What does Hagar mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
הָגָ֧ר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 2
הָגָ֖ר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 2
ἁγάρ Abraham’s concubine and mother to Ishmael. 1
ἁγὰρ Abraham’s concubine and mother to Ishmael. 1
הָגָֽר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1
הָגָ֤ר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1
הָגָ֞ר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1
הָגָ֛ר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1
הָגָ֥ר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1
הָ֠גָר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1
הָגָר֙ Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1
؟ הָגָ֑ר Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl 1

Definitions Related to Hagar

H1904


   1 Sarah’s Egyptian slave girl, Abraham’s concubine, Ishmael’s mother.
   Additional Information: Hagar = “flight”.
   

G28


   1 Abraham’s concubine and mother to Ishmael.
   Additional Information: Hagar = “flight”.
   

Frequency of Hagar (original languages)

Frequency of Hagar (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Hagar
(hay' gahr) Personal name meaning, “stranger.” The personal servant of Sarah, who was given as a concubine to Abraham and became the mother of Ishmael (Genesis 16:1-16 ; Genesis 21:8-21 ; Genesis 25:12 ; Galatians 4:24-25 ). Genesis 16:1-7 details the events of the initial conflict of Sarah with Hagar and the flight of Hagar. Genesis 16:8-16 detail the visit of the messenger of Yahweh bringing the promise of a son to the mother in distress, encouraging Hagar to return to Sarah. These conflicts were related to the wife's and concubine's positions in the family and community. (Compare similar conflicts in Genesis 29-30 .) Genesis 21:8-21 gives the story of the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael and their miraculous deliverance. Pauline interpretation (Galatians) relates the superiority of a son born according to the Spirit over the son born according to the “flesh.” In Galatians 4:1 Paul used the Hagar story to stand for slavery under the old covenant in contrast to freedom of the new covenant symbolized by Isaac.
David M. Fleming
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Hagar
Flight, or, according to others, stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid (Genesis 16:1 ; 21:9,10 ), whom she gave to Abraham (q.v.) as a secondary wife (16:2). When she was about to become a mother she fled from the cruelty of her mistress, intending apparently to return to her relatives in Egypt, through the desert of Shur, which lay between. Wearied and worn she had reached the place she distinguished by the name of Beer-lahai-roi ("the well of the visible God"), where the angel of the Lord appeared to her. In obedience to the heavenly visitor she returned to the tent of Abraham, where her son Ishmael was born, and where she remained (16) till after the birth of Isaac, the space of fourteen years. Sarah after this began to vent her dissatisfaction both on Hagar and her child. Ishmael's conduct was insulting to Sarah, and she insisted that he and his mother should be dismissed. This was accordingly done, although with reluctance on the part of Abraham (Genesis 21:14 ). They wandered out into the wilderness, where Ishmael, exhausted with his journey and faint from thirst, seemed about to die. Hagar "lifted up her voice and wept," and the angel of the Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted and delivered out of her distresses (Genesis 21:18,19 ). Ishmael afterwards established himself in the wilderness of Paran, where he married an Egyptian (Genesis 21:20,21 ).
"Hagar" allegorically represents the Jewish church (Galatians 4:24 ), in bondage to the ceremonial law; while "Sarah" represents the Christian church, which is free.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Hagar
Perhaps related to the Arabic hegira , "flight." Genesis 16; Genesis 21; Genesis 25:12. Abram's bond-woman; an Egyptian received into his household during his sojourn in Egypt,. Taken as legal concubine at Sarai's suggestion to raise a seed, in hope of his being the promised heir, when Sarai's age seemingly forbade hope of issue by her. The marriage law was then less definitely recognized than at the beginning, and than subsequently. Lack of faith moved Sarai to suggest, and moved Abram to adopt, a fleshly device instead of waiting the Lord's time and way. It was punished by consequent family disquiet, and the bad example copied by the Ishmaelites has proved morally and physically a curse to the race. Abraham gave up Hagar, in violation of eastern custom, to Sarai's ill usage; so Hagar fled toward her native land Egypt, by the way through the wilderness toward Shur, probably Suez.
The wilderness is identified with the N.E. part of that of Paran, now Al-jifar. The angel of Jehovah reminded her that as "Sarai's maid" she owed her submission, and promised that her son Ishmael should be father of a numerous nation. So she called Jehovah that spoke unto her "Thou God seest me" (Hebrew: "Thou art a God of seeing," a God who allows Himself to be seen), for she said, "Have I also seen (i.e. am I yet living and seeing) here, after seeing (God)?" (Genesis 32:30; Judges 13:22; Exodus 20:19; Exodus 33:20). The adjoining well was named Beer-lahai-roi, "the well of the seeing alive," i.e. at which one saw God and lived.
This explanation involves a change of accents; but the KJV explanation involves a grammatical difficulty; Chald. supports KJV, "Thou art a God of seeing," i.e. the all seeing, from whose eye the helpless is not hidden in the lonely desert, and Beer-lahairoi, "the well of the living One who sees me," i.e. of the ever living omnipresent Providence. In either view the words show Hagar was now no pagan, but had become in some degree a believer in the God of Abraham. Ishmael's mocking at the feast which celebrated Isaac's weaning was the occasion of Sarah's saying, "Cast out this bond-woman and her son, for the son of this bond-woman shall not be heir with my son ... Isaac."
As Abram had laughed for joy at the promise of Isaac (Genesis 17:17), and Sarai for incredulity (Genesis 18:12-15), but afterward, at Isaac's birth, for joyful gratitude, so Ishmael in derision and in the spirit of a persecutor, mocking (which contains the germ of persecuting) Isaac's faith in God's promises. Being the elder he prided himself above "him that was born after the Spirit," i.e. by the Spirit-energized promise of God, which made Sarah fruitful out of the course of nature. The history typifies the truth that the spiritual seed of Abraham by promise, Gentile as well as Jewish believers, take the place of the Jews the natural seed, who imagined that to them exclusively belonged the kingdom of God.
Paul expounds Hagar to answer to Sinai and the law, which generates a spirit of "bondage," as Hagar was a bond-woman, and that this must give place to the gospel dispensation and the church of grace, the "Jerusalem which is above." The carnal and legalists shall not be heirs with the free New Testament believers (Galatians 4:22-31). Abraham, at God's command, did what Sarah said, though grievous to him. H. wandered with her child (15 years was childhood when human life was so long, he was old enough to "mock") in the wilderness of Beersheba; the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast him, soon worn out as a growing lad, under a shrub, having previously led him by the hand (for Genesis 21:14 means that Abraham put the bread and bottle, but not also the child, "on her shoulder"; so Genesis 21:18, "hold him in thine hand".)
The lad's own cry, still more than the mother's, brought "the angel of God" (here only in Gen., usually "angel of JEHOVAH"), i.e. GOD, the second Person (Genesis 21:17; Genesis 21:19-20), to his and her help. The child's cry is the more potent with the Omnipotent, just because of its helplessness (Isaiah 40:29; Isaiah 41:17-18). God opened her eyes to see water where she had supposed there was only a dry wilderness. In our greatest extremity God has only to open our eyes and we see abundant help near. Real prayer will bring Him to our side (2 Kings 6:17-20; Luke 24:16; Luke 24:31). Hagar "took him a wife out of Egypt," the land of idols and worldliness; untaught by the piety of Abraham and by God's mercy to herself.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Hagar
Sarah’s Egyptian maidservant. She became Abraham’s concubine due to Sarah’s childlessness at that point in time. Mother of Abraham’s eldest son, Ishmael. She and Ishmael were banished from Abraham’s household because of Ishmael’s potentially negatively influence on Isaac. The midrash also identifies her as Keturah, the wife Abraham took after Sarah’s passing.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Hagar
A stranger; one that fears
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Hagar
(Ἄγαρ)
After the manner of the later Jewish interpreters of OT history, of whom Philo is the best representative, St. Paul treats the story of Hagar (Genesis 16:1-14; Genesis 21:8-21) as an allegory (ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα, Galatians 4:24).
‘Allegory (ἅλλος, other, and ἀγορεύειν, to speak), a figurative representation convening a meaning other than and in addition to the literal.… An allegory is distinguished from … an analogy by the fact that the one appeals to the imagination and the other to the reason’ (Encyclopaedia Britannica 11 i. 689b).
St. Paul neither affirms nor denies the historicity of the Hagar narrative, but his imagination reads into it esoteric meanings, which make it singularly effective as an illustration. Ishmael the elder brother, the son of Hagar the bondwoman, the seed of Abraham by nature, persecuted Isaac the younger brother, the son of the freewoman, the child of promise and heir of the birthright, and was therefore east out and excluded from the inheritance of the blessing. This is interpreted as meaning that the Christian Church, the true Israel of God, endued with the freedom of the Spirit, is persecuted by the older Israel, which is under the bondage of the Law. Hagar, the mother of bondmen, answers to the present Jerusalem (τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ), but the Jerusalem which is above (ἡ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλήμ) is the mother of Christian freemen.
Luther wisely says that ‘if Paul had not proved the righteousness of faith against the righteousness of works by strong and pithy arguments, he should have little prevalled by this allegory.… It is a seemly thing sometimes to add an allegory when the foundation is well laid and the matter thoroughly proved. For as painting is an ornament to set forth and garnish a house already builded, so is an allegory the light of a matter which is already otherwise proved and confirmed’ (Galatians, in loc.). So Baur: ‘Nothing can be more preposterous than the endeavours of interpreters to vindicate the argument of the Apostle as one objectively true’ (Paulus2, 1866, ii. 312, Eng. translation , 1875, ii. 284).
If the words ‘Now this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia’ are retained, they allude to the historical connexion of the Hagarenes (Psalms 83:6) or Hagarites (1 Chronicles 5:10), the Ἀγραῖοι of Eratosthenes (ap. Strabo, XVI. iv. 2)-of whom Hagar was no doubt a personification-with Arabia. (In Baruch 3:23 the Arabians are called the ‘sons of Hagar.’) But the Greek is extremely uncertain, and Bentley’s conjecture, that we have here a gloss transferred to the text, has (as Lightfoot says [1]), much to recommend it. The theory that ‘Hagar’ (Arab. ḥajar, ‘a stone’) was a name sometimes given to Mt. Sinai, and that St. Paul, becoming acquainted with this usage during his sojourn in Arabia, recalls it here (A. P. Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, new ed., 1877, p. 50, following Chrysostom, Luther, and others), is unsupported by real evidence. Such an etymological allusion would certainly have been thrown away upon St. Paul’s Galatian readers.
To affirm that the Jews, who were went to say that ‘all Israel are the children of kings,’ were the sons of Hagar the bondwoman, was to use language which could not but be regarded as insulting and offensive. But in fighting the battle of freedom St. Paul required to use plain speech and forcible illustrations. If he was convinced that men might be sons of Abraham and yet spiritual slaves, he was bound to say so (cf. the still stronger terms used on the same point in John 8:44). St. Paul was far too good a patriot to jibe at his own race, and too good a Christian to wound any one wantonly. But he saw the unhappy condition of his countrymen in the light of his own experience. He had lived long under the shadow of Sinai in Arabia, the land of bondmen, before he became a free citizen of the ideal commonwealth-Hierusalem quœ sursum est-the mother of all Christians. Only an emancipated spirit could write the Epistle to the Galatians, or (as its sequel) Luther’s Freedom of a Christian Man.
James Strahan.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Hagar
HAGAR (prob. ‘emigrant’ or ‘fugitive’) was Sarah’s Egyptian maid ( Genesis 16:1 ; Genesis 21:9 ). Her story shows that Sarah renounced the hope of bearing children to Abraham, and gave him Hagar as concubine. Her exultation so irritated Sarah that the maid had to flee from the encampment, and took refuge in the wilderness of Shur ( Genesis 16:7 , Genesis 25:18 ), between Philistia and Egypt. Thence she was sent back by ‘the angel of the Lord’; and soon after her return she gave birth to Ishmael. After the weaning of Isaac, the sight of Ishmael aroused Sarah’s jealousy and fear ( Genesis 21:9 ); and Abraham was reluctantly persuaded to send away Hagar and her son. Again ‘the angel of God’ cheered her; and she found her way southwards to the wilderness of Paran ( Genesis 21:21 ), where her son settled.
This story is compacted of traditions gathered from the three great documents. J [1] yields the greater part of Genesis 16:1-14 and E [2] of Genesis 21:9-21 , while traces of P [3] have been found in Genesis 16:3 ; Genesis 16:15 f. The presence of the story in sources where such different interests are represented is in favour of its historicity; and instead of the assumption that Hagar is but the conjectural mother of the personified founder of a tribe, the more obvious explanation is that she was the actual ancestress of the people of Ishmael. Whatever anthropological interest attaches to the passages (see Ishmael), their presence may be defended on other grounds, the force of which a Hebrew would be more likely to feel. They serve to show the purity and pride of Jewish descent, other tribes in the neighbourhood being kindred to them, but only offshoots from the parent stock. The Divine guidance in Jewish history is emphasized by the double action of the angel in the unfolding of Hagar’s career.
The story is an important part of the biography of Abraham, illustrating both the variety of trials by which his faith was perfected and the active concern of God in even the distracted conditions of a chosen household. Further interest attaches to the narrative as containing the earliest reference in Scripture to ‘the angel of Jehovah’ (Genesis 16:7 ), and as being the first of a series (Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Naaman) in which the regard of God is represented as singling out for blessing persons outside Israel, and thus as preparing for the universal mission of Christ. There is but one other important allusion to Hagar in the OT. She is mentioned in Genesis 25:12 in a sketch of the family of Ishmael (so in Bar 3:23 the Arabians are said to be her sons); and she has been assumed with much improbability to have been the ancestress of the Hagrites or Hagarenes of 1 Chronicles 5:10 and Psalms 83:6 (see Hagrites). In Galatians 4:22 ff. Paul applies her story allegorically, with a view to show the superiority of the new covenant. He contrasts Hagar the bondwoman with Sarah, and Ishmael ‘born after the flesh’ with Isaac ‘born through promise’; thence freedom and grace appear as the characteristic qualities of Christianity. There is good MS authority for the omission of ‘Hagar’ in Genesis 25:25 , as in RVm [4] ; in which case the meaning is that Sinai is a mountain in Arabia, the land of bondmen and the country of Hagar’s descendants. Even if the reading of the text stands, the meaning of the phrase will not be very different. ‘This Hagar of the allegory is or represents Sinai, because Sinai is in Arabia, where Hagar and her descendants dwelt.’
R. W. Moss.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Hagar
Sarah's Egyptian handmaid, given to Abraham, and the mother of Ishmael. When she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes, and on being harshly dealt with, she absconded; but the angel of the Lord bade her return. He would multiply her seed exceedingly. She called His name "Thou God seest me." Fifteen years later, at the feast made by Abraham on the occasion of the weaning of Isaac, Ishmael was seen to mock, and Sarah besought Abraham to cast out Hagar and her son; being instructed by God he did so. Still God protected her and her son, and saved him when she thought he was about to die. Genesis 16:1-16 ; Genesis 21:9-20 ; Genesis 25:12 .
An allegory is drawn from the above history in Galatians 4:24-31 . Hagar (AGAR) answers to the covenant of law and to Jerusalem then in bondage; and Sarah to the covenant of promise and to Jerusalem above, which is free. The conclusion as to the believer is, "so then, brethren, we are not the children of the bondwoman, but of the free." The Christian is not under the law nor in the flesh; but is free, under grace. Being the seed of Abraham according to promise, that is, being 'of Christ,' or 'Christ's,' the gospel and new covenant blessings have come to believers through Him, and they are reckoned as of God's city, Jerusalem above, that is free. The church is of God's eternal counsel, heavenly, and is never in scripture called a mother.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Hagar
Hagar (hâ'gar), flight. An Egyptian woman, the bond-servant of Sarah, whom the latter gave as a concubine to Abraham, and Hagar despised her mistress. Genesis 16:1-4. Hagar fled. On her return she gave birth to Ishmael, and Abraham was then 86 years old. When Ishmael was about 16 years old, he was caught by Sarah making sport of her young son Isaac, and Sarah demanded the expulsion of Hagar and her son. Hagar again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed the former promises to her. Genesis 21:9-21. Paul, Galatians 4:25, refers to her as the type of the old covenant.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Hagar
Sarah's handmaid: she was an Egyptian. Her name Hagar signifies a stranger. We have her history at large, in the sixteenth and twenty-first chapters of Genesis; and a very interesting history it is. But we never should have known the spiritual import of it, had not God the Holy Ghost graciously taught the church, by the ministry of his servant the apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Galatians. From thence we learn, that the whole of those transactions respecting Sarah and Hagar was an allegory, or figure, of the covenants; the one of bondage in nature, the other of freedom by grace. Without this divine illustration the mind of man never could have conceived such an idea, neither have entered into a proper apprehension of the subject. Indeed, from the tendency of every man's mind by nature, to take part with flesh and blood rather than spiritual objects, we should have felt disposed to consider Hagar hardly dealt with, and Sarah unkind and cruel. But taught by divine instruction, from this beautiful allegory we learn the vast importance of being found belonging to a covenant of grace, and not with the bond-woman under the law of works. As the subject is so very highly interesting, I venture to persuade myself, that it will not be tedious to the reader, neither, under grace, will it be unprofitable to consider it yet a little more particularly.
The apostle was commissioned to tell the church, that this allegory represented the two covenants. Hagar and her son Ishmael, the law-covenant, gendering to bondage; Sarah and her son Isaac, the gospel-covenant, leading to freedom. And agreeably to this statement of the apostle, all the features of both correspond.
Ishmael, Hagar's son, was born in the ordinary course of nature; Isaac, Sarah's son, was born out of it, and contrary to the general laws of nature. Ishmael was the natural result of things; Isaac the child of promise. The one born without an eye to the covenant; the other wholly on account of the covenant. Had Ishmael never been born, no interruption would have taken place in respect of the promised seed; but had Isaac never been born, the promise itself could not have been fulfilled; for so the terms of the charter ran, "in Isaac shall thy seed be called." (Genesis 21:12) And though a period of somewhat more than twenty years had elapsed between the promise given to Abraham and the fulfilment of it, yet the thing itself was as sure and certain as the promise concerning the coming of Christ himself. "To Abraham and his seed was the promise made. He saith not unto seeds, as of many, but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ." (Galatians 3:16) And how striking was the difference in the gift of these two sorts to Abraham! Ishmael was the product of lust; Isaac a child of prayer. "Lord God, said Abraham, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless? Look now (said God,) towards heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them. And he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. And he believed in the Lord; and he counted it to him for righteousness." (Genesis 15:2-6) It may not be improper to add, that as in the two covenants the one is in direct opposition to the other, so in the allegory the same is manifested. "He that was born after the flesh, persecuted him that was born after the Spirit; even so it is now." The everlasting hatred of nature to grace was then strikingly set forth, by the mocking of the bond-woman's son. And as Ishmael, as well as Isaac, was circumcised, the allegory hereby manifested, (what hath not been so much noticed as it deserves,) that the persecution of the true seed doth not arise only from the world, but from those who profess the same faith. A faith, like Ishmael's, of nature, but not, like Isaac's, of grace. But what a blessed thing it is, when by a true saving grace we are led to know our birthright, and as sweetly to enjoy it. When we can say with the apostle, "Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise." And surely, the bond-woman and her son cannot be heir with the son of the free-woman; for all of the Hagar, the mount Sinai covenant, are in bondage. They are under the precept of a broken law; they are subject to the condemning power of that law; and they are exposed to the penalty due to the breaches of that law. Oh! the blessedness of being for ever freed both from the guilt and condemnation of it in Christ. Well might the apostle comfort the church with that sweet assurance, "so then, brethren, we are not children of the bond-woman, but of the free." (Galatians 4:31)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Hagar
After ten years' residence in the land of Canaan, Abram, by the persuasion of his wife, who had been barren heretofore, and now despaired of bearing children herself when she was seventy-five years old, took, as a second wife, or concubine, her handmaid, Hagar, an Egyptian. When Hagar conceived, she despised her mistress, who dealt hardly with her, Abram giving her up to his wife's discretion; so that she fled toward Egypt from the face of her mistress, but was stopped in her flight by the angel of the Lord, who foretold that she should bear a son called Ishmael, because the Lord heard her affliction, and that his race should be numerous, warlike, and unconquered; a prediction, as seen under the article Arabia, remarkably fulfilled to the present day. Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bare Ishmael. When Isaac was weaned, Ishmael, the son of Hagar, who was now about fifteen years of age, offended Sarah by some mockery or ill treatment of Isaac; the original word signifies elsewhere, "to skirmish," or "fight," 2 Samuel 2:14 ; and St. Paul represents Ishmael as "persecuting" him, Galatians 4:29 . Sarah therefore complained to Abraham, and said, "Cast out this bond-woman and her son, for the son of this bond-woman shall not be heir with my son Isaac. And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight, because of his son Ishmael;" but God approved of Sarah's advice, and again excluded Ishmael from the special covenant of grace: "For in Isaac shall thy seed be called: nevertheless, the son of the bond-woman will I make a nation also, because he is thy seed." God renewed this promise also to Hagar, during her wanderings in the wilderness of Beersheba, when she despaired of support: "Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hands, for I will make him a great nation. And God was with the lad, and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness of Paran, and became an archer. And his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt." See ABRAHAM and See ISHMAEL .
We do not know when Hagar died. The rabbins say she was Pharaoh's daughter; but Chrysostom asserts that she was one of those slaves which Pharaoh gave to Abraham, Genesis 12:16 . The Chaldee paraphrasts, and many of the Jews, believe Hagar and Keturah to be the same person; but this is not credible. Philo thinks that Hagar embraced Abraham's religion, which is very probable. The Mussulmans and Arabians, who are descended from Ishmael, the son of Hagar, speak mightily in her commendation. They call her in eminency, Mother Hagar, and maintain that she was Abraham's lawful wife; the mother of Ishmael, his eldest son; who, as such, possessed Arabia, which very much exceeds, say they, both in extent and riches, the land of Canaan, which was given to his younger son Isaac.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Hagar
Stranger, an Egyptian bondmaid in the household of Sarah, Genesis 12:16 , who, being barren, gave her to Abraham for a secondary wife, that by her, as a substitute, she might have children in accordance with the customs of the East in that age. The history of Hagar is given in Genesis 16:1-16 ; 17:1-27 ; 21:1-34 . In an allegory, Paul makes Hagar represent the Jewish church, which was in bondage to the ceremonial law; as Sarah represents the true church of Christ, which is free from this bondage, Galatians 4:24 . Her name is much honored among the Arabs claiming to be her descendants.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Hagar
God promised Abraham and Sarah they would have a son through whom God would build a nation that would be his people. When Sarah was unable to bear children for Abraham, she suggested he try to produce a son through their Egyptian slave-girl, Hagar. Any child so born would legally belong to Abraham and Sarah (Genesis 16:1-3).
Abraham followed Sarah’s suggestion, with the result that Hagar bore him a son, Ishmael. God made it clear, however, that this was not the child he had promised (Genesis 17:15-19). Ishmael would have a notable line of descendants, but God’s covenant people would come through the child of Sarah yet to be born, Isaac (Genesis 17:20-21).
Years later, after the birth of Isaac, trouble arose between Sarah and Hagar. This resulted in the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael from Abraham’s household (Genesis 21:8-14).
In the New Testament Paul uses the story of Sarah and Hagar to illustrate the conflict that exists between those who are God’s children through faith in his promises and those who are slaves to the law of Moses. The two cannot live together. Just as Abraham’s household had no place for the slave Hagar, so God’s family has no place for those who are slaves to the law (Galatians 4:21-31).

Sentence search

Agar - KJV spelling of Hagar in the New Testament. See Hagar
Hagar - Hagar (hâ'gar), flight. An Egyptian woman, the bond-servant of Sarah, whom the latter gave as a concubine to Abraham, and Hagar despised her mistress. Hagar fled. When Ishmael was about 16 years old, he was caught by Sarah making sport of her young son Isaac, and Sarah demanded the expulsion of Hagar and her son. Hagar again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed the former promises to her
Agar - Or Hagar
Agar - See Hagar
Hagar - Genesis 16:1-7 details the events of the initial conflict of Sarah with Hagar and the flight of Hagar. Genesis 16:8-16 detail the visit of the messenger of Yahweh bringing the promise of a son to the mother in distress, encouraging Hagar to return to Sarah. ) Genesis 21:8-21 gives the story of the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael and their miraculous deliverance. ” In Galatians 4:1 Paul used the Hagar story to stand for slavery under the old covenant in contrast to freedom of the new covenant symbolized by Isaac
Hagar - When Sarah was unable to bear children for Abraham, she suggested he try to produce a son through their Egyptian slave-girl, Hagar. ...
Abraham followed Sarah’s suggestion, with the result that Hagar bore him a son, Ishmael. ...
Years later, after the birth of Isaac, trouble arose between Sarah and Hagar. This resulted in the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael from Abraham’s household (Genesis 21:8-14). ...
In the New Testament Paul uses the story of Sarah and Hagar to illustrate the conflict that exists between those who are God’s children through faith in his promises and those who are slaves to the law of Moses. Just as Abraham’s household had no place for the slave Hagar, so God’s family has no place for those who are slaves to the law (Galatians 4:21-31)
Isaac - ...
See Hagar...
Agar - See Hagar
Hagarenes - The descendants of Hagar
Keturah - The midrash identifies her as Hagar
Hagar - After ten years' residence in the land of Canaan, Abram, by the persuasion of his wife, who had been barren heretofore, and now despaired of bearing children herself when she was seventy-five years old, took, as a second wife, or concubine, her handmaid, Hagar, an Egyptian. When Hagar conceived, she despised her mistress, who dealt hardly with her, Abram giving her up to his wife's discretion; so that she fled toward Egypt from the face of her mistress, but was stopped in her flight by the angel of the Lord, who foretold that she should bear a son called Ishmael, because the Lord heard her affliction, and that his race should be numerous, warlike, and unconquered; a prediction, as seen under the article Arabia, remarkably fulfilled to the present day. Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bare Ishmael. When Isaac was weaned, Ishmael, the son of Hagar, who was now about fifteen years of age, offended Sarah by some mockery or ill treatment of Isaac; the original word signifies elsewhere, "to skirmish," or "fight," 2 Samuel 2:14 ; and St. " God renewed this promise also to Hagar, during her wanderings in the wilderness of Beersheba, when she despaired of support: "Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hands, for I will make him a great nation. ...
We do not know when Hagar died. The Chaldee paraphrasts, and many of the Jews, believe Hagar and Keturah to be the same person; but this is not credible. Philo thinks that Hagar embraced Abraham's religion, which is very probable. The Mussulmans and Arabians, who are descended from Ishmael, the son of Hagar, speak mightily in her commendation. They call her in eminency, Mother Hagar, and maintain that she was Abraham's lawful wife; the mother of Ishmael, his eldest son; who, as such, possessed Arabia, which very much exceeds, say they, both in extent and riches, the land of Canaan, which was given to his younger son Isaac
Hagarenes', ha'Garites - (named after Hagar), a people dwelling to the east of Palestine, with whom the tribes of Reuben made war in the time of Saul. (1 Chronicles 5:10,18-20 ) The same people, as confederate against Israel, are mentioned in (Psalm 83:6 ) It is generally believed that they were named after Hagar, and that the important town and district of Hejer , on the borders of the Persian Gulf, represent them
ha'Gerite, the - the descendant of Hagar, had the charge of David's sheep
Ishmael - The son of Abraham and Hagar
Beer-Lahai-Roi - Wells of him living, and seeing me, on the southwest border of Canaan, where Hagar was visited by an angel, Genesis 16:14
Hagarenes or Hagarites - 1 Chronicles 5:10,20 , descendant of Hagar and Ishmael
Beer-la-Hai-Roi - ) Named by Hagar, because God looked after her with loving providence even in the wilderness (Genesis 16:14; Genesis 22:14; compare 2 Chronicles 16:9; Psalm 139). Identified with a well at Moilahi, a station on the road to Beersheba; near it is the cavern Beit-Hagar
Beer-Lahairoi - After Sarai had Abraham put Hagar out of the house, an angel appeared to her announcing the birth of a son. Hagar interpreted this as a vision of the living God and named the well where she was, Beer-lahairoi (Genesis 16:14 )
Hagar - The history of Hagar is given in Genesis 16:1-16 ; 17:1-27 ; 21:1-34 . In an allegory, Paul makes Hagar represent the Jewish church, which was in bondage to the ceremonial law; as Sarah represents the true church of Christ, which is free from this bondage, Galatians 4:24
Hagar - Hagar (prob. Her story shows that Sarah renounced the hope of bearing children to Abraham, and gave him Hagar as concubine. After the weaning of Isaac, the sight of Ishmael aroused Sarah’s jealousy and fear ( Genesis 21:9 ); and Abraham was reluctantly persuaded to send away Hagar and her son. The presence of the story in sources where such different interests are represented is in favour of its historicity; and instead of the assumption that Hagar is but the conjectural mother of the personified founder of a tribe, the more obvious explanation is that she was the actual ancestress of the people of Ishmael. The Divine guidance in Jewish history is emphasized by the double action of the angel in the unfolding of Hagar’s career. There is but one other important allusion to Hagar in the OT. She is mentioned in Genesis 25:12 in a sketch of the family of Ishmael (so in Bar 3:23 the Arabians are said to be her sons); and she has been assumed with much improbability to have been the ancestress of the Hagrites or Hagarenes of 1 Chronicles 5:10 and Psalms 83:6 (see Hagrites). He contrasts Hagar the bondwoman with Sarah, and Ishmael ‘born after the flesh’ with Isaac ‘born through promise’; thence freedom and grace appear as the characteristic qualities of Christianity. There is good MS authority for the omission of ‘Hagar’ in Genesis 25:25 , as in RVm [4] ; in which case the meaning is that Sinai is a mountain in Arabia, the land of bondmen and the country of Hagar’s descendants. ‘This Hagar of the allegory is or represents Sinai, because Sinai is in Arabia, where Hagar and her descendants dwelt
Handmaid - It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt
Ishmael - (1727-1590 BCE) Son of Abraham and Hagar
Ishmael - Of several men named Ishmael in the Bible, the best known is the son born to Abraham through his Egyptian slave-girl, Hagar. He was born as a result of Abraham and Sarah’s failure of faith, when, feeling that Sarah could not produce the son God had promised them, they arranged for Abraham to produce the son through Hagar (Genesis 16:1-3). ...
When conflict arose between Sarah and Hagar, Hagar and Ishmael were forced to leave Abraham’s household and establish their own independent existence (Genesis 21:8-21). In New Testament times, Paul saw the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael as an illustration that slaves of the law have no place in a family (the church) where people have the freedom of sons and through faith inherit God’s promises (Galatians 4:28-31)
Hagarenes - But some writers think Hagarene imports south, conformably to the Arabic; hence Hagar, that is, the southern woman; and Mount Sinai is called Hagar, that is, the southern mountain, Galatians 4:25 . But there seems also to have been a particular tribe who bore this name more exclusively, as the Hagarenes are sometimes mentioned in Scripture distinct from the Ishmaelites, Psalms 83:6 ; 1 Chronicles 5:19
Hagar - Paul treats the story of Hagar (Genesis 16:1-14; Genesis 21:8-21) as an allegory (ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα, Galatians 4:24). Paul neither affirms nor denies the historicity of the Hagar narrative, but his imagination reads into it esoteric meanings, which make it singularly effective as an illustration. Ishmael the elder brother, the son of Hagar the bondwoman, the seed of Abraham by nature, persecuted Isaac the younger brother, the son of the freewoman, the child of promise and heir of the birthright, and was therefore east out and excluded from the inheritance of the blessing. Hagar, the mother of bondmen, answers to the present Jerusalem (τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ), but the Jerusalem which is above (ἡ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλήμ) is the mother of Christian freemen. ...
If the words ‘Now this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia’ are retained, they allude to the historical connexion of the Hagarenes (Psalms 83:6) or Hagarites (1 Chronicles 5:10), the Ἀγραῖοι of Eratosthenes (ap. 2)-of whom Hagar was no doubt a personification-with Arabia. (In Baruch 3:23 the Arabians are called the ‘sons of Hagar. The theory that ‘Hagar’ (Arab. ...
To affirm that the Jews, who were went to say that ‘all Israel are the children of kings,’ were the sons of Hagar the bondwoman, was to use language which could not but be regarded as insulting and offensive
ha'Gar - ) When Hagar saw that she had conceived, "her mistress was despised in her eyes," v. Hagar fled, turning her steps toward her native land through the great wilderness traversed by the Egyptian road. When Ishmael was about sixteen years old, he was caught by Sarah making sport of her young son Isaac at the festival of his weaning, and Sarah demanded the expulsion of Hagar and her son
Beer-la-Hai-Roi - (Genesis 16:1-14) It was Hagar, the handmaid of Sarai, which gave this name to the well, when she fled from her mistress, and was found by the angel of the Lord near a fountain of water in the wilderness of Shur. ...
That Hagar should have her steps directed into the wilderness-that there she should find a well of water, already prepared to her hands, when we know how rare and precious wells were considered in the Eastern world; what pains men took to dig them; and what strife for possessing them they occasioned;—that there the Lord should manifest himself to her, and give her such gracious promises:—these are so many distinct tokens of divine love. And how blessedly did the Lord, that led Hagar there, and present before her such testimonies of his watchful care over all, give her grace also, to eye the Lord's hand in the Lord's appointment. Hagar perceived the Lord's grace in all. "...
I cannot dismiss the subject before that I have first requested the reader to ask himself, whether, when at any time in the wilderness frames of his own heart, or under the wilderness dispensations the Lord hath brought him into, he hath not often found a well of seasonable and unexpected supplies, like that of Hagar, so that he could call it Beer-la-hai-roi? How very often hath it been found, yea, it may always be found, in the believer's exercises, that where we least expected, there most of Jesus hath been discovered. How truly blessed is it, like Hagar, when the seasoned relief, like the well at Shur, opens with such manifestations of the Lord's love, as to at the same time, the Lord's hand
Sarah - BUT SARAH WAS BARREN, SHE HAD NO CHILD...
WHICH things are an allegory,' says the Apostle when he brings in Sarah and Hagar her handmaid into the fourth chapter of his Epistle to the Galatians. Chaldea, and Canaan, and Egypt; Hagar and Ishmael; the promise of Isaac, and then the birth, the circumcision, the sacrifice, and the deliverance of Isaac; all the trials and all the triumphs of his father's and his mother's faith; all their falls; all their victories; all God's promises, and all His wonderful and adorable providences in their so exercised lives; all their attainments in truth and in obedience; and then, to crown all, the complete fulfilment of God's so long delayed promise-all that, and much more that has not been told-it all arose out of this, that Sarah had no child. And, had Sarah's humility been a true and a genuine humility; had her ostentatious sacrifice of herself not had its secret roots in a deep and a cruel pride; she would have opened her heart to all Hagar's contempt. Hagar's scorn would have been an excellent oil to Sarah's head, and she would thus have secured and hastened her own fruitfulness and motherhood. You may try to do it, but the angel of the Lord will bring Hagar and Ishmael hack again upon you. You surely know Hagar, Sarah! She is your own handmaiden. But for you, you must remember, Hagar would have still been a pure, modest, obedient child. You bought Hagar in Egypt. You would fain have Hagar and her fatherless boy back in Egypt, and your tent in Canaan the abode of peace and love and honour it was at the beginning. Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?...
Hagar had not come from Ur of the Chaldees with the immigration, neither had she been bought by Abraham in Canaan. Hagar, originally, was an Egyptian child. When Sarah was down in Egypt with her husband Abraham, young Hagar had been recommended to Sarah for a lady's maid. And though it looked a wild proposal that Hagar should leave her mother's house, and all the religion and civilisation of Egypt, to go to the savage land of the Philistines, yet, what a princess like Sarah had once set her heart upon, poor people like Hagar's parents could not oppose. Hagar's expatriation and banishment so far from home made her all the better a maid to Sarah. Hagar had no choice. All went well, only too well, indeed, with Sarah and Hagar till Sarah's sin began to find her out. And when Sarah dealt hardly with Hagar she fled from the face of her mistress. Poor Hagar! Mother of so many miserable women in all lands and in all ages ever since. Thou God seest me! Hagar, by reason of the extremity of her sorrow; by reason of the utter desolateness and brokenness of her heart; and by reason of the sovereign grace and abounding mercy of God-Hagar, I say, stands out before us in the very foremost rank of faith, and trust, and experience, and assurance. Hagar, to me, stands out among God's very electest saints. Hagar has only one or two who can stand beside her in her discovery of God, in her nearness to God, in her face-to-face fellowship with God, in the instructiveness, in the comfort, and in the hopefulness of her so close communion with God. Not Adam before his fall; not Enoch, who so pleased God; not Abraham at his call, or after offering his son; not Jacob at Bethel, nor Israel at the Jabbok; not Moses on the mount and in the cleft rock; not Isaiah in the temple, and not John in the spirit-not the best and the most blessed of them all was more blessed or better blessed than was Hagar the polluted outcast on her weeping way to Shur. And, what impurity Hagar had contracted of Sarah and Abraham she had washed away, her head waters and her eyes a fountain of tears, all the way from Abraham's tent door to that well in the wilderness. And she saw God at that wilderness-well with a clearness, and with an assurance, and with a rapture, and with a submission, and with an immediate obedience that all combine to lift up Ilagat and to set Hagar beside, and even before, both her master and her mistress in the favour and in the fellowship of God. For, from that day on the way to Shur, all the days of Hagar's pilgrimage on earth, we still see Sarah and Abraham entreating Hagar with hardness till she drinks again and again of the well of God, and again and again has Almighty God given to her and to him as the heavenly Father of her fatherless son. ...
Now, in God's mercy, is there any Hagar here? Is there any outcast here? Is there any soul of man or woman ready to perish here? Who can tell who is here? Where would such be found if not here? Is not this the house of God? Does this house not stand on the wayside to Shur? Has this house not been Beer-lahai-roi to many who were in far greater straits, and under far greater guilt, than ever Hagar was? Many have said of this house, Thou God seest me! Many have come up to this house with a secret burden. That is His voice in thy heart, saying 'Hagar, Sarah's maid, whence comest thou, and whither wilt thou go?' stoop down, Hagar, and drink and be refreshed and revived. Behold, Hagar, He is lifting thee up. He is washing with water and with blood thy heart Think, Hagar, think. Believe, Hagar, believe. Admire, Hagar, and praise. For He is the same wonderful, wonderful, most wonderful God who met the first Hagar on her way back to her mother's disgraced and angry door
Jetur - The clan was a part of the Hagerites, probably descendants of Hagar (1 Chronicles 5:19 ), who fought the East Jordan tribes
Handmaid, Handmaiden - These words often refer in scripture to a female slave, as applied to Hagar the Egyptian, Genesis 25:12 ; but were also used by women themselves as a term of humility, as when Hannah spake to Jehovah and to Eli, 1 Samuel 1:11,16,18 ; as Abigail to David, 1 Samuel 25:24-41 ; and by Mary and Elizabeth as handmaids of the Lord
Concubine - Such were Hagar and Keturah, the concubines of Abraham; and such concubines were allowed by the Roman laws
Hagar - Sarah after this began to vent her dissatisfaction both on Hagar and her child. Hagar "lifted up her voice and wept," and the angel of the Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted and delivered out of her distresses (Genesis 21:18,19 ). ...
"Hagar" allegorically represents the Jewish church (Galatians 4:24 ), in bondage to the ceremonial law; while "Sarah" represents the Christian church, which is free
Beerlahairoi - It was here that Hagar, when she fled from Sarai, was met by the angel of the Lord: her exclamation on that occasion, "Thou God seest me," gave to the well its name
Concubine - Such were Hagar and Keturah, the concubines of Abraham and such concubines were allowed by the Roman laws
Beer-Lahai-Roi - A well between Kadesh and Bered, where the fleeing Hagar was turned back ( Genesis 16:14 ), where Isaac met his bride ( Genesis 24:62 ), and where he dwelt after Abraham’s death ( Genesis 25:11 )
Ishmaelites - the descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham by Hagar, his Egyptian bond-maid. " The heavenly messenger who appeared to Hagar in the wilderness, and instructed her by what name to call her future son, predicted also that he and his posterity would prove fierce and warlike, engaged in repeated hostilities, and yet able to maintain their independence. Hagar, deriving encouragement from this circumstance, returned to the house of Abraham, and was soon delivered of her promised son. After the birth of Isaac, Abraham was persuaded by his wife to dismiss Hagar and her son; and the patriarch probably provided for their subsistence in some distant situation, where they could not encroach on the patrimony of Isaac
Abraham - Husband of Sarah and Hagar, father of Ishmael and Isaac--his heir
Avrohom - Husband of Sarah and Hagar, father of Ishmael and Isaac--his heir
Shur, Wilderness of - Earlier, Sarah's handmaid, Hagar, had come toward Shur after her expulsion from the clan of Abraham (Genesis 16:7 )
Ishmael - The son of Abraham by Hagar, and the ancestor of Arabian tribes, generally called "Ishmaelites. Previous to his birth Hagar was informed by an angel what would be the character of her son, and that his posterity would be innumerable. When Hagar was banished to the wilderness, God directed her to a fountain, and renewed his promise to make him a great nation
Mount Paran - Here it was that Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, fled from her mistress, and here the angel of the Lord visited her. Hagar and David, and thousands besides, have experienced a Paran when and where they least expected it; and wilderness straits have sometimes brought forth such freedoms, as to make the wilderness blossom as the rose. Wheresoever Jesus is, as he was to Hagar, and as he was to David, when he speaks, and when he opens the eyes to see his grace, we find near to us the well of water "springing up to everlasting life
Keturah - Abraham, Esau, Hagar)
Adamah - A city in Naphtali's territory (Joshua 19:36 ) near where the Jordan River joins the sea of Tiberias, perhaps modern Hagar ed-Damm
Zoan - (zohuhn) Hebrew name for Egyptian city of Tanis located at San el-Hagar on the Tanitic arm of the Nile
Ishmael -
Abraham's eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Genesis 16:15 ; 17:23 ). " Influenced by a divine admonition, Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of water and some bread. (See Hagar
Hagar - Abraham gave up Hagar, in violation of eastern custom, to Sarai's ill usage; so Hagar fled toward her native land Egypt, by the way through the wilderness toward Shur, probably Suez. In either view the words show Hagar was now no pagan, but had become in some degree a believer in the God of Abraham. ...
Paul expounds Hagar to answer to Sinai and the law, which generates a spirit of "bondage," as Hagar was a bond-woman, and that this must give place to the gospel dispensation and the church of grace, the "Jerusalem which is above. Hagar "took him a wife out of Egypt," the land of idols and worldliness; untaught by the piety of Abraham and by God's mercy to herself
Pitcher - Such was the "bottle" carried by Hagar ( Genesis 21:14 ) The same word is used of the pitchers employed by Gideon's three hundred men
Hagar - " Fifteen years later, at the feast made by Abraham on the occasion of the weaning of Isaac, Ishmael was seen to mock, and Sarah besought Abraham to cast out Hagar and her son; being instructed by God he did so. Hagar (AGAR) answers to the covenant of law and to Jerusalem then in bondage; and Sarah to the covenant of promise and to Jerusalem above, which is free
Paran - Paran is named in connection with the invasion of the confederate kings, Genesis 14:6, and in the story of Hagar, Genesis 21:21
Hagarite - The tribal name is apparently taken from Hagar, Sarah's maid and mother of Ishmael (Genesis 16:1 ). David's chief shepherd was a Hagarite (1 Chronicles 27:31 ). The Psalmist asked God not to be silent when the Hagarites joined a coalition against God's people (Psalm 83:6 ). 1 Chronicles 11:38 names a Hagarite among David's military heroes, but some interpreters think that 1 Samuel 23:36 is evidence of an original Gadite, which would be written quite similar to Hagarite in Hebrew
Sinai - see Hagar
Negeb - There he exiled Hagar (Genesis 21:14 )
Wells - Hence Hagar called the well where she had found the Lord's presence eminently blessed, Beer lahai-roi, that is, as the margin of the Bible renders it, "the well of him that liveth and seeth me?" (Genesis 16:14) And hence also we find the name of Beer, a well; joined to words denoting places, such as Beersheba, etc
Hagrites, Hagarites, Hagarenes - HAGRITES, HagarITES, HagarENES . It has been supposed to mean ‘Descendants of Hagar hence to be synonymous with ‘Ishmaelites
Build - Sarah desires Abraham to take Hagar to wife, that by her she may be builded up, that is, have children to uphold her family, Genesis 16:2
Paran - Ishmael made his home there after Abraham was forced to send Hagar and him away (Genesis 21:21 )
Hagar - Her name Hagar signifies a stranger. From thence we learn, that the whole of those transactions respecting Sarah and Hagar was an allegory, or figure, of the covenants; the one of bondage in nature, the other of freedom by grace. Indeed, from the tendency of every man's mind by nature, to take part with flesh and blood rather than spiritual objects, we should have felt disposed to consider Hagar hardly dealt with, and Sarah unkind and cruel. Hagar and her son Ishmael, the law-covenant, gendering to bondage; Sarah and her son Isaac, the gospel-covenant, leading to freedom. ...
Ishmael, Hagar's son, was born in the ordinary course of nature; Isaac, Sarah's son, was born out of it, and contrary to the general laws of nature. " And surely, the bond-woman and her son cannot be heir with the son of the free-woman; for all of the Hagar, the mount Sinai covenant, are in bondage
Sarah - The older they grew, the less likely it seemed that Sarah would bear a child, so Sarah suggested that Abraham obtain the desired son through their slave-girl, Hagar. ...
Earlier there had been friction between Sarah and Hagar (Genesis 16:4-9). When it appeared again, Sarah said to Abraham that he should drive out Hagar and her son from the household (Genesis 21:10)
Sarah - , Genesis 20:5; Genesis 20:13); still more in suggesting the carnal policy of Abram's taking Hagar to obtain children by her, when God delayed the promised seed by Sarah herself (Genesis 16:1-3); also in harshness to Hagar, when the retributive consequences of her own false step overtook her through the very instrument of her sin (Genesis 16:5-6; Jeremiah 2:19; Proverbs 1:31); also laughing in unbelief at God's promise that she should bear a son in her old age (Genesis 18), forgetting that nothing is "too hard for the Lord" (see Jeremiah 32:17; Luke 1:37), then denying that she laughed, through fear; faith triumphed at last (Genesis 21). Under God's prompting, Sarah, seeing Hagar's son "mocking" at Isaac the son of the promise during the feast for the latter when weaned (see the spiritual sense Galatians 4:22-31), said to Abraham, "cast out this bondwoman," etc. (See Hagar
Beersheba - A halting-place of Abraham ( Genesis 21:31 ), where Hagar was sent away ( Genesis 21:14 ), and where he made a covenant with Abimelech, from which the place is alleged to take its name (‘well of the covenant,’ according to one interpretation). It was an important holy place: here Abraham planted a sacred tree ( Genesis 21:33 ), and theophanies were vouchsafed to Hagar ( Genesis 21:17 ), to Isaac ( Genesis 26:24 ), to Jacob ( Genesis 46:2 ), and to Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:5 )
Sarah, Sarai, Sara - Sarah, being barren, gave to Abraham her Egyptian handmaid Hagar, who, when she had conceived, despised her mistress. When he was weaned, Ishmael was seen mocking, which roused Sarah to demand the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael
Bondage - " The Holy Ghost by his servant the apostle Paul, (Galatians 4:22-31,) hath exemplified both these doctrines in a beautiful allegory, in the instances of Sarah and Hagar
Cast Down - 21:15, which says that Hagar “cast the child [1] under one of the shrubs
Zoan - It is now San el-Hagar, one of the most important of the ancient sites in Lower Egypt, with ruins of a great temple
Galatia - Neither is it probable, that the church would have known the history of Sarah and Hagar, to have been a type and allegory of the covenants, had not that Scripture said so
Barren - The circumstances of Sarah and Hagar, which Isaiah no doubt had in mind, are applied by the Apostle to the contrast between the works of the Law and the promise by grace
Concubine - Thus Abraham, by Sarah his wife, had Isaac, his heir; but, by his two concubines, Hagar and Keturah, he had other children, whom he did not make equal to Isaac
Paran, or el-Paran - ...
Here Hagar and Ishmael dwelt, Genesis 21:14,21 ; and hither David, and afterwards Hadad, retired for a time, 1 Samuel 25:1 1 Kings 11:18
Allegory - We meet with this word but once in the Bible, namely, (Galatians 4:24) where the apostle, speaking of the history of Sarah and Hagar, calls it an allegory; that is, a figure, or parable. " (Matthew 13:34) This allegory of Sarah and Hagar, is not only uncommonly beautiful, but most highly interesting
Allegory - Once in Scripture (Galatians 4:24): "which things (the history of Hagar and Sarah, Ishmael and Isaac) are an allegory;" (are, when allegorized, etc
Violence - 16:5 Sarai summons God to judge between Abram and herself because he has not acted properly toward her keeping Hagar in submission: “My wrong [1] be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the Lord judge between me and thee. ” Abram as God’s judge (in God’s stead) accepts the correctness of her case and commits Hagar to Sarai’s care to be dealt with properly
Hagarenes - Jetur, Nephish, and Nodab, Hagarites, are mentioned as "delivered into their hand, and all that were with them: for they cried to God in the battle (and they were helped against them), and He was entreated of them; because they put their trust in Him. In Psalms 83:6-8 "the tabernacles of the Hagarenes" are mentioned as distinct from the "Ishmaelites," with whom and Moab, Gebal, Ammon, Amalek, Philistia, Tyre, and Assur, they confederated to invade suddenly Jehoshaphat's land and take it in possession. The Hagarenes probably were named not from Ishmael's mother Hagar directly, but from a district or town so-called; possibly now Hejer, capital and subdivision of the province el-Bahreyn in N
Shur - Here it was that, Hagar found a sweet Bethel: see Genesis 16:1-16 throughout, well worth regarding
Ishmael - Son of Abraham and Hagar the bondmaid of Sarah. Before he was born, when Hagar ran away because of the severity of her mistress, the angel of the Lord appeared to her, and told her to return to her mistress: her seed should be numberless, and she was to call her son's name Ishmael, which signifies 'El shall hear. The water was soon consumed, and Hagar in despair placed Ishmael under a shrub, and departed so as not to see him die
Allegory, - An illustration of this may be seen in (Galatians 4:24 ) where the apostle gives an allegorical interpretation to the historical narrative of Hagar and Sarah, not treating that narrative as an allegory in itself; as our Authorized Version would lead us to suppose, but drawing from it a deeper sense than is conveyed by the immediate representation
Promise - The Israelites descended from Isaac, in opposition to the Ishmaelites descended from Ishmael and Hagar
Shur - Hagar fleeing from Abraham, then in southern Palestine, reached a fountain "in the way to Shur" (Genesis 16:7)
Sarah - ...
The most prominent points of her history as recorded in the Bible are, her consenting to Abraham's unbelieving dissimulation while near Pharaoh and Abimelech; her long-continued barrenness; her giving to Abraham her maid Hagar as a secondary wife; their mutual jealousy; and her bearing Isaac in her old age, "the child of promise," Genesis 12:1-23:20
Beersheba - Abraham, Hagar, Isaac, Jacob and the sons of Jacob all at some time either lived in or passed through Beersheba (Genesis 21:14; Genesis 22:19; Genesis 26:23; Genesis 28:10; Genesis 46:1-5)
Inheritance - Sarai promised to adopt the offspring of her maid Hagar when she gave Hagar to Abram (Genesis 16:2 ) but went back on that promise after Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:10 )
Abraham - He decided he could produce offspring by taking Sarai's handmaid Hagar as a concubine. Ishmael's presence caused trouble in the family, and he was expelled with his mother Hagar to the wilderness of Paran
Flee - 16:6, where it is said that Hagar “fled from her [1] face” as a result of Sarah’s harsh treatment
Bottle - Hence, when it is said, (Genesis 21:14) that Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, we may suppose, that this was not only a large skin for a bottle, but as it was put on her shoulder, it was somewhat cumbersome and heavy
Ishmael - Genesis 16:1-16 21:1-34 , son of Abraham and Hagar, B
Abraham - But the promise of a son being yet unfulfilled, Sarai gave him Hagar her maid for a secondary wife, of whom Ishmael was born, Genesis 16:1-16 . In this region Isaac was born; and soon after, Hagar and Ishmael were driven out to seek a new home, Genesis 21:1-34
a'Braham - At the suggestion of Sarai, who despaired of having children of her own, he took as his concubine Hagar, her Egyptian main, who bore him Ishmael in the 86th year of his age. [1] But this was not the accomplishment of the promise. Sarah's jealousy aroused by the mockery of Ishmael at the "great banquet" which Abram made to celebrate the weaning of her son, (Genesis 21:9 ) demanded that, with his mother Hagar, he should be driven out
Sarah - Through jealousy Sarah illtreated Hagar , her handmaid, the concubine of Abraham, and finally drove her away with her son Ishmael ( Genesis 16:1-16 , Genesis 21:8-21 )
Isaac - Sarah wanted Hagar and Ishmael banished
Sarah - Under the history of Sarah and Hagar, the Holy Ghost there teacheth the church that he hath represented the two covenants of the gospel and the law. No man upon earth, untaught of God the Holy Ghost, would ever have had the most distant idea of those things being shadowed forth in Sarah and Hagar's history, had not the Lord the Spirit so taught
See, Perceive - For example, râ'âh can refer to “perceiving or ascertaining” something apart from seeing it with one’s eyes, as when Hagar saw that she had conceived ( Hagar asked that she not be allowed to look on the death of Ishmael ( Angel of the Lord - He comes to Hagar after she has fled from the abusive Sarai (Genesis 16:7-14 ) to assure her that God has heard about her misery and that her descendants will be too numerous to count
Fox - That jackals were common in Palestine appears from the names of places compounded with shual , as Hagar-shual, Shaalbim; (compare Foxhayes, etc
Travail - 2, is used negatively in Galatians 4:27 , "(thou) that travailest (not)," quoted from Isaiah 54:1 ; the Apostle applies the circumstances of Sarah and Hagar (which doubtless Isaiah was recalling) to show that, whereas the promise by grace had temporarily been replaced by the works of the Law (see Galatians 3:17 ), this was now reversed, and, in the fulfillment of the promise to Abraham, the number of those saved by the Gospel would far exceed those who owned allegiance to the Law
Ishmael - The son of Abraham by Hagar. For the story of his life up to his settlement in the wilderness of Paran, the northern part of the Sinaitic peninsula, see Hagar
Ishmael - (See Hagar; ISAAC; ABRAHAM) ("God hears"); the name of God is Εl , "the God of might", in relation to the world at large; not Jehovah , His name in relation to His covenant people. Born of Hagar when Abraham was 86 (Genesis 16:15-16), dwelling at Mature. See ISAAC on Ishmael's expulsion for "mocking," and (See Hagar on Ishmael being called a "child," or "lad" (Genesis 25:14-15; Genesis 25:17), being at the time 15 or 16; the bread and bottle, but not the child, were "put on her shoulder. , fulfilling the prediction of the angel of Jehovah to Hagar (see above), Ishmael died, his nomad descendants stretching from Havilah S
Allegory - ...
In Galatians 4:21-31Paul uses the story of the children of Sarah (Isaac) and Hagar (Ishmael) and the images of Jerusalem above and Mount Sinai as a double allegory, both pairs contrasting the covenant of freedom and the covenant of slavery
Travail - Hagar gave birth to a child through the scheme and plan of Abraham
Isaac - After the expulsion of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac had no competitor, and grew up in the shade of Sarah's tent, moulded into feminine softness by habitual submission to her strong, loving will
Negeb, - The Negeb was often the scene of Abraham’s wanderings ( Genesis 12:9 ; Genesis 13:1 ; Genesis 13:8 ; Genesis 20:1 ); here Hagar was succoured by the angel ( Genesis 16:7 ; Genesis 16:14 ); Isaac ( Genesis 24:62 ) and Jacob ( Genesis 37:1 ; Genesis 46:5 ) both dwelt there; through this district passed the spies ( Numbers 13:17 ; Numbers 13:22 )
Allegory - Paul claims to be allegorizing when he finds the two covenants not only prefigured, but the validity of his idea of two covenants proved, in the story of Hagar (q
Abram - The son of the bondwoman, jealous perhaps of Isaac's happier lot, was discovered mocking; and Sarah insisted that he and his mother Hagar should be banished from the encampment. It was very grievous to Abraham; but God commanded him to yield; and Hagar and Ishmael went forth, a sign of the call of the Gentiles, and proving the best means of fulfilling the promise that Ishmael should become a great nation. Keturah was a secondary or inferior wife, not given to the patriarch by Sarah, as Hagar was
Beer-Sheba - Hagar pleads at a distance not to see her son die (Genesis 21:14-16 ), and Elijah prays for death in the desert rather than at the order of Queen Jezebel (1 Kings 19:3-4 )
Isaacus, Donatist Martyr - Augustine compares such cases to that of Hagar, and elsewhere argues in favour of the duty of the state as the guardian of truth to repress heresy and insinuates that those guilty of this offence are punished not so much on account of religion as of treason or disloyalty; but we must bear in mind that (1) the proceedings here related took place six years before St
Archangel - For example, Hagar encountered an angel, but she referred to the Lord who spoke to her (Tobit 3:16-177 ,Genesis 16:7,16:13 ; Genesis 21:17 )
Theophany - The encounter of the Angel of the Lord with Hagar is of significance in this connection (Genesis 16:7-13 )
Abraham - ...
Abraham had believed that God would give him a son, but now he waits not God's time, and at Sarai's suggestion he associates with Hagar, a bondmaid, and Ishmael is born, Genesis 16 . ...
Isaac is born, and conflict ensues between that which is a type of the flesh and the Spirit: Hagar and her son Ishmael are cast out
Sinai - Hagar
Abraham - To the same cycle we may assign the story of Hagar’s flight and the prophecy regarding Ishmael, in ch. The expulsion of Hagar, recorded in Genesis 21:9-21 , is an equally obvious parallel to J [2] ’s account of the flight of Hagar in ch
Hand - Examples of this concept include: Sarah's authority over Hagar (Genesis 16:6 ,Genesis 16:6,16:9 ), Joseph's administration of Potiphar's house (Genesis 39:3-8 ), and the role of Moses and Aaron as leaders of Israel (Numbers 33:1 )
Marriage - Such, for example, as Abraham's Hagar and Ke-turah
Answer - Thus in Titus 2:9 slaves are enjoined not to ‘answer again’ (Authorized Version ; Revised Version ‘gainsay,’ ἀντιλέγω); in Galatians 4:25 ‘this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and answereth to (i
Abraham - Sarai, now seventy-five years old, in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as a concubine, intending that whatever child might be born should be reckoned as her own. (See Hagar ; ISHMAEL
Responsibility - Sarah became upset with Abraham when Hagar bore him a child, even though Abraham was following Sarah's advice (Genesis 16:1-5 )
Marriage - Sarai gave her Egyptian handmaid to Abram 'to be his wife' (the same word for 'wife' being used for both Sarai and Hagar), and God said He would make of Ishmael a great nation
Call - The angel of God called to Hagar
Reuben - ) Seeking pastures for their flocks they dissipated their strength in guerrilla marauding expeditions toward Euphrates against the Bedouin tribes Hagar, Jetur, Nephish (1 Chronicles 5:9-10; 1 Chronicles 5:18, etc
Type - ...
(Consider also Enoch, Melchizedek, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, Boaz, David, Solomon, Zerubbabel, Cyrus, Hagar, Ahithophel, and others
Adoption - ) Natural: As Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses; Mordecai Esther; Abraham Eliezer (as a slave is often in the East adopted as son) (Genesis 15:2-3); Sarai the son to be born by Hagar, whom she gave to her husband; Leah and Rachel the children to be born of Zilpah and Bilhah, their handmaids respectively, whom they gave to Jacob their husband
Midian - From early days they seem to have mingled with the Ishmaelites, who were descended from Abraham through another woman, the slave-girl Hagar (Genesis 25:12; Genesis 37:28; Genesis 37:36; Judges 8:24-26)
Angels - " "The angel of Jehovah" spake to Hagar and said, "I will multiply thy seed exceedingly that it shall not be numbered for multitude
the Angel of the Lord - ...
When the Angel of the Lord found Hagar in the wilderness, "she called the name of JEHOVAH that spake to her, Thou God seest me
Abraham - The taking of Hagar the Egyptian, Sarai's maid, at the suggestion of Sarai, now 75 years old, was a carnal policy to realize the promise in Ishmael. ...
Family quarreling was the inevitable result, and Hagar fled from Sarai, who dealt hardly with her maid when that maid despised her mistress
Child, Children - Thus, Sarah was despised by her more fortunate handmaid Hagar ( Genesis 16:4 ); Rachel, in envy of Leah, cried, ‘Give me children or else I die’ ( Genesis 30:1 ); Hannah’s rival taunted her to make her fret, because the Lord had shut up her womb ( 1 Samuel 1:6 ); Elisabeth rejoiced when the Lord took away her ‘reproach among men’ ( Deuteronomy 21:18-21 )
Cast - Hagar cast the child under a shrub
Mount Mountain - Paul makes Hagar, Abraham’s bondwoman, representative of the earthly Jerusalem and the bondage of the Law, whereas Sarah was free and represents the heavenly Jerusalem and the freedom of the gospel. Hagar’s son Ishmael was a child according to the course of nature, whereas the birth of Isaac was according to the promise, and therefore a Divine event
Mount Mountain - Paul makes Hagar, Abraham’s bondwoman, representative of the earthly Jerusalem and the bondage of the Law, whereas Sarah was free and represents the heavenly Jerusalem and the freedom of the gospel. Hagar’s son Ishmael was a child according to the course of nature, whereas the birth of Isaac was according to the promise, and therefore a Divine event
Arabia - Its early inhabitants were the Rephaim, Emim, Zuzim, Zamzummim (Genesis 14:5); Ammon, Moab, Edom, the Hagarenes, the Nabathaeans, the people of Kedar, and many wandering tent-dwelling tribes, like the modern Bedouins, succeeded. The Hagarenes, originally the same as the Ishmaelites, subsequently are mentioned as distinct (1 Chronicles 5:10; 1 Chronicles 5:19; 1 Chronicles 5:22; Psalms 83:6). Mecca, in their belief, is where Ishmael was saved and Hagar died and was buried
Miracle - A seemingly miraculous provision of water in the desert preserves Hagar and Ishmael (21:14-21), reminding us of God's care for other peoples as well. And, as with Hagar, he occasionally reminds them that he can work to and through people outside the chosen line, even in humorous ways (Balaam's donkey Numbers 22:21-35 )
Interpretation - Paul’s argument from ‘seed’ and ‘seeds’ (Galatians 3:16), his comparison between Hagar and Sarah (Galatians 4:22 ff
Galatians, Epistle to the - He then submits to them the allegory of Sarah and Hagar, in which the principles of law and faith in God's promise are seen in conflict
Genesis, the Book of - ...
The names of God occurring are: ΕL , the shortened form of ΕLΟΗΙΜ ; ΕLΙΟΝ , "Most High" (only in Genesis 14:18 ΕL ΕLΙΟΝ , but in Psalms found alone, and with ΕLΟΗΙΜ and JEHOVAH Υahweh ); and SΗΑDDΑΙ "Almighty," in the Pentateuch generally with EL, The plural is that of excellence and majesty; Elohim combining in Himself the several attributes assigned to distinct gods by the pagan false gods as well as to the true God; and is the word used where pagan people, as the Egyptians, or foreigners, as Hagar, Eliezer of Damascus, the Egyptians, etc
Galatians Epistle to the - The witness of the Law against itself is illustrated by an allegorical interpretation of the story of Sarah and Hagar. Hagar, the bondwoman, and her descendants stand for the old covenant and its followers, who are in bondage to the Law
Slave, Slavery - Hagar, Zilpah, and Bilhah in the patriarchal narratives)
New Covenant - In Galatians 4:21-31 he contrasted two covenants represented by Hagar and Sarah and their sons Ishmael and Isaac
Genealogy - Arabian tribes, nearer akin, are traced to Ishmael and Hagar; six others, a step farther removed, to Keturah, his second wife, or concubine ( Genesis 25:1 )
Pilgrimage - The running between Safa and Meriva is also performed seven times, partly with a slow pace, and partly running; for they walk gravely till they come to a place between two pillars; and there they run, and afterwards walk again, sometimes looking back, and sometimes stoping, like one who had lost something, to represent Hagar seeking water for her son; for the ceremony is said to be as ancient as her time
Patriarchs, the - Then Abram, apparently impatient for an heir, took Sarai's handmaid Hagar as a concubine, following Mesopotamian custom, because Sarai continued childless
Abram - Sarah, having observed Ishmael, son of Hagar, mocking her son Isaac, said to Abraham, "Cast out this bondwoman and her son, for Ishmael shall not be heir with Isaac. The transaction of the expulsion of Hagar was also a type
Family Life And Relations - Sarah, for example, after urging Abraham to have sexual relations with Hagar to father a child, expels both the girl and her infant child over Abraham's protests (Genesis 21:9-13 )
Covenant - ...
The covenanting process continued after Abram sinfully followed Sarai's suggestion to take Hagar the Egyptian maid as a concubine (Genesis 16 ). Implied in these stipulations was Yahweh's awareness of Abram's lack of faith and obedience in his sovereign, exalted God and of his sin of adultery with Hagar
Galatians, Theology of - ...
Flesh Spirit Works of the law...
Faith, promise...
Curse...
Blessing, inheritance...
Slavery...
Freedom, sonship...
Sin and death...
Justification and life...
Hagar the slave woman...
[1] the free woman...
Sinai and present Jerusalem...
Jerusalem from above...
Ishmael...
Isaac...
Persecutor...
Persecuted...
Cast away...
Heir...
Being under law...
Being led by the Spirit...
Works of the flesh...
Fruit of the Spirit...
The last two sets of items occur in the hortatory section, particularly in 5:13-26
Egypt - His wife had an Egyptian handmaid, Hagar the mother of Ishmael, who also sought a wife in Egypt, Genesis 21:9,21
Jacob - How dreadful is this place! Jacob had been taught to feel and to say how dreadful was that place where his father's altar was built; and those places where God had come down to talk with Adam, and Abel, and Noah, and Abraham, and Hagar
Philo - Philo does not approve of the polygamy of the patriarchs-he would prefer celibacy!-so he declares the wives to represent something spiritual: Hagar general culture (ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία), Sarah true philosophy: the wise man must have intercourse with both
Type - , where allegory is blended with type through a deeper meaning being read into the OT narrative than it naturally bears, Sarah and Hagar, Isaac and Ishmael are used as types of Judaism in bondage to the Law and Christianity set free from its yoke
Roman Law in the nt - Hence the illustration of Galatians 4:21-31 about the two sons of Abraham, the son of Hagar being born ‘unto bondage,’ would appeal to the Galatians, who lived under Roman-Greek law, while it would not appeal in the same way to one who was brought up without reference to that law (Ramsay, Gal
Marriage - When the father was not available, the mother sometimes acted, as when Hagar acted for Ishmael (Genesis 21:21) or the mother for her son (2 Esdras 9:47)
Old Testament - The allegory of Sarah and Hagar, the freewoman and the handmaid (Galatians 4:21 ff
Prophecy - Persons likewise were sometimes descriptive of things, as Sarah and Hagar were allegorical figures of the two covenants, Galatians 4:22-31 ; Romans 9:8-13
Freedom of the Will - It is like preferring the state of the handmaid to that of the wife, Hagar to Sarah; or leaving Jerusalem, our mother, for the barren heights of Sinai (Genesis 4:24-26)