What does Immortality mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἀθανασίαν undying 3
ἀφθαρσίαν incorruption 3
ἀφθαρσίᾳ incorruption 1

Definitions Related to Immortality

G861


   1 incorruption, perpetuity.
   2 purity, sincerity, incorrupt.
   

G110


   1 undying, Immortality, everlasting.
   

Frequency of Immortality (original languages)

Frequency of Immortality (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Immortality
(Latin: in, not; mortalis, mortal)
Ordinarily understood as the doctrine that the human soul will survive after separation from the body, continuing in the perpetual possession of an endless conscious existence. Together with the question of the existence of God, it forms from a practical point of view the most momentous question with which philosophy has to deal; for the practical attitude of a man towards the present life is necessarily affected by the position he takes respecting immortality. Belief in a future life of some sort seems to have been almost universal at all times. Immortality in the strict sense forms the foundation of the whole scheme of Christian faith. The doctrine received its complete philosophical elaboration from Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. Following his lead, Catholic philosophers, with few exceptions, have rightly maintained the demonstrability of immortality without appeal to revelation. They argue on the one hand from the substantiality and especially spirituality of the human soul, on the other from man's innate natural desire of perfect happiness, and from an adequate sanction for the moral law. The first line of argument alone can be summed up here. The objects of the activity of the human intellect are intrinsically independent of matter and material conditions, being concerned with immaterial things, and with material things in universal (general) and intelligible ways, in ways independent of time and space; moreover the human intellect is capable of strict reflection, i.e.,of turning about and as it were grasping itself, while material or corporeal agents always grasp something else than the agent. Now activities such as these demand a subject or agent (the soul) that is intrinsically independent of matter and material conditions, an agent that is immaterial or spiritual. Now an agent that is spiritual must be incorruptible, i.e.,imperishable, and hence capable of surviving separation from the material conditions in which it exists in man, and be immortal. And since the soul's faculties (intellect and will) remain rooted in the soul with the latter as an ever-present object, the immortal duration of the soul will be a vital or conscious existence.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Immortality
The quality or state of being exempt from death. In the true sense of the word, only God is immortal (1 Timothy 6:16 ; see 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 ), for only God is living in the true sense of the word (see Life). Humans may be considered immortal only insofar as immortality is the gift of God. Paul points us in this direction. In Romans 2:7 , Paul says, “To those who by patiently doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life” (NRSV). Paul also explained that the perishable nature of human life will put on the imperishable and that the mortal nature of human life will put on immortality. When that happens, the saying concerning victory over death will have been fulfilled (1 Corinthians 15:53-55 ; see Isaiah 25:8 ; Hosea 13:14 ). As it is, humans in their earthly life are mortal; they are subject to death.
Thus, eternal life is not ours because we have the inherent power to live forever; eternal life and immortality are ours only because God chooses to give them to us. Most of the time, we are given immortality after death. Those who did escape death—Enoch (Genesis 5:24 ) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:10-11 )—did so only by the power of God and not by some inherent power they had to live forever. See Eternal Life .
Phil Logan
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Immortality
IMMORTAL, IMMORTALITY
Strictly and properly speaking, this can only be applied to JEHOVAH in his threefold character of person; for of Him, it is justly said, "who only hath immortality." (1 Timothy 6:16) But in Him, and by Him, and from Him, the church is said to have rendered to it "glory and honour and immortality, eternal life." (Romans 2:7) But then, the striking and essential difference is here; JEHOVAH hath immortality in himself. It is His very Being—The church hath it by gift, and enjoys it only from her union with Christ. Of what nature or kind that immortality is, which distinguisheth the state or existence of the miserable in hell, Scripture hath not said. It is said, indeed, "their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." (Mark 9:44; Mar 9:46; Mar 9:48) How ought true believers in Jesus to rejoice in the consciousness of their interest in him, to join the hymn of the apostle; "Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever, Amen." (1 Timothy 1:17)
CARM Theological Dictionary - Immortality
Life without death anytime in the future. God is immortal. The souls of people are immortal though their bodies are not. All people can die in a physical sense but they continue on after death. Therefore, it is the soul that is immortal. However, after the return of Christ and the resurrection, the Christians' bodies will also become glorified and immortal (1 Corinthians 15:50-58). The wicked will likewise be resurrected to immortality but they will be cast into hell for eternity.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Immortality
IMMORTALITY . See Escratology.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Immortality
A state or condition free from both death and decay. The Bible affirms that only God by nature has immortality (1 Timothy 6:16 ; cf. Deuteronomy 32:40 ; Romans 1:23 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ). It also implies that it is a potential state for human beings. Humankind failed to obtain this state because of sin (Genesis 2:17 ; 3:19 ), but it is given by God to righteous persons (Romans 2:6-7 ; 1 Corinthians 15:23-56 ).
The concept of immortality is present in the Old Testament, but there is no Hebrew word for it. In Proverbs 12:28 (NASB)—"In the way of righteousness is life, and in its pathway there is no death"—immortality (as the word is translated in the NIV) is, literally, the Hebrew phrase "no-death" ( al-mawet ). "Sheol" occurs sixty-five times throughout the Old Testament; it is an obscure, shadowy, gloomy place of existence, but also of forgetfulness. The hope is for deliverance from it after death (Psalm 49:15 ; 86:13 ). Job 10:20-22 anticipates only a sheol-like state after death, but 19:25-26 seems to look for something more. Isaiah's prophecy ends with a vague expectation of continued existence for good and evil (66:22-24; cf. 26:16; Psalm 23:6 ); such is made clear in Daniel 12:2 .
The New Testament writers present the idea of immortality with (1) the nouns aphtharsia [ Romans 2:7 ; 1 Corinthians 15:42,50 , 53-54 ; Ephesians 6:24 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 ); and athanasia [ 1 Corinthians 15:53-54 ; 1 Timothy 6:16 ); (2) the adjective aphthartos [ Romans 1:23 ; 1 Corinthians 9:25 ; 15:52 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 1 Peter 1:4 ); and (3) the phrase "eternal life" (lit., "life of the ages, " zoen aionion ). All these terms, except the latter (which Paul uses elsewhere), occur in 1 Corinthians 15 . "Eternal life" is a favorite expression of John (3:15,16, 36; 10:28; 17:2-3; 1 John 1:2 ; 2:25 ; 5:11,13 , 20 ) and is frequently used by Paul (e.g., Romans 2:7 ; 5:21 ; 6:22-23 ; Galatians 6:8 ; 1 Timothy 1:16 ; 6:12 ; 2 Timothy 2:10 ; Titus 1:2 ; 3:7 ). Passages such as 2 Corinthians 5:1-10 refer or allude to the concept with metaphors. Immortality is a corollary to references to existence after death or to the resurrection in general.
Jesus assumes a continuing existence after death throughout his teachings. Certainly the future aspects of the kingdom of God imply as much. He speaks of it directly in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31 ) and in the judgment scene of Matthew 25:31-46 . To make "everlasting life" available is at the heart of Jesus' mission: "I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full" (10:10; cf. 5:40; 20:31). John 14:1-3 assumes not only a continuing existence but also that for believers it will be with Jesus.
Peter says Christians have been given "new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade" (1 Peter 1:3-4 ). Later he states that this new birth is "not of perishable seed, but of imperishable" (v. 23). The judgment scenes of Revelation 20-22 display eternal life of bliss for believers and punishment for the rest.
It is Paul who gives the clearest explanations of immortality. It is a gift made available through the work of Christ (Romans 2:7 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 ), the lasting reward of the believer in contrast to the perishable wreath won by the athlete (1 Corinthians 9:25 ). At the same time Paul asserts that the wicked face continuing, conscious alienation from God and positive punishment (2 Thessalonians 1:9 ).
First Corinthians 15:35-57 contains the most lengthy discussion of immortality, but is actually only a corollary to Paul's affirmation of the resurrection. Here Paul clearly sets forth the fact of an incorruptible, permanent existence in contrast to our present condition. However, as the planted seed and the stalk that grows from it are both the same yet different, so the future spiritual-immortal body will be both a continuation of and different from the physical-mortal one.
Second Corinthians 5:1-10 affirms that the future, eternal, heavenly "house" is the present possession of believers ("we have, " v. 1). In spite of the present undesirable state, a mortal one in which "we groan" (vv. 2-4), the Spirit is "the guarantee" of the better one that awaits the believer (v. 5). Furthermore, Paul maintains that to be "away from the body" is to be "at home with the Lord" (v. 8). Similarly, Philippians 1:20-21 asserts that through the believer's union with Christ the future (immortal) life is a present possession. Philippians 2:10-21 has the same expectation of a changed or transformed body, by implication an immortal one, as the Corinthians correspondence. Indeed, Paul assumes that immortality as a permanent, incorruptible, never-ending state and life not only await the Christian after death but is actually the present possession of the believer.
Differing views about nature of life beyond the grave are tied to differing views about the nature of humankind. Traditional Christianity has held a dualist or tripartite view of persons (soul-spirit and body or soul, spirit, and body) and that between death and the resurrection there is some sort of an intermediate state in which the immaterial part of the individual continues a conscious existence apart from the physical. Some who emphasize a holistic view of persons assume that at death there is an immediate resurrection of a new spiritual body and union with God. Others with a similar anthropology propound a form of re-creationism, a temporary extinction at death that ends at the resurrection in a new creation. An associated issue, "soul sleep" (psychopannychy), could be a corollary to either the traditional view or that of re-creation.
In summary, the Bible clearly teaches a continuing existence after death for all. For believers this will be deathless and imperishable, marked by that glory and honor that come from union with Christ. Because immortality is now obscured in corruptible bodies, changes will occur. Believers will have appropriately different bodies; their immortality will be evident. This fact, along with the bodily resurrection, Paul sees as assured because of the Spirit's guarantee, the defeat of death, and the ultimate victory of God through Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15:54-57 ).
J. Julius Scott, Jr.
See also Death, Mortality ; Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life ; Resurrection
Bibliography . F. F. Bruce, Scottish Journal of Theology 24 (1971): 457-72; J. W. Cooper, Body, Soul, and Life Everlasting ; O. Cullmann, HDSB (1955): 7-36; G. R. Habermas and J. B. Moreland, Immortality: The Other Side of Death ; M. J. Harris, Raised Immortal: Resurrection and Immortality in the New Testament ; idem, From Grave to Glory ; G. E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament ; A. Lincoln, Paradise Now and Not Yet ; G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jr., Resurrection, Immortality and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Immortality (2)
IMMORTALITY.—In the ordinary acceptation of the term ‘immortality’ connotes ‘endlessness.’ It has ceased to express merely or solely a denial of physical death, in its incidence or its consequences, and has been extended to include the possibility or actuality of death, considered as putting an end to conscious existence either now or in the limitless future. Whether these two alternatives really mean the same thing, whether to be capable of dying is always and ultimately to die, and so that only is immortal which by its very nature and constitution is not liable to death, while all else perishes,—as is probably the case,—is a question that hardly comes within the scope of the present article. It will, however, be just, and will conduce to clearness, to separate these two considerations; to seek to determine, in the first instance, the teaching of Christ with regard to immortality in the limited sense of a denial of cessation of existence at death; and, secondly, to review the much wider and more perplexed question of the permanence of this ‘immortal’ state. ‘Does death end all?’, according to the mind and teaching of the Founder of Christianity, is an inquiry that needs to be twice raised,—once as it concerns the terminus of the present life upon earth, and again as it refers or may refer to a future to which human thought can set no limit. It is obvious that the first question is comparatively simple and uninvolved; and that upon its answer in the affirmative depends the possibility of opening the second, which is highly complicated, and involves the most far-reaching and important problems that can present themselves for human consideration.
By some writers the terms used in the NT, and especially by Christ Himself, with reference to a life after death have been further understood to imply blessedness. Life immortal would thus be not only life in the ordinary acceptation of conscious existence, but it would be life plus felicity. It is perhaps hardly right or wise to saddle the doctrine with this additional connotation. It will, however, be necessary to examine how far the words of Christ suggest or imply that He regarded happiness as an essential and inseparable part of the life to come, or a future existence of misery more or less prolonged as inconceivable unless it were terminated by restoration to bliss or annihilation of consciousness.
There is, however, a further preliminary consideration which must be taken into account. An examination of the whole teaching of Christ upon so momentous a theme, as it is transmitted by the Evangelists, may be expected to yield results not only positive but negative. Positive, inasmuch as upon a subject that concerns the deepest interests of men no great religious teacher can do other than afford some guidance to those who seek knowledge and truth at his lips; and negative, since the revelation which he may venture or see Ht to make of his own thoughts will obviously be determined and limited by the character and capacity of his contemporaries. In a sense neither derogatory nor contemptuous towards his hearers, he will refuse to cast his pearls before swine. Environment naturally and inevitably plays a large part in moulding the form into which doctrine shall be cast, and in assigning the bounds beyond which it shall not move. Teaching appropriate and welcome to the keen-witted and philosophic circles of Athens will fall on dull and inappreciative ears by the waterside or in the fields of Galilee. And of the confessedly greatest Teacher that the world has ever known this may be expected to be preeminently true; He will make His sayings accord both as to form and substance with the receptive ability of those to whom they are delivered. There will be many things within the compass of His own knowledge which they cannot now bear (John 16:12). And though He will at times give utterance to sayings hard to be understood (John 6:50 ff., John 6:60), of a depth and significance beyond their comprehension, foreshadowing truths into the full understanding of which only after-generations will be able to grow, the major part of His instruction will not be concerned with these; else would that instruction be barren and profitless to the hearers, no fruitful seed germinating to new spiritual and intellectual life. Moreover, it is precisely these sayings, dealing with the higher, more abstract and supra-sensible side of things, that would be most likely to be lost upon ordinary disciples, to fail to find a place in their memory, and in their subsequent reproductions, whether written or oral, of the Master’s teaching. Only by the choicer natures, the more refined and contemplative spirits among His followers, such as we conceive the Apostle John to have been, would this aspect of His discourse and doctrine be caught up and treasured, to be afterwards faithfully delivered as words φωνᾶντα συνετοῖσιν, although for the moment they may have soared far above the care or comprehension of those who first heard them with their outward ears.
Upon a priori grounds, therefore, bearing in mind the character of the people among whom Christ lived and with whom He had to deal, we should expect to find the speculative and philosophic side of doctrine but slightly represented, while stress is laid more upon ethics and the practical conduct of life. The supernatural will be stated, as it were, in terms of the natural, the heavenly of the earthly, and with a constant recognition of the actual needs and circumstances and possibilities of His hearers. Whether and how far this is so in fact only an examination of the texts can show. Such an examination of the more or less direct references in the Gospels to a future life will be most conveniently conducted under the three divisions suggested, viz.—(1) a renewed life after death, (2) the permanence of this life, (3) its comprehensiveness, whether it is to be conceived as embracing the entire race of mankind or limited to a part thereof. It will be necessary to take separately the evidence of the Synoptic Gospels and of St. John.
A. The Synoptists
(1) With regard to the first point little need be said, for indeed there is nothing in dispute. That the teaching of Christ assumes from first to last a conscious life beyond the grave for Himself and His hearers lies upon the surface of His words and permeates His entire rule of life. The whole tone of His speech, the implications of His parables, the sanctions with which He surrounds His encouragements and warnings, the comparative value which He teaches men to set upon heavenly and earthly things, the gravity and seriousness of His outlook into the future, all show that here at least to Him and to His hearers there was common ground; that He did not need to begin by proving to them that death was not the end of all, but that the universal postulate of religious thought of His day anticipated a renewal of personal and conscious existence after death. In this respect He was but adopting, assuming, and making the basis of impressive exhortation and warning what the majority at least of His contemporaries believed.
The repeated references to the coming of the Kingdom of God or of the heavens (Matthew 3:2; Matthew 4:17; Matthew 10:7; Matthew 12:28, Mark 1:15, Luke 9:27; Luke 10:9 al.), into which not everyone who professes loyalty will enter (Matthew 7:21); to the Day of Judgment or ‘that day’ (Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:22; Matthew 11:24, Matthew 22:23-33, Matthew 7:22 al.); to His own Resurrection (Matthew 17:9; Matthew 28; Matthew 26:32, Mark 9:31; Mark 10:34, Luke 18:33 al.) and the Coming of the Son of Man (Matthew 10:23; Matthew 16:27 f., Mark 13:26; Mark 14:62 al.), when those who have confessed or denied Him upon earth will reap as they have sown, in a public confession or denial of them before His Father and the holy angels (Matthew 10:32 f., Luke 9:26; Luke 12:8 f.),—all presuppose and rest upon the foundation of a belief in another life after this. The disciples are to lay up treasure in heaven (Matthew 6:20, Luke 12:33), the enjoyment of which is clearly not designed for the present. ‘In the regeneration’ these disciples shall sit upon thrones in the capacity of judges (Matthew 19:28, Luke 22:30). Even His enemies, who bound Him to death, shall ‘see’ the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power (Matthew 26:64, Mark 14:62; cf. Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:26, Luke 21:27). The robber, after death, shall be with Christ in Paradise (Luke 23:43). More than one parable bears emphatic witness to the same belief, for example that of the King and the Wedding Feast (Matthew 22:1 ff.), of the Talents (Matthew 25:14 ff.), of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19 ff.). These and other expressions which might be cited, figurative as some of them undoubtedly are, sufficiently emphasize the form and substance of a teaching which is not limited to the present, but always and consistently presupposes a life of active consciousness beyond the grave.
It is doubtful whether even the reputed scepticism of the Sadducees (Luke 10:14, Mark 12:18-27, Luke 20:27-40) is any real exception to this. The scope and articles of the creed that they professed remain very uncertain. And their famous apologue is perhaps rather directed against the conception of a joint and common resurrection at one time and place, at which the relationships of this life would be resumed, than implies disbelief in any sequel after death to the life lived upon earth. The incident gives occasion at least to a most emphatic assertion on the part of Christ of the reality of the life that succeeds the present, and an equally emphatic repudiation of the idea that those who have died have ceased to be—‘God is not the God of the dead, but of the living; for all live unto him.’
(2) The question of the duration of this new life, the permanence or impermanence of the state after death, presents greater difficulties. Once again it may be said in anticipation that the probabilities of the case are strongly in favour of the former hypothesis. A teacher of the elevation and spirituality of Christ would hardly be likely to suggest to His hearers as a reward for following Him a prolonged existence indeed, but one which closed in the thick darkness of oblivion; and if He wished to convey the thought that in this respect a sharp distinction prevailed between those who loved and obeyed Him and those who did not,—the former are to be immortal, the latter entirely cease to be,—He would do so very clearly and emphatically, as presenting a further powerful and almost overwhelming incentive to hearken to His words. Moreover, it is to be noted also that the conception of ‘endlessness’ in the abstract is not one easily formulated or grasped, and that a doctrine of this character, assuming it to be present in His teaching, may very well prove to have been set forth in the simplest terms, rather by way of suggestion and illustration that would appeal to His hearers, than in the rigorous language of a scheme of metaphysics. The more important terms that bear upon this point are collected and will be conveniently examined together at a later stage. A few expressions only from the Synoptic Gospels call here for notice.
One of the most important passages, rather, perhaps, on the ground of what it implies than of what it directly states, is the declaration recorded in St. Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 16:18) of the permanence and inviolability of Christ’s Church, founded and built up as it is upon Himself.* [1] The Speaker can hardly be conceived as thinking of a mere temporary duration of that Church, united as it is with Him in the closest of all bonds; the destruction or annihilation of the one would involve a like fate for the other: ‘the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it’ now or henceforth. And if the Church is to remain, then necessarily its members collectively: for the Church is the members.
It may be said also that the abiding nature of Christ’s words (Matthew 24:35, Mark 13:31, Luke 21:33), under the circumstances of their utterance, presupposes the continued existence of intelligent receptive hearers and doers. The permanence of His words is contrasted with that which in the universe appears most permanent and unchanged, ‘Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away’ (Mark 13:31, cf. Matthew 5:18, Luke 16:17); in no part or degree shall their accomplishment fail to be achieved. But this complete fulfilment does not imply the cessation of their effect upon and in those for whom they are spoken. Rather is it the beginning of a new life, which is only then perfected.
The literal demands of these passages would be satisfied by what has sometimes been termed ‘racial’ or ‘collective’ immortality; in which the race might be supposed to persist, while the individuals, each and all in turn, perished. Such an interpretation could not be ruled out of court on the ground that it is not suggested elsewhere in Christ’s teaching. But a conception so remote and unusual would seem to require much more clear and definite exposition, and is hardly consistent with the numerous references to a personal and individual survival.
In a negative sense also phrases like τὸ τέλος (Matthew 24:6, Mark 13:7, Luke 21:9), εἰς τέλος (Matthew 10:22; Matthew 24:13, Mark 13:13), ἡ συντέλεια τ. αἰῶνος (Matthew 13:40; Matthew 13:49; Matthew 24:3) clearly do not imply an absolute end, involving annihilation or the like. They do not, of course, assert survival in any universalistic sense; but they are not altogether neutral in the matter (cf. Matthew 13 ll.cc., and the interpretation that is given by Christ Himself of the parable of the Sower). The end of one era is the beginning of another, and for some at least ushers in a period of supreme blessedness (Matthew 10:22; Matthew 24:13, Mark 13:13).
The indications which the Synoptic Gospels afford on the subject of the comparative duration of the existence of the righteous and the wicked after death are almost wholly concerned with the significance of words like αἰώνιος (κόλασις αἱ. Matthew 25:46, πῦρ αἰώνιον Matthew 18:8, Matthew 25:41, αἰώνιον ἀμάρτημα Mark 3:29, εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ib.), and will be more conveniently examined together (see below). Here it need only be said that parables such as those of the Rich Man and Lazarus, the Wise and Foolish Virgins, or the Wedding Feast, do not in themselves suggest or demand any inequality of treatment as regards the mere duration of the allotted punishment or reward; and that references to the Judgment, the Day of Judgment, or the Last Day are equally neutral, as far as direct statement is concerned. While the burning of the tares in the parable of the Wheat and the Tares (Matthew 13:30), if the detail is to be pressed as anything more than the natural and appropriate setting of the story,—the legitimate and necessary end of weeds,—rather points in the direction of permanence and indestructibility. Burning is not annihilation of matter, but transformation of form. And this particular feature of the parable might admit of interpretation as implying renovation through suffering, but is hardly satisfied by any theory of absolute cessation of being. Similarly, it might be urged that the πῦρ ἄσβεστον of Mark 9:43 (cf. v. 48) implies the permanence of the fuel on which it feeds. It is clear, however, that no secure or decisive argument can be based on what are obviously allusive and metaphorical expressions.
B. St. John.—Within the Fourth Gospel, where, if anywhere in the record of our Lord’s teaching, we might expect to find a reasoned and philosophical doctrine of a future life, that teaching is so entirely, or almost entirely, conveyed in connexion with a special phraseology, the leading terms of which are ζωἠ, ζωἠ αἱώνιος, and εἰς τ. αἰῶνα, that little need be said by way of anticipation of the special investigation of these terms. It is worth noting, however, at once, in view of the interpretation of these expressions which will be urged below, that every reference in St. John to a definite termination or close of a world-period is, as we saw was the case in the Synoptists, such as to presuppose and assume a continuation beyond. The conception of an absolute end, beyond which there is nothing, is as foreign to the thought of this Gospel as to that of the others. There is a ‘last day’ (ἡ ἐσχάτη ἡμέρα, john John 6:39 f.; John 6:44; John 6:54; John 11:24; John 12:48, a phrase not found in the Synoptists); but it terminates one age only to usher in another more glorious. Judgment (κρίσις) again in St. John does not ordinarily await the setting up of a future tribunal; it is immediate conviction, wrought by the presence of the light. And in the one passage where it is definitely relegated to the future (John 5:29) the parallelism of the phraseology (ἀνάστασις κρίσεως—ἀνάστασις ζωῆς) shows that whatever threatening of suffering or retribution may lie behind the word, there is no thought of extinction, or of a final end, in the mind of the Speaker,—they that have practised ill ((Revised Version margin)) come to the resurrection equally with those that have done good. He cannot be conceived to mean that they are raised merely that forthwith, or after a longer or shorter period, they may be destroyed.
It is in St. John also that the most emphatic assertions are found—apart from the special phraseology to which reference has been made—of the abiding blessedness and freedom from ill of those who believe in Christ. ‘He that believeth in me οὐ μὴ ἁποθάνῃ’ (John 11:26); he that drinks of the Christ-given water ‘οὐ μὴ διψήσει’ (John 4:14); ‘he that cometh unto me οὐ μὴ πεινάσῃ, and he that believeth on me οὐ μὴ διψήσει πώποτε’ (John 6:35). The ‘many mansions’ and the prepared place of John 14:2 are clearly intended to convey the assurance of more than merely temporary resting-places. Finally, the prayer that all His followers may be one, as He is one with the Father (John 17:11; John 17:21), and may be with Him where He is (John 17:24), implies for those who are thus united a coequal duration of existence with Himself.
For the believer, therefore, the future, thus conditioned and defined, is a life of blessedness. But there is nothing to suggest, much less to show, that the continuance of the life is dependent upon its felicity; or that these two features are other than completely independent, no necessary connexion subsisting between them which would make an eternal but unblessed life a contradiction in terms.
αἰών, αἰώνιος, εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα or τοὺς αἰῶνας.—The primary significance of the term αἰών is not seriously in question. ‘Age’ or ‘period’ suggests a limited stretch of time marked by a definite close. In this sense the word is found in the Gospels, with reference to the present era under which the speaker is living, either simply or as ethically characterized by degeneracy and corruption. The cares τοῦ αἰῶνος choke the word (Matthew 13:22 || Mark 4:19); the sons of this αἰών are wiser than the sons of light (Luke 16:8); οὗτος ὁ αἱών is contrasted with the αἰών that is to follow it as ὁ μέλλωνς (Matthew 12:32), or ἑκεῖνος (Luke 20:34 f.); and the latter appears again as ὁ ἐρχόμενος αἰών in Mark 10:30 || Luke 18:30, where the present is οὖτος ὁ καιρός. It is worthy of notice that in one of the above passages (Luke 20:35) the future αἰών is something to be gained (τυχεῖν); its nature or characteristic, therefore, was more prominent to the writer’s mind than any mere question of duration. In one context, the parable of the Tares in St. Matthew, the end of the present age is definitely indicated (ἠ) συντέλεια (τοῦ) αἰῶνος (Matthew 13:39 f., Matthew 13:49), and the same phrase is twice employed later in the Gospel, once by the disciples with reference to the Parousia, which they assume to be synchronous with the end of the αἰών (Matthew 24:3), and again by Christ Himself, when He asserts His presence with His disciples ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος (Matthew 28:20).
In the last two passages especially it is clear that in no shape or form is there attached by the Speaker or His hearers to the phrase ‘end of the age’ the thought of a termination of personality or conscious life. The close of the one epoch marks the opening of another, into which pass without interruption the actors and participators in the present. The pledge given to the disciples of personal association with Himself, or rather of His personal association with them—an association which is already subsisting (ἐγὼ μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰμί, Matthew 28:20), could hardly have been couched in more emphatic or significant terms, or in words less suggestive of a possible severance, however clearly they may admit or even require the thought of a change of the conditions under which it is maintained.
αἰών is also twice used in the Gospels with reference to the past, ἀπʼ αἰῶνος Luke 1:70, ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος John 9:32. In neither case are the words those of Christ Himself. And all, perhaps, that need be said is that the speakers, Zacharias and the man born blind respectively, employ the phrase to denote in an indefinite kind of way the whole antecedent period of human history during which the conditions of life upon the earth have been such as they now know them to be, or believe them to have been in former times.
Elsewhere in the Gospels, the word under consideration is found only in the phrase εἰς τὸν αἱῶνα, or εἰς τ
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Immortality
The subject of immortality may be treated from many points of view-doctrinal, metaphysical, biological. But the scope of this article is necessarily limited to the historical method of treatment, and is further confined to a definite portion of the historical field-the 1st cent. of Christianity. Hence many aspects of the subject are excluded. For the previous development of the belief in immortality the reader is referred to the articles dealing with this and the related subjects in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Dict. of Christ and the Gospels , and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . The following is the outline of the treatment of the subject in this article:
I.General discussion of the place occupied in religious thought at the beginning of the Apostolic Age by the belief in immortality.
II.Particular history of the development of the belief during the Apostolic Age:
1.Pauline doctrine of immortality.
2.Petrine doctrine of immortality.
3.Johannine doctrine of immortality.
4.Apostolic Fathers’ doctrine of immortality.
III.Conclusion. Literature.
I. General Discussion
At the beginning of the Apostolic Age the Graeco-Roman world might almost be compared to the Pool of Bethesda at the critical moment of the angelic visitation. There was a troubling of the waters, and a steadily increasing number of seekers after spiritual health. The subject of immortality was, so to speak, in the air. The various Mystery-cults, with varying forms of ritual, all agreed in offering to the initiate the hope of a future life of bliss after death. Abundant evidence for this may be found in books and monographs dealing with the subject of the Mystery-cults in the Roman Empire. At the same time, along a totally different line of development, the Jew had arrived at a conception of immortality which was bound up with a spiritual conception of God and man’s relation to God. In communion with God lay both the essence of immortality and its guarantee for faith. In Alexandrian Judaism, as represented by Philo, we have the blending of the Platonic doctrine of immortality, based on the distinction between the higher and the lower elements in man, with the Pharisaic assertion of the value of the individual to God and its grasp of the eternal character of the soul’s communion with God. Hence we can discern at least three distinct elements at work in the formation of current ideas about immortality.
(1) The view of a future life which rested upon the Eastern dualistic attitude towards matter and spirit. This Eastern, and especially Persian, element which entered so largely into the Mystery-cults of the century before and the century following the birth of Christ, laid stress upon the deliverance of the soul, by purificatory rites and by asceticism, from the bondage of the body, and thus pointed a way to ultimate salvation and immortality by union with the god. The resemblance of the rites of the Mystery-cults to various elements in the Christian sacraments has led many scholars to trace the influence of these cults of the Graeco-Roman world upon the form which Christianity assumed as it developed a system of ritual and doctrine. This point will be discussed briefly in dealing with St. Paul’s doctrine of immortality.
(2) The Platonic element in Alexandrian Judaism, modified by Stoic influence, laying stress on the eternity of Reason, and hence offering an abstract form of immortality in which the continuance of personal identity was not involved.
(3) The Pharisaic doctrine of immortality with its insistence on the permanence of personal identity preserved in communion with God. The place of the body was not clearly defined, as Pharisaic Judaism held the immortality of the soul in combination with various forms of eschatological expectation, in which a body, spiritual or quasi-spiritual, was involved.
The Jewish view was, of course, not confined to Palestine, but, as we know, was spread throughout Egypt, Asia Minor, and all the Mediterranean coasts by means of the synagogue. All these elements intermingled and formed the basis of the popular attitude towards the future life, in the 1st cent. of Christianity.
But the form which the doctrine of immortality took in primitive Christianity is by no means explained when we have examined the conditions of thought under which it grew up. It certainly cannot be explained without them, but neither can it be explained wholly by them. Christianity gave its own definite form to all that it took up from the current thought of its time, and the outstanding factor in the form which the primitive Christian hope assumed is the Resurrection of Christ. It has been argued that the form which the belief in the Resurrection took, especially in St. Paul, was determined by these external influences, especially by the existence in various Mystery-cults of the idea of the death of the god and his resurrection. But these offer no true parallel to the belief in a historic Resurrection and do not explain either its existence or the peculiar moral value attached to the Resurrection of Christ by the primitive Church.
When we come to the historical account of the doctrine of immortality in the 1st cent. of Christianity, we find, in the first place, that it is inseparably connected with the Resurrection of Christ, and, secondly, that it is also inseparable from primitive Christian eschatology. ‘The resurrection of the body and the life of the world to come’ is the phrase which crystallizes the growth of the idea of immortality for the popular mind during the early stages of Christianity. We shall find, however, in both Pauline and Johannine teaching, much that transcends the form of belief as crystallized in the credal phrase.
II. Particular Historical Development
1. Pauline.-It is impossible to work through the Pauline treatment of the subject without discovering that St. Paul had no doctrine of immortality. He deals with the subject only so far as it arises out of the question of salvation through Christ and the implications of salvation. Hence the most illuminating method of understanding St. Paul’s attitude towards immortality will be to trace the bearings of his theory of salvation as it is worked out in Romans, the most definitely soteriological of his Epistles. The following are the principal points that arise from the examination of the Epistle.
(1) Eschatological background.-There is an eschatological background to the whole of St. Paul’s thinking on the subject of salvation. This is not to say that the ethical nature of the salvation is excluded; on the contrary, the ethical is inseparable from the eschatological, the connexion between life and righteousness being of the very essence of St. Paul’s thought. But from the outset and right through, the eschatological outlook is apparent. In Romans 2:7, one of the most general statements on the subject, St. Paul says that in the revelation of God’s righteous judgment He will render eternal life to all those who are seeking glory and honour and immortality (ἀφθαρσία); in Romans 5:2, there is the justified boast in the hope of the glory of God; in Romans 5:17, those who receive the gift of righteousness shall reign in life; in Romans 8:11, the mortal bodies of those indwelt by the Spirit are to be quickened.
This eschatological colouring is more apparent in the earlier Epistles, e.g. 1 and 2 Thessalonians, than in the later. But even in the later Epistles, e.g. in Philippians, it appears: Philippians 3:20-21, ‘for our citizenship is in heaven; from whence also we wait for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: who shall fashion anew the body of our humiliation, that it may be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working whereby he is able even to subject all things unto himself.’
Thus the eschatological element in the belief is not secondary or non-essential; it shows in the first place that St. Paul’s sense of the necessity of a future glorified life is part of a larger scheme of things-the future Kingdom of God and its manifestation on earth.
(2) Christ as an earnest of the future life.-The present condition of Christ’s existence is both the pattern and the guarantee of the believer’s future state of existence. This is perhaps the most characteristic and original part of St. Paul’s thinking on this subject, and requires the most careful study. It is true that various elements existed in Apocalyptic and Rabbinical systems of thought in St. Paul’s time which may have suggested in details the form of his thought. For example, the idea of a spiritual body was not new; it occurs in Midr. Rab. and in the Gnostic Hymn of the Soul (see Rendel Harris’s edition of the Odes and Psalms of Solomon, 1909, Introduction, p. 67f.) and the conception of the transformation of the righteous into the likeness of Messiah occurs first in Enoch xc. 38.
But the Death and Resurrection of Christ as historical facts are the decisive elements which St. Paul lays hold of and works out in their relation to the Kingdom of God, making new combinations of old ideas, throwing fresh light on the purpose of God, and filling the old categories of thought with a new vital force. No apocalyptic scheme offered any such conception as the Death and Resurrection of Messiah, and the acceptance by St. Paul of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus as historical facts, together with his identification of Jesus with the Messiah, set a train of thought working in his mind which yielded entirely new forms, not to be explained by any patch-work of older elements to be found in them. There are certain essential points of St. Paul’s scheme of things which were never grasped by the Apologists and the early interpreters of Apostolic Christianity. This was partly because the eschatological element was not understood, and perhaps still more because St. Paul’s attitude towards the human side of the Incarnation was not understood. The side upon which Irenaeus lays stress, the answer to the question Cur Deus Homo? was fully grasped and developed, viz. the ‘deification’ of man through the Incarnation of the Son of God. But owing to the rise of christological controversies the emphasis laid by St. Paul and the primitive Church on the ethical value of the Resurrection of Christ and its implications dropped out of sight.
(a) First of all, then, for St. Paul the Resurrection of Christ has an ethical value which is of great importance in his view of the future life of believers. The Resurrection of Christ was not a foregone conclusion resulting from His Divinity, but it was intimately connected with Christ’s faith and holiness as man. His Resurrection was according to the Spirit of holiness; He was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father. In His Resurrection the full working of the law of the Spirit of life was displayed. ‘He lives to God.’ The word ‘glory’ which St. Paul uses to describe the present state of the risen Christ as well as His future manifestation has both an ethical and a quasi-material significance. The full moral likeness to God which Christ displayed has its counter-part in His present state of existence, ‘the glory of God in the face (ἐν προσώπῳ, possibly better rendered ‘in the person’ [1]) of Jesus Christ.’
(b) This resurrection state of Christ is spiritual. The historic Christ retaining His moral characteristics has passed into a spiritual condition, by the operation of a law made manifest for the first time in His case. Christ is identified with the Spirit. He is no longer limited in manifestation by time and space, but can dwell in those who receive Him by faith. It is the real Christ that St. Paul conceives of as dwelling in believers and thereby bringing into operation in them the same law that resulted in His own Resurrection and victory over ‘the law of sin and death.’
(c) The ultimate result of this indwelling of the Spirit of Christ is to assert the complete triumph of life over death even in the bodies of believers (Romans 8:11). The full manifestation of this life will bring deliverance for creation (Romans 8:21) from the bondage of corruption (φθορά). For St. Paul, then, immortality is not ἀθανασία, but ἀφθαρσία. It is an integral part of the triumph of the Kingdom of God, beginning with the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:20-23 : ἀπαρχὴ Χριστός).
(3) The corporate nature of the future life.-The last point that comes out from the study of St. Paul’s teaching on this subject is the corporate nature of the future existence, in strong contrast to the immortality presented by Plotinus and the later Neo-Platonists-an immortality of ‘the Alone with the Alone.’ The indwelling Spirit of Christ is the ground of unity, as well as the assurance of immortality; the future life of bliss is the life of a blessed community of glorified persons, united to Christ and like Him morally and spiritually, finding their joy in the activities of eternal life, doing the will of God.
The Pauline view of the subject is also bound up with the Parousia and with the closely allied subject of the resurrection of believers. Hence the reader is referred to the articles on these subjects in this Dictionary for supplementary discussion of the Pauline teaching.
2. Petrine and other primitive teaching.-For the sake of convenience, the general teaching of the Catholic Epistles and the Pastorals is taken together with the Petrine doctrine of immortality. The doctrine of 1 Peter may be said to represent the general standpoint of the primitive Apostolic Church on this matter, while the Pauline and the Johannine teaching contain developments which profoundly affected the thought of the Church but which were never wholly understood and accepted.
(1) The First Epistle of Peter shows the same eschatological background that we find in St. Paul and everywhere in the primitive Church, and the same view of the ethical value of the Resurrection of Christ: ‘who through him are believers in God, which raised him from the dead, and gave him glory; so that your faith and hope might be in God’ (1 Peter 1:21).
But there is nothing of the extraordinary development of the consequences of the Resurrection-life of Christ in the Spirit, and the resultant view of the Kingdom as already manifested in its working. The most important passage for our purpose is 1 Peter 3:18-20, the ‘Descent into Hell’ of the Creeds.
Rendel Harris (Side-lights on NT Research, 1908, p. 208) has proposed the emendation ἐν ᾦ καὶ Ἐνώχ on the supposition that Ἐνώχ has dropped out by haplography, and would refer the passage to a reminiscence of the visit of Enoch to the condemned watchers and his intercession for them (see Enoch xii., xiii.). But the interruption to the general sense of the passage is too serious, except on a very low estimate of the logical sequence of thought in the Epistle, to admit of the probability of this ingenious suggestion.
If the passage be interpreted to refer to the visit of Christ to the souls in Sheol during the interval between His Death and His Resurrection, then this is the only NT passage which supports such a conception, and it is a possible view that the Christian interpretation of the passage has been influenced by the strong belief which grew up in the primitive Church in the descent of Christ to Hades. But the passage requires fuller treatment than space allows of here (see, further, article Descent into Hades). If the credal interpretation be accepted, the passage is evidence rather for an intermediate state than for any clearly defined doctrine of the immortality of the soul. It does not necessarily imply more than is implied in the later Jewish view of Sheol. Still more perplexing Isaiah 4:6, if the same interpretation be attached to it. But it is possible to interpret both passages of the preaching of Noah to those who though dead now, were alive at the time when the Spirit of Christ in Noah preached to them. Then the last clause of Isaiah 4:6 may be evidence for the future state of the condemned. After judgment they continue to live in spirit in relation to God. Apart from this the writer’s attention is fixed on the coming ‘glory,’ ‘the crown of glory,’ to be revealed at the Parousia.
(2) Hebrews.-The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews retains the eschatological background common to the early Church, but adds to our inquiry one important new conception-that which is implied in the term τετελειωμένος. Christ in His present risen state is spoken of as τετελειωμένος (Hebrews 7:28); the spirits in the heavenly Jerusalem are called the spirits of ‘the perfected righteous,’ δικαίων τετελειωμένων (Hebrews 12:23; cf. also Hebrews 5:9; Hebrews 11:40, Luke 13:32). It is difficult to find the Pauline conception of a glorified body here. It would rather seem to present the Alexandrian Judaistic point of view that the righteous immediately after death reach their perfected state of bliss in full communion with God. The writer undoubtedly believes in the Resurrection of Christ and also in the ethical aspect of it already mentioned, but he does not seem to carry on, as St. Paul does, the consequences of this to the bodily resurrection of believers. But he clearly looks forward to a σαββατισμός for the people of God, a heavenly city, and a corporate immortality, all based upon the present risen life of Christ.
(3) The Pastoral Epistles add one or two points. The dogmatic conception of abstract immortality-what Friedrich von Hügel (Eternal Life) calls ‘quantitative immortality’-perhaps appears in 1 Timothy 6:16 : ὁ μόνος ἔχων ἀθανασίαν. In 1 Timothy 4:8 a sharp distinction is drawn between ‘the life that now is and that which is to come,’ a sign of the passing of the eschatological form of the distinction between ‘the present age’ and ‘the coming age.’ The rich are charged to lay hold on what is truly life (τῆς ὄντως ζωῆς, 1 Timothy 6:19).
In 2 Timothy 1:1 we have the Pauline conception, ‘the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus’; 2 Timothy 2:11, ‘if we suffer with him we shall reign with him’; 2 Timothy 4:1, living and dead are to be judged by Christ at His appearing; 2 Timothy 4:18, ‘shall save me unto his heavenly kingdom.’ But the two most characteristic passages in this Epistle are 2 Timothy 1:10, where our Saviour Jesus Christ has annulled death and brought life and immortality (ἀφθαρσίαν) to light, through the gospel; and 2 Timothy 2:10, where speaking of ‘the elect’ the writer says ‘that they too may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.’ Titus 1:1-2 echoes the phrase of 2 Timothy 1:1, the hope of eternal life, still reflecting the eschatological colouring. In Titus 2:12-13 ‘the present age’ is contrasted with ‘the appearing of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Christ Jesus,’ also spoken of as ‘the blessed hope’; in Titus 3:5 ff. the bath of regeneration (παλινγενεσία) and the renewing of the Holy Ghost are connected with righteousness and the hope of eternal life after the Pauline manner.
3. Johannine.-The three groups of Johannine literature are here treated separately.
(1) The Apocalypse.-The phrase which is so characteristic of the Fourth Gospel, ‘eternal life,’ does not occur in the Apocalypse. For our subject we have the following passages: Revelation 2:11, the overcomer ‘shall not be hurt of the second death’; Revelation 3:5, the overcomer’s name will not be blotted out of the book of life. In Revelation 4:4 the ‘elders’ (who may possibly represent those who have attained-the ‘elders’ of Hebrews 11) are seen in the symbolic garb of victors. In Hebrews 6:9 the souls of the martyrs are seen under the altar, crying for vengeance. In Hebrews 7:13-17 there is a description of those who have come out of great tribulation and who enjoy perpetual bliss before the throne of God. In Revelation 20:4 those who are slain during the great tribulation are raised for the millennial kingdom, and reign with Christ for a thousand years. Revelation 20:5 adds ‘the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were ended.’ Then in Revelation 20:11-15 ‘the dead small and great,’ i.e. apparently ‘the rest of the dead,’ are raised and judged according to their works, and all not found written in the Book of Life are cast into the Lake of Fire.
Here again the eschatological interest is paramount. The future existence of individuals is not a question of psychological or philosophical interest, but is determined by the view of the future Kingdom of God. Hence ‘quantitative immortality’ does not appear. The righteous receive the reward of their works and patience, and enter on a blessing which appears to extend beyond the millennial kingdom, and at any rate reaches its climax there. The writer is not so interested in anything after that. But the future fate of the wicked is indeterminate. The view taken as to this depends upon our interpretation of the writer’s symbolism. The fire may be destructive, purgative, or penal. The torment of the beast and the false prophet is spoken of, but the final end of the wicked is not explicitly stated. They are cast into the Lake of Fire.
(2) The Epistles.-In the Johannine Epistles the Parousia still forms the background of Christian hope, but the precise form of the hope is vague, and shows signs of transformation into a purely spiritual expectation. The contribution of the Epistles belongs rather to the subject of the Parousia (q.v. [2] ). The term ‘eternal life’ occurs frequently, but never with the eschatological sense in which it is used in St. Paul’s Epistles and the Pastorals. But the profound ethical implication of likeness to God and to Christ fills the term with a new meaning. ‘The life of the coming age,’ the original sense of the term חַיֵי עֹלָם, has become the life of God, expressed in Christ, imparted to the believer, working itself out in moral likeness to God, and perfected when Christ appears. He who dwells in God and God in him can never die, and he who loves dwells in God, and partakes of God’s eternal life. Immortality is ‘qualitative’ wholly here, with no thought of duration.
(3) The Fourth Gospel.-Here the transformation of the eschatological background is practically complete. Subsequent developments really consisted, not in a deeper and richer spiritualization of the eschatological view-point, with all its stimulus and insistent pressure of the real world surrounding and penetrating the phenomenal world, but in the total abandonment of eschatology and consequent impoverishment of the Church’s life. But in the Fourth Gospel the intensity and reality of the hope are retained, while the particular Jewish colouring and schemes of thought are quietly dropped, with a few exceptions.
In this Gospel ‘eternal life’ is the principal category under which the subject of immortality falls to be considered. The most important group of passages is in the 6th chapter. Here our Lord, after the miracle of the loaves, and evidently, in the mind of the author of the Gospel, explaining the significance of the miracle, claims that He is the living bread come down from heaven. Those who eat of this bread live for ever. Continuing to explain the saying, our Lord add
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Immortality,
ἀθανασία. The deathless state which stands in contrast to the mortality of man, and which the 'mortal' will 'put on' when 'changed.' 1 Corinthians 15:53,54 . God only has in Himself immortality, being the fountain and source of life for all things. 1 Timothy 6:16 .In Romans 2:7 and 2 Timothy 1:10 the word is ἀφθαρσία, not 'immortality,' but 'incorruption.'
The immortality of the soul is plainly revealed in scripture. God breathed into Adam's nostrils the breath of life, and he became a living soul (Genesis 2:7 ), which is quite different from anything said of a mere animal. The Lord, when showing the Sadducees that God is not the God of the dead, but of the living, added "for all live unto [1] him (Luke 20:38 ), though as to the body they may have died.
King James Dictionary - Immortality
IMMORTAL'ITY, n. The quality of never ceasing to live or exist exemption from death and annihilation life destined to endure without end as the immortality of the human soul.
--Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. 2 Timothy 1
1. Exemption from oblivion. 2. Perpetuity existence not limited as the immortality of a corporation.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Conditional Immortality
The view that immortality is given only to those Christians who believe in Christ. The rest are destroyed and do not exist. Some adherents to conditional immortality believe that the wicked will be punished in hell for a period proportional to their sins and then they are annihilated.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Immortality
A state which has no end; the impossibility of dying. It is applied to God, who is absolutely immortal, 1 Timothy 1:17 . and to the human soul, which is only hypothetically immortal; as God, who at first gave it, can, if he pleases, deprive us of our existence.
See SOUL.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Immortality
In God, is underived and absolute: "who only hath immorality." In creatures, it is dependent upon the will of God. The immortality of the soul is argued from its boundless desires and capacities, is unlimited improvement, its desert of future punishment or reward, etc. All arguments, however, are unsatisfying without the testimony of Scripture. Christ "hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel," 2 Timothy 1:10 : the immortal blessedness of Christians, including the resurrection of the body, is by virtue of their union with Christ, Joshua 14:15 . The everlasting woe of the wicked, the punishment of their sins, runs parallel with the eternal life of the redeemed, Matthew 25:46 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Immortality
Perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Genesis 5:22,24 ; 25:8 ; 37:35 ; 47:9 ; 49:29 , Compare Hebrews 11:13-16 ; Exodus 3:6 , Compare Matthew 22:23 ). It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books (Isaiah 14:9 ; Psalm 17:15 ; 49:15 ; 73:24 ). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews. With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was "brought to light" (2 Timothy 1:10 ; 1 Corinthians 15 ; 2 co 5:1-6 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 ).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Immortal, Immortality
1: ἀθανασία (Strong's #110 — Noun Feminine — athanasia — ath-an-as-ee'-ah ) lit., "deathlessness" (a, negative, thanatos, "death"), is rendered "immortality" in 1 Corinthians 15:53,54 , of the glorified body of the believer; 1 Timothy 6:16 , of the nature of God. Moulton and Miligan (Vocab.) show that in early times the word had the wide connotation of freedom from death; they also quote Ramsay (Luke the Physician, p. 273), with reference to the use of the word in sepulchral epitaphs. In a papyrus writing of the sixth century, "a petitioner says that he will send up 'unceasing (athanatous)' hymns to the Lord Christ for the life of the man with whom he is pleading." In the NT, however, athanasia expresses more than deathlessness, it suggests the quality of the life enjoyed, as is clear from 2 Corinthians 5:4 ; for the believer what is mortal is to be "swallowed up of life."
Note: The adjective aphthartos, translated "immortal" in 1 Timothy 1:17 , AV, does not bear that significance, it means "incorruptible." So with the noun aphtharsia, "incorruption," translated "immortality," in the AV of Romans 2:7 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 . See CORRUPT , B, No. 3, and C, No. 2.

Sentence search

Immortality - The quality of never ceasing to live or exist exemption from death and annihilation life destined to endure without end as the Immortality of the human soul. ...
--Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and Immortality to light through the gospel. Perpetuity existence not limited as the Immortality of a corporation
Immortal - See Immortality...
Immortality - Immortality
Conditional Immortality - The view that Immortality is given only to those Christians who believe in Christ. Some adherents to conditional Immortality believe that the wicked will be punished in hell for a period proportional to their sins and then they are annihilated
Athanasy - ) The quality of being deathless; Immortality
Immortality - IMMORTAL, Immortality...
Strictly and properly speaking, this can only be applied to JEHOVAH in his threefold character of person; for of Him, it is justly said, "who only hath Immortality. " (1 Timothy 6:16) But in Him, and by Him, and from Him, the church is said to have rendered to it "glory and honour and Immortality, eternal life. " (Romans 2:7) But then, the striking and essential difference is here; JEHOVAH hath Immortality in himself. Of what nature or kind that Immortality is, which distinguisheth the state or existence of the miserable in hell, Scripture hath not said
Immortality - Humans may be considered immortal only insofar as Immortality is the gift of God. In Romans 2:7 , Paul says, “To those who by patiently doing good seek for glory and honor and Immortality, he will give eternal life” (NRSV). Paul also explained that the perishable nature of human life will put on the imperishable and that the mortal nature of human life will put on Immortality. ...
Thus, eternal life is not ours because we have the inherent power to live forever; eternal life and Immortality are ours only because God chooses to give them to us. Most of the time, we are given Immortality after death
Incorruption, - When this takes place, and the mortal shall have put on Immortality, death will be swallowed up in victory! 1 Corinthians 15:42-54 . In Romans 2:7 , and 2 Timothy 1:10 the word is the same as the above, and should be translated 'incorruption' instead of 'immortality
Immortality, - God only has in Himself Immortality, being the fountain and source of life for all things. In Romans 2:7 and 2 Timothy 1:10 the word is ἀφθαρσία, not 'immortality,' but 'incorruption. '...
The Immortality of the soul is plainly revealed in scripture
Unprepared - Not prepared by holiness of life for the event of death and a happy Immortality
Eternity - ) Condition which begins at death; Immortality
Immortal - Thus the principle of Immortality in differently communicated according to the will of him who can render any creature immortal, by prolonging its life; who can confer Immortality on the body of man, together with his soul; and will do so at the resurrection
Immortality - The Immortality of the soul is argued from its boundless desires and capacities, is unlimited improvement, its desert of future punishment or reward, etc. Christ "hath brought life and Immortality to light through the gospel," 2 Timothy 1:10 : the immortal blessedness of Christians, including the resurrection of the body, is by virtue of their union with Christ, Joshua 14:15
Theodicy - ) That department of philosophy which treats of the being, perfections, and government of God, and the Immortality of the soul
Phenix - Hence, an emblem of Immortality
Mortal - See Anthropology ; Immortality
Cononites - He taught that the body never lost its form; that its matter alone was subject to corruption and decay, and was to be restored when this mortal shall put on Immortality
Immortality - The Bible affirms that only God by nature has Immortality (1 Timothy 6:16 ; cf. ...
The concept of Immortality is present in the Old Testament, but there is no Hebrew word for it. In Proverbs 12:28 (NASB)—"In the way of righteousness is life, and in its pathway there is no death"—immortality (as the word is translated in the NIV) is, literally, the Hebrew phrase "no-death" ( al-mawet ). ...
The New Testament writers present the idea of Immortality with (1) the nouns aphtharsia [ Romans 2:7 ; 1 Corinthians 15:42,50 , 53-54 ; Ephesians 6:24 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 ); and athanasia [ 1 Corinthians 15:53-54 ; 1 Timothy 6:16 ); (2) the adjective aphthartos [ Romans 1:23 ; 1 Corinthians 9:25 ; 15:52 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 1 Peter 1:4 ); and (3) the phrase "eternal life" (lit. Immortality is a corollary to references to existence after death or to the resurrection in general. ...
It is Paul who gives the clearest explanations of Immortality. ...
First Corinthians 15:35-57 contains the most lengthy discussion of Immortality, but is actually only a corollary to Paul's affirmation of the resurrection. Indeed, Paul assumes that Immortality as a permanent, incorruptible, never-ending state and life not only await the Christian after death but is actually the present possession of the believer. Because Immortality is now obscured in corruptible bodies, changes will occur. Believers will have appropriately different bodies; their Immortality will be evident. Moreland, Immortality: The Other Side of Death ; M. Harris, Raised Immortal: Resurrection and Immortality in the New Testament ; idem, From Grave to Glory ; G. , Resurrection, Immortality and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism
Uncorruptness - The Revised Version renders ‘incorruption’ not only in each of the four verses in 1 Corinthians 15, but in Romans 2:7 and 2 Timothy 1:10, where the Authorized Version has ‘immortality. ’ The Revised Version is correct in this consistent use of ‘incorruptible’ for ἄφθαρτος, and more correct than the Authorized Version in using ‘incorruption’ for ἀφθαρσία in those cases where the latter has ‘immortality,’ which properly represents ἀθανασία (1 Corinthians 15:53-54, 1 Timothy 6:16). ’...
It may be noted that when the two terms ‘incorruptibility’ (ἀφθαρσία) and ‘immortality’ (ἀθανασία) are set side by side in 1 Corinthians 15:53-54, we are not to understand the former as applying to the body and the latter to the soul. If we read of God in 1 Timothy 6:16 ‘who only hath Immortality,’ we also read in 1 Timothy 1:17 that He is ‘the King eternal, incorruptible, invisible. Paul has no doctrine of the natural Immortality’ of the soul; and in 1 Corinthians 15 he is dealing specifically with the resurrection of the body, so that ‘incorruptibility’ and ‘immortality’ are practically synonymous
Breath of Life - See Life ; Immortality
Aristotelians - They were uncertain as to the Immortality of the soul
Life - ); also used figuratively (1) for Immortality (Hebrews 7:16 ); (2) conduct or manner of life (Romans 6:4 ); (3) spiritual life or salvation (John 3:16,17,18,36 ); (4) eternal life (Matthew 19:16,17 ; John 3:15 ); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life (John 1:4 ; 5:26,39 ; 11:25 ; 12:50 )
Great White Brotherhood - A New Age term designating the spiritual organization of Ascended Masters (great spiritual leaders of this world and other worlds) who have moved from the mortal realm to the Astral Plane (another dimension) and exist in a state of Immortality
Preexistence of Souls - 185?-254?) derived the doctrine of the preexistence of souls from his understanding...
of the nature of the soul and held the doctrine to be a necessary corollary of the Immortality of souls. The consensus of the early church as evidenced by the Apostle's Creed is that the Christian hope is the resurrection of the body, not the inherent Immortality of souls. See Immortality ; Resurrection ; Soul
Holy Communion, Effects of - Holy Communion, partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, unites us with Him, increases our love of Him, obtains forgiveness for venial sin, remission of punishment incurred by sin, preservation from future sin, quieting of the violent passions of anger and lust; it acts as healing remedy of body and soul and pledges us a happy Immortality
Effects of Holy Communion - Holy Communion, partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, unites us with Him, increases our love of Him, obtains forgiveness for venial sin, remission of punishment incurred by sin, preservation from future sin, quieting of the violent passions of anger and lust; it acts as healing remedy of body and soul and pledges us a happy Immortality
Immortality - The subject of Immortality may be treated from many points of view-doctrinal, metaphysical, biological. For the previous development of the belief in Immortality the reader is referred to the articles dealing with this and the related subjects in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Dict. General discussion of the place occupied in religious thought at the beginning of the Apostolic Age by the belief in Immortality. Pauline doctrine of Immortality. Petrine doctrine of Immortality. Johannine doctrine of Immortality. Apostolic Fathers’ doctrine of Immortality. The subject of Immortality was, so to speak, in the air. At the same time, along a totally different line of development, the Jew had arrived at a conception of Immortality which was bound up with a spiritual conception of God and man’s relation to God. In communion with God lay both the essence of Immortality and its guarantee for faith. In Alexandrian Judaism, as represented by Philo, we have the blending of the Platonic doctrine of Immortality, based on the distinction between the higher and the lower elements in man, with the Pharisaic assertion of the value of the individual to God and its grasp of the eternal character of the soul’s communion with God. Hence we can discern at least three distinct elements at work in the formation of current ideas about Immortality. This Eastern, and especially Persian, element which entered so largely into the Mystery-cults of the century before and the century following the birth of Christ, laid stress upon the deliverance of the soul, by purificatory rites and by asceticism, from the bondage of the body, and thus pointed a way to ultimate salvation and Immortality by union with the god. Paul’s doctrine of Immortality. ...
(2) The Platonic element in Alexandrian Judaism, modified by Stoic influence, laying stress on the eternity of Reason, and hence offering an abstract form of Immortality in which the continuance of personal identity was not involved. ...
(3) The Pharisaic doctrine of Immortality with its insistence on the permanence of personal identity preserved in communion with God. The place of the body was not clearly defined, as Pharisaic Judaism held the Immortality of the soul in combination with various forms of eschatological expectation, in which a body, spiritual or quasi-spiritual, was involved. ...
But the form which the doctrine of Immortality took in primitive Christianity is by no means explained when we have examined the conditions of thought under which it grew up. ...
When we come to the historical account of the doctrine of Immortality in the 1st cent. ‘The resurrection of the body and the life of the world to come’ is the phrase which crystallizes the growth of the idea of Immortality for the popular mind during the early stages of Christianity. Paul had no doctrine of Immortality. Paul’s attitude towards Immortality will be to trace the bearings of his theory of salvation as it is worked out in Romans, the most definitely soteriological of his Epistles. Paul says that in the revelation of God’s righteous judgment He will render eternal life to all those who are seeking glory and honour and Immortality (ἀφθαρσία); in Romans 5:2, there is the justified boast in the hope of the glory of God; in Romans 5:17, those who receive the gift of righteousness shall reign in life; in Romans 8:11, the mortal bodies of those indwelt by the Spirit are to be quickened. Paul, then, Immortality is not ἀθανασία, but ἀφθαρσία. Paul’s teaching on this subject is the corporate nature of the future existence, in strong contrast to the Immortality presented by Plotinus and the later Neo-Platonists-an Immortality of ‘the Alone with the Alone. ’ The indwelling Spirit of Christ is the ground of unity, as well as the assurance of Immortality; the future life of bliss is the life of a blessed community of glorified persons, united to Christ and like Him morally and spiritually, finding their joy in the activities of eternal life, doing the will of God. -For the sake of convenience, the general teaching of the Catholic Epistles and the Pastorals is taken together with the Petrine doctrine of Immortality. If the credal interpretation be accepted, the passage is evidence rather for an intermediate state than for any clearly defined doctrine of the Immortality of the soul. But he clearly looks forward to a σαββατισμός for the people of God, a heavenly city, and a corporate Immortality, all based upon the present risen life of Christ. The dogmatic conception of abstract Immortality-what Friedrich von Hügel (Eternal Life) calls ‘quantitative Immortality’-perhaps appears in 1 Timothy 6:16 : ὁ μόνος ἔχων ἀθανασίαν. ’ But the two most characteristic passages in this Epistle are 2 Timothy 1:10, where our Saviour Jesus Christ has annulled death and brought life and Immortality (ἀφθαρσίαν) to light, through the gospel; and 2 Timothy 2:10, where speaking of ‘the elect’ the writer says ‘that they too may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. Hence ‘quantitative Immortality’ does not appear. Immortality is ‘qualitative’ wholly here, with no thought of duration. ...
In this Gospel ‘eternal life’ is the principal category under which the subject of Immortality falls to be considered
Justice, Original - This primitive state before the Fall included the gift of sanctifying grace, exemption from concupiscence, bodily Immortality, habitual infused science, and the non-necessity of suffering
Original Justice - This primitive state before the Fall included the gift of sanctifying grace, exemption from concupiscence, bodily Immortality, habitual infused science, and the non-necessity of suffering
Immortality - The wicked will likewise be resurrected to Immortality but they will be cast into hell for eternity
Immortal, Immortality - , "deathlessness" (a, negative, thanatos, "death"), is rendered "immortality" in 1 Corinthians 15:53,54 , of the glorified body of the believer; 1 Timothy 6:16 , of the nature of God. " So with the noun aphtharsia, "incorruption," translated "immortality," in the AV of Romans 2:7 ; 2 Timothy 1:10
Indians, Babine - They believed in Immortality and buried their dead
Imperishable - One of the Greek terms translated imperishable is also rendered Immortality (Romans 2:7 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 )
Babine Indians - They believed in Immortality and buried their dead
Ambrosia - ) The fabled food of the gods (as nectar was their drink), which conferred Immortality upon those who partook of it
Immortality - Together with the question of the existence of God, it forms from a practical point of view the most momentous question with which philosophy has to deal; for the practical attitude of a man towards the present life is necessarily affected by the position he takes respecting Immortality. Immortality in the strict sense forms the foundation of the whole scheme of Christian faith. Following his lead, Catholic philosophers, with few exceptions, have rightly maintained the demonstrability of Immortality without appeal to revelation
Soul - Scripture ascribes to man alone understanding, conscience, the knowledge of God, wisdom, Immortality, and the hope of future everlasting happiness. ...
The Immortality of the soul is a fundamental doctrine of revealed religion. In the gospel "life and Immortality," and the worth of immortal souls, are fully brought to light, Matthew 16:26 1 Corinthians 15:45-57 2 Timothy 1:10
Life - In the Bible, is either natural, Genesis 3:17 ; spiritual, that of the renewed soul, Romans 8:6 ; or eternal, a holy and blissful Immortality, John 3:36 Romans 6:23
Immortality - The doctrine of Immortality is taught in the Old Testament
False Humanitarianism - It rejects, commonly, any consideration of God, of God's Will expressed in Revelation, and the Immortality of the soul
Humanitarianism, False - It rejects, commonly, any consideration of God, of God's Will expressed in Revelation, and the Immortality of the soul
Dead, Book of the - The cult of Osiris was connected with the Egyptian belief in Immortality
Soul - The Immortality of the soul may be argued from its vast capacities, boundless desires, great improvements, dissatisfaction with the present state, and desire of some kind of religion. Baxter on the Soul; Locke on the Understanding; Watts's Ontology; Jackson on Matter and Spirit; Flavel on the Soul; More's Immortality of the Soul; Hartley on Man; Bp. 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97; Drew's Essay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul
Lucianists - He denied the Immortality of the soul, asserting it to be material
Bestiaries - The lamb or sheep represented the soul or the believer; the phoenix, Christ or Immortality; the serpent, the devil; the lion, either the devil or Christ
Bestiary - The lamb or sheep represented the soul or the believer; the phoenix, Christ or Immortality; the serpent, the devil; the lion, either the devil or Christ
Epicureans - They denied that God governs the world, or in the least condescends to interfere with creatures below: they denied the Immortality of the soul, and the existence of angels; they maintained that happiness consisted in pleasure; but some of them placed this pleasure in the tranquillity and joy of the mind arising from the practice of moral virtue, and which is thought by some to have been the true principle of Epicurus; others understood him in the gross sense, and placed all their happiness in corporeal pleasure
Baptism - It is administered in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and is a visible and public profession of faith in Christ and his salvation, of vital union with him, of the obligation to live a new life according to his precepts and in his service, and of the expectation of sharing in his glorious and heavenly Immortality
Pelagianism - Pelagius, of whom little is known, began the spread of his false doctrines at Rome, c405 His teachings might be summarized as follows: God did not give Adam Immortality, nor did Adam need grace to avoid sin
Eschatology - In fact, so silent is the Hebrew literature on the subject, that some have held that personal Immortality was not included among the beliefs of the Hebrews. Such beliefs were unquestionably the survivals of that primitive Animism which was the first representative of both psychology and a developed belief in personal Immortality. In the midst of this prophetic thought there was occasionally a reference to individual Immortality, but such a belief was not utilized for the purpose of inculcating right conduct. Yet the new and higher conception of the worth of the individual and his relation with Jehovah paved the way to a clearer estimate of his Immortality. ...
The later books of the Canon (Psalms 49:1-20 ; Psalms 73:18-25 ) refer more frequently to Immortality, both of good and of evil men, but continue to deny activity to the dead in Sheol ( Job 14:21 ; Job 26:6 , Psalms 88:12 ; Psalms 94:17 ; Psalms 115:17 , Ecclesiastes 9:10 ), and less distinctly ( Isaiah 26:19 ) refer to a resurrection, although with just what content it is not possible to state. OT ethics was not concerned with Immortality. ...
The idea of individual Immortality is also highly developed in the apocalypses. The Pharisees believed in Immortality and the entrance of the souls of the righteous into ‘new bodies’ (Jos. At the same time there is a strongly marked tendency to regard the expected Messianic kingdom which begins with the Day of Judgment as super-mundane and temporary, and personal Immortality in heaven becomes the highest good. The Sadducees disbelieved in any Immortality whatsoever. The rewards and punishments of Immortality have been utilized as motives for morality. The doctrine of the eternity of punishment has been denied in the interest of so-called second or continued probation, restorationism, and conditional Immortality. The tendency, however, has resulted in a disposition to reduce Christian theology to general morality based upon religion, and has been to a large extent buttressed by that scepticism or agnosticism regarding individual Immortality which marks modern thought. ...
Such a reinstatement will include two fundamental doctrines: (1) that of individual Immortality as a new phase in the great process of development of the Individual which is to be observed in life and guaranteed by the resurrection of Jesus. In a word, therefore, the modern equivalent of Jewish eschatology for practical purposes is that of personal (though truly social) Immortality and a completion of the development of society
Epicureans - They denied a divine Providence and man's Immortality, and believed there was no after-judgment, and no soul but what was material, like the body and perishable with it at death
Sadducees - 4) that they denied the Immortality of the soul. The Sadducees did not deny the Immortality of the soul. But they lingered in the past, the period when the belief in Immortality was vague, shadowy, and had not yet become a working motive for goodness. They did not accept the developed faith in Immortality which was part and parcel of the Pharisaic teaching regarding the Kingdom of God
Noah - Ut-napishtim was translated to Immortality; and this is perhaps referred to in Genesis 6:9 b (cf
Attributes of God - The negative are such as remove from him whatever is imperfect in creatures: such are infinity, immutability, Immortality, &c
Regeneration - Only if God's Spirit regenerate the soul now will the same Spirit quicken to Immortality and glory the body hereafter (Romans 8:11; Philippians 3:21)
Tritheists - Conon held, on the contrary, that the body never lost its form; that its matter alone was subject to corruption and decay, and was consequently to be restored when this mortal shall put on Immortality
Talapoins - They believe in a universal pervading spirit, and in the Immortality and transmigration of the soul; but they extend this last doctrine not only to animals but to vegetables and rocks
Kindness - It is God’s mercy and God’s love and God’s grace flowing through time and through eternity, as broad as the race, as deep as man’s need, as long as man’s Immortality
Job - His testimony to Immortality as the mainstay of his patience is the climax of the prayers of the Church in the services over the departed
Essenes - Much exotic superstitious idolatry was mingled with their belief in Yahweh and in Immortality
Birds in Symbolism -
The peacock, believed incorruptible, represents Immortality, and in later art, pride
Athanasius, Saint 2 May - (Greek: Immortality) ...
Confessor, Doctor of the Church (296-373), Bishop of Alexandria, called Father of Orthodoxy, as the chief champion of belief in the Divinity of Christ, born and died Alexandria
Symbolism, Birds in -
The peacock, believed incorruptible, represents Immortality, and in later art, pride
Pre-Existence of Souls - ’...
Wordsworth, Intimations of Immortality...
The idea expressed in these lines has been prominent in many religions cultured and crude alike
Baptism For the Dead - ...
Yet even as a Pharisee Paul could not conceive a disembodied Immortality, leaving the surviving personality incomplete (see 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 )
Academics - The consequence of this conclusion was absolute scepticism: hence the existence of God, the Immortality of the soul, the preferableness of virtue to vice, were all held as uncertain
Passing Through the Fire - ...
Oh, thou blessed Jesus! what unspeakable mercies hast thou bestowed upon thy people in bringing life and Immortality to light by thy gospel! To what a deplorable state is our nature universally reduced by the fall; and how great are our privileges in the Lord in having raised up our poor nature from such gross ignorance and sin! See Moloch...
Original Sin - As father of the human race, he was endowed with Immortality, with reason and will in perfect control of the lower appetites, and with Divine grace enabling him to know and serve God in a manner far beyond the capacity of his natural powers, and therefore in a state above nature: the supernatural state
Heaven - The existence of heaven is denied by atheists, materialists, pantheists, and those rationalists who deny the existence of God and the Immortality of the soul
Sin, Original - As father of the human race, he was endowed with Immortality, with reason and will in perfect control of the lower appetites, and with Divine grace enabling him to know and serve God in a manner far beyond the capacity of his natural powers, and therefore in a state above nature: the supernatural state
King of Kings And Lord of Lords - 22, 51), who recalls the Babylonian origin of the title, finds some trace of the old Babylonian astrology in the further course of the passage, ‘who only hath Immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach’ (cf
Destruction (2) - In profane authors ἀπώλεια invariably means, as its derivation from ἀπόλλυμι implies, extinction, annihilation; and this fact has been largely used by the advocates of the Conditional Immortality theory in support of their contention
Nemesius, Bishop of Emesa - Nemesius establishes the Immortality of the soul against the philosophers, vindicates free will, opposes fatalism, defends God's providence, and proves by copious examples the wisdom and goodness of the Deity
Soul - Scripture clearly teaches its Immortality
Levirate Law - In the earlier ages of Judaism there was no clear conception of personal Immortality; and the Levirate law was doubtless framed so that there might be the survival through posterity of the name of the representative of a family. In the resurrection, since they all had her, whose wife shall she be of the seven? Jesus in His answer to the Sadducees did not discuss the justice or injustice of the Levirate law, or examine the purpose of Moses in decreeing it; but, asserting that they had erred, not knowing the Scriptures or the power of God, He showed them that in the resurrection men neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven; and then He proceeded to declare that belief in Immortality is involved in our consciousness of the being of God
Mithraism - Mithraists believed in the Immortality of the soul, a place of punishment for the wicked, and a place of immortal bliss for the just
Libertines (2) - To this odious class belonged one Gruet, who denied the divinity of the Christian religion, the Immortality of the soul, the difference between moral good and evil, and rejected with disdain the doctrines that are held most sacred among Christians; for which impieties he was at last brought before the civil tribunal in the year 1550, and condemned to death
Philosophy - "...
Thales brought also from Egypt the doctrine of the Immortality of the soul
Hell - That there should exist a place of punishment as well as a place of reward for men after death is readily admitted by all who believe in the existence of God and the Immortality of the human soul
Christianity - Its miracles, its fulfillment of all prophecy, and its complete adaptation to meet man's deep spiritual needs, pardon, peace, holiness, life, Immortality for soul and body, are the only reasonable account to be given of its success
Enoch - Sir 44:16 ; Sir 49:14 , Hebrews 11:5 ) appears to have exerted a certain influence on the OT doctrine of Immortality (see Psalms 49:15 ; Psalms 73:24 )
Philosophy - The Pharisees were proud, vain, and boasting, like the Stoics; the Sadducees, who denied the Immortality of the soul, and the existence of spirits, freed themselves at once, like the Epicureans, from all solicitude about futurity: the Essenes were more moderate, more simple and religious, and therefore approached nearer to the Academics
Essenes (2) - The indications of incipient dualism which may be found in their abstinence from marriage and in other ascetic practices, find a parallel in their doctrine of Immortality, wherein they agreed with the Pharisees against the Sadducees as to the Immortality of the soul, but differed from the Pharisees in denying the resurrection of the body
Perdition - The advocates of annihilation and conditional Immortality appeal to the etymology of the word ἀπόλλυμι
Aphthartodocetae, a Sect of the Monophysites - This whole question is rather one of scholastic subtlety, though not wholly idle, and may be solved in this way: that the body of Christ, before the Resurrection, was similar in its constitution to the body of Adam before the Fall, containing the germ or possibility of Immortality and incorruptibility, but subject to the influence of the elements, and was actually put to death by external violence, but through the indwelling power of the sinless Spirit was preserved from corruption and raised again to an imperishable life, when—to use an ingenious distinction of St
Confidence - ’ He mentions, too, many wonderful gifts of God-‘life in Immortality, splendour in righteousness, truth in boldness, faith in confidence, and temperance in sanctification’ (xxxv
Teacher (2) - He reveals the truths concerning man’s true nature and destiny, and his relationship to God; and sheds an ineffable light upon all the dark and perplexing problems of life, death, and Immortality
Meditation - of God's word, Psa cxix; the value, powers, and Immortality of the soul, Mark 8:36 ; the noble, beautiful, and benevolent plan of the Gospel, 1 Timothy 1:11 ; the necessity of our personal interest in and experience of its power, John 3:3 ; the depravity of our nature, and the freedom of divine grace in choosing, adopting, justifying, and sanctifying us, 1 Corinthians 6:11 ; the shortness, worth, and swiftness of time, James 4:14 ; the certainty of death, Hebrews 9:27 ; the resurrection and judgment to come, 1 Corinthians 15:50 , &c
Ecclesiastes - Immortality is not denied in 3:19 sqq
Fo - ...
The interior doctrine of this sect, which is kept secret from the common people, teaches a philosophical atheism, which admits neither rewards nor punishments after death; and believes not in a providence, or the Immortality of the soul; acknowledges no other God than the void, or nothing; and which makes the supreme happiness of mankind to consist in a total inaction, an entire insensibility, and a perfect quietude
Transfiguration of Christ - As a proof that the bodies of good men shall be so refined and changed, as, like Elias, to live in a state of Immortality, and in the presence of God
Pharisees - 3 [9]) and in Immortality of both good and evil persons (War 2. These included belief in Immortality, angels and demons, spirits, and divine sovereignty. For example, belief in Immortality resulted in expanded messianic and eschatological views
Heaven - The degree of its probability will be determined by one’s general view as to the nature of Immortality
Wisdom, the, of Solomon, - The first part contains the praise of wisdom as the source of Immortality, in contrast with the teaching of sensualists; and next the praise of wisdom as the guide of practical and intellectual life, the stay of princes, and the interpreter of the universe
Tree of Life - The Genesis story (Genesis 2:9; Genesis 3:22) intimates that there are two objects which man would grasp at-knowledge and Immortality. It has been maintained, however, that in Genesis 2:9 the tree of life is a later addition, and was inserted only when the idea of the under world had suffered such a change that Immortality became an object of desire (K
Deists - ...
Some, he observed, professed to believe the Immortality of the soul; others denied both this doctrine and that of providence. Those who, having right apprehensions concerning the nature, attributes, and all-governing providence of God, seem also to have some notion of his moral perfections; though they consider them as transcendent, and such in nature and degree, that we can form no true judgment, nor argue with any certainty concerning them: but they deny the Immortality of human soul; alleging that men perish at death, and that the present life is the whole of human existence
Hope - In him our flesh is said to rest in hope," when returning to the dust; and all our high expectations of life and Immortality are expressed, in "looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the Great God, and our Saviour, Jesus Christ
Deists - Such as believe in the natural attributes of God, and his all-governing providence; yet deny the Immortality of the soul, or any future state
Soul - ; see Immortality). The endlessness of the soul’s final retribution is not simply an inference from the soul’s Immortality, but is exegetically established from Matthew 25:46 etc. Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; F. Myers, Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death; Piat, Destinée de l’homme; Welldon, The Hope of Immortality; Martineau, Study of Religion, bk. ‘Soul,’ ‘Eschatology,’ ‘Immortality of the Soul’ in JE Soul - ; see Immortality). The endlessness of the soul’s final retribution is not simply an inference from the soul’s Immortality, but is exegetically established from Matthew 25:46 etc. Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; F. Myers, Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death; Piat, Destinée de l’homme; Welldon, The Hope of Immortality; Martineau, Study of Religion, bk. ‘Soul,’ ‘Eschatology,’ ‘Immortality of the Soul’ in JE Eternity - ...
The idea of eternity, like the idea of Immortality, was probably beyond the range of early Jewish thought. 364–398; Salmond, The Christian Doctrine of Immortality; Orelli, Die hebr
Druids - We know but little as to their peculiar doctrines, only that the believed the Immortality of the soul, and, as is generally also supposed, the transmigration of it to other bodies; though a late author makes it appear highly probable they did not believe this last, at least not in the sense of the Pythagoreans
Love Feast - 10): ...
‘We give Thee thanks, Holy Father, for Thy Holy Name which Thou hast made to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and Immortality, which Thou hast made known unto us through Thy Servant Jesus; Thine is the glory for ever and ever
Affection - They have considerable influence on men in the common concerns of life; how much more, then, should they operate in those important objects that relate to the Divine Being, the Immortality of the soul, and the happiness or misery of a future state! The religion of the most eminent saints has always consisted in the exercise of holy affections
Eden, Garden of - Within the enclosure were many trees useful for food; also the tree of life, whose fruit conferred Immortality, and the tree of knowledge, which gave power to discriminate between things profitable and things hurtful, or, between right and wrong
Eternal Punishment - ...
(3) In close association, and lending support to the theory of annihilation, is the doctrine of ‘conditional Immortality’ or ‘life in Christ. ’ According to this theory the object of revelation is ‘to change man’s nature, not only from sin to holiness, but from mortality to Immortality. Davidson, The Doctrine of Last Things; Salmond, The Christian Doctrine of Immortality. —(C) In support of annihilation: Row, Future Retribution; Stokes, Conditional Immortality; E
Corrupt, Verb And Adjective. Corruption, Corruptible, Incorruption, Incorruptible - 2, is used (a) of the resurrection body, 1 Corinthians 15:42,50,53,54 ; (b) of a condition associated with glory and honor and life, including perhaps a moral significance, Romans 2:7 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 ; this is wrongly translated "immortality" in the AV; (c) of love to Christ, that which is sincere and undiminishing, Ephesians 6:24 (translated "uncorruptness"). See Immortality , SINCERITY
Universalism (2) - ’ His own inclination was towards a doctrine of conditional Immortality, but he left his eschatology somewhat in the dark. Some have taught conditional Immortality (E. White, Life in Christ, 1875; Petavel [4], The Problem of Immortality, 2 vols. Paul’s teaching is eternal punishment or rather a certain type of conditional-immortality doctrine. of Immortality, 628; J
Destruction - ’ This fact is used by the advocates of conditional Immortality in favour of the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked, but it is by no means clear that the words connote extinction of consciousness
Psychology - Man is the unity of spirit and matter; hence the hope of Immortality involves the belief in the resurrection of the body, even though in St
Heracleon, a Gnostic - There is a threefold order of creatures: First the Hylic or material formed of the ὕλη which is the substance of the devil incapable of Immortality. Secondly the psychic or animal belonging to the kingdom of the Demiurge; their ψυχή is naturally mortal but capable of being clothed with Immortality and it depends on their disposition (θέσις) whether they become sons of God or children of the devil; and thirdly the pneumatic or spiritual who are by nature of the divine essence though entangled with matter and needing redemption to be delivered from it. When his ignorance is removed he and his redeemed subjects will enjoy Immortality in a place raised above the material world
Eternal Everlasting - 1 John 5:11), must be as enduring as the Divine Immortality. Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality, Edinburgh, 1895, p
Enoch - ...
"Translation" implies a sudden removal from mortality to Immortality without death, such as shall pass over the living saints at Christ's coming (1 Corinthians 15:51-52), of whom Enoch is a type
Transfiguration, the - ...
It furnishes also to us all a striking proof of the unity of the Old and New Testaments, for personal Immortality, and the mysterious intercommunion of the visible and invisible worlds
Paradise (2) - of Immortality, 346 ff
Adam - Not that it could be a matter of more difficulty to Omnipotence to create man than any thine beside; but principally, it is probable, because he was to be the lord of the whole and therefore himself accountable to the original proprietor; and was to be the subject of another species of government, a moral administration; and to be constituted an image of the intellectual and moral perfections, and of the Immortality of the common Maker. ...
The sentiment expressed in Wis_2:23 , is an evidence that, in the opinion of the ancient Jews, the image of God in man comprised Immortality also. "For God created man to be immortal, and made him to be an image of his own eternity:" and though other creatures were made capable of Immortality, and at least the material human frame, whatever we may think of the case of animals, would have escaped death, had not sin entered the world; yet, without admitting the absurdity of the "natural Immortality" of the human soul, that essence must have been constituted immortal in a high and peculiar sense which has ever retained its prerogative of continued duration amidst the universal death not only of animals, but of the bodies of all human beings. There appears also a manifest allusion to man's Immortality, as being included in the image of God, in the reason which is given in Genesis for the law which inflicts death on murderers: "Whose sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his, blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man
Life - The righteous have Immortality as their inheritance, whilst the wicked shall be brought to judgment and shall be destroyed (chs. Note also, it is eternal life as predicated of these that is principally, if not exclusively, in view in the Evangelical teaching there is little or nothing on human Immortality in the widest sense. For the rest, the Apocalypse should be noticed for its use of such images as ‘crown of life,’ ‘book of life,’ ‘fountain,’ ‘river,’ and ‘water of life,’ and the ‘book of life’ (which we also meet with elsewhere) all embodying the Christian hope of Immortality
Fall - Finally, lest the man should use his newly-acquired insight to secure the boon of Immortality by partaking of the tree of life, he was expelled from the garden, which appears to be conceived as still existing, though barred to human approach by the cherubim and the flaming sword. The tree of life plays no real part in the story except in Genesis 3:22 ; Genesis 3:24 ; and its introduction there creates embarrassment; for if this tree also was forbidden, the writer’s silence regarding the prohibition is inexplicable, and if it was not forbidden, can we suppose that the Divine prerogative of Immortality was placed within man’s reach during the period of his probation? The hypothesis of a twofold recension of the Paradise story, while relieving this difficulty, would be of interest as showing that the narrative had undergone a development in Hebrew literature; but it does not materially aid the exegesis of the passage
Theophilanthropists - We believe in the existence of God, in the Immortality of the soul
Religion - It affords us no intelligence as to the Immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and a future state of happiness and misery
Image - Man, as a spiritual nature, is self-conscious, personal, rational, free, capable of rising to the apprehension of general truths and laws, of setting ends of conduct before him, of apprehending right and wrong, good and evil, of framing ideas of God, infinity, eternity, Immortality, and of shaping his life in the light of such conceptions
Eternal Sin - Mark; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality, pp
Education - He spoke with authority and with finality on the truths which had perplexed the pagan world, the existence of God, the moral order, Immortality, the value of the present and of the future life
Restoration - ’ The Son of Man and Son of God has ‘thrown light’ not only upon the intimations of Immortality which existed in the heart of man, but also upon the problem as to future restoration, not so much by what He says as by His whole Personality, His revelation of and abiding relation to the unseen Father. Alleviations of the idea of eternal punishment such as that of ‘Conditional Immortality’ offend almost equally against the fundamental instincts of the human heart, which cannot think that the All-wise and All-loving has created any soul in His own image to prove but a waste and an abortion. of Immortality; Petavel, The Problem of Immortality (1892); Toy, Judaism and Christianity, ch
Dead, the - of Immortality, p. 166; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; Drummond, The Jewish Messiah; Stanton, The Jewish and the Christian Messiah; Luckock, After Death; Randles, After Death; Beet, Last Things; White, Life in Christ
Sadducees - Did they believe in the Immortality of the soul? According to Josephus, they did not. Josephus, he holds rightly enough, does not separate the questions of resurrection and Immortality, and represents for his Greek readers, to whom resurrection was an unfamiliar idea, the denial of the one as a denial of the other. It is not obvious how he can conclude that probably the Sadducees believed in the Immortality of the soul, after admitting that they did not believe in resurrection or in the departed becoming spirits
Art, Christian - With the emergence of the Church from the catacombs came also the beginnings of Christian sculpture, in sarcophagi of stone or marble adorned with carvings typifying belief in Immortality
Christian Art - With the emergence of the Church from the catacombs came also the beginnings of Christian sculpture, in sarcophagi of stone or marble adorned with carvings typifying belief in Immortality
Regeneration - " What a dreadful confession this for a man in his dying hours!...
Our blessed Lord, who brought life and Immortality to light by his Gospel, brought this doctrine of regeneration also, as a fundamental part of that Gospel, to the full and complete testimony of it in his conversation with Nicodemus the Jew
Job - It teaches the being and perfections of God, his creation of all things, and his universal providence; the apostasy and guilt of evil spirits and of mankind; the mercy of God, on the basis of a sacrifice, and on condition of repentance and faith, Job 33:27-30 42:6,8 ; the Immortality of the soul, and the resurrection of the body, Job 14:7-15 19:25-27
Sculpture - With the emergence of the Church from the catacombs came also the beginnings of Christian sculpture, in sarcophagi of stone or marble adorned with carvings typifying belief in Immortality
Life And Death - He anticipates a time when what is mortal shall be swallowed up of life (2 Corinthians 5:4), co-ordinates eternal life with Immortality (Romans 2:7; cf. It is because the Christian life is hid with Christ in God that it carries the assurance of Immortality within itself. And in this promise there lies enfolded the hope not only of the Immortality of the soul but of the resurrection of the body. But it does imply that, mortal as he was, he differed from the rest of the animal world in a potentiality of exemption from the law of decay and death, owing to the fact that he was a spiritual being made in God’s image; and that by his transgression he lost God’s proffered gift of physical Immortality (Romans 5:14, 1 Corinthians 15:21 f. Salmond, The Christian Doctrine of Immortality3, 1895, p
Ugarit - ...
The legend of Aqhat also treats the typical elements of the birth of a long-awaited son, the tragedy of death, and the possibility of Immortality. Anath promised Aqhat Immortality if he would give her the bow, but Aqhat refused and was killed
Honour - The two words ‘glory’ and ‘honour’ appear together in descriptions of the Exaltation of Christ-‘crowned with glory and honour’ (Hebrews 2:7; Hebrews 2:9, 2 Peter 1:17); of the bliss of the future world-‘glory, honour, and Immortality’ (Romans 2:7; Romans 2:10); of what the kings are to bring into the heavenly Jerusalem-‘They shall bring the glory and honour of the Gentiles (ἔθνων) into it’ (Revelation 21:26)
Life - When Jesus Christ returns, they will be raised from death to enjoy the resurrection life of glory, perfection, power and Immortality (Matthew 25:46; John 5:28-29; John 6:40; Romans 2:7; Romans 6:22; 1 Corinthians 15:42-44; 2 Corinthians 5:4; 2 Timothy 1:10; see RESURRECTION)
Immortality (2) - IMMORTALITY. —In the ordinary acceptation of the term ‘immortality’ connotes ‘endlessness. It will, however, be just, and will conduce to clearness, to separate these two considerations; to seek to determine, in the first instance, the teaching of Christ with regard to Immortality in the limited sense of a denial of cessation of existence at death; and, secondly, to review the much wider and more perplexed question of the permanence of this ‘immortal’ state. ...
The literal demands of these passages would be satisfied by what has sometimes been termed ‘racial’ or ‘collective’ Immortality; in which the race might be supposed to persist, while the individuals, each and all in turn, perished
Apocrypha - Affirmations, among other things, of the preexistence and Immortality of the soul indicate a considerable degree of Greek influence upon the author. Affirming the Immortality of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked, the author seeks to demonstrate that inspired reason, guided by the Law, is supreme ruler over the passions
Regeneration - In the time of Jesus, people believed already in a Divine power which would make them fit for an Immortality of bliss. There was intense interest in personal Immortality, and a belief that the way to this salvation and Immortality was that of initiation into the mysteries, involving mystic communion with the god. If, then, in the non-Jewish world Jesus was proclaimed as the Son of God, who had become incarnate, had died the sacrificial death, had risen from the dead and ascended into heaven, was coming again to give Immortality to His followers, it would be quite in accord with the religious ideas of the time to believe that an acceptance of these redemptive facts would constitute one a child of God, and would avail to secure the gifts of the Spirit, which would be the attestation of having passed from death unto life
Individual - This uncertainty regarding the place of the individual is made greater by the indistinctness, at least in the earlier books, of the hope of individual Immortality, which, however we may try to get round it, is essential to any high estimate of the worth of the individual. ...
The OT conception of the relation of the moral individual to God, moreover, necessarily reached out toward the hope of Immortality,—and that not merely as an extension of man’s desires beyond time, but as the just requirement of an individuality that defied time and lived by the eternal. Nor can it be said that in the Gospels, or anywhere else in Scripture, there is any metaphysical basis of a Platonic kind for a necessary individual Immortality
Death, Mortality - By dying Christ destroyed death and brought Immortality to light (2 Timothy 1:10 ). Then mortality will put on Immortality (1 Corinthians 15:53 )
Good - The Greek thinker, if he did hope for a future life, looked for the release of the soul from its imprisonment in the body-for a disembodied Immortality; but the Christian good includes not merely the survival of the soul in death, but resurrection-the restoration of the entire personality (Romans 8:23, 2 Corinthians 5:1-4, Philippians 3:21). While there are a few passages pointing towards universal restoration, there are others indicating eternal punishment, and some even on which has been based a theory of conditional Immortality
Death - 1 5, with its treatment of the attitude of the ungodly towards death (‘Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die’), of the problem of the early, untimely death of the good, and of Immortality in relation to the ungodly and the righteous; Sirach , in which no clear conception of Immortality appears, the best that can be said, to alleviate sorrow for the dead, being that ‘the dead is at rest’ ( John 8:51-52 ): in which also the fear of death is spoken of as besetting all ranks of men (40), and we are told who they are to whom death comes as a dread foe, and again who may welcome death as a friend (41)
Virtue - ...
(c) Christian virtue stands in contrast to Stoic virtue, inasmuch as the latter (1) is uninfluenced by Immortality, and (2) insists on the suppression of the emotions
Hell - In the Old Testament time, when as yet Christ had not "abolished death and brought life and Immortality to light through the gospel" (2 Timothy 1:10), death and the intermediate state represented by Hades suggested thoughts of gloom (as to Hezekiah, Isaiah 38:9-20), lit up however with gleams of sure hope from God's promises of the resurrection (Psalms 16:10-11; Psalms 17:15; Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2)
Atonement - The great God having made man, appointed to govern him by a wise and righteous law, wherein glory and honour, life and Immortality, are the designed rewards for perfect obedience; but tribulation and wrath, pain and death, are the appointed recompense to those who violate this law, Genesis 3:1-24 : Romans 2:6 ; Romans 2:16
Fuel - Has God so adorned these flowers and plants of the field, which retain their beauty and vigour but for a few days, and are then applied to some of the meanest purposes of life; and will he not much more clothe you who are the disciples of his own Son, who are capable of Immortality, and destined to the enjoyment of eternal happiness?...
Macrina, the Younger - 189), delivered the long discourse on the resurrection and Immortality of the soul which Gregory has recorded—more probably in his own than his dying sister's words—in the de Anima ac Resurrectione Dialogus , entitled τὰ Μακρίνια ( Opp
Time, Meaning of - Genesis teaches that this is intended to keep people from seizing Immortality and becoming like God (Genesis 3:22 ), to limit a person's lifetime in order to restrain and order the penchant for self-exaltation and violence (Genesis 6:3 ; Genesis 11:6 ). Rather than attempting to seize Immortality, humanity is advised to “remember your creator in the days of your youth, before the days of trouble come” (Ecclesiastes 12:1 : 1 NRSV; compare Ecclesiastes 11:8 )
Thessalonians, First And Second, Theology of - The answer, as Cullmann has so helpfully articulated, is not some vague Greek Immortality theory where the soul takes wings and is absorbed into the divine soul in the manner suggested by Plato. Cullmann, Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection from the Dead; R
Claims (of Christ) - of Immortality, p. of Immortality, 313–325; Robbins, A Christian Apologetic (1902), 59–87; Forrest, Authority of Christ (1906)
Resurrection - The belief of a general resurrection of the dead, which will come to pass at the end of the world, and will be followed with an Immortality either of happiness or misery, is an article of religion in common to Jews and Christians. Great general changes it will experience, as from corruption to incorruption, from mortality to Immortality; great changes of a particular kind will also take place, as its being freed from deformities and defects, and the accidental varieties produced by climate, aliments, labour, and hereditary diseases
Essenes - Their doctrine of Immortality was Hellenic, not Pharisaic
Roman Empire - It was ever instilling humanity, coldly commended by an impotent philosophy, among men and women whose infant ears had been habituated to the shrieks of dying gladiators; it was giving dignity to minds prostrated by years of despotism; it was nurturing purity and modesty, and enshrining the marriage bed in a sanctity long almost lost, and rekindling the domestic affections; substituting a calm and rational faith for worn out superstitions, gently establishing in the soul the sense of Immortality
Philosophists - The Immortality of the soul, so far from stimulating man to the practice of virtue, is nothing but a barbarous, desperate, fatal tenet, and contrary to all legislation
Marriage (ii.) - His teaching at this point is not an endorsement of the view that Immortality is to be without personal relations, but is rather a relegation of physical relations to physical conditions
Lake of Fire - But for a fuller discussion of this point see article Immortality. Salmond, The Christian Doctrine of Immortality4, 1901; R
Man - True believers, therefore, live a life of dependence on the promises; of regularity and obedience to God's word; of holy joy and peace; and have a hope full of Immortality
Feasts - ...
On Easter Sunday we celebrate our Saviour's victory over death and hell, when, having on the cross made an atonement for the sin of the world, he rose again from the grave, brought life and Immortality to light, and opened to all his faithful servants the way to heaven
Prophets - ...
Christ, of whom all the prophets bore witness, Luke 24:27,44 Acts 10:43 1 Peter 1:10-11 , is eminently THE PROPHET of his church in all ages, Deuteronomy 18:15-19 Acts 3:22-24 ; revealing to them, by his inspired servants, by himself, and by his Spirit, all we know of God and Immortality
Jews, Judaism - Related to this problem was the development of ideas latent in Hebrew Scripture on resurrection of the body, Immortality of the soul, and the concept of the afterlife. The Pharisees were strictly orthodox, holding to the authority of both the Torah and the oral tradition, and believing in resurrection and Immortality
Magi - From the beginning Zoroastrianism (see below) had included Immortality and the resurrection of the body as integral parts of its creed
Reserve - The Immortality of the soul is the presupposition of all His teaching about the love of the Heavenly Father for men, His children
God - Immortality
Evil - The second kind of evil, which we call natural evil, is either a necessary consequence of the former; as death, to a creature on whose nature Immortality was never conferred; and then it is no more properly an evil than the former; or else it is counterpoised, in the whole, with as great or greater good, as the afflictions and sufferings of good men, and then also it is not properly an evil; or else, lastly, it is a punishment; and then it is a necessary consequent of the third and last sort of evil, namely, moral evil
Pharisees - It was they who made the belief in Immortality and resurrection part of the common consciousness
Regeneration (2) - It deserves special mention, too, that in all the Synoptics (Mark 14:25, Matthew 26:29, Luke 22:16-18) the thought of the new covenant carries the mind forward to the new world in which it is to be consummated; the new religious relation to God, determined by Christ and His death, cannot be fully realized apart from Immortality. (1) There is in both the same outlook to Immortality; the Spirit in Paul which makes men children of God is also the earnest of a life which vanquishes death (Romans 8:11, 2 Corinthians 5:4 f. Paul spoke of baptism, however, as involving men in the death and resurrection of Jesus,—making them mysteriously participant in all that was meant by both, a death to sin and a life to God, with the assurance of Immortality at the heart of it,—he was not thinking of baptism as a sacrament which produced these effects as an opus operatum
Eternal Life (2) - Those who ‘by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honour and Immortality’ shall receive eternal life as a reward of the righteous judgment of God (Romans 2:7). Heaven, Immortality, Resurrection
Death - Unlike Greek philosophers who downplayed the significance of death by emphasizing the Immortality of the soul, the biblical writers affirmed that death is real
Restitution - Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality, 1895, pp
Tatianus - "We reject everything," he says, "which rests upon human opinion; we obey the commandments of God and follow the law of the Father of Immortality. At the fall man lost the spirit or highest nature, which had in it Immortality (c. Men, after the throwing away ( ἀποβολήν ) of Immortality; have conquered death by the death which is through faith (cf
Nativity of Christ - While the Pharisees undermined religion, on the one hand, by their vain traditions and wretched interpretations of the law, the Sadducees denied the Immortality of the soul, and overturned the doctrine of future rewards and punishments; so that between them the knowledge and power of true religion were entirely destroyed
Evil - Of all evils death is regarded as the greatest, and in Paul we find a painful shrinking from it (2 Corinthians 5:1-8); accordingly, it is evident how precious a comfort was the Christian hope of Immortality and resurrection (Romans 8:23-25)
Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life - The Epistle to the Romans reveals that God grants eternal life "to those who by persistence in doing good seek glory, honor, and Immortality" (2:7). Moreland, Immortality: The Other Side of Death ; A
Saviour (2) - Christ is Saviour, because He abolished death and brought life and Immortality to light through the gospel (2 Timothy 1:10); as Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ has an eternal Kingdom into which believers receive entrance (2 Peter 1:11). Anrich (Das antike Mysterienwesen in seinem Einfluss auf das Christenthum, 1894) pointed out how in the cult of the ‘Mysteries’ the promise of σωτηρία, in the sense of Immortality, plays a large role
Sadducees (2) - ...
The distinctive Sadducean doctrines are usually classed under three heads:—(1) They denied the resurrection, personal Immortality, and retribution in a future life
Ecclesiastes, the Book of - ...
This presumes the Immortality of the soul, which was more needed as a doctrine at the time when God, whose theocratic kingship Israel's self chosen king in some measure superseded, was withdrawing the extraordinary providences from whence the Mosaic law had drawn its sanctions of temporal reward or punishment
Judgment - The Gospel of Jesus Christ, which has brought life and Immortality to light, is the only sovereign antidote against this universal evil
Essenes - From the account given of the doctrines and institutions of this sect by Philo and Josephus, we learn that they believed in the Immortality of the soul; that they were absolute predestinarians; that they observed the seventh day with peculiar strictness; that they held the Scriptures in the highest reverence, but considered them as mystic writings, and expounded them allegorically; that they sent gifts to the temple, but offered no sacrifices; that they admitted no one into their society till after a probation of three years; that they lived in a state of perfect equality, except that they paid respect to the aged, and to their priests; that they considered all secular employment as unlawful, except that of agriculture; that they had all things in common, and were industrious, quiet, and free from every species of vice; that they held celibacy and solitude in high esteem; that they allowed no change of raiment till necessity required it; that they abstained from wine; that they were not permitted to eat but with their own sect; and that a certain portion of food was allotted to each person, of which they partook together, after solemn ablutions
Hebrews - This whole dispensation only prefigured that more perfect one which should come, and bring life and Immortality to light in his gospel, and make a full atonement for the sins of the world
Teaching - The teacher, on the other hand, while including these great truths in his doctrinal instruction, had many questions to face in view of the apocalyptic fancies and hopes so rife in contemporary Judaism and the Greek speculations concerning Immortality so widely propagated through the Hellenistic schools of religious philosophy. In Corinthians the Apostle deals with problems of individual Immortality raised through the grim fact of death among believers
Eschatology - In recent decades, however, some have questioned whether resurrection is compatible with another notion widely held since the first Christian centuries: the Immortality of the soul. In other words, belief in inherent Immortality of the soul tends to make one's eschatology spiritualistic and individualistic; belief in resurrection emphasizes eschatology's physical, historical, and corporate dimensions
Adoption - "To them who by patient continuance in well doing, seek for glory, and honour, and Immortality, eternal life
Deluge - ’ Gilgamesh of Uruk (Erech, Genesis 10:10 ), the hero of the epic, contrived to visit his ancestor Ut-napishtim, who had received the gift of Immortality
Pharisees - Pharisees developed the Messianic hope, distinguished the Church from the State, taught a religion that was independent of priests and Temple, developed doctrines of Immortality, resurrection, and judgment to come, that with only little modification passed into Christian theology
Evil (2) - The eternal Son of God has taken upon Him human nature, to raise it into fellowship with God, to clothe it with the garment of the Divine righteousness, and to cause it to partake of the Divine Immortality
Timothy, Epistles to - He is again charged before God and before Jesus Christ, that he keep the command spotless until the appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ: which the blessed and only ruler shall show in its owntime, the King of kings and Lord of lords: who only hath Immortality; dwellingin unapproachable light; whom no man hath seen or cansee: to whom be honour and eternal might
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - The Ζεὺς Τραγῳδός shews Lucian's disbelief in any divine governance of the world; the treatise περὶ πένθους , on Mourning, his disbelief in Immortality
Mystery - Mystery—religion transcended all lines of mere nationality, substituting its own brotherhoods of initiates, and offered the idea of personal deliverance and Immortality as the goal; as the means, it offered sacramental (instead of sacrificial) union with a Redeemer-god (θεὸς σωτήρ), who, in contrast with the Olympian divinities, participated in the suffering and death of humanity, and won for men victory over their spiritual foes
Parousia (2) - of Immortality, 300 ff
Eschatology (2) - It belongs to a mode of conception in which the problems of death and Immortality, if realized at all, cannot be solved. While, doubtless, the adumbrations of the conception of Immortality which we find scattered throughout the OT had their origin in the sentiment that it must be well with the righteous for ever, this positive aspect of the matter was inseparable from a negative
Man - Paul looks forward to escape from the fleshly weakness of the body, not, as a Greek might have done, along the line of the soul’s inherent Immortality, but, as a Hebrew of the Hebrews, in the hope of receiving a body more adequate to the needs of the soul. Paul would postulate the original mortality of human nature, with a potential Immortality lost through sin (Romans 5:12)
Heaven - The reader is referred to the articles Eschatology, Hades, Immortality, Paradise, Parousia, and Resurrection, in this and other Dictionaries for discussion of various matters which are relevant to the treatment of the conception of heaven. ...
(c) The Martyrdom of Polycarp contains one interesting passage describing the condition of Polycarp after martyrdom: ‘Having by his endurance overcome the unrighteous ruler in the conflict and so received the crown of Immortality, he rejoiceth in company with the Apostles and all righteous men, and glorifieth the Almighty God and Father, and blesseth our Lord Jesus Christ’ (xix
Hellenism - Immortality, continuation of life, became the prominent notions, and this brought to the front the conceptions of the hereafter and of the judgment, of a life of bliss and of penalties in the other world. the idea of a community of initiated believers who sought to enter into union with the god for the purpose of obtaining divine Immortality-took hold of these Oriental cults, whose myths were excellently adapted for this purpose, and whose strange rites lent themselves to the sacramental methods of such a communion
Ascension (2) - ...
Again, the Ascension of Christ assures and develops the desire for Immortality. There are ‘natural intimations of Immortality
Psalms (2) - If it be collective, this verse implies no more than an assured faith in the future of Israel; if, however, it be individual, the speaker is probably expressing his own faith in Immortality, though a more meagre meaning has been put upon the words, as if he were simply expressing his confidence in his recovery from a severe illness, or perhaps in his immunity from the sudden death which overtakes the wicked. The psalm is therefore regarded as a prophecy of the resurrection of Christ, though it is, in reality, only a devout believer’s confession of faith in his own Immortality
Pharaoh - , stone and metal imitations of the beetle (symbols of Immortality), originally worn as amulets by royal personages, which were evidently genuine relics of the time of the ancient Pharaohs, were being sold at Thebes and different places along the Nile
Life - Feldman, The Concept of Immortality in Judaism Historically Considered ; G
Proverbs, Theology of - Without specifying how, the received Hebrew text promises the righteous "immortality" (12:28) and a secure refuge even in clinical death (14:32)
Lord's Supper, the - Within the liturgy it is called the bread of angels and bread from heaven and the medicine of Immortality
Eternal Fire (2) - Farrar, Eternal Hope, and Mercy and Judgment; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; H
Epicureans - His teaching being frankly materialistic, Epicurus naturally disbelieved in Immortality
Christ in Art - ...
Two emblems of Immortality, the Peacock (from the fabled indestructibility of its flesh) and the Phœnix, rising from its ashes, were early used as types of Christ. The peacock and the phœnix, symbols of Immortality, and thus of Christ triumphing over death, as well as the dolphin, carrier of souls to the Isles of the Blessed, were other pagan types that continued in use among the Christians
Pharisees (2) - (2) The Pharisees had an elaborate doctrine of Immortality, resurrection, angels, demons, heaven, hell, intermediate state, and Messianic Kingdom, about all of which the Sadducees were agnostic. Two important views grew out of this theology: one was the doctrine of middle beings between God and man—good and evil spirits, angels, especially the Memra or mediating Word of God, and the Holy Spirit; the other was a personal conception of God, which appeared in belief in individual Immortality and personal resurrection as involved in responsibility to God and hope of entrance into the Messianic Kingdom
Scripture - "They open to us the mystery of the creation; the nature of God, angels, and man; the Immortality of the soul; the end for which we were made; the origin and connexion of moral and natural evil; the vanity of this world, and the glory of the next
Egypt - In the Old Kingdom it was the prerogative only of the king, as a god, to enjoy Immortality
Retribution (2) - Later Jewish thought, developing the doctrine of Immortality, found in it the natural answer to the problem, as in the opening chapters of the Book of Wisdom
Adam (1) - The temporary exclusion from the tree of life was a merciful provision for fallen man, (for Immortality in a lost state is a curse), until that, through Christ, he should have it restored (Revelation 22:2; Revelation 22:14; Revelation 2:7)
God - God, who ‘only hath-immortality,’ dwells ‘in light unapproachable, whom no man hath seen nor can see’ (1 Timothy 6:16; cf
Sepulchre - -Like their neighbours, the Hebrews through their sepulchres gave expression to their belief in Immortality
Body - Had he thought of the body as something essentially evil, had he not been persuaded of its absolute worth, his hopes for the future life must have centred in a bare doctrine of the Immortality of the soul, and not, as they actually did, in the resurrection of the body
Apocrypha - This writing presents the Greek concept of Immortality rather than the biblical teaching of resurrection
Man - ) Other elements of this image are his mind and will, intellectual and moral integrity (he was created with true knowledge, righteousness, and holiness), his body (this was seen as a fit organ to share Immortality with man’s soul and the means by which dominion over the creation was exercised), and dominion over the rest of the creation
Elijah - In conclusion, we may observe, that to assure the world of the future existence of good men in a state of glory and felicity, and that in bodies changed from mortality to Immortality, each of the three grand dispensations of religion had its instance of translation into heaven; the patriarchal in the person of ENOCH, the Jewish in the person of ELIJAH, and the Christian in the person of CHRIST
Presence - of a blessed Immortality (Colossians 1:27)
God - " That "he is the fountain of life," and the only independent Being in the universe: "Who only hath Immortality. It includes necessity of being, independency, perfect unity, simplicity, immensity, eternity, Immortality; the most perfect life, knowledge, wisdom, integrity, power, glory, bliss, and all these in the highest degree
Shimei - If you denied the resurrection of the body and the Immortality of the soul, then I could understand you
Body (2) - ; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality, s
Minucius Felix, Marcus - Yet for themselves, who were not eternal like the world, but were seen to be born and die, they dared to hope for Immortality, and expect that their dust and ashes would live again
Revelation - Amid the sins and sorrows, the fears and trials, the difficulties and perplexities of life, man needs some Divine revelation that will assure him of salvation, holiness, and Immortality
Resurrection - Harris, Raised Immortal: Resurrection and Immortality in the New Testament ; G
Friendship - ’ But Christ has brought life and Immortality to light through His gospel
Ethics - It was not till Hebrew national life was destroyed that individual experiences excited questions as to the equity of Providence (Job, Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 73:1-28 ) and in regard to personal Immortality
Kingdom of God - We still long for the perishable to become clothed with the imperishable, the mortal with Immortality (1 Corinthians 15:53 )
Persecution - The bishops of Nicomedia, of Tyre, of Sidon, of Emesa, several matrons and virgins of the purest character, and a nameless number of plebeians, arrived at Immortality through the flames of martyrdom
Transubstantiation - We most assuredly believe that the bread which we break is the communion of Christ's body, and the cup which we bless is the communion of his blood; so that we confess and undoubtedly believe, that the faithful in the right use of the Lord's table so do eat the body and drink the blood of the Lord Jesus, that he remaineth in them and they in him; yea, that they are so made flesh of his flesh, and bones of his bones, that as the eternal Godhead hath given to the flesh of Christ Jesus life and Immortality, so doth Christ Jesus's flesh and blood, eaten and drunken by us, give to us the same prerogatives
Preaching - ...
To ‘preach Christ,’ then, was to proclaim, as good news to sinful and dying men, the many-sided fact of Christ, the whole scheme of salvation-pardon, regeneration, spiritual enrichment, personal Immortality-involved in Christ’s death, resurrection, and exaltation
Worship - ...
‘After ye are filled give thanks thus: We give thanks to thee, holy Father, for thy holy name which thou hast made to dwell in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and Immortality which thou hast shown us through thy servant Jesus
Heaven - The reader is referred to the articles Eschatology, Hades, Immortality, Paradise, Parousia, and Resurrection, in this and other Dictionaries for discussion of various matters which are relevant to the treatment of the conception of heaven
Righteousness - The quality of incorruption (ἀφθαρσία) and eternity (τὸ ἀΐδιον) they envy and felicitate God an possessing; the quality of power (τὸ κύριον καὶ τὸ δυνατόν) they dread and fear; they love and honour and revere the deity for his δικαιοσύνη and yet, Plutarch sadly reflects, the first of these three emotions the passion for Immortality (‘of which our nature is not capable’), is the strongest, while the divine ἀρέτη, i
Life - The belief in Immortality is never expressly stated, but, as Jesus Himself indicates, it was implicit in this conception of a God who was not the God of the dead but of the living
Metaphor - -1 Corinthians 15:53 : ‘For this corruption must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on Immortality
Jesus Christ - Let us pause an instant, and fill our minds with the idea of one who knew all things, heavenly and earthly; searched and laid open the inmost recesses of the heart; rectified every prejudice, and removed every mistake of a moral and religious kind; by a word exercised a sovereignty over all nature, penetrated the hidden events of futurity, gave promises of admission into a happy Immortality, had the keys of life and death, claimed an union with the Father; and yet was pious, mild, gentle, humble, affable, social, benevolent, friendly, and affectionate
Will - Though now that it has pleased God in Christ to bring life and Immortality to light through the Gospel," it is possible for reason to estimate the beauty and the mercy and the wisdom of the dispensation by which it has been effected
Anger (2) - The question at issue, that of man’s Immortality was a great and solemn question
Egypt - In the midst of innumerable superstitions, the theology of Egypt contained the two great principles of religion, the existence of a supreme Being, and the Immortality of the soul
Parousia - ...
For supplementary discussion of various points connected with the subject of the Parousia the reader is referred to the articles in this Dictionary on Immortality, Resurrection, Heaven, etc
Old Testament - ), and the swallowing up of death and sin in the Immortality won through Him (1 Corinthians 15:54 f
Resurrection - There seems to be an implied antithesis between those whose sonship results in Immortality and those who can have no such hope (cf
Inspiration And Revelation - ’ In the former passage, the domination of the spiritual part or higher self of man is brought about by the operation of the Spirit of God (or of Christ) which is described as ‘dwelling in him,’ and the result is that the human spirit is instinct with life and Immortality, and triumphs over death
Resurrection - Hence ‘immortality’ (Wisdom of Solomon 8:17), ‘incorruption’ (Wisdom of Solomon 2:23, Wisdom of Solomon 6:19), are terms which belong only to the state of the soul, and do not imply any resurrection of the body
Ideas (Leading) - ...
This doctrine, combined with that of the Fatherhood of God, affords the true proof of individual Immortality
Religion (2) - As for His revelation of Godhead, men have seen in Him that interwoven authority of love and law, of truth and grace, which gives fulness of meaning to the conceptions of a Father in heaven, free will and human Immortality
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - In his treatise de Anima et Resurrectione (entitled, in honour of his sister, τὰ Μακρίνια ) we have another account of her deathbed, in which he puts long speeches into her mouth, as part of a dialogue held with him on the proofs of the Immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body, the object of which was to mitigate his grief for Basil's death (t
Miracle - Amongst these, we may confidently reckon the Immortality of the soul, the terms upon which God will save sinners, and the manner in which that all perfect Being may be acceptably worshipped; about all of which philosophers were in such uncertainty, that, according to Plato, 'Whatever is set right, and as it should be, in the present evil state of the world, can be so only by the particular interposition of God
Abram - So also now is the same doctrine of Immortality committed to the church of Christ; and by deadness to the world ought its members to declare the reality of their own faith in it
Egypt - However, the Immortality of the soul and future rewards and punishments at the judgment were taught
Messiah - The restoration of Israel, which was thus to be accomplished by Jehovah, involved not only national honour, but also a new prosperity for the priesthood, and new Immortality on the part of the individual and the nation
Church - ...
It is impossible to say which of the forces which characterized Christianity contributed most to its success: its preaching of the life, death, and resurrection of Christ, its lofty monotheism, its hope of Immortality, its doctrine of the forgiveness of sins, its practical benevolence, its inward cohesion and unity
John, Theology of - Eternal ‘life’ means this rich existence in perpetuity; sometimes it includes Immortality, sometimes it distinctly refers to that which may be enjoyed here and now
Jews - They declare they are no Sadducees, but acknowledge the spirituality and Immortality of the soul
Augustus (2) - ) he promises Immortality to the statesman who shall bring back the morality of the olden time
Augustine - Augustine himself, where he asks this question, ‘Doth any man affirm that free will is perished utterly from man by the fall of Adam?' And there unto he makes this answer: ‘Freedom is perished by sin; but it is that freedom only which we had in paradise, of having perfect righteousness with Immortality
Trinity - In its progress, indeed, to remote countries, and to distant generations, this belief became depraved and corrupted in the highest degree; and he alone who brought "life and Immortality to light," could restore it to its original simplicity and purity
Materialism - And since, for this reason, it cannot be necessary for matter to think, (because it may be matter without this property,) it cannot think as matter only; if it did, we should not only continue to think always, till the matter of which we consist is annihilated, and so the asserter of this doctrine would stumble upon Immortality unawares; but we must also have thought always in time past, ever since that matter was in being; nor could there be any the least intermission of actual thinking; which does not appear to be our case
Christianity - By virtue of this constitution of things, it promises pardon to the guilty, of every age and country, who seek it in penitence and prayer, comfort to the afflicted and troubled, victory over the fear of death, a happy intermediate state to the disembodied spirit, and finally the resurrection of the body from the dead, and honour and Immortality to be conferred upon the whole man glorified in the immediate presence of God
Simon Magus - He called himself ὁ ἑστώς, ὁ στάς, ὁ στησόμενος, implying his pre-existence and his Immortality
Christ in the Middle Ages - He thought of Christ ‘as of a man of excellent wisdom,’ virginborn and surpassing other men, an example to us of ‘eontemning temporal things for the obtaining of Immortality
Back to Christ - Human substance is deified, invested with the quality of Immortality, by being taken up into and penetrated by Divine substance
Clementine Literature - The question of the Immortality of the soul is also treated of, and this brings the discussion to a dramatic close
Confession - And God has given to him all power ‘above every name, as well of the inhabitants of heaven as of the earth and of the powers below, that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord and God;' whom we believe, and whose coming we expect, as presently about to be Judge of the living and dead, who will render unto every man according to his actions, and has poured upon us abundantly the gift of his Holy Spirit, and the pledge of Immortality; who makes us that believe and are obedient to be the sons of God and joint heirs of Christ; whom we believe and adore, one God in the Trinity of the sacred name
Worship - Thus, Clemens of Alexandria warns the Christians, from the example of Christ, not to attribute too much value to outward beauty: "The Lord himself was mean in outward form; and who is better than the Lord? But he revealed himself not in the beauty of the body, perceptible to our senses, but in the true beauty of the soul as well as of the body; the beauty of the soul consisting in benevolence, and that of the body in Immortality!"...
Fathers of entirely opposite habits of mind, the adherents of two different systems of conceiving divine things, were nevertheless united on this point by their common opposition to the mixture of the natural and the divine in Heathenism, and by the endeavour to maintain the devotion to God, in spirit and in truth, pure and undefiled
Originality - The heathen believed in the Immortality of the soul, in the resurrection of the dead, in a future life with punishments and rewards, in the existence of gods who were offended by the faults of men, in the approaching end of this world and the coming of a new one
Palestine - His doctrine of personal Immortality, e
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - " The testimony of the soul to God is found in popular phrases indicative of knowledge and fear of God; then it is adjured to speak about Immortality and the resurrection of the body (c