What does Iconium mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἰκονίῳ a famous city of Asia Minor 3
ἰκόνιον a famous city of Asia Minor 2
ἰκονίου a famous city of Asia Minor 1

Definitions Related to Iconium

G2430


   1 a famous city of Asia Minor, which was the capital of Lycaonia.
   Additional Information: Iconium = “little image”.
   

Frequency of Iconium (original languages)

Frequency of Iconium (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Iconium
(i coh' nih um) City of Asia Minor visited by Barnabas and Paul during the first missionary journey (Acts 13:51 ). Paul endured sufferings and persecution at Iconium (2 Timothy 3:11 ). Its location is that of the modern Turkish provincial capital Konya. Iconium was mentioned for the first time in the fourth century B.C. by the historian Xenophon. In New Testament times it was considered to be a part of the Roman province of Galatia. Evidently it has had a continuous existence since its founding. See Asia Minor.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Iconium
Now Konieh, N. of mount Taurus, in the central table land of Asia Minor, Lycaonia. On the route between western Asia and Ephesus on one side, and Tarsus, Antioch, and Euphrates on the other. An admirable center for missionary labours, as several great roads intersected one another here. Paul with Barnabas first visited it from Antioch in Pisidia which lay on the W. (Acts 13:50-51; Acts 14:1-21; Acts 14:22). They preached in the synagogue first, as was Paul's wont, and with such power of the Holy Spirit "that a great multitude both of Jews and also of Greeks believed." The Lord attested "the word of His grace," moreover, with "signs and wonders done by their hands," while "they abode long time speaking boldly in the Lord."
But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles so as to be "evil affected against the brethren." An assault of Jews and Gentiles with their rulers, to stone them, being threatened, they withdrew to Lystra and Derbe in the eastern and wilder parts of Lycaonia. Paul revisited Iconium to "confirm their souls in the faith," and to remind them as a motive to continuing endurance that "we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God." In undesigned coincidence Paul in incidentally alludes (2 Timothy 3:11) to "persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra, what (how grievous) persecutions I endured ... but out of them all the Lord delivered me."
On his second missionary circuit Paul with Silas came from Syrian Antioch through Cilicia, and up through the Taurus passes into Lycaonia, and by Derbe and Lystra proceeded westward to Iconium (Acts 16:1-3). In this neighbourhood he took Timothy as his associate, on the recommendation of the brethren at Lystra and Iconium, and here probably took place Timothy's circumcision and ordination (1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 1:6).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Iconium,
ICONIUM , now called Konia , is an ancient city of continuous importance from early times to the present day. Situated at the western edge of the vast central plain of Asia Minor, and well watered, it has always been a busy place. It is surrounded by beautiful orchards, which cover the meanness of its modern buildings. About the beginning of the Christian era it was on the border of the two ethnic districts, Lycaonia and Phrygia. It was in reality the easternmost city of Phrygia, and the inhabitants considered themselves Phrygians, but ancient writers commonly speak of it as a city of Lycaonia (wh. see), the fate of which it generally shared. In the 3rd cent. b.c. it was ruled by the Seleucids, and about b.c. 164, probably, it passed under the power of the Galatæ (Asiatic Celts). It was the property of the Pontic kings from about 130, was set free during the Mithridatic wars, and in b.c. 39 was given by Mark Antony to Polemon, king of Cilicia Tracheia. In b.c. 36 Antony gave it to Amyntas, who was at that time made king of Galatia (wh. see). On his death in b.c. 25 the whole of his kingdom became the Roman province of Galatia. Iconium could thus be spoken of as Lycaonian, Phrygian, or Galatic, according to the speaker’s point of view. In the time of the Emperor Claudius, it, along with Derbe, received the honorary prefix Claudio-, becoming Claudiconium (compare our Royal Burghs), but it was not till Hadrian’s time (a.d. 117 138) that it became a Roman colony (wh. see). Its after history may be omitted. It was eighteen miles distant from Lystra, and a direct route passed between them.
The gospel was brought to Iconium by Paul and Barnabas, who visited it twice on the first missionary journey (Acts 13:51 ; Acts 14:21 ). The presence of Jews there is confirmed by the evidence of inscriptions. According to the view now generally accepted by English-speaking scholars, it is comprehended in the ‘Phrygo-Galatic region’ of Acts 16:6 and the ‘Galatic region and Phrygia’ of Acts 18:23 . It was thus visited four times in all by St. Paul, who addressed it among other cities in his Epistle to the Galatians. During the absence of Paul it had been visited by Judaizers, who pretended that Paul was a mere messenger of the earlier Apostles, and contended that the Jewish ceremonial law was binding on the Christian converts. Paul’s Epistle appears to have been successful, and the Galatians afterwards contributed to the collection for the poor Christians of Jerusalem. The alternative view is that Iconium is not really included in the Acts narrative after Acts 16:2 ff., as the words quoted above from Acts 16:6 ; Acts 18:23 refer to a different district to the far north of Iconium, and that the Epistle to the Galatians, being addressed to that northern district, had no connexion with Iconium. In any case, Iconium is one of the places included in the (province) Galatia which is addressed in First Peter (about a.d. 80 probably), and the large number of Christian inscriptions which have been found there reveal the existence of a vigorous Christian life in the third and following centuries.
A. Souter.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Iconium
(Ἰκόνιον, now Konia or Konyeh)
This city, which was partly evangelized by St. Paul, occupied one of the most beautiful and fertile inland sites of Asia Minor, compared by T. Lewin (The Life and Epistles of St. Paul3, 1875, i. 144f.) to the oasis of Damascus. Lying in a crescent of Phrygian hills at the western limit of the vast upland plain of Lycaonia, and watered by perennial streams which, through irrigation, make it to-day a garden-city, it must have been a place of importance from the earliest times. Xenophon, the first writer who mentions it (Anab. i. ii. 19), says that Cyrus, travelling eastward, came ‘to Iconium, the last city of Phrygia; thence he pursued his route through Lycaonia.’ The inhabitants always regarded themselves as of Phrygian, not of Lycaonian, extraction, and the strongest evidence that they were right was their use of the Phrygian language. On the other hand, many writers-Cicero (ad Fam. xv. iv. 2), Strabo (xii, vi. 1 [1]), Pliny (Historia Naturalis (Pliny) v. 25), and others-having regard to the later history of Iconium, invariably designate it as a city of Lycaonia (q.v. [2] ). During the 3rd cent. b.c. it was ruled and, to a great extent, hellenized by the Seleucids. After the battle of Magnesia (187 b.c.), it was presented by the Romans to the king of Pergamos; but as he never took effective possession of it, the Galatians appropriated it about 165 b.c. Mark Antony, the ‘king-maker,’ gave it to Polemon in 39 b.c. and transferred it in 36 to Amyntas, king of Galatia, whoso wide dominions, after his death in 25 b.c., were formed into the Roman province Galatia. Under Claudius the city was honoured with the name of Claud-Iconium, a proof of its strong Roman sympathies, but it was not raised to the rank of a Colonia till the reign of Hadrian. It remained a city of the province Galatia till a.d. 295, when Diocletian formed the province Pisidia, with Antioch as its capital and Iconium as its ‘second metropolis.’ In 372 Iconium became the capital of the new province Lycaonia, an arrangement which held good all through the Byzantine period.
When St. Luke relates that the Apostles Paul and Barnabas, being persecuted at Iconium, ‘fled into the cities of Lycaonia’ (Acts 14:6)-an expression which implies that in his view Iconium was not Lycaonian-he adheres to the popular and ignores the official geography. So central and prosperous a city, traversed by a trade-route leading direct to the Cilician Gates, and connected by a cross-road with the great high-way to the Euphrates, naturally attracted many traders and settlers from the outside world. Well-chosen as a sphere of missionary activity, the first attempt to preach the gospel in it proved very successful, and though the enmity of the Jews compelled the apostles to desist from their efforts for a time, St. Luke speaks of the faith of ‘a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks’ (Acts 14:1).
Iconium figures largely in the Galatian controversy. What is certain is that St. Paul and Barnabas preached and made many converts in the city during their first missionary campaign, and that they re-visited it on their homeward journey, ‘confirming the souls of the disciples’ (Acts 14:1; Acts 14:22). The persecutions which St. Paul endured there are alluded to in 2 Timothy 3:11. On the South-Galatian theory, he paid the city two more visits, if, as Ramsay and others assume, Iconium is included in ‘the region of Phrygia and Galatia’ (Acts 16:6) and in ‘the region of Galatia and Phrygia’ (Acts 18:23). In the interval between the Apostle’s last two visits, he received the alarming tidings that his Galatian churches-which, on this hypothesis, were Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe-were being perverted by Judaizers, whoso fatal errors his Epistle to the Galatians was immediately written to confute. Some indication that his vehement letter and his final visit accomplished his purpose is afforded by the fact that the Galatian Church contributed part of the Gentile love-offering to the poor saints in Jerusalem (1 Corinthians 16:1). On the North-Galatian theory St. Paul, using ‘Galatians’ in the popular, not the Roman, sense, wrote to churches which he had founded in Galatia proper, which Livy calls Gallo-Graecia (see Galatia).
It is a mere legend that Sosipater (Romans 16:21) was the first and Terentius or Tertius (Romans 16:22) the second bishop of Iconium. The city is the principal scene of the Acta Pauli et Theclae, which date back to the 2nd cent. and have a foundation in fact (see W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the Rom, Emp., 1893, p. 375ff.). The Council of Iconium was held in 235. When the city became the capital of the Seljuk State, which was founded about 1072, its splendour gave rise to the proverb, ‘See all the world; but see Konia.’ To-day it has a population of 50,000.
Literature.-W. M. Leake, Asia Minor, 1824; W. J. Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, 1842; Murray’s Guide to Asia Minor, ed. C. Wilson, 1895, p. 133f.; W. M. Ramsay, The Cities of St. Paul, 1907, pp. 315-382.
James Strahan.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Iconium
City in Lycaonia in the centre of Asia Minor, visited by Paul and Barnabas when they had been driven from Antioch of Pisidia. Multitudes of Jews and Greeks believed the word of God's grace, and the apostles wrought many signs and wonders there. They had to flee for their lives but returned again. Acts 13:51 ; Acts 14:1,19,21 ; Acts 16:2 . In 2 Timothy 3:11 Paul speaks of the persecutions he had endured at this city. It is now called Konieh, a town of some extent, 37 53' N, 32 25' E .
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Amphilochius, Archbishop of Iconium
Amphilochius (1) , archbp. of Iconium. Of this great Catholic leader, who was regarded by his contemporaries as the foremost man in the Eastern church after his friends Basil of Caesarea and Gregory of Nazianzus, very scanty information remains. The works ascribed to him are mostly spurious; and the Life (Migne, Patr. Gk. xxxix. p. 14) is a later fiction. Various references to the writings of Basil and Gregory contain nearly all that is known of him and his family. Amphilochius appears to have been a first cousin of Gregory Nazianzen. The language of Basil ( Ep. 161) might imply that he was born and lived in Basil's own town Caesarea. Gregory expresses regret that he did not see much of Amphilochius during his earlier years ( Ep. 13). Their intimate friendship commenced at a later date. Amphilochius, like many other eminent Christian fathers, was educated for the bar. The letters of his cousin imply that he carried on his profession at Constantinople.
It is not improbable that trouble in regard to money matters about 369 weaned Amphilochius from his worldly pursuits and turned his thoughts inward. He had abandoned his profession, and was then living in retirement at Ozizala, devoting himself apparently to religious exercises and to the care of his aged father. His cousin Gregory appears to have been mainly instrumental in bringing about this change. At least he says with honest pride, that "together with the pure Thecla" he has "sent Amphilochius to God" (Op. ii. p. 1068). And now his closer friendship with Basil and Gregory begins. Ozizala was situated not far from Nazianzus, for Gregory's correspondence implies that they were near neighbours. A letter of Basil, apparently belonging to this period, is in the name of one Heraclidas, who, like Amphilochius, had renounced the profession of the bar and devoted himself to a religious life. Heraclidas, lodged in a large hospital ( πτωχοτροφεῖον ) recently erected by Basil near Caesarea, and enjoying the constant instructions of the bishop, urges Amphilochius to obtain leave from his father to visit Caesarea and profit by the teaching and example of the same instructor (Ep. 150). This letter was written in the year 372 or 373 (see Garnier's Basil. Op. iii. p. cxxxiv.). The invitation to Caesarea appears to have been promptly accepted, and was fraught with immediate consequences. It does not appear that at that time Amphilochius was even ordained; yet at the very beginning of the year 374 we find him occupying the important see of Iconium. Amphilochius can hardly have been then more than about 35 years of age. A few months before Faustinus, bp. of Iconium, had died, and the Iconians applied to the bp. of Caesarea to recommend them a successor (Basil. Ep. 138). It is impossible not to connect this application to Basil with the ultimate appointment of Amphilochius.
From this time forward till his death, about five years afterwards, Basil holds close intercourse with Amphilochius, receiving from him frequent visits. The first took place soon after his consecration, about Easter 374, and was somewhat protracted, his ministrations on this occasion making a deep impression on the people of Caesarea (Ep. 163, 176).
It was probably in another visit in 374 (see Garnier, Op. iii. p. cxl.) that Amphilochius urged Basil to clear up all doubt as to his doctrine of the Holy Spirit by writing a treatise on the subject. This was the occasion of Basil's extant work, de Spiritu Sancto (see § 1), which, when completed, was dedicated to the petitioner himself and sent to him engrossed on vellum ( Ep. 231). During this and the following year Basil likewise addresses to Amphilochius his three Canonical Letters ( Ep. 188, 199, 217), to solve some questions relating to ecclesiastical order, which the bp. of Iconium had propounded to him. At this same period also we find Amphilochius arranging the ecclesiastical affairs of Isauria ( Ep. 190), Lycaonia ( Ep. 200), and Lycia ( Ep. 218), under the direction of Basil. He is also invited by Basil to assist in the administration of his own diocese of Caesarea, which has become too great a burden for him, prostrated as he now is by a succession of maladies ( Ep. 200, 201). The affectionate confidence which the great man reposes in his younger friend is a powerful testimony to the character and influence of Amphilochius.
After the death of Basil, the slender thread by which we trace the career of Amphilochius is taken up in the correspondence of Gregory. Gregory writes with equal affection and esteem, and with more tenderness than Basil. He has been ill, and he speaks of Amphilochius as having helped to work his cure. Sleeping and waking, he has him ever in his mind. He mentions the many letters which he has received from Amphilochius (μυριάκις γράφων ), and which have called forth harmonies from his soul, as the plectrum strikes music out of the lyre (Ep. 171). The last of Gregory's letters to Amphilochius ( Ep. 184) seems to have been written about the year 383. Not long before (A.D. 381) Amphilochius had been present with his friend at the council of Constantinople, and had subscribed to the creed there sanctioned, as chief pastor of the Lycaonian church, at the head of twelve other bishops (Labb. Conc. ii. p. 1135, ed. Coleti). At this council a metropolitan authority was confirmed to, rather than conferred on, his see of Iconium; for we find it occupying this position even before his election to the episcopate. During this sojourn at Constantinople he signs his name as first witness to Gregory's will (Greg. Op. ii. p. 204), in which the testator leaves directions to restore to his most reverend son the bp. Amphilochius the purchase-money of an estate at Canotala ( ib. p. 203). It was probably on this occasion also that Amphilochius fell in with Jerome and read to him a book which he had written on the Holy Spirit (Hieron. de Vir. Ill. 133) as Jerome is known to have paid a visit to Gregory Nazianzen at this time (Hieron. Op. xi. 65 seq., ed. Vallarsi).
About two years later must be placed the well-known incident in which the zeal of Amphilochius against the Arians appears (Theod. H. E. v. 16). Obtaining an audience of Theodosius, he saluted the emperor himself with the usual marks of respect, but paid no attention to his son Arcadius, who had recently ( νεωστί ) been created Augustus and was present at the interview. Theodosius, indignant at this slight, demanded an explanation. "Sire," said the bishop, "any disrespect shewn to your son arouses your displeasure. Be assured, therefore, that the Lord of the universe abhorreth those who are ungrateful towards His Son, their Saviour and Benefactor." The emperor, adds Theodoret, immediately issued an edict prohibiting the meetings of the heretics. As Arcadius was created Augustus in the beginning of the year 383 (Clinton, Fast. Rom. i. p. 504), and as Theodosius issued his edict against the Eunomians, Arians, Macedonians, and Apollinarians in Sept. of that year ( ib. p. 507), the date is accurately ascertained (see Tillem. Mém. eccl. vi. pp. 627 seq., 802). In 383 also we find Amphilochius taking energetic measures against heretics of a different stamp. He presided over a synod of 25 bishops assembled at Sida in Pamphylia, in which the Messalians were condemned, and his energy seems to have instigated the religious crusade which led to the extirpation of this heresy (Photius, Bibl. 52; Theod. E. H. iv. 10; cf. Labb. Conc. ii. 1209, ed. Coleti).
The date of Amphilochius's death is uncertain. When Jerome wrote the work quoted above, he was still living (A.D. 392); and two years later (A.D. 394) his name occurs among the bishops present at a synod held at Constantinople, when the new basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul was dedicated (Labb. Conc. ii. 1378, ed. Coleti). On the other hand, he is not mentioned in connexion with the troubles of St. Chrysostom (A.D. 403 seq.); and it is a fairly safe assumption that he was no longer living. Despite the martyrologies, he probably died in middle life. His day is Nov. 23 in both Greek and Latin calendars.
The works ascribed to Amphilochius (Iambi ad Seleucum, Homilies , etc.) seem to be mostly spurious, with the exception of an Epistola Synodica (Migne, p. 94), on the Macedonian heresy. Its object is to explain why the Nicene fathers did not dwell on the doctrine of the Spirit, and to justify the ordinary form of the doxology. It is entitled Ἀμφιγοχίῳ Βασίλειος in one MS., but was certainly not written by Basil, who indeed is mentioned in it.
Of his ability as a theologian and a writer the extant fragments are a wholly inadequate criterion; but his reputation with his contemporaries and with the later church leaves very little ground for doubt. His contemporary Jerome, an eminently competent judge, speaks of the Cappadocian triad, Basil, Gregory, and Amphilochius, as writers "who cram [1] their books with the lessons and sentences of the philosophers to such an extent that you cannot tell which you ought to admire most in them, their secular erudition or their Scriptural knowledge" ( Ep. 70, i. p. 429).
Of his character his intimate friends are the best witnesses. The trust reposed in him by Basil and Gregory appears throughout their correspondence. The former more especially praises his love of learning and patient investigation, addressing him as his "brother Amphilochius, his dear friend most honoured of all" (de Spir. Sanct. § 1); while the latter speaks of him as "the blameless high-priest, the loud herald of truth, his pride" ( Carm. ii. p. 1068). He seems to have united the genial sympathy which endears the friend, and the administrative energy which constitutes the ruler, with intellectual abilities and acquirements of no mean order.
[2]
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Iconium
Iconium (î-cô'-ni-ŭm), place of images (?). A large and rich city of Asia Minor, in the province of Lycaonia. It was on the great Roman highway from Ephesus to Tarsus, Antioch, and the Euphrates, and at the foot of Mount Taurus, in a beautiful and fertile country, about 300 miles southeast of Constantinople and about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean. Paul visited it on his first and second missionary journeys. Acts 13:51; Acts 14:1; Acts 14:19; Acts 14:21; Acts 16:2; 2 Timothy 3:11. On the South Galilean view, Paul again visited the city. Acts 18:22-23.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Iconium
Coming
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Iconium
A place rendered memorable from Paul's preaching. (See Acts 13:1-52 and Acts 14:1-28)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Iconium
the chief city of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. An assault being meditated at the place by the unbelieving Jews and Gentiles upon the Apostles Paul and Barnabas, who, by preaching in the synagogue, had converted many Jews and Greeks, they fled to Lystra; where the designs of their enemies were put in execution, and St. Paul miraculously escaped with his life, Acts 14. The church planted at this place by St. Paul continued to flourish, until, by the persecutions of the Saracens, and afterward of the Seljukian Turks, who made it the capital of one of their sultanies, it was neatly extinguished. But some Christians of the Greek and Armenian churches, with a Greek archbishop, are yet found in the suburbs of this city, who are not permitted to reside within the walls. Iconium is now called Cogni, and is still a considerable city; being the capital of the extensive province of Caramania, as it was formerly of Lycaonia, and the seat of a Turkish beglerberg, or viceroy. It is the place of chief strength and importance in the central parts of Asiatic Turkey, being surrounded by a strong wall of four miles in circumference; but, as is the case with most eastern cities, much of the enclosed space is waste. It is situated about a hundred and twenty miles inland from the Mediterranean, on the lake Trogilis. Mr. Kinneir says, Iconium, the capital of Lycaonia, is mentioned by Xenophon, and afterward by Cicero and Strabo; but does not appear to have been a place of any consideration until after the taking of Nice by the crusaders in 1099, when the Seljukian sultans of Roum chose it as their residence. These sultans rebuilt the walls, and embellished the city: they were, however, expelled in 1189 by Frederic Barbarossa, who took it by assault; but after his death they reentered their capital, where they reigned in splendour till the irruption of Tchengis Khan, and his grandson, Holukow, who broke the power of the Seljukians. Iconium, under the name of Cogni, or Konia, has been included in the dominions of the grand seignior ever since the time of Bajazet, who finally extirpated the Ameers of Caramania. The modern city has an imposing appearance from the number and size of its mosques, colleges, and other public buildings; but these stately edifices are crumbling into ruins, while the houses of the inhabitants consist of a mixture of small huts built of sun-dried bricks, and wretched hovels thatched with reeds. The city, according to the same authority, contains about eighty thousand inhabitants, principally Turks, with only a small proportion of Christians. It is represented as enjoying a fine climate, and pleasantly situated among gardens and meadows; while it is nearly surrounded, at some distance, with mountains which rise to the regions of perpetual snow. It was formerly the capital of an extensive government, and the seat of a powerful pasha, who maintained a military force competent to the preservation of peace and order, and the defence of his territories. But it has now dwindled into insignificance, and exhibits upon the whole a mournful scene of desolation and decay.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Iconium
A large and opulent city of Asia Minor now called Konieh. The provinces of Asia Minor varied so much at different times, that Iconium is assigned by different writers to Phrygia, to Lycaonia, and to Pisidia. Christianity was introduced here by Paul, A. D. 45. But he was obliged to flee for his life for a persecution excited by unbelieving Jews, Acts 13:51 14:1-6 . They pursued him to Lystra, where he was nearly killed, but afterwards, A. D. 51, he revisited Iconium, Acts 14:19-21 2 Timothy 3:11 . The church continued in being here for eight centuries, but under the Mohammedan rule was almost extinguished. At present, Konieh is the capital of Caramania. It is situated in a beautiful and fertile country, 260 miles southeast of Constantinople, and 120 from the Mediterranean. It is very large, and its walls are supported by 108 square towers, forty paces distant from each other. The inhabitants, 40,000 in number, are Turks, Armenians, Greeks, and Jews.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Iconium
The capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first missionary journey (Acts 13:50,51 ). Here they were persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had been founded there (14:21,22). It was probably again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Iconium
The town of Iconium was situated in the south of the province of Galatia in Asia Minor. Paul established a church in Iconium on his first missionary journey and revisited the town on several occasions (Acts 14:1; Acts 14:21; Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23). Timothy, who accompanied Paul on some of his journeys, was well known in Iconium and was an eye-witness of some of the persecutions Paul suffered there (Acts 14:1-6; Acts 16:1-2; 2 Timothy 3:10-11). (For map and other details see GALATIA.)

Sentence search

Iconium - The town of Iconium was situated in the south of the province of Galatia in Asia Minor. Paul established a church in Iconium on his first missionary journey and revisited the town on several occasions (Acts 14:1; Acts 14:21; Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23). Timothy, who accompanied Paul on some of his journeys, was well known in Iconium and was an eye-witness of some of the persecutions Paul suffered there (Acts 14:1-6; Acts 16:1-2; 2 Timothy 3:10-11)
Lycaonia - District nearly in the centre of Asia Minor, in which were Lystra, Derbe, and Iconium
Lycaonia - (lihc ay oh' ni uh) Roman province in the interior of Asia Minor including cities of Lystra, Iconium, and Derbe
Iconium - Paul endured sufferings and persecution at Iconium (2 Timothy 3:11 ). Iconium was mentioned for the first time in the fourth century B
Derbe - Paul passed through Derbe on his route from Cilicia to Iconium, on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:1 ), and probably also on his third journey (18:23; 19:1). , from Iconium
Derbe - The residents of Derbe and Lystra spoke a different language from the people to the north in Iconium. Paul visited Derbe on his first missionary journey (Acts 14:6 ), fleeing from Iconium
Iconium - 19), says that Cyrus, travelling eastward, came ‘to Iconium, the last city of Phrygia; thence he pursued his route through Lycaonia. 25), and others-having regard to the later history of Iconium, invariably designate it as a city of Lycaonia (q. Under Claudius the city was honoured with the name of Claud-Iconium, a proof of its strong Roman sympathies, but it was not raised to the rank of a Colonia till the reign of Hadrian. 295, when Diocletian formed the province Pisidia, with Antioch as its capital and Iconium as its ‘second metropolis. ’ In 372 Iconium became the capital of the new province Lycaonia, an arrangement which held good all through the Byzantine period. Luke relates that the Apostles Paul and Barnabas, being persecuted at Iconium, ‘fled into the cities of Lycaonia’ (Acts 14:6)-an expression which implies that in his view Iconium was not Lycaonian-he adheres to the popular and ignores the official geography. ...
Iconium figures largely in the Galatian controversy. On the South-Galatian theory, he paid the city two more visits, if, as Ramsay and others assume, Iconium is included in ‘the region of Phrygia and Galatia’ (Acts 16:6) and in ‘the region of Galatia and Phrygia’ (Acts 18:23). In the interval between the Apostle’s last two visits, he received the alarming tidings that his Galatian churches-which, on this hypothesis, were Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe-were being perverted by Judaizers, whoso fatal errors his Epistle to the Galatians was immediately written to confute. ...
It is a mere legend that Sosipater (Romans 16:21) was the first and Terentius or Tertius (Romans 16:22) the second bishop of Iconium. The Council of Iconium was held in 235
Iconium, - Iconium , now called Konia , is an ancient city of continuous importance from early times to the present day. Iconium could thus be spoken of as Lycaonian, Phrygian, or Galatic, according to the speaker’s point of view. In the time of the Emperor Claudius, it, along with Derbe, received the honorary prefix Claudio-, becoming Claudiconium (compare our Royal Burghs), but it was not till Hadrian’s time (a. ...
The gospel was brought to Iconium by Paul and Barnabas, who visited it twice on the first missionary journey (Acts 13:51 ; Acts 14:21 ). The alternative view is that Iconium is not really included in the Acts narrative after Acts 16:2 ff. , as the words quoted above from Acts 16:6 ; Acts 18:23 refer to a different district to the far north of Iconium, and that the Epistle to the Galatians, being addressed to that northern district, had no connexion with Iconium. In any case, Iconium is one of the places included in the (province) Galatia which is addressed in First Peter (about a
Iconium - Paul revisited Iconium to "confirm their souls in the faith," and to remind them as a motive to continuing endurance that "we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God. " In undesigned coincidence Paul in incidentally alludes (2 Timothy 3:11) to "persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra, what (how grievous) persecutions I endured . "...
On his second missionary circuit Paul with Silas came from Syrian Antioch through Cilicia, and up through the Taurus passes into Lycaonia, and by Derbe and Lystra proceeded westward to Iconium (Acts 16:1-3). In this neighbourhood he took Timothy as his associate, on the recommendation of the brethren at Lystra and Iconium, and here probably took place Timothy's circumcision and ordination (1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 1:6)
Antioch in Pisidia - Paul's labour here was so successful that it roused the opposition of the Jews and he was driven to Iconium and Lystra; but he returned with Silas
Iconium - The provinces of Asia Minor varied so much at different times, that Iconium is assigned by different writers to Phrygia, to Lycaonia, and to Pisidia. 51, he revisited Iconium, Acts 14:19-21 2 Timothy 3:11
Phrygia - The towns of Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:14 ), Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea were situated in it
Lycaonia - It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe
Lycaonia - Its chief towns were Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra
Lycaonia - In it were the cities of Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, mentioned in the travels of St
Der'be - It was in the eastern part of the great upland plain of Lycaonia, which stretched from Iconium eastward along the north side of the chain of Taurus
Lycaonia - Of its cities, Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra and mentioned in the New Testament, Acts 14:6
Lycaonia - At some uncertain date a part of Lycaonia, containing fourteen cities, of which Iconium was one, was transferred to Galatia. (See Iconium. 39 Mark Antony gave the western part (including Lystra and Iconium) to Polemon, but in b. The Apostles, when persecuted at Iconium in Phrygia (or the Phrygian district of the vast province Galatia), crossed into Lycaonia (another district of the same province)
Phrygia - The area remained relatively undefined but contained Antioch of Pisidia, Laodicea, and at times, Iconium
Confirmation - Paul and Barnabas went to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the faith
Iconium - They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had been founded there (14:21,22)
Pisid'ia - , both in going from Perga to Iconium, ( Acts 13:13,14,51 ) and in returning
Iconium - Iconium (î-cô'-ni-ŭm), place of images (?)
Pisidia - Paul passed through Pisidia twice on his first missionary tour; in going from Perga to Iconium, and in returning (Acts 13:13-14; Acts 13:51; Acts 14:21; Acts 14:24-25; 2 Timothy 3:11)
Colony - Other Roman colonies included Ptolemais (Acco) and Iconium
Phygelus - In the Acts of Paul and Thecla, Demas and Hermogenes are named as Paul’s fellow-travellers, full of hypocrisy, when he fled from Antioch to Iconium and enjoyed the hospitality of Onesiphorus
Derbe - Paul fled there from Iconium and Lystra (Acts 14:6; Acts 14:20-21; Acts 16:1)
Phrygia - The Phrygia meant in Scripture is the southern portion (called "greater Phrygia") of the region above, and contained Laodicea, Hierapolis, Colosse, and Iconium
Ico'Nium - Iconium was a well-chosen place for missionary operations
Iconium - Iconium is now called Cogni, and is still a considerable city; being the capital of the extensive province of Caramania, as it was formerly of Lycaonia, and the seat of a Turkish beglerberg, or viceroy. Kinneir says, Iconium, the capital of Lycaonia, is mentioned by Xenophon, and afterward by Cicero and Strabo; but does not appear to have been a place of any consideration until after the taking of Nice by the crusaders in 1099, when the Seljukian sultans of Roum chose it as their residence. Iconium, under the name of Cogni, or Konia, has been included in the dominions of the grand seignior ever since the time of Bajazet, who finally extirpated the Ameers of Caramania
Galatia - 160 the Gauls acquired a portion of Lycaonia on their southern frontier, taking in Iconium and Lystra. He was also given Iconium and the old Lycaonian tetrarchy, which Antony had formerly given to Polemon. (The effect of taking ‘Galatia’ in the other sense would be to leave out certain Pauline churches, Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch, and perhaps these alone, in all that vast region: which is absurd. ’ This can be none other than that section of the province Galatia which was known as Phrygia Galatica, and which contained Pisidian Antioch and Iconium, exactly the places we should expect St. ‘The Galatian region,’ then, will cover Derbe and Lystra; ‘Phrygia’ will include Iconium and Pisidian Antioch. We conclude then that, whether any other churches are comprised in the address of the Epistle to the Galatians or not, and a negative answer is probably correct, the churches of Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch are included
Lycao'Nia - "Cappadocia is on the east, Galatia on the north, Phrygia on the west and Cilicia on the south "Among its chief cities are Derbe, Lystra and Iconium
Lycaonia - Iconium was far on the W
Derbe - A city in the ethnic district Lycaonia, and in the region Lycaonia-Galatica of the Roman province Galatia, on the main road from Iconium (or Lystra) S
Apostolici - "Encratites, Saccophori, and Apotactites," described together as "an offshoot of the Marcionites," are associated with Novatianists by Basil in a letter answering queries from Amphilochius of Iconium (cxcix
Thecla - Paul a Virgin of Iconium daughter of a woman of rank (apparently a widow) named Theocleia and affianced to Thamyris a youth who was first among the nobles of that city. Paul is represented as being on his way to Iconium after having been driven from Antioch of Pisidia; but whether his flight from Antioch related in Act_13:15 is meant and consequently whether the ensuing events are to be taken as belonging to his first visit to Iconium is not clear. One Onesiphorus of Iconium whose house adjoined that of Theocleia hearing of his approach went with his wife and sons to meet him and recognizing him by a description he had received from Titus invited him to his house with joy. After relating to him in the house of Hermaeus (or Hermes) the wonderful story of her deliverances she proceeded to Iconium receiving from him the parting charge "Go and teach (δίδασκε) the word of God. " Arrived at Iconium she first visited the house of Onesiphorus and there prostrating herself on the spot where St. 2Ti_3:11 might suggest the scene "at Antioch at Iconium. For instance, he seems uncertain how Lystra lay relatively to Iconium (cc. His knowledge of political geography is shewn to be lacking when he represents the chief magistrates of Iconium (c. 33) as addressed by the title of proconsul (ἀνθύπατε ), thus betraying that he supposed these cities to belong to proconsular provinces, whereas Iconium, though territorially included in Lycaonia, was in St. Even if we regard Iconium as of Lycaonia, and the Antioch meant to be the Pisidian, in neither city would so high an official as the proconsul of Asia be resident, as the Acts represent. The author, being of Asia—that is, of the Roman province supposed a proconsul to be found at Iconium and at Antioch, because he had himself been accustomed to see a proconsul at Ephesus or Smyrna; and thus Tertullian's statement that he was of Asia (taken in that limited sense) is borne out, not by his exact knowledge, as Schlau supposed, but by his mistake
Tarsus - Through these passes a road led to Lystra and Iconium (Acts 14), another road by the Amanian and Syrian gates eastward to Antioch
Lycaonia - Lycaonia belonged to the empire of the Seleucids, who more or less hellenized its larger towns, such as Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. Mark Antony gave the last part, including Iconium and Lystra, to Polemon in 39 b
Colony - ),† Amphilochius, Archbishop of Iconium - of Iconium. It does not appear that at that time Amphilochius was even ordained; yet at the very beginning of the year 374 we find him occupying the important see of Iconium. of Iconium, had died, and the Iconians applied to the bp. of Iconium had propounded to him. At this council a metropolitan authority was confirmed to, rather than conferred on, his see of Iconium; for we find it occupying this position even before his election to the episcopate
Amphilochius, Bishop of Sida - Like his more famous namesake of Iconium, he appears as an antagonist of the Messalians
Asia Minor, Cities of - Cities of Asia Minor important to the New Testament accounts included Alexandria Troas, Assos, Ephesus, Miletus, Patara, Smyrna, Pergamum, Sardis, Thyatira, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Colassae, Attalia, Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, and Tarsus. ...
Moving southeast from Antioch, Paul and his companions traveled to Iconium ( Acts 13:51 ). Located in a fertile, well-watered plain, Iconium supplied large amounts of fruit and grain for the surrounding provinces. Several years after Paul's visit, the Emperor Claudius allowed the town to be renamed Claudiconium in his honor, a reminder of the strong ties it shared with Rome. ...
Lystra lay twenty miles to the south of Iconium along the Via Sebaste. It is possible that some believers had already advanced the Gospel to Derbe, having been earlier expelled from Iconium
Ruler - In Acts 14:5 the leading men among the Jews at Iconium are intended, probably including the honorary rulers of the synagogue
Antioch - The Jews therefore raised a persecution by the wealthy women of the place, and drove him from Antioch to Iconium, and followed him even to Lystra (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:50-51; Acts 14:19; Acts 14:21)
Firmilianus (1), Bishop of Caesarea - He is clear as to the antiquity of the practice in Asia, which he regards as ratified by the action of the council of Iconium in the case of the Montanists
Apollos - The Greeks say that he was bishop of Duras; some, that he was bishop of Iconium, in Phrygia; and others of Caesarea
Phrygia - was Iconium (q. While the eastern part of Phrygia (with Iconium) and the southern (with Pisidia) were attached to the province of Galatia, the western part, which was much the larger, was included in the province of Asia
Galatia - they obtained a large accession of territory in Lycaonia, including the towns of Iconium and Lystra. Galatia proper (the country of the three Galatian tribes), part of Phrygia (including Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia, Isauria, and part of Lycaonia (with Lystra and Derbe). ]'>[6] ) were made Roman colonies by Augustus; Iconium and Derbe (qq. ]'>[6] ) were remodelled in Roman style by Claudius, and named Claud-Iconium and Claudio-Derbe. 1 Corinthians 16:1) to be sought in the comparatively small district occupied by the Gauls, about Ancyra, Pessinus, and Tavium, or in the great Roman province of Galatia, which included Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe? In the absence of definite information, we have to make probability our guide, and to the present writer the balance of evidence appears to favour the South Galatian hypothesis. Paul’s first mission north of Taurus was conducted in the Greek-speaking cities of Antioch and Iconium (which were Phrygian), Lystra and Derbe (which were Lycaonian)-all in the Provincia Galatia, but far from Galatia proper. For the natural reference of the words ‘they went through (διῆλθον) the Phrygo-Galatic region, having been forbidden (κωλυθέντες) … to speak the word in Asia’ is to a district east of Asia and north of Iconium and Antioch, South Galatia being now left behind. (1) The baneful activity of Judaizers in Galatia suggests the presence of Jews and Jewish Christians in the newly planted churches, and there is abundant evidence of the strength and prominence of the Jews in Antioch (Acts 13:14-51; Acts 14:19), Iconium (14:1), and Lystra (16:1-3; cf
Antioch - A city in Pisidia, Asia Minor, west of Iconium
Galatians, Letter to the - Paul established churches in the Galatian towns of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe (Acts 13:13-52; Acts 14:1-23), then returned to his base in Antioch in Syria (Acts 14:26-28)
Galatians, Epistle to the - Galatia, however, was also the name of the Roman province embracing Galatia Proper and the region to the south of it in which were Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, the cities evangelized by Paul on his first missionary journey; many hold that the epistle was addressed to these southern churches
Epistle to the Galatians - Galatia, however, was also the name of the Roman province embracing Galatia Proper and the region to the south of it in which were Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, the cities evangelized by Paul on his first missionary journey; many hold that the epistle was addressed to these southern churches
Barnabas - They preached at Perga in Pamphylia without much success, by reason of the obstinacy and malice of the Jews; but being come to Iconium, they made many converts
Roads And Travel - , ‘Iconium and Antioch’ in Exp. Then for part of the route they retraced their steps and journeyed eastwards to Iconium, then S. The ‘Imperial Road,’ however, mentioned in the Acta Pauli in connexion with the Thecla legend, passed direct from Pisidian Antioch to Lystra, and did not touch Iconium (Ramsay’s discovery, told in Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - ...
(4) Amphilochius of Iconium (circa, about 374). He then goes to Iconium. ...
(2) In Iconium (the Thekla-story). -Here the well-known story of Thekla is placed, and on the way to Iconium we are introduced to Demas and Hermogenes, who are represented as Gnostics with a peculiar doctrine of an ἀνάστασις not of the flesh. In Iconium Paul was entertained by Onesiphorus, and preached in his house on ἀνάστασις and ἐγκράτεια, with the result that Thekla, the daughter of Theokleia, abandoned her betrothal to Thamyris and vowed herself to a life of virginity. Then she returned to Iconium, and finally died in Seleucia
Derbe - (Δέρβη)...
Derbe was one of ‘the cities of Lycaonia’ into which Paul and Barnabas fled when driven from Iconium (Acts 14:6)
Atticus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - He wrote to the bishops of Pamphylia and to Amphilochius of Iconium, calling on them to drive out the Messalians (Phot
Timothy - ...
The elders ordained in Lystra and Iconium (Acts 14:21-23; Acts 16:2) thenceforth superintended him (1 Timothy 4:14); their good report and that of the brethren, as also his origin, partly Jewish partly Gentile, marked him out as especially suited to assist Paul in missionary work, labouring as the apostle did in each place, firstly among the Jews then among the Gentiles. The joint testimony to his character of the brethren of Lystra and Iconium implies that already he was employed as "messenger of the churches," an office which constituted his subsequent life work (2 Corinthians 8:23)
Phrygia - Hence this portion of Phrygia, with its cities of Antioch and Iconium, came to be known as Phrygia Galatica
Paul - ...
Paul's convention...
Sojourn in Arabia...
37-40...
First journey to Jerusalem after his conversion, Galatians 1:18; sojourn at Tarsus, ana afterward at Antioch, Acts 11:26...
Second journey to Jerusalem, in company with Barnabas, to relieve the famine...
Paul's first great missionary journey, with Barnabas and Mark; Cyprus, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe; return to Antioch in Syria
Galatians, Epistle to the - ), or the inhabitants of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, which lay in the S. But no part of the old Galatia overlapped Phrygia, and the only district satisfying the requirements is the region around Pisidian Antioch and Iconium; therefore in Acts 16:6 a detour to N. what was in Acts 16:6 called the Phrygo-Galatic region, that around Antioch and Iconium. Luke considers the travellers’ point of view; for in the latter case they leave Syrian Antioch, and enter, by way of non-Roman Lycaonia, into Galatic Lycaonia (‘the Galatic region’), while in the former case they start from Lystra and enter the Phrygo-Galatic region near Iconium
Stoning - He had left Iconium not long before to avoid similar treatment, which some of the inhabitants of that city, both Jewish and Gentile, were planning to mete out to him and Barnabas (Acts 14:5). His Jewish opponents in Antioch and Iconium appeared upon the scene, and so wrought upon the passions of the superstitious townspeople that a riot was created, in which the Apostle was stoned
Timothy - He apparently first came in contact with Paul when Paul moved through the Galatian towns of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe on his first missionary journey (2 Timothy 3:10-11; cf
Jews in the New Testament - ...
Following his conviction that the gospel should be preached first to the Jews (Romans 1:16 ), Paul on his missionary journeys began his preaching in the Jewish synagogues—at Salamis on Cyprus (Acts 13:5 ), at Iconium (Acts 14:1 ), at Thessalonica (Acts 17:1 ), at Athens (Acts 17:15-17 ), and at Corinth (Acts 18:1 )
Euchites - They were also condemned by a council of 25 bishops held at Side and presided over by Amphilochius of Iconium, which sent a synodical letter to Flavian, informing him of their proceedings. At Ephesus Valerian of Iconium, and Amphilochius of Side, in the name of the bps
Olympias, the Younger - Amphilochius of Iconium, whom Gregory desired the young girl to set before her constantly as a pattern
Procurator - 193, ‘Iconium and Antioch,’ in Exp_, 8th ser
Paul - Paul and Barnabas now travelled on to Iconium where the occurrences at Antioch were repeated, and from thence to the Lycaonian country which contained the cities Lystra and Derbe. Although the people of Lystra had been so ready to worship Paul and Barnabas, the repulse of their idolatrous instincts appears to have provoked them, and they allowed themselves to be persuaded into hostility be Jews who came from Antioch and Iconium, so that they attacked Paul with stones, and thought they had killed him. The next day he left it with Barnabas, and went to Derbe, and thence they returned once more to Lystra, and so to Iconium and Antioch
Montanus - But it was decided, at a council held at Iconium, to recognize no baptism given outside the church. Firmilian speaks as if he had been present at the Iconium council, which may be dated c. ...
In the East, we have already mentioned the councils of Iconium and of Synnada
Galatians, Letter to the - ” In Acts 13:14-14:24 (first missionary journey) Paul founded churches at Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, cities in the southern part of the Roman province
Paul - The apostles proceeded to Iconium cheered by the joy with which the Holy Spirit filled the disciples. But he arose and went into the city, and next day to Derbe and to Lystra again, and to Iconium and Antioch, ordaining elders in every church, and confirming the disciples by telling them "that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God
Bible, Canon of the - The first exclusive list of our twenty-seven books in their current familiar order is in the writings of Amphilocius of Iconium in a
Canon of the New Testament - books belonging to the Canon; soon after which the actual word ‘canon’ is applied to the books of the NT by Amphilochius, the bishop of Iconium (end of 4th cent. 386) gives a list of ‘Divine Scriptures’ which contains all the NT except the Revelation; and Amphilochius of Iconium (a
Chronology of the New Testament - First Missionary Journey, to Cyprus, Acts 13:4 ; Pamphylia, and Southern Galatia (Pisidian Antioch, Acts 13:14 ; Iconium, Acts 13:51 ; Lystra, Acts 14:6 ; Derbe, Acts 14:20 ), and back by Attalia to Antioch, Acts 14:26 [16]
Croisade, or Crusade - ...
In this expedition the emperor Frederic defeated the Sultan of Iconium: his son Frederic, joined by Guy Lasignon, king of Jerusalem, in vain endeavoured to take Acre or Ptolemais
Paul - The towns mentioned in this tour are the Pisidian Antioch, where Paul delivered his first address of which we have any record (13:16-51; comp 10:30-43), Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe
Peter, the Epistles of - In Lycaonia were the churches of Iconium, founded by Paul and Barnabas; of Lystra, Timothy's birthplace, where Paul was stoned; and of Derbe, the birthplace of Gains or Caius
Paul - Entering the highlands, they came into the province of Galatia where they concentrated their efforts in the southern cities of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe
Roman Law in the nt - Iconium (Acts 13:51) did not become a colony till Hadrian’s time (Ramsay, Gal
Gospels - So at Iconium (Acts 14:1), and at Thessalonica (Acts 17:1-4)
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - In the council was next read a citation from Amphilochius of Iconium, denouncing certain heretical Acts of the Apostles, and in particular arguing against the truth of a story, evidently that to which we have just referred, because it represented St
Acts of the Apostles - Contrast the account of the conduct of the Greek magistrates at Iconium and Thessalonica who were active against him, or of the Court of the Areopagus at Athens who were contemptuous, with the silence about the action of the Roman magistrates of Pisidian Antioch and Lystra, or the explicit statements about Sergius Paulus, Gallio, Felix, Festus, Claudius Lysias and Julius the centurion, who were more or less fair or friendly
Noah - The Phrygian Annakos who lived more than 300 years in Iconium (Enoch, whose years were 365) foretold the deluge
Paul - 45, and preached the Gospel successively at Salamis and Paphos, two cities of the isle of Cyprus, at Perga in Pamphylia, Antioch in Pisidia, and at Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, three cities of Lycaonia
Paul - But, if its recipients were the churches of Antioch-in-Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, evangelized during the first missionary journey, and if the visit to Jerusalem mentioned in Galatians 2 be identified with a visit to Jerusalem preceding the Council held there-these two being the conclusions of what is called the South Galatian theory (see below)-it seems a natural inference that the Epistle was written before the commencement of the second missionary journey and before the Council of Jerusalem
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - of Iconium, with some others, went up to Dioscorus, clasped his feet and knees, and passionately entreated him not to go to such extremities