1 to be born first. 1a (Piel). 1a1 to bear early, new fruit. 1a2 to give the right of the Firstborn. 1a2a to make as Firstborn. 1a2b to constitute as Firstborn. 1b (Pual). 1b1 to be born a firstling. 1b2 to be made a firstling. 1c (Hiphil) one bearing her first child.
First son born to a couple and required to be specially dedicated to God. The firstborn son of newly married people was believed to represent the prime of human vigor (Genesis 49:3 ; Psalm 78:51 ). In memory of the death of Egypt's firstborn and the preservation of the firstborn of Israel, all the firstborn of Israel, both of man and beast, belonged to Yahweh (Exodus 13:2 ,Exodus 13:2,13:15 ; compare Exodus 12:12-16 ). This meant that the people of Israel attached unusual value to the eldest son and assigned special privileges and responsibilities to him. He was presented to the Lord when he was a month old. Since he belonged to the Lord, it was necessary for the father to buy back the child from the priest at a redemption price not to exceed five shekels (Numbers 18:16 ). The husband of several wives would have to redeem the firstborn of each. The birthright of a firstborn included a double portion of the estate and leadership of the family. As head of the house after his father's death, the eldest son customarily cared for his mother until her death, and he also provided for his sisters until their marriage. The firstborn might sell his rights as Esau did (Genesis 25:29-34 ) or forfeit them for misconduct as Reuben did because of incest (Genesis 35:22 ; Genesis 49:3-4 ).
The firstborn of a clean animal was brought into the sanctuary on the eighth day after birth (Exodus 22:30 ). If it were without blemish, it was sacrificed (Deuteronomy 15:19 ; Numbers 18:17 ). If it had a blemish, the priest to whom it was given could eat it as common food outside Jerusalem (Deuteronomy 15:21-23 ), or it could be eaten at home by its owner. Apparently the firstborn of clean animals were not to be used for any work since they belonged to the Lord (Deuteronomy 15:19 ).
The firstborn of an unclean animal had to be redeemed by an estimation of the priest, with the addition of one-fifth (Leviticus 27:27 ; Numbers 18:15 ). According to Exodus 13:13 ; Exodus 34:20 , the firstborn of an ass was either ransomed by a sheep or lamb, or its neck had to be broken
Figuratively, Israel was God's “firstborn” (Exodus 4:22 ; Jeremiah 31:9 ) and enjoyed priority status. God compared His relationship to Israel with the relationship of a father and his firstborn son. Within Israel, the tribe of Levi represented the firstborn of the nation in its worship ceremony (Numbers 3:40-41 ; Numbers 8:18 ).
Christ is the “firstborn” of the Father (Hebrews 1:6 NIV) by having preeminent position over others in relation to Him. He is also described as “firstborn among many brethren” ( Romans 8:29 ) and “firstborn of all creation” (Colossians 1:15 NAS). Paul ( Colossians 1:18 ) and John (Revelation 1:5 ) refer to Christ as “firstborn from the dead”—the first to rise bodily from the grave and not die again.
Hebrews 12:23 refers to the “church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven.” Christian believers, united with and as joint heirs with Christ, enjoy the status of “firstborn” in God's household.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Firstborn
Frequently employed in the Bible in the literal sense of offspring, "firstborn" acquired metaphorical applications over time. Two such New Testament uses, as a term for the church and as a title for Christ, are theologically significant.
The firstborn son in patriarchal society was regarded as special (Genesis 49:3 ; Exodus 13:2 ). He became the head of the family upon his father's death, having received his father's blessing (Genesis 27 ) and a double portion of the inheritance (Deuteronomy 21:17 ).
After the Passover event in Egypt, every firstborn male belonged to God. This implied priestly duties, an obligation later transferred to the Levites (Numbers 8:14-19 ).
Of special significance is the divine claim that Israel was God's firstborn (Exodus 4:22-23 ). This signified Israel's favored status among the nations to be in covenant relationship with God. But it also meant Israel had a priestly function to perform as God's saving light to Gentile peoples.
In the Book of Hebrews the author appears to call Christians "firstborn ones" (prototokon ) in virtue of their relationship to Christ, whom he has already called the "firstborn" (prototokon ) in 1:6. Through him they have been "enrolled in heaven."
The context of Hebrews 12:18-29 gives substance to this expression as a term for Christians. The spiritual nature of the church is underscored. "Mount Zion" is a "heavenly Jerusalem, " a "city of the living God" (v. 22) contrasted both to Mount Sinai where the Law was given (vv. 18-21) and to the earthly Jerusalem and its temple worship.
Christian life and worship occur in a spiritual community that includes God, angels, and human beings (vv. 22-24). The hosts of angels are in festal array, reminiscent of their task of worshiping the Son brought into the world for human redemption (1:6), rather than as the mediators of the Law during the awesome display at Mount Sinai. The church is composed not only of present earthly believers but also of the "spirits of just persons who have been made perfect." This latter expression likely refers to the Old Testament faithful who could not reach completion until the Christian dispensation (11:40); these now comprise the cloud of witnesses who applaud the race of the earthly Christians (12:1). The "church of the firstborn" does not displace faithful Israel, but joins with them in perfect worship to God through the mediation of Christ.
The "church of the firstborn" lives in humility, gratitude, and awe (vv. 26-29), for in Christ they have received a kingdom that will endure the judgment of the eschaton. Christ has given them both the gift of his salvation and the obligation to be his priestly community among unbelieving peoples (Hebrews 13 ).
Christ is called God's "firstborn" in Hebrews 1:6 . This is a metaphorical use of the term and does not imply that Christ merely was created prior to other beings or the world in general. Rather it connotes his special status as the unique Son of God.
Luke L. Keefer, Jr.
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of
Bibliography . F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Firstborn
FIRSTBORN. 1. The dedication of the firstborn of men and beasts was probably a primitive nomadic custom, and therefore earlier than the offering of first-fruits, which could not arise until the Israelites had settled into agricultural life in Canaan. The origin of the belief that a peculiar value attached to the firstborn cannot be definitely traced; but it would be a natural inference that what was valuable to the parent would be valuable to his God. And thus the word ‘firstborn’ could be used figuratively of Israel as the firstborn of Jâ³  among the nations ( Exodus 4:22 , cf. Jeremiah 31:9 ), and the seed of David among dynasties ( Deuteronomy 16:1-8 ). The law of the dedication of the firstborn is found in JE  ( Exodus 13:11-16 ; Exodus 22:29 b, Exodus 34:19Exodus 34:19 f.), D  ( Deuteronomy 15:19-23 ), P  ( Exodus 13:1 f., Numbers 3:11-13 ; Numbers 3:40-51 ; Numbers 18:15-18 ). It is not impossible that in very primitive times firstborn sons were sometimes actually sacrificed (cf. 2 Kings 3:27 , Micah 6:7 ), but the practice would soon grow up of ‘redeeming’ them by money or payments in kind.
2. The firstborn ( bekhÃ´r ) enjoyed the birthright ( bekhÃ´rÃ¢h ). He succeeded his father as head of the family, and took the largest share of the property; this was fixed in Deuteronomy 21:17 as a ‘double portion.’ . If a man died without children, the heir was the firstborn of his widow by his brother or next-of-kin ( Deuteronomy 25:5-10 ). The right of the firstborn, however, was often disturbed, owing to the jealousies and quarrels arising from the polygamy practised in Israel. The law in Deuteronomy 21:15-17 is directed against the abuse. Reuben, although the son of Leah, the less favoured of Jacob’s two wives, was considered the firstborn, and lost the right only because of his sin ( Genesis 49:3 f., 1 Chronicles 5:1 ). But Ishmael was allowed no share at all in the father’s property ( Genesis 21:10 ); and the superiority of Jacob over Esau (symbolizing the superiority of Israel over Edom) is described as having been foretold before their birth ( Genesis 25:23 ), and as brought about by Esau’s voluntary surrender of the birthright ( Genesis 25:29-34 ). And other instances occur of the younger being preferred to the elder, e.g. Ephraim ( Genesis 48:13-20 ), Solomon ( 1 Kings 1:1-53 ), Shimri ( 1 Chronicles 26:10 ).
3. The death of the firstborn was the last of the punishments sent upon Egypt for Pharaoh’s refusal to let the Israelites go. Moses gave him due warning ( Exodus 11:4-8 ), and on his continued refusal the stroke fell ( Exodus 12:29 f.). The event is referred to in Psalms 78:51 ; Psalms 105:36 ; Psalms 135:8 ; Psalms 136:10 , Hebrews 11:28 . It is probable (see Plagues of Egypt) that the stories of all the other plagues have been founded on historical occurrences, and that the Egyptians suffered from a series of ‘natural’ catastrophes. If this is true of the first nine, it is reasonable to assume it for the last, and we may suppose that a pestilence raged which created great havoc, but did not spread to the Israelite quarter. The growth of the tradition into its present form must be explained by the ‘Ã¦tiological’ interest of the Hebrew writer the tendency to create idealized situations in a remote past for the purpose of explaining facts or institutions whose origin was forgotten. Thus the Feast of Booths was accounted for at a late date by the dwelling of the Israelites in booths after the Exodus ( Leviticus 23:43 ), the Feast of Unleavened Cakes by the haste with which they departed from Egypt ( Exodus 12:34 ; Exodus 13:7 f.), the Feast of the Passover by the passing over of the houses marked with blood at the destruction of the firstborn ( Exodus 12:12 f., Exodus 12:23 ; Exodus 12:27 ). And similarly the singling out of the firstborn for destruction was itself connected with the ancient practice of offering to God annually in spring the firstlings of beasts. Moses demanded release in order to offer the sacrifice ( Exodus 10:25 f.), and because Pharaoh refused to allow them to offer their firstlings, Jâ³  took from the Egyptians their firstborn. This explanation, though not explicitly given, is implied in the close connexion of the dedication of the firstborn with the Passover ( Exodus 13:11-13 , Deuteronomy 15:19 ; Psalms 89:28 ). In a redactional passage ( Exodus 4:22 f.) a different explanation is offered. The death of the firstborn would be a punishment for refusal to release Israel, who was Jâ³  ’s firstborn.
4. In the NT the term ‘firstborn’ ( prÃ´totokos ) is used of Christ ( Romans 8:29 , Colossians 1:15 ; Colossians 1:18 , Hebrews 1:6 , Revelation 1:5 ), and of Christians who have died ( Hebrews 12:23 ); see the commentaries.
A. H. M‘Neile.
Webster's Dictionary - Firstborn
(a.) First brought forth; first in the order of nativity; eldest; hence, most excellent; most distinguished or exalted.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Redemption of the Firstborn
See this subject largely treated under the article: Firstborn.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Firstborn
(See BIRTHRIGHT.) Primogeniture gave princedom and priesthood in patriarchal times. So Esau and Jacob (Genesis 25:23-33; Hebrews 12:16), Reuben (Genesis 49:3; 1 Chronicles 5:1). The oldest son in all Israelite families was regarded as sacred to God, because Israel's firstborn were exempted from the stroke which destroyed all the firstborn of Egypt on the first Passover night. The firstborn represented the whole people; Jehovah said to Pharaoh, "Israel is My son, My firstborn, and I say unto thee, Let My son go, that he may serve He; and if thou refuse to let him go, behold I will slay thy son, thy firstborn" (Exodus 4:22-23). Israel, as Jehovah's firstborn, was designed to be a" kingdom of priests and an holy nation" (Exodus 19:6).
It shall hereafter realize this high Calling in a degree that it has not yet realized it, standing as "the firstborn among many brethren" (like the antitypical Israel, Messiah, Romans 8:29; Hebrews 2:12), and priest among all nations, which in subordination to Jerusalem, the spiritual metropolis, shall be the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ, then manifested (Isaiah 61:6; Isaiah 66:21; Revelation 11:15; Zechariah 14:16; Jeremiah 3:17). The tribe of Levi was substituted for all Israel's firstborn to minister to the Lord (Numbers 3:12; Numbers 3:45; Numbers 3:50). There being 273 more of the firstborn in Israel than the males in Levi, the 273 were redeemed at five shekels apiece. Still, to mark the consecration of Israel to Jehovah, the redemption money was exacted for every firstborn (Numbers 18:15). But the firstlings of cattle were to be offered to the Lord.
An donkey was however redeemed with a lamb, or else killed (Exodus 13:13). Christ is the First-begotten. As such, He has the rights of primogeniture; for, as Hebrews 1:6 is in the Greek, "when God shall bring in again the First. begotten into the world, the shall be deemed worthy of not less honor, for "He saith (Psalms 97:7), Let all the angels of God worship Him." His being "brought into the world" (oikoumenee , "the inhabited world"), as the theater of His power, mainly applies to His second advent. In (Colossians 1:16, "the Firstborn of every creature"; implying priority and superlative dignity. Psalms 89:27, "My Firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth," David's antitype, the Messiah.
See Colossians 1:16 (proototokos pasees ktiseoos , as John 1:15; John 1:30; John 15:18, prootos mou , "long before Me"), "begotten long before every creature"; the reason why He is so designated follows, "for He is before all things." "First-begotten" marks at once His eternal priority and His condescending to brotherhood with us (Romans 8:29). "Only begotten" marks His relation to the Father by generation from everlasting. Since He is "long before every creature," He cannot be a creature Himself but the Creator. And as He is the first begotten, originating the natural creation, so He is "the firstborn (proototokos , 'first begotten,' Revelation 1:5) from ("out of", ek ) the dead," and therefore "the Beginning" (Colossians 1:18) of "the church of the firstborn" (Hebrews 12:23), the originating Agent of the new creation.
He was "begotten" of the Father to a new life at His resurrection (the day when the Father fulfilled Psalms 2:7 according to Acts 13:33; Romans 1:4) which is His "regeneration"; so He is "the Prince-leader (archeegos ) of life." "Regeneration," begun in the soul now, will extend to the body at the resurrection of the saints; and to nature, now groaning under the curse (Matthew 19:28; Luke 20:36; 1 John 3:2; Romans 8:11; Romans 8:19; Romans 8:23). As He is "the firstborn" in relation to the election church, so it is "the church of the firstborn," "a kind of first-fruits of His creatures" (James 1:18), in relation to the millennial church, and to the hereafter to be regenerated natural creation. As Christ is "the firstfruits," earnest and pledge of the coming resurrection, so believers are "a kind of first-fruits," a pledge and earnest of the ultimate regeneration of creation.
As He is first begotten by generation from everlasting, so believers by adoptions, "begotten again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible," etc. (1 Peter 1:3.) As Israel, on the ground of being God's "firstborn," was a king-priestly nation, so believers (Revelation 1:6). The figurative phrase, "the firstborn of death," means the deadliest disease that death (personified) ever gendered (Job 18:13). "The firstborn of the poor," the poorest.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Firstborn
The first of the mother's offspring. It stands figuratively for that which is most excellent. The firstborn male of the family carried certain familial rites and privileges (Genesis 27:1-29; Gen 48:13-14) and was given a double portion of the inheritance (Deuteronomy 21:17). The term is also applied to Christ as the pre-eminent one and the first one raised from the dead (Colossians 1:15; Col 1:18). It does not mean first created as Jehovah's Witnesses believe. In fact, the firstborn rites were transferable. Compare Jeremiah 31:9 with Genesis 41:50-52.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Firstborn
One of the fundamental ideas with regard to Jehovah in early Israel was that of His being owner of the land, and consequently lord also of all that the land brought forth and of all that lived upon it (Leviticus 25:23,Psalms 50:10-12). Closely connected with this idea was a further one to the effect that the land was held in tenure; Jehovah was the landowner, His people the tenants; but their tenancy depended solely on the will of Jehovah (Deuteronomy 30:20 etc.).*  As lord of the land and giver of all that it produced, tribute was due to Him; this tribute took the form of the offering of first-fruits.†  Not only, however, was the land Jehovah’s possession, but the people who lived upon it, and upon its produce, were likewise His; this would follow naturally by virtue of Jehovah’s overlordship. Therefore, just as Jehovah, being owner of the land, received the first-fruits of its produce as tribute due to Him, so, being also owner of the people, did He receive the firstborn as, in the same way, a tribute due to Him. This is not definitely stated in the Bible, but the notices of child-sacrifice lead us to infer that at some early period the rite of the sacrifice of the firstborn was performed, and the analogy of the offering up of the firstlings of the flock points to a similar usage with regard to man (Exodus 13:2; Exodus 22:29; Exodus 34:20); moreover, the prevalence of the practice among ethnologically allied races‡  makes it in a high degree probable that originally the descendants of Abram sacrificed their firstborn as a tribute to the Deity (see below, ‘Redemption of the firstborn’). As the firstborn are spoken of as being particularly the possession of Jehovah, one would expect to find them occupying the position of His special ministers; it is possible that this was the case originally (cf. Hannah’s vow, 1 Samuel 1:11),§  especially as in Numbers 3:12 it is said: ‘Behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the firstborn that openeth the womb among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be mine’ (cf. Numbers 3:45); as a matter of fact, however, the earliest Code commands the redemption of the firstborn: ‘All the firstborn of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem’ (Exodus 13:13, cf. Exodus 13:15; Exodus 34:20).
From the foregoing one can understand that the term ‘firstborn,’ πρωτότοκος (that which, as the most precious, belonged, in the first instance, to Jehovah), came to be one of particular honour (cf. Exodus 4:22,Jeremiah 31:9), and it is used as such in reference to Christ (Romans 8:29,Colossians 1:15; Colossians 1:18).
The only occurrence of the term in the Gospels is in Luke 2:7 καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν τὸν πρωτότοκον,*  and apart from its significance to the Jewish mind as outlined above, its importance lies in its bearing upon the question of the perpetual virginity of the mother of Christ. The term does not necessarily suggest the subsequent birth of other children; for, in the first place, as a title of honour it would naturally be mentioned in connexion with Christ by the Evangelist; and secondly, to Jews the significance of ‘firstborn’ lay in the special sanctity which attached to such;†  this is clear from what has been said in the previous section; indeed, St. Luke directly implies as much when he quotes, in substance, from Exodus 13:2; Exodus 13:12 ‘Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord’ (Luke 2:23).
Redemption of the firstborn.—In the passage Luke 2:22 ff. two distinct ceremonies are referred to: the presentation to the Lord, and the redemption; the former of these implies the actual dedication of the child to God (cf. 1 Samuel 1:28); from what has been said above, this ceremony must be regarded as the fulfilling in spirit of the primitive act of literally devoting (sacrificing) the firstborn son to the Deity. The distinction between the two ceremonies may be illustrated by the practice of modern orthodox Jews. The father of the child first presents his firstborn to the cohen, and makes a declaration ending with the words: ‘It is said, Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast; it is mine.’ This is a definite act of presentation to God, of renunciation on the part of the father,—the child is no longer his. This part of the ceremony corresponds to Luke 2:22-23; Luke 2:27-28. Then the father places fifteen shillings (five sclaim or shekels) before the cohen, who thereupon asks: ‘Which wouldst thou rather, give me thy firstborn son, the firstborn of his mother,‡  or redeem him for five selaim, which thou art bound to give according to the Law?’ The father replies: ‘I desire rather to redeem my son, and here thou hast the value of his redemption, which I am bound to give according to the Law.’§  This ceremony corresponds to Luke 2:24.||  This redemption of the firstborn¶  (פִּדִיוֹן הַבֵּן) took place thirty days after birth (Luke 2:22; cf. Leviticus 12:4,Numbers 18:16),** 7 and the price of redemption was, according to Numbers 3:47; Numbers 18:16, five shekels; in Exodus 13:13 the command to redeem the firstborn is given, though the price of redemption is not mentioned, while in Leviticus 12 there is no mention at all regarding the redemption of the firstborn, reference being made only to an atonement which has to be made for the purification of the mother; it may be owing to Leviticus 12 that in Luke 2:22 ‘their’ purification is spoken of, i.e. of the child as well as of the mother; at any rate v. 24 seems to point to an amalgamation of the offerings due from the mother for purification, and on behalf of the child for redemption;*  in the modern service of prayer of thanksgiving for women after recovery from childbirth no provision is made for any offering.
Literature.—See the authorities referred to in the foot-notes.
W. O. E. Oesterley.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Firstborn
I should not think it necessary to detain the reader with any thing by way of explanation to these terms, being in themselves sufficiently obvious, but only when applied to the person of Christ, considered with an eye to him, they merit attention.
We are told by the apostle to the Colossians, (Colossians 1:18) that he who is the Head of his body the church, and who is the beginning, was also the first-born from the dead, that "in all things he might have the pre-eminence." It is astonishing to what minute circumstances every thing in the church of the Old Testament had a reference, by way of typifying the Lord Jesus Christ in this pre-eminency of character, as the first, and first-born, and first-fruits, and the firstlings of the flock, and of the herd. As if (and which in reality is the case), JEHOVAH would have every thing shadow forth and bring forward somewhat either by allusion, or by direct type, concerning him who is the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, and sum and substance of all things, in the ordinance of God for salvation. We find this beginning even in the patriarchal age. So that Jacob, when a-dying, though he set aside Reuben from the right of primogeniture, for his particular offence against his father, yet still speaks of the dignity of it."Reuben (saith he) thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength; the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power."Then follows the sentence of degradation,"Thou shalt not excel;" that is, thou shalt not retain the right of heirship. (Genesis 49:4) And at the formation of the church, at the Exodus by Moses, while the first-born of the Egyptians, both of man and beast, were all killed, the Lord declared, that all the first-born of Israel, both of man and beast, should be consecrated to him. (Exodus 12:29; Exo 13:2)
I do not presume to speak with any confidence upon the subject; but I would very humbly ask, Is there not somewhat wonderfully striking in this appointment of the Lord? The Passover that was then observed, we have authority to say, was altogether typical of Christ; for God the Holy Ghost declared by Paul the apostle, that Christ, "our passover, was sacrificed for us." (1 Corinthians 5:7) And as this Passover, in the sprinkling of the blood of the lamb of the first year, without blemish, and without spot, on the houses of the Israelites, become the only cause of safety, to make all the difference between the first-born of Israel and the first-born of Egypt; are we not taught herefrom, that the year of Christ's redeemed is no less the day of Christ's vengance? (Isaiah 63:4) God will have a sacrifice of judgment in the firstlings of his enemies, as well as of mercy in the firstlings of his people. So much will JEHOVAH in all things honour his dear Son, as the first, and first-born, and only begotten of his Father, that at the forming of the church there shall be a destruction in the first-born of those that hate him. I do not presume to speak decidedly on this point; but I cannot but conceive, that there is somewhat very striking on this ground is the difference here shewn between Israel and Egypt. (Exodus 11:7)
And if the reader will pursue the subject through the Bible, in the several types by which Christ the first-born is set forth, he will, I am persuaded, be wonderfully struck, as he passeth through the sacred volume, with the vast attention manifested on the occasion.
The first-born among the children of Israel had a precedency and birthright, which certainly pointed to Jesus. The right of priesthood was with the elder son, and a double portion among his brethren. (Genesis 49:8) And if a man had many wives, still the first-born of every one of them was to be consecrated to the Lord.
And under this view I must not forget to observe, that the offering appointed for every male that opened the womb, (see Exodus 13:2 with Exodus 34:19-20; Leviticus 12:6; Luke 2:21-24) had a direct reference to Christ. Yea, some have thought (and it is a point worthy the most serious consideration,) whether this direction concerning the opening of the womb had respect to any other. For strictly and properly speaking, none but the Lord Jesus ever did open the womb. By the miraculous impregnation of the Virgin, from the overshadowing power of the Holy Ghost, the opening of womb was specially and peculiarly only effected at the birth of Christ; whereas, in every other instance, from the creation of the world, as anatomists well know, it is accomplished at the time of conception. And if this be the case in the instance of Christ, and this appointment of dedication to the Lord of the first-born, that openeth the womb had respect only to Christ; what an eye to this one birth, all along through the whole Levitical dispensation, was manifested by this right of the Lord, both in the first-born of men and of beast, to typify Christ!
I beg the reader on this occasion, as in many others, to observe, that I presume not to speak with any positiveness upon the subject; I only state it. Certain it is, that in all things, and by every way, it was and is JEHOVAH'S will, Jesus should have the pre-eminency. It is blessed, therefore, upon all occasions to discover it.
The redemption of the first-born among the children of Israel, was usually observed with great ceremony. The parents brought their son to the priest, together with the appointed offering for redemption, (See Numbers 18:15-16) and the priest received the child from his mother's hands, with the solemn assurance, that it was her firstborn. The priest then claiming the child in right of the Lord, accepts at the parents' hands the appointed offering, and return the infant; and the day concludes in holy rejoicing.
It forms an additional testimony, that all this was with an eye to Christ, in that among the first-born of the Levites, the redemption of the first-born was not appointed. (Numbers 1:47; Num 3:12-13) And, wherefore, among the Levites this exemption, for it is evident our Lord sprang out of Judah? The whole of Israel is said to be unto JEHOVAH "a kingdom of priests." (Exodus 19:6) And therefore, in every thing, and by every way, both in a single tribe and in the whole people, as the Lord's chosen, as shall be typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. In a word, JEHOVAH'S great design all along, and from one eternity to another, is to glorify his dear Son. In all things and by all things, he shall have the pre-eminence. "Every knee shall bow before him, and every tongue confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." Amen,
I will detain the reader no longer than just to remark, that the offering of the first fruits had an eye to the Lord Jesus, similar to what hath been shewn respecting the first-born. For the waving the first fruits towards heaven, and the lamb that was to be offered with it for a burnt offering, very plainly testified, that this also was typical. (See in confirmation Leviticus 23:10-14.)
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Firstborn
Bekôr (בְּכוֹר, Strong's #1060), “firstborn.” Bekôr appears about 122 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods. The word represents the “firstborn” individual in a family (Gen. 25:13); the word can also represent the “firstborn” of a nation, collectively (Num. 3:46). The plural form of the word appears occasionally (Neh. 10:36); in this passage, the word is applied to animals. In other passages, the singular form of bekôr signifies a single “firstborn” animal (Lev. 27:26; KJV, “firstling”) or collectively the “firstborn” of a herd (Exod. 11:5).
The “oldest” or “firstborn” son (Exod. 6:14) had special privileges within the family. He received the special family blessing, which meant spiritual and social leadership and a double portion of the father’s possessions—or twice what all the other sons received (Deut. 21:17). He could lose this blessing through misdeeds (Gen. 35:22) or by selling it (Gen. 25:29-34). God claimed all Israel and all their possessions as His own. As a token of this claim, Israel was to give Him all its “firstborn” (Exod. 13:1-16). The animals were to be sacrificed, redeemed, or killed, while the male children were redeemed either by being replaced with Levites or by the payment of a redemption price (Num. 3:40ff.). Israel was God’s “firstborn”; it enjoyed a privileged position and blessings over all other nations (Exod. 4:22; Jer. 31:9).
The “first-born of death” is an idiom meaning a deadly disease (Job 18:13); the “firstborn of the poor” is the poorest class of people (Isa. 14:30).
Bikkûr (בִּכּוּרִים, Strong's #1061), “first fruits.” This noun appears 16 times. The “first grain and fruit” harvested was to be offered to God (Num. 28:26) in recognition of God’s ownership of the land and His sovereignty over nature. Bread of the “first fruits” was bread made of the first harvest grain, presented to God at Pentecost (Lev. 23:20). The “day of the first fruits” was Pentecost (Num. 28:26).
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Firstborn
Firstborn. Under the law, in a Hebrew family, the eldest son was regarded as devoted to God, and was in every case to be redeemed by an offering not exceeding five shekels, within one month from birth. If he died before the expiration of 30 days, the Jewish doctors held the father excused, but liable to the payment if he outlived that time. Exodus 13:12-15; Exodus 22:29; Numbers 8:17; Numbers 18:15-16; Leviticus 27:6. The eldest son received a double portion of the father's inheritance, Deuteronomy 21:17, but not of the mother's. Under the monarchy the eldest son usually, but not always, as appears in the case of Solomon, succeeded his father in the kingdom. 1 Kings 1:30; 1 Kings 2:22. The male first-born of animals was also devoted to God. Exodus 13:2; Exodus 13:12-13; Exodus 22:29; Exodus 34:19-20. Unclean animals were to be redeemed with the addition of one-fifth of the value, or else put to death; or, if not redeemed, to be sold, and the price given to the priests. Leviticus 27:13; Leviticus 27:27-28.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Firstborn
This phrase is not always to be understood literally; it is sometimes taken for the prime, most excellent, most distinguished of things, Psalm 89:27Romans 8:29Hebrews 1:4-6 . Thus Jesus Christ is "the firstborn of every creature," Colossians 1:15 , inasmuch as he was the "Only begotten" of the Father before any creature was produced. He is "the firstborn from the dead," Colossians 1:18 , because he is the beginning, and the author of the resurrection of all who die in faith.
After the destroying angel had slain the firstborn of the Egyptians, God ordained that all the Jewish firstborn, both of men and of beasts for service, should be consecrated to him; but the male children only were subject to this law. If a man had several wives, he was obliged to offer the firstborn son by each one of them to the Lord. The firstborn were offered at the temple, and redeemed for five shekels. The firstling of a clean beast was offered at the temple, not to be redeemed, but to be killed; an unclean beast, a horse, an ass, or a camel, was either redeemed or exchanged; an ass was redeemed by a lamb or five shekels; if not redeemed, it was killed, Exodus 13:2,11 , etc. The firstborn son among the Hebrews, as among all other nations, enjoyed particular privileges. See BIRTHRIGHT .
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Firstborn
In ancient Israelite society the firstborn son had special rights that were highly valued. He was the head of the family in the father’s absence, and upon his father’s death he received an inheritance double that of the other sons (Genesis 49:3; Deuteronomy 21:17). The firstborn could, however, lose his birthright, either by selling it or through misconduct (Genesis 25:31-34; 1 Chronicles 5:1-2).
At the time of Israel’s escape from slavery in Egypt, God preserved the lives of the Israelites’ firstborn, both people and animals. From that time on, the firstborn of all Israelite families, and the firstborn of their flocks and herds, became God’s special possession (Exodus 13:2).
In the case of the firstborn of animals, the owner dedicated a clean animal to God by sacrifice. He dedicated an unclean animal by the sacrifice of a clean animal in its place (since an unclean animal could not be offered in sacrifice) (Exodus 13:11-15; Numbers 18:17-18). In the case of people, the parents ceremonially presented their firstborn to God, and then bought the child back by a payment of money (Numbers 18:15-16; Luke 2:7; Luke 2:23). For the service of the tabernacle, the Levites replaced the firstborn as God’s special servants (Numbers 3:11-13; Numbers 3:45; cf. Exodus 32:29).
Because of the high status of the firstborn, the title developed a figurative usage. In Old Testament times, God considered the nation Israel to be his firstborn, his special people among all the nations of the world (Exodus 4:22; cf. Deuteronomy 7:6; Hosea 11:1). In New Testament, times believers in Jesus Christ are God’s firstborn, his chosen and privileged ones (Hebrews 12:23).
The Bible speaks of Jesus Christ as the firstborn of his Father. This does not mean that he came into existence later than his Father, but that he is head of the Father’s new people. He has authority over them, yet he graciously looks upon them as his brothers and sisters (Romans 8:29; Hebrews 1:6; Hebrews 2:11-12). Jesus is also the firstborn of all creation. This means not that the Son of God was created, but that he existed before creation, has authority over it, and is its rightful heir (Colossians 1:15-17; Hebrews 1:2). Also, through his resurrection, he is the firstborn from the dead. He has authority over God’s new creation, the church, and guarantees its final victory (Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1:5).
Birthright - The privilege of the Firstborn son. Among the Hebrews, as indeed among most other nations, the Firstborn enjoyed particular privileges; and wherever polygamy was tolerated, it was highly necessary to fix them, Deuteronomy 21:15-17 . Besides the father's chief blessing, Genesis 27:1-46 , and various minor advantages, the Firstborn son was, first, specially consecrated to the Lord, ...
Exodus 13:11-16 22:29 ; and the Firstborn son of a priest succeeded his father in the priestly office. Among the sons of Jacob, Reuben the Firstborn forfeited the right of the Firstborn, Genesis 35:22 49:3,4 , and God gave it to Levi, Numbers 3:12,13 8:18 . Secondly, the Firstborn was entitled to a share of his father's estate twice as large as any of the other brethren received, Deuteronomy 21:17 . In some of these privileges there is an allusion to Him, who is "the Firstborn among many brethren," Romans 8:29Colossians 1:18 1619166741_2
Firstborn - The Firstborn son of newly married people was believed to represent the prime of human vigor (Genesis 49:3 ; Psalm 78:51 ). In memory of the death of Egypt's Firstborn and the preservation of the Firstborn of Israel, all the Firstborn of Israel, both of man and beast, belonged to Yahweh (Exodus 13:2 ,Exodus 13:2,13:15 ; compare Exodus 12:12-16 ). The husband of several wives would have to redeem the Firstborn of each. The birthright of a Firstborn included a double portion of the estate and leadership of the family. The Firstborn might sell his rights as Esau did (Genesis 25:29-34 ) or forfeit them for misconduct as Reuben did because of incest (Genesis 35:22 ; Genesis 49:3-4 ). ...
The Firstborn of a clean animal was brought into the sanctuary on the eighth day after birth (Exodus 22:30 ). Apparently the Firstborn of clean animals were not to be used for any work since they belonged to the Lord (Deuteronomy 15:19 ). ...
The Firstborn of an unclean animal had to be redeemed by an estimation of the priest, with the addition of one-fifth (Leviticus 27:27 ; Numbers 18:15 ). According to Exodus 13:13 ; Exodus 34:20 , the Firstborn of an ass was either ransomed by a sheep or lamb, or its neck had to be broken...
Figuratively, Israel was God's “firstborn” (Exodus 4:22 ; Jeremiah 31:9 ) and enjoyed priority status. God compared His relationship to Israel with the relationship of a father and his Firstborn son. Within Israel, the tribe of Levi represented the Firstborn of the nation in its worship ceremony (Numbers 3:40-41 ; Numbers 8:18 ). ...
Christ is the “firstborn” of the Father (Hebrews 1:6 NIV) by having preeminent position over others in relation to Him. He is also described as “firstborn among many brethren” ( Romans 8:29 ) and “firstborn of all creation” (Colossians 1:15 NAS). Paul ( Colossians 1:18 ) and John (Revelation 1:5 ) refer to Christ as “firstborn from the dead”—the first to rise bodily from the grave and not die again. ...
Hebrews 12:23 refers to the “church of the Firstborn, which are written in heaven. ” Christian believers, united with and as joint heirs with Christ, enjoy the status of “firstborn” in God's household
Firstborn - In ancient Israelite society the Firstborn son had special rights that were highly valued. The Firstborn could, however, lose his birthright, either by selling it or through misconduct (Genesis 25:31-34; 1 Chronicles 5:1-2). ...
At the time of Israel’s escape from slavery in Egypt, God preserved the lives of the Israelites’ Firstborn, both people and animals. From that time on, the Firstborn of all Israelite families, and the Firstborn of their flocks and herds, became God’s special possession (Exodus 13:2). ...
In the case of the Firstborn of animals, the owner dedicated a clean animal to God by sacrifice. In the case of people, the parents ceremonially presented their Firstborn to God, and then bought the child back by a payment of money (Numbers 18:15-16; Luke 2:7; Luke 2:23). For the service of the tabernacle, the Levites replaced the Firstborn as God’s special servants (Numbers 3:11-13; Numbers 3:45; cf. ...
Because of the high status of the Firstborn, the title developed a figurative usage. In Old Testament times, God considered the nation Israel to be his Firstborn, his special people among all the nations of the world (Exodus 4:22; cf. In New Testament, times believers in Jesus Christ are God’s Firstborn, his chosen and privileged ones (Hebrews 12:23). ...
The Bible speaks of Jesus Christ as the Firstborn of his Father. Jesus is also the Firstborn of all creation. Also, through his resurrection, he is the Firstborn from the dead
Firstborn - Thus Jesus Christ is "the Firstborn of every creature," Colossians 1:15 , inasmuch as he was the "Only begotten" of the Father before any creature was produced. He is "the Firstborn from the dead," Colossians 1:18 , because he is the beginning, and the author of the resurrection of all who die in faith. ...
After the destroying angel had slain the Firstborn of the Egyptians, God ordained that all the Jewish Firstborn, both of men and of beasts for service, should be consecrated to him; but the male children only were subject to this law. If a man had several wives, he was obliged to offer the Firstborn son by each one of them to the Lord. The Firstborn were offered at the temple, and redeemed for five shekels. The Firstborn son among the Hebrews, as among all other nations, enjoyed particular privileges
Firstborn - Bekôr (בְּכוֹר, Strong's #1060), “firstborn. The word represents the “firstborn” individual in a family (
The “oldest” or “firstborn” son (Job 18:13); the “firstborn of the poor” is the poorest class of people (Firstborn - The oldest son in all Israelite families was regarded as sacred to God, because Israel's Firstborn were exempted from the stroke which destroyed all the Firstborn of Egypt on the first Passover night. The Firstborn represented the whole people; Jehovah said to Pharaoh, "Israel is My son, My Firstborn, and I say unto thee, Let My son go, that he may serve He; and if thou refuse to let him go, behold I will slay thy son, thy Firstborn" (Exodus 4:22-23). Israel, as Jehovah's Firstborn, was designed to be a" kingdom of priests and an holy nation" (Exodus 19:6). ...
It shall hereafter realize this high Calling in a degree that it has not yet realized it, standing as "the Firstborn among many brethren" (like the antitypical Israel, Messiah, Romans 8:29; Hebrews 2:12), and priest among all nations, which in subordination to Jerusalem, the spiritual metropolis, shall be the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ, then manifested (Isaiah 61:6; Isaiah 66:21; Revelation 11:15; Zechariah 14:16; Jeremiah 3:17). The tribe of Levi was substituted for all Israel's Firstborn to minister to the Lord (Numbers 3:12; Numbers 3:45; Numbers 3:50). There being 273 more of the Firstborn in Israel than the males in Levi, the 273 were redeemed at five shekels apiece. Still, to mark the consecration of Israel to Jehovah, the redemption money was exacted for every Firstborn (Numbers 18:15). In (Colossians 1:16, "the Firstborn of every creature"; implying priority and superlative dignity. Psalms 89:27, "My Firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth," David's antitype, the Messiah. And as He is the first begotten, originating the natural creation, so He is "the Firstborn (proototokos , 'first begotten,' Revelation 1:5) from ("out of", ek ) the dead," and therefore "the Beginning" (Colossians 1:18) of "the church of the Firstborn" (Hebrews 12:23), the originating Agent of the new creation. As He is "the Firstborn" in relation to the election church, so it is "the church of the Firstborn," "a kind of first-fruits of His creatures" (James 1:18), in relation to the millennial church, and to the hereafter to be regenerated natural creation. ) As Israel, on the ground of being God's "firstborn," was a king-priestly nation, so believers (Revelation 1:6). The figurative phrase, "the Firstborn of death," means the deadliest disease that death (personified) ever gendered (Job 18:13). "The Firstborn of the poor," the poorest
Firstborn - Firstborn. The dedication of the Firstborn of men and beasts was probably a primitive nomadic custom, and therefore earlier than the offering of first-fruits, which could not arise until the Israelites had settled into agricultural life in Canaan. The origin of the belief that a peculiar value attached to the Firstborn cannot be definitely traced; but it would be a natural inference that what was valuable to the parent would be valuable to his God. And thus the word ‘firstborn’ could be used figuratively of Israel as the Firstborn of Jâ³ . If a man died without children, the heir was the Firstborn of his widow by his brother or next-of-kin ( Deuteronomy 25:5-10 ). The right of the Firstborn, however, was often disturbed, owing to the jealousies and quarrels arising from the polygamy practised in Israel. Reuben, although the son of Leah, the less favoured of Jacob’s two wives, was considered the Firstborn, and lost the right only because of his sin ( Genesis 49:3 f. The death of the Firstborn was the last of the punishments sent upon Egypt for Pharaoh’s refusal to let the Israelites go. ), the Feast of the Passover by the passing over of the houses marked with blood at the destruction of the Firstborn ( Exodus 12:12 f. And similarly the singling out of the Firstborn for destruction was itself connected with the ancient practice of offering to God annually in spring the firstlings of beasts. ]'> took from the Egyptians their Firstborn. This explanation, though not explicitly given, is implied in the close connexion of the dedication of the Firstborn with the Passover ( Exodus 13:11-13 , Deuteronomy 15:19 ; Deuteronomy 16:1-8 ). The death of the Firstborn would be a punishment for refusal to release Israel, who was Jâ³  ’s Firstborn. In the NT the term ‘firstborn’ ( prÃ´totokos ) is used of Christ ( Romans 8:29 , Colossians 1:15 ; Colossians 1:18 , Hebrews 1:6 , Revelation 1:5 ), and of Christians who have died ( Hebrews 12:23 ); see the commentaries
Bichri - "Youthful"; else "firstborn"; else son of Becher
Firstborn - FIRSTBORN...
One of the fundamental ideas with regard to Jehovah in early Israel was that of His being owner of the land, and consequently lord also of all that the land brought forth and of all that lived upon it (Leviticus 25:23,Psalms 50:10-12). Therefore, just as Jehovah, being owner of the land, received the first-fruits of its produce as tribute due to Him, so, being also owner of the people, did He receive the Firstborn as, in the same way, a tribute due to Him. This is not definitely stated in the Bible, but the notices of child-sacrifice lead us to infer that at some early period the rite of the sacrifice of the Firstborn was performed, and the analogy of the offering up of the firstlings of the flock points to a similar usage with regard to man (Exodus 13:2; Exodus 22:29; Exodus 34:20); moreover, the prevalence of the practice among ethnologically allied races‡  makes it in a high degree probable that originally the descendants of Abram sacrificed their Firstborn as a tribute to the Deity (see below, ‘Redemption of the Firstborn’). As the Firstborn are spoken of as being particularly the possession of Jehovah, one would expect to find them occupying the position of His special ministers; it is possible that this was the case originally (cf. 112b), according to which the Firstborn acted as officiating priests in the wilderness until the erection of the tabernacle, when the office was given to the tribe of Levi (Jewish Encyc. ]'> especially as in Numbers 3:12 it is said: ‘Behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the Firstborn that openeth the womb among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be mine’ (cf. Numbers 3:45); as a matter of fact, however, the earliest Code commands the redemption of the Firstborn: ‘All the Firstborn of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem’ (Exodus 13:13, cf. ...
From the foregoing one can understand that the term ‘firstborn,’ πρωτότοκος (that which, as the most precious, belonged, in the first instance, to Jehovah), came to be one of particular honour (cf. The term does not necessarily suggest the subsequent birth of other children; for, in the first place, as a title of honour it would naturally be mentioned in connexion with Christ by the Evangelist; and secondly, to Jews the significance of ‘firstborn’ lay in the special sanctity which attached to such;†
Redemption of the Firstborn. 1 Samuel 1:28); from what has been said above, this ceremony must be regarded as the fulfilling in spirit of the primitive act of literally devoting (sacrificing) the Firstborn son to the Deity. The father of the child first presents his Firstborn to the cohen, and makes a declaration ending with the words: ‘It is said, Sanctify unto me all the Firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast; it is mine. Then the father places fifteen shillings (five sclaim or shekels) before the cohen, who thereupon asks: ‘Which wouldst thou rather, give me thy Firstborn son, the Firstborn of his mother,‡  This redemption of the Firstborn¶  and the price of redemption was, according to Numbers 3:47; Numbers 18:16, five shekels; in Exodus 13:13 the command to redeem the Firstborn is given, though the price of redemption is not mentioned, while in Leviticus 12 there is no mention at all regarding the redemption of the Firstborn, reference being made only to an atonement which has to be made for the purification of the mother; it may be owing to Leviticus 12 that in Luke 2:22 ‘their’ purification is spoken of, i. 24 seems to point to an amalgamation of the offerings due from the mother for purification, and on behalf of the child for redemption;* Birthright - The birthright consisted of the special privileges that belonged to the Firstborn male child in a family. Indeed, the Hebrew word for blessing (berakah) is virtually an anagram of the word that means both birthright and Firstborn (bekorah). Legal continuation of the family line may also have been included among the privileges of the Firstborn son. Deuteronomy 21:15-17 prohibited a father from playing favorites among his sons by trying to give the birthright to other than the Firstborn
Simri - Though not the Firstborn, his father made him chief
Simri - "Though he was not the Firstborn, yet his father made him the chief
First-Born First-Begotten - The Firstborn was the heir to the headship of the family, and received a double portion of his father’s property (Deuteronomy 21:17); this was always the case unless for some special cause the birthright was taken from him, as in the cases of Esau, Reuben (1 Chronicles 5:1), and Manasseh (Genesis 48:14-19). -The word ‘firstborn’ is used in the NT both literally and figuratively. In Luke 2:7 our Lord is spoken of as Mary’s ‘firstborn’; in Matthew 1:25 the word, though found in CD and some versions, is clearly an interpolation. Another, and still more important, deduction from this fact is that there is no contradiction between ‘Only-begotten’ and ‘Firstborn’ applied to the preexistent Christ (see below). ...
The title ‘Firstborn’ is given figuratively to our Lord in three different aspects. -(a) It refers to His pre-existence in Colossians 1:15 (‘firstborn of all creation,’ πρωρότοκος πάσης κτίσεως; see Lightfoot’s exhaustive note in Colossians3, 1879, p. 144), and in Hebrews 1:6, where it is used absolutely: ‘the Firstborn. The phrase further denotes that He is the Lord of all creation, for He has the right of the Firstborn. The title ‘Firstborn’ was used figuratively by the Jews of Messiah, from Psalms 89:27 (which they generally interpreted in a Messianic sense), and of Israel in Exodus 4:22; this paved the way for the NT usage. ...
(b) In Colossians 1:16 Jesus is called ‘firstborn from the dead,’ because He was the first to rise; for Lazarus and others only rose to die again. So also in Revelation 1:5 ‘firstborn of the dead. Here, as in Colossians 1:15, εἰκών occurs, but it is the image of the Son, not of the Father: ‘whom he foreknew (took note of), he also conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the Firstborn among many brethren. ...
The title is used in the plural of Christians in Hebrews 12:23 : ‘the church of the Firstborn’ (Vulgate primitivorum). We may, with Lightfoot, take the reference to be to all Christians as being Firstborn because all are kings (Revelation 1:6); the idea of ruling is so closely attached to the title that it can be thus extended, though the metaphor becomes confused-indeed, it was used by some Rabbis of God Himself (Lightfoot, p. Some, however, interpret the phrase of the faithful departed who have gone before, and so are in a sense the Firstborn of the dead (cf. In any case the ‘firstborn’ are men, not angels, to whom the word would be inapplicable, and who could not be described as ‘enrolled in heaven’ (Westcott)
Firstborn - Frequently employed in the Bible in the literal sense of offspring, "firstborn" acquired metaphorical applications over time. ...
The Firstborn son in patriarchal society was regarded as special (Genesis 49:3 ; Exodus 13:2 ). ...
After the Passover event in Egypt, every Firstborn male belonged to God. ...
Of special significance is the divine claim that Israel was God's Firstborn (Exodus 4:22-23 ). ...
In the Book of Hebrews the author appears to call Christians "firstborn ones" (prototokon ) in virtue of their relationship to Christ, whom he has already called the "firstborn" (prototokon ) in 1:6. The "church of the Firstborn" does not displace faithful Israel, but joins with them in perfect worship to God through the mediation of Christ. ...
The "church of the Firstborn" lives in humility, gratitude, and awe (vv. ...
Christ is called God's "firstborn" in Hebrews 1:6
Passover - ) A feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the sparing of the Hebrews in Egypt, when God, smiting the Firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites which were marked with the blood of a lamb
Birthright - prototokos, Firstborn). See Firstborn
Birth-Right - Jacob when dying said of Reuben "Thou art my Firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power. " This is what he was as the Firstborn, for in himself he was 'unstable as water ' and he should not excel
Vashni - Samuel’s Firstborn son, according to MT Er - Firstborn of Judah, by Bathshua, a Canaanite; the marriage with this daughter of a corrupt race producing sin and sorrow
Manasseh - In almost typical Old Testament fashion, Manasseh, the elder brother, did not receive the blessing of the Firstborn (Genesis 48:13-20 ). When the Promised Land was apportioned, half of the tribe of Manasseh, the elder brother, did not receive the blessing of the Firstborn (Genesis 48:13-20 )
Primogeniture - ) The state of being the Firstborn of the same parents; seniority by birth among children of the same family
Leah - She was the mother of seven children, among whom were Reuben- Jacob's Firstborn-and Judah, the ancestor of the leading tribe among the Jews, of the royal line, and of our Lord, Genesis 29:16-35 ; 30:1 - 21
Plague - The stroke on the Firstborn was the crowning one, altogether supernatural, whereas the others were intensifications of existing scourges. The Firstborn, usually selected for worship, is now the object of the stroke. The difference marked all along from the third plague was most marked in that on the Firstborn (Exodus 11:7). The plague was national, the Firstborn representing Egypt: Isaiah 43:3, "I gave Egypt for thy ransom
Merodach - ) Epithet of Bel the Babylonian Jupiter, termed "the senior of the gods," "the judge," and by Nebuchadnezzar in inscriptions "the great lord, the most ancient," and by Neriglissar "the Firstborn of gods, the layer up of treasures
Reuben - The Firstborn of Jacob and of Leah, and head of one of the twelve tribes. Jacob, when blessing his sons, said, "Reuben, thou art my Firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power: unstable as water, thou shalt not excel; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou it. This speaks of failure in the Firstborn, and implies loss of his birthright
Begotten - πρωτότοκος, applied to the Lord Jesus as 'the first-begotten,' or rather 'the Firstborn' as marking His supremacy above all. The angels were called to worship Him when He was brought into the world, Hebrews 1:6 ; and He is said to be the Firstborn from among the dead
Rahab (2) - She was reduced to corpse-like helplessness By God's stroke at the Red Sea, and at the slaying of the Firstborn previously
Levites - The Firstborn "young men" of Israel were the priests to offer sacrifices (Exodus 24:5) before the law, representing the priestly nation (Exodus 19:6; Exodus 19:22; Exodus 19:24). Substituted for the Firstborn males of all Israel whom Jehovah claimed as His when He saved Israel from the stroke on Egypt's Firstborn; the Levites, 22,000; the Firstborn males, 22,273; the odd 273 above were to be redeemed at five shekels each (Numbers 3:45-51), the fixed price for redeeming a victim vowed in sacrifice (Numbers 18:16; Leviticus 27:6). ...
The priests occupied the eastern side of the tabernacle, inside Judah the leading camp; the Kohathites the southern side, inside Reuben; the Gershonites the western side, inside Ephraim; the Merarites the northern, inside Daniel The aggregate of Gershonites (Numbers 3:22), Kohathites (Numbers 3:28), and Merarites (Numbers 3:34), is 22,300; but in the redemption 300 are deducted (probably the Firstborn in Levi within the year that had elapsed since the command was issued, Numbers 3:40-43), and 22,000 taken as substituted for Israel's male Firstborn. The number of Israel's Firstborn males (22,273) compared with the male adults (603,550) is disproportionately small, the proportion being usually one in four. ...
But the law of Exodus 13:1-2, dedicated those alone who should be Firstborn thenceforward (compare Exodus 2; Exodus 11-12; Numbers 3:13; Numbers 8:17), for the duties of the Firstborn referred to a ritual yet to be revealed, and the Firstborn of cattle must mean those thereafter Firstborn. Thus the proportion of Firstborn sons in one year born of 2,000,000 of men is so large as can be explained only by the divine blessing, and the sudden development which the Exodus gave to the nation. " Their Firstborn are exempted from certain payments among the Jews, as in the redemption of the Firstborn
Communion - It was originally instituted by Jesus (Matthew 26:26-29) on the night of the Passover meal which was an annual occurrence celebrating the "passing over" of the angel of death that claimed the Firstborn of every house in Egypt (Exodus 12:1-51)
Redemption - ' God having smitten the Firstborn of the Egyptians, claimed all the Firstborn of Israel, and received the Levites instead of them; but there not being an equivalent number of the Levites, the residue of the Firstborn were redeemed by money: they were thus set free
Becher - In 1 Chronicles 8:1 the reading possibly ought to be" Bela, Becher, and (instead of 'his Firstborn,' only one Hebrew letter is thus omitted) Ashbel. Or vice versa, Becher in Genesis 46:21 and 1 Chronicles 7:6 may be a corruption for Βela "his Firstborn
Esau - As the Firstborn of Isaac’s twin sons, Esau was entitled to the family birthright. Moreover, in the case of Isaac’s Firstborn, it included headship of God’s chosen people and the right to possess the land of Canaan
Wave Offering - The Firstborn of men and the first produce of the earth were at once consecrated to the Lord in acknowledgment of His ownership of all
Jedidiah - because Jehovah loved him; the fact of Jehovah's love (in contrast to the Firstborn child, the fruit of sin, therefore taken away in God's just displeasure), not the mere name, was the object of the commission
le'vi - They no less than Reuben, the incestuous Firstborn, had forfeited the privileges of their birthright
Caleb - ...
A "son of Hur, the Firstborn of Ephratah" (1 Chronicles 2:50 ). The sons of Hur, the Firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc
Redemption - In family matters, all Israelites had to redeem their Firstborn. Since God had preserved Israel’s Firstborn during the Passover judgment, they rightly belonged to him. Therefore, the parents had to redeem their Firstborn by a payment of money to the sanctuary (Exodus 13:2; Exodus 13:13; Numbers 18:15-16; see Firstborn)
Presentation - From patriarchal times, indeed, the Firstborn had been the priest in the family; but a new obligation was laid on the Firstborn in Israel by the circumstances of the Exodus. When God sent Moses to Pharaoh, the Divine message to the king ran, ‘Israel is my son, even my Firstborn: if thou refuse to let him go I will slay thy son, even thy Firstborn’ (Exodus 4:22-23). ‘By faith they kept the passover and the sprinkling of blood’ (Hebrews 11:28); but in token that their Firstborn had been due to death and rescued by God’s mercy, all the Firstborn (‘every male that openeth the womb’) were to be sanctified to Him (Numbers 8:17). Instead of the Firstborn, however, God took for the service of His sanctuary the tribe of Levi (Numbers 3:12; Numbers 8:14-18), requiring, at the time of this substitution, that as many Firstborn as there were in Israel in excess of the number of the Levites must be redeemed by the payment of five shekels for each one (Numbers 3:44-51). Afterwards (Numbers 18:15-16), every Firstborn son must be presented and redeemed by the payment of this amount. The Law does not seem to have prescribed any particular time for the redemption of the Firstborn, but many fathers would doubtless act as Joseph did, and perform the rite on the day appointed by the Law for the sacrifice of his wife’s purification
Plagues of Egypt - " This is in Exodus 10:29 ; but in Exodus 11:4-8 it is clear that Moses told Pharaoh of the death of the Firstborn, which might have been on the same occasion by a message direct from God. DEATH OF THE Firstborn. "From the Firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, unto the Firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the Firstborn of cattle
Mill - The use of the mill in the eastern world was very ancient, and peformed by the lowest of the people, So that when describing the different ranks whom the Lord would destroy in the general destruction of the Firstborn in Egypt, the phrase is, "from the first-born of Pharoah that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the first born of the maid servant that is behind the mill
Salvation - This is illustrated by the destruction of the Firstborn (the strength) of Egypt when the destroying angel passed through the land
Male - ” Sometimes zâkâr is used as an adjective: “Number all the Firstborn of the males of the children of Israel from a month old and upward …” (Joel - Apparently Joel is called VASHNIin 1 Chronicles 6:28 ; but it is possible that the word Joel has dropped out: the passage would then read "the Firstborn Joel, and 'the second' Abiah," as in the R
Firstfruits - (See Firstborn. ) The whole land's produce was consecrated to God by the consecration of the first-fruits (Romans 11:16); just as the whole nation by that of the Firstborn
Manasseh (1) - ) Joseph's Firstborn by Asenath, whose birth "made him forget all his toil and all (the sorrow he endured through) his father's house" (Genesis 41:51). Joseph had the portion of the Firstborn by having the double portion, i. ...
Manasseh here resumes his place as Firstborn (his having two portions of Canaan, one on each side of Jordan, being also a kind of privilege of the Firstborn), probably as having been foremost in the conquest of Gilead, the most impregnable portion of Palestine, as Lejah (asylum) the modern name of Argob implies; their inheritance was northern Gilead, Argob, and Bashan (Numbers 32:39-42; Deuteronomy 3:4; Deuteronomy 3:13-15; Joshua 17:1)
Mediator - He is the head of the body, the Church, the Firstborn of every creature, our human family thus acquiring a claim to participate in the supernatural privileges of our head, Christ Jesus the Son of God
Vow - )...
A man could not devote to sacred uses the Firstborn of man or beast, as being devoted already (Leviticus 27:26)
Sprinkling - when all the Firstborn in Egypt were to be smitten, the Israelites were told to 'strike,' that is 'sprinkle,' the side posts and lintels of their doors with the blood of a lamb, and Jehovah said, "When I see the blood I will pass over you
Judah - Though not the Firstborn, Judah soon came to be considered as the chief of Jacob's children, and his tribe was the most powerful and numerous
Baal - According to 1 Chronicles 5:5 , Baal was a descendant of Reuben, Jacob's Firstborn son, and the father of Beerah. The efforts to appease Baal whenever adverse conditions prevailed culminated in the sacrifice of human beings, usually the Firstborn of the one offering the sacrifice
Passover And Feast of Unleavened Bread - The characteristic features of the feast in Exodus 12:21-27 are: ( a ) a lamb is to be slain and its blood sprinkled on the lintel and side-posts of the houses; ( b ) the cause for this observance is found in the slaughter of the Egyptian Firstborn. ( a ) The most widely accepted theory is that it was in origin the shepherd’s offering of the first-fruits from his flocks, the slaughter of the Egyptian Firstborn being Pharaoh’s punishment for hindering this observance. On this theory, later tradition would then have altered the sequence, and have regarded the slaughter of the Egyptians as the reason why the Israelites should offer the Firstborn of their flocks. And, finally, the connexion with the pastoral sacrifice would have been forgotten, and the Passover would be treated as instituted in order to save the Firstborn of Israel. The sacrifice would be offered as a substitute for the Firstborn of man, and this conception is a common constituent of primitive spring festivals. Other noticeable features are: its date at the vernal equinox, the fact that the sacrifices were mostly or entirely of Firstborn, and that an old tradition connected it with the Israelites’ desire for a religious pilgrimage, which eventually led to the Exodus (cf
Patriarchs - The birthright is the privilege of the Firstborn, but requiring the father's confirmation
Adoption - Moses was instructed to say to Pharaoh, "Thus saith Jehovah, Israel is my son, even my Firstborn
Molech, Moloch - Indeed, Ezekiel goes further, and claims that Jahweh Himself gave them these ‘statutes that are not good,’ and sacrifices of the Firstborn, because they had rejected purer worship ( Ezekiel 20:25 f. On the whole, the evidence seems to indicate that this cultus was due to Phœnician influence, and was introduced because of popular misunderstanding of the laws relating to the giving of the Firstborn to Jahweh
Brother - ...
"Firstborn son" (Matthew 1:25) does not imply that any sons were born of the Virgin afterwards, but that none were born before Him. Exodus 13:2 defines "the Firstborn" "whatsoever openeth the womb": whether other children followed or not
Reuben - Jacob's Firstborn, Leah's son, born long after the marriage. )...
The chieftainship was transferred to Judah, the double portion to Joseph; the Firstborn of the beloved Rachel superseding the Firstborn of slighted Leah, not however to gratify the father's preference (Deuteronomy 21:15-17), but to fulfill God's holy purpose
Redeem - ...
The word is connected with the laws of the Firstborn. As a reminder of slaying all the Egyptian Firstborn but sparing the Israelites, God retained an eternal claim on the life of all Israelite Firstborn males, both of men and of cattle. The latter were often sacrificed, “but all the Firstborn of my children I redeem” ( Firstborn (Heavenly City, the - This city is the home to “an innumerable company of angels” (Hebrews 12:22 ), to the assembly of the Firstborn (Hebrews 12:23 ; an image of believers redeemed by the death of Christ; compare Exodus 13:13-15 ), and to the righteous made perfect by God (Hebrews 12:23 ; perhaps the Old Testament saints)
Census - In Numbers 3:43 all the Firstborn males for whom the Levites were accepted as a substitute are stated to be 22,273, which, if it were the suni of the Firstborn sons in the entire nation, would require there to be 40 males begotten of each father in each family to make up 608,550 men of 20 years and upward, or a population of more than 1,000,000 males. ...
But Exodus 13:2; Exodus 13:11-12 shows that the law does not apply retrospectively, but only to the sanctification to God of all the Firstborn of men and cattle that should be born from that time forward. It appears from Numbers 3:13; Numbers 8:17, God had actually sanctified already all the Firstborn to Himself by having protected His people from the destroyer on the paschal night (Exodus 12:22-23; Exodus 4:22), and had adopted the whole nation in instituting the Passover. The presentation of their Firstborn to the Lord thenceforth was to be the practical manifestation of their sonship. But the total is correct; for it is written, the number of the Firstborn, 22,273, exceeded that of the Levites by 273
Levite - ...
Representatives of the people...
Since God had saved the Israelites’ Firstborn through the Passover judgment, all their Firstborn belonged in a special sense to God. For the service of the tabernacle, however, God used the Levites instead of the Firstborn (Numbers 3:11-13; Numbers 3:40-51)
Isaac - ...
Rebekah was barren, but on Isaac beseeching the Lord, she conceived, and was told that she should be the mother of two nations, and the twinbrothers Esau and Jacob were born, Esau being the Firstborn. God had said that the elder should serve the younger, but Rebekah, instead of leaving the matter in God's hands, contrived by a deceitful stratagem to get the blessing for Jacob instead of Esau the Firstborn
Infancy - ...
The accounts of the Infancy comprise: (a) normal features—the Circumcision, the Presentation (= Purification of Mary and Redemption of the Firstborn); and (b) peculiar features—the Visit of the Magi and connected incidents. The rites appointed to be performed on the birth of a Hebrew boy, a Firstborn, were duly carried out. The Presentation of the infant Jesus involved at the same time the ancient ceremony of the Redemption of the Firstborn son, as the reference to Exodus 13:2; Exodus 13:15 shows. ...
In the Pentateuch this devotion of the male Firstborn of both man and beast to Jahweh, carrying with it the necessity of redemption in the case of sons, is traced as to its institution to the smiting of the Firstborn in Egypt at the Exodus (Exodus 13:15,Numbers 3:13). There can be little doubt, however, that there is an affinity between this Hebrew custom and the sacrifice of firstlings amongst the Arabs, and that they have a common source in ideas of taboo as associated with the Firstborn—ideas belonging to a remote Semitic antiquity (see W
The remarkable thing about Reuben is that he was of so little importance in the history of Israel, and yet in all the traditions he is represented as the Firstborn. The Blessing of Jacob ( Genesis 49:3-4 ) attributes his decadence to the curse pronounced upon him for the act:...
‘Reuben, thou wast my Firstborn,...
My strength, and the first of my virility;...
Over-impetuous, exceedingly passionate,...
Seething like water, thou shalt not excel;...
For thou didst ascend thy father’s bed,...
Then cursed I my couch thou didst ascend
Firstborn - FIRST, Firstborn...
I should not think it necessary to detain the reader with any thing by way of explanation to these terms, being in themselves sufficiently obvious, but only when applied to the person of Christ, considered with an eye to him, they merit attention. "Reuben (saith he) thou art my Firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength; the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power. The parents brought their son to the priest, together with the appointed offering for redemption, (See Numbers 18:15-16) and the priest received the child from his mother's hands, with the solemn assurance, that it was her Firstborn
Again - There the RV rightly puts the word "again" in connection with "He bringeth in the Firstborn into the world," "When He again bringeth, etc
Mesha - With no escape possible, Mesha sacrificed his Firstborn son to his god Chemosh on the city walls
Money - Since all Firstborn Israelites originally belonged to God as a result of his saving their lives in the exodus (Exodus 13:11-16 ), Firstborn Israelites had to find human substitutes if they wished to be released from God's full-time service (Numbers 3:40-45 ). The Levites fulfilled this function as substitutes, but since there were not enough Levites to take the place of all Firstborn Israelites when this was first enacted, God also accepted a monetary substitution of five shekels for those Firstborn who could find no Levite to substitute for them (Numbers 3:46-51 ). Ever after, any Firstborn human (or unclean animal) that reached the age of one month had to be redeemed at the price of five shekels (Numbers 18:15-16 ). In addition to the cultic redemption of five shekels for the Firstborn, there was also a monetary redemption of a half-shekel "atonement" or "ransom" applied to all male Israelites over twenty years of age (Exodus 30:11-16 ; 38:25-26 )
Pharaoh - ...
In the final plague on Egypt, the Firstborn in all Egyptian families, including Pharaoh’s, died
Kiss (2) - It testified to the new bond of fellowship in the family of the Firstborn, and was called a holy kiss (Romans 16:16) as a reminder of Christian sainthood, and also a kiss of love (1 Peter 5:14) made possible by the love that had given them such discipleship and communion
Adam - The most well known of these were Cain, his Firstborn; Abel, whom Cain murdered; and Seth, whom Adam and Eve considered a special gift from God to replace Abel (Genesis 4:1-8; Genesis 4:25)
Ephraim - ]'> ) tells an interesting story of how Jacob adopted his Egyptian grandsons, Ephraim and Manasseh, into his own family, and at the same time, against the remonstrances of Joseph, conferred the blessing of the Firstborn upon Ephraim hence Ephraim’s predestined superiority in later history. In the Song of Deborah (Judges 5:1-31 ) it is the ‘family’ Machir, the Firstborn ( Joshua 17:1 ), the only ( Genesis 50:23 ) son of Manasseh, that is mentioned, not a Manasseh tribe
Assembly - Hebrews 12:23 : ‘Ye are come … to innumerable hosts of angels, to the general assembly and church of the Firstborn who are enrolled in heaven’ (Revised Version ; μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων, πανηγύρει καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ πρωτοτόκων ἀπογεγραμμένων ἐν οὐρανοῖς). ‘Tens of thousands’ is an almost technical term for angels; and, though ‘firstborn’ is not elsewhere applied to them, it is a quite natural name for the sons of God
Priest - " The patriarchs exercised the priesthood, delegating it to the Firstborn or the favored son, to whom was given "goodly raiment" (Genesis 27:15; Genesis 37:3). The head of the tribe, or the Firstborn as dedicated to Jehovah (Exodus 13:2; Numbers 3:12-13), had heretofore conducted worship and sacrifice. The targums call these young men the Firstborn sons; but all that seems to be meant is, Moses officiated as priest, (Aaron not being yet consecrated), and employed young men whose strength qualified them for slaying the sacrifices. ...
(3) The redemption money, five shekels a head for the Firstborn of man and beast (Numbers 18:14-19). Korah's rebellion, with Levites representing the Firstborn, and Dathan and Abiram leading the tribe of Jacob's Firstborn, Reuben, implies a looking back to the patriarchal priesthood
Inheritance - ( a ) The Firstborn son , as the new head of the family, responsible for providing for the rest, inherited the land and had also his claim to a double portion of other kinds of wealth ( Deuteronomy 21:17 ). That a father had power to transfer the birthright from the Firstborn to another is implied in the cases of Ishmael and Isaac ( Genesis 21:10 ), Esau and Jacob ( Genesis 27:37 ), Reuben and Joseph ( 1 Chronicles 5:1 ), Adonijah and Solomon ( 1 Kings 1:11 ff. According to the levirate law, however, when a man died leaving no son, his brother or other next-of-kin ( go’Ã§l ) must marry the widow, and her Firstborn son by this marriage became the heir of her previous husband ( Deuteronomy 25:6 )
Quartus - simply ‘fellow-Christians,’ members of the one great spiritual family of which God is Father and Jesus Christ the Elder Brother, ‘the Firstborn among many brethren’ (Acts 8:29)
Redeem, Redemption - Human Firstborn were also redeemed, either by the substitution of an animal or by the payment of a fixed sum (Numbers 18:16 ). The Levites are also said to be a ransom for the Firstborn of Israel (Numbers 3:44-45 )
Jacob - By ruthless bargaining he took from Esau the right of the Firstborn to become family head and receive a double portion of the inheritance (Genesis 25:27-34; see Firstborn)
Celebrate, Celebration - God sent a plague that took the lives of the Firstborn children in the Egyptian homes but passed over the homes of the Israelites
Heredity - Moreover, the unity of Israel is as much one of external status as of physical nature, of the inheritance of the Firstborn no less than of community in flesh and blood ( Exodus 4:22 ; cf
Orphan - A fatherless Israel was adopted by Yahweh and became his Firstborn son (Exodus 4:22 )
Prince - ...
The title ‘Prince’ (ἄρχων) is applied to Jesus Christ in Revelation 1:5, ‘firstbegotten (RV_ ‘firstborn’) of the dead, and the prince (RV_ ‘ruler’) of the kings of the earth’ (cf
Pass'Over, - --This feast was instituted by God to commemorate the deliverance of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage and the sparing of their Firstborn when the destroying angel smote the first-born of the Egyptians. At midnight the Firstborn of the Egyptians were smitten. (4) The consecration of the first-fruits, the Firstborn of the soil, is an easy type of the consecration of the first born of the Israelites, and of our own best selves, to God
Numbers, Book of - ...
Numbers 3 : The Levites were to be offered to God in lieu of the Firstborn, all of whom God took to Himself when He smote the Firstborn of the Egyptians. As the number of the Firstborn exceeded that of the Levites, the residue were redeemed: a type of the saints looked at as Firstborn ones, and as redeemed, being wholly claimed as God's, and given to Aaron (that is to Christ), to serve in God's house, over which He is set as Lord
Levite - ...
The Levites' "set apart" status is demonstrated by their taking the place of the Firstborn, who by right belonged to God (Numbers 3:41 ). They were "set apart, " handled the sacred articles of the tabernacle, served as substitutes for the Firstborn who belonged to God, taught the law of God, served as judges, enhanced the worship at the temple in music, and guarded the treasures and moneys associated with the temple, but did not serve as mediators of the covenant
Heir - These assurances given to Adam and to Abraham were absolutely fulfilled in Christ, who, as the Firstborn of all creation, Himself both the Agent of the Creator’s work and summing up in His own Person all created objects (Colossians 1:15-17), enjoys an eternal and incorruptible inheritance
Sennacherib - On the monuments Τzin-akki-irib , "Sin (the "moon goddess") increases brothers," implying Sennacherib was not the Firstborn; or else "thanking the god for the gift
Edom, Edomites - That the Edomites were an older nation they showed by making Esau the Firstborn twin
Exodus, the, -  In the night in which, at midnight, the Firstborn were slain, (Exodus 12:29 ) Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites
Son - Here the word "again" is rightly placed in the RV, "when He again bringeth in the Firstborn into the world. " This points on to His Second Advent, which is set in contrast to His first Advent, when God brought His Firstborn into the world the first time (see Firstborn)
Caleb - Son of Hezron, son of Pharez, son of Judah; father of Hur by Ephrath; grandfather of Caleb the son of Hur, the Firstborn of Ephratah
Moloch - The "fire god", worshipped with human sacrifices, purifications, and ordeals by fire, habitually, as other idols were occasionally; also with mutilation, vows of celibacy and virginity, and devotion of the Firstborn
Aaron - He and the Firstborn son of each generation of his lineage were dedicated in a special anointing ceremony to officiate before God and on behalf of God's people as high priests
Levites - Originally, Israel's priests and Temple personnel were to be drawn from the Firstborn of every family in Israel (Exodus 13:11-15 )
First-Fruits - Christ, according to these passages, is the first-fruits, the Firstborn among many brethren, not only as the pledge that, as He rose, so His people shall rise from the dead, but also that as He is, in nature and character, so shall His people be
High - The messianic Davidic king will be God’s Firstborn, “higher than the kings of the earth” (Prayer - Every day also the priests offered sacrifices, incense, offerings, and first fruits for individuals; they performed ceremonies for the redemption of the Firstborn, or for purification from pollution; in a word, the people came thither from all parts to discharge their vows and to perform their devotions, not only on great and solemn days, but also on ordinary days; but nothing of this was performed without prayer, 1 Chronicles 23:30Nehemiah 11:17Luke 1:10
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - Kelhoffer and John McRay...
Firstborn . Jesus is referred to by the singular form of the word "firstborn" (prototokos [ Matthew 13:55 ). In a spiritual sense, he is called Firstborn to differentiate him from the angels (Hebrews 1:6 ). He is the Firstborn of all creation (Colossians 1:15 ), and to those who believe in him he is the "firstborn among many brothers" (Romans 8:29 )
Manasseh - The Firstborn son of Joseph, and full brother of Ephraim ( Genesis 41:51 f. ]'> ) he is the Firstborn of Manasseh
Priest - Before that time, the Firstborn of each family, the fathers, the princes, the kings, were priests in their own cities and in their own houses. ...
The Lord having reserved to himself the Firstborn of Israel because he had preserved them from the hand of the destroying angel in Egypt, by way of exchange and compensation, he accepted the tribe of Levi for the service of his tabernacle, Numbers 3:41
Priest - The male descendants of Aaron were priests by birthright, and the Firstborn, in regular succession, was entitled to the office of high priest
Levirate Law - ]'> The object of the Levirate marriage (Deuteronomy 25:6) was to secure that the Firstborn of the new union should succeed in the name of the dead brother, whose name thereby might not be blotted out from Israel
Sanctification - The Firstborn were further sanctified to God, to be redeemed by the Levites
Passover, the - Jehovah being about to cut off all the Firstborn of Egypt, the Israelites were ordered to sprinkle the blood of a lamb, taken for each house, on the lintel and two side posts of their houses, and the promise was given, "The Lord will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you
Levites - God chose the Levites for the service of his tabernacle and temple, instead of the Firstborn of all Israel, to whom such duties naturally belonged, and who were already sacred to God in memory of the great deliverance in Egypt
Moses - To the contrary, God killed the Firstborn of every Egyptian family, passing over the Israelite families. Thus in leaving Egypt, Israel robbed the most powerful nation of their time of its Firstborn sons and of it wealth
Head - Israel was the “head” (translated “chief”) nation, God's Firstborn (Jeremiah 31:7 )
Tithes - (For details see FEASTS; Firstborn; FIRSTFRUITS; SACRIFICE; VOWS
Mari - This includes the prominence of the Firstborn within family structure, the legal procedures entailed in adoption or formalizing inheritance, the centrality and interdependence of the clan as a model for social structuring, the notion of tribal or ethnic movement of peoples and the relocation and resettlement in a new area, the importance of genealogical registers similar to those of Genesis 5:1 and Genesis 11:1 as a means of establishing personal or clan authority, the prominent role and the forms of ritual in religious practices, the procedures for census taking, and the nature of prophets and prophecy
Jephthah - The first of these practices was the sacrifice of a human being at times of special stress (the sacrifice of the Firstborn belongs to a different category); the second is that known as the ‘Weeping for Tammuz
Pass Over - The verb also has special meanings in the causative stem: “to devote” the Firstborn to the Lord (Mary - No case can be found in Scripture where "firstborn son" is used of an only child
Symbol - Examples of these are the Second Adam, the Firstborn, the Chief Shepherd, the Chief Corner-stone
Judah - ]'> ) nevertheless gives him precedence over Reuben, the Firstborn, who is favoured by the later Ephraimite document E Passover - The name of the feast recalled God’s act of ‘passing over’ the houses of the Israelites while killing the Firstborn of the Egyptians (Exodus 12:27)
Zechariah - Firstborn son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite, keeper of the N
Simeon - From shaama , "hear"; as the birth of Reuben ("see a son") her Firstborn convinced Leah that God saw her, so that of Simeon that God heard her. " When Jesus' parents brought Him into the temple to redeem Him as the Firstborn with five shekels according to the law (Numbers 18:15), and to present Him to the Lord, Simeon took Him up in his arms, and blessing God said, "Lord, now Thou dost let Thy servant depart in peace (not a prayer, but a thanksgiving; again like Jacob, Genesis 46:30); for mine eyes (not another, Job 19:27) have seen (1 John 1:1) Thy (Isaiah 28:16; Luke 3:6) salvation: which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people (the universality of the gospel): a light to lighten the Gentiles (Isaiah 9:2), and (not only light, but also) the glory of Thy people Israel" (Isaiah 60:1-3)
Passover - Hebrew PESACH, Greek PASCHA, a passing over, a name given to the festival established and to the victim offered in commemoration of he coming forth out of Egypt, Exodus 12:1-51 ; because the night before their departure, the destroying angel, who slew the Firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Hebrews without entering them, they being marked with the blood of the lamb, which for this reason was called he Passover, Mark 14:12,141 Corinthians 5:7 , or the paschal lamb
Plagues of Egypt - Only the Firstborn are smitten, as a just retribution for Pharaoh’s attempt to destroy the Firstborn of the Israelites
Simon Magus - Ignatius, the earliest of the Fathers, calls him ‘the Firstborn of Satan’: IrenÃ¦us marks him out as the first of all heretics: and later centuries have shown their sense of the greatness of his sin by using the word simony to indicate the crime of procuring a spiritual office by purchase
Feasts - The Passover recalled God’s ‘passing over’ the houses of the Israelites when he killed the Firstborn throughout Egypt (Exodus 12:27)
Blood - The Firstborn was saved through the death of an innocent substitute (Exodus 12:13)
Numbers, the Book of - An objection is started because of the disproportion between 22,273, the Firstborn, and 603,550 men of war (Numbers 3:43; Numbers 1:46). ...
But the Firstborn meant are those born at and after the Passover on the eve of the Exodus (Numbers 13:2; Numbers 13:11-12), which was the ground of God's claim on them; the 603,550 include none of them, the 273 above the Levites' 22,000 had to be redeemed at five shekels each
Redemption (2) - ): the latter of redeeming the Firstborn of animals or of children (Exodus 13:13; Exodus 13:15; Exodus 34:20,Leviticus 27:1443 ff. ...
It has been seen, accordingly, that while, in their legal usage, the OT terms for ‘redeem’ and ‘redemption’ imply payment of a price, or, in the case of the Firstborn, substitution of a life, or a monetary ransom, these terms are often used in the more general sense of simple deliverance or salvation. The use of ‘redeem’ in connexion with the Firstborn (the substitution, e
Passover - Jehovah smote the Firstborn of man and beast, and so "executed judgment against all the gods of Egypt" (Exodus 12:12; Numbers 33:3-4), for every nome and town had its sacred animal, bull, cow, goat, ram, cat, frog, beetle, etc. Israel's Firstborn, thus exempted from destruction, became in a special sense Jehovah's; accordingly their consecration follows in Exodus 13. )...
The consecration of the Firstborn in Exodus 13, naturally connects itself with the consecration of the firstfruits, which is its type
Moab, Moabites - , Jehoram, Ahab’s successor, undertook, with the aid of Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom, to reduce Moab once more, and almost succeeded, The country was overrun, the capital besieged and reduced to great extremity, when the king of Moab sacrificed to Chemosh his Firstborn son on the city wall in sight of both armies ( 2 Kings 3:27 )
Hosea - But the name Jezreel ( Hosea 1:4 ) certainly does not suggest that at the birth of his Firstborn he was already aware of his wife’s unfaithfulness, the name of the second, Lo-ruhamah (‘Not pitied,’ Hosea 1:6 ), does not prove it, and even that of the third child, Lo-ammi (‘Not my kinsman,’ Hosea 1:9 ), may merely carry further the judgment on the nation expressed unquestionably in the first and probably in the second
Elisha - the right of the Firstborn to a double portion of the patrimony) is the summum bonum which he craved
Thankfulness, Thanksgiving - Neither Adam nor Eve thanked God for his creation, and, compared to Abel's gift of the fat portions from the Firstborn of his flock, Cain's gift of "some fruit" seems singularly thankless
Marriage - By the Levirate law, as it is termed, if a Jew died without children, his nearest brother or kinsman was bound to marry the widow, that her Firstborn son after this marriage might be reckoned the son and heir of the first husband, Genesis 38:1-30Deuteronomy 25:5-10Matthew 22:23-26
Feasts And Festivals of Israel - That night, the Lord killed Egypt's Firstborn but spared Israel. As the Passover lamb protected Israel from the plague on the Firstborn, even so Christ's sacrifice saves his people from the wrath of God. The word resit  could mean "first" either in the sense of the first to appear or in the sense of "best, " but bikkurim  clarifies the issue; it means "firstfruit to appear" on the analogy of bekor , "firstborn
Angels - (no angel is called ‘the Son’; angels worship the Firstborn), Hebrews 1:13 (no angel set at the right hand of God), Hebrews 2:5 (the world to come is not made subject to angels, but to man-v. ); they worship the Firstborn when He is brought into the world (Hebrews 1:6), and are witnesses of the Incarnation (1 Timothy 3:16 ‘seen of angels’-but Grimm interprets ἀγγέλοις here as the apostles, witnesses of the risen Christ, and Swete thinks the reference is to the Agony in Gethsemane Herod - Antipater, his Firstborn son, and Salome, his sister, continually agitated the household and brought accusations against Alexander and Aristobulus, the sons of Herod and Mariamne
Ephraim (1) - Ephraim made by Jacob in privileges the Firstborn of Joseph's offspring; the singular 'bullock' being used collectively for all Joseph's offspring, and expressing their strength) is his glory
Jehoiada - " Joash ordered "the money of the dedicated things" to be applied to the repair of the temple, namely,...
(1) "the money of every one that passeth" the census (not "the account), half a shekel, Exodus 30:13;...
(2) "the money that every man is set (valued) at," namely, the valuation in redeeming the Firstborn (Numbers 18:15-16), or in payment for a vow;...
(3) "all the money that cometh into any man's heart to bring into the house of Jehovah," freewill offerings
Moses - Ten plagues followed, when the Egyptians themselves, on the death of all their Firstborn, were anxious for them to depart
Proselytes - The proselytes of the gate were not bound to circumcision, only to the seven precepts of Noah, namely, the six said to have been given to Adam:...
(1) against idolatry,...
(6) the precept of obedience to authorities, and...
(7) that given to Noah against "flesh with the blood"; but he had not the full Israelite privileges, he must not study the law nor redeem his Firstborn
Parents (2) - No longer is He a member of the family circle; Mary is cared for by sons and daughters; but the respect, the affection, the loving solicitude of ‘her Firstborn son’ is still enjoyed by her
Leadership - ...
From the day of the first Passover in Egypt the Firstborn of every household specially belonged to God. After the golden calf incident it was the tribe of Levi who stood out to count themselves on the Lord's side (Exodus 32:26 ), and thereafter they took the place of the Firstborn (Numbers 8:14-19 )
Exodus - "It came to pass, that at midnight Jehovah smote all the Firstborn in the land of Egypt
Dress - Jacob hereby marked Joseph, the Firstborn of his darling Rachel, as successor to the primogeniture, birthright, and priesthood as head of the family, which Reuben by incest had forfeited (1 Chronicles 5:1 confirms this)
Moses - The conflict ends with the first Passover celebration, which coincides with the death of Egypt's Firstborn (Exodus 12:29 )
Deuteronomy, Theology of - This takes the form of the tithe (14:22-29); the release of bond-slaves who symbolize Israel as a liberated slave people; the dedication of the Firstborn to Yahweh in recognition of his having spared the Firstborn in the tenth plague; and annual pilgrimages to the central sanctuary, journeys whose purpose is to proclaim the lordship of Yahweh to whom his loyal subjects come in submissive presentation of tribute
Ideal - And when in another place he describes believers as ‘foreordained to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the Firstborn among many brethren’ (Romans 8:29), he suggests a figure which helps us to understand how Christ the ideal is not merely an outward type but an inward archetype. The younger brothers of a house are conformed to the likeness of the Firstborn not so much by personal imitation as by the operation of secret and vital forces which spring from the very fact of their birth as members of a particular family, and which lie far deeper than the workings of the individual will
Joseph (2) - ]'> as a token of Divine favour, and Joseph took Mary as his wife, but did not live with her as her husband till she had brought forth her Firstborn son (Matthew 1:24 f
Blood - When the angel passed through, destroying the Firstborn in Egypt, he would pass by the houses in Israel's part of Egypt that were marked in this fashion
Image - ’ This agrees with Romans 8:29, in which the elect are spoken of as sharing the image of God’s Son-that He might be the Firstborn of a great brotherhood
Genesis, the Book of - Eve's exclamation (Genesis 4:1), "I have gotten a man by the help of (Gesenius) JEHOVAH," marks her hope of her Firstborn proving one link toward the birth of the Messiah covenanted by God to His people
Sacrifice - Generally, this honor belonged to the head of a family; hence it was the prerogative of the Firstborn
Judah - Though "the birthright was Joseph's" he was not registered as Firstborn, because of Judah's prevalence on the threefold ground, Jacob's blessing, Judah's historic preeminence, and David the prince (1 Chronicles 28:4) being chosen from Judah
Poverty (2) - As the Firstborn, He would under ordinary circumstances have the larger share of whatever property His father might leave
Temple (2) - This ceremony took place in the Court of the Women, as the presence of Mary and Anna shows; it was a simple one,‡  consisting only of the formal presentation of the child to the priest, who offered up two ‘benedictions,’ or thanksgiving prayers, one on behalf of the child for the law of redemption, the other on behalf of the mother for the gift of the Firstborn son
Fall (2) - Christ is here presented in relation to the Universe as ‘the Firstborn of all creation,’ in whom and unto whom all things were created, in whom all things hold together, and who becomes also the ‘head of the body, the Church,’ and ‘the Firstborn from the dead
Creation - He agreed with John that Jesus the Savior, the Firstborn of all creation, was Himself the Source of all creation (Colossians 1:16-17 )
Jehoshaphat - To avert the foreseen evil consequences of his alliance he appointed Jehoram, his Firstborn, king in his lifetime, and gave gifts and fenced eries to his other sons; but no human precautions can avert
Edom - ) Esau's surname, the Firstborn of Isaac; Jacob's twin brother, who sold his birthright for the red pottage (of yellow brown lentils, dashim ; the cooking of which is still seen in Egyptian representations), from whence came his surname (Genesis 25:29-34)
Jacob - Nevertheless, Isaac intended to bestow the blessing of the Firstborn upon Esau
Ransom (2) - ...
In the above cases in the Law, the ransom is a sum of money; in the case of the Firstborn, though the word כֹּפֶר is not used, it is a sacrifice—a life for a life (cf
Headship - ’ And in Colossians 2:10 Christ is expressly called ‘the head of all principality and power’—words which are explained in Colossians 1:15-16, where He is declared to be ‘the Firstborn of all creation,’ in whom ‘were all things created, in the heavens and upon the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him and unto him; and he is before all things, and in him all things consist
Plagues, the Ten, - " ( Exodus 11:4,5 ) The clearly miraculous nature of this plague, its falling upon man and in its beast; and the singling out of the Firstborn, puts it wholly beyond comparison with any natural pestilence, even the severest recorded in history, whether of the peculiar Egyptian plague or of other like epidemics
Son of God - (3) The Hebrew nation collectively is frequently thus designated, as when, in the land of Midian, Jehovah sent Moses to Pharaoh with the message: ‘Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my Firstborn, and I say unto thee, Let my son go’ (Exodus 4:22 f. , an ancient oracle is quoted in which Jehovah says of King David, ‘He shall cry unto me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the rock of my salvation; also I will make him my Firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth
Exodus, Book of - Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let Israel go until his Firstborn son and the eldest sons of all Egypt died in the final plague
Jehoram - ...
Failing to break through the besiegers to the king of Edom, from whom he expected least resistance, he offered his Firstborn son a burnt offering to Chemosh
Children (Sons) of God - Exodus 4:22 ‘Israel is my son, my Firstborn’); and, in spite of the Divine rejection of the Northern Kingdom ( Hosea 1:9 Lo-ammi , ‘not my people’), prophesies that it shall still be said to them ‘ye are the sons of the living God’ ( John 17:1-264 )
High Place, Sanctuary - It must, however, be added that ‘all round the feet of the columns and over the whole area of the high place the earth was discovered to be a regular cemetery, in which the skeletons of young infants, never more than a week old, were deposited in jars’ evidence of the sacrifice of the Firstborn (Macalister, op
Exodus, the - Then followed the ten plagues on the idols, as well as on the property and persons of Pharaoh and his people, culminating in the slaying of the Firstborn and his own (Thothmes II) destruction at the Red Sea
Priest, Priesthood - Therefore, it was natural that the Lord should then choose the whole tribe of Levi to assist the clan of Aaron with all their priestly duties in place of the Firstborn of all Israel (Numbers 8:14-19 )
Adam (1) - The archetype is in God; man in his ideal is molded after the model realized in the Son of Man, "the image of the invisible God, the Firstborn of every creature," the incarnate God, already existing in the divine point of view (Colossians 1:15), with body and animal life akin to the animal world, yet the noble temple of an immortal spirit, with reason, imagination, freewill finding its true exercise in conformity to God's will, and a spiritual nature resembling God's, reflecting God's truth, righteousness, and love; capable of reasoning in the abstract which the lower animals cannot, as they have no general signs for universal ideas
Naaman - And her Firstborn is your pride, and your anger, and your envy, and your ill-will, and your hatred of so many men around you
Virgin Birth - Likewise, for Paul, Adam's appearance as the Firstborn of the human race directly created by God coincides well with the idea of the virgin birth, where through Jesus as the second Adam, God has made a new and perfect start (1 Corinthians 15:20-22,45-49 ; Romans 5:14-19 )
Nehemiah - ...
The law awakened a sense of sin (Nehemiah 9); so first they put away strangers, as Israel must be a separate people, and read the law a fourth of the day, and another fourth confessed sin and worshipped, the Levites leading; then they made a covenant to walk in God's law, not to intermarry with pagan, to keep the sabbath, and to pay a third of a shekel each for the service of God's temple, to bring the firstfruits and Firstborn, and not to "forsake the house of our God," (Nehemiah 10) the princes, Levites, and priests sealing it
Mary, the Virgin - At Bethlehem, perhaps in the cave where now is the Church of the Nativity, she brought forth her Firstborn Son, and there, too, she received the visit of the shepherds, whose words as to the sign given them from heaven she ‘kept, pondering them in her heart
Aaron - " His being described as "the Levite" implies that he already took a lead in his tribe; and, as the Firstborn son, he would be priest of the household
Exodus, the Book of - ) This preceded by but a few days the slaying of the Firstborn, the plague which stands by itself, alone bringing death into every Egyptian family and ensuring Israel's deliverance
Number - Again, in Numbers 3:39 the census gives 22,000 Levites, which one would naturally understand as a round number; but in Numbers 3:43-51 it is taken as an exact number, inasmuch as it is ordained that because the 22,273 Firstborn exceed the Levites by 273, redemption-money shall be paid for the surplus
Tribes of Israel, the - Reuben, the Firstborn son of Jacob by his wife Leah, was in line to assume a leadership role in the family, but he forfeited that right because of an illicit affair he had with his father's concubine Bilhah (Genesis 35:22 )
Miracle - The climactic plague of the death of Firstborn sons finally motivates Pharaoh to let Moses and his people go
War, Holy War - ...
Simon and Levi lose their rights among the Firstborn because their swords are weapons of violence
Alpha And Omega (2) - Cosmologically, He is the precreative Wisdom, ‘the Firstborn of all creation, in whom all things were created’ (cf
Angels (2) - Paul we read of those ‘whose names are in the book of life’ (Philippians 4:3), and in Hebrews 12:23, of ‘the church of the Firstborn who are enrolled in heaven’; and precisely in accord with the above our Lord bade His disciples rejoice, because their names ‘are written in heaven,’ i
Hezekiah - This was foretold by Isaiah (Isaiah 14:29-30): "Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the God of him that smote thee (Uzziah, 2 Chronicles 26:6) is broken (namely, under Ahaz), for out of the serpent's (as Uzziah was regarded by the Philistines) root shall come forth a cockatrice," an adder, to the Philistines, Hezekiah; "and the Firstborn of the poor (the poorest) shall feed" in safety, instead of constant alarms of Philistine invasions
Jacob - As Jacob "took his brother by the heel (the action of a wrestler) in the womb" (Hosea 12:3), so the spiritual Israel, every believer, having no right in himself to the inheritance, by faith when being born again of the Spirit takes hold of the bruised heel, the humanity, of Christ crucified, "the Firstborn of many brethren
Sacrifice - Jesus Himself is called "the Lamb of God," "the Firstborn of every creature
Egypt - On the death of the Firstborn of the Egyptians, Israel left Egypt
Philo - With Philo, besides the one transcendental God, who rules over all without mixing in it, there stands a second Divine Being, the Logos, sometimes viewed as God’s plan of the world, but more frequently as a personal creative being: he calls it a second God, God’s Firstborn son, or archangel, begotten, produced, created by God
High Priest - The first separation of Aaron to the priesthood, which previously belonged to the Firstborn, occurs in Exodus 28, after the directions for the tabernacle and its furniture
Government - Some adoption contracts stipulated that the Firstborn was to receive double the amount allotted to other family members (cf
Job, Theology of - Bildad portrays disease as the "firstborn of death" (18:13) and death as "the king of terrors" (18:14)
Holiness - In Luke 2:23 an OT quotation (Exodus 13:2) explains that the offering of the parents of Jesus, when they presented their child to the Lord in the temple, was a recognition of the fact that every Firstborn son was holy as belonging to God
Animals - The ass was covered by the Sabbath rest regulations, and the Firstborn was redeemed (Exodus 13:13 )
Moses - Kimchi says the older rabbis ascribed Psalm 91 also to Moses Israel's exemption from Egypt's plagues, especially the death stroke on the Firstborn, which surrounded but did not touch God's people, in Exodus 8:22; Exodus 10:28; Exodus 11:7; Exodus 12:23, corresponds to 1619166742_23
House - The only reference to foundation sacrifice in OT is the case of Hiel the Bethelite, who sacrificed his two sons for that such is the true interpretation can now scarcely be doubted his Firstborn at the re-founding of Jericho, and his youngest at the completion and dedication of the walls and gates ( 1 Kings 16:34 RV Noah - "The Lord shut Noah in," as it shall be in the last days (Isaiah 26:20); so Israel on the night of the slaying of the Firstborn (Exodus 12:22-23; Psalms 31:20; Psalms 83:3; Psalms 27:5)
Offerings And Sacrifices - A better explanation is that the lack of descriptive terms such as "firstfruits" for Cain's offering is conspicuous for its absence in light of the description of Abel's offering as "fat portions" and "firstborn" (Genesis 4:3b-4 a)
Mediator - He declares that the Son is the ‘image’ or adequate counterpart of the Father, and the ‘firstborn of all creation,’ i
Boyhood - We notice in Exodus 12:26 ff; Exodus 13:8 the direction that the people were to join the instruction of the children in the history and meaning of the Passover with the feast itself In Exodus 13:14-16 the presentation of the Firstborn is made another opportunity for such instruction
Work - That is why they attempt to hide in creation from the Creator; it also explains how their Firstborn son, Cain, can destroy God's climactic work, the image of God in the face of his brother (Genesis 4:8 )
Joseph - Jacob probably designed hereby to give Joseph, the Firstborn of Rachel who, but for Laban's trick, was his rightful first wife as she was his dearest,the primogeniture forfeited by Reuben (1 Chronicles 5:1; Genesis 35:22; Genesis 50:2-33)
Elijah - ...
The "double portion" is not "double" what Elijah had, for Elisha had not tidal; but, as the Firstborn son and heir received two portions, and the other children but one, of the father's goods (Deuteronomy 21:17), so Elisha, as Elijah's adopted son, begs a preeminent portion of Elijah's spirit, of which all the other "sons of the prophets" should have their share (Grotius); compare Deuteronomy 21:15
Sacrifice (2) - Now the Passover signified exemption from the death of the Firstborn which overtook the Egyptians
Egypt - ...
The tenth, the smiting of the Firstborn of man and beast, realized the threat, "against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment" (Exodus 12:12); for every town and nome had its sacred animal, frog, beetle, ram, cow, cat, etc
Israel - Similarly Genesis 22:1-24 is a story designed to account for the fact that the Israelites sacrificed a lamb instead of the Firstborn
Papias - ]'>; and whosoever shall not confess the testimony of the Cross, is of the devil; and whosoever shall perversely interpret the Oracles of the Lord (μεθοδεὐῃ τὰ λόγια τοῦ κυρίου) to his own lusts, and say that there is neither resurrection nor judgment, that man is the Firstborn of Satan
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - In so behaving he claimed to act in the spirit of his master John, concerning whom he told that once when he went to take a bath in Ephesus and saw Cerinthus within, he rushed away without bathing, crying out, "Let us flee, lest the bath should fall in, for Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within"; and when Marcion meeting Polycarp asked him, "Do you recognize us?" he answered, "I recognize thee as the Firstborn of Satan
Prophet - For thou art my rest, thou art my Firstborn Son who reignest to eternity
Law (2) - His mother presented Him as her Firstborn male child to the Lord in the Temple, and offered the sacrifice of purification prescribed in the Law (Luke 2:22-24), and thus ‘accomplished all things that were according to the law of the Lord’ (Luke 2:39)
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - 3) that Marcion meeting Polycarp at Rome (probably 154 or 155) claimed recognition, on which Polycarp answered, "I recognize thee as the Firstborn of Satan