What does Gentile mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἐθνικῶς like the Gentiles. 1
ἑλληνίς a Greek women. / a Gentile women 1

Definitions Related to Gentile


   1 a Greek women.
   2 a Gentile women, not a Jewess.


   1 like the Gentiles.

Frequency of Gentile (original languages)

Frequency of Gentile (English)


Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Gentile
In matters of religion, a Pagan, or worshipper of false gods. The origin of this word is deduced from the Jews, who called all those who were not of their name gojim, 1:e. gentes, which in the Greek translation of the Old Testament is rendered in which sense it frequently occurs in the New Testament; as in Matthew 6:32 . "All these things the nations or Gentiles seek." Whence the Latin church also used gentes in the same sense as our Gentiles, especially in the New Testament. But the word gentes soon got another signification, and no longer mean: all such as were not Jews, but those only who were neither Jews nor Christians, but followed the superstitions of the Greeks and Romans, &c. In this sense it continued among the Christian writers, till their manner of speech, together with their religion, was publicly, and by authority, received in the empire, when gentiles, from gentes, came into use; and then both words had two significations; viz., in treatises or laws concerning religion, they signified Pagans, neither Jews nor Christians; and in civil affairs they are used for all such as were not Romans.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Bellini, Gentile
Painter, born Padua, Italy, c.1427;died Venice, Italy, 1507. He and his younger brother Giovanni were the founders of the Venetian school of art. Together they perfected the art of oil-painting, inaugurated by Flemish artists. Gentile completed the work of his father in a series on The Miracle of the Cross. He was sent to Constantinople as one of the greatest Venetian masters, and his portrait of Mohammed II and his Adoration of the Magi are of this period.
King James Dictionary - Gentile
GEN'TILE, n. L. gentilis from L. gens, nation, race applied to pagans.
In the scriptures, a pagan a worshipper of false gods any person not a Jew or a christian a heathen. The Hebrews included in the term goim or nations, all the tribes of men who had not received the true faith,and were not circumcised. The christians translated goim by the L. gentes, and imitated the Jews in giving the name gentiles to all nations who were not Jews nor christians. In affairs, the denomination was given to all nations who were not Romans.
GEN'TILE, a. Pertaining to pagans or heathens.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Gentile
Those who are not Jews. Gentiles were used by God to punish apostate Judea (Deuteronomy 28:49; 1 Kings 8:33) and often included in blessings by God upon the Jewish people. "Gentiles" is often used biblically in reference to nations.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Gentile
Gentile (jĕn'tîle). This was the name by which the Jews designated all men but themselves—i.e., all pagan nations who were ignorant of the true God, and idolaters. Luke 2:32; Acts 26:17; Acts 26:20; Romans 2:9, where the R. V. reads "Greek;" 9:24, etc. In opposition to the Gentiles, the Hebrews regarded themselves, and were in fact, the "chosen people of God." Sometimes the "Greeks," as the most cultivated among the heathen, stand for them. Romans 1:16; Acts 16:1; Acts 16:3, etc. Paul is called the "apostle to the Gentiles" on account of his special mission and work among them.
Court of the Gentiles. See Temple.
Isles of the Gentiles, R. V., "Isles of the nations." Genesis 10:5. The Hebrew word signifies any land bordering on the sea. It refers to land on the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian seas.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Gentile
The Hebrews called the Gentiles, Goyim; that is, the nations who did not receive and acknowledge the law: all such were called Goyim. And in case of the conversion of any to Judaism, they were then called Proselytes of the Gate.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Gentile
The Hebrews called the Gentiles גויים , εθνη , the nations, that is, those who have not received the faith or law of God. All who are not Jews, and circumcised, are goiim. Those who were converted, and embraced Judaism, they called proselytes. Since the Gospel, the true religion is not confined to any one nation or country, as heretofore. God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, has fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is now composed principally of Gentile converts; and the Jews, too proud of their particular privileges, and abandoned to their reprobate sense of things, have disowned Jesus Christ, their Messiah and Redeemer, for whom, during so many ages, they had looked so impatiently. In the writings of St. Paul, the Gentiles are generally denoted as Greeks, Romans 1:14 ; Romans 1:16 ; Romans 2:9-10 ; Romans 3; Romans 10:12 ; 1 Corinthians 1:22-24 ; Galatians 3:28 . St. Luke, in the Acts, expresses himself in the same manner, Acts 6:1 ; Acts 11:20 ; Acts 18, &c.
2. St. Paul is commonly called the Apostle of the Gentiles, 1 Timothy 2:7 , or Greeks; because he, principally, preached Jesus Christ to them; whereas Peter, and the other Apostles, preached generally to the Jews, and are called Apostles of the circumcision, Galatians 2:8 . The prophets declared very particularly the calling of the Gentiles. Jacob foretold that the Messiah, he who was to be sent, the Shiloh, should gather the Gentiles to himself. Solomon, at the dedication of his temple, prays for "the stranger" who should there entreat God. The Psalmist says, that the Lord would give the Gentiles to the Messiah for his inheritance; that Egypt and Babylon shall know him; that Ethiopia shall hasten to bring him presents; that the kings of Tarshish, and of the isles, the kings of Arabia and Sheba, shall be tributary to him, Psalms 2:8 ; Psalms 67:4 ; Psalms 72:9-10 . Isaiah abounds with prophecies of the like nature, on which account he has justly been distinguished by the name of "the prophet of the Gentiles."
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Gentile
The Hebrew word translated in English as ‘Gentile’ meant originally ‘a nation’. When Israel became in a special sense God’s people, Israelites used the expression ‘the nations’ (‘the Gentiles’) to refer to all non-Israelite people (Deuteronomy 7:6; Galatians 2:15).
God’s law prohibited Israelites from copying any Gentile customs that were likely to corrupt their religion (Deuteronomy 18:9). But they repeatedly ignored that law, with the result that eventually their nation was conquered and the people taken into captivity (2 Kings 17:7-8). The Gentiles, whose ways Israel had copied, then became the means God used to punish Israel (Judges 2:20-23; Isaiah 10:5-6).
Since God’s purpose was that Israel take the message of his salvation to the Gentiles, Jesus announced the gospel to the Jews first. But he knew that on the whole they would not accept it and that as a result the gospel would go to the Gentiles (Isaiah 49:6; Matthew 10:5-7; Matthew 12:18-21; Matthew 28:19; Luke 2:32; Luke 4:25-28). Paul likewise preached the gospel to the Jews first, but when they refused it he turned to the Gentiles and there was a great response (Acts 13:46-48; Acts 18:5-6; Acts 22:21; Acts 28:28; Romans 9:30-31; Romans 11:11; Romans 15:16).
Gentile people who did not know God had the reputation of being selfish, immoral, greedy, ungodly and idolatrous (Matthew 5:47; Matthew 6:32; Romans 1:18-32; 1 Corinthians 12:2; Galatians 2:15; Ephesians 4:17-19; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:5). Although they did not have the law of Moses as a guide, that was no excuse for their behaviour. Their own consciences told them that certain things were either right or wrong, and God would judge them accordingly (Romans 2:12-16).
In the eyes of the Jews, Gentiles had no hope of salvation, because they were excluded from the covenant promises that God gave to Israel (Ephesians 2:11-12). Only by becoming converts to the Jewish religion could they have hope of salvation (Matthew 23:15; Acts 2:10; see PROSELYTE). It is therefore easy to see why, in the early days of the church, many Jewish Christians did not want to accept Gentiles into the church unless they kept the Jewish law (Acts 11:2-3; Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). It soon became clear, however, that the old Jewish regulations did not apply in the new community of God’s people (Acts 15:8-11; Acts 15:19; Colossians 2:13-14). Gentiles and Jews were equals; more than that, they were united in one body (Romans 1:16; Romans 3:29; Romans 9:24; Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 2:13-22; Ephesians 3:4-6; Revelation 5:9-10).

Sentence search

Entilize - ) To live like a Gentile or heathen. ) To render Gentile or gentlemanly; as, to gentilize your unworthy sones
Partition - Ephesians 2:14 (a) There is a separation between the Jew and the Gentile. To the Jew was given the oracles of GOD, but not to the Gentile. The Jews were redeemed by the blood of the Passover lamb, but the Gentiles were not. The Jews had GOD for their Father, but the Gentiles did not. By the coming of CHRIST and His sacrifice at Calvary, and His ascension to GOD the Father in His physical body, those differences have been broken down, and now all believers in CHRIST JESUS, both Jew and Gentile, are made one in CHRIST. Nothing now needs to separate the Jew and the Gentile
Jaasau - Fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after the Return (Ezra 10:37 )
Concision - A term used sarcastically of Judaizers who insisted on circumcision as necessary for Gentile Christians
Council of Jerusalem - The purpose of the council was to determine the terms on which Gentile converts to Christianity would be received into the church. The occasion of the meeting was a significant turning of Gentiles to Christ as a result of missionary activity by Barnabas and Paul. Some maintained that all Gentile converts must submit to circumcision and observe the whole of the Mosaic law. Paul and Barnabas, however, contended that imposing such requirements on Gentiles was unreasonable. The solution proposed by the Jerusalem council was that Gentile believers would not be required first to become Jewish proselytes, but that they would be asked to refrain from idolatry, from sexual misconduct, and from eating blood
Trophimus - ” Gentile Christian from Ephesus who accompanied Paul to Jerusalem for the presentation of the collection (Acts 20:4-5 ; Acts 21:29 ). Paul's free association with Trophimus led to the false charge that Paul had defiled the Temple by bringing a Gentile within the Court of Israel (Acts 21:19 )
Trophimus - Paul's companion, a Gentile of Ephesus (Acts 21:29). The Jews raised a tumult supposing Paul had introduced Trophimus a Gentile convert into the temple. A Gentile like Titus
Dust - The Pharisees entering Judea from a Gentile country were accustomed to shake the dust from their feet, as a renunciation of Gentile communion
Eunice - The Jewish mother of Timothy ( 2 Timothy 1:5 , Acts 16:1 ), married to a Gentile husband, and dwelling at Lystra
Patrial - ) Derived from the name of a country, and designating an inhabitant of the country; Gentile; - said of a noun
Mattena'i -
Two Israelites who divorced their Gentile wives after the return from the Babylonish captivity
Collection - Paul awakened an interest in them among the Gentile churches, and made pecuniary collections in their behalf (Acts 24:17 ; Romans 15:25,26 ; 1 Corinthians 16:1-3 ; 2 co 8:9 ; Galatians 2:10 )
Niger - His name Symeon shows his Jewish origin, and Niger was probably the Gentile name which he assumed
Mat'Tathah - ) ...
An Israelite, son of Hashun, who divorced his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon
Corne'Lius - Peter, and thus Cornelius became the firstfruits of the Gentile world to Christ
el'Asah -
A priest in the time of Ezra who had married a Gentile wife
Balaam - An anti-Semitic Gentile necromancer and prophet
Pagan - A heathen a Gentile an idolater one who worships false gods. Heathen heathenish Gentile noting a person who worships false gods
Eunice - She was a Jewish woman whose husband was a Gentile
Galileans - (Acts 1:11 ) It appears also that the pronunciation of those Jews who resided in Galilee had become peculiar, probably from their contact with their Gentile neighbors
Silas - He was present at the conference in Jerusalem that discussed the problems created by Jewish legalists among the Gentile churches. When the Jerusalem leaders decided to send representatives to reassure the Gentile churches, Silas was one of the two they chose (Acts 15:22-27). As a result Paul chose him as his fellow worker for a missionary tour to the recently planted Gentile churches and beyond (Acts 15:40)
Proselyte - ) A new convert especially a convert to some religion or religious sect, or to some particular opinion, system, or party; thus, a Gentile converted to Judaism, or a pagan converted to Christianity, is a proselyte
Cornelius - With his household he was baptized by Peter, and thus Cornelius became the first-fruits of the Gentile world to Christ
Heathen - ) Gentile; pagan; as, a heathen author
Entile - ) Denoting a race or country; as, a Gentile noun or adjective
na'Amathite, - the Gentile name of one of Job's friends, Zophar the Naamathite
Heathen - A pagan a Gentile one who worships idols, or is unacquainted with the true God. Heathen, without the plural termination, is used plurally or collectively, for Gentiles or heathen nations. Gentile, pagan as a heathen author
Apollyon - As the twofold names Αbba (Hebrew) Father (Greek) in Mark 14:36 combine Jew and Gentile in the common salvation, so Satan's two names abaddon (Hebrew) and Αpollos (Greek) combine them in a common destruction
Elisha - Among them: purification of Jericho's drinking water, transformation of a single cruse of oil into many vessels' worth, resurrecting a dead child, and curing a Gentile general of leprosy
Fatness - The Gentile believer had become a sharer in the spiritual life and blessing bestowed by Divine covenant upon Abraham and his descendants as set forth under the figure of "the root of (not 'and') the fatness of the olive tree
Usury - The Old Testament laws prohibited a Jew from charging another Jew usury but permitted it when money was loaned to a Gentile (Deuteronomy 23:19-20 )
Diadem - ) The diadem in Gentile nations was a white fillet, two inches broad, bound round the head, the badge of the monarch
Citizen, - Gentile believers are no longer strangers and foreigners to the privileges of the people of God, but are 'fellow-citizens' with the saints, and of the 'household of God
Pagans - NIV, REB, and RSV sometimes use pagans as the translation of the Greek ethnoi ( 1 Corinthians 5:1 ; 1 Corinthians 10:20 ), which is generally translated Gentiles (so KJV, NAS). In English, Gentile relates to ethnic background while pagan refers to religious affiliation. See Gentiles ; Gods, Pagan
Enmity - By the abrogation of the Mosaic institutes the "enmity" between Jew and Gentile is removed
Tiberias - Whereas towns on the northern shore were largely Jewish and were the scene of much of Jesus’ ministry, Tiberias was almost entirely Gentile
Barsabas - The surname of JUDAS, who with Silas was sent to Antioch with the decision arrived at by the church at Jerusalem respecting Gentile converts being circumcised
June, Month of - Named for the Roman Gentile name, Junius, is given over to special devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Month of June - Named for the Roman Gentile name, Junius, is given over to special devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Symeon ( Simeon) Called Niger - His sobriquet of ‘Niger’ has led some to suppose that he was African by descent and, if so, may have been one of those men of Cyprus and Cyrene by whom the Gentile Church at Antioch was founded (Acts 11:20)
Concision - , of the party who pressed on Gentile converts the necessity of still observing that ordinance, he says, "Beware of the concision;" as much as to say, "This circumcision which they vaunt of is in Christ only as the gashings and mutilations of idolatrous heathen
Grecians - Greek-speaking Jews, not to be confounded with Gentile Greeks
Hedge - "(he put) a hedge (around);" Mark 12:1 ; Luke 14:23 ; (b) metaphorically, of the "partition" which separated Gentile from Jew, which was broken down by Christ through the efficacy of His expiatory sacrifice, Ephesians 2:14
Centurion - The centurion at the Lord's crucifixion uttered the testimony so remarkable from a Gentile: "certainly this was a righteous man"; Luke's explanation (Luke 23:47) of what a Gentile would mean by saying, "Truly this was the Son of God" (Matthew 27:54)
Fold - Gentile believers were added to them, and they became one flock (not 'one fold') with one Shepherd, the Lord Himself
Carpenter - The four horns mentioned in the previous verses may indicate the great Gentile kingdoms of Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome
Nebaioth - whence the beautiful figure of the prophet above cited respecting the gathering of the Gentile nations to the sceptre of the Messiah
Bellini, Gentile - Gentile completed the work of his father in a series on The Miracle of the Cross
Cilicia - There were evidently Gentile believers there, for Cilicia was mentioned in the letter from Jerusalem on the exemption of the Gentiles from keeping the law
Zipporah - Jethro is a type of the Gentile rejoicing in the deliverance of Israel, and bringing back the loved remnant thereof in the last days
Barsabas - He was deputed, with Silas, to accompany Paul and Barnabas in a mission of importance to the Gentile converts in the Syrian churches, Acts 15:22-23
Zaccheus - " (Luke 19:1-10) Now if Zaccheus was, as is Generally supposed, a Gentile by birth, this sonship in Abraham must have been as Paul speaks of it, spiritually. So that it is probable, Zaccheus might have been a Gentile. And hence, by the way, a sweet testimony to that blessed truth, that Christ was given both for a light to lighten the Gentiles, and to be the glory of his people Israel
Inclose - 1: συγκλείω (Strong's #4788 — Verb — sunkleio — soong-kli'-o ) "to shut together, shut in on all sides" (sun, "with," kleio, "to shut"), is used of a catch of fish, Luke 5:6 ; metaphorically in Romans 11:32 , of God's dealings with Jew and Gentile, in that He has "shut up (AV, concluded) all onto disobedience, that He might have mercy upon all. 26, and, in reference to the Gentiles, in the light of verses 12-25; in Galatians 3:22,23 ("the Scripture hath shut up all things under sin"), the Apostle shows that, by the impossibility of being justified by keeping the Law, all, Jew and Gentile, are under sin, so that righteousness might be reckoned to all who believe
Cornelius - He became the first fruit of the Gentile world to Christ
Foreigner - A Gentile
Decently - , "decently"), in contrast to the shamefulness of Gentile social life; in 1 Thessalonians 4:12 , the contrast is to idleness and its concomitant evils and the resulting bad testimony to unbelievers; in 1 Corinthians 14:40 , "decently," where the contrast is to disorder in oral testimony in the churches
Troph'Imus - that Trophimus was a Gentile, and that he was a native of Trophimus was probably one brethren who, with Titus, conveyed the second Epistle to the Corinthians
Nicolas - Nicolas was a proselyte, that is, a Gentile convert to Judaism, from Antioch
Agagite - Fürst says the Gentile name "of Haman is therefore explained by Josephus τὸ γένος Ἀμαλεκίτες and so too by Jewish tradition
Indebted - Ellicott and others suggest that Luke used a term more adapted to the minds of Gentile readers
New Man - In His death Christ broke down the wall of partition between Jew and Gentile to create the two in Himself into 'one new man,' reconciling both unto God in one body by the cross, there remaining thus as before God no longer Jew or Gentile, but a man of an entirely new order
Kneeling - This may have been due in some measure to Hellenistic and Gentile influences. The description given in Luke 22:41 (not supported by ||) occurs in a Gospel of Gentile authorship; and Gentile connexions are found in all except one (Acts 9:40) of the NT passages already quoted
Widow - The widow of Sarepta or Zarephath, referred to by our Lord in the synagogue at Nazareth (Luke 4:25-26) as an instance of a Gentile who had entertained Elijah, and had received a blessing by his means. 8) that the word ‘widow’ here may have been ‘Gentile’ in some Aramaic original, ܐܪܡܢܬܐ (armaitha), the feminine of ‘Gentile’ or ‘Syrian ‘having been confused with ܐܪܡܠܬܐ (armalta), ‘a widow. ’ If this were so, then our Lord’s reference to Naaman the Syrian would be balanced by a reference to ‘a woman who was a Syrian’ or ‘Gentile. This may be another instance of the possible confusion of ‘widow’ and ‘Gentile’ alluded to above
James the Brother of Jesus - On that occasion James and his fellow leaders expressed their support for Paul’s mission to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:7-9). ...
After Paul’s first missionary journey, a group of Jews from the Jerusalem church came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). ...
James, in fact, took the leading part on behalf of the Jerusalem church in confirming that Gentiles were saved by faith alone. He asserted, moreover, that Gentile converts were not to be forced to obey Moses’ law. But it would be helpful, he suggested, if Gentile Christians respected their Jewish brothers by not engaging in practices that Jews considered repulsive (Acts 15:13; Acts 15:19-21). ...
Opposition from fellow Jews...
In spite of James’ efforts, many in the Jerusalem church still refused to accept Gentile Christians as equals unless the Gentiles kept the law of Moses. When, many years later, Paul came to Jerusalem with an offering from the Gentile churches, he first met with James and the other elders (Acts 21:17-18)
Greed - Greed marked the Gentile or pagan way of life (Ephesians 4:19 )
Greek - The former is (1) a Greek by race (Acts 16:1-3 ; 18:17 ; Romans 1:14 ), or (2) a Gentile as opposed to a Jew (Romans 2:9,10 )
Partition - 1: φραγμός (Strong's #5418 — Noun Masculine — phragmos — frag-mos' ) primarily "a fencing in" (akin to phrasso, "to fence in, stop, close"), is used metaphorically in Ephesians 2:14 , of "the middle wall of partition;" "the partition" is epexegetic of "the middle wall," namely, the "partition" between Jew and Gentile. Robinson suggests that Paul had in mind the barrier between the outer and inner courts of the Temple, notices fixed to which warned Gentiles not to proceed further on pain of death (see Josephus, Antiq
Italian Cohort - Name of the archery unit of the Roman army to which the Gentile centurion Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1 )
Theoph'Ilus - All that can be conjectured with any degree of safety concerning him comes to this, that he was a Gentile of rank and consideration who came under the influence of St
Bartimaeus - Mark, for the benefit of his Gentile readers, gives the interpretation of it, ‘the son of Timæus
Lucius - He seems to have belonged pretty certainly to the band of Cypriotes and Cyrenians by whom the Gentile Church at Antioch was founded (Acts 11:20)
Vail - Isaiah 25:7 (b) This is typical of the blindness which Satan has brought over the minds and hearts of the Gentile nations
Gebal - of the Dead Sea, whose inhabitants made a league with Edomites, Moabites, and the Bedouin of the Arabah against Israel, on some unknown occasion ( Psalms 83:7 ), possibly the Gentile attack described in 1Ma 5:1-68
Elements - In the NT it is used of (a) the substance of the material world, 2 Peter 3:10,12 ; (b) the delusive speculations of Gentile cults and of Jewish theories, treated as elementary principles, "the rudiments of the world," Colossians 2:8 , spoken of as "philosophy and vain deceit;" these were presented as superior to faith in Christ; at Colosse the worship of angels, mentioned in Colossians 2:18 , is explicable by the supposition, held by both Jews and Gentiles in that district, that the constellations were either themselves animated heavenly beings, or were governed by them; (c) the rudimentary principles of religion, Jewish or Gentile, also described as "the rudiments of the world," Colossians 2:20 , and as "weak and beggarly rudiments," Galatians 4:3,9 , RV, constituting a yoke of bondage; (d) the "elementary" principles (the A
Trophimus - A Gentile Christian, a native of Ephesus ( Acts 21:29 ), who, with Tychicus, also of the province Asia ( Acts 20:4 ), and others, accompanied St. Paul had brought him into the inner court of the Temple, separated from the outer ‘Court of the Gentiles’ by a barrier on which were inscriptions in Greek and Latin forbidding any non-Jew to enter on pain of death
Stop - 1: φράσσω (Strong's #5420 — Verb — phrasso — fras'-so ) "to fence in" (akin to phragmos, "a fence"), "close, stop," is used (a) metaphorically, in Romans 3:19 , of "preventing" all excuse from Jew and Gentile, as sinners; in 2 Corinthians 11:10 , lit
Publican - 1: τελώνης (Strong's #5057 — Noun Masculine — telones — tel-o'-nace ) primarily denoted "a farmer of the tax" (from telos, "toll, custom, tax"), then, as in the NT, a subsequent subordinate of such, who collected taxes in some district, "a tax gatherer;" such were naturally hated intensely by the people; they are classed with "sinners," Matthew 9:10,11 ; 11:9 ; Mark 2:15,16 ; Luke 5:30 ; 7:34 ; 15:1 ; with harlots, Matthew 21:31,32 ; with "the Gentile," Matthew 18:17 ; some mss. have it in Matthew 5:47 , the best have ethnikoi, "Gentiles
Centurion - In Acts 10:1 , the conversion of the centurion Cornelius marked the beginning of the church's outreach to the Gentile world
Didymus - Westcott suggests that Thomas may have been familiarly known in Asia Minor among the Gentile Christians as Didymus
Ammonians - Milner calls him "a Pagan Christian," who imagined that all religions, vulgar and philosophical, Grecian and barbarous, Jewish and Gentile, meant the same thing in substance
Wall - 2), occurs in Ephesians 2:14 , figuratively of the separation of Gentile from Jew in their unregenerate state, a partition demolished by the Cross for both on acceptance of the Gospel
Gentiles - In Genesis 10:5, "isles of the Gentiles," the term is used geographically in no invidious sense. In Joshua 12:23 we read, "the king of the nations (the Gentile foreigners) of Gilgal," the modern Moslem village Jiljule, six Roman miles N. ) "Greeks" in New Testament is used for Gentiles (Acts 14:1; Acts 17:4; Romans 1:16; Romans 10:12; Romans 2:9-10; 1 Corinthians 10:32 margin). ...
With all the superiority of the Gentile great world kingdoms, in military prowess, commerce, luxury, and the fine arts, Israel stood on an immense moral elevation above them, in the one point, nearness to God, and possession of His revealed will and word (Exodus 19:5-6; Psalms 147:19-20; Psalms 148:14; Romans 3:1-2). The Jews in national pride failed to see this, and despised the Gentiles Rejecting Messiah, they were "broken oft" from the olive, that the Gentiles might be" grafted in" (Romans 11:11-35). ...
"The times of the Gentiles" began with Judah's depression and captivity under Nebuchadnezzar, to whom God delegated the world empire (Jeremiah 27:6-7), from whence Jeremiah's counsel to the Jews to submit to hint was true patriotism, not cowardice. Jerusalem has more or less been ever since "trodden down of the Gentiles," and shall be so "until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled" (Luke 21:24). The times of the Gentile monarchies answer to Israel's seven times punishment (Leviticus 26:18; Leviticus 26:21-24)
Proselyte - Some hold that it was introduced when the emperors forbade their Gentile subjects to be circumcised, but others think it must have been earlier, which seems confirmed by John 1:25 . The Jews held that on a Gentile becoming a proselyte, all his natural relationships were annulled: he was 'a new creature
Tribulation - , "the tribulation, the great one" (not as AV, without the article), is not that in which all saints share; it indicates a definite period spoken of by the Lord in Matthew 24:21,29 ; Mark 13:19,24 , where the time is mentioned as preceding His second advent, and as a period in which the Jewish nation, restored to Palestine in unbelief by Gentile instrumentality, will suffer an unprecedented outburst of fury on the part of the antichristian powers confederate under the Man of Sin (2 Corinthians 1:4 ; cp. Revelation 12:13-17 ); in this tribulation Gentile witnesses for God will share (Revelation 7:9 ), but it will be distinctly "the time of Jacob's trouble" (Jeremiah 30:7 ); its beginning is signalized by the setting up of the "abomination of desolation" (Matthew 24:15 ; Mark 13:14 , with Daniel 11:31 ; 12:11 )
Guest - Peter crossed racial barriers by welcoming the Gentile messengers sent by Cornelius as guests in his home (Acts 10:23 )
Graft - Paul's illustration (Romans 11:17-24 ) portrays the incomprehensible grace of God who does what no farmer would do—break off cultivated limbs (representing descendants of Israel) to graft in wild limbs (representing Gentile believers). The illustration also serves as a warning to believing Gentiles not to be proud and despise the contribution of Israelites who made their faith possible but to stand firm in faith
Meat to Idols - Since most early Christians had Jewish backgrounds, a problem arose in the church when Gentile converts ate meat that had been offered to idols
Calf - A calf symbolized the bullish Gentile armies (Psalm 68:30 ) and Egyptian mercenary soldiers (Jeremiah 46:21 )
Myrtle - Under the rule of the second Gentile empire, the nations were indifferent to the condition of Jerusalem
Zarephath - ), it, together with the most of Asher’s territory, remained almost wholly Phœnician and Gentile. This Evangelist—apparently the only Gentile-Christian NT writer—seizes as does no other upon the thought that the boundless grace of God has been extended in certain typical cases to remote Gentiles, even to the superseding and exclusion of those who were of the stock of Abraham and dwelt within the Holy Land
Lois - It is, however, not impossible that Lois may have been the mother-in-law of Eunice and a Gentile, in which case we must assume that she had married a Jew. But it was not uncommon for Hellenistic Jews to bear purely Gentile names, and the supposition that Lois was the mother of Eunice is on the whole more probable
Apostolic Council - The meeting in Jerusalem at which the apostles and elders of Jerusalem defended the right of Paul and Barnabas to preach the gospel to the Gentiles without forcing converts to obey the Jewish law (Acts 15:1 ). A “decree” from the council did ask Gentile converts not to eat food that had been sacrificed to idols, not to eat meat with blood in it, not to eat animals which had been strangled, and not to commit sexual immorality (Acts 15:28-29 ). ...
The two accounts apparently show that Paul and Barnabas, accompanied by Titus, represented the church in Antioch in seeking clarity from the leaders in Jerusalem on how to incorporate Gentile converts into the church
Owner - It was not so common among them as among the Greeks and Romans, and the condition of the slave in the Jewish social economy was much happier than in the Gentile world. The terrible punishment mentioned in Luke 12:46 (‘the lord of that servant … will cut him in sunder [1], and appoint him his portion with the unbelievers’) is probably taken from the punishments which were practised in the Gentile world
Reconciliation - It is a relationship that comes between man and wife as well as Jew and Gentile. It is the cross of Christ that reconciles both Jew and Gentile. Because of this, Jew and Gentile have access to the Father by one spirit. Gentile and Jewish believers are reconciled to God and the middle wall of partition is broken down; both are brought near by the blood of Christ
Cornelius - Although he was a Gentile, he was a worshiper of the one true God. His conversion marked the beginning of the church's missionary activity among Gentiles
Japheth - And as from Shem, after the flesh, sprung Christ; so Japheth, who is supposed to be the father of the Gentiles, and as such, in this prophecy, may be supposed to represent the whole body of the Gentile church given to the Lord Jesus Christ, could only be brought into Christ's fold by Christ's power
Meshach - Nebuchadnezzar, head of the Gentile power, having been brought into a prominent position by God is compelled to own the God of this captive but faithful remnant, who had shown His power in protecting those who were faithful to Him
Christian - They were known to each other as, and were among themselves called, brethren, ( Acts 15:1,23 ; 1 Corinthians 7:12 ) disciples , ( Acts 9:26 ; 11:29 ) believers , ( Acts 5:14 ) saints , ( Romans 8:27 ; 15:25 ) The name "Christian," which, in the only other cases where it appears in the New Testament, (Acts 26:28 ; 1 Peter 4:16 ) is used contemptuously, could not have been applied by the early disciples to themselves, but was imposed upon them by the Gentile world
Judaizers - In the Septuagint this verb is used in relation to the Gentiles in Persia who adopted Jewish practices in order to avoid the consequences of Esther's decree (Esther 8:13 ), which permitted Jews to avenge the wrongs committed against them. The Septuagint not only uses ioudaizo [ ]'>[1] to translate the Hebrew mityahadim ("to become a Jew"), but adds that these Gentiles were circumcised. The context for this reference is the episode in Antioch when Paul condemns Peter's withdrawal from table fellowship with Gentile Christians. Peter's actions are viewed by Paul as a serious compromise of the gospel of salvation by grace through faith alone, lending support to the position that sought to impose Jewish ceremonial law on the Gentiles. Thus, Paul interprets Peter's withdrawal in terms of its effect in compelling Gentile Christians to live like Jews. In this sense, "Judaizers" refers to Jewish Christians who sought to induce Gentiles to observe Jewish religious customs: to "judaize. " It appears that these individuals agreed with much of the apostolic kerygma but sought to regulate the admission of Gentiles into the covenant people of God through circumcision and the keeping of the ceremonial law. ...
Paul's Galatian epistle portrays the Judaizers as having come from the Jerusalem church to his churches in Galatia, stressing the need for Gentiles to be circumcised and keep the law, both for full acceptance by God (legalism) and as the basis for Christian living (nomism [ Galatians 6:12-13 ). Amidst the rising pressures of Jewish nationalism in Palestine during the mid-first century, and increased Zealot animosity against any Jew who had Gentile sympathies, it would appear that these Jewish Christians embarked on a judaizing mission among Paul's converts in order to prevent Zealot persecution of the Palestinian church
Gentile - The Hebrew word translated in English as ‘Gentile’ meant originally ‘a nation’. When Israel became in a special sense God’s people, Israelites used the expression ‘the nations’ (‘the Gentiles’) to refer to all non-Israelite people (Deuteronomy 7:6; Galatians 2:15). ...
God’s law prohibited Israelites from copying any Gentile customs that were likely to corrupt their religion (Deuteronomy 18:9). The Gentiles, whose ways Israel had copied, then became the means God used to punish Israel (Judges 2:20-23; Isaiah 10:5-6). ...
Since God’s purpose was that Israel take the message of his salvation to the Gentiles, Jesus announced the gospel to the Jews first. But he knew that on the whole they would not accept it and that as a result the gospel would go to the Gentiles (Isaiah 49:6; Matthew 10:5-7; Matthew 12:18-21; Matthew 28:19; Luke 2:32; Luke 4:25-28). Paul likewise preached the gospel to the Jews first, but when they refused it he turned to the Gentiles and there was a great response (Acts 13:46-48; Acts 18:5-6; Acts 22:21; Acts 28:28; Romans 9:30-31; Romans 11:11; Romans 15:16). ...
Gentile people who did not know God had the reputation of being selfish, immoral, greedy, ungodly and idolatrous (Matthew 5:47; Matthew 6:32; Romans 1:18-32; 1 Corinthians 12:2; Galatians 2:15; Ephesians 4:17-19; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:5). ...
In the eyes of the Jews, Gentiles had no hope of salvation, because they were excluded from the covenant promises that God gave to Israel (Ephesians 2:11-12). It is therefore easy to see why, in the early days of the church, many Jewish Christians did not want to accept Gentiles into the church unless they kept the Jewish law (Acts 11:2-3; Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). Gentiles and Jews were equals; more than that, they were united in one body (Romans 1:16; Romans 3:29; Romans 9:24; Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 2:13-22; Ephesians 3:4-6; Revelation 5:9-10)
Dung - " Judaizers counted Gentile Christians as dogs, while they themselves were seated at God's banquet
Nicolaitans - Heretics who assumed this name from Nicholas of Antioch; who, being a Gentile by birth, first embraced Judaism and than Christianity; when his zeal and devotion recommended him to the church of Jerusalem, by whom he was chosen one of the first deacons
Access - By his death, also, the middle wall of partition was broken down, and Jew and Gentile had both free access to God; whereas, before, the Gentiles had no nearer access in the temple worship than to the gate of the court of Israel
Basket - In traveling through Samaria or Gentile regions the Jews used kofinoi , not to be defiled by eating Gentile unclean foods
Great Commission, the - The Good News is to be shared with all peoples, for all are sinners, Jews and Gentile alike, and in need of deliverance from sin (Romans 3 ). In Christ, all distinctions between Jew and Gentile disappear (Romans 10:12-13 ; Galatians 3:28 )
Collection For the Poor Saints - This money was collected by Paul from the Gentile churches which he administered. The fact that the Gentiles were willing to aid the Jews in this manner validated Paul's Gentile mission
Joppa - Here too on the housetop of Simon the tanner (tradition still points out the house?) Simon the tanner by the seaside, Peter, in full view of the Mediterranean washing the Gentile lands of the W. , had his vision teaching that the middle wall separating Jew and Gentile is broken down, and that the gospel is for all nations (Acts 10). Thence at Cornelius' call he went to quicken the Gentiles through the word then first preached to them with the Holy Spirit accompanying it
Cyrene - Converts belonging to Cyrene contributed to the formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch (11:20)
Tradition - But the trumpery of legends and reliques; and the like; which some have held with equal veneration to the Scriptures, plainly prove that those things, are in common from the folly and corruption of poor fallen nature, both of Jew and Gentile
Centurion - Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Acts 10:1,22 )
Gentile - Gentile (jĕn'tîle). In opposition to the Gentiles, the Hebrews regarded themselves, and were in fact, the "chosen people of God. Paul is called the "apostle to the Gentiles" on account of his special mission and work among them. ...
Court of the Gentiles. ...
Isles of the Gentiles, R
Titus - A Gentile by descent, and probably converted to Christianity under the preaching of Paul
Flogging - Paul was also beaten with rods three times (2 Corinthians 11:25 ), perhaps at the hands of Gentile officials as at Philippi (Acts 16:22-23 )
Proselyte - ...
Many Gentiles in these cities, being attracted to the Jewish religion by the morally upright lives of the Jews, attended the synagogue services and kept some of the Jewish sabbath and food laws. Many of these Gentile proselytes and God-fearers, having already come to know and worship the God of Israel, readily became Christians when they first heard the gospel of Jesus Christ (Acts 13:43; Acts 14:1; Acts 17:4)
Theophilus - The special adaptation of Luke's Gospel to Gentiles implies Theophilus was a Gentile
Walls - The “wall of partition” (Ephesians 2:14 ) represented Temple worship and Jewish practice separating Jew from Gentile
Graven Image - The Gentile also, led on by Satan, made his own god, and worshipped it, turning his eyes away from God's 'eternal power and divinity' which are manifest in His works
Grecians - omits "the Greeks" and reads "they all;" or else Gentiles as opposed to Jews, Romans 2:9-10, "Gentile" A. Zechariah 9:13 foretells the triumphs of the Maccabees over the Græco-Syrian empire, while Isaiah looks forward to the conversion of the Greeks, amongst other Gentiles, through the instrumentality of Jewish missionaries
Greeks - omits "the Greeks" and reads "they all;" or else Gentiles as opposed to Jews, Romans 2:9-10, "Gentile" A. Zechariah 9:13 foretells the triumphs of the Maccabees over the Græco-Syrian empire, while Isaiah looks forward to the conversion of the Greeks, amongst other Gentiles, through the instrumentality of Jewish missionaries
Israel - So again, Exodus 6:6-7) But what endears this name yet infinitely more is, that the Lord Jesus himself, as the glorious Head of his church and people, including both Jew and Gentile, calls himself by this name; and JEHOVAH doth the same by Christ
Trophimus - Paul in the city, whom they looked upon as a Gentile, imagined that St
Trophimus - A disciple of Paul, a Gentile and an Ephesian by birth, came to Corinth with the apostle, and accompanied him in his whole journey to Jerusalem, A
Gentiles - Since the promulgation of the gospel, the true religion has been extended to all nations; God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, having fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is composed principally of Gentile converts, the Jews being too proud of their privileges to acknowledge Jesus Christ as their Messiah and Redeemer. In the writings of Paul, the Gentiles are generally called Greeks, Romans 1:14,16 1 Corinthians 1:22,24 Galatians 3:28 . Paul is commonly called the apostle of the Gentiles, Galatians 2:8 1 Timothy 2:7 , because he preached Christ principally to them; whereas Peter, etc
Saints - ...
On occasion, when discussing the atonement, Paul carefully differentiates between Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians, calling the former saints and the latter believers. It was the saints, the holy people of God in the Old Testament, who brought the Messiah and redemption into the world, eventually extending the blessings to the Gentiles. ...
This usage may be seen in 1 Corinthians 1:2 , which is addressed to "those sanctified in Christ Jesus and called to be holy [2], together with all those [3] everywhere who call on the name of our Lord Jesus ChristLord and ours. " The same distinction is made in Ephesians 1:1 : "to the saints [4] in Ephesus and the faithful [3] in Christ Jesus. ...
Paul addresses the letter to all the Christians in Rome as saints (Romans 1:7 , because Gentiles who, as wild olive branches have been grafted into the stem of Judaism, now share in the full relationship to that plant and are also saints ), but the Jewish Christians in Rome, who are to be recipients of a special contribution Paul collected among Gentile churches, are called "the saints" in distinction (Romans 15:25-33 ). Paul's apprehension over whether the Jerusalem saints would accept such a contribution was based on the fact that Jewish Christians were being asked to accept the offering from Gentile Christians. ...
Thus, although Gentile Christians are saints, too, because they were given access to the faith of Abraham and the people of the Old Testament, when redemptive history is discussed the Jews are specially designated the "saints" while the Gentiles are considered believers who were later admitted into this "holy" Jewish nucleus
Daniel, Book of - This book holds a peculiar place among the prophecies: its subject is the "Times of the Gentiles. " It is not an appeal to Israelites, but is mostly taken up with prophecies concerning the Gentile powers. The times of Gentile domination had begun by Nebuchadnezzar taking Jerusalem and being called king of kings, to whom God had given a kingdom, and made him ruler over all the children of men. ...
Daniel 2 : Under the figure of the Great Image are described the four Gentile empires that were to succeed each other, further particulars of which were afterwards revealed to Daniel. This prophecy presents the moral deterioration of Gentile power, until it is supplanted by the kingdom of God. Thus is seen that the first characteristic of Gentile supremacy is idolatry . In the last days the Gentile rulers, after having used their power as 'beasts,' will acknowledge God as the source of all authority, and be brought into blessing in connection with Israel. The second characteristic which marked Gentile rule is that, refusing to own God, it descends to the level of a beast. Type of the judgement on the Gentile world at the coming of Christ: cf. Typically, Darius represents the last Gentile emperor, who will be worshipped; Daniel, the godly Jews who will be saved from the very jaws of destruction; his opposers, the future infidel accusers of God's people. It gives the character of the Gentile kings, already noted in chapter 4, as before God, and their conduct towards those who acknowledge God. This is not the resurrection of the dead, but a national rising of all Israel from among the Gentiles, like the rising from the valley of dry bones in Ezekiel 37 : a remnant only will enter the kingdom. It is important to remember that Daniel's prophecy embraces the 'times of the Gentiles' — running on from the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to the restoration of the Jews whenruled over by the Son of David. The present governments or states of Europemay be said to be the representatives of Gentile supremacy, but through the depreciation of the Roman empire by the mixture of the iron and clay. — namely, what concerns the Gentiles — is written in what is there called Syriac, or Aramaic — usually called Chaldee, the Gentiles' tongue
Debt - He believed also that Gentile Christians, having received the gospel by way of the Jews, owed a debt to their Jewish brothers. The Gentiles had an obligation to help the Jews in their poverty (Romans 15:27)
Heathen (2) - ‘Heathen’ occurs in Authorized Version of the Gospels in Matthew 6:7; Matthew 18:17, and not at all in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, which gives ‘Gentiles’ and ‘Gentile’ respectively in these two places (see Gentiles)
Flock - To these He added the Gentile believers; and all were united into one flock (not 'one fold'), with Christ as the one Shepherd
Nazarenes - They refused to abandon the ceremonies prescribed by the law of Moses; but were far from attempting to impose the observance of these ceremonies upon Gentile Christians
Transfigure - 1), is used in the Passive Voice (a) of Christ's "transfiguration," Matthew 17:2 ; Mark 9:2 ; Luke (in Luke 9:29 ) avoids this term, which might have suggested to Gentile readers the metamorphoses of heathen gods, and uses the phrase egeneto heteron, "was altered," lit
Owe - A — 1: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to owe, to be a debtor" (in the Passive Voice, "to be owed, to be due"), is translated by the verb "to owe" in Matthew 18:28 (twice); Luke 7:41 ; 16:5,7 ; Romans 13:8 ; in 15:27, RV, "they (gentile converts) owe it" (AV, "it is their duty"); Philemon 1:18
Barnabas - The church chose Barnabas to go to Syrian Antioch to investigate the unrestricted preaching to the Gentiles there. Paul and Barnabas were sent to Jerusalem to try to settle the questions of how Gentiles could be saved and how Jewish Christians could have fellowship with them (Acts 15:1-21 ). ...
Barnabas in Paul's Letters In Galatians 2:1-10 , Paul recalled how he went with Barnabas to Jerusalem and how the apostles approved of their Gentile mission (probably the same event as Acts 15:1 ). In Galatians 2:13 , however, Paul indicated that on one occasion Barnabas wavered on the issue of full acceptance of Gentile Christians
Nebuzaradan - How humiliating to the Jews to be admonished of their sin by a Gentile ruler!...
Ruth - Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matthew 1:5 )
Latin - The Gentile names adopted by Jews were generally of Greek form (e
Enemies - Of public enemies: twice in the Benedictus, Luke 1:71; Luke 1:74, where the word implies Gentile persecutors
Brick - Salvation is of the Jews, and therefore cannot come through any Gentile source
Ensign - I should not have thought it necessary to have noticed it, but because Christ is said to be set up as an ensign to the people, and to call the nations from afar; alluding, perhaps, to both the Jewish and Gentile church
Cornelius - He was "the first Gentile convert;" and the story of his reception of the gospel shows how God broke down the partition-wall between Jews and Gentiles. Providence thus explained his recent vision in the trance; he nobly discarded his Jewish prejudices, and at once began his great work as apostle to the Gentiles by receiving into the church of Christ those whom Christ had so manifestly accepted, Acts 10:11
Corner, Cornerstone - So Christ unites Jew and Gentile, Ephesians 2:20 ; again, as one may carelessly stumble over the "corner stone," when turning the "corner," so Christ proved a stumbling stone to Jews, 1 Peter 2:6
Ephesians, Theology of - I will rescue you from your own people and from the Gentiles. ...
Paul's entire life after this experience was guided by this commission he had received to take the gospel as a Jew to the Gentiles (Galatians 1:15-16 ). He functioned somewhat as a priestly servant sent "to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles with the priestly duty of proclaiming the gospel of God, so that the Gentiles might become an offering acceptable to God, sanctified by the Holy Spirit" (Romans 15:16 ). ...
The key to the theology of Ephesians is the second chapter, where Paul sets forth the implications of the equal union of Jews and Gentiles in the one body, the church. Both Gentiles (v. The Gentiles have since been included, largely by Paul's own work, in keeping with divine forethought and election. ...
It if foundational to the theology of Paul, in Acts and in his generally accepted letters as well as in Ephesians, that both Gentiles and Jews are made alive together with Christ, have been raised up together, and made to sit together with Christ in the heavenly places (vv. Thus, the Gentile disciples are fellow citizens with the Jewish disciples and members together with them of the household of God (v. The Gentiles have now been included and, being "joined together" with the Jewish foundation, they grow together into a holy temple in the Lord (2:20-21). ...
A number of key theological terms and arguments in Ephesians revolve around these two concepts: (1) the historical and cosmological role of the Jews in God's redemptive history from the time of Abraham; and (2) Paul's own place in that process, that of bringing in the Gentiles as full participants in the kingdom, which evil forces in the cosmos conspired to prevent and thus to destroy the work of Christ. Another key to understanding Ephesians is recognizing that in this book a Jewish author is writing to a Gentile audience. ...
Paul consistently uses second-person pronouns in the letter in a specialized sense, that of addressing an exclusively Gentile Christian audience. The particularized use of the second-person pronoun in referring to Gentiles as the recipients of this letter is seen in 2:11, where he says: "remember that you who are Gentiles by birth and called uncircumcision. " Again in 3:1 he writes: "I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for the sake of you Gentiles . " However, unlike Romans, where Paul addresses his dual audience on the one hand as Jews "who know the law" (7:1) and then on the other as Gentiles (11:13), Paul never addresses Jews directly in Ephesians using the second-person pronoun. At this point, following Paul's declaration of the inclusion of the Gentiles with the Jews, the first-person pronouns henceforth refer to Jews and Gentiles combined. After the epistolary greeting in 1:1-2, the Gentiles are not referred to until verse 13, where they are said to have been added to God's redemptive work among the Jews, who thus far have been designated by first-person plural pronouns. Paul then addresses the Gentile readers in verse 13 by saying "you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation marked in him with a seal, the promised Holy Spirit, who is a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance. "...
Thus, the Jew and Gentile are differentiated by these pronouns down to the second chapter. Then in 2:1-5 , after the declaration that the Gentiles now have been brought together with the Jews into the body of Christ, the first-person plural pronouns henceforth refer to Jews and Gentiles together . The transition point is verse 3, where Paul concludes that "allof us [1] also lived among them [2]. "...
Thus, the first ten verses of chapter 2 may be paraphrased as follows: "You Gentiles were dead in your trespasses and sins (v. But God has now forgiven us (Jew and Gentile alike) by his grace (vv. ...
Therefore, from this point on (2:3) the first-person plural pronouns include the Gentiles as well, who have been grafted as wild olive branches into the Jewish tree (Romans 11:17-24 ) and are henceforth, like the Jews, included among the descendants of Abraham, "in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, so that by faith we [1] might receive the promise of the Spirit" ( Galatians 3:14 ). ...
The first example and the most significant perhaps is in 2:5 where, following three compound verbs describing the uniting of Jews and Gentiles together in Christ ("made alive together, raised together, and made to sit together"—sunezoopoiesen, sunegeiren [4], and sunekathisen ), Paul states (v. 7) that God's rich grace is manifested toward us , the first-person plural pronoun now meaning Jew and Gentile together, who are declared to be his workmanship (v. The compounds themselves do not refer to any union including ChristChrist and Jews, Christ and Gentiles, or Christ and Christians but to that of Jews and Gentiles. The Jews and Gentiles thus brought together, are then together, as an entity, united with Christ. ...
The use of compounds in this way occurs again in 2:16-18 where Paul says that the Gentiles are fellow heirs (sunkleronoma)fellow members of the body (sussoma) and fellow partakers ( summetocha ) of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel. " The result is that the Gentiles are now "fellow citizens with God's people, " the Jews. ...
A third example is in 3:8, where Paul calls himself the "less than the least of all God's people (Jewish Christians)" who was given the commission to "preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ. " This statement of Gentile inclusion is then followed again (as in 2:16) by the first-person "we, " (v. 12) signifying that we [5] can now approach God with freedom and confidence. ...
A fourth example may be found in 4:13, where it is stated that the work of God's people (Jewish Christians) in building up the body of Christ by including the Gentiles, will continue until we all attain unto the oneness of the faith. Then in verses 14,15, first-person plurals are used (" we will no longer be" and " we will grow up") referring to the newly created union of Jews and Gentiles who should no longer be babes but grow up in every way into him who is the head, even Christ. That "growing up" or reaching "maturity" is done by including the Gentiles. ...
If this analysis is correct, 2:3 is the transition point in the letter, with all the first-person pronouns from this point on referring to the union of Jews and Gentiles. The third verse is the decisive point, indicated by the phrase "we all" which appears also in 4:13, in both instances expanding the first-person pronoun references to Jews to include the Gentiles as well. " A third key element in the theology of Ephesians is the differentiation between Jewish and Gentile Christians by the consistent use of the words "God's people" in reference to Jewish Christians. In verse 1 he says "I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for the sake of you Gentiles" and in verse 8 he continues "I am less than the least of God's people. " This distinction between Gentiles and saints is seen also in 3:18, where the text states: "in order that you (Gentiles) may have power together with all the saints " the greatness of God. " Further, the mystery in 1:9, which Paul says was made known to "us" (Jews), is identified in 3:3-5 as a revelation to God's people (Jews), that the Gentiles were to be fellow participants in God's eternal purpose. These heavenly places are not synonymous with "heaven" because they include not only God and Christ, but also Jewish and Gentile Christians, as well as demonic powers (1:3,10, 20; 2:2,6; 3:10,15; 4:10; 6:9,12)
Lucifer - The language is primarily drawn from that of Satan himself, the spirit that energized the pagan world power Babylon, that now energizes the apostate church, and shall at last energize the last secular antichrist (the fourth kingdom little horn) and his champion, the false prophet (the third kingdom little horn), the harlot's successor, who shall oppress Israel, as the fourth kingdom little horn oppresses the Gentile world: Daniel 7:8-26 (Chaldee); Daniel 8:9-11 (Hebrew); Revelation 13:4; Revelation 16:13-14; 2 Thessalonians 2:9
Sheep - The Lord led His sheep out of the Jewish fold: these were united with His 'other sheep' (Gentile believers), that they all should become 'one flock' with one Shepherd
Gibeon - Were the Gibeonites in those instances a type of the salvation of the Gentile church, brought in by sovereign grace into the privileges of Christ Jesus? Was this nation set apart in those early ages of the church, by way of shewing Christ's interest in his people, in being "a light to lighten the Gentiles, as well as the glory of his people Israel?" I do not decide upon the subject; I only ask the interesting question
Adultery - (Leviticus 19:20-22 ) At a later time, and when owing, to Gentile example, the marriage tie became a looser bond of union, public feeling in regard to adultery changed, and the penalty of death was seldom or never inflicted
Cornelius - This left no doubt as to the propriety of baptizing these Gentile proselytes of the gate with Christian baptism. " The question which perplexed the early church was not whether Gentiles might, become Christians (for that was plainly declared Mark 16:15; Luke 24:47), but whether they could be admitted without circumcision. Cornelius, representing Roman nationality and force, was peculiarly fitted to be the first Gentile convert, the firstfruits of the harvest that followed
Barnabas - When the Gentiles were converted at Antioch it was Barnabas who was sent there from Jerusalem. Antioch became a centre, from whence the gospel went forth to the Gentiles; it was there that the Holy Ghost said, "Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them," and from thence they started on what is called Paul's first missionary journey. ...
On the question being raised as to the necessity of the Gentile disciples being circumcised, Paul and Barnabas (Paul being now mostly mentioned first) went up to Jerusalem about the subject. It was most probably written by a Gentile, for it is strongly opposed to Judaism; it has numerous inaccuracies as to the Old Testament, and absurd interpretations of scripture, and contains many silly allusions to the writer's superior knowledge
Romans, Theology of - Briefly, the church at Rome, which originally had strong Jewish Christian leadership (its founders may have been Roman Jewish pilgrims to Jerusalem at Pentecost who carried the gospel back to Rome), defaulted to Gentile leadership at the expulsion of Jews from Rome by edict of Emperor Claudius in the 40s. Following his death Jewish Christians returned with the result that there was bad feeling between the two groups in the church, the Gentiles with their larger numbers and leadership assuming superiority, the returning Jews claiming their own priority because they had been there first and had a more noble heritage. ...
Typical of all his theological writings Paul in Romans uses the technique of gentle persuasion, not heavy-handed fiat (even in Galatians, after a righteously indignant introduction, he settles into the rhetorical technique of persuading the Galatian Gentiles of the logic of his case). 16-18): On the positive side, the gospel is powerful to save everyone who has faith, Jew and Gentile alike; but it also has a negative cut like the sword of Hebrews 4:12 , for those who suppress the truth in unrighteousness receive the gospel as the wrath of God against their ungodliness. In 2:1-16 he reveals the indefensible position of the moral person, whether Gentile or Jew, who criticizes others yet is equally guilty and is therefore also liable to divine wrath. Paul is not teaching a general works theology in this section, which would be antithetical to his justification by faith in Christ alone theology in the letter as a whole, but is addressing his Gentile and Jewish readers who have been guilty of hypocritical judgment. Only doers of the Law will be justified before God, whether Jew or Gentile; hence prideful superiority among Christians is unacceptable. Paul addresses Jewish believers more directly in 2:14-16 and again in 2:17-3:8 for their pride and ineffectiveness as witnesses, and then makes the notable observation that being a Jew in the true sense is a matter of inner not outer circumcision (2:28-29), thus establishing an inclusive category of Jew-Gentile that Jesus had already intimated in his teaching on inward intention (Matthew 6:4,6,18 ). Jew and Gentile believers are on the same footing within the church and are brought to the level of humility. 9-11Paul will level the Gentile believers specifically for discounting the fact that ethnic Jews still are being welcomed to faith. Paul's theological argument is now complete on the negative side and his boasting and strife-ridden Roman audience of Jewish and Gentile Christians are properly brought down from pride to humility. It is in faith in Christ and in his faithful work that salvation for Jew and Gentile resides (but note that objective faith in Jesus rests on Jesus' subjective faithfulness). Boasting is therefore excluded (3:27), for both Jew and Gentile are justified on the ground of the faith in Christ, who has kept the Law for us. The Abraham of faith is therefore to be seen as the father of both Gentile and Jew—of the Jew because David personifies the grace and faith principle operative in the Mosaic period (vv. 6-8), and of the Gentile because Abraham was a Gentile before he was circumcised (vv. While Abraham functions as a secondary figure as patriarch of righteousness by faith for Gentile and Jewish believers, Adam and Christ represent archetypal progenitors of the human race where works are the primary focus. Whether it is Jacob over Esau, Moses over Pharaoh, or now the Gentiles over Paul's own kind, it is by God's sovereign grace that even a remnant is saved. If Israel's present default means grace for the Gentiles, "how much greater riches will their fullness bring" (11:12). A warning to the Gentiles now ensues (vv. Since "all" in 5:18-21 and in 11:32 does not imply every single member of a group, so here "all Israel" in context most likely means the whole (unspecified) remnant of Israel will be saved, the point being, against Gentile arrogance, that God still has a place in his sovereign plan for Paul's ethnic people. The gospel is for Jews and Gentiles (1:16). Finally, Paul discloses the real purpose of his writing such a carefully drawn out and persuasive argument: to enlist his Roman readers in supporting a mission to unreached Gentiles in Spain and the delivery of a love gift to suffering Jewish Christians in Jerusalem (15:14-33)
Gentiles (2) - GENTILES. —In AV of the Gospels, ‘Gentiles’ and ‘nations’ are the translations of ἕθνη, RV agreeing with the rendering of AV in every place of the word’s occurrence. In Mt 6:7 (ἐθνικοί) and 18:17 (ἐθνικός) AV has ‘heathen’ and ‘a heathen man’ respectively; RV ‘Gentiles’ and ‘the Gentile. ’ In Mt 5:47, where AV has τελῶναι, ‘publicans,’ RV with the reading ἐθνικοί has ‘Gentiles. ’ Ἔλληνες, occurring in John only, is rendered ‘Greeks’ in 12:20 RV and AV; in 7:35 RV has ‘Greeks,’ AV ‘Gentiles,’ with, however, ‘Greeks’ in the margin. Ἑλληνίς (Mk 7:26) is translated ‘a Greek’ in both versions, but AV has ‘Gentile’ in the margin. The very wide diffusion of the Greek language after the conquests of Alexander the Great was the reason that in our Lord’s day ‘Greek’ was often used as an equivalent for ‘Gentile. The word ‘Gentiles,’ from the Lat. ...
For a full discussion of the term ‘Gentiles,’ reference must be made to the Bible Dictionaries. ...
A full consideration of the attitude of early Christianity towards the Gentiles requires a study of the Acts and Epistles at least, and is beyond the scope of this article: our Lord’s teaching, however, afterwards developed by His followers, is quite plainly indicated in the Gospels, and must form the basis of any adequate discussion of the subject. ...
The fact that Jesus did not pass His youth in the religiously exclusive atmosphere of Jerusalem, but in the freer and more liberal surroundings of semi-Gentile Galilee, fits in with the prophetic word of Simeon at the Presentation, and the declarations of His forerunner: He was to be ‘a light to lighten the Gentiles’ (Luke 2:32); and, God was able to raise up to Abraham children (Luke 3:8) who could not boast any natural descent from the patriarch. Matthew, although according to the usual account of his standpoint he had no especially Gentile proclivities, records two important prophetic utterances regarding the Gentiles as being illustrated and fulfilled in his Master’s work: ‘Galilee of the Gentiles; the people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up’ (Luke 4:15-16), and, ‘In his name shall the Gentiles trust’ (Luke 12:21). Luke’s chronology (see Naaman), Jesus defied the Jewish prejudices of His hearers in the synagogue at Nazareth by citing cases of Gentiles blessed through the agency of Israel’s prophets (Luke 4:25 ff. ); and, when driven from His native town, He took up His abode in a city of despised Galilee which belonged to that less Jewish portion of it known as ‘Galilee of the Gentiles’ (Matthew 4:15). Moreover, it was in the same Gentile-infected Galilee that the most important part of His ministry was carried on, and He even went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon (Mark 7:24), and also taught and healed those who came to Him from thence, together with those who sought Him from Decapolis (Matthew 4:25), and from Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan (Mark 3:8); nor did He disdain to remain on one occasion for two days among the Samaritans at their request (John 4:40). On the other hand, the evil generation of whom the Pharisees were representatives, He declared should be condemned in the judgment by Gentiles, the men of Nineveh and the queen of Sheba (Matthew 12:41 f. And, finally, at the end of His ministry, in the allegory of the sheep and the goats, spoken exclusively with reference to Gentiles, He applies to those on the right hand the word ‘righteous,’ which in the Jewish language was so often the technical term to designate only the chosen people (Matthew 25:37). ...
There are two passages in the Gospels which demand a passing notice, as they might seem at first sight to be in opposition to our Lord’s usual attitude towards the Gentiles. One is His saying to the Syrophœnician woman, ‘I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matthew 15:24); and the other is His injunction to the Twelve, ‘Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not; but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matthew 10:5; Matthew 10:8). ‘Gentiles’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible and Encyc. ‘Gentiles
Titus - He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake
Luke - The evangelist, was a Gentile
Luke - He was of Gentile parentage before he became a Christian; as appears from Colossians 4:11,14: "Luke the beloved physician" (one of "my fellow workers unto the kingdom of God which have been a comfort unto me") is distinguished from those "of the circumcision
Barbarian - See Gentile; Greeks; Hellenist
Antinomians - One has but to read carefully the epistle to the Galatians to see that for Gentile believers to place themselves under the law is to fall from grace; and Paulexhorted them to be as he was, for he was (though a Jew by birth) as free from the law by the death of Christ as they were as Gentiles
Concubine - A concubine would generally be either (1) a Hebrew girl bought of her father; (2) a Gentile captive taken in war; (3) a foreign slave bought; or (4) a Canaanitish woman, bond or free
Antioch in Pisidia - ...
When Paul and Barnabas first came to Antioch, they preached in the Jewish synagogue on the Sabbath and there was a good response, both from Jews and from Gentiles (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:42-43). The next Sabbath almost the whole Gentile population of Antioch came to the synagogue to hear the missionaries preach
Law - Later Judaism, on its Pharisaic side, had carried legalism to extremes, and thus accentuated the separation between Israel and the Gentiles. Matthew 9:9-13 ||s and, generally, the attitude of Jesus to publicans and sinners), and to regard faith as of more importance than the distinction between Jew and Gentile (cf. , required a special revelation before he would enter the house of the uncircumcised Cornelius and admit the first Gentile convert into the Church by baptism (Acts 10:1-48)-a step which did not fail to arouse opposition on the part of those who ‘were of the circumcision’ (cf. From this point of view his attitude to the question concerning the Gentile Christians discussed at the Apostolic Council becomes readily intelligible. Here he shows himself to be a genuine disciple of Jesus in recognizing, after the example of Peter, the supremacy of grace, and in refusing to put the yoke of the Law upon the Gentile Christians, whom rather he receives as brethren, while he acknowledges St. He thus came into direct conflict with the Pharisaic group of Jewish Christians-those who asserted that the salvation of the Gentiles depended upon their being circumcised and their acceptance of the Law (Acts 15:1-5, Galatians 2:1-5). It was probably only for the sake of brotherly intercourse between circumcised and uncircumcised Christians that James proposed the restrictions to Gentile Christian liberty which were laid down in the so-called Apostolic Decree (Acts 15:20 f. The reason given for the proposal (Acts 15:21 : ‘For Moses from generations of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath’) probably means simply that the four prohibitions in question-which formed the kernel of the so-called Noachian commandments, and correspond to the laws for proselytes-had come to be so impressed upon the minds of the Jews that they could not countenance any disobedience to them if their intercourse with their Gentile brethren in the Church was to be unconstrained. James was in reality only following the practice of the Synagogue with regard to proselytes of the narrower class (‘the God-fearing,’ οἱ φοβούμενοι [2] τὸν θεόν), just as that practice no doubt had already prepared the way in the Christian mission to the Gentiles; for the fact that St. But the question regarding the Gentiles was in no sense solved, as soon appeared in what occurred at Antioch (Galatians 2:11-14). Peter had in that city ignored the Jewish regulations about food, and had eaten in the company of Gentile Christians, this did not coincide with the views of those who ‘came from James. If concessions were to be made at all, they must come from the Gentile, not the Jewish, side. It is probable, however, that in his view of the matter his concern for Israel bulked more largely than his regard for the Gentiles, and that accordingly he would have preferred to surrender the possibility of perfect Christian communion between Jewish and Gentile Christians rather than grant the former a dispensation from their regulations regarding food. James says in Acts 15:14 regarding the mission to the Gentiles, viz. But just as, according to Acts 10, he had been led by a Divine revelation to enter the house of an uncircumcised man, and to eat with the Gentiles (cf. Acts 11:3), we may infer also, from his speech in the Apostolic Council, and especially from his behaviour in the Gentile Christian community at Antioch, that he had a much clearer view than St. In certain circumstances he thought himself justified, for the sake of brotherly intercourse with Gentile Christians, in disregarding the rigour of the Law, since, after all, salvation did not depend upon the Law, whose yoke, indeed, neither the fathers nor the Jews then living were able to bear, but Jew and Gentile alike could look for salvation only to the grace of Jesus Christ, and to faith in Him (cf. Peter recognized the religious freedom of the Jewish Christians, not merely as regards the more general intercourse with their Gentile brethren sanctioned by the Apostolic Decree, but also as regards the closer intimacy involved in eating with them (cf. Paul, actually acknowledged that the Jewish Christians had the right to accommodate themselves to the freedom of the Gentiles. Paul, but is quite intelligible if it was addressed to Gentile Christian, Pauline communities, and written under the influence of Pauline Epistles, as Romans and Ephesians-a hypothesis to which, in view of the editorial collaboration of Silvanus, the follower of St. It need, therefore, occasion no surprise that in his conversion Saul had become convinced of the universality of Christianity, or that thereafter he maintained that the Law was not in a religious sense binding upon either Gentile or Jewish Christians (Galatians 1:2). Paul saw at once that he was called to be a missionary among the heathen, and he seems to have laboured as such for a time without any interference whatever-a circumstance which will hardly seem strange when we remember that certain Hellenists who had been driven out in consequence of the persecution connected with Stephen had preached the gospel in Antioch even to the Gentiles, and that the numerous converts whom they had won from heathendom were recognized as brethren by the community in Jerusalem (Acts 11:20-24). It is true that νόμος, even without the article, may mean the historically-given Law of Moses, the possession of which was the special prerogative of the Jews as distinguished from the Gentiles (1618178380_44; Romans 3:20 f. Romans 2:13-15 : ‘For not the hearers of law are just before God, but the doers of law shall be justified; for when Gentiles who have not law do by nature the things of the law, these having no law are law to themselves,’ etc
Ephesians Epistle to the - Apart from the address, indeed, it would be difficult to see that any special readers are intended, though in the main the Epistle is addressed to Gentile converts (Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:26-273; Ephesians 2:11; Ephesians 2:13 etc. Controversy is laid aside for the time being, and the writer deals with the problems of the Gentile Church in a spirit at once detached and lofty. 1-3 deal with the respective positions of Jew and Gentile in the unity of the Church, from which we may conjecture that this was one of the main difficulties in the churches founded by St. The danger is no longer that of the Judaizing teacher, but rather lest the growing Gentile communities should tend to despise the Jewish Christians in their midst (Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:8; Ephesians 2:11-15; cf. 4-6 deal with the most constant danger of the Gentile convert-the danger of relapse into the vices of paganism. Against the dangers of the hour he sets the inspiration of a great ideal, the One Body of Christ who died for Jew and Gentile alike, the One Church, ordered by Christ Himself, in which every man, if he will, may lead the life of the Spirit. The unity of the Church, regarded as that in which Jew and Gentile are at last one. Thanksgiving that in the Holy Spirit both Jew and Gentile have even here and now an earnest of that great heritage. A further thanksgiving for all that is implied in this conception of the Church, worked out especially in relation to the position of Jews and Gentiles therein. The power of God which was shown in Christ has been shown too upon all individual Christians, whether Gentile (Ephesians 2:1-2) or Jew (Ephesians 2:3), raising them from the death of sin (Ephesians 2:5; contrast Ephesians 2:20), causing them to ascend with Christ into the heavenly sphere (Ephesians 2:6; cf. The Gentile who was once far off is ‘made nigh in the blood of Christ’ (Ephesians 1:11-13). Jew and Gentile now stand together in one fellowship, both having their access to the Father through Christ in one Spirit (Ephesians 1:16-18). ...
This section is interrupted by a passage (Ephesians 1:2-13) in which the writer dwells upon his own position as the ‘chosen vessel’ through whom this mystery of the Church was to be preached to the Gentiles. The old Gentile life, based upon ignorance and resulting in impurity, contrasted with the new life, based upon knowledge of Christ and resulting in ‘righteousness and holiness of truth. Peter and Cornelius), and he, and not they, had been called to proclaim the mystery of the Church to the Gentiles (Ephesians 3:8). All that we can gather from the letter is that they are Gentile Christians (Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:11; Ephesians 2:13; Ephesians 2:17; Ephesians 3:1). He does not seem certain, whether they all know how definitely and specially he had been commissioned to preach to the Gentiles (Ephesians 3:2, and hence the whole digression Ephesians 3:2-13)
John Calvin - Gentile was also condemned for his Unitarianism, and beheaded
Calvin, John - Gentile was also condemned for his Unitarianism, and beheaded
Naaman - God's sovereign grace, going beyond Israel and its many lepers to heal the Gentile Naaman, Jesus makes to be His justification for His not doing as many miracles in His own country as He had done in Capernaum, an earnest of the kingdom of God passing from Israel to the Gentiles; Luke the physician (Luke 4:23-27) appropriately is the evangelist who alone records it
Fullness of Time - A major theme of Ephesians is that Christ has already broken down the dividing wall of hostility between Jew and Gentile (1 John 2:11-22 , especially 1John 2:14,1 John 2:21 )
Tutor - Paul here compares the state of the world, both Jewish and Gentile, before Christ came to an heir in his minority
Horse - In the early part of Zechariah the prophet had visions of horses of different colours, they are called spirits of the heavens, and as such they acted in the four great Gentile empires described by Daniel
Sabbatical Year - These "years" were observed under the New Testament; and Judaizers even sought to force their observance on Gentile Christians (Galatians 4:10)
Abba - ...
The use of the Hebrew and of the Greek appellation addressed to the one Father beautifully suggests that the Spirit of adoption from Jesus, who first used the double invocation, inspires in both Jew and Gentile alike the experimental knowledge of God as our Father, because He is Father of Jesus with whom faith makes us one, and as our God because He is Jesus' God
Gentiles, Times of the - After long patience of God with Israel the house of David was set aside and carried into captivity, the power of government for God was transferred to the Gentile, and the times of the Gentiles commenced in the person of Nebuchadnezzar. Three other empires succeeded that of Babylon, and the times of the Gentiles still continue, under various phases of government. "Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled
Apelles - , that, as modern Jews take a Gentile name which closely resembles their Hebrew name, so in ancient times a Jew called Abel might choose the name Apelles]'>[1])
Abba - ]'>[1] : but in Romans 8:15 and Galatians 4:6 the Gentile Christians had learned for importunity to use the Aram
Luke, Lucas - It is supposed, from Colossians 4:11,14 , that he was a Gentile, though these verses are no proof of it
Key - Peter, that he should first open the gate of his kingdom, both to Jew and Gentile, in making the first converts among them, Matthew 16:19
Jethro - The primitive faith still had its representatives here and there in the Gentile world after Abraham's call, e
Neighbor - Thus, when the Old Testament prescribes treating one's neighbor as oneself (Leviticus 19:18 b), we are to envisage how Israel was to treat fellow Israelites (Leviticus 19:17-18 a) and, only by extension, Gentiles. Social realities also reveal that Jews were kind to Gentiles in general and for those Jews who lived in the diaspora there was also a general social friendliness to be observed. For Jesus, a neighbor was anyone with whom you came into contact—whether Jew, Samaritan, or Gentile (Luke 10:25-37 ). ...
This profound parable of Jesus, with its teaching on the importance of showing love for anyone within one's reach, along with Jesus' command to love one's enemies (Matthew 5:43-48 ) and his overt friendliness to Gentiles become foundational for the early church's missionary efforts and for interpersonal relationships within the largely Gentile churches of Paul. Paul urges the Galatians to love their neighbors as themselves and here the implication is that it involved both Jewish and Gentile Christians (Galatians 5:14 ) and we find in Matthew an emphasis on loving one's enemy (=Gentile Matthew 5:43-48 ). Once again, while this idea is not new to Judaism, the emphasis of seeing neighbors as Gentiles as well clearly expanded the Jewish horizons. 259-65; idem, A Light among the Gentiles: Jewish Missionary Activity in the Second Temple Period ; E
Church - The history of the Church in the Apostolic Age may be treated under the following heads; (1) Sources, (2) Importance, (3) Name, (4) Origin, (5) Growth, (6) Conflict between Jewish and Gentile elements, (7) Character, (8) Relation to the State and other systems. , we have the Epistle of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians and the Epistle of Barnabas, one representing Gentile and the other Jewish Christianity. (c) This age exhibits the first effects which the gospel produced upon Jew and Gentile-two very different soils, which might bear very different fruits. Persecution caused flight from Jerusalem, and then missionary effort was extended to Jews of the Dispersion and to Gentiles. The first missionaries to the Gentiles, the men who took this momentous step of bringing the gospel to pagans, are for the most part unknown to us. Who won the first Gentile converts at Antioch? Who first took Christianity to Rome? Whoever they were, there had been a long and complex preparation for their work, which goes a considerable way towards explaining its success. But to the Gentile these considerations were not impressive. Conflict between Jewish and Gentile elements. But it is not a just statement of the case to say that the Gentile Church first stripped Judaism of everything, the Scriptures included, and then left it by the wayside half dead; or that the daughter first robbed her mother, and then repudiated her. And, as it was the energetic Jew of Tarsus who led the first persecution of the Christians, so it was the Apostle of the Gentiles who caused the final separation of the Church from the Synagogue. ...
It was inevitable that the Jews should resent such claims on the part of Christians, and especially of Gentile Christians; and the resentment became furious hostility when they saw the rapidity with which Christians made converts as compared with their own slowness in making proselytes here and there. Under their roof both Jews and Gentiles could meet to hear the word of God (Acts 18:7). The destruction of Jerusalem left the Gentile Churches, and especially the Church of Rome, without a rival, for the Jewish Church of Jerusalem sank into obscurity, and never recovered; nor did any other community of Jewish Christiana take its place. When a Christian community arose once more in the restored Jerusalem, it was a Gentile Church. Paul were entirely agreed that there was no need to make Gentile converts conform to the Mosaic Law; but St. Peter had been willing to make unworthy concessions to the prejudices of Jewish converts who were fresh from headquarters, by ceasing to eat with Gentile converts. ...
‘But what it amounted to was that multitudes of baptized Gentile Christians, hitherto treated on terms of perfect equality, were now to be practically exhibited as unfit company for the circumcised Apostles of the Lord who died for them. … Such conduct, though in form it was not an expulsion of the Gentile converts, but only a self-withdrawal from their company, was in effect a summons to them to become Jews if they wished to remain in the fullest sense Christians. ...
The leading facts in the history of the Apostolic Church are-the freedom won for Gentile converts, the consequent expansion of Christianity and Christendom, and the transfer of the Christian centre from Palestine to Europe. When the Apostolic Age began, the Church was overwhelmingly Jewish; before it ended, the Church was overwhelmingly Gentile. Paul-‘a Hebrew of Hebrews’-whose Jewish birth and training moulded his thoughts and language, but never induced him to sacrifice the freedom of the gospel to the bondage of the law, the break with Judaism became absolute, and, as Gentile converts increased, the restrictions of Judaism were almost forgotten
Contribution For the Saints - Paul probably also promoted the offering as a way of building unity between Jewish and Gentile Christians
Goiim - (gawi' ihm) Proper name meaning, “nation,” particularly a “Gentile, foreign nation. In Judges 4:2 Sisera's residence was in Harosheth of the Gentiles (KJV) or Harosheth-ha-goiim (NRSV)
Changers of Money - They set up their tables in the court of the Gentiles, to exchange at a price the foreign coin of Jews and proselytes coming from distant lands for the Hebrew half shekel (which was required from every adult from 20 years old and upward: Exodus 38:26) in presenting themselves to worship at the tabernacle or temple. The court of the Gentiles, as distinguished from that of Israel and that of the priests, was designed not only for an unclean Jew, but also for the uncircumcised Gentile proselytes. ...
The Jewish traffic here was an insult to the Gentiles
Highway - The idea is clear—where men both good and bad, Jew and Gentile, are most likely to be found
Rejection - ...
In the references to Romans, (2) and (3) are employed in the special sense of the rejection of Israel to make way for the Gentiles as recipients of the gospel. But Israel itself as a nation rejects the gospel (Acts 13:46) in order that the offer of it may be made to the Gentiles, who had no hereditary claim to it and were not oven seeking it (Romans 10:20). Paul sets forth (Romans 11:25), but in Gentile communities and under the conditions of Gentile life, the gospel had scope for world-wide extension and universal acceptance which were not possible among the Jewish people. ‘God forbid: but by their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles
Divisions - ...
The question of Gentile converts being free from the yoke of the Law of Moses had been settled by the Council held at Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-29), but the Judaizing party had not acquiesced ex animo in that decision. ...
This party would perhaps point to the obedience of Christ to the Law during His life, and would strongly advocate the position that Christianity was an outcome of Judaism, and that the Gentile in accepting Christ must bow his head to the yoke of the Law as well
Outcasts - " So that it should seem, that there is a peculiar meaning in the term outcasts, as if the outcasts of other nations had a reference to that part of the Gentile church which is to be brought into one fold, under one shepherd, Jesus Christ the Lord. (Isaiah 11:12)...
What a blessed consideration ariseth out of this view of the outcasts both of the Jewish and the Gentile church
Luke, Gospel of, - Hence it would appear that the person for whom Luke wrote in the first instance was a Gentile reader; and accordingly we find traces in the Gospel of a leaning toward Gentile rather than Jewish converts
Galatians, Letter to the - ...
Purpose of the letter...
Paul was disturbed when certain Jews from the church in Jerusalem came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). They argued so persuasively that even mature Christians such as Peter stopped eating with the Gentile Christians, fearing that they might break the Jewish food laws
Strangling - In modern phrase the Gentile converts were to eat only kôsher meat
Swine - Whether "the herd of swine" into which the devils were allowed to enter, (Matthew 8:32 ; Mark 5:13 ) were the property of the Jewish or of the Gentile inhabitants of Gadara does not appear from the sacred narrative
Excuse - 1, below), is used, Romans 1:20 , "without excuse," of those who reject the revelation of God in creation; Romans 2:1 , RV, for AV, "inexcusable," of the Jew who judges the Gentile
Nicolaitans - ...
The Jerusalem council (Acts 15:20; Acts 15:29), while releasing Gentile converts from legalism, required their abstinence from idol meats and concomitant fornication
Galilee, Sea of - The other lake towns of importance were Bethsaida, which means “the fishing place”, and Tiberias, a Gentile city constructed by Herod Antipas when Jesus was a young man
Luke - Early sources indicate that Luke was a Gentile
Peace - ' He also is peace between believers, having on the cross broken down the barrier between Jew and Gentile
Amorites - A remnant out of the Gentile nations was thus associated with the heir of promise, though Lot (a type of Israel after the flesh) had separated from him
Tree - , "rose tree"), known by the fruit it produces, Matthew 12:33 ; Luke 6:44 ; certain qualities are mentioned in the NT; "a good tree," Matthew 7:17,18 ; 12:33 ; Luke 6:43 ; "a corrupt tree" (ditto); in Jude 1:12 , metaphorically, of evil teachers, "autumn trees (AV, 'trees whose fruit withereth') without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots," RV; in Luke 13:19 in some texts, "a great tree," AV (RV, "a tree"); for this and Matthew 13:32 see MUSTARD; in Luke 21:29 "the fig tree" is illustrative of Israel, "all the trees" indicating Gentile nations
Pastorals - The issue is no longer the missionary concern to incorporate Gentile believers into the church, but the institutional concern to fight heresy within established churches and to present a sober witness to a negative society
Pollution - ’ Its use in the LXX_ suggests also that it referred to the ordinary food of Gentiles (Daniel 1:8, Sirach 40:29) as well as to idol offerings. The Council did not adopt it, and changed it to the more colourless εἰδωλόθυτον, ‘idol offering,’ wishing perhaps to avoid a racial word which might suggest a separation in the matter of ordinary food between Jew and Gentile, such as afterwards actually happened (Galatians 2:9) under the influence of those who ‘came from James
Romans, Letter to the - He wanted to deliver to the poor Christians in Jerusalem a gift of money that he had been collecting among the Gentile churches of Greece and Asia Minor (Acts 19:21; Romans 15:23-27). But they had now returned, and there were many Jews in the Roman church alongside their Gentile fellow citizens. ...
Paul considered it necessary to speak at times specifically to the Jews (Romans 2:17-19; Romans 3:9; Romans 4:1), at other times specifically to the Gentiles (Romans 11:13-16; Romans 11:28; Romans 15:14-16). He warned against any anti-Jewish feeling among the Gentiles (Romans 11:17-24; Romans 15:27) and encouraged Jews and Gentiles to be tolerant of each other (Romans 14; Romans 15:1-5). Gentiles, by contrast, have accepted it by faith and so are saved (9:6-10:4). Although there will always be a minority of Israelites who believe, Paul hopes that the widespread Gentile response to the gospel will stir the unbelieving majority of Israelites to respond likewise. ...
Part of Paul’s reason in writing to the Roman Christians on these matters is that, as God’s apostle to the Gentiles, he has a special responsibility to them. At the same time he stresses that he wants the Gentile Christians to show fellowship towards Jewish Christians (15:14-33)
Galilee - of Zebulun) was inhabited by a mixed race of Jews and Gentiles of the bordering Phoenician race (Judges 1:30; 1 Kings 9:11). Hence called (Isaiah 9:1) "Galilee of the nations," or "Gentiles" (Matthew 4:13; Matthew 4:15-16). During and after the captivity the Gentile element became the preponderating population, and spread widely; and the province included in our Lord's days all the ancient Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, and Naphtali. Galilee's Gentile character caused the southern Jews of purer blood to despise it (John 1:46; John 7:52); but its very darkness was the Lord's reason for vouchsafing to it more of the light of His presence and ministry than to self-satisfied and privileged Judaea. ...
"The Light to lighten the Gentiles, and the Glory of His people Israel," appropriately ministered on the border land between Israel and the Gentiles, still on Israel's territory, to which He was primarily sent (Matthew 15:24). : Zebulun and Issachar shall offer their wealth at the Lord's appointed mount, and invite Gentile nations to join them (Psalms 22:27-28, etc. The conversion of the Gentiles, brought in to Israel and Israel's Savior, is herein prophetically typified (compare Isaiah 60:5-6; Isaiah 60:16; Isaiah 66:11-12). This upper Galilee is chiefly meant by "Galilee of the Gentiles. ...
The Galilean accent and dialect were unique, owing to Gentile admixture (Matthew 26:73)
Circumcision - This article is concerned with the difficulties caused in the Apostolic Church by the desire of the Judaizing party to enforce the rite upon the Gentile Christians. ...
As the work of the Church extended, the problem of the reception of Gentile converts presented itself for solution. Peter; the mission of certain evangelists to the Gentiles at Antioch; and finally the work of St. Barnabas, who turned to the Gentiles and freely admitted them into the fellowship of the Church. He also tells us that Titus, an uncircumcised Gentile, accompanied him. The Judaizing party found that an uncircumcised Gentile-Titus-had been brought into their midst, and they immediately demanded his circumcision. They were evidently moved by the account of his work among the Gentiles, and recognized the hand of God in it, and they were influenced by the fervour and spirit of the Apostle. ’ They recognized that their sphere was among the Gentiles, as that of the other apostles was among the Jews. The result of the conference was a compromise: Gentiles were not to be circumcised, but they were to abstain from certain practices which were offensive to their Jewish brethren
Circumcision - This article is concerned with the difficulties caused in the Apostolic Church by the desire of the Judaizing party to enforce the rite upon the Gentile Christians. ...
As the work of the Church extended, the problem of the reception of Gentile converts presented itself for solution. Peter; the mission of certain evangelists to the Gentiles at Antioch; and finally the work of St. Barnabas, who turned to the Gentiles and freely admitted them into the fellowship of the Church. He also tells us that Titus, an uncircumcised Gentile, accompanied him. The Judaizing party found that an uncircumcised Gentile-Titus-had been brought into their midst, and they immediately demanded his circumcision. They were evidently moved by the account of his work among the Gentiles, and recognized the hand of God in it, and they were influenced by the fervour and spirit of the Apostle. ’ They recognized that their sphere was among the Gentiles, as that of the other apostles was among the Jews. The result of the conference was a compromise: Gentiles were not to be circumcised, but they were to abstain from certain practices which were offensive to their Jewish brethren
Jonas, Book of - Chapters 3,4 record the accomplishment of his mission and the repentance of Ninive, Jonas is the prophet of God's mercy upon the Gentile nations
Corinth - Although there were many Jewish converts at Corinth, yet the Gentile element prevailed in the church there
Fish - ...
Jonah 1:17 (c) This is a type of the Gentile nations who have absorbed, but have not digested, the Jewish people
lo-Ammi - " Not only Judaea, but the whole earth shall be the seed plot wherein Gentile nations shall be the spiritual growth of the Jewish seed sown everywhere (Micah 5:7; Romans 11:12; Romans 11:15; Zechariah 10:9)
Strangled - The Council wishes Gentile Christians of Syria and Cilicia to keep from heathendom, i
Syntyche - The names of both Euodia and Syntyche are found frequently, and there is no reason for supposing them to be allegorical names for Jewish and Gentile Christianity, as is done so arbitrarily by the Tübingen school
People - , Matthew 26:5 ; Luke 20:19 ; Hebrews 5:3 ; in distinction from Gentiles, e. , Matthew 4:15 ; Acts 28:28 ; (c) "the people of a city," Acts 8:9 ; (d) Gentile Christians, e. See GentileS , NATION
Luke (Evangelist) - He is generally believed to be the author of the Third Gospel and Acts, and therefore a frequent fellow-traveller with the Apostle of the Gentiles. He was a Gentile (cf
Trophimus - Paul had introduced Trophimus, a Gentile, into the Temple
Patience of God - in the Gentile world
Spitting, Spittle - Christ foretold it among the insults which He as Messiah would endure (Mark 10:34, Luke 18:32); and during His Passion He was spit upon both by Jews (Matthew 26:67, Mark 14:65) and by Gentile soldiers (Matthew 27:30, Mark 15:19)
Patriarchs - The Gentile Pharaoh and Abimelech have revelations
Genealogy - This is the only genealogy given us in the New Testament We have two lists of the human ancestors of Christ: Matthew, writing for Jewish Christians, begins with Abraham; Luke, writing for Gentile Christians, goes back to Adam, the father of all men
Abba - It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say 'Father' in his own language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places
Boaz - Both Gentiles, and yet brought into the genealogy of the Lord Jesus Christ. Was it to shew the astonishing condescension of Jesus? And was it not to shew also, that long before the great events of redemption were to be accomplished, the Jew and Gentile church were both in Christ? (Galatians 3:28-29)...
See Harlot...
Boaz (2)...
One of the pillars in the porch of Solomon's temple, (1 Kings 7:21) It was on the left hand, as Jachin, the other pillar corresponding to it, was placed on the right
Nature - , the natural powers of constitution) of a person or thing, Ephesians 2:3 ; James 3:7 ("kind"); 2 Peter 1:4 ; (b) "origin, birth," Romans 2:27 , one who by birth is a Gentile, uncircumcised, in contrast to one who, though circumcised, has become spiritually uncircumcised by his iniquity; Galatians 2:15 ; (c) "the regular law or order of nature," Romans 1:26 , against "nature" (para, "against"); Romans 2:14 , adverbially, "by nature" (for Romans 11:21,24 , see NATURAL , Note); 1 Corinthians 11:14 ; Galatians 4:8 , "by nature (are no gods)," here "nature" is the emphatic word, and the phrase includes demons, men regarded as deified, and idols; these are gods only in name (the negative, me, denies not simply that they were gods, but the possibility that they could be)
Reconciliation - ...
Christ also abolished the system of the law that Jew and Gentile might be reconciled together unto God, the two being formed in Christ into one new man
Eber - ‘ Hebrew ,’ which is in form a Gentile name denoting the inhabitant of a country or member of a tribe
Fire - The were forbidden to kindle a fire on the Sabbath, Exodus 35:3 a prohibition perhaps only of cooking on that day, but understood by many Jews even now in the fullest extent; it is avoided by employing Gentile servants
Titus - Paul on his journey from Antioch to Jerusalem a journey undertaken in connexion with the question of the circumcision of Gentile Christians ( Galatians 2:1 ). The Judaistic party within the Church wished to have Titus circumcised ( Galatians 2:3 ); but the Apostle and those representing Gentile Christianity strenuously resisted (v
Convert, Conversion - Examples of conversion, outside the New Testament, emerge when one looks at the term "proselyte, " the convert from a Gentile way of life to Judaism. Technical terminology for turning does not occur here, but the example of the proselyte coming to Yahweh from Gentile origins does
Food Offered to Idols - According to Acts the success of Paul and Barnabas in evangelizing Gentiles led to a debate about the place of circumcision among Christians. At the end of the debate the acceptance of Gentile Christians by Jewish Christians was supported by a letter from the Jerusalem church which listed “what has been sacrificed to idols” as one thing from which it was expected that even Gentile Christians would obstain (Acts 15:29 )
Law of Christ - In Galatians, Paul argues vigorously that the law given at Sinai makes no claim on those who believe in Christ, whether Gentile or Jew (2:15-21; 3:10-14,23-26; 4:4-5; 4:21-5:6). By way of illustration Paul says in verses 19-23 that he adopts certain Jewish customs when among Jews, although he is not under the Jewish law, and that he adopts some Gentile customs when among Gentiles, although he is not without the law of God but rather "in the law of Christ" ( ennomos Christou ). If we take this passage to refer to the Messiah, then we could paraphrase it by saying that the Christ, when he comes, will teach God's law to the Gentiles ("the coastlands"). Like Isaiah, he believed that this covenant included the Gentiles (Galatians 3:7-20 ), and like Jeremiah he believed that it offered Israel a remedy for the curse that the old Sinaitic covenant pronounced on Israel's disobedience (Galatians 3:10-13 )
Acts of the Apostles - Paul; the call of Cornelius, the first Gentile convert; the persecution of the Christians by Herod Agrippa; the preaching of Paul and Barnabas to the Gentiles, by the express command of the Holy Ghost; the decree made at Jerusalem, declaring that circumcision, and a conformity to other Jewish rites and ceremonies, were not necessary in Gentile converts; and the latter part of the book is confined to the history of St. It must have been of the utmost importance in the early times of the Gospel, and certainly not of less importance to every subsequent age, to have an authentic account of the promised descent of the Holy Ghost, and of the success which attended the first preachers of the Gospel both among the Jews and Gentiles
Kill - , separation from God, realized through the presentation of the commandment to conscience, breaking in upon the fancied state of freedom; the argument shows the power of the Law, not to deliver from sin, but to enhance its sinfulness; in 2 Corinthians 3:6 , "the letter killeth," signifies not the literal meaning of Scripture as contrasted with the spiritual, but the power of the Law to bring home the knowledge of guilt and its punishment; in Ephesians 2:16 "having slain the enmity" describes the work of Christ through His death in annulling the enmity, "the Law" ( Ephesians 2:15 ), between Jew and Gentile, reconciling regenerate Jew and Gentile to God in spiritual unity "in one body
Fear - Paul draws up against both Jew and Gentile-comprehensive and explanatory of all the rest-is that there is no fear of God before their eyes (Romans 3:18). ...
This was the religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God. ), and many of the earliest Gentile converts to Christianity were men and women whose fear of God had prepared them for the reception of the gospel
Fear - Paul draws up against both Jew and Gentile-comprehensive and explanatory of all the rest-is that there is no fear of God before their eyes (Romans 3:18). ...
This was the religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God. ), and many of the earliest Gentile converts to Christianity were men and women whose fear of God had prepared them for the reception of the gospel
Galatians, Epistle to the - The Jews' religion, by which they were so attracted, had led him to be a bitter persecutor, but it had pleased God to reveal His Son in him that he might preach Him among the Gentiles. Fourteen Years after [1] he went up to Jerusalem and communicated to those there the gospel he preached to the Gentiles. He utterly refused to submit to pressure from Judaising brethren in the case of the Gentile convert Titus, and in result received the full fellowship of the three pillars — James, Cephas, and John — in regard to his ministry among the heathen. Having begun in the Spirit, were they now to be made perfect by the flesh ? Faith was the principle on which Abraham, the head of promise and blessing, was reckoned righteous, and on which the Gentiles would, with believing Abraham, receive blessing, according to God's promise to him. Christ had borne the curse that Abraham's blessing might come on the Gentiles in Christ Jesus, and that through faith they might receive the promise of the Spirit. Now faith had come, such were no longer under a tutor; the Gentile believers were now God's sons by faith in Christ Jesus. In Christ distinctions between Jew and Gentile disappeared: all were one, and the Gentile believers being of Christ were Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. Were the Gentile believers (formerly in heathen darkness, but now knowing God) going to turn back to the principles of law, which the apostle does not hesitate to call weak and beggarly elements? They observed days, and months, and times, and years, as though Christianity were a system for man in the flesh
Romans, the Epistle to the - Intending long to visit Rome and Spain (Romans 1:9-13; Romans 15:22-29), he was for the present unable, being bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians. Also in dividing the field of labour between himself and Peter (Galatians 2:7-9), as apostle of the Gentiles he claims the Romans as his share (Romans 1:13) and hopes to confer some "spiritual gift" (charism ) on them to establish them; implying that heretofore no apostle had been with them to do so (Romans 1:11; compare Acts 8:14-17). Its members were in part Jews originally, in part Gentiles (compare as to the Jewish element Romans 2; Romans 3; Romans 7; Romans 9; Romans 11:13). That Gentiles, however, composed the bulk of the Roman church appears from Romans 1:5; Romans 5:1-1140; Romans 9:3-4; Romans 10:1, "my prayer to God for them" (the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles whom he here more directly addresses; so Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus manuscripts read for "Israel"), Romans 11:23; Romans 11:25; Romans 11:30. But the Gentiles of this church were not Latin, but Greek. The legend of Peter and Paul presiding together over the church at Rome probably represents the combination of Jews and Gentiles in it. The joint episcopate of Linus and Cletus subsequently may be explained by supposing one ruled over the Jewish, the other over the Gentile congregation; this gives point to the general argument of Romans 1-3 and Romans 10:12, that there is no respect of nationality with God. The epistle to the Romans summarizes what he had just written; namely, epistle to Corinthians representing the attitude of the gospel to the Gentile world, the epistle to Galatians its relation to Judaism. What was in these two epistles immediately drawn out by special Judaizing errors of the Galatians, and Gentile licence of the Corinthians, is in Romans methodically combined together add arranged for general application. The casting away of the Jew, though most sad, is neither universal now (for there is a remnant according to the election of grace, and God's foreordaining is to be accepted not criticized by finite man), nor final, for "all Israel shall be saved" in the coming age, and their being received will be as life from the dead to the Gentile world (Romans 9; Romans 11). Their exclusion from justification now is because they seek it by the law, whereas God's way is by faith, open to Jew and Gentile alike; therefore preaching to the Gentiles is not, as the Jews imagined, unlawful, but foretold by Isaiah and required by the necessities of the case (Romans 10)
Claim - Afterwards, to one who understood it all, it was evident that attention to their own claims had blinded the religious leaders of Israel to the presence of the Lord of Glory (1 Corinthians 2:8), just as the worship of nature, degraded and degrading, had darkened and alienated from God the heart of the Gentile world (Romans 1:21). ...
With regard to the mutual recognition of Jew and Gentile, the antagonism was regarded on both sides as radical and permanent. The Jew despised the Gentile as ‘flesh and blood,’ humanity without religion; the Gentile saw in the Jew the negation of all social instinct, the genius of unnatural hate, religion without humanity. It was a great task that was soon to confront the gospel, for the Jew had to be convinced that the alien had been divinely provided for in the promises (Ephesians 2:19), and the Gentile had to learn that there was no place for pride where a wild branch had been grafted contrary to custom into a cultivated stem, and owed not only its sustenance but the higher quality of its new fruit to that incorporation (Romans 11:17-24)
Ephesians, Epistle to the - The subject of the letter is "the union of all the faithful, both Jew and Gentile, with Christ and in Christ, as members of the one mystical Body of which Christ is the Head. " In the first three chapters, this theme is presented under a three-fold aspect: ...
the union of all men in Christ is a plan of God, conceived with infinite love from all eternity,
carried out in fact by the establishment of the Church, the Body of Christ, and
revealed to the Gentiles by the preaching of Paul
Debtor - ...
It is used metaphorically, (a) of a person who is under an obligation, Romans 1:14 , of Paul, in the matter of preaching the Gospel; in Romans 8:12 , of believers, to mortify the deeds of the body; in Romans 15:27 , of Gentile believers, to assist afflicted Jewish believers; in Galatians 5:3 , of those who would be justified by circumcision, to do the whole Law: (b) of those who have not yet made amends to those whom they have injured, Matthew 6:12 , "our debtors;" of some whose disaster was liable to be regarded as a due punishment, Luke 13:4 (RV, "offenders;" AV, sinners;" marg
Titus - (ti' tuhss) Gentile companion of Paul (Galatians 2:3 ) and recipient of the New Testament letter bearing his name
Ebed-Melech - Ebed-melech, an Ethiopian Gentile slave, did that which none of Jeremiah's own countrymen attempted in his behalf
Javan - In Isaiah 66:19 James is one representative of the Gentile world
Jealousy - In Romans 10:19 , Israel is said to be provoked to jealousy by Gentile nations that receive divine blessings. The same use of the word is recorded in Romans 11:11 because "salvation has come to the Gentiles
Government Governor - In the first place, in Mark 13:9 (and parallels) and 1 Peter 2:13 the word is coupled with ‘kings’ (emperors), and the two words together include all the Gentile authorities before whom the followers of Jesus will have to appear
Ethiopian Eunuch - ]'>[3] from the Gentile world; but the fact that he was returning front worship at Jerusalem, and was reading Isaiah 53:7-8 in the Septuagint version, which here differs somewhat from the Hebrew text, shows that he was acquainted with the Greek language and had been drawn to the religion of the Jews, although he was not very deeply versed in the Scriptures (v
Caesarea - It was the great Gentile city of Palestine, with a spacious artificial harbour. Here Cornelius the centurion was converted through the instrumentality of Peter (Acts 10:1,24 ), and thus for the first time the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles
Epistle to the Ephesians - The subject of the letter is "the union of all the faithful, both Jew and Gentile, with Christ and in Christ, as members of the one mystical Body of which Christ is the Head. " In the first three chapters, this theme is presented under a three-fold aspect: ...
the union of all men in Christ is a plan of God, conceived with infinite love from all eternity,
carried out in fact by the establishment of the Church, the Body of Christ, and
revealed to the Gentiles by the preaching of Paul
Shiloh - The sceptre still continued among the Jews; they had still kings of their own nation, in the persons of the Herods; but soon after the sceptre was entirely taken away from them, and a people began to be gathered to Christ, out of the Gentile nations
Adoption - , sonship bestowed in distinction from a relationship consequent merely upon birth; here two contrasts are presented, (1) between the sonship of the believer and the unoriginated sonship of Christ, (2) between the freedom enjoyed by the believer and bondage, whether of Gentile natural condition, or of Israel under the Law
Honest, Honestly, Honesty - ...
B — 2: εὐσχημόνως (Strong's #2156 — Adverb — euschemonos — yoo-skhay-mon'-oce ) "becomingly, decently," is rendered "honestly" in Romans 13:13 , where it is set in contrast with the confusion of Gentile social life, and in 1 Thessalonians 4:12 , of the manner of life of believers as a witness to "them that are without;" in 1 Corinthians 14:40 , "decently," in contrast with confusion in the churches
Titus - He was among the earliest Gentile leaders in the Christian Church, and it has been suggested, not without plausibility, that the question of Gentile circumcision was first raised when he, along with others, was brought into the Church
Nebuchadnezzar, or Nebuchadrezzar - Son of Nabopolassar and virtually founder of the later kingdom of Babylon, the first of the four great Gentile empires. 603) he had the remarkable dream of the Great Image, in the interpretation of which the fact was made known that he had been chosen by God as the first king of an entirely new era, the times of the Gentiles. The house of David had for the time been set aside as God's ruler on earth, and in Nebuchadnezzar the Gentiles had been entrusted with supreme authority. In setting up the image of gold he denied the God of heaven, and the head of Gentile power became idolatrous; but on the occasion of his casting into the fiery furnace the three Hebrew companions of Daniel, because they would not worship the image he had set up, he was amazed to see another Person in the furnace like a son of God
Barnabas - )...
Instead of narrow Jewish jealousy at "God s grace" being extended to non-Judaized Gentiles, being "full of the Holy Spirit," be was "glad," and sought Saul as one specially commissioned to evangelize the Gentiles (Acts 26:17; Acts 22:17-21). The two together, on Agabus' prophetic announcement of a coming famine, showed the Jewish brethren that they and the Gentile disciples were not forgetful of the love they owed the church in Jerusalem and Judea, by being bearers of contributions for the relief of the brethren in Judea (Acts 11:27-30). 50), as apostles of the uncircumcision they were sent to Jerusalem, to the council concerning the question raised by Judaizing Christians whether Gentile converts must be circumcised (Acts 15). In Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:9; Galatians 2:13, Barnabas suffers himself to be carried away by Peter's and the Jews' dissimulation, in declining to eat with Gentile Christians, contrary to his previous course
Gentiles - ” Though not synonymous in English “Gentiles,” “nations,” “pagans,” “heathens” are variants chosen by translators to render goyim in Hebrew and ethnoi in Greek. “Gentile” and “nation” suggest race or territory, while “pagans” and “heathen” suggest religion. ...
Jesus' ministry is interpreted in the Gospels in terms of Old Testament expectations for the Gentiles. He was a light to the Gentiles (Matthew 4:16-17 ; Luke 2:32 ). Though Jesus was crucified by Gentiles (Matthew 20:19 ), equal blame is placed on both Gentiles and Jews (Acts 4:27 ). At the house of Cornelius, the Spirit was poured out on the Gentiles (Acts 10:45 ; Acts 11:1 ,Acts 11:1,11:18 ; Acts 15:7 ). The apostolic gathering in Jerusalem, by the apostolic letter, freed Gentiles from obedience to the law (Acts 15:19 ; compare Acts 21:19 ,Acts 21:19,21:21 ,Acts 21:21,21:25 ). Though in times past the Gentiles had been without God (Ephesians 2:12-22 ), God in Christ broke through all boundries. Paul, sent to preach among the Gentiles (Acts 9:15 ; Acts 22:21 ; Acts 26:17 ; Galatians 1:16 ; Galatians 2:9 ) was in perils (2 Corinthians 11:26 ). When rejected in the synagogues, he turned to the Gentiles (Acts 13:46 ; Acts 18:6 ; Acts 28:28 ), understanding his work in the light of Old Testament predictions (Acts 13:47-48 ; Romans 15:9-12 ). As the apostle to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:8-9 ), claiming that in Christ racial distinctions were obliterated (Galatians 3:28 ), Paul proclaimed an equal opportunity of salvation (Romans 1:16 ; Romans 9:24 ; Colossians 3:11 ; compare Acts 26:20 ,Acts 26:20,26:23 ). Gentiles were the wild branches in the allegory grafted into the olive tree (Romans 11:16-25 ). ...
The New Testament records the repetitions in prayer by the Gentiles (Matthew 6:7 ), their occupation with material concerns (Matthew 6:32 ), their raging against the Lord (Acts 4:25 ), and their domineering rulers (Matthew 20:25 ). ...
Unbelieving Gentile standards fell short of Christian ones (Romans 1:18-32 ; Galatians 2:14 ; 1 Peter 4:3 ). ...
Paul experienced great resentment among the Jews because of the opportunity he was offering the Gentiles (Romans 2:15-16 ). Nevertheless, in New Testament thought, the church made up of Jew and Gentile was the holy nation, God's own people (1 Peter 2:9 )
Titus - A Greek, and therefore a Gentile (Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:3); converted through Paul (Titus 1:4), "mine own son after the common faith. " Included in the "certain other of them" who accompanied the apostle and Barnabas when they were deputed from the church of Antioch to consult the church at Jerusalem concerning the circumcision of Gentile converts (Acts 15:2), and agreeably to the decree of the council there was exempted from circumcision, Paul resisting the attempt to force Titus to be so, for both his parents were Gentile, and Titus represented at the council the church of the uncircumcision (contrast TIMOTHY who was on one side of Jewish parentage: Acts 16:3
Sidon (2) - ...
The Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 declares that Jesus ‘came through Sidon,’ a distinct and exact statement unknown to the Authorized Version ; and thereon depends our conception whether or not Jesus Himself, from choice, ever went into the way of the Gentiles. Thus the primary Gospel of Mark, the more ancient Sinaitic and Vatican Manuscripts , Professor Weiss, and the Revisers do not hesitate to depict Jesus as entering Gentile territory (twice), entering a (probably) heathen house, and dispensing blessings upon a pagan woman, going then yet farther ‘through Sidon’ and Decapolis. ’s connexion indicates that Jesus journeyed into the Gentile land with His disciples, on the occasion of the abolition of the Levitical distinctions as to the ceremonially clean and unclean, so as to give to His followers an example and object lesson as to the same. It was at Caesarea, a similar Gentile city almost 100 miles nearer Jerusalem, that St
Oneness - In that Epistle, where the writer has in view the Gentile world, fundamental ideas of unity are set forth more distinctly and emphatically than anywhere else in the Bible. In the Kingdom of God, Jew and Gentile were reconciled, these two types being made ‘both one’ (Ephesians 2:14) in a union based on the deeper reconciliation of both to God (Ephesians 2:16). The oneness of Christ’s people as constituting a Body or Church, is expressed in the metaphor of the one flock (John 10:16 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), divided amongst Jewish and Gentile folds
Proselyte (2) - [8]. This accommodation to their surroundings in the way of representing their creed was partly unconscious, through their contact with Gentile thought, and partly an intentional emphasizing of the moral side of Judaism, while merely national and ceremonial features which might repel inquirers were minimized (Schürer, ii. ...
The account of the Acts shows that proselytes often became converts to Christianity, and this was an important factor in the establishment of the Gentile Christian Church. to Galatians) was an attempt on the part of Christian Pharisees to compel Gentile Christians to become ‘proselytes of Righteousness
Matthew, the Gospel of - The wise men (Gentiles) came seeking the King of the Jews (Matthew 5:1-12 ). Joseph took the holy family to Gentile territory (Egypt) to escape the threats of Herod. Jesus then went to Galilee of the Gentiles (Matthew 4:15 ) to begin His public ministry. Ministry to a Gentile centurion is in this section also. By continuing the emphasis on authority, teaching, and Gentiles, Jesus prepared His immediate disciples for their task after His death. When the leaders rejected Jesus' authority in Matthew 12:1 , Matthew implied that Jesus would go to the Gentiles by quoting Isaiah the prophet (Matthew 12:18-21 ). His disciples accepted Him (Matthew 14:33 ), and so did the Gentile woman (Matthew 15:22 ). Again, Jesus taught authoritatively and related to Gentiles. by Pilate, a Gentile, recognized, Jesus' kingly authority, placarding over the cross: “THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS” (Matthew 27:37 ). The Gentile centurion proclaimed: “Truly this was the Son of God” (Matthew 27:54 ). As in the birth story, so in the end, the author stressed Jesus' divine, kingly authority and emphasized the inclusion of the Gentiles. The author wanted the reader to be aware that Jesus, the Son of God, is the One crucified on the cross; so Jesus called out to “my God” from the cross (Matthew 27:46 ), and a Gentile centurion confessed that the dying One is “truly the Son of God” (Matthew 27:54 ). This is because of Matthew's several references to Gentiles, a reference to Phoenicia and Syria, and the terms (in the Greek text) used for coins (Matthew 17:24 ,Matthew 17:24,17:27 ). Even Gentile foreigners worshiped the newborn Jewish king (Matthew 2:1-12 )
Lord (2) - We agree with him in regarding κύριος (Lord) as a word added by the Evangelist to interpret the Jewish title Messiah (χριστός) to his Gentile readers. The claim that Jesus was ‘the Christ’ had no political significance to the Gentile governor. ‘Lord’ is an addition by the Evangelist, to interpret ‘Christ’ to Gentile Christians. We may add that the same necessity of interpreting ‘Christ’ to Gentiles accounts for the curious phrase in the address of Peter to Cornelius, which has been found so difficult—‘Jesus Christ (he is Lord of all, πάντων κύριος),’ Acts 10:36. He was speaking to a Gentile, who, though he was ‘a devout man and one that feared God,’ may not have understood the confessional significance of the term ‘Christ. If the interpretation was given by Peter when speaking to Cornelius, it provides an interesting illustration of the way in which the first preachers of Christianity adapted themselves to the new conditions in which they found themselves, when they began to preach to Gentiles. To the Jewish Christian, Jesus was the ‘Messiah,’ to the Hellenistic Christian Jew He was ‘the Christ,’ and to the Gentile Christian He was ‘the Lord. ’ The Hellenistic and Gentile terms are combined in our familiar name ‘the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
This title readily acquired its highest significance as one of Divine honour among the Gentile Christians, especially in the East. First, as the translation of the Aramaic titles in use among the disciples; and second, as the substitute for χριστός with confessional meaning among Gentiles
Swine - The same ideas colour the parable of the Prodigal Son ( Luke 15:15 ), where he is depicted as reaching the lowest depth of infamy in being sent to feed swine, and actually being reduced to covet their food; and also the narrative of the demoniacs, where the Gentile inhabitants of Gerasa lose their great herd of swine ( Matthew 8:30 , Mark 5:13 , Luke 8:32 )
Slay, Slain, Slew - , for AV, "to slay," in Luke 11:49 ; Acts 7:52 ; Revelation 2:13 ; 9:15 ; 11:13 ; 19:21 ); in the following the verb "to kill" would not be appropriate, Romans 7:11 , "slew," metaphorically of sin, as using the commandment; Ephesians 2:16 , "having slain," said metaphorically of the enmity between Jew and Gentile
Race - Believers of all races are united in one body (Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 2:13-16; see FOREIGNER; Gentile)
Sodom - Jesus warned that Jews of his day, who heard his teaching and saw his mighty works yet rejected him, would receive a more severe judgment than people of those wicked Gentile cities who had never heard of him
Gentile - The Hebrews called the Gentiles גויים , εθνη , the nations, that is, those who have not received the faith or law of God. God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, has fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is now composed principally of Gentile converts; and the Jews, too proud of their particular privileges, and abandoned to their reprobate sense of things, have disowned Jesus Christ, their Messiah and Redeemer, for whom, during so many ages, they had looked so impatiently. Paul, the Gentiles are generally denoted as Greeks, Romans 1:14 ; Romans 1:16 ; Romans 2:9-10 ; Romans 3; Romans 10:12 ; 1 Corinthians 1:22-24 ; Galatians 3:28 . Paul is commonly called the Apostle of the Gentiles, 1 Timothy 2:7 , or Greeks; because he, principally, preached Jesus Christ to them; whereas Peter, and the other Apostles, preached generally to the Jews, and are called Apostles of the circumcision, Galatians 2:8 . The prophets declared very particularly the calling of the Gentiles. Jacob foretold that the Messiah, he who was to be sent, the Shiloh, should gather the Gentiles to himself. The Psalmist says, that the Lord would give the Gentiles to the Messiah for his inheritance; that Egypt and Babylon shall know him; that Ethiopia shall hasten to bring him presents; that the kings of Tarshish, and of the isles, the kings of Arabia and Sheba, shall be tributary to him, Psalms 2:8 ; Psalms 67:4 ; Psalms 72:9-10 . Isaiah abounds with prophecies of the like nature, on which account he has justly been distinguished by the name of "the prophet of the Gentiles
Advantage - A — 1: περισσός (Strong's #4053 — Adjective — perissos — per-is-sos' ) primarily, "what is above and over, super-added," hence came to denote "what is superior and advantageous," Romans 3:1 , in a comparison between Jew and Gentile; only here with this meaning
Adoption - He is trying, as a rule, to bring home to Gentile readers the great change wrought by the coming of Christ. By the aid of this figure, the Gentile convert was enabled to realize in a vivid manner the fatherhood of God, brotherhood of the faithful, the obliteration of past penalties, the right to the mystic inheritance
Romans, Epistle to the - For the time, however, he was prevented from carrying out his design, as he was bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians, and meanwhile he addressed this letter to the Romans, to supply the lack of his personal teaching. Paul addressed a mixed church of Jews and Gentiles, the latter perhaps being the more numerous. These Gentile converts, however, were not for the most part native Romans
Gentiles - In Romans 11:13; Romans 15:27; Romans 16:4, Galatians 2:12; Galatians 2:14, Ephesians 3:1 ἔθνη = Gentile Christians; but in 1 Corinthians 12:2, Ephesians 2:11; Ephesians 4:17, 1 Thessalonians 4:5 St. This may have led our translators to render Ἕλλην six times by ‘Gentile’ [3]. Seeing ye thrust it from you … lo, we turn to the Gentiles. ’ The Gentiles receive the word with joy, and many of them believe. The history of the Apostolic Age is mainly the history of how Christ was brought to the Gentile world, and how the Jewish nation ‘hardened its heart more and more against the appeal of Christianity’ (Harnack, op. Add another important feature to the history of this period-that the door which was set wide open for thy admission of the Gentiles into the Kingdom of God was kept wide open in spite of the attempt of a large section of the Judaeo-Christian Church to shut it-and the outline is complete. The Gentiles and the purpose of God. Those principles and promises, understood now in the light of the gospel, convey to us the assurance that the cause or the salvation of the Gentiles is to be found ‘in the bosom and counsel of God. The OT and the Gentiles. -When we turn our attention to the OT on its human side, we meet with a confusing variety of opinions respecting the Gentiles. OT writers often speak of the Gentiles in the language of reprobation. ...
The virtues of individual Gentiles, it is true, are often referred to with approval. When we read those words, and ‘the Servant of the Lord Songs,’ with their bright outlook on the Gentile world, the expectation is raised that the missionary calling of Israel is about to be fulfilled. But we cannot fall in with this view, when we think of the books of Job, Jonah, and Ruth-of the larger hope of the later Psalmists (Psalms 67, 87, 100, 117, 145), and the remarkable assertion of Malachi (Malachi 1:11) that the name of God is honoured by the sincere worship offered to Him among the Gentiles from East to West. ...
From the Wisdom Literature the national feeling against Gentiles is almost entirely absent. ...
The teaching of the OT respecting the Gentiles may be characterized as hostile, hesitating, and hopeful by turns. The Gentiles are still servants, not equals. A great concession in the direction of equality is made in Isaiah 66:21, if it be Gentiles whom God is to take to minister in His sanctuary; but the promise may relate to Jews of the Dispersion. Christ and the Gentiles. -Was there present to the mind of Christ, while accomplishing the work of Him that sent Him, a purpose of salvation that included the Gentiles? Did He look beyond ‘the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ to other sheep far off from the mountains of Canaan, who had also to be sought and found? When Satan showed Him the kingdoms of the world, did He turn away from the sight of the world with the repugnance of a Jew of His time, or did the sight move Him to compassion, and enkindle a great hope in His heart? It is not easy to see how the Christian Church can cease believing that Christ had a purpose of mercy for the world, and the expectation of subduing it unto Himself, unless she is to revise her whole doctrine of the Person of her Lord. ...
It has been contended that although His preaching contained ‘a vital love of God and men, which may be described as “implicit universalism,” the Gentile mission cannot have lain within the horizon of Jesus. It is to be admitted that the view in question largely owes its air of credibility to that perplexing feature of the narrative of Acts-the delay of the original apostles in undertaking the Gentile mission. Christ relumined the whole picture by His suffering, and then by His being ‘the first by the resurrection of the dead to proclaim light both to the people and to the Gentiles’ (Acts 26:23). His words, ‘Go not into any way of the Gentiles,’ reveal His wisdom in another way. In the story of the Syrophœnician, we hear Jesus first telling His disciples that He limited His own mission of healing, as He had previously limited theirs, to the afflicted in Israel; but in another moment we see Him recognizing in the illustrious faith with which a poor Gentile woman met His refusal of her petition the indication of His Father’s will that those limits should be transcended, and that His saving mercy should go forth to all, without distinction of race, who bad faith like hers to receive it. Mark (Mark 7:27), ‘Let the children first be filled,’ also suggest that Jesus had in view, when He spoke them, the Gentiles, who should not have long to wait before they too could come to His full table. Luke’s account of our Lord’s discourse at Nazareth it is clear that His hearers understood the references to the ministries of Elijah and Elisha as pointing to the admission of Gentiles into the Kingdom (Luke 4:28). This Gospel is the crowning proof that there was present to the mind of our Lord from the beginning a purpose of salvation which comprehended the Gentile world
Moses - ...
Thus too had come the time when the believing Gentiles must be fully recognized as brethren, and received into the Church without circumcision. Paul’s own letters that within certain limits he desired the distinction made by Moses between Jew and Gentile to be maintained in his churches (cf. Furthermore, even as regards a Gentile Christian community, the Apostle could appeal to particular regulations of the Mosaic Law as expressions of the Divine will in contrast to the dictates of human reason (1 Corinthians 9:8 f. A further result was a certain relaxation of the Mosaic ordinances relating to practical life, enabling the Jewish Christians to live in brotherly intercourse with the believing Gentiles. ...
In this connexion, however, certain difficulties arose which seemed actually to necessitate some limitation of Gentile Christian liberty, and it was this state of things that led the primitive Church to promulgate the ‘Apostolic Decree. James mean thereby that the apostles do not need to trouble regarding the dissemination of the Mosaic legislation, and that they should therefore lay upon the Gentile Christians nothing beyond the four prohibitions specified by him, since Moses had from of old been sufficiently represented throughout the Diaspora (so e. We must thus rather look for an interpretation according to which Acts 15:21 provides a reason why precisely these four injunctions were laid upon the Gentile churches. Such a reading of the passage would be as follows: Since, not only in the Holy Land, but also in heathen lands, the doctrines of Moses are every Sabbath inculcated upon those who attend the Synagogue, it is necessary that the believing Gentiles-like the so-called ‘God-fearing’ (οἱσεβόμενοιτὸν θεόν)-should give some consideration to the Mosaic Law, and should at least abstain from taking part in those heathen practices which were most revolting to the Jewish mind. , shows us that abstinence from idolatrous sacrifices and abstinence from sexual immorality are closely related, and that πορνεία here refers not merely to the forbidden degrees of marriage but also to ceremonial prostitution; the Gentile Christians must abstain both from taking part in the sacrificial meals of the heathen world and from the immoralities connected therewith, i. As regards the other two restrictions, it is clear that they converge upon a single point-the supreme necessity of maintaining the sacredness of blood in every form, as already recognized in the so-called Noachian dispensation: the believing Gentiles must no longer partake of blood either in the flesh or by itself (e
Fast, the - Luke, a Gentile Christian, should also do so (Harnack, The Acts of the Apostles Dominion - 1, "to exercise, or gain, dominion over, to lord it over," is used of (a) the "lordship" of Gentile rulers, Matthew 20:25 , AV, "exercise dominion," RV, "lord it;" Mark 10:42 , AV, "exercise lordship," RV, "lord it;" (b) the power of demons over men, Acts 19:16 , AV, "overcame," RV, "mastered;" (c) of the evil of elders in "lording" it over the saints under their spiritual care, 1 Peter 5:3
Dust - ...
For Jews to shake dust off their feet was a sign that Gentile territory was unclean. In the New Testament this action indicates that those who have rejected the gospel have made themselves as Gentiles and must face the judgment of God (Matthew 10:14-15 ; Acts 13:51 )
Trance - Acts 10:10, Peter in trance received the vision abolishing distinctions of clean and unclean, preparing him for the mission to the Gentile Cornelius (Acts 22:17-21). Paul in trance received his commission, "depart far hence unto the Gentiles
Euodia - The theory of Baur and the Tübingen school that Euodia and Syntyche are symbolical names for the Jewish and Gentile tendencies in the early Church is untenable, and has fallen into disrepute
Grafting - Its roots are the Patriarchs, the original branches are the Jews, and the branches of the wild olive which have been grafted in are the Gentile Christians. But this is no ground for self-adulation: all the blessings which the Gentiles derive come from the original stock into which they have been grafted through no merit of their own; let them beware, therefore, lest through pride and want of faith they also are cut off, for it would, on the one hand, be a much less violent proceeding to cut off the wild branches; which have been grafted in, than it was to cut off the original branches: while, on the other hand, it would be far easier and far more natural to graft the original cultivated branches back into the stock on which they grew than it was to graft the Gentiles, who are merely a slip cut from a wild olive, in amongst the branches of the cultivated olive
Grecia, Greece - Greece is referred to in Daniel as the seat of the third great Gentile empire, of which Alexander the Great was the head, though he was a Macedonian; but he conquered Greece, and the empire he established bears that name
Abstinence - Doddridge observes, "that though neither things sacrificed to idols, nor the flesh of strangled animals, nor blood, have or can have any moral evil in them, which should make the eating of them absolutely and universally unlawful; yet they were forbidden to the Gentile converts, because the Jews had such an aversion to them, that they could not converse freely with any who used them
Image - ...
That the first Christians had no images, is evident from this circumstance,—that they were reproached by the Heathens, because they did not use them; and we find almost every ecclesiastical writer of the first four centuries arguing against the Gentile practice of image worship, from the plain declarations of Scripture, and from the pure and spiritual nature of God
Paul - ...
Apostolic Council at Jerusalem; conflict between Jewish and Gentile Christianity; Paul's third journey to Jerusalem, with Barnabas and Titus; settlement of the difficulty: agreement between the Jewish and Gentile apostles; Paul's return to Antioch; his difference with Peter and Barnabas at Antioch, and temporary separation from the latter...
Paul's second missionary journey from Antioch to Asia Minor, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Troas, and Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Beræa, Athens, and Corinth)
Judas - Judas, surnamed Barsabas, was one of those chosen by the Church of Jerusalem to go with Paul and Barnabas to deliver the letter from James to the church at Antioch concerning the important matter of Gentile salvation (Acts 15:22 )
Sea - 13); of the wild and restless condition of nations, Revelation 13:1 (see Revelation 17:1,15 ), where "he stood" (RV) refers to the dragon, not John (AV); from the midst of this state arises the beast, symbolic of the final Gentile power dominating the federated nations of the Roman world (see Dan
Thessaloni'ca - A flourishing church was certainly formed there; and the epistles show that its elements were more Gentile than Jewish
Harlot - ) Fornication was regarded by the unconverted Gentiles as a thing indifferent in itself, having no moral guilt intrinsically; hence in the Jerusalem decree (Acts 15) it is classed with things which Gentile usage allowed but Jewish law forbade
Paganism - Thus things continued in the Gentile world, until the light of the Gospel was sent among them: the times before were times of ignorance, as the apostle calls them: they were ignorant of the true God, and of the worship of him; and of the Messiah, and salvation by him
Antioch - He began, after the Jerusalem decree, addressed to the Gentile converts at Antioch, and ended, his second missionary journey there (Acts 15:36; Acts 18:22-23). When Paul, on his first missionary tour with Barnabas, preached in the synagogue there, many Gentiles believed
Bands - ...
Ezekiel 34:27 (a) This is a type of the restraints and hindrances now imposed upon Israel throughout the world by their Gentile rulers
Flute-Players - The other use, the employment of flutes for mourning, seems to have been widely diffused and of great antiquity, for it is clearly alluded to by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 48:36); and can be traced over a large part of the Gentile world—Phœnicians, Carians, Greeks, Romans, and probably Assyrians
Habakkuk - " Judgement on the Gentile rulers of God's people will, at the time of the end, immediately precede and lead to the kingdom
Indeed - g, Matthew 15:27 , RV, "for even," instead of the AV "yet;" the woman confirms that her own position as a Gentile "dog" brings privilege, "for indeed the dogs, etc
Idol - Here Moses forbids the several forms of Gentile idolatry
Peraea - ...
The removal of the Jews from the Peræa by Judas ( 1Ma 5:45 ) left it in Gentile hands
an'Tioch - The chief interest of Antioch, however, is connected with the progress of Christianity among the heathen, Here the first Gentile church was founded, ( Acts 11:20,21 ) here the disciples of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ) It was from Antioch that St
Luke - According to evidence from early records, Luke was a Gentile who was born in Antioch in Syria
Naaman - This afforded a complete justification of His own action, and was, further, a very pointed rebuke to them if, as seems the case, they were annoyed that He had neglected them for Capernaum, which, situated in that region known as ‘Galilee of the Gentiles,’ might be considered as less a Jewish town than their own. And, further, our Lord in these words rebuked Jewish exclusiveness in general, and quite clearly indicated the great truth that the benefits of His gospel, whether bodily or spiritual, were not only for the Jew, but also for the Gentile
Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem - He was the 15th of the Gentile bishops of Jerusalem, reckoning from Marcus, a
Antioch in Syria - Jews from the church in Jerusalem came to Antioch and tried to force the Gentile Christians to keep the Jewish law (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Galatians 2:11-13)
Caesarea - , but Pompey returned it to Gentile rule in 63 B. Hostilities between the Jewish and Gentile population apparently had been a way of life in this city
Joppa - Joppa became as zealous for the Law, us patriotic, as impatient of Gentile control and culture, as Jerusalem herself. Peter received the vision which taught him that Jew and Gentile, as spiritually equal before God, must be impartially welcomed into the Church of Christ (Acts 10:9-16)
Grecians - " Isaiah (Isaiah 66:19) foretells that the Jews who survive His judgments He will send as missionaries to Javan to "declare My glory among the Gentiles. They formed the connecting link between the Hebrew Jews and the Gentiles. ...
"Greek" means either a native of Greece or else a Gentile in general (Romans 10:12; Romans 2:9-10, margin) "Grecian" is a foreign Jew, literally, one who speaks Greek, as contrasted with a home Jew, a "Hebrew," dwelling in Palestine, or rather one speaking the sacred tongue, Hebrew, whether dwelling in Palestine or elsewhere. having neither parent Gentile (Philippians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 11:22). ...
"Greeks" in the strict sense, whether native Greeks or Gentiles in general, were not admitted to the Christian church until later. " Their conversation was a new thing, a special "grace of God," tidings of which reaching the Jerusalem church constrained them to send Barnabas as far as Antioch, who "when he had seen the GRACE of God was glad" and enlisted the cooperation of Paul who had been in vision already called to "bear Christ's name unto the Gentiles" (Acts 9:15)
Judaizing Christians - Even the apostles who had constantly attended him, who had listened not merely to his public discourses, but to the interpretation of them, which, in tender condescension to their weakness, he often in private gave, were so thoroughly established in this opinion that it required a peculiar revelation to be made to him before Peter would open the kingdom of God to a Gentile. It cannot, therefore, be matter of surprise that the sentiment prevailed among the whole of the Jews who had been converted to Christianity; or that even after it was opposed by the declaration of the Apostles as individuals, and by their solemn determination, when assembled to decide with respect to it, that the law was not binding upon Gentile converts, they should still have adhered to it, when from not having a written record of faith they might have imagined, either that the representation of the apostolic decision was erroneous, or that the sanction which it gave to their own adherence to their ceremonies virtually confirmed the doctrine which they felt such aversion to relinquish. Paul, choosing as their bishop a Gentile convert
Church Government - The infant Gentile churches seem to have governed themselves under the direction of the Apostle who founded them. These Gentile churches have gifted persons who take the lead in public worship, ‘apostles, prophets, and teachers’ (1 Corinthians 12:28, Ephesians 4:11; cf. ...
Yet it is scarcely credible that the infant Gentile churches remained very long without rulers of any kind. Congregations which consisted chiefly of Jewish Christians had ‘elders’ analogous to ‘elders’ among the Jews; and in the Gentile communities something similar would grow up, with or without the suggestion of the Apostle who founded the church. ’ In the earliest of his letters (1 Thessalonians 5:12) he exhorts his Gentile converts ‘to esteem exceeding highly them that labour among you and guide (προϊσταμένους) you in the Lord and admonish you
Barak - But his general Sisera, of Harosheth, inhabited by a race half Israelite half Gentile, where he had systematically and "mightily oppressed Israel" for 20 years, was defeated by Barak and Deborah at the head of 10,000 men of Naphtali and Zebulon (Psalms 83:9-10)
Dispersion - Septuagint used diaspora , "dispersion," in Deuteronomy 28:25; compare Deuteronomy 30:4, "driven out unto the outermost parts of heaven"; Jeremiah 34:17; John 7:35, "the dispersed among the Gentiles. " They became, in God's gracious providence, seed sown for a future harvest in the Gentile lands of their sojourn (1 Peter 1:1). Besides the Jews, in the several cities there were the "devout" Gentiles who in some degree acknowledged the God of Israel. All these formed stepping stones for the ultimate entrance of the gospel among the idolatrous Gentiles
Titus Justus - He was a Gentile who had been brought under the influence of the Jewish synagogue in Corinth. Paul ‘to the Gentiles,’ Titus offered him the use of his house (which was practically next door to the synagogue) as a meeting-place
Titus - Paul was collecting money among the Gentile churches of Asia Minor and Greece to take to the needy Jewish Christians in Jerusalem (2 Corinthians 8:1-6; 2 Corinthians 8:16-24)
Romans, Epistle to the - Thus a church composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. " Himself deeply impressed with a sense of the value of the doctrines of salvation, he opens up in a clear and connected form the whole system of the gospel in its relation both to Jew and Gentile. The subject is here treated argumentatively, and is a plea for Gentiles addressed to Jews
Branch - That was not the case with Israel, the cultivated olive tree; the branches broken off were replaced by wild olive shoots, in other words, Gentile believers
Unclean Meats - As Orientals have minds sensitive to teaching by types, there can be little doubt that such cere menial distinctions not only tended to keep Jew and Gentile apart (and so prevented the Jews from becoming contaminated with the idolatry of the Gentiles), but were a perpetual reminder to the former that he and the latter were not on one level before God
Ittai - Ittai typifies the gospel truth that from the Gentile world some of the most devoted heroes of the cross should join the Son of David, and so share in His triumphs (Mark 10:29-30; Matthew 8:11-12)
Hebrew - In New Testament the contrast is between "Hebrew" and those having foreign characteristics, as especially the Greek or any Gentile language (Acts 6:1; Philippians 3:5 (See GREEK; GRECIAN), 2 Corinthians 11:22; Luke 23:38)
Shiloh - One of the names of the Messiah, given by the dying patriarch Jacob under the spirit of prophecy, and to which both Jew and Gentile agree; though in the application of the name to the person of Christ they differ
Covenant - The promise being through Christ, the apostle could add respecting Gentile believers, "If ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to promise
Asher - A predominance of the Gentile element thus introduced would account, in a measure at least, for the non-participation of the Asherites in the war against Sisera, although they are said to have sent a contingent to the support of Gideon in his war with the Midianites ( Judges 6:35 ; Judges 7:23 ), and, according to the Chronicler, went 40,000 strong to Hebron to aid David in his struggle for the kingship ( 1 Chronicles 12:36 )
Grecia - In fact, in the two books of the Maccabees, and in those of the New Testament, the word Greek commonly implies a Gentile
Baptism - Among the instances of baptism mentioned in apostolic times are: 3000 at Pentecost, Acts 2:41, men and women, including Simon the Sorcerer at Samaria; the Ethiopian Eunuch, 8:12, 13, 38; Saul; Cornelius and his Gentile company, 10:47; Lydia and "her household," 16:15; the Philippian jailer "and all his," 16:33; and "the household of Stephanas," 1 Corinthians 1:16
Philadelphia - In 3:9 ‘the synagogue of Satan which say they are Jews and are not’ must mean that the Jews of Philadelphia had been lax, and had conceded too much to Gentile ways
Proselyte - (Acts 10:7 ) Such men, drawn by what was best in Judaism were naturally among the readiest receivers of the new truth which rose out of it, and became, in many cases, the nucleus of a Gentile Church
Abba - Paul’s prayers-a theory based on the Apostle’s ‘Abba, Father’-remarks that ‘the peculiar sacredness of association belonging to the first word of the Lord’s Prayer in its original tongue supplies a far more probable account of its liturgical use among Gentile Christians. ...
It seems probable (1) that the phrase, ‘Abba, Father,’ is a liturgical formula; (2) that the duality of the form is not due to a Hebraistic repetition for the sake of emphasis, but to the fact that the early Christians, even of non-Jewish descent, were familiar with both Aramaic and Greek; (3) that Abba, being the first word of the Lord’s Prayer, was held in special veneration, and was quoted with the Greek equivalent attached to it, as a familiar devotional phrase (like Maran atha [2], which would be quite intelligible to Christiana of Gentile origin, though its Greek translation, ὁ Κύριος ἐγγός [3], was also used; cf
Exclusiveness - At an earlier date, in His instructions to the Twelve in view of their missionary journey, the area of their work was sharply defined in the words, ‘Go not into any way of the Gentiles, and enter not into any city of the Samaritans: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matthew 10:5-6). It has been alleged that this restriction of His work was occasioned by want of sympathy with those outside the Jewish pale, in proof of which appeal is made to some of His sayings, such as those in which He characterizes Gentiles as ‘dogs’ (Matthew 15:26 ||), directs His disciples to treat an impenitent offender as ‘an heathen man and a publican’ (Matthew 18:17), and enjoins them to ‘use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do’ (Matthew 6:7). ...
The fact of Christ’s attitude of aloofness toward the Gentile world throughout His earthly ministry is quite evident. (1) His vocation as ‘a minister of the circumcision’ (Romans 15:8) led Him to avoid as far as possible work among Samaritans and Gentiles. (3) To secure a favourable reception for His message it was necessary to avoid, as far as possible, arousing the prejudice and alienating the sympathy of His Jewish hearers, who would have resented any teaching or practice tending to place Gentile communities on a level of privilege with themselves (Luke 4:25-29). As a matter of fact, it was Jewish adherents who afterwards became the agents of spreading it among the Gentiles. ...
Among the reasons why Gentiles were excluded from the scope of Christ’s personal ministry, want of sympathy cannot be included. Gentiles, Missions
Physician (2) - His training would probably be Gentile (Colossians 4:11; Colossians 4:14, cf. 4), and his medicines, like Gentile food, would be unclean in Jewish eyes
Timothy - a Gentile; he died probably in Timothy's early years, as he is not mentioned later. ...
The elders ordained in Lystra and Iconium (Acts 14:21-23; Acts 16:2) thenceforth superintended him (1 Timothy 4:14); their good report and that of the brethren, as also his origin, partly Jewish partly Gentile, marked him out as especially suited to assist Paul in missionary work, labouring as the apostle did in each place, firstly among the Jews then among the Gentiles. " This was not inconsistent with the Jerusalem decree which was the Gentiles' charter of liberty in Christ (Acts 15); contrast the case of Titus, a Gentile on both sides, and therefore not circumcised (Galatians 2:3)
Judaizing - To the Jew it must have seemed almost incredible that he should divest himself of the observance of Mosaic Law, and equally incredible that the Gentile should be admitted into the Kingdom of God without accepting the same Law. On the other hand, the keen intellect of a Stephen or a Paul saw at once that any attempt to enforce the Mosaic Law or even the initiatory rite of circumcision upon the Gentiles, meant stagnation and death to the Church. ...
(c) Now, as the first of these incidents had dealt with the general principles regulating the relation of Christianity to Judaism, and the second had shown that Gentiles were to be admitted into the Christian body, so the third determined what requirements, if any, should be made of Gentile converts. No attempt was to be made to enforce upon Gentile Christians the bondage of the Law or to take away the liberty with which Christ had made them free
Ephesians, Epistle to the - Jews and Gentiles are the subjectsof salvation according to the purpose of God, believers from among both beingsealed by the Holy Spirit, who is also the earnest of their inheritance — aninheritance which will be to the praise of God's glory when everything is headed up in Christ. ), in that having been dead in sins they had been quickened with Christ, had been raised up together (Jew and Gentile), and made to sit down together in the heavenlies in Christ Jesus. The apostle would have the Gentile Christians contrast their present privileges with their former hopeless state. Jew and Gentile believers had access by one Spirit to the Father, while the latter were now fellow-citizens of the saints, and were of the household of God, being part of the holy temple He was building. This chapter, in a parenthesis, unfolds the administration of the mystery, hid in God, but now revealed by the Spirit, namely, that the Gentiles should be joint heirs and a joint body and joint partakers of His promise in Christ Jesus
Mark, the Gospel According to - Mark alone has "the sabbath was made for man" (Mark 2:27), and the scribe's admission that love is better than sacrifices (Mark 12:33); all suited for Gentile readers, to whom Peter, notwithstanding subsequent vacillation, first opened the door (Acts 10). Mark's explanations of Jewish customs and names (Jordan is called a "river"; the Pharisees' fasting and customs, Mark 1:5; Mark 2:18; Mark 7:1-4; the Sadducees' tenets, Mark 12:18; the Passover described, 1618178380_9; Mark 14:12) which Jews would not need, and the absence of appeals by himself to Old Testament prophecy, also of the genealogy and of the term nomos , the Mosaic "law," show he wrote for Gentiles not for Jews. ...
Accordingly he omits the offensive references to the Gentiles found in Matthew 6:7-8; Matthew 10:5-6; compare Mark 6:7-11; so Luke writing for Gentiles (Luke 9:1-5). Hebrew (Aramaic) words are used, but explained for Gentile readers: Mark 3:17; Mark 3:22; Mark 5:41, Τalitha kumi ; Mark 7:11, korban ; Mark 9:43, gehenna ; Mark 10:46, Βar-timaeus ; Mark 14:36, Αbba ; Mark 15:22, Golgotha . 40, so Mark answers to the second or Judaeo-Gentile period, A. 40 to 50, and is suited to Gentile converts such as the Roman soldiers concentrated at Caesarea, their head quarters in Palestine, the second center of gospel preaching as Jerusalem was the first, and the scene of Cornelius' conversion by Mark's father in the faith, Peter
Proselyte - (2) Many of those in the Gentile world who were dissatisfied with the intellectual results and the religious conditions of their time saw in Judaism, as lived and taught before their eyes, something finer and nobler than they had found elsewhere; and were drawn to its practical teaching and life without committing themselves to the ritual that offended their sense of fitness and decency (cf. But now bloodshed and persecution produced the twofold result of closing and steeling the heart of Judaism to the outside world, so that proselytes were no longer sought by the Jews, and the tenets and the practices of Judaism became crystallized and less amenable to Hellenistic influences, and so less fitted to win the Gentile spirit. All through the Dispersion we find the same disposition to conciliate the Gentiles who were willing to share in the Jewish faith in any measure, by relaxing the ritual demands. ...
But the proselytes must always have formed a very small minority of those amongst the Gentiles who had lent an ear to Jewish teaching. Amongst the Jews both the proselyte and the devout worshipper occupied an inferior place, but here was a faith that made no distinction between Jew or Gentile, a faith whose conception of God was tenderer and whose ethical standards were higher, that made love and not law the interpreter of duty and the inspiration of service, that lived not in an evening twilight of anticipation of a glorious Messianic morning, but in warm fellowship with a Personality that was the evidence of its power and truth. But Judaism had nothing to offer the Gentile that was not better provided by the Christian Church, and so it recoiled from the attack on Christianity like the spent waves from the rock-bound coast, angry but baffled
Mark, Gospel According to - This appears probable when it is considered that it makes no reference to the Jewish law, and that the writer takes care to interpret words which a Gentile would be likely to misunderstand, such as, "Boanerges" (3:17); "Talitha cumi" (5:41); "Corban" (7:11); "Bartimaeus" (10:46); "Abba" (14:36); "Eloi," etc
Bishop - The other four uniformly referred to one who had a role or office in an early Gentile Christian congregation
Olive - The Gentile church is the wild twig "engrafted contrary to nature" on the original Jewish olive stock; it marks supernatural virtue in the stock that it enables those wild by nature to bear good fruit; ordinarily it is only a superior scion that is grafted on an inferior
Market, Market-Place - In Gentile towns
Hebrew - only in Acts 6:1 to distinguish the Greek-speaking Jews from those of Palestine, and in 2 Corinthians 11:22 and Philippians 3:5 concerning the ancestors of Paul, wherein, to meet the cavilling of the Judaising teachers, he calls himself a Hebrew of the Hebrews, one who had descended without any Gentile or proselyte blood
Ship - It was among the prophecies of the dying patriarch Jacob, (Genesis 49:13) that Zebulun should dwell in "the haven of the sea, and be an haven for ships" And how distant soever this allusion may appear to some concerning the days of Christ, and the eventual dispersion of the gospel to the Gentile islands of the sea, yet from subsequent prophecies to the same amount, when illustrated by each other, I confess that I am inclined to believe that some great maritime power, such as our own, may be fairly referred to in the several prophecies to this amount
Rahab - ...
She was one of the inhabitants of Canaan, a Gentile, an alien, and by nature an enemy to the commonwealth of Israel, "without hope, and without God in the world
Cyrene - ; Vita, 76); and a terrible internecine war between them and their Gentile neighbours, under Trajan (Dio Cass
Abaddon - The giving of both the Hebrew and the Greek name implies that he is the destroyer of both Hebrew and Gentiles alike. Just as, in beautiful contrast, the Spirit of adoption enables both Jew and Gentile believers to call God, in both their respective tongues, Αbba (Hebrew in marked alliteration with Αbaddon Father (Greek, pater ). Jesus unites Hebrew and Gentiles in a common salvation; Satan combines both in a common "destruction
Flock, Fold - Ephesians 2:14) which separated the Jews from the Gentiles and made them a nation by themselves. Within this Jewish fold (αὑλή), our Lord tells us that, at the time when He spoke, He had a number of sheep who were His own; and also that, outside of it, among the Gentiles, dark and miserable as their condition was, He had other sheep, who were His already, and were known to Him, even if they knew it not themselves. He has unity in view for His sheep—union; but not such as is to be secured by the erection round His flock of such outwardly-enclosing, or constraining ‘walls of partition’—geographical or racial—as had hitherto divided nation from nation and Jew from Gentile
Genoa, Italy, Archdiocese of - ) † (10 Nov 1664Appointed - 17 Mark 1681Resigned)
Giorgio Costa (1495 - 1496)
Giorgio Fieschi (1436 - 1439)
Giosuè Signori † (21Nov 1921Appointed - 25 Nov 1923Died)
Giovanni Battista Spínola (1664 - 1681)
Giovanni Battista Spínola (1694 - 1705)
Giovanni Canestri (July 6, 1987-April 20, 1995)
Giovanni de' Rossi (1239 - 1252)
Giovanni Lercari † (10 Jul 1767 Appointed - 18 Mark 1802Died)
Giovanni Maria Sforza (1498 - 1520)
Giulio Vincenzo Gentile (1681 - 1694)
Giuseppe Maria Saporiti † (2Dec 1743Appointed - 14Apr 1767 Died)
Giuseppe Siri † (May 14, 1946 Appointed - 6 Jul 1987 Retired)
Giuseppe Spina † (May 24, 1802Appointed - 13Dec 1816 Resigned)
Giuseppe Vincenzo Airenti, O
Genealogy - The promise of the land of Canaan to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob successively, and the separation of the Israelites from the Gentile world; the expectation of Messiah as to spring from the tribe of Judah; the exclusively hereditary priesthood of Aaron with its dignity and emoluments; the long succession of kings in the line of David; and the whole division and occupations of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, occupation of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, families and houses of fathers, gave a deeper importance to the science of genealogy among the Jews than perhaps any other nation
Foreigner - All believers are united in one body through faith, regardless of nationality (Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 2:19; see Gentile; RACE)
Barnabas - ...
After returning to Antioch, the two missionaries met trouble when Jews from the Jerusalem church taught that Gentile Christians had to keep the Jewish law (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5)
Peace - The Lord came to sinful humankind, historically first to the Jews and then to the Gentiles, desiring to enter into a relationship with them. Paul described the difference as follows: "There will be trouble and distress for every human being who does evil: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile; but glory, honor and peace for everyone who does good: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile" (Romans 2:9-10 )
Hebrews - Ἑβραῖος) is a transcription of the Aramaic ‘ebrâyâ, the equivalent of the original word עִבְרִי, the proper Gentile name of the people who were also described as ‘Israelites’ or ‘Children of Israel. Robertson Smith points out that the whole usus loquendi is explained by the consideration that the regular Gentile name for a member of the race of Israel is ‘Hebrew’ and not ‘Israelite,’ the latter word being rare and apparently of late formation (Encyclopaedia Britannica 9 xi
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - , a small and vanishing minority as compared to the swelling dimensions of the Gentile church. That to some extent Jewish-Christian influences did operate upon Gentile Christianity during the former half of the 2nd cent. need not wholly be denied; yet the one feature in which we are most tempted to trace them—the conception of the gospel as a new law—is quite as much the outcome of an internal development within the Gentile church itself. The ultimate triumph of Christian universalism, and the recognized equality between Jewish and Gentile members of the church of the Messiah, was a fruit of the life-long labours of St. The new Christian community, largely Gentile, regarded itself as the true people of God, as the spiritual Israel, and as the genuine heir of the church of the O. Paul had emphasized the antithesis between law and gospel, the Gentile churches after his time attached themselves more closely to the doctrinal norm of the older apostles, and laid stress on the continued validity of the law for Christians; though, as it was impossible to bind Gentiles to observe the ceremonial law, its precepts were given, after the example of the Jewish religious philosophy of Alexandria, a spiritual interpretation. The later Gentile Christianity learned to see everywhere in O. The Moral Law, as the centre and substance of the Mosaic revelation, remained the obligatory norm of conduct for Gentile Christians; Christ had not abrogated the law of Moses, but fulfilled and completed it. is a most significant proof of the far-reaching influence exercised by pagan thought and speculation on the Gentile church of that age. The danger from the influx on all sides of foreign thought was all the greater because the Gentile churches had as yet but a feeble comprehension of the ideas specially belonging to Christianity
Paul - Paul, as well as of the other Apostles and teachers, had been confined to the Jews; but the conversion of Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, A. 40, having convinced all the Apostles that "to the Gentiles, also, God had granted repentance unto life," St. Paul was soon after conducted by Barnabas from Tarsus, which had probably been the principal place of his residence since he left Jerusalem, and they both began to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles at Antioch, A. The first Gentile church was now established at Antioch; and in that city, and at this time, the disciples were first called Christians, Acts 11:26 . Paul and Barnabas, having executed their commission, returned to Antioch; and soon after their arrival in that city they were separated, by the express direction of the Holy Ghost, from the other Christian teachers and prophets, for the purpose of carrying the glad tidings of the Gospel to the Gentiles of various countries, Acts 13:1 . Paul, in which he was accompanied and assisted by Barnabas, is supposed to have occupied about two years; and in the course of it many, both Jews and Gentiles, were converted to the Gospel. These men asserted, that the Gentile converts could not obtain salvation through the Gospel, unless they were circumcised; Paul and Barnabas maintained the contrary opinion, Acts 15:1-2 . This dispute was carried on for some time with great earnestness; and it being a question in which not only the present but all future Gentile converts were concerned, it was thought right that St. Paul and Barnabas; and after much deliberation it was agreed, that neither circumcision, nor conformity to any part of the ritual law of Moses, was necessary in Gentile converts; but that it should be recommended to them to abstain from certain specified things prohibited by that law, lest their indulgence in them should give offence to their brethren of the circumcision, who were still very zealous for the observance of the ceremonial part of their ancient religion. This decision, which was declared to have the sanction of the Holy Ghost, was communicated to the Gentile Christians of Syria and Cilicia, by a letter written in the name of the Apostles, elders, and whole church at Jerusalem, and conveyed by Judas and Silas, who accompanied St. Some of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles of both sexes, embraced the Gospel; but the unbelieving Jews, moved with envy and indignation at the success of St. At first he preached to the Jews in their synagogue; but upon their violently opposing his doctrine, he declared that from that time he would preach to the Gentiles only; and, accordingly, he afterward delivered his instructions in the house of one Justus, who lived near the synagogue. Among the few Jews who embraced the Gospel, were Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, and his family; and many of the Gentile Corinthians "hearing believed, and were baptized. He preached for the space of three months in the synagogue; but the Jews being hardened beyond conviction, and speaking reproachfully of the Christian religion before the multitude, he left them; and from that time he delivered his instructions in the school of a person called Tyrannus, who was probably a Gentile. Paul's zeal in spreading Christianity among the Gentiles, seeing him one day in the temple, endeavoured to excite a tumult, by crying out that he was the man who was aiming to destroy all distinction between Jew and Gentile; who taught things contrary to the law of Moses; and who had polluted the holy temple, by bringing into it uncircumcised Heathens. " During his confinement he converted some Jews resident at Rome, and many Gentiles, and, among the rest, several persons belonging to the emperor's household, Php_4:22 . He was the principal instrument under Providence of spreading the Gospel among the Gentiles; and we have seen that his labours lasted through many years, and reached over a considerable extent of country. Though emphatically styled the great Apostle of the Gentiles, he began his ministry, in almost every city, by preaching in the synagogue of the Jews, and though he owed by far the greater part of his persecutions to the opposition and malice of that proud and obstinate people, whose resentment he particularly incurred by maintaining that the Gentiles were to be admitted to an indiscriminate participation of the benefits of the new dispensation, yet it rarely happened in any place, that some of the Jews did not yield to his arguments, and embrace the Gospel
Gospels - Hence by the reading of the law and the prophets in the synagogues everywhere each sabbath proselytes of righteousness were gathered from the Gentiles, such as the eunuch or chamberlain of Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, a student of Scripture, Cornelius the centurion who "feared God with all his house, and gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God always. "...
These not being bound under the ceremonial yoke, as the original Jews, formed a connecting link with the Gentiles; and hence at Antioch in Pisidia, when the Jews rejected the preaching of Paul and Barnabas, these proselytes, with the Gentiles, "besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath, . To the Jews first in each synagogue abroad the apostles preached, and gathered many converts from among them; and then to the Gentiles. This is one great cause why the national conversion of the Jews is delayed "until the fullness of the Gentiles shall come in" (Romans 11:35). ...
The Jews and Gentiles had attained high civilization when Christ came; it is not in such an age that myths spring up and are accepted, but in a people's infancy (2 Peter 1:16). Luke, writing for Gentile converts, describes facts less familiar to them which occurred after the resurrection in and about Jerusalem. Luke shows the Gentiles that He was sprung from Adam, the common father of Gentiles and Jews. Luke is copious in facts less known to the Gentiles and on Christ's later ministry; Matthew having already dwelt more on His earlier ministry. There are three periods marked in Acts:...
(1) From the ascension to the rise of the first purely Gentile church at Antioch where the disciples were first called Christians (Acts 11:26); the first Gospel, Matthew, corresponds to this first and Jewish period, between A. The second period is from the rise of the Gentile church at Antioch to Paul's passing over to Europe in obedience to the vision at Troas; the second Gospel, Mark, answers to this Judaeo-Gentile transition period, A. 50; hence, there occur (Mark 7) adaptations to Gentile converts by explanations of Jewish usages. Mark's shortcoming was that of his spiritual father - Peter - slowness to admit uncircumcised Gentile Christians to the privileges of full fellowship (Acts 13:13; Acts 15:38; compare Acts 10:14; Galatians 2:11-14). The closing charge "Go ye, teach all nations," accords with the church's circumstances at its opening the door to Cornelius and Gentile proselytes, A
Mark, the Gospel of - Mark became an important assistant for both Paul and Peter, preaching the good news to Gentiles and preserving the gospel message for later Christians. ...
Readers Mark wrote his Gospel for Gentile Christians. Gentiles would have especially appreciated Mark's interpretation of the saying of Jesus which declared all foods clean (Mark 7:19 ; compare with Matthew 15:17-20 ). Mark's Gentile audience may explain his omission of the genealogy of Jesus. Perhaps these Gentile readers were Roman Christians. The Gentile readers of Mark's Gospel would have especially appreciated the significant arrangement of these two stories. Even Gentiles demonstrated that they belonged to the community of faith when they understood Jesus' parables and recognized Him as the Christ
Christian - Here was the first considerable church on Gentile soil; a common name was necessary and was forthcoming-providentially, we cannot doubt, but how is not so clear. 70) a second home of the Church and the mother-church of Gentile Christianity. ...
(3) The opinion most in favour is that the term originated in Gentile circles outside the Church
Hypocrisy - Paul accused Peter of hypocrisy for refusing to eat with Gentile Christians in Antioch (Galatians 2:12-13 )
Firstborn - But it also meant Israel had a priestly function to perform as God's saving light to Gentile peoples
Joel - He is not fascinated either by Isaiah’s visions of Israel as the light of the Gentiles, or Malachi’s of the heathen waiting upon Jahweh. Time would also show that there was to be no limit of race (Jew or Gentile); for however men (even prophets) may limit ‘all flesh,’ to Christ and His Church it means ‘all humanity
Grecians Greeks - In these passages the term is practically equivalent to ‘Gentile’ (q. Are we to read here ‘Grecians’ or ‘Greeks’? Were those to whom the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached Jews or Gentiles, Grecians or Greeks? Internal evidence and the mass of manuscript authority seem to conflict
Claudius, the Emperor - ...
It is obvious further, (1) that the expulsion of Christians who had been Jews or proselytes would leave a certain proportion of purely Gentile Christians whom the edict would not touch; and (2) that those who returned would naturally settle, not in the Jewish trans-Tiberine quarter of the city, but in some safer locality, and that thus the church at Rome, at or soon after the death of Claudius, would gradually become more and more free from Jewish or Judaizing influences
Last - 70, and to the closing part of the age in consummating acts of Gentile persecution including "the time of Jacob's trouble" (cp
People of the Land - Disapproval is expressed in Ezra and Nehemiah for the pagan half-Jew and half-Gentile, essentially non-observant Jews (see Ezra 10:2 ,Ezra 10:2,10:11 ; Nehemiah 10:28-31 )
Nobleman - He has wrongly been identified with the ‘centurion’ (ἑκατόνταρχος) referred to in Matthew 8:5 and Luke 7:2,—a Gentile officer in the army of Antipas
Grecians Greeks - In these passages the term is practically equivalent to ‘Gentile’ (q. Are we to read here ‘Grecians’ or ‘Greeks’? Were those to whom the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached Jews or Gentiles, Grecians or Greeks? Internal evidence and the mass of manuscript authority seem to conflict
Reconcile, Reconciliation - 1, "to change from one condition to another," so as to remove all enmity and leave no impediment to unity and peace, is used in Ephesians 2:16 , of the "reconciliation" of believing Jew and Gentile "in one body unto God through the Cross;" in Colossians 1:21 not the union of Jew and Gentile is in view, but the change wrought in the individual believer from alienation and enmity, on account of evil works, to "reconciliation" with God; in Colossians 1:20 the word is used of the Divine purpose to "reconcile" through Christ "all things unto Himself . A new relationship Godward is offered to the Gentiles in the Gospel
Idolatry - The probability was that most of the meat sold in the markets as well as that set before the guests at Gentile tables had been ‘offered to idols. On the other hand, the Gentile section of the community, which was responsible for raising the question, was in favour of a broad-minded view
Circumcision - In Jeremiah 9:25, "I will punish all them which are circumcised with the uncircumcised: Egypt, and Judah, and Edom," two classes seem distinguished: Israel circumcised in flesh, but uncircumcised in heart; and the Gentile nations uncircumcised both in flesh and heart. To insist on them for Gentile converts would have been to make them essential to Christianity
Access - Jew and Gentile) have our access in one spirit unto the Father. He is the peace-maker, the προσαγωγεύς between us, Jew and Gentile, who were once far off from each other]'>[5] who hath made both one’ by His blood [6])
Access - Jew and Gentile) have our access in one spirit unto the Father. He is the peace-maker, the προσαγωγεύς between us, Jew and Gentile, who were once far off from each other]'>[5] who hath made both one’ by His blood [6])
Paul - Though of purest Hebrew blood (Philippians 3:5), "circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, (bearing the name of the eminent man of that tribe, king Saul), an Hebrew of the Hebrew," yet his birthplace was the Gentile Tarsus. ...
Here he acquired that knowledge of Greek authors and philosophy which qualified him for dealing with learned Gentiles and appealing to their own writers (Acts 17:18-28. He possessed the Roman citizenship from birth (Acts 22:28), and hence, when he commenced ministering among Gentiles, he preferred to be known by his Roman name Paul rather than by his Hebrew name Saul. delivering thee from the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee. ...
The time of his call was just when the gospel was being opened to the Gentiles by Peter (Acts 10). An apostle, severed from legalism, and determined unbelief by an extraordinary revulsion, was better fitted for carrying forward the work among unbelieving Gentiles, which had been begun by the apostle of the circumcision. After staying only 15 days at Jerusalem, wherein there was not time for his deriving his gospel commission from Peter with whom he abode, having had a vision that he should depart to the Gentiles (1618178380_59), and being plotted against by Hellenistic Jews (Acts 9:29), he withdrew to the seaport Caesarea (Acts 9:30), thence by sea to Tarsus in Cilicia (Galatians 1:21), and thence to Syria. Meantime at Antioch the gospel was preached to Gentile "Greeks" (Hellenas in the Alexandrinus manuscript, not "Grecians," Acts 11:20) by men of Cyprus and Cyrene scattered abroad at the persecution of Stephen; Barnabas went down then from Jerusalem, and glad in seeing this special grace of God, "exhorted them that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord. Here (Acts 13) while their minds were dwelling on the extraordinary accession of Gentile converts, "as they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, "Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them," namely, to labors among the Gentiles, such as was the specimen already given at Antioch, in which these two had taken such an efficient part. Very striking is the patient humility with which Paul waited for the Lord's time, as he had already received his call to be "a chosen vessel to bear His name before the Gentiles. Luke marks the transition point between Saul's past ministrations to Jews and his new ministry among Gentiles, which was henceforth to be his special work, by his Gentile designation, borne from infancy but now first regularly applied to him, Paul. " But when almost the whole city came together the next Sabbath to hear the word of God, envy of the admission of Gentiles to gospel privileges without being first proselytized to Judaism incited the Jews to blaspheme and to contradict Paul. This caused Paul to wax bolder and say, It was necessary to speak the word first to you, but seeing ye judge yourselves unworthy (it is not God who counted them" unworthy": Matthew 20:19; Matthew 22:8) of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles. The Gentiles rejoiced, and many believed; but the Jews influenced their proselyte women of the higher class, and chief men, to drive Paul and Barnabas away. " From Pisidia they came to Perga and Attalia; thence to Antioch, where they reported at what may be called the first missionary meeting or covention "all that God had done with them, opening the door of faith unto the Gentiles"; and so ended Paul's first missionary tour. Next (Acts 14:28; Acts 15), during Paul's stay at Antioch, men from Judaea came teaching that the Gentile converts must be circumcised. On their way they announced in Phenice and Samaria the conversion of the Gentiles, "causing great joy unto all the brethren. " At Jerusalem "they declared all things that God had done with them," the facts and miracles of their mission among the Gentiles in general to the Christian multitude there; "but privately" to the apostles the details of his doctrine, in order to compare it with their teaching, to let them see that he was not "running in vain," in not requiring circumcision of Gentile converts. Certain Pharisees however rose up, insisting on it, but Paul would not yield "for an hour" (Galatians 2); the council followed, in which Peter silenced arguments by the logic of facts, God having given the Holy Spirit to the Gentiles, who believed through him, even as He did to the believing Jews. Why then should the burdensome legal yoke be imposed on them, which God had not made a necessary preliminary to their salvation?...
Barnabas and Paul confirmed by their experience the fact: of God's work among the Gentiles. James wound up by showing that Amos' prophecy (Amos 9:11-12) of the call of the Gentiles, consequent on the building again of David's tabernacle, accords with the facts just stated. The decree followed, binding the Gentiles only to abstinence from idol pollutions, fornication, and, in deference to the Jews' feelings, from things strangled and blood. The realization of the brotherly bond uniting the whole church (circumcision no longer separating the Jew from the Gentile) was further to be kept up by alms for the poor brethren (Galatians 2). If Paul had proselytized Gentiles as the Jews always received proselytes, namely, with circumcision, persecution would have ceased. Unable to deny that Gentiles are admissible to the Christian covenant without circumcision, they denied that they were so to social intercourse with Jews; pleading the authority of James, they induced Peter, in spite of his own avowed principles (Acts 15:7-11) and his practice (Acts 11:2-17), through fear of man (Proverbs 29:25), to separate himself from those Gentiles with whom he had heretofore eaten; this too at Antioch, the stronghold of universality and starting point of Paul's missions to Gentiles
Christian Life - Peter, who still maintained a loyal observance of Jewish law and felt scruples about entering a Gentile house (Acts 10) and joining St. Paul, Barnabas, and other Gentile Christians (Galatians 2:11). The Apostolic Decree (Acts 15), which was intended to solve the differences of Jewish and Gentile Christianity, was a compromise which shows at once the strength and the weakness of the Jewish-Christian position: its strength lay in its jealousy for pure morality-Gentile Christians are to abstain from meat offered to idols, blood, things strangled, and fornication; its weakness lay in its ceremonialism and in its distrust of the Gentile per se. The difference between Pauline morality and the morality of the Judaizers who were found all over the Greek-speaking world, lay in the fact that Gentile Christianity formed an independent ethic, while the ethic of the Jewish Christian ‘merely looked like an addition to the commandments, an ennobling and purifying of the rule of the pious, law-abiding Jew’ (see Weizsäcker, ii
Bondage - In Galatians 4:3 and Galatians 4:8-10 slavery ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου includes apparently reference both to Jewish legalism and to Gentile devotion to false gods
Build up - ...
This same verb is found in Ephesians 2 , describing the mystical body of Christ into which the Gentile believers are "built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets" (v. The Gentiles are also "being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit" (v
Tiberias, Sea of - John's (John 6:1; John 21:1) designation as better understood by the Gentile Romans, etc
Nation - ...
Israelites of Old Testament times made such a clear distinction between themselves and others that their usual word for ‘nations’ (plural) developed the special sense of ‘other nations’ (often translated ‘Gentiles’ or ‘heathen’) (Deuteronomy 18:9; Psalms 2:1; Isaiah 11:10; Isaiah 30:28; Isaiah 36:18; Isaiah 49:22; Jeremiah 10:1-5; Jeremiah 10:10; see Gentile)
Enmity - ...
(2) The enmity of Jew and Gentile was notorious. They are treated as enemies in order that salvation may come to the Gentiles
Works of the Law - Paul's polemical argument in Galatians, however, is concerned with the inherent legalism of the Judaizers, who required Gentile converts to observe Jewish traditions in order to qualify as members of God's covenant people
Antioch - (an' ti ahch) names two New Testament cities one of which was home to many Diaspora Jews (Jews living outside of Palestine and maintaining their religious faith among the Gentiles) and the place where believers, many of whom were Gentiles, were first called Christians. Many of Antioch's Gentiles were attracted to Judaism. In Antioch the believers were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ), and it was to Antioch that Barnabas fetched Saul (Paul) from Tarsus so that they could teach this mixed congregation of Jewish and Gentile followers of the Lord. This was a missionary effort to both Jews and Gentiles, about which Paul says in Galatians 2:11 that he had to oppose Peter to his face at Antioch. Jewish jealously led to a separate ministry to Gentiles (Acts 13:46 )
Elect - (Isaiah 45:4; Luke 18:7-8) It is also spoken of in relation to the Gentile church, gathered out of all nations
Abolish - , He is going to render them inactive, 1 Corinthians 15:24 ; the last enemy that shall be abolished, or reduced to inactivity, is death, 1 Corinthians 15:26 ; the glory shining in the face of Moses, "was passing away," 2 Corinthians 3:7 , the transitoriness of its character being of a special significance; so in 2 Corinthians 3:11,13 ; the veil upon the heart of Israel is "done away" in Christ, 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; those who seek justification by the Law are "severed" from Christ, they are rendered inactive in relation to Him, Galatians 5:4 ; the essential effect of the preaching of the Cross would become inoperative by the preaching of circumcision, Galatians 5:11 ; by the death of Christ the barrier between Jew and Gentile is rendered inoperative as such, Ephesians 2:15 ; the Man of Sin is to be reduced to inactivity by the manifestation of the Lord's Parousia with His people, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ; Christ has rendered death inactive for the believer, 2 Timothy 1:10 , death becoming the means of a more glorious life, with Christ; the Devil is to be reduced to inactivity through the death of Christ, Hebrews 2:14
Account - " In 1 Corinthians 6:4 , it is used, not in a contemptuous sense, but of Gentile judges, before whom the saints are not to go to law with one another, such magistrates having no place, and therefore being "of no account" (RV), in the church
Acts of the Apostles - For the object of the evangelist was neither to give a complete history of the church during the period comprised, nor to record the labors of all the apostles: it was rather to exhibit the fulfillment of promise in the descent of the Holy Spirit, and the consequent planting and growth of the Christian church among Jews and Gentiles by the establishment of centres of influence in various provinces of the empire, beginning at Jerusalem and ending at Home. The planting and extension of the church among the Gentiles by the ministry of Paul. For it is Peter who first introduces a Gentile convert into the church; and Paul, during the whole of his administrations, is careful to proclaim the gospel, in every place where he has opportunity, first to the Jews and afterwards to the Gentiles
Circumcision - ...
Circumcision and Christianity Controversy arose in the early church (Acts 10-15 ) as to whether Gentile converts need be circumcised
Baptism - But of one thing we may be sure: had the acceptance of Christianity involved anything so startling to the Jewish or the Gentile mind as a distinction between the religious standing of the father of a family and his children, the historian would have recorded it, or the Apostles would have found themselves called to explain and defend it. For such a distinction would have been in direct contradiction to the most deeply rooted convictions of Jew and of Gentile alike. And among Gentile converts a somewhat different but equally authoritative principle, that of patria potestas , would have the same result. Thus it is because, to the mind of Jew and Gentile alike, the baptism of infants and children yet unable to supply the conditions for themselves was so natural, that St
Galatians, Theology of - Already in the original context of the letter, the Judaizing heresy threatened to undermine the work of the gospel among the Gentile churches and thus destroy the unity of God's people. These teachers argued that Gentile Christians, if they wanted to share in Abraham's blessing, must be circumcised and submit themselves to the Old Testament Law. The moment Peter decided to stop having meal-fellowship with the Gentile Christians, he was in fact suggesting that they could not be fully accepted into God's people without first becoming Jewish. When Peter put his faith in Christ, he was acknowledging that even Jewish people (who were not considered "sinners" in the same way the Gentiles were) could not expect to be justified by fulfilling the requirements of the Mosaic Law. In other words, by seeking salvation in Christ, Peter was recognizing that he was as needy a sinner as the Gentiles were. Therfore, it was quite proper to break down the barriers of Jewish ceremonies and to eat with the Gentiles. By breaking meal-fellowship with the Gentiles, Paul charged, Peter was in effect building up what he had already torn down, and that made him a transgressor of the law (2:18; Paul says "I" perhaps to be polite, but Peter clearly is in view). ) and use them to exclude Gentiles from God's purposes. ...
Undoubtedly, the Jewish-Gentile question was the fundamental issue facing early Christianity, and it may well be that the sixteenth-century Reformers did not sufficiently appreciate that factor as they sought to interpret Galatians
Building - As a celebration of Jew-Gentile unity and equality in Christ, Ephesians 2:20-22 portrays the church as building ( oikodome [ Psalm 118:22 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Matthew 21:42 ; Acts 4:11 ; 1 Peter 2:7 ) and provides the whole with life and growth (Ephesians 2:21 ), while the apostles and New Testament prophets provide a solid foundation (2:20; cf. Images of nation, building, body, and temple converge but the central message is clear: Because Christ's death has established peace, union with Christ dissolves all barriers between Jew and Gentile
Fellowship - Though it is not translated “fellowship” in English versions, Paul actually used the term koinonia to denote the financial contribution which he was collecting from Gentile believers to take to Jerusalem for the relief of the saints who lived there ( Romans 15:26 ; 2 Corinthians 8:4 ; 2 Corinthians 9:13 ). The reason he could refer to a financial gift as koinonia is explained by Romans 15:27 : “If the Gentiles have come to share in their [1] spiritual blessings, they ought also to be of service to them in material things” (NRSV). In this case, each offered what they were able to offer to benefit others: Jewish Christians their spiritual blessings, Gentile Christians their material blessings. When we realize that this expression of koinonia came on the heels of one of the most hotly debated issues in the early church, namely the status of Gentiles in the people of God ( Galatians 2:1-10 ; Acts 15:1 ), we can see how powerful and all encompassing Paul's notion of Christian fellowship actually was
Lord's Day - The Jewish members of the Church were soon outnumbered by the Gentile, and these latter would feel in no way drawn to continuing the observance of the Jewish Sabbath as well as their own Lord’s Day; and this the more so that they had received the gospel under the wider teaching of St. But if the Gentile Christian did not observe the Jewish Sabbath, yet he could not be ignorant of its deeper meaning, for he saw the Sabbath observed by his Jewish neighbours, and read in the OT of its institution and uses; and thus imperceptibly the essential principles of the Sabbath would pass into the Christian idea of their own sacred day of rest and worship
Unclean And Clean - Their daily meals should remind them of the covenant which separated them from the whole Gentile world as holy unto the Lord. The clean animals answer typically to God's holy people, the unclean to the idolatrous Gentiles. So Peter's vision (Acts 10:11-15) of the "sheet bound by four (the number for worldwide extension) rope ends (archais , Alford) containing all kinds of four footed beasts, creeping things and fowls," of all which he was commanded to eat, was the appropriate type of the abolition of distinction, not only between meats (compare 1 Timothy 4:4; Matthew 15:11) but between Jew and Gentile
Cosmopolitanism - Decapolis was almost entirely Greek; in Galilee there had for long been a large Gentile population; and foreigners as well as proselytes from all parts of the empire found their way to Jerusalem (Acts 2:7; see Schürer, HJP
Jewish exclusiveness was apparently endorsed by Christ Himself (Matthew 5:47 ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885) 6:7, 32); the Twelve are forbidden to go into any way of the Gentiles (Matthew 10:5); and the Syrophœnician woman is at first addressed in thoroughly Jewish language (Matthew 15:21, Mark 7:24). Simeon welcomes the infant Messiah as a light to lighten the Gentiles (Luke 2:32), in spite of the markedly Jewish tone of Luke 1, 2. 40–48, especially the statement that, omitting what is probably unauthentic, ‘Mark and Matthew have almost consistently withstood the temptation to introduce the Gentile mission into the words and deeds of Jesus,’ p
Justification - ) "The just shall live by faith" (Habakkuk 2:4) is thrice quoted by Paul:...
(1) Romans 1:17, where the emphasis is on "just," the gospel plan of saving men sets forth "the righteousness (justice) of God" as excluding the righteousness of man, Gentile and Jew alike (Romans 1:17 ff; Romans 2; Romans 5:1-953). Paul's epistle to Romans proves Jew and Gentile guilty of breaking God's universal law, therefore incapable of being justified by their own righteousness, i
Inn - 128); but what if the Jew came at some other time than at one of the great national feasts? What if a Samaritan came? Moreover, there was a large population of heathen; and even if Jewish habits of hospitality to Jews were equal in practice to the theory, no provision was made for the Gentile. These were sometimes kept by Jews; but, if kept by a Gentile, this would not necessarily deter Him from going in. Strict Jews objected to entering the house of a Gentile, lest they should incur defilement (John 18:28, cf
Paul - Ananias met Paul and told him that he had been chosen by God as a messenger for the Gentiles (Acts 9:17 ). The experience was also Paul's call to carry the gospel to the Gentile world (Acts 9:15 ; Acts 22:21 ). This experience of radical change and call to the Gentiles provided the motivation to travel throughout the Roman world. Usually Paul's message caused a division in the synagogue, and Paul and Barnabas would seek a Gentile audience. At first the charges against him were that he had brought a Gentile into the restricted areas of the Temple. The real reasons for his arrest are noted: the crowd was enraged at his mentioning his call to the Gentiles (Acts 22:21-22 ), and he stated to the Sanhedrin that he was arrested because of his belief in the resurrection. ...
He had been called by God to carry the gospel to the Gentiles (Galatians 1:16 ). The Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians further expresses Paul's commitment to the Gentile mission. Again he insisted that by revelation (Ephesians 3:3 ) he knew the mystery of Christ which is simply that the gospel is for the Gentiles without any restrictions (Ephesians 3:6-9 ). He had been given the specific charge to carry the gospel to the Gentiles (Acts 9:15 ). See Galatians, Epistle to; Gentiles . When he was criticized for his own willingness to accept Gentiles without their being circumcised, he was willing to enter into dialogue with the Christians in Jerusalem (Acts 15:1 ) to resolve the question. Paul must have realized that he, as well as the young Gentile Christians, needed the approval and support of the Christian leaders in Jerusalem, the very place where the crucifixion, burial, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus took place. While Gentiles have made their own abilities absolute, the Jews have made the law absolute
Command, Commandment - But through Jesus' atonement, humans are pardoned and the enmity between Jews and Gentiles created by the Old Testament commandments is removed (Ephesians 2:15 ), perhaps by abrogating the ceremonial aspects of the law and by empowering Gentile Christians to obey the law of Christ
Joppa - In a trance Peter saw what seemed to be “a great sheet knit at the four corners” lowered before him and learned that the Gentile world was a fit audience for the gospel (Acts 10:9-16 )
James - ...
In a Jerusalem conference called regarding Paul's Gentile mission, James presided as spokesman for the Jerusalem church (Acts 15:1 )
Caesarea - Also the scene of the Gentile centurion Cornelius' conversion (Acts 10:). Gentiles outnumbered Jews in it; and in the synagogue accordingly the Old Testament was read in Greek
Account - Paul applies this doctrine, which is found in the Synoptic Gospels and was an integral part of primitive Christian teaching, to Jew and Gentile, to himself and his converts, to those who have died before the Parousia and those who are alive at it
Queen (2) - Without setting aside these suggestions, it is more to the point to observe that our Lord brings into juxtaposition the two characteristics—so strongly emphasized in the case of Jew and Gentile—of the desire for a sign, and the seeking after wisdom; and it has been suggested that St. We may also remark how here again, as in the discourse at Nazareth, our Lord chooses His examples from among Gentiles (cf
Wall - While the figure of speech may well stand apart from the chel, or barrier, which marked off the Temple precincts in the narrower sense, and gave the limit not to be passed by any Gentile, we can imagine that this fence would be the φραγμός in especial to the Jewish mind
Circumcision - Some Jewish Christians sought to impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the apostles resolutely resisted (Acts 15:1 ; Galatians 6:12 ). The great point for which he contended was the free admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church
Caesarea - The city is closely associated with the history of the Apostolic Church, being especially notable as the place where the Holy Spirit was poured out upon the Gentiles (Acts 10:45). Peter, here became the first convert of the Gentiles (Acts 10:1; Acts 10:24; Acts 11:11). To the missionary, Caesarea is one of the most interesting spots on earth, having been the cradle of the Gentile Church
Cilicia - Syria and Cilicia were the first centres of Gentile Christianity, from which the light radiated over Asia Minor into Europe
Meats - In the Christian church, the custom of refraining from things strangled, and from blood, continued for a long time, being approved by the council held at Jerusalem, and recommended to the Gentile converts, Acts 15:1-41
Christian (the Name) - And the need evidently felt for some such designation as ‘Christian’ arose from two causes: (a) from the conspicuous extension of the new movement throughout the country and the city, and (b) more particularly from the predominance of Gentile Christians, who could not be provisionally grouped, like most of their Jewish fellow-believers, with the community and worship of Judaism. But the local, heterogeneous paganism yielded an incomparably richer harvest to the efforts of the Christian age is, so that the general success of the movement produced, for the first time, a noticeable alteration in the proportions of Jewish and Gentile Christians—so noticeable, indeed, that, as the historian points out, it necessitated an attempt on the part of the outside public to verbally classify the adherents of the new faith. The Christianity he knew was overwhelmingly a Gentile Christianity, and in Acts 11:26 he is keen to mark its debut, as well as to suggest that the name ‘Christian’ was primarily and principally applied to Gentile Christians
Antioch - Her distinction was that, while unquestionably the daughter of the Jewish Christian community at Jerusalem, full of filial gratitude and devotion, she became the first Gentile Church, and the mother of all the others. And the first Gentile Church was now to become the first missionary Church. Christians of Hellenic culture and Roman citizenship taught her a noble universalism, and it was accordingly at the instance of the Church of Antioch that the Council of Jerusalem sent to the Gentile converts a circular letter which became the charter of spiritual freedom (Acts 15:23-29). It was master-minds of Christian Antioch who at length changed the pathetic dream of ‘a light to lighten the Gentiles’ into a reality. The attraction of the Jewish faith for Gentile women (τὰς σεβομένας γυναῖκας, Acts 13:50) was a familiar theme in ancient writings (Juvenal, vi
Bishop - " Presbyter or elder was the term in the Christian church at Jerusalem for the pastoral superintendent; episcopus or bishop was naturally adopted in Gentile Christian churches, the word being already in use among the Greeks. ...
Paul and Barnabas transplanted the same Jewish government to the Gentile churches (Acts 14:23) by "ordaining elders in every church. Yet as Jews and Gentiles regarded second marriages with prejudice (compare Anna, Luke 2:36-37), and a bishop ought to stand well in the esteem of his flock, he should be married but once
Ark - Bryant has collected a variety of ancient historical relations, which show that some records concerning the ark had been preserved among most nations of the world, and in the general system of Gentile mythology. The ark, according to the traditions of the Gentile world, was prophetic; and was regarded as a kind of temple or residence of the deity
Ebionism And Ebionites - The Jews were forbidden to enter it, while the Jewish and Gentile Christians who crowded there read in Hadrian's imperial decree the abolition of the most distinctively Jewish rites, and practically signified their assent by electing as their bishop a Gentile and uncircumcised man—Mark (Eus. Jewish Christians, with predilections for Gentile Christianity and its comparative freedom, found the way made clear to them; others, attempting to be both Jews and Christians, ended in being neither, and exposed themselves to the contempt of Rabbin as well as Christian (Grätz, p. By the time of Trajan (96-117) political events had given them a definite organization, and their position as a sect opposed to Gentile Christianity became fixed by the acts which culminated in the erection of Aelia Capitolina. 17)—and the refusal of fellowship or hospitality to the Gentiles (cf. They even asserted that by birth he was not a Jew but a Gentile (wresting his words in Act_21:39 who had become a proselyte in the hope of marrying the High Priest's daughter but that having failed in this he had severed himself from the Jews and occupied himself in writing against circumcision and the observance of the sabbath (Epiph
Peter - Paul vigorously resented the insinuation of his enemies, to the effect that Peter’s chronological priority carried with it a superior authority, particularly for Gentile Christians; but, on the other hand, St. Paul quite as important as-perhaps in some respects more important than-his own specific task of Gentile evangelization. In the meantime, the Gentiles were reaping the profits to be derived from the Jews’ rejection, St. Paul being especially commissioned to carry on this temporary enterprise of evangelizing the Gentiles, but the original and fundamental task was still Peter’s. Hence it is not strange that he should cite the Jewish churches as models (1 Thessalonians 2:14), that he should refer with manifest satisfaction to their approval of his initial missionary activities (Galatians 1:24), that he should reckon his own evangelizing activity as formally beginning at Jerusalem (Romans 15:19), that he should take occasion to pay Peter a two weeks’ visit in Jerusalem (Galatians 1:18), or that he should in all sincerity seek the approval of the Jerusalem Church upon his Gentile work (Galatians 2:1 ff. Furthermore, his high estimate of the Jewish community’s significance found very tangible expression in the collection, which was no mere perfunctory keeping of a past agreement, but an expression of genuine appreciation of the Jewish Christians’ willingness to share their special prerogatives with the Gentiles who fulfilled the condition of faith (Galatians 2:10, Romans 15:26-28). Paul and Barnabas on their return, he came to Antioch in Syria, where his reactionary attitude upon the question of table-fellowship with Gentiles evoked St. Here he experienced his remarkable vision, in which God showed him that he ‘should not call any man common or unclean,’ with the result that he went freely to the house of the Gentile Cornelius, preaching that God is no respecter of persons. Accordingly, Peter baptized Cornelius and his friends, thus establishing the first company of Gentile Christians (10). On returning to Jerusalem, Peter is criticized for having eaten with the uncircumcised, but he presents so adequate a defence of his conduct that the Jerusalem Church ultimately glorifies God for the establishment of Gentile missions through his work (Acts 11:1-18). He is in Jerusalem again at the time of the Council, where he affirms, and James reiterates, that ‘a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe’ (Acts 15:7; Acts 15:14)
Peter - Though Peter was active in the incipient stages of the Gentile mission (see Acts 10-11 ), Paul became the “apostle to the Gentiles
Vision - Peter’s vision, whilst it conveyed to him God’s revelation as to his treatment of the conscientious Gentile, was presented in a concrete form, the objectivity of which seems never to have been questioned (Acts 10)
Repetitions - —The word ‘repetitions’ is found in the Gospels only in the phrase ‘vain repetitions’ in Matthew 6:7 ‘When ye pray (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘in praying’), use not vain repetitions, as the heathen (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘the Gentiles’) do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. The reference to Gentile errors in this respect is well illustrated by the cry of the priests of Baal on Carmel (1 Kings 18:26), and the shout of the Ephesian mob, kept up for more than an hour (Acts 19:34)
Verily - Luke, who, in deference to his Gentile readers, gives ἀληθῶς in three instances where the parallels have ἀυήν (Luke 9:27 = Matthew 16:28 = Mark 9:1; Luke 12:44 = Matthew 24:47; Luke 21:3 = Mark 12:43)
Sinners - Thus it indicates the distinction between Jew and Gentile from the ethnico-religious standpoint. Paul thus later used the word, Galatians 2:15 ‘We who are Jews by nature and not sinners of the Gentiles
Dancing - Herod’s birthday feast (when Salome danced before the guests, Matthew 14:6, Mark 6:22) was an imitation of Gentile customs
Horn - ...
Zechariah 1:18 (a) Here we see four Gentile powers which persecuted and scattered Israel
Naaman - He appears to have been a Gentile idolater; but being miraculously cured of his leprosy by the power of the God of Israel, and the direction of his Prophet Elisha, he renounced his idolatry, and acknowledged this God to be the only true God: "Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel," 2 Kings 5:15 , and promised, for the time to come, that he would worship none other but Jehovah, 2 Kings 5:17
Daniel the Prophet - He typifies the faithful Jewish remnant during the Gentile supremacy, in bondage yet possessing the secret of the Lord. Finally through them the Gentiles magnify their God
Samaritans - But in the New Testament this name is the appellation of a race of people who sprung originally from an intermixture of the ten tribes with Gentile nations
Pride - of Greek towards barbarian and especially of Jew towards Gentile, as done away in Christ, is a common theme with the same apostle; cf
Hebrews - ...
Others feel the recipients were Gentile Christians who were also tempted to deny their Christian faith to avoid persecution. The interest in the Old Testament cult is explained by the fact that the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) was the Bible of the early Gentile church. This same interest in the Old Testament elements of worship was strong in the second century Church Fathers, who were also Gentiles. ...
The Writer's Response Whether the recipients were Jewish or Gentile Christians, the writer saw a clear and present danger
Canticles; the Song of Solomon - "Jerusalem" the southern capital, is hinted at (Song of Solomon 6:4); she the queen, and the attendant Gentile churches" threescore queens and fourscore concubines" (Song of Solomon 6:8; Psalms 45:9-15). the nations (a phrase drawn by Jesus from the song, Luke 23:28, Galilean women standing in the same relation to the Jews as Gentiles afterward did), become united to Christ through the instrumentality of the bride, and they also appropriate her words, "I am my Beloved's," etc. At the close of this part (Song of Solomon 8:4) is restored Israel's charge to the Gentile converted nations not to interrupt the millennial rest of Christ with His worldwide church, "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, that ye stir not up . ...
Then the elect church from Jews and Gentiles, now being gathered, is described, Song of Solomon 8:5-14, which is chronologically before the millennial church just described, but fitly brought in as the closing subject ("make haste, My beloved," etc. The "little sister" having "no breasts" (neither faith nor love, the springs of spiritual nourishment, 1 Thessalonians 5:8; compare in connection with breasts, Luke 11:27-28) answers to the Gentile church admitted to be a "wall" in Zion founded on Christ; "spoken for," i. The "door" is that of faith opened to the Gentiles, implying universal accessibleness (1 Corinthians 16:9), but safely enclosed with fragrant enduring "cedar," lest it should be corrupted by latitudinarianism
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - Gentile readers,’ and that διασπορᾶς, like the preceding παρεπίδημοι, is used to describe their religious condition, both words being ‘taken from the vocabulary created by Jewish history and afterwards transferred to the Christian Church’ (F. The Gentile believers addressed in Ephesians had once been ξένοι τῶν διαθηκῶν τῆς ἐπαγγελιας (Ephesians 2:12), but are now συνπολῖται τῶν ἁγίων καὶ οἰκεῖοι τοῦ Θεοῦ (Ephesians 2:19), fellow-citizens with full rights (cf. Peter’s impressive adaptation of Hosea 2:23 to the Gentile Christians of Asia Minor, οἵ ποτὲ σὐ λαὸς νῦν δὲ λαὸς θεοῖ (1 Peter 2:10), is immediately followed by his appeal to them as πάροικοι καὶ παρεπίδημοι
Homosexuality - The argument is that Paul portrays homosexual Acts as impure but carefully avoids the language of sin; he intends merely to distinguish a Gentile practice considered by Jews to be "unclean" in order to draw Jews (or "weaker brethren") into his subsequent explanation of the gospel. ...
Paul's general purpose in the context (Romans 1:18-32 ) is to show the need for the gospel in the Gentile world. Paul uses several expressions here that are more typical of Gentile moral writers not because he is attempting to soften his condemnation but because he wishes to find words peculiarly suited to expose the sinfulness of the Gentile world in its own terms
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - (2) The synagogue ministry does not account for his astonishing success among the Gentiles ( Acts 17:4 , 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ). It is probable, therefore, that the Acts narrative is to be interpreted as implying a brief and almost fruitless appeal to the Jews, followed by a longer and more successful ministry to the Gentile population (cf. 4 there is warning against the besetting impurity of the Gentile world ( 1 Thessalonians 4:1-8 ), and against a fanatical detachment from the ordinary duties and responsibilities of life ( 1 Thessalonians 4:9-12 )
Number - Evidently these numbers symbolize the long "Gentile times" from the overthrow of Judah's kingdom by Babylon, and of Jerusalem by Titus, down to the restoration of the theocracy in Him "whose right it is" (Ezekiel 21:27). The seven times of Israel's punishment (Leviticus 26:18; Leviticus 26:21-24) are the times of the Gentile monarchies; the seven times of antichrist's tyranny in the Holy Land will be the recapitulation and open consummation of what is as yet "the mystery of iniquity
Paul - ' On a dispute arising as to Gentile converts being circumcised, he went with Barnabas to Jerusalem concerning that question, and returned to Antioch. ...
On his arrival at Rome, Paul sent for the chief men of the Jews and preached to them: some of them believed, though the majority rejected God's grace (thus fulfilling Isaiah 6:9,10 ), which should henceforth go to the Gentiles. To him was revealed the truth that the assembly was the body of Christ, and the doctrine of new creation in Christ Jesus, in which evidently there is no distinction between Jew and Gentile. This caused great persecution from the Jews and from Judaising teachers, who could not readily give up the law, nor endure the thought of Gentiles having an equal place with themselves. This Paul insisted on: it was his mission as apostle to the Gentiles
Servant of the Lord - God’s servant was to take the light of his salvation to the Gentile nations. Jesus, by contrast, fulfilled the task perfectly, bringing salvation to Israel and to the Gentiles (Matthew 1:21; Luke 2:32; Acts 26:23; Romans 15:8-12)
ti'Tus - Taking the passages in the epistles in the chronological order of the events referred to, we turn first to (Galatians 2:1,3 ) We conceive the journey mentioned here to be identical with that (recorded in Acts 15 ) in which Paul and Barnabas went from Antioch to Jerusalem to the conference which was to decide the question of the necessity of circumcision to the Gentiles. He is very emphatically spoken of as a Gentile by which is most probably meant that both his parents were Gentiles
Lord's Day - Since the incident involved Gentiles on Gentile soil, however, the probable reference is to Sunday night
Caesarea - Here also the Holy Spirit for the first time fell on heathen, thus inaugurating the Gentile Pentecost (v
Fool, Foolishness, Folly - To be without itas the Gentile nations were (Deuteronomy 32:21 )or to ignore itas Israel did (Deuteronomy 32:6 )is to be foolish
Deacon - Communion), but in the Gentile as in the Jewish world it would naturally be a service of a responsible, delicate, and often private kind an inference that is borne out by what is said in 1 Tim
Colossians, Epistle to the - The saints were warned in Colossians 2:16,17 against being entangled with the Jewish things; and with the occult philosophy of the fleshly mind of the Gentile: all of which was in contrast and in opposition to holding Christ as Head
Decapolis - The presence of two thousand swine on the eastern shores of the Lake of Galilee would of itself suggest the presence of a Gentile population in that vicinity
Fig - ...
Compare Isaiah 5 as to God's care of Israel; the only result was not merely unfruitfulness but deceptiveness, "the rustling leaves of a religious profession, barren traditions of the Pharisees, and vain exuberance of words without the good fruit of works" (Wordsworth); ostentatious promise of antedating the Gentile church in fruit, without performance; pretentious show and hypocrisy
Persia, Persians - Media ruled them in early times, but under Cyrus the yoke was shaken off, and, together with the Medes, they formed the second Gentile empire, succeeding that of Babylon
Flock - Both Jew and Gentile are brought into it, and hereafter will form "one in the general assembly and church of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven
Thessalonians - The church there consisted chiefly of Gentile converts, 1 Thessalonians 1:9
Romans - Paul takes occasion to enlarge upon the nature of the Mosaic institution; to explain the fundamental principles and doctrines of Christianity; and to show that the whole human race, formerly divided into Jews and Gentiles, were now to be admitted into the religion of Jesus, indiscriminately, and free from every other obligation. The Apostle, after expressing his affection to the Roman Christians, and asserting that the Gospel is the power of God unto salvation to all who believe, takes a comprehensive view of the conduct and condition of men under the different dispensations of Providence; he shows that all mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, were equally "under sin," and liable to the wrath and punishment of God; that therefore there was a necessity for a universal propitiation and redemption, which were now offered to the whole race of men, without any preference or exception, by the mercy of him who is the God of the Gentiles as well as of the Jews; that faith in Jesus Christ, the universal Redeemer, was the only means of obtaining this salvation, which the deeds of the law were wholly incompetent to procure; that as the sins of the whole world originated from the disobedience of Adam, so the justification from those sins was to be derived from the obedience of Christ; that all distinction between Jew and Gentile was now abolished, and the ceremonial law entirely abrogated; that the unbelieving Jews would be excluded from the benefits of the Gospel, while the believing Gentiles would be partakers of them; and that this rejection of the Jews, and call of the Gentiles, were predicted by the Jewish Prophets Hosea and Isaiah
Peter - We find him afterwards denouncing the judgment of God on a guilty couple who had dared to lie to the Holy Ghost, Acts 5:1-11 ; visiting Samaria, and rebuking Simon the magician, Acts 8:5-24 ; healing Eneas and raising Dorcas to life at Lydda, Acts 9:32-43 ; seeing at Joppa a vision which prepared him to preach the gospel to the Gentile Cornelius, Acts 10:1-48 ; imprisoned by Herod Agrippa, and delivered by an angel, Acts 12:3-19 ; and taking a part in the council at Jerusalem, Acts 15:7-11
Elders - ' There were elders at Jerusalem, though we do not read of their appointment, Acts 11:30 ; Acts 15:2-23 ; Acts 21:18 ; but the choice of elders in the Gentile assemblies was by apostolic authority, either direct or delegated
Luke, Gospel According to - But it is by no means certain that Luke the Gentile understood Aramaic; and the character of the narrative rather points to an oral source (Ramsay). But if the change be due to Luke, it is just what we should expect a Hebraism interpreted for Gentile readers (see § 6 ); in any case it scarcely goes further than Daniel 9:26 . Luke clearly writes for the Gentiles, being a Gentile himself (see art. He has also in view, however, other Gentile converts
Children of God, Sons of God - -It is natural that we should find in this writer, who was the champion and protagonist of the movement for the extension of Christianity to the Gentiles, the most unrestricted expression in the NT of the sonship of mankind as related to God. Paul, therefore, generally uses it to denote the relationship between God and the disciples of Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles. Writing in the stress of the Jewish controversy, he finds it necessary to vindicate the claims of the Gentile Christians to the name ‘children or sons of God. ’ Gentile Christians are ‘children of promise’ (Galatians 4:28). The phrase, ‘the children of God who were scattered abroad’ (John 11:52), probably refers to the members of the Gentile churches of the writer’s own period
Luke, the Gospel According to - Who so likely a person to have communicated it to Luke as Paul, who "received the gospel, not of man but by the revelation of Jesus Christ"? The selection of gospel materials in Luke, exhibiting forgiveness for the vilest, grace, and justification, is such as accords with Paul's large views as to the Gentiles and free justification by faith (Luke 18:14). Luke's choice of materials accords with the new light in which "the apostle of the Gentiles" was inspired to set gospel facts, e. the parable of the prodigal son, the tracing of Christ's genealogy up to Adam the common parent of Jew and Gentile, not only to Abraham, as Matthew. Light to lighten the Gentiles"; Luke 4:25, Christ's reference to Elijah's mission to the Gentile widow of Sarepta; Luke 9:52; Luke 10:30, the good Samaritan; Luke 17:18, the only grateful one of the ten cleansed lepers, a Samaritan; the mission of the seventy, a number typical of the nations, as the twelve represent the twelve tribes of Israel. ...
Theophilus, to whom he writes, was a Gentile believer, as appears from the geographical and other explanations given of many things, which would have been needless had he been a Jew (Luke 1:26, Nazareth; Luke 4:31, Capernaum; Luke 23:51, Arimathea; Luke 24:13, Emmaus; Acts 1:12, Olivet). " The name Theophilus ("friend of God") is Greek Matthew calls Jerusalem" the holy city" and its temple "the temple of God"; but Mark and Luke omit these titles, doubtless because they were writing to Gentiles, after Jerusalem by continual persecutions of the church had sunk in the esteem of Christians, and when the temple made without hands, "the temple of the Holy Spirit," the church, was fully understood to have superseded the temple of stone. "Lawyers" six times stand instead of "scribes"; epistatees , "master," instead of rabbi six times, as more plain to Gentiles
Peter - ...
In spite of all this, a special vision from God was necessary to convince Peter that uncircumcised Gentiles were to be accepted into the church freely, without their first having to submit to the Jewish law (Acts 10:9-16). ...
Another factor in Peter’s changing attitudes towards Gentiles was the influence of Paul. They met again eleven years later, when Peter and other Jerusalem leaders expressed fellowship with Paul and Barnabas in their mission to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:9). ...
Although Peter understood his mission as being primarily to the Jews (Galatians 2:7), he visited the mainly Gentile church in Syrian Antioch and ate freely with the Gentile Christians. When Jewish traditionalists criticized him for ignoring Jewish food laws, he withdrew from the Gentiles. When church leaders later met in Jerusalem to discuss the matter of Gentiles in the church, Peter openly and forthrightly supported Paul (Acts 15:7-11)
Mission - They considered themselves assured of God’s blessing, and the Gentile nations assured of his judgment; but in this they deceived themselves (Jonah 4:2; Jonah 4:11; Matthew 3:9; Romans 2:25-29; Romans 3:29; Romans 9:6-7; Romans 9:15). Jesus therefore announced his salvation to Israel before spreading the message farther afield among the Gentiles (Matthew 15:24; cf. ...
Jesus had always anticipated a wider mission to the Gentiles (Matthew 8:11-12; Matthew 21:43; Matthew 28:19; John 10:16; John 20:21). He told his disciples, and through them the church, to look upon the initial work in Palestine as the foundation for a wider reaching work into the Gentile world (Acts 17:1-5; Acts 1:8)
Priest - It is used of a Gentile priesthood in Acts 14:15 (‘the priest of Jupiter’), and also in Heb. ), for Melchizedek, it is evident, was not merely a pre-Aaronic but a Gentile priest
Capernaum - , still are seen at Tabiga, the manufacturing suburb of Capernaum The prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 9:2) had foretold that this region, namely, Zabulon and Nephthalim, the one most bordering on Gentile darkness, was to be the first to see the great light (Matthew 4:12-16)
Day - That period, still future, will see the complete overthrow of Gentile power and the establishment of Messiah's kingdom, Isaiah 13:9-11 ; 34:8 ; Daniel 2:34,44 ; Obadiah 1:15 ; cp
Candlestick - The Gentile churches will not realize their unity until the Jewish church as the stem, unites all the lamps in one candlestick (Romans 11:16-24)
Micaiah - " Micaiah replied: "if thou return at all in peace Jehovah hath not spoken by me; hearken, O nations, every one of you"; appealing not only to Israel but to the Gentile world, to which Ahab had conformed, and which may heed, since Israel will not, so as when the event should come to pass to discern the truth of Jehovah (Micah 1:2)
Hagar - The history typifies the truth that the spiritual seed of Abraham by promise, Gentile as well as Jewish believers, take the place of the Jews the natural seed, who imagined that to them exclusively belonged the kingdom of God
Uncleanness - The hand-washing ritual of the Pharisees, for instance, required the pouring of water over their hands to cleanse them from the defilement of people and things they had touched in the Gentile world (Mark 7:1-4; John 2:6; John 3:25; John 18:28)
Temptation of Jesus - This difference in arrangement may reflect Luke's Gentile/cosmopolitan interests to put the kingdoms of all people second
Fulfill - ...
Temporal phrases such as “the time is fulfilled” point to times ordained by God, for example, the time of Christ's ministry (Mark 1:15 ; Galatians 4:4 ; Ephesians 1:10 ), the time of Gentile domination of Israel (Luke 21:24 ), or the time of the appearance of the lawless one (2 Thessalonians 2:6 )
Unknown God - ’ Such suggestions as that there is a reference in ‘unknowable’ to Jahweh, who was spoken of by Gentile writers as ‘wholly hidden’ (Justin Martyr, Apol
Adultery - But when the territorial system of Moses fell into desuetude, and Gentile example corrupted the Jews, while the law nominally remained it practically became a dead letter
Genesis, Book of - ...
In Joseph a new branch of the history commences: he is hated by his brethren and is sold to the Gentiles, but becomes their saviour — an evident type of Christ in His sufferings and His glory. Joseph takes a Gentile wife in his rejection, as Christ takes a bride outside of Israel
Famine - " (Hosea 3:4-5) But let not the reader close up his view of this spiritual famine as it relates to the Jews, without going farther, and enquiring whether the threatening may not belong equally to the Gentile church? yea, and whether it is not now in the present hour accomplishing in the earth? Is there not a famine of hearing the word of the Lord in numberless places which are called Christian countries, as well as idolatrous lands? Are there not multitudes who call themselves after Christ, but yet know no more of him than the name? Yea, to come nearer home, are there not villages and country places in this kingdom where the spiritual famine prevails, notwithstanding our land is called, a land of Bibles, and societies for disseminating the word of God are every where opening? Alas! while the grand and distinguishing principles of the faith of Christ are so openly and impudently denied; while God the Father's gracious purposes in the gift of salvation by his dear Son, is thought nothing of; while the GODHEAD of Christ, and redemption wholly by his blood, is daringly opposed; and while the person, work, and influence of God the Holy Ghost is not made the very foundation of a sinner's hope, in reading the sacred word to make wise unto salvation; while these things are kept in the back ground, and the object with many in teaching is but to introduce a flimsy system of morality to supply the place of vital godliness, is there not still a famine, yea, with many, with the Bible in their hand? Pious regenerated Christians see this, and find cause to mourn in secret over it; while they can only pray the Lord to take away the reproach of our land, and remove this spiritual famine from our people
Titus - Paul says that he would not allow him to be circumcised, because he was born of Gentile parents
Damascus - Damascus was the first Gentile city in which Jesus was preached as 'the Son of God;' and though it is now in possession of Muslims, yet in their great mosque a stone has been preserved that formed part of a church erected on the spot, bearing this inscription in Greek: " Thy kingdom, O Christ, is an everlasting kingdom, and Thy dominion endureth throughout all generations
One - , there is not "one" God for the Jew and one for the Gentile; cp
Ara'Bia - (desert, barren ), a country known in the Old Testament under two designations:--
The East Country , ( Genesis 25:6 ) or perhaps the East, ((Genesis 10:30 ; Numbers 23:7 ; Isaiah 2:6 ) and Land of the Sons of the East , ( Genesis 29:1 ) Gentile name, Sons of the East , ( Judges 6:3 ; 7:12 ; 1 Kings 4:30 ; Job 1:3 ; Isaiah 11:14 ; Jeremiah 49:28 ; Ezekiel 25:4 ) From these passages it appears that Land of the East and Sons of the East indicate, primarily, the country east of Palestine, and the tribes descended from Ishmael and from Keturah; and that this original signification may have become gradually extended to Arabia and its inhabitants generally, though without any strict limitation
Joseph - He was the beloved one of his father: this with the intimations given to him of his future position, destined for him by God in the midst of his family, stirred up the envy of his brethren and resulted in his being sold to the Gentiles: as the Lord was hated by His brethren the Jews, and sold by one of them. During thistime he had a Gentile wife and children and became 'fruitful': so while the Lord is rejected by the Jews, God is gathering from the nations a people for His name. Joseph ruled over the Gentiles, as the Lord will do. He was to be very fruitful, with branches running over the wall: so the blessing of Israel through Christ extends to the Gentiles
Jonah - It shows that the prophet embodied in himself the testimony of God through Israel to the Gentiles (comp. It was the same with Israel: they could not bear grace being shown to the Gentiles: cf. Jonah was God's servant, but unfaithful: his unfaithfulness brought him into the depths of judgement, but he then embodied in his own person the truth of the testimony he proclaimed, and yet while proclaiming the judgement, he was unprepared for the extension of mercy to the Gentiles. Thus Jehovah was made known to those Gentile seamen. In like manner the obduracy of the Jews only opened the door wider for grace to go to the Gentiles
Profession - To the Christian Jew of Palestine He was the ‘Messiah’; to the Hellenistic Christian Jew He was the ‘Christ’; to the Christian Gentile He was the ‘Lord
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - It will be remembered that the majority of the Christians at Corinth were Gentiles, though there were some Jews among them ( Romans 16:21 , 1 Corinthians 7:18 ; 1 Corinthians 9:20 ; 1 Corinthians 12:13 ), including such influential men as Crispus ( Acts 18:8 ) and (probably) Sosthenes ( Acts 18:17 , 1 Corinthians 1:1 ). He preached no longer ‘wisdom’ to the Jewish lawyer or the Greek sophist ( 1 Corinthians 1:20 ), but salvation to the plain man; the Gentiles had no sense of sin, and the preaching of a personal Saviour was to them ‘folly’ ( 1 Corinthians 1:23 ). Paul reproves them for tolerating ‘such fornication as is not even among the Gentiles’
Why is the decree of Acts 15:29 not quoted? Lock suggests that it is because at Corinth there was no question between Jew and Gentile, but only between Gentile and Gentile, and Jewish opinion might be neglected. Perhaps, having addressed the Gentiles in particular in ch. Apparently the Gentile converts at Corinth felt a great difficulty in accepting the doctrine of the resurrection of the body; it appeared to them too material a doctrine to he true ( 1 Corinthians 15:12 , cf. It is a little doubtful, however, whether the Gentile churches kept the annual as well as the weekly feast of the Resurrection at this early date; see art
Luke, Gospel According to - Luke omitted what his readers would not value: being a Gentile himself, and writing for Gentiles, he naturally omitted sections which dealt with questions of Jewish interest; (2) that he objected to repetition, and left out what he regarded as dittographies; e. Luke is particularly fond of alluding to Jewish customs, and Gentile Christians have always taken a deep interest in them. Again, he omits the healing of the Syrophœnician’s daughter (Mark 7:24-30)—the only case in which our Lord is recorded to have healed a Gentile. He omits the only journey which our Lord is said to have taken through Gentile lands (Mark 7:31 to Mark 8:10). All these topics were of overwhelming interest to Gentile readers, and we find it impossible to believe that St
Universalism (2) - Should the missionary impulse be given free scope? And should life be simplified—in the first instance, for those of Gentile birth—by abrogation of OT law? Or should the missionary impulse be slowly throttled by Jewish laws and customs? Both parties were pushed back, and led to define their principles more sharply. Paul justifies his attitude of antagonism by declaring that the Gentile Christian, who accepts circumcision and the Law, renounces Christ (Galatians 5:2-4). Christianity has been known to history as a Gentile and non-Jewish institution—a strange state of matters, were we not blinded by familiarity. If religion consists in the belief of God’s Fatherhood and in love to man, there is no reason why a Jew should be preferred to a Gentile. His intercourse with Gentiles (Matthew 8:5 ff. OT prophecy had extended hope to Gentiles (Is 2:2, e. Cosmopolitanism, Exclusiveness, Gentiles, Missions
Temple - ‘To call Stephen a forerunner of Paul, and to think of him as anticipating in any way Paul’s treatment of the Jewish law and his assertion of a free Gentile Christianity, is to misunderstand him’ (McGiffert, op. He is consequently accused of ‘teaching all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses’ (Acts 21:21). But he had long been in the habit of identifying himself in things non-essential now with Jews and now with Gentiles in order that he might ‘win some of them’ (1 Corinthians 9:20), and the last instance of conformity was merely the most striking. If he conceded the principle of Gentile Christian freedom, he did it reluctantly
Nehemiah - That Nehemiah, a Jew and a captive, served this Gentile king in such a strategic capacity was an unusual credit and honor to this man of strong character. He threw out a Gentile who was permitted to live in the Temple; he restored the practice of tithing to support the Levites; he corrected sabbath wrongs by those who bought and sold on the sabbath; and he dealt forthrightly with those who had married foreigners, those not in covenant relation with God
Freedom - ...
The notion of slavery to sin is especially prominent in Paul, who writes to Gentile audiences against the background of Greco-Roman thought. Interestingly, the central concern of this letter parallels the issue reflected in John 8 : What is the relationship between freedom and being a descendant of Abraham? The Gentile Christians of Galatia were being persuaded by some Judaizing groups to adopt circumcision and other distinctive Jewish ceremonies
Brother - " (Leviticus 25:25-35)...
Who is the brother waxen poor, having fallen into decay, and sold away some of his possession, but our poor ruined nature; ruined by the fall, and by sin, having sold away our possession? And who is the brother to whom the precept is given, and by whom it hath been fulfilled, and is fulfilling, but the Lord Jesus Christ? Who but him could redeem our mortgaged inheritance? Who but him had a right so to do, as the nearest of all kin, and the most compassionate of all relations? And do observe in those gracious precepts how blessedly provision is made, in this almighty Brother's obedience to this precept, for all the relations of Jesus, both Jew and Gentile; "Yea, (saith the command of JEHOVAH,) though he be a stranger, or a sojourner, that he may live with thee. " Live with Jesus! what a precious consideration to my poor heart in the moment of writing, who am by nature a Gentile born, and at that time "an alien to the commonwealth of Israel
Hebrews, Epistle to - We are thus reduced to the balancing of probabilities in selecting an objective for our Epistle, and in so doing we have to ask ourselves the much canvassed question, What were the antecedents of the readers? Were they Gentile or Jewish converts? Until a comparatively recent date it was believed universally that the writer had Jewish Christians before his mind. A formidable array, however, of NT critics, especially Continental, now advocate the theory that, in spite of appearances to the contrary, the original readers of our Epistle were Gentiles or mainly Gentiles ( e. Paul in writing to the Church in Rome ( Romans 4:1-25 ), where undoubtedly there was a large admixture of Gentile Christians. Moreover, Clement of Rome again and again refers to ‘our fathers,’ though he too is writing to a Church largely Gentile (see cc
Zechariah, Prophecy of - Zechariah's prophecy is much occupied with the great Gentile kingdoms under which the Jews were placed: there is also much respecting Jerusalem, and it reaches on to the time of the Messiah and His rejection, and to the last days when Israel and Judah shall be blessed in the land. ...
Zechariah 6:1-8 introduce the administrative spirits of God's providential government connected with the four Gentile empires as horses: the red (Babylon), the black (Medes and Persians), the white (Greek), and the grisled and bay (Roman), the latter probably having two horses because of the double character of its government, relics of which exist in various forms until revived again before the Lord comes to reign. ) These are called "the four spirits of the heavens which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth" (Zechariah 6:5 ), because during the time of the Gentiles these nations are the instruments of God's providential governing power in the earth. Here the people are under Gentile rule
Plan - He hesitated to exercise His healing power in the Gentile province, lest He might exceed the limits of His mission (Mark 7:27). He charged His disciples to avoid the Gentile and Samaritan cities and confine themselves to the ‘lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matthew 10:5-6). Peter and his fellow-Apostles, on the day of Pentecost and long afterwards, were still unaware that their Master desired them to proclaim His message to the wider Gentile world
Exodus, Book of - Jethro brought to Moses his wife and his two sons: sacrifices were offered by Jethro, a Gentile, who ate with Israel. All being ruined, God would now act in His sovereignty, and show mercy to whom He would — a sovereignty which extends mercy to Gentiles as well as Jews: cf
Tribes - Are the ‘servants of God’ of Revelation 7:3 identical with the ‘multitude’ of Revelation 7:9 ‘whom no man can number’? Can this be the case when the sealed are numbered so definitely? If not, who then are the sealed? Are they faithful Jews of the OT dispensation, or are they Jewish Christians, and are the Gentile Christians not to be sealed? The first suggestion is impossible, as the sealed are evidently still on the earth
Iconium - Some indication that his vehement letter and his final visit accomplished his purpose is afforded by the fact that the Galatian Church contributed part of the Gentile love-offering to the poor saints in Jerusalem (1 Corinthians 16:1)
Genealogies - Without raising the question of authorship, one may feel, on general considerations, that, in the interests of the Church, the question was a vital one-should Christianity be allowed to degenerate into a blend of Mosaism and Gentile philosophy or theosophy? Even in religious controversy, rank growths are not to be eradicated with a pair of tweezers
Adam in the nt - As a Gentile writing for Gentiles, St
Damascus, Damascenes - The Hellenic city in the Levant became the first metropolis of Gentile Christianity, and organized the earliest missions to the Western nations
Ephesians, Letter to the - ...
God saves helpless sinful people by his grace (2:1-10), and brings them into a united body, the church, where there is no distinction between Jew and Gentile. God unites Jews and Gentiles in one body, and this divine work displays God’s wisdom
Christian - It has sometimes been suggested that the infrequent use of ‘Christian’ in the NT points to a considerably later origin, and that the author of Acts had no better reason for assigning it to so early a date than the fact that the founding of the first Gentile church appeared to him to be an appropriate occasion for its coming into use. ...
(3) Almost certainly the name owed its origin to the non-Christian Gentiles of Antioch. (2) It marked the fact, not heretofore realized, that Christianity was a religion for the Gentiles . Christianity appeared in Antioch as a universal religion, making no distinction between Jew and Gentile. It served as a stepping-stone for that movement, inevitable from the day when Christianity was first preached unto the Gentiles, which by and by made Rome, the metropolis of the world, the mother-city also of the universal Church
City - Its palace, citadel, and public buildings were of the most imposing description, but it was almost wholly Gentile, no Jew who had the pride of his race setting foot within the walls of a city polluted alike by the monuments of idolatry and by its site on an ancient burial-place. Though some were preponderantly Jewish, and others, such as Tiberias, almost exclusively Gentile, there was yet in them all a mingling of races and a tolerably free and humane intercourse
Alexandria - The translation was regarded by the Jews with mingled feelings, execrated by one section as the grossest desecration of the holy oracles, extolled by another section as the means by which the beauties of the Law and the Prophets could be appreciated for the first time by the Greek-speaking Gentile world. The Jews found in the Gentile writings many beautiful and excellent thoughts
Romans, Epistle to the - The Church at Rome contained both Jews and Gentiles; through Priscilla and Aquila and others St. Paul emphasizes the fact that he has been set apart for the work of an Apostle to all the Gentiles. Both Jew and Gentile will be judged alike, the conscience in the Gentile corresponding to the Law in the case of the Jew ( Romans 2:1-16 ). A Gentile who does not know the Law and yet obeys it is better than the Jew who knows and disobeys ( Romans 2:17-23 ). Jew and Gentile here stand on the same level (Romans 3:21-30 ). The rejection of the Jews, by which the grace of God has come to the Gentile, grieves him to the heart. Even now a remnant has been saved by grace; and the present rejection of Israel must have been inteoded to save the Gentiles. What larger blessing will not God bestow when He restores His people? The Gentiles must see in the fall of Israel the goodness of God towards themselves, and the possibilities of mercy for the Jews. The Jews are enemies now, in order that God may bless the Gentiles
Age, Old (the Aged) - They appear along with "the apostles" at the Jerusalem Council to settle the dispute about Gentile converts (Acts 15:2,4,22 )
Esther, Theology of - Esther hid her identity from the king, was willing to marry a Gentile, did not feel out of place in a harem, had no mercy on Haman, did not observe dietary laws, was at first not willing to help her own people, and sanctioned the plundering of enemies
Cyprus - 117 (when Trajan was busy with Parthia), and they are said to have massacred 240,000 of the Gentile population
Humour - When He bade His hearers take no care for the morrow, because caring for the morrow was the distinguishing mark of the Gentile as contrasted with the Jew (Matthew 6:32), He spoke with full knowledge of Jewish character, and must have known that His hearers would smile
Type - ...
BABYLON as the centre of idolatry and Gentile apostasy from God and the abode of corruption in the activity of power — type of papal Rome whose name is Mystery, Babylon the Great, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth
Garden - " (Song of Song of Solomon 6:9) The Jerusalem which is above, and which is the mother of us all, knows but of one church, of which Jesus is the Head; for both Jew and Gentile will ultimately be brought into one fold
Law of Moses - The Gentiles are described as not having the law, Romans 2:14 , though they had the work of the law written in their hearts, and a conscience which bore witness when they did wrong. As the Gentiles became associated with Israel, and heard what God required morally of man, they doubtless became more or less responsible according to the light received. But greater light having come in, the Galatian Christians are sharply rebuked for putting themselves under law, where, as Gentiles, they never had been. A converted Jew was no longer under the law — how much less a Gentile believer whom God had never put under the law! See SCHOOLMASTER
Natural - Paul, using figurative language, describes the Jews as ‘natural branches’ in contrast with the Gentiles, who are represented as artificially grafted into the tree of God’s people. 24), and the force of his reproof to the presuming Gentile turns on the fact that the process was an unnatural one’ (J
Gospels - The book shows a strong interest in the fulfilment of God’s purposes concerning Israel’s Messiah, and the responsibility of the Messiah’s people to spread his message to the Gentiles. The place most commonly suggested for the writing of such a book is Antioch in Syria, which was closely connected with the Jewish churches of Palestine and with the mission to the Gentile nations (1618178381_34; Acts 11:27-29; Acts 13:1-4; Acts 14:26-27; Acts 15:1-3; Acts 15:22; Acts 15:30; see MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF)
Acts of the Apostles - ...
The author was a Gentile, not a Jew (Colossians 4:10 f. Yet he was quite probably a Macedonian [5], of a Greek family once settled at Antioch; he was a Gentile not without some contempt for the Jews, and certainly not a Roman citizen like St. a Gentile who had become a circumcised Jew); the conversion of St. ( a ) The author describes the Apostle as beginning new missionary work by seeking out the Jews first; only when they would not listen he turned to the Gentiles, Acts 13:5 ; Acts 13:14 , Acts 14:1 , Acts 16:13 (no synagogue at Philippi, only a ‘place of prayer’) Acts 17:1 f. Hence may be understood his zeal for Gentile liberty, and his breaking away from the idea of Jewish exclusiveness
Decrees - Paul and Timothy disseminated the Jerusalem church's decrees (the decision of Acts 15 ), presumably providentially guided, concerning relations between Jewish and Gentile Christians (Acts 16:4 )
Circumcision - Although in the period of the primitive church the believers maintained Jewish religious traditions, problems began to arise when the gospel was preached among Gentiles. Christians who had come from a Jewish background felt that Gentiles should become Jews through circumcision before being able to experience Christ's saving work. Others repudiated this view of salvation by works, particularly when uncircumcised Gentiles received God's outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Acts 10:44-48 ). Peter opposed these Judaizers, affirming the saving efficacy of faith in Christ alone (Acts 15:8-11 ), and denying the necessity of circumcision for the Gentiles. ...
To resolve the issue Paul and Barnabas consulted with the elders in Jerusalem, where it was agreed that Gentiles should not be compelled to be circumcised (Acts 15:13-21 ). Paul was indifferent to the Judaizers' vaunted claims of "circumcision spirituality, " and although he circumcised the partly Jewish Timothy (Acts 16:3 ) to facilitate his mission, he opposed circumcision for the Gentile Titus (Galatians 2:3 )
Adoption - Producing the filial cry of prayer in all, Jew and Gentile alike (See ABBA) (Galatians 4:6); and the fruit of the Spirit, conformity to Christ (Romans 8:29), and renewal in the image of our Father (Colossians 3:10)
Tiberias - Our Lord, so far as is known, never visited Tiberias, it being His custom to avoid Gentile cities
Baptism of the Holy Spirit - A number of years later, when Peter is ministering to Cornelius, the Spirit again manifests itself in dramatically similar ways (leading to the common labeling of this event as the "Gentile Pentecost"). These similarities lead Peter to reflect on Jesus' parting words again and to quote them to the Jewish-Christian leaders in Jerusalem in defense of his "scandalous" association with Gentiles (Acts 11:16 )
Rahab (1) - A woman of loose life, and a Gentile, is justified even as Abraham, the father of the Jews, the friend of God, was; showing that justifying, working faith manifests itself in every class. The scarlet line typifies Jesus' blood, that secures from wrath the Gentiles and even harlots and notorious sinners (Matthew 21:31-32), within His church, even as the sprinkled blood of the paschal lamb secured Israel in their houses, and typified the same all-atoning blood. Rahab is an instance of the call of Gentiles anticipatory of that under the gospel
Servant of the Lord, the - He is to “bring forth judgment to the Gentiles” ( Isaiah 42:1 ). He is to be “a light to the Gentiles” and “my salvation unto the end of the earth” (Isaiah 49:6 ). Gentile and Jewish leaders conspired to make Jesus, “your holy servant” suffer as God “had decided beforehand” ( Acts 4:27-28 NIV)
Borrow - (Exodus 3:22)...
And might there not be somewhat typical in the thing itself, in reference to the future call (as was all along intended) of the Gentile church? I beg the reader to read that sweet passage of the prophet Isaiah 19:18-25; and see the rich promises of the call of Egypt with Assyria, when the Lord shall set up the New Testament altar, even the Lord Jesus Christ, in the midst of the land of Egypt; and five cities shall speak the language of Canaan, even the gospel language of salvation by the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ
Love-Feasts - ]'>[1] In imitation either of these Jewish or Gentile love-feasts, or probably of both, the primitive Christians, in each particular church, had likewise their love- feasts, which were supplied by the contribution of the members, according to their several abilities, and partaken of by all in common. And whether they were converts from among the Jews or Gentiles, they retained their old custom with very little alteration, and as their αγαπαι had been commonly annexed to their sacrifices, so they were now annexed to the commemoration of the sacrifice of Christ at the Lord's Supper; and were therefore held on the Lord's day before or after the celebration of that ordinance
Nazareth - While the former name was of Jewish origin, and came to be their standing designation among the unbelieving Jews, the latter was a Gentile coinage
Nazareth - While the former name was of Jewish origin, and came to be their standing designation among the unbelieving Jews, the latter was a Gentile coinage
Job - , we have to think of him as a Gentile living in patriarchal times either in the Hauran or on the confines of Idumæa and Arabia (see Uz), and his friends also must be regarded as Gentiles. Whoever was the author of the main poem, he was undoubtedly an Israelite, for a Gentile would not have used the Tetragrammaton so freely. Of familiarity with the Law there are, indeed, very few traces, but that is doubtless owing to the poet’s wonderful skill, which has enabled him to maintain throughout a Gentile and patriarchal colouring. It seems most natural to look for his home in the south or southeast of the Holy Land, not far from Edom, where he would come in frequent contact with Gentile sages, and could glean much from travellers
Paul the Apostle - pseudo-Clementine literature, he gathered that there were originally two bitterly opposed factions in the Church, Jewish and Gentile, headed respectively by St. ), marked by the struggle for Gentile liberty and by the assertion of St. The early date of these four Epistles is seen from the consideration that, as Gentile Churches spread and the converts multiplied, it must have been found impossible to force the yoke of the Law on them. At the birth of a Gentile Church the controversy with Judaizing Christians was that which was most likely to arise, as we see in the Second Group. 1 Corinthians 9:15 , 1 Thessalonians 2:9 , 2 Thessalonians 3:8 ); for it is very probable that his family cast him off because of his conversion, and especially because of his attitude to the Gentiles; and moreover, it was the custom for all Jewish boys to be taught a trade. Paul such an advantage as the Apostle of the Gentiles, and which inspired him with his great plan of utilizing the civilization of the Roman State to spread the gospel along its lines of communication (see artt. The Lord Himself designates his work as being among the Gentiles ( Acts 9:15 ; cf
Peter, the Epistles of - 1 Peter 2:9-10; 1 Peter 4:3, prove that Gentile Christians, as grafted into the Christian Jewish stock and so becoming of the true Israel, are secondarily addressed. Thus the apostle of the circumcision seconded the apostle of the uncircumcision in uniting Jew and Gentile in the one Christ. The Gentile as well as the Hebrew Christians would after Paul's removal naturally look to Peter and the spiritual fathers of the Jerusalem church for counsel wherewith to meet Judaizing Christians and heretics; false teachers may have appealed from Paul to James and Peter
Timothy, Epistles to - The errors leaning towards asceticism, with its prohibition of marriage, and of certain foods, and perhaps of wine also ( 1Ti 4:1-4 ; 1 Timothy 4:8 ; 1 Timothy 5:23 ), may indeed have sprung from forms of Judaism which had become ascetic; but just as likely indeed more likely they may have come from Gentile sources. In 2 Timothy 2:18 one heresy is distinctly named the belief that the resurrection was already past; this opinion may have been the same as that held by those within the Gentile Corinthian Church who said there was no resurrection ( 1 Corinthians 15:12 )
Liberty - By general consent, it is true, it came to be held that Jewish and Gentile Christians alike were free from obligation to observe the Jewish Law in its peculiar institutions and ceremonial rules. -a point of material importance to the Gentile world in apostolic days
Gideon - The fleece becoming afterward dry while the ground around was wet symbolizes Israel's rejection of the gospel while the Gentile world is receiving the gracious dew. Afterward Israel in its turn shall be the dew to the Gentile world (Micah 5:7)
Joel, Book of - The Book of Joel clearly falls into two parts: (1) a call to repentance in view of present judgment and the approaching Day of Jahweh, with a prayer for deliverance ( Joel 1:1 to Joel 2:17 ); (2) the Divine answer promising relief, and after that spiritual blessing, judgment on the Gentile world, and material prosperity for Judah and Jerusalem ( Joel 2:18-32 ; Joel 3:1-21 ). And when the Day of Jahweh comes in all its terror, it will be terrible only to the Gentile world which has oppressed Israel The gathered hosts of the former, among whom Phœnicians and Philistines are singled out for special condemnation ( Joel 3:4-8 ), shall be destroyed by Jahweh and His angels in the Valley of Jehoshaphat ( Joel 3:11 b f
Excommunication (2) - If he is still obdurate, the Church is now to be appealed to: ‘and if he refuse to hear the Church (ἑκκλησία) also, let him be unto thee as the Gentile and the publican. That Jesus meant nothing harsh by the expression ‘as the Gentile and the publican,’ and certainly did not mean a permanent exclusion from the Christian society, may be judged from the way in which He treated a Roman centurion and a Syrophœnician woman, and from the name given Him by His enemies—‘the friend of publicans and sinners
Adam - As a Gentile, writing for a Gentile, he took every opportunity of insisting upon the universal power of the gospel
David - ' David was the son of Jesse, a descendant of Boaz and Ruth, a Jew and a Gentile: both Jews and Gentiles are to be blessed in the Christ whom David typified. His kindness to the Gentile king of Ammon was refused and his messengers were insulted, which brought punishment upon the Ammonites and their allies
Adam - As a Gentile, writing for a Gentile, he took every opportunity of insisting upon the universal power of the gospel
Haggai - Haggai may have viewed the restoration of order by Darius and the appointment of Zerubbabel as a sign of the end of Gentile rule and preparation for the messianic kingdom
Transjordan - ...
By New Testament times, a cluster of Greco-Roman-oriented cities with primarily Gentile populations (the so-called “Decapolis” cities) had emerged in the northern Transjordan (earlier Bashan, Gilead, and Ammon)
Ephesians, Epistle to - It contains (1) the salutation (1:1,2); (2) a general description of the blessings the gospel reveals, as to their source, means by which they are attained, purpose for which they are bestowed, and their final result, with a fervent prayer for the further spiritual enrichment of the (Ephesians (1:3-2:10);); (3) "a record of that marked change in spiritual position which the Gentile believers now possessed, ending with an account of the writer's selection to and qualification for the apostolate of heathendom, a fact so considered as to keep them from being dispirited, and to lead him to pray for enlarged spiritual benefactions on his absent sympathizers" ((2:12-3:21);); (4) a chapter on unity as undisturbed by diversity of gifts (4:1-16); (5) special injunctions bearing on ordinary life ((4:17-6:10);); (6) the imagery of a spiritual warfare, mission of Tychicus, and valedictory blessing (6:11-24). Overjoyed with the account which their messenger had brought him of their faith and holiness ( Ephesians 1:15 ), and transported with the consideration of the unsearchable wisdom of God displayed in the work of man's redemption, and of his astonishing love towards the Gentiles in making them partakers through faith of all the benefits of Christ's death, he soars high in his sentiments on those grand subjects, and gives his thoughts utterance in sublime and copious expression
Babylon, Mystical - ...
Then she was "persecuted" by" the dragon, Satan," but nourished by divine Providence for "three and a half times" "in the wilderness" of the Gentile world
Jews in the New Testament - Paul therefore turned his efforts increasingly toward the Gentiles, the non-Jews. ...
Pauline Letters As the “apostle to the Gentiles,” Paul argued against “Judaizers” that Gentile converts did not have to be circumcized, that is, become Jews first, before they became christians (Acts 15:1-5 )
Reconcilation - Paul in Ephesians 2:14-18 dramatically proclaimed that through the cross Christ reconciled both Gentile and Jew into one new humanity by terminating the hostility that existed between them
Exaltation - ...
In the Old Testament the best illustrations of arrogance come from the lives of Gentile rulers
Tim'Othy - a Gentile, by descent
Fatherhood of God - This is why the Greek-speaking Gentile churches in Galatia and Rome continued to address God as Abba
Tyrannus - But may not the words have been inserted by one who did not understand the reference to the school of Tyrannus and who desired to make it more intelligible?...
It is impossible to settle the question whether this Tyrannus supposed to be teaching at Ephesus at the date of the Apostle’s visit was a Jew or a Gentile
Church - on one occasion in Acts 7:38 , and to a Gentile throng in Acts 19:32,41 . There is the effectual operation of God in quickening them with Christ, in raising them (Jews and Gentiles) up together, and making them to sit together in heavenly places in Christ
Angel - Others suppose that he did this because of the proneness of the Gentile world, and even the Jews, to idolatry; but a better reason has been assigned by others, viz
Fasting (2) - 4); and Josephus, speaking of the spread of Jewish customs among the Gentile cities, mentions fasting (e
Synagogue - They were often erected by general contributions, though at times by a rich Jew, or in some instances by a Gentile, as the one built by the centurion at Capernaum
Acts of the Apostles - Peter was then used at Caesarea in opening the door to the Gentiles (answering to his having the keys of the kingdom committed to him, Matthew 16:19 ), and they also received the Holy Spirit. ...
Certain persons from Judaea insisting at Antioch that the Gentile converts must be circumcised or they could not be saved, the question was referred to the church at Jerusalem
Mark - Quotations from the ancient prophets, and allusions to Jewish customs, are, as much as possible, avoided; and such explanations are added as might be necessary for Gentile readers at Rome; thus, when Jordan is first mentioned in this Gospel, the word river is prefixed, Mark 1:5 ; the oriental word corban is said to mean a gift, Mark 7:11 ; the preparation is said to be the day before the Sabbath, Mark 15:42 ; and defiled hands are said to mean unwashed hands, Mark 7:2 ; and the superstition of the Jews upon that subject is stated more at large than it would have been by a person writing at Jerusalem
Nature - the Apostle elaborates the same argument, drawing out its sterner implications and showing that the Gentiles were under condemnation because they had repressed the knowledge of God imparted to them in the works of His hands. Paul’s purpose is answered when he has asserted ‘the fact that the Gentiles possessed lofty conceptions of God which nevertheless had not proved to them the way of salvation. Paul grants that Gentiles may do ‘by nature’ the things of the law. … The Theism of the Gentiles failed not because its light was delusive, but because its light was not used. Paul is not, therefore, ‘to be understood to mean that the Gentile world of which he wrote was lying in universal wickedness, unredeemed by even a single ray of human goodness’ (R
Manner - (8) In Galatians 2:14 , AV, the adverb ethnikos, "in Gentile fashion" (ethnos, "a nation:" in the plural, "Gentiles or nations"), is translated "after the manner of Gentiles" (RV, "as do")
Christ, Christology - In the prophetic literature Isaiah foresees the coming of a royal servant figure who will embody the true Israel and gather to himself not only sinful Israel but will be a light to the nations of the Gentiles as well. Astounding is Jesus' announcement that forgiveness of sins is present in response to himself, and still more startling is that lost Gentile sinners (including Jews who have made themselves like Gentiles) are forgiven and welcomed into table fellowship. In the parable of the prodigal son (Luke 15:11-32 ) the reprobate who has become like a Gentile is forgiven and restored to the father's table, in reversal of traditional theology that the son was "dead. There is no longer clean and unclean according to the old typologies of food and ethnic priorities, but equality between Jew and Gentile through the far-reaching forgiveness of the Messiah that brings inner transformation
Thessalonians Epistles to the - ...
(a) Though the writer of the Acts admits that most of the Thessalonian Christians were Gentiles, he speaks only of Gentile proselytes to Judaism (τῶν τε σεβομένων Ἑλλήνων, Acts 17:4). ]'>[5]5 , 1910) thinks that Timothy also reported a serious cleavage between Jewish and Gentile converts; hence the insistence on ‘all the brethren,’ e. to the Gentile, 2 Thess
Galatians, Epistle to the - Galatian theory also fits in very well with incidental notices in the Epistle, such as the fact that the Galatians evidently knew Barnabas well, and were aware that he was the champion of the Gentiles (Galatians 2:13 ‘ even Barnabas’); but Barnabas did not accompany Paul on the Second Missionary Journey, when, on the N. In the Epistle we read of two visits ( Galatians 1:18 , Galatians 2:1 ), the former 3 years after his conversion (or after his return to Damascus), to visit Cephas, when of the Apostles he saw only James the Lord’s brother besides, and the latter 14 years after his conversion (or after his first visit), when he went ‘by revelation’ with Barnabas and Titus and privately laid before the Twelve (this probably is the meaning of ‘them’ in Galatians 2:2 : James, Cephas, and John are mentioned) the gospel which he preached among the Gentiles. This argument does not appear to the present writer to be of much value, for the question of the Gentiles and the Mosaic Law had really arisen with the case of Cornelius ( Acts 11:2 ff. ), and from the nature of things must have been present whenever a Gentile became a Christian. At first many Jewish Christians began to associate with Gentile Christians. But Paul’s arguments were convincing, and both Peter and Barnabas became champions of the Gentiles at the Council. 70 there never was the least danger of the Gentile Christians being made to submit to the Law
Ebionism (2) - Acts 11:26) had become the general designation for the disciples of Christ, ‘Ebionites’ appears to have been reserved as a distinctive title for Jewish as distinguished from Gentile Christians (Ἐβιωναῖοι χρηματίζουσιν οἱ ἀπὸ Ἰουδαίων τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὡς Χριστὸν παραδεξάμενοι, Origen, c. 61), corresponding in some measure to the cleavage which emerged in the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-29)—a Pharisaic party which held the Law to be essential even for Gentile Christians, and a party of broader mind, which, while clinging to the Law for themselves, did not seek to impose it upon their Gentile brethren (Justin, Dial
Jonah - Whoever the author was, he had higher thoughts about God than most of his contemporaries, perhaps it may even be said than any other of the writers of the OT, and entertained more charitable feelings towards the Gentile world than most of his people. Penitent Gentiles, and many in Gentile circles, were ready to repent if only they were taught; could obtain pardon as readily as penitent Jews. Another leading thought of the book is the duty of Israel to make its God known to the Gentiles
Joel, Theology of - Rather, this refers initially to Judah, whether all Israelites, all kinds or classes or Israelites, or primarily Israelites but extending to some Gentiles as well. The echo of Joel 2:32 in Acts 2:39 brings together the gift of the Spirit and the calling of God, although the call is not yet seen here as extended to Gentiles ( Acts 2:5 ). Things are different, however, in Acts 10:45 , where the Holy Spirit is "poured out" on Gentile converts. " The words of Joel are again applied to Gentiles in Romans 5:5 , which, though somewhat wordy, means that God, out of his love, has poured his Spirit into all believers' hearts. In Romans 10:13 a different aspect of Joel's passage has likewise been extended to Gentile believers; the promise that "every one who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved" applies equally to Jews and Greeks (v
Nations - ]'>[1] we have ‘ Gentiles ’ and ‘ heathen ’ the RV [1] (only NT) we find ‘Gentile’ in the singular ( Romans 2:9 f. ]'>[1] ‘Gentiles’ often corresponds to ‘Greeks’ in the original, as in John 7:35 , Ezekiel 47:1-238 etc
Lamb, Lamb of God - This metaphor seems to have less meaning to Paul's urban, Gentile listeners, as "Christ, our Passover lamb" is only mentioned in 1 Corinthians 5:7
Predestination - He has foreordained it when a nation is used to chasten Israel and then when a Gentile ruler sets them free (Isaiah 10:5-6 ; 44:28-45:1 ). What, then, should be said of Paul's argument in Romans 9-11 ? In those chapters much is said in positive terms of God's purpose, grace offered in turn to Jews and to Gentiles
Nations, the - The New Testament Greek ethnos [2] is rendered "nation(s)" (36 times), "pagan(s)" (8 times), "Gentiles" (84 times), and "heathen" (one time ) in the New International Version. Acts 15:29 delimits the minimum legal requirements to be applied to Gentile Christians: to abstain from (1) food sacrificed to idols, (2) (consuming) blood, (3) the meat of strangled animals, and (4) sexual immorality
Legalism - The problem of legalism arose in sharp form when the gospel crossed the boundaries of Judaism and penetrated the Gentile world. However, the issue was more acute: Was salvation possible for Gentiles apart from law observance (Acts 11:3 ; 15:1 )? The Jerusalem Council affirmed that it was (Acts 15:11,13-14 ) and sought to resolve the practical difficulties arising from this decision (Acts 15:28-29 ), though with what success is not clear
Veil - "...
And as Jesus had now opened a new and living way of his people, so he had broken down all the vails of separation between himself and his redeemed The Jew and the Gentile were now brought into one fold, the vail of mysteries, of ordinances, of darkness, of ignorance, of blindness, in short the vail of all obstructions was now no more
Food - ...
In the first Christian churches, where Jew and Gentile were united, in order to avoid offending Jewish prejudice in things indifferent the council at Jerusalem (Acts 15:29) ordained abstinence "from things strangled (wherein the blood would remain), and from blood
Galatians, the Epistle to the - The heading and allusions to the apostle of the Gentiles in the first person throughout confirm his authorship (Galatians 1:1; Galatians 1:13-24; Galatians 2:1-14). 16:62); among these probably, as elsewhere, he began his ministry, and from them perhaps emanated the Judaizers who almost induced the Gentile Christians (Galatians 4:8-9), who constituted the majority of the Galatian church, to undergo circumcision (Galatians 1:6; Galatians 3:1; Galatians 3:3; Galatians 3:19; Galatians 6:12-13). ...
They even gave ear to the insinuation that Paul himself observed the law among the Jews though he persuaded the Gentiles to renounce it, and that he wished to keep his converts in a lower state of privileges, excluded from the high Christian standing enjoyed by the circumcised (Galatians 4:16; Galatians 5:11; compare Galatians 2:17), and that in "becoming all things to all men" he was but a men-pleaser, seeking to form a party for himself; moreover that he was not, as he represented, an apostle divinely commissioned by Christ, but a mere messenger of the twelve and the Jerusalem church, and that his teaching now did not accord with that of Peter and James, the acknowledged "pillars" of the church, and ought therefore to be rejected
Gift, Giving - Paul from his converts ( Philippians 4:16 ), and from the Gentile Churches to Jerusalem ( Acts 11:29 , Romans 15:20 , 1Co 16:1 , 2 Corinthians 8:1-24 ; 2 Corinthians 9:1-15 ), play a very important part in the history of the early Church
Formalism - Paul accuses the Jews of formalism with regard to circumcision (Romans 2:25-29), admonishing them that ‘he is not a Jew who is one outwardly … circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter,’ Otherwise it is become ‘uncircumcision,’ a falsehood against which the virtue of the unprivileged Gentile will rise up in judgment
Offerings - It was the practice among the Gentile nations, (an allusion to which occurs in Php_2:17 , and 2 Timothy 4:6 ,) to pour the wine out between the horns of the victims which they immolated to their idols
Lebanon - The conversion of the Gentile nations from the worship of idols and the bondage of corruption, to the service and enjoyment of the true God, is foretold in these beautiful and striking terms: "The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them: and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose
Luke - It seems most probable that it was published in Greece, and for the use of Gentile converts. This superiority in style may perhaps be owing to his longer residence in Greece, and greater acquaintance with Gentiles of good education, than fell to the lot of the writers of the other three Gospels
Keep, Keeping - 1), is said of "the mother of Jesus," in keeping His sayings in her heart, Luke 2:51 , and of the command of the Apostles and elders in Jerusalem to Gentile converts in the churches to "keep" themselves from the evils mentioned in Acts 15:29
pe'Ter - The establishment of a church in great part of Gentile origin at Antioch and the mission of Barnabas between whose family and Peter there were the bonds of near intimacy, set the seal upon the work thus inaugurated by Peter
Man - ...
Notes: (1) In Galatians 3:28 , the RV adds the italicized word "man" ("ye all are one man in Christ Jesus"), in accordance with Ephesians 2:15 , which speaks of Jew and Gentile as becoming "one new man" in Christ
Election - All who believe in Jesus, whether Jew or Gentile, are the true people of God, the true descendants of Abraham (Romans 9:6-9; Galatians 3:14; Galatians 3:26-29)
Nicodemus - ’ Yet when we give due weight to the prejudices of a Pharisee and allow for the deadening effect of respectable religious legalism, it is not hard to understand the sheer bewilderment of Nicodemus at the idea that he—no Gentile, no publican—needed to be born anew
Galatians Epistle to the - Gentiles like the Galatians, who wish to be included in its scope, must first be incorporated into the family of Abraham. Only on these conditions, by exact performance of all the works of the Law, can a Gentile win his way to membership in the Christian Church (Galatians 2:16; Galatians 2:21). Paul was silent about these conditions because he wished to curry favour with you (Galatians 1:10), yet on occasion even he has declared by his action that circumcision is binding upon Gentile Christians (Galatians 5:11). ...
When he visited Jerusalem again, fourteen years later, he asserted the freedom of the Gentiles from the Law by refusing to circumcise Titus. They on their side commended the work he had already done amongst Gentiles, and treated him as a fellow-apostle (Galatians 2:1-10). Peter for virtually denying the gospel by refusing to eat with Gentiles (Galatians 2:11-14). Whether for Jew or Gentile, therefore, righteousness, the condition of salvation, depends upon an exact performance of all the Mosaic ordinances
Peter - "I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven," namely, to open the door of faith to the Jews first, then to Cornelius and the Gentiles (Acts 10:11-48). )...
Peter was the first privileged to open the gospel to the Gentiles, as he had before to the Jews, besides confirming the Samaritans. Peter justified his act both by the revelation and by God's sealing the Gentile converts with the Holy Spirit. ) The Jews' spite at the admission of the Gentiles moved Herod Agrippa I to kill James and imprison Peter for death. " Peter the apostle of the circumcision appropriately, as representing God's ancient church, opens the gates to the Gentiles...
It was calculated also to open his own mind, naturally prejudiced on the side of Jewish exclusiveness. It also showed God's sovereignty that He chose an instrument least of all likely to admit Gentiles if left to himself. Paul, though the apostle of the Gentiles, confirmed the Hebrew; Peter, though the apostle of the Jews, admits the Gentiles (See the "first" in Acts 3:26, implying others); thus perfect unity reigned amidst the diversity of the agencies. (On his vacillation as to not eating with Gentiles, and Paul's withstanding him at Antioch (Galatians 2), see PAUL. ) The Jerusalem decree only recognized Gentiles as fellow Christians on light conditions, it did not admit them necessarily to social intercourse Though Peter and Paul rightly inferred the latter, yet their recognition of the ceremonial law (Acts 18:18-21; Acts 20:16; Acts 21:18-24) palliates Peter's conduct, if it were not for its inconsistency (through fear of the Judaizers) which is the point of Paul's reproof. His "dissimulation" consisted in his pretending to consider it unlawful to eat with Gentile Christians, whereas his previous eating with them showed his conviction of the perfect equality of Jew and Gentile
Father, Fatherhood - The lost son does not stand for a lost Israelite merely, a fallen member of the theocratic people, but represents the sinner, whether Jew or Gentile. For, in the first place, the parable was spoken to justify Jesus’ reception of publicans (Luke 15:1-2), and publicans were rated as no better than Gentiles (Matthew 18:17); and, in the second place, the conclusion of Jesus in the parables of the Lost Sheep and the Lost Coin, which are manifestly parallel to that of the Lost Son, is perfectly general. Moreover, He granted the woman’s request, though He thus spoke; and in no case did He turn a Gentile away empty who came to Him for help. He healed a Samaritan leper (Luke 17:18), and the servant of a Gentile centurion (Matthew 8:13)
Clemens Romanus of Rome - A more modern attempt to reconcile these accounts is Cave's hypothesis that Linus and after him Cletus had been appointed by Paul to preside over a Roman church of Gentile Christians; Clement by Peter over a church of Jewish believers, and that ultimately Clement was bishop over the whole Roman church. ...
As to whether the writer was a Jew or a Gentile, the arguments are not absolutely decisive; but it seems more conceivable that a Hellenistic Jew resident at Rome could have acquired the knowledge of Roman history and heathen literature exhibited in the epistle, than that one not familiar from his childhood with the O. No such disputes appear in the dissensions at Corinth; and at Rome the Gentile and Jewish sections of the church seem in Clement's time to be completely fused. The obligation on Gentiles to observe the Mosaic law does not seem a matter of concern. The writer is distinctly a Gentile, and contrasts himself and his readers with the Jewish nation in a manner quite unlike the genuine Clement; and his quotations are not, like Clement's, almost exclusively from O
Old Testament - ...
The Apostle to the Gentiles was a Pharisee ‘of the straitest sect,’ brought up at the feet of Gamaliel, and thus imbued not merely with a deep reverence and love for the Scriptures, but also with the Rabbinic method of expounding them, in entire independence of their historical setting and significance, as a store-house of separate ‘oracles,’ the manifold sense of which (literal, allegorical, rational, and mystical) was to be deduced by the interpreter’s own insight, logical acumen, or fancy, according to the rules laid down by representative Rabbis. , 1 Timothy 5:18), illustrate the ‘manifold sense’ read into the letter of Scripture; while the bold way in which he transfers to Gentile Christians the promises made to Israel (Romans 9:8 ff. ) and the calling of the Gentiles (Romans 9:25 ff. But the extension of the gospel to the Gentiles, which was an essential part of this promise (cf. The true Israel unto whom the Word was given is no more Abraham’s seed according to the flesh, but ‘the children of the promise,’ whether Jew or Gentile (Romans 9:6 ff. But to impose the Law on Gentile Christians as a necessary condition of their salvation would inevitably reduce Christianity to a mere Jewish sect
Heir Heritage Inheritance - ...
(d) In Jesus, Christians are Abraham’s heirs, whether of Jewish or Gentile stock (Romans 4:9 ff. Paul uses in regard to Gentile Christians the very words which described Israel’s privilege: ‘promise,’ ‘inheritance,’ ‘emancipation,’ ‘possession’ (Robinson, op. Gentiles are follow-heirs with Jews (Ephesians 3:6, Acts 26:18); and Christians are fellow-heirs together of the grace of life (1 Peter 3:7)-e
Golden Rule - The omission of the sentence, ‘for this is the law and the prophets,’ by the Gentile Evangelist, is in accord with the purpose of his Gospel; other variations may be due either to changes made in the course of oral transmission, or to divergences in two translations into Greek from the Aramaic. Hillel’s concise reply to a Gentile inquirer who asked to be taught the whole Law while standing on one foot, was, ‘What is hateful to thee, do not unto thy fellow-man; this is the whole law, the rest is mere commentary’ (Bab
Commission - By the mention of ‘all nations’ the restriction of Mark 10:5-6 is now removed: for the middle wall of partition, that divided Jew from Gentile, was broken down by Christ’s death. Christ’s words give no hint of an answer to that question, soon to disturb the early Church, about the method of Gentile admission; but the principle of their admission is emphatically laid down
Acts - In chapter ten, Christ made His will known to Peter concerning a ministry to the Gentiles. A prescribed morning prayer which was popular during the first century was, “Blessed be God that He did not make me a Gentile, a slave, or a woman. The conversion of Paul ( Acts 9:1-30 ) and Peter's new openness to a Gentile ministry (Acts 10:1 ) made possible the spread of the gospel to all the world. ...
The transitional part of Acts continues in Acts 11-13 as Peter convinced others in Jerusalem that Gentiles needed to hear the gospel as much as the Jews ( Acts 11:1-18 )
Apostle - About the commencement of the third year of his ministry, according to the common account of its duration, he sent them out two by two, that they might be assistants to each other in their work; and commanded them to restrict their teaching and services to the people of Israel, and to avoid going to the Gentiles or to the Samaritans, to declare the approach of the kingdom of heaven, and the establishment of the Gospel dispensation; to exercise the miraculous powers with which they had been endowed gratuitously; and to depend for their subsistence on the providence of God, and on the donations of those to whom they ministered. In consequence of this commission, they preached first to the Jews, then to the Samaritans, and afterward to the idolatrous Gentiles. After the Christian religion had been planted in Jerusalem, Judea, and Samaria, and sent into Ethiopia, one of the uttermost parts of the earth, Acts 1:8 ; and after it had been preached about eight years to the Jews only, God, in his wise and merciful providence, disposed things for the preaching of it among the Gentiles. Caesarea was the scene in which the Apostle Peter was to open his commission for this purpose; and Cornelius, one of the devout Gentiles, and a man distinguished by his piety and charity, was the first proselyte to Christianity. After Peter had laid the foundation of a Christian church among the devout Gentiles, others imitated his example, and a great number of persons of this description embraced the Christian faith, more especially at Antioch, where the disciples, whom their enemies had hitherto called Galileans, Nazarenes, and other names of reproach, and who, among themselves, had been called "disciples," "believers," "the church," "the saints," and "brethren," were denominated, probably not without a divine direction, Christians. ...
When Christianity had been preached for about eight years among the Jews only, and for about three years more among the Jews and devout Gentiles, the next stage of its progress was to the idolatrous Gentiles, in the year of Christ 44, and the fourth year of the emperor Claudius. Barnabas and Saul were selected for this purpose, and constituted in an extraordinary manner Apostles of the Gentiles, or uncircumcision. Saul also, since his conversion had preached as a superior prophet, about seven years to the Jews only, and about two years more to the Jews and devout Gentiles. They had both been born in Gentile countries; and therefore may be supposed to have had more respect and affection for the Gentiles than most of the Jews, who were natives of Judea. Saul had been converted, and had hitherto preached chiefly on Gentile ground; and he had joined with Barnabas in teaching devout Gentiles for a whole year, at Antioch in Syria; by all which previous steps they were regularly conducted to the last gradation, or the conversion of the idolatrous Gentiles. Some have supposed that Saul saw the person of Jesus, when he was converted, near the city of Damascus; but others, who conceive from the history of this event, that this could not have been the case, as he was instantly struck blind, are of opinion that the season, when his Apostolic qualification and commission were completed, was that mentioned by himself, ...
Acts 22:17 , when he returned to Jerusalem the second time after his conversion, saw the Lord Jesus Christ in person, and received the command to go quickly out of Jerusalem, that he might be sent unto the Gentiles. Paul is frequently called the Apostle, by way of eminence; and the Apostle of the Gentiles, because his ministry was chiefly employed for the conversion of the Gentiles, as that of St
Timothy - , that the Apostle varied his practice to suit circumstances, and we cannot argue unconditionally as to Timothy from Paul’s action with regard to Titus, who was a full Gentile and was under challenge as a test case
Magi - ...
How well the religion of the Magi deserved the double honour thus assigned to it that of stimulating the growth of the greatest of truths within Israel, and that of offering the first homage of the Gentile world to the infant Redeemer may be seen best by giving in a few words a description of the faith in general
Body of Christ - In Ephesians, the bodily death of Jesus on the cross is what abolishes the enmity between Jew and Gentile (2:13-15), and replaces it with reconciliation and unity (2:16)
Death - Now it was also that he threw down the wall of partition which had so long divided the Gentile from the Jew; and gathered into one all the faithful, out of every kindred and people
Son of Man - ...
Conclusion Why are there so few references to Son of man outside the Gospels? Perhaps it was not a familiar term in the Gentile churches to which most of the New Testament writings were addressed
Perseverance - As apostle, in both the synagogues and to Gentile audiences, he persisted, God working through him signs, wonders, and miracles
Jew, Jewess - The Jews themselves divided the whole world into Jews and Gentiles; and we find the Apostle Paul using this contrast in speaking of God’s judgment on sin: ‘tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile’ (Romans 2:9). Jews, and especially Jewesses, were to be found in many prominent Roman families, and intermarriage between Jewish women and Gentiles was by no means uncommon
Abomination of Desolation - He may not have intended his words to be an exact reproduction of Christ’s words so much as an accommodation of them which would be readily understood by his Gentile readers
Denial - The discourse in which the great warning against denial is found (Matthew 10:17-33), and which was addressed to the Twelve in view of their Apostolic mission after the Resurrection, evidences its lateness by the serious situation depicted, in which exposure to the severest forms of persecution is contemplated, including punishment in the synagogues, arraignment before Gentile tribunals, and death itself
Iniquity - 10:1) were affected by their apostate way of life, they had reduced themselves to the Gentile practices and way of life
Sabbath - For a time, such of the disciples as were Jews observed the Jewish Sabbath also; but they did not require this nor the observance of any festival of the Mosaic dispensation, of Gentile converts, nor even of Jews, Colossians 2:16
Pharisees - They developed the spirit of proud and arrogant orthodoxy, until the monotheism of the prophets became in their hands wholly incompetent to found a society where Jew and Gentile should be one (Galatians 3:28 , Colossians 3:11 )
Minister - In the NT (see Note below) it is used (a) of the prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch, who "ministered to the Lord," Acts 13:2 ; (b) of the duty of churches of the Gentiles to "minister" in "carnal things" to the poor Jewish saints at Jerusalem, in view of the fact that the former had "been made partakers" of the "spiritual things" of the latter, Romans 15:27 ; (c) of the official service of priests and Levites under the Law, Hebrews 10:11 (in the Sept. or NT: from hieros, "sacred," and ergon, "work"), is used by Paul metaphorically of his ministry of the Gospel, Romans 15:16 ; the offering connected with his priestly ministry is "the offering up of the Gentiles," i. , the presentation by Gentile converts of themselves to God
Baptism - Jews, it seems, baptized Gentile converts as part of their introduction into the Jewish religion
Philip - This accords entirely with what we know of the mixed Gentile population of Bethsaida. But it is equally characteristic that, as he realized the greatness and significance of the request, coming as it did from pure Gentiles, he should hesitate to act upon it on his own responsibility
THE first Jew was a Gentile. But those two Gentile men, father and son, served their Gentile gods with such truly Jewish service that God was constrained to wink at their unwilling ignorance
Matthew, Gospel According to - He alone tells us of the visit of the Gentile Magi; with Lk, he relates the healing of the Gentile centurion’s servant ( Matthew 8:5 f. ); and the admission of the Gentiles to the Kingdom and the rejection of some of the Jews is announced in Matthew 8:11 f
Romans, Book of - He was concerned about the Jerusalem Christians' reaction to an offering from Gentile churches and hoped that the offering would draw the Jewish and Gentile Christians together (see Galatians 2:11-21 ; Acts 15:1-35 ). Paul then supported his theme in the first major section of the letter by demonstrating that all persons need salvation (Romans 1:18-3:20 ), showing first that the power of sin rules the Gentiles (Romans 1:18-32 ) and, second, that the power of sin rules the Jews as well (Romans 2:1-3:8 ). Paul reminded his readers that God's righteousness is displayed in His mercy on which all—both Jews and Gentiles—are dependent (Romans 11:1-36 )
Evangelize, Evangelism - The prophet relates the proclamation of the good news of the victory of God's salvation in progressive stages until the Gentiles are publishing it. ...
The next step in the proclamation of God's victorious salvation is evidently to the Gentiles. But its Old Testament divine design and its very contentthe universal offer of salvation to everyone who believes (Luke 24:47 ; Acts 13:39 )show that it is for the Gentiles as well. Evangelism is also worship, for Paul says he ministers "with the priestly duty of proclaiming the gospel of God, so that the Gentiles might become an offering acceptable to God, sanctified by the Holy Spirit" (Romans 15:16 ). ...
For Paul the audience to be evangelized includes both unbelieving Jew and Gentile, although he notes Jewish rejection and Gentile receptivity
Magi - This cannot but be looked upon as one instance of several merciful dispensations of God to the Gentile world, through his own peculiar people, the Jews, by which the idolatries of the Heathen were often checked, and the light of truth rekindled among them. They are to be regarded as members of the old patriarchal church, never quite extinguished among the Heathen; and they had the special honour to present the homage of the Gentile world to the infant Saviour
Jonah, Theology of - The Book of Jonah is not a story about Jew and Gentile but about how God relates to total repentance by those who are least expected to exhibit it. Gentiles in life-threatening situations somehow instinctively act with the same fervent piety as the greatest of the Old Testament saints. The Gentiles in the Book of Jonah are not reproved in any way for their idolatry
Thessalonica - Time must be allowed for the conversion of a large number of the Gentile population of Thessalonica, for the founding of an important and influential church, and for the Christians of Philippi, 100 miles distant, sending St
Pseudepigrapha - The writer strongly opposed the Gentile influences he found coming into Judaism urging Jews to keep separate from the Gentiles
Fellowship - So Paul was clear that the relatedness of Gentile and Jewish believers "in Christ" leads to mutual obligation. "For if the Gentiles have shared (verb, koinonein [ Romans 15:27 ). Such fellowship is a practical "fellowship of the mystery" (Ephesians 3:9 ), a mystery now revealed that Jews and Gentiles are one body in Christ Jesus through the gospel
Restitution - Peter’s whole speech, embodying as it does a purely Jewish form of Christian expectation quite different from the later perspective of the Church after the door had been opened to the Gentiles and the national life of Judaism had been destroyed. ) would draw to Him Gentiles as well as Jews. But the argument of Romans 11 shows that in Romans 11:32, as in John 12:32, ‘all’ means Jew and Gentile alike
Communion - And in particular he pressed constantly upon the wealthier Gentile churches the duty of taking part in the diakonia carried on in Jerusalem on behalf of the poor saints
Ephesians, Epistle to - Its keynote is the union of the Christian body, Jewish and Gentile, in Christ, in whom all things are being fulfilled
Esther, Book of - Moreover, the spirit of the book points to the time when great bitterness and hatred had been engendered between Jew and Gentile. The main reasons for this conclusion are, that the book is full of improbabilities; that it is so transparently written for specific purposes, namely, the glorification of the Jewish nation, and as a means of expressing Jewish hatred of and contempt for Gentiles (see also § 5 ); that a ‘strictly historical interpretation of the narrative is beset with difficulties’; that the facts it purports to record receive no substantiation from such books as Chron
Rock - He is also an offense to most Gentiles who prefer a false religion, or worldliness, or sinful pleasure rather than to own Him as their Lord, trust in Him as the Redeemer, and follow Him as their Guide. He is an offense to both Jew and Gentile
Remember, Remembrance - Paul urged the Gentile churches to remember the poor Christians in Jerusalem by making an appropriate collection for them (Galatians 2:10 )
Mark (John) - At Perga he cut himself adrift from the party-it may be because, being sensitively timid from his physical defect, he shrank from the hazardous venture across the Taurus; or, holding the narrower views of his teacher Peter concerning the Gentiles, he was out of sympathy with a campaign that had overshot its intentions; or because some filial duty called him (cf. The Gentile Apostle commands that welcome be given him at Colossae (Colossians 4:10)-if he come
Heathen - ‘Gentiles’ is substituted for it throughout in the text of the Revised Version . Peter in the presence of the congregation at Antioch (Galatians 2:14) was justly aimed against the moral inconsistency of his first eating with the Gentile converts (σύ … ἐθνικῶς ζῇς; cf
Communion - Paul himself, of Jewish and Gentile sacrifices
Barnabas - Besides, the name may have been self-assumed, in accordance with a common practice of the Jews in their intercourse with the Gentile world. In Paul’s account of the trouble with Peter at Antioch over the eating with Gentiles (Galatians 2:11-14), his co-worker is represented as taking part with his opponents
Almsgiving - our Lord’s injunction to the Twelve, ‘Freely ye have received, freely give’ (Matthew 10:8); His own compassionate feeding of the hungry multitudes (Matthew 14:18; Matthew 15:32, Mark 6:37; Mark 8:3, Luke 9:13); His rebuke of the Rabbis’ rule, that when sons had rashly or selfishly taken the vow of Corban, they must no longer be suffered to do aught for their father or their mother (Matthew 15:5, Mark 7:11); His acceptance of the Jews’ intercession for the Gentile who had built them a synagogue (Luke 7:5); the praise of the women who ministered unto Him of their substance (Luke 8:3); His advice, when we make a feast, to invite the poor (Luke 14:13); and the vow of the penitent Zacchaeus, ‘The half of my goods I give to the poor’ (Luke 19:8)
Matthew, Gospel by - Matthew 25:31-46 refer to the living Gentile nations who will be judged according to how they have treated the Jewish messengers, the brethren of Christ. Christ will be found again with Israel on earth, and then bless them and the Gentiles through them
Joshua, Book of - A Gentile gets a place in the promised possession by faith
Paul - ) Up to the time of his going forth as an avowed preacher of Christ to the Gentiles, the apostle was known by the name of Saul. But though a Hebrew of the Hebrews, he was born in a Gentile city. When they had gone through the island, from Salamis to Paphos, they were called upon to explain their doctrine to an eminent Gentile, Sergius Paulus, the proconsul, who was converted. Rejected by the Jews, they became bold and outspoken, and turned from them to the Gentiles. At Antioch now, as in every city afterward, the unbelieving Jews used their influence with their own adherents among the Gentiles to persuade the authorities or the populace to persecute the apostles and to drive them from the place. Then they came down to the coast, and from Attalia, they sailed; home to Antioch in Syria, where they related the successes which had been granted to them, and especially the opening of the door of faith to the Gentiles. --Upon that missionary journey follows most naturally the next important scene which the historian sets before us --the council held at Jerusalem to determine the relations of Gentile believers to the law of Moses. He was widely known as one who had taught with pre-eminent boldness that a way into God's favor was opened to the Gentiles, and that this way did not lie through the door of the Jewish law. Until the hated word of a mission to the Gentiles had been spoken, the Jews had listened to the speaker. He turned, therefore, again to the Gentiles, and for two years he dwelt in his own hired house
Matthew, the Gospel According to - As our Lord's words divide Acts (Acts 1:8) into its three parts, "ye shall be witnesses unto Me in Jerusalem, and all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth":...
(1) the period in which the church was Jewish, Acts 1-11;...
(2) the period when it was Gentile with strong Jewish admixture;...
(3) the period when the Gentiles preponderated, Matthew's Gospel answers to the first or Jewish period, ending about A. For the Jews; to show Jewish, readers (to whom were committed the Old Testament "oracles of God") that Jesus is the Messiah of the Old Testament, fulfilling Old Testament prophecies, as born of a virgin in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:6); fleeing to Egypt and called out of it; heralded by John Baptist (Matthew 3:3); laboring in Galilee of the Gentiles (Matthew 4:14-16); healing (Matthew 8:17); teaching in parables (Matthew 13:14 ff). Matthew takes for granted that his readers, as Jews, know Jewish customs and places; Mark for Gentile readers describes these (Matthew 15:1-2 with Mark 7:1-4, "with defiled, that is, unwashed hands," Matthew 27:62 with Mark 15:42, "the preparation, that is the day before the sabbath," Luke 23:54; John 19:14; John 19:31; John 19:42)
Bible - The monotheism of the Old Testament is the very opposite to the tendencies of Gentile and Israelite alike to idolatry. Yet God is throughout represented as ruling in the kingdoms of men, Gentiles as well as Jews (Daniel 4:17). It stands in marked contrast to all Gentile cosmogonies, in its majestic simplicity and evidently unmythical character
Gospel - ...
The Gospel of Luke Produced about the same time as Matthew, Luke is generally accepted as the only Gospel written by a Gentile and by a person who was not directly related to Jesus or to one of His original disciples. Although scholars cannot agree whether John's primary audience was Jewish or Gentile, they do agree that a major emphasis of this Gospel was to combat the heresy of gnosticism
Miracle - The latter two miracles closely resemble Jesus' later feeding of the multitudes, cures of lepers, and concern for Gentiles. , in cleansing the ritually impure lepers Mark 1:40-45 ; Luke 17:11-19 ; [1] healing the Syrophoenician woman's daughter Mark 7:24-30 ; or feeding the four thousand in Gentile territory Matthew 15:29-39 ). Luke thus stresses that the disciples are the authorized successors of Jesus, and that Peter's Jewish-oriented ministry and Paul's Gentile-centered work equally fulfill Christ's commission
Justice (2) - The Jew hated the Samaritan (Luke 9:54) and despised the Gentile, with whom he would not share his privileges (Acts 21:27-30). Thus Jew and Gentile alike acknowledged no moral relationship between themselves and the vast majority of the race
Language of Christ - For, as undoubtedly spoken by some of the Palestinian Jews, as the language of perhaps the great majority of His countrymen scattered throughout the Roman world, as the predominant language of the representatives of the Gentile world in Palestine and of that Gentile world itself, which, though wide, was not yet wider than He conceived the scope of His mission to be, and as, besides, the language of the Septuagint Version of the OT, which had no doubt acquired considerable popularity, it may reasonably be assumed that Christ would acquire some knowledge of Greek, and be able, in some measure at least, to speak it
Collection - As time went on, and misunderstandings grew up between Jewish and Gentile Christians, some attempt to bring them together was necessary if permanent disruption was to be avoided. The spiritual debt which the Gentiles owed to the Jews (ὀφειλέται εἰσὶν αὐτῶν, Romans 15:27; cf. Paul justifies us in assuming that he deliberately set himself the task of conciliating the jealousy of the Jewish Christians by establishing a bond of fellowship and communion between them and the Gentile converts (2 Corinthians 8:4; 2 Corinthians 9:13; cf
Priest - All Israel was originally chosen as a kingdom of "priests" to the Gentile world (Exodus 19:6); but Israel renounced the obligation through fear of too close nearness to God. The Aaronic priesthood became the temporary depository of all Israel's priesthood, until Christ the antitypical High Priest came; and they shall hereafter resume it when they turn to the Lord and shall be "the priests of Jehovah, the ministers of our God" to the Gentile nations in Christ's millennial kingdom (Isaiah 61:6; Joshua 21:13-1970). All the elect saints (not ministers as such) from Jews and Gentiles are meantime called to be priests unto God (1 Peter 2:5; 1 Peter 2:9), and being transfigured shall reign with Christ as king priests (Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10; Numbers 16:19-2094)
Circumcision - "That the promise might be sure to all the seed, not only to that which is by the law, but to that also which is by the faith, of Abraham, who is the father of us all," —of all believing Gentiles as well as Jews. This covenant with Abraham, therefore, although it respected a natural seed, Isaac, from whom a numerous progeny was to spring; and an earthly inheritance provided for this issue, the land of Canaan; and a special covenant relation with the descendants of Isaac, through the line of Jacob, to whom Jehovah was to be "a God," visibly and specially, and they a visible and "peculiar people;" yet was, under all these temporal, earthly, and external advantages, but a higher and spiritual grace embodying itself under these circumstances, as types of a dispensation of salvation and eternal life, to all who should follow the faith of Abraham, whose justification before God was the pattern of the justification of every man, whether Jew or Gentile, in all ages. But when our Lord commanded the Gospel to be preached to "all nations," and opened the gates of the "common salvation" to all, whether Gentiles or Jews, circumcision, as the sign of a covenant of peculiarity and religious distinction, was also done away. He declares that in Christ there is neither circumcision nor uncircumcision; that neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but "faith that worketh by love;" faith in the Seed of Abraham already come and already engaged in his mediatorial and redeeming work; faith, by virtue of which the Gentiles came into the church of Christ on the same terms as the Jews themselves, and were justified and saved. The doctrine of the non-necessity of circumcision, he applies to the Jews as well as to the Gentiles, although he specially resists the attempts of the Judaizers to impose this rite upon the Gentile converts; in which he was supported by the decision of the Holy Spirit when the appeal upon this question was made to the "Apostles and elders at Jerusalem," from the church at Antioch. " The second was a lingering notion, that, even in the Christian church, the Jews who believed would still retain some degree of eminence, some superior relation to God; a notion which, however unfounded, was not one which demanded direct rebuke, when it did not proudly refuse spiritual communion with the converted Gentiles, but was held by men who "rejoiced that God had granted to the Gentiles repentance unto life
Sabbath - It is significant also that the decree of the Council of Jerusalem does not impose the observance of the Sabbath on the Gentile Churches ( Acts 15:29 )
Election - “I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, for a light of the Gentiles” (Isaiah 42:6 ). The second passage (Romans 9-11 ) is preoccupied with the fact of Israel's rejection of Christ which, in the purpose of God, has become the occasion for the entrance of Gentile believers into the covenant
Timothy, the First Epistle to - Timothy and Titus exercised the same power in ordaining elders in Ephesus and Crete as Paul had in the Gentile churches in general (2 Corinthians 11:28)
Pharisees - It is probably related to the Hebrew root prs [ John 7:49 )? From Gentiles or Jews who embraced the Hellenistic culture? From certain political groups? All these groups of people the Pharisees would have been determined to avoid in their resolution to separate themselves from any type of impurity proscribed by the levitical law—or, more specifically, their strict interpretation of it. ...
Josephus's references to the Pharisees are selective, probably because he was adapting them to a cultured Gentile audience
Remnant - Paul clarified the relationship between the remnant, those who accepted the gospel, and the larger body of unbelieving Jews, by noting: (1) that the remnant represented the ongoing activity of God with the chosen people, "a remnant chosen by grace" (Romans 11:5 ) since it is the spiritual Israel; (2) that the function of the Jewish remnant, to which are not attached the Gentile believers, is to serve as a vehicle of retrieval or recovery for the larger Jewish community; and (3) that the exclusion of the larger is for a limited time (Romans 11:11-32 )
Luke (2) - 16, ‘where we thought there was a place of prayer,’ is quite natural, if the author, being a Gentile, had only a rough idea where the Jewish place of prayer in his native town was
Marriage (i.) - In the Epistles it is evident that the higher conception of marriage prevalent among the Jews was gravely endangered by the inherited views still familiar to the mind, though condemned by the conscience, in the Gentile membership of the Church (1 Corinthians 7)
Slave, Slavery (2) - In large houses, especially of a Gentile (Luke 7:2) or foreign type, there would be slaves, generally of non-Jewish or mixed blood, as also in the great establishments of the Sadducaean and priestly aristocracy
Agriculture - ...
A typical pledge that, as there has been the early outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost, so there shall be a latter outpouring previous to the great harvest of Israel and the Gentile nations (Zechariah 12:10; Joel 2:23; Joel 2:28-32)
Ezekiel, Book of - Hence it does not mention the times of the Gentiles or the four monarchies, but passes on to the end, when the throne of government will again return to Jerusalem, instead of judging it. ...
Ezekiel 25 — Ezekiel 32 are the prophecies against the Gentile nations which surrounded Palestine, and which had at one time or another intercourse with Israel
Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - Its 15 successive bishops had all been Hebrews but now the mother-church of the world first came under the care of a Gentile bishop (Eus
Prophets, the - Those referring to the times of the Gentiles, which began with Nebuchadnezzar, and, continuing beyond the days of the Messiah on earth, are still running on: these are almost entirely given in Daniel. The prophets Ezekiel and Daniel speak from the land of Chaldea, when all present hope was over for both Israel and Judah, and the times of the Gentiles had set in. In the church there is neither Jew nor Gentile, and the prophets recognise both, while carefully maintaining the distinction between them
Fruit - uses the curious idea of grafting a wild olive on to a good olive tree (‘contrary to nature,’ Romans 11:24) to illustrate the participation of the Gentiles in the promises made to Israel. The list may be supplemented, for example, by Hebrews 13:15, where ‘praise’ is the fruit of a thankful heart expressed by the lips, and Romans 15:28, where the generosity of the Gentile Christians towards the Judaea n poor is the fruit of the spiritual blessing which St
Providence - The histories of Israel, Judah, and Gentile nations show that "righteousness exalteth a nation" (Proverbs 14:34). The preparations made for the gospel of our Saviour indicate a providence (Galatians 4:4), the distinctness of prophecy waxing greater and greater as the time for the evangelization of the Gentiles approached (Luke 2:32). So "Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel,were gathered together against Christ, for to do whatsoever God's hand and God's counsel determined before to be done" (Acts 4:27-28; compare Genesis 42:6; Proverbs 19:21; Proverbs 21:30)
Drunkenness - ...
It was Gentile rather than Jewish wine-drinking habits that Apostolic Christianity had to combat, and Bacchus (Dionysus) was notoriously one of the most powerful of the gods of Greece and Home
Council - In consequence of a dispute which had arisen at Antioch concerning the necessity of circumcising Gentile converts, it was determined that "Paul and Barnabas, and certain others of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the Apostles and elders about this question
Worship - In the meantime, development had taken place in the worship both of Jewish and of Gentile Christians in the house-churches to which their assemblies were of necessity confined. ’* ...
Lindsay has described in a graphic way the meeting for edification in one of the Gentile churches founded by St
Philanthropy - But it may well be considered whether even this system is not left far behind by the Jew, who held that the Gentiles without the Law were accursed, thus excluding all foreigners not only from the regard of man but even from that of God. The Apostles, with their prejudices strong within them, had scarcely the tact and the culture necessary for those who would open the door of faith to the Gentiles, and subsequent events show how after many a lesson the leader of the band, St. Jews, driven in utter weariness from them into Gentile territory, He assumes for the time being the narrow spirit which belonged to them, that His disciples might see how Pharisaic doctrine looked when reduced to act in dealing with the sorrow and need of the world. He throws into contrast with that doctrine the quick intuition of the woman, as well as the humility of her trust as she declares that even the Gentiles have a place in the family of God. He had spoken of His own people with a great tenderness as ‘the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matthew 10:6; Matthew 15:24), but He extends that tenderness to the Gentile world when He speaks of ‘other sheep not of this fold
Temptation, Trial - The same Apostle asserts that the brethren are ‘tempting’ God by wishing to subject the Gentile converts to circumcision (Acts 15:10)
Daniel - Thus, they both represented Israel's destined calling to be a royal priesthood among the nations, and ultimately to be the bearers of Messiah's light to the whole Gentile world (Romans 11:12; Romans 11:15)
Blood - The Spirit came upon Jew and Gentile (all flesh), sons and daughters, younger men and older men, and upon men-servants and maid-servants
Hope - It was ‘a lamp shining in a dark place’ ( 2 Peter 1:19 ): hope at the Christian era was flickering low in the Gentile world (see Eph 2:12 , 1 Thessalonians 4:13 , 1 Corinthians 15:32 ff
Abraham - It is by this means, however, that the Abrahamic blessings come into effect when both Jewish and Gentile sinners find forgiveness and spiritual rebirth in Christ through the proclamation of the gospel
Sadducees (2) - Brought into close contact with their Gentile rulers, their political interests tended to thrust the religious into the background
Bible, Hermeneutics - The meaning of a passage might depend upon knowing whether the original audience was Jewish or Gentile
New Creation - Then, with the Jew/Gentile debate in view—circumcision versus uncircumcisionChrist's work of "creating" a "new" humanity is introduced to demonstrate how the old distinctions and privileges have been rendered obsolete
Feasting - Peter calls it the ‘will of the Gentiles’ (1 Peter 4:3), and St. It is the libertine antinomian error that seemed most likely to overcome the Gentile Church
Appreciation (of Christ) - The Syro-Phœnician woman persisted in her prayer for her sick daughter, eagerly claiming the rights, while bearing the reproach of being a Gentile ‘dog’ (Mark 7:28)
Temple - The outer court, or court of the Gentiles, came first; then the court of the women, the court of Israel, the court of the priests, and then the temple itself. It had 13 openings; upon it, at intervals, were stones with Greek inscriptions, threatening death to the Gentile who entered
Timotheus - His father was a Gentile; but his mother, whose name was Eunice, was a Jewess, Acts 16:1 , and educated her son with great care in her own religion, 2 Timothy 1:5 ; 2 Timothy 3:15
Reconciliation - Man is not spoken of as reconciling himself to God; but Christ is said to reconcile Jews and Gentiles together, and both to God, "by his cross. " The ceremonial law only is here, probably meant; for by its abolition, through its fulfilment in Christ, the enmity between Jews and Gentiles was taken away; but still it was not only necessary to reconcile Jew and Gentile together, but to "reconcile both unto God. Paul properly treats of the peace made between Jews and Gentiles; for neither does it follow from this argument, that it was beside his purpose to mention the peace made for each with God. Gentiles and Jews, therefore, are made friends among themselves by friendship with God
Nazarene (2) - (‘the land of Zebulun, and the land of Naphtali … Galilee of the Gentiles’) rather than Isaiah 11:1. It thus was the Jewish (Oriental) equivalent of the specifically Gentile term ‘Christian
Peraea - In both Galilee and Peraea political vicissitudes had occasioned a large intermingling of Jewish and Gentile elements. The mission of the Seventy was to Peraea, and although the restriction laid upon the Twelve (whose number corresponded with that of the tribes of Israel), ‘Go not into any way of the Gentiles’ (Matthew 10:5-6), is significantly absent in the case of the Seventy (whose number is typical of the nations of the earth), yet the scope of our Lord’s ministry makes it evident that they were to encounter, at least for the most part, Jews
Promise (2) - It was, indeed, the strength with which this idea was rooted in the mind of the Jew (‘whose is the adoption and the glory and … the promises,’ Romans 9:4) that made it so hard for him to understand how the Gentile could come within the full scope of the gospel
Palestine - ...
In this article we shall consider the influence on Jesus (1) of Syria as a whole; (2) of the Gentile elements in the land; (3) of the open field and of Nature as seen in Syria; (4) of the town and village life with which He was familiar; (5) of the city of Jerusalem. The relations of Jesus with Gentiles. —Not only was Palestine in close proximity with Gentile neighbours in the time of Jesus; the land itself was overrun with Gentiles, and no account of the meaning of Palestine for Jesus can ignore that fact. ...
His home in Galilee must have given from the first a very different outlook on the Gentile world from any that would have been possible in Jndaea. Far from the centre of Jewish exclusiveness, crossed by great high roads from the sea to the east, and actually inhabited by multitudes of Gentiles from various lands, Galilee was the most open-minded and tolerant part of the land
Revelation, the Book of - Clearly, John is referring to Christians as the 144,000 for Revelation 7:3 refers to the “bond-servants” of God, a term consistently used throughout the Revelation ( Revelation 1:1 ; Revelation 2:20 ; Revelation 10:7 ; Revelation 11:18 ; Revelation 19:2 ,Revelation 19:2,19:5 ; Revelation 22:3 ,Revelation 22:3,22:6 ) to refer either to Christians in general or the Christian prophet, but never to the non-Christian Jew (or Gentile). The number 144,000 is an intensification (12 12 10 10 10) of the original number twelve (itself an obvious allusion to the twelve tribes, the Old Testament people of God), which indicates that the 144,000 comprise the full number of God's people, God's people now being all (Jew or Gentile) who are followers of Jesus
Sacraments - ...
Recent research has thrown interesting light upon the environment of pagan ideas and practice amid which the Gentile Churches were planted; but its results do not substantiate the hypothesis that Christian sacraments owe either inception or character to this source. But the utmost influence upon the sacraments with which these pagan rites can be credited in the Apostolic Age is that of having provided the sacramental vocabulary with perhaps one or two convenient words then in current use and of having prepared the way, through familiarity with symbolic worship and its circle of ideas, for the reception of sacramental observances and teaching among Gentile Christians
Bethlehem - With Ruth the Moabitess, through her marriage with Boaz, the ‘mighty man of wealth’ of Bethlehem-judah (Ruth 2:1), there entered a strain of Gentile blood,—although we remember that Lot, the ancestor of Moab, was the nephew of the great ancestor of Israel—into the pedigree of Christ according to the flesh (Matthew 1:5), as if in token that, in a day still far off, Jew and Gentile should be one in Him
Peter, First Epistle of - At first sight it would appear that the readers were Jewish Christians, as some scholars hold that they were, but the body of the Epistle clearly shows that the prevailing element was Gentile, and the words of 11 are to be taken figuratively of the sojourn of the Christian as a resident alien on earth, absent from his heavenly fatherland ( 1 Peter 2:8 ; 1 Peter 2:10 , 1 Peter 4:1-4 ). The chief objections to the Petrine authorship are (1) the Epistle is said to be so saturated with Pauline ideas that it could not have been written by the Apostle Peter; (2) the readers are Gentile Christians living within territory evangelized by Paul, in which Peter would have been trespassing on the Gentiles ( Galatians 2:9 ); (3) there is a lack of personal reminiscences of the life of Jesus that would be strange in Peter; (4) the use of good Greek and of the LXX Apostles - Peter's mission to Cornelius and the Gentiles at Caesarea (Acts 10:1 ) caused division among the apostles (Acts 11:1-2 ) until Peter's explanation caused them to give God glory (Acts 11:18 ). Paul and Timothy distributed the decrees of the apostles and elders to the Gentile churches (Acts 16:4 ). He was the apostle for the Gentiles with a heart for the Jews (Romans 11:13-14 ). Peter's apostleship could be distinguished from Paul's as an apostleship to the Jews as contrasted to an apostleship to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:8 )
Tarsus - Tarsus, as a city whose institutions combined Oriental and Western characteristics, was signally fitted to be the birthplace and training ground of him who was to make known to the Gentile world the ripest development of Hebrew religion
Judgment - The predominance of this special aspect of Jesus’ teaching, selected from among His varied utterances, in this Gospel, may arise from Matthew’s Hebrew predisposition to consider Israel as a people separated from the Gentile world
Elijah - God then chose a Gentile believer (the Phoenician woman of Zarephath) to shame his people and to rebuke Jezebel, Ahab's Phoenician queen, showing that there was a Yahwistic believer in her own country. ...
Jesus used the story of God sending Elijah to the widow of Zarephath to show that the Gentiles were not to be excluded from salvation (1618178381_81 )
Judaea - ...
A distinction should be noted here between the use of the word Judaea to designate strictly Jewish territory, from which the outlying Hellenistic or Gentile towns were excluded, and the Roman usage of the word to designate a political division, which for administrative purposes included all the coast towns south of Mt
Intercession - Paul that Josephus should actually ascribe the origin of the war which ended with the destruction of Jerusalem to the refusal of the Jews, at the instigation of Eleazar, to offer prayer for Gentile rulers (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) Gentiles know that Thou art God alone, and Jesus Christ is Thy Son, and we are Thy people and the sheep of Thy pasture
Psalms, Book of - ...
In Psalm 2 (and Psalm 1 and Psalm 2 may be said to be introductory to the whole) we have Christ rejected by Jew and Gentile, yet set as King in Zion, and declared to be the Son of God, having the earth for His possession, and judging His enemies, the nations
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - Each may be (1) copied from Jewish synagogue officials, or (2) copied from Gentile municipal officials, or (3) due to spontaneous production
Abraham - Luke; and the difference indicates the different standpoints of Jewish and Gentile thought
Proselyte - The adherence of Gentiles to Judaism in the centuries immediately preceding and following the fall of Jerusalem ‘ranged over the entire gamut of possible degrees,’ depending upon ‘the different degrees in which the ceremonial precepts of the Law were observed’ (Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity2, i. Peter’s words have not the breadth often assigned to them-he only goes the length of recognizing the manifest signs of God’s acceptance of a Gentile who ‘feareth him, and worketh righteousness
Abraham - Luke; and the difference indicates the different standpoints of Jewish and Gentile thought
Judaea - ...
A distinction should be noted here between the use of the word Judaea to designate strictly Jewish territory, from which the outlying Hellenistic or Gentile towns were excluded, and the Roman usage of the word to designate a political division, which for administrative purposes included all the coast towns south of Mt
Nationality - , John 7:45-52; John 9:22), it was after all on the ground of His patriotism that Jesus was betrayed into the hands of the Gentiles. The disparagement of Gentiles with which He began (Matthew 6:32; cf. It is true the company of original Apostles remained Christian Jews; but the leaders came to recognize that they enjoyed no distinctive privilege of the Kingdom which was withheld from the Gentiles. The harriers had been broken down between Jew and Gentile, Greek and barbarian, bond and free; they being brought by the blood of the Cross near to God, and so to one another, in order that henceforth the bonds of brotherhood might be of a purely human character, and that the parables of the Good Samaritan and of the Shepherd-judgment might be the pattern and sanction for next-door philanthropies and world-wide missions
Pre-Eminence - In Him all, both Jew and Gentile, are built up a holy temple, Himself the Chief Corner-stone (Ephesians 2:20-22)
Intercession - Paul that Josephus should actually ascribe the origin of the war which ended with the destruction of Jerusalem to the refusal of the Jews, at the instigation of Eleazar, to offer prayer for Gentile rulers (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) Gentiles know that Thou art God alone, and Jesus Christ is Thy Son, and we are Thy people and the sheep of Thy pasture
Missions - In sending them forth, He said, ‘Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matthew 10:5-6). Then He warned the disciples, saying, ‘Ye shall be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and the Gentiles’ (Matthew 10:18). Many of the parables have references to or suggestions of a future extension of work among the Gentiles. The difficulties and persecution which the Apostles encountered at the beginning of their work may have been to them a proof that the time had not yet come when they could leave the nearer and narrower fields and go forth to the Gentiles. It is also seen that they preached it among the Samaritans, towards whom Jews had as strong an antipathy as they had towards Gentiles (‘Philip went down to the city of Samaria and preached Christ unto them. ...
The dispute in the early Church in relation to the Gentiles, regarding which so much has been made, was not about preaching the gospel to them, but about the conditions on which they were to receive salvation and be admitted into the Church. Peter’s reluctance to go to Cornelius did not arise from any unwillingness to preach to him, but from the natural shrinking of a strict Jew from entering the house of a Gentile. The accusation which was brought against him at Jerusalem by those who were of the circumcision was, not that lie had preached the gospel to a Gentile, but that he had gone in to ‘men uncircumcised and had eaten with them’ (Acts 11:3). It was ‘they of the circumcision,’ and not the first disciples, who glorified God, saying, ‘Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life’ (Acts 11:18)
Marriage - -During the Apostolic Age the Church was both Jewish and Gentile, and its ideas on marriage had a double background in those of the OT and the heathen. The gravest danger was that the laxity of heathenism with regard to marriage should remain among the Gentile converts. The Apostle, writing as he does to Gentiles, dwells on the fact that marriage is a remedy against sin (1 Corinthians 7:2; cf. Paul does not acquit his own nation in this respect, contrasting the pronouns ‘ye’ (Gentiles) and ‘we also’ (Jews)
Abstinence - Not only so, but his plan is a studied attempt to conform to all customs of Jew and Gentile, of ‘weak’ and ‘strong,’ consistently with his faithfulness to God and his being under law to Christ. He yielded to Jewish susceptibilities (Acts 16:3; Acts 18:18; Acts 21:26), and bore with Gentile immaturity (1 Thessalonians 2:7-12)
Jesus Christ - Simeon and Anna were the divinely appointed welcomers of the Son of God at His lowly presentation in the temple, the former discerning in Him" God's salvation," the "light to lighten the Gentiles and the glory (especially) of His people Israel"; the latter "speaking of Him to all who looked for redemption in Jerusalem. "...
The Gentile wise men of the East (Persian magi possibly, the Zend religion teaching the expectation of a "Ζoziosh" or "Redeemer"; or magoi being used generally, these wise men coming from Balaam's region, the East, and knowing his prophecy, "there shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel": Numbers 24:17; Numbers 23:7, whence they ask for the "King of the Jews" and mention the "star") came later, and found Him no longer in a manger where the shepherds found Him, but in a "house" (Matthew 2:11). They were the firstfruits of the Gentile world; their offering of gold is thought to mark His kingship, the frankincense His priesthood, and the myrrh His coming burial, in God's purpose if not theirs
Wisdom - When Judaism was brought face to face with the Gentile world on every hand, ‘wisdom’ furnished it with a cosmopolitan message
Christians, Names of - For this reason, Paul stresses that all believers-Jew and Gentile-legitimately stand as Abraham's offspring ( Romans 4:16 ; 9:8 ), seed (Galatians 3:29 ), Abraham's children (Romans 9:7 ; Galatians 3:7 ), and children of the free woman (Galatians 4:31 ) and the promise (Romans 9:8 ; Galatians 4:28 )
Samaria - Paul and Barnabas, going up to Jerusalem at the end of their first missionary tour, gave a complete account (ἐκδιηγούμενοι) of the conversion of the Gentiles as they went through Samaria (Acts 15:3). The time was not yet come for ‘turning unto the Gentiles’; that was first done in the purely Gentile city of Antioch
Unity - In this, racial and social distinctions-Jew and Gentile, bond and free-serve only to emphasize and enhance the fact that those who are united in Christ, however different in all else, have immeasurably more in common than those who are separated by Christ, however alike in every other respect (1 Corinthians 7:22, Galatians 3:28, Ephesians 2:11-22)
Idol, Idolatry - ...
The pressure of idolatry on Gentile believers explains the numerous references to idolatry in Paul's Epistles
Judgment, Day of - There will be judgment on Israel (Psalm 50:4 ) and there will also be judgment on the whole Gentile world (Psalm 9:8 ; Romans 14:10 ; cf. ...
Paul tells the Romans that what the law says is written on the hearts of the Gentiles and that their response to this will determine what will happen to them on judgment day (Romans 2:15-16 )
Headship - ’ Psalms 118:22 was applied by Christ to His relation to the Church as uniting Jew and Gentile, and to His approaching rejection by Israel
Stoning - He had left Iconium not long before to avoid similar treatment, which some of the inhabitants of that city, both Jewish and Gentile, were planning to mete out to him and Barnabas (Acts 14:5)
Atonement - There is no difference between Jew and Gentile in this respect, “for all have sinned and come short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23 )
Amos - But while they had regarded it as an indissoluble relationship of privilege, a bond that could not be broken provided the stated sacrifices were maintained, Amos declared not only that it could be broken, but that the very existence of such a bond would lay Israel under heavier moral responsibilities than if she had been one of the Gentile nations ( Amos 3:2 )
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - 103); and a birthright derived through the mother would be ‘quite out of harmony with either Jewish ideas or Gentile ideas
Cabbala - Philo, Josephus, and other learned Jews, in order to flatter their own vanity, and that of their countrymen, industriously propagated this opinion; and the more learned fathers of the Christian church, who entertained a high opinion of the Platonic philosophy, hastily adopted it, from an imagination that if they could trace back the most valuable doctrines of Paganism to a Hebrew origin, this could not fail to recommend the Jewish and Christian religions to the attention of the Gentile philosophers
Isaiah - To detect, reprove, aggravate, and condemn, the sins of the Jewish people especially, and also the iniquities of the ten tribes of Israel, and the abominations of many Gentile nations and countries; denouncing the severest judgments against all sorts and degrees of persons, whether Jews or Gentiles. To invite persons of every rank and condition, both Jews and Gentiles, to repentance and reformation, by numerous promises of pardon and mercy
Mystery - Its strong monotheistic tendency, added to these other traits, gave it an obvious resemblance to the gospel as preached to the Gentile world, and made it a much more formidable rival than the various religionized forms of Greek and Oriental philosophy, in bidding for the adherence of popular faith in the Empire, after the dissolution of the national religions. Romans 9-11 attempts a theodicy of the rejection of Israel the covenant people in favour of the Gentiles, based upon the same idea of judicial hardening, and employing the same passage from Isaiah
Parousia (2) - Moreover, He spoke also of the evangelization of the Gentile races as a work to be undertaken ere the end should come (Matthew 24:14; Matthew 26:13, Mark 13:10). The gospel was first to be published among all nations, that they also might have an opportunity of accepting the offer of grace; ‘the times of the Gentiles must be fulfilled’ (Luke 21:24)
Power - By its connexion with the One Name of which the OT spoke it fulfilled the vision of the prophets which Judaism had obscured, and, on the other hand, included in due place and proportion those gifts for physical need and circumstance that had been the crown and consummation of Gentile desire (Matthew 6:33)
Biblical Theology - The clarity of his God-given insights into the apostolic office, the nature of life "in Christ, " justification by grace through faith, the mission of the church to Jew and Gentile alike, the ongoing place of ethnic Israel in the divine plan, the sanctity of marriage and the sex roles God ordained, the practical outworkings of Christ's Spiritall these and more are the priceless heirlooms granted to the church, largely Gentile since first-century times, through Paul, an ex-Pharisee
Lord's Day - Paul was opposed to the introduction of OT festivals (including the Sabbath) into the churches he founded among the Gentiles, ‘declaring that by the adoption of them the Gentile believer forfeited the benefits of the gospel, since he chose to rest his salvation upon rites instead of upon Christ (Colossians 2:16; cf. Paul could have been no exception in this respect; but apparently he did not foresee that the Christian ‘first day’ might in time assume those very features of the Jewish ‘seventh day’ Sabbath which made him deprecate the introduction of this ancient institution among Gentile Christians (see also article Sabbath)
Immanuel - After saying that the mythological representations did not make their first appearance in the later Gentile Christianity, he proceeds: ‘But this would have been impossible if Judaism itself had not previously possessed this or similar representations. On the other hand, a good many scholars take the view that the story was created, not simply out of pagan materials, but on pagan soil and among Gentile Christians
Magi - The form of their question (Matthew 2:2) would be sufficient to establish this, apart from the ecclesiastical tradition which represents their homage as the first-fruits of the Gentile world (Aquinas, Summa, III. the desire to suggest the homage of the Gentile world (G
Hellenism - This is the beginning of the Gentile mission: the nameless men from Cyprus and Cyrene who are mentioned here are the forerunners of St. Paul, in some sense the first apostles of the Gentiles, the founders of the Gentile Church. Having seen the propaganda carried on by Jewish Hellenism among the Gentiles, we may readily understand the attitude of the Christian Hellenists. Paul himself, the Apostle of the Gentiles, was not a Hellenist strictly speaking
Barnabas, Epistle of - Hence, though believing Jews may continue to observe the Law if they will, there is not sufficient ground for compelling Gentiles who turn to God and believe on Jesus to do so also. This recognition of the Gentiles is the first step in the process, and is the position reached at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15). The next step was to admit that it was not necessary for believing Jews to observe the Law, when such observance caused them to separate from their Gentile brethren. The last step was to condemn all observance of the Law, whether by Jewish or by Gentile believers. The ‘Son of Consolation’ belonged to the earliest stage of the Jewish Christian controversy; he was ready to give the Gentiles liberty, but by no means ready to say that the Jews might abandon the Law altogether (Galatians 2:13)
Announcements of Death - 202), because it is expressly used by Christ only twice before His death (see also Matthew 26:2); but the Master particularizes beforehand other details, such as the mocking, scourging, spitting, delivering to the Gentiles (these all now mentioned for the first time, Mark 10:33 f. By His death the middle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile, and between both and God, will be broken down (Ephesians 2:14-18). To the multitude Jesus boldly announces that His lifting up (on the cross) will be the means of drawing all men (Gentile as well as Jew) to Him (John 12:32)
Annunciation, the - Luke’s Gentile readers must have felt the unspeakable difference between the coarse impurity of imagined intercourse between mortals and divinities, in the religious legends of paganism, and the dignity and delicacy of the spiritual narrative which St. All these three classes of fiction, heathen, Jewish, and Christian, warn us that we must seek some source for the Gospel narrative other than the fertile imagination of some Gentile or Jewish Christian whose curiosity led him to speculate upon a mysterious subject. The rest of his Gospel shows a marked sympathy with the sex which was so commonly looked down upon by both Jews and Gentiles
Peter Epistles of - Ephesians 4:18) and had followed their passions as their Gentile contemporaries continued to do (1 Peter 1:14, 1 Peter 4:2 ff. ); at the outset they had been furthest from God, and now they are nearest to Him-all of which seems to point to Gentile antecedents
Joseph - Ishmaelite or Midianite merchants from Gilead, with spicery, balm, and myrrh (gum ladanum), for Egypt, the land of embalming the dead (John 10:11), passed by; and Judah, type of Judas, proposes the new plan of selling their brother for 20 pieces of silver (Leviticus 27:5) to the strangers (compare Matthew 20:19; Luke 18:32; Acts 3:12-18 the Jews delivering Jesus to the Gentile Romans). ) Like Daniel in the great heathen worldking's court at the close of Israel's history, so Joseph at its beginning, in like circumstances and with like abstinence from fleshly indulgences, interprets the Gentile monarch's dreams; marking, the immeasurable superiority of the kingdom of God, even at its lowest point, to the world kingdoms
Clean, Unclean - ...
The clean/unclean system divided animals, people, and land into three categories to teach separation from the Gentiles. Leviticus 21:18-21 ; 22:20-24 , ; where the same defects disqualify both priests and animals): priests (holy), ordinary Israelites (clean), and Gentiles (unclean). ...
Although the apostolic council (Acts 15:29 ) encouraged Gentile Christians to avoid "unclean" foods ("food sacrificed to idols, from blood, from the meat of strangled animals [1]") to facilitate table fellowship with Jewish Christians, the matter is presented as advice rather than law. The division of animals into clean and unclean symbolized the separation between Israelites and Gentiles. The abolition of the kosher laws then symbolizes a breaking down of the barrier between Jews and Gentiles. As is seen in God's lesson to Peter in Acts 10-11 , God now declares the Gentiles "clean
Balaam - Then Balaam, seeing God's determinate counsel, stopped seeking further enchantments, but looking at Israel in their beautiful order by tribes, he compares them to the rows of lign aloes and cedars by the waters, and foretells the advent of a Hebrew prince who should smite Moab and Edom (David, 2 Samuel 8, the type), and of the Messiah, the Star out of Jacob" (compare Revelation 22:16; Matthew 2, announced to the Gentile wise men from the E
John - ...
Paul mentioned John only once: “James, Cephas [1], and John, who seemed to be pillars” of the church agreed that Paul and Barnabas would go to the Gentiles, while they would work among the Jews (Galatians 2:9 ). Washings had long been part of Jewish piety, and by the time of John, Gentile converts to Judaism washed themselves as a form of ceremonial cleansing
Daniel, the Book of - Personal miracles mark the beginning of the church, the spiritual kingdom of God, coming not with outward observation in "the times of the Gentiles," which began from the captivity. The period of Daniel's prophecies is that from the downfall of the theocracy to its final restoration; it is the period of the world's outward supremacy, "the times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24; Daniel 9:27; Daniel 12:7), not set aside by Christ's first coming (John 18:36; Matthew 4:8-10); for Satan yet is "prince of this world," and Israel has been depressed and Judah's kingdom prostrate ever since the Babylonian captivity. ...
The universal expectation of a Savior existed even in the Gentile world at the very time He came; doubtless due to Daniel's prophecy carried far and wide by the Jews (Tacitus, Hist. Hosea 13:1-2; Jerusalem's destruction by Titus only consummated the removal of the kingdom of God from Israel to the Gentiles, which took place at the scattering of the disciples from Jerusalem (Matthew 21:43), to be restated at Christ's second advent, when Israel shall head the nations (Matthew 23:39; Acts 1:6-7; Romans 11:25-31; Romans 15)
Seventy (2) - ’ ‘Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not’ (Matthew 10:5-6). The restriction, accordingly, is omitted in the commission to the Seventy, although there is no positive evidence that any of them preached, at this time, to Gentiles
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - "...
His stay at Thessalonica was probably longer than the three weeks recorded in Acts 17:2, for some time is implied in his labouring there for support (1 Thessalonians 2:9; 2 Thessalonians 3:8), in his receiving supplies there more than once from Philippi (Philippians 4:16), in his receiving many converts from the Gentiles (1 Thessalonians 1:9, and, according to the Alexandrinus manuscript of 1 Corinthians 15:24-28 though not the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts, "of the devout (and) of the Greeks a great multitude"), and in his appointing ministers. He probably (compare Acts 13:46; Acts 18:6-7; Acts 19:8-9) preached first to the Jews; then, when they rejected the message, to the Gentiles. The prevalence of the Gentile element in them appears from the entire absence of quotations from the Old Testament in these two epistles; also from the address being to persons who had turned "from idols" (1 Thessalonians 1:9)
Zebedee - The tribe had given two judges to Israel, Ibzan of Bethlehem (Judges 12:8) and Elon (Judges 12:11), while 3 miles from Nazareth was Gath-hepher, the birthplace of Jonah, the first prophet to the Gentiles, and his tomb is still shown there. ’ All these and many more historical sites are to be seen, and thoughts of them rise and stir the heart of him who views the scene; and if so to the passing stranger, what must they have been to the young Zebulunite, whose daily food they were, and who, in virtue of His blood, was the heir of all their most glorious memories?...
The relationship of this people to the Gentile world is also worthy of note
Mercy - Paul links this same divine commitment of mercy to undeserving people in the Old Testament with God's stubborn pursuit of Israel in and through Christ in the New Testament era and its extension to the Gentiles (Romans 9:15-16,23 ; 11:31-32 ; 15:9 ). Applied with special emphasis to the Gentile believers to remind them of their undeserved blessings, the fact is equally true of Gentiles and Jews: people come into relationship with God only because God shows mercy to them. This is perhaps seen most clearly in Paul's discussion with the Roman Christians about the Gentiles' place in God's family in Romans 9:15-18 ( Gentiles is but another display of this mercy: "For he [6] says to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion'" (9:15; quoting Exodus 33:19 ). Ephesians 2:4-5 links the salvation of the Gentiles with God's richness of mercy
Martyr - It is noteworthy that both Jewish and Gentile persecutors seem to have found a special object of attack in the Christian prophets, who were no doubt brought into prominence by their preaching of the gospel (cf
Holy Day - The life and work, the example and precept, and above all the Resurrection of Jesus, implied the complete abrogation of the Mosaic dispensation; but as that dispensation was still part of the personal environment, and eventually bound up with the personal religion of individual Christians-both Jew and Gentile-for many generations, it is not to be expected that its cogency would at once cease to be felt
Plagues of Egypt - And as when Israel went up afterwards with an high hand out of Egypt, a mixed multitude went with them, were not these such as grace had marked for the Lord's own? May we not consider them as types of the Gentile church given to the Lord Jesus, as well as the Jewish church? (Isaiah 49:6)...
The eighth plague is introduced by the Lord with bidding Moses, the man of God, to remark to Israel that the Lord had hardened the heart of Pharaoh purposely, that he might set forth his love to Israel in shewing these signs and wonders before them
Commandment - Revelation 2:24 the phrase ‘cast upon you none other burden’ with Acts 15:28), and which the Apostle, not only according to Acts 16:4, but also in 1 Corinthians 6:12-20; 1 Corinthians 10:14-33, expressly urges upon Gentile Christians
Antioch - Here also the dispute regarding the circumcision of Gentile converts broke out ( Acts 15:1-22 ), and here Paul withstood Peter for his inconsistency ( Galatians 2:11-21 )
Divination - This was the prophetic oracle at Delphi, held to be the centre and focus of Gentile divination
Prayer - The third hour was marked by the gift of the Spirit (Acts 2:15), the ninth by the miracle of the healing of a lame man by Peter and John on their way to prayer (Acts 3:1), the sixth by the vision which taught Peter to receive Gentile converts
Profaning, Profanity - For any foot of Gentile or Samaritan to pass beyond the Court of the Gentiles meant death to the transgressor. ...
The presence of the stall-keepers and cattle-drovers and money-changers was strictly within the letter of the Law, since it was in the Court of the Gentiles that this market was held, i
Peace - In regard to Ephesians 2:14-22 there is a difference of opinion among exegetes as to whether the reference of the peace embodied in Christ is to Jewish and Gentile believers mutually considered, or fundamentally to God, so as to include only as a corollary peace between the two component parts of the body of the Church. By being reconciled to God, each for their own part, Gentiles and Jews have now become reconciled together. In Ephesians 2:14-15 peace denotes the fellowship between Jews and Gentiles, but in Ephesians 2:17 (Isaiah 57:19) the peace proclaimed by the gospel is the peace with God, and the same idea is implied in Isaiah 57:16
Law - He was harshly criticized by certain Jews in the Jerusalem church when they found he had been eating freely with the Gentiles (Acts 10:15; Galatians 3:13). ...
These Jews later tried to force Gentile converts to keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1), and argued so cleverly that Peter tended to follow them, until Paul corrected him (Galatians 3:24). When some of the leading Christians met at Jerusalem to discuss the matter, they agreed that Gentiles were not to be put under the law of Moses (Acts 15:19). It was now becoming clear, and Paul’s teaching soon made it very clear, that there was no difference between Jews and Gentiles concerning requirements for salvation and Christian living
Passover - He explicitly deprecated the observance of Jewish feasts (Galatians 4:8-11) on the part of purely Gentile converts. Though he was, as he himself proudly claimed, ‘a Hebrew of Hebrews,’ it is more than questionable if he kept the Passover after his conversion and after he had grasped the meaning of Christianity for the Gentile world
Pharisees (2) - The chequered history of centuries under heathen rule broke up many customs, as those of tithes, offerings, Sabbath, Temple service, contact with Gentiles, etc. One sad result of this national legal religion was that it had one standard for the Jew and another for the Gentile. Adultery with a Gentile was trivial compared with such offence against a Jew. Pharisaic ethics taught to hate Gentiles as enemies; their morality had no unifying principle of application to man as man—while Jesus taught love even to enemies and Gentiles
Cross, Crucifixion - It forged a new unity between Jew and Gentile by breaking down “the dividing wall of hostility” and “made the two one” (Ephesians 2:14-15 NIV), thereby producing “peace” by creating a new access to the Father ( Ephesians 2:18 )
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - Clement of Alexandria refers it to Paul, on the authority of Pantaenus of Alexandria (in the middle of the second century) saying that as Jesus is called the "apostle" to the Hebrew, Paul does not in it call himself so, being apostle to the Gentiles; also that Paul prudently omitted his name at the beginning, because the Hebrew were prejudiced against him; that it was originally written in Hebrew for the Hebrew, and that Luke translated it into Greek for the Greeks, whence the style resembles that of Acts. ...
The apostle of the circumcision attests the gospel preached by the apostle of the uncircumcision; and the latter was chosen by God to confirm the Hebrew, as conversely the former was chosen to open the door to the Gentiles (Acts 10). He addresses the Jews as "the people of God" (Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 4:9; Hebrews 13:12), "the seed of Abraham," the stock on which Gentile Christians are grafted (compare Romans 11:16-24). ...
The difference of style from that of his epistles to Gentiles was to be expected
Widows - Paul cared so much (τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῶν ἁγίων, Romans 15:26), and whom he helped by means of the offerings of the Gentile churches (1 Corinthians 16), would include widows
Luke, Gospel of - Most scholars conclude that Luke's target audience were Gentile inquirers and Christians who needed strengthening in the faith. Samaritans enter the kingdom ( Luke 9:51-6 ; Luke 10:30-37 ; Luke 17:11-19 ) as well as pagan Gentiles (Luke 2:32 ; Luke 3:6 ,Luke 3:6,3:38 ; Luke 4:25-27 ; Luke 7:9 ; Luke 10:1 ,Luke 10:1,10:47 )
Last Day(s), Latter Days, Last Times - We usually look for blessing on Israel, and it is interesting that Jeremiah sees the divine blessing as coming also on these Gentile nations
Ebionism - Justin Martyr divides Jewish Christians into two classes: those who, while they observed the Law themselves, did not require believing Gentiles to comply therewith, and who were willing to associate with them; and those who refused to recognize all who had not complied with the Law (Dial. They did not regard the Law as binding on Gentile Christians, and did not decline fellowship with them
Star (2) - ’s narrative in this section of it is to suggest the homage of the Gentile world, and the selection of the gifts (gold, frankincense, and myrrh) may have been influenced by passages from OT Messianic prophecy which predict the allegiance of the nations (Isaiah 60:1 f. Isaiah 60:3 ‘And the Gentiles shall come to thy light
Abraham - His name was changed at circumcision from Abram to Abraham (father of many nations), to mark that the covenant was not to include merely his seed after the flesh, the Israelites, but the numerous Gentile nations also, who in his Seed, Christ, should be children of his faith (Galatians 3)
Cross, Cross-Bearing - ’ So both Jew and Gentile have ‘access in one Spirit unto the Father,’ and the middle wall of partition is broken down. Paul not ashamed of the cross of Christ, as the Judaizers are who are seeking to enslave the Gentiles to the ceremonial law (Galatians 6:12), but he finds his only ground of glorying in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ (Galatians 6:14)
Parable - Others, the Gentile outcasts, were invited. Doubtless this parable has another application, bearing upon the Jews as to their jealousy of grace being shown to the Gentiles. The debt of the Gentiles to them is expressed in the hundred pence [2]; whereas the indebtedness of the Jews to God is seen in the ten thousand talents [3]. Pardon was offered to them by Peter in Acts 3:19-26 ; but it was rejected, and their persecution of Paul and those who carried the gospel to the Gentiles showed that they could not forgive the Gentiles the hundred pence
Praise - When Peter reported to the apostles and brethren the gift of the Holy Ghost to the Gentile Cornelius and his friends they glorified God (Acts 11:18). As he pictures Abraham when he received God’s promise of a son giving glory to God (Romans 4:21), so he desires that Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy (Romans 15:9, quoting Psalms 18:49; Psalms 117:1 LXX_)
Name (2) - When He exclaims, ‘Father, glorify thy name’ (John 12:28), He is asking the Father to complete in the eyes not only of the Jewish people, but of the great Gentile world represented by those Greek seekers who now stood before Him, the manifestation of His holiness and love given in the Person and ministry of His Son. This is the use made of it by the First Evangelist (Matthew 12:21) when he applies to Jesus the words of Deutero-Isaiah according to the LXX Septuagint reading, ‘And in his name shall the Gentiles hope’ (Isaiah 42:4)
Nation (2) - τὰ ἕθνη has the special meaning of ‘the Gentiles,’ the non-Jewish peoples (Heb. But there were plenty of Gentiles in the land to supply the small garrisons required. ’ On the other hand, the word ἔθνη, meaning the nations outside the Law of the chosen λαός, gathered more and more of moral connotation, as it passed through the meanings of ‘Gentile,’ ‘heathen,’ and finally ‘sinners’ (Matthew 26:45; cf. ‘Gentiles’ and ‘People’ ‘in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible
Sabbath - ...
The inclusion of the Gentiles within the scope of the gospel brought with it inevitable complications-this among the rest: How far were the religious customs of the Jews to be considered as binding upon them? St. Paul, who was certainly revolutionary and advanced in his teaching in comparison with the Church at Jerusalem, was even openly taxed with advising Jews who lived amongst Gentiles to abandon Moses and ‘the customs’ (see Acts 21:17 ff. At the same time he certainly disapproved of all attempts to make the observance of the Sabbath and other peculiarly Jewish customs binding on Gentile converts to the faith (Colossians 2:16). The early propagation of the faith among Gentiles, as Christianity realized its world-wide mission, would necessarily tend in the same direction
Baptism - Even the Gentile Pilate washed his hands to symbolize his innocence of Jesus' blood
Law - The end of Israel's call by the holy God was that they should be "a holy nation" (Leviticus 19:2), a meadiatorial kingdom between God and the nations, witnessing for Him to them (Isaiah 43:10-12), and between them and Him, performing those sacrificial ordinances through the divinely constituted Aaronic priests, which were to prefigure the one coming Sacrifice, through whom all the Gentile nations were to be blessed
Baptize, Baptism - ...
When, at the diaspora, numerous Gentiles sought admission to Israel, the required public repentance and acceptance of Mosaic Law was accompanied by immersion in water, symbolizing and effecting religious, moral, and ritual cleansing from the defilements of paganism. " Paul assures the Gentile converts at Colossae that they do not need Jewish circumcision, as certain Judaists were insisting: "In [2] you were also circumcised in the putting off of the sinful nature, not with a circumcision done by the hands of men but with the circumcision done by Christ, having been buried with him in baptism" ( Colossians 2:11-12 )
Corinthians, Second Epistle to - Not least of all was the still existing danger for Gentile converts of relapsing into heathen worship and impurity ( 2 Corinthians 6:14 ; 2 Corinthians 7:1 ; 2 Corinthians 12:19-21 ). It reveals the personal character of the great Apostle of the Gentiles in its twofold aspect of tenderness and strength, gentleness and severity, meekness and indignation
James, Epistle of - Such a date is also suggested by the undeveloped theology (note the nontechnical and unusual word for ‘begat’ in James 1:18 ) and the general circumstances of the Epistle (see below); and the absence of any reference to the Gentile controversy may indicate a date before the Council of Acts 15:1-41 , i
Testimony - Jesus announced to his followers that they will stand trial before Jewish and Gentile authorities as witnesses to them on account of him (Matthew 10:18 ; Mark 13:9 ; Luke 21:13 ; John 15:27 ; Acts 10:42 )
Mark, Theology of - ...
As a preparation for the extension of Jesus' ministry beyond Galilee into the Gentile world the twelve are sent out as before, except this time they are to go in pairs and to live dependently among the people (6:7-12)
Law - Christ has abolished in his flesh the commandments and regulations that separated Jew from Gentile (Ephesians 2:15 )
Old Testament in the New Testament, the - 48-50)!...
Paul is naturally drawn to the Old Testament prophecies concerning the blessing of the Gentiles. Is he not the God of Gentiles too? (Romans 3:29-30 ). Paul draws especially on the prophecies of the blessing of the Gentiles (e. One of the most surprising features of the New Testament use of the Old Testament is the way in which the exclusivism of the Old Testament covenant (Israel as the elect) gives way to a new understanding of the people of God in which racial identity plays no role, and Jews and Gentiles have equal membership based just on faith and common possession of the Spirit. Certain Old Testament texts were especially important for him, but more important than particular texts was the conviction that the spiritual experience described by texts like Genesis 15:6 , Psalm 32:1-2 , and Habakkuk 2:4 was exactly that now being enjoyed by his Gentile converts: by believing in Jesus, they were being "justified by faith" just like Abraham and David ( Romans 4:22-25 )
Jews, Judaism - The Jewish-Christian sect in Palestine was superseded by Gentile Christianity due to the missionary efforts of Paul, the destruction of the Jerusalem temple, and the defensive efforts of rabbinical Judaism to separate the church and the synagogue
Galilee - , Phœnicia (which always belonged to Gentiles) on the W. And the same thing happened with the Jew at home, when Gentile immigrants settled within his borders
Eschatology - Eschatology of early Gentile-Christian churches
Law of God - So the prayers even of the Gentiles are of infinitely more consequence than the temple offerings, and God’s house is a house of prayer for all people (Matthew 21:12 ff. In view of the fact that a large portion of the Mosaic law is taken up with and deals minutely with these very points, in view also of the fact that the controversies in the Early Church itself between Jewish and Gentile Christians turned upon these things, our Lord’s treatment of the question is very remarkable, and illustrates clearly the nature of the distinction which, in His revision of the Law, He emphasized between letter and spirit
Metaphors - In the Talmud (Pesachim) an entire section is given to the discussion whether a man may eat the leaven of a Gentile, and with what kind of water dough must be kneaded
Capernaum - Luke tells us that this centurion, though a Gentile, had built the synagogue of the place
Christianity (History Sketch) - While other religions had been accommodated to the peculiar countries in which they had taken their origin, and had indeed generally grown out of incidents connected with the history of those to whom they were addressed, Christianity was so framed as to be adapted to the whole human race; and although, for the wisest reasons, it was first announced to the Jews, who had peculiar advantages for forming an accurate judgment with regard to it, it was early declared that, in conformity to predictions which had long been known, and long interpreted, as referring to a new communication of the divine will, it was to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, and was to carry salvation to the ends of the earth. The apostle Peter, in consequence of what he knew to be a solemn injunction from heaven, communicated to a Gentile the truths of Christianity
Devil - In the period of the NT the belief in devils as spirits, evil and innumerable, was general amongst the nations, whether Jewish or Gentile; but in Jesus and His disciples the cruder features of the belief, such as the grotesqueness of the functions assigned to these spirits in the literature of the second century, do not appear
Sabbath - ...
The inclusion of the Gentiles within the scope of the gospel brought with it inevitable complications-this among the rest: How far were the religious customs of the Jews to be considered as binding upon them? St. Paul, who was certainly revolutionary and advanced in his teaching in comparison with the Church at Jerusalem, was even openly taxed with advising Jews who lived amongst Gentiles to abandon Moses and ‘the customs’ (see Acts 21:17 ff. At the same time he certainly disapproved of all attempts to make the observance of the Sabbath and other peculiarly Jewish customs binding on Gentile converts to the faith (Colossians 2:16). The early propagation of the faith among Gentiles, as Christianity realized its world-wide mission, would necessarily tend in the same direction
Judges, the Book of - Intermarriages with pagan neighbours, Gentile associations, the beauty of the Canaanite women, the pomp, gaiety, and voluptuousness of their rites, the hope of learning the future by idolatrous divination, superstitious fears of the alleged gods of the locality where they settled, inclined Israel to add to Jehovah's worship the pagan idolatries (for they had too strong proofs of the divine law to renounce it wholly)
Ethics - The five Gentile cities of the plain “were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly” (Genesis 13:13 ) and thereby invited the inevitable judgment of God if they did not repent
Paul the Apostle - Paul's theology is Christ's own authorized extension of the gospel of salvation for Jew and Gentile alike (Acts 9:15 )
Man (2) - He despised the Greek and Roman, and especially his kin and neighbour the Samaritan, as ‘Gentile’ folk—outsiders
Confession (of Christ) - Even if baptism ‘into the name of the Lord Jesus’ did not imply an explicit confession of Jesus as Lord (though this seems by no means improbable), at all events the Christian baptism which meets us constantly from the earliest days of the Church (Acts, passim) clearly involved, in the relations of Christianity whether to the Jewish or the Gentile world, a confessing of Christ before men
Zechariah, Theology of - The Gentiles will be punished for any harm they inflict on them (2:9). Today, however, God's people is a more inclusive group comprised of Jews and Gentiles who have believed in Jesus (Exodus 22:22 ). ...
Although Judaism has not been a missionary religion throughout most of its history, there were those Jews in the second temple period who endeavored to convert Gentiles to Judaism (Matthew 23:15 ). They could enter the court of the Gentiles in the Jerusalem temple but were forbidden upon pain of death from going beyond the wall of partition between Jews and Gentiles. The separating wall has been destroyed by the death of Christ so that all may come to God through him, whether Jew or Gentile (Ephesians 2:13-16 )
Will of God - This expression of the will of God, his resolute plan, however, takes its meaning from 42:1-9,49:1-7, which make it clear that God's purpose is the deliverance of Israel and the Gentile nations, and that somehow the suffering of the Servant plays a role within this plan. Paul viewed his own call to apostleship, which was to bring salvation to the Gentiles (Titus 1:1 ), in precisely these terms
Expediency - Titus, on the other hand, was a pure Gentile, and his circumcision was urged as necessary, on principle, and not as a voluntary sacrifice to expediency for the greater good of others
Dispersion - The most important NT reference occurs in John 7:35 : ‘Whither will this man go that we shall not find him? Will he go unto the Diaspora among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?’ This splenetic utterance was an unconscious prophecy of the course our Lord actually followed, when, having reached the goal of His public ministry, and having received ‘all authority in heaven and on earth,’ He went on ‘to make disciples of all the nations. The observance which attracted moat notice from their Gentile neighbours was that of the Sabbath rest. The question of Romans 3:29, ‘Is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles, also?’ was one that he must have often asked himself in his Pharisaic days; and when the sight and the call of Jesus had given him the decisive answer, ‘Yea, of the Gentiles also,’ this became the moving force of his strenuous life (cf. Was it by means of some of these (Acts 2:10), returning to their native synagogue ‘in the power of the Spirit,’ that the faith or Christ first reached the city of Rome? At Antioch, some Cyprian and Cyrenaean Christians were the first to take the bold step of ‘speaking unto the Gentiles also, preaching Jesus as the Lord’ (Acts 11:20, ‘where the sense of the passage seems to require Ἕλληνας’ Psalms - For let it not pass unobserved, that when, upon the first publication of the Gospel, the Apostles had occasion to utter their transports of joy, on their being counted worthy to suffer for the name of their Lord and Master, which was then opposed by Jew and Gentile, they brake forth into an application of the second Psalm to the transactions then before their eyes, Acts 4:25
Nazirite - Still, The Early Gentile Christian Church, Edinburgh, 1913, p
Philippians, Epistle to - , probably those of early converts, lead us to infer that the Gentile element continued strong from the days when the Church began in the house holds of Lydia and the jailor ( Acts 16:12-40 )
Nazirite - Still, The Early Gentile Christian Church, Edinburgh, 1913, p
Presence (2) - ...
Under the influence of Greek thought in the Gentile world, the Divine presence has been treated as a metaphysical substance, and at last identified with the elements of the Lord’s Supper (see Art
Dispersion - The most important NT reference occurs in John 7:35 : ‘Whither will this man go that we shall not find him? Will he go unto the Diaspora among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?’ This splenetic utterance was an unconscious prophecy of the course our Lord actually followed, when, having reached the goal of His public ministry, and having received ‘all authority in heaven and on earth,’ He went on ‘to make disciples of all the nations. The observance which attracted moat notice from their Gentile neighbours was that of the Sabbath rest. The question of Romans 3:29, ‘Is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles, also?’ was one that he must have often asked himself in his Pharisaic days; and when the sight and the call of Jesus had given him the decisive answer, ‘Yea, of the Gentiles also,’ this became the moving force of his strenuous life (cf. Was it by means of some of these (Acts 2:10), returning to their native synagogue ‘in the power of the Spirit,’ that the faith or Christ first reached the city of Rome? At Antioch, some Cyprian and Cyrenaean Christians were the first to take the bold step of ‘speaking unto the Gentiles also, preaching Jesus as the Lord’ (Acts 11:20, ‘where the sense of the passage seems to require Ἕλληνας’ Talmud - It is, moreover, well known what a conflict was waged in the infant Church regarding that question of the admittance of Gentiles, the result of which was an irreconcilable breach between Jew and Gentile, and an ever-increasing antagonism between Judaism and Christianity
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - Announcements about favorable prospects for Gentiles, while considerable, are not often found in conjunction with language about the day of the Lord. Still, pictures of Gentile response given elsewhere (such as Psalm 96 ) are reinforced by Zephaniah's classic description of the day of the Lord: "From beyond the rivers of Cush my worshipers, my scattered people, will bring me offerings" (3:10; Mission - True it is that at first the area of labour was restricted (Matthew 15:24), but this was a necessity of the situation, and is no indication that the Gentiles were to be excluded from salvation. Any devout Jew would think that somehow the Gentiles were to reap advantage from the Messianic reign (Luke 2:30-32), and though it was deemed absurd to suppose that preference could be given by the Messiah to heathen men (John 7:35), even the Pharisees were zealous in making proselytes (Matthew 23:15). Why should it be thought incredible that Jesus hoped ultimately to win men of all nations? Was not exclusiveness distressing to Him? Was He not ready with a reference to mercies granted to the woman of Zarephath and to Naaman the Syrian (1618178381_10)? The outer court of the Temple was the only part of the sacred structure to which a Gentile had access, and all the Evangelists report that Jesus insisted that this enclosure should be kept clean and quiet ‘for all the nations’ (John 1:29 Mark 11:15-17, Luke 19:45-46, John 2:14; John 2:16)
Baptism - Doddridge, "that any should doubt of this, when it is plain, from express passages in the Jewish law, that no Jew who had lived like a Gentile for one day could be restored to the communion of this church without it. John's baptism was confined to the Jews; but the Christian was common to Jews and Gentiles, Matthew 3:5 ; Matthew 3:7
Church - Thither missionaries return with reports of newly-founded Gentile societies and contributions for the poor saints ( Acts 15:2 ; Acts 24:17 , 1 Corinthians 16:1-3 ). It is the historical fact of the inclusion of the Gentiles ( Ephesians 2:18 ) that is the starting-point
Diseases - Luke was a Gentile, but his hometown is unknown
Matthew, Theology of - Typifying the movement from a national Israel to a transnational church, we can compare the coming of the Gentile magi to Jerusalem (2:1-12) to the departure of the apostles from Jerusalem to Galilee of the Gentiles to carry out the mission of Jesus to "all nations" (28:16-20)
Jerusalem - In Jerusalem Paul received his commission to preach to the Gentiles (22:17-21). Paul expected Gentile Christians to identify with Jerusalem and to develop a sense of kinship with the Jerusalem church
Individual - ...
This progress in the Gentile world, however, was not in any strict sense a preparation for our Lord’s teaching, but, at most, of the world for receiving it
Fellowship (2) - The Gentile Churches of the Pauline world. Fortunately, Paul the Apostle to the Gentiles was a man of varied culture. Indeed, the Macedonians regard it as a signal token of Divine favour to be allowed thus to help those from whom they had received the gospel; and the poor Jewish Christians, who had made experience of the liberal Christian kindliness of the Gentiles, could hardly refuse to call them brethren (2 Corinthians 8:1-5; 2 Corinthians 9:11-14)
Temple - The first or outer court, which encompassed the holy house and the other courts, was named the court of the Gentiles; because the latter were allowed to enter into it, but were prohibited from advancing farther. This outer court being assigned to the Gentile proselytes, the Jews, who did not worship in it themselves, conceived that it might lawfully be put to profane uses: for here we find that the buyers and sellers of animals for sacrifices, and also the money-changers, had stationed themselves; until Jesus Christ, awing them into submission by the grandeur and dignity of his person and behaviour, expelled them; telling them that it was the house of prayer for all nations, and was not to be profaned, Matthew 21:12-13 ; Mark 11:15-17 . Within the court of the Gentiles stood the court of the Israelites, divided into two parts, or courts; the outer one being appropriated to the women, and the inner one to the men. The court of the women was separated from that of the Gentiles by a low stone wall, or partition, of elegant construction, on which stood pillars at equal distances, with inscriptions in Greek and Latin, importing that no alien should enter into the holy place. ...
Paul most evidently alludes in Ephesians 2:13-14 : "But now in Christ Jesus, ye, who sometimes were far off, are made nigh by the blood of Christ: for he is our peace, who hath made both one, (united both Jews and Gentiles into one church,) and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;" having abolished the law of ordinances, by which, as by the wall of separation, both Jews and Gentiles were not only kept asunder, but also at variance. From the court of the women, which was on higher ground than that of the Gentiles, there was an ascent of fifteen steps into the inner or men's court: and so called because it was appropriated to the worship of the male Israelites. From this the sanctuary, or holy place, was separated from the holy of holies by a double veil, which is supposed to have been the veil that was rent in twain at our Saviour's crucifixion; thus emblematically pointing out that the separation between Jews and Gentiles was abolished; and that the privilege of the high priest was communicated to all mankind, who might henceforth have access to the throne of grace through the one great Mediator, Jesus Christ, Hebrews 10:19-22
Idol - ...
(10) timahuh "similitude," "form "(Deuteronomy 4:12-19, where Moses forbids successively the several forms of Gentile idolatry: ancestor worship, as that of Terah (1 Samuel 6:5), Laban (Genesis 31:19; Genesis 31:30; Genesis 31:32), and Jacob's household (1618178381_86), to guard against which Moses' sepulchre was hidden; hero worship and relic worship (Judges 8:27; Judges 17:4; 2 Kings 18:4); nature worship, whether of the lower animals as in Egypt, or of the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, and stars, as among the Persians). Israel's idolatry was not merely an abomination in God's sight, as that of the Gentiles, but spiritual "adultery" against Jehovah her Husband (Isaiah 54:5; Jeremiah 3:14; Ezekiel 16)
Restoration - His need of mental enlargement, given later by means of the vision (Acts 10:9-33), to enable him to believe in the possibility of Gentile salvation, is decisive against such an interpretation
Forgiveness - This eschatological resolution pertains to the nation, individuals within the nation, and individual Gentiles. Also Gentiles would become part of this community and receive the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:18-19 ; Acts 10 ). ...
Paul writes that Jesus' death is the means by which eschatological forgiveness comes not only to the Jew but also to the Gentile (Galatians 3:7-9 ; cf
Kingdom Kingdom of God - Jerusalem is to be trodden down by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled (Luke 21:24). They seem to have felt that on the one hand the phrase ‘Son of Man’ was too technically Jewish for Gentile readers, and on the other that the terms ‘King’ and ‘Kingdom’ were open to grave misconception
Election - And the destiny of the elect people was to culminate in the Elect Servant of the Lord: ‘Behold my servant whom I uphold; my chosen (בְּחָירִי, ὁ ἐκλεκτός μον) in whom my soul delighteth: I have put my spirit upon him; he shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles’ (Isaiah 42:1 Revised Version ; ‘the Elect one’ appears as a Messianic designation in the Book of Enoch; xl. In the NT we find the verb used, always in the middle voice, of our Lord’s choice of the Twelve from the company of the disciples (Luke 6:13, John 6:70; John 13:18; John 15:19, Acts 1:2); of the choice of an apostle in the place of Judas (Acts 1:24); of Stephen and his colleagues (Acts 6:5); of God’s choice of the patriarchs (Acts 13:17); and of the choice of delegates to carry the decisions of the Apostolic Council to the Gentile churches (Acts 15:22; Acts 15:25). Paul’s preaching for the first time to Gentiles at Antioch of Pisidia, ‘as many as were ordained to eternal life believed’ (Acts 13:48). Paul deals with the mystery of the call of the Gentiles to take the place of gainsaying and disobedient Israel. In so doing he first vindicates God from the reproach of having departed from His ancient covenant-a reproach which would be well-founded if the covenant people were rejected and the Gentiles put in their place. Meanwhile the problem of Israel’s unbelief and of the passing over of spiritual privilege to the Gentiles (Romans 11:11) is to be solved by the Gentiles provoking Israel to jealousy-appreciating and embracing and profiting by the blessings of the Christian salvation to such an extent that Israel will be moved to desire find to possess those blessings for their own
James Epistle of - If, as seems natural in a Christian writing, it means Jewish Christians in the literal Diaspora, where were these to be found prior to the Pauline missions? Moreover, there is no hint that the churches addressed contained Gentile Christians
Old Testament - A specimen of corrections from the Qeri in conjunction with the Septuagint is Isaiah 9:3, "its" for "not"; but the difficulty of the reading favors the text, "Thou hast multiplied the nation and (soon after) not increased the joy"; for the increase of the true Israel by Gentile converts to Christianity was soon followed by the growth of corruption and antichrist; but he in turn is to be destroyed, as Midian was by Gideon, to the "joy" of the elect nation
Descent Into Hades - So wide-spread was this belief in the early Christian period that a controversy arose as to whether the souls of Jews or of Gentiles or of both were included in the deliverance wrought by Christ in Hades. ]'>[9]1 and his school included both Jew and Gentile in its grace
Deluge - According to them, the memory of the deluge was incorporated with almost every part of the Gentile mythology and worship; Noah, under a vast multitude of characters, being one of their first deities, to whom all the nations of the Heathen world looked up as their founder; and to some circumstance or other in whose history, and that of his sons and the first patriarchs, most, if not all, of their religious ceremonies may be considered as not indistinctly referring
Organization (2) - So a body of things needful to be taught was collected, and, for the Gentile world, the OT added as an introduction to the comprehension of Christ
Death of Christ - The gospel for him was "the message of the cross, " even though a "stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles" (1 Corinthians 1:18,23 ). "He himself is our peace, " breaking down "the dividing wall of hostility" between Jew and Gentile, "making peace, " and in one body reconciling both to God by the cross
Teaching - In warning the Ephesians against their former Gentile vices, the Apostle says, ‘Ye did not so learn Christ; if so be that ye heard him, and were taught in him’ (Ephesians 4:20)
Synagogue (2) - In some cases a wealthy man, Jew or Gentile, wishing to ingratiate himself with the people or out of pure kindness, may have provided a synagogue (cf
Temple (2) - the Court of the Gentiles, the Court of the Women, the Court of the Israelites, the Priests’ Court, and the Holy Place, together with the Holy of Holies. : in reference to the Court of the Gentiles, Matthew 21:12-16; Matthew 21:23, Mark 11:15-18; Mark 11:27, Luke 19:45; Luke 22:53, John 2:14-15; John 5:14; John 8:59; in reference to the Court of the Women, Mark 12:41, Luke 2:27; Luke 2:37; Luke 21:1; in reference to the Court of the Israelites, Matthew 26:55, Mark 12:33, Luke 2:46; Luke 18:10; Luke 20:1, John 7:14; John 7:28; John 11:56; John 18:20. This temple area was called the ‘Court of the Gentiles’; it was not part of the temple proper, and therefore not sacred soil, consequently any one might enter it. ’]'>[16] above the outer one just referred to; it was surrounded by a terrace (hêl), ten cubits in breadth, which was approached from the outer court by ascending fourteen steps; these steps ran round the whole terrace, and at the bottom of them there was a low wall or breastwork (sôrçg) which was the limit to which non-Israelites might approach; along it were placed, at intervals, inscriptions warning Gentiles not to pass beyond, on pain of death; they were written in Latin and Greek; one of the latter has been discovered by Clermont-Ganneau. || Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - This rules out an older but still popular theory that the name "Lord" was projected back onto Jesus only long after his death by Gentile Christians whose pagan religious background caused them to have no scruples about applying the title kyrios [2] to a mere human being
Presbyterians - ...
The laymen who thus form an essential part of the ecclesiastical courts of Scotland are called ruling elders, and hold the same office, as well as the same name, with those brethren (Acts 15:1-41 :) who joined with the apostles and elders at Jerusalem in determining the important question concerning the necessity of imposing upon the Gentile converts the ritual observances of the law of Moses
Conscience - The Apostle here seems to lay down as unquestionable, (a) that there is a Divine law written by Nature on the heart of every man, whether Jew or Gentile; (b) that conscience is the moral faculty which bears witness to that law; (c) that in the light of that witness there is an exercise of the thoughts or reasonings (λογισμοί), in other words, of the moral judgment; (d) that, as the result of this judgment before the inward bar, men are subject to the feelings of moral self-approval or self-reproach
Athenagoras - 8 A, that he regarded the Gentile philosophers as possessing some measure of Divine light in their minds, but unable thereby to come to the full knowledge of God, because this could only be obtained by revelation, which they never sought
Atonement (2) - Paul the gospel of Christ, which is the fixed point in his teaching (Mark 16:15-16,3 1 Corinthians 15:1, John 1:32-34 2 Timothy 2:8), the touchstone of all preaching (Galatians 1:8-9, 1 Timothy 1:3; 1 Timothy 6:3), proclaimed alike to Jew and Gentile (1 Corinthians 1:24), delivered whether to St
Palestine - Although many of the Jews adopted the Greek tongue, there was a staunch puritan party who rigidly set their faces against all such Gentile contaminations
Progress - The people of Israel, as the passages referred to show, conceived of their own ‘golden age’ and that of the Gentile peoples as lying not behind but ahead of them in the less or more distant future, and they were the first people in whose mind this idea shaped and rooted itself. The religion of the Prophets, which in its ideas, sentiments, and strivings had begun to cross the boundaries of exclusive nationality, had been changed, as a system of law, as a method of Divine worship and service, as a way of salvation, and as a political ideal, into a narrow, rigid, national institution; and this institution, it was claimed, had a right to exist throughout all ages, although it was, in effect, a wall of separation not only between Jews and Gentiles, but also between the latter and God
Presbyterians - ...
The laymen who thus form an essential part of the ecclesiastical courts of Scotland are called ruling elders, and hold the same office, as well as the same name, with those brethren (Acts 15:1-41 :) who joined with the apostles and elders at Jerusalem in determining the important question concerning the necessity of imposing upon the Gentile converts the ritual observances of the law of Moses
Amos, Theology of - Israelites in Amos's time are looking forward to that day (5:18), evidently expecting that the Gentile nations will be vanquished and Israel will be elevated to a place of preeminence among the nations because of her special relationship with Yahweh
Luke - ’...
(2) In the same way it is abundantly clear that a great part of the Acts is concerned with Antioch; but if, as Acts states, Antioch was really the centre of the Gentile Christian movement, this is really a sufficient explanation, and throws no necessary light on the provenance of the writer
Fire - in Authorized Version , fire is the instrument with which Christ, at His Second Advent, executes vengeance on Gentile and Jewish enemies of the Gospel
Acts of the Apostles (2) - Ephesians 2:20; Ephesians 3:5)—not upon one Apostle, as in Luke 24:39-43 but upon the two great leaders, the head of the primitive Church who by a Divine dispensation was led to engage in a mission to the Gentiles, and the great Apostle of the heathen world who by Divine guidance had to turn his back on his own people and betake himself to the Gentiles. As in the early narratives of his Gospel he preserves almost unimpaired the colouring and tone of Jewish-Christian piety without any admixture of Graeco-Gentile-Christian elements, so also in the Acts, especially in the first part of the book, he has succeeded in presenting the original picture of the religious conceptions and the piety of the earliest Christian community in Jerusalem
Animals - The country on the east side of the Lake was much under Gentile influence
Baptism - That it was administered to all the Gentile converts, and not confined to the Jews appears from Matthew 28:19-20 , compared with Acts 10:47 ; and that the baptism of the Spirit did not supersede water baptism appears to have been the judgment of Peter and of those that were with him; so that the one baptism spoken of seems to have been that of water; the communication of the Holy Spirit being only called baptism in a figurative sense
Fire - in Authorized Version , fire is the instrument with which Christ, at His Second Advent, executes vengeance on Gentile and Jewish enemies of the Gospel
Resurrection - Whether, however, the writer intended to convey the idea of a resurrection of the Gentiles is somewhat doubtful. A very definite doctrine of the resurrection is taught in this book, though the author expressly denies its applicability to the Gentiles ( 2Ma 7:14 , cf. Paul as it gradually comes into contact with Hellenic and Gentile thought, we find the doctrine of the resurrection assuming a new and developed prominence in connexion with the resurrection of Jesus
Hebrews - Paul, as Jerom himself, Ambrose, Hilary, and Philaster; and the persons who doubted its genuineness were those the least likely to have been acquainted with the epistle at an early period, from the nature of its contents not being so interesting to the Latin churches, which consisted almost entirely of Gentile Christians, ignorant, probably, of the Mosaic law, and holding but little intercourse with Jews. Some have imagined that he omitted his name, because he knew that it would not have much weight with the Hebrew Christians, to whom he was in general obnoxious, on account of his zeal in converting the Gentiles, and in maintaining that the observance of the Mosaic law was not essential to salvation: it is, however, clear, that the persons to whom this epistle was addressed knew from whom it came, as the writer refers to some acts of kindness which he had received from them, and also expresses a hope of seeing them soon, Hebrews 10:34 ; Hebrews 13:18-19 ; Hebrews 13:23
David - At first sight, we wonder at his leaving his father and mother for safe-keeping with the king of Moab (1 Samuel 22); but the Book of Ruth shows how coincident with probability this is, and yet how little like the harmony contrived by a forger! His Gentile connection gave him somewhat enlarged views of the coming kingdom of Messiah, whose type and ancestor he was privileged to be (Psalms 2:8; Matthew 1:5)
Feasts And Festivals of Israel - Whether it be the first Gentile converts in a geographic area, the new birth and gift of the Spirit experienced by Christians, or the resurrection of Jesus himself, all are like the firstfruits of the harvest in that they are tokens of the new age in Christ and give the promise of greater things to come
Temple - "A separation" shall exist "between the sanctuary and the profane place"; but no longer the partition wall between Jew and Gentile (Ephesians 2:14; Ezekiel 42:20). Gentiles had access to the outer court. A marble screen three cubits high in front of the cloisters bore an inscription forbidding Gentiles to enter (compare Acts 21:28)
Romans Epistle to the - ) to reconstruct from hints afforded by the Epistle the conditions of the Christian community in Rome, and the relations existing between its Jewish and Gentile elements; the ‘strong’ and the ‘weak’ of chs
Sacrifice - Jewish and Gentile Christians possessed a different heritage of sacrificial practices; the apostolic literature has reference to both, but the references to the Jewish immeasurably preponderate
Ideas (Leading) - Why not have made a Jew assist a Samaritan, or even a Gentile, in order to illustrate the principle? But our Lord wished to teach by an example appealing rather to the humanity than to the national feelings of His hearer
Turning - So likewise at Antioch, when ‘a great number that believed turned unto the Lord’ (Acts 11:21); and when Paul and Barnabas preached to the people of Lystra that they should ‘turn from these vain things unto the living God’ (Acts 14:15); and again when the same Apostles passed through Phœnicia and Samaria ‘declaring the conversion of the Gentiles,’ and causing great joy unto all the brethren (Acts 15:3; see, further, Acts 15:19, Acts 26:18; Acts 26:20). Paul’s claim, as he stands before King Agrippa, is that he has declared alike to Jew and Gentile ‘that they should repent and turn to God’ (Acts 26:20)
Jesus Christ - ...
Jesus made at least three major preaching tours through Galilee at this time, as well as two that took him into Gentile territory to the north and east
Galatia - What more natural, ask the South Galatian theorists, than that this much-frequented district should become the storm-centre of a Judaistic controversy, and that the Apostle should write the most militant and impassioned of all his letters in defence of the spiritual liberty of the converts of his pioneer mission? On the North Galatian theory, the founding of churches, say in Pessinus, Ancyra, and Tavium, and their subsequent development, had much more to do with the extension and triumph of apostolic Christianity among the Gentiles-which was St. Paul was contending for the spiritual freedom of the Gentiles at the Jerusalem Council, which was held before the journey on which, according to the old theory, he preached in North Galatia. Paul here merely claims to have been lighting the battle of the Gentiles, or the Gentile Christians, generally; but in that case he would probably have said ‘you Gentiles’ (Ephesians 2:11; Ephesians 3:1)
John the Baptist - It was recognized that judgments would accompany the appearance of the Christ, but these judgments were to fall upon the Gentiles, while Abraham’s children would be secure and happy in that day of the Lord. When a Gentile ‘sought shelter under the wings of the Shekinah,’ it was understood that he was utterly renouncing his past
Colossians, Epistle to the - That the Church there was entirely or at least predominantly Gentile is shown clearly enough by the Epistle (Colossians 1:21; Colossians 1:27; Colossians 2:13; cf
Calendar, the Christian - 214), the Gentile Christians must have very quickly learnt all over the world to keep the Lord’s Day; they were never compelled to keep the Sabbath, which was not one of the four observances enjoined in Acts 15:29
Greek Versions of ot - It was in that form that the Gentile Christians received the OT; and they were under no temptation to desert it for the Hebrew Bible (which was the property of their enemies, the Jews), even if they had been able to read it
John, Epistles of - Some of them were mercenary in their aims, and the conflict of opinion in this instance may have had some connexion with the current controversies between Jewish and Gentile Christians
Apocalypse - They may be classified under three heads: (A) Jewish, (B) Jewish-Christian, (C) Hellenic or Gentile. They are the work or Hellenistic Jews, and are written in Greek hexameters for Gentiles, under names which have authority for such readers
Offering - In his vision of the universal worship of God, even in Gentile lands, Malachi saw the minchâh given as “a pure offering” to God by believers everywhere ( John, the Gospel by - Man, being a sinner, his whole status as in the flesh, whether Jew or Gentile, is regarded as judged and set aside in the lifting up of the Son of man, the antitype of the brazen serpent, and life is found for man beyond death. Also there is no fold now, but one flock and one Shepherd: thus Jews and Gentiles are joined in one flock. These were Gentiles, and their petition serves to bring out yet another glory of the Lord Jesus
Revelation, the - The Roman empire is now seen as a beast, rising out of the sea, the unorganised mass of the Gentile people
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - Levi is to be freed from iniquity, and to become to God ‘a son, and a servant, and a minister of His presence,’ and light up in Jacob the light of knowledge [1] (iv. [16] shall arise, to enlighten the Gentiles (xi. -The prevailing view until quite recently was that the work emanated from a Jewish Christian or even a Gentile Christian source
Sea of Galilee - The Gentile world also lends its testimony
Law - The maxim that ‘what enters into the man from without cannot defile,’ but only ‘the things that issue out of the man,’ was of far-reaching application, and supplied afterwards the charter of Gentile Christianity
Dates (2) - 1), who in consequence became the founder of the Zealot party, which resisted Gentile taxation and authority
Freedom of the Will - Paul in at least three ways; for the Law of Moses, for the natural law, written ‘on the heart’ of the Gentiles, and for the Law of Moses considered as a system of law in general. Now the Law, either as known to the Gentiles, or revealed more fully to the Jews, with its lists of forbidden acts, should have helped man to righteousness; but, enslaved as he was, it only pointed out in detail what he had no power to do, thus making his tyrant doubly hateful, and himself doubly a slave (Romans 2:14; Romans 3:20). But if there is revolt, God confirms, yet only so as to over-rule; it is all the better for the Gentiles, and, in the end, for the Jews also. Paul turns to the Gentiles: ‘You too will find that resistance is followed by severity. also Acts 13:46, ‘we turn to the Gentiles,’ Acts 18:6). Paul with a specific speculative opinion, it would be enough to point out that his whole attitude, to both Jews and Gentiles, belies it. Paul turned to the Gentiles in one town, he would go straight to the synagogue in the next. This was particularly necessary for a community of Gentile converts, at once containing a Jewish leaven which held to the whole body of Mosaic restrictions (cf
Divinity of Christ - What lend essential and abiding worth both to the Hebrew hostility to Gentile oppression and the Hebrew appeal to Jehovah’s righteous right hand are a faith and a passion which, if quickened into power by the vicissitudes of history, were themselves underived from history, and native to the spirit of the nation
Law - "...
Ephesians 2:15 ; Hebrews 10:1 ; and which, being only "a shadow of good things to come," Christ Jesus abolished by his death, and so in effect destroyed the ancient distinction between Jew and Gentile, Galatians 3:17
Trinity - The almost universal prevalence of this doctrine in the Gentile kingdoms must be considered as a strong argument in favour of its truth. The combining this plural noun with a verb in the singular would not appear so remarkable, if Moses had uniformly adhered to that mode of expression; for then it would be evident that he adopted the mode used by the Gentiles in speaking of their false gods in the plural number, but by joining with it a singular verb or adjective, rectified a phrase that might appear to give a direct sanction to the error of polytheism
Persecution - Judah had become once more the people of Jahweh; in possession of a Bible which embodied the will of God, and controlled her whole life, she stood over against the Gentile world, with its idols and superstitions
Paul - It is not difficult ‘to find in Galatians 1:5 to Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:11; Galatians 4:12 to Galatians 6:10 three successive arguments upon (a) the divine origin of Paul’s gospel, (b) the complete right of Gentile Christians to the messianic inheritance, and (c) the vital connection between the Christian Spirit and the moral life’ (Moffatt, LNT_, p
Possession - The Christians fully recognized the supernatural power possessed by the Jewish and Gentile exorcists, but they claimed to be in many respects their superiors
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - The Jewish nation and its privileges are not even mentioned, nor the distinction between Jew and Gentile
Apostles - The people were genuinely Jewish, and not given to Gentile tastes or customs
Authority of Christ - Jesus, he holds, could only have used ‘Son of God’ in the Messianic official sense of " translation="">Psalms 2:7; here, therefore, where the meaning is clearly more than official, it cannot be the voice of a Jewish Messiah which is heard, but the voice of the Christian consciousness in a Gentile environment: the larger Church has universalized the Jewish conception, elevated the official Son—the Messianic King—into a Son by nature, and put its own faith and its own experience of Jesus into Jesus’ own lips
Clementine Literature - " Then follow the 10th homily headed "the third against the Gentiles"; the 11th homily headed "the fourth"; the 12th and 13th homilies, the former only as far as c. Peter resolves to follow him among the Gentiles and expose his wickedness; and having remained three months at Caesarea for the establishment of the church, he ordains Zacchaeus as its bishop, and sets out for Tripolis, now the centre of Simon's operations. In this no mention is made of Clement, but Peter himself sends his discourses to James, strictly forbidding their indiscriminate publication, and charging him not to communicate them to any Gentile, nor even to any of the circumcised, except after a long probation, and the later ones only after such an one had been tried and found faithful with regard to the earlier
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - in 24 heads on the succession of the Gentile to the Jewish church
Expiation - This very comparison, we may affirm, is utterly unaccountable and absurd on any hypothesis which denies the sacrifice of Christ; for what relation could his death have to the Levitical immolations and offerings, if it had no sacrificial character? Nothing could, in fact, be more misleading, and even absurd, than to apply those terms which, both among Jews and Gentiles, were in use to express the various processes and means of atonement and piacular propitiation, if the Apostles and Christ himself did not intend to represent his death strictly as an expiation for sin:— misleading, because such would be the natural and necessary inference from the terms themselves, which had acquired this as their established meaning:—and absurd, because if, as Socinians say, they used them metaphorically, there was not even an ideal resemblance between the figure and that which it was intended to illustrate. The use of such terms, we have said, would not only be wholly absurd, but criminally misleading to the Gentiles, as well as to the Jews, who were first converted to Christianity. In like manner the Jews had their expiatory sacrifices, and the terms and phrases used in them are, in like manner, employed by the Apostles to characterize the death of their Lord; and they would have been as guilty of misleading their Jewish as their Gentile readers, had they employed them in a new sense, and without warning, which, unquestionably, they never gave
Jerusalem - As Jerusalem was the centre of the true worship, Lamentations 1:1-6 , and the place where God did in a peculiar manner dwell, first in the tabernacle, 2 Samuel 6:7 ; 2 Samuel 6:12 ; 1 Chronicles 15:1 ; 1 Chronicles 16:1 ; Psalms 132:13 ; Psalms 135:2 , and afterward in the temple, 1 Kings 6:13 ; so it is used figuratively to denote the church, or the celestial society, to which all that believe, both Jews and Gentiles, are come, and in which they are initiated, Galatians 4:26 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 3:12 ; Revelation 21:2 ; Revelation 21:10 . But this extremity of ignominy and oppression led, as might have been expected, to rebellion; and those Jews who still held their insulted religion in reverence, fled to the mountains, with Mattathias and Judas Maccabeus; the latter of whom, after the death of Mattathias, who with his followers and successors, are known by the name of Maccabees, waged successful war with the Syrians; defeated Apollonius, Nicanor, and Lysias, generals of Antiochus; obtained possession of Jerusalem, purified the temple, and restored the service, after three years' defilement by the Gentile idolatries
Bible - The history called the Acts of the Apostles, which contains an account of their proceedings, and of the progress of the Gospel, from Jerusalem, among the Gentile nations, was published about the year 64, being thirty years after our Lord's crucifixion, by one who, though not an Apostle, declares that he had "perfect understanding of all things, from the very first," and who had written one of the Gospels
Worship - The first yearly festivals of the Christians proceeded from similar views; and at first the contrast which had in early times the most powerful influence on the developement as well of the churchly life, as of the doctrines of Christianity, is peculiarly prominent; I mean the contrast between the Jewish churches and those of the Gentile converts
Synods - It originated in the attempt made to oblige the Gentile converts at Antioch to submit to the rite of circumcision. The result of their deliberations was, that the Mosaic ordinances, being too rigorous, should be abrogated; and that their decision should be communicated to "the brethren which were of the Gentiles,"...
Acts 15:1-30
Originality - With faith in Christ and His resurrection, the Gentile converts to the new faith accepted also the worship of the one God alone, and the denial of idolatry; while in their turn they set aside, in the name of Christ, the more repugnant elements of Judaism, particularly circumcision. This purified Judaism purified itself more and more as it spread among the Gentiles, and became permeated by the spirit of Greek philosophy
Paul (2) - Still even this is a testimony to the energy and widespread influence of the Apostle of the Gentiles. ...
Later on, when the victory was won, when the free admission of the Gentiles was secured and Jewish churches and Gentile churches stood over against each other on an equal footing, the Apostle is able to see the Divine purpose running through the alternate acceptance and rejection, and to map out the periods of history as the balance swayed now to one side and now to the other
Perfection (of Jesus) - His help in sickness was for rich and poor, in all circumstances and conditions—the solitary leper, and the mourning widow in the streets of Nain; the paralytic of thirty-eight years, friendless and helpless, and the bond-servant of the household of the Roman centurion, whose name was held in honour throughout all Capernaum; the daughter of Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue, and the daughter of a nameless Gentile woman of Syro-Phœnicia