were pitted in conflict: they were presented as two cities. Some four hymns are in Isaiah 24-27 . ...
A Collection of Prophetic Oracles (Isaiah 28–35 ) Since five in this series of prophecies commence with an introductory “woe,” it suggests that much of this block of materials will be negative in its criticism. Thus in Isaiah 28:1 the inebriated aristocracy of Israel failed to discern the fading flower of their nation; and they were supported in their dereliction by the priests and prophets. Indeed, they mimicked sarcastically Isaiah's plain speech as childish prattle, to which he retorted that if they did not understand simple Hebrew, Yahweh would speak to them in Assyrian! Yet, those that trusted in God stood on a firm foundation, a foundation laid in righteousness and justice. It alone would stand ( Isaiah 28:16-22 ). ...
Isaiah 29-35 are largely directed to Judah; elements of severe censure are often followed by oracles of comfort. Such passages as Isaiah 28:5-6 ; Isaiah 29:5-8 ,Isaiah 29:5-8,29:17-24 ; Isaiah 30:18-33 ; Isaiah 31:4-9 ; Isaiah 32:1-5 ,Isaiah 32:1-5,32:8 ,Isaiah 32:8,32:15-20 ; Isaiah 33:2-6 ,Isaiah 33:2-6,33:17-24 contrast with these passages. The conclusion of this segment includes the juxtaposition of a negative oracle against Edom, here symbolic of evil, with a paradisiacal contrast involving Israel ( Isaiah 34-35 ). Much like the theme of Isaiah 24-27 , it forecasted the ultimate fulfillment of divine purposes in history. ...
The Historical Appendage With the exception of 1619110985_2 , an original thanksgiving song of Hezekiah after a severe illness, the rest of Isaiah 36-39 duplicates 2 Kings 18:13-20:19 . ...
The Book of Consolation (Isaiah 40–55 )...
Its Historical Background. The setting of these chapters is incontestably that of the later years of the Babylonian Exile when Cyrus (Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1 ) was beginning his conquests which would ultimately overthrow the Babylonian power (550 B. The writer hailed Cyrus as the shepherd of Yahweh who would build Jerusalem and set the exiles free (Isaiah 44:26-45:1 ). But what of the long, arduous journey through the desert with its multiplied dangers? The prophetic voice assured the exiles that God would prepare a level highway for their journey, provide for their sustenance, and lead them back to their homeland (Isaiah 40:1 ). The prophetic voice of Isaiah 40-55 affirmed the purpose of God in the dark days of the Babylonian Exile. However, arising from the messages of comfort and dialogue are four so-called Servant Songs ( Isaiah 42:1-4 ; Isaiah 49:1-6 ; Isaiah 50:4-9 ; and Isaiah 52:13-53:12 ). There can be no doubt but that the authentic Israel was the servant the prophet had in mind (Isaiah 49:3 ). ...
The religious affirmation of Isaiah 40–55 . What a sorry contrast was the Babylonian idolatry with its vaunted pretensions (Isaiah 46-47 ). ...
The Concluding Prophetic Oracles (Isaiah 56–66 )...
Its Historical Setting. Here is a change of venue from Isaiah 40-55 ; no longer was Babylon the focus; Palestine was, with the Temple restored and sacrifice and worship being conducted. The subjects handled in this section include an oracle on sabbath keeping (Isaiah 56:1-8 ), censure of civil and religious leaders (Isaiah 56:9-57:12 ), an analysis of the meaning of fasting (Isaiah 58:1 ), the dilemma of the unfulfilled divine promises (Isaiah 59:1 ), hopeful encouragement to be anticipated (Isaiah 60-64 ), the grievous sin of Judah and the blessedness of the righteous remnant (Isaiah 65:1 ), and brief fragments on a number of subjects (Isaiah 66:1 ). cgi?q1=Isaiah+56:3-7&t1=en_nas" id="74" class="stL" target
Battle - "Them that turn the battle to the gate" (Isaiah 28:6), "those defenders of their country who not only repel the foe, but drive him to the gate of his own city. " "In battles of shaking" (Isaiah 30:32), i. in shock of battles; Isaiah 19:16, "because of the shaking of the hand of the Lord of hosts"; a mere waive of His hand, the slightest display of His power, shall be enough to discomfit (Isaiah 37:36)
Beulah - ) Israel's future name when restored to her divine Husband, Protector, and Lord (Isaiah 62:4; compare Isaiah 54:4-6)
Stake - It was used figuratively of Jerusalem (Isaiah 33:20 ; Isaiah 54:2 )
Palestina - (pal uhss ti' nuh) KJV alternate name for Philistia (Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29 ,Isaiah 14:29,14:31 )
Righteousness - ( a ) It is perhaps safest to begin with the forensic or juristic application, The plaintiff or defendant in a legal case who was in the right was ‘righteous’ ( Deuteronomy 25:1 , Isaiah 5:23 ); and his claim resting on his good behaviour was ‘righteousness’ ( Isaiah 52:1-154 ). The Messianic King, who would be the ideal judge, would he ‘swift to do righteousness’ ( Isaiah 51:1-23 ), would ‘judge the poor with righteousness’ ( Isaiah 11:4 ), and would have ‘righteousness for the girdle of his loins’ ( Isaiah 11:5 ). The purified Jerusalem would be ‘a city of righteousness’ ( Isaiah 1:26 ). On the other hand, corrupt judges ‘cast down righteousness to the earth’ ( Amos 5:7 ), and ‘take away the righteousness of the righteous from him’ ( Isaiah 5:23 ). ‘balances of wickedness’ ( Micah 6:11 ) or ‘balances of deceit’ ( Isaiah 61:1-11 ). with Psalms 1:5 b and Isaiah 41:1-295 a). , Isaiah 41:8-11 , and other parts of Deutero-Isaiah, Habakkuk 1:13 etc. ), or a portion of Israel ( Isaiah 51:1 ; Isaiah 51:7 etc. ), God Himself is naturally thought of as essentially righteous ( Deuteronomy 32:4 where ‘just’ = ‘righteous’; Jeremiah 12:1 , Isaiah 42:21 , Psalms 7:9 (10) 11 (12), His throne is founded on righteousness and judgment ( Psalms 89:14 , (15)), and all His ways exhibit righteousness ( Psalms 145:17 ). As, however, Israel was often unrighteous, the righteousness of Jehovah could then be revealed to it only in judgment ( Isaiah 1:27 ; Isaiah 5:18 ; Isaiah 10:22 ). ( e ) So in a number of passages, especially in Isaiah 40:1-31 ; 1619110985_40 ; Isaiah 42:1-25 ; Isaiah 43:1-28 ; Isaiah 44:1-28 ; Isaiah 45:1-25 ; Isaiah 46:1-13 ; Isaiah 47:1-15 ; Isaiah 48:1-22 ; Isaiah 49:1-26 ; Isaiah 50:1-11 ; Isaiah 16:5 ; 1619110985_47 ; Isaiah 53:1-12 ; Isaiah 54:1-17 ; Isaiah 55:1-13 ; Isaiah 56:1-12 ; Isaiah 57:1-21 ; Isaiah 58:1-14 ; Isaiah 59:1-21 ; Isaiah 60:1-22 ; Amos 8:5 ; Isaiah 62:1-12 ; Isaiah 63:1-19 ; Isaiah 64:1-12 ; Isaiah 65:1-25 ; Isaiah 66:1-24 , ‘righteousness’ is almost synonymous with justification, salvation ( Isaiah 45:8 ; Isaiah 46:13 ; Isaiah 51:6 f. , Isaiah 58:6 ; Isaiah 59:9 ; Isaiah 61:11 ; Isaiah 62:1 ; many passages in Psalms Tire - The same Hebrew word, peër, is translated 'bonnet' in Isaiah 3:20 ; Ezekiel 44:18 ; and 'ornament' in Isaiah 61:10 . In Isaiah 3:18 , 'round tires like the moon' is a translation of a different word, saharonim, meaning 'crescents,' as in R
a-i'Ath - (feminine of Ai ), a place named by Isaiah, ( Isaiah 10:28 ) in connection with Migron and Michmash probably the same as Ai
Peep - To ‘peep’ ( Isaiah 8:10 ; Isaiah 10:14 ) is to ‘cheep’ as nestlings do
Tarshish - Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 23:6; Isaiah 23:10; Isaiah 66:19; Jeremiah 10:9; Ezekiel 27:12; Ezekiel 27:25; Ezekiel 38:13. "Ships of Tarshish" designated ships employed by the Tyrians in voyages to and from Tarshish, Isaiah 60:9; Jonah 1:3; Jonah 4:2; possibly all large merchant ships. Isaiah 2:16; Psalms 48:7
Rabshakeh - "chief cupbearer" (2 Kings 18-19; Isaiah 36-37). Sent by Sennacherib with Tartan who probably had chief command (first in 2 Kings 18:17; Isaiah 20:1) of an army to induce Jerusalem by threats and promises to surrender. This is favored by his familiarity with the Hebrew language, in which he addresses fluently (to the annoyance of Hezekiah's officers sent to meet him) the Jews on the wall, and with Isaiah's prophecy (Isaiah 8:7-8; Isaiah 10:5-6): "am I now come up without the Lord to destroy it? The Lord said, Go up against this land" (2 Kings 18:25). Isaiah (Isaiah 33:14) alludes to traitors, "sinners in Zion," "hypocrites. "...
Rabshakeh was a zealous pleader for his master, reckless of truth, glossing over the real miseries of deportation by Assyria (Isaiah 36:16-17), pretending to have Jehovah on his side, yet classing Jehovah with the idols of other lands overthrown by Assyria (Isaiah 36:18-20, liars need to have good memories), trying to rob the godly of their one only but sure trust in trouble, misrepresenting Hezekiah's faithful act in removing forbidden high places to Jehovah, as though he thereby had dishonored and so forfeited the favor of Jehovah (Isaiah 36:7), boasting of Assyria's might, as if, because Judah could not supply 2,000 riders if even Assyria supplied the horses, it were impossible the Jews could repel one of the least of Assyria's captains (Isaiah 36:8-9); in filthy and blasphemous language he threatens to reduce them to eat their own excrement in the extremity of famine (Isaiah 36:12; 2 Chronicles 32:11): a sample of the true nature of the pagan attack on Jerusalem, at once arrogant, blasphemous, and reckless of all decency
Rezin - Isaiah was sent to comfort Ahaz, but he asked the aid of Assyria, sending him silver and gold. 2 Kings 15:37 ; 2 Kings 16:5-9 ; Isaiah 7:1-8 ; Isaiah 8:6 ; Isaiah 9:11
Isaiah, Book of - Isaiah, BOOK OF . The Book of Isaiah is one of the four great collections of Hebrew prophecies. Like the book of ‘The Twelve Prophets’ another of these great collections (see Micah [1]) it was formed by incorporating with one another smaller and earlier collections, and contains prophecies of many prophets living at different periods; with the exception of Isaiah’s, the prophecies contained in the collection are anonymous, the term ‘Deutero-Isaiah,’ applied to the author of chs. The Book of Isaiah, substantially as we now have it, probably dates, like the ‘Book of the Twelve Prophets,’ from towards the end of the 3rd cent. 180, refers to Isaiah as one of the godly men of Israel, worthy of praise, and, as afterwards (Isaiah 49:6-8 ) In the case of Ezekiel and of Jeremiah, he cites, or alludes to, certain sections which now stand in the book that bears the prophet’s name. Thus he says: Isaiah 49:22 ‘For Hezekiah did that which was pleasing to the Lord, and was strong in the ways of David his father, which Isaiah the prophet commanded, who was great and faithful in his vision’; Isaiah 49:23 ‘In his days the sun went backward; and he added life to the king’; Isaiah 49:24 ‘By a spirit of might be saw the end, and comforted the mourners in Sion’; Isaiah 49:25 ‘For ever he declared the things that should be, and hidden things before they came. ’ Possibly the last clause of Isaiah 49:22 refers to the title ‘The vision of Isaiah’ ( Isaiah 1:1 ); certainly Isaiah 1:23 refers to the narrative of Isaiah 38 (= 2 Kings 20:1-21 ), and Isaiah 1:24 f. Isaiah 41:21-24 , Isaiah 43:9 , Isaiah 46:9 , Isaiah 48:4 ff. ), while 48:24b is somewhat clearly reminiscent of the actual phraseology of Isaiah 40:1 , Isaiah 61:2-3 . 40 66 (or the most part thereof), and that the whole book at this time was attributed to Isaiah. Actual citations from the Book of Isaiah by name , which would help to prove the extent of the book at given periods, are not numerous before the 1st cent. , when we find several in the NT: Isaiah 1:9 is cited in Romans 9:29 ; Isaiah 6:9 f. ; Isaiah 9:1 f. ; Romans 11:10 in isa 15:12; Isaiah 29:13 in Mark 7:6 f. ; Isaiah 40:3-5 in ( Mark 1:3 ) Matthew 3:3 ; 42:1 4 in Matthew 12:17-21 ; 53:1, 4, 7f. ; Isaiah 61:1 f. in Luke 4:17-19 ; Isaiah 65:1 f. ), some of which, like the unnamed citations from the Greek text of Isaiah 3:10 ; Isaiah 44:20 in Wis 2:12 ; Wis 15:10 (about b. Still, rigorous proof that the Book of Isaiah contained all that it now contains much before the final close of the Canon (see Canon of OT), is wanting. 40 66 ranked as Isaiah’s as early as b. 40 66 were not included in the Book of Isaiah much before the close of the 3rd cent. For the Chronicler here attributes the prophecy of Cyrus, which forms so conspicuous a feature of Is 40 48 (see Isaiah 41:1 f. , Isaiah 43:24 to Isaiah 45:7 , and esp. compare 2 Chronicles 36:23 with Isaiah 43:28 ), not to Isaiah but to Jeremiah, which he would scarcely have done if in his time (not earlier than b. 300) these anonymous chapters were already incorporated in a book entitled Isaiah. If we reject this inference, we are thrown back entirely on the evidence of the Book of Isaiah itself for the determination of the earliest date at which it can have been compiled. 1 35 prophecies, some of which are attributed to Isaiah ( Isaiah 1:1 ; Isaiah 2:1 etc. ), interspersed with narratives by or about Isaiah (chs. 36 39 historical narratives of the life and times of Isaiah, identical in the main with 2 Kings 18:1-37 ; 2 Kings 19:1-37 ; 2 Kings 20:1-21 ; ( c ) chs. , suggests that our present book has resulted from the union of a prophetic volume, consisting (in the main) of prophecies by or attributed to Isaiah, with an historical appendix and a book of anonymous prophecies. ...
If it were possible to write a full history of the literary process which culminated in the Book of Isaiah as we now have it, it would be necessary to trace in detail first the growth of chs. ; see above), or whether, as some have supposed, they were added to make the Book of Isaiah more nearly equal in size to the other prophetic collections Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and the Twelve with the result that as early as b. 180 these chapters came to be attributed to Isaiah; or whether something else, which we cannot conjecture, was the real cause of this union. Ezekiel 1:1-28 , Jeremiah 1:1-19 ) of Isaiah, which naturally preceded any of his prophecies, is recorded not in ch. The cause of the order in the case of the Book of Isaiah may in part be found in the fact that (2) the occurrence of several titles and indications of different principles of editorial arrangement points to the fact that chs. 1 with title ( Isaiah 5:1 ), probably intended to cover the larger collection; (2) chs. 2 12 with title Isaiah 2:1 ; (3) chs. 13 23 with title Isaiah 13:1 naming Isaiah, and corresponding sub-titles not mentioning Isaiah, in Isaiah 15:1 , Isaiah 17:1 , Isaiah 19:1 , Isaiah 21:1 ; Isaiah 21:11 ; Isaiah 21:13 , Isaiah 22:1 , Isaiah 23:1 (cf. elsewhere Isaiah 30:6 ); (4) chs. 28 31 (33) a group of woes; see Isaiah 28:1 , Isaiah 29:1 (RV [2] ‘Ho’ represents the same Hebrew word that is translated ‘Woe’ in Isaiah 28:1 etc. ) Isaiah 30:1 , Isaiah 31:1 , Isaiah 33:1 ; (6) chs. 2 4 are prophecies of judgment enclosed between Messianic prophecies Isaiah 2:2-7 and Isaiah 4:2-6 ; ch. It is more important to appreciate the general fact, which is clear, that the Book of Isaiah is the result of a long and complex literary history, than to be ready to subscribe to any particular theory of this history. (2) The earliest stage of this long literary process falls in the lifetime of Isaiah ( c
But how far, if not in the order in which he spoke or wrote them, have the words of Isaiah reached us substantially as he spoke them. Isaiah was pre-eminently a prophet of judgment; but intermingled with his warnings are many passages of promise: see e. Isaiah 2:2-4 and Isaiah 4:2-6 , enclosing Isaiah 2:7 to Isaiah 4:1 , Isaiah 9:1-6 concluding the warnings of ch. Are these passages of promise Isaiah’s, or the work of some later writers with which later editors sought to comfort as well as to exhort their readers? These questions in general, and in detail with reference to each particular passage, are still far from settled. The general question of Messianic prophecy in Isaiah is briefly referred to in preceding art. to the Book of Isaiah , or commentaries such as those of Duhm and Marti, or, on a smaller scale and in English, of Whitehouse. Here this alone can be said: the period over which and down to which the history of the growth of the Book of Isaiah extends, and the complexity of that growth, would easily allow of these passages being incorporated as suggested by the theory; and we have the presumption created, for example, by the absence of the last clause of ch. Once the significance of the complexity of the Book of Isaiah is grasped, this at least should become clear, that the question, is such and
Abi - Daughter of Zechariah; the witness perhaps taken by Isaiah (Isaiah 8:2)
Rush, Rushes - ]'>[2] ‘papyrus’), Job 8:11 , Isaiah 18:2 (AV [4] ‘papyrus’) Isaiah 35:7 . a rope of rushes’) Isaiah 41:20 (AV [4][11] rushes’), Isaiah 9:14 ; Isaiah 19:15 ; Isaiah 58:5 (AV Reed - אגמון , Job 40:21 ; Job 41:2 ; Job 41:20 ; Isaiah 9:14 ; Isaiah 19:15 ; Isaiah 58:5 ; καλαμος , Matthew 11:7 ; a plant growing in fenny and watery places; very weak and slender, and bending with the least breath of wind, Matthew 11:7 ; Luke 7:24 . The slenderness and fragility of the reed is mentioned in 2 Kings 18:21 ; Isaiah 36:6 ; and is referred to in Matthew 12:20 , where the remark, illustrating the gentleness of our Saviour, is quoted from the prophecy of Isaiah 42:3 . The Hebrew word in these places is קנה , as also in Job 40:21 ; Isaiah 19:6 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; Ezekiel 29:6
Shiloah, Waters of - Isaiah (Isaiah 8:6) makes it represent the quiet confidence in Jehovah's benignant sway, exercised through David's line, to which he urged the Jews, in contrast to the overwhelming force of Assyria (like the flood of the Euphrates) which they sought as an ally. Northern Israel too preferred Rezin of Syria, and Pekah, to alliance with Judah, represented by softly flowing Shiloah (Isaiah 8:6; Isaiah 8:17; Isaiah 8:14)
Peg - Pegs were used: to secure tents (Judges 4:21-22 ; Judges 5:26 ); to hang articles (Isaiah 22:23 ,Isaiah 22:23,22:25 ; Ezekiel 15:3 ); to weave cloth (Judges 16:14 ); even to dig latrines (Deuteronomy 23:13 ). Isaiah 22:23-25 used the image of a peg which gives way to picture false security in a leader. In Isaiah 33:22 secure tent pegs symbolize that God keeps Jerusalem secure. The enlarged tent and strengthened tent pegs of Isaiah 54:2 illustrate God's restoration of Jerusalem
Chisel - Hoqqi is a verbal noun meaning cutting out or engraving ( Isaiah 22:16 ; Isaiah 30:8 ). Isaiah employs a word used nowhere else and meaning a carpenter's tool for forming an idol. ” Ma' atsad is apparently a small, curved cutting tool, perhaps an adze ( Isaiah 44:12 ; Jeremiah 10:3 ). KJV reads “tongs” in Isaiah 44:12
Cummin - כמון , Isaiah 28:25 ; Isaiah 28:27 ; κυμινον , Matthew 23:23 . The Jews sowed it in their fields, and when ripe threshed out the seeds with a rod, Isaiah 28:25 ; Isaiah 28:27
Tinkling Ornaments - Part of the finery of the affluent women of Jerusalem (Isaiah 3:16 ,Isaiah 3:16,3:18 )
Lop - Isaiah 10:33 (b) GOD is telling us that He will cut off and destroy the enemies of Israel, the Assyrians. (See Isaiah 10:24)
Elealeh - Appropriated by Moab, and named as a Moabite town by Isaiah (Isaiah 15:4; Isaiah 16:9; Jeremiah 48:34) along with Heshbon
Wimple - Old English for hood or veil (Isaiah 3:22), mitpahath . Isaiah (Isaiah 3:22) introduces it among the concomitants of luxury with which the women of Israel had burdened themselves, so as to copy the Egyptian and other people's habits of braiding the hair, etc
Dealer - Isaiah 21:2 (a) This undoubtedly refers to the teachers, preachers and spiritual guides in all false religions who lead their hearers astray, and charge a good price for their services. (See also Jeremiah 6:13; Jeremiah 8:10; Isaiah 24:16; Isaiah 33:1)
Shear Jashub - ") Isaiah's son who accompanied him in meeting Ahab. His name was a standing memorial to Ahaz, symbolizing the saving of the remnant of Judah when Israel was cast away (Isaiah 7:1-7; Isaiah 10:20-22; Isaiah 6:13), therefore that Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Damascus could not succeed
Viol - A six stringed guitar, in old English (Isaiah 5:12; Isaiah 14:11; Amos 5:23; Amos 6:5)
Amoz - Father of the prophet Isaiah ( 2 Kings 19:2 , Isaiah 1:1 etc
Shearjashub - ” First son of the prophet Isaiah, born probably around 737 B. Isaiah apparently named him (and his brother, Mahershalalhashbaz) as an embodiment of prophecy, that Judah would fall, but a remnant would survive. On one occasion, Shearjashub accompanied his father on a trip to assure King Ahaz that the alliance of Syria and Israel would not be allowed to harm Judah (Isaiah 7:3-7 ). See Isaiah
Siloah - Isaiah 8:1-22; Isaiah 6:1-13. There were two pools, the upper, Isaiah 7:3, or king's pool, Nehemiah 2:14, and the lower pool. Isaiah 22:9
Shear-Jashub - , to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isaiah 7:3 ), perhaps his eldest son
Esaias - The Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized Version of the New Testament (Matthew 3:3 ; 4:14 ), but in the Revised Version always "Isaiah
Jeberechiah - ” Father of Zechariah who served as witness for Isaiah (Isaiah 8:2 ; compare 2 Kings 18:2 )
Crane - KJV translation of the Hebrew word in Isaiah 38:14 ; Jeremiah 8:7 . Modern translations read, “swift” (NIV, NAS, REB) or dove (Isaiah 38:14 REB)
Rush - גמא , Exodus 2:3 ; Job 8:11 ; Isaiah 18:2 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; a plant crowing in the water at the sides of rivers, and in marshy grounds
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - Plunder speedeth; spoil hasteth, (Isaiah 8:1-3 ; Compare Zephaniah 1:14 ), a name Isaiah was commanded first to write in large characters on a tablet, and afterwards to give as a symbolical name to a son that was to be born to him (Isaiah 8:1,3 ), as denoting the sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by the Assyrian army
Brook - Yeor, the Nile canals, Isaiah 19:6-8; Isaiah 23:3; Isaiah 23:10, but general in Daniel 12:5-7
Isaiah - Isaiah (î-zâ'yah or î-zä'yah), salvation of Jehovah. He was the son of Amoz, Isaiah 1:1, whom rabbinical tradition represents as the brother of king Amaziah. He was married, his wife being called "the prophetess," Isaiah 8:3, not because she exercised the prophetic gift herself, but simply because she was married to a prophet. Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 8:1-3. It is presumed that he ordinarily wore a hair-cloth garment, Isaiah 20:2; but there is no reason for believing that he was an ascetic. Isaiah prophesied under Uzziah, receiving the divine call in the last year of that monarch's reign, Isaiah 6:1-13; and under the succeeding kings, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. Isaiah 1:1. Isaiah is the evangelist among the Old Testament prophets. Isaiah is also one of the greatest of poets. Among the other prophets each of the more important ones is distinguished by some one particular excellence and some one peculiar talent; in Isaiah all kinds of talent and all beauties of prophetic discourse meet together, so as mutually to temper and qualify each other; it is not so much any single feature that distinguishes him as the symmetry and perfection as a whole. In the sentiment he expresses, in the topics of his discourses and in the manner, Isaiah uniformly reveals himself as the king prophet
Hood - tsaniph) a tiara round the head (Isaiah 3:23 ; RSV, pl. Rendered "diadem," Job 29:14 ; high priest's "mitre," Zechariah 3:5 ; "royal diadem," Isaiah 62:3
Willows, the Brook of the, - a wady mentioned by Isaiah, (Isaiah 15:7 ) in his dirge over Moab
Cockatrice - Isaiah 14:29 (b) This represents the cruel and evil result of plans which are promoted by Satan and carried out by wicked men. (See also Isaiah 59:5)
a'Moz - (strong ), father of the prophet Isaiah, and, according to rabbinical tradition, brother of Amaziah king of Judah. ( 2 Kings 19:2,20 ; 20:1 ; Isaiah 1:1 ) (B
Tow - Short, broken fibers of flax, known to be easily broken and highly flammable, used as a figure for weakness and transience (Judges 16:9 ; Isaiah 1:31 ; Isaiah 43:17 )
ba'Jith - ( Isaiah 15:2 ) and comp. (Isaiah 16:12 )
Lodge - A shed for a watchman in a garden (Isaiah 1:8 ). ) in Isaiah 24:20
Cummin - Isaiah portrayed the planting and threshing of cummin ( Isaiah 28:25 ,Isaiah 28:25,28:27 )
Kir-Haraseth - ; or Kir-hareseth, Isaiah 16:7; or Kir-haresh (kir-hâ'resh), Isaiah 16:11 A. ; or Kir-heres (kir-hç'res), Jeremiah 48:31; Jeremiah 48:36; or simply Kir of Moab, Isaiah 15:1
Joah - One of the three sent to meet Rabshakeh (Isaiah 36:3; Isaiah 36:11-12). Isaiah 36:2
Isaiah - Isaiah . , some of whose prophecies are preserved in the OT, Isaiah appeared third in the order of time some twenty years after Amos preached at Bethel, and a few years after Hosea had begun, but before he had ceased, to prophesy. Isaiah’s prophetic career apparently began before, but closed after, that of Micah. Amos was a native of Judah, but prophesied in and to Israel; and thus Isaiah is the earliest of these four prophets who addressed himself primarily to Judah, and even he in his earlier years, like his fellow-countryman Amos, prophesied also against Israel (see Isaiah 9:7 to Isaiah 10:4 ; Isaiah 5:26-30 ; Isaiah 17:1-11 ). ...
Our knowledge of the life and teaching of Isaiah rests on the book that bears his name, which, however, is not a book compiled by him, but one containing, together with other matter, such of his prophecies as have been preserved, and narratives relating to him; see, in detail, next article. ...
Isaiah received the call to be a prophet ‘in the year that king Uzziah (or Azariah) died’ (Isaiah 6:1 ). If Azariah king of Judah and the Azriau king of Jaudi mentioned in Tiglath-pileser’s annals of the year 738 be identical, Isaiah’s call cannot be placed earlier than 738. In any case Isaiah’s public career covered at the least close on forty years, whence we may infer that, like Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 1:6 ), he became a prophet in early life. Not improbably he was a man of rank, at least he had easy access to the king ( Isaiah 7:1 ff. ), and was on terms of intimacy with persons of high position ( Isaiah 8:2 ). Isaiah was married, and his wife is termed the prophetess ( Isaiah 9:1-64 ). Like Hosea, he gave to his children, Shear-jashub ( Isaiah 7:3 ) and Maher-shalai-hash-baz ( Isaiah 8:3 ), names which briefly stated characteristic elements in his teaching; his own name, though of a normal and frequent Hebrew type, also happened to have a significance (‘help of Jahweh’ or ‘Jahweh helps’) of which he could have made use; that he actually did so we may perhaps infer from Isaiah 8:18 , if we do not rather interpret that statement, so far as Isaiah himself is concerned, of such symbolic conduct as that which he pursued when he went ‘half-clad and barefoot’ (ch. 735 734: Isaiah 7:1 to Isaiah 8:18 ); of the siege of Ashdod in b. The last-mentioned narratives are, however, of a later age than that of Isaiah, and require to be carefully used. ...
At the time of his call Isaiah became conscious that he was to be a teacher whose primary task was to warn his people of judgment to come, of judgment which was to issue in the extermination of his nation (Isaiah 6:10-13 the last clause is absent from the LXX [2] Isaiah 30:1-6 ; Isaiah 30:15 , Isaiah 31:1-3 ); and to the fact that from the first he set about the creation of a society of disciples who were to perpetuate his teaching (cf. Isaiah 8:16 ). ...
Although judgment to come was the fundamental note of Isaiah’s teaching, there was another note that marked it from the outset: Israel-Judah was to perish, but a remnant was to survive. This at least seems to be the significance of the name of Shear-jashub , who must have been born very shortly after the call, since in 735 he was old enough to accompany his father on his visit to Ahaz ( Isaiah 7:3 ). Beyond the judgment, moreover, he looked forward to a new Jerusalem, righteous and faithful ( Isaiah 1:26 ). How much further was Isaiah’s doctrine of the future developed? Was he the creator of those ideas more particularly summed up in the term ‘Messianic,’ which exercised so powerful an influence in the later periods of Judaism, and which are doubtless among those most intimately connected with the prophet in the minds of the majority of students of the Bible? In particular, was the vision ( 1619110985_91 ) of the Prince of Peace with world-wide dominion his? Or, to take another detail, did he hold that Zion itself was invincible, even though hostile hosts should approach it? These are questions that have been raised and have not yet received a decisive answer. On the one hand, it is exceedingly probable that in the several collections of the ancient prophecies later passages of promise have in some instances been added to earlier prophecies of judgment; that later prophecy in general is fuller than the earlier of promises; and that several of the Messianic passages, in particular, in the Book of Isaiah, stand isolated and disconnected from passages which bear unmistakably the impress of Isaiah or his age. On the other hand, Isaiah’s belief in a remnant, which seems secured (apart from individual and perhaps doubtful passages) by the name of his son, forms a certain and perhaps a sufficient basis for the more elaborate details of the future. Further, from the very fact that they deal with the future, the passages in question, even if they were by Isaiah, might naturally bear less unmistakable evidence of their age than those which deal with the social and political conditions of his own time. And again, had Isaiah prophesied exclusively of judgment and destruction, we might have expected to find his name coupled with Micah’s in Jeremiah 26:18 f
Emmanuel - " It answers both in the LXX, and Matthew 1:23 , to the Hebrew, עמנואל , from עם , with, נו , us, and אל , God, Isaiah 7:14 ; Isaiah 8:8
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - ) As Immanuel, Isaiah's (Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 8:1-4) first son by the virgin, was the sign of Judah's deliverance, so Maher-shalal-hash-baz the second son is the sign of destruction to Judah's enemies, Syria and Samaria. Shearjashub (Isaiah 7:3, "a remnant shalt return") was another sign that Judah should not be utterly destroyed, notwithstanding its terrible defeat by Pekah of Israel, and notwithstanding Syria's confederacy with Israel against it (Isaiah 7:17-25; Isaiah 8:6-9)
Isaiah, Martyrdom of - The narrative concerns Isaiah who makes predictions concerning the evil deeds of Manasseh. An evil priest offers Isaiah freedom if he will retract his prophecies of judgment. Empowered by God's Spirit, Isaiah resists and suffers martyrdom by being sawn in two. Hebrews 11:37 is a likely allusion to such a tradition of the faithfulness and martyrdom of Isaiah. 200) with details of the tradition suggests their dependence on the Martydom of Isaiah
Fuel - Isaiah 9:5, Isaiah 9:19 (a) By this figure the Lord is describing those ungodly, rebellious folk who are material for the fires of hell
Screech Owl - KJV used for lilith ( Isaiah 34:14 ). See Isaiah 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 ) but simply “owls” at Isaiah 14:23 . REB used “screech owl” for Hebrew yanshuph ( Leviticus 11:17 ; Deuteronomy 14:16 ; Isaiah 34:11 )
Counselor - Israelite kings seem to have employed counselors on a regular basis (see 2 Samuel 16:23 ; 1 Kings 12:6-14 ; 1 Chronicles 26:14 ; 1Chronicles 27:32,1 Chronicles 27:34 ; 2 Chronicles 25:16 ; Isaiah 1:26 ; Isaiah 3:3 ; Micah 4:9 ). God is often regarded as a counselor (Psalm 16:7 ; Psalm 32:8 ; Psalm 33:11 ; Psalm 73:24 ) as is His Messiah (Isaiah 9:6 ; Isaiah 11:2 ) and the Holy Spirit (John 14:16 ,John 14:16,14:26 ; John 15:26 ; John 16:7 )
Isaiah - His call to the full exercise of the prophetic office (Isaiah 6:1) was in the same year that king Uzziah died, probably before his death, 754 B. , the time of the building of Rome, Judah's destined scourge, whose kingdom was to stretch on to the Messianic times which form the grand subject of Isaiah's prophecies. Whatever prophecies were delivered by Isaiah previously were oral, and not recorded because not designed for all ages. ...
(1) Isaiah 1-6, are all that were written for the church universal of the prophecies of the first 20 years of his ministry. Isaiah comes forward at this point to warn Judah of a like danger. ...
(2) Isaiah 7 - Isaiah 10:4 relate to Ahaz' reign. ...
(3) Isaiah 10:5 - Isaiah 12 to the first 15 years of Hezekiah's reign probably. ...
(4) As also Isaiah 13-23 as to foreign nations. ...
(5) Isaiah 24-27 on the last times of the world, and of Judah, the representative and future head of the churches. ...
(6) Isaiah 28-33 concern Ephraim's overthrow, Judah's impious folly, the danger of the league with Egypt, their straits and deliverance from Assyria; Isaiah 28 before the sixth year of Hezekiah, when Israel fell; the rest before his 14th year of reign. ...
(7) Isaiah 34-35, denounce God's judgments against His people's enemies of whom Edom is representative, and the blessed state that shall follow. ...
(8) The historical section (Isaiah 36-39) as to Sennacherib, Assyria, and Babylon, forms the fitting appendix to the prophecies concerning Assyria mainly, and the preface to the latter portion of the book, concerning the deliverance from Babylon. Isaiah's generation had before their eyes the historical fact of the Assyrian invasion, and the extraordinary deliverance from it, as recorded by Isaiah. Thus, the historical section, midway between the earlier and later parts of Isaiah's book, forms the connecting link spiritually and historically between the two; it closes the one epoch, and introduces the other, so combining all Isaiah's prophecies in one unity. "It is incredible that the latter chapters, if not Isaiah's but of a later date, should have been tacked on to his existing prophecies with the interval of the four historical chapters: thrown in as a connecting link to complete the unity of his alleged writings as a whole" (Stanley Leathes). ...
Even in the former part Babylon's downfall through Elamite and Persian assailants is twice foretold (Isaiah 13 and Isaiah 21). ...
The threefold theme of this latter part is stated at the outset (Isaiah 40:2):...
(1) Jerusalem's warfare is accomplished;...
(2) her iniquity is pardoned;...
(3) she hath received of the Lord's hand double for all her sins. "...
(9) Isaiah 40 - Isaiah 48:22;...
(10) Isaiah 49-57;...
(11) Isaiah 58-66, which exchanges the previous refrain for the awful one that with moving pathos describes the apostates' final doom, "their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring to all flesh!"...
The first of the three concerns the outward deliverance from Babylon by Cyrus. The contemporary Micah (Micah 4:8-10) foretells the same exile in Babylon and the return from it, so that it is no objection to the genuineness of Isaiah 40-66, that herein Isaiah passes from Assyria to the restoration from Babylon much more than a century later. Moreover, Isaiah's reproof of the prevailing neglect of the temple worship, and his allusion to the slaying of children in the valleys (Isaiah 57:5), and mention of Hephzibah (Hezekiah's wife) in Isaiah 62:4, all accord with the times of Isaiah. The former part ends with the Babylonian exile (Isaiah 39:6); the latter part begins with the deliverance from it, to remove the deep gloom which the prophecy of the captivity caused to all who looked for redemption in Israel. Isaiah 40-66, has no heading of its own, which is accounted for best by its connection with the previous part, bringing it under the same heading, Isaiah 1:1. ...
The whole book falls into the sacred seven divisions:...
(1) Isaiah 1-12;...
(2) Isaiah 13-27, the burdens and their sequel;...
(3) Isaiah 28-35;...
(4) Isaiah 36-39; and...
(5-7) the three divisions (a sacred ternary) of Isaiah 40-66. ...
The return of the Lord's ransomed with everlasting joy in the last chapter of the former part (Isaiah 35:10) is the starting point of and the text expanded in the latter part; compare Isaiah 51:11. 11:1, section 1-2) says that Cyrus was indued by Isaiah's prophecies (Isaiah 44:38; Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 45:13) to help the Jews to return and rebuild their temple. Subsequent prophets imitate the latter portion (Jeremiah 1:34, compare Isaiah 47:4; Jeremiah 51:6; Jeremiah 51:45 with Isaiah 48:20). ...
Luke (Luke 4:17) quotes Isaiah 61 as Isaiah's, the passage read by Jesus Christ in the Nazareth synagogue. Thus Isaiah foretells Judah's deliverance from the Assyrian invasion, not by Egyptian aid (the only seeming possible deliverer), but by the Lord directly. On the other hand Isaiah announces the captivity in Babylon when as yet it was but a secondrate power and moreover in alliance with Judah, and further the return of the exiles. ...
This and such allusions as that to the stopping of the water fountains outside the city, the display of Hezekiah's treasure, all accord with Isaiah's prophesying under Hezekiah. Isaiah 53 minutely depicts Messiah's sufferings ages before the event, as Jews, unwilling witnesses, admit, while evading the acceptance of Jesus by various makeshifts. Then in the fullest sense Israel, the "elect servant of Jehovah," becomes concentrated in MESSIAH, the innocent sufferer atoning for the guilty, the seed of an everlasting and holy generation (Isaiah 42:1-7; Isaiah 44:1; Isaiah 49:3-25; Isaiah 49:52; Isaiah 49:53). ...
Messiah appears as Prophet (Isaiah 42:4), as Priest (Isaiah 53), as King (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 52:15). His sufferings are the appointed path to His glory (Isaiah 53:11-12). the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all" (Isaiah 53:4-6). He is also "the Root of David" as well as the "rod out of the stem of Jesse" (Isaiah 11:1; Revelation 22:16), "a tender plant, a root out of a dry ground" (Isaiah 53:2). The Holy Spirit enlightened Isaiah's natural powers to foresee its rise and his spiritual faculties to foresee its fall, the sure result, in God's ways, of the pride which pagan success generates; also Judah's restoration as the covenant people with whom God according to His immutable faithfulness would not be wroth forever. Isaiah's politics consisted in insisting on conversion as the only remedy for the nation's disorders. The fundamental idea is in Isaiah 26:7-9; compare Leviticus 10:3; Amos 3:2. Isaiah's garment of sackcloth was a silent preaching by action, he embodied the repentance he taught. Hence the Old Testament histories (1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings) were written by contemporary prophets, Samuel, Nathan, Iddo, Isaiah, etc. The Chronicles are not classed so, and therefore can hardly be their composition, but probably Ezra's, gathered from the public records and historical monographs of the prophets (as Isaiah's life of Uzziah and of Hezekiah: 2 Chronicles 26:22; 2 Chronicles 32:32). )...
The historical books from Joshua onwards and the prophetic books from Isaiah form a bipartite whole of prophetic writings called "the prophets"; for the history of the past in the former part is as prophetic as the history of the future in the latter part. "The valley of vision" (Isaiah 22:1) may imply that it was in "the lower city" he resided and saw visions, though "valley" may refer to Jersalem generally, surrounded by hills higher than Zion and Moriah. The Talmud, from an old genealogical roll found in Jerusalem, and from the Palestinian Targum on 2 Kings 21:16, states that king Manasseh "sawed Isaiah asunder" with a wooden saw, to which the allusion may be in Hebrews 11:37. Isaiah 1:1 shows that none of the collection of prophecies of which that is the heading were written under Manasseh. They were collected by Isaiah himself in the close of Hezekiah's reign. ...
Then at the beginning of Manasseh's reign Isaiah fell a victim to the persecuting idolatry which superseded Jehovah's worship. The pretext was that Isaiah had said he had seen Jehovah (Isaiah 6), in opposition to Exodus 33:20. " That Isaiah served Hezekiah appears implied in 2 Chronicles 32:32. The chronological arrangement favors the view that Isaiah himself collected his prophecies into one volume. The Messianic hopes in Isaiah are so vivid that Jerome (Ad Paulinum) calls his book not a prophecy but the "Gospel," "he is not so much a prophet as an evangelist. "...
The "Shiloh " ("tranquilizer") of Genesis 49:10 appears in Isaiah as "the Prince of peace" (Isaiah 9:6). Isaiah develops most His priestly and prophetic offices; Psalm 110. His royal priesthood, Isaiah His suffering priesthood; this last, especially in the latter portion, addressed to the faithful elect, whereas in the former part, addressed to the whole people, he dwells on Messiah's glory, the antidote to the fears of the people and the pledge to assure them that the kingdom of God, represented by Judah, would not be overwhelmed by Syria, Israel, and Assyria; so that they should trust wholly in Him and not in Egypt. ...
The variation of style in the latter portion proves, not its spuriousness, but Isaiah's power to vary his style with his subject. Peculiarities which are characteristic of Isaiah occur in the latter portion as in the former, e. Compare also Isaiah 65:25 with Isaiah 11:6; Isaiah 51:11 with Isaiah 35:10. Thus, Isaiah 12, closing the section of Isaiah 7-12, aptly called "the book of Immanuel," is the future song of redeemed Israel, answering to that at the Red Sea (Exodus 15; compare Revelation 15:2-3). Again Isaiah 25-27, is the lyric prophecy of the downfall of the world city, the coming blessed personal epiphany of the Lord to His people, and the destruction of the foe (Isaiah 25), Judah's and Israel's resurrection politically and spiritually (Isaiah 26), the church vineyard ever kept by Jehovah (Isaiah 27); it forms the finale to Isaiah 13-23, concerning the pagan foes of Israel. The frequent alliteration of like sounds in Isaiah 25-27, effectively realizes to the ear, as well as the eye and the understanding, the deeply moving finale. His elegiac power appears in Isaiah 15-16, concerning Moab
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - Haste, spoil, speed to the prey, the name given by Isaiah to one of his sons, for a prophetic intimation of the speedy victory of the Assyrians over Syria and Israel, Isaiah 8:1-3
Gebim - Cisterns, (rendered "pits," Jeremiah 14:3 ; "locusts," Isaiah 33:4 ), a small place north of Jerusalem, whose inhabitants fled at the approach of the Assyrian army (Isaiah 10:31 )
Bulrush - In Exodus 2:3 ; Isaiah 18:2 , the papyrus is referred to, a reed of which anciently paper was made. Isaiah 18:2 . In Isaiah 58:5 it is a different word, and is used for any kind of 'rush
Joah - Son of Asaph, and ‘recorder’ at Hezekiah’s court ( 2 Kings 18:18 ; 2 Kings 18:26 ; 2 Kings 18:37 = Isaiah 36:3 ; Isaiah 36:11 ; Isaiah 36:22 )
Anklet - The KJV has “tinkling ornaments about their feet” (Isaiah 3:18 ; compare Isaiah 3:16 ). Anklets were luxury items worn by the women of Jerusalem during the days of Isaiah
Refine - Metal-workers were common in the ancient world, and used their skills in a variety of ways (Genesis 4:22; Exodus 31:4; Judges 17:4; Isaiah 41:7; Isaiah 44:12; Isaiah 54:16). It was a vivid picture of the way God tests and purifies his people through the sufferings and hardships they experience (Psalms 66:10; Proverbs 17:3; Isaiah 1:25; Isaiah 48:10; 1 Peter 1:7; see TESTING)
Sidon - The Bible frequently mentions the two towns together as a way of referring to Phoenicia in general (Ezra 3:7; Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 23:4; Zechariah 9:2; Mark 7:24). For example, Tyre, being the larger and more prosperous port, may have symbolized the greed and arrogance that Phoenicia as a whole developed because of its international shipping activity (Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 23:8; Isaiah 23:17; Ezekiel 27:3; Ezekiel 27:25; Ezekiel 28:5; Ezekiel 28:9; Ezekiel 28:16)
Servant of the Lord - In a sense all God’s people are servants of the Lord (Isaiah 42:1-455; Psalms 105:6; 1 Corinthians 4:1; Revelation 22:3), but the Bible speaks of one particular figure who in a special sense is the servant of the Lord (Isaiah 42:1; Isaiah 52:13). ...
Details about the servant of the Lord are found mainly in what are known as the four Servant Songs of Isaiah (1619110985_1; Isaiah 49:1-6; Isaiah 50:4-9; Isaiah 52:13-15; Isaiah 53). ...
Firstly, the nation Israel was chosen to be God’s servant (Isaiah 41:8), but the nation as a whole was a failure (Isaiah 42:19). While the rest of the people rebelled against God, the believing remnant kept serving him loyally (Isaiah 49:4-6; see REMNANT). The third and highest meaning of the servant applies to the Messiah, Jesus (Isaiah 50:4-98; Acts 13:46-47; Acts 3:13; Acts 4:30; Philippians 2:7). But they found their perfect expression in Jesus Christ (Isaiah 42:1-4; Matthew 12:15-21). Again Israel as a whole failed, though some of the people were faithful (Isaiah 49:1-7; Luke 22:37). Israel’s sufferings at the hands of Babylon and its glory in the rebuilt Jerusalem were a picture of the sufferings of the Messiah and the glory that followed (Isaiah 52:13-15; Acts 2:23-24; Acts 2:36; Philippians 2:8-11; 1 Peter 1:18-21). The godly remnant within Israel suffered because of the sins of others, and so did Jesus; but, more than that, Jesus suffered to take away the sins of others (Isaiah 53:4-6; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 20:28; 1 Peter 2:22-25). He bore shame and injustice at the hands of wicked men (Isaiah 53:3; Isaiah 53:7-8; Matthew 27:26-31; Acts 8:32-35), though he did at least receive a decent burial (Isaiah 53:9; Matthew 27:57-60). It also marked the beginning of a new age in which God’s salvation goes to people throughout the world (Isaiah 53:10-12; Mark 10:45; Luke 24:46-47; Acts 2:23-24; Acts 28:28; Romans 8:32-34; Revelation 5:9-10)
Cummin - In Isaiah 28:25; Isaiah 28:27, reference is made to the manner of sowing and threshing it
Rahab - Psalm 87:4 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 . The same word occurs in Isaiah 30:7 , where the R
ar'Pad - (strong city ), ( Isaiah 36:19 ; 37:13 ) a city or district in Syria, apparently dependent on Damascus. (2 Kings 18:34 ; 19:13 ; Isaiah 10:9 )
Trees - It grew in Lebanon and was the most beautiful, enduring and expensive timber available (Isaiah 2:12-13; Isaiah 10:34; Isaiah 35:2; Isaiah 60:13; see LEBANON). ...
Among the other trees mentioned in the Bible are algum (2 Chronicles 2:8; 2 Chronicles 9:10), cypress (2 Chronicles 2:8), plane (Isaiah 60:13), myrtle (Isaiah 41:19; Nehemiah 8:15), balsam (2 Samuel 5:23), oak (Judges 6:11; 2 Samuel 18:9), willow (Job 40:22; Psalms 137:2), sycamine (Luke 17:6), broom (1 Kings 19:4), lotus (Job 40:22) and palm (Exodus 15:27; Psalms 92:12)
Eliakim - ...
...
The son of Hilkiah, who was sent to receive the message of the invading Assyrians and report it to Isaiah (2 Kings 18:18 ; 19:2 ; Isaiah 36:3 ; 37:2 ). In his office as governor of the palace of Hezekiah he succeeded Shebna (Isaiah 22:15-25 ). He was a good man (Isaiah 22:20 ; 2 Kings 18:37 ), and had a splendid and honourable career
Isaiah, the Book of - (See Isaiah
di'Mon - (river bed ), The waters of, some streams on the east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab, against which Isaiah uttered denunciation. ( Isaiah 15:9 ) Gesenius conjectures that the two names Dimon and Dibon are the same
Box Tree - KJV, REB and NAS translation in Isaiah 41:19 ; Isaiah 60:13 . Such wonders of nature reflect the greatness of the Creator (Isaiah 41:20 )
Head-Dress - It was used especially for purposes of ornament ( Job 29:14 ; Isaiah 3:23 ; 62:3 ). The Hebrew word Peer , Used in Isaiah 61:3 , there rendered "beauty" (A. ) and "garland" (RSV), is a head-dress or turban worn by females (Isaiah 3 :: 20 , "bonnets"), priests (Exodus 39:28 ), a bridegroom (Isaiah 61:10 , "ornament;" RSV, "garland"). The Hebrew Shebisim ( Isaiah 3:18 ), in the Authorized Version rendered "cauls," and marg
Herb - ]'>[1] ‘green thing’ ( Exodus 10:15 , Isaiah 15:6 ); gan yârâq , ‘garden of herbs,’ Deuteronomy 11:10 , 1 Kings 21:2 . ]'>[1] ‘herb’ ( Deu 32:2 , 2 Kings 19:26 , Job 38:27 , Psalms 37:2 , Isaiah 37:27 ; Isaiah 66:14 ). The expressions ‘dew of herbs’ ( Isaiah 26:19 AV [4] ) and ‘upon herbs’ ( Isaiah 18:4 AV Line - Elsewhere the line serves as a surveying tool for measuring a larger distance (Psalm 16:6 ; Isaiah 34:17 ; Jeremiah 31:39 ; Zechariah 1:16 ; Zechariah 2:1-2 ). In contrast, references to a plumb line refer to judgment (2 Kings 21:13 ; Isaiah 34:11 ; Lamentations 2:8 ) upon those who failed to meet God's high standards (Isaiah 28:17 ). Line can also refer to a row (of men, 2 Samuel 8:2 ; of writing, Isaiah 28:10 ,Isaiah 28:10,28:13 )
ke'Dar - The "glory of Kedar" is recorded by the prophet Isaiah, (Isaiah 21:13-17 ) in the burden upon Arabia; and its importance may also be inferred from the "princes of Kedar" mentioned by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 27:21 ) as well as the pastoral character of the tribe. " (Isaiah 21:17 ) comp. Psal 120:5 That they also settled in villages or towns we find from Isaiah. (Isaiah 42:11 ) The tribe seems to have been one of the most conspicuous of all the Ishmaelite tribes, and hence the rabbins call the Arabians universally by this name
Arm - Figure for might, of God (Isaiah 53:1). "Stretched out arm," image from a warrior with spear or sword thrust forth: all the power put forth (Joshua 8:26; Isaiah 5:25)
Madmenah - (mad mee nuh) The place name (meaning “Dung Hill”) of one of the points on the northern invasion route to Jerusalem (Isaiah 10:31 ). Isaiah perhaps refers to the invasion of Sennacherib in 701 B
Boxtree - (Isaiah 41:19 ; 60:13 ) A beautiful evergreen growing in many parts of Europe and Asia. The reference in (Isaiah 60:13 ) is supposed by some to mean a species of cedar
o'Reb - ) Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:26 ) refers to the magnitude of this disaster
Esaias - Same as Isaiah
Ethiopia - This was Seba, Isaiah 43:3, and known to the Romans as the kingdom of Meroe. Jeremiah 13:23; Isaiah 45:14. It is noticed in, connection with Egypt, Isaiah 20:4; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 45:14; with Libya (Phut), Jeremiah 46:9 : Lydia and Chub (Lub and Lud), Ezekiel 30:5, and the Sukkiim. Moses married an Ethiopian, Numbers 12:1; Ethiopians were in Shishak's army, 2 Chronicles 12:3; Zerah, an Ethiopian king, had an army of a million soldiers, 2 Chronicles 14:9-12 : Job mentioned the precious stones of Ethiopia, Job 28:19; the Israelites were familiar with the merchandise of that country, Isaiah 45:14; and Isaiah foretold the subjugation of Ethiopia by the Assyrians. Isaiah 20:4; Isaiah 20:6. Among other prophecies in respect to Ethiopia are Psalms 68:31; Psalms 87:4; Isaiah 45:14; Ezekiel 30:4-9; Daniel 11:43; Habakkuk 3:7; Zephaniah 2:12; Nahum 3:8-10
Diseases - Healed by the Lord Jesus, as Isaiah foretold, "Himself took our infirmities and bore our sicknesses" (Matthew 8:17; Isaiah 53:4; 1 Peter 2:24). At His second coming His people "shall not say, I am sick," for "they shall be forgiven their iniquity" (Isaiah 33:24)
Lodge - Isaiah 10:29, the Assyrian invaders "have taken their lodging (their bivouac) at Geba. The "lodge" (Isaiah 1:8), and "cottage" (Isaiah 24:20), "the earth shall reel to and fro
Tabret - Tambourine music often accompanied festive occasions of drinking and merrymaking (Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 24:8 ; Isaiah 30:32 ; Jeremiah 31:4 )
Carriages - reads "baggage" here and in Isaiah 10:28; 1 Samuel 17:22. The load or burden of man or beast; baggage, Isaiah 10:28 : or mat on which anything is carried, 1 Samuel 17:22. In Isaiah 46:1, "carriages," A
Fir Tree - Others have identified the tree with the juniper (NAS at Isaiah 41:19 and Isaiah 60:13 only) or cypress (NRSV, NAS elsewhere)
Galley - The galleys were used as warships (Isaiah 33:21 ). The image in Isaiah is of a Jerusalem free from the threat of invasion
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ (‘spoil speedeth, prey hasteth’), Isaiah 8:1 ; Isaiah 8:3 . A symbolical name given to one of Isaiah’s sons to signify the speedy destruction of the power of the allied kings Rezin and Pekah by the king of Assyria
Elea'Leh - ( Numbers 32:3,37 ) By Isaiah and Jeremiah it is mentioned as a Moabite town. (Isaiah 15:4 ; 16:9 ; Jeremiah 48:34 )
Dross - Litharge (lead monoxide) from which silver was to be extracted is perhaps meant at Isaiah 1:22 ,Isaiah 1:22,1:25 . Both Isaiah 1:22 ,Isaiah 1:22,1:25 and Ezekiel 22:18-19 speak of silver turned to dross as a picture of Israel's lost righteousness
Frankincense - Frankincense is in six passages ( Isaiah 43:23 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Isaiah 66:3 , Jeremiah 6:20 ; Jeremiah 17:26 ; Jeremiah 41:5 ) mistranslated in AV Aiath - AIATH , Isaiah 10:28 ;...
Names of God - The following are found in Holy Scripture: ...
Almighty, Genesis 17:1
Benign, II Esdras 9:17
Blessed, Genesis 14:20
Creator, 2Machabees 1:24
Everlasting, Isaiah 40:28
Father, Matthew 6:9
First and Last, Isaiah 44:6
God of Peace, Romans 15:33
God of Vengeance, Psalms 93:1
Great, Psalms 76:14
Helper, Isaiah 50:9
Hidden, Isaiah 45:15
Holy, Apocalypse 4:8
Hope, Romans 15:13
I am who am, Exodus 3:14
Immortal, 1 Timothy 1:17
Invisible, Colossians 1:15
Jealous, Exodus 20:5
Judge, Psalms 7:12
Just, Isaiah 45:21
Life Eternal, 1 John 5:20
Living God, Daniel 6:26
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 5:7
Lord, Psalms 117:27
Merciful, Exodus 34:6
Most High, Luke 1:32
Most Strong, Genesis 46:3
Protector, Psalms 30:3
Redeemer, Psalms 18:15
Salvation, Apocalypse 19:1
Saviour, Psalms 24:5
Spirit, John 4:24
Strength, Apocalypse 7:12
True, Jeremiah 10:10
In his celebrated treatise, The Names of God (New York, 1912), Lessius has many others, not taken from Scripture but principally from the liturgy, with brief explanations
God, Names of - The following are found in Holy Scripture: ...
Almighty, Genesis 17:1
Benign, II Esdras 9:17
Blessed, Genesis 14:20
Creator, 2Machabees 1:24
Everlasting, Isaiah 40:28
Father, Matthew 6:9
First and Last, Isaiah 44:6
God of Peace, Romans 15:33
God of Vengeance, Psalms 93:1
Great, Psalms 76:14
Helper, Isaiah 50:9
Hidden, Isaiah 45:15
Holy, Apocalypse 4:8
Hope, Romans 15:13
I am who am, Exodus 3:14
Immortal, 1 Timothy 1:17
Invisible, Colossians 1:15
Jealous, Exodus 20:5
Judge, Psalms 7:12
Just, Isaiah 45:21
Life Eternal, 1 John 5:20
Living God, Daniel 6:26
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 5:7
Lord, Psalms 117:27
Merciful, Exodus 34:6
Most High, Luke 1:32
Most Strong, Genesis 46:3
Protector, Psalms 30:3
Redeemer, Psalms 18:15
Salvation, Apocalypse 19:1
Saviour, Psalms 24:5
Spirit, John 4:24
Strength, Apocalypse 7:12
True, Jeremiah 10:10
In his celebrated treatise, The Names of God (New York, 1912), Lessius has many others, not taken from Scripture but principally from the liturgy, with brief explanations
Hezekiah - Compare Isaiah 36:1-22; Isaiah 37:1-38; Isaiah 38:1-22. A second invasion seems to have followed when Sennacherib, Isaiah 30:1-7, returned, Isaiah 33:1. Compare Isaiah 31:8-9; Isaiah 37:33-37. Hezekiah's sickness, humiliation, and prolongation of life 15 years in peace, and the prediction that Babylon, then feeble and friendly, would one day carry his descendants into captivity are noticed in Old Testament history, Isaiah 39:1-8; Micah 4:10
Pul (1) - Isaiah 66:19. ) An African people is meant by Isaiah (Ezekiel 27:10; Ezekiel 30:5)
Elealeh - Isaiah 15:4; Isaiah 16:9; Jeremiah 48:34; now el-Aʾal, "the high," one mile northeast of Heshbon
Den - words represented by ‘den’ signify respectively ‘hollow place’ ( Isaiah 32:14 ), ‘thicket’ ( Psalms 10:9 ), ‘place of ambush’ ( Job 37:8 ), ‘dwelling’ ( Job 38:40 ), ‘light hole’ or ‘eyeball’ ( Isaiah 11:8 ); but the last passage, may be corrupt
Finery - Modern translation of Hebrew term for the luxuriousness of the jewelry and clothing worn by the society women of Jerusalem (Isaiah 3:18 ). ” The Hebrew word describes the beauty or glory of Aaron's priestly clothes (Exodus 28:2 ), the glory of God's house (Isaiah 60:7 ), battle field honor (Judges 4:9 ), and the pompous (NAS) pride (NIV) of the Assyrian king (Isaiah 10:12 )
Consumption - word ( kâlâh ) which is translated ‘consummation’ in Daniel 9:27 is rendered ‘consumption’ in Isaiah 10:23 ; Isaiah 28:22 , these Eng. ’ Consumption occurs also with the same meaning in Isaiah 10:22 (Heb
Cockatrice - What reptile is alluded to is not definitely known: the Hebrew words (tsepha in Isaiah 14:29 only) and tsiphoni are from 'to hiss. ' Isaiah 11:8 , Isaiah 59:5 ; Jeremiah 8:17
Island - 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isaiah 42:4,10,12,15 , Compare Jeremiah 47:4 ), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isaiah 20:6 , RSV," coastland;" 23:2,6; Jeremiah 2:10 ; Ezekiel 27:6,7 ). ) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the sea" ( Isaiah 11:11 ), or the "isles of the Gentiles" (Genesis 10:5 ), and sometimes simply "isles" (Psalm 72:10 ); Ezekiel 26:15,18 ; 27:3,35 ; Daniel 11:18 )
Cummin - An umbelliferous plant like fennel, with aromatic, pungent, carminative seeds; beaten out with a rod, not threshed (Isaiah 28:25; Isaiah 28:27); tithed by the punctilious Pharisees (Matthew 23:23)
Amoz - Strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2,20 ; 20:1 ; Isaiah 1:1 ; 2:1 )
Laishah - ” City on military route from Bethel to Jerusalem which Isaiah warned of Assyrian army's approach (Isaiah 10:30 )
Kir - 2 Kings 16:9 ; Isaiah 22:6 ; Amos 1:5 ; Amos 9:7 . Being associated with Elam in Isaiah it is supposed to be in Lower Mesopotamia
Brier - Isaiah 5:6 (b) Briers are symbols of the little bothersome troubles that hurt and hinder GOD's people. See also Isaiah 7:23; Isaiah 32:13; Ezekiel 28:24). ...
Isaiah 9:18 (b) GOD's wrath is to be kindled so greatly that He would cease dealing with His people by small punishments, but rather would abandon them to their enemies. (See also Isaiah 10:17). ...
Isaiah 27:4 (b) Man's antagonism to GOD is compared to the little brier which is so easily destroyed, and which is so inconsequential. ...
Isaiah 55:13 (c) Here the brier is a type of human troubles which are to be replaced by GOD's blessings
Bulrush - high or low; the lofty palm branch, or the humble reed (Isaiah 9:14-15; Isaiah 19:15). It used to be platted into rope; Job 41:2," canst thou put an hook (rather a rope of rushes) into his nose?" Moses' ark was woven of it (gomeh ): Exodus 2:3; Isaiah 18:2. In Exodus 2:3; Isaiah 18:2, it means the papyrus of which the Egyptians made light boats for the Nile; the same Hebrew (gomeh ) is translated rush (Job 8:11; Isaiah 35:7)
Flowers - ziz , Isaiah 28:1 ; Isaiah 28:4 ; Isaiah 40:6 , Job 14:2 , ‘blossoms’ Numbers 17:8 . nizzah used of the inconspicuous flowers of vine and olive, Isaiah 18:5 , Job 15:33 . perach , Exodus 25:33 , Isaiah 18:5 , AV Worm - Those that breed in putrefied bodies, רסה , Exodus 16:20 ; Exodus 16:24 ; Job 7:5 ; Job 17:14 ; Job 21:26 ; Job 24:20 ; Job 25:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 ; ακωληξ , Sir_7:17 ; Sir_10:11 ; 1Ma_2:62 ; 2Ma_9:9 ; Jdt_16:17 ; Mark 9:44 ; Mark 9:46 ; Mark 9:48 ; Acts 12:23 . That which eats woollen garments, סס , Isaiah 51:8 ; σης , Matthew 6:19-20 ; Luke 12:33 . That which, perforating the leaves and bark of trees, causes the little excrescences called kermes, whence is made a crimson dye, תולע , Deuteronomy 28:39 ; Job 25:6 ; Psalms 22:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 ; Isaiah 41:14 ; Isaiah 66:24 ; Exodus 16:20 ; Jonah 4:7
Headband, Headdress - Modern translations use headband to render an item of finery in Isaiah 3:18 . KJV used headband to translate a different Hebrew term at Isaiah 3:20 . ...
Modern translations use headdress for a third Hebrew term (Isaiah 3:20 ; KJV, bonnet). The same Hebrew term is used for the bridegroom's “garland” (Isaiah 61:10 ) and for the linen turbans of the priests (Ezekiel 44:18 )
Garden - Gardens In the East were surrounded by hedges of thorn, Isaiah 5:5, or walls of stone. For further protection lodges, Isaiah 1:8; Lamentations 2:6, or watchtowers, Mark 12:1, were built in them, in which sat the keeper, Isaiah 5:2; Isaiah 21:6, to drive away the wild beasts and robbers
Hay - The Hebrew has no word for it, chatsir (Proverbs 27:25; Isaiah 15:6) expressing grass as well as hay. Chashash (Isaiah 5:24) is not "chaff," but the withered grass. In Isaiah 15:6; Proverbs 27:2, translated "the hay grass
Chaff - It was usually burned (Exodus 15:7 ; Isaiah 5:24 ; Matthew 3:12 ). This word sometimes, however, means dried grass or hay (Isaiah 5:24 ; 33:11 ). " The destruction of the wicked, and their powerlessness, are likened to the carrying away of chaff by the wind (Isaiah 17:13 ; Hosea 13:3 ; Zephaniah 2:2 )
Sit (And Forms) - ...
Ruth 3:18 Expectation...
2 Kings 7:3 Discouragement...
Job 2:8 Distress...
Psalm 1:1 Determination...
Psalm 29:10 Power...
Psalm 69:12 Authority...
Psalm 107:10 Hopelessness...
Isaiah 40:22 Sovereignty...
Isaiah 42:7 Helplessness...
Isaiah 47:1 Humbleness...
Jeremiah 17:11 Industry...
Lamentations 1:1 Indifference...
Malachi 3:3 Attentiveness...
Luke 9:14 Anticipation...
Ephesians 2:6 Security...
Rod - An offshoot from the trunk of a tree, Genesis 30:37 Isaiah 11:1 Ezekiel 37:15-22 . It also denotes a staff, used by one walking, Isaiah 3:1 Ezekiel 29:6 ; by a diviner, Hosea 4:12 ; by a surveyor, Psalm 74:2 ; by a shepherd, Leviticus 27:32 Zechariah 11:10-14 ; as an instrument of correction, Proverbs 23:13 29:15 ; as a sceptre, Esther 8:4 Isaiah 14:5 ; and as a symbol of power, Psalm 2:9 , support and direction, Psalm 23:4
Beacon - to'ren) used as a standard or ensign set on the tops of mountains as a call to the people to assemble themselves for some great national purpose (Isaiah 30:17 ). In Isaiah 33:23 and Ezekiel 27:5 , the same word is rendered "mast
Fitches - The first is black cummin (Isaiah 28:25 ,Isaiah 28:25,28:27 )
Nahum (2) - ...
Hence, the number of phrases corresponding to those of Isaiah (Nahum 1:8-9, compare Isaiah 8:8; 2 Kings 19:14-1501; Nahum 2:10 with Isaiah 24:1; Isaiah 21:3; Nahum 1:15 with Isaiah 52:7). Nisroch) thy grave," foretells Sennacherib's murder 20 years after his return from Palestine, "as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god" (Isaiah 37:38). The correspondence of sentiments in Nahum with those of Isaiah and Hezekiah implies he wrote when Sennacherib was still besieging and demanding the surrender of Jerusalem (Nahum 1:2 ff, with 1619110985_1; Nahum 1:7 with 2 Kings 18:22; 2 Kings 19:19; 2 Kings 19:31; 2 Chronicles 32:7-8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with 2 Kings 19:22; 2 Kings 19:27-28; 2 Kings 19:22-23 with 2 Kings 19:6-7; Nahum 1:15 and Nahum 2:1-2 with 2 Kings 19:32-33; Nahum 2:13, "the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard," namely, Rabshakeh the bearer of Sennacherib's haughty message, with Nahum 1:14). ...
The historical facts presupposed in Nahum are Judah's and Israel's humiliation by Assyria (Nahum 2:2); the invasion of Judah (Nahum 1:9-11); the conquest of No-Amon or Thebes in Upper Egypt, probably by Sargon (Isaiah 20) who, fearing lest Egypt should join Palestine against him, undertook an expedition against it, 717-715 B. Judah was harassed by Syria, and oppressed by Ahaz's payments to Tiglath Pileser (2 Chronicles 28; Isaiah 8-9). Nahum 2:18, "the faces gather blackness," corresponds to Isaiah 13:8; Joel 2:6; Joel is probably the original. Nahum 1:6 with Joel 2:7; Amos 2:14; Nahum 1:3 with Joel 2:13; the mourning dove, Nahum 2:7, with Isaiah 38:14; the first ripe figs, Nahum 3:12, with Isaiah 28:4; Nahum 3:13 with Isaiah 19:16; Nahum 3:4 with Isaiah 23:15; Nahum 2:4-5; Nahum 2:14 with Isaiah 22:7; Isaiah 36:9; Micah 1:13; Micah 5:10. ...
The Assyrians, by just retribution, in turn should experience themselves what they caused to Israel and Judah (compare also Nahum 1:3 with Jonah 4:2; Nahum 1:13 with Isaiah 10:26-27; Nahum 1:8 with Isaiah 10:21-22; Isaiah 8:8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with Isaiah 37:23; Nahum 3:10 with Isaiah 13:16; Nahum 2:2 with Isaiah 24:1; Nahum 3:5 with Isaiah 47:2-3; Nahum 3:7 with Isaiah 51:19). Paronomasia or verbal assonance is another feature of likeness to Isaiah, besides those already mentioned (Nahum 1:3; Nahum 1:6; Nahum 1:10; Nahum 2:2-3; Nahum 2:11; Nahum 3:2)
Petra - Rock, Isaiah 16:1 , marg
Perazim - PERAZIM ( Isaiah 28:21 ) prob
Girdle - hagor, a girdle of any kind worn by soldiers (1 Samuel 18:4 ; 2 Samuel 20:8 ; 1 Kings 2:5 ; 2 Kings 3:21 ) or women (Isaiah 3:24 ). 'ezor, something "bound," worn by prophets (2 Kings 1:8 ; Jeremiah 13:1 ), soldiers (Isaiah 5:27 ; 2 Samuel 20:8 ; Ezekiel 23:15 ), Kings (Job 12:18 ). mezah, a "band," a girdle worn by men alone (Psalm 109:19 ; Isaiah 22:21 ). Girdles of sackcloth were worn in token of sorrow (Isaiah 3:24 ; 22:12 ). ...
The girdle was a symbol of strength and power (Job 12:18,21 ; 30:11 ; Isaiah 22:21 ; 45:5 ). "Righteousness and faithfulness" are the girdle of the Messiah (Isaiah 11:5 )
Craft Workers - Among the crafts workers mentioned in the Bible are metal-workers (Exodus 31:3-4; Isaiah 44:12; Isaiah 54:16; Jeremiah 10:9; 2 Timothy 4:14), carpenters (2 Samuel 5:11; Isaiah 44:13; Mark 6:3), wood-carvers (Exodus 31:5; 1 Kings 6:32), stone-workers (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Kings 6:7), jewellers (Exodus 28:11; Exodus 31:5), potters (Isaiah 41:25; Jeremiah 18:1-4), spinners and weavers (Exodus 35:25; Job 7:6; Isaiah 19:9), dyers (Exodus 26:1; 2 Chronicles 2:7; Acts 16:14), tanners (Exodus 26:14; Matthew 3:4; Acts 9:43) and tent-makers (Genesis 4:20; Acts 18:3). Tools that these craft workers used are also mentioned occasionally (Genesis 4:22; 1 Samuel 13:20; 1 Kings 6:7; 1 Kings 7:9; 2 Kings 6:5; Isaiah 41:7; Jeremiah 23:29)
Holy One of Israel - In Isaiah 1:4 , a designation for Yahweh. In the Old Testament, this designation is used especially in the Book of Isaiah
Philistia - (fih lihss' tih uh) The coastal plain of southwestern Palestine which was under the control of the Philistines (Exodus 15:14 ; Psalm 60:8 ; Psalm 87:4 ; Psalm 108:9 ; Isaiah 14:29-31 ). KJV sometimes referred to Philistia as Palestina (Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29-31 )
Jah - The identity of Jah and Jehovah is strongly marked in two passages of Isaiah-- (Isaiah 12:2 ; 26:4 ) [1]
Worm - sas (Isaiah 51:8 ), denotes the caterpillar of the clothes-moth. These two Hebrew words appear to be interchangeable (Job 25:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 ). ...
The word is used figuratively in Job 25:6 ; Psalm 22:6 ; Isaiah 41:14 ; Mark 9:44,46,48 ; Isaiah 66:24
Peace - Ecclesiastical peace is freedom from contentions, and rest from persecutions, Isaiah 11:13 . Isaiah 32:17 . It is denominated perfect, Isaiah 26:3 . eternal, Isaiah 57:2
Besom - Broom made of twigs (Isaiah 14:23 KJV)
Isaiah, Ascension of - Isaiah, ASCENSION OF
Shittah Tree - KJV spelling of Shittim tree (Isaiah 41:19 )
Merodach-Baladan - King of Babylon, Isaiah 39:1—signifying sorrow
Crisping-Pins - Irons for curling the hair, Isaiah 3:22
Ornament of the Legs - KJV translation for armlet in Isaiah 3:20
Treader - Isaiah 16
Immanuel - ” Name of son to be born in Isaiah's prophecy to King Ahaz (Isaiah 7:14 ) and fulfilled in birth of Jesus (Matthew 1:22-23 ). ...
When King Ahaz refused to show his faith by asking God for a sign (Isaiah 7:10-12 ), Isaiah gave him a sign of the birth of Immanuel, using the traditional form of a birth announcement (Isaiah 7:14 ; compare Genesis 16:11 ; Judges 13:3 ,Judges 13:3,13:5 ). The double meaning of the Immanuel sign appears again in Isaiah 8:8 . Isaiah followed this with a call to the nations to lose in battle because of Immanuel, God with us (Isaiah 8:10 ). ...
The Bible says nothing else about the effects of the Immanuel prophecy in the days of Isaiah and Ahaz
Kir-Hareseth - ” Known by various names in various texts and various versions of the Old Testament: Kir-Hareseth (2 Kings 3:25 ; Isaiah 16:7 ), Kir-Haraseth (2 Kings 3:25 KJV), Kir-Heres ( Isaiah 16:11 ; Jeremiah 48:31 ,Jeremiah 48:31,48:36 ), and Kirharesh (Isaiah 16:11 KJV). Perhaps also the same as Kir of Moab in Isaiah 15:1 . Isaiah (Isaiah 15:1 ; Isaiah 16:7 ,Isaiah 16:7,16:11 ) and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 48:31 ,Jeremiah 48:31,48:36 ) prophesied that Kir-Hareseth was no match for the power of God
Medes - We meet with the account of the Medes and Persians in the prophecy of Isaiah, and in the prophecy of Daniel. If the reader wishes to possess the Scriptural account of those kingdoms, he must consult what, Isaiah and Daniel have declared concerning them. Isaiah begins the relation at Isaiah 13:1-22 with the burden of Babylon, and the subject continues, in respect to Israel's deliverance from Babylon, through that add the following chapter Isaiah 14:1-32. The prophet resumes the subject of Babylon's destruction at Isaiah 21:1-17; but the chief prophecy concerning the final ruin of Babylon, is in Isaiah 45:1-25 and following chapters, where Cyrus the Persian, as the destroyer of Babylon, is called by his name, although this was near two hundred years before the events there predicted were intended to be fulfilled. Daniel takes up the subject at the period where the prophecy of Isaiah came to be accomplished, and in Daniel 5:1-31 relates to the church the downfall of Babylon, and the death of the impious gang Belshazzar
Holy City - Designation for Jerusalem (Nehemiah 11:1 ,Nehemiah 11:1,11:18 ; Isaiah 48:2 ; Isaiah 52:1 ; Daniel 9:24 ; Matthew 4:5 ; Matthew 27:53 ; Revelation 11:2 ) and for the new, heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:2 ,Revelation 21:2,21:10 ; Revelation 22:19 ) because the holy God lived there
Mufflers - The word so rendered occurs only in Isaiah 3:19 , as an article of female attire. A close veil of some sort, therefore, is evidently intended by Isaiah
Rod - He will either rule with the pastoral rod, or break with the rod (scepter) of iron (Revelation 2:27; Revelation 19:15; Micah 6:9; Micah 7:14; Psalms 110:2; Isaiah 9:4; Isaiah 11:4)
Charger(s) - Horses used in battle to charge or attack ( Nahum 2:3 NRSV; compare TEV, REB based on early Greek translations; compare Isaiah 31:1 ,Isaiah 31:1,31:3 ; Jeremiah 8:6 ; Revelation 6:2 )
Marrow - (Psalms 63:5) And the prophet Isaiah represents the salvation of the Lord Jesus Christ as "a feast of fat things, and full of marrow. " (Isaiah 25:6)...
e'Phah - Son of Midian, being the son of Abraham and Keturah, and referred to by Isaiah as the head of a tribe. Genesis 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:33 ; Isaiah 60:6
Arm of the Lord - (Isaiah 50:9) And thus the Lord promiseth, under this character, to make bare his holy arm; that is, to reveal Christ. (Isaiah 52:10; Luke 1:51)...
he'na - ( 2 Kings 19:13 ; Isaiah 37:13 ) At no great distance from Sippara (now Mosaib ) is an ancient town called And or Anah , which may be the same as Hena. It Isaiah 20 miles from Babylon on the Euphrates
Corner-Stone, - The phrase "corner-stone" is sometimes used to denote any principal person, as the princes of Egypt, (Isaiah 19:13 ) and is thus applied to our Lord. (Isaiah 28:16 ; Matthew 21:42 ; 1 Peter 2:6,7 )
Cummin, - (Isaiah 28:25,27 ; Matthew 23:23 ) It is an umbelliferous plant something like fennel. The Maltese are said to grow it at the present day, and to thresh it in the manner described by Isaiah
e'Phah - Son of Midian, being the son of Abraham and Keturah, and referred to by Isaiah as the head of a tribe. Genesis 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:33 ; Isaiah 60:6
Zoan - The prophets used Zoan to refer to the Egyptian government and its activities ( Isaiah 19:11 ,Isaiah 19:11,19:13 ; Isaiah 30:4 ; Ezekiel 30:14 )
Sharon - It was a region well adapted for pasture, 1 Chronicles 27:29; Isaiah 65:10, very fertile, Isaiah 33:9; Isaiah 35:2, and celebrated for its roses
City of Confusion (Chaos) - A name applied to Jerusalem in Isaiah 24:10
Contrite - This meaning appears in the crushing of the golden calf ( Exodus 32:20 ) or the crushing of grain during threshing (Isaiah 28:28 ). God will revive the spirit of such a one (Isaiah 57:15 ; compare Isaiah 66:2 ; Psalm 34:18 ). ...
God's plan of salvation rests on God being pleased to crush His Suffering Servant (Isaiah 53:10 NAS). This One will finally be exalted ( Isaiah 52:13 )
Pool - ...
The following are some of the principal pools mentioned in Scripture: pool of Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:20 ), upper and lower pools of Gihon (Isaiah 7:3 ; Isaiah 22:9 ), old pool (Isaiah 22:11 ), King's pool at Jerusalem (Nehemiah 2:14 ), pool of Bethesda (John 5:2 ,John 5:2,5:4 ,John 5:4,5:7 ), and pool of Siloam (John 9:7 ,John 9:7,9:11 ). Pools are also used as an illustration of God's power to transform the barren into something fruitful (Isaiah 41:18 ), judgment (Isaiah 42:15 ), and the beauty of a woman's eyes (Song of Song of Solomon 7:4 )
Isle, Island - The Hebrew word which is more commonly translated isle, means strictly dry land, habitable country, in opposition to water, or to seas and rivers, Isaiah 42:15 . Compare Isaiah 50:2 . Thus it means coast, when used of Ashdod, Isaiah 20:6 ; of Tyre, Isaiah 23:2,6 ; of Peloponnesus, or Greece, Ezekiel 27:7 ; "the isles of Elishah. The plural of this word, usually translated islands, was employed by the Hebrews to denote distant regions beyond the sea, whether coasts or islands; and especially the islands and maritime countries of the west, which had become indistinctly known to the Hebrews, through the voyages of the Phoenicians, Isaiah 24:15 40:15 42:4,10,12 Psalm 72:10
Drink, Strong - shekar'), an intoxicating liquor (Judges 13:4 ; Luke 1:15 ; Isaiah 5:11 ; Micah 2:11 ) distilled from corn, honey, or dates. The effects of the use of strong drink are referred to in Psalm 107:27 ; Isaiah 24:20 ; 49:26 ; 51:17-22
Sheth - Moab's fierce warriors (Exodus 15:15; Isaiah 15:4; Isaiah 16:6)
Nim'Rim - (limpid, pure ) , The waters of, a stream or brook within the country of Moab, which is mentioned in the denunciations of that nation by Isaiah. ( Isaiah 15:6 ) and Jeremiah
Cockatrice - צפעכּ? , or צפעו , Proverbs 23:32 ; Isaiah 11:8 ; Isaiah 14:29 ; Isaiah 59:5 ; Jeremiah 8:17 . In Isaiah 11:8 , this serpent is evidently intended for a proportionate advance in malignity beyond the peten which precedes it; and in Isaiah 14:29 , it must mean a worse kind of serpent than the nahash. In Isaiah 59:5 , it is referred to as oviparous
Branch - ” The palm branch may stand for nobility, while the reed is symbolic for the common people (Isaiah 9:14 ; Isaiah 19:15 ). Spreading branches can symbolize fruitfulness and prosperity (Genesis 49:22 ; Job 8:16 ; Psalm 80:11 ), while withered, burnt, or cut branches symbolize destruction (Job 8:16 ; Isaiah 9:14 ; Jeremiah 11:16 ; Ezekiel 15:2 ). “Branch” or “shoot” is often used as a symbol for a present or coming king of Israel (Isaiah 11:1 ; Jeremiah 23:5 ; Jeremiah 33:15 ; Zechariah 3:8 ; Zechariah 6:12 )
Mufflers - (Isaiah 3:19 ), veils, light and tremulous
Feller - Isaiah 14
Travailing - Isaiah 42 ...
Cornerstone - The figure is often applied to rulers or leaders (Psalm 118:22 ; Psalm 144:12 ; Isaiah 19:13 NIV, REB, NAS; Zechariah 10:4 ). God promised through Isaiah that Zion would be restored, resting on the cornerstone of the renewed faith of Israel (Isaiah 28:16 ). ...
In the New Testament Psalm 118:22 and Isaiah 28:16 are quoted (or alluded to) and applied to Christ. ...
In 1 Peter 2:4-8 , the two cornerstone passages are quoted in addition to Isaiah 8:14 . This is substantiated by a quote from Isaiah 28:16 . There then comes a warning: those who believe consider the stone to be something precious; but those who do not believe are warned that the stone which they have rejected has become the head of the corner (Psalm 118:22 ) and, further, this stone will make them stumble and fall (Isaiah 8:14 ; compare Romans 9:33 )
Arpad - (Isaiah 10:9 ; 36:19 ; 37:13 ), also Arphad, support, a Syrian city near Hamath, along with which it is invariably mentioned (2 Kings 19:13 ; 18:34 ; Isaiah 10:9 ), and Damascus (Jeremiah 49:23 )
Madmenah - , a town in Benjamin, not far from Jerusalem, towards the north (Isaiah 10:31 ). The same Hebrew word occurs in Isaiah 25:10 , where it is rendered "dunghill
Luhith - Isaiah mourned for Moabite refugees who would have to climb the heights of Luhith to escape the enemy taking over their country (Isaiah 15:5 ; compare Jeremiah 48:5 )
Sinim - (ssi' nihm) Land from which God promised to gather the Babylonian Exiles (Isaiah 49:12 ). Traditionally translated as China and treated variously by early translators as Persia or the south, the term received clarification from an Isaiah manuscript among the Dead Sea Scrolls, which reads, “Syenites,” a reference to modern Aswan (compare NIV, REB, NRSV)
Undone - Isaiah 6:5 (a) This is a type of a cake that is only partially cooked. Isaiah realized that he was not what he should be in GOD's sight, and he cried out far more of that which would enable him to be conformed to the will of GOD
Satyr - The expression "satyrs shall dance there," Isaiah 13:21 (the R. also Isaiah 34:14), denotes that the place shall become a rude, wild, uncultivated waste
Isaiah - , and exercised the prophetical office some sixty years, under the three following monarchs, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Isaiah 1:1 . The first twelve chapters of his prophecies refer to the kingdom of Judah; then Isaiah 13:1-23:18 , directed against foreign nations, except Isaiah 22:1-23 , against Jerusalem. In Isaiah 24:1-35:10 , which would seem to belong to the time of Hezekiah, the prophet appears to look forward in prophetic vision to the times of the exile and of the Messiah. Isaiah 36:1-39:8 gives a historical account to Sennacherib's invasion, and of the advice given by Isaiah to Hezekiah. This account is parallel to that in 2 Kings 18:13-20:19 ; and indeed Isaiah 37:1-38 is almost word for word with 2 Kings 19:1-37 . The remainder of the book of Isaiah, Isaiah 40:1-66:24 , contains a series of oracles referring to the future times of temporal exile and deliverance, and expanding into glorious views of the spiritual deliverance to be wrought by the Messiah. ...
Isaiah seems to have lived and prophesied wholly at Jerusalem; and disappears from history after the accounts contained in Isaiah 39:1-8 . A tradition among the Talmudist and fathers relates that he was sawn asunder during the reign of Manasseh, Hebrews 11:37 ; and this tradition is embodied in an apocrtphal book, called the "ascension of Isaiah;" but it seems to rest on no certain grounds. ...
Some commentators have proposed to divide the book of Isaiah chronologically into three parts, as if composed under the three kings, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. But a very obvious and striking division of the book into two parts exists; the first part, including Isaiah 1:1-39:8 , and the second, the remainder of the book, Isaiah 40:1-66:24 . ...
The first part is made up of those prophecies and historical accounts which Isaiah wrote during the period of his active exertions, when he mingled in the public concerns of the rulers and the people, and acted as the messenger of God to the nation in reference to their internal and external existing relations. The prophet first consoles his people by announcing their deliverance from the approaching Babylonish exile, which he had himself predicted, Isaiah 39:6,7 ; he names the monarch whom Jehovah will send to punish the insolence of their oppressors, and lead back the people to their home. ...
Isaiah is appropriately named "the evangelical prophet," and the fathers called his book "the Gospel according to St. Isaiah. " In it the wonderful person and birth of "Emmanuel-God with us," his beneficent life, his atoning death, and his triumphant and everlasting kingdom, are minutely foretold, Isaiah 7:14-16 9:6-7 11:1-10 32:1-20 42:1-25 49:1-26 52:13-15 53:1-12 60:1-21 61:1-3 . The simplicity, purity, sweetness, and sublimity of Isaiah, and the fullness of his predictions respecting the Messiah, give him the preeminence among the Hebrew prophets and poets
Shadow - Especially at midday when shade virtually vanished, people looked for a shadow (Isaiah 16:3 ; compare Genesis 21:15 ; Jonah 4 ; Job 7:2 ). In the desert wilderness the traveler found little hope for shade but looked for shade or shadow from hills (Judges 9:36 ), large rocks (Isaiah 32:2 ), a cave (Exodus 33:1 : 22 ; 1 Kings 19:9 ), or a cloud (Isaiah 25:5 ). Still, Israel knew the false claims of kings to provide such protection (Judges 9:15 ; compare Isaiah 30:2 ; Ezekiel 31:1 ). Biblical writers looked to the Messiah for needed shade or shadow (Isaiah 32:2 ; Ezekiel 17:23 ). God was the ultimate shadow of protection for His people (Psalm 36:7 ; Psalm 91:1 ; Psalm 121:5 ; Isaiah 25:4 ; Isaiah 49:2 ; Isaiah 51:16 ). References to death come from Old Testament prophecy—Matthew 4:16 and Luke 1:79 picking up Isaiah 9:2
Bravery - (Isaiah 3:18 ), an old English word meaning comeliness or beauty
Antimony - Isaiah 54:11 RVm Arrowsnake - ARROWSNAKE ( Isaiah 34:15 RV Girding - Isaiah 3 ...
Peep - In Isaiah 8:19 , denotes the stifles, piping voice of necromancers
be'Som - a brush or broom of twigs for sweeping (Isaiah 14:23 )
Hanes - City to which Israel sent ambassadors in time of Isaiah to seek military and economic help (Isaiah 30:4 ). Isaiah condemned the government policy of seeking Egyptian help rather than trusting Yahweh
Gleaning - Isaiah compared the few grapes or olives left for gleaners to the small remnant of Israel God would leave when He judged them (Isaiah 17:5-9 ). One day, however, God would again gather or glean His remnant one by one and return them to worship in Jerusalem (Isaiah 27:12 )
Cane - In Isaiah 43:24 ; Jeremiah 6:20 , the Hebrew word Kaneh Is thus rendered, giving its name to the plant. It is rendered "reed" in 1 Kings 14:15 ; Job 40:21 ; Isaiah 19:6 ; 35:7 . In 2 Kings 18:21 ; Isaiah 36:6 ; Ezekiel 29:6,7 , the reference is to the weak, fragile nature of the reed
Incantations - The Babylonians hoped to gain success and terrorize their enemies by means of incantations (Isaiah 47:12 ). Isaiah warned their incantations would be of no avail (Isaiah 47:9 ). The tongue muttering wickedness perhaps refers to incantations (Isaiah 59:3 )
Kedar - They may best be described as nomadic, living in tents (Psalm 120:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:5 ) and raising sheep and goats (Isaiah 60:7 ; Jeremiah 49:28-29 ,Jeremiah 49:28-29,49:32 ), as well as camels, which they sold as far away as Tyre (Ezekiel 27:21 ). ...
The Kedarites were led by princes (Ezekiel 27:21 ) and were famous for their warriors, particularly their archers (Isaiah 21:17 ). They evidently were of some importance during the time of Isaiah (Isaiah 21:16 )
Ahaz - The eleventh king of Judah; he was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah. He was distinguished for his idolatry and contempt of the true God; and against him many of the prophecies of Isaiah are directed. 2 Kings 16:1-2; 2 Kings 16:20; 2 Chronicles 28:1-27; Isaiah 7:1; Isaiah 25:2
Eglaim - Two ponds, (Isaiah 15:8 ), probably En-eglaim of Ezekiel 47:10
Luhith, Ascent of - The hill leading up to a sanctuary of Moab (Isaiah 15:5)
Hart - An adult male deer (Psalm 42:1 ; Isaiah 35:6 )
Aiath - (ay i' awth) Alternate spelling of Ai (Isaiah 10:28 )
Ascension of Isaiah - ASCENSION OF Isaiah
Cottage - A rustic tent or shelter, made perhaps of boughs, Isaiah 24:20
Madmenah - A town not far from Jerusalem, site not known, Isaiah 10:31
City of the Sun - Usually taken as a reference to Heliopolis (Isaiah 19:18 )
Breath - ...
Isaiah 11:4 (b) The wrath of GOD is executed by the Holy Spirit. (See also Isaiah 40:7). ...
Isaiah 30:28, Isaiah 30:33 (b) The Holy Spirit is compared in these passages to a river. ...
Isaiah 33:11 (a) Israel will destroy themselves by the way they live
Club - Shebet is a rod or staff used in agriculture (Isaiah 28:27 ), herding flocks (Psalm 23:4 ), in punishing people (Exodus 21:20 ; Proverbs 22:15 ; Micah 5:1 ), symbolizing authority of office (Numbers 24:17 ; Isaiah 14:5 ). The shepherd's staff came to be adopted as a weapon (2 Samuel 23:21 ; Isaiah 10:5 ,Isaiah 10:5,10:15 ,Isaiah 10:15,10:24 )
Migron - ” Town (or towns) in Benjamin (1 Samuel 14:2 ; Isaiah 10:28 ). The town of Isaiah 10:1 is generally located between Aiath (Ai) and Michmash, that is, to the north of Michmash
Litter - A covered and curtained couch with shafts so that it can be carried by porters (Song of Song of Solomon 3:7 NRSV, REB; Isaiah 66:20 , KJV, NAS, NRSV). The term used at Isaiah 60:20 perhaps refers to covered wagons (NIV, REB)
Potsherd - Isaiah 45:9 . It is employed literally in Job 2:8 ; Proverbs 26:23 , and translated 'sherd' in Isaiah 30:14 ; Ezekiel 23:34
Zebah - ” He and Zalmunna were Midianite kings that Gideon captured and killed because they had killed Gideon's brothers (Judges 8:4-21 ; see Psalm 83:11 ; Isaiah 9:4 ; Isaiah 10:26 )
Anise - The KJV translates the corresponding Hebrew word as fitches in Isaiah 28:25 ,Isaiah 28:25,28:27 (but see Fitches )
Box Tree - תאשור , Isaiah 41:9 ; Isaiah 60:13 ; Ezekiel 27:6 ; 2 Esdras 14:24 , where the word appears to be used for tablets
Fitches - This word occurs in Isaiah 28:25; Isaiah 28:27
Rab'Shakeh - (chief cupbearer ), ( 2 Kings 19:1 ; Isaiah 36:1 ; Isaiah 37:1 )
Anvil - The rendering of the Hebrew word , "beaten," found only in Isaiah 41:7
Wax - To grow or become, Exodus 22:24 ; Isaiah 50:9 ; Luke 13:19
Jesurun - (jih ssyoo' ruhn) KJV variant spelling of Jeshurun in Isaiah 44:2
Calno - (cal' nih) Variant spelling in Hebrew of Calneh in Isaiah 10:9
Chalkstone - Soft stone easily crushed used for comparison to destruction of altar (Isaiah 27:9 )
Luhith - (Isaiah 15:5) The name signifies, a table, or floor
Cornfloor - Isaiah 21
Crisping-Pins - Crisping-pins, Isaiah 3:22, A
Eglaim - EGLAIM ( Isaiah 15:8 )
Rahab (2) - ) A poetical name for Egypt (Isaiah 51:9). In Isaiah 30:7 De Dieu translated "I called her Arrogance (Rahab) that sitteth still. " She who boasted of the help she would give, when put to the test, sat still (Isaiah 36:6)
Bald - (See also Isaiah 22:12). ...
Isaiah 3:24 (a) This is a sign that GOD had forsaken His people and left them to the will of their enemies. (See also Jeremiah 47:5; Isaiah 15:2; Ezekiel 7:18)
Dibon - Numbers 21:30; Isaiah 15:2. Isaiah 15:9. It afterward returned to Moab, Isaiah 15:2; Jeremiah 48:18; Jeremiah 48:22; now called Dhîbân, about 12 miles east of the Dead Sea and 3 miles north of the Arnon
Potsherds - Broken pieces of earthenware, Job 2:8 Isaiah 30:14 , fit types of the worthlessness and fragility of man, Psalm 22:15 Proverbs 26:23 Isaiah 45:9 . Such fragments are used by the poor in various ways, if not utterly broken in to bits, Isaiah 30:14
Neba'Ioth, Neba'Joth - about 1850), and father of a pastoral tribe named after him, the "rams Of Nebaioth" being mentioned by the prophet Isaiah, (Isaiah 60:7 ) with the; flocks of Kedar. (They first settled in the country southeast of Palestine, and wandered gradually in search of pasturage till they came to Kedar, of which Isaiah speaks
Animals - ...
For transport people in Bible times used asses (Joshua 9:4; 1 Samuel 9:3; 1 Samuel 25:20; Matthew 21:2-5), camels (Genesis 24:10; Genesis 30:43; Genesis 31:17; Genesis 37:25; Isaiah 30:6) and horses (Isaiah 28:28), though the latter were kept mainly for warfare (Joshua 11:4; 1 Kings 10:28-29; Isaiah 30:16; Isaiah 36:8). ...
Many different animals lived in the forest and semi-desert regions of Palestine: lions (1 Samuel 17:34; Psalms 7:2; Isaiah 31:4; Jeremiah 5:6; Nahum 2:11-12), bears (1 Samuel 17:34; 2 Kings 2:24; Amos 5:19), foxes (Judges 15:4; Matthew 8:20), wolves (Jeremiah 5:6; John 10:12), hyenas (Isaiah 13:22), jackals (Isaiah 34:13; Isaiah 43:20), wild asses (Job 39:5-8; Jeremiah 14:6), wild oxen (Job 39:9; Psalms 22:21), wild boars (Psalms 80:13), and deadly snakes (Numbers 21:6; Isaiah 30:6; see SNAKE). The Israelites hunted some of these for food, but there were others that they were forbidden to eat (Leviticus 11:1-8; Deuteronomy 14:3-8; Isaiah 14:23; Isaiah 34:11; see UNCLEANNESS)
Consumption - The KJV uses consumption in Isaiah 10:22 ; Isaiah 28:22 where modern versions translate “destruction
Sabeans - Descendants of Seba (Genesis 10:7 ); Africans (Isaiah 43:3 ). They were "men of stature," and engaged in merchandise (Isaiah 45:14 )
Balance - Qaneh , "the beam of a balance" (Isaiah 46:6). Ρeles , "scales" (Isaiah 40:12): literally, "the beam", or else the aperture in which the tongue or beam moves
Breath of Life - In the Bible, God is the source of the breath of life (Genesis 1:30 ; Genesis 2:7 ; Genesis 7:15 ; Isaiah 57:16 ). Just as God gave the breath of life, so can He take it away (Genesis 6:17 ; Genesis 7:22 ; Isaiah 57:16 )
Sackcloth, - cloth used in making sacks or bags, a coarse fabric, of a dark color, made of goat's hair, (Isaiah 50:3 ; Revelation 6:12 ) end resembling the eilicium of the Romans. ( 1 Kings 21:27 ; 2 Kings 6:30 ; Job 16:15 ; Isaiah 32:11 )
Beulah - (beuh' luh) A symbolic name meaning, “married,” used in reference to Jerusalem (Isaiah 62:4 ). The name suggests fertilty in the Messianic Age based on righteousness, with the Lord as husband (Isaiah 62:1-2 )
Box-Tree - BOX-TREE ( teashshûr , Isaiah 41:19 ; Isaiah 60:13 , Ezekiel 27:6 )
Night Monster - KJV translation of the Hebrew term Lilith ( Isaiah 34:14 NRSV). The term occurs only here in Scripture unless textual emendations are accepted ( Job 18:15 ; Isaiah 2:18 )
Foreknow, Foreknowledge - He inhabits eternity (Isaiah 57:15). God has infinite knowledge (Isaiah 41:22-23) and knows all things in advance
Lees, - (Isaiah 25:6 ) Before the wine was consumed, it was necessary to strain off the lees; such wine was then termed "well refined. " (Isaiah 25:6 ) To drink the lees, or "dregs," was an expression for the endurance of extreme punishment
Messiah - ...
His birthplace (Micah 5:2), His lineage (Isaiah 11:1), His time of coming (Daniel 9:25-26), while the second temple stood (Haggai 2:9), and His forerunner (Isaiah 40:3-5; Malachi 3:1) are foretold. From Psalm 2; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Zechariah 9:9, the Jews expected a triumphant king, but overlooked the prophecies of His sufferings first (Isaiah 53; Luke 24:21-26-27). The rabbis got over the Messianic prophecies which prove Jesus to be Messiah by imagining a Messiah ben Joseph who should suffer, distinct from Messiah ben David who should reign; but the prophecies of the suffering and glory are so blended as to exclude the idea of any but one and the same Messiah (compare Isaiah 52:7; Isaiah 52:13-14; Isaiah 52:15; Isaiah 52:53)
Island - Modern translations sometimes replace the island or isle of the KJV with the terms coast, coastline, or coastland (compare Genesis 10:5 ; Esther 10:1 ; Psalm 97:1 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Jeremiah 2:10 ). “Islands” frequently appears in parallel to peoples/nations (Isaiah 41:1 ; Isaiah 51:5 ; Isaiah 66:19 ; Jeremiah 31:10 ) and to the earth (Isaiah 42:4 ). Often the idea of distant peoples and places is stressed by the parallelism (Isaiah 41:5 ; Isaiah 49:1 )
Messiah - As in ancient times not only the king, but also the priest and the prophet, was consecrated to his calling by being anointed, the word "Messiah" often occurs in the Old Testament in its literal sense, signifying one who has been anointed, 1 Samuel 24:6; Lamentations 4:1-22 :' 20; Ezekiel 28:14; Psalms 105:15; hut generally it has a more specific application, signifying the One who was anointed, the supreme Deliverer who was promised from the beginning, Genesis 3:15, and about whom a long series of prophecies runs through the whole history of Israel from Abram, Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:18; Jacob, Genesis 49:10; Balaam, Numbers 24:17; Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:18; and Nathan, 2 Samuel 7:16; through the psalmists and prophets, Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 16:1-11; Psalms 22:1-31; Psalms 40:1-17; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 110:1-7; Isaiah 7:10-16; Isaiah 9:1-7; Isaiah 11:1-16; Isaiah 13:1-22; Isaiah 53:1-12; Isaiah 61:1-11; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Micah 5:2; Malachi 3:1-4, to his immediate precursor, John the Baptist. The lineage from which Messiah should descend was foretold, Genesis 49:10; Isaiah 11:1, the place in which he should be born, Micah 5:2, the time of his appearance, Daniel 9:20; Daniel 9:25; Haggai 2:7; Malachi 3:1, etc
Isaiah - (See Isaiah 20:2) Was not this also typical of Christ's three years ministry? His name signifies salvation of the Lord; from Jashah, salvation; and Jah, the Lord. I cannot forbear mentioning the commonly-received opinion, that Isaiah was sawn asunder, in the beginning of the reign of Manasseh, and that his body was buried near Jerusalem, under the fuller's oak near Siloam. And the tradition concerning this event is, that it was brought upon him by the event of his publishing his vision, (Isaiah 6:1-13) in which he saith, "he saw the Lord sitting on a throne high and lifted up. "...
Isaiah prophesied many years, not less than threescore, though some make his ministry to have extended to four-score. Who can read the prophecy of Isaiah without the most profound admiration! It is not only unequalled in point of language, but it contains so much of Christ, that it looks more like an history than a prophecy. Jerom calls Isaiah's prophecy, an abridgment of the holy Scriptures. And Grotius prefers Isaiah to all the writers of Greece and Rome. But how truly blessed are the predictions of Isaiah to the believer who hath lived to see the whole fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the Holy Ghost is led to discover not only the correspondence between them, but his own personal interest therein
Artificer - A person engaged in any kind of manual occupation (Genesis 4:22 ; Isaiah 3:3 )
Red - See Psalm 75:8 ); “pleasant” or “delight” (Isaiah 27:2 ); and “porphyry” (Esther 1:6 )
Cauls - Head-dresses, or ornaments of Hebrew headdresses, of checker or network (Isaiah 3:18)
Nebajoth - (nih bay' jihth) KJV alternate form of Nebaioth (1 Chronicles 1:29 ; Isaiah 60:7 )
Shebna - Steward of King Hezekiah's palace, Isaiah 22:15 , afterwards his secretary, 2 Kings 18:18,37
Banner - (Compare Numbers 21:8, "a pole"; Isaiah 5:26; Isaiah 11:10, "a root of Jesse shall stand for an ensign of the people," Isaiah 13:2; Isaiah 30:17; Isaiah 49:22; Psalms 60:4
Leek - הציר , in Numbers 11:5 , translated "leek;" in 1 Kings 18:5 ; 2 Kings 19:26 ; Job 40:15 ; Psalms 37:2 ; Psalms 90:5 ; Psalms 103:15 ; Psalms 104:14 ; Psalms 129:6 ; Psalms 147:8 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; Isaiah 37:27 ; Isaiah 40:6 , it is rendered "grass;" in Job 8:12 , "herb;" in Proverbs 27:25 ; Isaiah 15:6 , "hay;" and in Isaiah 34:13 , "a court
Lamb - taleh, a young sucking lamb (1 Samuel 7:9 ; Isaiah 65:25 ). In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the type of meekness and innocence (Isaiah 11:6 ; 65:25 ; Luke 10:3 ; John 21:15 ). The lamb was a symbol of Christ (Genesis 4:4 ; Exodus 12:3 ; 29:38 ; Isaiah 16:1 ; 53:7 ; John 1:36 ; Revelation 13:8 ). ...
Christ is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29,36 ), as the great sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types (Numbers 6:12 ; Leviticus 14:12-17 ; Isaiah 53:7 ; 1 Corinthians 5:7 )
Deafness - Deafness is also symbolic of inattentiveness to and rebellion against God (Isaiah 42:18-20 ; Isaiah 43:8 ). Part of the future hope of the prophets is that the deaf will hear (Isaiah 42:18-20 ; Isaiah 43:8 )
Fiery Serpent - The Hebrew word for burning or fiery is the same as for seraphim in Isaiah 6:1 but refers to different kinds of creatures. Isaiah used the fear of snakes to warn complacent Philistines that God would raise up a more fearful enemy who could be compared only to a serpent (saraph ) which flew or darted (Isaiah 14:29 NIV). Compare Isaiah 30:6
Nose - Jewelry was worn in the nose (Genesis 24:47 ; Isaiah 3:21 ; Ezekiel 16:12 ). Prisoners of war were sometimes led captive with hooks in their noses (2 Kings 19:28 ; Isaiah 37:29 ). ...
Nostrils are often associated with the breath of life (Genesis 2:7 ; Genesis 7:22 ; Job 27:3 ; Isaiah 2:22 ). The Lord's nostrils pile up the waters, allowing passage through the sea (Exodus 15:8 ; 2 Samuel 22:16 ) and are associated with judgment (2 Samuel 22:9 ; Job 41:20 ; Psalm 18:8 ; Isaiah 65:5 )
Leaf, Leaves - Withered (Isaiah 1:30 ), shaken (Isaiah 33:9 ), fallen (Isaiah 33:4 ), and faded (Isaiah 64:4 ) leaves serve as images of judgment
Ambassador - ...
Men of high rank usually; as Sennacherib sent his chief captain, Chief cupbearer, and chief eunuch, Tartan, Rabsaris, Rabshakeh, whom Hezekiah's chief men of the kingdom, Eliakim over the household, Shebna the secretary, and Joab the recorder, met (2 Kings 18:17-18; Isaiah 30:4; Isaiah 33:7; compare Isaiah 18:2). Our part is to send prayers, as our ambassage, to meet God's ambassadors, desiring His conditions of peace (Luke 14:32; Isaiah 27:5)
Branch - We find Christ spoken of, under the spirit of prophecy, by the Lord JEHOVAH, in this character by three of the prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Zechariah. (Isaiah 4:2 and Isaiah 11:1; Jeremiah 23:5 and Isaiah 33:15; Zechariah 3:8) The word Branch in the original is Netzer, which signifies, a city of plants
Reed - ...
Usually, however, the word reed denotes a reed or cane growing in marshy grounds, Job 40:21 Isaiah 19:6 ; slender and fragile, and hence taken as an emblem of weakness, 1 Kings 18:21 Isaiah 36:6 Ezekiel 29:6 ; and of instability, Matthew 11:7 . "A bruised reed," Isaiah 42:3 Matthew 12:20 , is an emblem of a soul crushed and ready to sink in despair under a sense of its guilty and lost condition. The reed of spice, or good reed, (English version, "sweet calamus," Exodus 30:23 , "sweet cane" Jeremiah 6:20 ) also called simply reed, (English version, "calamus" or "sweet cane,") Isaiah 43:24 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Ezekiel 27:19 , is the sweet flag of India, calamus odoratus
Luhith - Made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim (Isaiah 15:5 ; Jeremiah 48:5 )
Stream of Egypt - occurs once in the Old Testament-- (Isaiah 27:12 ) [1] RIVER OF EGYPT - 3664
Stomacher - (Isaiah 3:24 ), an article of female attire, probably some sort of girdle around the breast
Ward - A prison (Genesis 40:3,4 ); a watch-station (Isaiah 21:8 ); a guard (Nehemiah 13:30 )
Viol - nebel (Isaiah 5:12 , RSV, "lute;" 14:11), a musical instrument, usually rendered "psaltery" (q
Prognosticators - KJV term for those predicting the future by astrology (Isaiah 47:13 )
Kir-Haresh - (kuhr-hay' ressh) The KJV spelling of Kir-Hareseth in Isaiah 16:11
Crisping Pins - Isaiah 3:22 AV Viol - Isaiah 5:12 Amos 6:5 , a stringed instrument of music, resembling the psaltery
Egla'im - (two ponds ), a place named only in ( Isaiah 15:8 ) probably the same as EN-EGLAIM
Pottery - The potter trod the clay into a paste (Isaiah 41:25), then put it on a wheel, by which he sat and shaped it. The wheel or horizontal lathe was a wooden disc, placed on another larger one, and turned by hand or worked by a treadle (Jeremiah 18:3); on the upper he molded the clay into shape (Isaiah 45:9); the vessel was then smoothed, glazed, and burnt. ...
Emblem of man's brittle frailty, and of God's potter-like power to shape our ends as He pleases (Psalms 2:9; Isaiah 29:16; Isaiah 30:14; Jeremiah 19:11; Lamentations 4:2). As Isaiah 40:3 and Malachi 3:1 are thrown together in Mark 1:2-3; also Isaiah 62:11 and Zechariah 9:9 in Matthew 21:4-5; and Isaiah 8:14; Isaiah 28:16 in Romans 9:33; so Jeremiah 18:3-6; Jeremiah 18:19, and Zechariah 11:12-13 in Matthew 27:9
Vine - Special mention is made in the Bible of the vines of Eshcol, Numbers 13:24; Numbers 32:9, of Sibmah, Heshbon, and Elealeh, Isaiah 16:8-10; Jeremiah 48:32, and of Engedi. Isaiah 5:2; Isaiah 5:4; Jeremiah 2:21; Hosea 10:1. Judges 9:27; Isaiah 16:10; Jeremiah 25:30. " The vineyard, which was generally on a bill, Isaiah 5:1; Jeremiah 31:5; Amos 9:13, was surrounded by a wall or hedge in order to keep out the wild boars. Isaiah 1:8; Isaiah 5:2; Matthew 21:33. Isaiah 6:2
Virgin - In a prophecy concerning our Lord, (Isaiah 7:14 ) says, "A virgin Bar - (Isaiah 45:2 ; Amos 1:5 ); defences of a city (1 Kings 4:13 ). A bar for a door was of iron (Isaiah 45:2 ), brass (Psalm 107:16 ), or wood (Nahum 3:13 )
Wolf - Fierce (Genesis 49:27; Ezekiel 22:27; Habakkuk 1:8; Matthew 7:15); prowling in the night (Jeremiah 5:6; Zephaniah 3:3); devouring lambs and sheep (John 10:12); typifying persecutors and heretical leaders (Matthew 10:16; Matthew 7:15; Acts 20:29); hereafter about to associate peacefully with the lamb under Messiah's reign (Isaiah 11:6; Isaiah 65:25)
Fan, Fanner - Isaiah 30:24 ; Jeremiah 4:11 . It is also used symbolically for the judgements of God, Isaiah 41:16 ; Jeremiah 15:7 ; Jeremiah 51:2 ; and for the discriminating power of the testimony of the Lord Jesus
Fitches - The same word is in Exodus 9:32 ; Isaiah 28:25 , translated RYE. Isaiah 28:25-27
Coal - The altar of sacrifice burned coals (Leviticus 16:12 ), as did the blacksmith's fire (Isaiah 44:12 ) and the baker's (Isaiah 44:19 )
Sign - A token, pledge, or proof, Genesis 9:12,13 17:11 Exodus 3:12 Isaiah 8:18 . The "signs of heaven" were the movements and aspects of the heavenly bodies, from which heathen astrologers pretended to obtain revelations, Isaiah 44:25 Jeremiah 10:2
Thirsty - Isaiah 35 ...
2. Isaiah 44; 65
Shadow - Sometimes denotes intense darkness and gloom, Psalm 23:4 , and sometimes a cool retreat, Isaiah 33:2 , or perfect protection, Psalm 17:8 Isaiah 49:2 Daniel 4:12
Owl - A number of species of the owl are mentioned in the Bible, (Leviticus 11:17 ; 14:16; Isaiah 14:23 ; 34:15 ; Zephaniah 2:14 ) and in several other places the same Hebrew word is used where it is translated ostrich. (Isaiah 34:11,13-15 )
Immanuel - The name occurs in Isaiah 7:14 ; Isaiah 8:8 , Matthew 1:23 , and is a Heb. Its interpretation involves a discussion of Isaiah 7:1-25 , esp. Isaiah 7:10-17 . In Isaiah 7:16 the renderings of RV [3] are both admissible, but the former is more probable; in Isaiah 7:16 RV Sepharvaim - A city mentioned in 2 Kings 18:34 ( Isaiah 36:19 ) and Isaiah 19:13 ( Isaiah 37:13 ) as among those captured by the Assyrians, all apparently in Syria
Leaf - The oak-leaf is mentioned Isaiah 1:30 ; 6:13 . There are numerous allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their restoration (Leviticus 26:36 ; Isaiah 34:4 ; Jeremiah 8:13 ; Daniel 4:12,14,21 ; Mark 11:13 ; 13:28 ). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity (Psalm 1:3 ; Jeremiah 17:8 ; Ezekiel 47:12 ); the faded, of decay (Job 13:25 ; Isaiah 1:30 ; 64:6 ; Jeremiah 8:13 )
Kedar - ) Ishmael's second son (Genesis 25:13; Isaiah 21:16-17; Isaiah 42:11; Isaiah 60:7; Jeremiah 49:28; Ezekiel 27:21), occupying the pastures and wilds on the N
Sea, the - yam), signifies (1) "the gathering together of the waters," the ocean (Genesis 1:10 ); (2) a river, as the Nile (Isaiah 19:5 ), the Euphrates (Isaiah 21:1 ; Jeremiah 51:36 ); (3) the Red Sea (Exodus 14:16,27 ; 15:4 , etc. The word "sea" is used symbolically in Isaiah 60:5 , where it probably means the nations around the Mediterranean
Daughter - ...
Women as natives of a place, or as professing the religion of a place; as, "the daughters of Zion" (Isaiah 3:16 ), "daughters of the Philistines" (2 Samuel 1:20 ). Tyre is in this sense called the daughter of Sidon (Isaiah 23:12 ). ...
The people of Jerusalem are spoken of as "the daughters of Zion" (Isaiah 37:22 )
Carriages - Elsewhere the things carried, baggage (1 Samuel 17:22; Isaiah 10:28; Judges 18:21), literally, heavy things, i. Isaiah 46:1; "your carriages were heavy laden," rather "(the images) which used to be carried by you (in solemn procession) are become heavy burdens"; instead of carrying you as Jehovah does His people (Isaiah 46:3-4), they have to be carried as heavy burdens by you
Kir-Heres - (kuhr-hee' rehss) Believed to be an alternate spelling of Kir-Hareseth found in Isaiah 16:11 ; Jeremiah 48:31 ,Jeremiah 48:31,48:36 . The Greek translation of the name in Isaiah 16:11 suggests that the translators of the Septuagint had a Hebrew text that read Kir-Hadesheth, a name meaning “New City,” which was mistaken for Kir-Hareseth or Kir-Heres. In the context, Kir-Hares (for Kir-Hareseth) is likely the best reading (see Isaiah 16:7 )
Highway - (See also Isaiah 35:8). ...
Isaiah 40:3 (a) By this figure we understand that GOD's people should and will make it easy for GOD to work among the people. (See also Isaiah 62:10; Jeremiah 31:21)
Grass - Sometimes means any green herbage, Isaiah 15:6 , and sometimes the usual food of cattle, Psalm 104:14 . The quick growth of grass, its tenderness, and its rapid combustion when dry, have furnished the sacred writers with some of their most appropriate illustrations, Psalm 90:5,6 92:7 103:15,16 Isaiah 40:6-8 51:12 James 1:10 1 Peter 1:24 . Such grass quickly withers when the rainy season is over, Psalm 129:6,7 Isaiah 37:27
Lucifer - Brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isaiah 14:12 ) to denote his glory
Bayith - Occurs as a proper name in Isaiah 15:2 , but the true sense is uncertain
Laish - There is a city of this name, Isaiah 10:30
Amoz - (ay' muhz) whose name means “strong,” was the father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2 )
Treaty - Such treaties were formal agreements that dealt with matters of mutual concern, such as peace, security and trade (Genesis 21:25-33; Genesis 26:28-30; 1 Kings 9:26-28; 1 Kings 20:34; Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 30:1-5; Isaiah 31:1). This was particularly so when Israel (or Judah) trusted for military victory in an alliance with a foreign nation instead of trusting in God (1 Kings 15:18-20; Isaiah 30:1-3; Isaiah 30:15). Such a treaty would lead inevitably to political and religious domination by the foreign nation in whom Israel trusted (2 Kings 16:7-10; Isaiah 39:3-7; Hosea 7:8-10)
Dragon - Context indicates that the first term refers to a mammal inhabiting the desert (Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; Isaiah 43:20 ; Lamentations 4:3 ). The second term has four possible uses: (1) “great sea monster” (KJV, “great whales”) in the sense of a large sea creature (Exodus 7:9-10,724 ; Psalm 148:7 ), possibly a whale; this sense of tannin as created being may serve as a correction of sense 4; (2) a snake ( Exodus 7:9-10 ,1619110985_6:12 ; Deuteronomy 32:33 ; Psalm 91:13 ); (3) a crocodile (Jeremiah 51:34 ; Ezekiel 29:3 ; Ezekiel 32:3 ); here the beast is used as a symbol of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon or the Egyptian Pharaoh; (4) a mythological sea monster symbolic of the forces of chaos and evil in opposition to God's creative and redemptive work (Psalm 74:12-14 ; Job 7:12 ; Job 26:12-13 ; Isaiah 27:1 ; Isaiah 51:9-10 ). As in the Old Testament texts, the dragon is put under guard (Revelation 20:1-3 ; see (Job 7:12 ) and later released for final destruction (Revelation 20:7-10 ; see Isaiah 27:1 )
Herd - The third year was the time for breaking to service (Isaiah 15:5). Isaiah 30:24, "clean (chamits , 'salted') provender," or well fermented maslin, composed of grain, beans, vetches, hay, and salt, which beasts of burden in the East relish. " Also chopped straw (Isaiah 11:7; Isaiah 65:25). The sense in Malachi 4:3 is, "Ye shall go forth, and grow up, as calves of the stall," which when set free from the stall disport with joy; the believer's future joy at the Lord's second coming (Isaiah 25:9; Isaiah 61:10; 1 Peter 1:8)
Branch - words rendered by our ‘branch’ may be gathered from the following list of passages, in each of which a different term is used: Genesis 40:10 , Exodus 25:33 , Numbers 13:23 , Isaiah 16:8 ; Isaiah 27:10 , Jeremiah 11:16 , Zechariah 4:12 , Psalms 104:12 , Job 15:32 ; Job 18:16 . ]'>[2] adds or substitutes another word: Isaiah 18:5 (‘spreading branches’) Isaiah 25:6 (‘song’), Ezekiel 17:3 ; Ezekiel 17:22 (‘top,’ ‘lofty top’), Psalms 80:15 (‘Heb. ‘Branch’ is used figuratively for human offspring ( Job 15:32 ), especially for the scion of a royal house ( Daniel 11:7 ); also for persons in lofty station ( Isaiah 9:14 ). netser , properly signifying ‘sprout’ or ‘shoot,’ but rendered ‘branch’ ( Isaiah 11:1 ), is a designation of the Messianic king; not improbably this was in the Evangelist’s mind when he wrote Matthew 2:23
Prison - ...
Isaiah 42:7 (b) The type in this passage represents the soul that is held in the grip of sin by the Devil. ...
Isaiah 53:8 (a) This refers to the fact that our Lord JESUS was bound by His enemies in Gethsemane, and was kept as a prisoner until He was nailed to the Cross. ...
Isaiah 61:1 (b) Our Lord indicates that the unsaved are so bound by their sins and by black darkness in their lives that they are unable to see GOD's way, nor live according to GOD's plan. (See also Isaiah 24:22; Isaiah 42:7; Isaiah 61:1; Luke 4:18)
Teiltree - Isaiah 6:13 , AV Sinim, the Land of - (Isaiah 49:12 ), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Genesis 10:17 ) is intended
Dregs - (Psalm 75:8 ; Isaiah 51:17,22 ), the lees of wine which settle at the bottom of the vessel
Wimple - Covering women wore around their head and neck (Isaiah 3:22 )
Fainthearted - Isaiah 7
Lines - The cords used in measuring and settling the bounds of landed property, Psalm 16:6 ; Isaiah 34:17
Burden - ...
Isaiah 9:4 (b) Here we find that GOD delivers His people from the grievous yoke of the enemy so that they may be free to serve Him. ...
Isaiah 46:1-258 (a) Here the burden is the sad story of GOD's judgments upon Moab. " (See Isaiah 17:1; Isaiah 19:1; Isaiah 21:1, Isaiah 21:11, Isaiah 21:13; Isaiah 22:1, Isaiah 22:25; Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 30:6)
Ravin - ‘ravening’ ( Psalms 22:13 , Matthew 7:15 ) as well as the form ‘ravenous’ ( Isaiah 35:9 ; Isaiah 46:11 , Ezekiel 39:4 )
Sebam - In all the other passages ( Numbers 32:38 , Joshua 13:11 , Isaiah 16:8-9 , Jeremiah 48:32 ) the name appears in the fem, form Sibmah . The ‘vine of Sibmah’ is mentioned by Isaiah and Jeremiah as one of the possessions of Moab on which destruction was to fall
Fold - An enclosure for flocks to rest together (Isaiah 13:20 ). It was prophesied of the cities of Ammon (Ezekiel 25:5 ), Aroer (Isaiah 17:2 ), and Judaea, that they would be folds or couching-places for flocks
Madmen (1) - Playing on the similarly sounding Hebrew word for silence, damam , "thou city of silence (or Madmen) shalt be brought to silence" (Isaiah 15:1); in Isaiah 25:10, "Moab
Terebinth - (teh' reh bihnth) A large, spreading tree whose species is uncertain so that translations vary in reading the Hebrew elah into English (compare 2 Samuel 18:9 ; Isaiah 1:30 ; Isaiah 6:13 )
Peeped - Isaiah 8:19 (b) Spirit mediums, necromancers and others deal with spirit and work in the dark. (See also Isaiah 10:14, where it indicates the people could not complain)
Carriage - ' Judges 18:21 ; 1 Samuel 17:22 ; Isaiah 10:28 ; Acts 21:15 . The meaning in Isaiah 46:1 is probably that the idols which were once 'carried' with joy in festal processions (cf
Armenia - in 2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 , as the place to which two sons of Sennacherib fled after killing their father; but in both these passages the Hebrew word is Ararat. Armenia occurs in the LXX in the passage in Isaiah
Gad (3) - Margin Isaiah 65:11, "that troop," rather "that prepare a (sacrificial) table for the Gad," i. " Μeni ("that number," margin Isaiah 65:11) was the lesser good fortune, Gad the greater
Ordo Salutis - In the Reformed camp, the ordo solutis Isaiah 1:1-31) election, 2) predestination, 3) calling, 4) regeneration, 5) faith, 6) repentance, 7) justification, 8) sanctification, and 9) glorification. In the Arminian camp, the ordo soluits Isaiah 1:1-31) calling, 2) faith, 3) repentance, 4) regeneration, 5) justification, 6) perseverance, 7) glorification
Isle - The radical sense of the Hebrew word seems to be "habitable places," as opposed to water, and in this sense it occurs in (Isaiah 42:15 ) Hence it means secondarily any maritime district, whether belonging to a continent or to an island; thus it is used of the shore of the Mediterranean, (Isaiah 20:6 ; 23:2,6 ) and of the coasts of Elishah, (Ezekiel 27:7 ) i
Dibon - DIMON, Isaiah 15:9 , and DI-BON-GAD, Numbers 33:45,46 , a town of Gad, Numbers 32:34 , but afterwards of Reuben, Joshua 13:17 . Later we find it in the hands of the Moabites, Isaiah 15:2 Jeremiah 48:22
Outcast - Outcast rather designates one banished from court (2 Samuel 14:14 RSV) or more often dispersed persons, exiles, or refugees ( Deuteronomy 30:4 ; Psalm 147:2 : Isaiah 11:12 ; Isaiah 56:8 ; Jeremiah 30:17 ; Micah 4:6-7 )
Train - KJV used train to refer to the part of a robe that trails behind the wearer (Isaiah 6:1 )
Bucket - A vessel to draw water with (Isaiah 40:15 ); used figuratively, probably, of a numerous issue (Numbers 24:7 )
Potsherd - , anything severed, as a fragment of earthenware (Job 2:8 ; Proverbs 26:23 ; Isaiah 45:9 )
Alloy - ]'>[1] ( Isaiah 1:25 ) for EV Tabeal - Isaiah 7:6
Hanes - A city of Egypt, Isaiah 30:4 , thought to be the modern Ehnes, in middle Egypt on the Nile
Bajith - The site of a temple in Moab, where the king offered vain supplications against the Assyrians, Isaiah 15:2
Pathros - (Isaiah 11:11; Jeremiah 44:1) Perhaps derived from Path, mouth,—and Raphos, water
Idumaea - The Greek form of Edom (Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Ezekiel 35:15 ; 36:5 , but in RSV "Edom")
Peace, Spiritual - ) The Law, the Prophets, and the Writings of the Old Testament each bear testimony that such peace is the gift of God, for God alone can give peace in all its fullness (Leviticus 26:6 ; 1 Chronicles 12:18 ; 1 Chronicles 22:9 ; 1 Kings 2:33 ; Isaiah 26:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:9-10 ; Ezekiel 34:25 ; Ezekiel 37:26 ; Zechariah 6:13 ; Malachi 2:5-6 ; Job 22:21 ; Job 25:2 ; Psalm 4:8 ; Psalm 29:11 ; Psalm 37:37 ; Psalm 85:8 ; Psalm 122:6-8 ; Psalm 147:14 ; Proverbs 3:17 ). Spiritual peace may be equated with salvation (Isaiah 52:7 ; Nahum 1:15 ). It is available to all who trust in God (Isaiah 26:3 ) and love His law (Psalm 119:165 —note that in Psalm 119:166-168 this love is clearly understood to mean obedience!) This peace is clearly identified with a righteous life apart from which no one is able to find true peace ( Isaiah 32:17 ; Isaiah 48:22 ; Isaiah 57:1-2 ). Thus peace and righteousness are often linked in the Old Testament (Psalm 72:7 ; Psalm 85:10 ; Isaiah 9:7 ; Isaiah 32:17 ; Isaiah 48:18 ; Isaiah 60:17 ), as are peace and justice (Isaiah 59:8 ). To be at peace is to be upright (Malachi 2:6 ), to be faithful (2 Samuel 20:19 ), to be an upholder of the truth (Esther 9:30 ; Zechariah 8:19 ), and to practice justice (Isaiah 59:8 ; Zechariah 8:16 ). It is associated with receptiveness to God's salvation (Matthew 10:13 ), freedom from distress and fear (John 14:27 ; John 16:33 ), security (Isaiah 52:7 ), mercy (Galatians 6:16 ; 1 Timothy 1:2 ), joy (Romans 14:17 ; Romans 15:13 ), grace (Philippians 1:2 ; Revelation 1:4 ), love (2 Corinthians 13:11 ; Jude 1:2 ), life (Romans 8:6 ), and righteousness (Romans 14:17 ; Hebrews 12:11 ; James 3:18 )
Immanuel, Emmanuel - Ahaz king of Judah, being attacked by Rezin king of Syria, and Pekah king of Israel — and there being also a disposition to form a confederacy to set up the son of Tabeal, and so reject the son of David, which Ahaz was — Isaiah was sent to tell him to be quiet and fear not. " Isaiah 7:14,15 . ...
It has been asked, How could this be a sign to Ahaz, seeing that this event did not take place till centuries after? The prophetic announcement of the birth of such a child was the present evidence to faith that whatever combinations men might make, the remnant could count on God: see Isaiah 8:9,10 , where they say, "God is with us. " It should be noticed that there are two prophetic children: the one (Shear-jashub) figurative of the remnant, and Immanuel; so the prophecy continues, "For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land whose two kings thou fearest shall be forsaken" (as Isaiah 7:16 should be translated). In Isaiah 7:3 of this chapter Isaiah had been told, when he went to meet Ahaz, to take his symbolical child Shear-jashub ('the remnant shall return') with him. And doubtless Isaiah 7:16 refers to Shearjashub; and before this child could have grown to maturity, Pekah had been killed by Hoshea, and Damascus had been taken and Rezin slain by the king of Assyria. ...
It may seem strange that there should be no break between Isaiah 7:15 and Isaiah 7:16 , as the one verse refers to Immanuel, and the other to Shearjashub; but such abrupt transitions are not unusual in prophetic scriptures. In Isaiah 8:8 it is foretold that the wing of the king of Assyria should fill the breadth of the land — the land of Immanuel — which took place soon after, yet this is a type of the Assyrian's attacks in the last days
Jackal - ’ See Isaiah 34:13 , Jeremiah 9:11 ; Jeremiah 10:22 etc. ]'>[1] ‘wild beasts of the island’ ( Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:14 , Jeremiah 50:39 ), is in RV Hyena - All the scriptural references concern judgment on foreign nations (Babylon or Edom) which are left desolate (Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:14 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ). NAS uses wolves in Isaiah 34:14
Humiliation of Christ - (Philippians 2:8 ), seen in (1) his birth (Galatians 4:4 ; Luke 2:7 ; John 1:46 ; Hebrews 2:9 ), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation (Isaiah 53 ; Matthew 26:59,67 ; Psalm 22:6 ; Matthew 26:68 ), (4) his soul (Psalm 22:1 ; Matthew 4:1-11 ; Luke 22:44 ; Hebrews 2:17,18 ; 4:15 ), (5) his death (Luke 23 ; John 19 ; Mark 15:24,25 ), (6) and his burial (Isaiah 53:9 ; Matthew 27:57,58,60 ). His humiliation was necessary (1) to execute the purpose of God (Acts 2:23,24 ; Psalm 40:6-8 ), (2) fulfil the Old Testament types and prophecies, (3) satisfy the law in the room of the guilty (Isaiah 53 ; Hebrews 9:12,15 ), procure for them eternal redemption, (4) and to show us an example
Branch - A symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors (Ezekiel 17:3,10 ; Daniel 11:7 ); of prosperity (Job 8:16 ); of the Messiah, a branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse (Isaiah 11:1 ), the "beautiful branch" (4:2), a "righteous branch" (Jeremiah 23:5 ), "the Branch" (Zechariah 3:8 ; 6:12 ). "The branch of the terrible ones" (Isaiah 25:5 ) is rightly translated in the Revised Version "the song of the terrible ones," i. ...
The "abominable branch" is a tree on which a malefactor has been hanged (Isaiah 14:19 )
Bajith - Isaiah 15:2; "he is gone up to Bajith," rather, "to the temple," answering to "the sanctuary" (Isaiah 16:12) in a similar context. " The Bajith, followed by Dibon, and Bamoth in Isaiah 15:2 correspond
Bond - Used figuratively to speak of the bonds of wickedness or sin (Isaiah 58:6 ; Luke 13:16 ; Acts 8:23 ), of affliction and judgment (Isaiah 28:22 ; Isaiah 52:2 ; Jeremiah 30:8 ; Nahum 1:13 ), the authority of kings (Job 12:18 ; Psalm 2:3 ), the obligation to keep the covenant (Jeremiah 2:20 ; Jeremiah 5:5 ; see Colossians 2:14 ), the bonds of peace and love (Ephesians 4:3 ; Colossians 3:14 ), and the bonds of an evil woman (Ecclesiastes 7:26 )
Cypress - (1) tirzah ( Isaiah 44:14 , RV [1] have ‘ fir wood’ (see also Isaiah 55:13 )
Fitches - qetsach ( Isaiah 28:25 ; Isaiah 28:27 ), RVm [3] ‘spelt,’ and in Exodus 9:32 , Isaiah 28:25 AV Owl - KJV mentions these as well as the owl of the desert (Leviticus 11:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:16 ) and screech owl (Isaiah 34:14 ). Owls nesting in ruins are a common image of desolation (Psalm 102:6 ; Isaiah 34:11 ,Isaiah 34:11,34:15 ; Zephaniah 2:14 )
Water - ...
In Isaiah 35:7 , the Hebrew word for "parched ground" that shall become a pool of water, is the same with the Arabic term for the mirage, a peculiar optical illusion by which travelers in hot and dry deserts think they see broad lakes and flowing waters; they seem to discern the very ripple of the waves, and the swaying of tail trees on the margin in the cool breeze; green hills and houses and city ramparts rise before the astonished sight, recede as the traveler advances, and at length melt away in the hot haze. Not so the blessings of the gospel; they are no alluring mockery, but real waters of everlasting life, Isaiah 55:1 John 4:14 Revelation 22:1 . Compare Isaiah 29:8 Jeremiah 15:18
Whirlwinds - Most of them are not formidable, Isaiah 17:13 ; but one now and then occurs, sudden, swift, and awful in its devastating course; houses and trees are no obstruction in its way, and the traveler is buried alive under the pillar of sand it raises and bears along, like a water-spout at sea, Job 1:19 Isaiah 21:1 . The sudden and resistless judgments of God are well compared to whirlwinds, Psalm 58:9 Proverbs 1:27 Isaiah 66:15
Bulrush -
In Isaiah 58:5 the rendering of a word which denotes "belonging to a marsh," from the nature of the soil in which it grows ( Isaiah 18:2 ). ...
...
In Exodus 2:3 , Isaiah 18:2 (RSV, "papyrus") this word is the translation of the Hebrew Gome , Which designates the plant as absorbing moisture. In Isaiah 35:7 and Job 8:11 it is rendered "rush
Head-Dress - (Exodus 28:40 ) The tsaniph (something like a turban) is noticed as being worn by nobles, ( Job 29:14 ) ladies, (Isaiah 3:23 ) and kings, (Isaiah 62:3 ) while the peer was an article of holiday dress, ( Isaiah 61:3 ) Authorized Version "beauty;" (Ezekiel 24:17,23 ) and was worn at weddings. (Isaiah 61:10 ) The ordinary head-dress of the Bedouin consists of the keffieh , a square handkerchief, generally of red and yellow cotton or cotton and silk, folded so that three of the corners hang down over the back and shoulders, leaving the face exposed, and bound round the head by a cord
Hoe - A tool for loosening the soil and cutting out weeds around cultivated plants (Isaiah 7:25 ; KJV, mattock)
Plaister - KJV variant form of plaster (Isaiah 38:21 )
Goldsmith - (Nehemiah 3:8,32 ; Isaiah 40:19 ; 41:7 ; 46:6 )
Gin - A trap for birds or beasts, consisting of a net and a stick acting as a spring (Isaiah 8:14)
ah! - An exclamation of sorrow or regret (Psalm 35:25 ; Isaiah 1:4,24 ; Jeremiah 1:6 ; 22:18 ; Mark 15:29 )
Rush - ) The expression "branch and rush" in Isaiah 9:14 ; 19:15 means "utterly
Earing - "Neither earing, nor harvest" (Genesis 45:6; Exodus 34:21; Deuteronomy 21:4; Isaiah 30:24)
Bajith - (bay' jith) KJV reading in Isaiah 15:2
Silverlings - Found only in Isaiah 7:23 , and the Hebrew is the same as 'silver,' and 'pieces of silver,' as money
Hephzibah - My delight, the mother of Manasseh, 2 Kings 21:1 , and a name given to the church, Isaiah 62:4
Rearward - The strong battalion that closed and guarded the rear of an army, Joshua 6:13 ; Isaiah 52:12 ; 58:8
Let - Sometimes used in the Bible in the old English sense, that is, to hinder, Isaiah 43:13 ; Romans 1:13
Jeberechi'ah - (whom Jehovah blesses ), father of a certain Zechariah, in the reign of Ahaz, mentioned ( Isaiah 8:2 ) (B
Darkness - Elsewhere darkness, as well as light, is recognized as the creation of God (Isaiah 45:7 ). Darkness is frequently associated with supernatural events involving the judgment of God, such as the plagues of Egypt (Exodus 10:21 ), the coming of the Lord (Isaiah 13:9-10 ; Joel 2:31 ; Matthew 24:29 ), and Christ's crucifixion (Matthew 27:45 ). Elsewhere darkness forms part of God's punishment on the disobedient (Deuteronomy 28:29 ; 1 Samuel 2:9 ; Job 5:14 ; Job 15:30 ; Job 20:26 ; Psalm 107:10 ; Isaiah 47:5 ; Jeremiah 13:16 ; Ezekiel 32:8 ). Darkness also symbolizes ignorance, especially of God and of God's ways (Isaiah 8:22 ; Isaiah 9:2 ; John 12:46 ; Acts 26:18 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:4 ; 1 John 2:9 ). God's deliverance (either from ignorance or hostile powers) is described as lighting the darkness (Isaiah 9:2 ; Isaiah 29:18 ; Isaiah 42:7-16 ; Micah 7:8 ; 1 Peter 2:9 )
Crocus - The flower mentioned in the Bible (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 ; Isaiah 35:1 ) has been identified as either the narcissus (N. The Hebrew word is sometimes translated “rose” (see KJV in Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 ; Isaiah 35:1 and NRSV, REB, NAS, NIV Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 )
Curds - They are frequently served with honey and wine and are considered a delicacy among the nomads in the ancient Near East (see Genesis 18:8 ; Deuteronomy 32:14 ; Judges 5:25 ; 2 Samuel 17:29 ; Job 20:17 ; Isaiah 7:15 ,Isaiah 7:15,7:22 )
Brook - (Isaiah 15:7 ) speaks of the "book of the willows," probably the Wady-el-Asha. ...
In Isaiah 19:7 the river Nile is meant, as rendered in the Revised Version
Instant - Noun meaning a brief moment of time (Isaiah 29:5 ; Isaiah 30:15 ; Jeremiah 18:7-9 ) and adjective in KJV used in the sense of insistent, pressing, or urgent
Seraphim - Isaiah envisioned the seraphim as agents of God who prepared him to proclaim the Lord's message to Judah (Isaiah 6:2 )
Flames - ...
Isaiah 13:8 (a) Hatred and fierce cruelty shall characterize the people who besiege and destroy Babylon. ...
Isaiah 66:15 (a) By this we are told that GOD's burning anger will be poured out upon all the enemies of His people
Satyrs - to the evil spirits of the desert, literally, "shaggy goats," hence applied to an object of pagan worship or a demon dwelling in the desert (2 Chronicles 11:15; Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:14)
Psaltery - The same word is also translated VIOL in Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 14:11 ; Amos 5:23 ; Amos 6:5
Ephra - The prophet Isaiah hath a beautiful observation on this word, contrasted with Pheer, which is beauty. (See Isaiah 61:3)...
Reformation - The Greek verb occurs in the LXX in Isaiah 16:5 ; Isaiah 62:7 ; Jeremiah 7:3,5
Kedar - Isaiah 21:16; Jeremiah 49:28. They were nomads, living in black hair-tents, Song of Solomon 1:5, as the modern Bedouins do, or in villages, Isaiah 42:11, and were rich in flocks and herds, and noted as archers and mighty men
Oreb And Zeeb - Israel's deliverance from Midian became proverbial for God's deliverance of His people (Psalm 83:11 ; Isaiah 9:4 ; Isaiah 10:26 )
Rezin - 742,2 Kings 15:1-38,37 ; 16:5-10 ; Isaiah 7:1 . His people also were carried captive beyond the Tigris, Isaiah 8:6 ; 9:11
Flagon, - ...
Nebel , ( Isaiah 22:24 ) is commonly used for a bottle or vessel, originally probably a skin, but in later times a piece of pottery. (Isaiah 30:14 )
Tinkling Ornaments - (Isaiah 3:18 ), anklets of silver or gold, etc
Baladan - He has given a son, the father of the Babylonian king (2 Kings 20:12 ; Isaiah 39:1 ) Merodach-baladan (q
Siloah, the Pool of - Shiloah , "Sending," Isaiah 8:6 (comp 7:3)=Siloam (q
Nephew - Often used in the old English sense "grandson" (1 Timothy 5:4; Judges 12:14; Isaiah 14:29; Job 18:19)
Straw - Used figuratively in Job 41:27 ; Isaiah 11:7 ; 25:10 ; 65:25
Provender - (prahv ehn duhr) Grains and grasses used as animal feed (Isaiah 30:24 KJV, RSV)
Bravery - In Isaiah 3:18 ‘the bravery of their tinkling ornaments,’ bravery means splendour, ostentation
Aloud - Isaiah 58
Churl - Isaiah 32
Tabret - Genesis 31:27 Isaiah 5:12 , a sort of small drum or tambourine, played as an accompaniment to singing
Prognosticators - Isaiah 47:13 , Chaldeans, who pretended to foretell future events by the varying aspects of the moon, or month by month
Migron - A town in the vicinity of Ai and Gibeah, north of Michmash, now lost, 1 Samuel 14:2 ; Isaiah 10:28
Convocation - This term (with one exception)-- (Isaiah 1:13 ) is applied invariably to meetings of a religious character, in contradistinction to congregation
Flame - ...
Isaiah 10:17 (a) This terrible figure is used to describe the wrath of GOD against Jerusalem when He directed the enemies of GOD to burn and destroy the city. (See Isaiah 29:6; Isaiah 47:14; Ezekiel 20:47). ...
Isaiah 30:30 (a) This represents the outpouring of GOD's wrath against Assyria. ...
Isaiah 43:2 (a) The Lord is telling us that great troubles and sorrows shall not destroy Israel, for GOD will bring them through it all safely
Remaliah - Adorned by the Lord, the father of Pekah, who conspired successfully against Pekahiah (2 Kings 15:25,27,30,32,37 ; Isaiah 7:1,4,5,9 ; 8:6 )
Wimple - Isaiah 3:22 , (RSV, "shawls"), a wrap or veil
Haven - A place which offers safe anchorage for ships (Genesis 49:13 ; Psalm 107:30 ; Isaiah 23:10 NRSV, NIV)
Hoods - Only Isaiah 3:23 AV Shilo'ah, the Waters of, - a certain soft-flowing stream, (Isaiah 8:6 ) better known under the later name of Siloam -the only perennial spring of Jerusalem
Ellasar - Genesis 14:1,9 , perhaps the same country as Thelassar, 2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12
Beulah - Married, a term applied to the Israel of God, in Isaiah 62:4 , to signify his intimate and vital union with them
Michtam - Prefixed to Psalm 16:11 , and meaning golden, profound, or as some think, a writing or song, as in Isaiah 38:9
Cottage -
A booth in a vineyard (Isaiah 1:8 ); a temporary shed covered with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman that kept the garden. ...
...
A lodging-place (rendered "lodge" in Isaiah 1:8 ); a slighter structure than the "booth," as the cucumber patch is more temporary than a vineyard (Isaiah 24:20 )
Bozrah - Isaiah announced a great judgment on Bozrah in which God would sacrifice His enemies (Isaiah 34:6 ). God is pictured as returning from Bozrah with dyed garments as His spoil of victory (Isaiah 63:1 )
Rezin - The Israelite Pekah's ally, always mentioned first in the war against Ahaz of Judah (Isaiah 7:4-8; Isaiah 7:8; Isaiah 17:1; 2 Kings 15:37; 2 Kings 16:5-9). But Ahaz invited Tiglath Pileser to his help, who took Damascus and slew Rezin, fulfilling Isaiah's prophecy
Kir-Hareseth - KIR-HARESETH ( Isaiah 16:7 ), Kir-haraseth ( 2 Kings 3:25 AV [1] [2]), Kir-heres ( Jeremiah 48:31 ; Jeremiah 48:36 ), Kir-haresh ( Isaiah 16:11 AV God - He is the creator of all things (Isaiah 44:24). He alone is God (Isaiah 45:21-22; Isa 46:9; Isa 47:8). There have never been any Gods before Him nor will there be any after Him (Isaiah 43:10)
Worms - In blessing Israel Jehovah said, "Fear not, thou worm Jacob," Isaiah 41:14 ; and the Lord, to indicate the low estate in which He was, said, "I am a worm and no man. Job 21:26 ; Job 24:20 ; Isaiah 14:11 . Isaiah 66:24
Rabshakeh - If so he may possibly have been acquainted with Isaiah 10:5,6 , for he says, "Am I now come up without the Lord against this place to destroy it? The Lord said to me, Go up against this land and destroy it. 2 Kings 19:4,8 ; Isaiah 36:2-22 ; Isaiah 37:4-8
Nebaioth - Nebaioth (ne-bâ'yoth), Isaiah 60:7, or Nebajoth = heights, R. They were a pastoral people, Isaiah 60:7
Horonaim - ” Prominent town in Moab upon which Isaiah (Isaiah 15:5 ) and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 48:3 ,Jeremiah 48:3,48:5 ,Jeremiah 48:5,48:34 ) pronounced laments, warning of coming destruction
Ariel - In another sense, Ezekiel applies it to the altar of God, Ezekiel 43:15 , and Isaiah to Jerusalem, as the hearth on which both the burnt offerings and the enemies of God should be consumed, Isaiah 29:1,2,7
Brimstone - In Isaiah 34:9 allusion is made to the destruction of these cities. This word figuratively denotes destruction or punishment ( Job 18:15 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; 34:9 ; Psalm 11:6 ; Ezekiel 38:22 )
Petra - Petra is sometimes identified with Sela (Judges 1:36 ; 2 Kings 14:7 ; Isaiah 16:1 ; Isaiah 42:11 ), because both names mean, “rock
Bozrah - Isaiah 63:1-4 : cf. Isaiah 34
Sprinkle - So Messiah (Isaiah 52:15; Hebrews 9:13-14; 1 Peter 1:2). Many were astonished at Him; so shall He sprinkle many nations, even kings shall shut their mouths in dumb awe (compare Romans 16:25-26, and Romans 15:21 with Isaiah 52:14-15)
Lofty - Thus saith the high and lofty One, that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy - Isaiah 57 . Isaiah 2
Shabbat chazon - "Sabbath of Vision"); the Shabbat before Tishah BeAv, so called because of the passage �Chazon� (Isaiah 1:1) read for the Haftorah ...
Latchet - A thong (Acts 22:25 ), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot (Isaiah 5:27 ; Mark 1:7 ; Luke 3:16 )
Bestead - The rendering in Isaiah 8:21 , where alone it occurs, of a Hebrew word meaning to oppress, or be in circumstances of hardship
Besom - The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning sweeper, occurs only in Isaiah 14:23 , of the sweeping away, the utter ruin, of Babylon
Eloquent - In Isaiah 3:3 , for 'eloquent orator' translate 'skilled enchanter
Pul - In Isaiah 66:19 Put is prob
Caterpillar - Some locust-like insect, now undistinguishable, Deuteronomy 28:38 1 Kings 8:37 Psalm 78:46 105:34 Isaiah 33:4
Tinkling - Isaiah 3 ...
e'Pah - (gloomy ), the first, in order,of the sons of Midian, ( Genesis 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:33 ) afterwards mentioned by (Isaiah 60:6 )
ge'Bim - (grasshoppers ), a village north of Jerusalem, ( Isaiah 10:31 ) apparently between Anathoth (the modern Anata ) and the ridge on which Nob was situated
be-er-e'Lim - (well of heroes ), a spot named in ( Isaiah 15:8 ) as on the "border of Moab
Hezekiah - ...
Isaiah warned Hezekiah not to become involved with Assyria (Isaiah 20:1-6 ). , Hezekiah became seriously ill (Isaiah 38:1-21 ). Isaiah warned the king to prepare for his approaching death, but Hezekiah prayed that God would intervene. God answered by promising Hezekiah fifteen more years of life and deliverance of Jerusalem from Assyria (Isaiah 38:4-6 ). He also called for Isaiah, the prophet. Isaiah announced that Sennacherib would “hear a rumour” and return to his own land where he would die by the sword (2 Kings 19:7 ). Hezekiah hosted this Babylonian leader at a reception, but Isaiah met this event with a warning that succeeding generations would be subjected to Babylonian captivity (Isaiah 39:1-8 ). Hoping to ward off any interference from Judah, Sennacherib sent letters to Hezekiah ordering him to surrender (Isaiah 37:9-38 ). From Isaiah came the message that Sennacherib would not prevail. , Sennacherib was killed by two of his sons as had been predicted by Isaiah in 701 B
Isaiah -
The son of Amoz (Isaiah 1:1 ; 2:1 ), who was apparently a man of humble rank. His wife was called "the prophetess" (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judges 4:4 ) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20 ), or simply because she was the wife of "the prophet" (Isaiah 38:1 ). 810-759), and Isaiah must have begun his career a few years before Uzziah's death, probably B. Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least sixty-four years. A second call came to him "in the year that King Uzziah died" (Isaiah 6:1 ). " ...
In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q. 726), who "rebelled against the king of Assyria" (2 Kings 18:7 ), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isaiah 10:24 ; 37:6 ), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isaiah 30:2-4 ). ) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem (Isaiah 36:2-22 ; 37:8 ). Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7), whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the Lord" (37:14). Isaiah probably lived to its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh, but the time and manner of his death are unknown
Ethiopia - ) Isaiah 11:11. The dispersed Israelites shall be brought as an offering by the nations to the Lord (Zephaniah 3:8-9; Isaiah 66:20; Isaiah 60:9), from both the African and the Babylonian Cush, where the ten tribes were scattered in Peter's time (1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 5:13; Isaiah 11:11, "from Cush and from Shinar". In Isaiah 18:1, "the land shadowing with wings" is Ethiopia shadowing (protecting) with its two wings (Egyptian and Ethiopian forces) the Jews, "a nation scattered and peeled" (loaded with indignity, made bald) though once "terrible" when God put a terror of them into surrounding nations (Exodus 23:27; Joshua 2:9), "a nation meted out and trodden down whose land the (Assyrian) rivers (i. armies, Isaiah 8:7-8) have spoiled"; the Jews, not the Ethiopians. Ethiopia had sent her ambassadors to Jerusalem where they now were (Isaiah 18:2), Tirhakah their king shortly afterward being the ally whose diversion in that city's favor saved it from Sennacherib (Isaiah 36:37). Isaiah announces Sennacherib's coming overthrow to the Ethiopian ambassadors and desires them to carry the tidings to their own land (compare Isaiah 17:12-14; not "woe" but "ho," calling attention (Isaiah 18:1-2); go, take back the tidings of what God is about, to do against Assyria, the common foe of both Ethiopia and Judah. ...
The monuments confirm Isaiah 20:4; Nahum 3:5; Nahum 3:8-9, by representing Sargon as warring with Egypt and making the Pharaoh tributary; they also make Ethiopia closely united to Egypt. was gathered for transport either by the Nile or by caravans to northern Africa; compare Isaiah 45:14
Ethiopia - This country was known to the Hebrews, and is described in Isaiah 18:1 ; Zephaniah 3:10 . They carried on some commercial intercourse with it (Isaiah 45:14 ). Its inhabitants were descendants of Ham (Genesis 10:6 ; Jeremiah 13:23 ; Isaiah 18:2 , "scattered and peeled," A. ...
Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy (Psalm 68:31 ; 87:4 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; 1619110985_61 ; Daniel 11:43 ; Nahum 3:8-10 ; Habakkuk 3:7 ; Zephaniah 2:12 )
Satyr - Isaiah promised that Babylon would become so desolate the desert-dwelling demons would live in the ruins (Isaiah 13:21 ; compare Isaiah 34:14 ). Lilith (Isaiah 34:14 NRSV) may also be a name for the desert demons
Island, Isle - word ʼ ῑ means primarily ‘coastlands,’ but sometimes lands in general, and in one passage ( Isaiah 42:15 ) ‘dry land’ as opposed to water. In Isaiah 20:6 Palestine is called ‘this isle’ (AV Dragon - ]'>[2] ‘jackals,’ Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Isaiah 35:7 , Job 30:29 , Psalms 44:19 , Jeremiah 10:22 ; Jeremiah 49:33 . The same term, tannîn , is also applied metaphorically to Pharaoh ( Psalms 74:13 , Isaiah 51:9 ; and thus perhaps refers to the crocodile), and to Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 51:34 )
Bunch - ...
The "bunch of a camel" (Isaiah 30:6 )
Silverlings, - a word used once only in the Authorized Version, (Isaiah 7:23 ) as a translation of the Hebrew word elsewhere rendered "silver" or "money
Stomacher - The Hebrew word so translated, (Isaiah 3:24 ) describes some article of female attire, the character of which is a mere matter of conjecture
Bewray - To reveal or disclose; an old English word equivalent to "betray" (Proverbs 27:16 ; 29:24 , RSV, "uttereth;" Isaiah 16:3 ; Matthew 26:73 )
Fish-Hooks - Were used for catching fish (Amos 4:2 ; Compare Isaiah 37:29 ; Jeremiah 16:16 ; Ezekiel 29:4 ; Job 41:1,2 ; Matthew 17:27 )
Ash - (Isaiah 44:14): Hebrew oren , akin to Arabic atari , "slender", "graceful"
Rezeph - Solid; a stone, (2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12 ), a fortress near Haran, probably on the west of the Euphrates, conquered by Sennacherib
Bel - The Aramaic form of Baal, the national god of the Babylonians (Isaiah 46:1 ; Jeremiah 50:2 ; 51:44 )
Mast - Long pole rising from a ship's keel which supports a sail (Proverbs 23:34 ; Isaiah 33:23 ; Ezekiel 27:5 )
Abhorring - As a noun, it is used in Isaiah 66for the object of hatred - "An abhorring to all flesh
Herb - (See Isaiah 37:27)
Bulwark - Isaiah 26:1 (a) This presents a beautiful aspect of GOD in His care for His people and in His protecting power over them
Tacklings - Isaiah 33:23 (b) This picture indicates those unseen forces which bind men to their habits and ways which are not pleasing to GOD
Rope - Isaiah 5:18 (b) This is emblematic of schemes and plans which are made to evil purposes and to assist one in committing sins
Hezekiah - ...
Religious reforms...
The prophets of Hezekiah’s time (he reigned from 716 to 687 BC) were Hosea, Isaiah and Micah. Hosea 1:1), Isaiah was very influential around the palace (Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 38:1) and Micah was preaching with such authority that the king was taking good notice of him (Micah 1:1; Jeremiah 26:17-19). Isaiah opposed this dependence on Egypt. Judah’s need was for quiet faith in God, not for military help from a foreign country (Isaiah 30:1-3; Isaiah 30:15; Isaiah 31:1; Isaiah 31:3; 2 Kings 20:1-130; Isaiah 31:8). On two occasions Hezekiah went in great distress to the temple to ask God’s help, and on both occasions Isaiah brought God’s reassuring answer (2 Kings 19:1-7; 2 Kings 19:14-34). In gratitude to God, Hezekiah wrote a song of praise for his recovery (Isaiah 38:9-22). Once again Isaiah condemned Hezekiah’s willingness to enter into foreign alliances, for it would result in conquest by the allied nation (2 Kings 20:14-19)
Christ - Some types of CHRIST:...
Aaron, Exodus 28:2 (c)...
Adam, Genesis 5:2 (c)...
Ark, (covenant), Exodus 25:10 (c)...
Ark, (Noah's), Genesis 6:14 (c)...
Ass, Genesis 49:14 (c)...
Author, Hebrews 5:9 (c)...
Bishop, 1 Peter 2:25 (a)...
Body, 1 Corinthians 12:12 (a)...
Branch, Zechariah 3:8 (a)...
Bread, John 6:51 (a)...
Bridegroom, Matthew 25:1 (b)...
Bullock, Leviticus 1:5 (c)...
Burnt Offering, Leviticus 1:3 (b)...
Calf, Revelation 4:7 (b)...
Captain, Hebrews 2:10 (a)...
Chief, Song of Solomon 5:10 (b)...
Commander, Isaiah 55:4 (b)...
Cornerstone, Isaiah 28:16 (a)...
Covert, Isaiah 32:2 (a)...
David, 2 Samuel 19:10 (c)...
Day, Psalm 118:24 (b)...
Door, John 10:9 (a)...
Eagle, Revelation 4:7 (b)...
Flour, Leviticus 2:1 (c)...
Foundation, Isaiah 28:16 (b)...
Fountain, Zechariah 13:1 (b)...
Garment, Isaiah 61:10 (b), Romans 13:14...
Gate, Psalm 118:20 (b)...
Gold, Isaiah 13:12 (a)...
Headstone, Psalm 113:22 (b)...
Heir, Hebrews 1:2 (a)...
Hen, Matthew 23:37 (a)...
Hiding Place, Isaiah 32:2 (a)...
High Priest, Hebrews 4:14 (a)...
Isaac, Genesis 24:36 (c)...
Jacob, Genesis 32:28 (c)...
Jonah, Matthew 12:40 (a)...
Joseph, Genesis 37:7 (c)...
Joshua, Joshua 1:1 (c)...
Judge, Acts 17:31 (a)...
King, Psalm 2:6 (a)...
Lamb, Revelation 5:6 (a)...
Leaves, Revelation 22:2 (c)...
Light, John 8:12 (a)...
Lily of the Valleys, Song of Solomon 2:1 (c)...
Lion, Revelation 5:5 (a)...
Manna, John 6:32 (a)...
Master of the House, Luke 13:25 (b)...
Meal, 2 Kings 4:41 (c)...
Mediator (umpire), 1 Timothy 2:5 (a)...
Melchizedek, Genesis 14:18 (c)...
Merchantman, Matthew 13:45 (b)...
Owl, Psalm 102:6 (a)...
Ox:, Ezekiel 1:10 (b)...
Passover, 1 Corinthians 5:7 (a)...
Peace Offering, Leviticus 3:1 (c)...
Pelican, Psalm 102:6 (a)...
Physician, Jeremiah 8:22 (c)...
Pigeon, Leviticus 12:6 (c)...
Propitiation (mercy seat), Romans 3:25 (a)...
Ram, Genesis 22:13 (a)...
Rock, Matthew 16:18 (a)...
Rock of Ages, Isaiah 26:4 (margin) (a)...
Rose of Sharon, Song of Solomon 2:1 (c)...
Root, Revelation 22:16 (a)...
Sabbath, Colossians 2:16-17 (b)...
Seed, Genesis 3:15 (a)...
Serpent, John 3:14 (a)...
Shepherd, John 10:11 (a)...
Sin, 2 Corinthians 5:21 (a)...
Sin Offering, Leviticus 4:32 (c)...
Solomon, 1 Kings 10:13 (c)...
Sower, Matthew 13:37 (a)...
Sparrow, Psalm 102:7 (a)...
Star, Revelation 22:16 (a)...
Sun, Malachi 4:2 (a)...
Temple, John 2:19 (a)...
Thief, Revelation 3:3 (a)...
Tree, Revelation 22:2 (b)...
Trespass Offering, Leviticus 5:6 (c)...
Turtle dove, Leviticus 1:14 (c)...
Vine, John 15:5 (a)...
Worm, Psalm 22:6 (a)...
Ai - Called also Hai, Genesis 12:8 ; Aija, Nehemiah 11:31 ; and Aiath, Isaiah 10:28 . It was rebuilt, and is mentioned by Isaiah
Day Star - Isaiah 14:12 compares the splendor of the Babylonian king to the Day Star. The Hebrew term appears only in Isaiah 14:12
Gauze, Garments of - One of the fine items associated with Jerusalem socialites (Isaiah 3:23 , NRSV). At Isaiah 8:1 the Hebrew word translated as gauze garment (or mirror) is translated as (writing) tablet
Blasting - This blasting wind dries up vegetation and ruins crops ( Isaiah 37:27 ; see Psalm 90:5-6 ; Psalm 102:3-4 ; Isaiah 40:6-8 )
Immanuel - The name given to the child whose birth the prophet Isaiah was authorized to announce to Ahaz when the confederacy was formed by Israel and Syria against Judah. Isaiah 7:1-16
Pipe - The pipe single or double, the flute; one of the simplest and oldest of musical instruments, the accompaniment of festivity (1 Kings 1:40; Luke 7:32; Isaiah 5:12), religious services (1 Samuel 10:5), and processions (Isaiah 30:29)
Isa'Iah, - The Hebrew name signifies Salvation of Jahu (a shortened form of Jehovah), He prophesied concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, ( Isaiah 1:1 ) covering probably 758 to 698 B. Rabbinical tradition says that Isaiah, when 90 years old, was sawn asunder in the trunk of a carob tree by order of Manasseh, to which it is supposed that reference is made in (Hebrews 11:37 )
Clay - Designed for earthenware was trodden by the feet to mix it well, Isaiah 41:25 , was molded on a wheel, and then baked in a kiln, Jeremiah 18:3 43:9 . The potter's art is referred to in Scripture to illustrate man's dependence upon God, Isaiah 64:8 Romans 9:21
Seba - The eldest son of Cush in Genesis 10:7 ( 1 Chronicles 1:9 ), named along with Sheba in Psalms 72:10 , and with Egypt and Cush in Isaiah 43:8 ; Isaiah 45:14 . A comparison with Isaiah 18:2 points to a supposed connexion with the tall Cushites or Nubians, though there is no evidence which directly associates either the people or the country with Nubia proper, in the region of the Nile
Ahaz - ...
The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah (2Kings 16; Isaiah 7-9 ; 2 Chronicles 228 ). Notwithstanding the remonstrances and warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, to the great injury of his kingdom and his own humilating subjection to the Assyrians (2Kings 16:7,9; 15:29). He also introduced among his people many heathen and idolatrous customs (Isaiah 8:19 ; 38:8 ; 2 Kings 23:12)
Pit - ...
Sometimes “pit” refers to a ditch or a marsh (Jeremiah 14:3 ; Isaiah 30:14 ). Many times the word was used as a synonym for a place of destruction (Psalm 55:23 ), corruption (Psalm 16:10 ; Psalm 49:9 ; Isaiah 38:17 ), or death (Isaiah 14:15 ; Jonah 2:6 )
Fir - It was a tree of large growth ( 2 Kings 19:23 , Ezekiel 31:8 ); evergreen ( Hosea 14:8 ); a chief element in the glory of Lebanon ( Isaiah 60:13 ); associated with cedars ( Psalms 104:16-17 , Isaiah 14:8 , Zechariah 11:2 ). ]'>[4] of ôren in Isaiah 44:14 (AV Swine - The prophet Isaiah, however, charges them with eating swine's flesh; and their apostasy was such that he says when they offered an oblation, it was as if they had offered swine's blood: their heartless profession was abhorrent to God. Isaiah 65:4 ; Isaiah 66:3,17
Tirhakah - This prince, at the head of a powerful army, attempted to relieve Hezekiah, when attacked by Sennarcherib, 2 Kings 19:9 , but the Assyrian army was routed before he came up, Isaiah 37:19 , B. It is supposed that he is the Pharaoh intended in Isaiah 30:2 ; and that Isaiah 19:1-25 depicts the anarchy which succeeded his reign
Eli'Akim -
Son of Hilkiah, master of Hezekiah's household ("over the house," as) (Isaiah 36:3 ) (2 Kings 18:18,26,37 ) (B. ) Eliakim was a good man, as appears by the title emphatically applied to him by God, "my servant Eliakim," (Isaiah 22:20 ) and also in the discharge of the duties of his high station, in which he acted as a "father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. " (Isaiah 22:21 ) ...
The original name of Jehoiakim king of Judah
Heshbon - But the city was doomed to destruction in the divine judgment that was to fall upon Moab (Isaiah 15:1; Isaiah 15:4; Isaiah 16:8; Jeremiah 48:1-2; Jeremiah 48:45; Jeremiah 49:3)
Silverling - Only Isaiah 7:23 , where the original reads ‘a thousand of silver,’ the denomination to be supplied being ‘shekels’ (See Money, p
Head-Bands - kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist (Isaiah 3:20 , RSV, "sashes;" Jeremiah 2:32 , rendered "attire", i
Finer - In Judges 17:4 the word (tsoreph) is rendered "founder," and in Isaiah 41:7 "goldsmith
Beulah - Married, is used in Isaiah 62:4 metaphorically as the name of Judea: "Thy land shall be married," i
Berodach-Baladan - In Isaiah 39:1 he is called Merodach-baladan (q
Tartan - ...
One of Sargon's generals (Isaiah 20:1 )
Refiner - The process of refining metals is referred to by way of illustrations in Isaiah 1:25 ; Jeremiah 6:29 ; Zechariah 13:9 ; Malachi 3:2,3
Beer-Elim - Well of heroes, probably the name given to Beer, the place where the chiefs of Israel dug a well (Numbers 21:16 ; Isaiah 15:8 )
Ensign - Isaiah 5:26 (b) This is typical of a banner at the head of victorious troops conquering the enemy
Gin, - a trap for birds or beasts; it consisted of a net, (Isaiah 8:14 ) and a stick to act as a spring
Fitches - ...
Hebrew qetsach , Septuagint melanthion , Isaiah 28:25; Isaiah 28:27; of the order Ranunculaceos, and suborder Ηelleboreos , in southern Europe and northern Africa; the black poppy. In Ezekiel 4:9 kussemeth , KJV "fitches," is rather "spelt" or dhourra , less suitably rendered "rye" Exodus 9:32; Isaiah 28:25, where the illustration from the husbandman shows that God also adapts His measures to the varying exigencies of the several cases and places, now mercy, now judgment, here punishing sooner there later (an answer to the scoff that His judgments were so slow that they would never come at all, Isaiah 5:19); His aim not being to destroy His people any more than the husbandman's aim in threshing is to destroy his crop. Even in the case of the "bread grain" which needs to be "bruised" or threshed with the grain drag or trodden out by cattle, "He will not always be threshing it"; for "because" translated "but" (compare Isaiah 27:7-8)
Heres - ...
...
Isaiah 19:18 , marg
Arpad - It fell before Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:34; Isaiah 10:9)
Aha! - In Isaiah 44:16 it signifies joyful surprise, as also in Job 39:25 , RSV
Neginah - In the title of Psalm 61 , denotes the music of stringed instruments (1 Samuel 16:16 ; Isaiah 38:20 )
Barefoot - To go barefoot was a sign of great distress (Isaiah 20:2,3,4 ), or of some great calamity having fallen on a person (2 Samuel 15:30 )
Madmenah - A place apparently north of Jerusalem, named only in the ideal description of the Assyrian invasion, Isaiah 10:31
Migron - It occurs again in Isaiah 10:28 , as on the Assyrian's line of march against Jerusalem
Besom - Before "the besom of destruction," the hosts of God's enemies are like the dust of the floor, Isaiah 14:23
Hena - Supposed to have been a city of Mesopotamia afterwards called Ana, at a ford of the Euphrates, 2 Kings 18:34 ; 19:13 ; Isaiah 37:13
Pal'lu - (distinguished ), the second son of Reuben, father of Eliab, ( Isaiah 6:14 ; Numbers 26:5,8 ; 1 Chronicles 5:3 ) and founder of the family of Palluites
Jeshurun - A poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of affection, meaning, "the dear upright people" (Deuteronomy 32:15 ; 33:5,26 ; Isaiah 44:2 )
Jetheth - From an Arabic root "a nail" or "tent pin," symbolizing stability; "a prince" (Ezra 9:8; Isaiah 22:23)
Rahab - Primeval sea monster representing the forces of chaos God overcame in creation (Job 9:13 ; Job 26:12 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 ; compare Psalm 74:12-17 ). Isaiah 30:7 includes a compound name Rahab-hem-shebeth
Swallow - ‘âgûr ( Isaiah 38:14 , Jeremiah 8:7 ). ]'>[2] ( Isaiah 38:14 , Jeremiah 8:7 ), ‘swallow’ instead of ‘ crane ’ (AV Heifer - Untrained to the yoke (Hosea 10:11 ); giving milk (Isaiah 7:21 ); ploughing (Judges 14:18 ); treading out grain (Jeremiah 50:11 ); unsubdued to the yoke an emblem of Judah (Isaiah 15:5 ; Jeremiah 48:34 )
Seraphim - Mentioned in Isaiah 6:2,3,6,7 . ) This word, in the original, is used elsewhere only of the "fiery serpents" ( Numbers 21:6,8 ; Deuteronomy 8:15 ; Compare Isaiah 14:29 ; 30:6 ) sent by God as his instruments to inflict on the people the righteous penalty of sin
Shebna - On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it (Isaiah 22:15-25 ). It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to confer with the Assyrian ambassador (2 Kings 18:18,26,37 ; 19:2 ; Isaiah 36:3,11,22 ; 37:2 ), was a different person
Pardon - The forgiveness of sins granted freely (Isaiah 43:25 ), readily (Nehemiah 9:17 ; Psalm 86:5 ), abundantly (Isaiah 55:7 ; Romans 5:20 )
Noph - The Hebrew name of an Egyptian city (Isaiah 19:13 ; (Isaiah 44:1 ; 46:14,19 ; Ezekiel 30:13,16 )
Corner - Later the prophets constantly complain of the rich defrauding the poor (Isaiah 3:14-15; Isaiah 10:2; Amos 5:11)
Tire - Isaiah 61:10, "as a bridegroom decketh himself with a priestly head-dress" (peer ); same word as in Isaiah 61:3, "beauty (peer ) for ashes" epher , play upon like sounds); to give the ornamental head tiara for a head-dress of ashes (2 Samuel 13:19)
Sieve - Another Hebrew word traditionally translated “sieve” in Isaiah 30:28 refers to a swinging action. In some manner Isaiah proclaimed God's judgment would swing over His people
Misgab - term occurs in Isaiah 25:12 , where both AV Adonis - ]'>[2] ‘plantings of Adonis’ ( Isaiah 17:10 ), alludes to the miniature gardens whose rapid decline symbolized the death of this god, or rather the spring verdure of which he is a personification. This phase of the myth, which the Greeks obtained from the Semitic Tammuz cult, through the Phœnicians, where the god was worshipped under the title of Adon (‘lord’), is used by Isaiah to depict the fading hope of Israel
Convocation - The same Hebrew word is translated 'assemblies' in Isaiah 1:13 ; Isaiah 4:5
Desert - Isaiah 35:1 (c) This is typical of the marvelous change in a dry, barren human heart when CHRIST comes in to dwell and the living water flows freely. ...
Isaiah 43:19 (c) The blessing of GOD will remove all barrenness and relieve all drought when once He is admitted to rule and reign in the heart
Worm - (See also Isaiah 41:14). ...
Isaiah 66:24, (b) No doubt this is an emblem of the gnawing pains of conscience which must be endured constantly and forever by those who are lost, and are in the lake of fire
Dregs - ...
Isaiah 51:17, Isaiah 51:22 (a) In this place the fury and the wrath of GOD have been poured out on Jerusalem to the last drop
Carry - ...
Isaiah 41:16 (b) This figure indicates the case in which the enemies of Israel shall be dispersed and scattered. ...
Isaiah 46:4 (b) We are informed here that GOD will protect and provide for the care and comfort of those who put their trust in Him
Ariel - A name of uncertain meaning, perhaps = ‘God’s altar-hearth,’ given to Jerusalem by Isaiah ( Isaiah 29:1 ff
Carriage - In Isaiah 46:1 (RSV, "the things that ye carried about") the word means a load for a beast of burden. In 1 Samuel 17:22 and Isaiah 10:28 it is the rendering of a word ("stuff" in 1 Samuel 10:22 ) meaning implements, equipments, baggage
Deep, the - In Romans 10:7 'the deep' probably refers to the deep sea, for in Deuteronomy 30:13 (from whence the quotation is made) it is "Who shall go over the sea for us?" and the sea is called 'the deep' elsewhere, as Isaiah 51:10 ; Isaiah 63:13 , etc
Captain - ...
Katsin , occasionally rendered captain, applies Sometimes to a military, ( Joshua 10:24 ; Judges 11:6,11 ; Isaiah 22:3 ; Daniel 11:18 ) sometimes to a civil command, e. (Isaiah 1:10 ; 3:6 ) ...
The captain of the temple, mentioned (Luke 22:4 ; Acts 4:1 ; 5:24 ) superintended the guard of priests and Levites who kept watch by night in the temple
Leopard - Isaiah 11:6. Allusions are made in the Bible to its manner of watching for its prey, Jeremiah 5:6; Hosea 13:7; its fleetness, Habakkuk 1:8; its fierceness and cruelty, Isaiah 11:6, and in Daniel 7:6 it is made the emblem of power
Rahab - Primeval sea monster representing the forces of chaos God overcame in creation (Job 9:13 ; Job 26:12 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 ; compare Psalm 74:12-17 ). Isaiah 30:7 includes a compound name Rahab-hem-shebeth
Enchantments - The words so translated have several signification: the practice of secret arts, (Exodus 7:11,22 ; 8:7 ); "muttered spells," (2 Kings 9:22 ; Micah 5:12 ) the charming of serpents, (Ecclesiastes 10:11 ) the enchantments sought by Balaam, (Numbers 24:1 ) the use of magic, (Isaiah 47:9,12 ) Any resort to these methods of imposture was strictly forbidden in Scripture, (Leviticus 19:26 ; Isaiah 47:9 ) etc
Mincing - taphoph, Isaiah 3:16 ), taking affectedly short and quick steps
Tabeal - Goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and Samaria in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz (Isaiah 7:6 )
Teil Tree - KJV term meaning, “lime” or “linden tree,” used to translate a Hebrew term generally rendered oak or terebinth (Isaiah 6:13 )
Canals - Translation of a Hebrew word that refers to the branches of the Nile river (Exodus 7:19 ; Exodus 8:5 ; Isaiah 19:6 )
Barefoot - Isaiah 20...
BA'REFOOT, a
Broth - Isaiah 65:4 (b) This term is used to describe the evil mixture of lust and pleasure which Israel was enjoying in her rebellion against the Lord
ah, Aha - ) Psalm 35:25 ; Psalm 40:15 ; Isaiah 44 :16; Jeremiah 22:18 ; Ezekiel 25:3 , etc
Mis'Gab - ( Jeremiah 48:1 ) It appears to be mentioned also in (Isaiah 25:12 ) thorough there rendered in the Authorized Version "high fort
Pond - Ponds for fish mentioned in (Isaiah 19:10 )
Teil Tree - (An old name for the lime-tree, the tilia), Isaiah 6:13 , the terebinth, or turpentine-tree, the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists. ) in Genesis 35:4 ; Judges 6:11,19 ; Isaiah 1:29 , etc. In Isaiah 61:3 it is rendered in the plural "trees;" Hosea 4:13 , "elm" (RSV, "terebinth")
Paper - The expression in the Authorized Version (Isaiah 19:7 ), "the paper reeds by the brooks," is in the Revised Version more correctly "the meadows by the Nile. It is mentioned by ( Job 8:11 ) and (Isaiah 35:7 ). The unaccountable disappearance of this plant from Egypt was foretold by (Isaiah 19:6,7 ) as a part of the divine judgment on that land
Wine-Press - lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isaiah 16:10 ; Lamentations 1:15 ; Joel 3:13 ); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Nehemiah 13:15 ; Job 24:11 ; Isaiah 63:2,3 ; Haggai 2:16 ; Joel 2:24 ). " The "treading of the wine-press" is emblematic of divine judgment (Isaiah 63:2 ; Lamentations 1:15 ; Revelation 14:19,20 )
Tarshish - It had nothing to do with the place where a particular ship was made, or the place to which or from which it was sailing (1 Kings 10:22; 1 Kings 22:48; Isaiah 2:16; Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 23:14)
Rameses (ra'Amses) - Rameses was also apparently known as Zoan (Psalms 78:12; Psalms 78:43), which from 1085 to 660 BC was the capital of Egypt (Isaiah 19:11; Isaiah 19:13; Isaiah 30:4; Ezekiel 30:14)
Fuel - Numerous types of fuel are mentioned in Scripture: wood (Isaiah 44:14-16 ); charcoal (Jeremiah 36:22 ; John 18:18 ); shrubs (Psalm 120:4 ); thorn bushes (Ecclesiastes 7:6 ; Nahum 1:10 ); grass (Matthew 6:30 ); weeds (Matthew 13:40 ); vines (Ezekiel 15:4 ,Ezekiel 15:4,15:6 ); branch trimmings (John 15:6 ); animal or even human dung (Ezekiel 4:12 ); and the blood-stained clothing of fallen warriors (Isaiah 9:5 ). Disobedient Israel is portrayed as “fuel for the fire” (Isaiah 9:19 ; Ezekiel 15:6 ; Ezekiel 21:32 )
Oreb And Zeeb - also Isaiah 10:26 ). That their death, so briefly narrated in Judges, was accompanied by great slaughter may be inferred from the incidental references by the writers of Psalms 83:1-18 and Isaiah 10 . Isaiah compares the destruction to that of the Egyptians in the Red Sea, while the Psalmist compares the flying Midianites to the whirling dust or chaff driven before the wind
Micah - 750-698, and was a contemporary of Isaiah, whom he often resembles in style and expressions. Compare, for instance, Isaiah 2:2 with Micah 4:1, or Isaiah 41:15 with Micah 4:13
Eliakim - The son of Hilkiah, he who was ‘over the household’ of king Hezekiah, and one of the three who represented the king during the interview with Sennacherib’s emissaries ( 2 Kings 18:18 , Isaiah 36:3 ). In Isaiah 22:20-24 ( Isaiah 22:25 seems to be out of place) he is contrasted favourably with his predecessor Shebnah (who is still in office), and the prophet prophesies that Eliakim shall be a ‘father’ in the land
Fuel - ‘food’]'>[1] of fire’ ( Isaiah 9:5 ; Isaiah 9:19 ) in use among the Hebrews was undoubtedly wood, either in its natural state or, among the wealthier classes, as charcoal (see Coal). Isaiah 44:14 ff
Lime - ]'>[2] only in Isaiah 33:12 , Amos 2:1 , Isaiah 33:12 ‘the peoples shall be as the burnings of lime,’ i. ’ For Isaiah 27:9 see Chalk-stones
Walls - ...
In scriptural language a wall is a symbol of salvation (Isaiah 26:1 ; Isa, Isaiah 60:18 ), of the protection of God (Zechariah 2:5 ), of those who afford protection (1 Samuel 25:16 ; Isaiah 2:15 ), and of wealth of the rich in their own conceit (Proverbs 18:11 )
Overflow - ...
Isaiah 8:8 (a) This figure is used to describe the invasion of the King of Assyria into the nation of Israel. (See also Isaiah 10:22; Isaiah 28:17; Jeremiah 47:2; Daniel 11:10)
Astronomy - 1-14 ; Isaiah 40:26 ; Amos 5:8 . The following heavenly bodies are alluded to particularly in Scripture: Venus, the morning star, Isaiah 14:12 Revelation 2:28 ; Orion, and the Pleiades, Job 9:9 38:31 Amos 5:8 ; the Great Bear, called "Arcturus," Job 9:9 38:32 ; Draco, "the crooked serpent" Job 26:13 ; and Gemini, "the twins," 2 Kings 23:5 Acts 28:11 . The planets Jupiter and Venus were worshipped under various names, as Baal and Ahtoreth, Gad and Meni, Isaiah 65:11 . Mercury is named as Nebo; in Isaiah 46:1 ; Saturn as Chiun, in Amos 5:26 ; and Mars as Nergal, in 2 Kings 17:30
Hephzibah - ) Jehovah's name for Jerusalem when restored to His favor (Isaiah 62:4); instead of being as now "desolate" and "forsaken. Hence Isaiah terms restored Jerusalem both Hephzibah and Beulah, i. " The marriage of Hezekiah moreover was at a late period of his reign, after his sickness and recovery described in Isaiah 38. make arrangements as to the succession to the throne, That sickness was probably in the 14th year of his reign (Isaiah 36:1). Manasseh was only 12 years old at his father's death; so that if Isaiah's prophecies are at all in the order of their delivery, this late prophecy, chap
Baldness - However, Isaiah told of God calling the people to acknowledge their sin with baldness and the wearing of sackcloth (Isaiah 22:12 ). A shorn head is frequently mentioned in conjunction with shaving the beard and wearing sackcloth to signify loss of loved ones or loss of hope (Isaiah 3:24 ; Isaiah 15:2-3 ; Jeremiah 48:37 )
Spirits in Prison - in virtue of His divine nature: Romans 1:3-4; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 2 Corinthians 13:4) in which (as distinguished from in person) He went in the person of Noah (compare 1 Peter 1:11 "a preacher of righteousness" (2 Peter 2:5; He went not locally but as Ephesians 2:17, "He came and preached peace," namely, by His ministers) and preached unto the spirits in prison, namely, the antediluvian unbelievers; their bodies seemed free, but their spirits were in prison (Psalms 141:9) and they like "prisoners shut up in the prison" just as the fallen are judicially regarded as in chains of darkness, though for a time at large on the earth (2 Peter 2:4; Isaiah 24:18; Isaiah 24:22-23; Isaiah 61:1; Genesis 7:11, referred to in Isaiah 24:18)
Seraphim - Symbolical celestial beings seen by Isaiah standing above the Lord on His throne (Adonai, but many MSS read Jehovah ). ' The word occurs only in Numbers 21:6 ; Deuteronomy 8:15 , translated 'fiery;' and in Numbers 21:8 ; Isaiah 14:29 ; Isaiah 30:6 , translated 'fiery serpent. ' In Isaiah 6:2-7 (the plural) the seraphim are exalted beings, but the only actions recorded there are that one brought a live coal from off the altar and laid it upon the prophet's mouth, and said, "Thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged
Ambassador - Isaiah condemned Israel for sending ambassadors to Egypt seeking military aid rather than seeking God's aid (Isaiah 30:4 ). This included ambassadors who had unsuccessfully worked for peace (Isaiah 33:7 ). Israel consistently relied on ambassadors to foreign lands rather than on Yahweh and His plan (Isaiah 57:9 )
Pine Tree - The pine appears in our translation three times, Nehemiah 8:15 ; Isaiah 41:19 ; Isaiah 60:13 . In Isaiah 41:19 ; Isaiah 60:13 , the Hebrew word is תדהר ; a tree, says Parkhurst, so called from the springiness or elasticity of its wood
Arpad - A Syrian city, associated with Hamath, 2 Kings 18:34 ; 19:1-37 ; Isaiah 10:9 ; 36:19 and with Damascus, Jeremiah 49:23
Crisping Pin - KJV translation in Isaiah 3:22
Perazim, Mount - Mount of breaches, only in Isaiah 28:21
Eglaim - ) On the extreme boundary of Moab (Isaiah 15:8), over against Engedi, near where Jordan enters the Dead Sea
Viper - ) Εpheh (Isaiah 59:5); viviparous, as the derivation of viper implies
Crib - CRIB is the modern manger ( Luke 2:7 ), which contained the fodder for oxen ( Proverbs 14:4 ), asses ( Isaiah 1:3 ), and doubtless other live stock as well
Clad - Isaiah 59:17 (a) This is a description of the complete abandonment of the Lord JESUS to the work of His Father and to His service for men
Confederate - Isaiah 7
Amulets - (am' yoo lehtss) NAS, RSV translation of rare Hebrew word for charms, oaths used to describe an ornament women wore (Isaiah 3:20 )
Arpad - A town or region in Syria, near Hamath, 2 Kings 18:34; Isaiah 10:9, dependent on Damascus, Jeremiah 49:23
Shear-Jashub - The remnant shall return, Isaiah 7:3 10:21 , the name of one of Isaiah's sons; supposed to have had a prophetic meaning, like Mather-shalal-hash-baz
Crisping Pins - (Isaiah 3:22 ) The original word means some kind of female ornament, probably a reticule or richly ornamented purse, often made of silk inwrought with gold or silver
Branch - "The branch of Jehovah" (Isaiah 4:2), the sprout of Jehovah, Messiah (Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 33:15; Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12; Luke 1:78 margin). Fruit bearing, so as to "fill the face of the world with fruit" (Isaiah 27:6). He is at once a "branch" and a "root" (Isaiah 11:1; Isaiah 53:2). Believers being such "as He is in this world" (1 John 4:17) are also "branches" in Him the living vine, yielding fruit instinctively, spontaneously, naturally, their love corresponding to His (John 15), "the branch of My planting" (Isaiah 60:21)
Gihon - During the early Israelite occupation, water was collected outside the city walls in an open basin called the “upper pool” (Isaiah 7:3 ). An open aqueduct carried water from there to the “old pool” at the southern end of the city (Isaiah 22:11 ; cf. Isaiah 8:6 ). Along this conduit Isaiah confronted Ahaz (Isaiah 7:3 ), and later Sennacherib's army demanded the city's surrender (2 Kings 18:17 )
Chain - Secondly, chares , besides the necklace, were used for ornament, hanging down to the waist (Ezekiel 16:11; Isaiah 3:19). Some had ornamental miniature lunettes attached (Isaiah 3:18), "round tires like the moon," such as the Midianites adorned their camels' necks with (Judges 8:21-26; compare Numbers 31:50); the chumarah or crescent is still worn in front of the headdress in western Asia; (Isaiah 3:20) "tablets" or scentbottles, lit. step chains attached to ankle rings, shortened the step so as to give a tripping (margin) gait (Isaiah 3:16; Isaiah 3:18)
Zion - In Isaiah 1:27 , the idea of “Zion” included the whole nation. The most common usage of Zion was to refer to the city of God in the new age (Isaiah 1:27 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Isaiah 33:5 ). ...
Zion was understood, also, to refer to the heavenly Jerusalem (Isaiah 60:14 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 14:1 ), the place where the Messiah would appear at the end of time
Gardens - Often, however, they were left unenclosed, and were watched when their fruits began to ripen, Isaiah 1:8 Jeremiah 4:16,17 . In this a solitary keeper is stationed, who remains day and night until the fruits are gathered, Job 27:18 Isaiah 1:8 . , and were resorted to for banqueting and mirth, Isaiah 51:3 ; for retirement and meditation, John 18:1 ; for devotional purposes, Matthew 26:30 John 1:48 18:1,2 ; and for idolatrous abominations, 1 Kings 14:23 Isaiah 1:29 65:3 66:17 Jeremiah 2:20 3:6
Egypt, Land of - The Nile forms at the Mediterranean what is called the Delta (from the Greek letter Δ inverted); it had formerly seven mouths, Isaiah 11:15 , but now there are only two branches. CUSH, or ETHIOPIA,extended much farther south, but is often mentioned in scripture along with Egypt: Psalm 68:31 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Isaiah 20:4 ; Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Nahum 3:9
Forest - "Forest" often symbolizes pride doomed to destruction; (Isaiah 10:18; Isaiah 32:19) the Assyrian host dense and lifted up as the trees of the forest; (Isaiah 37:24) "the forest of his Carmel," i. ...
Forest also symbolizes unfruitfulness as opposed to cultivated lands (Isaiah 29:17; Isaiah 32:15). In Isaiah 17:9 for "bough" translated "his strong cities shall be as the leavings of woods," what the axeman leaves when he cuts down the grove (Isaiah 17:6)
Fat - (See also Isaiah 5:17). ...
Isaiah 6:10 (a) This is a type or a picture of a good thing in a wrong place. ...
Isaiah 34:6 (a) Here we find a type of the success of GOD's avenging hand in destroying the land and the people who rebelled against Him. ...
Isaiah 58:11 (a) This is a beautiful type of the goodness of the great GOD of Heaven in enriching the lives of those who walk with Him, and obey His Word. (See also Numbers 13:20; Nehemiah 8:10; Nehemiah 9:25; Isaiah 25:6; Isaiah 28:1; Isaiah 30:23)
Idol - aven, "nothingness;" "vanity" (Isaiah 66:3 ; 41:29 ; Deuteronomy 32:21 ; 1 Kings 16:13 ; Psalm 31:6 ; Jeremiah 8:19 , etc. ...
...
'Elil, "a thing of naught" (Psalm 97:7 ; Isaiah 19:3 ); a word of contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezekiel 30:13 ). ...
...
'Atsab, "a figure;" from the root "to fashion," "to labour;" denoting that idols are the result of man's labour (Isaiah 48:5 ; Psalm 139:24 , "wicked way;" literally, as some translate, "way of an idol"). ...
...
Tsir, "a form;" "shape" (Isaiah 45:16 ). " Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the sun-god of the Phoenicians (2 Chronicles 34:4,7 ; 14:3,5 ; Isaiah 17:8 ). ...
...
Pesel, "a graven" or "carved image" (Isaiah 44:10-20 ). It denotes also a figure cast in metal (Deuteronomy 7:25 ; 27:15 ; Isaiah 40:19 ; 44:10 )
Brier - סרפר , mentioned only in Isaiah 55:13 , probably means a prickly plant; but what particular kind it is impossible to determine. שמיר , This word is used only by the Prophet Isaiah, and in the following places: Isaiah 5:6 ; Isaiah 7:23-25 ; Isaiah 9:17 ; Isaiah 10:17 ; Isaiah 27:4 ; and Isaiah 32:13
Pride - , the "pride" of the land of Israel [1] or, God's "pride/majesty/excellency" [2]), its negative sense predominates, occurring in sixty-one texts. ...
A synonym gaba [ Isaiah 2:11,17 ). There is pride of the eyes (Psalm 101:5 ; Isaiah 5:15 ); of the heart (Ezekiel 28:2,5,17 ); of the spirit (Proverbs 16:18 ; Ecclesiastes 7:8 ); and of one's mouth/speech (1 Samuel 2:3 ). ...
Fifteen Old Testament texts (NIV ) contain the word "arrogance, " nearly half of them (7) in the prophets (Isaiah 2:17 ; 9:9 ; 13:11 ; Jeremiah 13:15 ; 48:29 ; Ezekiel 7:10 ; Hosea 5:5 ; 7:10 ). ...
Most of the adjectives joined with "pride" in the Old Testament are negative in connotation, including words such as "stubborn" (Leviticus 26:19 ), "overweening" (Isaiah 16:6 ), "willful" (Isaiah 10:12 ), and "great" (Jeremiah 13:9 ). In one instance the positive phrase "everlasting pride" describes the status of a restored Zion (Isaiah 60:15 ). Most of the synonyms give a negative sense: contempt (Psalm 31:18 ); wrongdoing (Job 33:17 ); trust (Psalm 62:10 ); arrogance (Proverbs 8:13 ; Isaiah 2:11,17 ; 9:9 ); insolence (Isaiah 16:6 ); and conceit (Jeremiah 48:29 ). An exception is "glory" (Isaiah 4:2 ). ...
Finally, in the Old Testament, what are some of the results of pride? It led to Uzziah's downfall (2 Chronicles 26:16 ); it hardened the heart of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 5:20 ); it goes before destruction (Proverbs 16:18 ); it does not seek God (Psalm 10:4 ); it brings disgrace (Proverbs 11:2 ); it breeds quarrels (Proverbs 13:10 ); it deceives (Jeremiah 49:16 ; Obadiah 1:3 ); it brings low (Proverbs 29:23 ; Isaiah 2:11 ; 23:9 ); it humbles (Isaiah 2:17 ; Daniel 4:37 )
Immanuel - ) Isaiah 7:10-16; Isaiah 8:8; Matthew 1:23. Before the child (Isaiah's) shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good (i. ) Ahaz, king of Judah, received this as a sign given by the Lord Himself, when the king refused to ask one, that Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Damascus, who had already "smitten him with a great slaughter," so that "his and his people's heart was moved as the trees of the wood with the wind" (2 Chronicles 28; Isaiah 7:1-2), should nevertheless not subdue Jerusalem, but be themselves and their land subdued. Like many typical prophecies, having a primary and an ulterior fulfillment (the one mainly aimed at), this has only a partial realization in the circumstances of Isaiah's age; these are only suggestive of those which form the consummation of all prophecy (Revelation 19:10), Messiah's advent. " Immanuel cannot in the strict sense apply to Isaiah's son, but only to the "CHILD . Wonderful, the mighty God," as Isaiah expressly says Isaiah 9:6, declaring moreover that his children (Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 7:14, etc. ...
Isaiah 8:18; "behold, I and the children whom the Lord hath given me are for signs . Isaiah (i. Jehovah's salvation) typically represents Messiah as "the mighty (Hero) God," "the everlasting Father"; Isaiah's children represent Him as "Child" and "Son. " Local and temporary features (as Isaiah 7:15-16) are added in every type, otherwise it would be no type, but the Antitype itself. Others explain Isaiah 7:14 to refer to the Messiah Immanuel, strictly born of the virgin. "The child" inIsaiah 7:15-16, refers to the child Shear-jashub at Isaiah's side (Isaiah 7:3). The purpose of the two smoking firebrands (Isaiah 7:4) shall come to nought, for before this child shall grow up, the two shall be extinguished
Names of Our Lord - ...
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT ...
Almighty Word, Wisdom of Solomon 18:15
Brightness of Eternal Light, Wisdom of Solomon 7:26
Child, Isaiah 9:6
Counsellor, Isaiah 9:6
Desire of Eternal Hills, Genesis 49:26
Desired of all nations, Aggeus 2:8
Emmanuel, Isaiah 7:14
Expectation of nations, Genesis
Father of World to Come, Isaiah
God the Mighty, Isaiah 9:6
Holy One of Israel, Isaiah 43:3
Holy One, Psalms 15:10
Just Branch, Jeremiah 23:5
Just, Song of Solomon 7:261
King of Glory, Psalms 23:7
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 9:7
Lord Our Just One, Jeremiah 23:6
Man of Sorrows, Isaiah 53:3
Man, Michah 5:5
My Just One, Isaiah 41:10
Orient, Zachariah 6:12
Prince of Peace, Isaiah 9:6
Root of Jesse, Isaiah 11:10
Ruler of the Earth, Isaiah 16:1
Sun of Justice, Malachi 4:2
Wonderful, Isaiah 9:6
USED BY HIMSELF ...
Bread of Life, John 6:35
Door, John 10:9
Good Shepherd, John 10:11
Life, John 11:25
Light of the World, John 9:5
Lord, John 13:13
Master, John 13:13
Resurrection and Life, John 11:25
Son of Man, Matthew 8:2O
Son, John 5:22
Vine, John 15:1
Way, Truth, and Life, John 14:6
USED BY THE APOSTLES and EVANGELISTS ...
Advocate, 1 John 2:1
Almighty, Apocalypse 1:8
Alpha and Omega, Apocalypse 1:8
Amen, Apocalypse 3:14
Author and Finisher of Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Author of Life, Acts 3:15
Beginning and End, Apocalypse 1:8
Blessed God, Mark 14:61
Child Jesus, Luke 2:43
Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 1:1
Christ, Matthrew 1:18
Corner-Stone, Epheisans 2:21
Day Star, 2 Peter 1:19
Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Faithful Witness, Apocalypse 1:5
First and Last, Apocalypse 1:17
First Born from the Dead, Apocalypse 1:5
Galitean, Matthew 26:69
God of the Jews, Romans 3:29
Great Pastor, Hebrews 13:20
He that is to come, Hebrews 10:37
Head, Ephesians 4:15
High Priest, Hebrews 2:17
Jesus Christ the Just, 1 John 2:1
Jesus, Matthew 27:17
Key of David, Apocalypse 3:7
King of Kings, Apocalypse 19:16
Lamb of God, John 1:29
Life Eternal, 1 John 1:2
Lion of the Tribe of Juda, Apocalypse 5:5
Living Stone, 1 Peter 2:4
Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 10:48
Lord of All, Galatians 4:1
Lord of Lords, Apocalypse 19:16
Lord Our God, Apocalypse 4:11
Mediator, Hebrews 9:15
Messias, John 1:41 (passim)
Only Begotten of the Father, John 1:14
Our Lord Jesus Ghrist, Romans 1:4
Pascha Nostrum, 1 Corinthians 5:7
Power of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Priest, Hebrews 8:4
Prince of the kings of the earth, Apocalypse 1:5
Rabbi, John 1:18
Rock of Scandal, Romans 9:33
Root of David, Apocalypse 5:6
Saviour of the world, John 4:42
Saviour, Luke 2:11
Son of David, Mark 12:86
Son of God, Matthew 8:29
Son of Joseph, Luke 3:23
Son of the Living God, Matthew 16:16
Star of the morning, Apocalypse 2:23
Stone of stumbling, 1 Peter 2:8
Stone, Matthew 21:42
Teacher, John 3:2
That which was from the beginning, 1 John 1:1
Victim, Ephesians 5:2
Wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Word, John 1:1
Word of God, Apocalypse 19:13
Word of Life, 1 John 1:1
USED BY OTHERS ...
Adonai, O Antiphons
Angel in the liturgy of the Mass
Captain of our salvation, Ephiphany, Matins
Captain of the Martyrs, Octain of Saint Stephen, Matins
Carpenter's Son, Matthew 13:55
Christ our King, First Wednesday in Advent, Matins
Christ the Lord, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Eagle, Saint Maximus, Homily 42
Eternal, Christmas Day, Lauds
Eternal Word of God made Flesh, Ember Saturday in Advent, Martins
Glory of Thy people Israel, Luke 2:32
God of God, title in Gloria
God our Saviour, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
God the Son, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Great Prophet, First Sunday in Advent, Lauds
Heavenly Bridegroom, Epiphany, Lauds
Holy, Luke 1:35
Holy One of God, Luke 4
King of all the earth, Second Monday in Advent, Vespers
King of Angel Hosts above, Circumcision, Matins
King of Heaven, Christmas Day, Matins
King of Israel, Mark 15:32
King of Righteousness, Third Thursday in Advent, Matins
King of the Gentiles, O Antiphons
King of the Jews, Matthew 2:2
King Peaceful, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, Luke 2:32
Light of Light, title in Gloria
Lord of Angels, Eve of Epiphany, Matins
Lord Our King, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Lawgiver, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Saviour, Circumcision, Matins
Lord that shall rule, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord the King, Ephiphany, Matins
Lord the Ruler, Second Sunday in Advent, Matins
Tackling - TACKLING in Isaiah 33:23 means simply a ship’s ropes; in Acts 27:19 it is used more generally of the whole gearing (RVm Horonaim - Two caverns, a city of Moab to the south of the Arnon, built, apparently, upon an eminence, and a place of some importance (Isaiah 15:5 ; Jeremiah 48:3,5,34 )
Ointment - Various fragrant preparations, also compounds for medical purposes, are so called (Exodus 30:25 ; Psalm 133:2 ; Isaiah 1:6 ; Amos 6:6 ; John 12:3 ; Revelation 18:13 )
Tackling - KJV form of tackle, that is, gear used to handle cargo and rigging to work a ship's sails (Isaiah 33:23 ; Acts 27:19 )
Dimon - of the Dead Sea in Moab (Isaiah 15:9)
Bulrush - Isaiah 58:5 (a) This is a type which describes the bowed head, the heavy heart, and the distressed spirit of one who has been crushed by his circumstances
Haughtiness - Isaiah 13 ...
Scab - Isaiah 3:17 (b) This figure is used to describe the results on the nation of Israel when GOD sends among them invading enemies, the pestilence, and the famine
Pine - The shemen , in Nehemiah 8:15 is rather the olive or oil tree, as in Isaiah 41:19
Tartan - An Assyrian general, sent to Jerusalem with Rabshakeh, by Sennacherib, 2 Kings 18:17 ; and perhaps the same who captured Ashdod in the reign of Sargon, Isaiah 20:1
Hump - Isaiah 30:6 refers to burdens carried on camels' humps (“bunches KJV)
Migron - Precipice or landslip, a place between Aiath and Michmash (Isaiah 10:28 )
Tirhakah - ) who supported Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:8-9 ; Isaiah 37:9 )
Beulah - Isaiah 62:4 (c) This name probably describes the Christian life in which the joy of the Lord, the fruits of righteousness and the glories of GOD permeate the soul
Cow - The words used, except in Isaiah 7:21 , do not necessarily imply the female,the same Hebrew being employed for 'bullock,' ' herd,' etc
Golden City - "The golden city ceased," Isaiah 14:4 is better translated, as in the margin, "the exactress of gold ceased!" Babylon, which had heaped up gold by its conquests, was overcome
Beulah - (Isaiah 62:4) It should seem to be derived from Balak, or Baal-meon, lord of the house, or married
Outcast - Isaiah 16
Munitions - The strong tower of the righteous is impregnable and inaccessible to their foes, Isaiah 33:16
Terribly - Isaiah 2 ...
1
ha'Nes - a place in Egypt mentioned only in (Isaiah 30:4 ) We think that the Chald Paraphr
Herd - Herds were a source of meat and dairy products, of agricultural labor (1 Chronicles 12:40 ; Isaiah 46:1 ), and of sacrifices (Numbers 7:3 ; Psalm 69:31 ; Isaiah 66:3 )
Fitches - (Isaiah 28:25,27 ), the rendering of the Hebrew Ketsah , "without doubt the Nigella sativa, a small annual of the order Ranunculacece, which grows wild in the Mediterranean countries, and is cultivated in Egypt and Syria for its seed. In Ezekiel 4:9 this word is the rendering of the Hebrew Kussemeth (Incorrectly rendered "rye" in the Authorized Version of Exodus 9:32 and Isaiah 28:25 , but "spelt" in the Revised Version)
Wolf - Isaiah represents the peace of Messiah's kingdom by the words, "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb" (Isaiah 11:6 )
Box - Isaiah 41:19; Isaiah 60:13; rather the scherbin , a cedar remarkable for its small cones and upright branches; teasshur from ashar , "to be upright"
Jeberechiah - In Septuagint and Vulgate Berechiah (Isaiah 8:2), father of Zechariah in Ahaz' reign. (Isaiah 8:2)
Bel - Isaiah mocked Babylon by describing their gods burdening down donkeys in procession out of the city into captivity. The idols bowed down to get out of the city gates (Isaiah 46:1 )
Fan - The fan of Scripture ( Isaiah 30:24 , Matthew 3:12 , Luke 3:17 ) is the five- or six-pronged wooden winnowing-fork , for which see Agriculture, § 3 . The corresponding verb is rendered ‘ winnow ,’ Isaiah 30:24 , Ruth 3:2 , but ‘fan’ elsewhere (Amer
Vain - Mark warned that believers are not to give God vain lip service but obedience from the heart (Deuteronomy 7:6-7 ; see Isaiah 1:13 ; Isaiah 29:13 ; James 1:26 )
Cattle - seh has the same meaning, Genesis 30:32 ; Ezekiel 34:17-22 : in Isaiah 7:25 it is translated 'lesser cattle,' and in Isaiah 43:23 'small cattle
Shinar - In later times it was known as Chaldea, or Babylonia (as in the LXX of Isaiah 11:11 ), and thither some of the captives from Judah were carried. Genesis 10:10 ; Genesis 11:2 ; Genesis 14:1,9 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Daniel 1:2 ; Zechariah 5:11
High - A place of power ( Exodus 14:8; Psalm 97:9; Isaiah 6:1; Ezekiel 1:18). A place of honor ( 1 Kings 9:8; Psalm 149:6; Isaiah 52:13)
Tail - ...
Isaiah 7:4 (a) Here is another description of GOD's contempt for the two nations who by GOD's grace were unable to hurt Israel because He was protecting them. ...
Isaiah 9:15 (a) The false prophet is thus described
Stakes - Isaiah 33:20 (c) By this lovely type we learn how secure is that one who belongs to the Lord JESUS CHRIST and is kept by the power of GOD through faith unto salvation. ...
Isaiah 54:2 (b) Probably we learn from this interesting type that the Lord wants us to constantly strengthen our faith through reading His Word, learning all that CHRIST has done for us, and all that He means to us
Devil - ) Lucifer, (Isaiah 14:12. ) Serpent, (Isaiah 27:1
Nebo - the name of an idol of the Babylonians: "Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth," Isaiah 46:1 . There is some probability in the opinion of Calmet, that Bel and Nebo are but one and the same deity, and that Isaiah made use of these names as synonymous
Merchant - The commodities of different countries were usually exchanged by traders of various kinds, in caravans or "traveling companies," Isaiah 21:13 , which had their regular season and routes for passing from one great mart to another, Genesis 37:25,28 . Some of the maritime nations, as Egypt, and still more the Phoenicians, carried on a large traffic by sea, Isaiah 23:2 Ezekiel 27:28
Seraphim - The prophet Isaiah, Isaiah 6:2,3 , represents them as reverently adoring the triune God, and burning with zeal to fly and execute his will
Nail - The word implies fixedness, Isaiah 22:23 ; and a firm support, Zechariah 10:4 . , 2 Chronicles 3:9 Ecclesiastes 12:11 Isaiah 41:7 Jeremiah 10:4
Path'Ros - ( Genesis 10:13,14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:12 ) Pathros is mentioned in the prophecies of Isaiah, (Isaiah 11:11 ) Jeremiah (Jeremiah 44:1,15 ) and Ezekiel
Bull, Bullock, - It is variously rendered "bullock," (Isaiah 65:25 ) "cow," (Ezekiel 4:15 ) "oxen," (Genesis 12:16 ) Kine is used in the Bible as the plural of cow. In ( Isaiah 51:20 ) the "wild bull" ("wild ox" in (14:5) ) was possibly one of the larger species of antelope, and took its name from its swiftness
Chalk-Stones - CHALK-STONES ( Isaiah 27:9 only)
Doleful Creatures - (Occurring only Isaiah 13:21
Tel-Assar - ” City in northern Mesopotamia which the Assyrians conquered (2 Kings 19:12 KJV, Thelasar; Isaiah 37:12 )
Spider - An animal in Palestine known in the Bible for spinning a web (Job 8:14 ; Isaiah 59:5 )
Omniscience - It is the quality of having all knowledge (Isaiah 40:14)
Hay - In Proverbs 27:25 ; Isaiah 15:6 , denotes the first shoots of grass
Kir-Har'Aseth - (brick fortress ), ( 2 Kings 3:25 ) Kir-ha'resh, ( Isaiah 16:11 ) Kir-har'es, ( Jeremiah 48:31,36 ) These four names are all applied to one place, probably KIR OF MOAB, which see
Storm - ...
Isaiah 4:6 (b) Here again our Lord is telling us that we may expect times of trouble in our lives, but He has provided a hiding place in His own presence, resting under the shadow of His wings, and leaving the solution with Him. ...
Isaiah 25:4 (b) Evidently our Lord is referring to the times of great stress and strain that GOD's people often had to pass through. (See Isaiah 28:2; Isaiah 29:6)
Apparel - One who had only this tunic on was spoken of as "naked" (1 Samuel 19:24 ; Job 24:10 ; Isaiah 20:2 ).
They wore in common an over-garment ("mantle," Isaiah 3:22 ; 1 Kings 19:13 ; 2 Kings 2:13 ), a loose and flowing robe. Kings and nobles usually had a store of costly garments for festive occasions (Isaiah 3:22 ; Zechariah 3:4 ) and for presents (Genesis 45:22 ; Esther 4:4 ; 6:8,11 ; 1 Samuel 18:4 ; 2 Kings 5:5 ; 10:22 ). Prophets and ascetics wore coarse garments (Isaiah 20:2 ; Zechariah 13:4 ; Matthew 3:4 )
Flax - Further combing (carding) cleansed and ordered the fibers so that they might be spun into thread for weaving (Isaiah 19:9 ). The remaining short, tangled fibers (the tow) were used to weave a course fabric or make twine (Judges 16:9 ; Isaiah 1:31 ). Isaiah 43:17 pictures armies as a wick which the Lord would extinguish. In Isaiah 42:3 the Servant of the Lord is one who will not quench a dimly burning wick
Nile - Although the Bible mentions the Nile River mainly in relation to Egypt (Genesis 41:17-19; Ezekiel 29:3), the river passes through many countries, among them Ethiopia (GNB: Sudan) (Isaiah 18:1-2). Because of the silt left behind after the river’s annual flooding, otherwise barren land became usable (Isaiah 23:3; Isaiah 23:10; Amos 8:8; Amos 9:5). It ruined the farming, fishing and cotton industries, and created widespread unemployment (Genesis 41:1-3; Isaiah 19:5-10)
Babylon - By Isaiah the prophet, the Lord declared this ruin, (Isaiah 13:19 to the end;) (Isaiah 13:19-22) and every traveller that hath seen the ground it stood on confirms it. Who that considers this, and connects with it what the prophets declared concerning it, years before the event took place, but must be struck with wonder and praise! I beg the reader to look again at Isaiah's prophecy, Isaiah 13:19-22) And when the reader hath duly pondered the subject, concerning the natural history of Babylon, thus desolated as the enemy of Christ and his church; he will do well to consider the subject in the spiritual sense of it, according to what the Scriptures have declared of mystical Babylon
Zoan - When Isaiah wrote, it would appear to have been one of the chief cities in Egypt, as he speaks of "the princes of Zoan. " Isaiah 19:11; Isaiah 19:13; Isaiah 30:4
Crib - Feeding trough for the ox (Proverbs 14:1 ;Proverbs 14:1;4:1 KJV) or the ass ( Isaiah 1:3 ; compare Job 39:9 ) and probably for any number of other domesticated animals
Holm Tree - The identity of the tree of Isaiah 44:14 is disputed: cypress (NAS, NIV); ilex (REB); holm oak or tree (NAS margin, NRSV); oak (TEV)
Coulter - (1 Samuel 13:20,21 ), an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" (Isaiah 2:4 ; Micah 4:3 ; Joel 3:10 )
Jesaiah - (jih ssi' uh) Shortened form of Isaiah meaning, “Yah has saved
Hephzi-Bah - Symbolic name of the Zion of Messianic times ( Isaiah 62:4 )
si'Nim, - a people noticed in (Isaiah 49:12 ) as living at the extremity of the known world
Pine (Tree) - Isaiah 41:19 (c) This is a type of the Christian who is made useful, profitable and beautiful by the Lord in the midst of unhappy situations and conditions which surround him
Channel -
The bed of the sea or of a river (Psalm 18:15 ; Isaiah 8:7 )
Tow - Isaiah 1:31 (a) GOD is assuring the world that His enemies will be easily destroyed
Pine Tree - ( Isaiah 41:19 ; 60:13 ) What tree is intended is not certain: but the rendering "pine," seems least probable of any
Caul, - a sort of ornamental head-dress, (Isaiah 3:18 ) with a net for its base
Lime, - , in (27:2) (Authorized Version "plaster"), (Isaiah 33:12 ) and Amos 2:1
Oak - , 2 Samuel 18:14 , 1Ki 13:14 , 1 Chronicles 10:12 , Isaiah 1:30 , Ezekiel 6:13 , Hosea 4:13 ; (Vale of) Elah’ [1] ‘terebinth’], 1 Samuel 17:2 ; 1Sa 17:19 ; 1 Samuel 21:9 , Isaiah 6:13 [1] ‘terebinths’] Isaiah 57:5 [7] ‘oaks’] Isaiah 61:3 ‘trees. ’allôn , cannot be the same as ’çlâh , because it occurs with it in Isaiah 6:13 , Hosea 4:13 ; see also Genesis 35:8 , Isaiah 44:14 , Amos 2:9 . In Isaiah 2:13 , Ezekiel 27:8 , Zechariah 11:2 the ‘allônîm (‘oaks’) of Bashan are mentioned
Girdle - Several items of clothing in KJV: (1) an ornate sash worn by the officiating priests (Exodus 28:4 ,Exodus 28:4,28:40 ) and by the wealthy of Jerusalem (Isaiah 3:24 ); (2) a decorated band (NRSV), woven belt (TEV, NAS), or waistband (NIV, REB) for the high priest's ephod (Exodus 28:8 ,Exodus 28:8,28:27-28 ); (3) a belt on which a sword or bow might be carried (1 Samuel 18:4 ; 2 Samuel 20:8 ; perhaps Isaiah 5:27 ); a leather belt forming part of the proverbial garb of the prophets (2 Kings 1:8 ; Matthew 3:4 ); (4) an undergarment (Job 12:18 ; Jeremiah 13:1-11 ), often rendered waistcloth or loincloth. Loins were girded in preparation for running (1 Kings 18:46 ), for battle (Isaiah 5:27 ), or for service for a master (Luke 12:35 )
Wolf - ]'>[3] , zeeb ‘wolf’), Genesis 49:27 , Isaiah 11:6 ; Isaiah 65:25 , Jeremiah 5:6 , Ezekiel 22:27 , Habakkuk 1:8 , Zephaniah 3:8 . ]'>[2] ‘wolves’ in Isaiah 13:22 RV Breach - (See Isaiah 30:13, Isaiah 30:26; Lamentations 2:13; Jeremiah 14:17). ...
Isaiah 58:12 (b) Those who prevail with GOD in prayer and walk with Him in fellowship will mend a rift in the church and will bring GOD's divided people together
Jackal - KJV translated the term for jackal as either dragon (Isaiah 13:22 ; Nehemiah 2:13 ) or sea monster (Lamentations 4:3 ). For a city or nation to be made the haunt or lair of jackals is for it to be utterly destroyed (Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Jeremiah 9:11 ; Jeremiah 10:22 ; Jeremiah 49:33 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ; Jeremiah 51:37 ; Lamentations 5:18 ; Malachi 1:3 )
Tobiah, the Children of - from the Jews from Babylon, typified the return of the dispersed Israelites from afar (Isaiah 60:9) to the King of the Jews at Jerusalem, and secondarily the conversion of the Gentiles "far off" (Acts 2:39; Ephesians 2:12-17; Isaiah 60:10; Isaiah 57:19; Zechariah 2:11; Zechariah 8:22-23)
Captive - Isaiah 51:14 (b) This is typical of any Christian who is a slave to any form of evil or uncleanness. (See also Isaiah 52:2). (See also Isaiah 61:1)
Arm - ...
2: βραχίων (Strong's #1023 — Noun Masculine — brachion — brakh-ee'-own ) "the shorter part of the arm, from the shoulder to the elbow," is used metaphorically to denote strength, power, and always in the NT of the power of God, Luke 1:51 ; John 12:38 ; Acts 13:17 ; frequently so in the OT, especially in Deuteronomy, the Psalms and Isaiah; see, e. , "arm;" Psalm 77:15 ; Isaiah 26:11 , where "hand" is, lit. , "arm;" Isaiah 30:30 ; 40:10,11 , etc
Bittern - Isaiah 14:23 ; Isaiah 34:11 ; and Zephaniah 2:14 . Harmer, "that a word which occurs but three times in the Hebrew Bible should be translated by three different words, and that one of them should be otter!" Isaiah, prophesying the destruction of Babylon, says that "the Lord will make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water;" and Zephaniah 2:14 , prophesying against Nineveh, says that "the cormorant and bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it: their voice shall sing in the windows
Drunkenness - Its folly is often illustrated, Psalm 107:27 Isaiah 19:14 24:20 28:7,8 , its guilt denounced, Isaiah 5:22 , its ill results traced, 1 Samuel 25:36 1 Kings 16:9 20:16 , and its doom shown, 1 Corinthians 6:9,10 . It is produced by wine, Genesis 9:21 21:33 Jeremiah 23:9 Ephesians 5:18 , as well as by "strong drink," 1 Samuel 1:13-15 Isaiah 5:11
Mother - The Hebrew words AM and Isaiah 8:4 . It is put for a chief city, 2 Samuel 20:19 ; for a benefactress, Judges 5:7 ; for a nation, as in the expressive English phrase, "the mother country," Isaiah 3:12 49:23 . The fond affection of a mother is often referred to in Scripture; and God has employed it to illustrate his tender love for his people, Isaiah 49:15
Pottery - The clay, when dug, was trodden by men's feet so as to form a paste, (Isaiah 41:25 ) Isaiah 45:9 ; Jeremiah 15:3 ) The vessel was then smoothed and coated with a glaze, and finally burnt in a furnace. (Isaiah 30:11 )
Meni - Isaiah 65:11 , marg
Fan - A winnowing shovel by which grain was thrown up against the wind that it might be cleansed from broken straw and chaff (Isaiah 30:24 ; Jeremiah 15:7 ; Matthew 3:12 )
Hephzibah - ...
...
A symbolical name of Zion, as representing the Lord's favour toward her (Isaiah 62:4 )
Oreb, the Rock of - The place where Gideon slew Oreb after the defeat of the Midianites (Judges 7:25 ; Isaiah 10:26 )
Laish (1) - Father of PHALTIEL (Saul's daughter, Michal's second husband) of GALLIM, a coincidence with the conjunction of the same names "Laish" and "Gallim" (Isaiah 10:30; 1 Samuel 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:15)
Madmenah - of Jerusalem, whose people fled ("is removed," Isaiah 10:31, rather "flees") before Sennacherib's approach from the N
Reins - For "the loins" (halatsaim ), Isaiah 11:5
Antelope - A doubtful translation of te’ô , Deuteronomy 14:5 and Isaiah 51:20
Bestead - Isaiah 8 ...
That is, distressed perplexed
Acre - As a measure of land, it refers to the land a team can plow in one day (1 Samuel 14:14 ; Isaiah 5:10 )
Pul - (lord ), a country or nation mentioned in ( Isaiah 66:19 ) It is spoken of with distant nations, and is supposed by some to represent the island Philae in Egypt, and by others Libya
Swallow - The well-known bird of passage, which is so common both in our country, in Europe, and in the East, Psalm 84:3 ; Isaiah 38:14 ; Jeremiah 8:7
Wroth - Isaiah 47
Pul - (lord ), a country or nation mentioned in ( Isaiah 66:19 ) It is spoken of with distant nations, and is supposed by some to represent the island Philae in Egypt, and by others Libya
Blind - ...
Isaiah 29:18 (b) These people are those who have eyes to see, but do not have the necessary information nor understanding. (See also Isaiah 35:5; Isaiah 42:7). ...
Isaiah 42:16 (a) We learn here that GOD leads those who do not see clearly. These are described further in verses Isaiah 42:18-19. ...
Isaiah 43:8 (b) This figure describes those who have heard the Word of GOD, have been reared in Christian surroundings, but have failed to see either their own need or the provision that the Lord has made. ...
Isaiah 56:10 (a) These people are religious leaders who are ignorant of GOD's plans and do not understand GOD's words
Remnant - One task of the prophets was to build up and encourage the remnant (1 Kings 19:18; Isaiah 1:9; Isaiah 8:16-19; Isaiah 10:20-23; Isaiah 28:5; Jeremiah 15:19-21). But God would still preserve a remnant, so that after a time in captivity, some would return to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple, the city and the nation (Ezra 9:13-15; Isaiah 11:11-12; Isaiah 11:16; Micah 2:12)
Lip - ]'>[1] ) as the source from which the breath issues ( Isaiah 11:4 ); once the protrusion of the lips occurs as a gesture of mocking contempt ( Psalms 22:7 ). Twice ( 2 Kings 19:28 , Isaiah 37:29 ) we have an allusion to the cruel Assyrian custom of passing a ring through the lips of captives and leading them about with a rope or thong. Hence, according to the kind of words they utter and the quality of the heart from which the words come, they are described figuratively as uncircumcised ( Exodus 6:12 ; Exodus 6:30 ), flattering ( Psalms 12:2 ; Psalms 12:8 ), feigned ( Psalms 17:1 ), lying ( Psalms 31:18 ), joyful ( Psalms 63:5 ), perverse ( Proverbs 4:24 ), righteous ( Proverbs 16:13 ), false ( Proverbs 17:4 ), burning ( Proverbs 26:23 ), unclean ( Isaiah 6:5 ). In Isaiah 57:18 ‘the fruit of the lips’ = praise. ]'>[2] : Matthew 15:8 and Mark 7:6 = Isaiah 29:18 ; Romans 3:13 = Psalms 140:3 [3]; 1 Corinthians 14:21 = Isaiah 28:11 ; Hebrews 13:15 = Hosea 14:2 ; 1 Peter 3:10 = Psalms 34:18 [4]
Pekah - ...
But his plot with Rezin to set aside the line of David, and raise "the son of Tabeal" (probably a Syrian favored by a party in Jerusalem: Isaiah 8:6; Isaiah 8:9; Isaiah 8:12) to the throne of Judah, was ultimately frustrated according to God's purpose and word (Isaiah 7:1-16), for "Immanuel" must succeed as Son and Heir of David, which Pekah's plot was incompatible with. Egypt favored the plan (Isaiah 8:18; 2 Kings 17:4). Thus was fulfilled Isaiah 7:16
Spider - ]'>[1] ‘ankabût ), Job 8:14 , Isaiah 59:5-6
North Country - Most of the invading armies entered Palestine from the north (Isaiah 41:25 ; Jeremiah 1:14,15 ; 50:3,9,41 ; 51:48 ; Ezekiel 26:7 )
he-Ass - hamor, (Genesis 12:16 ), the general designation of the donkey used for carrying burdens (Genesis 42:26 ) and for ploughing (Isaiah 30:24 )
Nimrim, Waters of - The stream of the leopards, a stream in Moab (Isaiah 15:6 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ); probably the modern Wady en-Nemeirah, a rich, verdant spot at the south-eastern end of the Dead Sea
Tablet - In Isaiah 3:20 the Hebrew word means a perfume-box, as it is rendered in the Revised Version
Oblation - Isaiah 1
Lower Parts of the Earth - Valleys, Isaiah 44:23 ; also the grave, or the abode of disembodied spirits secluded from our view, ...
"That undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveler returns
Serpent - ]'>[1] , af‘a ) is applied to the viper ( Job 20:16 , Isaiah 30:6 ; Isaiah 59:6 ). ]'>[4] ‘asp,’ Deuteronomy 32:33 , Job 20:14 , Isaiah 11:8 ; tr. tsepha ‘, Isaiah 14:29 , AV Grass - See Isaiah 66:14 ; 2 Kings 19:26 . Yereq refers to pale yellow, green, or gold plants: the green herbs animals eat (Genesis 1:30 ; Genesis 9:3 ; Numbers 22:4 ); the green sprouts of trees (Exodus 10:15 ); God's judgment destroys the green things (Isaiah 15:6 ). Yereq can modify deshe to emphasize the green color (2 Kings 19:26 ; Psalm 37:2 ; Isaiah 37:2 ). Humans in their mortality can be compared to grass in contrast to God's word (Isaiah 40:6-8 ; compare Isaiah 51:12 ; Psalm 90:5 ; Psalm 103:15 )
Diadem - ...
Tsaniph or tseniphah is the turban worn by a man ( Job 29:14 ) or woman (Isaiah 3:23 ) or by the king (Isaiah 62:3 ) or high priest (Zechariah 3:5 ). Tsephirah is a braided crown, garland, or wreath signifying God's glorious power and authority to come ( Isaiah 28:5 ). ...
The word “diadem” was used in a metaphorical sense of the prudent person (Proverbs 14:18 ), of justice (Job 29:14 ), of God (Isaiah 28:5 ), of God's presence (Ezekiel 21:26 ), and of Jerusalem (Isaiah 62:3 )
Topheth - ) Infamous by the immolation in it of children to Moloch (2 Kings 23:10; Isaiah 30:33; Jeremiah 7:31-32; Jeremiah 19:2; Jeremiah 19:6; Jeremiah 19:11). Josiah threw down its altars and heaped here the filth of the city, so that, with its carcasses preyed on by worms and its perpetual fires for consuming refuse, it became a type of hell (Isaiah 66:24). In Kings and Jeremiah the article precedes, "the Topheth" In Isaiah 30:33 it is Τophteh , "tabret grove," as tupim in Isaiah 30:32 is "tabrets. In Isaiah 30:33 Topheth symbolizes the funeral pyre of Sennacherib's army, not that it actually perished there, but the Assyrian forerunner of antichrist is to be burnt in ignominy whereas the Hebrew buried their dead
Foundation - Isaiah 28:16 , Matthew 16:18 , Ephesians 2:20 ). Isaiah 19:10 RVm Hearth - A depression in a floor, sometimes bricked to retain heat (Jeremiah 36:23 ), used for cooking food (Isaiah 30:14 ). Modern translations retain hearth at Isaiah 30:14
Seraphim - (burning, glowing ), an order of celestial beings, whom Isaiah beheld in vision standing above Jehovah as he sat upon his throne. ( Isaiah 6:2 ) They are described as having each of them three pairs of wings, with one of which they covered their faces (a token of humility); with the second they covered their feet (a token of respect); while with the third they flew
Bonnet - peer), Exodus 39:28 (RSV, "head-tires"); Ezekiel 44:18 (RSV, "tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isaiah 3:20 (RSV, "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females. The Hebrew word so rendered literally means an ornament, as in Isaiah 61:10 (RSV, "garland"), and in Ezekiel 24:17,23 "tire" (RSV, "head-tire")
Flint - In Isaiah 50:7 and Ezekiel 3:9 the expressions, where the word is used, means that the "Messiah would be firm and resolute amidst all contempt and scorn which he would meet; that he had made up his mind to endure it, and would not shrink from any kind or degree of suffering which would be necessary to accomplish the great work in which he was engaged. ) The words "like a flint" are used with reference to the hoofs of horses (Isaiah 5:28 )
Shield - Used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and material (1 Samuel 17:7 ; 2 Samuel 1:21 ; 1 Kings 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 12:8,24,34 ; Isaiah 22:6 ; Ezekiel 39:9 ; Nahum 2:3 ). ...
Shields were usually "anointed" (Isaiah 21:5 ), in order to preserve them, and at the same time make the missiles of the enemy glide off them more easily
Curtains - In Isaiah 54:2 is meant the cloth forming the covering and sides of the tent. Song of Solomon 1:5; "the curtains of Solomon" mean the hangings and veil of Solomon's temple, typifying Christ's righteousness, the covering of saints who together constitute the living temple of the antitypical Solomon (Isaiah 61:10; Revelation 19:8; 1 Corinthians 3:16)
Ironsmith - Isaiah 44:12 ; Isaiah 54:16 provide concise accounts of the ironsmith's work
Garland - In Isaiah 61:3 ,Isaiah 61:3,61:10 garlands form part of the bridegroom's wedding apparel
Headband - ]'>[2] ‘headbands,’ Isaiah 3:20 AV [7] ‘attire’) with which a bride ‘girds’ herself ( Isaiah 49:18 RV Bittern - KJV translation for an animal of desolation mentioned three times in the Bible (Isaiah 14:23 ; Isaiah 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 )
Crane - In Isaiah 38:14 and Jeremiah 8:7 sûs or sîs is rendered in AV Meadow - In modern translations rich meadows illustrate God's blessing (Psalm 65:13 , NAS, NIV, NRSV; Isaiah 30:23 ; Isaiah 44:4 , NIV)
Deaf - ...
Isaiah 42:18 (a) The word is symbolical of people of today who do not hear GOD's call, probably because they have no interest in spiritual matters. ...
Isaiah 42:19 (b) This is a description of the child of GOD who refuses to listen to the call of the world and of sin
Shoulder - Of Christ it is said, when He comes to reign, the 'government shall be on his shoulder,' Isaiah 9:6 ; and, as the Good Shepherd, when He finds a lost sheep He places it on His shoulders. Isaiah 49:22
Kite - As a noun masculine plural, איים , in Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:14 ; and Jeremiah 50:30 , Bochart says that jackals are intended; but, by the several contexts, particularly the last, it may well mean a kind of unclean bird, and so be the same with that mentioned above
Zoar - It was one of the landmarks which Moses saw from Pisgah, Deuteronomy 34:3, and it appears to have been known in the time of Isaiah, Isaiah 15:5, and Jeremiah
Urijah - He is called a faithful witness by Isaiah, Isaiah 8:2 ; but erred in constructing and using at the king's request an altar unlike that prescribed in the law, Exodus 27:1-8 ; 38:1-7 ; 2 Kings 16:9-12
Lees - Hence such wines are used as a symbol of gospel blessings, Isaiah 25:6 ; also of a nation or community that, from long quiet and prosperity, has become rich and luxurious, and has settled down in carnal security, Jeremiah 48:11 Zephaniah 1:12 . To drink the dregs of the cup of God's wrath, Psalm 75:8 Isaiah 51:17 , is to drink it to exhaustion; that is, to suffer God's wrath without mitigation or end
Willow - A very common tree, which grows in marshy places, Job 40:22 Isaiah 44:4 , with a leaf much like that of the olive. The "book of the willows," Isaiah 15:7 , on the southern border of Moab, flows into the southeast extremity of the Dead Sea
Purse, - The Hebrews, when on a journey, were provided with a bag, in which they carried their money, (Genesis 42:35 ; Proverbs 1:14 ; 7:20 ; Isaiah 46:6 ) and, if they were merchants, also their weights. (Isaiah 3:24 )
Jesse - The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isaiah 11:1 ), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isaiah 11:10 ; Revelation 5:5 )
Branch - Isaiah 4:2; Isaiah 11:1; see MESSIAH)
Crisping-Pin - (Isaiah 3:22 ; RSV, "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule
Fish-Pools - ) were probably stocked with fish (2 Samuel 2:13 ; 4:12 ; Isaiah 7:3 ; 22:9,11 )
White - A symbol of purity (2 Chronicles 5:12 ; Psalm 51:7 ; Isaiah 1:18 ; Revelation 3:18 ; 7:14 )
Remaliah - ” Father of Pekah who murdered King Pekahiah of Israel and reigned in his stead (2 Kings 15:25 ; Isaiah 7:1 )
Tongs - Pinchers for holding coals (1 Kings 7:49 ; 2 Chronicles 4:21 ; Isaiah 6:6 )
Noph - (nahf) Variant form of Moph, the Hebrew term for Memphis (Isaiah 19:13 ; Jeremiah 2:16 ; Jeremiah 44:1 ; Jeremiah 46:14 ,Jeremiah 46:14,46:19 ; Ezekiel 30:13 ,Ezekiel 30:13,30:16 )
Maggot - A soft-bodied, legless grub that is the intermediate stage of some insects (Job 25:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 )
Muffler - KJV term for a scarf (NRSV) at Isaiah 3:19
Wrap - Isaiah 28:20 (b) We may understand from this that the unrighteousness of men, their pride and their self-sufficiency, are not adequate to satisfy even their own hearts, much less the demands of GOD
Orion, - In Isaiah 13:10 kesil is translated 'constellations
Caul - In Isaiah 3:18, network for the hair
Let - , "loose;" Isaiah 43:13; Romans 1:13, R
Cockatrice - An old English word of obscure origin, used by our translators to designate the Hebrew Tzepha, or Tsiphoni, a serpent of a highly venomous character, Isaiah 14:29 59:5 Jeremiah 8:17
Nettle - A well known stinging plant, growing in neglected grounds, Isaiah 34:13 Hosea 9:6
Ash - oren ), only in ( Isaiah 44:14 ) As the true ash is not a native of Palestine, some understand this to be a species of pine tree
Fan, - ( Isaiah 30;24 ; Matthew 3:12 ) A large wooden fork is used at the present day
Thorns, Thistles, Etc - chôach ( 2 Kings 14:9 , 2 Chronicles 25:18 , and Job 31:40 ‘thistle’; 2 Chronicles 33:11 , Song of Solomon 2:2 , and Hosea 9:6 ‘thorns’; Isaiah 34:13 AV Refuge - (See Psalm 46:1; Isaiah 25:4). ...
Isaiah 4:6 (a) GOD provides in Himself, and for Himself, all the protection from the storms of life that the believer needs. (See also Isaiah 25:4; Jeremiah 16:19; Hebrews 6:18). ...
Isaiah 28:17 (b) This is a graphic type of the false position taken by sinners who deceive themselves into thinking they are hidden and protected by false teachings, self-deceptions, and godless religions
Nob - A place of this name is mentioned in three passages 1 Samuel 21:1-15 ; 1 Samuel 22:1-23 , Nehemiah 11:33 , Isaiah 10:32 (text not quite certain). In Nehemiah 11:33 and Isaiah 10:32 Nob is closely connected with Anathoth, 2 1 / 2 miles N. Since in Isaiah 10:32 Nob is the last point reached by the Assyrian army and the place from which it threatens Jerusalem, the site is best sought for on an eminence a little N. ’ The name has not survived; and the identification suggested stands or falls with the correctness of the Hebrew text in Isaiah 10:32
Banner, Ensign, Standard - ), Assyrians, and other ancient nations, possessed military ensigns is a safe inference from Numbers 2:2 , but not from the mention of the standard-bearer in Isaiah 10:18 AV Brimstone - נפרית , Genesis 19:24 ; Deuteronomy 29:23 ; Job 18:15 ; Psalms 11:6 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; Isaiah 34:9 ; Ezekiel 38:22 . The Prophet Isaiah, Isaiah 34:9 , writes that the anger of the Lord shall be shown by the streams of the land being turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone
Tabeel - see) and Pekah ( Isaiah 7:6 )
Congregation, Mount of - Babylon's king was so proud he thought he could storm the meeting (Isaiah 14:13 )
Mutter - Muttering together with chirping characterized the speech of mediums (Isaiah 8:19 )
Telassar - Or Thelasar, (Isaiah 37:12 ; 2 Kings 19:12 ), a province in the south-east of Assyria, probably in Babylonia
Stargazers - (Isaiah 47:13 ), those who pretend to tell what will occur by looking upon the stars
Bowels - "My bowels are troubled for him," namely, with tender yearnings of compassionate love (Jeremiah 31:20; Isaiah 63:15; Hosea 11:8; Philippians 2:1)
Bajith - House, probably a city of Moab, which had a celebrated idol-temple (Isaiah 15:2 )
Tartan - (tahr' tan) Title of the highest ranking Assyrian officer under the king; commander in chief; supreme commander (2 Kings 18:17 ; Isaiah 20:1 )
Bulwark - God's salvation is a bulwark for His people (Isaiah 26:1 ; see Psalm 8:2 ; 1 Timothy 3:15 )
Web - (See also Isaiah 59:5-6)
Pilled - PEELED: Isaiah 18:2; stripped, plundered
Memphis - (Isaiah 19:13; Jeremiah 44:1; Jer 46:14; Hosea 9:6) It is derived from Moph, signifying by the mouth
Heph'zi-Bah - ( Isaiah 62:4 ) ...
The queen of King Hezekiah and the mother of Manasseh
Beth-Nimrah - Numbers 32:3,36 ; Joshua 13:27 , and Nimrim, Isaiah 15:6 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ; a town in Gad, a little east of the Jordan, on a watercourse leading, from near Ramoth-Gilead, southwest into that river
Rezeph - A city conquered by the Assyrians, 2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12
Hart - Or STAG, a species of deer, clean by the Levitical law, Deuteronomy 12:15 , and celebrated for its elegance, agility, and grace, Song of Song of Solomon 2:9 Isaiah 35:6
Joyful - Isaiah 61 ...
Rarely, it has of before the cause of joy
Vision - A supernatural presentation of certain scenery or circumstances to the mind of a person either while awake or asleep, Isaiah 6:1-13 Ezekiel 1:1-28 Daniel 8:1-27 Acts 26:13
Sheol - Sheol is pictured as a city with gates (Isaiah 38:10 ), a place of ruins (Ezekiel 26:20 ), or a trap (2 Samuel 22:6 ; Psalm 18:5 ). Sheol is sometimes personified as a hungry beast (Proverbs 27:20 ; Isaiah 5:14 ; Habakkuk 2:5 ) with an open mouth and an insatiable appetite. Various terms are used by English translators to describe the residents of Sheol (Job 26:5 ; Isaiah 14:9 ), including shades (NRSV, REB), spirits of the dead (TEV), or simply, the dead (KJV). Such existence is fittingly described as sleep (Isaiah 14:9 ). For the dead Sheol is a place of pain and distress (Psalm 116:3 ), weakness (Isaiah 14:10 ), helplessness (Psalm 88:4 ); hopelessness (Isaiah 38:10 ), and destruction (Isaiah 38:17 ). Thus kings have thrones (Isaiah 14:9 ); and warriors possess weapons and shields (Ezekiel 32:27 )
Glory - ...
The verb thus often comes to mean, “give weight to, honor” (Exodus 20:12 ; 1 Samuel 15:30 ; Psalm 15:4 ; Proverbs 4:8 ; Isaiah 3:5 ). A nation can have such honor or glory (Isaiah 16:14 ; Isaiah 17:3 ). (Compare Psalm 22:23 ; Psalm 86:12 ; Isaiah 24:15 . ) Human praise to God can be false, not truly recognizing His importance (Isaiah 29:13 ; compare 1 Samuel 2:30 ). He also reveals it in the storms and events of nature (Psalm 29:1 ; compare Isaiah 6:1 ). (Compare Isaiah 58:8 ; Isaiah 60:1
Nation - God loves all nations and desires their good (Isaiah 19:24-25; Amos 9:7; Matthew 28:19; Acts 1:8; Acts 13:47). If they do wrong, they too may fall under God’s judgment (Isaiah 10:5-19; Isaiah 37:23-26; Habakkuk 1:6-7; Habakkuk 2:15-17). God may also use nations as his instruments to bring deliverance and blessing (Isaiah 45:1-5), for he controls the destinies of all nations (Jeremiah 18:7-10; Daniel 4:17). ...
Israelites of Old Testament times made such a clear distinction between themselves and others that their usual word for ‘nations’ (plural) developed the special sense of ‘other nations’ (often translated ‘Gentiles’ or ‘heathen’) (Deuteronomy 18:9; Psalms 2:1; Isaiah 11:10; Isaiah 30:28; Isaiah 36:18; Isaiah 49:22; Jeremiah 10:1-5; Jeremiah 10:10; see GENTILE)
Sheol - No one could avoid Sheol (Psalm 49:9 ; 89:48 ), which was thought to be down in the lowest parts of the earth (Deuteronomy 32:22 ; 1 Samuel 28:11-15 ; Job 26:5 ; Psalm 86:13 ; Isaiah 7:11 ; Ezekiel 31:14-16,18 ). Descriptions are bleak: There is no light (Job 10:21-22 ; 17:13 ; Psalm 88:6,12 ; 143:3 ), no remembrance (Psalm 6:5 ; 88:12 ; Ecclesiastes 9:5 ), no praise of God (Psalm 6:5 ; 30:9 ; 88:10-12 ; 115:17 ; Isaiah 38:18)— ;in fact, no sound at all (Psalm 94:17 ; 115:17 ). Its inhabitants are weak, trembling shades (Job 26:5 ; Psalm 88:10-12 ; Isaiah 14:9-10 ) who can never hope to escape from its gates (Job 10:21 ; 17:13-16 ; Isaiah 38:10 ). Sheol is like a ravenous beast that swallows the living without being sated (Proverbs 1:12 ; 27:20 ; Isaiah 5:14 ). Some thought the dead were cut off from God (Psalm 88:3-5 ; Isaiah 38:11 ); while others believed that God's presence reached even to Sheol (Psalm 139:8 ). ...
Toward the end of the Old Testament, God revealed that there will be a resurrection of the dead (Isaiah 26:19 ). Sheol will devour no longer; instead God will swallow up Death (Isaiah 25:8 )
Oreb - Many of the Midianites perished along with him (Psalm 83:9 ; Isaiah 10:26 )
Esh-Baal - ) Saul's youngest son (1 Chronicles 8:33; 1 Chronicles 9:39); Bosheth ("shame") being substituted for Baal through the believing Israelites' contempt of idols, Ishbosheth is its equivalent (Isaiah 44:9, etc
en-Eglaim - On the confines of Moab, over against Engedi, near where Jordan enters the Dead Sea (Isaiah 15:8)
Rent - (Isaiah 3:24 ), probably a rope, as rendered in the LXX
Worship - Homage rendered to God which it is sinful (idolatry) to render to any created being (Exodus 34:14 ; Isaiah 2:8 )
Garner - To garner (Isaiah 62:9 , NAS, NRSV) means to gather (a crop) for storage
Sea of Jazer - Some commentators use manuscript and Isaiah 16:8 evidence to eliminate “sea of” from the text (NRSV, REB)
Flag - sûph ( Exodus 2:3 ; Exodus 2:6 , Isaiah 19:6 ), sedgy plants by the Nile and its canals
Constellations - It is supposed to mean the same in Isaiah 13:10 , only there it is in the plural
Shinar - A level region of indefinite extent around Babylon and the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, Genesis 10:10 11:2 14:1 Joshua 7:21 Isaiah 11:11 Daniel 1:2 Zechariah 5:11
Cush - Isaiah 18:1 may describe some of the political activity involved in Cush's establishing their power in Egypt. Isaiah promised that people who fled from Judah and were exiled in Cush would see God's deliverance (Isaiah 11:11 ; compare Zephaniah 3:10 ). Isaiah acted out judgment against Cush, probably as the rulers of Egypt (Isaiah 20:3-5 ; compare Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Psalm 68:31 ; Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 30:4-5 ,Ezekiel 30:4-5,30:9 )
Testimony - ...
...
The Scriptures, as the revelation of God's will (2 Kings 11:12 ; Psalm 19:7 ; 119:88 ; Isaiah 8:16,20 )
Impediment in Speech - In Jesus' healing of a man who could “hardly talk” (NIV), the crowds recognized a fulfillment of Isaiah 35:5-6
Sail - Isaiah 33:23 (b) It indicates that Zion had failed to take advantage of GOD's provisions to make progress over the sea of life and the ocean of time
Baal-Hamon - of Samaria (compare Isaiah 28:1; Song of Solomon 8:11)
Tackling - (Isaiah 33:23 ), the ropes attached to the mast of a ship
Ava - It is probably the same with Ivah (18:34; 19:13; Isaiah 37:13 )
Wimple, - an old English word for hood or veil, used in the Authorized Version of (Isaiah 3:22 ) The same Hebrew word is translated "veil" in (Ruth 3:15 ) but it signifies rather a kind of shawl of mantle
Gallim - It is personified, along with Anathoth and other towns, in Isaiah 10:30
Laishah - LAISHAH ( Isaiah 10:30 )
Chaff - It blew away in the wind (Hosea 13:3 ) or was burned up as worthless (Isaiah 5:24 ; Luke 3:17 )
Achim - The name may express the parents' faith that God would in His own time establish Messiah's throne, as Isaiah 9:7 foretold
Sceptre - A "rod" or decorated staff, sometimes six feet long, borne by kings and magistrates as a symbol of authority, Genesis 49:10 Numbers 24:17 Esther 4:11 5:2 Isaiah 14:5 Zechariah 10:11
Nebaioth - A son if Ishmael, Genesis 25:13 , whose posterity, occupied the pasture grounds of Arabia Deserta, Isaiah 60:7 , and ultimately possessed themselves of Edom
Ludim - Descendants of Mizraim, Genesis 10:13 , dwelling in Africa, probably near Ethiopia; they were famous bowmen, Isaiah 66:19 , and are mentioned as soldiers with the Ethiopians, Libyans, and Tyrians, Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 27:10 ; 30:5
Hook - hah, a "ring" inserted in the nostrils of animals to which a cord was fastened for the purpose of restraining them (2 Kings 19:28 ; Isaiah 37:28,29 ; Ezekiel 29:4 ; 38:4 ). Text, 40:25; Isaiah 19:8 ; Habakkuk 1:15 ). ...
...
Mazmeroth, pruning-hooks (Isaiah 2:4 ; Joel 3:10 )
Esarhaddon - ...
There are many references to Esarhaddon in the Bible (2 Kings 19:36-37 ; Ezra 4:2 ; Isaiah 19:4 ; Isaiah 37:37-38 ). In Isaiah 19:4 he is probably the “cruel lord” and “fierce king” who conquered Egypt
Refiner - He who reduced the metal to fluid by heat and solvents, as borax, alkali or lead (Isaiah 1:25; Jeremiah 6:29), to remove the dross. But the fiery ordeal only hardens the reprobate (Jeremiah 5:3; Isaiah 9:10). So the Lord with His elect (Romans 8:29; Job 23:10; Psalms 66:10; Proverbs 17:3; Isaiah 48:10; Hebrews 12:10)
Ahaz - His sixteen-year reign was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah and Micah. Isaiah gave counsel to Ahaz during the Syro-Ephraimitic crisis, when Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, king of Israel, joined forces to attack Jerusalem. Ahaz refused the prophet's advice and appealed for help to Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria (Isaiah 7:1 )
Kedar - This latter supposition appears probable from the manner in which they are mentioned by Isaiah, Isaiah 21:16-17 , who speaks of "the glory of Kedar," and "the archers and mighty men of Kedar. " Their flocks are also spoken of by the same Prophet, Isaiah 60:7 , together with those of Nebaioth, whose tribe or family both shared and outlived the glory of Kedar
Adder - It occurs several times, Proverbs 23:32; Isaiah 11:8; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 59:5; Jeremiah 8:17, but is rendered "adder" in the text only in the first-named place, elsewhere "cockatrice
Ratio - Thus the ratio of 4 to 2 Isaiah 4/2 , or 2 and the ratio of 5 to 6 Isaiah 5/6 . Thus the arithmetical ratio of 2 to 6 Isaiah 4
Watchmen - Jerusalem and other cities had regular guards night and day, Song of Song of Solomon 3:1-3 5:7 , to whose hourly cries Isaiah refers in illustration of the vigilance required by God in his ministers, Isaiah 21:8,11,12 62:6 . Watchmen always had a station at the gate of a city and in the adjacent tower, 2 Samuel 18:24-27 2 Kings 9:27 ; also on hill-tops overlooking a large circuit of terraced vineyards, whence they could "see eye to eye," and "lift up the voice" of warning or of cheer, Isaiah 52:7,8 ; and their responsible office, requiring so much vigilance and fidelity, illustrates that of prophets and ministers, Jeremiah 6:17 Ezekiel 33:1-9 Hebrews 13:17
Graving - pasal points rather to the sculptor's or the carver's art (Isaiah 30:22 ; 40:19 ; 41:7 ; 44:12-15 ). In Exodus 32:4 rendered "graving tool;" and in Isaiah 8:1 , "a pen
Winepress - The wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two receptacles or vats placed at different elevations, in the upper one of which the grapes were trodden, Isaiah 63:3; Lamentations 1:15; Job 24:11, while the lower one received the expressed juice. Isaiah 5:2, margin; Matthew 21:33
Horse - Always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isaiah 28:28 . The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle (Isaiah 30:28 ) and a curb (Psalm 32:9 )
Blind - Blindness denotes ignorance as to spiritual things (Isaiah 6:10 ; 42:18,19 ; Matthew 15:14 ; Ephesians 4:18 ). The opening of the eyes of the blind is peculiar to the Messiah (Isaiah 29:18 )
Issue - KJV term referring to offspring (Genesis 48:6 ; Isaiah 22:24 ; Matthew 22:25 ; compare 2 Kings 20:18 ; Isaiah 39:7 ) or to a bodily discharge
Soothsayer - kosem, a "diviner," as rendered 1 Samuel 6:2 ; rendered "prudent," Isaiah 3:2 ). In Isaiah 2:6 and Micah 5:12 (Heb
Ashes - Sitting down in, or covering one's self with, is the symbol of mourning (Job 2:8; Job 42:6; Esther 4:1; Isaiah 61:3; Matthew 11:21). , tries to feed his soul with what is at once humiliating and unsatisfying, on an idol which ought to have been reduced to ashes, like the rest of the tree of which it is made (Isaiah 44:20)
Isles - Isaiah 42:15, "I will make the rivers islands. " Genesis 10:5, "the isles of the Gentiles" (Psalms 72:10; Isaiah 41:5; Zephaniah 2:11)
Michmas - Isaiah refers to it in connection with the invasion of Sennacherib in the reign of Hezekiah. Isaiah 10:28
Calneh - City in Syria under Israel's control in the days of Amos and Isaiah (around 740 B. Similarly, Isaiah warned Jerusalem that Calno (another spelling of Calneh) was as good as Jerusalem and yet had suffered conquest by Tiglath-Pileser of Assyria in 738
Worm - It is also used in the Bible as a figure of lowliness or weakness (Psalm 22:6 ; Job 17:14 ; Isaiah 41:14 ). Both the Old Testament and the New Testament speak of the place of the ungodly and unbeliever as being that where the worm is always alive and working (Isaiah 66:24 : Mark 9:44 ,Mark 9:44,9:48 )
Bull - (See also Isaiah 34:7). ...
Isaiah 51:20 (a) The type here is used to present the people of Israel who were furious against GOD because He had poured out His wrath upon Jerusalem
Covert - ...
Isaiah 4:6 (b) The term is used to describe the safety and comfort of those who in the day of the Lord's glory and His reign on the earth, will be found among His people and will walk in His fellowship. ...
Isaiah 32:2 (a) We find here a picture of comfort, safety and blessing enjoyed by the one who trusts his life and his soul to the Lord JESUS
Satyr - The word is translated 'satyr' in Isaiah 13:21 ; Isaiah 34:14 , both passages referring to places brought to utter desolation, so that they are inhabited by wild beasts, owls, and perhaps 'wild goats' are intended; or that the desolation would be such that men would shun them as if haunted by unearthly beings
Zoar - Isaiah prophesied that the citizens of Moab would flee to Zoar when destruction would come upon their nation (Isaiah 15:5 ; compare Jeremiah 48:34 )
Devil - He is often called Lucifer which is a Latin translation of "light bearer" found in Isaiah 14:12, and also the accuser of the brethren in (Revelation 12:10), dragon (Revelation 12:9), the devil (Matthew 4:1), the tempter (Matthew 4:3), the accuser (Revelation 12:10), the prince of demons (Luke 11:15), the ruler of this world (John 12:31), See Isaiah 14:12-15 for a description of the fall of the devil
Spark - ...
Isaiah 1:31 (a) Those who make trouble and cause disturbances are represented by this type. ...
Isaiah 50:11 (b) Sparks and the fire are types of the human reasonings, conclusions and theories which men use to light their path on the way to eternity
Potsherd - Isaiah 45:9, i. whatever good one might promise himself from striving with his fellow creature of earth, to strive with one's Maker is suicidal madness (Isaiah 27:4)
Gomorrah - One of the five cities in the vale of Siddim, Genesis 14:1-11; destroyed for its wickedness, Genesis 18:20; Genesis 19:24; Genesis 19:28; made a warning by Moses, Deuteronomy 29:23; Deuteronomy 32:32; referred to by Isaiah 1:9-10; by Jeremiah 23:14; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; by Amos 4:11; by Zephaniah 2:9 : by our Saviour, Matthew 10:15; Mark 6:11, A. ; by Paul, quoting Isaiah, Romans 9:29; by Peter and Jude, 2 Peter 2:6
Antelope - They were hunted and caught with nets (Isaiah 51:20 ). ...
The original NIV read “antelope” in Isaiah 13:14 , but more recent editions read, “gazelle
Asp - (Romans 3:13) But how sweetly doth the prophet Isaiah describe, under the same figure, the application of Christ as a balsam, to cure the envenomed poison, and to render the serpent's bite as harmless. " (Isaiah 11:8)...
Dew - Isaiah speaks of rain as if it were a dew, Isaiah 18:4
Nail - for writing; see (Jeremiah 17:1 ) ...
(a) A nail, (Isaiah 11:7 ) a stake, (Isaiah 33:20 ) also a tent-peg
Bulrush - Or papyrus, a reed growing on the banks of the Nile, in marshy ground, Job 8:11 , to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, Isaiah 35:7 . The stalks are pliable, and capable of being interwoven very closely, as is evident from their being used in the construction of arks, Exodus 2:3,5 ; and also vessels of larger dimensions, Isaiah 18:2
Righteousness - Rectitude, justice, holiness; an essential perfection of God's character, Job 36:3 ; Isaiah 51:5-8 ; John 17:25 ; and of his administration, Genesis 18:25 ; Romans 3:21,22 ; 10:3 . With reference to personal character, righteousness is used both for uprightness between man and man, and for true religion, Genesis 18:23 ; Leviticus 19:15 ; Isaiah 60:17 ; Romans 14:17 ; Ephesians 5:9
Mouth - "The rod of his mouth," Isaiah 11:4 , and the sharp sword, Revelation 1:16 , denote the power of Christ's word to convict, control, and judge; compare Isaiah 49:2 Hebrews 4:12
Eglath-Shelishiyah - EGLATH-SHELISHIYAH occurs in an ancient oracle against Moab, which is quoted in Isaiah 15:5 and Jeremiah 48:34 . ]'>[5] in Isaiah 15:5
Burden - ...
A prophecy of a calamitous or disastrous nature (Isaiah 13:1 ; 17:1 ; Habakkuk 1:1 , etc
Ferry Boat - Floats or rafts for this purpose were in use from remote times (Isaiah 18:2 )
Nisroch - Sennacherib was killed in the temple of this idol ( 2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 )
Cauls - In Isaiah 3:18 this word (Heb
Tin - In Isaiah 1:25 the word "tin" doubtless means a sort of dross
Nisroch - Sennacherib was killed by two of his sons, while he was paying his adorations in the temple of this deity, 2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38
Orator -
The Authorized Version rendering in (Isaiah 3:3 ) for what is literally "skillful in whisper or incantation
Hezekiah - The history of this king is contained in 2 Kings 18:20 , Isaiah 3639-39 , and 2 Chronicles 2932-32 . On the death of Sargon and the accession of his son Sennacherib to the throne of Assyria, Hezekiah refused to pay the tribute which his father had paid, and "rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not," but entered into a league with Egypt (Isaiah 30 ; 31 ; 36:6-9 ). ...
But Sennacherib dealt treacherously with Hezekiah (Isaiah 33:1 ), and a second time within two years invaded his kingdom (2 Kings 18:17 ; 2 Chronicles 32:9 ; Isaiah 36 ). ) ...
The narrative of Hezekiah's sickness and miraculous recovery is found in 2Kings 20:1, 2 Chronicles 32:24 , Isaiah 38:1 . (See Isaiah
Adder - Five times in the Old Testament KJV, and thrice in margin for "cockatrice" (Isaiah 11:8; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 59:5 ). " The Greek basilisk , fierce, deadly; distinct from the "serpent" (Hebrew, nachash ), Isaiah 14:29; oviparous (Isaiah 59:5); subterranean in habits (Isaiah 11:8)
Veil, Vail - In Isaiah 3:22 this word is plural, rendered "wimples;" RSV, "shawls" i. ...
...
Massekah ( Isaiah 25:7 ; in Isaiah 28:20 rendered "covering"). ...
...
Radhidh (Song of Solomon 5:7 , RSV "mantle;" Isaiah 3:23 )
Hand - " It is the symbol of human action (Psalm 9:16 ; Job 9:30 ; Isaiah 1:15 ; 1 Timothy 2:8 ). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence (Psalm 26:6 ; 73:13 ; Matthew 27:24 ), also of sanctification (1 Corinthians 6:11 ; Isaiah 51:16 ; Psalm 24:3,4 ). The hand is frequently mentioned, particularly the right hand, as a symbol of power and strength (Psalm 60:5 ; Isaiah 28:2 ). The hand of God is the symbol of his power: its being upon one denotes favour (Ezra 7:6,28 ; Isaiah 1:25 ; Luke 1:66 , etc
Kedar - In Isaiah ( Isaiah 21:17 ) they are said to produce skilful archers, to live in villages ( Isaiah 42:11 ), and ( Isaiah 60:7 ) to be devoted to sheep-breeding
Chaldea - As a result of this Chaldean domination, the practice arose of using ‘Chaldea’ as a name for the land of Babylon as a whole, and ‘Chaldeans’ as a name for Babylonians in general (Isaiah 13:19; Isaiah 47:1; Isaiah 48:14; Isaiah 48:20; Jeremiah 25:12; Daniel 5:30; Daniel 9:1)
Crescents - Midianites (Judges 8:21 ,Judges 8:21,8:26 ) and unfaithful Israelites (Isaiah 3:18 ) wore them
Consolation of Israel - A name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isaiah 12:1 ; 49:13
Counsellor - Used once of the Messiah (Isaiah 9:6 )
Misgab - In Isaiah 25:12 , the word is rendered "high fort
Bulwarks - Mural towers, bastions, were introduced by king Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:15 ; Zephaniah 1:16 ; Psalm 48:13 ; Isaiah 26:1 )
Arm - It is also used of the omnipotence of God (Exodus 15:16 ; Psalm 89:13 ; 98:1 ; 77:15 ; Isaiah 53:1 ; John 12:38 ; Acts 13:17 ) ...
Bath - "Ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath" (Isaiah 5:10 ) denotes great unproductiveness
Adrammelech - ...
A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38 )
Dross - It is also used to denote the base metal itself, probably before it is smelted, in Isaiah 1:22,25
Round Tires - KJV translation of a Hebrew term which modern translations render as crescent necklaces or ornaments (Isaiah 3:18 )
Dill - Spice cultivated in Israel (Isaiah 28:25-27 )
Besom - Isaiah 14:23 , ‘I will sweep it [1] with the sweeper of destruction
Wing - The word is most often used figuratively: of God's help (Ruth 2:12 ), of God's judgment (Jeremiah 48:40 ), of strength to return from Exile (Isaiah 40:31 )
Nettle - Isaiah 34:13 (b) This is a type of the multitude of little, tiny, sticking, pricking troubles that the Lord would send upon the inhabitants of Idumea because they rejected Him and His Word
Zorah - ...
Judges 11-12) between Zorah and Eshtaol; ; Judges 16:4; Isaiah 5:2; ...
 ...
Anointed - Isaiah 45
Away With - This phrase is used idiomatically with the force of a verb in Isaiah 1:13 ‘the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with,’ i
Pine Tree - This tree is spoken of in Scripture by the Lord himself, as one of the trees which the Lord would take to beautify his sanctuary, (Isaiah 60:13) No doubt, it is figuratively spoken in allusion to believers
Son - of worthlessness, children generally having their father's characteristic; "son of oil," abounding in oil or fruitfulness (Isaiah 5:1 margin)
Purse - (Genesis 42:35; Proverbs 1:14; Isaiah 46:6; John 12:6, glossokomon , literally, a bag for carrying mouthpieces of musical instruments
Rabshakeh - Rabshakeh was sent by Sennacherib, king of Assyria, to summon Hezekiah to surrender Jerusalem, 2 Kings 18:17-18 ; 2 Kings 19:4 ; Isaiah 36
Imman'Uel, - that is, God with us , the title applied by the apostle Matthew to the Messiah, born of the Virgin, ( Matthew 1:23 ; Isaiah 7:14 ) because Jesus was God united with man, and showed that God was dwelling with men
Eden, Children of - The people occupying Bit-Adini ( 2 Kings 19:12 , Isaiah 37:12 : for Ezekiel 27:23 see Canneh)
Fitches or Vetches - Two Hebrew words are translated "fitches," one of which probably means spelt, Ezekiel 4:9 , and the other gith, a plant resembling fennel, and very pungent, Isaiah 28:25
Zichri - He is perhaps the man called "Tabeal's son," Isaiah 8:6 , whom Rezin and Pekah proposed to make king of Judah
Baal-Perazim - Place of breaches, a name given by David to the scene of a battle with the Philistines, 2 Samuel 5:20 ; 1 Chronicles 14:11 ; Isaiah 28:21
Scroll - Isaiah 34
Asp - pethen ), translated ( adder in) ( Psalm 58:4 ; 91:13 ) Probably the Egyptian cobra, a small and very poisonous serpent, a dweller in the holes of walls, (Isaiah 11:8 ) and a snake upon which the serpent-charmers practiced their art
ba'Moth-ba'al - (heights of Baal ), a sanctuary of Baal in the country of Moab ( Joshua 13:17 ) which is probably mentioned in (Numbers 21:19 ) under the shorter form of Bamoth, or Bamoth-in-the-ravine (20), and again in (Isaiah 15:2 )
Carbuncle - The first may he a general term to denote any bright,sparkling gem , ( Isaiah 54:12 ) the second, (Exodus 28:17 ; 39:10 ; Ezekiel 28:13 ) is supposed to be and smaragdus or emerald
Images - , Isaiah 44:13 , Psalms 115:4-8 , Wis 14:15-16 ; Wis 14:20 ). The materials used in idol manufacture were clay ( Wis 15:13 , Bel 7), wood ( Isaiah 44:15 , Wis 13:13 ), silver and gold ( Hosea 8:4 , Daniel 3:1 ). ), and secured from tumbling down ( Isaiah 41:7 , Jeremiah 10:4 ). Refreshments ( Isaiah 65:11 , Jeremiah 7:18 ) and kisses ( Hosea 13:2 , 1 Kings 19:18 ) were offered to them, as well as sacrifice and incense. ancient sculptures, and Isaiah 46:7 , Jeremiah 10:5 )
Eliakim - Hilkiah's son, over Hezekiah's household (Isaiah 36:3). Successor of Shebna, whose deposition for his pride was foretold (Isaiah 22:15-20). Antitypically, "the government shall be upon Messiah's shoulder" (Isaiah 9:6; Isaiah 22:22); He shuts or opens at will the access to the heavenly mansion (Revelation 3:7), He has the keys also of hell (the grave) and death (Revelation 1:18). For the rest of Isaiah's imagery as to Eliakim, (See NAIL; SHEBNA, when degraded, was "scribe" (i. secretary, remembrancer, keeping the king informed on important facts, historiographer) under Eliakim (2 Kings 18:37), who became "treasurer," or as Hebrew coken (Isaiah 22:15) from caakan , "to dwell" means, intimate friend of the king, dwelling on familiar terms, and "steward of the provisions" (compare 1 Chronicles 27:33)
Rezin - ] The two allies besieged Jerusalem, greatly to the alarm of the populace, and Isaiah strove in vain to allay the terror ( Isaiah 7:1-25 ; Isaiah 8:1-22 ; Isaiah 9:1-21 ). It is not quite certain who ‘ the son of Tabeel ’ ( Isaiah 7:6 ) is
Hood - KJV term for one of the items of finery worn by the elite women of Jerusalem (Isaiah 3:23 )
Minish - ]'>[2] introduces it at Isaiah 19:5 , Hosea 8:10 ; but Amer
Nebaioth - KJV used the alternate form Nebajoth as 1 Chronicles 1:29 ; Isaiah 60:7
Wizard - Such an one was forbidden on pain of death to practise his deceptions (Leviticus 19:31 ; 20:6,27 ; 1 Samuel 28:3 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; 19:3 )
Awl - (Compare Psalm 40:6 ; Isaiah 50:5 )
Picture - A sailing craft or vessel (Isaiah 2:16 )
Bucket - The reference is to waterskin held open at the top by a stick in the shape of a cross (Numbers 24:7 ; Isaiah 40:15 )
Shaddai - " Isaiah 13:6 plays on similar sounds, "destruction from the Almighty," shod ("devastating tempest") from Shadday
Anath - Judges 1:33 , Joshua 15:59 , Isaiah 10:30 ); it is found on Egyptian monuments from the 18th dynasty
Fearfulness - Isaiah 33
Shave - Isaiah 7:20 (a) This describes the punishment of Israel when the Assyrians invaded the land
Tablets - In Isaiah 3:20 they are supposed to be receptacles for perfume
Lime - Isaiah 33:12 speaks of the 'burnings of lime;' and in Amos 2:1 judgement is pronounced upon Moab because of having "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime
Nob - A city of priests, in Benjamin, near Jerusalem; its inhabitants were once put to the sword by command of Saul, for their hospitality to David, 1 Samuel 21:2 ; 22:9-23 ; Nehemiah 11:32 ; Isaiah 10:32
Jeshurun - A poetical name of Israel, probably derived from a root meaning to be upright, and applied to the people of God as the objects of his justifying love, which does not "behold iniquity in Jacob," Deuteronomy 32:5 33:5,26 Isaiah 44:2
Mole - A small animal, which burrows obscurely in the ground, Isaiah 2:20
Sihor - In Isaiah 23:3 and Jeremiah 2:18 , this name must necessarily be understood of the Nile
Mattock - (Isaiah 7:25 ) The tool used in Arabia for loosening the ground, described by Neibuhr, answers generally to our mattock or grubbing-axe, i
Isa'Iah, Book of - Chapters 1-5 contain Isaiah's prophecies in the reigns of Uzziah and Jotham, foretelling that the present prosperity of Judah should be destroyed, and that Israel should be brought to desolation. (Isaiah 10:5-12 ) (6) being the most highly-wrought passages in the whole book. (Isaiah 14:3-23 ) is among the most poetical passages in all literature. The last 27 chapters form a separate prophecy, and are supposed by many critics to have been written in the time of the Babylonian captivity, and are therefore ascribed to a "later Isaiah;" but the best reasons are in favor of but one Isaiah. (Isaiah 41:2,3,25 ; 44:28 ; 45:1-4,13 ; 46:11 ; 48:14,15 ) ...
The second section, chs. (Isaiah 49:9-26 ; 51:9-52 ; 12 ; 55:12,13 ; 57:14 ) but in such general terms as admit of being applied to the spiritual and Messianic as well as to the literal restoration. (Matthew 3:3 ; Luke 4:17 ; Acts 8:28 ; Romans 10:16,20 ) (b) The unity of design which connects these last 27 chapters with the preceding; the oneness of diction which pervades the whole book; the peculiar elevation and grandeur of style which characterize the second part as well as the first; the absence of any other name than Isaiah's claiming the authorship; lastly, the Messianic predictions which mark its inspiration and remove the chief ground of objection against its having been written by Isaiah
Dragon - The name of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and ruins (Job 30:29 ; Psalm 44:19 ; Isaiah 13:22 ; 34:13 ; 43:20 ; Jeremiah 10:22 ; Micah 1:8 ; Malachi 1:3 ); probably, as translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q. In Isaiah 51:9 it may denote the crocodile
Enchantments - ...
...
The rendering of the Hebrew Keshaphim , "Muttered spells" or "incantations," rendered "sorceries" in Isaiah 47:9,12 , i. ...
...
Hebrew Heber ( Isaiah 47:9,12 ), "magical spells
Scoffer - The wisdom writers repeatedly warned their students not to become scoffers (Job 11:3 ; Proverbs 9:7-12 ; Proverbs 13:1 ; Proverbs 14:6 ; Proverbs 15:12 ; Proverbs 19:25 ; Proverbs 21:24 ; Proverbs 22:10 ; Proverbs 24:9 ; compare Psalm 1:1 ; Isaiah 28:14 ,Isaiah 28:14,28:22 )
Willow - WILLOW ( ‘ăr âbîm , Leviticus 23:40 , Job 40:22 , Psalms 137:2 , Isaiah 15:7 ; Isaiah 44:4 Bridle - " God's placing a "bridle in the jaws of the people" (Isaiah 30:28 ; 37:29 ) signifies his preventing the Assyrians from carrying out their purpose against Jerusalem. ...
...
Another word, Re'sen , Was employed to represent a halter or bridle-rein, as used Psalm 32:9 ; Isaiah 30:28
Baldness - From natural causes was uncommon (2 Kings 2:23 ; Isaiah 3:24 ). With the Jews artificial baldness was a sign of mourning (Isaiah 22:12 ; Jeremiah 7:29 ; 16:6 ); it also marked the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow (Acts 18:18 ; 21:24 ; Numbers 6:9 )
Imagination - ’ In the case of imagination a bad intention is always present (except Isaiah 26:4 AVm Memphis - " Isaiah 19:13; Jeremiah 2:16; Jeremiah 44:1; Ezekiel 30:13; Ezekiel 30:16. Its overthrow was distinctly predicted by the Hebrew prophets; Isaiah 19:13; Jeremiah 46:19; and it never recovered from the blow inflicted upon it by Cambyses, 525 b
Bozrah - the denunciation in Isaiah 34:6 ; cf. The reference in Isaiah 63:1 to ‘dyed garments’ of Bozrah, and in Micah 2:12 to ‘sheep of Bozrah,’ may indicate the industries for which it was noted
Flax - The stalks were dried on the housetops ( Joshua 2:6 ), and then soaked in water and the fibre combed out ( Isaiah 19:9 RV Arpad - Isaiah mimicked such statements, saying Assyria was only a rod of Yahweh's anger and would soon face punishment for its pride (Isaiah 10:5-19 )
Silence - The prophet Isaiah speaks of it as the waters of Shiloah. (Isaiah 8:6) The name is derived from Shiloah, meaning sent
Captive - When a city was taken by assault, all the men were slain, and the women and children carried away captive and sold as slaves (Isaiah 20 ; 47:3 ; 2 Chronicles 28:9-15 ; Psalm 44:12 ; Joel 3:3 ), and exposed to the most cruel treatment (Nahum 3:10 ; Zechariah 14:2 ; Esther 3:13 ; 2 Kings 8:12 ; Isaiah 13:16,18 )
Ar - Isaiah used a threatening situation in Ar to announce a time when Moab would seek protection from Judah (Isaiah 15:1 )
Galilee - Isaiah, speaking of the gospel, ages before Christ came, pointed to this memorable spot, as comprehensive of all blessings in the advent of Jesus; and Matthew made application of the prophet's words to Christ. " (Isaiah 9:1-2; Matthew 4:15-16)...
Leviathan - " In Hebrew the word livya-than is found only in Job 3:8; Job 41:1; Psalms 74:14; Psalms 104:26; Isaiah 27:1. In Psalms 104:26 the name represents some animal of the whale tribe in the Mediterranean; but it is uncertain what animal is intended in Isaiah 27:1
Pipe - A musical wind instrument, consisting of a tube with holes, like a flute or clarinet, 1 Samuel 10:5 1 Kings 1:40 Isaiah 5:12 30:29 Jeremiah 48:36 Matthew 9:23 . This was the first time we had seen any marks of joy in the land, for certainly all joy in darkened, the mirth of the land is gone,'" Isaiah 24:11
Dial - DIAL ( 2 Kings 20:11 , Isaiah 38:8 ). word commonly denotes ‘steps’ (see Exodus 20:26 , 1 Kings 10:20 ), and is so rendered elsewhere in this narrative ( 2 Kings 20:9-11 , Isaiah 38:8 ; AV Peace - ...
Wide-ranging blessings...
According to the Hebrews’ understanding, peace was a state of well-being that included good health, prosperity, contentment, security and harmonious relationships (Psalms 29:11; Psalms 37:37; Psalms 85:8-9; Isaiah 26:1-4; Isaiah 32:17-18; Isaiah 60:17; Lamentations 3:17; Zechariah 6:13; Zechariah 8:12; Luke 11:21; 1 Corinthians 14:33; Ephesians 4:3). ...
Since peace was often linked with the blessing of God, it became linked also with God’s salvation (Isaiah 26:11-13; Luke 1:79; Luke 19:42; Acts 10:36; Romans 5:1; Romans 16:20). But there could be no salvation, no peace, for the wicked (Isaiah 48:22). After the years of exile in Babylon, however, the good news of peace would prepare a repentant people for salvation from captivity and return to their homeland (Isaiah 52:7-10; cf. ...
Peace with God through Jesus Christ...
No matter what expressions of salvation people of Old Testament times experienced, the fulness of salvation awaited the coming of Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6; Luke 1:79). The peace he brought is an everlasting peace (Luke 2:14John 14:27 16:33Isaiah 9:7; Isaiah 65:17-25; Revelation 21:1-5; Revelation 21:22-24). He bore God’s judgment on sin, so that the divine hostility against sin might be removed and repentant sinners might have peace with God (Isaiah 53:5-6; Romans 5:1-2; Colossians 1:20-22; see PROPITIATION)
Reed -
"Paper reeds" (Isaiah 19:7 ; RSV, "reeds"). kaneh (1 Kings 14:15 ; Job 40:21 ; Isaiah 19:6 ), whence the Gr. ...
A "bruised reed" (Isaiah 42:3 ; Matthew 12:20 ) is an emblem of a believer weak in grace
Oil - Isaiah 1:6; Hosea 12:1; Mark 6:13; James 5:14-15. The use of oil is significant of gladness, Psalms 141:5; Isaiah 61:3, and the omission of it betokened sorrow. Psalms 45:7; Zechariah 4:14; Isaiah 61:1; 1 John 2:20
Glory - ...
...
Splendour, brightness, majesty (Genesis 45:13 ; Isaiah 4:5 ; Acts 22:11 ; 2 co 3:7 ); of Jehovah (Isaiah 59:19 ; 60:1 ; Isaiah 40:5 ; Acts 7:2 ; Romans 1:23 ; 9:23 ; Ephesians 1:12 )
Root - Exile is termed being uprooted (1 Kings 14:15 ; Jeremiah 24:6 ), while taking root again pictures return from Exile and the renewal of God's blessing (2 Kings 19:30 ; Isaiah 27:6 ; Isaiah 37:31 ). Root of Jesse (Isaiah 11:10 ; Romans 15:12 ) and root of David (Revelation 5:5 ; Revelation 22:16 ) serve as titles of the Messiah
Dial - ma'alot , "degrees" or "steps" (Isaiah 38:8). ...
The dial was of such a size and so placed that Hezekiah, when convalescent, could witness the miracle from his chamber; probably "in the middle court," the point where Isaiah turned back to announce to Hezekiah God's answer to his prayer (2 Kings 20:4; 2 Kings 20:9; Isaiah 38:21-22)
Regeneration - Nations and society shall be first regenerated in the millennial world, with Israel as their priest-kingly head (Isaiah 2:2-4; Isaiah 2:11); wars shall cease, and even the wild beasts cease to rage. ) (Revelation 20; Isaiah 65:16-25)
Grass - ]'>[2] ‘hay’ in Proverbs 27:25 , Isaiah 15:6 , and in Numbers 11:5 ‘leeks’; refers to herbage in general. ]'>[3] dethe ), Jeremiah 14:5 , Proverbs 27:25 , Job 38:27 , Isaiah 66:14 (‘pasture land’), Daniel 4:15 ; Daniel 4:23 (‘tender grass’). Hence grass is in the OT a frequent symbol of the shortness of human life ( Psalms 90:5-7 ; Psalms 103:15 , Isaiah 40:6 ; cf
Mouth - Anthropomorphic descriptions of the earth or Sheol speak of them opening their mouths to drink blood or swallow persons (Genesis 4:11 ; Numbers 16:30 ,Numbers 16:30,16:32 ; Isaiah 5:14 ). The phrase “the mouth of the Lord has spoken it” serves as a frequent reminder of the reliability of a prophetic message (Isaiah 1:20 ; Isaiah 40:5 ; Jeremiah 9:12 ; compare Deuteronomy 8:3 ; Matthew 4:4 )
Flower - ...
Isaiah 18:5 (a) In this way GOD describes the destruction of Egypt in her industries and in her efforts to build up a world-wide power. ...
Isaiah 28:1-4 (a) This is a promise from GOD that He will destroy the beauty of Israel, the cities, villages, valleys and fields because of their evil doings. ...
Isaiah 40:6-8 (a) This word is used to describe man's best works, and his greatest achievements
Dumb - Isaiah 35:6 (a) Israel has no song while they are scattered over the world, and are subject to the rule of other nations. ...
Isaiah 53:7 (a) The Lord JESUS standing before His accusers would not reply to their accusations, for He was taking our place, He was our substitute. ...
Isaiah 56:10 (a) False leaders of GOD's people are described as dogs
Behold - (Isaiah 42:1; Zechariah 3:8; Malachi 3:1) Sometimes, the word is used as a note of admiration, as when Jesus speaks of the loveliness of his church, (Song of Song of Solomon 1:15) or when the angels announced the birth of Christ. (Isaiah 7:14) It is sometimes used to express joy and gladness, as when Jesus calls upon his church to behold him, "Behold me! behold me!" (Isaiah 65:1; Matthew 21:5; John 12:15) And sometimes the word is used by way of confirmation to the word spoken
Acceptable Year of the Lord - The Lord Jesus at the beginning of His ministry entered into the synagogue at Nazareth, and on the prophecy by Isaiah being handed to Him read from Isaiah 61 , the passage, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord " — leaving off in the middle of a sentence, for the next words are, "and the day of vengeance of our God" Luke 4:18,19 ; Isaiah 61:1,2
Jotham - The prophets Hosea, Isaiah and Micah denounced the social and religious evils of the self-satisfied people (Isaiah 1:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1). (For details of social conditions in Judah during the reign of Jotham see Isaiah; MICAH
Remnant - ...
The remnant doctrine was so important to Isaiah that he named one of his sons Shear-Jashub, meaning “A Remnant Shall Return” (Isaiah 7:3 ). The faithful would survive the onslaughts of the Assyrian army (Isaiah 4:2-6 ; Isaiah 12:1-6 ) as illustrated by the remarkable deliverance of the few people in Jerusalem from the seige of the city by the Assyrians (Isaiah 36-38 ). ...
Many remnant passages are closely tied with the future king, the Messiah, who would be the majestic ruler of those who seek his mercies (Isaiah 9:1-7 ; Isaiah 11:1-16 ; Isaiah 32:1-8 ; Isaiah 33:17-24 ). Other passages looked to the generation of Isaiah's day to provide the remnant. This remnant would be personified in the Suffering Servant (Isaiah 53:1 ). ...
Amos, Hosea, Micah, and Isaiah thus raised a chorus. An important segment of the remnant would be those who were afflicted (Isaiah 14:32 ). ...
In the New Testament, Paul quoted (Romans 9:25-33 ) from Hosea and from Isaiah to demonstrate that the saving of a remnant from among the Jewish people was still part of the Lord's method of redeeming His people
Sela - In three or four passages ( Judges 1:36 , 2 Kings 14:7 , Isaiah 16:1-14 :l, and, according to some, Isaiah 42:11 ) the word appears to be a proper name. Such a site would also satisfy the requirements of 2 Kings 14:7 and Isaiah 16:1 . Joktheel) and Isaiah 16:1 is, as RVm Worm - sâs , Isaiah 51:6 (cf. rimmâh ( Exodus 16:24 , Job 25:6 , Isaiah 14:11 ). tôlâ ‘, tôlç‘âh ’ or tôla‘ath ( Exodus 16:20 , Job 25:6 , Isaiah 14:11 ; Isaiah 66:24 , Jonah 4:7 etc
Lamb - The sacrificial type of the Lamb of God, therefore the most frequent victim (Isaiah 53:7; John 1:29; taleh ; Isaiah 65:25, "a sucking lamb," 1 Samuel 7:9, from whence comes the Aramaic talitha , "maid," Mark 5:41). This arnion being a diminutive expresses "endearment", namely, the endearing relation in which Jesus, now glorified, stands to us as the consequence of His previous relation as the sacrificed amnos on earth; so also our relation to Him, He the "precious Lamb," we one with Him and His dear lambs (Isaiah 40:11). Κar , "the wether": Mesha of Moab paid 100,000 as tribute to Israel (Isaiah 16:1; 2 Kings 3:4)
Cities of Refuge - Shechem ("shoulder," upon Jesus' shoulder the government is, Isaiah 9:6), now Nablous. Bezer, perhaps Bozor in the Book of Maccabees ("fortress," so is Jesus, Isaiah 32:2; Isaiah 26:1; Isaiah 26:4)
Vision - The vision of prophets such as Isaiah, Amos, Hosea, Micah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and John are representative of this aspect of revelation. In 2 Samuel 7:17 ; Isaiah 22:1 ,Isaiah 22:1,22:5 ; Joel 3:1 ; and Zechariah 13:4 , the Hebrew word refers to the prophetic function of receiving and delivering the word of God by the prophet. ...
Among the classical prophets (Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Obadiah, etc
Lamb of God - Acts 8:32-35 identifies Jesus as the servant of God whom Isaiah described as one “brought as a lamb to the slaughter” ( Isaiah 53:7 ), who “bare the sin of many” (Isaiah 53:12 ), and who was an offering for sin (Isaiah 53:10 )
Oak - , take their name hence; so for "teil tree" (Isaiah 6:13; Isaiah 1:29), and for "elms" (Hosea 4:13), eelah ; allon is the "oaks"; also eelon is "the oak. Hooker conjectures the two aegilops to represent the "oaks of Bashan" (Isaiah 2:13). Idolaters sacrificed under oaks (Isaiah 1:29)
Leopard - נמר Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Isaiah 11:6 ; Jeremiah 5:6 ; Jeremiah 13:23 ; Hosea 13:7 ; Habakkuk 1:8 ; Daniel 7:6 ; παρδαλις , Revelation 13:2 ; Sir_28:23 . Probably, these animals were numerous in Palestine; as we find places with a name intimating their having been the haunts of leopards: Nimrah, Numbers 32:3 ; Beth-Nimrah, Numbers 32:36 ; Joshua 13:27 ; and "waters of Nimrim," Isaiah 15:6 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ; and "mountains of leopards," Song of Solomon 4:8 . ...
Isaiah, describing the happy state of the reign of Messiah, says, "The leopard shall lie down with the kid," Isaiah 11:6
Firebrand - Isaiah 7:4 , Amos 4:11 , Zechariah 3:2 , denotes the burnt end of a stick (Heb
Ar - Called also Rabbah and Rabbath-Moab, Numbers 21:28 Deuteronomy 2:1-37 Isaiah 15:1
Astrologer - It was positively forbidden to the Jews (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 18:10 ; Isaiah 47:13 )
Hoof - A cleft hoof as of neat cattle (Exodus 10:26 ; Ezekiel 32:13 ); hence also of the horse, though not cloven (Isaiah 5:28 )
Blot - To blot out sin is to forgive it (Psalm 51:1,9 ; Isaiah 44:22 ; Acts 3:19 )
Bondage - This word is used also with reference to the captivity in Babylon (Isaiah 14:3 ), and the oppression of the Persian king (Ezra 9:8,9 )
Basilisk - (In RSV, Isaiah 11:8 ; 14:29 ; 59:5 ; Jeremiah 8:17 ), the "king serpent," as the name imports; a fabulous serpent said to be three spans long, with a spot on its head like a crown
Fuller's Field - A spot near Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17 ; Isaiah 36:2 ; 7:3 ), on the side of the highway west of the city, not far distant from the "upper pool" at the head of the valley of Hinnom
Jackdaw - Black and grey bird (Corvus monedula ) related to but smaller than the common crow (Isaiah 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 , NAS margin)
Acre - It is about an acre of our measure (Isaiah 5:10 ; 1 Samuel 14:14 )
Dedanim - They are mentioned in Isaiah 21:13 as sending out "travelling companies" which lodged "in the forest of Arabia
Eglaim - ” Place in Moab used by Isaiah to describe far limits of Moab's distress
Pul - The Hebrew Pul in Isaiah 66:19 is likely a textual corruption of Put...
...
Bats - According to Isaiah 2:20 , they are creatures found in dark caves where idols were to be thrown
Plumbline - (See also Isaiah 28:17)
Ahimelech - The Hittite who, with Abishai, was asked by David: "Who will go down with me to Saul to the camp?" He lost a precious opportunity of serving the king (Isaiah 6:8); Abishai alone volunteered (1 Samuel 26:6)
Gold - It was one of the gifts of the Magi to the Infant Jesus (Matthew 2) offered to Him as symbol of His kingship; a symbol of purity (Job 23), and great value (Isaiah 13)
Besom - Isaiah 14 ...
BE'SOM, To sweep, as with a besom
Sinim - Isaiah 49:12 , a people very remote from the Holy Land, towards the east or south; generally believed to mean the Chinese, who have been known to Western Asia from early times, and are called by the Arabs Sin, and by the Syrians Tsini
Pathros - The NIV translates the term; other translations transliterate (Isaiah 11:11 ; Jeremiah 44:1 ,Jeremiah 44:1,44:15 ; Ezekiel 29:14 ; Ezekiel 30:14 )
Eliakim - An officer of king Hezekiah's court, appointed with others to treat with Rabshakeh, general of the Assyrian forces them besieging Jerusalem, 2 Kings 18:1-19:37 Isaiah 36:22
Tires - Or "little moons," are thought to have been ornaments of the neck, worn not by women only, Isaiah 3:18 , but by men, and even on the necks of camels, Judges 8:21,26
Merodach - The names of Babylonish kings were also sometimes compounded with this name, as Evil-Merodach and Merodach-Baladan, Isaiah 39:1 , who is also called Berodach-Baladan in 2 Kings 20:12
Tema - It is associated with Dedan, Isaiah 21:14 ; Jeremiah 25:23 , and was famous for its caravans, Job 6:19
Earing - Thus, in Isaiah 30:24 , it is said, "The oxen also, and the young asses which ear," that is, "plough, the ground
Siren - An animal resembling a jackal, mentioned in the Bible (Isaiah 13); the passage indicates an animal dwelling in ruins
Immanuel - In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isaiah 7:14,8:8
Vision - The earlier prophets had already attained to the idea of vision as inspired insight, of revelation as an inward and ethical word of God ( Isaiah 1:1 ; Isaiah 2:1 etc. Isaiah 6:5 , Jeremiah 1:6 , Ezekiel 3:12-16 ). Ecstasies and visual appearances are the exception ( Amos 7:1-9 ; Amos 8:1 , Isaiah 6:1-13 , Jeremiah 1:11-13 ). In Isaiah 22:1 ; Isaiah 22:5 gç’ hizzâyôn ‘ valley of vision ’ (EV Persia - At times the Bible makes a distinction between Elamites and Persians (Ezra 4:9), but usually Elam is simply another name for Persia (Isaiah 11:11; Isaiah 21:2; Jeremiah 25:25; Jeremiah 49:35-39). The greatest victory for the Medo-Persian army came in 539 BC, when it conquered Babylon and Cyrus became undisputed ruler of the region (Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:1-10; Isaiah 44:28; Ezra 5:3-171; Jeremiah 51:11; Jeremiah 51:28; Daniel 5:30-31; Daniel 8:20; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 10:1)
Names Titles And Offices of Christ - ...
Emmanuel, Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:23. ...
Everlasting father, Isaiah 9:6. ...
God, Isaiah 40:9; John 20:28; 1 John 5:20. Jehovah, Isaiah 26:4. ...
Mighty One of Jacob, Isaiah 60:16. ...
Prince of peace, Isaiah 9:6. ...
Redeemer, Job 19:25; Isaiah 59:20. ...
Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Isaiah 9:6
Rock - The rocks named in OT are Oreb ( Judges 7:25 , Isaiah 10:26 ), Etam ( Judges 15:8 ), Rimmon ( Judges 20:45 ; Judges 21:13 ), the crags Bozez and Seneh ( 1 Samuel 14:4 ), Sela-hammahlekoth ( 1 Samuel 23:28 ). In 2 Kings 14:7 , Isaiah 16:1 ; Isaiah 42:11 ‘the Rock’ (RV Prophet - Asaph and Jeduthun are called so (1 Chronicles 29:30; 1 Chronicles 35:15); also Amos 7:12; also Isaiah 7:14-16. Chozeh "the gazer" upon the spiritual world (Isaiah 8:3-12), "Samuel the seer (roeh ), Nathan the prophet (nabi ), Gad the gazer" (chozeh ). The New Testament prophet (Isaiah 44:7-86) made new revelations and preached under the extraordinary power of the Holy Spirit "the word of wisdom" (1 Corinthians 12:8), i. The prophets were Jehovah's remembrancers, pleading for or against the people: so Elijah (1 Kings 17; 1 Kings 18:36-37; Romans 11:2-3; James 5:16; James 5:18; Isaiah 58:3-77). There are two periods: the Assyrian, wherein Isaiah is the prominent prophet; and the Chaldaean, wherein Jeremiah takes the lead. Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings were "the former prophets"; Isaiah to Malachi "the latter prophets. So Jehovah in the Old Testament (Isaiah 41:21-23; Isaiah 43:9; Isaiah 43:11-12; 1619110986_76. Thus Isaiah announces the name of Cyrus ages before his appearance; so as to Josiah, 1 Kings 13:2. A "father" or "master" presided (2 Kings 2:3; 1 Samuel 10:12), who was "anointed" to the office (1 Kings 19:16; Isaiah 61:1; Psalms 105:15). " The law was their chief study, it being what they were to teach, Not that they were in antagonism to the priests whose duty it had been to teach the law; they reprove bad priests, not to set aside but to reform and restore the priesthood as it ought to be (Isaiah 24:2; Isaiah 28:7; Malachi 2:1; Malachi 1:14); they supplemented the work of the priests. Sacred songs occur in the prophets (Isaiah 12:1; Isaiah 26:1; Jonah 2:2; Habakkuk 3:2). The dress, like that of the modern dervish, was a hairy garment with leather girdle (Isaiah 20:2; Zechariah 13:4; Matthew 3:4). The college training was but a preparation, then in the case of the few followed God's exclusive work: Exodus 3:2, Moses; 1 Samuel 3:10, Samuel; Isaiah, Isaiah 6:8; Jeremiah, Jeremiah 1:5; Ezekiel. ...
Each fresh utterance was by "vision" (Isaiah 6:1) or by "the word of Jehovah" (Jeremiah 2:1). The prophets so commissioned were the national poets (so David the psalmist was also a prophet, Acts 2:30), annalists (2 Chronicles 32:32), theocratic patriots (Psalm 48; Isaiah 8:16), promoters of spiritual religion (Isaiah 1), extraordinarily authorized expounders of the spirit of the law (1619110986_46; Ezekiel 18; Micah 6:6-8; Hosea 6:6; Amos 5:21) which so many sacrificed to the letter, official pastors, and a religious counterpoise to kingly despotism and idolatry, as Elijah was to Ahab. Their utterances being continued at intervals throughout their lives (as Isaiah in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah) show that they did not earn their reputation as prophets by some one happy guess or oracle, but maintained their prophetical character continuously; which excludes the probability of imposture, time often detecting fraud. Above all, the prophets by God's inspiration foretold concerning Jesus the Messiah (Matthew 1:22-23 with Isaiah 7:4; Isaiah 8:8). Christ appeals to the prophets as fulfilled in Himself: Matthew 13:14 (Isaiah 6:9), Matthew 15:7 (Isaiah 29:13), John 5:46; Luke 24:44. Matthew (Matthew 3:3) quotes Isaiah 40:3 as fulfilled in John the Baptist; so Matthew 4:13-15 with Isaiah 9:1-2; Matthew 8:17 with Isaiah 53:4; Matthew 12:17 with Isaiah 42:1. Thus the foretold deliverance from Babylon by Cyrus foreshadows the greater deliverance from the antitypical Babylon by Cyrus' Antitype, Messiah (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-5; Isaiah 45:13; Isaiah 45:22-25; Jeremiah 51:6-10; Jeremiah 51:25; compare Revelation 18:4; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 14:8; Revelation 8:8). ...
So the prophet Isaiah's son is the sign of the immediate deliverance of Judah from Rezin and Pekah; but language is used which could not have applied to him, and can only find its full and exhaustive accomplishment in the antitypical Immanuel (2 Chronicles 33:18; 1 Chronicles 29:9; Isaiah 8:18; Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 8:20). The prophets did net generally speak in ecstatic unconsciousness, but with self possession, for "the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets" (1 Corinthians 14:32); but sometimes they did (Genesis 15; Daniel 7; Daniel 8; Daniel 10; Daniel 11; Daniel 12, "the visions of Daniel"); "the vision of Isaiah" (Isaiah 6); "the vision of Ezekiel" (Ezekiel 1); "the visions of Zechariah" (Zechariah 1; Zechariah 4; Zechariah 5; Zechariah 6); the vision of Peter (Acts 10); of Paul (Acts 22:17; Acts 22:2 Corinthians 12); Job ( Watchtower - The person doing the watching may be a soldier or a servant (2 Kings 9:17 ; Isaiah 5:2 ; Mark 12:1 )
Howling Creatures - The identity of the “howling creature” (NRSV) of Isaiah 13:21 is disputed
Boil - (Rendered "botch" in Deuteronomy 28:27,35 ), an aggravated ulcer, as in the case of Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:7 ; Isaiah 38:21 ) or of the Egyptians (Exodus 9:9,10,11 ; Deuteronomy 28:27,35 )
Perfumes - Were used in religious worship, and for personal and domestic enjoyment (Exodus 30:35-37 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Isaiah 57:9 ); and also in embalming the dead, and in other funeral ceremonies (Mark 14:8 ; Luke 24:1 ; John 19:39 )
Solemn Meeting - (Isaiah 1:13 ), the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:36 ; Numbers 29:35 , RSV, "solemn assembly;" marg
Baal-Perazim - Called Mount Perazim (Isaiah 28:21 )
Fan - Shovels were also used for this purpose (Isaiah 30:24 )
Shinar - Its chief towns were Babel, Erech and Accad, and its most famous warrior was Nimrod (Genesis 10:9-10; Genesis 11:1-9; Genesis 14:1; Isaiah 11:11; Daniel 1:2)
Tubal - (tyoo' buhl) Son of Jepheth (Genesis 10:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:5 ) and ancestor of a people, known for their metalworking ability, likely of Cappadocia or Cilicia in Asia Minor (Isaiah 66:19 ; Ezekiel 27:13 ; Ezekiel 32:26 ; Ezekiel 38:2-3 ; Ezekiel 39:1 )
Pitch - Mineral pitch occurs naturally and is highly flammable (Isaiah 34:9 )
Hedge - (1) mesûkah , a thorn hedge ( Isaiah 5:5 )
Gin - With the exception of Amos 3:5 , all scriptural uses are figurative, either of the fate of the wicked (Job 18:9 ; Isaiah 8:14 ) or of the schemes of the wicked (Psalm 140:5 ; Psalm 141:9 )
Transcendence - He is independent and different from His creatures (Isaiah 55:8-9)
Charmer - In Deuteronomy 18:11 ; Isaiah 19:3 it is associated with idolatry and sorcerers: these also carry on their incantations with low mutterings
Collar - ' The same word is translated 'chains' in Isaiah 3:19
Drought - ...
Isaiah 58:11 (b) This shows a condition which sometimes exists in a Christian's life whenever things around him are discouraging and the outlook is dark
Mufflers - Mentioned among the women's ornaments in Isaiah 3:19
Gebim - of Jerusalem ( Isaiah 10:31 only)
Shibmah - Famous for its vines (Isaiah 16:8-9)
Cart - a machine used in Palestine to force the corn out of the ear, and bruise the straw, Isaiah 28:27-28
Emmanuel - It is applied to the Messiah, our Savior, who, as having united the divine with the human nature, and having come to dwell with men, is God with us, Isaiah 7:14 ; 8:8 ; Matthew 1:23
Bulls - They are symbols of powerful, fierce, and numerous foes, Psalm 22:12 68:30 Isaiah 34:7
Tin - In Isaiah 1:25 it means the alloy of lead, tin, and other base admixtures in silver ore, separated from the pure silver by smelting
lu'Hith - (made of tables or boards ), The ascent of, a place in Moab, occurs only in ( Isaiah 15:5 ) and the parallel passage of Jeremiah
Ear-Ring - In Isaiah 3:20 the allusion is not to a ring for the ear, but to an amulet on which a charm could be written
Impediment - , Isaiah 35:6 "(the tongue) of stammerers
Kedar - The people of Kedar lived in tents, kept flocks of sheep and goats, and dealt shrewdly in various trading activities (Psalms 120:5; Isaiah 60:7; Jeremiah 49:28-29; Ezekiel 27:21; see ARABIA)
Swallow - sis (Isaiah 38:14 ; Jeremiah 8:7 ), the Arabic for the swift, which "is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring, and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land, and fill the air with their shrill cry. In Isaiah 38:14 and Jeremiah 8:7 the word thus rendered ('augr) properly means "crane" (as in the RSV)
Sharon, Plain of - Isaiah 35:2 parallels Sharon with Lebanon, which was known for its trees. Isaiah 65:10 speaks of the area as an excellent pasture for flocks, symbolic of the peace that God would one day grant to His people
Egg - Eggs deserted (Isaiah 10:14 ), of a bird (Deuteronomy 22:6 ), an ostrich (Job 39:14 ), the cockatrice (Isaiah 59:5 )
Winds - The east wind was parching (Ezekiel 17:10 ; 19:12 ), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a strong wind (Job 27:21 ; Isaiah 27:8 ). The rush of invaders is figuratively spoken of as a whirlwind (Isaiah 21:1 ); a commotion among the nations of the world as a striving of the four winds (Daniel 7:2 )
Dimon - ” City in Moab on which Isaiah announced judgment (Isaiah 15:9 )
Dumah - Isaiah proclaimed an oracle against Dumah (Isaiah 21:11 )
Mattock - The mattock of Isaiah 7:25 is rather the hoe with which land inaccessible to the plough was hoed noun and verb being the same here, cf. Isaiah 5:6 RV Mizraim - In 2 Kings 19:24 ; Isaiah 37:25 it is 'besieged places;' in Isaiah 19:6 , 'defence;' and in Jeremiah 10:17 , 'fortress
Charmer - In Isaiah 19:3 the word "charmers" is the rendering of the Hebrew 'Ittim , Meaning, properly, necromancers (RSV marg. In Isaiah 3:3 the words "eloquent orator" should be, as in the Revised Version, "skilful enchanter
Hart - ...
Isaiah 35:6 (a) Isaiah uses this type to show the great grace and power of GOD in making a poor, lost, helpless sinner to rejoice in a new-found Saviour, and in His forgiveness
Sela, Selah - 2 Kings 14:7 ; Isaiah 16:1 . It is judged to be the same as PETRA (which occurs in the margin of Isaiah 16:1 )
Extortion - Isaiah (Isaiah 16:4) had predicted the cessation of the extortioner as one of the signs of the Messianic reign
Spider - עכביש , Job 8:14 ; Isaiah 59:5 . " ...
So Isaiah says, "They weave the web of the spider; of their webs no garment shall be made; neither shall they cover themselves with their works
Plumbline, Plummet - The Hebrew plummet ( 2 Kings 21:13 , Isaiah 28:17 ) more probably consisted of a stone ( Isaiah 34:11 AV Dove - The dove's rapidity of flight is alluded to in (Psalm 55:6 ) the beauty of its plumage in (Psalm 68:13 ) its dwelling int he rocks and valleys in (Jeremiah 48:28 ) and Ezekiel 7:16 Its mournful voice in ( Isaiah 38:14 ; 59:11 ; Nahum 2:7 ) its harmlessness in (Matthew 10:16 ) its simplicity in (Hosea 7:11 ) and its amativeness in (Song of Solomon 1:15 ; 2:14 ) Doves are kept in a domesticated state in many parts of the East. There is probably an allusion to such a custom in (Isaiah 60:8 )
Crown - One was the crown worn by a king, and as such was a sign of royalty and glory (Psalms 21:1-3; Isaiah 28:5; Isaiah 62:3; John 19:2-3; Revelation 19:11-16)
Servant of the Lord - Individuals such as Abraham (Genesis 26:24 ), Moses (Exodus 14:31 ; Deuteronomy 34:5 ), David (2 Samuel 7:5,8 ), and Isaiah (20:3) were called God's "servants" as they obediently walked with the Lord. In the last half of Isaiah, scholars have identified four servant songs that describe the accomplishments and suffering of one called the servant of the Lord (42:1-7; 49:1-6; 50:4-11; 52:13-53:12). Possibly Isaiah 61:1-3 contains yet another servant song. Although Isaiah sometimes refers to the servant as "Israel, " New Testament quotations and allusions clearly relate the ministry of the servant to the first coming of Christ and his atoning death. The longest quotation is found in Matthew 12:18-21 , which cites almost all of Isaiah 42:1-4 in connection with Christ's healing of the sick. Matthew 8:17 also refers to Christ's ability to heal the sick and drive out evil spirits as a fulfillment of Isaiah 53:4 : "He took up our infirmities and carried our diseases. " Paul quotes Isaiah 52:15 in connection with his mission to preach the gospel to the Gentiles ( Romans 15:21 ), and both Paul and John cite 53:1 with reference to Jewish unbelief (Romans 10:16 ; John 12:38 ). Paul also utilized Isaiah 49:6 as his preaching became "a light for the Gentiles" ( Acts 13:47 ). Of the Gospel writers only Luke uses Isaiah 53 in speaking of Christ's suffering and death: "And he was numbered with the transgressors" (53:12; Luke 22:37 ). It was also Luke who related Philip's encounter with the Ethiopian eunuch, who was reading Isaiah 53:6-7 ( Acts 8:32-33 ). ...
While encouraging believers who were suffering, Peter cites several verses from Isaiah 53 . We have been healed by the wounds Christ suffered on our behalf as the good Shepherd gave his life to rescue the straying sheep (Isaiah 53:5-6 ; 1 Peter 2:25 ). Twice Christ is called the "Righteous One, " perhaps an allusion to the "righteous servant" of Isaiah 53:11 ( Acts 3:14 ; 7:52 ). Paul's reference to Christ's being raised for our justification reflects the Greek translation of Isaiah 53:11 ( Romans 4:25 ), and the same verse may have affected the wording of "the many will be made righteous" (Romans 5:19 ). Mark's key reference to the Son of Man as a servant who gave his life "as a ransom for many" (10:45) may also stem from Isaiah 53 . Wolf...
See also Isaiah, Theology of ; Jesus Christ ; Messiah ...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
Bibliography. North, The Suffering Servant in Deutero-Isaiah ; H. Wolf, Interpreting Isaiah ; W
Dayspring - ’ In LXX Septuagint ἀνατολή occurs for the rising of the moon (Isaiah 60:19). Light frequently stands for salvation and deliverance (Isaiah 58:10; Isaiah 60:1, Malachi 4:2, Luke 2:32), and was specially applied to the Messiah, cf. Isaiah 11:1). Bleek wishes to combine the two meanings by supposing a play of words on the sprouting branch and the rising star; no Hebrew word will bear the double meaning, but LXX Septuagint comes near identifying this Messianic name with the appearance of light when it renders Isaiah 4:2 (‘in that day shall the branch (צמַח) of the Lord be beautiful and glorious’) by ἑτιλάμψει ὁ θεὸς ἑν βουλῇ μετἁ δοξης. its use for ננַהּ ‘brightness’ (Isaiah 60:19), and in one MS, Qmg, for וָרַח ‘rising’ (Isaiah 60:3)
Grief, Grieving - The disobedience of Israel and the church grieves the Holy Spirit ( Isaiah 63:10 ; Ephesians 4:30 ). The Son of God is a man of sorrows, acquainted with grief (Isaiah 53:3-10 ; Matthew 23:37-39 ; Luke 13:34-35 ; John 11:35 ). He ceased to be their loving Father and became their enemy (Isaiah 63:10 ). Isaiah's messianic prophecy describes God's Anointed as a man of sorrows, acquainted with grief (Isaiah 53:3 ). Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 1-39 ; J. Ridderbos, Isaiah ; G. Westermann, Isaiah 40-66
Servant, Service - ...
Many persons in the Old Testament are called "servants, " among them Abraham (Genesis 26:24 ), Jacob (Genesis 32:4 ), Joshua (Joshua 24:29 ), Ruth (Ruth 3:9 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 1:11 ), Samuel (1 Samuel 3:9 ), Jesse (1 Samuel 17:58 ), Uriah the Hittite (2 Samuel 11:21 ), Joab (2 Samuel 14:20 ), Isaiah (Isaiah 20:3 ), Daniel (Daniel 9:17 ), Ben-Hadad of Aram (1 Kings 20:32 ), and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (Jeremiah 25:9 ). ...
The Book of Isaiah contains the "servant Songs" (42:1-4; 49:1-6; 50:4-9; 52:13-53:12). The suffering, death, and new life of the Servant become exemplified in the New Testament in Christ (Isaiah 52:13— ;Acts 52:13—3:13 ; Isaiah 61:1 Romans 6:17-18:27 ; Isaiah 53:7-8 Acts 53:7-88:32-33 ; Isaiah 53:4-5,7 , 91 Peter 2:22-24 )
Owl - " In the list of unclean birds (Leviticus 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 14:15 ); also mentioned in Job 30:29 ; Isaiah 13:21 ; 34:13 ; 43:20 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ; Micah 1:8 . yanshuph, rendered "great owl" in Leviticus 11:17 ; Deuteronomy 14:16 , and "owl" in Isaiah 34:11 . kippoz, the "great owl" (Isaiah 34:15 ); Revised Version, "arrow-snake;" LXX. lilith, "screech owl" (Isaiah 34:14 , marg. This verse in Isaiah is "descriptive of utter and perpetual desolation, of a land that should be full of ruins, and inhabited by the animals that usually make such ruins their abode
Cornerstone - The New Testament draws on two Old Testament passages about the coming Messiah (Isaiah 28:16 ; Zechariah 10:4 ). In Isaiah 28:16 the prophet speaks God's words directly to the rulers in Jerusalem who boasted that they were immune to the scourges of life because they were secure in themselves. Peter's use of the idea is more complex, stringing three prophetic verses together ( Psalm 118:22 ; Isaiah 8:4 ; 28:16 ). The stone laid in Zion (Isaiah 28:16 ) is precious to the believer, but as the stone placed at the "head of the corner" (eis kephalen gonias ), that is, exalted (Psalm 118:22 ), he is a stone of offense and stumbling (Isaiah 8:4 ) to those who refuse to believe
Sharon - ‘the plain,’ 1 Chronicles 27:29 , Song of Solomon 2:1 , Isaiah 33:9 ; Isaiah 35:2 ; Isaiah 65:10 ; Gr. , a forest of oaks ( Isaiah 35:2 ). It has always been a pasturage of flocks ( 1 Chronicles 27:29 , Isaiah 65:10 )
Isaiah (2) - Isaiah, Book of. Isaiah is divided into two parts. The second part of Isaiah begins abruptly with the fortieth chapter: "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people. Isaiah prophesies of the Messiah with distinctness and in a way that his predecessors had not done. "The authenticity of the second part of Isaiah, from chaps
Achor - The prophets allude to it with promises of hope and joy in the gospel era, Isaiah 65:10 ; Hosea 2:15
Fodder - "corn," RSV "provender;" Isaiah 30:24 , provender")
Berodach Baladan - Parallel passage in Isaiah 39:1 reads Merodoch Baladan, so most Bible students think Berodach resulted from a copyist's change in the text
Michtam - At Isaiah 38:9 , Hezekiah's “writing” (Hebrew miktab ) should perhaps be Miktam
Destroyer - An invading army (Isaiah 49:17 ; Jeremiah 22:7 ) or a supernatural agent of God's judgment (Exodus 12:23 ; Hebrews 11:28 ), often termed an angel (2 Samuel 24:15-16 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ; Psalm 78:49 )
Tire, - It was an ornamental headdress worn on festive occasions, (Ezekiel 24:17,23 ) and perhaps, as some suppose, also an ornament for the neck worn by both women, (Isaiah 3:18 ) and men, and even on the necks of camels
Sovereignty - The right of God to do as He wishes (Psalms 50:1; Isaiah 40:15; 1 Timothy 6:15) with His creation
Weasel - So Septuagint and Vulgate But Bochart takes it as related to the Arabic chuld , "the mole"; chephar is the more usual Hebrew for the mole (Isaiah 2:20)
Nisroch - (nihss' rahch) God worshiped by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 )
Snow - Snow is used in the Bible figuratively: whiteness (Isaiah 1:18 ), cleanness (Job 9:30 ), refreshing coolness (Proverbs 25:13 )
Merodach-Baladan - MERODACH-BALADAN ( Isaiah 39:1 ; misspelt Leg - The first term translated leg in Isaiah 47:2 (KJV) is also translated robe (NRSV) or shirt(s) (NAS, NIV, REB)
Beacon - Isaiah 30:17 (a) Here we have a beautiful picture of the testimony of GOD's people
Clap - (See also Isaiah 55:12)
Heres - The same name occurs in the margin of Isaiah 19:18 as the name of the 'city of destruction,' or 'city of the sun' in Egypt
Rough - Isaiah 40:4 (a) GOD will overcome difficult places in the life in order to make the way of life easy and happy for His child
Knee - Isaiah 45:23 (a) A type of submission to CHRIST in the day of His power
Uncover - Isaiah 47:3 (a) The Lord is informing Israel that He will strip them as a nation so that their conveniences will be taken from them, their comforts of living, their prestige and power, and they will be left helpless before their enemies
Cypress - Its wood is exceedingly durable, and seems to have been used for making idols, Isaiah 44:14
Elealeh - A town of the Amorites, near Heshbon their capital, assigned to the tribe of Reuben, Numbers 32:3,37 , and long afterwards threatened as a city of Moab, Isaiah 15:4 ; 16:9 ; Jeremiah 48:34
Ward, or Guard - Ward also seems to mean a guard-room, Nehemiah 12:25 ; Isaiah 21:8 , and the guards themselves, Acts 12:10 , or any small band, 1 Chronicles 25:8 ; 26:16
Visage - Isaiah 52
be'er - (Numbers 21:16-18 ) This is possibly the BEER-ELIM of (Isaiah 15:8 ) ...
A place to which Jotham, the son of Gideon, fled for fear of his brother Abimelech
Caterpillar -
Chasil occurs in ( 1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chronicles 6:28 ; Psalm 78:46 ; Isaiah 33:4 ; Joel 1:4 ) and seems to be applied to a locust, perhaps in its larva state
Bittern - The word occurs in (Isaiah 14:23 ; 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 ) and we are inclined to believe that the Authorized Version is correct
Holy One of Israel - A title of God used with especial frequency by Isaiah to express His transcendence and majesty. The idea of God’s holiness is, of course, much older than Isaiah, but to him, as to no one before, it was the central and most essential attribute of God, far more so than His power or majesty. As he felt himself on that day standing in God’s presence, his first thought was of his own uncleanness, and this wrung from him a cry of anguish ( Isaiah 6:5 ; cf
Red Sea - , "the Egyptian sea" (Isaiah 11:15 ), and simply Ha-yam, "the sea" (Exodus 14:2,9,16,21,28 ; Joshua 24:6,7 ; Isaiah 10:26 , etc. ...
The great historical event connected with the Red Sea is the passage of the children of Israel, and the overthrow of the Egyptians, to which there is frequent reference in Scripture (Exodus 1415,15 ; Numbers 33:8 ; Deuteronomy 11:4 ; Joshua 2:10 ; Judges 11:16 ; 2 Samuel 22:16 ; Nehemiah 9:9-11 ; Psalm 66:6 ; Isaiah 10:26 ; Acts 7:36 , etc
Bozrah - Burckhardt saw goats in large numbers there, just as Isaiah (Isaiah 34:6) describes; compare Isaiah 63:1; Amos 1:12; Micah 2:12
Tempest - ...
Isaiah 28:2 (b) This is descriptive of the devastation that would be wrought upon Ephraim by the invasion of the enemy. ...
Isaiah 32:2 (a) Here we see a type of the terrible outpouring of GOD's judgments upon His enemies, but which will not hurt nor harm those who are hidden in the Rock of ages, CHRIST JESUS. ...
Isaiah 54:11 (b) This type describes the sorrows and afflictions of Israel - pestilence, famine, invasion of hostile armies, internal insurrections, and other troubles which laid Israel low among the nations
Heavens, New - The idea of a renewed universe is found in many passages of the Bible (Isaiah 51:16 ; Matthew 19:28 ; Matthew 24:29-31 ; Matthew 26:29 ; Mark 13:24-27 ,Mark 13:24-27,13:31 ; Acts 3:20-21 ; Romans 8:19-23 ; 2 Corinthians 5:17 ; Hebrews 12:26-28 ; 2 Peter 3:10-13 ). However, the phrase “new heavens” is found in only four passages (Isaiah 65:17 ; Isaiah 66:22 ; 2 Peter 3:13 ; Revelation 21:1 ). First, God is the cause of this new creation (Isaiah 65:17 ; Isaiah 66:22 ; Revelation 21:22 ). ” This new heaven and earth will last forever ( Isaiah 66:22 )
Reed - " "Branch ("the high") and rush ("the low")" (Isaiah 9:14; Isaiah 58:5), "bow down . Used to form boats on the Nile, also garments, shoes, baskets, and paper (Isaiah 18:2);