What does Gods mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
אֱלֹהִ֣ים (plural). 28
אֱלֹהִ֥ים (plural). 12
אֱלֹהֵ֤י (plural). 12
אֱלֹהֵ֣י (plural). 11
לֵאלֹהִ֣ים (plural). 8
אֱלֹהִֽים (plural). 7
אֱלֹהֵ֥י (plural). 5
אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ (plural). 4
אֱלֹהִ֖ים (plural). 4
אֱלֹהִ֤ים (plural). 4
לֵאלֹהִ֥ים (plural). 4
אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם (plural). 3
אֱלֹהִ֑ים (plural). 3
θεοὶ a god or goddess 3
אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם (plural). 3
אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֖ם (plural). 3
אֱלֹהִ֔ים (plural). 3
אֱלֹהֵי֙ (plural). 3
בֵּאלֹהִ֣ים (plural). 2
אֱלֹהִים֙ (plural). 2
הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים (plural). 2
אֱלֹהֶ֖יהָ (plural). 2
אֱלֹהֵ֨י (plural). 2
אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ (plural). 2
לֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם (plural). 2
אֱלֹהִ֧ים (plural). 2
אֱלֹהִ֗ים (plural). 2
הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים (plural). 2
לֵֽאלֹהִ֣ים (plural). 2
אֱלֹהִ֥֨ים (plural). 2
θεοὺς a god or goddess 2
אֱלֹהִ֜ים (plural). 2
וֵֽאלֹהֵ֤י (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ (plural). 1
δαιμονίων the divine power 1
אֱלֹהֶיךָ֮ (plural). 1
؟ אֱלֹהָֽי (plural). 1
אֱלֹהָֽיו (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽן (plural). 1
אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ן (plural). 1
אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֗ם (plural). 1
וְלֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶ֖ם (plural). 1
לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶם֙ (plural). 1
וֵאלֹהֵ֣י (plural). 1
אֱלֹהִ֛ים (plural). 1
؟ אֱלֹהִ֑ים (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ (plural). 1
הַנֵּכָ֖ר foreign 1
חֲדָשִׁים֙ new 1
בְּזָרִ֑ים to be strange 1
(אֱלֹהֵ֥י) God. 1
אֱלֹהֶ֑יהָ (plural). 1
בָאֱלֹהִ֥ים ׀ (plural). 1
וּבֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם (plural). 1
לֵֽאלֹהֵיהֶֽן (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ן (plural). 1
וֵֽאלֹהֵי֙ (plural). 1
؟ אֱלֹהִֽים (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם (plural). 1
מֵאֱלֹהֵ֤י (plural). 1
וֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם (plural). 1
אֱלֹהַי֩ (plural). 1
אֱלֹהִ֞ים (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֤ם (plural). 1
אֱלֹהִ֨ים ׀ (plural). 1
לֵאלֹהָֽיו (plural). 1
לֵאלֹהִ֤ים (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵֽי־ (plural). 1
אֱלֹ֤הֵי (plural). 1
؟ אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם (plural). 1
מֵאֱלֹהֵי֙ (plural). 1
לֵֽאלָהֵ֞י god 1
בֵּאלֹהָֽיו (plural). 1
אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֗ם (plural). 1
אֱלֹהִ֨ים (plural). 1
לֵאלֹהֵיהֶֽן (plural). 1
אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם (plural). 1
אֱלָ֣הַיָּ֔א god 1
וְלֵֽאלָהֵ֣י god 1
אֱלָהִ֖ין god 1
[לאלהיך] god 1
הָאֱלֹהִ֗ים (plural). 1
לֵֽאלָהַ֗י god 1
(לֵֽאלָהָךְ֙) god 1
אֱלָהִ֛ין god 1
אֱלָהִ֔ין god 1
בָּֽאֵלִם֙ god 1
אֵלִ֔ים god 1
θεοῖς a god or goddess 1
θεοί a god or goddess 1
؟ הָאֱלֹהִ֥ים (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵ֑ימוֹ (plural). 1
אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵ֖י (plural). 1
לֵֽאלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם (plural). 1
מֵאֱלֹהֵ֣י (plural). 1
לֵֽאלֹהֵיהֶֽם (plural). 1
לֵֽאלֹהֵיהֶ֜ם (plural). 1
אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֖ם (plural). 1
הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים (plural). 1
אֱ‍ֽלֹהֵיהֶ֡ם (plural). 1
؟ וֵאלֹהָֽיו (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵ֧י (plural). 1
אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶם֙ (plural). 1
אֱלֹהָ֑יו (plural). 1
כֵּֽאלֹהֵ֞י (plural). 1
אֱלֹהֵ֞י (plural). 1
לֵֽאלֹהֵ֣י (plural). 1
לֵאלֹהִ֑ים (plural). 1
הָאֱלֹהִֽים (plural). 1
לֵאלֹהִֽים (plural). 1
הַתְּרָפִ֨ים idolatry 1

Definitions Related to Gods

H430


   1 (plural).
      1a rulers, judges.
      1b divine ones.
      1c angels.
      1d Gods.
   2 (plural intensive—singular meaning).
      2a god, goddess.
      2b godlike one.
      2c works or special possessions of God.
      2d the (true) God.
      2e God.
      

G2316


   1 a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
   2 the Godhead, trinity.
      2a God the Father, the first person in the trinity.
      2b Christ, the second person of the trinity.
      2c Holy Spirit, the third person in the trinity.
   3 spoken of the only and true God.
      3a refers to the things of God.
      3b his counsels, interests, things due to him.
   4 whatever can in any respect be likened unto God, or resemble him in any way.
      4a God’s representative or viceregent.
         4a1 of magistrates and judges.
         

H410


   1 god, god-like one, mighty one.
      1a mighty men, men of rank, mighty heroes.
      1b angels.
      1c god, false god, (demons, imaginations).
      1d God, the one true God, Jehovah.
   2 mighty things in nature.
   3 strength, power.
   

H426


   1 god, God.
      1a god, heathen deity.
      1b God (of Israel).
      

H5236


   1 foreign, alien, foreignness, that which is foreign.
      1a foreignness, foreign Gods.
      1b alien, foreigner.
      1c foreign (vanities).
      

G1140


   1 the divine power, deity, divinity.
   2 a spirit, a being inferior to God, superior to men.
   3 evil spirits or the messengers and ministers of the devil.
   

H2114


   1 to be strange, be a stranger.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to become estranged.
         1a2 strange, another, stranger, foreigner, an enemy (participle).
         1a3 loathsome (of breath) (participle).
         1a4 strange woman, prostitute, harlot (meton).
      1b (Niphal) to be estranged.
      1c (Hophal) to be a stranger, be one alienated.
      

H2319


   1 new, new thing, fresh.
   

H8655


   1 idolatry, idols, image(s), teraphim, family idol.
      1a a kind of idol used in household shrine or worship.
      

Frequency of Gods (original languages)

Frequency of Gods (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Gods, Pagan
One of the great distinctivesof Judeo-Christian religion is monotheism—the recognition and reverence of only one God. By contrast, pagan religions of the biblical world were polytheistic, worshiping many gods.
Old Testament Many pagan gods had their origin as gods of certain places such as cities or regions. In Old Testament times, such gods or a combination of gods became nationalistic symbols as their cities or regions struggled for political dominance. The names of Near Eastern kings thus frequently contained a national god's name. The kings of Israel and Judah, for example, often bore names which contained a shortened form of the Hebrew name of Yahweh: Jo-, Jeho-, or -iah. A by-product of the connection between gods and certain locales was the belief that a god's power was limited to certain regions. Thus, officials of the Syrian king advised a battle with Israel on the plains observing, “their gods are gods of the hills” (1 Kings 20:23 ). Israel, against the background of this common belief, struggled with the concept that God was the Lord over all aspects of creation.
Egyptian Gods. Egyptian religion included a great number of gods. Many were personifications of the enduring natural forces in Egypt, such as the Sun (Re or Atum), sky (Nut), earth (Geb), and so on. Certain gods were associated with a particular place, such as Ptah of Memphis. Other gods, like Maat (truth and justice), Sekhmet (war and disease), and Bes (god of childbirth) ruled over aspects of life. Still others combined these categories so that Thoth was god of Hermopolis, the moon, and wisdom, while Hathor was goddess of Denderah, the sky, and love. Some of the gods were worshiped in animal form, such as the Apis bull which represented the god Ptah of Memphis. The Osiris myth was popular with the common people and became the principle of divine kingship. See Egypt . Osiris, the good king, was murdered and dismembered by his brother Seth. Osiris' wife, Isis, gathered his body to be mummified by the jackal-headed embalming god Anubis. Magically restored, Osiris was buried by his son, Horus, and reigned as king of the underworld. Horus, meanwhile, overcame the evil Seth to rule on earth. Thus, in death the pharaoh was worshiped as Osiris, while the legitimate heir became the living Horus by burying his dead predecessor.
The position of certain deities was a factor of the political situation. The gods' names which dominate pharaohs' names in a dynasty show both the dominant city and its dominant god. Thus the god Amen, later called Amen-Re, became the chief god of the empire because of the position of Thebes. Under Amenhotep III, the successes of the empire led to internal power struggles between the powerful priesthood of Amen-Re and the throne. Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton and embarked on a revolutionary reform which promoted worship of the sun disc Aton above all other gods. The reforms of Akhenaton failed. His second successor made clear his loyalties to Amen-Re by changing his name from Tutankhaton to Tutankhamen and abandoning the new capital in favor of Thebes. The following dynasty, while promoting Amen-Re seems to have favored gods of the north. The names of the gods Seth of Avaris, Ra of Heliopolis, and Ptah of Memphis are evident in the Nineteenth Dynasty names Seti, Ramses, and Merneptah.
No Egyptian gods are mentioned in the Bible, and the complex Egyptian religion did not significantly influence the Hebrews. Some have tried to posit a relationship between the reforms of Akhenaton and the monotheism of Moses, but the differences between Atonism and the Mosaic view of God are far greater than the similarities.
Mesopotamian Gods The complex system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia included thousands of gods. The most important are reviewed here.
The patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities became the high gods of the Mesopotamian pantheon. Anu, god of the heavens and patron of Uruk (biblical Erech; Genesis 10:10 ), did not play a very active role. Enlil of Nippur ruled over the earth. The god of Eridu, Ea, was lord of the underground waters and the god of craftsmen. The feared Nergal of Cutha was the god of plague and the underworld. Gods of other cities became prominent through political circumstance. Thus, the god and namesake of the original Assyrian capital, Ashur, rose in importance with the rise of that empire. Ninurta, god of war and hunting, was patron for the Assyrian capital Calah. After the political rise of Babylon, Marduk was considered the chief god and was given the epithet Bel (equivalent to the Canaanite term Baal), meaning “lord” ( Isaiah 46:1 ; Jeremiah 50:2 ; Jeremiah 51:44 ). The Enuma elish , or Babylonian Creation Epic, tells of a cosmic struggle in which, while other gods were powerless, Marduk slew Tiamat (the sea goddess,fjcr representative of chaos). From the blood of another slain god, Ea created mankind. Marduk's son Nabu (Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), the god of nearby Borsippa and of scribes, became especially exalted in the neo-Babylonian period as seen in the name Nebuchadnezzar. Several important gods were associated with heavenly bodies. Shamash was god of the sun and played a prominent role. The moon god Sin was revered in the cities of Ur and Haran, both associated with Abraham's origins (Genesis 11:31 ). Ishtar (the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth) was goddess of the morning and evening star. In addition to her astral associations, Ishtar fulfilled a dual role as the goddess of war and the goddess of love and fertility. Temple prostitution was an important part of her cult and gave Uruk, the city of her older Sumerian equivalent, Inanna, a sordid reputation. Among the masses Ishtar was very popular and referred to as the “queen of heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ). Closely connected with Ishtar was her consort, the spring vegetation god Tammuz. A myth ells of Tammuz' betrayal by Ishtar, his subsequent death, and descent into the underworld. This event was commemorated by an annual mourning for the god in the fourth month which fell during summer. Ezekiel lamented this pagan practice by certain women of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 8:14 ). The death of Tammuz reflected and coincided with the annual wilting of spring vegetation in the Near East. Also associated with fertility was the storm god Adad, the Canaanite Hadad.
In addition to their cosmic nature, the gods were thought of as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. The gilded wooden images were in human form, clothed in a variety of ritual garments, and provided with meals. On occasion the images were carried in ceremonial processions or to “visit” one another in different sanctuaries.
Canaanite Gods The gods of the Canaanites made the greatest impact on the Israelites. While many of these are related to Mesopotamian gods, Canaanite religion was not well understood until the discovery of religious texts in the 1920s at the Syrian city of Ugarit. See Canaan.
The chief god of the Canaanite pantheon was called El, the generic Semitic word for “god.” El, however, was viewed as a grandfatherly, retiring god and did not play an active role. By far the most prominent role must be assigned to Baal around whom the Ugaritic myths revolve. These myths represent Baal as the storm god with power over rain, wind, and clouds, and thus over the fertility of the land. The cycle of the seasons is represented in the myths by Baal's struggle with Mot (literally, “death”), who represented drought and brought forth dry barren fields. During the dry season (summer) Baal was forced temporarily into the underworld by Mot, but his recurring return brought forth the rainy season (winter) and restored fertility to the land. In another myth, Baal defeated Yam (literally “sea”), the god of chaos, in much the way that the Babylonian Marduk defeated Tiamat. Baal was often pictured standing on the back of a bull or wearing a helmet adorned with horns to emphasize his role as the chief fertility god.
Some confusion surrounds the various usages of Baal in the Old Testament. Fifty-eight times Baal is used as a divine name in the singular, but eighteen times it appears in the plural form (RSV “Baalim,” NIV “Baals”). Thus, Baal was also used to designate various local gods, such as Baal-peor (“Baal of Peor,” Numbers 25:3 ). Perhaps these should be viewed as local manifestations of a single Baal, the Semitic storm god. In the Ugaritic myths, Baal is frequently identified with the storm god Hadad (Adad of Mesopotamia), perhaps as a title. In fact, the Hebrew word baal means “lord” or “possessor.” Other divine names in the Old Testament combine Baal and a noun, such as Baal-berith (“Lord of the covenant,” Judges 9:4 ) and Baal-zebub (“Lord of flies,” 2 Kings 1:2 ). While the Hebrew word baal was not in itself considered pagan, perhaps its use as a divine title in Canaanite religion is behind God's rejection of the appellation Baali, “my master” (Hosea 2:16-17 ). In the Ugaritic myths, Baal's sister/consort Anat, goddess of war and love, assisted in his victories. Closely associated with Anat and more important in Palestine was another goddess of war/love, Astarte, the Mesopotamian Ishtar. Astarte (a Greek form of the name) appears in the Old Testament in the singular as “Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians” (1Kings 11:5,1 Kings 11:33 ; 2 Kings 23:13 ) as well as in the plural form, Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 , 1 Samuel 7:4 ; 1 Samuel 12:10 ), representing local manifestations of the godess. As the female counterpart of Baal, Astarte/Ashtoreth seems to have been worshiped through sacred prostitution designed to promote fertility. Another goddess of fertility was Asherah, in the Ugaritic texts the wife of El. Worship of Asherah was apparently quite pronounced throughout Palestine (1 Kings 14:23 NIV). See 2 Kings 21:7 NIV) and removed from the Temple ( 2 Kings 23:6 NIV). It was clearly of wood, however, being “cut down” ( Judges 6:25-30 ). Asherah was often worshiped in connection with Baal (Judges 3:7 ; 2 Kings 17:16 ), her object appearing alongside the latter's altar (Judges 6:25 , Judges 6:30 ). The fertility aspects of the Canaanite gods was an inviting snare to the Israelites. New to farming and having just settled in Canaan after a generation of nomadic life in the desert, the Israelites were particularly tempted to serve the gods said to control the fertility of that land. A great deal of syncretism must have occurred, mixing elements of Baalism with worship of God. Indeed, Jeroboam's golden calves at Dan and Bethel may have been an attempt to identify Yahweh of Israel with the Baal of the Canaanite elements of the kingdom and to combine their traditions. Archaeological evidence of such syncretism can be seen in the recent discovery in the Sinai of a jar inscribed with prayer to “Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah.” Baalism reached its peak in the northern nation of Israel under King Ahab and his wife Jezebel who aggressively sponsored worship of Baal in Samaria (1 Kings 16:31-33 ). The drought at this time and Elijah's contest with the prophets of Baal were intended to show that the God of Israel, not Baal, was truly Lord of the rain (1 Kings 17:1 ; 1 Kings 18:20-45 ).
Various other deities of Palestine impacted the Old Testament story. The Arameans of Damascus (Syria) worshiped the generic Semitic storm god Hadad, frequently referred to by the epithet Rimmon (2 Kings 5:18 ), meaning “thunder.” Sometimes the names Hadad and Rimmon were coupled (Zechariah 12:11 ). The god Dagon of the Philistines (Judges 16:23 ) was apparently a Semitic god of grain mentioned in the Ugaritic texts as Dagan, the father of Baal. The Philistines worshiped Dagon in temples at Ashdod (1 Samuel 5:1-5 ) and Beth Shean (1 Chronicles 10:10 ). The national god of the Ammonites was called Molech (1 Kings 11:7 ). There are no vowels in Hebrew, so in ancient times Molech was written with the same consonants (MLK) as the Hebrew/Semitic word for king, melek . Thus, Molech may have served as a title (“the king”; compare Amos 1:15 ) for the Ammonite god much as Baal served as a title for the storm god. The pronunciation Molech comes from the substitution for the original vowels with those from the Hebrew word bosheth , “shame,” and is an intentional insulting misvocalization. The alternate name Milcom (1 Kings 11:5 ; Jeremiah 49:1 ,Jeremiah 49:1,49:3 TEV) is a corruption of a variant form meaning “their king.” Worship of Molech involved human sacrifice, especially making one's children “pass through the fire” ( Leviticus 18:21 ; Leviticus 20:2-5 ; 2 Kings 23:10 ; Jeremiah 32:35 ). In Judah, this practice was conducted at Tophet in the Valley of Hinnom on the southwest side of Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 28:3 ). Jephthah's reply to the Ammonites (Judges 11:24 ) refers to Chemosh as their god. Chemosh, the national god of the Moabites (Numbers 21:29 ; Jeremiah 48:46 ), thus may be identical to Molech although they are listed separately as abominations brought to Jerusalem by Solomon (1 Kings 11:7 ). Chemosh is mentioned prominently in the famous Moabite Stone. Mesha, king of Moab, probably offered up his son Chemosh (2 Kings 3:27 ). The Canaanite god Horon was evidently worshiped in the two cities of Beth-horon (“house of Horon”). Resheph (Hebrew for “flame” or “pestilence” Habakkuk 3:5 ) was a god of lague, equivalent to the Nergal of Mesopotamia.
New Testament The pagan gods of the New Testament world were the deities of the Greco-Roman pantheon and certain eastern gods whose myths gave rise to the mystery religions. The conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon took the Greek culture throughout the Near East. The resulting Hellenistic culture included the acceptance of Greek gods. Conquered peoples did not see a totally new religious system; rather they assimilated or identified their gods with the Greek gods. Thus Ishtar/Astarte was identified with Aphrodite, and Zeus was identified with various Near Eastern deities.
By New Testament times, thinking persons no longer accepted the system of Greek mythology literally. The Greek gods had become an integral part of Hellenistic culture that dominated the Roman empire, and many of the gods had strong local appeal. In the west, old Roman gods were identified with Greek counterparts.
A few of the Greco-Roman gods are mentioned in the New Testament. At the head of the Greek pantheon was Zeus, the Roman Jupiter, god of the sky, originally the weather or storm god. With the syncretism of the Hellenistic period following Alexander the Great's conquests, Zeus was equated with the Semitic storm god Hadad. As the supreme Greek deity, however, Zeus was readily identified with the chief god of any region. Thus, when Antiochus IV attempted to force Hellenism on the Jews in 167 B.C., he transformed the Jewish Temple into a temple to Zeus. A huge altar to Zeus at Pergamum is probably the “Satan's throne” of Revelation 2:13 . The messenger of the Greek gods was Hermes (Roman, Mercury). When the people of Lystra assumed Barnabas and Paul to be gods (Acts 14:8-18 ), they called Paul Hermes because he was the spokesman; and they identified Barnabas with Zeus or Jupiter. The oxen and garlands they brought forward were appropriate offerings for Zeus. Hermes was also the god of merchants and travelers. Artemis was the Greek goddess of the wildwood, of childbirth, and, consequently, of fertility. The great mother goddess of Asia Minor worshiped at Ephesus was identified with Artemis, the Roman Diana. Her temple at Ephesus was one of the seven wonders of the aancient world and an object of pilgrimages. Artemis of the Ephesians was depicted in statues at Ephesus with many breasts, perhaps inspired by a sacred stone (a meteorite?; Acts 19:35 ) kept in the temple. Paul's work in Ephesus resulted in an uproar incited by the silversmiths who sold souvenirs to the pilgrims (Acts 19:23-41 ).
Other Greco-Roman gods are not mentioned in the New Testament but formed an important part of Hellenistic culture. The most popular of the gods was Apollo, pictured in Greek art as the epitome of youthful, manly beauty. He served as the god of medicine, law, and shepherds. Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty. She was identified with the Semitic godddess Ishtar/Astarte and with the Roman Venus. Although not mentioned in the New Testament, a temple to Aphrodite at Corinth was said to employ a thousand cultic prostitutes and contributed to the city's reputation for immorality. Athena, namesake and patron of the city of Athens, was a virgin goddess connected with arts and crafts, fertility, and war. She was identified with the Roman Minerva. Hera, whose Roman equivalent was Juno, was the wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage, women, and motherhood. Also not mentioned is the important Poseidon, Neptune to the Romans, god of the sea, earthquakes, and—oddly—horses. The war god of Greece was Ares, equated with the Roman god Mars. Hephaistos, the Roman Vulcan, was god of fire and the patron of smiths. Hades, called by the Romans Pluto, was the Greek god of the underworld. His name became the Greek word used in the New Testament for the abode of the dead (Matthew 11:23 ; Matthew 16:18 ; Luke 10:15 ; Luke 16:23 ; Acts 2:27 ,Acts 2:27,2:31 ; Revelation 1:18 ; Revelation 20:13-14 ).
Certain Greek gods became the centers of cults which were quite influential in New Testament times. Foremost among these is the cult of Demeter or the Eleusinian mysteries. Demeter was the Greek goddess of grain who, according to the myth, ceased to function when her daughter Persephone was abducted into the underworld by Hades. Persephone was eventually released to her mother but forced to spend a third of each year in the underworld, a cycle which reflected the annual growth cycle of grain. Secret rites of initiation into the cult took place annually at Eleusis. The Greek god of wine, intoxication, and fertility was Dionysus, the Roman Bacchus. His cult involved orgiastic feasts in which wild animals were torn apart alive and eaten raw, originally only by groups of women. Sick persons appealed to the popular god of healing, Asclepius, by visiting special sanctuaries in certain cities. See Fertility Cult ; Mystery/Mystery Religions.
In the process of hellenization, the mixing of Greek and Near Eastern culture, certain Near Eastern deities were adopted as the centers of new cults, usually called the myster religions. Generally these systems of belief involved the adoption of a Near Eastern god and myth having to do with fertility. The mystery religions, including the cults of Eleusis and Dionysus, filled a vacuum left by the fading popularity of the older Greek gods and became the primary comeptitors of Christianity in the early centuries of the church.
The Egyptian myth of Osiris was modified and became the center of a widely popular cult of Serapis and Isis. Serapis was a syncretistic combination of Osiris and the Apis bull of Memphis. Another mystery religion centered around Mithra, a Persian god, and his myth. Initiation into the cult was limited to men and involved the slaying of a bull above the initiate who bathed in its blood. The cult of Cybele or Magna Mater (“Great Mother”) came from Asia Minor. The myth involved the death and restoration of her consort Attis and was similar to the Mesopotamian myth of Ishtar and Tammuz (see above) as well as that of Atargatis and Hadad in Syria. Perhaps related is the myth of the vegetation god Adonis (fromfjcr pbadon, “lord”) of the Phoenicians, whose death was mourned much like that of Tammuz. The idea of a dying and rising god has been compared to the death and resurrection of Christ, but the death of those gods was mythical, cyclical, and involuntary, in contrast to the historical, once-for-all act of Christ motivated by love.
Daniel C. Browning Jr.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Gods And Goddesses, Pagan
God early and clearly commanded the descendants of Abraham not to have any other gods besides him (Exodus 20:3 ). This strict, undivided loyalty was the basis of the covenant relationship God established between himself and the people of Israel.
Sadly, the whole of biblical history is punctuated by the numerous times the people of God turned away from him to engage in the worship of a strange god or goddess. People in the lands surrounding Israel had deities that continually tempted the Israelites to turn from their own God.
Artemis . Greek goddess (K. J. V. Diana) of fertility worshiped at Ephesus and elsewhere during the New Testament era. Her worship combined Greek, Roman, and Anatolian elements and dates back to ca. 1000 b.c. In Ephesus a temple was built in the third century b.c. to replace an earlier one that burned down and became known as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. A well-known statue of Artemis emphasizes fertility. Paul's preaching directly challenged her worship and precipitated a riot that only official interaction could quell (Acts 19:23-41 ). In the end the worship of Christ prevailed and the cult of Artemis disappeared from history.
Asherah . The people of Israel had been settled in the promised land for only a brief time before their attention turned to the deities of the Canaanites. The Book of Judges chronicles this apostasy. The people forsook the Lord God to serve Asherah and her husband Baal (Ashteroth is an alternative name for Asherah, Judges 2:13 ; 3:7 ).
The name "Asherah" and its variant spellings occur thirty-nine times in the Old Testament. In a number of these instances, Baal is mentioned along with Asherah. Evidence from Ugaritic mythologies and other texts suggests that the term refers to both the Canaanite goddess and cultic objects facilitating her worship.
That Baal and Asherah are mentioned together in several Old Testament passages suggests that the Canaanites and other peoples considered Asherah to be an important "high deity" along with Baal. The most explicit passage disclosing the close relationship between the two comes from the narrative about Ahab and Jezebel's confrontation with Elijah (1 Kings 18:1-19:18 ). Their endorsement of and participation in the worship of these Canaanite deities is the most extreme of any incidents related in Scripture concerning Israelite rulers who adopted the worship of these gods. In fact, Jezebel went so far as to insist that Ahab provide for the worship of her Phoenician deities.
Asherah was one of the three chief consort-goddesses within the Canaanite pantheon, along with Astarte (or Ashtaroth) and Anath. These three goddesses were jealous rivals. In the mythology, Asherah is portrayed as the consort of both El and Baal. In the Ugaritic myths she clearly emerges as the consort of El, the chief high god of the west Semitic pantheon. The Canaanite myths associated El with the source of fresh water, located in the distant west or north. On this basis El's consort was identified mainly as a sea-goddess. During the kingdom period of Israel's history she was the goddess at the side of Baal. On some occasions, however, she comes across as a fierce opponent of Baal—particularly when she thought she would lose her authority or influence among other members of the pantheon or when Baal preferred Anath instead of Asherah as his sexual intimate. The conflict and enmity between Baal and Asherah provided an explanation for the alternating two-climate season each year in the Mediterranean region.
The most shocking endorsement of Israel's buying into Canaanite religion was the construction of a temple for the worship of Baal at Samaria. This, as mentioned above, was promoted by Ahab (869-850 b.c.) and Jezebel, his wife, who was the daughter of the Tyrian king Ethbaal (1 Kings 16:29-34 ). This temple was constructed with the help of Tyrian artisans, along with an altar on which to offer sacrifices and a "sacred pole" (NRSV) or "wooden image" (NKJV). Because of this apostasy, judgment was poured out on Ahab and Jezebel. Jehu later destroyed this temple (2 Kings 10:18-31 ).
During the reign of Manasseh (687-642 b.c.) Canaanite religion was appropriated by the people of Judah from Geba to Beer-sheba (2 Kings 16:4-14 ). Manasseh added various aspects of Canaanite (a carved image of Asherah, 2 Kings 21:7 ) and other religions to the city of Jerusalem. He even offered his own son as burnt offering (2 Kings 21:6 ). Josiah later cleansed Jerusalem of the excesses of Canaanite worship (2 Kings 23 ).
The Israelites had been warned before settling the land of Canaan about established religious worship sites, particularly the "high places" taken over intact during the conquest. These sites were often furnished with basic cultic objects and resident sacred personnel. Cultic features included the following: small clay figurines (Judges 3:7 ; Micah 5:13 ); "sacred pillars" (1 Kings 14:23 ); an "incense altar" (2 Chronicles 30:14 ); an altar for offering the whole burnt offering (2 Kings 21:5 ) and "priests" and "priestesses."
Several Canaanite high places were appropriated by Israel's religious leaders early in the settlement, including Bethel (Judges 1:22-26 ), Shiloh (1 Samuel 1:1-18 ), and Gibeah (1 Samuel 13:1-4 ). Both Solomon (1 Kings 11:1-4 ) and Manasseh (2 Kings 21:1-17 ) encouraged worship at high places. Asherah and Baal worship caused the downfall of the northern and southern kingdoms of Israel.
Ashtoreth . Ashtoreth was a popular goddess in several cultures. Her worship attracted the Israelites shortly after their settlement in Canaan. At the heart of this pagan religion was the worship of the fertility or fecundity "forces/features" that characterized the animate aspects of the created world. Ashtoreth's popularity among the Phoenicians and other northwest Semitic peoples was long-standing.
The major confrontation between Ashtoreth and Yahweh took place during the days of Eli, Samuel, and Saul. Particularly after the defeat on Mount Gilboa, the people of Israel faced an almost imponderable theological dilemma. Instructions were sent throughout the land of the Philistines to proclaim victory over Israel and their God Yahweh. The proclamation was to be made in the temples of their idols and among the people (1 Samuel 31:6-10 ): the Baals and Ashtoreths were mightier than the Lord!
Ashtoreth's influence was finally discredited by Josiah, who "cleaned house" by destroying the shrines erected by Solomon. He made clear that Yahweh was the onlyand trueGod for the people of Israel
Baal . Baalthe most significant male deity of the Canaanitesand his consort Asherah were the most alluring deities confronting Israel in the promised land following the conquest. The numerous references to Baal in the Old Testament indicate his attractiveness and influence on the Israelites. The Book of Judges chronicles the numerous times the people fell to the temptation to worship Baal. During the time of Ahab and Jezebel Baal was declared the official national deity. A temple and hundreds of officiants were established for Baal's worship in Samaria (1 Kings 16:29-34 ). A final chapter concerning Baal worship was written during the reigns of Jehu and Josiah, when the southern kingdom and its capital were purged of the worship of Baal (2 Kings 10 ; 23:1-30 ).
Baal's name derives from the Semitic word ba'lu, meaning "lord." He was assumed to fulfill several significant roles by the peoples who worshiped him. As god of the storm the roar of his voice in the heavens was the thunder of the sky. He was the god who both created and granted fertility. He was the deity slain by enemies who thus fell into the hands of Death. During the time that Baal was under the control of Death, the vegetation wilted or ceased and procreation stopped. He was the god of justice, feared by evildoers.
The Book of Kings recounts that Jezebel used the plan of the Baal temple in Sidon for the construction of a similar temple in Samaria. Ahab agreed with her to make Baal worship the royal religion of the northern kingdom (1 Kings 16:29-31 ). Baal, like Asherah, was also worshiped at high places.
The cult of Baal involved the offering of many animal sacrifices. Priests would officiate on behalf of the persons presenting sacrificial animals to the god. Some of the northern kingdom rulers even "made their sons pass through fire"offering their own sons as sacrifices to Baal. "Holy prostitutes"both male and femalewere available to worshipers, encouraging the fertility of both land and people.
Baal-zebub, Beel-zebul . Phoenician god worshiped at Ekron in Old Testament times (2 Kings 1:2-16 ). Original meaning of the name is unknown but the Old Testament form, Baal-zebub, means "Lord of the flies"; in Jesus' day this god is derisively called Beel-zebul (NIV Beelzebub), "lord of dung, " and identified with Satan, the ruler of demons (Matthew 12:24 ). Jesus' enemies accused him of casting out demons by invoking Beel-zebul (Mark 3:22 ) and even of being his embodiment (Matthew 10:25 ). Jesus, rejecting this calumny, pointed out that the expulsion of demons was Satan's defeat, heralding the arrival of God's kingdom (Luke 11:20-22 ).
Chemosh . Chemosh was the primary national god of the Moabites and Ammonites. The Moabites are called the "people of Chemosh" in the passage of Scripture that details the travels of the Israelites through Edom, Moab, and Ammon, (Numbers 21:21-32 ). During the reign of Solomon worship of Chemosh, along with that of other pagan gods, was established and promoted in the city of Jerusalem. Jeremiah specifically condemns the worship of Chemosh (chap. 38). The prophet focuses on the god's impotence by showing him going into captivity with his priests and people.
Dagon . Dagon was the highly venerated national deity of the Philistines. Each city of the Philistine pentapolis had its temple for the worship of this god. The temple statuary portraying Dagon was characterized by an upper human torso, with the lower torso of a fish. The major cultic rite in Dagon's worship was human sacrifice.
When the Philistines captured and overcame Samson, the five Philistine cities planned a great celebration. Dagon had delivered their enemy into their hands (Judges 16:23-24 )! The Philistines called for a sacrifice to their god. Presumably they intended to offer Samson as a human holocaust/offering. Dagon was, however, defeated by Yahweh.
Dagon haunted the reigns of both Saul and David. The Israelites relied on their theological understanding that Yahweh was mightier than Dagonbut, unfortunately, with an inexcusable naivete. When they brought the ark of the covenant from Shiloh and took it into battle against the Philistines, it did not result in their victory. However, the presence of the ark in Philistine hands led to the challenge to their god, Dagon, and the return of the ark to the Israelites.
Throughout the narratives relating the encounters between the people of Israel and the Philistines, there persists an underlying theological dilemma. Which deity is greaterand therefore the one to worship and serve: the Lord God or Dagon?
Hadad . Hadad was a prominent god among the Arameans, Syrians, and other west Semitic peoples. The name appears especially in the Edomite genealogy of Genesis 36 and in the history of the two Israelite kingdoms to the downfall of the northern kingdom in 722 b.c.
Hadad was the deification of natural forces and war. He was viewed as the god of the storm, who displayed his power in thunder, lightning, and rain. He was credited with both the good (desirable) and bad (undesirable) sides of storms. He was regarded as the origin and regulator of the beneficial rains, making him the principle of life and fertility. The Assyrians saw him as a mighty warrior-god. He was portrayed as standing on the back of a bull, wearing the horns of the bull on his helmet and wielding a mace and thunderbolt.
The name "Hadad" was used in reference to a human individual to indicate the essence or being of the patron deity, the power bestowed on that person, and bestowal of favor or help against an enemy or opponent. The name is used of a number of important persons in the scriptural record. Several rulers of the Edomites contemporary with David and Solomon had the name "Hadad."
Leviathan . Leviathan can be identified with Lotan, sea-monster of the Ugaritic Texts mythology. The Ugaritic myth recounts how Lotan and Baal were locked in mortal combat, until Baal killed the sea-monster. Leviathan is also mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh. The references to Leviathan in Scripture occur almost exclusively in poetic or semipoetic passages, emphasizing the might and control of the Lord God over the forces of nature.
Marduk . Marduk was the chief deity of Babylon. He became the supreme god among the older Sumerian gods as creator and ruler. Enlil was the original chief god until the Code of Hammurabi and the Creation Epic focused on Marduk instead. Jeremiah prophesied that Marduk would be put to shame (Jeremiah 50:2 ).
Milcom . Milcom, called the "abomination" of the Ammonites, was apparently the chief deity of the Ammonites or Moabites. The "abomination" label seems to convey both the detestable aspect of origin and of the worship of Lot's descendants. Solomon built a worship facility for this foreign deity (see 1 Kings 11:5,7 , 33 ). Milcom is sometimes identified with Molech, but this is incorrect since the two gods were worshiped individually.
Molech . Molech or Moloch was another "abomination" of the Ammonites. Solomon also built a high place for this god in Jerusalem. The worship of this god was particularly odious, as it required human sacrifice.
Queen of Heaven . Jeremiah was directed by God to speak out the Lord's disapproval of Israel's worship of the "Queen of Heaven" (7:18; 44:17-19). This female astral deity was particularly worshiped by the women in Judah and Egypt during the time of Jeremiah. Children were gathering firewood; women were busily kneading dough for cakes to be offered to this queen. The details and activity suggest that the Canaanite goddess Astarte was the deity motivating the people in Jerusalem to such frenzied worship activity.
Tammuz . Tammuz was a Syrian and Phoenician god of fertility, venerated in the worship of idols and elaborate, extreme rituals. The Greeks adopted Tammuz as one of their prominent deities, changing his name to Adonis. Ezekiel lists the worship of Tammuz as one of the abominations in God's sight (8:1-18) that was being practiced in the temple precincts in Jerusalem. The chanting of a litany of woes (or, singing a song, of lamentation see Ezekiel 8:14 ) shows that the cult of Tammuz was active in Jerusalem.
Harvey E. Finley
See also Idol, Idolatry
Bibliography . W. F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel ; idem, From the Stone Age to Christianity ; idem, History, Archaeology and Christian Humanism ; idem, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan ; W. Dever, Recent Archaeological Discoveries and Biblical Research ; M. Eliade, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion ; J. Finegan, Myth and Mystery ; A. Lamaire, BAR (1984): 43-51; J. B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament ; M. S. Smith, The Early History of God ; G. E. Wright, Biblical Archaeology .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Gods
GODS.—The single passage in the Gospels where the word θεοί occurs (John 10:34 f.) affords an excellent example both of the style of Jesus’ arguments with His Jewish adversaries and of His attitude to the OT. The phrase, ‘I said, Ye are gods,’ is a literal quotation of Psalms 82:6 (LXX Septuagint 81:6), and is introduced as such by the word invariably employed for that purpose (ἔστιν γεγραμμένον, cf. γέγραπται of Matthew 4:3; Matthew 4:6-7; Matthew 4:10) It is plain that in quoting these words Jesus is arguing after the manner of the well-known argumentum ad hominem, from His use of the personal pronoun ‘your,’ as well as from His application of the title ‘law’ to the Psalms (ἐν τῷ νόμῳ ὑμῶν, cf. τῶ ὑμετέρῳ in John 8:17; and for a similar use of the term ‘law,’ cf. John 12:34; John 15:25). It is an appeal to authority, the validity of which His hearers would be the first to recognize. It was impossible for them to escape a conclusion so immediately the outcome of premisses universally accepted as true. At the same time it is an argument a fortiori. If their beloved Law, to which they were constantly appealing, hesitated not to designate as ‘gods’ (אֳלהים) the judges whose partiality and injustice provoked their arraignment by God, and the solemn warning to ‘judge the weak and fatherless, do justice to the afflicted and destitute’ (Psalms 82:3), surely the charge of blasphemy came badly from those men who recognized in this Law their final court of appeal. His claim to be ‘the Son of God,’ whom the Father, in a unique sense, both ‘sanctified and sent,’ could be judged by His works, and it was sufficient to contrast those works which they could daily witness with the works of men whom God designated ‘sons of the Most High’ (בְּנִי עָלְיוֹן Psalms 82:6).
Jesus in this place seems to adopt the interpretation of this Psalm which is given by the Targum, and which applies the title ‘gods’ to the earthly judges acting in their capacity as representatives of God. He, moreover, countenances the extension of the term ‘Law’ to other portions of the OT besides the Pentateuch. This was a common practice in the writings of the Jewish Rabbins, who spoke of ‘the threefold Law’—Pentateuch, Prophets, and Hagiographa (Shabbath, 88a). Compare also the Talmudic tractate Sanhedrin, fol. 91, 92, for the question of R. Joshua, ‘In what manner is the Resurrection of the dead proved from the Law?’ with the answer that it is said in Psalms 84:4 ‘They shall praise thee’; not ‘they have praised thee.’ To the same question propounded by R. Chaia the answer is that the Resurrection is proved from Isaiah 52:8 (see Wünscbe, Neue Beitrage zur Erlauterung der Evangelien aus Talmud und Midrash).
There is another explanation current among the Jews which applied the term ’elôhim in this place to the israelites who stood before Mt. Sinai and received the law (τρὁς οὕς ὁ λογος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγένετο, John 10:35). If, said they, their fathers had not sinned in the matter of the golden calf, they would have been as the angels; they would neither have begotten children nor been subject to death. For this reason it was, according to this interpretation, that the Psalm says, ‘they shall die like men’ (כְּאָרָם v. 7), in spite of the fact that they were so marvellously privileged (see the Talmudic tractate Zarah, fol. 5. 1, quoted in J. Lightfoot’s . Heb. et Talm. [1] , vol. iii. p. 359).
The evidential value of the whole passage with respect to Jesus’ attitude to the OT Scriptures will, to some extent at least, be measured by the nature of the clause, ‘the Scripture* [2] cannot be broken.’ If it is parenthetical, we have a direct assertion by Jesus that He regarded the OT as containing elements of abiding significance, and, moreover, that its meaning found its final and true explanation in His person and life (cf. John 13:18 and Matthew 5:18 etc.). On the other hand, it is by no means certain that the clause is of the nature of a parenthesis, and not dependent upon the preceding conditional particle (εἰ). In this case the sense would be ‘if the Scripture cannot be broken,’ which would have the effect of presenting the argumentum ad hominem in a still stronger and more merciless form. This is again made more forcible by His use of the emphatic pronoun (ὑμεῖς), as if He intended to say, ‘How is it possible for you, of all people, in face of the fact that you assert the inviolability of this passage, to find fault with the claims which I have put forward, and to say that I am a blasphemer?’ (see Plummer in Cambridge Greek Test., and Westcott’s Gospel of St. John, ad loc.).
It might be possible for an objector to urge that the whole argument was unworthy of the dignity of its alleged Author, and was too like what His hearers would themselves employ. On the other hand, we know that He did not shrink, at times, from meeting the Jews on their own ground (see art. Accommodation, p. 19 ff.), and indeed it would seem that He had no option but to do so, if His teaching was ever to penetrate their understandings. Nor did He at any time avoid confounding His adversaries out of their own mouth (cf. Matthew 22:45, Luke 10:36 f. etc.). At the same time it is evident that there is a profounder significance attaching to the quotation than at first sight appears, and it is in this fact that we have a more certain guide to the estimation in which the OT writings were held by Jesus. Whatever may have been the personal character of those who were designated ’elôhîm in the Psalm, they were men unto whom the word of God had come, and who derived their title to be in a sense Divine from the fact that God delegated to them an authority which was His to give, and that He communicated His will through them to the people over whom they were placed.
The phrase ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ, occurring as it does in this passage, can hardly have been recorded by the author of the Fourth Gospel without a conscious reference to that Personal Word, about whom he speaks in his Prologue. The Logos, pre-existent and active, was the means by which God was effecting the eternal movement of man towards Himself and of Himself towards man. This movement became finally complete in the union of the Incarnation, when God and man met in an everlasting unity (ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο, John 1:14). Nor was this marvellous synthesis ‘sprung upon,’ so to speak, the human race. It was being foreshadowed continually in the OT. The prophetic ‘Thus saith the Lord’ (cf. e.g. Isaiah 38:1, Jeremiah 19:1, Hosea 4:1 etc.) was the outcome of a consciousness which felt its power to speak and act as God’s earthly representative, and the fitness of this claim is vindicated by the oft-repeated assertion, ‘The word of the Lord came unto [3]’ (cf. Jeremiah 16:1; Jeremiah 10:1; Jeremiah 9:17, Isaiah 8:1, Joel 1:1 etc.; see the emphatic הָיֹה הָיָה in Ezekiel 1:3, where the prophet lays stress on the reality of his experience).
The union of God and man accomplished in the ‘Word made flesh’ was indirectly suggested in the bold words of the Psalmist, ‘I said, Ye are ‘elôhîm,’ and it is not difficult to believe that in repeating this expression Jesus had in His mind the realization of this profound idea, and that He desired to disclose it as an accomplished fact to those who had ears to hear and hearts to understand (Matthew 13:15).
J. R. Willis.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Gods, Goddess
See IDOLATRY.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Gods, False
Gods that are not real, but invented by men or inspired by demons the purpose of which is to deceive people so they do not believe in the true and living God. Some of the false gods listed in the Bible are Adrammelech and Anammelech (2 Kings 17:31), Asherah (1 Kings 15:13; 1Ki 18:19), Ashtoreth (1 Kings 11:5; 1Ki 11:33), Baal (1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 23:7), Baalzebub (2 Kings 1:1-16); Luke 11:19-23), Dagon (Judges 16:23-30), Molech/Moloch (Leviticus 18:21; Lev 20:1-5), Rimmon (2 Kings 5:18, and Tammuz (Ezekiel 8:14).
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Gods
in the plural, is used of the false deities of the Heathens, many of which were only creatures to whom divine honours and worship were superstitiously paid. The Greeks and Latins, it is observable, did not mean, by the name God, an all-perfect being, whereof eternity, infinity, omnipresence, &c, were essential attributes; with them the word only implied an excellent and superior nature; and, accordingly, they give the appellation gods to all beings of a rank or class higher or more perfect than that of men, and especially to those who were inferior agents in the divine administration, all subject to the one Supreme. Thus men themselves, according to their system, might become gods after death, inasmuch as their souls might attain to a degree of excellence superior to what they were capable of in life. The first idols, or false gods, that are said to have been adored where the stars, sun, moon, &c, on account of the light, heat, and other benefits which we derive from them. ( See IDOLATRY. ) Afterward the earth came to be deified, for furnishing fruits necessary for the subsistence of men and animals; then fire and water became objects of divine worship, for their usefulness to human life. In process of time, and by degrees, gods became multiplied to infinity; and there was scarce any thing but the weakness or caprice of some devotee or other, elevated into the rank of deity; things useless or even destructive not excepted. The principal of the ancient gods, whom the Romans called dii majorum gentium, and Cicero celestial gods, Varro select gods, Ovid nobiles deos, others consentes deos, were Jupiter, Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Vulcan, and Apollo. Jupiter is considered as the god of heaven; Neptune, as god of the sea; Mars, as the god of war; Apollo, of eloquence, poetry, and physic; Mercury, of thieves; Bacchus, of wine; Cupid, of love, &c. A second sort of gods, called demi-gods, semidii, dii minorum gentium, indigetes, or gods adopted, were men canonized and deified. As the greater gods had possession of heaven by their own right, these secondary deities had it by merit and donation, being translated into heaven because they had lived as gods upon earth.
2. The Heathen gods may be all reduced to the following classes:
(1.) Created spirits, angels, or demons, whence good and evil gods; Genii, Lares, Lemures, Typhones, guardian gods, infernal gods, &c.
(2.) Heavenly bodies; as, the sun, moon, and other planets; also, the fixed stars, constellations, &c.
(3.) Elements; as air, earth, ocean, Ops, Vesta; the rivers, fountains,
&c.
(4.) Meteors. Thus the Persians adored the wind: thunder and lightning were honoured under the name of Geryon; and several nations of India and America have made themselves gods of the same. Castor, Pollux, Helena, and Iris, have also been preferred from meteors to be gods; and the like has been practised in regard to comets: witness that which appeared at the murder of Caesar.
(5.) They erected minerals or fossils into deities. Such was the Baetylus. The Finlanders adored stones; the Scythians, iron; and many nations, silver and gold.
(6.) Plants have been made gods. Thus leeks and onions were deities in Egypt; the Sclavi, Lithuanians, Celtae, Vandals, and Peruvians, adored trees and forests; the ancient Gauls, Britons, and Druids, paid a particular devotion to the oak; and it was no other than wheat, corn, seed, &c, that the ancients adored under the names of Ceres and Proserpina.
(7.) They took themselves gods from among the waters. The Syrians and Egyptians adored fishes: and what were the Tritons, the Nereids, Syrens, &c, but fishes? Several nations have adored serpents; particularly the Egyptians, Prussians, Lithuanians, Samogitians, &c.
(8.) Insects, as flies and ants, had their priests and votaries.
(9.) Among birds, the stork, raven, sparrow hawk, ibis, eagle, grisson, and lapwing have had divine honours; the last in Mexico, the rest in Egypt and at Thebes.
(10.) Four-footed beasts have had their altars; as the bull, dog, cat, wolf, baboon, lion, and crocodile, in Egypt and elsewhere; the hog in the island of Crete; rats and mice in the Troas, and at Tenedos; weasels at Thebes; and the porcupine throughout all Zoroaster's school.
(11.) Nothing was more common than to place men among the number of deities; and from Belus or Baal, to the Roman emperors before Constantine, the instances of this kind are innumerable: frequently they did not wait so long as their deaths for the apotheosis. Nebuchadnezzar procured his statue to be worshipped while living; and Virgil shows that Augustus had altars and sacrifices offered to him; as we learn from other hands that he had priests called Augustales, and temples at Lyons, Narbona, and several other places, and he must be allowed the first of the Romans in whose behalf idolatry was carried to such a pitch. The Ethiopians deemed all their kings gods: the Velleda of the Germans, the Janus of the Hungarians, and the Thaut, Woden, and Assa of the northern nations, were indisputably men.
(12.) Not men only, but every thing that relates to man, has also been deified; as labour, rest, sleep, youth, age, death, virtues, vices, occasion, time, place, numbers, among the Pythagoreans; the generative power, under the name of Priapus. Infancy alone had a cloud of deities; as, Vagetanus, Levana, Rumina, Edufa, Potina, Cuba, Cumina, Carna, Ossilago, Statulinus, Fabulinus, &c. They also adored the gods Health, Fever, Fear, Love, Pain, Indignation, Shame, Impudence, Opinion, Renown, Prudence, Science, Art, Fidelity,
Felicity, Calumny, Liberty, Money, War, Peace, Victory, Triumph, &c. Lastly, Nature, the universe, or το παν , was reputed a great god.
3. Hesiod has a poem under the title of Θεογονια , that is "The Generation of the Gods," in which he explains their genealogy and descent, sets forth who was the first and principal, who next descended from him, and what issue each had: the whole making a sort of system of Heathen theology. Beside this popular theology, each philosopher had his system, as may be seen from the "Timaeus" of Plato, and Cicero "De Natura Deorum." Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Arnobius, Minutius Felix, Lactantius, Eusebius, St. Augustine, and Theodoret, show the vanity of the Heathen gods. It is very difficult to discover the real sentiments of the Heathens with respect to their gods: they are exceedingly intricate and confused, and even frequently contradictory. They admitted so many superior and inferior gods, who shared the empire, that every place was full of gods. Varro reckons up no less than thirty thousand adored within a small extent of ground, and yet their number was every day increasing. In modern oriental Paganism they amount to many millions, and are, in fact, innumerable.
4. The name of God, in Hebrew, Elohim, is very ambiguous in Scripture. The true God is often called so, as are sometimes angels, judges, and princes, and sometimes idols and false gods; for example: "God created the heaven and the earth," Genesis 1:1 . The Hebrew Elohim denotes, in this place, the true God. "He who sacrificeth unto any god, ( Elohim, ) shall be put to death," Exodus 22:20 . And again: "Among the gods there is none like unto thee," Psalms 86:8 . Princes, magistrates, and great men are called gods in the following passages: "If a slave is desirous to continue with his master, he shall be brought to the judges," Exodus 21:6 , in the original, to the gods. Again: "If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges," Exodus 22:8 , in the original, to the gods: and in the twenty-eighth verse of the same chapter, "Thou shalt not speak evil of the gods" that is, of the judges or great men.
The Psalmist says that the Lord "judgeth among the gods," Psalms 82:1 . And again, God says to Moses, "I have made thee a god to Pharaoh,"
Exodus 7:1 . The pious Israelites had so great an aversion and such an extreme contempt for strange gods, that they scorned even to mention them; they disguised and disfigured their names by substituting in the room of them some term of contempt; for example, instead of Elohim, they called them Elilim, "nothings, gods of no value;" instead of Mephibaal, Meribaal, and Jerubaal, they said "Mephibosheth, Meribosheth, and Jeribosheth." Baal signifies master, husband; and bosheth, something to be ashamed of, something apt to put one in confusion. God forbade the Israelites to swear by strange gods, and to pronounce the names of them in their oaths, Exodus 23:13 .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Gods
The words god and gods, Hebrew ELOHIM, are several times used in Scripture to express the power, office, or excellence of some created beings, as angels, magistrates, Exodus 22:20,28 Psalm 86:8 97:12 ; often also for the false gods of the heathen. These were exceedingly numerous, and are denoted by various terms, signifying vanity, falsehood, etc. Among the first objects to be deified were the sun, the moon, and the chief powers of nature. Innumerable animals, deceased men, all ages, passions, and conditions of man, and every thing which fear, lust, malice, pride, or caprice could suggest, were made objects of worship. The gods of modern India are numbered by millions.

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Chthonian - ) Designating, or pertaining to, Gods or spirits of the underworld; esp. , relating to the underworld Gods of the Greeks, whose worship is widely considered as more primitive in form than that of the Olympian Gods
Eisegesis - An example would be in viewing 1 Corinthians 8:5 which says, "For though there be that are called Gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be Gods many, and lords many," (KJV). With this verse, Mormons, for example, bring their preconceived idea of the existence of many Gods to this text and assert that it says there are many Gods. It says that there are many that are called Gods
Graven Image - pesel), refers to the household Gods of idolaters. "Every nation and city had its own Gods
Pantheon - ) The collective Gods of a people, or a work treating of them; as, a divinity of the Greek pantheon. ) A temple dedicated to all the Gods; especially, the building so called at Rome
Jupiter - See Gods, Pagan ; Greece
Jupiter - See Gods, Pagan ; Greece
Baalim - Idols; masters; false Gods
Gods - The Greeks and Latins, it is observable, did not mean, by the name God, an all-perfect being, whereof eternity, infinity, omnipresence, &c, were essential attributes; with them the word only implied an excellent and superior nature; and, accordingly, they give the appellation Gods to all beings of a rank or class higher or more perfect than that of men, and especially to those who were inferior agents in the divine administration, all subject to the one Supreme. Thus men themselves, according to their system, might become Gods after death, inasmuch as their souls might attain to a degree of excellence superior to what they were capable of in life. The first idols, or false Gods, that are said to have been adored where the stars, sun, moon, &c, on account of the light, heat, and other benefits which we derive from them. In process of time, and by degrees, Gods became multiplied to infinity; and there was scarce any thing but the weakness or caprice of some devotee or other, elevated into the rank of deity; things useless or even destructive not excepted. The principal of the ancient Gods, whom the Romans called dii majorum gentium, and Cicero celestial Gods, Varro select Gods, Ovid nobiles deos, others consentes deos, were Jupiter, Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Vulcan, and Apollo. A second sort of Gods, called demi-gods, semidii, dii minorum gentium, indigetes, or Gods adopted, were men canonized and deified. As the greater Gods had possession of heaven by their own right, these secondary deities had it by merit and donation, being translated into heaven because they had lived as Gods upon earth. The Heathen Gods may be all reduced to the following classes:...
(1. ) Created spirits, angels, or demons, whence good and evil Gods; Genii, Lares, Lemures, Typhones, guardian Gods, infernal Gods, &c. Thus the Persians adored the wind: thunder and lightning were honoured under the name of Geryon; and several nations of India and America have made themselves Gods of the same. Castor, Pollux, Helena, and Iris, have also been preferred from meteors to be Gods; and the like has been practised in regard to comets: witness that which appeared at the murder of Caesar. ) Plants have been made Gods. ) They took themselves Gods from among the waters. The Ethiopians deemed all their kings Gods: the Velleda of the Germans, the Janus of the Hungarians, and the Thaut, Woden, and Assa of the northern nations, were indisputably men. They also adored the Gods Health, Fever, Fear, Love, Pain, Indignation, Shame, Impudence, Opinion, Renown, Prudence, Science, Art, Fidelity,...
Felicity, Calumny, Liberty, Money, War, Peace, Victory, Triumph, &c. Hesiod has a poem under the title of Θεογονια , that is "The Generation of the Gods," in which he explains their genealogy and descent, sets forth who was the first and principal, who next descended from him, and what issue each had: the whole making a sort of system of Heathen theology. Augustine, and Theodoret, show the vanity of the Heathen Gods. It is very difficult to discover the real sentiments of the Heathens with respect to their Gods: they are exceedingly intricate and confused, and even frequently contradictory. They admitted so many superior and inferior Gods, who shared the empire, that every place was full of Gods. The true God is often called so, as are sometimes angels, judges, and princes, and sometimes idols and false Gods; for example: "God created the heaven and the earth," Genesis 1:1 . And again: "Among the Gods there is none like unto thee," Psalms 86:8 . Princes, magistrates, and great men are called Gods in the following passages: "If a slave is desirous to continue with his master, he shall be brought to the judges," Exodus 21:6 , in the original, to the Gods. Again: "If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges," Exodus 22:8 , in the original, to the Gods: and in the twenty-eighth verse of the same chapter, "Thou shalt not speak evil of the Gods" that is, of the judges or great men. ...
The Psalmist says that the Lord "judgeth among the Gods," Psalms 82:1 . The pious Israelites had so great an aversion and such an extreme contempt for strange Gods, that they scorned even to mention them; they disguised and disfigured their names by substituting in the room of them some term of contempt; for example, instead of Elohim, they called them Elilim, "nothings, Gods of no value;" instead of Mephibaal, Meribaal, and Jerubaal, they said "Mephibosheth, Meribosheth, and Jeribosheth. God forbade the Israelites to swear by strange Gods, and to pronounce the names of them in their oaths, Exodus 23:13
Ashtoreth - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Chemosh - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Dagon - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Artemis - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Asherah - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Baal - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Baal-Zebub - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Beelzebub - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Hadad - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Leviathan - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Marduk - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Milcom - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Molech, Moloch - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Tammuz - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Kaiwan - As is often the case when foreign Gods were referred to, the original vowels of the name were probably replaced with the vowels of the Hebrew word for “abomination. ” See Chiun ; Gods, Pagan ; Sakkuth
Pagan - A heathen a Gentile an idolater one who worships false Gods. This word was originally applied to the inhabitants of the country, who on the first propagation of the christian religion adhered to the worship of false Gods, or refused to receive christianity, after it had been received by the inhabitants of the cities. Heathen heathenish Gentile noting a person who worships false Gods. Pertaining to the worship of false Gods
Allotheism - ) The worship of strange Gods
Mercury - (muhr' cyoo ree) See Gods, Pagan ; Hermes
Demonism - ) The belief in demons or false Gods
Bitheism - ) Belief in the existence of two Gods; dualism
Polytheism - ) The doctrine of, or belief in, a plurality of Gods
Bajith - House of the Gods of Moab
Olympianism - ) Worship of the Olympian Gods, esp
Polytheist - ) One who believes in, or maintains the doctrine of, a plurality of Gods
Gods - The words god and Gods, Hebrew ELOHIM, are several times used in Scripture to express the power, office, or excellence of some created beings, as angels, magistrates, Exodus 22:20,28 Psalm 86:8 97:12 ; often also for the false Gods of the heathen. The Gods of modern India are numbered by millions
Pagans - Those who worship a god or Gods other than the living God to whom the Bible witnesses. See Gentiles ; Gods, Pagan
Asura - ) An enemy of the Gods, esp
Tritheism - ) The opinion or doctrine that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three distinct Gods
Milcom - MALCOM, MILCOM...
One of the dunghill Gods of the Ammonites
God - Fear not the Gods of the Amorites. Thou shalt not revile the Gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people. Psalms 97 ...
Gods here is a bad translation
Pagoda - Or PAGOD, a name given by the East Indians to their temples, where they worship their Gods
Entilism - ) Hethenism; paganism; the worship of false Gods
Henotheism - The teaching that there are many Gods but that only one of them must be honored and worshipped
Sepharvites - The inhabitants of Sepharvaim: they burnt their children in the fire to their Gods
Whoring, To Go; Harlot, To Be - Zânâh (זָנָה, Strong's #2181), “to go a whoring, commit fornication, be a harlot, serve other Gods. The main reason, however, is the fact that this term is used most frequently to describe “spiritual prostitution” in which Israel turned from God to strange Gods. 31:16 illustrates this meaning: “And the Lord said unto Moses, Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and this people will rise up, and go a whoring after the Gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them. The act of harloting after strange Gods was more than changing Gods, however. This was especially true when Israel went after the Canaanite Gods, for the worship of these pagan deities involved actual prostitution with cult prostitutes connected with the Canaanite shrines. In the Old Testament sometimes the use of the phrase “go a whoring after” Gods implies an individual’s involvement with cult prostitutes. 34:15-16: “Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their Gods, and do sacrifice unto their Gods. … And thou take of their daughters unto thy sons,and their daughters go a whoring after their Gods, and make thy sons go a whoring after their Gods. ”...
The religious theory behind such activity at the Canaanite shrine was that such sexual activity with cult prostitutes, both male and female, who represented the Gods and goddesses of the Canaanite fertility cult, would stimulate fertility in their crops and flocks
Zeus - (zeyooss) The Greek god of the sky and chief of the pantheon; ruler over all the Gods. See Greece ; Gods, Pagan
Monolatry - Mormonism teaches the existence of many Gods of many worlds, yet worships only the one of this planet. Therefore, monolatry is a division of polytheism, the belief in many Gods
Balder - ) The most beautiful and beloved of the Gods; the god of peace; the son of Odin and Freya
Penates - ) The household Gods of the ancient Romans
Frigga - ) The wife of Odin and mother of the Gods; the supreme goddess; the Juno of the Valhalla
Trimurti - ) The triad, or trinity, of Hindu Gods, consisting of Brahma, the Creator, Vishnu, the Preserver, and Siva, the Destroyer
Aesir - ) In the old Norse mythology, the Gods Odin, Thor, Loki, Balder, Frigg, and the others
Siva - ) One of the triad of Hindoo Gods
Apotheosis - ) The act of elevating a mortal to the rank of, and placing him among, "the Gods;" deification
Polytheism - The teaching that there are many Gods. In the Ancient Near East the nation of Israel was faced with the problem of the Gods of other nations creeping into the theology of Judaism and corrupting the true revelation of God. Such visible realities as rain, drought, crops, and death often carried the spiritual character of the nation of Israel into spiritual adultery: worshiping other Gods. The Bible does recognize the existence of other Gods, but only as false Gods (1 Corinthians 8:5-6; Galatians 4:8-9) and clearly teaches that there is only one true God (Isaiah 43:10; Isa 44:6; Isa 44:8; Isa 45:5; Isa 45:14; Isa 45:18; Isa 45:21-22; Isa 46:9; Isa 47:8Isaiah 43:10; Isa 44:6; Isa 44:8; Isa 45:5; Isa 45:14; Isa 45:18; Isa 45:21-22; Isa 46:9; Isa 47:8Isaiah 43:10; Isa 44:6; Isa 44:8; Isa 45:5; Isa 45:14; Isa 45:18; Isa 45:21-22; Isa 46:9; Isa 47:8Isaiah 43:10; Isa 44:6; Isa 44:8; Isa 45:5; Isa 45:14; Isa 45:18; Isa 45:21-22; Isa 46:9; Isa 47:8;)
Tartak - Prince of darkness, one of the Gods of the Arvites, who colonized part of Samaria after the deportation of Israel by Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:31 )
Euhemerism - ) The theory, held by Euhemerus, that the Gods of mythology were but deified mortals, and their deeds only the amplification in imagination of human acts
Thunderer - tonans, an epithet applied by the Romans to several of their Gods, esp
Ambrosia - ) The fabled food of the Gods (as nectar was their drink), which conferred immortality upon those who partook of it. ) An unguent of the Gods
Mercurius - See Gods, Pagan ; Hermes
Paganism - , the worship of idols or false Gods, or the system of religious opinions and worship maintained by pagans; heathenism
Abominate - abomino, supposed to be formed by ab and omen to deprecate as ominous may the Gods avert the evil
Edda - ) The religious or mythological book of the old Scandinavian tribes of German origin, containing two collections of Sagas (legends, myths) of the old northern Gods and heroes
Jeremai - Israelite condemned for foreign wife which Ezra said would lead Israel to worship foreign Gods (Ezra 10:33 )
Ichor - ) An ethereal fluid that supplied the place of blood in the veins of the Gods
Aruspex - ) One of the class of diviners among the Etruscans and Romans, who foretold events by the inspection of the entrails of victims offered on the altars of the Gods
Olympic - ) Of or pertaining to Olympus, a mountain of Thessaly, fabled as the seat of the Gods, or to Olympia, a small plain in Elis
ba'Jith - (the horse ), referring to the "temple" of the false Gods of Moab, as opposed to the "high places" in the same sentence
Merodach - ) Epithet of Bel the Babylonian Jupiter, termed "the senior of the Gods," "the judge," and by Nebuchadnezzar in inscriptions "the great lord, the most ancient," and by Neriglissar "the firstborn of Gods, the layer up of treasures
Stoics - He taught that there was one Supreme Being, but many subordinate Gods, and that man had similar faculties to the Gods
Calf - Golden calf, which it is said Aaron made, Exodus 32:1-4, It is remarkable, that though it is expressly said, that this was but one idol, yet the children of Israel addressed it as in the plural, and said, "These are thy Gods, O Israel!" Did the Israelites, in direct defiance of the divine law, make this idol to resemble, according to their gross conceptions, the true God? Wherefore, do they otherwise call it Gods? Certainly, there is somewhat mysterious in it
Idolomacy - The practice of consulting images of household Gods (teraphim) for advice (Ezekiel 21:21 ; Zechariah 10:2 )
Bedeiah - ” Man with foreign wife who divorced her under Ezra's leadership to prevent tempting Israel with foreign Gods (Ezra 10:35 )
Eros - ) Love; the god of love; - by earlier writers represented as one of the first and creative Gods, by later writers as the son of Aphrodite, equivalent to the Latin god Cupid
Orpah - The Moabites, Naomi's daughter-in-law, who remained with her people and Gods, when Ruth followed Naomi and the Lord, Ruth 1:4-14
Monotheism - /POLYTHEISM The competing systems of religious belief that only one god exists or that many Gods exist. The first commandment stipulates a fundamental tenet in Israel's belief system: “Thou shalt have no other Gods before me” (Exodus 20:3 ). That requirement for participation in Israel's community of faith does not assert that serving other Gods before one serves the Lord would be foolish since no other Gods exist. It assumes quite to the contrary that other Gods do exist. It asserts that, even though the other Gods exist, the people who follow the Mosaic...
Commandments shall not embrace any of those other Gods as Gods who compete for the loyalty of the people. That assertion assumes the existence of other false Gods who could call for loyalty and commitment from the Lord's people. ...
In contrast to the call for strict commitment to the Lord alone, to a kind of divine jealousy that would tolerate no commitments from the people to Gods other than the Lord, even though other Gods might tempt the Lord's people with offers of power, the people among whom Israel lived in the early years of occupation in Canaan believed in numerous Gods whose activities influenced their lives. Principal among the Gods of the Canaanite pantheon were the great father figure, El; the younger hero, Baal; the adversary against order in the created land, Yam; the consort for Baal, Anat; and the ruler of Sheol, the place of the dead, Mot. In the Canaanite story about the various events involving these Gods, Baal and his consort were primarily responsible for the success or failure of the agriculture in the social structure of Canaan. Such mythology undergirds a belief system that depended on the activities, indeed, the interrelationship, of many Gods. For the first time in the Old Testament literature, a prophet explicitly argued that no other Gods exist
Idolatry - ) The worship of idols, images, or anything which is not God; the worship of false Gods
Chem'Arim, the - In the Hebrew applied to the priests of the worship of false Gods
Figured Stone - ” The same Hebrew term is used in Ezekiel 8:12 for idolatrous shrines decorated with base reliefs of Gods in the form of animals ( Ezekiel 8:10 ; prohibited in Deuteronomy 4:17-18 ). Various identifications of the animals have been suggested, beasts similar to the lions and serpent-dragons of the “Ishtar Gate” in Babylon, animals similar to those serving as mounts for the Gods in stone carvings at Maltaya, Egyptian mortuary deities, and totem animals
Mercury - Hermes, as the spokesman of the Gods, was regarded by the Greeks as the god of eloquence. As the messenger of the Gods, Hermes was the god who brought good fortune to men
Zaphon - Mountain viewed as home of the Gods in Canaanite thought, perhaps referred to in Psalm 48:2 (NIV), Isaiah 14:13 (NRSV), and Job 26:7 (NRSV), showing Yahweh controls what Canaan thought their Gods possessed
Gods, False - Gods that are not real, but invented by men or inspired by demons the purpose of which is to deceive people so they do not believe in the true and living God. Some of the false Gods listed in the Bible are Adrammelech and Anammelech (2 Kings 17:31), Asherah (1 Kings 15:13; 1Ki 18:19), Ashtoreth (1 Kings 11:5; 1Ki 11:33), Baal (1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 23:7), Baalzebub (2 Kings 1:1-16); Luke 11:19-23), Dagon (Judges 16:23-30), Molech/Moloch (Leviticus 18:21; Lev 20:1-5), Rimmon (2 Kings 5:18, and Tammuz (Ezekiel 8:14)
Mercu'Rius - (herald of the Gods ), properly Hermes, the Greek deity, whom the Romans identified with their Mercury, the god of commerce and bargains. 620-724, appears to have formed part of the folk-lore of Asia Minor, and strikingly illustrates the readiness with which the simple people of Lystra recognized in Barnabas and Paul the Gods who, according to their wont, had come down in the likeness of men
Nergal - The great dog; that is, lion, one of the chief Gods of the Assyrians and Babylonians (2 Kings 17:30 ), the god of war and hunting
Theogony - ) The generation or genealogy of the Gods; that branch of heathen theology which deals with the origin and descent of the deities; also, a poem treating of such genealogies; as, the Theogony of Hesiod
Anammelech - One of the Gods of Sepharvaim, whose worship was introduced by the colonists into Samaria
Congregation, Mount of - The mountain considered by Israel's neighbors to stand in the far north and serve as a meeting place of the Gods
Tar'Tak - (prince of darkness ), one of the Gods of the Avite or Avvite colonists of Samaria
lo-Ruhamah - ” Name God gave Hosea for his daughter to symbolize that Israel by rebelling against God and serving foreign Gods had forfeited God's love (Hosea 1:6 )
Mythology - , the collective myths which describe the Gods of a heathen people; as, the mythology of the Greeks
Re - See Egypt ; Gods, Pagan
Theocrasy - ) A mixture of the worship of different Gods, as of Jehovah and idols
Gods, Pagan - By contrast, pagan religions of the biblical world were polytheistic, worshiping many Gods. ...
Old Testament Many pagan Gods had their origin as Gods of certain places such as cities or regions. In Old Testament times, such Gods or a combination of Gods became nationalistic symbols as their cities or regions struggled for political dominance. A by-product of the connection between Gods and certain locales was the belief that a god's power was limited to certain regions. Thus, officials of the Syrian king advised a battle with Israel on the plains observing, “their Gods are Gods of the hills” (1 Kings 20:23 ). ...
Egyptian Gods. Egyptian religion included a great number of Gods. Certain Gods were associated with a particular place, such as Ptah of Memphis. Other Gods, like Maat (truth and justice), Sekhmet (war and disease), and Bes (god of childbirth) ruled over aspects of life. Some of the Gods were worshiped in animal form, such as the Apis bull which represented the god Ptah of Memphis. The Gods' names which dominate pharaohs' names in a dynasty show both the dominant city and its dominant god. Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton and embarked on a revolutionary reform which promoted worship of the sun disc Aton above all other Gods. The following dynasty, while promoting Amen-Re seems to have favored Gods of the north. The names of the Gods Seth of Avaris, Ra of Heliopolis, and Ptah of Memphis are evident in the Nineteenth Dynasty names Seti, Ramses, and Merneptah. ...
No Egyptian Gods are mentioned in the Bible, and the complex Egyptian religion did not significantly influence the Hebrews. ...
Mesopotamian Gods The complex system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia included thousands of Gods. ...
The patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities became the high Gods of the Mesopotamian pantheon. Gods of other cities became prominent through political circumstance. The Enuma elish , or Babylonian Creation Epic, tells of a cosmic struggle in which, while other Gods were powerless, Marduk slew Tiamat (the sea goddess,fjcr representative of chaos). Several important Gods were associated with heavenly bodies. ...
In addition to their cosmic nature, the Gods were thought of as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. ...
Canaanite Gods The Gods of the Canaanites made the greatest impact on the Israelites. While many of these are related to Mesopotamian Gods, Canaanite religion was not well understood until the discovery of religious texts in the 1920s at the Syrian city of Ugarit. Thus, Baal was also used to designate various local Gods, such as Baal-peor (“Baal of Peor,” Numbers 25:3 ). The fertility aspects of the Canaanite Gods was an inviting snare to the Israelites. New to farming and having just settled in Canaan after a generation of nomadic life in the desert, the Israelites were particularly tempted to serve the Gods said to control the fertility of that land. ...
New Testament The pagan Gods of the New Testament world were the deities of the Greco-Roman pantheon and certain eastern Gods whose myths gave rise to the mystery religions. The resulting Hellenistic culture included the acceptance of Greek Gods. Conquered peoples did not see a totally new religious system; rather they assimilated or identified their Gods with the Greek Gods. The Greek Gods had become an integral part of Hellenistic culture that dominated the Roman empire, and many of the Gods had strong local appeal. In the west, old Roman Gods were identified with Greek counterparts. ...
A few of the Greco-Roman Gods are mentioned in the New Testament. The messenger of the Greek Gods was Hermes (Roman, Mercury). When the people of Lystra assumed Barnabas and Paul to be Gods (Acts 14:8-18 ), they called Paul Hermes because he was the spokesman; and they identified Barnabas with Zeus or Jupiter. ...
Other Greco-Roman Gods are not mentioned in the New Testament but formed an important part of Hellenistic culture. The most popular of the Gods was Apollo, pictured in Greek art as the epitome of youthful, manly beauty. ...
Certain Greek Gods became the centers of cults which were quite influential in New Testament times. The mystery religions, including the cults of Eleusis and Dionysus, filled a vacuum left by the fading popularity of the older Greek Gods and became the primary comeptitors of Christianity in the early centuries of the church. The idea of a dying and rising god has been compared to the death and resurrection of Christ, but the death of those Gods was mythical, cyclical, and involuntary, in contrast to the historical, once-for-all act of Christ motivated by love
Maroth - Maroth waited carefully for good ("is grieved for her Gods," Gesenius), but "evil (answering to bitterness, which Maroth means) came
am'Raphel - (keeper of the Gods ) perhaps a Hamite king of Shinar or Babylonia, who joined the victorious incursion of the Elamite Chedorlaomer against the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain
Sodom And Gomorrah - The verb (ἐκπορνεύω) used in Jude is also used in Septuagint of Exodus 34:15-16, Leviticus 17:7, Hosea 4:12, Ezekiel 16:26; Ezekiel 16:28; Ezekiel 16:33, of ‘going after’ other Gods, and this seems to explain the use of Sodom in Revelation 11:8. Rome is Sodom because its Gods are no true Gods
Devil Worshippers - Among many barbarous peoples, offerings were made to evil and malignant Gods, in order to placate them and avert their anger. As each nation had its own Gods, racial rivalry led them to consider the protecting divinities of an enemy as evil demons, hence those who worshipped what they considered good beings were devil-worshippers to other nations
Worshippers, Devil - Among many barbarous peoples, offerings were made to evil and malignant Gods, in order to placate them and avert their anger. As each nation had its own Gods, racial rivalry led them to consider the protecting divinities of an enemy as evil demons, hence those who worshipped what they considered good beings were devil-worshippers to other nations
Waybill - ) A list of passengers in a public vehicle, or of the baggage or Gods transported by a common carrier on a land route
Kami - ) A title given to the celestial Gods of the first mythical dynasty of Japan and extended to the demigods of the second dynasty, and then to the long line of spiritual princes still represented by the mikado
Orpah - ” Daughter-in-law of Naomi who returned to her people and Gods after Naomi twice requested that she go (Ruth 1:4-15 )
Anammelech - One of the Gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who colonized Samaria (2 Kings 17:31 )
Bestiality - Israel's neighbors practiced bestiality in fertility worship and worship of animal Gods
Idolatrous - ) Of or pertaining to idolatry; partaking of the nature of idolatry; given to idolatry or the worship of false Gods; as, idolatrous sacrifices
Havock - ...
Ye Gods! what havock does ambition make ...
Among your works
Zoomorphism - ) The representation of God, or of Gods, in the form, or with the attributes, of the lower animals
Amraphel - Amraphel (ăm'ra-fĕl), keeper, or highest of the Gods
Setter Forth - 1: καταγγελεύς (Strong's #2604 — Noun Masculine — katangeleus — kat-ang-gel-yooce' ) "a proclaimer, herald" (akin to katangello, "to proclaim"), is used in Acts 17:18 , "a setter forth (of strange Gods)
Caduceus - ) The official staff or wand of Hermes or Mercury, the messenger of the Gods
Magic Bands - Apparently they represented part of a diviner's paraphanalia used to determine the destinies the Gods had determined
Idolatrous - Pertaining to idolatry partaking of the nature of idolatry, or of the worship of false Gods consisting in the worship of idols as idolatrous worship
Pagan - ) One who worships false Gods; an idolater; a heathen; one who is neither a Christian, a Mohammedan, nor a Jew
a'Mon, or a'Men - ( Nahum 3:8 ) Amen was one of the eight Gods of the first order and chief of the triad of Thebes
Revile - ...
Thou shalt not revile the Gods
Congregation, Mount of the - The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern mountain, supposed by the Babylonians to be the meeting-place of their Gods. " This mountain was regarded in their mythology as the place where the Gods had their seat
Cuttings in the Flesh - It was customary among the heathen, who cut themselves for the dead and tattooed their bodies in honour of their Gods: the Israelites belonged to Jehovah
Lar - The domestic Lares were the tutelar deities of a house; household Gods
Hermes - Hermes was known as a messenger of the Gods and was associated with eloquence
Cuttings [in the Flesh] - Cuttings in the flesh, or the laceration of one's body for the "propitiation of their Gods," (1 Kings 18:28 ) constituted a prominent feature of idolatrous worship, especially among the Syrians
Devotion - , "gods that ye worship," RV, "objects of your worship," in 2 Thessalonians 2:4 , "that is worshiped," see WORSHIP
Hiel - The name of a certain Bethelite who in the days of Ahab fortified Jericho, and possibly sacrificed his two sons to appease the Gods of the disturbed earth ( 1 Kings 16:34 )
Orpah - When the latter was returning to her own country, Orpah, following Naomi’s advice, elected to go back to her own people and to her god (or Gods), while her sister went with her mother-in-law ( Ruth 1:4-14 )
Jainism - ) The heterodox Hindoo religion, of which the most striking features are the exaltation of saints or holy mortals, called jins, above the ordinary Hindoo Gods, and the denial of the divine origin and infallibility of the Vedas
a'Mon - Amon devoted himself wholly to the service of false Gods, but was killed in a conspiracy, and was succeeded by his son Josiah
Mount of the Congregation - Part of Isaiah's exposure of the pride of the King of Babylon is the charge that he desired to ascend to the distant mountain where according to Babylonian myth the Gods assembled (Isaiah 14:13 )
Entile - ) One of a non-Jewish nation; one neither a Jew nor a Christian; a worshiper of false Gods; a heathen
Shamanism - Springing from animism, and closely resembling fetishism, it teaches that all nature is pervaded by spirits or Gods which can be brought near or driven away by various means, such as symbolic magic, fasting, dances, incantations, and demoniac possession, practised by the Shaman. Shamanism is not a religion, because the Shaman does not implore the favor of the Gods, like a religious priest, but compels them to do his will
Hermas - His name, the variant spelling of the Greek god Hermes, may indicate he was a slave, since many slaves were named for Gods
Name of God - It is a proper name, as God is one and unique, and infinite in all perfection; yet it was mistakenly used of many false and putative "gods," and so became in a sense plural or common
Olympius - Olympus in Thessaly, the legendary home of the Gods
God, Name of - It is a proper name, as God is one and unique, and infinite in all perfection; yet it was mistakenly used of many false and putative "gods," and so became in a sense plural or common
Augurs - Members of a college in ancient Rome, observers and interpreters of signs sent by Gods
Micah - Micah reproves the people for worshipping foreign Gods and extorting the poor, and urges them to worship G-d wholeheartedly
Whore - ) To worship false and impure Gods
Adrammelech - These new settlers tried to worship Yahweh, Israel's God, as the god of the land along with the Gods they brought with them. One of these Gods was from the city of Sephervaim, possibly in Assyria
Grove - In the old times altars only were erected to the Gods. It was thought wrong to shut up the Gods within walls, and hence trees were the first temples; and from the earliest times groves are mentioned in connection with religious worship
Amon - Amen was one of the eight Gods of the first order, and chief of the triad of Thebes. Following his father's example, Amon devoted himself wholly to the service of false Gods, but was killed in a conspiracy
Weather - If they obeyed him, he would bless them with good weather and agricultural prosperity; if they turned away from him and followed other Gods, he would send them droughts and other disasters (Deuteronomy 28:1-24; see NATURE). ...
When they settled in Canaan, the Israelites found that the Canaanite Gods were also regarded as Gods of nature. Before long the Israelites fell to the temptation to combine the worship of these Gods with the worship of their own God, Yahweh (Judges 2:11-13; Hosea 2:5-13; see BAAL)
Cassian, Saint - Refusing to sacrifice to the Gods, he was condemned to the mercy of his pupils who tortured him to death with their iron styles or pencils
Backsliding - In these passages it is clear that Israel had broken faith with God by serving other Gods and by living immoral lives
Purana - ) One of a class of sacred Hindoo poetical works in the Sanskrit language which treat of the creation, destruction, and renovation of worlds, the genealogy and achievements of Gods and heroes, the reigns of the Manus, and the transactions of their descendants
Cuth - Once settled, they made an idol to worship Nergal (2 Kings 17:30 ), thus aggravating the tendency to worship Yahweh of Israel along with other Gods
Jarib - Priest who pledged under Ezra's leadership to divorce his foreign wife to remove the temptation to worship the foreigners' Gods (Ezra 10:18 )
Succoth Benoth - See Gods, Pagan ; Sakkuth
Chemosh - One of the chief Gods of the Moabites and the Ammonites, the worship of which was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon, and abolished by Josiah
Brahma - ) The One First Cause; also, one of the triad of Hindoo Gods
Wrath - Gods wrath, in Scripture, is his holy and just indignation against sin
Meonenim, the Oak of - That where under Jacob hid the strange Gods and talisman earrings of his household was close by Shechem (Genesis 35:4), the same where Abram built his first altar in Palestine (Genesis 12:6); here also Joshua, alluding to the patriarch Jacob's address and the original idolatry of Israel's forefathers, urges the people similarly to "put away the strange Gods," etc
Calves, Golden - The bull was used to represent many Gods in the Ancient Near East, particularly Amon-Re in Egypt and El and Baal in Canaan. In both instances the calves represent the Gods who brought Israel up from Egypt
Teraphim - Micah also had them in his house, and regarded them as 'gods. In Hosea 3:4 the Jews are described as having neither king, nor prince, nor sacrifice, nor image, nor ephod, nor teraphim — as they are at this day bereft of their sacrifices, and without even the divination and false Gods they once had
Corruption, Mount of - Hill east of Jerusalem near the Mount of Olives where Solomon built altars to the Gods of his foreign wives (1 Kings 11:7 )
Mount of the Congregation - Only in Isaiah 14:13 , a mythic mountain of the Babylonians, regarded by them as the seat of the Gods
Merodach - See Gods, Pagan
Nature - , the natural powers of constitution) of a person or thing, Ephesians 2:3 ; James 3:7 ("kind"); 2 Peter 1:4 ; (b) "origin, birth," Romans 2:27 , one who by birth is a Gentile, uncircumcised, in contrast to one who, though circumcised, has become spiritually uncircumcised by his iniquity; Galatians 2:15 ; (c) "the regular law or order of nature," Romans 1:26 , against "nature" (para, "against"); Romans 2:14 , adverbially, "by nature" (for Romans 11:21,24 , see NATURAL , Note); 1 Corinthians 11:14 ; Galatians 4:8 , "by nature (are no Gods)," here "nature" is the emphatic word, and the phrase includes demons, men regarded as deified, and idols; these are Gods only in name (the negative, me, denies not simply that they were Gods, but the possibility that they could be)
Sacrifice - In some cases the sacrifices represented the attempt of sinners to appease their Gods
Terebinth - The tree had religious connections as a place under which pagan Gods were worshiped (Hosea 4:13 ; Ezekiel 6:13 ) which were at times taken up in Israel's religion (Genesis 35:4 ; Joshua 24:26 ; Judges 6:11 ; 1 Kings 13:14 )
Mercurius - He was supposed to preside over eloquence and merchandise, and to be the messenger of the Gods
Superstitious - KJV translation of Greek word indicating fear of or reverence for the Gods
Harp - They are full of joy, praise and worship for their false Gods
Theurgy - ) A kind of magical science or art developed in Alexandria among the Neoplatonists, and supposed to enable man to influence the will of the Gods by means of purification and other sacramental rites
Howl - , howl are akin), was primarily used of crying aloud to the Gods; it is found in James 5:1 in an exhortation to the godless rich
Rustic - ) Of or pertaining to the country; rural; as, the rustic Gods of antiquity
Idol - 31:19: “And Laban went to shear his sheep: and Rachel had stolen the [1] that were her father’s. This makes these terâphı̂ym (possibly a plural of majesty as is ’elohim when used of false Gods; cf. 17:5: “… Micah had a house of Gods, and made an ephod, and terâphı̂ym and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest. ...
'Ĕlı̂yl (אֱלִיל, Strong's #457), “idol; Gods; nought; vain. 19:4: “Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to yourselves molten Gods. 96:5): “For all the Gods [3] of the people are idols [3] …” ( Gods of the people are nought
Religion - A relationship of devotion or fear of God or Gods. The cognate terms translated “religious” and “religion” (Acts 17:22 ; Acts 25:19 ) can indicate positive reverence for the Gods or else negative fear of the Gods. Though a monotheist (believer in one God) would not use “fear of the Gods” to describe Judaism, the expression is natural on pagan Roman lips (Acts 25:19 )
Hadad-Rimmon - (had ad-rih' muhn) Names of two Syrian Gods combined into one word
Maccabees - From the initials of Judas Maccabeus' motto, Μiy Κamowka Βe -'Εlohiym Υahweh , "who is like unto Thee, Jehovah, among the Gods?" (Exodus 15:11
Baalpeor - It was to Peor that Balaam was called to curse Israel, and where the people were ensnared to sacrifice to the Gods of Moab, to eat of things sacrificed to their idols, and commit fornication
Jupiter - ) The supreme deity, king of Gods and men, and reputed to be the son of Saturn and Rhea; Jove
Orion - In Job 38:31 , fetters are ascribed to him; and this coincides with the Greek fable of the giant Orion, bound in the heavens for an unsuccessful war against the Gods
Remphan - There have been found among the foreign Gods in Egypt one named RENPU, and a goddess KEN, which may have been those referred to
High Place - At these places of worship the people sacrificed animals (at some high places children were sacrificed according to Exodus 20:3-615 ), burned incense to their Gods, prayed, ate sacrificial meals, and were involved with male or female cultic prostitutes (2 Kings 17:8-12 ; 2 Kings 21:3-7 ; Hosea 4:11-14 ). ...
God's Hatred of the High Places When the Israelites came into the land of Canaan, they were ordered to destroy the high places of the people who lived in the land (Exodus 23:24 ; Exodus 34:13 ; Numbers 33:52 ; Deuteronomy 7:5 ; Deuteronomy 12:3 ) lest the Israelites be tempted to worship the Canaanite false Gods and accept their immoral behavior. ...
False Worship at High Places in Judah After the Temple was constructed, the people were to worship God at this place which He had chosen (Deuteronomy 12:1-14 ), but Solomon built high places for the Gods of his foreign wives and even worshiped there himself (1 Kings 11:1-8 ). Following this, each new king that ruled in the Southern Kingdom of Judah and in the Northern Kingdom of Israel was evaluated in the books of Kings and Chronicles according to what they did with the high places where false Gods were worshiped. This policy may have made it easier for his son Jehoram to build new high places which caused the people of Judah to worship other Gods (2 Chronicles 21:11 ). An unnamed man of God came to Bethel and pronounced God's curse on this high place (1 Kings 13:1-3 ), but the following kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel followed in the ways of Jeroboam and did not remove the high places where the false Gods were worshiped. This involved following the cultural and religious practices of the nations surrounding Israel rather than keeping the covenant stipulation of having no other Gods (1618734155_4 ; Deuteronomy 5:7-10 ). ...
The Israelite prophets also condemned the high places of Moab (Isaiah 15:2 ; Isaiah 16:12 ), Judah (Jeremiah 7:30-31 ; Jeremiah 17:1-3 ; Jeremiah 19:3-5 ; Jeremiah 32:35 ), and Israel (Ezekiel 6:3 ,Ezekiel 6:3,6:6 ; Ezekiel 20:29-31 ; Hosea 10:8 , Amos 7:9 ) because they were places of sin where false Gods were worshiped. See Asherah ; False Gods; Golden Calves; Prostitution
Terah - In Joshua 24:2 it is said that he ‘served other Gods’ a statement which gave rise to some fanciful Jewish haggâdôth about Terah as a maker of idols
John Hobbes - She was the author of popular novels, among them "A Bundle of Life," "The Gods, Some Mortals, and Lord Wickenham," "The School for Saints," "Robert Orange," and several plays, including "Journeys end in Lovers' Meeting," "The Ambassador," and "The Flute of Pan
Hobbes, John Oliver - She was the author of popular novels, among them "A Bundle of Life," "The Gods, Some Mortals, and Lord Wickenham," "The School for Saints," "Robert Orange," and several plays, including "Journeys end in Lovers' Meeting," "The Ambassador," and "The Flute of Pan
Emerods - It was customary with the heathens to offer to their Gods figures of wax or metal representing the parts which had been cured of disease, whence it is inferred, in connection with 1 Samuel 6:5, that the priests and diviners of the Philistines recommended a similar course
Sepharvaim - Rabshakeh and Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:34; 2 Kings 19:13) boastingly refer to Assyria's conquest of Sepharvaim as showing the hopelessness of Samaria's resistance (Isaiah 36:19): "where are the Gods of Hamath . Sepharvaim? have they (the Gods of Hamath and Sepharvaim) delivered Samaria out of my hand?" How just the retribution in kind, that Israel having chosen the Gods of Hamath and Sepharvaim should be sent to Hamath and Sepharvaim as their place of exile, and that the people of Hamath and Sepharvaim should be sent to the land of Israel to replace the Israelites! (Proverbs 1:31; Jeremiah 2:19)
Micah - He had a house of Gods, and made an ephod and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons to act as priest. " A larger body of Danites afterwards came and carried away the Gods of Micah, and the ephod and the teraphim, together with the Levite, and took them to the north, where they established themselves. Micah hastened after them, but could not recover his Gods
Idolatry - The first was a venerable antiquity, more ancient than the Jewish religion; and idolaters might have said to the Israelites, Where was your religion before Moses and Abraham? Go, and enquire in Chaldes, and there you will find that your fathers served other Gods. Men want Gods who shall go before them, and be among them. It favoured human passions: it required no morality: its religious ritual consisted of splendid ceremonies, revelling, dancing, nocturnal assemblies, impure and scandalous mysteries, debaucined priests, and Gods, who were both slaves and patrons to all sorts of vices. Abraham's father's family served other Gods beyond the river Euphrates; and Laban had idols which Rachel brought along with her. The Greeks had about 30, 000 Gods. Some nations of Germany, Scandinavia, and Tartary, imagined that violent death in war, or by self-murder, was the proper method of access to the future enjoyment of their Gods
Idolatry - from ειδωλολατρεια , composed of ειδος , image, and λατρευειν , to serve, the worship and adoration of false Gods; or the giving those honours to creatures, or the works of man's hands, which are only due to God. Laban calls them his Gods, and Jacob calls them strange Gods, and looks on them as abominations. 2000, was unquestionably an idolater; for he is expressly said in Scripture to have served other Gods. ...
Sanchoniathon, who wrote his "Phenician Antiquities" apparently with a view to apologize for idolatry, traces its origin to the descendants of Cain, the elder branch, who began with the worship of the sun, and afterward added a variety of other methods of idolatrous worship: proceeding to deify the several parts of nature, and men after their death; and even to consecrate the plants shooting out of the earth, which the first men judged to be Gods, and worshipped as those that sustained the lives of themselves and of their posterity. The Chaldean priests, in process of time, being by their situation early addicted to celestial observations, instead of conceiving as they ought to have done concerning the omnipotence of the Creator and Mover of the heavenly bodies, fell into the impious error of esteeming them as Gods, and the immediate governors of the world, in subordination, however, to the Deity, who was invisible except by his works, and the effects of his power. The heavenly bodies were the first deities of all the idolatrous nations, were esteemed eternal, sovereign, and supreme; and distinguished by the title of the natural Gods. Thus we find that the primary Gods of the Heathens in general were Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, Mercury, Venus, and Diana; by which we can understand no other than the sun and moon, and the five greatest luminaries next to these. ...
Sanchoniathon represents the most ancient nations, particularly the Phenicians and Egyptians, as acknowledging only the natural Gods, the sun, moon, planets, and elements; and Plato declares it as his opinion, that the first Grecians likewise held these only to be Gods, as many of the barbarians did in his time. Beside these natural Gods, the Heathens believed that there were certain spirits who held a middle rank between the Gods and men on earth, and carried on all intercourse between them; conveying the addresses of men to the Gods, and the divine benefits to men. To these alone sacrifices were offered, while the celestial Gods were worshipped only with a pure mind, or with hymns and praises. As to the nature of these demons, it has been generally believed, that they were spirits of a higher origin than the human race; and, in support of this opinion, it has been alleged, that the supreme deity of the Pagans is called the greatest demon; that the demons are described as beings placed between the Gods and men; and that demons are expressly distinguished from heroes, who were the departed souls of men. The Gods of Rome were even less numerous, certainly less whimsical and monstrous, than those at Benares. ...
The principal causes which have been assigned for idolatry are, the indelible idea which every man has of God, and the evidence which he gives of it to himself; an inviolable attachment to the senses, and a habit of judging and deciding by them, and them only; the pride and vanity of the human mind, which is not satisfied with simple truth, but mingles and adulterates it with fables; men's ignorance of antiquity, or of the first times, and the first men, of whom they had but very dark and confused knowledge by tradition, they having left no written monuments, or books; the ignorance and change of languages; the style of the oriental writings, which is figurative and poetical, and personifies every thing; the scruples and fears inspired by superstition; the flattery and fictions of poets; the false relations of travellers; the imaginations of painters and sculptors; a smattering of physics, that is, a slight acquaintance with natural bodies and appearances, and their causes; the establishment of colonies, and the invention of arts, mistaken by barbarous people; the artifices of priests; the pride of certain men, who effected to pass for Gods; the love and gratitude borne by the people to certain of their great men and benefactors; and, finally, the historical events of the Scriptures ill understood. Solomon was the first Hebrew king, who, in complaisance to his foreign wives, built temples and offered incense to strange Gods
Sanctuary - ...
Other Gods had their sanctuaries also. These were usually places where altars had been set up for the worship of false Gods
Teraphim - idolatry" (Genesis 31:19; Genesis 31:30; Genesis 31:34; Genesis 35:2, "strange Gods". Images in human form; Maurer thinks busts, cut off at the waist, from taaraph "to cut off," tutelary household Gods; small enough to be hidden beneath the camel's furniture or palanquin on which Rachel sat
Epicureans - ...
To deliver men from ‘the fear of the Gods’ was the chief endeavour and, according to his famous follower the Roman poet Lucretius, the crowning service of Epicurus. Epicurus sought to achieve his end by showing that in the physical organization of the world there is no room for the interference of such beings as the Gods of the popular theology. The Gods and Epicurus does not deny the existence of Gods have no part or lot in the affairs of men
Demon - (Greek: daimon; daimonion, a genius: a spirit between the Gods and men)
Shihor-Libnath - , at Caesarea), and brought their Gods with them
Despair - ...
Never despair of Gods blessings here, or of his reward hereafter
Terah - A debate has centered on Terah's religious practices, for Joshua 24:2 apparently points to his family when it claims records that the father worshiped Gods other than Yahweh
Nergal - Following the fall of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, the Assyrians resettled Samaria with Mesopotamian peoples who brought their Gods, including Nergal, with them (2 Kings 17:30 )
Sepharvaim - Despite Assyria's claims, Sepharvaim's Gods could not compare with Yahweh, the God of Israel (2 Kings 19:12-13 ; compare 2 Kings 17:31 )
Pandora - Another version makes the box contain all the blessings of the Gods, which were lost to men when Pandora opened it
Hero - ) An illustrious man, supposed to be exalted, after death, to a place among the Gods; a demigod, as Hercules
Heresy - Heresies include teachings that Jesus is not God and that the Holy Spirit is not a person (Jehovah's Witnesses, Christadelphians, The Way International), that men may become Gods (Mormonism), that there is more than one God (Mormonism), that Jesus lost His divinity in hell and finished the atonement there, and that good works are necessary for salvation (all cults say this), to name a few
Zidonians, Sidonians - The Zidonians were idolators: Baal and Ashtoreth were their Gods
Chiun - Amos condemned the people of Israel for priding in their sophisticated worship of foreign Gods
Mauzzim - The marginal note to the Authorized Version of ( Daniel 11:38 ) "the god of forces," gives as the equivalent of the last word "Mauzzim, or Gods protectors, or munitions
Nebo (2) - " Answering the Egyptian "Thoth," the Greek "Hermes," "Mercury," the "inspired" interpreter or nabiy of the Gods, designated in one place "inventor of the writing of the royal tablets. Babylon from early ages held Nebo among the chief Gods
Remphan - "Every nation, (we are told,) made Gods of their own. " The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth; and the men of Cush made Nergal; and the men of Hamath made Ashima; and the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak; and the Sepharvites burnt their children in the fire to Adrammelech, and Anammalach, the Gods of Sepharvaim
Babylon (2) - The names of these Gods frequently appear in the names of noted princes, as Bel-shazzar, Nabo-polassar, Merodach-baladan, Evil-merodach, Abed-nebo or -nego. Their Gods were worshipped with great pomp and magnificence. The temples erected in honor of the Gods and devoted to their worship were celebrated for their vastness, and for the massiveness and finish of their sculptures. Images of the Gods were exhibited, probably on frames or sacred vehicles, and, as some suppose, were sometimes set up in a public place, as on the plain of Dura, Daniel 3:1; but late investigations indicate that the image there set up was a statue of Nebuchadnezzar
Idolatry - ...
Imaginary creatures were regarded as Gods, and these were feared and propitiated. Others had an elaborate system of mythology, as the Greeks, with husbands and wives and sons and daughters of the Gods and goddesses. ...
In Israel at first there might have been the thought that the idol was only a representative of God, just as the Egyptians professed to have representations of their unseen Gods. When the golden calf was made Aaron built an altar before it, and said, "To-morrow is a feast to Jehovah;" but the people said, "These be thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. This species of idolatry is seen further developed in the case of Micah, who had a house of Gods
Added, Saint - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the pagan Gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground
Felix, Saint 30 Aug - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the pagan Gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground
Abomination of Desolation - But by the Abomination of Desolation spoken of by our Lord, Matthew 24:15 Mark 13:14 , and foretold as about to be seen at Jerusalem during the last siege of that city by the Romans under Titus, is probably meant the Roman army, whose standards had the images of their Gods and emperors upon them, and were worshipped in the precincts of the temple when that and the city were taken
Elasah - Priest with a foreign wife who agreed to divorce her to avoid temptation of foreign Gods in time of Ezra (Ezra 10:22 )
Caster And Pollux - The tutelary Gods of sailors, identified with the phosphoric lights which play about masts and sails
Bel - Isaiah mocked Babylon by describing their Gods burdening down donkeys in procession out of the city into captivity
Priest - ) One who officiates at the altar, or performs the rites of sacrifice; one who acts as a mediator between men and the divinity or the Gods in any form of religion; as, Buddhist priests
Dualism - ) A system which accepts two Gods, or two original principles, one good and the other evil
Ava - Their Gods did not help them against the Assyrians and could be used as an example to call Jerusalem to surrender (2 Kings 18:34 , where Ivvah refers to the same people)
Gentile - ...
In the scriptures, a pagan a worshipper of false Gods any person not a Jew or a christian a heathen
Albigenses - This error taught that there were two Gods: the good god of light usually referred to as Jesus in the New Testament and the god of darkness and evil usually associated with Satan and the "God of the Old Testament
Meletians - The name of a considerable party who adhered to the cause of Meletius, bishop of Lycopolis, in Upper Egypt, after he was deposed, about the year 306, by Peter, bishop of Alexandria, under the charge of his having sacrificed to the Gods, and having been guilty of other heinous crimes; though Epiphanius makes his only failing to have been an excessive severity against the lapsed
Adauctus, Saint - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the pagan Gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground
Areopagus - Paul, Acts 17:19 , &c, having preached at Athens, was carried before the Areopagites, as "a setter forth of strange Gods
Garlick - That garlicks grew plenteously in Egypt, is asserted by Dioscorides: there they were much esteemed, and were both eaten and worshipped: —...
"Then Gods were recommended by their taste
Teraphim - The ancient teraphim appear to have been household Gods, and their worship was sometimes blended with that of Jehovah, Judges 17:1-13
Godliness - In pagan Greek sources eusebeia (godliness, piety) refers to worship of the Gods and to respect for the representatives of institutions regarded as divinely ordained (parents, judges, the emperor). Eusebeia was sometimes distinguished from dikaiosyne (righteousness) as concerning one's relationship with the Gods rather than with other persons
Amon - An Egyptian divinity, who, primarily worshipped as the god of fertility, and later as Amen-ra-setn-nteru (‘Amon, the sun-god, the king of the Gods’), was the local deity of Thebes. After these events he was relegated to the ranks of the local Gods
Athens - Paul's celebrated sermon, Acts xvii, was preached on the Areopagus, or Hill of Mars, where a celebrated court was held which took cognizance of matters of religion, blasphemies against the Gods, the building of temples, &c. Paul so appropriately made the text of his discourse, was adopted on the occasion of the city having been relieved from a pestilence; and they erected altars to "the God unknown," either as not knowing to which of their divinities they were indebted for the favour, or, which is more probable, because there was something in the circumstances of this deliverance, which led them to refer it to a higher power than their own Gods, even to the supreme God, who was not unfrequently styled, the "unknown," by the wiser Heathens. Clarke, the traveller, remarks, "It is not possible to conceive a situation of greater peril, or one more calculated to prove the sincerity of a preacher, than that in which the Apostle was here placed; and the truth of this, perhaps, will never be better felt than by a spectator, who from this eminence actually beholds the monuments of Pagan pomp and superstition by which he, whom the Athenians considered as the setter forth of strange Gods, was then surrounded: representing to the imagination the disciples of Socrates and of Plato, the dogmatist of the porch, and the skeptic of the academy, addressed by a poor and lowly man, who, ‘rude in speech,' without the ‘enticing words of man's wisdom,' enjoined precepts contrary to their taste, and very hostile to their prejudices. Paul on this occasion; namely, that of inflicting extreme and exemplary punishment upon any person who should slight the celebration of the holy mysteries, or blaspheme the Gods of Greece
False Worship - Many times other Gods were worshiped, not because of the appeal of the idols or images but out of a false sense of the power of the “god. During the time of great Assyrian power in the ancient world, even the Hebrews seem to have thought that the Assyrian Gods were more powerful than their Yahweh; so they began to worship them. ...
The many references to false Gods with obviously false worship in the Old Testament coupled with the almost total absence of such in the New Testament might suggest that there was little problem with other Gods in the New Testament world. The presence of falseness in worship because it was directed to false Gods continued to be a religious problem. Native national Gods and fertility deities similar to Baal and Ashtaroth of the Old Testament period still abounded. ...
The primary forms of false worship are addressed in the Decalogue (Exodus 20:1 ): “Thou shalt have no other Gods before [1] me” (Exodus 20:3 )—a command for exclusive loyalty to and worship of Yahweh; “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image” (Exodus 20:4 ) —a clear requirement of imageless, that is, spiritual worship; and “Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain” (Exodus 20:7 ) —a command to honor in all of life the God whose name the Hebrews claimed and bore. When these temples were established in Bethel and Dan, Jeroboam the King “made two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt” (1 Kings 12:28 )
Cantus - See also:...
Ambrosian chant
Gregorian chant
plain chant
(2) An incantation used by primitive races to cure disease, to placate the Gods, to charm beasts, and to affect the weather
Chant - See also:...
Ambrosian chant
Gregorian chant
plain chant
(2) An incantation used by primitive races to cure disease, to placate the Gods, to charm beasts, and to affect the weather
Sab'Aoth, the Lord of, - Molech, Ashtaroth and other false Gods
Mercurius - " Mercurius being the god of eloquence, they called Paul Mercurius, the herald of the Gods
Quarry - The Hebrew term pesalim usually refers to images of Gods
Garland - In Greek mythology the Gods were frequently portrayed wearing garlands
Reverence - The failure to revere God (Deuteronomy 32:51 ) and the act of revering other Gods (Judges 6:10 ) have dire consequences
Obeisance, do - KJV and RSV translate the Hebrew shachah as obeisance when the object of homage is a person but as worship when the object of homage is God or other Gods (84 times in the RSV)
Amon (1) - The Egyptian name is Amen, "the hidden," or "mysterious"; one of the eight Gods of the first order; thief of the Theban triad, worshipped as Amen-ra (i
Hermas (Greek God) - It is significant that a Christian should have no scruple in retaining as his name the name of one of the Gods
Moloch - Moloch is spoken of in the OT as the god of the Ammonites, and is evidently the national deity, just as Chemosh is the god of Moab, and Jahweh the God of Israel, though the worship of other Gods is not precluded
Garrison - Or rather (Maurer), the obelisks in honor of the tutelary Gods of Tyre (as Melecarte, the Tyrian Hercules whose temple stood in Old Tyre) shall go down to the ground before Nebuchadnezzar, the conqueror, just as he treated Egypt's idol statues (Jeremiah 43:11)
Fornication - 2 Chronicles 21:11 (a) The word is used to describe the wickedness of a people who forsake the true GOD, and the blessings which He gives in order to follow the attractions of the ungodly world, and of false Gods
Pihahiroth - At this place the Egyptians had a migdol or tower, and one of their dunghill Gods, called Baal-Zephon, had a temple here, as if to watch that no runaway servant or slave might escape from Egypt; at least, it was intended to act as a bugbear to deliver the fugitive
Consecrate - ) To canonize; to exalt to the rank of a saint; to enroll among the Gods, as a Roman emperor
Orpah - ) On her husband's death accompanied Naomi toward Bethlehem a short distance, but, in spite of professions of attachment and tears, she went back to "her people and her Gods," and lost the golden opportunity which Ruth embraced of having Israel's God for her God
Adrammelech (1) - was also one of the Gods adored by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim, who were settled in the country of Samaria, in the room of the Israelites, who were carried beyond the Euphrates
Brahmins - These are so ingeniously diversified as to produce three hundred and thirty millions of Gods, or objects of idolatry; so various in character as to suit every man's taste or humour, and to furnish examples of every vice and folly to which humanity is subject. After receiving his sentence, he wanders about the earth for twelve months, as an aerial being or ghost; and then takes a body suited to his future condition, whether he ascend to the Gods, or suffer in a new body, or be hurled into some hell. The descriptions which the "pooranus" give of the heavens of the Gods are truly in the eastern style; all things, even the beds of the Gods, are made of gold and precious stones. " Here all the vicious passions are personified, or rather deified: the quarrels and licentious intrigues of the Gods fill these places with perpetual uproar while their impurities are described with the same literality and gross detail, as similar things are talked of among these idolaters on earth
Medium - Those to be consulted are termed “fathers” and “gods. God's people were to trust God in times of distress and not resort to other “gods” in an attempt to learn the future
Molech - ' In the latter days of Solomon, when the heathen women whom he had married had turned away his heart after other Gods, he built a high place in the hill before (that is, 'east of') Jerusalem for Molech. Of the Canaanites it is said, "their sons and their daughters have they burnt in the fire to their Gods," Deuteronomy 12:31 ; and of Israel it is recorded, they have "caused their sons, whom they bare unto me, to pass for them through the fire, to devour them,
Adrammelech - One of the Gods adored by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim, who settled in Samaria, in the stead of those Israelites who were carried beyond the Euphrates
Chiun - However, it is far more probable that they, conscious of its reference, substituted for the original vowels those of the word shiqqûts (‘abomination’) an epithet often applied to strange Gods
Jezebel - ...
Jezebel was so zealous, that she fed at her own table four hundred prophets belonging to the goddess Astarte; and her husband Ahab, in like manner, kept four hundred of Baal's prophets, as ministers of his false Gods
Marduk - See Babylon ; Bel ; Gods, Pagan
Satyr - In Leviticus 17:7 and 2 Chronicles 11:15 it is translated 'devils,' but would have been better 'demons,' referring to the Gods which the heathen unconsciously worshipped: cf
Tophet - It was the place where they burned the remains of images and false Gods, &c, Isaiah 30:33
Shintoism - It teaches that all nature is controlled by Gods, from whom the first emperor sprang; hence the mikado is the descendant of the deity, and is the high-priest
Certify - This is designed to certify those things that are confirmed of Gods favor
Paganism - The religious worship and discipline of Pagans, or the adoration of idols and false Gods. The second sort, called physic, or natural, was studied and taught by the philosophers, who, rejecting the multiplicity of Gods introduced by the poets, brought their theology to a more natural and rational form, and supposed that there was but one Supreme God, which they commonly make to be the sun; at least, an emblem of him, but at too great a distance to mind the affairs of the world, and therefore devised certain demons, which they considered as mediators between the Supreme God and man; and the doctrines of these demons, to which the apostle is thought to allude in 1Ti_4:1. The third part called politic, or civil, was instituted by legislators, statesmen, and politicians: the first among the Roman and Numa Pompilius; this chiefly respected their Gods, temples, altars, sacrifices, and rites of worship, and was properly their idolatry, the care of which belonged to the priests; and this was enjoined the common people, to keep them in obedience to the civil state
Stoics - Their distinguishing tenets were, that God is underived, incorruptible, and eternal; possessed of infinite wisdom and goodness: the efficient cause of all the qualities and forms of things; and the constant preserver and governor of the world: That matter, in its original elements, is also underived and eternal; and is by the powerful energy of the Deity impressed with motion and form: That though God and matter subsisted from eternity, the present regular frame of nature had a beginning originating in the gross and dark chaos, and will terminate in a universal conflagration, that will reduce the world to its pristine state: That at this period all material forms will be lost in one chaotic mass; and all animated nature be reunited to the Deity: That from this chaotic state, however, the world will again emerge by the energy of the efficient principle; and Gods, and men, and all forms of regulated nature be renewed and dissolved, in endless succession: And that after the revolution of the great year all things will be restored, and the race of men will return to life. Those among the stoics who maintained the existence of the soul after death, supposed it to be removed into the celestial regions of the Gods, where it remains until, at the general conflagration, all souls, both human and divine, shall be absorbed in the Deity. According to the general doctrine of the stoics, all things are subject to a stern irresistible fatality, even the Gods themselves
Onion - Juvenal ridicules some of these superstitious people who did not dare to eat leeks, garlic, or onions, for fear of injuring their Gods:...
Quis nescit, Volusi Bythynice, qualia demens ...
AEgyptus portenta coit? ...
Porrum et cepe nefas violare aut frangere morsu; O sanctas gentes quibus haec nascuntur in hortis Numina! — Sat. ...
"How Egypt, mad with superstition grown, Makes Gods of monsters, but too well is known. Religious nation, sure! and blest abodes, Where ev'ry garden is o'errun with Gods!" ...
So Lucian in his Jupiter, where he is giving an account of the different deities worshipped by the several inhabitants of Egypt, says, Πηλουσιωταις δε κρομμυον , "those of Pelusium worship the onion
Plague - Both people and king were bitterly opposed to Yahweh, the God of Israel, and were devoted followers of Yahweh’s real enemies, the Egyptian Gods (Exodus 9:27; Exodus 12:12). These were Gods of nature and were therefore connected with the Nile River, upon which Egypt depended entirely for its agricultural life
Arpad - He reminded the people walled up in Jerusalem that the Gods of Arpad did not save it from Sennacherib
Abednego - Nebo or Mercury, the interpreter of the Gods) for Azariah, one of Daniel's three companions, miraculously delivered from the furnace into which they were cast for not worshipping Nebuchadnezzar's golden image (Daniel 3)
Mesha - Unable to force his way through the besieging host, King Mesha sought the aid of his Gods by sacrificing his own son on the city wall; and the besiegers, horrorstruck at this atrocious act, withdrew in terror, lest some curse should fall on them
Nergal - One of the Gods of the Cuthite heathen who were transplanted into Palestine, 2 Kings 7:20
Libellatici - (Latin: labi, lapsus, to slip) ...
Term applied in the third century to Christians who relapsed into heathenism by sacrificing to the heathen Gods or by other external acts of apostasy. The lapsi were divided into three classes: ...
sacrificati, those who had actually offered a sacrifice to idols
thurificati, those who had burnt incense on the altar of the Gods
libellatici, those who had drawn up or had caused to be drawn up certificates (libelli, several of which are still preserved) stating that they had offered sacrifice without, however, having actually done so
Lapsi - (Latin: labi, lapsus, to slip) ...
Term applied in the third century to Christians who relapsed into heathenism by sacrificing to the heathen Gods or by other external acts of apostasy. The lapsi were divided into three classes: ...
sacrificati, those who had actually offered a sacrifice to idols
thurificati, those who had burnt incense on the altar of the Gods
libellatici, those who had drawn up or had caused to be drawn up certificates (libelli, several of which are still preserved) stating that they had offered sacrifice without, however, having actually done so
Pillar - Shrines both to the Lord and to false Gods. Graven images often were pillars set up as Gods
Thurificati - (Latin: labi, lapsus, to slip) ...
Term applied in the third century to Christians who relapsed into heathenism by sacrificing to the heathen Gods or by other external acts of apostasy. The lapsi were divided into three classes: ...
sacrificati, those who had actually offered a sacrifice to idols
thurificati, those who had burnt incense on the altar of the Gods
libellatici, those who had drawn up or had caused to be drawn up certificates (libelli, several of which are still preserved) stating that they had offered sacrifice without, however, having actually done so
Sacrificati - (Latin: labi, lapsus, to slip) ...
Term applied in the third century to Christians who relapsed into heathenism by sacrificing to the heathen Gods or by other external acts of apostasy. The lapsi were divided into three classes: ...
sacrificati, those who had actually offered a sacrifice to idols
thurificati, those who had burnt incense on the altar of the Gods
libellatici, those who had drawn up or had caused to be drawn up certificates (libelli, several of which are still preserved) stating that they had offered sacrifice without, however, having actually done so
Egyptians - ' From this they treated each of his attributes as separate Gods; and they had also Gods distinct from these. Then they had a number of sacred animals, from the cat to the crocodile, which were said to be symbols of their Gods. Two Gods superintend the weighing
Guardian - The guardian appears to be an image for the “elemental things of the world,” that is, of celestial or demonic powers regarded as Gods by pagan Gentiles
Drink-Offering - "Drink offerings of blood" (Psalm 16:4 ) is used in allusion to the heathen practice of mingling the blood of animals sacrificed with wine or water, and pouring out the mixture in the worship of the Gods, and the idea conveyed is that the psalmist would not partake of the abominations of the heathen
Teraphim - The teraphim, translated "images" in the Authorized Version, carried away from Laban by Rachel were regarded by Laban as Gods, and it would therefore appear that they were used by those who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal religion
Unity of God - The unity of God is argued from his necessary existence, self-sufficiency; perfection, independence, and omnipotence; from the unity of design in the works of nature; and from there being no necessity of having more Gods than one: but the Scriptures set it beyond all doubt, Deuteronomy 6:4
Akhenaton - Often referred to as the first monotheist, he probably did not go so far as denying the existence of all other Gods
Consecration - Canonization the act of translating into heaven, and enrolling or numbering among the saints or Gods the ceremony of the apotheosis of an emperor
Tributary - He, to grace his tributary Gods-- ...
2
da'Gon - (1 Samuel 5:5 ) The fish-like form was a natural emblem of fruitfulness, and as such was likely to be adopted by seafaring tribes in the representation of their Gods
Unknown God - Nor are we helped by Jerome, who states (on Titus 1:12) that the inscription actually read, ‘To the Gods of Asia and Europe and Africa, to unknown and strange Gods,’ for such an altar could not possibly be that referred to by the Apostle. 4) says that on the road from the Phaleric port to the city he had noticed ‘altars of Gods called unknown, and of heroes’ (βωμοὶ δὲ θεῶν τε ὀνομαζομένων ἀγνώστων καὶ ἡρώων), which may quite well mean that he saw several altars bearing inscriptions similar to that mentioned by St. 6 he speaks again of ‘an altar of unknown Gods’ (πρὸς αὐτῷ δʼ ἐστὶν ἀγνώστων θεῶν βωμός). ’ It is, therefore, impossible to say with certainty whether such altars were erected ‘to an (or ‘the’) unknown god’ or ‘to unknown Gods
Babel, Tower of - "Not long after the flood men were so puffed up with their strength and stature that they began to despise the Gods, and labored to erect the tower now called Babylon, intending thereby to settle heaven. But when the winds approached the sky, lo, the Gods called in the aid of the winds and overturned the tower. " The Greek myth of the giants' war with the Gods, and attempt to scale heaven by piling one mountain upon another, is another corrupted form of the same truth
Baal (1) - These Gods were supposed to manifest themselves in the fertility, or in some startling natural formation, of the locality where they were worshipped. Gradually, however, some of these Gods assimilated more abstract powers (cf. Under the influence of such prophecies the Israelites abandoned the use of Baal for Jahweh , and in later times developed so great an antipathy to this word that later revisers substituted bôsheth (‘shameful thing’), not only wherever Ba’al occurred for the Canaanitish deities ( Hosea 9:10 , Jeremiah 3:24 ; Jeremiah 11:13 ), but also, forgetful of its former application to Jahweh, in some of the above names (see Ishbosheth), supposing them to allude to local Gods
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - Of royal blood and great learning, she appeared at the age of 18 before the Emperor Maximinus, and endeavored to dissuade him from worship of false Gods; her eloquence converted so many that she was condemned to die on the wheel but, at her touch, the instrument was miraculously destroyed
Jethro - The deity whom he served is not explicitly identified; in Exodus 18:11 , however, he declared Yahweh to be greater than all Gods
Sinful - of Asia Minor, with the threat against any desecrator of the tomb, "let him be as a sinner before the subterranean Gods" (Moulton and Milligan)
Teraphim - (teh' ruh fihm) Transliteration idols used as household Gods or for divination
Garrison - ...
The KJV has garrisons at Ezekiel 26:11 where modern translations have a reference to pillars in honor of the Gods of Tyre
Ivah - Sennacherib boasts that the Gods of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivah, were powerless to resist him
Mention - ...
Make no mention of other Gods
Asenath - ...
Asenath is the heroine of a remarkable Jewish and Christian romance, in which she renounces her false Gods before her marriage with Joseph; it can be traced back to the 5th cent
Consecrate - To canonize to exalt to the rank of a saint to enroll among the Gods, as a Roman emperor
Idol - The Gods of the nations are idols
God - There have never been any Gods before Him nor will there be any after Him (Isaiah 43:10)
Alexandria, Catherine of, Saint - Of royal blood and great learning, she appeared at the age of 18 before the Emperor Maximinus, and endeavored to dissuade him from worship of false Gods; her eloquence converted so many that she was condemned to die on the wheel but, at her touch, the instrument was miraculously destroyed
Help - 10:33); even false Gods are believed to be of “help” ( Rabshakeh - On the other hand, he profanely classes the God of Israel with all the Gods that could not protect their worshippers from his master
Cypress - It scarcely ever rots, decays, or is worm-eaten; for which reason the ancients used to make the statues of their Gods with it
Demon - ]'>[4] , and denoting a species of genli or demi-gods, who were conceived as invested with power for good or evil, and to whom even human sacrifices were offered
Mother - The Lord describes the heathen Gods and their customs as having been those who moulded Israel into their present evil condition. They followed the Gods of the Hittites and the Amorites
Teraphim - These images were probably some of the strange Gods of which Jacob subsequently cleansed his household. Perhaps they were like the Roman Penates or household Gods
Lord - ...
God the Lord Nations around Israel often called their Gods: “lord. At first the Greeks did not see themselves in a slave/lord relationship with their Gods because they did not believe their Gods were responsible for their creation. They could, indeed, call the Gods “lord,” but that was not characteristic. Instead, both they and their Gods were subject to the same higher power—that is, fate. Thus the Greeks felt no personal responsibility before the Gods. ...
In the Near East the Gods were lords of fate. Humans were thus responsible to the Gods. Many Gods were called “lord. ...
In the Old Testament, Lord usually describes the essence of Yahweh: His power over His people (Exodus 34:23 ; Isaiah 1:24 ), over the entire earth (Joshua 3:13 ; Micah 4:13 ), and over all Gods (Deuteronomy 10:17 ; Psalm 135:5 ). Israelites formed personal names with adonai (Adonijah, Adoniram) just as did their neighbors (Adoni-zedek, Joshua 10:1-3 ), since these peoples also addressed their Gods as “lord. He appeared and disappeared with the vegetation, being humiliated and defeated by other Gods, even becoming weak, sick, and dying
Maurice And Companions, Saint - When ordered to sacrifice to the Gods in thanksgiving for a victory, they refused
Earrings - Before returning to Bethel, Jacob got his family to put away their foreign Gods and earrings (Genesis 35:2-4 )
Nimbus - The pagans used a disc-shaped halo or circle of light for Gods, heroes, and persons of distinction
Nadab - Possibly they did not use fire from the recognized altar, perhaps offering to foreign Gods (Numbers 3:4 )
Sun - See Gods, Pagan
Teraphim - Jurieu supposes them to have been a sort of dii penates, or household Gods; and this appears to be, perhaps, the most probable opinion
Nadab - Possibly they did not use fire from the recognized altar, perhaps offering to foreign Gods (Numbers 3:4 )
Magi or Wise Men - They alone performed the religious rites, and pretended to communicate to men secret things, future events, and the will of the Gods
Idol, Idolatry - The forefathers were idolaters and, while Abraham was called out of a polytheistic background (Deuteronomy 4:15-19 ), some persons brought their Gods with them (Genesis 35:2-4 ). Israel's sojourn in Egypt placed them under the influence of the Egyptian religion, but God's sovereignty was manifest by his judgment upon the Gods of Egypt (Exodus 12:12 ; Numbers 33:4 ). ...
The first commandment is to have no Gods before God (Exodus 20:3 ; Deuteronomy 5:7 ). In addition, the construction of any images (Exodus 20:23 ) or even the mention of the names of Gods (Exodus 23:13 ) was forbidden. Both intermarriage and formal treaties were prohibited because of necessary affiliation with pagan Gods (Exodus 23:32-33 ), leading to eventual fellowship (Exodus 34:15 ) and worship of idols (Numbers 25:2-3 ). Making images of foreign Gods and attempting to represent the Lord were both forbidden as contradictions of the monotheistic revelation of God. Israel was even told, with the voice of irony, to call upon idols for help (Deuteronomy 32:28 ; Judges 10:14 ; Jeremiah 11:12 ) but the Gods could not even save their own people (2 Chronicles 25:15 ). In the end God promises to destroy all the Gods of the nations (Zephaniah 2:11 ) and looks forward to the day when the people will throw away their idols and return to him (Isaiah 30:22 ). ...
The Bible understands that idolatry extends beyond the worship of images and false Gods. To serve other Gods is to forsake God; to eliminate idolatry is a sign of return. Spender...
See also Divination ; Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
Bibliography
Earth - Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth (2 Kings 5:17 ), under the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the Gods of the heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own soil
Incantations - Babylonian incantations had three parts, (1) an invocation of the names of the great Gods, (2) identification of the spirit causing the illness, and (3) the call for the demon to leave
Idolatry - Disordered affections, need of sense-images, ignorance of God's excellence, and diabolical agency have led unbridled imagination to attribute divine power to myriad false Gods of every kind
Hymn - In an cient pagan literature a hymn was a song in honor of Gods or heroes
Mouse - The Egyptian account of Sennacherib's discomfiture was that the Gods sent mice which gnawed his archers' bowstrings, in his expedition to Egypt
Moreh - Jacob buried there the foreign Gods his family had brought from Haran (Genesis 35:4 )
Merodach - He gradually absorbed the attributes of other Gods once supreme through the influence of their city seats of worship, particularly Ellil the old Bçl , or lord supreme of Nippur
Dish - "A dish fit for the Gods
Sin (1) - Herodotus says that Sethos' statue with a mouse in his hands stood in Vulcan's temple, and an inscription, "look on me and learn to reverence the Gods
Graven Image - The Gods made of a tree were also doubtless wrought, at least rudely, in the form of some living or imaginary creature
Kiss - The heathen kissed their Gods
Amaziah - But he brought back the Gods of the children of Seir, and bowed down to them, whereby he fell under God's displeasure
Forget - ”...
As the people worshiped strange Gods, Jeremiah reminded Judah that “all thy lovers have forgotten thee; they seek thee not” ( Trinity - These passages, carefully read, are sufficient to prove that "the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal; such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost; the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God; and yet they are not three Gods, but one God
Castor - Castor and Pollux were sea-gods, and invoked by sailors; and even the light balls or meteors which are sometimes seen on ships, were called Castor and Pollux
Laban - He seems to have known and worshipped God, Genesis 24:50 30:27 31:53 ; but the "gods" or teraphim which Rachel stole from her father, Genesis 31:30,34 , show that he was not without the taint of idolatry
Garlands - ...
In Acts 14:8-18 we are told that, on the healing of a lame man by the Apostles Paul and Barnabas at Lystra in Asia Minor, the people imagined the wonder-workers to be incarnations of the Gods Jupiter and Mercury, and declared, ‘The Gods are come down to us in the likeness of men’ (v
Calf Worship - Israel too had just seen that "upon Egypt's Gods Jehovah executed judgments" (Numbers 33:4). It was notorious that it was Jehovah who delivered Israel out of Egypt; and, like Aaron, Jeroboam says of the calves, thereby identifying them with Jehovah, "Behold thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of Egypt. Baal worship breaks the first commandment by having other Gods besides Jehovah
Baal - The reform movement of Hezekiah was reversed when Manasseh became king (2 Kings 21:2-16 ), as he reinstated Baal worship, along with worship of Assyrian Gods and other Gods. The Bible writers affirmed the supremacy of Yahweh and condemned the worship of any other Gods beside Yahweh
God - A knowledge of the character and attributes of pagan “gods” was thought to enable the worshipers to manipulate or influence the deities in a more effective way than they could have if the deity’s name remained unknown. The ancient Semites stood in mortal dread of the superior powers exercised by the Gods and attempted to propitiate them accordingly. This was done partly through superstition; but the pluralistic nature of the newly-won Persian empire also required them to honor the Gods of conquered peoples, in the interests of peace and social harmony. ...
In the only verse in the Book of Jeremiah that was written in Aramaic (10:11), the word ĕlâhh appears in plural form to describe “gods” that had not participated in the creation of the universe. Although such false “gods” were being worshiped by pagan nations (and perhaps worshiped by some of the Hebrews who were in exile in Babylonia), these deities would ultimately perish because they were not eternal in nature. ...
In the Book of Daniel, ĕlâhh was used both of heathen “gods” and the one true “God” of heaven. The Chaldean priests told Nebuchadnezzar: “And it is a rare thing that the king requireth, and there is none other that can show it before the king, except the Gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh” (and 5:11, the phrase “the spirit of the holy Gods” appears (KJV, RSV, NEB, NIV). The “gods” were believed to favor mountaintop dwellings, and the Sumerians constructed their staged temple-towers or ziggurats as artificial mountains for worship
Athens - Its inhabitants were fond of novelty (Acts 17:21 ), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the Gods
Asa - A pious man, he instituted several reforms to remove foreign Gods and foreign religious practices from the land, even removing his mother from political power (1 Kings 15:13 )
Babylonians - Their religion has been described as the worst possible form of nature worship, and their Gods seem to have been countless
Hinnom, Valley of - In some part of this, supposed to be the east end, children were passed through the fire to false Gods
Religion - ) The outward act or form by which men indicate their recognition of the existence of a god or of Gods having power over their destiny, to whom obedience, service, and honor are due; the feeling or expression of human love, fear, or awe of some superhuman and overruling power, whether by profession of belief, by observance of rites and ceremonies, or by the conduct of life; a system of faith and worship; a manifestation of piety; as, ethical religions; monotheistic religions; natural religion; revealed religion; the religion of the Jews; the religion of idol worshipers
Glorious - O, Lord, is become glorious: who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the Gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders
Dionysia (1), Virgin Martyr at Lampsacus - Seeing Nicomachus suddenly seized with madness and dying in horror, after having denied the faith under torture, and sacrificed to the heathen Gods, Dionysia cried out, "Miserable and most wretched man! Why, for one hour's respite, didst thou take to thyself unceasing and indescribable punishment!" The proconsul Optimus hearing her, asked if she were a Christian
Arrow - After having put these into a quiver, he shook them together, and then drew them out; and the arrow which was drawn was thought to declare the will of the Gods to attack first that city, province, or kingdom, with whose name it was inscribed
Oracle - The priests who pretended to convey to applicants the responses of their Gods, often gave a reply capable of two opposite interpretations, when neither private information nor their own experience or sagacity gave them the clue to a safe answer
Transfigure - 1), is used in the Passive Voice (a) of Christ's "transfiguration," Matthew 17:2 ; Mark 9:2 ; Luke (in Luke 9:29 ) avoids this term, which might have suggested to gentile readers the metamorphoses of heathen Gods, and uses the phrase egeneto heteron, "was altered," lit
Epicureans - That was the way the Gods lived, and that was why they took no interest in human affairs
Rainbow - To the Greek it is a portent, or Iris, the messenger of the Gods; in the Icelandic Edda it is the bridge connecting heaven and earth (cf. Here evidently it is simply part of the picture, unless there is an allusion to the Greek conception of Iris as the messenger of the Gods
No - ]'>[1] ) ‘I will punish Amon of No and Pharaoh and Egypt with her Gods and their kings,’ Amon is probably not taken as the representative god of Egypt, a position which he no longer held in the 6th cent. The Theban Ammon was often entitled ‘Amen-Rç, king of the Gods,’ being identified with the sun-god Rç
Prostitution - As people performed sex Acts with the temple harlots, this stimulated sexual activity among the Gods, ensuring the fertility of the soil. " These men and women considered themselves consecrated to their Gods for the purpose of religious prostitution. Therefore, when the Israelites went astray by worshiping other deities, they were prostituting themselves to other Gods (Exodus 34:15 ). ...
See also Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ; Idol, Idolatry ; Immorality, Sexual ...
...
Altar - ...
Among the Romans altars were of two kinds, the higher and the lower; the higher were intended for the celestial Gods, and were called altaria, from altus; the lower were for the terrestrial and infernal Gods, and were called arae. Those dedicated to the heavenly Gods were raised a great height above the surface of the earth; those of the terrestrial Gods were almost even with the surface; and those for the infernal deities were only holes dug in the ground called scrobiculi. Before temples were in use the altars were placed in the groves, highways, or on tops of mountains, inscribed with the names, ensigns, or characters of the respective Gods to whom they belonged
Amaziah - But this did not prevent him from carrying home with him the idols of Edom, and setting them up to be his Gods
Dedicate, Dedication - A general term used in the Bible to describe an act of setting apart or consecrating persons or things to God (or Gods), persons, sacred work, or ends
Ahaz - He made his own children pass through the fire to idols; he introduced the Syrian Gods into Jerusalem, altered the temple after the Syrian model, and even closed it altogether
Gentile - In matters of religion, a Pagan, or worshipper of false Gods
Hymenaeus - Ramsay suggests that it is a Christian adaptation of a pagan idea, when a person wronged by another, but unable to retaliate, consigned the offender to the Gods and left punishment to be inflicted by Divine power
Demetrius - Demetrius and his fellow craftsmen, in fear for their gains, raised a tumult against Paul as saying "they be no Gods which are made with hands
Dispensation - Neither are Gods methods or intentions different in his dispensations to each private man
Procession - The Romans, when the empire was distressed, or after some victory, used constantly to order processions, for several days together, to be made to the temples, to beg the assistance of the Gods, or to return them thanks
Divine - ) Pertaining to, or proceeding from, a deity; partaking of the nature of a god or the Gods
Mercury - ) A Latin god of commerce and gain; - treated by the poets as identical with the Greek Hermes, messenger of the Gods, conductor of souls to the lower world, and god of eloquence
Epicureans - In his ethics Epicurus denied that there was a creator of the world; still he believed that there were Gods, to be worshipped for the excellence of their nature: they lived in quiet, and did not interfere with the government of the universe
Chemarim - By this word the best commentators understand the priests of false Gods, and in particular the worshippers of fire, because they were, it is said, dressed in black
Religion, Virtue of - Thou shalt not have strange Gods before me
Virtue of Religion - Thou shalt not have strange Gods before me
Pegasius, Bishop of Troas - Julian, upon entering the temple, recognized traces of sacrifices, and asked if the people still sacrificed to the Gods
Prayer - Thanksgiving / which concern Gods glory
Ashtoreth - She is identified as Ishtar or Nana, the planetary Venus among the Assyrian Gods in inscriptions. The sacred tree constantly accompanies the Gods in the Assyrian monuments
Emperor Worship - ...
Old Testament Kings who conquered a nation would displace the local Gods in favor of their own as a way of establishing authority. Standing trial if they worshiped the pagan Gods, that is, the emperor and the imperial cult, they would be freed
Nippur - Various Gods controlled every aspect of life. He was thought of as god of the terrestrial world and the father of other Gods
Idol - ...
...
'Elil, "a thing of naught" (Psalm 97:7 ; Isaiah 19:3 ); a word of contempt, used of the Gods of Noph (Ezekiel 30:13 ). , "images," family Gods (penates) worshipped by Abram's kindred (Joshua 24:14 )
Daniel the Prophet - If by help of the Gods they were able to give the true interpretation, the same Gods could enable them to recall the dream. Its revelation had such an effect on the king that he did homage to Daniel, and said Daniel's God was the God of Gods and the Lord of kings
Grove - The heathen consecrated groves to particular Gods, and for this reason they were forbidden to the Jews (Jeremiah 17:3 ; Ezekiel 20:28 )
Quarry - word pĕsîlîm is applied to images of Gods in wood, stone, or metal ( Deuteronomy 7:5 ; Deuteronomy 7:25 ; Deuteronomy 12:3 , Isaiah 21:9 ; Isaiah 30:22 , 2 Chronicles 34:4 )
Entertain - ...
The Israelites were forbidden to attend heathenish sacrificial entertainments (Exodus 34:15 ), because these were in honour of false Gods, and because at such feast they would be liable to partake of unclean flesh (1 Corinthians 10:28 )
Theology - The word was first used to denote the systems, or rather the heterogeneous fables, of those poets and philosophers who wrote of the genealogy and exploits of the Gods of Greece
Strange - A — 1: ξένος (Strong's #3581 — Adjective — xenos — xen'-os ) denotes (a) "foreign, alien," Acts 17:18 , of Gods; Hebrews 13:9 , of doctrines; (b) "unusual," 1 Peter 4:12,2 nd part, of the fiery trial of persecution (for 1st part, see B)
Sabaoth - ” Part of a divine title, “Lord of Hosts” variously interpreted as Lord of Israel's armies (compare 1 Samuel 17:45 ); the deposed Canaanite nature Gods whose title Yahweh assumed; the stars; members of Yahweh's heavenly court or council; a comprehensive title for all beings, heavenly and earthly; an intensive title describing God as all powerful
Goliath - That this ‘duel’ was of a religious character comes out clearly in 1 Samuel 17:43 ; 1 Samuel 17:45 , where we are told that the Philistine cursed David by his Gods , while David replies: ‘ And I come to thee in the name of the Lord of hosts
Har-Magedon - Another explanation finds in the word a survival of the name of the place in which the Gods of Babylonia were believed to have defeated the dragon Tiâmat and the other evil spirits
Rachel - ...
It was Rachel who stole the household Gods of her father, and then with cunning concealed them
Egypt - ), changed his name to Akhenaton and embarked on a revolutionary reform which promoted worship of the sun disc Aton above all other Gods. Many of the great number of Gods were personifications of the enduring natural forces in Egypt, such as the sun, Nile, air, earth, and so on. Other Gods, like Maat (“truth,” “justice”), personified abstract concepts. Some of the Gods were worshiped in animal form, such as the Apis bull which represented the god Ptah of Memphis. This is reflected by the Gods' names which dominate pharaohs' names in various dynasties. The confusion of local beliefs and political circumstances led to the assimilation of different Gods to certain dominant figures. Theological systems developed around local Gods at Hermopolis, Memphis, and Heliopolis. At Memphis, Ptah was seen as the supreme deity which created the other Gods by his own word, but this notion was too intellectual to be popular. Similar to the Hermopolis cycle, it involved a primordial chaos from which appeared Atum who gave birth to the other Gods. ...
The Bible mentions no Egyptian Gods, and Egyptian religion did not significantly influence the Hebrews
Assyria, History And Religion of - Essentially the same as Babylonian religion, official Assyrian religion recognized thousands of Gods; but only about twenty were important in actual practice. The important part of the pantheon can be divided into several broad categories: old Gods, astral deities, and young Gods. The old Gods, Anu, Enlil, and Ea, were patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities and were each given a share of the universe as their dominion. Astral deities—gods associated with heavenly bodies—included the sun-god Shamash, the moon-god Sin, and Ishtar, goddess of the morning and evening star (the Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus). ...
Younger Gods were usually associated with a newer city or none at all. ...
Although a number of myths concerning the various Babylonian/Assyrian Gods are known, the religious function of but one can be determined. In the Assyrian version Asshur, not the Babylonian Marduk, is shown to be superior to the other Gods. ...
The various Gods were thought of as residing in cosmic localities, but also as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. It is difficult to know what meaning the images and temples of the various Gods had for the average person, and even more difficult to ascertain what comfort or help he might expect through worship of them
Ashtoreth - ...
At a later period, when all Gods had obtained a fixed position to each other and the necessity of assigning an abode to them was felt, the Gods were identified with the heavenly bodies. 1800) aptly calls ‘queen of the Gods, into whose hands are delivered the commands of the great Gods, lady of Nineveh, daughter of Sin, sister of Shamash, who rules all kingdoms, who determines decrees, the goddess of the universe, lady of heaven and earth, who hears petitions, heeds sighs; the merciful goddess who loves justice
Magic - Different from pagan sources, the Old Testament writers did not see a connection between magic and the Gods. Foreign magicians in Scripture did not invoke help of their Gods for magical formulas, but often called upon self-operating forces that were independent of the Gods (Isaiah 47:13 ; the monotheistic Israelites did not accept the existence of the foreign Gods ). Moreover, the biblical writers seemed to attribute a reality to magical power that it did not ascribe to the Gods. As with magic, the biblical writers did not view divination as connected with the Gods, but instead considered it a magic or wisdom art that revealed secrets of God in a wrong way (Isaiah 19:3 ; Ezekiel 21:26 ; Hosea 4:12 )
Euphemitae, Praying People - Epiphanius, our sole informant, tells us that they were neither Christians, Jews, nor Samaritans, but heathen, believing in a plurality of Gods, but offering worship only to one whom they called the Almighty
Felicitas, Martyr at Rome - It is almost certain that there was no authorized persecution under Antonius Pius, but public calamities stirred up the mob to seek for the favour of the Gods by shedding Christian blood ( Julii Capitolini, Vita Antonini Pii , c
Eliashib - A Levite and Temple singer in Ezra's day who agreed to divorce his foreign wife to avoid tempting Israel to worship other Gods (Ezra 10:24 )
Divine - Pertaining to a heathen deity, or to false Gods
After - ...
Ye shall not go after other Gods
Following - 20:3: “Thou shalt have no other Gods before me
Idol - Among the earliest objects of worship, regarded as symbols of deity, were the meteoric stones,which the ancients believed to have been images of the Gods sent down from heaven
Viper - Paul, Acts xxviii, whom the people of Melita, when they saw the viper leap upon his hand, presently concluded to be a murderer; and as readily made a god of him when, instead of having his hand inflamed, or falling down dead, one or other of which is usually the effect of these bites, he without any harm shook the reptile into the fire: it being obvious enough to imagine that he must stand in a near relation at least to the Gods themselves, who could thus command the messengers of their vengeance, and counterwork the effects of such powerful agents
Foreknowledge - It is one of those high attributes which place him immeasurably above all pretended Gods
Shishak - In the palace-temple of Karnak in Egypt, the walls of which are yet standing, Sesonchis is represented in a large basrelief, dragging captive kings in triumph before the three chief Theban Gods
Cistern - In Jeremiah 14:1 , the pagan Gods were symbolized as broken cisterns that could not hold water
mo'Lech - Fire-gods appear to have been common to all the Canaanite, Syrian and Arab tribes, who worshipped the destructive element under an outward symbol, with the most inhuman rites
Trinity Sunday - As set forth in "Thoughts on the Services," "TheChurch's services have culminated; to-day they mount up to theThrone of the Godhead; for knowing the Son and the Holy Ghost, weknow the Father also, and that these Three are not three Gods, butone God
Idol - Joshua called on the people to put away the Gods their fathers had served in Mesopotamia and in Egypt (Joshua 24:14 ). See Food Offered to Idols ; Gods, Pagan
Epicureanism - ...
He believed in Gods, but he thought that they were totally unconcerned with the lives or troubles of mortals. Still, according to Epicurus, it was appropriate to worship the Gods because it leads to happiness
Plague - A special reason why in this case the natural background of the miracles should appear was in order to show that Jehovah was God of Egypt as much as of Israel, and rules "in the midst of the earth" (Exodus 8:22)...
By exhibiting Jehovah through Moses at will bringing on with unusual intensity, and withdrawing in answer to intercession at once and completely, the well known Egyptian periodical scourges which their superstition attributed to false Gods, Jehovah was proved more effectively to be supreme than He could have been by inflicting some new and strange visitation. , as Jehovah saith (Exodus 12:12), "against all the Gods of Egypt will I execute judgment" (Exodus 18:11; Exodus 15:11; Numbers 33:4)
Antediluvians - Since cultural achievements were often attributed to the Gods in the Ancient Near East, the Scripture wants to emphasize that they are achievements of human beings created by the one God. The Sumerian kings, who were considered Gods, were said to have lived for tens of thousands of years
Fertility Cult - Sacral sexual intercourse by priests and priestesses or by cult prostitutes was an act of worship intended to emulate the Gods and share in their powers of procreation or else an act of imitative magic by which the Gods were compelled to preserve the earth's fertility (1 Kings 14:23 ; 1 Kings 15:12 ; Hosea 4:14 ). See Asherah ; Ashtoroth; Baal ; Canaan, History and Religion of ; Dagon ; Diana ; Gods, Pagan ; High Place ; Prostitution ; Tammuz ; Ugarit
Name - ...
And we find the Lord himself helping his people, as it were, in this sacred regard which they desired to have to his honour, by commanding them to avoid all temptations to it, in prohibiting their use of the names of the dunghill Gods around them; knowing that the familiar use of the one, might insensibly lead to the use of the other. "And in all things that I have said unto you, (saith the Lord) be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other Gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth. " (Hosea 2:16-17) The Israelites were not only in danger from using the same name of Baali, which signifies Lord, as their idolatrous neighbours did, when speaking of their Gods, but they had been upon numberless occasions infected also with their idolatry
Babylon, History And Religion of - Of the thousands of recognized Gods, only about twenty were important in actual practice. ...
Astral deities—gods associated with heavenly bodies—included the sun-god Shamash, the moon-god Sin, and Ishtar, goddess of the morning and evening star (the Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus). ...
Other Gods were associated with a newer city or none at all. ...
A number of myths concerning Babylonian Gods are known, the most important of which is the Enuma elish , or Creation Epic. It tells of a cosmic struggle in which, while other Gods were powerless, Marduk slew Tiamat (the sea goddess, representative of chaos). During the festival, statues of other Gods arrived from their cities to “visit” Marduk in Esagila. ...
The Gods were thought of as residing in cosmic localities, but also as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. It is very difficult to know what meaning the images and temples of the various Gods had for the average person, and even more difficult to ascertain what comfort or help he might expect through worship of them
Religion - ...
Ancient peoples believed that the Gods intersected human affairs, determining the outcome of battles and the fortunes of kingdoms. Hence, in the rise and fall of kingdoms and empires the peoples of ancient Israel's world assumed that they experienced the workings of the Gods. In that environment, Yahweh's sovereign control over the fortunes of nations, kings, and peoples (especially their downfall) humbled human arrogance (Genesis 11:1-9 ; Psalm 9:20 ; Isaiah 31:3 ; Ezekiel 28:2 ), exposed the powerlessness of the Gods that humans made to fill the void left by their "forgetting" the Creator (Psalm 96:5 ; 115:4-7 ; 135:15-18 ; Isaiah 44:9-20 ; 46:1-7 ), and testified to the sole rule of Yahweh (Exodus 9:16 ; 14:17-18 ; Psalm 106:8 ; Ezekiel 25:11,17 ; 26:6 ; 28:22-24 ; 29:6,9 , 21 ; 30:8,19 , 25-26 ; 32:15 ; 35:15 ). So people have conceived of many Gods, composed mythologies expressing what is believed about them, and devised ways to worship and appeal to them. Not willing to let the alienation stand or to yield his glory to other Gods (Isaiah 42:8 ; 48:11 ), the Creator has undertaken to effect reconciliation. By this invasion of the alienated world with its many Gods (2 Kings 17:29-33 ; Jeremiah 2:28 ; 1 Corinthians 8:5 ), the Creator calls all peoples of the world to turn from the sham Gods they have made and return to him. It bows in humble repentance before the Holy One for the alienation that turned to other Gods and corrupted the "heart" from which springs every belief, attitude, and action
Naaman - After his cure he gratefully acknowledged the power of the God of Israel, and promised "henceforth to offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other Gods, but unto the Lord
Spread - , Deuteronomy 29:26 , "to assign" or "divide" (concerning the worship of other Gods)
Worship - ” Other Gods and idols are also the object of such worship by one’s prostrating oneself before them ( Gomer - Some have suggested she symbolized Israel's worship of many Gods
Asa - He restored the pure worship of God; expelled those who, from sacrilegious superstition, prostituted themselves in honor of their false Gods; purified Jerusalem from the infamous practices attending the worship of idols; and deprived his mother of her office and dignity of queen, because she erected an idol to Astarte
Jupiter - He was conceived as having usurped the authority of his father Kronos and become the chief and ruler of all the other Gods
Jethro - He rejoiced and blessed God for the deliverance He had given to His people, and said, "Now I know that Jehovah is greater than all Gods: for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them
Memphis - Enraged by the opposition he had encountered at Memphis, according to Herodotus, he committed great ravages in the city, scourged the priests, made sport of their Gods, and burnt them
Money-Changers - In our Lord's time they had established themselves in the court of the temple; a profanation which had probably grown up with the influence of Roman manners, which allowed the argentarii [1] to establish their usurious mensas, tables, by the statues of the Gods, even at the feet of Janus, in the most holy places, in porticibus Basilicarum, or in the temples, pone aedem Castoris
Ablution - There was scarcely any action performed, at the beginning and end of which some ceremony was not required to purify themselves and appease the Gods
Areopagus - It had its name from the legend that Mars (Ares), the god of war, was tried here by the other Gods on a charge of murder
Race - Various games were instituted among the Greeks and Romans, in honor of their Gods, and with the design of training young men to personal vigor and activity, and to intrepidity and skill in war
Jehiel - Father of man who proposed that men with foreign wives divorce them in order not to tempt others to worship foreign Gods under Ezra (Ezra 10:1-4 )
Worship - The homage paid to idols or false Gods by pagans as the worship or Isis
Amaziah - Against the advice of a prophet, he took some of the idols he had captured from the Edomites and set them up as Gods in his palace
Host of Heaven - He attempted to merge the worship of other Gods with the worship of Yahweh. ” The people of Israel drew comparisons between their God and the Gods of Canaan and Babylonia
Blasphemy - In Exodus 22:28, "thou shalt not curse the Gods" (elohim ) refers to disrespectful language toward magistrates. From Exodus 23:13, "make no mention of the name of other Gods," they thought themselves bound to turn the idols' names into nicknames, as Baal into Bosheth, Beth-aven for Beth-el, Beel-zebul for Beel-zebub
Idol, Idolatry - ...
It is impossible to ascertain the period at which the worship of false Gods and idols was introduced. Jacob after his return from Mesopotamia, required his people to reject the strange Gods from among them and also the superstitious pendants worn by them in their ears, which he hid under a terebinth near Shechem. ...
As the maintenance of the worship of the only true God was one of the fundamental objects of the Mosaic polity, and as God was regarded as the king of the Israelitish nation, so we find idolatry, that is, the worship of other Gods, occupying, in the Mosaic law, the first place in the list of crimes. But when we regard idolatry in a moral point of view, as consisting not merely in the external worship of false Gods, but in the preference of, and devotion to something else than the Most High, how many Christians must then fall under this charge
Slaughter - However, the differences are very clear in the meanings which the rituals had as they were performed either to capricious Canaanite Gods or for the one true God who kept His covenant with Israel. 34:15: “Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their Gods, and do sacrifice unto their Gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice” (cf
As - ) Denoting equality or likeness in kind, degree, or manner; like; similar to; in the same manner with or in which; in accordance with; in proportion to; to the extent or degree in which or to which; equally; no less than; as, ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil; you will reap as you sow; do as you are bidden
Queen of Heaven - In apparent confirmation of this view we have the fact that this term seems to be used in a collective sense as equivalent to ‘other Gods
Areopagus - They took cognizance of murders, impieties, and immoralities; punished vices of all kinds, idleness included; rewarded or assisted the virtuous; and were peculiarly attentive to blasphemies against the Gods, and to the performance of the sacred mysteries
Athens - 3) confirms Paul's remark on their religiousness even to superstition: "the zeal devoted by the Athenians to the rites of the Gods exceeds that of all others
El - “El” refers to the God of Israel and in other passages to one of the pagan Gods
Remphan - ...
Ken and Rempu were foreign Gods worshipped jointly in Egypt; they became seemingly interchangeable names, so that Chiun in Amos answers to Remphan in Acts; and this god in turn is but another phase of Moloch or Saturn, the "star god"
Hieroglyphics - of Egypt contains a hieroglyphic inscription of its dedication to the Gods by Ptolemy Physcon and Cleopatra (146 B
Sons of God - This accords with the NRSV's translation “heavenly beings” for “sons of Gods” in Psalm 29:1 ; Psalm 89:6
Mercury - He was the accredited messenger between Gods and men
Incense - The burning of incense to Baal and other false Gods is also often spoken of
Oracle - ...
In the learned heathen world, Satan had places in imitation of this, at which it was professed that an answer from their Gods could be obtained; but the answers were often purposely vague in order that afterwards they could be interpreted differently according as the event turned out
As - ) Denoting equality or likeness in kind, degree, or manner; like; similar to; in the same manner with or in which; in accordance with; in proportion to; to the extent or degree in which or to which; equally; no less than; as, ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil; you will reap as you sow; do as you are bidden
Gerizim - ...
After the captivity, Manasseh, a seceding priest, by permission of Alexander the Great, built a temple on Gerizim, and the Samaritans joined the worship of the true God to that of their idols; "They feared the Lord, and served their own Gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away form thence," 2 Kings 17:33
mo'Abite Stone, the - The expressions are the same; the names of Gods, kings and of towns are the same
Jephthah - By vowing, and then offering, his daughter as a human sacrifice in return for God’s help towards victory, he was following the religion of the false Gods whom Israel worshipped (Judges 11:29-40; cf
Areopagus - From what they had heard, they thought he was announcing two new Gods, whose names were Jesus’ and Resurrection’ (Acts 17:16-20)
Exorcism - Twice a loan-word, shedim (Akkadian: shedu , “protecting spirit”), is used to describe the foreign Gods (Deuteronomy 32:17 ; Psalm 106:37 ) and is usually translated “demons” in English. ...
The usual technique of exorcism, as shown by contemporary magical papyri, was to adjure the demon (by name, if possible) through the power of one or more Gods to depart the one possessed
Worship - for the Lord is a great God, and a great King above all Gods . It would not therefore now be worshipping God 'in truth' to worship Him simply as 'a great God,' 'our Maker,' and 'a great King above all Gods,' as in Psalm 95 ; for He has been pleased to reveal Himself in another light, even as 'Father' to those who are His
Ammon, Ammonites, Children of Ammon - Israel served their Gods, and God gave them up on both sides of the Jordan to serve the Ammonites. ...
Milcom and Molech were the Gods of the Ammonites: to the worship of which Solomon had been seduced by his strange wives
Ear-Rings - Some of these ear-rings had figures upon them, and strange characters, which he believed were talismans or charms; but which were probably the names and symbols of their false Gods. We know from the testimony of Pliny, that rings with the images of their Gods were worn by the Romans
Name - This alludes to an ancient custom among Eastern nations of adorning the images of their Gods and the persons of princes and heroes with inscriptions expressive of their character, titles, etc
Religion - ...
2: δεισιδαιμονία (Strong's #1175 — Noun Feminine — deisidaimonia — dice-ee-dahee-mon-ee'-ah ) primarily denotes "fear of the Gods" (from deido, "to fear," daimon, "a pagan deity," Eng
Amorites - Some must have escaped, for we read of them later, and one of the controversies Jehovah had with Israel was for worshipping their Gods
Ahaziah - After an accident, Ahaziah sought help from Baal Gods, but Elijah stopped him
Maximus, Bishop of Alexandria - Seven years later, when Valerian's persecution began, we find Maximus attending his bishop (who calls him his "fellow-presbyter") to the tribunal of the prefect Aemilianus, as involved with him, and three deacons and a Roman lay Christian, in the charge of contumacious rejection of the Gods who had "preserved the emperor's sovereignty," and whose worship was in accordance with "natural" law
Legends of the Saints - The fact that the honoring of Christian saints took the place of the honoring and adoring of the local pagan Gods and demigods, afforded an opportunity for the abuse of attributing to the saint the deeds of the pagan demigods
Crete - In Crete was the fabled birthplace of Jupiter, king of the Gods
Treaty - One danger of this practice was that it led to the possibility of moral and religious corruption, because the two parties to the treaty usually paid respect to each other’s Gods
Gehenna - The valley south of Jerusalem called the Valley of the son of Hinnom (Joshua 15:8 ; Joshua 18:16 ; 2 Chronicles 33:6 ; Jeremiah 32:35 ) became the place of child sacrifice to foreign Gods
Proselytes - Tacitus (History Matthew 23:5 ) complains, for example, that proselytes despised the Gods, disdained their kindred, and abjured their fatherland
Bronze - Typical finds include jewelry, spear heads (2 Samuel 21:16 ), daggers, axes, and depictions of Gods
Rephan - None of the above forms is known at all as the name of a god elsewhere, the suggestion of Lipsius that it is connected with the name repa-n-neteru, ‘youngest of the Gods,’ a title of the god Seb (= Saturn), being too far-fetched
Cities of Refuge - ...
If manslayers had been driven out of the country as among the Greeks, they would have been exposed to the temptation of worshipping strange Gods (1 Samuel 26:19)
Person - There have been warm debates between the Greek and Latin churches about the words hypostasis and persona; the Latin concluding that the word hypostasis signified substance or essence, thought that to assert that there were three divine hypostases was to say that there were three Gods
Service - Interestingly, the Old Testament never ascribes service to other Gods
Benhadad - The title may signify 'son of Adad' one of the Gods of Syria
Asherah - The Canaanites believed that 'ăshêrâh ruled the sea, was the mother of all the Gods including Baal, and sometimes was his deadly enemy
Heaven - Among pagans, the residence of the celestial Gods
Altar - A structure on which to offer sacrifices to God: imitated by the heathen in honour of their false Gods
Divide - 29:26, where God is said not to have “allotted” false Gods to His people
Ape - ...
"With glittering gold and sparkling gems they shine, But apes and monkeys are the Gods within
Beard - For private persons these were small, about two inches long; for kings, much longer and square at the bottom; while Gods had beards of which the lower part curled up
Jealousy - God is jealous for His people Israel in sense 1, that is, God is intolerant of rival Gods (Exodus 20:5 ; Exodus 34:14 ; Deuteronomy 4:24 ; Deuteronomy 5:9 ) One expression of God's jealousy for Israel is God's protection of His people from enemies
Image - It is usually applied in the Bible to representations of false Gods, painted, graven, etc
High Places - Different groves were sacred to different Gods; and the high places were inseparably linked to idolatry
Thunder - The revenging Gods ...
'Gainst parricides all the thunder bend
Vary - Gods, that never change their state, vary oft their love and hate
Hin'Nom - Ahaz and Manasseh made their children "pass through the fire" in this valley, (2 Kings 16:3 ; 2 Chronicles 28:3 ; 33:6 ) and the fiendish custom of infant sacrifice to the fire-gods seems to have been kept up in Tophet, which was another name for this place
mi'Cah - Micah is evidently a devout believers in Jehovah, and yet so completely ignorant is he of the law of Jehovah that the mode which he adopts of honoring him is to make a molten and graven image, teraphim or images of domestic Gods, and to set up an unauthorized priesthood, first in his own family, (Judges 17:5 ) and then in the person of a Levite not of the priestly line
Damascus - The ungodly Judean king Ahaz worshipped the Syrian Gods there, and built a copy of the Syrian altar in Jerusalem (2 Kings 16:10-16; 2 Chronicles 28:22-24)
Theodorus of Amasea - This interval he employed in firing the temple of the Mother of the Gods on the banks of the Iris in the midst of the city
Nile - The Nile was not one of the great Gods, and his figure appears chiefly as emblematic of the river, e. bringing offerings to the Gods; the figure is that of an obese man with water-plants on his head
Solomon - He apparently allowed his wives to worship their native Gods and even had altars to these Gods constructed in Jerusalem (1 Kings 11:7-8 )
Necromancy - The first commandment is clear: you shall have no other Gods before me. Michael Hagan...
See also Divination ; Idol, Idolatry ; Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
Bibliography
on (2) - "The houses of the Gods shall he burn with fire. Re-Athom is the Egyptian hieroglyphical designation, the sun (Ra) the father of the Gods, as Adam or Athom was of mankind
Ahab - From the secular point of view he was an able and energetic prince; from the religious point of view he was a dangerous innovator, and a patron of foreign Gods. ...
The religious innovation for which Ahab is held responsible by the Hebrew writers, was the introduction of the Phœnician Baal as one of the Gods of Israel
Solomon - God would continue to bless him and establish his house in Israel, on the condition that Solomon was obedient, and turned not to other Gods. His fall, alas, followed, for he loved many strange women, which turned his heart away, and he went after their Gods, and built high places for them
Ephod - Still worse was the case of Micah who, having a house of Gods, made an ephod, and consecrated one of his sons to bepriest. When the Gods were stolen by the children of Dan, the Levite was glad to accompany the idols and the ephod, and to be a priest to this tribe
Manasseh - He did evil in the sight of the Lord; worshipped the idols of the land of Canaan; rebuilt the high places that his father Hezekiah had destroyed; set up altars to Baal; and planted groves to false Gods. Being returned to Jerusalem, he restored the worship of the Lord; broke down the altars of the false Gods; abolished all traces of their idolatrous worship; but he did not destroy the high places: which is the only thing Scripture reproaches him with, after his return from Babylon
Eden, Garden of - In support of the last-named view a cuneiform tablet is quoted which speaks of a tree or shrub planted near Eridu by the Gods. , but has a stronger mythological colouring: the ‘garden of God’ ( Ezekiel 28:13 ) is apparently identified with the well-known mythical mountain of the Gods ( Ezekiel 28:14 ); the cherub and the king of Tyre are assimilated to each other; the stones of fire may be compared with the flame of a sword ( Genesis 3:24 : see also Enoch 24
Ephod - Still worse was the case of Micah who, having a house of Gods, made an ephod, and consecrated one of his sons to bepriest. When the Gods were stolen by the children of Dan, the Levite was glad to accompany the idols and the ephod, and to be a priest to this tribe
Divination And Magic - The liver of a sacrificial animal by virtue of being considered the seat of life could be observed carefully by specially trained priests to determine the future activities of the Gods. ...
The use of magic is seen often in the literature of the ancient Middle East, employed both by the Gods and by human beings. As superhumans, the Gods themselves were subject to the higher power of magic
Macedonia - (1) The Macedonians who had conquered the country brought their own Gods which are on the whole the same as the traditional Gods of the Greeks. In Lefkopetra, a few miles west of Beroea, a temple of the “Aboriginal Mother of the Gods” has recently been discovered. The cult of the Egyptian Gods Sarapis, Isis, and Anubis was established in Thessalonica before 100 B. Roman veterans who were settled in the newly founded colonies brought their Gods to Macedonia; a sanctuary dedicated to the Italian god Silvanus was found on the acropolis of Philippi
Blasphemy - For, in what way soever the crime of the man there mentioned be interpreted,—whether as committed against the true God, the God of Israel, or against any of the false Gods whom his Egyptian father worshipped,—the law in the words now quoted is sufficiently explicit; and the circumstances of the story plainly show, that the words which he had used were derogatory from the Godhead, and shocking to the hearers. Hath any of the Gods of the nations delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria? Where are the Gods of Hamath and of Arpad? Where are the Gods of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Iva? Have they delivered Samaria out of my hand? Who are they, among all the Gods of the countries, that have delivered their country out of mine hand, that Jehovah should deliver Jerusalem out of mine hand?" 2 Kings 18:30 ; 2 Kings 18:33-35
Canaanites - It is well known, that the people of those ages were affected by no proof of the power of the Gods which they worshipped, so deeply as by their giving them victory in war. It was by this species of evidence that the superiority of their own Gods above the Gods of the nations which they conquered, was, in their opinion, evinced. This being the actual persuasion which then prevailed in the world, no matter whether well or ill founded, how were the neighbouring nations, for whose admonition this dreadful example was intended, how were they to be convinced of the supreme power of the God of Israel above the pretended Gods of other nations; and of the righteous character of Jehovah, that is, of his abhorrence of the vices which prevailed in the land of Canaan? How, I say, were they to be convinced so well, or at all indeed, as by enabling the Israelites, whose God he was known and acknowledged to be, to conquer under his banner, and drive out before them, those who resisted the execution of that commission with which the Israelites declared themselves to be invested, namely, the expulsion and extermination of the Canaanitish nations? This convinced surrounding countries, and all who were observers or spectators of what passed, first, that the God of Israel was a real God; secondly that the Gods which other nations worshipped were either no Gods, or had no power against the God of Israel; and thirdly, that it was he, and he alone, who possessed both the power and the will, to punish, to destroy, and to exterminate from before his face, both nations and individuals, who gave themselves up to the crimes and wickedness for which the Canaanites were notorious. This reason is formally and expressly assigned, not simply for the punishment, but for the extent to which it was carried; namely, extermination: "Thou shalt utterly destroy them, that they teach you not to do after all their abominations, which they have done unto their Gods. "...
In reading the Old Testament account, therefore, of the Jewish wars and conquests in Canaan, and the terrible destruction brought upon the inhabitants thereof, we are always to remember that we are reading the execution of a dreadful but just sentence, pronounced by Jehovah against the intolerable and incorrigible crimes of these nations; that they were intended to be made an example to the whole world of God's avenging wrath against sins, which, if they had been suffered to continue, might have polluted the whole ancient world, and which could only be checked by the signal and public overthrow of nations notoriously addicted to them, and so addicted as even to have incorporated them into their religion and their public institutions; and that the Israelites were mere instruments in the hands of a righteous Providence for effecting the extirpation of a people, of whom it was necessary to make a public example to the rest of mankind; that this extermination, which might have been accomplished by a pestilence, by fire, by earthquakes, was appointed to be done by the hands of the Israelites, as being the clearest and most intelligible method of displaying the power and the righteousness of the God of Israel; his power over the pretended Gods of other nations; and his righteous indignation against the crimes into which they were fallen
Gods - GODS. The phrase, ‘I said, Ye are Gods,’ is a literal quotation of Psalms 82:6 (LXX Septuagint 81:6), and is introduced as such by the word invariably employed for that purpose (ἔστιν γεγραμμένον, cf. If their beloved Law, to which they were constantly appealing, hesitated not to designate as ‘gods’ (אֳלהים) the judges whose partiality and injustice provoked their arraignment by God, and the solemn warning to ‘judge the weak and fatherless, do justice to the afflicted and destitute’ (Psalms 82:3), surely the charge of blasphemy came badly from those men who recognized in this Law their final court of appeal. ...
Jesus in this place seems to adopt the interpretation of this Psalm which is given by the Targum, and which applies the title ‘gods’ to the earthly judges acting in their capacity as representatives of God
Idol - ...
(6) gillulim , from gal "a heap of stones" (Gesenius): Ezekiel 30:13; Ezekiel 16:36; Deuteronomy 29:17, "dungy Gods" margin...
(7) shiquts , ceremonial "uncleanness" (Ezekiel 37:23). ...
"The Jews conceive the Divinity as One, and to be understood only by the mind; they deem those profane who form any image of the Gods, of perishable materials and after the likeness of men; the Divinity they describe as supreme, eternal, unchangeable, imperishable; hence there are no images in their cities or their temples, with these they would not flatter kings nor honour Caesars. The "images" or standing columns of wood (subordinate Gods worshipped at the same altar with Baal) are distinct from the standing column of stone or "image" of Baal himself, i. ...
The Phoenicians anointed stones (often aerolites, as that "which fell down from Jupiter," sacred to Diana of Ephesus, Acts 19:35) to various Gods, like the stone anointed by Jacob (Genesis 28:18; Genesis 28:22) at Bethel, called therefore Baetylia (compare also Genesis 31:45). Soon a further step was deifying men, or else attributing every human vice, lust, and passion to the Gods. In Genesis 35:2, Jacob's charge to "his household and to all that were with him Put away the strange Gods ('the Gods of the foreigner,' the Canaanites) among you, and be clean and change your raiment," it seems surprising that idols should have had place in his household. Against the worst, that of having other Gods besides Jehovah the one only God, the first commandment is directed. See Exodus 20:3, "thou shalt have no other Gods before My face. God by Moses smote the symbols of Egyptian idolatry with the ten plagues, "executing judgment against all the Gods of Egypt" (1618734155_2), the river, the wind bringing locusts, the dust of the earth, the cattle, the symbol of Apis (Numbers 33:4)
Idolatry - ( a ) Thus the idea that their neighbours’ Gods had real existence, with rights of proprietorship in the invaded land, would expose them to risk of contamination. ...
Here then was all the apparatus for either the inappropriate worship of the true God, or the appropriate worship of false Gods. Gad and Meni ( Isaiah 65:11 ) were possibly star-gods. ...
(4) There are no clear traces of ancestor-worship in OT, but some find them in the teraphim (household Gods) and in the reverence for tombs ( e. These Gods cannot be identified with certainty
Candles, Blessed - In pagan times this was a festival-day, with processions and lights in honor of the Gods
Hymn, Candle-Light - In pagan times this was a festival-day, with processions and lights in honor of the Gods
Leviathan - ...
Leviathan was seen in ancient legend as a sea monster engaged in primordial warfare with the Gods
Savior - In a pagan world offering numerous “saviors” such as the pagan Gods Zeus and Asclepius, the Roman emperor, and various philosophers, the church witnessed to Christ as the savior who could rescue humanity from the penalty and power of sin
Jeroboam (1) - Fearing that his subjects, if they went up to Jerusalem to worship, would be alienated from him, he made two golden calves, placing one in Beth-el in the south, and the other in Dan in the north; and declared that these were the Gods that had brought Israel out of Egypt
Naaman - He would offer no sacrifice to other Gods, but only unto Jehovah
Aurelian, Roman Emporor - "It would seem," he said, "as if you were holding your meetings in a church of the Christians instead of in the temple of all the Gods
Stones - thy Gods, Psalms 16:4-5)
Dioscuri - According to one fable the Father of the Gods granted Castor life on condition that the brothers should alternately spend a day in Hades, but another states that their love was rewarded by Zeus, who placed them together among the stars as the Gemini
Satisfied, To Be - But even when God “fed them to the full,” Israel was not satisfied and went after strange Gods ( Magician - Their studies were physic, astrology, divination, foretelling of future events by the stars, interpretation of dreams, augury, worship of the Gods, &c
Jeiel - Man condemned for having foreign wife and thus tempting Israel to worship foreign Gods under Ezra (Ezra 10:43 )
Sacrifice - Sacrifices have been common to most nations, and have been offered to false Gods, as well as by the Israelites to Jehovah
Revenge - The Gods are just and will revenge our cause
Religion - The dominant meaning of the words in classical Greek is ‘due reverence of the Gods,’ but in the 1st cent. they had a depreciatory sense and signified ‘excessive fear of the Gods’ (cf
Judgment - The Gods of the heathen were capricious and unpredictable; their worshipers could never know what they would do next, nor whether what they themselves did would be pleasing to their deities or not. Somewhere among the many Gods he acknowledged the polytheist would come across a deity who was not too demanding and he could live his life accordingly
Walk - Quite often the people are said to have “walked” or to be warned against “walking behind” foreign Gods ( Gods (or even the true God) arose from the pagan worship where the god was carried before the people as they entered the sanctuary
Hosea - ...
Because the covenant between Israel and Yahweh was likened to a marriage covenant, Israel’s association with other Gods was really spiritual adultery (Hosea 4:17; Hosea 5:4; Hosea 12:7-8; Hosea 7:16; Hosea 8:5-6; see BAAL). They too would go into captivity but, after being cleansed of their adulterous association with the Canaanite Gods, would be brought back to live in their land again (Hosea 2:17-20; Hosea 3:4-5; Hosea 14:4-7)
Priest - In ancient religions, priests were mediators between the people and their Gods. They were religious officials whose duty was to pass on the instructions of the Gods to the people and offer the people’s sacrifices to the Gods (Genesis 41:45; Genesis 47:22; Exodus 2:16; Exodus 18:1; 2 Kings 11:18; Acts 14:13)
Aurelius, Marcus, Roman Emperor - The Gods were wroth, and what had roused their anger but the presence of those who denied them? "Christianos ad leones " seemed the remedy for every disaster. The Gods might accept that as a piacular offering. They not only provoked the Gods, and refused to join in sacrifices to appease them, but triumphed in their fellow-citizens' miseries
Arnobius - Some doubt may, perhaps, be thrown over the extent of these ascriptions of deity by the vague language with which Arnobius speaks of the Gods (see below). ...
Of the existence of Gods he speaks with much ambiguity. In worshipping the Supreme (he argues), we worship by implication—if to be worshipped they are—such Gods as are Gods indeed
Epicureans - This universal notion has probably arisen from images of the Gods, which have casually made their way into the minds of men in sleep, and have afterward been recollected. But it is inconsistent with our natural notions of the Gods, as happy and immortal beings, to suppose that they encumber themselves with the management of the world, or are subject to the cares and passions which must attend so great a charge. Hence it is inferred, that the Gods have no intercourse with mankind, nor any concern with the affairs of the world. In their external shape the Gods resemble men; and though the place of their residence is unknown to mortals; it is without doubt the mansion of perfect purity, tranquillity, and happiness
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - The images of the Gods he had collected at Rome from all parts of the empire were restored to their former shrines. Though he attended the temples regularly and visited the Capitol every seventh day, and though he rebuilt and adorned the shrines of various deities, by a curious anticipation of Comtism, the objects of his peculiar veneration were not the Gods of the various popular religions, but deified heroes and men. The private chapel in which he performed his devotions every morning contained no images of Gods, but statues of canonized men, including the best of his predecessors, Alexander the Great, who might be called his patron saint, Orpheus, Apollonius of Tyana, Abraham, and Christ. It is said that he contemplated erecting a temple to Christ and placing Him among the Gods
the Queen of Sheba - The Queen of Sheba had lords many and Gods many of her own. She and her people had their Gods of the sea and their Gods of the land; their Gods of war and their Gods of wine; their Gods of the night and their Gods of the day, and many more
Minucius Felix, Marcus - Then shifting his ground, he urges the duty of worshipping the Gods whom their ancestors had worshipped, and the folly of rejecting what universal experience and the consent of all nations had found to be salutary. Each nation had its peculiar god: the Romans, the most religious of all, worshipped Gods of all nations, and so had attained the highest prosperity. Was it not then deplorable that the Gods should be assailed by men of the dregs of the people, who, collecting credulous women and silly men, banded them in a fearful conspiracy, cemented by secret and detestable rites? Tales are repeated, for some of which the authority of Fronto is cited, of the initiation of Christian neophytes by partaking of the blood of a slaughtered infant, and other customary charges. He shews that the Gods whom the heathen worshipped were but deified men, and exposes the absurdity of the fables commonly told of them, the folly of image-worship, and the cruelty and licentiousness of the rites by which the Gods were honoured. He shews that it is false that the Romans owed their prosperity to their religion, since it was by a multitude of irreligious acts that their empire grew, and because their original native Gods, to whom, if to any, must be ascribed the origin of their greatness, had been deposed from their position by the adoption of Gods of the conquered peoples
Hananiah - Man who followed Ezra's leadership and divorced his foreign wife to protect Judah from the temptation to worship foreign Gods (Ezra 10:28 )
Jainism - The accepted Gods are of no help, hence their worship is rejected
Tiberias - There were in it a theatre for the performance of comedies, a forum, a stadium, a palace roofed with gold in imitation of those in Italy, statues of the Roman Gods, and busts of the deified emperors
Fear - There is an external fear of God, an outward show and profession of it, which is taught by the precepts of men: as in the men of Samaria, who pretended to fear the Lord, as the priest instructed them, and yet served their own Gods; and such an external fear of God, Job's friends supposed was all that he had, and that even he had cast that off
Inquire of God - The sanctuary contained an ephod (with lots?), a cast idol, and teraphim (household Gods), any of which might have been consulted
Beard - Many Egyptians wore a false beard of plaited hair, private individuals small ones, kings long ones square below, the Gods one turning at the end
Immanuel - The king, who is an idolater, does not deny Jehovah's power to work a miracle, but is doubtless equally convinced of the power of the Gods of Assyria; he hypocritically refuses to "tempt the Lord
Plagues - They showed the God of Moses was sovereign over the Gods of Egypt, including Pharaoh who was considered a god by the Egyptians
Images - Then came real idols, at first for domestic use (as probably the teraphim , portable household Gods), and subsequently those of greater size for public worship
Horn - ) On Egyptian and Roman coins, and in Assyrian sculptures, are figures of Gods with horns, symbolical of power
Laban - Jacob removed his property across the Euphrates, while Rachel took with her the teraphim or household Gods of the family
As - "Ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil
Zephaniah, the Book of - Motive to it: God's coming judgments on Israel's foes, the Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites (the land of which three nations the remnant of Jehovah's people shall possess), Ethiopians, and Nineveh, which shall be a desolation;...
"He will famish all the Gods of the earth (by destroying the nations worshipping them), and men shall worship Him" each in his own house (Zephaniah 2:4-15)
Emmanuel Title - The king, who is an idolater, does not deny Jehovah's power to work a miracle, but is doubtless equally convinced of the power of the Gods of Assyria; he hypocritically refuses to "tempt the Lord
Prince - Hence, Israel was to obey her “leaders”: “Thou shalt not revile the Gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people” ( Spirit (of the Dead), Necromancer - Perhaps the pagan belief in manipulating one’s basic relationship to a god (or Gods) explains the relative silence of the Old Testament regarding life after death
Rock - 32:4), or of heathen Gods: “For their rock [3] is not as our Rock [4] …” ( Macedonia - Its most celebrated mountains were Olympus and Athos: the former renowned in heathen mythology as the residence of the Gods, lying on the confines of Thessaly, and principally within the state; the latter being at the extremity of a promontory which juts out into the Aegean sea, and noted in modern times as the seat of several monasteries, in which are many manuscripts supposed to be valuable
Religion - This word seems originally to have signified an oath or vow to the Gods, or the obligation of such an oath or vow, which was held very sacred by the Romans
Midianites - ...
The Midianites were idolaters, and often led Israel astray to worship their Gods
na'Aman - See (2 Kings 5:14 ) His first business after his cure is to thank his benefactor and gratefully acknowledge the power of the God of Israel, and promise "henceforth to offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other Gods, but unto the Lord
Philemon - 626), the two peasants who hospitably entertained Gods unawares, and whose story may have suggested to the Lystrans in adjacent Lycaonia their procedure as related in Acts 13
Prodicus, a Gnostic Teacher - In the first passage Prodicus and Valentinus are spoken of as teaching that Christ did not wish His disciples to confess Him publicly if that would expose their lives to danger; in the second they are described as introducing in opposition to the Creator, not a single rival god like Marcion, but a multiplicity of Gods
Reconciliation - Gratius observes, that, in heathen authors, men's being reconciled to their Gods is always understood to signify appeasing the anger of their Gods
Giants - The Hindu tradition of two races, Suras and Asuras, and the Greek legend that the demi-gods were sons of the Gods and that the Titan giants sprang from the union of heaven and earth, flow from the history of Genesis 6 corrupted
High Place - The Canaanites served their Gods on these hills, where pagan priests presented the sacrifices to the Gods: Israel imitated this practice (1 Kings 3:2), even when they sacrificed to the Lord
Lucian - He scoffs at the notion of a crucified man having taught them to regard all mankind as their brethren, the moment they should have abjured the Gods of Greece; as if it were not just the most remarkable part of all this, that an obscure person in Jerusalem, who was deserted by every one, and executed as a criminal, should be able, a good century after his death, to cause such effects as Lucian, in his own time, saw extending in all directions, and in spite of every kind of persecution. Their first lawgiver has persuaded them also to regard all mankind as their brethren, as soon as they have abjured the Grecian Gods, and, honouring their crucified Master, have begun to live according to his laws
Demon - God is not approached immediately by man, but all the commerce and intercourse between Gods and men is performed by the mediation of demons. " This was a device of Satan, that God could be worshipped through the agency of demons or demi-gods
Canaan, History And Religion of - As king of the Gods, he was both the creator god and a fertility god. Athirat was acknowledged as the mother of the deities, having given birth to some seventy Gods and goddesses. Thus, she was predominately a fertility goddess and designated “creatress of the Gods. He is sometimes portrayed as seated on a throne, indicating his authority as king of Gods. ...
Two additional Gods fulfilled important roles in the popular mythology. In the Ancient Near East people assumed that as a people migrated from one area to another they would take over the Gods and religion of the new area in which they settled. After all, these Gods and goddesses had demonstrated their capability in meeting the inhabitants' needs. Solomon's politically-motivated marriages brought many other Gods and their worship into Jerusalem (2 Kings 11:1-8 )
Sacrifice And Offering - Some type of sacrificial system characterized the many religious methodologies that the nations employed in their attempts to honor their Gods. The primary approach to the Gods was through the sacrificial system. ...
The sacrifices and offerings were designed to serve the Gods by meeting any physical need that they may have had. The sacrifices were the food and drink of the Gods. ...
The first-century church lived in a culture that sacrificed to their Gods. Paul and Barnabas at Lystra were thought to be the Gods Zeus and Hermes
Gods And Goddesses, Pagan - God early and clearly commanded the descendants of Abraham not to have any other Gods besides him (Exodus 20:3 ). Their endorsement of and participation in the worship of these Canaanite deities is the most extreme of any incidents related in Scripture concerning Israelite rulers who adopted the worship of these Gods. During the reign of Solomon worship of Chemosh, along with that of other pagan Gods, was established and promoted in the city of Jerusalem. He became the supreme god among the older Sumerian Gods as creator and ruler. Milcom is sometimes identified with Molech, but this is incorrect since the two Gods were worshiped individually. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel ; idem, From the Stone Age to Christianity ; idem, History, Archaeology and Christian Humanism ; idem, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan ; W
Demon - ‘a Divine thing’); and both had a neutral sense: a spirit inferior to the supreme Gods, superior to man, but not necessarily evil. Paul regarded the heathen Gods as demons, having a real existence, though they were not Gods. So in the Septuagint Psalms 96:5 affirms that all the Gods of the heathen are demons (Heb. text and in the Septuagint clearly identifies the heathen Gods with demons
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - ...
The progress of experience, the leisure of research, had in his time shattered all real belief in the Gods of ancient Greece and Rome in the minds of cultured men. To the statesman, the Gods of Rome were the highest symbol of the power of the imperial city; as such, he required for them external homage, to refuse which might be construed as rebellion against the state. Philosophers feared lest, if the particular acts of special deities were too rudely criticized, the reverence due to the Gods in their remote and abstract sanctity might decay. Sometimes his attack is more direct—as in the Ζεὺς Τραγῳδός , Jupiter the Tragedian, where the plain insinuation is that the general profession of belief in the Gods was simply occasioned by the odium and alarm which a contrary assertion would excite. They despised death, therefore, and offered up their lives a voluntary sacrifice, being taught by their lawgiver that they were all brethren, and that, quitting our Grecian Gods, they must worship their own sophist, who was crucified, and live in obedience to his laws
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - ...
(a ) You Christians, said the heathen, do not worship our Gods: No, said Tertullian, and we won't, because we do not recognize them to be Gods. " Caustically does he describe the heathen treatment of their household Gods. They wear out or get broken, and you turn your Saturn into a cooking-pot and your Minerva into a ladle! You put your national Gods in a sale-catalogue; and the man who will sell you herbs in the herb-market will sell you Gods at the Capitol. ...
What then, it was asked, did Christians worship if not the Gods? Tertullian answers, "Take in this first of all: they who are not worshippers of a lie are worshippers of truth. The name and the form only made us laugh, says Tertullian; and then he retorts: "But our opponents might well have worshipped such a biformed deity: for they have dog-headed and lion-headed Gods, Gods with horns, Gods with wings, Gods goat-limbed, fish-limbed, or serpent-limbed from the loins!"...
(b ) Tertullian turns from what Christianity was not to what it was, and the main lines of the evidences of Christianity in the 2nd cent. ...
b ₄ is in answer to the questions, Why did Jews and Christians differ? Did not these differences argue worship of different Gods? Tertullian's reply (c. Romans considered their position as masters of the world the reward of their religious devotion to their Gods, and affirmed that they who paid their Gods the most service flourished the most
Vain - ‘Pestering the Gods with entreaties,’ ‘dinning into the ears of the Gods,’ were Roman phrases: thus Tacitus speaks of Galba ‘wearying with entreaties the Gods of an empire no longer his’ (Hist
Idol, Idolatry - Some of Abraham’s relatives, however, who did not share Abraham’s faith, continued to have private household Gods (Genesis 31:19). Because they did not know what Yahweh looked like, they copied the forms of the Gods of other religions (Exodus 32:4; Deuteronomy 4:12; 1 Kings 12:28; 1 Corinthians 10:19-2067). The substitutes invented by false teachers are false Gods, and therefore believers must keep away from them (1 John 5:20-21)
Exodus, Theology of - A second purpose emerges in the direct contrast of Egypt's Gods and Yahweh. Each plague addresses a deity of Egypt's pantheon (some five hundred to two thousand Gods), including the tenth plague against the firstborn son (12:12). Yahweh is God of Gods. The first commandment states that they are to have "no other Gods before" this deity (20:2). After all, there are no other Gods who can stand with this deity (15:11). Victory over the Gods of Egypt confirms this viewpoint. Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt ; T
Book, Book of Life - Both Egyptians and Babylonians saw writing as sacred, a direct gift of the Gods
Figure - , representations of Gods) in Acts 7:43 ; in the RV of ver
Prostitution - )...
In Old Testament times Israel was unfaithful to God in leaving him and going after false Gods
Abomination - "Almost the entire religion of the Roman camp consisted in worshipping the ensign, swearing by the ensign, and in preferring the ensign before all other Gods
Nebuchadnezzar - Upon seeing how this God revealed mysteries and miraculously saved people from death, he concluded that Yahweh must have been the greatest of all the Gods (Daniel 2:47; Daniel 3:29)
Fructuosus (1), m., Bishop of Tarragona - 259), Aemilianus Praeses of Tarragona issued an edict against the Christians, compelling all to sacrifice to the Gods
Pontius Pilate - He also hung up in his palace at Jerusalem some gilt shields on which were the names of heathen Gods
Counsel - Directions of Gods word
Divine, Practice Divination - )...
Qâsam is a seeking after the will of the Gods, in an effort to learn their future action or divine blessing on some proposed future action ( Serve - A goddess among Gods, ador'd and serv'd ...
By anbels numberless, thy daily train
Reuben - The Reubenites, with the others on the east of the Jordan, went after the Gods of the heathen, and Jehovah cut them short by Hazael, of Syria
Dreams - by sleeping in a sacred spot, such as the temples of Asklepios or Serapis or the grotto of Trophonius; or they could come unsought, when the Gods wished either to reveal or to deceive. (Plato, however, while allowing that the Gods may send dreams, denies that they can wish to deceive men)
Maximinus ii., Emperor - Heralds were sent through Caesarea ordering all men to sacrifice to the Gods, and on his refusal, Appian, a youth of twenty, was tortured and slain. 7) copied from a pillar in Tyre, were issued, ascribing the famines, earthquakes, and pestilences to the wrath of the Gods at the spread of the creed which was denounced as atheistic, and decreeing, at the alleged request of the Syrians themselves, perpetual banishment against all who adhered to their denial of the state religion
Image, Nebuchadnezzar's - ...
The charge of not worshipping the Gods of Nebuchadnezzar leveled against the Jews (Daniel 3:12 ,Daniel 3:12,3:14 ) suggests a statue of Bel-merodach, the patron deity of Babylon, though the statue was possibly of Nebuchadnezzar himself
Tithes - A tenth of the flocks, fruits, and possessions of all kinds, as well as of the spoils of war, was given to their Gods by many peoples, not only of Semitic, but also of Indo-Germanic race
Pharaoh - To the Egyptian people Pharaoh was a god-king, one who embodied a god during his life and went to the world of the Gods at his death (see EGYPT)
Pilate - ...
Early records indicate that Pilate hated the Jews, and on occasions deliberately provoked them to riot by displaying images of Roman Gods in Jerusalem
God of the Fathers - Given the polytheistic environment of the time, originally the formula could refer to tribal or clan Gods (Joshua 24:2 , Joshua 24:14-15 )
Lots - We do know that people of the Old and New Testaments believed God (or Gods in the case of non-Israelites or non-Christians) influenced the fall or outcome of the lots (Proverbs 16:33 )
Jupiter - The miracle of healing at once causes the barbarians to suppose that the Gods had come to pay them a visit, and the impassive Barnabas is regarded as the chief
God, City of - Prosperous under the Gods, the pagans could now say with a semblance of truth, "Rome perished in Christian times!" The result was demoralizing, for many simple Christians, bewildered and at a loss for a reply, faltered in their faith
Hell - ' It was the place near Jerusalem where the Jews made their children pass through fire to heathen Gods, and which was afterwards defiled
Calf, Golden - The same sin was repeated by Jeroboam who was afraid of his people going up to Jerusalem to worship: he set up two calves, one in Bethel and one in Dan, and proclaimed, "Behold thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt
Harlot - Both men and women prostituted themselves in the service of the Gods
Zidon, Sidon - ' It fell to the lot of Asher, but they did not drive out the inhabitants, which led to the Israelites serving the Gods of the place
Marcionites - He laid down two principles, the one good, the other evil; between these he imagined an intermediate kind of Deity, of a mixed nature, who was the Creator of this inferior world, and the god and legislator of the Jewish nation: the other nations who worshipped a variety of Gods, were supposed to be under the empire of the evil principle
Aaron - Left, on Moses' departure into Sinai, to guide the people, Aaron is tried for a moment on his own responsibility, and he fails from a weak inability to withstand the demand of the people for visible "gods to go before them," by making an image of Jehovah, in the well-known form of Egyptian idolatry (Apis or Mnevis)
Warp - ...
--Zeal, to a degree of warmth able to warp the sacred rule of Gods word
Create, Creation, Creator, Creature - ...
Note: It is a significant confirmation of Romans 1:20,21 , that in all non-Christian Greek literature these words are never used by Greeks to convey the idea of a Creator or of a creative act by any of their Gods
Ahaz - He worshipped the Gods of the foreigners who had shown such strength in battle, and introduced their religion into Judah
Elijah - The false prophets called on their Gods, and Elijah called on His God to see which would rain fire from heaven. After the false prophets failed to hear from their Gods, Elijah wet the wood on his altar to the true God by pouring four jars of water over it three times
Propitiation - Pagans used to try to escape the wrath of their Gods by offering sacrifices; that is, they tried to propitiate their Gods
Generation - Israel's neighbors spoke of the birth of Gods, such births representing at the same time a part of the universe, since the sun, the moon, the stars were all looked upon as Gods
Rachel - Her stealing her father's images or teraphim , household Gods in human form, used for divination (Judges 17:5; Judges 18:14; Judges 18:17-18; Judges 18:20; 1 Samuel 15:23; 2 Samuel 23:24; Ezekiel 21:21; Zechariah 10:2), and her dexterity and ready cunning in hiding them, mark a character that had learned much of her father's duplicity. Not until Jacob reached Bethel did he bury the strange Gods under the oak by Shechem
Aaron - They cried, “Make us Gods” (Exodus 32:1 ). Their sin was polytheism (worship of many Gods) as well as idolatry
Perish - So God told Israel “to utterly destroy” (“bring to non-existence”) the false Gods of Canaan: “… [1] destroy all their pictures and [2] destroy all their molten images …” ( Gods … and destroy the names of them out of that place” ( True, Truly, Truth - 1 in 7:18, above); 17:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ; Revelation 6:10 ; these declare that God fulfills the meaning of His Name; He is "very God," in distinction from all other Gods, false Gods (alethes, see John 3:33 in No
Theodotus, Martyr at Ancyra - THEOTECNUS, the apostate from Christianity, was sent with ample power to enforce conformity to the imperial edicts, and began by ordering all provisions sold in the market to be first presented to the Gods. Theodotus was offered the high-priesthood of Apollo, now esteemed the greatest of all the Gods, but in vain, till at last the president ordered him to be beheaded and his body burned
God - It is also used for the false Gods, Psalm 81:9 ; Daniel 11:36 ; and is translated 'mighty' in Psalm 29:1 ; Psalm 82:1 . Exodus 22:28 ; Psalm 82:6 ; and also to false Gods. ...
El Elohim Jehovah, Joshua 22:22 , the LORDGod of Gods
God - It is used, as an ordinary plural, of heathen Gods, or of supernatural beings ( 1 Samuel 28:13 ), or even of earthly judges ( Psalms 82:1 ; Psalms 82:5 , cf. Polytheism has been traced in the plural ‘Elohim’ (see 2 above), in the teraphim or household Gods ( Genesis 31:30 , 1 Samuel 19:13 ; 1 Samuel 19:16 : found in temples, Judges 17:5 ; Judges 18:14 ; cf. Undoubtedly Israel was in danger of worshipping foreign Gods, but there is no trace of a Hebrew polytheism (Kautzsch). Moses proclaimed Jahweh as the God of Israel, supreme among Gods, alone to be worshipped by the people whom He had made His own, and with whom He had entered into covenant. But the realization of the truth that there is none other God but Jahweh came by slow degrees only; henotheism , which taught that Jahweh alone was to be worshipped by Israel, while the heathen deities were real but inferior Gods, gave place only slowly to a true monotheism in the popular religion. ...
We may here make a short digression to discuss whether the heathen deities, though believed by the later Jews, and afterwards by the Christians, to be no Gods, were yet thought to have a real existence, or whether they were considered to be simply non-existent, creatures of the imagination only. In Isaiah 14:12 (the Babylonian king likened to false divinities?) and Isaiah 24:21 the heathen Gods seem to be identified with the fallen angels (see Whitehouse, in Hastings’ DB Ten Commandments - ]'>[7] ‘groves’) suggests that they too were common features of Semitic worship, and not confined to the worship of heathen Gods. Again, it may well have been the case that under the deteriorating Influences of surrounding Semitic worship, the people, without generally worshipping heathen Gods, failed to reach the high ideal of their traditional religion and worship. ) ‘before me’ may mean either ‘in my presence,’ condemning the eclectic worship of many Gods, or ‘in preference to me. ’ Neither interpretation would necessarily exclude the belief that other Gods were suitable objects of worship for other peoples (cf
Babylon - ...
Processional Way Access to the city was provided by ramps bridging the moat and by eight gates named after Gods in the inner walls. Ancient Babylon's most famous street was the Processional Way, Aibur-shabu (“the enemy shall never pass”) along which the images of the Gods were transported from the Euphrates into Babylon during the New Year Festival. ) In addition to the temples there were “300 daises of the Igigi Gods and 1200 daises of the Anunanki Gods,” as well as “180 open-air shrines for Ishtar” and 200 places for other deities
Polytheism - The doctrine of a plurality of Gods, or invisible powers superior to man. When men had once got into this train, their Gods would multiply upon them with wonderful rapidity. From these accounts given us by the best writers of antiquity, it seems that though the polytheists believed heaven, earth, and hell, were all filled with divinities, yet there was One who was considered as supreme over all the rest, or, at most, that there were but two self-existent Gods from whom they conceived all the other divinities to have descended in a manner analogous to human generation. The philosophers, on the other hand, seem to have viewed the inferior Gods as accountable for every part of their conduct to him who was their sire and sovereign, and to have paid to them only that inferior kind of devotion which the church of Rome pays to departed saints
Deluge - American flood-legends); and not only the hero of the story, Xisuthros, and his wife, but also his daughter and the pilot of the ship are carried away by the Gods. When Bel and three other Gods determined to destroy Shurippak, a city ‘lying on the Euphrates,’ Ea warned him to build a ship. Then Ramman the storm-god thundered, and the spirits of heaven brought lightnings; the Gods were terrified; they fled to heaven, and cowered in a heap like a dog in his kennel. The Gods smelled the savour and gathered like flies
Divination - These in course of time became differentiated into Gods, goddesses, demons, ghosts, etc. To Chrysippus and the Stoics, ‘divination’ was the means of communication between the Gods and men. 38) argues that, if there are Gods, there must be men who have the power of communicating with them. In that age men felt themselves surrounded by a great cloud of witnesses (Hebrews 12:1), living in a world where the Gods appeared (Acts 14:11; Acts 28:6), where Jesus appeared to St. In the description which Aristides declares the Greeks give of their Gods, he writes that they say some of them were ‘sorcerers,’ φαρμακούς Dancing - Also pagans used the dance as a means of honoring their Gods (1 Kings 18:26 )
Areopagus - Mythology made it the scene of the god Mars' trim before the Gods, at Poseidon's accusation, for murdering the son of the latter, Halirrhotius
Prophet - 1: προφήτης (Strong's #4396 — Noun Masculine — prophetes — prof-ay'-tace ) "one who speaks forth or openly" (see PROPHECY , A), "a proclaimer of a divine message," denoted among the Greeks an interpreter of the oracles of the Gods
Bithynia - Nothing can compel those who are real Christians to call on the Gods, and supplicate thy image with frankincense and wine, and to curse Christ
High Place - At the close of Solomon'slife he sinned greatly in building a high place for the Gods of all his strange wives
Silver - Kasaph means “to long for” in the sense of “to be pale by reason of longing”: “And now, though thou wouldest needs be gone, because thou sore longedst after thy father’s house, yet wherefore hast thou stolen my Gods?” ( Noble - ...
In its first appearance the adjective 'addı̂yr describes God’s superior (majestic) holiness which was demonstrated by His delivering Israel from Egyptian bondage: “Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the Gods? Who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?” ( Pour, Flow - 14:41), and drink offerings to false Gods ( Bel - Hence the names Hannibal, Asdrubal, &c, compounded with Bel or Baal, according to the custom of the east, where great men added the names of the Gods to their own
Lice - The priests, says Herodotus, are shaved, both as to their heads and bodies, every third day, to prevent any louse, or any other detestable creature, being found upon them when they are performing their duty to the Gods
Demons - ...
Demons oppose God and are the spiritual force behind heathen religions and false Gods (Deuteronomy 32:17; Psalms 106:37; 1 Corinthians 10:19-20; Revelation 9:20)
Shushan - May Ormuzd, Tanaites, and Mithra protect me, with the other Gods, and all that I have done . The central hall, called "temple" in the inscription as the king partook of the divine character, was used for such religious ceremonials as the king's coronation or enthroning, thanksgivings, and offerings to the Gods for victories
Anthropomorphism - Later religious thought centered in human experience, and mankind began to personify its Gods in graven or molten images. Idolaters express their religious longings by projecting their ideals onto their Gods
Holy, Holiness - In Old Testament times what was holy belonged to the Gods in an absolute way. If the Gods were sexed and needed sex, then it is no shock that those who served in the temple should be set apart for similar activity. Fear of the fickle actions of nature and spirit was projected onto the Gods they made and worshiped as holy. Human worth was exhausted in the sole purpose of serving the basic need of the Gods, in order to escape impending judgment. That dread of the holy was dealt with by a complex system of cultic appeasement that was, in essence, the attempt to manipulate the "gods, " which were personified spiritual and natural forces. Both Gods and humans had to be viewed with mistrust. ...
The holy was nothing more than, as Kaufmann expresses it, a metadivine, or a nontranscendent realm of "gods" vying for power
Oracle - Seneca defines oracles to be enunciations by the mouths of men of the will of the Gods; and Cicero simply calls them, deorum oratio, the language of the Gods. Mankind have had always a propensity to explore futurity; and conceiving that future events were known to their Gods, who possessed the gift of prophecy, they sought information and advice from the oracles, which, in their opinion, were supernatural and divine communications. The Gods, called Cabiri, had their oracle in Boeotia. The demi-gods and heroes had likewise their oracles, such were those of Castor and Pollux at Lacedaemon, of Amphiaraus, of Mopsus in Cilicia, of Ulysses, Amphilochus, Sarpedon in Troas, Hermione in Macedonia, Pasiphae in Laconia, Chalcas in Italy, Aristaeus in Boeotia, Autolycus at Sinope, Phryxus among the Colchi, Zamolxis among the Getae, Hephaestion the minion of Alexander, and Antinous, &c. Lucan, who wrote his "Pharsalia" in the reign of Nero, scarcely thirty years after our Lord's crucifixion, laments it as one of the greatest misfortunes of that age, that the Delphian oracle, which he represents as one of the choicest gifts of the Gods, was become silent. Porphyry, in a passage cited from him by Eusebius, says, "The city of Rome was overrun with sickness, AEsculapius, and the rest of the Gods having withdrawn their converse with men because since Jesus began to be worshipped, no man had received any public help or benefit from the Gods
Nicolaitans - We read, that "when Israel abode in Shittim, the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab; and they," that is, the women, "called the people unto the sacrifices of their Gods: and the people did eat, and bowed down to their Gods," Numbers 25:1-2 . When he found that he was prohibited by God from cursing Israel, he advised Balak to seduce the Israelites by the women of Moab, and thus to entice them to the sacrifices of their Gods
Hosea, Theology of - After years of waywardness God was going to scatter the Israelites among the nations whose Gods they served. Turning away from God they took the fruits of the land and offered them to pagan idols, eventually attributing the source of these blessings to the Gods of Canaan (2:8; 11:1). ...
Fueled by a fertility cult religion Israel's neighbors linked productivity of the land, animals, and people with their Gods. Caught up in the rituals of this fertility cult Israel attributed the gifts of God to pagan Gods (2:8)
Jacob - Their name is often connected with one of their Gods, becoming Jacob-el or Jacob-baal. More importantly, he wanted to recover his stolen Gods (Genesis 31:30 ,Genesis 31:30,31:32 ). These Gods were small metal or terra-cotta figures of deities. Without the images, his family lost the magical protection which he thought the Gods provided from demons and disasters
Trajanus, m. Ulpius - Those who denied that they were or ever had been Christians I thought should be released when they had, after my example, invoked the Gods and offered incense and wine to your image, which I had ordered to be brought for the purpose along with those of the Gods, and had also blasphemed Christ, none of which things, it is said, can those who are really Christians be compelled to do. All adored your image and those of the Gods, and blasphemed Christ. Search is not to be made for them; if they are accused and convicted they are to be punished, yet with the proviso that if a man denies he is a Christian and gives tangible proof of it by adoring our Gods, he shall by his repentance obtain pardon, however strong the suspicion against him may be
Vanity - It does not suggest that he has gone after other Gods, but rather he views life apart from God
Interpret, Interpretation, Interpreter - Hermes, the Greek name of the pagan god Mercury, who was regarded as the messenger of the Gods), denotes "to explain, interpret" (Eng
Enthusiasm - It is generally applied to religious characters, and is said to be derived from the wild gestures and speeches of ancient religionists, pretending to more than ordinary and more than true communications with the Gods, and particularly in the act or at the time of sacrificing
Balaam - ...
Old Testament Balaam was one of many prophets of eastern religions who worshiped all the Gods of the land
God - " The plural ELOHIM: is the common form in prose and poetry, expressing that He combines in Himself all the fullness of divine perfections in their manifold powers and operations; these the heathen divided among a variety of Gods
Gog - " (compare Ezekiel 39:2), who "shall do according to his will, and exalt and magnify himself above every god, and speak marvelous things against the God of Gods, and shall enter also into the glorious land and plant the tabernacles of his palaces between the seas in the glorious holy mountain, and shall come to his end," through Michael's interposition, after a "time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation" (Daniel 11:21-45; Daniel 12:1; Zechariah 13:9; Zechariah 14:2-3)
Idolatry - Solomon, seduced by his strange wives, caused temples to be erected in honor of their Gods, and himself impiously offered incense to them
Countenance - ...
Hence in scriptural language, the light of Gods countenance is his smiles or favorable regards, his favor and grace and to hide his face or countenance is to manifest his displeasure, and withdraw his gracious aids
Cornelius, Bishop of Rome - The persecution of the Christians thus came to an end; but then arose the difficult question of how to treat the libellatici, Christians who had bought their life by the acceptance of false certificates of having sacrificed to heathen Gods
Dan - The writer of Kings ascribed the fall of the kingdom to the worship of Gods other than Yahweh (2 Kings 17:7-20 ), and Dan was one of the key centers of this idolatry. In the area of the high place, statues and figurines of Greco-Roman and Egyptian Gods such as Osiris, Bes, and Aphrodite have been excavated
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - ), who now, being officially informed that there was an emperor who worshipped the Gods, felt that the Gods could at last be avenged
Love-Feasts - The former were wont to offer certain sacrifices to their Gods, which were afterward given to the poor. ...
Judges - Their sacro-sanctity is marked by their bearing the designation "gods," as exercising some of God's delegated power: Psalms 82:1; Psalms 82:6; Exodus 21:6, Hebrew "gods" for "'judges," God being the source of all justice
Trinity - " The same learned author justly considers the first two verses of the Old Testament as containing very strong, if not decisive, evidence in support of the truth of this doctrine: Elohim, a noun substantive of the plural number, by which the Creator is expressed, appears as evidently to point toward a plurality of persons in the divine nature, as the verb in the singular, with which it is joined, does to the unity of that nature: "In the beginning God created;" with strict attention to grammatical propriety, the passage should be rendered, "In the beginning Gods created," but our belief in the unity of God forbids us thus to translate the word Elohim. ...
Elohim seems to be the general appellation by which the Triune Godhead is collectively distinguished in Scripture; and in the concise history of the creation only, the expression, bara Elohim, "the Gods created," is used above thirty times. The combining this plural noun with a verb in the singular would not appear so remarkable, if Moses had uniformly adhered to that mode of expression; for then it would be evident that he adopted the mode used by the Gentiles in speaking of their false Gods in the plural number, but by joining with it a singular verb or adjective, rectified a phrase that might appear to give a direct sanction to the error of polytheism. A plural is joined with a verb singular, as in the passage cited before from Genesis 1:1 ; a plural is joined with a verb plural, as in Genesis 35:7 , "And Jacob called the name of the place El- beth-el, because the Gods there appeared to him;" a plural is joined with an adjective plural, Joshua 24:19 , "You cannot serve the Lord; for he is the holy Gods. " To these passages, if we add that remarkable one from Ecclesiastes, "Remember thy Creators in the days of thy youth," and the predominant use of the terms, Jehovah Elohim, or, the "Lord thy Gods," which occur a hundred times in the law, (the word Jehovah implying the unity of the essence, and Elohim a plurality in that unity,) we must allow that nothing can be more plainly marked than this doctrine in the ancient Scriptures. Justin Martyr, in refuting the charge of atheism urged against Christians, because they did not believe in the Gods of the Heathen, expressly says, "We worship and adore the Father, and the Son who came from him and taught us these things, and the prophetic Spirit;" and soon after, in the same apology, he undertakes to show the reasonableness of the honour paid by Christians to the Father in the first place, to the Son in the second, and to the Holy Ghost in the third; and says, that their assigning the second place to a crucified man, was, by unbelievers, denominated madness, because they were ignorant of the mystery, which he then proceeds to explain. Athenagoras, in replying to the same charge of atheism urged against Christians, because they refused to worship the false Gods of the Heathen, says "Who would not wonder, when he knows that we, who call upon God the Father, and God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, showing their power in the unity, and their distinction in order, should be called atheists?" Clement of Alexandria not only mentions three divine persons, but invokes them as one only God. Praxeas, Sabellius, and other Unitarians, accused the orthodox Christians of tritheism, which is of itself a clear proof that the orthodox worshipped the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and though in reality they considered these three persons as constituting the one true God, it is obvious that their enemies might easily represent that worship as an acknowledgment of three Gods
Kings, 1 And 2 - Asa (1618734155_10 ), Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 16:19 ), Jehoash (2 Kings 12:2-3 ), Azariah (2 Kings 15:3-4 ), and Jotham (2 Kings 15:34-35 ) were praised as having done what was right in the eyes of the Lord, but their praise is qualified with the addition that they allowed the worship of foreign Gods to continue in Judah. Although Solomon built the Temple where God was worshiped, he departed from the command of the Lord and worshiped foreign Gods. Manasseh negated the reforms of his father, Hezekiah, and actively promoted the worship of foreign Gods. Manasseh even built altars to other Gods within the Temple at Jerusalem where only God was to be worshiped
Elements - To serve the στοιχεῖα is the same thing as serving them that by nature are no Gods (Galatians 4:8)-a statement by no means evident if the στοιχεῖα are the rudiments of religious instruction. ‘They say that the stars are all and every one real parts of Jove, and live, and have reasonable souls, and therefore are absolute Gods’ (Aug. ‘Jewish worship of law and pagan worship of Gods are for him fundamentally the same bondage under the lower world-powers which stand between God and men
Ahab - ) Ahab, under Jezebel's influence, introduced the impure worship of the sun-god Baal, adding other Gods besides Jehovah, a violation of the first commandment, an awful addition to Jeroboam's sin of the golden calves, which at Dan and Bethel (like Aaron's calves) were designed (for state policy) as images of the one true God, in violation of the second commandment; compare 2 Kings 17:9; "the children of Israel did secretly things Hebrew covered words that were not right Hebrew so against the Lord," i. A prophet told Ahab that Jehovah should deliver to him by the young men of the princes of the provinces (compare 1 Corinthians 1:27-29) the Syrian multitude of which Benhadad vaunted, "The Gods do so to me and more also, if the dust of Samaria shall suffice for handfuls for all the people that follow me" (1 Kings 20). Again Benhadad, according to the prevalent idea of local Gods, thinking Jehovah a god of the hills (His temple being on mount Zion and Samaria being on a hill) and not of the plains, ventured a battle on the plains at Aphek, E
Libnah - 141) gives the Egyptian story, that Sennacherib retreated from Pelusium, the Egyptian Gods having sent field mice which gnawed their bowstrings and shield straps, a corruption of Jehovah's promise above
Fornication - This led naturally to describing worship of other Gods as prostitution (Exodus 34:15-16 ; Judges 8:27 ,Judges 8:27,8:33 ; Hosea 4:13 )
Judah - Levite whom Ezra condemned for having foreign wife who might tempt Israel to worship other Gods (Ezra 10:23 )
Divine Freedom - He is not one of many Gods but reigns as supreme over all (1 Chronicles 29:11 ; Nehemiah 9:6 ; Psalm 24:1 ; Isaiah 44:6 )
New Platonics - He maintained that all the different religions which prevailed in the world were in their original integrity, conformable to this ancient philosophy: but it unfortunately happened that the symbols and fictions under which, according to the ancient manner, the ancients delivered their precepts and doctrines, were in process of time erroneously understood, both by priests and people, in a literal sense; that in consequence of this, the invisible beings and demons whom the Supreme Deity had placed in the different parts of the universe as the ministers of his providence, were by the suggestions of superstition converted into Gods, and worshipped with a multiplicity of vain ceremonies
Asherah - According to ancient mythology, Asherah, the mother goddess, was the wife of El and mother of seventy Gods, of whom Baal was the most famous
Bethel - To take Jacob out of a false position God bade him go up to Beth-el and dwell there, and Jacob felt he must take no idols there, so he told his household to put away the strange Gods from among them, to be clean, and to change their garments
Samaritans - The result was that they feared Jehovah, and served their own Gods! 2 Kings 17:24-41
Baal - But as there was not distinction enough in those general names, to preserve Israel in a proper sense of reverence between JEHOVAH, and those dunghill Gods, being all alike called Baal, or Lord; the Lord graciously saith, in this sweet Scripture, that he will be no more called Baal, but will lose as it were, the name of Lord, in that of husband
Brother - The word 'âch is used of a fellow tribesman: “With whomsoever thou findest thy Gods, let him not live: before our brethren discern thou what is thine …” ( Philosopher, Philosophy - They said, "He seemeth to be a setter forth of strange Gods
Syria - Typical Semitic Gods were worshiped, the most important of which was the storm god, Hadad, often called by the epithet Rimmon (2 Kings 5:18 ; Zechariah 12:11 ), meaning “thunder. ” See Canaan; Gods, Pagan
Conflagration - " In this grand catastrophe of nature, all animated beings (excepting the Universal Intelligence,) men, heroes, demons, and Gods, shall perish together. " ...
"The mighty palace of the sky ...
In ruin fall'n is doomed to lie; And all the Gods, its wreck beneath, Shall sink in chaos and in death
Altar - Both from Paul's assertion and the testimony of Greek writers, that altars to an unknown or Gods existed at Athens
Mean - ...
But no authority of Gods or men ...
Allow of any mean in poesy
Confidence - To put one's ultimate trust or confidence either in human ability and power or in false Gods and the things of this world is to discover with the men of Shechem the ultimate weakness of the mundane world (Judges 9:26 )
Bondage - In Galatians 4:3 and Galatians 4:8-10 slavery ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου includes apparently reference both to Jewish legalism and to Gentile devotion to false Gods
Meshach - "But if not" literally, as He is able, still "we will not serve thy Gods" (Job 13:15)
Gilgal - However, it also permitted worship associated with other Gods and became the object of prophetic judgment (Hosea 4:15 ; Amos 4:4 ; Amos 5:5 )
Prostitution - The covenant was imaged as a marriage between the Lord and the people; their continual interest in other Gods, especially Baal, was seen as a form of harlotry
Trinity - This means there are three persons in one God, not three Gods
Herodians - , and a blending of honours to pagan Gods along with the recognition of Jehovah and the law
Beth-Shemesh - Jeremiah told of the Lord's judgment upon the Gods of Egypt by depicting the destruction of the worship centers
Molech - See Gods, False; Ashtoreth ; Molech ; Sacrifice, Child
Lying - While Hermes, the so-called messenger of the Gods, was often admired for his dexterous lying, Christ is loved because He is the Truth (John 14:6), the faithful and true Witness (Revelation 3:14), through whom men are able, amid all earthly changes and illusions, to lay hold on eternal realities
Habibus, Deacon, Martyr at Edessa - of Edessa, the emperor commanded the altars of the Gods to be everywhere repaired, sacrifices and libations offered and incense burnt to Jupiter
Amulets And Charms - The influence of Egypt, where amulets were worn by men and Gods, by the living and the dead, is shown by the great number of scarabs and ‘Horus eyes’ unearthed at Gezer and Taanach
Law - The Lord said, "Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are Gods ?" when the quotation was from the Psalms
Return - ...
The verb can also mean “to follow after”: “Behold, thy sister-in-law is gone back unto her people, and unto her Gods: return thou after thy sister-in-law” (Ruth 1:15)
Nation - Certainly in contexts dealing with worship the gôyim are the nonIsraelites: “They feared the Lord, and served their own Gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence” (2 Kings 17:33)
Pergamum - At Pergamus there were splendid temples of Zeus and Athene, where these Gods were worshipped in the ordinary Greek way, but others also of Dlonysos and Asklepios
Idolatry - The first allusion to idolatry is in the account of Rachel stealing her father's teraphim (Genesis 31:19 ), which were the relics of the worship of other Gods by Laban's progenitors "on the other side of the river in old time" (Joshua 24:2 )
Jezebel - When Elijah under God wrought the miracle at Carmel, and killed her favorite prophets, Jezebel still unsubdued swore by her Gods to do to Elijah as he had done to them (1 Kings 19:1-3)
Ahab - ...
Ahab, however, continued to try to serve two Gods
Sarbelius, a Edessan Martyr - of the Christians, accompanied by a priest and deacon, thereupon waited on Sarbelius and warned him of his responsibility in leading so many to worship Gods made with hands
Egypt - ...
The Egyptian religion was a strange mixture of pantheism and animal worship, the Gods being adored in the form of animals. While the educated classes resolved their manifold deities into manifestations of one omnipresent and omnipotent divine power, the lower classes regarded the animals as incarnations of the Gods. Amon, like most of the other Gods, was identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis
Flood, the - In contrast with the ancient Near Eastern flood stories, in which no cause of the flood is given (Gilgamesh Epic) or in which the Gods decide to wipe out their human slaves because they are making too much noise (Atrahasis Epic and Eridu Genesis), the biblical account provides a profound theological motivation for the flood: humankind's moral depravity and sinfulness, the all-pervading corruption and violence of all living beings ("all flesh") on earth (Genesis 6:1-8,11-12 ), which demands divine punishment. In contrast to the other ancient Near Eastern stories, in which the Gods are arbitrary, acting out of unreasoning anger, selfishness, and caprice, seeking to deceive the people and not inform them of the impending flood, the biblical picture of the God of the flood is far different. ...
The God of the biblical flood is not only just and merciful; he is also free to act according to his divine will, and he possesses sovereign power and full control over the forces of nature (in contrast to the weakness and fright of the Gods during the flood, according to ancient Near Eastern stories). The remnant who survived the cosmic catastrophe of the flood were constituted thus because of their right relationship of faith and obedience to God, not because of caprice or the favoritism of the Gods, as in the extrabiblical ancient Near Eastern flood stories
Nineveh - The man bull and man lion answer to Nin and Nergal, the Gods of war and the chase. The chief Gods were Asshur, Bel, Beltis or Myletta, Sin the moon, Shamash (Hebrew shemesh ) the sun, Vul or Iva the thunder wielder, Nin, etc. The immense palaces, the depositories of the national records, were at once the Gods' temple and the king's abode, for he was the religious head of the nation and the favorite of the Gods
Solomon - The formal treaty probably involved paying respect to foreign Gods, a practice that was a repeated temptation to Solomon and brought him increasing trouble (1 Kings 11:1-8). He ignored the instructions that God had given concerning the conduct of an Israelite king (Deuteronomy 17:15-17), and in particular earned God’s wrath through worshipping the Gods of the many foreign women whom he had taken as wives and concubines (1 Kings 11:1-10; 1 Kings 11:33; Nehemiah 13:26)
Monotheism - If Israel’s early beliefs, as some contend, were henotheistic, and conceded a place and right to other national Gods, as Chemosh, Molech, or Rimmon, as equal and paramount lords of their own peoples, such recognition of external divinities had long since ceased to be permissible. There were not really Gods many and lords many; there is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 8:6)
Fellowship - Pagan religions could even use the koin - stem to describe union and communion with their god or Gods. Such “communion” could not be shared with Christ and with other Gods or supernatural beings
Merciful, Mercy - ...
B — 3: ἱλάσκομαι (Strong's #2433 — Verb — hilaskomai — hil-as'-kom-ahee ) in profane Greek meant "to conciliate, appease, propitiate, cause the Gods to be reconciled;" their goodwill was not regarded as their natural condition, but as something to be earned. The heathen believed their Gods to be naturally alienated in feeling from man
Procurator - The Emperors had private property in the provinces, often consisting of estates that had belonged to the domains of various Gods and goddesses. On Imperial estates, formerly the property of Gods or goddesses, see W
Oracles - In times of idol worship, however, Israelites did seek a word or pronouncement from false Gods (Hosea 4:12 ). Many of Israel's neighbors sought oracles from their Gods. Other nations had their own Gods and their own prophets
Angels - ...
"Angel," "Son of God," "Gods" (Εlohim ), "Holy One," in the fullest sense, are names of the divine Word alone. Secondarily, God's created messengers; as Israel (Isaiah 42:19), Haggai (Daniel 7:9-101), John (Malachi 3:1; Malachi 2:7), the priesthood, ministers (Ecclesiastes 5:6), the rulers or angels of the Christian churches (Revelation 1:20), as Εlohim , "gods" is applied to judges (Psalms 82:6); compare Jesus' application, John 10:34-37. Close kindred of nature between angels and men is implied in both being alike called "sons of God" (Job 1:6; Job 38:7; Daniel 3:25; Daniel 3:28) and "gods" (Εlohim ) (Psalms 8:5; Hebrew Εlohim "angels," Psalms 97:7; Luke 3:38)
Antiochus - "But out of a branch other roots stood up" in the place of Philadelphus (margin) Ptolemy Euergetes, Berenice's brother, who avenged her, overran Syria, and slew Laodice, "carrying captives into Egypt their Gods, princes, and vessels of silver and gold. " Judas, son of the patriot Mattathias, took as his motto the initials of Mi Camokah Baelim Jehovah (Exodus 15:11), "Who is like unto Thee, O Lord, among the Gods?" Allusion occurs to the martyrs under Antiochus in Hebrews 11:35-37; "others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection. Disregarding his hereditary Gods himself (Daniel 11:37-39), and only recognizing the Roman war god or "god of forces," he regarded "fortresses" as the true temples (the Hebrew for "forces" may be translated "fortresses"), and was incapable of appreciating the power which true religion can call forth
Pagan - (Latin: paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false Gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years
Paganism - (Latin: paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false Gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years
Generation, Eternal - Again: he expressly tells us himself that "the Son can do nothing of himself; that the Father showeth him all things that he doth; and that he giveth him to have life in himself, " John 5:19-20 ; John 5:26 , which expressions, if applied to him as God, not as mediator, will reduce us to the disagreeable necessity of subscribing either to the creed of Arius, and maintain him to be God of an inferior nature, and thus a plurality of Gods, or to embrace the doctrine of Socinus, who allows him only to be a God by office
Dinah - So his family gave up their strange Gods and purified themselves, and Jacob went up to Bethel and fulfilled his heretofore forgotten vow
Foot - do not wear the shoes off your feet in running after strange Gods
Greatness - The Bible describes God as the greatest of Gods (Deuteronomy 10:17 ); his greatness is unsearchable (Psalm 145:3 )
Hezekiah, King of Judah - Their general not only reviled Hezekiah, but spoke against God, comparing Him with the Gods of the nations which the Assyrians had conquered
Abomination - ...
Second, tô‛êbah is used in some contexts to describe pagan practices and objects: “The graven images of their Gods shall ye burn with fire; thou shalt not desire the silver or gold that is on them, nor take it unto thee, lest thou be snared therein: for it is an abomination to the Lord thy God
Cerdo, Gnostic Teacher - Thus we learn that Cerdo introduced two first principles ( ἀρχαί ) and two Gods, the one good, the other evil, the latter the creator of the world
Barnabas - Paul curing one AEneas, who had been lame from his birth, the people of Lystra regarded them as Gods; calling Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercury; and would have sacrificed to them, which the two Apostles with great difficulty hindered: nevertheless, soon afterward, they were persecuted in this very city
Kingdom - Thus we read of the kingdom of God, Psalms 103:19 ; Daniel 4:3 ; or his universal empire and dominion over all creatures; in reference to which it is said, "Jehovah is a great God, and a great King above all Gods," Psalms 95:3
Offence - in Exodus 23:33 , "these (the Gods of the Canaanites) will be an offense (stumblingblock) unto thee
Baal - ...
Joined with other words, Baal signifies also other false Gods
mo'ab - Finally, shut up within the walls of his own capital, the king, Mesha, in the sight of the thousands who covered the sides of that vast amphitheater, killed and burnt his child as a propitiatory sacrifice to the cruel Gods of his country
Joshua - Again he gathered all the tribes with their heads and officers to Shechem, as being the place where Abram received God's first promise of the land after his migration into Canaan (Genesis 12:6-7); more especially because here Jacob on his return from Mesopotamia settled, and removed his household's strange Gods (Genesis 33:19; Matthew 26:53), just as Joshua now wished Israel to renew the covenant binding them to renunciation of all idols. His piety comes brightly out in his dying exhortation:...
(1) God's call to Abraham was one of pure grace, not for his merit; Israel's fathers and Terah had "served other Gods" (Joshua 24:2; Joshua 24:14; Genesis 31:53; Genesis 19:34), but Jehovah has through miraculous interposition brought Israel to the promised land; put away therefore all the Gods ye served in Egypt (Leviticus 17:7; Ezekiel 20:18; Joshua 24:14); but, if not,...
(2) choose you (if you are bent on self destruction) which idols you like, "but as for me and my house (Genesis 18:19) we will serve the Lord" (compare Ruth 1:15; 1 Kings 18:21; John 6:67; Luke 10:42). See Joshua 24:23, "put away the strange Gods which are IN you," heart idols, inconsistent with the service of Jehovah who is "a jealous God" (Ezekiel 20:39)
Asia Minor, Cities of - The city was well-known as a center of worship for the Gods Asklepios, Zeus, Demeter and Persephone, Serapis, Isis, as well as the cult of the emperor. Connected by a fine road with Antioch to the west, the city honored Zeus and Hermes as patron Gods. A statue dedicated to the two was discovered in the 1800's, reminiscent of the city's identification of Paul and Barnabas with the Gods ( Acts 14:1 )
Amos - The existence of other Gods had not been questioned even by the most pious of the Israelites; they denied only that these other Gods had any claim over the life of the people of Jehovah. But Amos will not hear of the existence of other Gods
Persecution - In the period which succeeded the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan the people adopted the Gods and the religious observances of the original inhabitants of the land. They opposed the popular tendency to worship the Gods, and imitate the religion, of Canaan, as it indicated disloyalty to Jahweh. They were not fully aware of any profound difference between Jahweh and other Gods, except that Jahweh was the God of Israel, and, as such, interested in the welfare of Israel and entitled to their undivided homage. If Gods could help, the more Gods they worshipped the better. ...
The rest of the world was without God and without religion, for the Gods of the nations were idols, and their religions were superstitions. It is interesting to note that the nation’s religious teachers in the past arraigned Israel on the ground of her eagerness to imitate neighbouring nations by adopting their Gods and religious customs
Tatianus - He soon discovered that these writings were older than the oldest remains of Greek literature, and in their prophecies and precepts diviner and truer than the oracles and practices of the most powerful Gods or the purest philosophers. Of Doric, Attic, Aeolian, Ionian, which was the real Greek? Further, let them not boast while they used rhetoric to subserve injustice and sycophancy, poetry to depict battles, the amours of Gods, and the corruption of the soul. Further, what did so frequent an expression as the origin of the Gods imply but that they were mortal? The difficulty attendant upon the heathen belief was not removed by the tendency to resolve all myths and Gods into allegory. It is among you that Pelops the beloved of Poseidon is made a banquet for the Gods, that Saturn devours his own children, and Zeus swallows Metis. It was not till after the time of Inachus that the most illustrious deeds of Gods and men in Greece were committed to writing and became known. ) by affirming it self-evident that Moses was of far greater antiquity than the ancient heroes, wars, or Gods (demons)
Judges, Book of - Israel would forsake Yahweh and follow after other Gods, and Yahweh would give them into the hand of an oppressor. The first is the setting up of an illegitimate priesthood by an individual Ephraimite named Micah, followed by the theft of Micah's priest and his “gods” by a part of the tribe of Dan who were migrating from their territory (on the west of Judah) to the northern part of the Hula Valley in the extreme north of Israel
Grave Gravity - ‘The idea lying at its root (σεβ) is that of reverential fear, profound respect, chiefly applied to the bearing of men towards the Gods’ (Cremer, Lexicon3, 1880, p. It is used of the name of the Deity (2 Maccabees 8:15), just as in classical Greek the word was applied to the Gods, Ἐρινύες-αἱ σεμναὶ θεαί
Ezekiel, Theology of - People in the ancient world connected their Gods with local areas and specific domains (see 1 Kings 20:23-28 ). In addition, alliances with these nations inevitably drew Israel into the worship of their Gods (23:30). ...
Next, he went into a secret room where the elders were worshiping images of animal Gods (vv. The zoomorphic nature of these Gods would indicate that they were Egyptian; the secrecy of the cult reflected a desire to hide it not only from Yahweh but from the Babylonians, who would have regarded this as an act of rebellion against their empire. In this, the people had abandoned Yahweh as Lord of nature and turned to other Gods for good crops and healthy cattle
Emperor-Worship - To such men sacred rites and festivals were decreed, and in one formula used in inscriptions they are spoken of as ‘gods and heroes’ (E. He did for them what their Gods seemed unable to do: he put an end to their constant dread and frequent experience of warfare, tyranny, injustice. Hence Caesar-worship rapidly became organized and highly developed as the State-religion of the Empire; the Caesars so far conquered their reluctance to pose as Gods that Domitian proudly designated himself as Dominus et Deus, ‘Lord and God’ (Suet. The old Gods did not leave the stage to make room for Caesar. The fact that several of the Emperors acted munificently towards the temples of the old Gods shows two things-that the old religion was still in force and far from negligible, and that the new religion was not at all a rival to it (cf
Plagues of Egypt - The design of these visitations, growing more awful and tremendous in their progress, was to make Pharaoh know, and confess, that the God of the Hebrews was the supreme Lord, and to exhibit his power and his justice in the strongest light to all the nations of the earth, Exodus 9:16 ; 1 Samuel 4:8 , &c; to execute judgment upon the Egyptians and upon all their Gods, inanimate and bestial, for their cruelty to the Israelites, and for their grovelling polytheism and idolatry, Exodus 7:14-17 ; Exodus 12:12 . According to Heliodorus, they paid divine honours to this river, and revered it as the first of their Gods. ...
In the plague of frogs, their sacred river itself was made an active instrument of their punishment, together with another of their Gods. ...
The plague of lice, which was produced without any previous intimation to Pharaoh, was peculiarly offensive to a people so superstitiously nice and cleanly as the Egyptians; and, above all, to their priests, who used to shave their whole body every third day, that neither louse, nor any other vermin, might be found upon them while they were employed in serving their Gods, as we learn from Herodotus; and Plutarch informs us, that they never wore woollen garments, but linen only, because linen is least apt to produce lice. This was a very significant plague: the furnace from which the ashes were taken aptly represented "the iron furnace" of Egyptian bondage, Deuteronomy 4:20 ; and the scattering of the ashes in the air might have referred to the usage of the Egyptians in their Typhonian sacrifices of human victims; while it converted another of the elements, and of their Gods, the air, or ether, into an instrument of their chastisement
Crete - The character of the people is described in a quotation from a prophet of their own: “Cretians are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies” (Titus 1:12 ), words attributed to the Cretan seer Epimenides, who was also credited with having advised the Athenians to set up altars to unknown Gods (compare Acts 17:23 )
Laban (2) - Laban then, suppressing in silence what had been his design really, pretended that his displeasure was only at Jacob's secret departure and the theft of his Gods (Genesis 31:5; Genesis 31:7; Genesis 31:9; Genesis 31:13; Genesis 31:16; Genesis 31:24; Genesis 31:26-27; Genesis 31:29; Genesis 31:42), and that otherwise he would have "sent him away with songs, tabret, and harp
Nebuchadnezzar - He is said to have worshipped the "King of heaven," Daniel 4:37, but it may be questioned whether he did not conceive of the Jehovah of the Hebrews to be only one of many Gods
Aaron - He then told the people, "These are your Gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt
High Places - ...
The priests whom the kings of Judah ordained to burn incense in the high places were called Chemarim; compare Hosea 10:5; Zephaniah 1:4 idol priests not having reached the age of puberty, meaning "ministers of the Gods," the Tyrian camilli, (black attired ministers, subordinate to the priests, they felled the victim), from chaamar "to be black
Tiglath Pileser - " Probably it was an Assyrian altar which Ahaz copied, as a formal recognition of the Gods of the sovereign nation (which required subject kings to set up in their capital "the laws of Asshur"), and a token of submission: the visit of Ahaz to Damascus (where "he saw the altar") "to meet king Tiglath Pileser" accords with Tiglath Pileser's inscription that before quitting Syria he held his court at Damascus, and there received submission and tribute from the neighbouring sovereigns, among whom he mentions Pekah and Jahu-Khaz (Ahaz) of Judah
Lebanon - See Gods, Pagan
Element - It is argued that the context in both these Epistles favours this opinion, and the express statement that the Galatians ‘were in bondage to them that by nature are no Gods,’ and the admonition in Colossians against ‘philosophy, vain deceit, and worshipping of the angels,’ show that the Apostle had in mind a current superstitious belief in cosmic spiritual beings, and a worshipping of them as princes of the powers of the air and world-rulers of darkness
Understanding - While artisans have made idols according to their understanding (Hosea 13:2 ), Isaiah challenges the effectiveness of such effort, noting that artisans can create no Gods at all (44:17)
Harlot - Pagan Gods and goddesses ‘had their due secret solemnities whithersoever Greek (and partly Roman) colonists took their Lares and Penates’ (Baring-Gould in Chambers’ Encyc
Ark - There, however, the ark was not a symbol of the grace of the Gods but of their folly and faulty planning
Nahum - Compare the insulting language of Rab-shakeh, the general of the king of Assyria: at first he said that Jehovah had sent him, and then treated the God of Israel as no better than the heathen Gods, who had not been able to protect their worshippers
Adam - The biblical view of the worth of humans is to be contrasted sharply with the other views in the ancient Near East, especially in Mesopotamia, where the human being was created to be the slave of the Gods
Tithes - There is evidence that heathen nations devoted tithes to sacred and fiscal uses, consecrating them to their Gods or to victorious generals, or as a permanent source of income to their sovereign
Apostasy - ...
The prophets picture Israel's history as the history of turning from God to other Gods, from His law to injustice and lawlessness, from His anointed king to foreign kings, and from His word to the word of foreign kings
Go Away, Leave - 18:30), or until they lost control of the land and were forced to serve other Gods
Naaman - He also requested the prophet, that he might have two mules' load of earth to carry home with him from the land of Israel, most probably intending to build an altar with it in his own country; which seems, indeed, to be implied in the reason with which he enforces his request: "Shall there not, I pray thee, be given to thy servant two mules' burden of earth; for thy servant will henceforth offer neither burnt-offering nor sacrifice to other Gods but unto Jehovah
Bouddhists - The next includes many degrees of honour and happiness up to demigods. Those who perform works of merit are admitted to the heavens of the different Gods, or are made kings or great men on earth; and those who are wicked are born in the forms of different animals, or consigned to different hells
Abomination - The images of their Gods and emperors were delineated on these ensigns; and the ensigns themselves, especially the eagles, which were carried at the heads of the legions, were objects of worship; and, according to the usual style of Scripture, they were therefore an abomination
Stone - The Egyptians, according to Herodotus, made use of knives of stone to open dead bodies that were to be embalmed; and Pliny assures us, that the priests of the mother of the Gods had sharp stones, with which they cut and slashed themselves, which they thought they could not do with any thing else without danger
Idumea - But neither their strong rock-fortresses, Jeremiah 49:16 , nor their Gods, 2 Chronicles 25:20 could save that rich and salubrious country from becoming a desert, and a striking monument to the truth of prophecy
Harlot - Pagan Gods and goddesses ‘had their due secret solemnities whithersoever Greek (and partly Roman) colonists took their Lares and Penates’ (Baring-Gould in Chambers’ Encyc
Epicureans - This theory also accounts not only for our visions of the ghosts of departed friends, whose secondary particles may float about long after their death, but also for our perceptions of the Gods; for, though they are composed of much finer particles than mortals, their ‘films’ may fall with impact upon the human organism. ...
Though charged with atheism, Epicurus never questioned the existence of the Gods, though he taught their remoteness from, and indifference to, human concerns. For these reasons, he argued, man need have no fear: the Gods do not concern themselves with him; there is no such thing as fate; and death is nothing but the end of all
Greece, Religion And Society of - In this group were “seers” who gave oracles from the Gods. Wedding festivities included a sacrifice to the Gods, a ceremonial bath in holy water, the last meal of the bride in her parents' home, the bride dressed in her wedding gown awaiting the groom to take her away on a chariot. The Acropolis of Athens became the sacred precinct for the Gods and goddesses, especially Athena. The Gods and goddesses of each land were accepted as geuine Greek deities known by another name
Magi - Plato, Apuleius, Laertius, and others, agree that the philosophy of the magi related principally to the worship of the Gods; they were the persons who were to offer prayers, supplications, and sacrifices, as if the Gods would be heard by them alone. But, according to Lucian, Suidas, &c, this theology, or worship of the Gods, as it is called, about which the magi were employed, was little more than the diabolical art of divination; so that μαγεια , strictly taken, was the art of divination. It was interpreted by Daniel, who made the fulfilment to redound to the honour of the true God, by ascribing to him the perfection of knowing the future, which none of the false Gods, appealed to by the Chaldean sages, possessed; as the inability of their servants to interpret the dream sufficiently proved
Punishment - Worshiping Gods other than Yahweh was a capital crime (Exodus 31:14-158 ) for which the punishment was stoning (Deuteronomy 13:6-10 ). Likewise, those who prophesied in the name of other Gods, or who led the people into idolatry were to be executed (Deuteronomy 13:1-5 ; 18:20 )
Shechem (1) - Probably too "the strange Gods" or "the Gods of the stranger" were those carried away by Jacob's sons from Shechem among the spoils (Genesis 35:2; 1618734155_65)
Heathen - Paaagans who worship false Gods, and are not acquainted either with the doctrines of the Old Testament or the Christian dispensation
Adam - He was not created to relieve Gods of tedious labor but to reflect God's care of the world of nature
Uriah - of the place where God's altar had stood, and let Ahaz offer thereon his burnt offering, meat offering, drink offering, and blood of his peace offering; it was probably Abaz's pledge of submission to Assyria and its Gods
Nahum - God judges the enemy because of its false Gods (Nahum 1:14 )
Aaron (2) - Three of the passages contain historical references only: Luke 1:5 where Elisabeth is described as ‘of the daughters of Aaron’; Acts 7:40 which refers to the request of the Israelites that Aaron would ‘make them Gods’; and Hebrews 9:4 ‘Aaron’s rod that budded
Abomination, Abomination of Desolation - To' ebah , “offensive, detestable,” the most common word for abominable, occurring 117 times to refer to worship, cultural and moral practices which offend such as homosexuality (Leviticus 18:22 ), Egyptians' eating with foreigners (Genesis 43:22 ), and particularly foreign Gods (Ezekiel 6:11 )
Hospitality - The incidents of the first two narratives may have suggested the legends of the Greeks and Romans, which represent their Gods as sometimes coming to them disguised as travellers, in order to test their hospitality, etc
Egypt - There were three orders of Gods; the eight great Gods, 12 lesser, and those connected with Osiris. ...
The third plague of dust-sprung lice fell upon the earth, worshipped in the Egyptian pantheism as Seb, father of the Gods (Exodus 8:16); the black fertile soil of the Nile basin was especially sacred, called Chemi, from which Egypt took its ancient name. ...
The tenth, the smiting of the firstborn of man and beast, realized the threat, "against all the Gods of Egypt I will execute judgment" (Exodus 12:12); for every town and nome had its sacred animal, frog, beetle, ram, cow, cat, etc. The authorities for Egyptian history are...
(1) the monuments;...
(2) the papyri (the reading of hieroglyphics having been discovered by Young and Champollion from the trilingual inscription, hieroglyphics, enchorial or common Egyptian letters, and Greek, in honor of Ptolemy Epiphanes, on the Rosetta stone);...
(3) the Egyptian priest Manetho's fragments in Josephus, containing the regal list beginning with Gods and continued through 30 dynasties of mortals, from Menes to Nectanebo, 343 B. The long term, 500 years, assigned by Manetho to the shepherd kings, (and by Africanus 800,) is unsupported by the monuments, and is inconsistent with the fact that the Egyptians, at the return to native rulers under the 18th dynasty, after so complete an overthrow of their institutions for five or eight centuries (?), wrote their own language without a trace of foreign infusion, and worshipped the old Gods with the old rites
Create, Creation - The assertion that the one, eternally existing God of the patriarchs and their descendants is the Creator must surely have been intended, at least in part, as a polemic against the pantheons of Gods of other peoples—Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Canaaniteswith whom the Israelites came in contact. The creation myths of these people often included accounts of the origins of the Gods and conflicts between the Gods. The God of Israel's unchallenged hegemony over the various realms of the cosmos and the creatures that inhabit them further emphasizes his uniqueness in comparison to the Gods of other nations. This motif stands in contrast to certain mythological depictions of the human species fashioned as an afterthought to relieve the Gods of toil and provide them with sustenance
Ethics - The ancient world did not consider religion to be morally inspiring, creative, or corrective; the reputed behavior of Gods and goddesses repelled cultivated minds. Wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft, necromancy, and soothsaying flourished under the patronage of such religion, and eventually even the Jerusalem temple housed similar rights, together with sun-worship, astrology, and altars to foreign Gods (1 Kings 12:28-32 ; 14:23-24 ; 2 Kings 17:7-18 ; 21:1-7 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; Jeremiah 2:20-25 ; 3:1-13,23 ; 5:1 ; 6:15 ; Hosea 2:5-8 ; 4:12,18 ; 5:3-4 ; 8:4-6 ; 13:1-2 ; Amos 2:7-8 ; 6:4-6 ; Micah 5:10-15 ; 6:6-7 ). ...
Appealing simply to his own moral insight Amos demands that Israel turn from her petty Gods to seek him who made heaven and earth, day and night; who through repeated recent catastrophes has wrestled with Israel's waywardness, and will yet bring judgment upon all crimes against humanity, wherever committed. The first commandment asserts God's supremacy, forbidding worship of other Gods; the second, his spirituality
Priest, Priesthood - Numbers 16:10 ; for Korah's rebellion against the Aaronic exclusivity, and Joshua 18:7 ; for the "priesthood" of the tribe of Levi as a whole), and the Aramaic masculine noun kahen [ 2 Kings 23:5 ; Hosea 10:5 ; Numbers 28:3-88 ) referring exclusively to priests of foreign Gods. ...
Priests of foreign Gods in foreign lands referred to in the Old Testament are Potiphera, Joseph's father-in-law, who was a "priest of On" in Egypt (Genesis 41:45,50 ; 46:20 ), the whole priestly organization in Egypt (Genesis 47:22,26 ), the "priests of Dagon" in Philistia (1 Samuel 5:5 ; 6:2 ), the "priests of Chemosh" in Moab (Jeremiah 48:7 ), and the "priests of Malcam" in Ammon (Jeremiah 49:3 ). Unfortunately, there were also priests of foreign Gods who practiced their priesthood within the boundaries of Israel, sometimes even under the auspices of certain unfaithful Israelite rulers (see, e
Call, Calling - To "call on" God or the Lord is a frequent biblical expression: it occurs fifty-six times in total (Old Testament, 45; New Testament, 11); on four occasions it is applied to other Gods. More particularly, to call on God's name can mean to appeal to his mercy and power from a situation of weakness and need (2 Kings 5:11 ; Psalm 116:4 ; Lamentations 3:55 ; Matthew 26:53 ), but more often it connotes a basic commitment to the Lord as opposed to other Gods (1 Kings 18:24 ; Psalm 79:6 ; Zechariah 13:9 ; Acts 9:14 ), sometimes an initial commitment (Genesis 4:26 ; Acts 22:16 )
Exile - They laughed at Babylonian Gods as sticks of wood left over from the fire (Isaiah 44:9-17 ; Isaiah 45:9-10 ; Isaiah 46:1-2 ,Isaiah 46:1-2,46:6-7 ; Jeremiah 1:16 ; Ezekiel 20:29-32 ). They apparently built a temple there and worshiped Yahweh along with other Gods
Devil - Compare Deuteronomy 32:17, Hebrew sheedim , "lords" (1 Corinthians 8:5); Acts 16:16, "a spirit of divination" (Greek of Python, an idol); Acts 17:18, "a setter forth of strange Gods" (Greek: demons); 2 Chronicles 11:15; Psalms 106:37; Leviticus 17:7. All we know of his original state as an archangel of light is that he lost it through pride and restless ambition, and that he had some special connection, possibly as God's vicegerent over this earth and the animal kingdom; thereby we can understand his connection and that of his subordinate fallen angels with this earth throughout Scripture, commencing with his temptation of man to his characteristic sin, ambition to be "as Gods knowing good and evil;" only his ambition seems to have been that of power, man's that of knowledge
Fornication - The very fact that the pagan Gods were represented as prone to sensuality had a degrading influence on ordinary morality, however much the stories of the Gods may have been ridiculed or allegorized in enlightened coteries
Descent Into Hell (Hades) - The heroes or the Gods descend into Hades to perform a rescue, to triumph over death, or as part of the recurring seasons of the agricultural year
Anger - ...
The Anger of God Unlike pagan Gods, whose tirades reflect the fickleness of their human creators, Yahweh "expresses his wrath every day" because he is a righteous judge ( Psalm 7:11 )
Letter Form And Function - Secular letters frequently concluded with an oath formula such as “I swear by the Gods that I will” Such formulas perhaps suggested James' concluding prohibition of oaths (James 5:12 )
Wind - ...
Metaphorically speaking, pneuma could be extended to mean a kind of breath that blew from the invisible realms; thus, it could designate spirit, a sign of the influence of the Gods upon persons, and the source of a relationship between humankind and the divine
Powers - When queried by King Solomon the former reply, "Our stars in heaven look small, but we are named like Gods" (8:4)
Envy (2) - ’ It was φθονος which moved the Gods to prevent men from attaining a great or uninterrupted experience of prosperity
Gate - ) Thus the place of going out and coming in was guarded, as especially sacred, from all evil by the inscriptions, the compound figured Gods outside, and the hidden teraphim
Mediator - The Persians call their god Mithras, a Mediator; and the daemons, with the heathens, seem to be, according to them, mediators between the superior Gods and men
False Prophets - To earlier writers these men were essentially and consciously false, either prophets of false Gods, holders of opinions which did not agree with the revealed character of Jehovah the God of Israel, or men who knowingly spoke falsehoods in the name of Jehovah
Sojourn, Dwell - Only they were full citizens who enjoyed all the rights of citizenry, which meant sharing fully in the inheritance of the Gods and forefathers—the feudal privileges and responsibilities (cf
Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria - For in Eusebius the emperor's exasperation is provoked, not, as in the legend, by a refusal to abjure Christianity and to sacrifice to his Gods, but by a refusal to gratify his guilty passion; and the punishment inflicted is merely exile, not torture and death
Colosse - Macknight, were famous for the worship of Bacchus, and Cybele the mother of the Gods; whence the latter was called Phrygia mater, by way of eminence
Child - Judges, magistrates, priests, are also termed children of God: "I have said, Ye are Gods, and all of you are the children of the Most High," Psalms 82:8
Joshua - Having accomplished that arduous enterprise, and settled the chosen tribes in the peaceable possession of their inheritance, he retired to Shechem, or, according to some Greek copies, to Shiloh; where he assembled the elders of Israel, the heads of families, the judges and other officers; and, presenting themselves before God, he recapitulated the conduct of Divine Providence toward them, from the days of Abraham to that moment; recounted the miraculous and gracious dispensations of God toward their fathers and themselves; reminded them of their present enviable lot, and concluded his solemn address with an exhortation in these emphatic words: "Now, therefore, fear the Lord, and serve him in sincerity and truth; and put away the Gods which your fathers served on the other side of the flood, and in Egypt; and serve ye the Lord," Joshua 24
Jonah - After praying to their Gods, they drew lots and the lot fell on Jonah
Deuteronomy - There was to be no treachery through forming alliances with foreign powers (foreign Gods) (6:1-25)
God - ...
The Gods of Canaan represented natural forces; there was no clear dividing line between nature and the divine. He should not be conceived of, therefore, like the ancient pantheon of Gods and goddesses who sometimes worked against one another's purposes. Thus, Israel was called to worship God with a singleness of devotion, giving their loyalty to him and to no other Gods (Exodus 20:3-6 ). The other Gods were mere figments of the imagination. This meant, as the Torah had commanded, that the Israelites should have no other Gods besides Yahweh
Image - the bust of the Emperor, is set up among the statues of the Gods to receive the offerings and devotion of the citizens, and through ventriloquy it seems to have the power of speech. ...
We may note at this point that the word εἰκών (like εἴδωλον) in classical Greek usually stands for the portrait statues or paintings of men and women; seldom for images of the Gods
Genesis, the Book of - ...
The names of God occurring are: ΕL , the shortened form of ΕLΟΗΙΜ ; ΕLΙΟΝ , "Most High" (only in Genesis 14:18 ΕL ΕLΙΟΝ , but in Psalms found alone, and with ΕLΟΗΙΜ and JEHOVAH Υahweh ); and SΗΑDDΑΙ "Almighty," in the Pentateuch generally with EL, The plural is that of excellence and majesty; Elohim combining in Himself the several attributes assigned to distinct Gods by the pagan false Gods as well as to the true God; and is the word used where pagan people, as the Egyptians, or foreigners, as Hagar, Eliezer of Damascus, the Egyptians, etc
Claim - In the Roman world, the most sincere and eloquent teacher of the age (Lucretius) had shown that there was no Divine care for man as had been once supposed, for in his vision of the opened heavens he had seen the Gods in a happy seclusion of their own, undisturbed by the sound of human pain and sorrow (de Rer. In that jaded and disenchanted day the most popular and reasoned religion could only unite Gods and men in the creed of avoided care
Athens - In their case the worship of the Gods survived only in that cultus of physical beauty to which innumerable sculptured forms bore silent witness, while such spiritual faith as they still retained found expression rather in altars Ἀγνώστῳ Θεῷ; to the existence of which Pausanias (i. Another power was needed to humiliate the wise, as well as to end the long reign of the Gods of Greece
Caecilia, Saint, Roman Lady - After being scourged, the two brothers were commanded to offer incense to the Gods. Soon afterwards he sent his officers to Caecilia and bade her sacrifice to the Gods
Assyria - The Assyrians worshipped a multitude of Gods. Their literature was extensive—grammars, dictionaries, geographies, sciences, annals, panegyrics on conquerors, and invocations of the Gods
Hebrews - He erected altars to the false Gods of the Phoenicians, Moabites, and Ammonites, and not only permitted his wives to worship the Gods of their own country, but he to some extent adored them, 1 Kings 11:5-7
Jonathan - The teraphim or household Gods were also worshipped as givers of prosperity and as oracles. Micah with self convicting folly expostulated in vain, "ye have taken away my Gods which I made (!) and the priest,
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - He here learnt to know some of the more mystical of the heathen party, to whom paganism was still a reality and the Gods living beings, visions of whom were to be seen by night and whose power still worked signs and wonders. By the light of this" (turning to Julian) "you first tracked out what was obscure, and learnt to curb your vehement hatred of the Gods, being rendered gentle by the revelations of divination " (Liban. The pagan coterie soon discovered the importance of their convert, and imbued him with the notion that he was the chosen servant of the Gods to bring back again Hellenic life and religion. His first impulse was to write to his protectress and implore her to obtain leave for him to return home; but on demanding a revelation from the Gods, he received an intimation of their displeasure and a threat of disgraceful death if he did so, and, in consequence; schooled himself to yield his will to theirs, and to become their instrument for whatever purposes they chose ( ib. A blind old woman, learning his name and office as he passed, cried out, "There goes he who will restore the temples of the Gods!" (Amm. Julian, on receiving this, uttered an exclamation which betrayed his religion: "He would rather commit himself and his life to the Gods than to Constantius" (Zos
Assur - The Babylonian shrines were those at which the Assyrians thought the Gods most accessible, regarding Babylon as the true home of their Gods (Arrian, Exp. Ahaz' idolatrous altar set up from a pattern at Damascus, where lie had just given his submission to Tiglath Pileser, may have been required as a token of allegiance, for the inscriptions say that wherever they established their supremacy they set up "the laws of Asshur," and "altars to the great Gods
Lord - It was the custom in the East to call Gods by the title ‘Lord’ (Deissmann, Licht vom Osten, 253ff. Paul defines the Christian attitude to Christ by contrasting it with that of the worshippers of false Gods. They worship many so-called Gods and lords, but the Christian has but the ‘one God, the Father, of whom are all things and we unto him, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him
Evil - Heathen Gods are now identified with demons opposed to the God of Israel ( Deuteronomy 32:17 , Psalms 106:37 ; cf
Exodus, Book of - While Moses was in the mount the people, under the plea of not knowing what had become of Moses, requested Aaron to make them 'gods to go before' them, and the golden calf was made
Blasphemy - 281 E), The majesty of the Gods and the sacredness of the temples were jealously guarded
Lord - 10:17, where God is called the “God of Gods, and Lord of lords”; Olives - It was upon this mount that Solomon built temples to the Gods of the Ammonites, 1 Kings 11:7 , and the Moabites, out of complaisance to his wives of those nations
Olives, Mount of - The title "Mount of Offence," or "Scandal," was bestowed on the supposition that it is the "Mount of Corruption" on which Solomon erected the high places for the Gods of his foreign wives
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - Among Semitic races and by the Egyptians, magic and divination were associated with the worship of various Gods and the belief in the existence of a vast number of demons. Throughout pre-exilic times there was a struggle in Israel between the pure worship of Jehovah alone as inculcated by the great prophets, and the worship of ‘other Gods,’ such as the local Canaanitish Baalim and idols in the homes of the people. On the other hand, as men sought to prognosticate the future by illicit commerce with false Gods and spirits, magic and divination became generally degraded and divorced from all that is right and good. This was prejudicial to religion, through its rendering Israel more tolerant towards the Gods of their allies ( e
Isaac - This corruption of the Scripture history of Isaac's sacrifice was based on the pagan idea of the most precious human sacrifice being needed to appease the Gods in times of calamity. Abraham's trustful loving obedience to the true God, at the cost of the greatest self-sacrifice, was by the test shown to be at least equal to that of idolaters to their false Gods
Ugarit - Having received permission to build a house (temple), Prince Sea struck fear into the hearts of the Gods by demanding that Baal be surrendered to him. Then Baal was permitted to build a palace (temple) as symbol of his new status among the Gods
Names of God - Unlike the portrait presented in other religions where the Gods are bound within time, Yahweh is active in time and history. ...
King In the Ancient East, it was common to address Gods as king
Nin'Eveh - The sculptured, with the exception of the human headed lions and bulls, were for the most part in low relief, The colossal figures usually represent the king, his attendants and the Gods; the smaller sculptures, which either cover the whole face of the slab or are divided into two compartments by bands of inscriptions, represent battles sieges, the chase single combats with wild beasts, religious ceremonies, etc. These great edifices, the depositories of the national records, appear to have been at the same time the abode of the king and the temple of the Gods
Rock - In Deuteronomy 32:31 , Isaiah 31:9 the title is given to heathen Gods, but in the latter passage the word sela is used
Deborah - Then follows Israel's deep degradation, its highways deserted, its 40,000 soldiers (a round number for a diminished army) without shield or spear, because they forsook Jehovah for "new Gods" (compare Deuteronomy 32:17)
Reuben - ) Finally going a whoring after the Gods of the people of the land whom God destroyed before them, Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh were first cut short by Hazael (2 Kings 10:32-33), then carried off by Pul and Tiglath Pileser, and placed about the river Khabour "in Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan" (1 Chronicles 5:26)
Jehovah - The Hebrew said the Elohim, in opposition to false Gods; but never the Jehovah, for Jehovah means the true God only
Levi - It is the phrase used by the Assyrian kings when they speak of the Gods bestowing upon them the kingship
Nature, Natural - ...
The fact that Paul can describe idols as those that are "by nature" not Gods (Galatians 4:8 ) suggests that there is One who has a divine "nature
Presence of God - False Gods also become powerless before him (Isaiah 19:1 )
Lasciviousness - It was provided for by public law; it was incorporated into the worship of the Gods
Fear - ...
This was the religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old Gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God
Antichrist - ' Here he exalts himself and speaks marvellous things against the God of Gods
Host - ” The phrase “hosts of heaven” signifies the stars as visual indications of the Gods of the heathen: “And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the Lord, and that swear by Malcham …” ( Kill - Backslidden Judah went so far as “to slaughter” children as sacrifices to false Gods ( Captives - ...
"What words can paint those execrable times, The subjects' sufferings, and the tyrant's crimes! That blood, those murders, O ye Gods! replace ...
On his own head, and on his impious race: The living and the dead at his command ...
Were coupled face to face, and hand to hand, Till, choked with stench, in loathed embraces tied, ...
The lingering wretches pined away, and died
Fear - ...
This was the religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old Gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God
Marcellinus, Bishop of Rome - The charge of having yielded to the edict of Diocletian, which required all Christians to offer incense to the Gods, appears from Augustine to have been alleged afterwards as a known fact by the African Donatists
Leviticus, Theology of - , witchcraft, demons, vitriolic Gods, etc. ...
Israel was to have no other Gods: The Lord alone was their God. This, in fact, would also have the effect of distinguishing Israel from the other nations, who worshiped and served other Gods
Physician - Our sources of knowledge of Greek medicine and physicians are (1) works of ancient physicians; (2) notices of early writers concerning Greek medicine and physicians, as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Pausanias, and Galen; (3) various medical instruments in the great museums of Athens, Berlin, Paris, and London, such as knives, probes, needles, balsam cups; (4) inscriptions and papyri; (5) altars, temples, and caves; (6) images of Gods and votive offerings. There were two sources of disease-supernatural, referred to the wrath of Gods, as plague and melancholia; and natural, as from drugs or wounds. (3) To physis and dynamis, which is really the vis medicatrix naturCE, in distinction from the power of the Gods, all recovery is referred. ...
The Hippokratic Oath is herewith given:...
‘I swear by Apollo, the physician, by Asklepios, by Hygeia, by Panakeia, and by all Gods and goddesses, that I will fulfil religiously, according to the best of my power and judgment, the solemn vow which I now make
Diognetus, Epistle to - His coming implied a triple question: (i) "On what God relying, Christians despise death and neither reckon those Gods who are so accounted by the Greeks, nor observe any superstition of Jews"; (ii) "What the kindly affection is that they have one for another"; and (iii) "What, in short, this new race or practice might be that has invaded society now and no earlier. , first bidding the Greek look at his manufactured Gods (c
Jephthah - Meantime, through Jehovah's anger at Israel's apostasy to Baalim, Ashtaroth, the Gods of Ammon, etc, he sold them (compare Romans 7:14, gave them up to the wages that their sin had earned) into the hands of those very people whose Gods they chose (Judges 10:7; Judges 10:17-18), the instrument of their sin being made the instrument of their punishment (Proverbs 1:31; Jeremiah 2:19)
Greece - While the worship of the Greek Gods had declined, Paul's experience in the marketplace at Athens shows that it was not entirely dead
Samuel - Samuel showed his authority among his people by demanding that they get rid of their foreign Gods and by leading them in prayer and confession to God (1 Samuel 7:3-6)
Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - ...
God began His self-revelation in the ancient world of polytheism (belief in many Gods)
Astrology - Individual stars and constellations were given names, and when they began to be worshiped as Gods, the way was opened for astrologers to make predictions as to how people on earth might be affected
Rahab (1) - She renounced the pollution of her country's Gods, with which her own harlotry may have been connected, to join Jehovah and His people
Samaria, Samaritans - This led to the intermarriage of some, though not all, Jews with Gentiles and to widespread worship of foreign Gods
Envy - Very different from this passion of holy desire was the φθόνος of the pagan Gods (τὸ θεῖον πᾶν ἐστι φθονερόν, says Solon, Herod
Hierocles of Alexandria, a Philosopher - We must pray for the end for which we work, and work for the end for which we pray; to teach us this our author says, 'Go to your work, having prayed the Gods to accomplish it'" (p
Altar - Another type of pre-historic altar, to which much less attention has been paid, had its origin in the primitive conception of sacrifice as the food of the Gods
Corinth - A late French writer, who visited this country, observes, "When the Caesars rebuilt the walls of Corinth, and the temples of the Gods rose from their ruins more magnificent than ever, an obscure architect was rearing in silence an edifice which still remains standing amidst the ruins of Greece
Belshazzar - Having made a great feast for a thousand of his lords, he ordered those vessels to be brought during the banquet, that he, his princes, his wives, and his concubines, might drink out of them, which they did; and to aggravate sacrilege by apostasy and rebellion, and ingratitude against the Supreme Author of all their enjoyments, "they praised the Gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, and stone, but the God in whose hand was their breath, and whose were all their ways, they praised or glorified not
Ath'Ens - It was covered with the temples of Gods and heroes; and thus its platform presented not only a sanctuary, but a museum containing the finest productions of the architect and the sculptor, in which the whiteness of the marble was relieved by brilliant colors, and rendered still more dazzling by the transparent clearness of the Athenian atmosphere
Baal - Canaanite and Phoenician Gods were known as Baals, or Baalim (the plural form of Baal in Hebrew; Judges 2:11; Judges 10:10; 1 Kings 16:31)
Solomon - They go down to Egypt for a wife, and they bring up her false Gods with her. 'And it came to pass that, when Solomon was old, his wives turned away his heart after other Gods; and his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David his father. And there is no shipwreck of faith and holiness and severe obedience in all the world that is written more for the men of our generation than just the terrible shipwreck of Solomon amid his wealth, and his wisdom, and his largeness of horizon and hospitality of heart, even to strange women and to their strange Gods, till that end came which always comes
Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria - " Socrates adds that the foul symbols used in the worship of Serapis and other Gods were, by the archbishop's order, carried through the agora as objects of contemptuous abhorrence. To Eunapius the temple-breakers were impious men who "threw everything into confusion, boasted of having conquered the Gods," enriched themselves by the plunder, "brought into the sacred places the so-called monks, men in form but swinish in life," deified the, "bones and heads of worthless men who had been punished by the courts for their offences," and assigned to "bad slaves who had borne the marks of the lash the title of martyrs and intercessors with the Gods
Exodus, Book of - God judges other Gods but preserves an obedient people (Exodus 12:1-13 ). Foreign relatives testify to God's superiority over all Gods (Exodus 18:1-12 )
God - He is not simply the greatest of many Gods—He is the only true God. This separates Him from all other Gods and idols, which are merely forms humans have created in the image of things God created ( Isaiah 41:22-24 ; 1618734155_3 ; Isaiah 46:1-2 ,Isaiah 46:1-2,46:6-7 )
Messiah - The Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Canaanite texts also exhibit a common literary and historical background with the Scriptures, but the views concerning kingship and priesthood, the interrelationships between these, and their relationship to Gods are radically different from the biblical explanations. The Near Eastern texts presented a divine-royal personage who would fight, kill, and plunder; this was especially true of the Gods represented by the divine kings to gain advantage and thus set up their political organization, be it thought of in terms of a kingdom or empire
Providence of God - Not only is this true on earth; this is true among the so-called Gods. In fact, there are no other Gods, only idols; God alone is God in all the universe (Deuteronomy 4:35,39 ; Isaiah 45:5-6 ; 1 Corinthians 8:4-6 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ) and nothing is impossible for him (Jeremiah 32:27 ; Psalm 22:27-28 )
Greece - And among those who not only doubted or denied the existence of the Olympian Gods, but turned in weariness and disappointment from Stoic, Epicurean, and Academic systems alike, there was a thirst for some deeper satisfaction of the soul’s wants. The only native Gods of Greece who could hold their own against foreign rivals were the mystery-deities, Dionysus and Hecate
Divination - So in all divination, incantations were used, and the Gods invoked to let the replies given be the most favourable. ' An observer of times had his lucky and unlucky days, and nothing must be set on foot without the Gods being consulted
Aaron - ...
During this period, the people, grown impatient at the long absence of Moses, addressed themselves to Aaron in a tumultuous manner, saying, "Make us Gods which shall go before us: for, as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him. Having finished the idol, the people placed it on a pedestal, and danced around it, saying, "These be thy Gods, O Israel;" or, as it is expressed in Nehemiah, "This is thy God," the image or symbol of thy God, "which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt
Daniel, Book of - Nabonadius was defending the kingdom outside in the open country, and though defeated was not slain; his son was besieged inside, and was slain that night while holding a festival to the Gods. Daniel faithfully reminded Belshazzar of how God had dealt with his father (or rather his grandfather) Nebuchadnezzar for his pride; adding that though the king knew all this he had lifted up himself against the God of heaven, and had desecrated the vessels of God's house by drinking wine in them to his Gods, and foretells his destruction
Corinth - ...
Religions of Corinth Although the restored city of Paul's day was a Roman city, the inhabitants continued to worship Greek Gods
Humanity - This is usually the Gods of the nations and the religious and social practices which they enforced
Antiochus - He then decreed that the Jews ...
should forsake their religion, and all should worship the heathen Gods
Nahum (2) - The prophecy in Nahum 1:14, "I will make it (namely, 'the house of thy Gods,' i
Manasseh (1) - ...
But because of apostasy from the God of their fathers to the Gods of the people whom He destroyed before them, Manasseh was first cut short by the Syrian Hazael (2 Kings 10:32), then God stirred up the spirit of Pul and of Tiglath Pileser of Assyria to carry the eastern half of Manasseh, Reuben, and Gad captives to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan (1 Chronicles 5:25-26)
Barnabas - Chrysostom justly infers that Barnabas was of a commanding and dignified appearance, as the people of Lystra, on the cure of the impotent man, supposed that he was their national god, Jupiter, king of the Gods, come down from heaven (Acts 14:8-12)
Propitiation - A — 1: ἱλάσκομαι (Strong's #2433 — Verb — hilaskomai — hil-as'-kom-ahee ) was used amongst the Greeks with the significance "to make the Gods propitious, to appease, propitiate," inasmuch as their good will was not conceived as their natural attitude, but something to be earned first
Temple - This was so in the case of the false Gods that Israel’s neighbours worshipped (1 Samuel 5:2; 1 Samuel 31:10; 1 Kings 16:32; 2 Kings 5:18), and in the case of the one and only true God whom Israel worshipped (Psalms 5:7; Psalms 134:1; Haggai 1:8-9; Matthew 12:4; John 2:16; cf
Oracle - Among the Heathens, was the answer which the Gods were supposed to give to those who consulted them upon any affair of importance
Philistines, the - ...
While our information on Philistine religion is limited, three Philistine Gods are mentioned in the Old Testament—Dagon, Ashtoreth, and Baalzebub
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - ” In the pagan world it was associated with the cycle of nature and the nature Gods, or the survival of a “spiritual part” of a person after death
Chaldaea - They wore a peculiar dress, like that seen on the Gods and deified men in Assyrian sculptures
Oath - "...
Remove God once out of heaven, and there will never be any Gods upon earth
Worship - Just as the worship of God means submission to his sovereign rule, so the worship of idols means submission to the evil power of false Gods (Exodus 20:5; Deuteronomy 11:16; Deuteronomy 29:26; Joshua 24:15; 1618734155_2; 1 Corinthians 10:20; Hebrews 1:6-7)
Hell - of Jerusalem, where, after Ahaz introduced the worship of the fire Gods, the sun, Baal, Moloch, the Jews under Manasseh made their children to pass through the fire (2 Chronicles 33:6), and offered them as burntofferings (Jeremiah 7:31; Jeremiah 19:2-6)
Idolatry - As a general rule it would be quite possible to escape offending susceptibilities with regard to the worship of the older Gods, but the new cult was so universal and so popular that it soon became fraught with grave danger for members of the Christian community
Gerizim - ’ Thus the worship of Jehovah was preserved in Samaria, and gradually asserted itself over the ‘gods of their own’ which every nation made
Jacob - This disclosed a sad state of things: he had to meet God, and must purify himself, and his household must put away their strange Gods
Antiochus - His motives were probably more political than religious, but as a part of his programme he undertook to compel the Jews to worship heathen Gods as well as, if not in place of, Jehovah
Giant - In Genesis 6:4 the Nephilim appear as a race of demi-gods, distinguished by their power and renown, but without any mention of gigantic stature
Gideon - that it was the result of their having forsaken Jahweh and served the Gods of the Amorites
Zephaniah, Theology of - In the religious sphere these include apostasy (1:4-5), the worship of foreign Gods, and abandoning the only true God
Areopagite, Areopagus - As to the origin of the court, according to popular legend Ares was called before a court of the twelve Gods to answer for the murder of Halirrhotius (Paus
Seek - Pagan people and sometimes even apostate Israelites “inquired of” heathen Gods
Praise - ” This meaning is in the word’s first biblical appearance: “Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the Gods? Who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises [3], doing wonders [4]?” ( Separate - ...
In prophetic literature, the verb nâzar indicates Israel’s deliberate separation from Jehovah to dedication of foreign Gods or idols
Create - The Gods of Babylon are impotent nonentities ( Chaldean Philosophy - Beside the supreme Being, the Chaldeans supposed spiritual beings to exist, of several orders; Gods, demons, heroes: these they probably distributed into subordinate classes, agreeably to their practice of theurgy or magic
the Angel of the Lord - "I am the Lord (JEHOVAH) thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage: Thou shalt have no other Gods before me," &c
Jacob - This disclosed a sad state of things: he had to meet God, and must purify himself, and his household must put away their strange Gods
Idolatry, - Under Samuel's administration idolatry was publicly renounced, (1 Samuel 7:3-6 ) but in the reign of Solomon all this was forgotten, even Solomon's own heart being turned after other Gods
Maccabees - two apocryphal books of Scripture, containing the history of Judas and his brothers, and their wars against the Syrian kings in defence of their religion and liberties, so called from Judas, the son of Mattathias, surnamed Maccabaeus, as some authors say, from the word מכבי , formed of the initials of מיאּ?כמכה באלים יהוה , "Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the Gods?" Exodus 15:11 , which was the motto of his standard; whence those who fought under his standard were called Maccabees, and the name was generally applied to all who suffered in the cause of true religion, under the Egyptian or Syrian kings
Law - Is it not written in your law, I said, ye are Gods? John 10
Philis'Tines - (1 Samuel 31:9 ) The Gods whom they chiefly worshipped were Dagon, (Judges 16:23 ; 1 Samuel 5:3-5 ; 1 Chronicles 10:10 ) 1 Maccabees 10:83 , Ashtaroth, (1 Samuel 31:10 ) Feasts - He then defiled the Jewish temple by setting up an altar in honour of the pagan Gods and sacrificing animals that the Jews considered unclean
Saviour (2) - Similarly Wobbermin (Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, 1896), who asserts that especially in the cult of the subterranean Gods the word σωτήρ was common as a name for the Deity. ) investigates the use of σωτήρ in antiquity with reference to both Gods and deified men—a usage dating back from before the production of the LXX Septuagint . Up to the time of Alexander the Great, σωτήρ was not applied to men, because it was still felt to be a cult-name reserved for the Gods
Serpent - The serpent was also the symbol of medicine, and of the Gods which presided over it, as of Apollo and AEsculapius. From Chaldea the worship passed into Egypt, where the serpent deity was called Canoph, Caneph, and C'neph; it also had the name of Ob, or Oub, and was the same as the Basiliscus, or royal serpent, the same as the Thermuthis, and made use of by way of ornament to the statues of their Gods. The mind, once darkened by the admission of an allegiance divided between God and Satan, became gradually more feeble and superstitious, until at length sensible objects were called in to aid the weakness of degraded intellect; and from their first form as symbols, passed rapidly through the successive stages of apotheosis, until they were elevated into Gods
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - And they said: “Are our Gods or is he the better?” … Jesus is no more than a servant whom we favoured and proposed as an instance of Divine power to the children of Israel. ...
The idolaters of Mecca put the question recorded in the second of the above verses to Mohammed, when he condemned their Gods. The Christians worship as a God, Jesus whom you praise: do yon, therefore, condemn Him as you do our Gods? We are quite willing to let our Gods be treated as you treat Him. ‘When God shall say, “O Jesus, son of Mary, hast thou said unto mankind—Take me and my mother as two Gods besides God?,” he shall say, “Glory be unto thee, it is not for me to say that which I know to be not the truth” ’ (v
Law - Hence the unity of God is inculcated with perpetual solicitude; it stands at the head of the system of moral law promulgated to the Jews from Sinai by the divine voice, heard by the assembled nation, and issuing from the divine glory, with every circumstance which could impress the deepest awe upon even the dullest minds: "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; thou shalt have no others Gods beside me," Exodus 20:2-3 . And in the hymn of thanksgiving on the miraculous escape of the Israelites at the Red Sea, this is its burden: "Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the Gods? who is like unto thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?" Exodus 15:11 . At this time, and in this nation, was the Mosaic law promulgated, teaching the great principles of true religion, the self- existence, the unity, the perfections, and the providence of the one great Jehovah; reprobating all false Gods, all image worship, all the absurdities and profanations of idolatry. It prohibits every species of idolatry; whether by associating false Gods with the true, or worshipping the true by symbols and images
Possession - _...
The Greeks called a supernatural being intermediate between the Gods and men δαίμων, ‘demon. A further reference to them is found in Genesis 14:3; Genesis 14:8; Genesis 14:10, where äÇùÒÄãÌÄéí should be printed äÇùÑÅøÄéí;_ and in Hosea 12:12 áÌÇâÌÄiÄâÌÈi ùÑÀåÈøÄéí æÄáÌÅçåÌ should be áÌÇâÌÄ× iÇùÑÅøÄéí æÄ× ‘at Gilgal they sacrifice to the false Gods (la-shçdhîm). _ The continuous and persistent efforts of the prophets to extricate Jahweh from the other Gods and to exalt His power and importance inevitably diminished those of the demons; and, as His holiness and goodness became clearer, their malevolence became more marked. _ This spirit departed from him, and another spirit, called øåÌçÇÎøÈòÈç îÅàÅú éäÉåÈä_ and øåÌçÇÎàÁiÉäÄéí øÈòÈç,_ a malevolent spirit of the Gods, came upon him; and a pathological condition at once ensued, exhibiting itself in intermittent attacks of a strange and therefore demoniacal disorder
Destroy, Destruction - They were to be removed so they would not teach them "to follow all the detestable things they do in worshiping their Gods" (Deuteronomy 20:18 ). ...
These Gods were also sexually depraved
Children (Sons) of God - Once the judges of Israel are referred to as ‘gods,’ perhaps as appointed by God and vested with His authority (but the passage is very obscure; may the words be ironical?), and, in parallel phrase, as ‘sons of the Most High’ ( Psalms 82:6 , cf. ‘Zeus, father of Gods and men’); or it may connote some phase of His providence towards a favoured individual or nation; or, again, it may assert that a father’s love at its highest is the truest symbol we can frame of God’s essential nature and God’s disposition towards all men
High Place, Sanctuary - On the other hand, certain objects of nature springs and rivers, trees, rocks and, in particular, mountains have been regarded with special reverence by many primitive peoples as ‘the homes or haunts of the Gods. Such was Micah’s ‘house of Gods’ ( Judges 17:5 ), and the ‘houses of high places’ of 1 Kings 12:31 RV Time, Meaning of - ...
Time and history The habit of the people of the Bible to identify certain days by their dominant quality is not to be compared with the ancient Babylonian notion that the quality of every day and time is set by heavenly decree, fixed so firmly that even the Gods are forced to submit to it. They believed that their Gods could be contacted at holy places (the shrines) and at holy times (the religious festivals)
Angel - ]'>[6] if so, it would be the lineal descendant of the early Israelite belief in national Gods. an angel is to be the means whereby the Israelites in Babylon shall be helped to withstand the temptation to worship the false Gods of the land; in To Bar 6:7 ; Bar 6:16-17 an angel describes a method whereby an evil spirit may be driven away; in Bar 6:8 an angel gives a remedy for healing blindness; in Bel 34ff
Jeroboam - In his old age, and when he should have been by this time a rare and a ripe saint of God, Solomon added this also to his other transgressions, an insane passion for building palaces both for himself and for his heathen queens, and temples and altars for their cruel and unclean Gods, and great fortifications, and all manner of proud and costly and reckless public works. It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem; behold thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt, You are not to suppose that Jeroboam was so stupid as to believe what he said and did that day
Almighty - Idolatry was to be checked and reproved, and the true God was therefore placed in contrast with the limited and powerless Gods of the Heathen: "Among the Gods of the nations, is there no god like unto thee; neither are there any works like thy works
Creation - ...
Then, every void of nature to supply, With forms of Gods he fills the vacant sky: ...
New herds of beasts he sends, the plains to share: ...
New colonies of birds, to people air; And to their oozy beds the finny fish repair. ...
Here we see all the principal objects of creation mentioned exactly in the same order which Moses had assigned to them in his writings; and when we consider what follows;—the war of the giants; the general corruption of the world; the universal deluge; the preservation of Deucalion and Pyrrha; their sacrifices to the Gods on leaving the vessel in which they had been preserved;—there can scarcely remain a doubt that Ovid borrowed, either directly or at second hand, from Moses
Reuben - ’ The names given here must be the original names, as it is improbable that the author would allow the worshippers of Jahweh to couple with the names of their cities the Gods Nebo and Baal
Heaven - Unlike neighboring nations, Israel knew that heaven and the heavenly bodies were not Gods and did not deserve worship (Exodus 20:4 )
Ahaz - Distress, instead of turning Ahaz to Him who smote them, the Lord of hosts (Isaiah 9:12-13), only made him "trespass yet more," sacrificing to the Gods of Damascus which had smitten him, that they might help him as he thought they had helped the Syrians; "but they were the ruin of him and of all Israel
Sacrifice - ...
An advocate for the sufficiency of reason (Tindall) supposes the absurdity prevailed by degrees; and the priests who shared with their Gods, and reserved the best bits for themselves, had the chief hand in this gainful superstition
Micah, Book of - ...
The people worshiped other Gods
Nazirite - The vine stood for the culture and civilization of Canaan, and was specially associated with the worship of the nature-gods
Purity-Purification - Impurity, finally, was brought on by contact with foreign Gods
Sea of Glass - The Zodiac, the abode of the Gods, rises above and upon the heavenly sea
No - ...
A still heavier blow was dealt by Nebuchadnezzar, as Jeremiah (Jeremiah 46:25-26) foretells: "Behold I will punish Anjou No and Pharaoh and Egypt, with their Gods and their kings
Jealousy (2) - First, in the exclusive claims which He makes for Himself: ‘Thou shalt have no other Gods before me’ (Exodus 20:3); ‘Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,’ etc
Marriage (ii.) - It would be a mistake to see in this use of the paternal and filial relations a survival of that primitive religious concept which made members of a clan the sons of its Gods
Apollonius of Tyana - The Christians were not then by any means an unknown sect; so well known were they that Alexander Severus (with a singular parallelism to the supposed conduct of Philostratus) placed Christ with Abraham, Orpheus, and Apollonius himself, among his household Gods
Food - ...
The prohibition "thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk" (Exodus 23:19) is thought by Abarbauel to forbid a pagan harvest superstition designed to propitiate the Gods; to which a Karaite Jew, quoted by Cudworth (Speaker's Commentary), adds, it was usual when the crops were gathered in to sprinkle the fruit trees, fields, and gardens as a charm
Alaric - The almost miraculous discomfiture of the heathen Radagaisus by Stilicho, in spite of his vow to sacrifice the noblest senators of Rome on the altars of the Gods which delighted in human blood, was accepted as an ill omen by those at Rome who hoped for a public restoration of Paganism (Gibbon, iv
Samaritans - Manasseh brought with him some other apostate priests, with many other Jews, who disliked the regulations made by Nehemiah at Jerusalem; and now the Samaritans, having obtained a high priest, and other priests of the descendants from Aaron, were soon brought off from the worship of the false Gods, and became as much enemies to idolatry as the best of the Jews
Water - " In India the Hindoos go sometimes a great way to fetch water, and then boil it, that it may not be hurtful to travellers that are hot; and after this stand from morning till night in some great road, where there is neither pit nor rivulet, and offer it in honour of their Gods, to be drunk by the passengers
Jeroboam - To counteract this, he caused two golden calves to be made as objects of religious worship, one of which he placed at Dan, and the other at Bethel, the two extremities of his dominions; and caused a proclamation to be made throughout all his territories, that in future none of his subjects should go up to Jerusalem to worship; and, directing them to the two calves which had been recently erected, he cried out, "Behold thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of Egypt!" He also caused idolatrous temples to be built, and priests to be ordained of the lowest of the people, who were neither of the family of Aaron nor of the tribe of Levi
Ptolemae'us, - He carried "captives into Egypt their Gods of the conquered nations, with their princes and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold
Wisdom of Solomon - The true proposition is ‘that which is worshipped (äðòáø) shall be punished together with the worshipper (äòåáø); wherefore he says “and against all the Gods of Egypt I will execute judgements” (Exodus 12:12). In Mechilta, 13, on Exodus 12:30 (= Pesikta, 7) it is stated that, when the first-born of any Egyptian died, the father made an image of him, which he set up in his house; this comes from Wisdom of Solomon 14:15, where it is suggested that idolatry thus arose, the intention being also to account for the apparent identification of the Gods of Egypt with their first born in Exodus 12:12. ’...
In many cases, however, the phrase employed shows clear signs of mistranslation, but restoration of the original is difficult; examples are 1:16b ‘thinking him a friend they melted,’ where the sense requires something like ‘they summoned him’; 7:4 ‘I was reared in swaddling-clothes and cares’; 4:19a ‘for he will break them voiceless prone’; 5:7 ‘we were filled (ἐνεπλήσθημεν) with the paths of lawlessness and destruction’; 12:24b ‘thinking Gods the despicable even among the beasts of the enemies’; 18:3c ἥλιον δὲ ἀβλαβῆ φιλοτίμου ξενιτείας παρέσχες
Egypt - Diodorus Siculus, mentioning the Egyptians, informs us, that "the first men, looking up to the world above them, and, struck with admiration at the nature of the universe, supposed the sun and moon to be the principal and eternal Gods. Sanchoniathon relates, that, "from the breath of Gods and the void were mortals created. In the hieroglyphic inscriptions on their temples, and public edifices, animals, and even vegetables, were the symbols of the Gods whom they worshipped
Proverbs - ‘If,’ he replied, ‘there be feasts of Gods and Gods eat, certainly they have also attendants who see to it that even the scraps of ambrosia are not lost’ (Philostr. But in front of Virtue the immortal Gods have put sweat
Covenant - List of witnesses to the treaty including the Gods and natural phenomena such as mountains, heaven, seas, the earth, etc. The covenant with Yahweh meant Israel could make covenants with no other Gods (Exodus 23:32 )
Servant of the Lord - Adherents of other Gods received similar proper names, such as Ebed-melech (wh. see) = ‘servant of the god Melech,’ or Abd-Melkarth , Abd-Eshmun , and Abd-Manât , typical Phœnician and Nabatæan names meaning respectively servant of the Gods Melkarth, Eshmun, and Manât
Mediation Mediator - Paganism has its ‘redeemer Gods,’ but Christianity is rooted in the OT. This intimate bond between the disciple and his Lord, the blood-bond, is set forth by the ordinances of baptism and communion in a far wider sense than was contemplated by the ‘mystery-religions’ and their ‘redeemer-gods’ (1 Corinthians 10:2 ff
Testimony - In Isaiah 43:8-13 , the prophet depicts the nations as forming a legal assembly to proclaim the superiority and saving work of their Gods. Their Gods are blind and deaf, mere idols made of the commonest materials; their makers are nothing but men
Aaron - Left alone to guide the people, he betrayed his instability of character in his weak and guilty concession to the people's demand for visible Gods to go before them in the absence of Moses, their recognized leader under Jehovah; and instead of the pillar of cloud and fire wherein the Lord heretofore had gone before them (Exodus 13:21; Exodus 32). Aaron's words, "These are thy Gods elohim (a title of the true God), O Israel, which brought thee up out of Egypt," as also his proclamation, "Tomorrow is a feast to JEHOVAH," show that he did not mean an open apostasy from the Lord, but rather a concession to the people's sensuous tastes, in order to avert a total alienation from Jehovah
the Disobedient Prophet - It was a brave step in Jeroboam to set up his false Gods at Bethel, of all places in the land. And the man of God cried against the altar of the Lord, and said, O altar, altar! And then he foretold the fall of the altar, and with it the fall of him who stood in his royal robes that day ministering to his unclean Gods at that altar
Christianity (History Sketch) - Not only were their modes of worship treated with scrupulous reverence, but their Gods, in conformity with the genius of Paganism, were incorporated or associated with the deities of Rome, and they were thus joined to their conquerors by the strongest ties by which the affections can be secured. At all times religion had been an object of prominent interest with the Romans: at the foundation of the city, Romulus had professed to be directed by Heaven; during the whole period of the republic, the most sacred attention had been paid to the rites and ceremonies sanctioned by the prevailing superstition, the prosperity of the state was invariably ascribed to the protection of the Gods, and the most impressive solemnities, combined with the richest splendour and magnificence, cast around polytheism a mysterious sanctity, which even the philosophers affected to revere
Jeroboam - Borrowing Aaron's words concerning his calf, Jeroboam insinuated that his calf worship was no new religion, but a revival of their fathers' primitive one in the desert, sanctioned by the first high priest: "Behold thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of Egypt" (Exodus 32:4; Jeremiah 37:13-14). Jeroboam unwarned by his visitation "returned not from his evil way," "ordaining whosoever would (1 Kings 13:33-34; 2 Chronicles 11:15) priests, for the high places, the devils, and the calves" (the Gods worshipped in these houses in the high places being called "demons" or devils (literally, goats, from the Egyptian goat-shaped god Mendes or Pan) from their nature, and calves from their form; Leviticus 17:7, "evil spirits of the desert" (Speaker's Commentary, seiriym ; 1 Corinthians 10:20-21)
Judges, the Book of - Intermarriages with pagan neighbours, Gentile associations, the beauty of the Canaanite women, the pomp, gaiety, and voluptuousness of their rites, the hope of learning the future by idolatrous divination, superstitious fears of the alleged Gods of the locality where they settled, inclined Israel to add to Jehovah's worship the pagan idolatries (for they had too strong proofs of the divine law to renounce it wholly). Or rather, "Israel chose new Gods"; therefore in penal retribution from God "war was in their gates," and among the 40,000 (see Joshua 4:13) Israelites fit for war no shield nor spear was to be seen wielded against the enemy
Teach, Teacher - While Israel has rebelled against God and given their allegiance to false Gods, nevertheless, God's power will yet "teach" Israel through judgment and restoration (Jeremiah 16:14-21 )
Expiation, Propitiation - ”...
In Greek writings hilasmos refers to soothing the anger of the Gods
Thyatira - The ‘prophetess’ of the Thyatiran church is denounced as a new Jezebel, all the more subtly dangerous because she is not, like the first, a fanatical heathen defender of nature-worship, but a philosophical and sentimental dabbler in it, who is using her intellectual gifts to ‘teach and seduce’ the followers of Christ, reviving the old fallacy, ‘ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil
Creation - Others, though they believed that the Gods had given the world its form, yet imagined the materials whereof it is composed to have been eternal
Jehoiakim - The names were often from the pagan Gods of the conqueror
Praise - The audience is enlarged beyond the worshiping community when the worshiper announces, "I will praise you [4], O Lord, among the nations" (Psalm 57:9 ), and more enlarged still, "In the presence of angels [5] I will sing my praise" (Psalm 138:1 ; nab )
Service - In classical Greek it was used of the service of the Gods, and in the NT it is used of the service rendered to Jehovah by the whole tribe of Israel (Acts 26:7 and Romans 9:4)
Son of God - In Psalms 82:6 "gods
Care - Care arises from a division at the very centre of life, an attempt to serve both God and mammon, to ‘worship the Lord and serve other Gods,’ or it arises from the radically false idea that ‘a man’s life consisteth in the abundance of the things which he possesseth
Book of Life - ]'>[4] New Year’s Festival, at which it was conceived that an assembly of the Gods determined the events of the year, and especially the duration of men’s lives, which was written down in a ‘tablet of life
Beauty - The appreciation of beauty for its own intrinsic charm was a special characteristic of the Greeks, to whom the world was a wonder of order and adaptation, and who found an element of worship in the beauty that was a prerogative of the Gods
Pilate - Livy (5:13) mentions that prisoners used to be released at a lectisternium or propitiatory feast in honor of the Gods
Live - 5:26 refers to God as the “living” God, distinguishing Him from the lifeless Gods/idols of the heathen
Dionysius of Alexandria - The former therefore affirmed that to divide the ὑπόστασις was to make separate Gods; the latter affirmed with equal justice that there could be no Trinity unless each ὑπόστασις was distinct
Altar - How revolting it is, then, to pass from the altar of God or, by parity of reasoning, from the τρὰπεζα τοῦ Κυρίου, to the orgies of pagan Gods, the τρὰπεζα δαιμονίων
Ark - Hence in the ancient mythology of Egypt, there were precisely eight Gods; and the ark was esteemed an emblem of the system of the heavens
Holiness, Holy, Holily - 1 and 2, which are from the same root as hagnos (found in hazo, "to venerate"), fundamentally signifies "separated" (among the Greeks, dedicated to the Gods), and hence, in Scripture in its moral and spiritual significance, separated from sin and therefore consecrated to God, sacred
Minister - , of service to the Gods
Altar - How revolting it is, then, to pass from the altar of God or, by parity of reasoning, from the τρὰπεζα τοῦ Κυρίου, to the orgies of pagan Gods, the τρὰπεζα δαιμονίων
Ammon - ...
David’s successor, Solomon, took Ammonite women into his harem and worshipped the Gods they brought with them (1 Kings 11:1; 1 Kings 11:5; 1 Kings 11:7; 1 Kings 11:33)
Martinus, Bishop of Dumium - His theory is that the fallen angels or demons assumed the names and shapes of notoriously wicked men and women who had already existed, such as Jove, Venus, Mars; that the nymphs, Lamias, and Neptune are demons with power to harm all who are not fortified with the sign of the cross, and who shew their faithlessness by calling the days of the week after the heathen Gods
Hellenism - -The old family-cults and State-cult were continued as a matter of course; but there was a notable reduction of local cults, the greater Gods, so to speak, swallowing up the minor heroes. Not only were the Oriental Gods called by Greek names (Ammon and Baal became Zeus; Melkart, Herakles; Astarte, Aphrodite; Thoth, Hermes, etc. )-what is usually called theocrasy-but the Oriental Gods themselves under their own names were introduced into the West and worshipped by Greeks and Romans with no less fervour than by their own countrymen
Job - It represents the musings of an old king, who has lived a blameless and devout life, but is nevertheless terribly afflicted in body and mind pursued all day, and without rest at night and is apparently forsaken of the Gods. … Who could understand the counsel of the Gods in heaven?’ The poem ends with a song of praise for deliverance from sin and disease ( Der Alte Orient , vii. ...
The Jesuit missionary, Père Bouchet, called attention in 1723 to the story of the ancient Indian king Arichandiren who, in consequence of a dispute in an assembly of Gods and goddesses and holy men as to the existence of a perfect prince, was very severely tested by the leader of the sceptical party
Work - In creation texts associated with Israel's neighbors, the divine work is not something to be admired, as creation emerged from either a struggle between the Gods (Mesopotamia) or an act of defilement (Egypt—but cf. In fact, the Gods made the human race as slaves to provide relief from the labor of running the universe (Mesopotamia). As well as the blessing, however, there is also the constant dangerto idolize the results of work, prosperity, and consequently assume that human strength alone or the fertility Gods of the pagan neighbors are responsible for the abundance (Deuteronomy 8:17 ; 32:15 )
Inspiration - ...
Christ's argument, "if He called them Gods, unto whom the word of God came, say ye of Him whom the Father hath sanctified and sent, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God?" rests on the one word "gods" being applied to rulers, as types of the Son of God, therefore still more applicable to the Antitype Himself
Unbelief - This very feeling showed itself even in the polytheism of national religions, under the idea of a highest God, or a father of the Gods. The need of a connection with Heaven, from which man felt himself estranged, and dissatisfaction with the cold and joyless present, obtained a more ready belief for the picture which mythology presented, of a golden age, when Gods and men lived together in intimate union; and warm imaginations looked back on such a state with longing and desire
Jacob - There he was overtaken by Laban, whose exasperation was increased by the fact that his teraphim , or household Gods, had been taken away by the fugitives, Rachel’s hope in stealing them being to appropriate the good fortune of her fathers. The amulets and images of foreign Gods in the possession of his retainers were collected and huried under a terebinth (Genesis 35:4 ; cf
Ten Commandments - In the rest of the ancient law codes, the commands are simply presented as givens, dropped from heaven by the Gods. Eventually, having accepted this stipulation and having sought to live it out, they would be in a position to accept Isaiah's insistence that there are no other Gods (46:9)
Heresy - The Syrian philosopher, Jamblichus, of Chalcis, has furnished us with a circumstantial representation of this system and its several varieties, in his book on the mysteries of the Chaldeans and Egyptians:—The nature of the Gods is a pure, spiritual, and perfect unity. Though the Gods only attend to the pure, they nevertheless sometimes mislead men to impure actions
False Prophet - ...
More often than not, the false prophets prophesied in the name of one or more false Gods while they also syncretistically appealed to Yahweh's name (1 John 4:1-33 , 25 ; 26:27 )
Joel - Israelite Ezra condemned for having a foreign wife who might lead nation to worship other Gods (Ezra 10:43 )
Jewels, Jewelry - Some represented Gods and goddesses
Justification - This is why the Hebrew prophets strongly decried Israel's proclivity to prostitute themselves with foreign Gods
Heresy - if any person, educated in the Christian religion, or professing the same, shall, by writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, deny any one of the persons in the Holy Trinity to be God, or maintain that there are more Gods than one, he shall undergo the same penalties and incapacities which were inflicted on apostasy by the same statute
Esther, Book of - Purim may, in this case, have been, as Jensen suggests, a feast commemorating the victory of Babylonian over Elamite Gods which was taken over and adapted by the Jews
Malachi, Theology of - God had brought destruction on Edom and earlier on Assyria and Babylon, showing that he was superior to the Gods of these nations (1:5)
Friend, Friendship - A friend can even lead one to worship other Gods (Deuteronomy 13:6-11 )
Angel - ...
The New Testament texts contain no developed angelic hierarchy and do not present angels as semi-independent lesser Gods
Righteous, To Be - Similarly in Phoenician, the noun and adjective apply to the loyal relationship of the king before the Gods
Blood - The notion, indeed, that the blood of the victims was peculiarly sacred to the Gods, is impressed upon all ancient Pagan mythology
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - A Persian mule shall one day come into this country, who, supported by the power of your Gods, shall bring you into slavery
Arians - Milner, "assert that Christ was God? The Arians allowed it, but in the same sense as holy men and angels are styled Gods in Scripture
Augustus (2) - 28 he claims to have ‘repaired 82 temples of the Gods’ (Mon. ’ The ancestral religion was dead, belief in the Gods had all but disappeared. The decree ran: ‘To the Genius of the divine Julius, father of his country, whom the Senate and Roman people placed among the number of the Gods
Bible - Whenever their Gods became personal, they ceased to be ONE; they were mere personifications of various powers of nature; fate, not the will of God, ruled all. The pagan mythologies in their indecent histories of Gods counteracted their moral precepts
Miracle - In short, God's mighty Acts intend to foster dependence of his people on him, that they might not trust in themselves or any other Gods. Once again Yahweh proves his supremacy over foreign Gods and rulers
War, Holy War - ...
1618734156_91 indicates the Canaanites were to be killed that they may not "teach you to follow all the detestable things they do in worshiping their Gods. This story celebrates the birth of two Canaanite Gods called Shachar and Shalim
Christ, Christology - The most relevant title in this religious milieu was “Lord,” a title used of Gods and goddesses in the mystery religions which were partly oriental, partly Greco-Roman. ...
Yet even these most explicit statements, along with other teachings in Paul (Philippians 2:6 ; Colossians 1:15 ; Titus 2:13 ; possibly Romans 9:5 ) and Hebrews (1618734156_7 ) never compromised the belief in the unity of God, an inheritance the Christians took from their Jewish ancestry as a cardinal element of Old Testament monotheism (belief in one God in a world of many Gods)
Nativity of Christ - Rome adopted the Gods of almost every nation whom she had conquered, and opened her temples to the grossest superstitions of the most barbarous people
Samuel, Books of - Only a dedicated priest, not foreign Gods nor disobedient persons, can stand before God (1 Samuel 5:1-7:2 )
Assyria - (Sarakos) ?...
Fall of Nineveh ? 606...
The Assyrians were idolaters: from the inscriptions the names of hundreds of Gods can be gathered
Elisha - Elisha was sought for, and he boldly told Jehoram to go to the Gods of his father and mother: if Jehoshaphat had not been there he would not have helped them, nevertheless there was grace for them
Drunkenness - ...
It was Gentile rather than Jewish wine-drinking habits that Apostolic Christianity had to combat, and Bacchus (Dionysus) was notoriously one of the most powerful of the Gods of Greece and Home
Philistia - They carried their idols with them in war (2 Samuel 5:21), and published their triumphs in the house of their Gods; these were Dagon (Judges 16:23) , Ashtaroth (1 Samuel 31:9-10), Baalzebub (2 Kings 1:2-6), and Derceto (Diod
Caracalla, the Nickname of m. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Bassianus - He did not become a Christian, and the ancient Gods of the state were the last to whom he had recourse
Animal - The notion, indeed, that the blood of the victims was peculiarly sacred to the Gods, is impressed upon all ancient Pagan mythology
Worship - ’* If we use the word ‘prayer’ in the widest sense, as including praise as well as petition and intercession, the words agree with the opinion of Döllinger: ‘When the attention of a thinking heathen was directed to the new religion which was spreading in the Roman Empire, the thing to strike him as extraordinary would be that a religion of prayer was superseding the religion of ceremonies and invocations of Gods; that it encouraged all, even the humblest and the most uneducated, to pray, or, in other words, to meditate and exercise the mind in self-scrutiny and contemplation of God. ’† In that age many men who showed respect for the externals of worship doubted their efficacy and the very existence of the Gods
Time - The end-time period surrounding Jesus' second coming is variously called the last times, last hour, last days, day of the Lord, day of judgment, day of Gods wrath, time of punishment, end of the ages, end of all things
Ebla - Other deities, known from the Ugaritic texts and mentioned in the Bible, are identified, as are Sumerian and Hurrian Gods
Holiness - ]'>[1] qaddîsh ‘holy’ is met with 13 times in the Book of Daniel, qâdçsh and qedçshâh have almost exclusively heathen associations, qaddîsh is used in a few passages of the Gods, but otherwise the Biblical words from this root refer exclusively to Jehovah, and persons or things connected with Him
Sacrifice - First, that whereas the heathen conceived of their Gods as alienated in jealousy or anger, to be sought after and to be appeased by the unaided action of man, Scripture represents God himself as approaching man, as pointing out and sanctioning the way by which the broken covenant should be restored
Land (of Israel) - Moses also warned the people to be careful not to be deceived to serve other Gods and to worship them
Altar - is a structure used in worship as the place for presenting sacrifices to God or Gods
Augustus - The word, cognate with augur, had a sacred ring about it, having been applied (a) to places and objects which either possessed by nature or acquired by consecration a religious or hallowed character; (b) to the Gods
Ebla - Other deities, known from the Ugaritic texts and mentioned in the Bible, are identified, as are Sumerian and Hurrian Gods
Philosophy - On the one aide are Gods regardless of material things, on the other a Being permeating and vivifying all creation
God - The proof rests on facts recorded in the history of the Jews, from which it appears that they were always victorious and prosperous so long as they served the only living and true God, Jehovah, the name by which the Almighty made himself known to them, and uniformly unsuccessful when they revolted from him to serve other Gods. Though ONE, he is אלהים , ELOHIM, Gods, persons adorable. "By the Word of Gods," says Dr
Egypt - We may well admire the early connexion of religion with morality, shown especially in the ‘Negative Confession’ and the judgment scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating not later than the 18th Dynasty; yet in practice the Egyptian religion, so far as we can judge, was mainly a compelling of the Gods by magic formulæ. Prayers also occur; but the tendency was overwhelmingly greater to magic , compelling the action of the Gods, or in other ways producing the desired effect. Death evidently separated the elements of which the living man was composed; the corpse might be rejoined from time to time by the hawk-winged soul, while at other times the latter would be in the heavens associating with Gods
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - Marcion plainly asserted the existence of two Gods, a good one and a just one. Tertullian, indeed, argues that Marcion, to be consistent, should count as many as nine Gods. Then Hyle, recognizing that the Lord of Creation had supplanted her, said, "Seeing that he hates me and keeps not his compact with me, I will make a number of Gods and fill the world with them, so that they who seek the true God shall not be able to find him
Originality - The heathen believed in the immortality of the soul, in the resurrection of the dead, in a future life with punishments and rewards, in the existence of Gods who were offended by the faults of men, in the approaching end of this world and the coming of a new one. We admit that it was not necessary that the infant should be presented in person on the occasion of its being ransomed; but we have only to read the account of the presentation of the infant Buddha, which Seydel thinks may have suggested this incident, with its description of how 100,000 Gods drew the waggon which bore him, of how the earth trembled as he entered the temple, of how the images of the Gods left their places to throw themselves at his feet, to convince ourselves that among the various motives which might be assigned for the departure from the strict letter of the Law in the case of Jesus, a more unlikely one could hardly be conceived than a desire to institute a parallel with this fantastic story, to which the simple Gospel narrative offers the most striking contrast
Eschatology - Pagan Gods and pagan political rulers seemed to hold all things in their grip. Instead of coming as a warrior Messiah to destroy the pagan nations and their Gods, God came as a humble Servant who was put to death, but then was unexpectedly resurrected
Sin - They followed and worshiped the Gods of the nations around them (Judges 2:10-13 ). Ahaz even spurned God's free offer of deliverance from invasion; he thought he had arranged his own deliverance through an alliance with Assyria and its Gods
Athenagoras - his answer to the heathen argument, that not the idols, but the Gods represented, are really honoured. Were there more Gods than one, they could not co-exist and co-work as a community of beings similar to each other, in the same sphere; for things self-existent and eternal cannot be like a number of creatures formed all on one pattern, but must be eternally distinct and unlike
Creation - ...
The people of Lystra took Barnabas and Paul to be Gods (Acts 14:11 )
Sol'Omon - " He found himself involved in a fascination which led to the worship of strange Gods
Divination - She tells Saul, "I saw Gods (a supernatural being) ascending out of the earth
Trinity - Israel lived among nations that had many Gods
Fall - The serpent claimed that the phrases “your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil” (Genesis 3:5 ) are God's reasons for giving the prohibitive command; in reality, these phrases express the human reasons for breaking the command
Gnosticism - ...
Although the radical conclusions of some scholars regarding a highly developed pre-Christian gnosticism have been discounted, it does seem clear that there were many ideas, assumptions, and perceptions about deity, reality, and the relationships of persons to Gods and the world that were incorporated into the gnostic sects from outside Hellenistic sources
Trinity - In tritheism, error is made in emphasizing the distinctiveness of the Godhead to the point that the Trinity is seen as three separate Gods, or a Christian polytheism
Apostle - 22) speaks of the ideal Cynic teacher as one "sent by Zeus" to be a messenger of the Gods and an "overseer" of human affairs
Elijah - Elijah defended Yahweh's sovereignty over history and justice, as well as over false Gods (1 Kings 17-18 )
Edom - ...
Amaziah of Judah killed many thousands in the Valley of Salt near the Dead Sea, and took Selah, afterward Joktheel, the first mention of this extraordinary city (2 Kings 14:7), and adopted their Gods of mount Seir
Self- Denial - by worshipping our Gods, … shall gain forgiveness’ (Trajan’s letter to Pliny, Ep
Genealogy - We should note that the distinctive feature of the Greek genealogies, which traced national descent from the Gods, is absent from the OT
Clovis, King of Salian Franks - " His warriors signified their assent in the well-known words, "Gods that die we cast away from us, the god that dies not, whom Remigius preaches, we are prepared to follow
Hellenists - There were, however, doubtless, among the proselytes of the gate, some who, wanting in proper earnestness in their search after religious truth, only desired, in every case, an easy road to heaven, which did not require any self-denial; and who, in order to be sure of being on the safe side, whether power and truth lay with the Jews or the Heathens, sometimes worshipped in the synagogue of Jehovah, sometimes in the temples of the Gods, and who, therefore, fluttered in suspense between Judaism and Heathenism
New Moon - And how natural it was that the celebration of the new moon should enter into the religion of nature-worshipping men, to whom the sun and moon were veritable Gods and the terms ‘King of Day’ and ‘Queen of the Night’ more than poetic expressions! (As to the latter, we must not forget that the moon was regarded amongst some people as a masculine deity, as the German der Mond bears witness
Hell - 13) to that region of dire punishment allotted to the elder Gods, whose sway Zeus had usurped. It seems likely that the Jews, in turn, derived it from the ideas of Egyptian religion, since we find Ani, seated on his judgment throne, saying, ‘I am crowned king of the Gods, I shall not die a second time in the underworld’ (The Book of the Dead, ed
Prophecy - The people of Israel were strictly forbidden to consult the diviners and the Gods of other nations, and to use any enchantments and wicked arts; and that they might have no temptation to it. ' ...
We see a power 'cast down the truth to the ground, and prosper, and practise, and destroy the holy people, not regarding the God of his fathers, nor the desire of wives, but honouring Mahuzzim, ' Gods-protectors, or saints-protectors, 'and causing' the priests of Mahuzzim 'to rule over many, and to divide the land for gain
Joshua - And when he was on his death-bed it all came back to him, till he summoned the heads of Israel around him to hear his dying apology and protest; 'Choose you out this day among all the Gods of the Gibeonites and the other Canaanites the god that you and your children will serve; but know this, that as for me and my house we will serve the Lord. Are you yourselves to be, and are you to bring up your children after you to be, Amorites, and Hittites, and Hivites, and Canaanites, and Jebusites in the land? Are you to let ambition, and envy, and pride, and anger, and self-will rule in your hearts and be your household Gods? No! Never, never! Not so long as you have still this day in your choice for yourselves and for your households the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, and abundant in goodness and truth
Hell - 13) to that region of dire punishment allotted to the elder Gods, whose sway Zeus had usurped. It seems likely that the Jews, in turn, derived it from the ideas of Egyptian religion, since we find Ani, seated on his judgment throne, saying, ‘I am crowned king of the Gods, I shall not die a second time in the underworld’ (The Book of the Dead, ed
Hammurabi - ” They were to lay before the public, posterity, future kings, and the Gods, evidence of the king's execution of the divinely ordained mandates
Disciple, Discipleship - When the nation violated the covenant, it is said to be following the Gods of the heathen and walking in their ways (Deuteronomy 6:14 ; Judges 2:10-13 ; Isaiah 65:2 )
Disease - Ill fortune of all kinds being inflicted by the Gods, they alone could remove it
Nebuchadnezzar - Devotion to the Gods, especially Bel Merodach, from whom he named his son and successor Evil Merodach, and the desire to rest his fame on his great works and the arts of peace rather than his warlike deeds, are his favorable characteristics in the monuments
Faith - ” In this period belief in the existence of the Gods of the Greek pantheon would be expressed with the verb nomizo (to think, believe, hold, consider)
Name, Names - The nations which were related to the Hebrews acknowledged or invoked their Gods in the same fashion: Babylonian and Assyrian proper names containing the elements, Bel, Asshur, Nebo, Merodach , etc
King, Christ as - "God is God of Gods and the Lord of kings" (Daniel 2:47 ), who is "sovereign over the kingdoms of men and gives them to anyone he wishes" (4:25)
Work - ...
The phrase “work of one’s hands” signifies the worthlessness of the idols fashioned by human hands: “Asshur shall not save us; we will not ride upon horses: neither will we say any more to the work of our hands, Ye are our Gods: for in thee the fatherless findeth mercy” ( Carpocrates, Philospher - ...
In the opening statement concerning the making of the world, the doctrine ascribed to Carpocrates is almost identical with that ascribed to Saturninus; but in the next paragraph the language is distinctly taken from the myth in Plato's Phaedrus, in which human knowledge is made to be but a recollection of what the soul had seen when carried round with the Gods in their revolution, and permitted to see the eternal forms of things
Prophets - Thus the Heathen poets, who sung or composed verses in praise of their Gods, were called by the Romans vates, or prophets; which is of the same import with the Greek προφητης , a title which St
Patriarchs, the - He experienced close communion with God (Genesis 18:33 ; Genesis 24:40 ) and worshiped Him consistently to the exclusion of all other Gods
Plagues, the Ten, - The victory was complete; upon all the Gods of Egypt, Jehovah had executed judgment
Noah - The Gods revealed to him their decree: "make a great ship . of the Tigris, he quitted it, built an altar, and sacrificed to the Gods and disappeared
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - Ramsay conjectures that the phrase is a Christian adaptation of a pagan idea, that a person wronged by another but unable to retaliate should consign the offender to the Gods and leave punishment to he inflicted by Divine power; Satan would be looked on as God’s instrument in punishing the offender; and the latter, being cast out of the Christian community, would be left as a prey to the devil. ‘The false Gods are really non-existent; we have but one God; as there is no such thing really as an idol we are free to eat meats offered in idol temples
Terah - Now, this Terah, in his inherited and invincible ignorance, served other Gods, and he had brought up Abram, his so devout son, to the same service. But those two Gentile men, father and son, served their Gentile Gods with such truly Jewish service that God was constrained to wink at their unwilling ignorance
Beatitude - In Homer the Gods are the blessed (μάκαρες) ones, because they excel mortal men in power or in knowledge rather than in virtue. It is therefore suggestive that the Christian conception of beatitude should find expression in a word closely associated with descriptions of the blessedness of the Gods and ‘originally stronger and more ideal than εὐδαίμων
Psalms (2) - He appeals to the psalm, to show that men exalted to high office had been in the OT called ‘gods’; and argues that, if the title was appropriate for them, how much more for Him who had a unique commission and equipment from the Father. In the Hebrew OT, however, the term literally translated ‘sons of God’ is applied to supernatural beings whether they be regarded as Gods or angels; cf
Mary, the Virgin - " "The Lord is (or, BE) with thee (Judges 6:12), blessed art thou among women"; not among Gods and goddesses
Tiberius - 5) alleges that Tiberius himself proposed to the Senate the enrolment of Jesus among the Gods, and that, on the proposal being rejected, he himself remained of the same opinion, and threatened persecutors of Christians with trial
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - 370, who uses the legend to illustrate the scene at Lystra, Acts 14:11), must have had its origin in some mind which had conceived it possible that the Gods might put men to the proof by visiting them in human form
Revelation of God - They do not like the God to which the truth leads them so they invent substitute Gods and religions instead
Jehoram - How could it be otherwise, when Jezebel lived throughout his reign, as whole-hearted for false Gods as her son was half hearted for the true God! (2 Kings 9:30; 2 Kings 10:18 ff; 2 Kings 3:13)
Lord's Supper, the - To eat at the table of pagan Gods is to fellowship with demons and to make a mockery of the Lord's Supper, for in the Eucharist there is fellowship with God in Christ and with fellow believers in the body of Christ
Good - ...
(2) A second feature of the Christian view that distinguishes it from the Greek is that the good is not the result of fortune or the reward of merit, but the gift of Gods grace (Romans 5:21; Romans 6:23)
Holy Day - They were in bondage to them which by nature are ‘no Gods’ (Galatians 4:8)
Death - The reference to the dead under the term ‘gods’ ( elôhim ), as in 1 Samuel 28:13 , is noticeable
Atonement - This with the heathen, who attached human passions or demon-revenge to their Gods, was of course perverted to meet those ideas
the Angel of the Church in Pergamos - Zeus, Athene, Apollo, Dionysus, Aphrodite, Æsculapius, were all among the Gods of Pergamos, and all had magnificent shrines erected and administered to their honour
Samuel, First Book of - After twenty years the people lamented after the Lord, and Samuel said they must put away their strange Gods, and prepare their hearts to the Lord and serve Him only, and He would save them
Antioch - To avert the anger of the Gods during a season of pestilence, he ordered the sculptor Leios to hew Mt
Diocletian, Emperor - He would take counsel with his friends and consult the Gods
Prayer - Nor are we to pray to the Trinity, as three distinct Gods; for though the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost be addressed in various parts of the Scripture, Daniel 4:34-353 . , yet never as three Gods, for that would lead us directly to the doctrine of polytheism: the more ordinary mode the Scripture points out, is, to address the Father through the Son, depending on the Spirit to help our infirmities, Ephesians 2:18
Moses - The king then called upon his wise men and magicians, to know if they could do as much by the power of their Gods, "and they did so with their enchantments; for they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron's rod swallowed up their serpents. How severely Moses felt his deprivation, appears from his humble, and it should seem repeated, supplications to the Lord to reverse the sentence: "O Lord of Gods, thou hast begun to show thy servant thy greatness, and thy mighty hand; for what god is there in heaven or in earth that can do according to thy works, and according to thy might? I pray thee let me go over and see the good land beyond Jordan, even that goodly mountain Lebanon," or the whole breadth of the land
Polycarp - This is the cry by which popular hatred designated the Christians as enemies of the Gods. 400), began to shout: ‘This is the teacher of Asia (οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τῆς Ἀσίας διδάσκαλος), the father of the Christians, the puller down of our Gods, who teacheth numbers not to sacrifice nor worship!’ Notice the expression ὁ πατὴρ τῶν Χριστιανῶν to denote the bishop
Jonah - When a violent storm comes on, and the prayers of the mariners to their Gods are of no avail, they conclude that there is some one on board who has offended some deity, and cast lots to discover the culprit
Rome And the Roman Empire - The Roman emperor was the head of the state religion, which included worship of the emperor and the traditional Gods of Rome
Kings, First And Second, Theology of - Jeroboam and Ahab sinfully influenced Israel so that the people copied attributes of supplanted peoples (2 Kings 17:8,11 ), served other Gods (2 Kings 17:12 ), and seduced surrounding peoples (2 Kings 17:15 )
Tabernacle - In pagan temples this is where the Gods were believed to sit and eat
Abraham - From Joshua 24:2; Joshua 24:14-15, it appears Terah and his family served other Gods beyond the Euphrates
Elijah - The prophets of Baal prepared their altar, sacrificed their bullock, placed it on the altar, and called upon their Gods
Fall of Man - This account is, that a garden having been planted by the Creator, for the use of man, he was placed in it, "to dress it, and to keep it;"—that in this garden two trees were specially distinguished, one as "the tree of life," the other as: "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil;"—that from eating of the latter Adam was restrained by positive interdict, and by the penalty, "In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die;"—that the serpent, who was more subtle that any beast of the field, tempted the woman to eat, by denying that death would be the consequence, and by assuring her, that her eyes and her husband's eyes "would be opened," and that they would "be as Gods, knowing good and evil;"—that the woman took of the fruit, gave of it to her husband, who also ate;—that for this act of disobedience they were expelled from the garden, made subject to death, and laid under other maledictions
Egypt - The Egyptians not only esteemed many species of animals as sacred, which might not be killed without the punishment of death, but individual animals were kept in temples and worshipped with sacrifices, as Gods
Jonah - ...
Their deep reverence for their Gods (as appears from their inscriptions), as well as Jonah's deliverance (which was known to them, Luke 11:30), and probably his previous prophecy which had been fulfilled, of Israel's deliverance under Jeroboam II from Syria with which Nineveh had been long warring, all made them ready to heed his message
Principality Principalities - 270) arranges them in three classes: (1) Gods, thrones, dominions; (2) archangels, principalities, authorities; (3) angels, powers, cherubim, seraphim
Prudentius, Marcus (?) Aurelius Clemens Prudentius - The existence of good and evil does not justify Marcion's theory of two Gods, for unity is essential to our conception of God
Rome - The legend of the help given by the twin-brother Gods to the Romans when in straits at the battle of Regillus is familiar to all. 141, the Senate, at the instance of her husband, who had been passionately devoted to her, elevated her among the Gods, and vowed her a temple, the construction of which was begun almost at once
Simon Magus - He says: ‘After Christ’s ascension into heaven the devils put forward certain men who said that they themselves were Gods; and they were not only not persecuted by you, but even deemed worthy of honours. For even among yourselves, as we said before, Simon was in the royal city Rome in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and so greatly astonished the sacred senate and people of the Romans, that he was considered a god, and honoured, like the others whom you honour as Gods, with a statue
Christ in the Middle Ages - ‘He became man in order that He might make us Gods. The Logos became the Son of Man in order that He might make men Gods, and sons of God
Expiation - To them the notion of propitiatory offerings, offerings to avert the displeasure of the Gods, and which expiated the crimes of offenders, was most familiar, and terms corresponding to it were in constant use. From αγος , a pollution, an impurity, which was to be expiated by sacrifice, are derived αγνιζω and αγιαζω , which denote the act of expiation; καθαιρω , too, to purify, cleanse, is applied to the effect of expiation; and ιλασκομαι denotes the method of propitiating the Gods by sacrifice
Sanctification, Sanctify - passim ) in distinction from heathen Gods, ‘sanctify’ acquired a corresponding ethical connotation; holiness came to imply a character (actual or ideal) in the holy people, accordant with its status
Virgin Birth - ...
In contrast to the promiscuous stories of Greek mythology in which male offspring appear as by-products of liaisons between the Gods and earthly women, the virgin birth as God's creative work in no way compromises or offends his holiness or his supreme lordship over all creation
Demon - The medium from Endor sees "gods" or "spirits" coming up from the ground (1 Samuel 28:13 )
Judges, Theology of - Samson's proclivity for foreign women has become metaphorical for Israel itself, unable to resist going whoring after the enticement of foreign Gods (2:17; 8:27,33)
Law - " The order of the ten indicates the divine hand; God's being, unity, exclusive deity, "have no other Gods before My face" (Hebrews 4:13); His worship as a Spirit without idol symbol; His name; His day; His earthly representatives, parents, to be honoured; then regard for one's neighbour's life; for his second self, his wife; his property; character; bridling the desires, the fence of duty to one's neighbour and one's self
Ephesians, Book of - The newly-established religion moved inevitably westward to the coast and to the flourishing city of Ephesus, a city of multiple religions, Gods, and goddesses
Elect, Election - Whatever it be, whether false Gods, other human beings, angels or other supernatural beings, or even ourselvesthey cannot save us
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - Many kings, among Israel's neighbors, were held to be Gods; not so in Israel
Law - , worshiping other Gods)
Love - In extra-biblical Greek love as extending from the Gods to man seems to be an unknown conception, for according to Aristotle and Dio Chrysostom both ἀγαπᾶν and φιλεῖν have place not in those who rule with reference to those they rule over, but only in the opposite direction: ἄτοπον φιλεῖν τὸν Δία (where Δία is the subject)
Christian (the Name) - ’ Nor could the name of Christian he legally borne by any one who added sacrilege to high treason, in refusing to worship the ancestral Gods of the State
Pentateuch - Jeroboam in northern Israel set up golden calves on Aaron's model, with words from Exodus 32:28, "behold thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of Egypt" (1 Kings 12:28)
Judgments of God - He invaded the Roman empire with an army of 400, 000 men, about the year 405, and vowed to sacrifice all the Romans to his Gods
Roman Catholics - I am the Lord thy God; thou shalt have no strange Gods before me
Solomon - , to the exclusion of the ‘high places,’ and its effect was largely neutralized by the honour paid to other Gods (11); none the less its elaborate magnificence was a visible proof of the triumph of J″ Trinity - And yet they are not three Gods, but one God
Bible, Theology of - God is not fickle and changeable like the Gods of the pagans
Samson - They have collected out of all the ancient books of the world wonderful tales of giants, and heroes, and demigods, with their astonishing feats of strength in war, and in love, and in jealousy, and in revenge; feats more or less like the feats of strength and of revenge we have in Samson. '...
Desire of wine and all delicious drinks,Which many a famous warrior overturns,Thou couldst repress; nor did the dancing ruby,Sparkling, outpour'd, the flavour, or the smellOr taste that cheers the heart of Gods and men,Allure thee from the clear crystalline stream:
Games - Games and combats were instituted by the ancients in honour of their Gods; and were celebrated with that view by the most polished and enlightened nations of antiquity
Pilate - The Jewish prejudice against images of Gods was incomprehensible to the other ancient peoples; but their attitude was officially respected by the Romans, whose practice it was to refrain from introducing such into the Jews’ country
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - The reason for such calamity lies in Israel's failure to do justice (5:7,10-12) and her devotion to Gods other than Yahweh (5:25-27)
Canaan - The "places" (maqowm ) which God commanded Israel to destroy, where the Canaanites "served their Gods upon the high mountains, and hills, and under every green tree" (Deuteronomy 12:2), exactly answer to the fellaheen 's Arabic makam (the same word as in Deuteronomy) in Palestine, or Mussulman kubbehs with little white topped cupolas dotted over the hills
Clean And Unclean - A sanctuary, a season, a priest or chief, were set apart from common life and placed in a peculiar relation of intimacy to God or the Gods; they were tabooed as holy
Faith - In sense ( b ) pistis came into the language of theology, the Gods being referred ( e
Kings, Books of - It had not been forgotten that this king built altars to foreign Gods
Immorality, Sexual - ...
The New Testament requires believers to deny physical and spiritual lusting after people and false Gods, and to conduct their behavior at a high moral and spiritual level
Jerusalem - The most active of the Gods of Ugarit was called Baal-Zaphon
Jeremiah, Theology of - Most repugnant of all is her sin of idolatry (7:9), the exchange of other "gods" for the true God (2:11)
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - ...
There are also demons of a lower grade, those, namely, who came into being during the 130 years after the Creation, and who are semi-human;‡ Alpha And Omega (2) - Jehovah is contrasted with the Gods of the heathen in Isaiah 41:26-27; Isaiah 42:9; Isaiah 43:9-10; Isaiah 44:6-7; Isaiah 44:26; Isaiah 45:21; Isaiah 46:9-10; Isaiah 48:3; Isaiah 48:5; Isaiah 48:12, also, and indeed primarily, as ‘first and last’ in the sense of director of all things to the fulfilment of His predeclared purpose, i
Esau - He had sacrificed and sworn and vowed to their false Gods of the fields, and of the streams, and of the unclean groves
Persecution - Considerable numbers were publicly destroyed; several purchased safety by bribes, or secured it by flight; and many deserted from the faith, and willingly consented to burn incense on the altars of the Gods
Preaching - Abraham commanded his household alter him to keep the way of the Lord, and to do justice and judgment, Genesis 18:19 ; and Jacob, when his house lapsed to idolatry, remonstrated against it, and exhorted all them that were with him to put away the strange Gods, and go up with him to Bethel, Genesis 35:2-3
Necessity - —The recognition of God as the sole Absolute and Ultimate Being, excludes the heathen conception of an inscrutable Fate or Necessity (ἀνάγκη) to which Gods and men are subject, but it does not of itself exclude the doctrine of Theological Determinism as taught by Calvin
Tabernacle - ]'>[9] ‘congregation’), the mô‘çd or assembly of the Gods
Poetry of the Hebrews - ...
He is to be feared above all the Gods
Deuteronomy, Theology of - This is in opposition to the notion of the multiplicity of pagan Gods and their respective shrines, all of which must be eradicated, including the prophets who promote these competing (if nonexistent) deities (13:5,9-10)
Hezekiah - Sethos erected a monument, a man in stone with a mouse in his hand, and the inscription, "Look on me and learn to reverence the Gods
Jacob - Jacob understood it so, and called his household to put away their strange Gods (namely, Rachel's stolen teraphim and the idols of Shechem, which was spoiled just before), their earrings (used as idolatrous phylacteries), and uncleanness; and then proceeded to perform what he had vowed so long ago, namely, to make the stone pillar God's house (Genesis 28:22)
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - In the Hellenistic world of the first century, prophecy took many forms, but its unifying feature was the belief that a message had come directly from God or the Gods
Forgiveness - Solomon went so far as to worship other Gods, including the detestable god Molech (1 Kings 11 )
Sibylline Oracles - These Roman oracles originally were not so much predictions of woes to come, like apocalyptic tracts, as explanations of what was required to avert the anger of the Gods and ward off evil to the State on earth
Sacrifice - Thanksgiving alone would make gifts the essence of God's service, as the pagan bribe their Gods by vows and offerings
Aaron - 'Up, make us Gods, which shall go before us; for, as for this Moses, we wot not what is become of him
Red Sea - That for their protection against the God of Israel, the Egyptians brought with them the sacred animals; and by this means God executed judgment upon all the bestial Gods of Egypt, as foretold, Exodus 12:12 , that perished with their infatuated votaries; completing the destruction of both, which began with smiting the first-born both of man and beast
Deluge - There they became perfectly mild and innoxious, their natures being changed by the Gods, who created such a friendship between them, that they all sailed peaceably together, so long as the waters prevailed over the surface of the globe
Philo - ...
From Plato, whom he mentions next to Moses and with nearly equal reverence, Philo borrows the doctrine of the Ideas, combining them, however, with the Stoic doctrine of the Logos and the logoi, and clothing it in the form of the biblical doctrines of Wisdom and of angels (it is still disputed whether in this late Jewish theory, as well as in the Stoic theory, there is a reminiscence of polytheism, ancient Gods being turned into divine attributes, or only a poetical mode of personification
Government - In addition to the office of king, they believed that the Gods had sent down to earth a collection of civic regulations that were intended to cover all sorts of social situations
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - Philosophers such as Plato attacked the widespread idea that the root meaning of the names of Gods or humans revealed their character
Sin (2) - He identifies them with the heathen Gods (1 Corinthians 10:20-21)
Holiness Purity - Jahweh, as holy, in Hebrew thought is not originally opposed to the universe, but rather is guarded or guards Himself, on the one hand against the arrogance and presumption of man (1 Samuel 6:20) and, on the other, against the false deity of the national Gods (Joshua 4:19 ff
Passover - Jehovah smote the firstborn of man and beast, and so "executed judgment against all the Gods of Egypt" (Exodus 12:12; Numbers 33:3-4), for every nome and town had its sacred animal, bull, cow, goat, ram, cat, frog, beetle, etc
Priests And Levites - We may compare Psalms 82:6 ‘I said, Ye are Gods’ a reference undoubtedly to this passage, made to show how unworthy the judges of a later time were of their sacred office
Law of Moses - Acknowledgment of false Gods , ( Exodus 22:20 ) as e
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - It taught the existence of two Gods—an evil one, the God of the Jews, having Simon Magus as his minister, and a good one, from Whom Christ came
Education in Bible Times - The by-product of this kind of education was a model citizen, loyal to family, Gods, and king, upright in character, and productive in community life
Amos, Theology of - Those who worship the Gods of the nations will be exiled to such nations (5:26-27)
Job, Theology of - When Job assumes that God owes him physical blessing since he has been obedient to Him, he was imbibing a concept that undergirded ancient Near Eastern religions—that the human relationship to the Gods was like a business contract of mutual claims that was binding in court
Preaching - Abraham commanded his household after him to keep the way of the Lord, and to do justice and judgment, Genesis 18:19 ; and Jacob, when his house lapsed to idolatry, remonstrated against it, and exhorted them and all that were with him to put away strange Gods, and to go up with him to Bethel, Genesis 25:2-3
Birth of Christ - Luke, a word so often used by the Greeks to designate their Gods, and thus it found its way into " translation="">Luke 2:11
Moses - Jehovah gave Moses two signs as credentials to assure him of his mission: the transformation of his long "rod" of authority (as on Egyptian monuments) or pastoral rod into a "serpent," the basilisk or cobra, the symbol of royal and divine power on the Pharaoh's diadem; a pledge of victory over the king and Gods of Egypt (compare Mark 16:18; Moses' humble but wonder working crook typifies Christ's despised but allpowerful cross)
Quakers - "It is well known that the society, from its first appearance, has disused those names of the months and days, which, having been given in honour of the heroes or false Gods of the heathen, originated in their flattery or superstition; and the custom of speaking to a single person in the plural number, as having arisen also from motives of adulation
Religion (2) - There were three Greek words for service: διακονία, which was used for service from man to man, chiefly reserved for slaves; λειτουργία, which was used for the service of a man to the commonwealth; and λατρεία, for the service rendered to the Gods
Offerings And Sacrifices - The verb thuo, [John 10:10 ; Acts 10:13 ; 11:7 ) and prepared for a wedding feast (Matthew 22:4 ) or other kind of celebration (Luke 15:23,27,30 ); (2) the slaughter of the Passover lamb (Mark 14:12 ; Luke 22:7 ; 1 Corinthians 5:7 ); and (3) offerings to pagan Gods (Acts 14:13,18 ; 1 Corinthians 10:20 )
Galatia - (4) It is possible to make too much of the parallel between Galatians 4:14, ‘ye received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus,’ and the account of the Apostle’s remarkable experience at Lystra, where the people regarded him and Barnabas as Gods (Acts 14:11-14)
Lord's Day - liturgical names for Sunday (dies dominica, κυριακή) and Saturday (sabbatum, σάββατον), the whole liturgical scheme of the week having come down from early times when Christiana discarded the use of day-names associated with pagan Gods
Immanuel - This was ultimately derived from the pagan stories of children of the Gods, but was not taken over directly from paganism by Jewish Christianity
Sirach - Nevertheless his debt to Greek authors is, as has been seen, considerable; and though in one place he ridicules sacrifices to idols (Sirach 30:19), which he compares with the practice of offering meats to the dead, his book is on the whole singularly free from that invective against foreign cults which reaches its climax in Isaiah and the Wisdom of Solomon, and made the Jews, in the words of Pliny, notorious for their contempt of the Gods
Psalms - David boldly, in the face of mighty nations, asserts the nullity of their Gods and the sole Godhead of Jehovah; compare Psalms 18:31, "who is Elohim but Jehovah?" Jehovah is understood before Elohim in Elohim psalms, as the doxology at the end of the second book recognizes, "blessed be Jehovah Elohim" (Psalms 72:18)
Ascension (2) - The motives, moreover, which prompted the Senate to give each successive emperor a place among the Gods, or the Hindu devotee to regard his hero as divine, are easy to trace: in the former instance political; in the latter, religious indeed, but too naïve for the Jew, who had no natural tendency to deify—such a tendency has not been proved, it is incompatible with the exclusive and stubborn monotheism of the race
Miracle - "The history of almost every religion abounds with relations of prodigies and wonders, and of the intercourse of men with the Gods; but we know of no religious system, those of the Jews and Christians excepted, which appealed to miracles as the sole evidence of its truth and divinity
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - -On the road to Sidon there is an incident connected with a heathen altar, and the power of Christians over the demons or heathen Gods, but there is unfortunately a large lacuna in the text
Offering - 20:28 the word refers to the pagan “provocation of their offering” which apostate Israel gave to other Gods, while in Abram - The family of Abraham was idolatrous, for his "fathers served other Gods beyond the flood," that is, the great river Euphrates; but whether he himself was in the early period of his life an idolater, we are not informed by Moses
Covenant - ...
After the laws were promulgated, the people were given assurances of Yahweh's guidance, protection, and bringing them into the promised land, where they were to remain covenantally faithful to Yahweh and not make a covenant with the people living in the land or with their Gods (23:20-33)
Elijah - Jezebel's fury upon hearing of the slaughter of her favorite prophets knew no bounds: "so let the Gods do to me and more also, if I make not
Babel - Smith reads an Assyrian fragment of writing in columns to the effect that "wickedness of men caused the Gods to overthrow Babel; what they built in the day the god overthrew in the night; in his anger he scattered them abroad; their counsel was confused
Sanctification - On the one hand, through the influence of the prophets, first the nation and then the individual (as in Jeremiah) are regarded as ‘holy’ in the eyes of Jahweh, who, unlike other Gods, has more than a mere proprietary interest in ‘His own
Joram - Lastly, we find the ‘river of Banias,’ Nahr-Banias, which starts at 1200 feet above the sea from a grotto, the ancient shrine of the Semitic, and then of the Graeco-Roman, Gods, well known under the name of Paneion, and round which arose the city known under the names of Caesarea Philippi and Paneas, and now called Banias, a corruption of the latter name
Divinity of Christ - ‘What has been done,’ says the adage, ‘even the Gods themselves cannot make undone
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - After Christianity had triumphed over the Gods of heathendom, Arius seemed to be reintroducing them under other names
Christianity - It pronounced all other Gods to be false, and all other worship vain
Paul - Thereupon these pagans took the apostles for Gods, calling Barnabas, who was of the more imposing presence, Jupiter, and Paul, who was the chief speaker, Mercurius
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - " Then arose a furious outcry from heathen and Jews against this "father of the Christians," this teacher of Asia this destroyer of the worship of the Gods
Prophet - And the power of Jehovah to reveal to them the future raises Him, in the eyes of Israel, at once above the heathen Gods, and proves to them that He is the true God (Isaiah 41:21-28; Isaiah 42:9; Isaiah 43:9-13; Isaiah 44:25 ff; Isaiah 48:3-7)
Desire - A religious man desires to win the I approbation of the Gods; a just man is persuaded that the practice of justice will bring satisfaction; a man seeks knowledge because it is a satisfaction to know
Hippolytus Romanus - Thus, beside God there appeared another; yet not two Gods, but only as light from light, a ray from the sun
Clement of Alexandria - In the seventh book Clement regards the Christian philosopher as the one true worshipper of God (§§ 1–5), striving to become like the Son of God (5–21), even as the heathen conversely made their Gods like themselves (22–27)
Clementine Literature - Simon would bring forward texts which seemed to speak of a plurality of Gods, or which imputed imperfection to God, or spoke of Him as changing His purpose or hardening men's hearts and so forth; or, again, which laid crimes to the charge of the just men of the law, Adam and Noah, Abraham, Jacob, and Moses
Babylon - " "Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her Gods he hath broken unto the ground