What does Felix mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
φῆλιξ a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A. 5
φήλικα a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A. 1
φήλικι a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A. 1
φήλικος a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A. 1

Definitions Related to Felix

G5344


   1 a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A.
   D. 53.
         He ruled the province in a mean, cruel, and profligate manner.
         His period of office was full of troubles and seditions.
         Paul was brought before Felix at Caesarea.
         He was remanded in prison, and kept there two years in hopes of extorting money from him.
         Acts 24:26,27.
         At the end of that time Porcius Festus was appointed to supersede Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Caesarea, and would have suffered the penalty due to his atrocities had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him.
         The wife of Felix was Drusilla, daughter of Herod Agrippa I.
         , who was his third wife and whom he persuaded to leave her husband and marry him.
         Additional Information: Felix = “happy”.
         

Frequency of Felix (original languages)

Frequency of Felix (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Barbelin, Felix Joseph
(1808-1869) Jesuit, called the Apostle of Philadelphia, born Lunéville, France; died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He labored in Philadelphia nearly 30 years, founding Saint Joseph's Hospital and establishing sodalities for men, women, and children.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix i, Pope Saint
(Latin: happy)
Reigned from 269 to 274. Martyr; born Rome, Italy; died there. The records are uncertain as to the events of his reign. Felix sent a letter containing dogmatic exposition of the Catholic doctrine on the subject of the Trinity to the Synod of Antioch which had deposed Paul of Samosata, 269, a follower of Apollinaris, for his heretical teaching on the subject. Feast, May 30,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dupanloup, Felix Antoine Philibert
Bishop of Orleans, born Saint Felix, Savoie, France, 1802; died Lacombe, IséRevelation 1878. He was an illegitimate child whose mother sought to lessen his disgrace by providing him with an excellent education. As curate at the Madeleine he inaugurated successful catechetical works. On being transferred to Saint Roch, he won a reputation as a pulpit orator, and as director and superior of the preparatory seminary there, where he completely transformed that institution. In 1844 he inaugurated with Montalembert and De Ravignan the long struggle for liberty of education. Canon of Notre Dame in 1848 he was made Bishop of Orleans in the following year and during the 28 years of his episcopate showed remarkable activity. At the Vatican Council he was the leader of the minority which considered the definition of the dogma of infallibility inopportune, but once it was defined he made unreserved submission. He was the author of a number of important works on catechetical and historical subjects.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Neve, Felix Jean Baptiste Joseph
Catholic philologist. Born 1816; died 1893. Professor of Greek and Latin literature at the University of Louvain for 36 years, and at the same time gave a course of studies in the Sanskrit language and literature. Learned in the Armenian language and literature, and published important translations and commentaries on all these subjects.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Minucius Felix
Christian apologist, born probably Africa; flourished between 160,300. He is best known by his "Octavius," a dialogue on Christianity, at Ostia, between Caecilius Natalie, a pagan, and Octavius Januarius, a Christian, wherein Caecilius is confounded, Minucius judging the debate. The persons, and possibly the dialogue, are real. The work is strongly imitative, particularly of Cicero, Seneca, and Vergil, and agrees in many respects with the "Apologeticum" of Tertullian.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix of Valois, Saint
Confessor, founder of the Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives, born province of Valois, France, 1127; died Cerfroi, 1212. Of the noble family of Valois, he renounced all his possessions at an early age, to live a life of prayer and contemplation in a forest in the Diocese of Meaux. Here he was joined by Saint John of Matha, with whom he founded the Order of Trinitarians for the ransom of Christians held as slaves by the Moors of Spain and Northern Africa. They raised vast sums of money by parading in public as the people threw down to them their gold and precious stones. Saint Felix labored in France, where he established the monastery of Cerfroi and looked after the interests of the congregation. Emblems: slave, flag, and purse. He was buried in the church of Cerfroi and his tomb became the object of frequent pilgrimages. Canonized, 1262. Feast, Roman Calendar, November 20,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix Martin
Historian, antiquary, born Auray, Brittany, 1804; died Paris, France, 1886. As a young Jesuit he was forced into exile by the French government and was ordained in Switzerland. In 1842 he was one of those chosen to re-establish his order in Canada, where he remained till failing eyesight forced his return to France in 1862. He designed Saint Patrick's Church, Montreal, and was the founder and architect of Saint Mary's College. He is widely known for his services to Canadian historical literature; he edited the Jesuit Relations (1672-1679) and wrote lives of Champlain, Brebeuf, Chaumonot, Jogues, and Montcalm.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix of Nola, Saint
Martyr (3century), born Nola, Italy. Ordained by Bishop Maximus of Nola, he was imprisoned during the persecution of Decius, but was set free by an angel. Refusing the episcopacy of Nola which the citizens urged upon him, he continued his duties as auxiliary; he devoted himself to the poor, among whom he distributed his inheritance. His sufferings have merited the title of martyr. Represented chained in a dungeon. He was buried at Cimitile, near Nola. Feast, Roman Calendar, January 14,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix, Saint 12 Jul
Martyrs (303), died Milan. According to tradition they were soldiers under Maximian Hercules, martyred for the faith. They are also said to have been companions of Saint Januarius of Mauretania. Saint Ambrose mentions them in his works, and a basilica was built in honor of them at Milan. Feast, Roman Calendar, July 12,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix, Saint 30 Aug
Martyrs (c.303), died Rome, Italy. Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the pagan gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground. He was subjected to cruel torments and beheaded. According to the legend, while Felix was being led to his execution, a stranger, inflamed by his heroic example, professed the Faith, and was also martyred. The name of the stranger being unknown, he was called Adauctus (Added). Their basilica over the cemetery of Commodilla was discovered in 1905. Relics in the Cathedral of Vienna. Feast, Roman Calendar, August 30,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix ii
More properly, an antipope from 351 to 358. Born in Rome, Italy; died Porto, Italy, in 365. An archdeacon, he was consecrated by the heretical Acacius of Caesarea, when the legitimate pontiff, Liberius, was banished by the Emperor Constantius, an Arian. He was finally deposed by an order of the Roman Senate and the people. Many historians consider his election uncanonical.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Felix Lope de Vega Carpio
Priest, poet, and dramatist, born Madrid, Spain, 1562; died there, 1635. Educated at the Jesuit college, Madrid, and the University of Alcala, he was in the service of the Bishop of Avila, and became secretary to the Duke of Alva. He served in the Spanish navy, taking part in the Armada expedition. After the death of his second wife, he became a priest, 1612, which action, however, did not correct the disorders of his life. His productivity as an author is astounding. He practised almost all forms of composition with success but is most famed as a dramatist, and as such dominated the Golden Age (16th and 17th centuries), writing at least 1,500 comedias. Naturally these plays are deficient in style, but they display rich dramatic imagination. As typical of his work may be mentioned the pastoral "Pastores de Belen"; the epics "Corona tragica" (dealing with Mary Stuart) and "Angelica"; the historical poem Dragon tea, an attack on Drake; an autobiographical novel "Dorotea"; and the plays "EI Castigo sin Venganza," "La Estrella de Sevilla," and "Amar sin Saber a Quien."
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Arabia Felix
The happy, lies still farther south and east, being bounded east by the Persian Gulf, south by the ocean between Africa and India, and west by the Red Sea. As this region did not immediately adjoin the Holy Land, it is not so frequently mentioned as the former ones. The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1 , was probably queen of part of Arabia Felix. This country abounded with riches, and particularly with spices, and is now called Hedjaz, Yemen, etc. It is much celebrated in modern times by reason of the cities of Mecca and Medina being situated in it.
There are, according to native historians, two races of Arabs: those who derive their descent from the primitive inhabitants of the land, Joktan, etc., and those who claim Ishmael as their ancestor. Southern Arabia was settled in part by Cush and his sons, descendants of Ham, who also peopled the adjoining coast of Africa, and in part by descendants of Shem, particularly Joktan, Genesis 10:25,26 . Ishmael, Genesis 25:13-15 , and the six sons of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:2 , together with the seed of Esau and of Lot, occupied the parts of Arabia nearer Judea. The changes of forty centuries render it impossible to distinguish either of these parent sources in the numerous Arab tribes descended from them. These tribes have traditions and peculiarities of their own, and incessant feuds; yet as a whole they are but one people, distinct from all others. The only general division is into those who dwell in cities, as in Southern Arabia, and those who live in the fields and deserts. The latter are migratory, dwelling in tents and removing according to the convenience of water and pasturage, and are often robbers. Each tribe is divided up into little communities, of which a sheik or patriarch is the head. Such are the Bedaween.
In ancient times the Arabs were idolaters and star-worshippers. They are now nominally Mohammedans, but then religion sits but lightly on them. Isolated from other nations, and with slight exceptions free from all foreign control the preserve their ancient manners with singular fidelity, and the study of these throws much light upon Bible narratives. Their language also is still spoken with great purity; and as it is near akin to the Hebrew, it furnishes invaluable aid in the study of the Old Testament.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jan Felix Cieplak
(1851-1926) Archbishop of Vilna, born Dabrowa, Poland; died Passaic, New Jersey. A teacher of theology in the Academy of Petrograd, he was made bishop, 1908; archbishop, 1919. As successor of Archbishop Ropp of Petrograd, who had been exiled by the Bolsheviks, Cieplak was summoned several times by the Soviet Department of Religious Affairs for refusing to carry out the following decrees:
1. To sign an agreement acknowledging government ownership of Church property and prohibiting religious instruction.
2. To order the clergy not to resist the confiscation of Church treasures.
In 1923, Cieplak and Monsignor Budkiewicz were seized and taken to Moscow for trial, with 13 other priests, charged with inciting Catholics to a counter-revolution. After a farcical trial, Budkiewicz and he were condemned to death but, in deference to universal public protests, the sentence of the archbishop was commuted to imprisonment. After spending 13 months in the Bolshevik prisons, Cieplak retired to Rome. In 1926 while visiting the Polish centers of the United States he died.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Cantalice, Felix of, Saint
Confessor, born near Cantalice, Italy, 1513; died Rome, Italy, 1587. He entered the Capuchin Order, 1543, and for 40 years exercised a wonderful influence among all classes. He worked chiefly among children, whom he taught to sing the canticles which he composed. Though illiterate, he was so advanced in the spiritual life that Saint Philip Neri selected him to assist Saint Charles Borromeo in drawing up the constitutions for his Oblates. In his humility and simplicity, Felix styled himself the "Ass of the Capuchins." Represented holding the Infant Jesus in his arms. Canonized, 1712. Relics in the Capuchin church of the Immaculate Conception, Rome. Feast, May 18,.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Felix
Happy, the Roman procurator of Judea before whom Paul "reasoned" (Acts 24:25 ). He appears to have expected a bribe from Paul, and therefore had several interviews with him. The "worthy deeds" referred to in 24:2 was his clearing the country of banditti and impostors. At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was appointed in the room of Felix (A.D. 60), who proceeded to Rome, and was there accused of cruelty and malversation of office by the Jews of Caesarea. The accusation was rendered nugatory by the influence of his brother Pallas with Nero. (See Josephus, Ant. xx. 8,9.)
Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, having been induced by Felix to desert her husband, the king of Emesa, became his adulterous companion. She was seated beside him when Paul "reasoned" before the judge. When Felix gave place to Festus, being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he left Paul bound.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Felix
(fee' lihx) The procurator of Judea at the time Paul the apostle visited Jerusalem for the last time and was arrested there (Acts 23:24 ). Antonius Felix became procurator of Judea in A.D. 52, succeeding Cumanus. He remained in office until A.D. 60, when the emperor Nero recalled him. He is depicted in Acts as a man who listened with interest to Paul's defense but failed to make any decision with regard to the case or with regard to the personal implications of Paul's message. Rather he hoped Paul would pay him a bribe (Acts 24:26 ). Contemporary historians Tacitus and Josephus paint Felix as a brutal, incompetent politician who was finally replaced. Compare Acts 24:27 . See Paul ; Roman Empire
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - o Nimis Felix, Meritique Celsi
Hymn for Lauds on June 24, Feast of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist. It was written by Paul the Deacon (720-799). The English title given is by M. Blacker and G. Palmer.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - o Gente Felix Hospita
Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of the Holy Family, first Sunday after Epiphany. Pope Leo III wrote it. Of the three translations, the title given above is by Monsignor Henry.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Nola, Felix of, Saint
Martyr (3century), born Nola, Italy. Ordained by Bishop Maximus of Nola, he was imprisoned during the persecution of Decius, but was set free by an angel. Refusing the episcopacy of Nola which the citizens urged upon him, he continued his duties as auxiliary; he devoted himself to the poor, among whom he distributed his inheritance. His sufferings have merited the title of martyr. Represented chained in a dungeon. He was buried at Cimitile, near Nola. Feast, Roman Calendar, January 14,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Lope de Vega Carpio, Felix
Priest, poet, and dramatist, born Madrid, Spain, 1562; died there, 1635. Educated at the Jesuit college, Madrid, and the University of Alcala, he was in the service of the Bishop of Avila, and became secretary to the Duke of Alva. He served in the Spanish navy, taking part in the Armada expedition. After the death of his second wife, he became a priest, 1612, which action, however, did not correct the disorders of his life. His productivity as an author is astounding. He practised almost all forms of composition with success but is most famed as a dramatist, and as such dominated the Golden Age (16th and 17th centuries), writing at least 1,500 comedias. Naturally these plays are deficient in style, but they display rich dramatic imagination. As typical of his work may be mentioned the pastoral "Pastores de Belen"; the epics "Corona tragica" (dealing with Mary Stuart) and "Angelica"; the historical poem Dragon tea, an attack on Drake; an autobiographical novel "Dorotea"; and the plays "EI Castigo sin Venganza," "La Estrella de Sevilla," and "Amar sin Saber a Quien."
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Felix, Antonius
FELIX, ANTONIUS . Procurator of Judæa ( Acts 23:24 ff.); according to Josephus, he had been sent to succeed Cumanus in a.d. 52; but this contradicts Tacitus, who makes Cumanus governor of Galilee and Felix of Samaria simultaneously; and this suits Acts 24:10 (‘many years’). Both historians give 52 as the year of Cumanus’ disgrace, so that we may probably take that as the date of Felix’ accession to office in Judæa. Felix was brother of Pallas, Claudius’ powerful freedman, whose influence continued him in office under Nero, and on his disgrace (due to a riot at Cæsarea) procured him his life. He is described by Tacitus as a very bad and cruel governor. He was somewhat touched by St. Paul’s preaching ( Acts 24:25 f.), but kept him in prison, first in hope of a bribe, one of many details showing that St. Paul was a prisoner of social importance, and, finally, to please the Jews. He is called ‘most excellent’ ( Acts 23:26 , Acts 24:3 ; cf. Acts 26:25 , Luke 1:3 ), a title given him as governor, but more properly confined to those of equestrian rank. He married thrice, each time to a person of royal birth; see Drusilla.
A. I. Maclean.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Andreis, Felix de
(1778-1820) First superior of the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians) in the United States, born Demonte, Italy; died Saint Louis, Missouri. He accompanied Bishop Dubourg to Saint Louis, 1818, where the congregation had its first establishment, and died soon after exhausted by missionary labors. The process for his beatification was authorized by Benedict XV, 1918.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Felix
One of the freedmen of the Emperor Claudius, and by him appointed to be procurator or governor of Judaea, A.D. 51. Paul, when sent a prisoner to Caesarea, appeared before Felix; and again before him and his wife Drusilla; and as Paul reasoned of righteousness, temperance and judgement to come, Felix trembled, and said when he had a convenient season he would send for him. He showed his mercenary and unrighteous character in keeping Paul a prisoner two years in the hope of being bribed; and then leaving him a prisoner to please the Jews. Acts 23:24,26 ; Acts 24:3-27 ; Acts 25:14 .
Tacitus says Felix ruled the province in a mean, cruel, and profligate manner. The country was full of sedition, among which Josephus speaks of 'false messiahs' being put down. Eventually he was accused before Nero by the Jews, and only escaped punishment by the intercession of his brother Pallas. He was superseded by Porcius Festus, A.D. 60.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Felix
Antonius (Tacitus, Hist. 5:9) Claudius (Suidas), Roman procurator of Judaea, appointed by the emperor Claudius, whose freedman he was, to succeed Ventidius Cumanus, who was banished A.D. 53. Tacitus (Ann., 12:54) makes F. procurator of Samaria while Cumanus had Galilee. Josephus (Ant. 20:6, section 2, 7, section 1) makes him succeed Cumanus. Tacitus writes of Felix, "he exercised the authority of a king with the disposition of a slave in all cruelty and lust." He and Cumanus were tried before Quadratus for winking at robbery and violence and enriching themselves with bribes, according to Tacitus, and Felix was acquitted and reinstated. Having the powerful support of his brother Pallas, Claudius' freedman and favorite, he thought he could do what he liked with impunity. Pallas' influence continuing, Felix remained procurator under Nero.
Felix crushed the Jewish zealots under the name of "robbers," and crucified hundreds. He put down false Messiahs and the followers of an Egyptian magician (Josephus, Ant. 20:8, section 5, 6; Acts 21:88) and riots, but he once employed the zealot assassins (Sicarii) to murder the high priest Jonathan. "By unseasonable remedies he only aggravated" the evils of Judaea (Tacitus, Annals 12:54). These were the "very worthy deeds done by Felix's providence," which gave the nation "great quietness" according to the lying flatterer Tertullus' set oration against Paul (Acts 24:2, etc.). Claudius Lysias, the chief captain, sent Paul for judgment to Felix at Caesarea.
There Paul had two hearings before Felix. After the first hearing, Felix deferred the Jews until Lysias the chief captain should come. At the second Paul, before Felix and Drusilla, Felix's Jewish wife, who was curious to "hear him concerning the faith of Christ," so reasoned of "righteousness and temperance (both of which Felix outraged as a governor and a man, having seduced from her husband) and judgment to come" that Felix "trembled" before his prisoner, but deferred repentance, saying, "when I have a convenient season I will call for thee." (See DRUSILLA.) Greed of gain supplanted conscience, so that instead of repenting of his shameful life he would not even do common justice to Paul, but left him a prisoner because he got no bribe to set him free.
Felix could hardly have hoped for money from so poor looking a prisoner as Paul (which is implied in Lysias' surprise, presuming Paul had like himself bought Roman citizenship, Acts 22:27-28), had he not heard Paul stating in the former interview, "after many years I came to bring alms to my nation and offerings." This accounts for Felix "letting Paul have liberty and forbidding none of his acquaintance to minister or come unto him." He doubtless hoped they would supply the money wherewith to buy his deliverance, an undesigned coincidence and so a mark of the truth of the history. After two years Porcius Festus succeeded, and Felix was accused by the Jews of Caesarea, at Rome, but escaped through Pallas' influence with the emperor Nero, A.D. 60.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix (1) i, Bishop of Rome
Felix (1) I. , bp. of Rome, probably from Jan. 5, 269, to Dec. 30, 274, in the reigns of Claudius and Aurelian. The Liberian Catalogue (354) names the consuls of the years above mentioned as those contemporary with his accession and death, and gives 5 years, 11 months, and 25 days as the duration of his episcopate; while the Liberian Depositio Episcoporum gives Dec. 30 as the date of his death. Later and less trustworthy authorities, including the Liber Pontificalis, differ as to the date and duration of his episcopate. He appears in the Roman Calendar as a saint and martyr, his day being May 30. His martyrdom is asserted, not only in the later editions of the Liber Pontificalis, but also in the early recension of 530, known as the Felician Catalogue. Notwithstanding this testimony, his martyrdom seems inconsistent with the silence of the Liberian Catalogue, and with his name appearing in the Depositio Episcoporum, not the Depositio Martyrum of the same date.
Nothing is known with certainty of his acts, except the part he took in the deposition of Paul of Samosata from the see of Antioch. A synod at Antioch (a.d. 290) having deposed this heretical bishop and appointed Domnus in his place, announced these facts in letters addressed to Maximus and Dionysius, bps. of Alexandria and Rome, and to other Catholic bishops. Felix, who had in the meantime succeeded Dionysius, addressed a letter on the subject to Maximus and to the clergy of Antioch, fragments of which are preserved in the Apologeticus of Cyril of Alexandria, and in the Acts of the council of Ephesus, and which is also alluded to by Marius Mercator, and by Vincent of Lerins in his Commonitorium ; cf. Harnack, Gesch. der alt. Ch. Lit. i. 659. Three decretals, undoubtedly spurious, are assigned to him (Harduin, Concil. ).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix (174), Bishop of Tubzoca
Felix (174) , bp. of Tubzoca (perhaps Thibaris in Numidia). His story illustrates the first edict of persecution issued by Diocletian in Feb. 303, and the special severity with which it was worked in the West under the emperor Maximian. This edict did not authorize death as a punishment, but simply prohibited the assembly of Christians for religious worship; ordered the destruction of churches and sacred documents, and authorized torture. Official notice of its publication arrived at Tubzoca on June 5, and the overseer of the city, Magnellianus, summoned first the clergy and then the bishop, and demanded the sacred writings. Felix replied, "It is better that I should be burned rather than the Holy Scriptures, since it is better to obey God rather than man." Three days were given him for reconsideration, during which time he was committed to the private custody of Vincentius Celsinus, a leading citizen. Upon his continued refusal he was sent to the proconsul Anulinus at Carthage, June 24. By him the bishop was twice examined. With the edict there seems to have been sent by Maximian the praetorian prefect or commander of the emperor's guard, to secure its due execution. To him, upon his final refusal, Felix and his companions were delivered for transporation into Italy, arriving after four days' sail in Sicily. At Agrigentum, Catana, Messana, and Taurominium they were received with great honour by the Christians. Thence they were carried by the prefect to Venusia, in Apulia, where, having again called upon Felix to surrender the sacred writings, he condemned him to death for disobedience. Felix suffered by beheading, Aug. 30, on which day he is commemorated by Bede. There is considerable confusion as to details in different versions of the Acts, which d’Achery and Baluze have in vain endeavoured to remedy. Martyr. Vet. Roman. Bedae, Adonis, Usuardi; Baronius, Annal. a.d. 302, cxvii.-cxxiii.; Ruinart, Acta Sincera ; Surius; d’Acherii Spicileg. t. xii. 634; Baluz. Miscell. t. ii. p. 77; Tillem. v. 202.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix (186) of Nola
Felix (186) of Nola. [1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix ii, Bishop of Rome
Felix (2) II. , bp. of Rome after the exile of pope Liberius (a.d. 355). He has a place in the Roman calendar as a saint and martyr, and in the Pontifical and in the Acts of St. Felix and St. Eusebius as a legitimately elected and orthodox pope, persecuted by the emperor and the Arian faction. Contemporary and other ancient writers (Faustus and Marcellinus, Hilary, Athanasius, Jerome, Rufinus, Sozomen, and Theodoret) unanimously represent him, on the contrary, as an interloper placed in the see violently and irregularly by the emperor and the Arians, and do not allude to his martyrdom. The following is the account given by Marcellinus and Faustus, two contemporary Luciferian presbyters of Rome, who must have had good opportunity of knowing the truth. It occurs in the preface to their Libellus Precum addressed to the emperors Valentinian, Theodosius, and Arcadius during the pontificate of Damasus, who succeeded Liberius, and by whom the writers complain of being persecuted. Immediately on the banishment of Liberius all the clergy, including the archdeacon Felix, swore to accept no other bishop during the life of the exiled pope. Notwithstanding, the clergy afterwards ordained this Felix, though the people were displeased and abstained from taking part. Damasus, pope after Liberius, was among his perjured supporters. In 357 the emperor visited Rome, and, being solicited by the people for the return of Liberius, consented on condition of his complying with the imperial requirements, but with the intention of his ruling the church jointly with Felix. In the third year Liberius returned, and the people met him with joy. Felix was driven from the city, but soon after, at the instigation of the clergy who had perjured themselves in his election, burst into it again, taking his position in the basilica of Julius beyond the Tiber. The faithful and the nobles again expelled him with great ignominy. After 8 years, during the consulship of Valentinianus and Valens ( i.e. a.d. 365), on the 10th of the Calends of Dec. (Nov. 22), Felix died, leaving Liberius without a rival as bp. of Rome till his own death on the 8th of the Calends of Oct. (Sept. 24), 366. The other writers mentioned tell us that the election and consecration of Felix took place in the imperial palace, since the people debarred the Arians from their churches; that three of the emperor's eunuchs represented the people, the consecrators being three heretical bishops, Epictetus of Centumellae, Acacius of Caesarea, and Basil of Ancyra; and it was only the Arian section of the clergy, though apparently a large one, that supported Felix.
A very different account is given in the Pontifical and in the Acts of St. Felix and of St. Eusebius; the former account is undoubtedly to be preferred. But though Felix, as well as Liberius, has obtained a place in the list of lawful popes, and has even been canonized, it is thus evident that his claim is more than doubtful. Accordingly, Augustine, Optatus, and Eutychius (as did Athanasius, Jerome, and Rufinus) exclude him from their lists of popes. In the Roman church, however, his claim to the position appears to have remained unquestioned till the 14th cent., when, an emendation of the Roman Martyrology having been undertaken in 1582, under pope Gregory XIII., the question was raised and discussed. Baronius at first opposed the claims of Felix; a cardinal, Sanctorius, defended them. The question was decided by the accidental discovery, in the church of SS. Cosmas and Damian in the forum, of a coffin bearing the inscription, "Corpus S. Felicis papae et martyris, qui damnavit Constantium." In the face of this, Baronius was convinced, and retracted all he had written (Baron. ad Liberium , c. lxii.). Accordingly Felix retained his place in the Martyrology, though the title of pope was afterwards expunged from the oratio for his day in the breviary. What became of the inscribed slab is not known, and in the absence of any knowledge of its date, its testimony is valueless.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix (212)
Felix (212). [1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix (26) i, Bishop of Aptunga
Felix (26) I. , bp. of Aptunga, in proconsular Africa. Felix was one of those who laid hands on Caecilian as bp. of Carthage, if not the sole officiating bishop, a.d. 311 (Aug. Brevie. Coll. iii. 14, 26; 16, 29). The Donatist party, having failed in the Court of Inquiry at Rome, under Melchiades, Oct. 2, 313, to establish their case against Caecilian, turned their attack on Felix, whom they sought to convict of the infamous crime of "tradition" in the persecution of Maximus, a.d. 303. The emperor gave orders to Aelianus, the proconsul of Africa, to hold an inquiry on the spot, which took place on Feb. 15, 314 (Aug. Post. Coll. 38, 56; Ep. 43, 3-14; 88; c. Cresc. iii. 61) at Carthage, in the presence of many who had held municipal offices at the time of the persecution. In vain the prosecution relied on a chain of fraudulent evidence elaborately concocted. The proconsul pronounced the complete acquittal of Felix, which was confirmed by the emperor, and repeated in a letter to Verinus, or Valerius, the vicar of Africa, a.d. 321. The whole case was brought up again at Carth. Conf., a.d. 411, when Augustine argued that there was no doubt of the completeness of the imperial decision. Aug. c. Cresc. iii. 81, iv. 79; de Unic. Bapt. 28; Brev. Coll. 41, 42; Post. Coll. 56; Mon. Vet. Don. iii. pp. 160-167 and 341-343, ed. Oberthür; Bruns. Concil. i. 108 ; Routh, Rel. Sacr. iv. 92.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome
Felix (3) III. , (otherwise II.), bp. of Rome from Mar 483 to Feb. 492. The clergy having met in St. Peter's church to elect a successor to Simplicius, Basilius (Praefectus Praetorio and Patrician) interposed in the name of his master Odoacer the Herulian, who since 476 had ruled the West as king of Italy, alleging, as a fact known to his hearers, that Simplicius before his death had conjured the king to allow no election of a successor without his consent; and this to avoid the turmoil and detriment to the church that was likely to ensue. Basilius expressing surprise that the clergy, knowing this, had taken independent action, proceeded in the king's name to propound a law prohibiting the pope then to be elected and all future popes from alienating any farms or other church possessions; declaring invalid the titles of any who might thus receive ecclesiastical property; requiring the restitution of alienated farms with their proceeds, or the sale for religious uses of gold, silver, jewels, and clothes unfitted for church purposes; and subjecting all donors and recipients of church property to anathema. The assembled clergy seem to have assented to this, and to have been then allowed to proceed with their election, their choice falling on Caelius Felix, the son of a presbyter also called Felix. The Roman synod under pope Symmachus (498-514) protested against this interference of laymen with the election of a pope, and Symmachus consented to declare it void, but required the re-enaction of the law against the alienation of farms, etc.
The pontificate of this Felix was chiefly remarkable for the commencement of the schism of 35 years between Rome and the Eastern patriarchates. In 451 the council of Chalcedon had condemned the Monophysite or Eutychian heresy, adopting the definition of faith contained in the famous letter of pope Leo I. to Flavian, patriarch of Constantinople. The council had also enacted canons of discipline, the 9th and the 17th giving to the patriarchal throne of Constantinople the final determination of causes against metropolitans in the East; and the 28th assigning to the most holy throne of Constantinople, or new Rome, equal privileges with the elder Rome in ecclesiastical matters, as being the second after her, with the right of ordaining metropolitans in the Pontic and Asian and Thracian dioceses, and bishops among the barbarians therein. This last canon the legates of pope Leo had protested against at the council, and Leo himself had afterwards repudiated it, as contrary (so he expressed himself) to the Nicene canons, and an undue usurpation on the part of Constantinople. In connexion with the heresy condemned by the council of Chalcedon and with the privileges assigned by its canons to Constantinople, the schism between the East and West ensued during the pontificate of Felix.
The condemnation of Monophysitism at Chalcedon by no means silenced its abettors, who in the church of Alexandria were especially strong and resolute. They supported Peter Mongus as patriarch; the orthodox supporting first Timotheus Solofacialus, and on his death John Talaia. [1] Felix, in a synod at Rome, renewed his predecessor's excommunication of Peter Mongus, addressed letters to the emperor Zeno and Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople. Acacius is urged to renounce Peter Mongus, and induce the emperor to do the same. Felix sent also a formal summons for Acacius to appear at Rome and answer the charge of having disregarded the injunctions of Simplicius. The letter to Zeno implored the emperor to refrain from rending the seamless garment of Christ, and to renew his support of the one faith which had raised him to the imperial dignity, the faith of the Roman church, against which the Lord had said that the gates of hell should not prevail; but both the emperor and Acacius continued to support Peter. The papal legates having returned to Rome, Felix convened a synod of 67 Italian bishops, in which he renewed the excommunication of Peter Mongus, and published an irrevocable sentence of deposition and excommunication against Acacius himself. The sentence of excommunication was served on Acacius by one of those zealous champions of Felix, the Sleepless Monks ("Acoemetae"), who fastened it to the robe of the patriarch when about to officiate in church. The patriarch discovered it, but proceeded with the service, and then, in a calm, clear voice, ordered the name of Felix, bp. of Rome, to be erased from the diptychs of the church. This was on Aug. 1, 484. Thus the two chief bishops of Christendom stood mutually excommunicated, and the first great schism between the East and West began. The emperor and the great majority of the prelates of the East supported Acacius; and thus the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, as well as Constantinople, remained out of communion with Rome.
Another noted Monophysite, called Peter Fullo (i.e. the Fuller), had excited the orthodox zeal of Felix, patriarch of Antioch. He had added to the Tersanctus the clause, "Who wast crucified for us," and was charged with thus attributing passibility to the Godhead. To him, therefore, from a Roman synod, Felix addressed a synodical letter in which, in the name of Peter, the chief of the apostles and the head of all sees, he pronounced his deposition and excommunication.
In 489 Acacius died, and was succeeded by Flavitas, or Fravitas. Felix, on hearing of the vacancy of the see, wrote to Thalasius, an archimandrite of Constantinople, warning him and his monks (who appear throughout to have espoused the cause of Rome) to communicate with no successor till Rome had been fully apprised of all proceedings and had declared the church of Constantinople restored to its communion. Flavitas having died within four months after his accession, the popes' letter to him was received by his successor Euphemius. Felix, though satisfied as to the faith of Euphemius, insisted on the erasure of the name of Acacius, which condition being demurred to, the breach continued.
After his rupture with the East, Felix helped to reconstitute the African church, which had cruelly suffered at the hands of the Arian Vandals. This persecution, which had raged under king Hunneric, who died in 484, ceased under his successor Gundamund, when a number of apostates sought readmission to catholic communion. A synod of 38 bishops held at Rome under Felix in 488 issued a synodical letter dated Mark 15, laying down terms of readmission. Felix died Feb. 24, 492.
His extant works are 15 letters (Migne, Patr. Lat. lviii. 893 ff.). Gratian gives also a decretum as his, to the effect that the royal will should yield to priests in ecclesiastical causes. The ancient authorities for his Life are his letters and those of his successor Gelasius, the Breviarium of Liberatus Diaconus, and the Histories of Evagrius and Nicephorus Callistus.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felix (4) iv, Bishop of Rome
Felix (4) IV. (otherwise III.; see Felix II.), bp. of Rome (July 526—Oct. 530) during 4 years, 2 months, and 14 or 18 days (Anastas. Biblioth. ). The same authority states that he built the basilica of SS. Cosmas and Damian, restored that of the martyr St. Saturninus, and was buried, on Oct. 12, in the basilica of St. Peter. There is little to be told of him, except the circumstances of his appointment. His predecessor, John I., had died in prison at Ravenna, into which he had been thrown by Theodoric the Ostrogoth, who then ruled the West as king of Italy. Theodoric took the unprecedented step of appointing his successor on his own authority, without waiting for the customary election by clergy and people. This high-handed proceeding seems to have been at length acquiesced in. No subsequent king or emperor laid claim to a like power of interference in the appointment of popes, though the confirmation of elections by the civil power was insisted on, and continued till the election of Zachary in 752, when the confirmation of the exarch of Ravenna, as representing the Eastern emperor, was first dispensed with under the Carlovingian empire. The same freedom of election by clergy and people continued to be the theory till the appointment was given to the College of Cardinals during the pontificate of Nicholas II., a.d. 1059. For previous interventions of the civil power see Bonifacius II., Eulalius (1), Felix III., Symmachus, Laurentius (10). The only further event known as marking the pontificate of Felix is the issue of an edict by Athalaric, the successor of Theodoric, requiring all civil suits against ecclesiastics to be preferred before the bishop and not the secular judge. The edict was called forth by Felix, with the Roman clergy, having complained to the king that the Goths had invaded the rights of churches and dragged the clergy before lay tribunals. It extended only to the Roman clergy, "in honour of the Apostolic see" (Cassiodor. lib 8, c. 24). Justinian I. afterwards extended it, though with an appeal to the civil tribunal, to all ecclesiastics (Justin. Novel. 83, 123).
For this pope's letter, esp. letter to Caesarius of Arles, requiring probation from candidates for the priesthood before their ordination, see Migne, Patr. Lat. lxv. An important decretum of this pope was made known by Amelli in 1882, and edited by Mommsen in Neuer Archiv fur älter deutsch. Gesch. Kunde, 1886. See Duchesne, La Succession du pape Félix IV. (Rome, 1883).
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Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Felix
(Acts 23:24 ff.)
A freedman, and a brother of Pallas, Felix was the favourite of the Emperor Claudius. Tacitus (Hist. Acts 23:9) calls him ‘Antonius Felix.’ Of his public life prior to his appointment to his procuratorship in Palestine, nothing is known; of his private life, only that he had married a granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra, whom Tacitus (loc. cit.) calls Drusilla, confusing her, no doubt, with the Jewish princess with whom Felix allied himself later. Suetonius knows of yet another marriage-also to a princess (Claud. 28).
Josephus and Tacitus are at variance as to the time and circumstance of the sending of Felix to Palestine. According to Josephus (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) ii. 12; Ant. xx. 6f.), Fells was appointed to succeed the procurator Cumanus, when the latter was condemned and banished for his misrule. According to Tacitus (Ann, xii. 54), Cumanus and Felix were contemporaneously procurators, the one of Galilee, the other of Samaria. It seems reasonable to follow Schürer (History of the Jewish People (Eng. tr. of GJV).] I. ii. [1] 174) in giving preference in this matter to ‘the very detailed narrative of Josephus.’ This fixes the arrival of Felix in Palestine in a.d. 52, or early in the following year.
The historians are entirely at one in their estimate of Felix and of the manner in which he exercised his functions. His countryman Tacitus (Hist. v. 9) describes him as using ‘the powers of a king with the disposition of a slave,’ and says (Ann, xii. 54) ‘he deemed that he might perpetrate any ill deeds with impunity.’ Under his government the state of Palestine grew rapidly worse. If there had been occasional disorders under Cumanus, ‘under Felix rebellion became permanent.’ The boundless cruelty with which he repressed the more open opposition of the ‘Zealots’ to the Roman rule stimulated the formation of the secret associations of the ‘Assassins’ (Sicarii), whose hand was against all-Jew not less than Roman-who did not further their designs. Not less significant of the misery of the people was their readiness to answer the call of religious fanatics like ‘the Egyptian’ mentioned in Acts 21:38, whom Josephus (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. xiii. 5) credits with a following of thirty thousand. In any such movement Felix suspected ‘the beginning of a revolt,’ and adopted measures which only served to increase the popular disaffection. For the intrigue by which he possessed himself of the youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I.-the newly wedded wife of King Azizus of Emesa-see article Drusilla.
The cynical disregard of Felix for justice, and his inordinate greed are alike brought to view in his treatment of the Apostle Paul. Although possessed of information Concerning the Way,’ which would have justified him in releasing the prisoner when he was first brought before him, he decided to adjourn the case in definitely (Acts 24:22), partly to curry favour with the Jews, and partly to serve his own rapacious ends. The interview with the Apostle recorded in Acts 24:24 was probably intended by the procurator and his wife to be somewhat of a diversion-it ended for Felix in terror. He had frequent communing with St. Paul during the time he detained him as his prisoner at Caesarea; but seemingly on these later occasions Felix kept control of the conversation and directed it, though unavailingly, towards his mercenary aim.
Two years after St. Paul was brought to Caesarea, Felix was recalled to Rome in connexion with a strife which had broken out at Caesarea between the Jews and the Syrians in that town-the Jews asserting for themselves certain exclusive rights, which the others denied. The matter was referred to the Emperor. The investigation proved so damaging to Felix that ‘he had certainly been brought to punishment, unless Nero had yielded to the importunate solicitations of his brother Pallas’ (Jos. Ant. xx. viii. 9).
Of the subsequent life of Felix, nothing is known.
Literature.-H. M. Luckock, Footprints of the Apostles as traced by St. Luke, 1905, pt. ii. p. 243; A. Maclaren, Expositions: ‘Acts, ch. xiii.-end,’1907, pp. 281, 287: G. H. Morrison, The Footsteps of the Flock, 1904, p. 362; M. Jones, St. Paul the Orator, 1910, p. 202; J. S. Howson, The Companions of St. Paul, 1874, p. 145: H. Goodwin, Parish Sermons, 2nd ser. 3, 1861, p. 179; W, H. M. H. Aitken, The Glory of the Gospel, n.d., pp. 193, 208, 223; C. H. Turner, ‘Eusebius’ Chronology of Felix and Festus’ in Journal of Theological Studies , iii. [2] 120; S. Buss, Roman Law and History in the NT, 1901, p. 373.
G. P. Gould.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix, Bishop of Pavia
Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix , bp. of Pavia, born at Arles (Ennod. Ep. lib. vii. 8) c. 473; connected with Romans of distinction ( ib. iv. i 25). The invasion of the Visigoths, and the consequent loss of his patrimony, caused him to migrate at an early age to Milan, where he was educated in the house of an aunt. In 489, the year in which Theodoric invaded Italy, his aunt died, and he was saved from beggary by marriage ( Eucharist. de Vit. ). A dangerous sickness (Ep. viii. 24) led him to serious thought and suggested the composition of his Eucharisticon, in which he reviews with penitence his past life. He was subsequently ordained deacon by Epiphanius bp. of Pavia, whose exhortations determined him to renounce his marriage, with the consent of his wife, who retired into a convent. In 494 he accompanied Epiphanius (Ennod. Vit. Epiphan. 234 A) on a mission to Gundebaud, king of the Burgundians, to procure the ransom of certain Ligurian prisoners. Upon the death of Epiphanius two years later he visited Rome, and gained reputation by composing an apology for pope Symmachus and the synod which acquitted him, as well as by a public panegyric in honour of Theodoric. The former of these was inserted in the Acta Conciliorum ; the latter is generally included in collections of the Panegyrici Veteres. Under the next pope, Hormisdas, he succeeded Maximus II. in the see of Pavia, and was sent in 515, and again in 517, on an embassy to the emperor Anastasius to oppose the spread of the Eutychian heresy. Both embassies were unsuccessful. Anastasius, failing to corrupt or bend the bishop, had him placed on board an unseaworthy vessel. Ennodius, however, arrived safely in his diocese, which he continued to administer for four years. He died at the age of 48, and was buried in the church of St. Michael at Pavia, July 17, 521.
His writings exemplify throughout a profane tendency of thought and expression which Christian writers in Gaul were slow to abandon. Many of his letters suit the pen of a heathen rhetorician rather than of a Christian bishop. His illustrations are commonly drawn from Greek mythology. He speaks of divine grace as descending "de Superis," and sets the Fates side by side with Jesus Christ. His style is turgid, involved, and affected. He seems to shrink from making himself intelligible lest he should be thought commonplace, and the result is unattractive. His works are reprinted with notes in Migne's Patr. vol. lxiii. For his Life see Sirmond's ed.; Ceillier, Auteurs sacr. et ecclés. x. 569; for a just estimate of his literary merits, Ampère, Hist. lit. de la France, t. ii. c. vii.
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Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Felix
CLAUDIUS. See CLAUDIUS .
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Felix
Felix (fç'lix), happy. A Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in a.d. 53. His period of office was full of troubles and seditions. Paul was brought before Felix in Cæsarea. Paul was remanded to prison, and kept there two years in hopes of extorting money from him. Acts 24:26-27. At the end of that time Porcius Festus superseded Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Cæsarea, and would have suffered for his crimes had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him. This was probably about a.d. 60. The wife of Felix was Drusilla, a daughter of Herod Agrippa I., who was his third wife and whom he persuaded to leave her husband and marry him.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Felix
A Roman governor of Judea; originally a slave, but manumitted and promoted by Claudius Caesar, from whom he received the name of Claudius. He is described by the historian Tacitus as cruel, licentious, and base. In Judea he married Drusilla, sister of the younger Agrippa, having enticed her from her second husband Azizus. Paul having been sent by Lysias to Caesarea, then the seat of government, Felix gave him an audience, and was convinced of his innocence. Nevertheless he kept him a prisoner, though with many alleviation's, in hopes that his friends would purchase his liberty by a heavy bribe. Meanwhile his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess, desired to hear Paul explain the new religion; and the apostle being summoned before them, discoursed with his usual boldness on justice, chastity, and the final judgment. Felix trembled, but hastily remanded Paul to confinement, and stifled his convictions-a melancholy instance of the power of lust and the danger of delay. Two years after, A. D. 60, he was recalled to Rome; and left Paul in prison, in order to appease the Jews. He was brought to trial, however, for maladministration, found guilty, and barely escaped death through the intercession of his brother Pallas, another royal favorite, Acts 23:26 ; 24:1-27 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Valois, Felix of, Saint
Confessor, founder of the Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives, born province of Valois, France, 1127; died Cerfroi, 1212. Of the noble family of Valois, he renounced all his possessions at an early age, to live a life of prayer and contemplation in a forest in the Diocese of Meaux. Here he was joined by Saint John of Matha, with whom he founded the Order of Trinitarians for the ransom of Christians held as slaves by the Moors of Spain and Northern Africa. They raised vast sums of money by parading in public as the people threw down to them their gold and precious stones. Saint Felix labored in France, where he established the monastery of Cerfroi and looked after the interests of the congregation. Emblems: slave, flag, and purse. He was buried in the church of Cerfroi and his tomb became the object of frequent pilgrimages. Canonized, 1262. Feast, Roman Calendar, November 20,.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Claudius Felix
See FELIX .
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Felix
As Roman governor of Judea from AD 52 to 60, Felix had some influence on Jewish affairs in Palestine. Early non-biblical records show that he was corrupt and cruel, characteristics that are well illustrated in the story about him in the Bible.
After a riot by the Jews in Jerusalem, Paul was sent to Caesarea to be judged by Felix (Acts 23:26-35). Felix knew the Jews well, for he had a Jewish wife (Acts 24:24). He also knew sufficient of Christianity to realize that Paul was innocent of the charges the Jews laid against him (Acts 23:29; Acts 24:22). Yet he kept Paul imprisoned for two years, simply to please the Jews and so prevent any further unrest (Acts 24:23; Acts 24:27). He was interested to hear of Paul’s religious beliefs, and Paul could have gained his freedom had he paid the bribe Felix wanted (Acts 24:25-26). Paul refused to cooperate, so the heartless Felix left him in prison. In due course Felix returned to Rome, leaving the next governor to deal with the matter as best he could (Acts 24:27; Acts 25:1-5).
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Minucius Felix, Marcus
Minucius Felix, Marcus , one of the earliest and most pleasing of the Latin Christian apologists. His personal history can only be gathered from his own book. The earliest writer to mention him by name is Lactantius (Institut. v. 1), who describes him as a lawyer, "non ignobilis inter causidicos loci," but Lactantius may be merely drawing a natural inference from the introduction to the book itself, where Minucius tells how he had taken advantage of the court holidays to leave Rome for Ostia, "ad vindimeam feriae judiciariam curam relaxaverant." St. Jerome three times mentions Minucius (Ep. 48 ad Pammach. vol. i. p. 221; Ep. 70 ad Magnum , vol. i. p. 427; de Vir. Illust. c. 58, vol. ii. p. 883), and describes him as "insignis causidicus Romani fori"; but it seems clear that Jerome drew this description from Lactantius, whom he quotes. It has been attempted to deduce the date of Minucius from the place which Jerome assigns him in his list of illustrious men; but there is no evidence that Jerome really knew more than we know ourselves. Still more may the same be said of Eucherius, who speaks of Minucius ( Ep. ad Valer. in Patr. Lat. l. 719). The gens Minucia was widely spread at Rome, and an inscription (Gruter, p. 918) shows among its families one with the cognomen Felix.
The only extant work of Minucius is a dialogue entitled "Octavius," modelled on the philosophical works of Cicero, whose writings, particularly de Natura Deorum and de Divinatione , Minucius has carefully studied. Minucius recalls a conversation of his lately deceased friend Octavius which resulted in the conversion to Christianity of their common friend Caecilius. He tells how Octavius had come to Rome, and gives a charming description of the morning walk on the beach taken by the three friends after they had gone from Rome to Ostia, until at last they sat down for rest and serious discussion on large stones placed for protection of the baths. At the beginning of the walk the heathen Caecilius, as they were passing an image of Serapis, had saluted it, as was customary, by kissing hands, whereupon Octavius charged Minucius with culpable negligence in having allowed his friend to continue in such degrading superstition. Caecilius challenges Octavius to a formal dispute.. The little treatise then divides itself into two parts, containing first a lively attack by Caecilius on the Christian doctrines and practices, then a reply, about twice as long, by Octavius, refuting and retorting the heathen arguments. Each point of the attack is dealt with in order. Caecilius confesses himself vanquished, gladly ranging himself on the conquering side.
The following is an abstract of the arguments used by Caecilius on the heathen side. He censures the presumption of the Christians, who, though unlettered men, venture to pronounce positively on questions about which the greatest philosophers have doubted; he denies that there is any good ground for believing in the existence of a God, since the chance concourse of atoms will sufficiently account for the origin of the world, while the prosperity of the wicked and the misfortunes of the good shew that the world is governed by no Providence. Then shifting his ground, he urges the duty of worshipping the gods whom their ancestors had worshipped, and the folly of rejecting what universal experience and the consent of all nations had found to be salutary. Each nation had its peculiar god: the Romans, the most religious of all, worshipped gods of all nations, and so had attained the highest prosperity. The power of their deities bad been exhibited in many oracles and prodigies; only one or two philosophers had ventured to deny their agency, and one of these, Protagoras, had in consequence been banished by the Athenians. Was it not then deplorable that the gods should be assailed by men of the dregs of the people, who, collecting credulous women and silly men, banded them in a fearful conspiracy, cemented by secret and detestable rites? Tales are repeated, for some of which the authority of Fronto is cited, of the initiation of Christian neophytes by partaking of the blood of a slaughtered infant, and other customary charges. If these things were not true, at least the obscurity in which they shrouded their rites shewed that they were such as they had cause to be ashamed of. These members of an illegal society dreaded to bring their doctrines into the light of day; they had no altars, no temples, no images, and were not even in their manner of worship like the Jews, the only people besides themselves who worshipped that wretched lonely God Who had not been able to save His own people from captivity; yet wished to meddle with everything and pry into every thought and every action. Nor was this the only absurdity of Christian doctrine. They threatened destruction to the world, which always had lasted and was bound together by fixed laws, and said that one day it would be burnt up. Yet for themselves, who were not eternal like the world, but were seen to be born and die, they dared to hope for immortality, and expect that their dust and ashes would live again. In the prospect of this imaginary life they gave up all enjoyment of their real present life, trusting in a God Whose impotence was exhibited in their daily sufferings from which He was unable to save His worshippers. In fine, if the Christians had any modesty, let them give up philosophy, of which their want of education had made them incapable; or if they must philosophize, let them fallow that greatest of philosophers, Socrates, whose maxim was, "What is above us we have nothing to do with," otherwise the result will be either the destruction of all religion or the adoption of anile superstition.
Octavius replies that a hearing shall not be refused to the arguments of Christians because of their low worldly condition. Reason is the common property of all men. It is the rich who, intent on their wealth, are too often unable to lift their eyes to things divine. Some of those afterwards recognized as the greatest philosophers were at first despised as poor and plebeian. He then establishes, by the ordinary arguments from the order of the universe, the existence and providence and unity of God, confirming his conclusions by the authority of various philosophers, whose opinions respecting the Deity he extracts from Cicero's treatise. In proof how natural is the belief in God's unity, he appeals to the common use of the singular Deus, both in common speech and in the writings of the poets. He shews that the gods whom the heathen worshipped were but deified men, and exposes the absurdity of the fables commonly told of them, the folly of image-worship, and the cruelty and licentiousness of the rites by which the gods were honoured. He shews that it is false that the Romans owed their prosperity to their religion, since it was by a multitude of irreligious acts that their empire grew, and because their original native gods, to whom, if to any, must be ascribed the origin of their greatness, had been deposed from their position by the adoption of gods of the conquered peoples. He traces the source of all idolatry to the operation of the demons who, having lost their first estate, desired to draw others into the same ruin as themselves, who inspired oracles, wrought fictitious cures and other pretended miracles to deceive men, and were also the inventors and instigators of the calumnies against Christianity. All this was attested by their own confession when exorcised by Christians. Turning to the charges made against the Christians, Octavius not only denies and refutes them, but retorts them on the heathen, who had been the more ready to believe that others had been guilty of them because they had done the like themselves. If the Christians had not temples, or images, or altars, it was because they would not degrade the majesty of the infinite God by limiting Him to a narrow place. Man himself was God's best image, a holy life the best sacrifice that could be offered Him. God is invisible, but so is the wind whose effects we witness; so is our own soul; the sun itself, the source of all light, we cannot look at. As for the Christian doctrines which Caecilius had represented as absurd and incredible, different heathen philosophers had taught a future destruction of the world by fire or otherwise; some of them had taught a transmigration of souls, a doctrine quite as difficult as that of the resurrection of the body and less natural. The doctrine of a future life is recommended by countless analogies of nature; and though men whose lives are bad dislike to believe in future retribution, and prefer to think that death ends all, yet the current popular belief in Pyriphlegethon and Styx, a belief derived from information given by demons and from the Jewish prophets, shews how deep-seated is the conviction that the time will come when it shall not be well with the wicked. Nor is it to be thought that God deals ill with His worshippers because He does not give them a larger share of prosperity in this life: the Christians do not covet earthly riches; they look on trials as their discipline, persecutions as their warfare, in which they are not deserted by their God, but combat under His eye. The Romans honour with their praises such sufferers as Mucius Scaevola and Regulus, yet the heroism of these men has been repeatedly surpassed by that of Christian women and children. Lastly, we need not be disturbed by the failure of sceptical philosophers to arrive at any certain knowledge of truth. These men's lives gave the lie to their professions of wisdom; we, whose excellence is in life and not merely in word, may boast that we have succeeded in finding what they sought in vain, and have only cause for gratitude that a revelation was reserved for our hands which was denied to them.
It will be seen how meagre Minucius is in his exposition of Christian doctrine thus differing from all the other apologists. The doctrines of the unity of God the resurrection of the body and future retribution make up nearly the whole of the system of Christian doctrine which he sets forth. The doctrine of the Logos so prominent in the apologies of Justin Athenagoras and Tertullian is absent; our Lord's name is not mentioned and though from the manner in which Octavius repels the charge that the Christians worshipped a man who had been punished for his crimes it may reasonably be inferred that he believed our Lord to be more than man yet this is not plainly stated. Minucius clearly shews that the topics he omits are excluded not from disbelief in or ignorance of them but from a designed limitation of the objects of his work because at the end when Caecilius has declared himself satisfied on the main questions of the existence of God and of Providence and of the general truth of the Christian religion he asks for another conversation not because of remaining doubts but because he desires to be taught other things still necessary to perfect instruction. It cannot be accident that Minucius does not imitate the entire unreserve with which Justin speaks of Christian doctrines and Christian rites. The work of Minucius was doubtless intended mainly to influence intelligent heathen; and we must infer that in the West at least the feeling prevailed when Minucius wrote which made Christians fear to cast their pearls before swine. One striking difference between Minucius and Justin is the former's complete omission of the argument from prophecy yet the inspiration of the Jewish prophets is incidentally recognized (c. 35). Minucius never mentions the writings of either O. or N. T. and has scarcely any coincidence of language with them. There is (c. 29) an echo of Jer_17:5 and perhaps (c. 34) of 1Co_15:36; 1Co_15:42.
His date is generally agreed to have been before 250, somewhere about which time Cyprian published his de Idolorum Vanitate , in which large use is made of Minucius. A nearer limit depends on settling the relation of Minucius to Tertullian. His dialogue and the apology of Tertullian have in common so many arguments, sometimes in nearly the same words, that one of the two undoubtedly used the work of the other, but as to which was the follower critics have held opposite opinions. The difficulty is mainly caused by the excellent use both writers have made of their materials, whencesoever obtained, and the thoroughness with which they have incorporated them. We have already shewn the perfect workmanship of the dialogue of Minucius. Tertullian's Apology is equally excellent, though its plan is entirely different. It is an advocate's speech, written for presentation to heathen magistrates to convince them that Christians did not deserve persecution. It is more loosely constructed, and evidently more hastily written, than that of Minucius, but bears a strong stamp of originality. Many points briefly touched on in Minucius are expanded in Tertullian, so that either Minucius has abridged Tertullian or Tertullian has used and developed the suggestions of Minucius. This has furnished the best argument for the priority of Tertullian. Tertullian, it has been said, is one of the most original of writers, Minucius quite the reverse. We have already mentioned his obligations to Cicero; his work is also largely indebted to Seneca, besides containing traces of Juvenal and other writers. Is it not, then, most natural to believe that as he has drawn his arguments for Theism from Cicero, he has taken his defence of Christianity from Tertullian? In the common matter there are considerable differences as to arrangement and form of expression. If Tertullian were the original, Minucius would have a change of arrangement forced on him by the plan of his work, while the changes in form of expression either improve the Latinity or make the sentence more pointed; whereas if Minucius were the original, Tertullian's changes can hardly have any other object than to disguise his obligation. Notwithstanding, a very careful comparison of the common matter led Ebert ( K. Sächs. Ges. der Wissenschaften; philol.-histor. Classe , Bd. v.) to consider Minucius the original, and Ebert's ability in arguing the case obtained for a time general acceptance of his opinion. But recently new evidence has been obtained. The dialogue would seem to describe Minucius as a native of Cirta and fellow-townsman of Fronto, of whom he speaks as "Cirtensis noster," while Octavius refers to him as "Fronto tuus." Now at Cirta (Constantine in Algeria) the French have found six inscriptions containing the name of Caecilius Natalis (Mommsen, Lat. Insc. viii. 6996 and 7094–7098). This Caecilius was chief magistrate of Cirta in 210, and on the completion of five years of office raised at his own expense a triumphal arch in honour of Caracalla, brazen statues in honour of "Indulgentia domini nostri," exhibited "ludos scenicos" for seven days, and in other ways exhibited munificence. See an art. by Dessau ( Hermes , 1880, p. 471). We see no good reason for refusing to identify this Caecilius Natalis with the Caecilius of the dialogue. He is not likely to have been a Christian when discharging the functions just described; the conversation related by Minucius would therefore have occurred somewhat later than 215; and the composition itself might be a score of years later. We thus fall back on the opinion held by the best critics before the publication of Ebert's memoir, that the work of Minucius was written in the peaceful days of Alexander Severus, say a.d. 234.
A useful ed. is in Gersdorf's Bibl. Pat. Ecc. (Leipz. 1847), one with variorum notes in vol. iii. of Migne's Patr. Lat. , an excellent one by Holden (Camb.1853),and one by Halm (Vienna, 1867) founded on a new collation of the MS., which may therefore be regarded as the best authority for the text, but contains only critical notes. See also Waltzing, Bibliographie raisonnée de Min. Fel. in Muséon Belge (1902), vi. pp. 216 ff.; also G. Bossier in La fin du Paganisme , 3rd ed. (Paris, 1898), i. 261. There is an English trans. in the Lib of Ante-Nic. Fathers.
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Drusilla - The fair but loose daughter of Herod Agrippa I and Cypros (Acts 12); sister of Herod Agrippa II; married to Azizus, king of Emesa, on his becoming a Jew; seduced by Felix, procurator of Judea, through Simon the Cyprian sorcerer (Josephus, Felix at Caesarea. By Felix she had a son, Agrippa, who perished with his mother in the Vesuvian eruption, under Titus
Felix - As Roman governor of Judea from AD 52 to 60, Felix had some influence on Jewish affairs in Palestine. ...
After a riot by the Jews in Jerusalem, Paul was sent to Caesarea to be judged by Felix (Acts 23:26-35). Felix knew the Jews well, for he had a Jewish wife (Acts 24:24). He was interested to hear of Paul’s religious beliefs, and Paul could have gained his freedom had he paid the bribe Felix wanted (Acts 24:25-26). Paul refused to cooperate, so the heartless Felix left him in prison. In due course Felix returned to Rome, leaving the next governor to deal with the matter as best he could (Acts 24:27; Acts 25:1-5)
Claudius Felix - See Felix
Felix - Tacitus writes of Felix, "he exercised the authority of a king with the disposition of a slave in all cruelty and lust. " He and Cumanus were tried before Quadratus for winking at robbery and violence and enriching themselves with bribes, according to Tacitus, and Felix was acquitted and reinstated. Pallas' influence continuing, Felix remained procurator under Nero. ...
Felix crushed the Jewish zealots under the name of "robbers," and crucified hundreds. These were the "very worthy deeds done by Felix's providence," which gave the nation "great quietness" according to the lying flatterer Tertullus' set oration against Paul (Acts 24:2, etc. Claudius Lysias, the chief captain, sent Paul for judgment to Felix at Caesarea. ...
There Paul had two hearings before Felix. After the first hearing, Felix deferred the Jews until Lysias the chief captain should come. At the second Paul, before Felix and Drusilla, Felix's Jewish wife, who was curious to "hear him concerning the faith of Christ," so reasoned of "righteousness and temperance (both of which Felix outraged as a governor and a man, having seduced from her husband) and judgment to come" that Felix "trembled" before his prisoner, but deferred repentance, saying, "when I have a convenient season I will call for thee. ...
Felix could hardly have hoped for money from so poor looking a prisoner as Paul (which is implied in Lysias' surprise, presuming Paul had like himself bought Roman citizenship, Acts 22:27-28), had he not heard Paul stating in the former interview, "after many years I came to bring alms to my nation and offerings. " This accounts for Felix "letting Paul have liberty and forbidding none of his acquaintance to minister or come unto him. After two years Porcius Festus succeeded, and Felix was accused by the Jews of Caesarea, at Rome, but escaped through Pallas' influence with the emperor Nero, A
Drusil'la - Soon after, Felix, procurator of Judea, brought about her seduction by means of the Cyprian sorcerer Simon, and took her as his wife. In (Acts 24:24 ) we find her in company with Felix at Caesarea. Felix who, together with his mother, perished in the eruption of Vesuvius under Titus
Felix (212) - Felix (212)
Felix - Felix (fç'lix), happy. Paul was brought before Felix in Cæsarea. At the end of that time Porcius Festus superseded Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Cæsarea, and would have suffered for his crimes had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him. The wife of Felix was Drusilla, a daughter of Herod Agrippa I
Felix (186) of Nola - Felix (186) of Nola
Drusilla - She married Aziz king of Emesa on his becoming a Jew, but was subsequently seduced into leaving her husband and marrying Felix, procurator of Judaea. She was present when Paul was heard before Felix
Felix - )...
A freedman, and a brother of Pallas, Felix was the favourite of the Emperor Claudius. Acts 23:9) calls him ‘Antonius Felix. ) calls Drusilla, confusing her, no doubt, with the Jewish princess with whom Felix allied himself later. ...
Josephus and Tacitus are at variance as to the time and circumstance of the sending of Felix to Palestine. 54), Cumanus and Felix were contemporaneously procurators, the one of Galilee, the other of Samaria. ’ This fixes the arrival of Felix in Palestine in a. ...
The historians are entirely at one in their estimate of Felix and of the manner in which he exercised his functions. If there had been occasional disorders under Cumanus, ‘under Felix rebellion became permanent. In any such movement Felix suspected ‘the beginning of a revolt,’ and adopted measures which only served to increase the popular disaffection. ...
The cynical disregard of Felix for justice, and his inordinate greed are alike brought to view in his treatment of the Apostle Paul. The interview with the Apostle recorded in Acts 24:24 was probably intended by the procurator and his wife to be somewhat of a diversion-it ended for Felix in terror. Paul during the time he detained him as his prisoner at Caesarea; but seemingly on these later occasions Felix kept control of the conversation and directed it, though unavailingly, towards his mercenary aim. Paul was brought to Caesarea, Felix was recalled to Rome in connexion with a strife which had broken out at Caesarea between the Jews and the Syrians in that town-the Jews asserting for themselves certain exclusive rights, which the others denied. The investigation proved so damaging to Felix that ‘he had certainly been brought to punishment, unless Nero had yielded to the importunate solicitations of his brother Pallas’ (Jos. ...
Of the subsequent life of Felix, nothing is known. Turner, ‘Eusebius’ Chronology of Felix and Festus’ in Journal of Theological Studies , iii
Drusilla - Felix, the Roman procurator of Judea, induced her to leave her husband, Azizus, the king of Emesa, and become his wife. She was present with Felix when Paul reasoned of "righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come" (Acts 24:24 )
Drusilla - The third wife of the procurator Felix ( Acts 24:24 ). , and is said to have been persuaded by one Simon (? Simon Magus) to desert her first husband, Azizus king of Emesa, for Felix
Felix ii, Bishop of Rome - Felix (2) II. Felix and St. Immediately on the banishment of Liberius all the clergy, including the archdeacon Felix, swore to accept no other bishop during the life of the exiled pope. Notwithstanding, the clergy afterwards ordained this Felix, though the people were displeased and abstained from taking part. In 357 the emperor visited Rome, and, being solicited by the people for the return of Liberius, consented on condition of his complying with the imperial requirements, but with the intention of his ruling the church jointly with Felix. Felix was driven from the city, but soon after, at the instigation of the clergy who had perjured themselves in his election, burst into it again, taking his position in the basilica of Julius beyond the Tiber. 22), Felix died, leaving Liberius without a rival as bp. The other writers mentioned tell us that the election and consecration of Felix took place in the imperial palace, since the people debarred the Arians from their churches; that three of the emperor's eunuchs represented the people, the consecrators being three heretical bishops, Epictetus of Centumellae, Acacius of Caesarea, and Basil of Ancyra; and it was only the Arian section of the clergy, though apparently a large one, that supported Felix. Felix and of St. But though Felix, as well as Liberius, has obtained a place in the list of lawful popes, and has even been canonized, it is thus evident that his claim is more than doubtful. Baronius at first opposed the claims of Felix; a cardinal, Sanctorius, defended them. Accordingly Felix retained his place in the Martyrology, though the title of pope was afterwards expunged from the oratio for his day in the breviary
Tertullus - A professional orator or advocate, employed by the Jewish council, to argue the case against Paul before Felix
Porcius Festus - He succeeded Felix in the government of Judea
Felix, Antonius - Felix, ANTONIUS . 52; but this contradicts Tacitus, who makes Cumanus governor of Galilee and Felix of Samaria simultaneously; and this suits Acts 24:10 (‘many years’). Both historians give 52 as the year of Cumanus’ disgrace, so that we may probably take that as the date of Felix’ accession to office in Judæa. Felix was brother of Pallas, Claudius’ powerful freedman, whose influence continued him in office under Nero, and on his disgrace (due to a riot at Cæsarea) procured him his life
Tertullus - "A certain orator," Acts 24:1, who was retained to accuse the apostle Paul at Cæsarea before the Roman procurator Felix
fe'Lix - Paul was brought before Felix in Caesarea. ( Acts 24:26,27 ) At the end of that time Porcius Festus [1] was appointed to supersede Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Caesarea, and would have suffered the penalty due to his atrocities had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him. The wife of Felix was Drusilla, daughter of Herod Agrippa I
Cannon-Ball And Swords - Emblems in Christian art associated with Saints Jean de Matha, Vincent de Paul, and Felix of Valois, for their charity in the ransom of prisoners of war
Swords, Cannon-Ball And - Emblems in Christian art associated with Saints Jean de Matha, Vincent de Paul, and Felix of Valois, for their charity in the ransom of prisoners of war
Felix - At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was appointed in the room of Felix (A. ) ...
Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, having been induced by Felix to desert her husband, the king of Emesa, became his adulterous companion. When Felix gave place to Festus, being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he left Paul bound
Felix - Paul, when sent a prisoner to Caesarea, appeared before Felix; and again before him and his wife Drusilla; and as Paul reasoned of righteousness, temperance and judgement to come, Felix trembled, and said when he had a convenient season he would send for him. ...
Tacitus says Felix ruled the province in a mean, cruel, and profligate manner
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - Felix (3) III. The assembled clergy seem to have assented to this, and to have been then allowed to proceed with their election, their choice falling on Caelius Felix, the son of a presbyter also called Felix. ...
The pontificate of this Felix was chiefly remarkable for the commencement of the schism of 35 years between Rome and the Eastern patriarchates. In connexion with the heresy condemned by the council of Chalcedon and with the privileges assigned by its canons to Constantinople, the schism between the East and West ensued during the pontificate of Felix. ]'>[1] Felix, in a synod at Rome, renewed his predecessor's excommunication of Peter Mongus, addressed letters to the emperor Zeno and Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople. Felix sent also a formal summons for Acacius to appear at Rome and answer the charge of having disregarded the injunctions of Simplicius. The papal legates having returned to Rome, Felix convened a synod of 67 Italian bishops, in which he renewed the excommunication of Peter Mongus, and published an irrevocable sentence of deposition and excommunication against Acacius himself. The sentence of excommunication was served on Acacius by one of those zealous champions of Felix, the Sleepless Monks ("Acoemetae"), who fastened it to the robe of the patriarch when about to officiate in church. The patriarch discovered it, but proceeded with the service, and then, in a calm, clear voice, ordered the name of Felix, bp. the Fuller), had excited the orthodox zeal of Felix, patriarch of Antioch. To him, therefore, from a Roman synod, Felix addressed a synodical letter in which, in the name of Peter, the chief of the apostles and the head of all sees, he pronounced his deposition and excommunication. Felix, on hearing of the vacancy of the see, wrote to Thalasius, an archimandrite of Constantinople, warning him and his monks (who appear throughout to have espoused the cause of Rome) to communicate with no successor till Rome had been fully apprised of all proceedings and had declared the church of Constantinople restored to its communion. Felix, though satisfied as to the faith of Euphemius, insisted on the erasure of the name of Acacius, which condition being demurred to, the breach continued. ...
After his rupture with the East, Felix helped to reconstitute the African church, which had cruelly suffered at the hands of the Arian Vandals. A synod of 38 bishops held at Rome under Felix in 488 issued a synodical letter dated Mark 15, laying down terms of readmission. Felix died Feb
Jewess - Drusilla, the wife of Felix the Roman governor, was a Jewess (Acts 24:24 )
Added, Saint - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the pagan gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground. According to the legend, while Felix was being led to his execution, a stranger, inflamed by his heroic example, professed the Faith, and was also martyred
Felix, Saint 30 Aug - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the pagan gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground. According to the legend, while Felix was being led to his execution, a stranger, inflamed by his heroic example, professed the Faith, and was also martyred
Drusilla - (dryoo ssihl' luh) Wife of Felix, the Roman governor of Judea who heard Paul's case. Atomos, a magician from Cyprus, helped Felix win Drusilla away from her husband
Adauctus, Saint - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the pagan gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground. According to the legend, while Felix was being led to his execution, a stranger, inflamed by his heroic example, professed the Faith, and was also martyred
Fes'Tus, Por'Cius - (Festus means festival ), successor of Felix as procurator of Judea, ( Acts 24:27 ) sent by Nero probably in the autumn of A. Paul, who had been left a prisoner by Felix, in the presence of Herod Agrippa II and Bernice his sister, (Acts 25:11,12 ) Judea was in the same disturbed state during the procuratorship of Festus which had prevailed through that of his predecessor
Felix (174), Bishop of Tubzoca - Felix (174) , bp. Felix replied, "It is better that I should be burned rather than the Holy Scriptures, since it is better to obey God rather than man. To him, upon his final refusal, Felix and his companions were delivered for transporation into Italy, arriving after four days' sail in Sicily. Thence they were carried by the prefect to Venusia, in Apulia, where, having again called upon Felix to surrender the sacred writings, he condemned him to death for disobedience. Felix suffered by beheading, Aug
Felix (26) i, Bishop of Aptunga - Felix (26) I. Felix was one of those who laid hands on Caecilian as bp. 2, 313, to establish their case against Caecilian, turned their attack on Felix, whom they sought to convict of the infamous crime of "tradition" in the persecution of Maximus, a. The proconsul pronounced the complete acquittal of Felix, which was confirmed by the emperor, and repeated in a letter to Verinus, or Valerius, the vicar of Africa, a
Tertullus - Paul before Felix ( Acts 24:1 ). It is a gross piece of flattery, for the Jews were in constant opposition to Felix
Tertullus - The famous orator before Felix, Acts 24:1-9
Adoptionists - The followers of Felix of Urgil and Epiland of Toledo, who, towards the end of the eighth century, advanced the notion that Jesus Christ in his human nature is the Son of God, not by nature, but by adoption
Orator - Paul before Felix, (Acts 24:1 )
Hazar-Maveth - Court of death, the third son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix settled by him (Genesis 10:26 ; 1 Chronicles 1:20 )
Felix - Antonius Felix became procurator of Judea in A. Contemporary historians Tacitus and Josephus paint Felix as a brutal, incompetent politician who was finally replaced
Bdellium - , of Arabia Felix
Honorius, Saint - To his inspiration the conversion of the East Angles by Saint Felix is due
Seven Holy Brothers - Januarius, Felix, and Philip were scourged to death; Silvanus was thrown over a precipice; Alexander, Vitalis, and Martialis were beheaded
Festus - Portius Festus succeeded Felix in the government of Judea, A. Felix his predecessor, to oblige the Jews, when he resigned his government, left St
Tertullus - The Latin professional orator employed by the high priest Ananias to prosecute Paul before Felix at Caesarea (Acts 24:1). (See Felix by putting down some rebels gave just enough color to Tertullus' eulogy to make its general falsehood the more glaring
Claudius - CLAUDIUS Felix, successor of Cumanus in the government of Judea. Felix found means to solicit and engage Drusilla, sister of Agrippa the Younger, to leave her husband Azizus, king of the Emessenians, and to marry him, A. Felix sent to Rome Eleazar, son of Dinaeus, captain of a band of robbers, who had committed great ravages in Palestine; he procured the death of Jonathan, the high priest, who sometimes freely represented to him his duty; he defeated a body of three thousand men, whom an Egyptian, a false prophet, had assembled upon the Mount of Olives. Paul being brought to Cesarea, where Felix usually resided, was well treated by this governor, who permitted his friends to see him, and render him services, hoping the Apostle would procure his redemption by a sum of money. ...
While the Apostle was thus detained, Felix, with his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess, sent for him, and desired him to explain the religion of Jesus Christ. Felix trembled before this powerful exhibition of truths so arousing to his conscience; but he remanded St. Felix was succeeded in the government of Judea by Porcius Festus
Lys'Ias Clau'Dius, - Paul from the hands of the infuriated mob at Jerusalem, and sent him under a guard to Felix, the governor or proconsul of Caesarea
Festus, Porcius - Procurator of Judæa after Felix. His short term of office was marked by a much better administration than that of Felix or of Albinus his successor (Jos
Miris Modis Repente Liber, Ferrea - It is one stanza of the hymn "Felix per omnes featum mundi cardines
in Wondrous Mode Set Free, lo, at the Lord's Comma - It is one stanza of the hymn "Felix per omnes featum mundi cardines
Felix (4) iv, Bishop of Rome - Felix (4) IV. ; see Felix II. , Eulalius (1), Felix III. The only further event known as marking the pontificate of Felix is the issue of an edict by Athalaric, the successor of Theodoric, requiring all civil suits against ecclesiastics to be preferred before the bishop and not the secular judge. The edict was called forth by Felix, with the Roman clergy, having complained to the king that the Goths had invaded the rights of churches and dragged the clergy before lay tribunals
Sheleph - Ptolemy (6:7) mentions the Salapeni among the ancient inhabitants of Arabia Felix
Drusilla - Very shortly afterwards the procurator Felix, who had lately come to Judaea , met the young queen and was captivated by her charms (‘She did indeed exceed all other women in beauty’ Festus - (fehss' tuhss) The successor of Felix as procurator of Judea (Acts 24:27 ), He assumed this office at Nero's appointment in A
Tertul'Lus - (diminutive from Tertius ), "a certain orator," ( Acts 24:1 ) who was retained by the high priest and Sanhedrin to accuse the apostle Paul at Caesarea before the Roman procurator Antonius Felix
Adoptionism - It was advocated by Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel, but condemned by Pope Adrian I in 785,794
Orator - ' At the trial of Paul before Felix, Tertullus was hired to argue their case, and plead for Paul's condemnation
Barthol'Omew - He is said to have preached the gospel in India, that is, probably, Arabia Felix, and according to some in Armenia
Theophilus - The word translated 'most excellent' is κράτιστος, the same that is applied to governors of provinces, as to Felix and Festus as 'most noble
Felix i, Pope Saint - Felix sent a letter containing dogmatic exposition of the Catholic doctrine on the subject of the Trinity to the Synod of Antioch which had deposed Paul of Samosata, 269, a follower of Apollinaris, for his heretical teaching on the subject
Advocate - Tertullus "the orator" (Acts 24:1 ) was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul before Felix
Antipopes - Novatianus; Felix; Ursinus (or Ursicinus); Eulalius; Laurentius; Dioscorus; Vigilius
Assassins, the - In the time of Felix a band of robbers so named disturbed Judæa. Josephus says that at Felix’s suggestion they murdered Jonathan son of Ananus, the high priest ( Ant
Festus - Porcius Festus was appointed by Nero to succeed Felix as procurator of Judea, about 60 or 61 a
Egyptian, the - The procurator Felix dispersed this revolutionary band with calvary and foot soldiers. Felix again responded with force, killing 400 and taking 200 captive
John of Matha, Saint - Feeling that his vocation was to devote his life to helping Christian captives, he became attached to Saint Felix of Valois, the hermit, and founded the Order of Trinitarians to carry on the work of redeeming captives; it was approved in 1209
Matha, John of, Saint - Feeling that his vocation was to devote his life to helping Christian captives, he became attached to Saint Felix of Valois, the hermit, and founded the Order of Trinitarians to carry on the work of redeeming captives; it was approved in 1209
Procurator - Three procurators are named in the New Testament: Pilate (Matthew 27:2 ; some question whether Pilate was a procurator), Felix (Acts 23:24 ), and Festus (Acts 24:27 )
Zeno - For a full analysis of the letters of popes Simplicius and Felix III
Theophilus - From the fact that Luke applies to him the title "most excellent", the same title Paul uses in addressing Felix (Acts 23:26 ; 24:3 ) and Festus (26:25), it has been concluded that Theophilus was a person of rank, perhaps a Roman officer
Benedict of Aniane, Saint - Benedict defended the orthodox teaching against Felix of Urgel, leader of the Adoptionists
Procurator - are Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus
Aniane, Benedict of, Saint - Benedict defended the orthodox teaching against Felix of Urgel, leader of the Adoptionists
Egyptian, the - This man is also mentioned by Josephus as a leader defeated by Felix, but not as connected with the ‘Assassins’ ( Ant
Arabia - Arabia is distinguished by geographers into three parts-Deserta, Petraea, and Felix
Felicitas, Saint 23 Nov - She was a holy Roman widow martyred during the reign of Emperor Antoninus, with seven sons (Januarius, Felix, Philip Pius, Silvanus, Alexander, Vitalis, and Martialis), because of their defense of Christianity
Tertullus - Tertullus was the prosecutor opposing Paul before Felix, the Roman governor of Judea
Javan - ...
...
A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Syrians obtained iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezekiel 27:19 )
Eusebius (96), Presbyter, Confessor at Rome - 141) relate that upon the recall of pope Liberius by Constantius, Eusebius preached against them both as Arians; and since the orthodox party, who now supported Felix, were excluded from all the churches, he continued to hold divine service in his own house. The Bollandists at great length vindicate the catholicity of Felix II. § 81, "Pope Liberius and the Third Sirmian Formula") are equally decided opponents of Felix
Ananias - He was sent as a prisoner to Rome by Quadratus, the governor of Syria, and Jonathon was appointed in his place; but being discharged by the emperor Claudius, he returned to Palestine, and Jonathon being murdered through the treachery of Felix, Ananias appears to have performed the functions of the high priest as a substitute, until Ishmael was appointed by Agrippa. It was he before whom with the Sanhedrin Paul was summoned, under Felix, and who ordered an attendant to smite Paul on the mouth
Felix - Paul having been sent by Lysias to Caesarea, then the seat of government, Felix gave him an audience, and was convinced of his innocence. Felix trembled, but hastily remanded Paul to confinement, and stifled his convictions-a melancholy instance of the power of lust and the danger of delay
Festus, Portius - Succeeded Felix in the government of Judea, A. To oblige the Jews, Felix, when he resigned his government, left Paul in bonds at Caesarea in Palestine, Acts 24:27 ; and when Festus arrived, he was entreated by the principal Jews to condemn the apostle, or to order him up to Jerusalem-they having conspired to assassinate him in the way
Drusilla - Soon after, Felix, the Roman procurator, persuaded her, by means of the Cyprian sorcerer Simon, to leave her husband and marry him
Willing - Felix, willing to show the Jews a pleasure
Order of the Annunziata - It was first dedicated to the Blessed Virgin at the time of Felix V, antipope, 1434
Banner - A symbol of victory, belonging to military saints and to missionaries, and associated in Christian art with ...
Our Saviour after His Resurrection indicative of his victory over death
Saint Ansano
Saint Felix of Valois
Saint George
Saint Hubert
Saint Joan of Arc
Saint Julian
Saint Maurice and Companions
Michael the Archangel
Saint Reparata
Saint Ursula
It is the emblem and symbol of temporal victory, and of spiritual victory over sin, death, and idolatry
Dioscorus - Originally a deacon of Alexandria, he became a member of the Roman clergy, and the leader of the Byzantine party in Rome, opposing the Gothic party which Pope Felix IV favored
Annunziata, Order of the - It was first dedicated to the Blessed Virgin at the time of Felix V, antipope, 1434
Assassin - Here it is used as a proper name (see the RV) of the Sicarii, "assassins," the fanatical Jewish faction which arose in Judea after Felix had rid the country of the robbers referred to by Josephus (Ant
Noble - (2) κράτιστος, ‘most mighty,’ or, as a title of honour, ‘most noble or excellent,’ is used by Claudius Lysias in his letter to Felix (Acts 23:26); by Tertullus in addressing Felix (Acts 24:3); and by St
Sabeans - These men were probably the Sabeans of Arabia Felix, or of Asia. Genesis 10:7 , are probably of Arabia Felix: they were famous for spices; the poets gave them the epithet of soft and effeminate, and say they were governed by women:...
Medis, levibusque Sabaeis ...
Imperat hic sexus. Genesis 10:7 , probably dwelt in Arabia Felix
Fravitta, Bishop of Constantinople - In the correspondence between Zeno, Fravitta, and pope Felix on the appointment there is no trace of this story. ...
Fravitta at one and the same time wrote letters to Peter Mongus asking for his communion, and a synodal to pope Felix begging his sanction and co-operation. Pope Felix, delighted with the letters, had Zeno's read aloud to the deputation and all the clergy of Rome, who expressed loud approval. Directly contrary to that which Felix had received, it actually denied all communion with Rome
Uzal - The capital of the Yemen (Arabia Felix) was originally Awzal (now San'a), anciently the most flourishing of Arab communities, its rivals being Sheba and Sephar
Ravenna-Cervia, Italy, Archdiocese of - Its bishops have included ...
Saint Apollinaris, 1century
Saint Liberius of Ravenna, 2century
Saint Adheritus, 2century
Saint Dathus, late 2century
Saint John Angeloptes, early 5th century
Saint Peter Chrysologus, 433 to 450
Saint John of Ravenna, late 5th century
Saint Damianus, 688
Saint Felix, 705
Saint Rinaldo, 1303
Blessed Guido Maria Conforti, 1902 to 1904
Suffragen dioceses include ...
Cesena-Sarsina
Forli-Bertinoro
Rimini
San Marino-Montefeltro
See also ...
Catholic-Hiearchy
Procurator - The following were at different times procurators of Judæa: Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus, called in NT by the comprehensive term ‘governors
Antipope - The following is a list of the antipopes whose histories will be found in this document under their respective names: ...
Abert
Adalbert
Aleric
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy
Anacletus II
Anastasius Bibliothecarius
Baldassare Cossa
Benedict X
Benedict XIII
Benedict XIV
Bernard Garnier
Boniface Franco
Boniface VII
Boccadipecora, Teobaldo
Bourdin, Maurice
Buccapecuc, Thebaldus
Cadalous, Pietro
Callistus III
Celestine II
Christopher
Clement III
Clement VII
Clement VIII
Clemente Domínguez y Gómez
Constantine II
Conti, Gregorio
Cossa, Baldassare
Crema, Guido of
Dioscorus
Eulalius
Franco, Boniface
Frangipani, Lando dei
Felix II
Felix V
Filagatto, John
Gil Sanchez Muñoz
Giovanni of Struma
Gregorio Conti
Gregory VI
Gregory VIII
Gregory XVII
Guibert of Ravenna
Guido of Crema
Hippolytus, Saint
Honorius II
Innocent III
Jean Carrier
John
John XVI
John XXIII
John, Abbot of Struma
John, Bishop of Sabina
John Filagatto
John Mincius
John of Sabina
John of Struma
John Philagathus
Lando dei Frangipani
Lanzo of Sezza
Laurentius
Leo
Luna, Pedro de
Maginulf
Manuel Alonso Corral
Maurice Bourdin
Maurice Burdanus
Mincius, John
Muñoz, Gil Sanchez
Nicholas V
Novatian
Octavius
Ottavio di Montecelio
Paschal
Paschal III
Peter II
Pietro Cadalous
Pedro de Luna
Philagathus, John
Philip
Pierleone, Pietro
Pietro Cadalus
Pietro Philarghi Alexander V
Pietro Pierleone
Pietro Rainalducci
Rainalducci, Pietro
Ravenna, Guibert of
Robert of Geneva
Sabina, John of
Struma, John of
Sylvester III
Sylvester IV
Teobaldo Boccadipecora
Thebaldus Buccapecuc
Theodore
Theodoric
Theofylact
Tiberius
Ursicinus
Ursinus
Victor IV (1159-1164)
Anti-Pope - The following is a list of the antipopes whose histories will be found in this document under their respective names: ...
Abert
Adalbert
Aleric
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy
Anacletus II
Anastasius Bibliothecarius
Baldassare Cossa
Benedict X
Benedict XIII
Benedict XIV
Bernard Garnier
Boniface Franco
Boniface VII
Boccadipecora, Teobaldo
Bourdin, Maurice
Buccapecuc, Thebaldus
Cadalous, Pietro
Callistus III
Celestine II
Christopher
Clement III
Clement VII
Clement VIII
Clemente Domínguez y Gómez
Constantine II
Conti, Gregorio
Cossa, Baldassare
Crema, Guido of
Dioscorus
Eulalius
Franco, Boniface
Frangipani, Lando dei
Felix II
Felix V
Filagatto, John
Gil Sanchez Muñoz
Giovanni of Struma
Gregorio Conti
Gregory VI
Gregory VIII
Gregory XVII
Guibert of Ravenna
Guido of Crema
Hippolytus, Saint
Honorius II
Innocent III
Jean Carrier
John
John XVI
John XXIII
John, Abbot of Struma
John, Bishop of Sabina
John Filagatto
John Mincius
John of Sabina
John of Struma
John Philagathus
Lando dei Frangipani
Lanzo of Sezza
Laurentius
Leo
Luna, Pedro de
Maginulf
Manuel Alonso Corral
Maurice Bourdin
Maurice Burdanus
Mincius, John
Muñoz, Gil Sanchez
Nicholas V
Novatian
Octavius
Ottavio di Montecelio
Paschal
Paschal III
Peter II
Pietro Cadalous
Pedro de Luna
Philagathus, John
Philip
Pierleone, Pietro
Pietro Cadalus
Pietro Philarghi Alexander V
Pietro Pierleone
Pietro Rainalducci
Rainalducci, Pietro
Ravenna, Guibert of
Robert of Geneva
Sabina, John of
Struma, John of
Sylvester III
Sylvester IV
Teobaldo Boccadipecora
Thebaldus Buccapecuc
Theodore
Theodoric
Theofylact
Tiberius
Ursicinus
Ursinus
Victor IV (1159-1164)
Cantalice, Felix of, Saint - In his humility and simplicity, Felix styled himself the "Ass of the Capuchins
Praetorium - ...
Herod's praetorium in Caesarea (Acts 23:35 NAS, RSV) served as the residence of the Roman govenor Felix
Festus, Porcius - The successor of Felix (A
Caesarea - Paul frequently visited it, 9:30; 18:22; 21:8; 23:33; was in bonds there two years, 24:27; it was the official residence of Festus and of Felix
Millet - "Durra," says Niebuhr, "is a kind of millet, made into bread with camel's milk, oil, butter, etc, and is almost the only food eaten by the common people of Arabia Felix
Drusilla - When Felix came as governor of Judea, he persuaded her to abandon her husband and her religion, and become his wife
Joannes Talaia, Bishop of Nola - Simplicius died March 2, 483, but John was warmly supported by his successor Felix III. On the return of his legates from Constantinople, Felix held a synod at Rome which excommunicated Acacius for his persistent support of Mongus ( Ephesians 6 , July 28, 484, in ib. Felix wrote to inform Zeno of this, and to let him know that "the apostolic see would never consent to communion with Peter of Alexandria, who had been justly condemned long since" ( Ep. Felix did not obtain his end, and John seems to have remained at Rome until the death of Zeno and the succession of Anastasius, A. Felix died Feb
Acacius (7), Patriarch of Constantinople - His successor, Felix III. ), espoused the cause of Talaia with zeal, and despatched two bishops, Vitalis and Misenus, to Constantinople with letters to Zeno and Acacius, demanding that the latter should repair to Rome to answer the charges brought against him by Talaia (Felix, Epp. 21; Felix, Ephesians 6 ); but no direct heretical opinion was proved or urged against him. Felix communicated the sentence to Acacias, and at the same time wrote to Zeno, and to the church at Constantinople, charging every one, under pain of excommunication, to separate from the deposed patriarch (Epp. Once again the envoy of the pope was seduced from his allegiance, and on his return to Rome fell under ecclesiastical censure (Felix, Ep. For the rest, the threats of Felix produced no practical effect. Fravitas (Flavitas, Flavianus), his successor, during a very short patriarchate, entered on negotiations with Felix, which led to no result
Henoticon - It was opposed by the Catholics, and condemned in form by pope Felix II
Lyon, France, Archdiocese of - Suffragan dioceses include ...
Annecy
Belley-Ars
Chambéry, Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, et Tarentaise
Grenoble-Vienne
Saint-Etienne
Valence, Die, e Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux
Viviers
Notable bishops include ...
Saint Aetherius
Saint Agobard
Saint Alpinus
Saint Annemundus
Saint Antiochus
Saint Aredius
Saint Aurelian
Saint Elipidius
Saint Eucherius
Saint Felix
Saint Gebuin
Saint Genesius
Blessed Pope Innocent V
Saint Irenaeus
Saint Justus
Saint Lambert
Saint Lupicinus
Saint Lupus
Saint Martin
Saint Nicetius
Saint Patiens
Saint Priseus
Saint Rusticus
Saint Sardot
Saint Sicarius
Saint Stephanus
Saint Viventiolus
See also ...
Catholic-Hierarchy
Amadeus Viii - Anti-pope with the name Felix V from November 5, 1439 to April 7, 1449
Arabia - Arabia Proper, being the same as the ancient Arabia Felix, embraces the peninsula which extends southward to the Arabian Sea and northward to the desert
Bonds - The Apostle Paul was subjected to private bonds by Felix, the Roman governor, who "commanded a centurion to keep him, and to let him have liberty, and that he should forbid none of his acquaintance to minister, or come unto him,"...
Acts 24:23
Dates - The recall of Felix and the accession of Festus. -The appointment of Felix was one of the later acts of the Emperor Claudius; and Nero on his accession confirmed it (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. Although Harnack has drawn a different conclusion from the Eusebian Chronicle, it seems upon the whole that these three sources agree in pointing to the year 52 for the arrival of Felix in Palestine, or, at all events, for his assumption of the proconsulship. Much more complicated, however, is the question of the termination of Felix’s tenure of office. There is no doubt that, like Cumanus, Felix had by his misrule made himself the object of hatred and the ground of complaint on the part of the Jews, and that, owing to representations mode by the latter, he had fallen into disfavour, and had escaped condemnation only by the timely intercession of his brother Pallas (Josephus, Ant. According to the apparent meaning of Josephus’ words, this occurred after Festus had assumed control of Palestine in succession to Felix. ) place the vindication of Felix in 55 and the arrival of Festus in Palestine in 56. -(1) The sedition of ‘the Egyptian’ (Acts 21:38) occurred during the procuratorship of Felix, and some time earlier than the arrest of St. If the downfall of Felix is to be dated before 56, the arrest of St. -(2) The marriage of Felix and Drusilla is, according to Josephus, rendered impossible before 55. But according to Acts 24:24 she was married to Felix at the time of St. Either, therefore, the arrest of the Apostle and the end of the proconsulship of Felix most be dated several years later than 53, to allow time for the necessary development of the intrigues by which Felix lured her to unfaithfulness to her husband and persuaded her to marry him, or these events must he condensed within an incredibly short interval. Paul before Felix and Drusilla and the deposition of Felix two years must be allowed (Acts 24:27). -(3) Felix had sent certain Jewish leaders to Rome, where they were imprisoned pending trial. But if Felix ceased ruling Judaea in 55, these men wore kept confined for the unparalleled period of 8 or 10 years. If, on the other hand, Felix remained in office until 60, their imprisonment lasted only 4 years. -(4) The length of the procuratorship of Felix may be approximately computed from a comparison of Acts 24:10; Acts 24:27. In the former passage Felix is said to have already ruled ‘many years. If, therefore, the confutations which fix the date of the appointment of Felix be correct as given above, and the year 52 is approximately the correct time of that event, the year 59 or 60 would be a reasonable one to fix on as the time of the end of his rule. ...
The only consideration that offers any difficulty in the way of this conclusion is the fact that Josephus associates the recall of Felix with the influential period of Pallas at court; but (a) Josephus may have been in error in attributing Felix’s escape from punishment to the intercession of Pallas. certain charges made at the early date, when Pallas by his plea on behalf of Felix saved him from punishment, and the final complaints which ended in his removal. The result yielded by this view is that Felix was found guilty of maladministration in 54-55 and escaped punishment at this time through the intercession of his brother Pallas. Felix continued until 60, and meantime added to the grievances of the Jews, and yet entrenched himself in favour with sundry leaders because of his bold measures against certain classes of criminals. also articles Felix, Festus
Felix (1) i, Bishop of Rome - Felix (1) I. Felix, who had in the meantime succeeded Dionysius, addressed a letter on the subject to Maximus and to the clergy of Antioch, fragments of which are preserved in the Apologeticus of Cyril of Alexandria, and in the Acts of the council of Ephesus, and which is also alluded to by Marius Mercator, and by Vincent of Lerins in his Commonitorium ; cf
Gordianus, Father of Pope Gregory the Great - Gordianus (7), father of pope Gregory the Great, was a noble Roman of senatorial rank; and descended from a pope Felix (Joann. John the Deacon says that Felix IV. 523) was his ancestor; but this pope being described as a Samnite, whereas Gregory is always spoken of as of Roman descent, Felix III
Candace - ); named Judich in Ethiopian tradition, which represents him as having propagated the gospel in Arabia Felix and Ethiopia, and brought Candace herself to the faith
Havilah - portion of Yemen or Arabia Felix
Calamus - It was not a native of Palestine, but was imported from Arabia Felix or from India
Anastasius ii, Bishop of Rome - Felix III. had followed closely in the steps of Felix
Liberius, Pope - The anti-pope Felix II was elected but met with little support and Liberius returned after two years
Theophilus - It is used also of Felix ( Acts 23:26 ; Acts 24:3 ) and of Festus ( Acts 26:25 )
Joktan - The Arab Kahtan whose sons peopled Yemen or Arabia Felix
Murder - 70, and when cruelty and oppression were carried to excess by Felix it was inevitable that there should arise in opposition a body of extremists to whom murder was merely a detail in a policy. ...
Thus during the time of Felix and Festus there arose the Sicarii (see Assassins), whose Jewish patriotism took a murderous shape. Felix, however, put down the movement and took many prisoners
Dupanloup, Felix Antoine Philibert - Bishop of Orleans, born Saint Felix, Savoie, France, 1802; died Lacombe, IséRevelation 1878
Felix of Valois, Saint - Saint Felix labored in France, where he established the monastery of Cerfroi and looked after the interests of the congregation
Leopard - The cheetah ( Felix jubata ) is found also in Galilee, and it too may have been included under the Heb
Apologies - Reeves, together with one by Tertullian, the Octavius (a dialogue) of Minucius Felix, and the Commentary of Vincentius Lirinensis, with notes and preliminary dissertations to each, in 2 vols
Sect - Christianity was originally considered as a new sect of Judaism; hence Tertullus, accusing Paul before Felix, says that he was chief of the seditious sect of the Nazarenes, Acts 24:5 ; and the Jews of Rome said to the apostle, when he arrived in this city, "As concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is spoken against," Acts 28:22
Valois, Felix of, Saint - Saint Felix labored in France, where he established the monastery of Cerfroi and looked after the interests of the congregation
Room - (2) In Acts 24:27 , AV, diadochos, "a successor," with lambano, "to receive," is translated "came into (Felix') room," RV, "(Felix) was succeeded by
Havilah - ...
...
A district in Arabia-Felix
Festus, Porcius - Procurator of Judaea, appointed by Nero to succeed Felix, A
Basel, Council of - Exasperated, they subjected the authority of the pope to general councils, pretended to depose the ruling Pope Eugenius IV, and elected as antipope, Felix V
Candace - It is said that he also preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where he suffered martyrdom
Procurator - Used of Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus (Matthew 27; Acts 23; 24; Acts 26:30)
Roman Empire - Pilate, Felix, and Festus are spoken of as "governors," that is, procurators, of Judæa
Praeto'Rium - Thus at Caesarea that of Herod the Great was occupied by Felix, (Acts 23:35 ) and at Jerusalem the new palace erected by the same prince was the residence of Pilate
Anani'as - 48; was deposed shortly before Felix left the province and assassinated by the Sicarii at the beginning of the last Jewish war
Privatus, Bishop of Lambaesis - 13), assisted by a pseudo-bishop, Felix, of his own consecration, and by Jovinus and Maximus, and a lapsed bishop, Repostus Suturnicensis
Petrus, Surnamed Mongus - Felix. Acacius was glad to accept his explanations, as he could not afford to break with Mongus; but he had now to deal with the clear head and resolute will of pope Felix II. The legates were partly coaxed and partly frightened into communicating with the resident agents of Peter at Constantinople, and brought back to Rome letters in which Zeno and Acacius assured Felix that Peter was an orthodox and meritorious prelate (Evagr. Their weakness was punished by deposition; and Felix, with his synod, proceeded not only to anathematize Peter as an "Eutychian" usurper, but even to excommunicate the bp. When Fravitas, or Flavitas, succeeded Acacius in 489, he wrote to both Felix (Liberat
Henoticon - The Catholics opposed it with all their strength; and it was condemned in form by Pope Felix II
Beckon - , "to give a nod, to signify by a nod," is used in John 13:24 , of Peter's beckoning to John to ask the Lord of whom He had been speaking; in Acts 24:10 , of the intimation given by Felix to Paul to speak
Millet - It has been supposed that the dochan means what is now called in the east durra; which, according to Niebuhr, is a sort of millet, and when made into bad bread with camel's milk, oil, butter, or grease, is almost the only food which is eaten by the common people in Arabia Felix
Ananias - 48; was deposed shortly before Felix left the province, and assassinated by the sicarii at the beginning of the last Jewish war
Caesare'a - It was the official residence of the Herodian kings, and of Festus, Felix and the other Roman procurators of Judea
Sheba - His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix
Chronology of the New Testament - ...
Paul before Felix
Cush - The eldest son of Ham, and father of Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecha, most of whom settled in Arabia Felix, Genesis 10:6-8
Sheba - His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix
Judgment Hall - 1:21, section 5-8), used as the official residence and head quarters of Felix at Caesarea
Bonifacius ii, Pope - , pope, successor to Felix IV. Apostles Other Than the Twelve - The Agaus (African tribe)...
Barbelin, Felix Joseph, S. Central America...
Saint Ceadda Mercia, Saxon England...
Saint Christian Portugal ...
Saint Columba The Highlanders...
Scotland...
the Picts...
Cyril and Methodius, Saints The Slavs...
Saint Denis The French...
Father Elisha John Durbin Western Kentucky...
Saint Eloi Tournai, Belgium...
Saint Ephesus Sardinia...
Saint Euphrasius Spain...
Saint Felix East Anglia...
Valencia, Spain...
Edward Fenwick, O
Felicitas, Martyr at Rome - He then calls upon each of her sons, Januarius, Felix, Philippus, Sylvanus, Alexander, Vitalis, Martialis, with a similar want of success, the mother exhorting them, "Behold, my sons, heaven, and look upwards, whence you expect Christ with His saints
Arabia - Its area is estimated at 1,030,000 square miles; and of the three ancient divisions of the country, that known as Arabia Felix was by far the largest and most important. The ancients divided it into Petræa, Deserta, and Felix; or the stony, the desert, and the happy or fertile
Caesarea - Here he was imprisoned for two years under Felix ( Acts 23:1-35 ). During that time a riot broke out between Greeks and Jews as to their respective rights, and Felix ordered a general massacre of the Jews to be carried out in the city. On the recall of Felix, Nero sent Porcius Festus, who tried Paul ( Acts 25:9 ) and also allowed him to state his case before Herod Agrippa II
Procurator - of Felix, Acts 23,24 , and of Festus
Monita Secreta - Unfortunately, however, the forger discovered a new general, "Felix Aconiti," a personage utterly unknown in the annals of the Society
Aachen, Germany, City of - ...
Synods and Councils: ...
789, Charlemagne proclaimed a collection of laws that acquired canonical authority;
799, Felix, Bishop of Urgel, acknowledged himeelf overcome by Alcuin and renounced Adoptionism;
809, the dogma of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son was defended;
816, "Regula Aquensis" (Rules of Aix) for reform of monastic life were promulgated and the Rule of Saint Benedict revised;
860-862, three synods considered the divorce of Lothaire II from Theutberga
Aix-la-Chapelle - ...
Synods and Councils: ...
789, Charlemagne proclaimed a collection of laws that acquired canonical authority;
799, Felix, Bishop of Urgel, acknowledged himeelf overcome by Alcuin and renounced Adoptionism;
809, the dogma of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son was defended;
816, "Regula Aquensis" (Rules of Aix) for reform of monastic life were promulgated and the Rule of Saint Benedict revised;
860-862, three synods considered the divorce of Lothaire II from Theutberga
Ananias - He was deposed before Felix left the province
Caesarea - Paul several times visited it, Acts 9:30 18:22 21:8,16 ; here he appeared before Felix, who trembled under his appeals, ...
Acts 23:23 24:1-27 ; here he was imprisoned for two years; and after pleading before Festus and Agrippa, he sailed hence for imperial Rome, Acts 25:26 27:1
Secreta, Monita - Unfortunately, however, the forger discovered a new general, "Felix Aconiti," a personage utterly unknown in the annals of the Society
Assassins - The Sicarii seem to have appeared first during the procuratorship of Felix, although Josephus in Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) vii. Josephus mentions this Egyptian as having appeared during the procuratorship of Felix, but does not connect the Sicarii with him (Ant
Milan, Italy - The martyrdom of Saint Gervasius and Saint Protasius, Saint Victor, Saint Felix, etc
Catholic Latin Literature - Writers of this period are: ...
Pope Saint Leo I
Saint Ambrose of Milan
Saint Augustine of Hippo
Saint Cassian
Saint Cyprian
Saint Eusebius of Vercelli
Saint Hilary of Arles
Saint Hilary of Poitiers
Saint Jerome
Saint Patrick
Saint Peter Chrysologus
Saint Prudentius
Saint Rufinus
Saint Sulpicius Severus
Saint Victorinus of Pettau
Saint Zeno of Verona
Arnobius
Firmicus Maternus
Gennadius
Juvencus
Lactantius
Lucifer of Cagliari
Minucius Felix
Novatian
Optatus of Mileve
Phaebadius of Agen
Tertullian
Vincent of Lerins
(2) From the 6th-17th century, when the literature manifests itself in drama and poetry
False Christs - 44-46) and summoned the people to the Jordan River wilderness with the promise that he would divide the Jordan like Joshua and begin a new conquest of the land; (2) various “imposters” during the term of Felix (A
Altar - A decree of Saint Felix I stipulated that Mass should be celebrated on the tombs of martyrs
Dativus, Celebrated Senator - In spite of orders to the contrary, a company of the faithful met in the town of Abitina, in the proconsulate of Africa, to celebrate Christian worship and communion, at the house of one Felix Octavius
Festus - No information is forthcoming concerning Porcius Festus, who succeeded Felix in the procuratorship of Judaea , other than that supplied by Acts 24:27; Acts 26:32 and by Josephus, Ant. Turner, ‘Eusebius’ Chronology of Felix and Festus’ in Journal of Theological Studies iii
Caecilianus, Archdeacon And Bishop of Carthage - Caecilian's party hastened matters, and the archdeacon was consecrated by Felix, bp. Felix of Aptunga was denounced as a "traditor" (i. As regarded Caecilian personally, the validity of his ordination was confirmed, the charge raised against his consecrator, Felix, being proved baseless; and as regarded the general questions debated—such as traditorship, its proof or disproof; ordination by traditors, when valid or not; baptism and re-baptism—canons of extreme importance were passed
Paulinus, Bishop of Nola - But his chief object of veneration was Felix of Nola, to whom he devoted himself specially when he visited Nola at about 26 or 27 years of age, a. ...
When Paulinus settled at Nola, the burial-place of Felix, called in the Martyrology of Bede in Pincis or in Pineis, about a mile from the town, had become the site of four churches ( basilicae ), one built by pope Damasus, and also a chapel. ) It was perhaps on the site of the one built by Damasus, and contained not only the tomb of Felix, but beneath the altar ( altaria ) remains of various saints and martyrs, including SS. , for the introduction of which Paulinus apologizes on the score of their utility in occupying the attention of the illiterate people who flocked to the grave of Felix in large numbers at all times, and sometimes spent whole nights there in the winter, watching and fasting, having brought torches with them. Felix, on Jan. Felix in Pincis and his funeral was attended even by Jews and pagans (Uran. Seventeen are more or less directly in praise of Felix, all of them dated Jan. The 3rd describes the concourse from all parts to the tomb of Felix, and the power he manifested of casting out devils and curing diseases ( ib. The 15th and 16th relate the legend of Felix. The 18th poem, 6th in honour of Felix, describes in hexameters the discovery of his tomb, mentions the five churches built around it, and how the country people came themselves and brought their animals to be cured of maladies by the saint's influence. ...
A poem of 730 lines describes how the relics of martyrs had been transferred to other places than those where they died, especially the more notable among them; how Nola was honoured and benefited by the grave of Felix; and how a thief who had stolen an ornament in the church containing a figure of the cross was discovered, partly by the agency of Felix, and partly by the miraculous operation of the sacred emblem (ib
Jesuit Relations - The complete edition in 73 volumes by Reuben Gold Thwaites includes an account of other well-known editions such as those of O'Callaghan, Shea, Reverend Felix Martin and the Canadian Government's reprint of the Cramoisy series, with information on libraries and collectors having editions of the originals
Order of the Most Holy Trinity - Religious order founded in the 12th century by Saint John of Matha and Saint Felix of Valois, at Cerfroid in the Diocese of Meaux, for the ransom of captives
Arabia - It was anciently divided into three parts:, ...
Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia), so called from its fertility
Tertullus - Paul before Felix (Acts 24:1)
Javan - " the capital of Arabia Felix or Yemen, Sanaa
Government Governor - Sulpicius Quirinius (Luke 2:3, a special deputy of consular rank sent by the Emperor Augustus in an emergency to have temporary rule over the great province of Syria), and the successive procurators of the small and unimportant province of Judaea , Pontius Pilate and Felix; for 2 Corinthians 11:33 see Ethnarch
Indulgence - 1: ἄνεσις (Strong's #425 — Noun Feminine — anesis — an'-es-is ) "a loosening, relaxation of strain" (akin to aniemi, "to relax, loosen"), is translated "indulgence" in Acts 24:23 , RV (AV, "liberty"), in the command of Felix to the centurion, to moderate restrictions upon Paul
Relations, Jesuit - The complete edition in 73 volumes by Reuben Gold Thwaites includes an account of other well-known editions such as those of O'Callaghan, Shea, Reverend Felix Martin and the Canadian Government's reprint of the Cramoisy series, with information on libraries and collectors having editions of the originals
Trinitarians - Religious order founded in the 12th century by Saint John of Matha and Saint Felix of Valois, at Cerfroid in the Diocese of Meaux, for the ransom of captives
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - of Rome after Felix III. Its occasion had been the excommunication, by pope Felix, of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, for supporting and communicating with Peter Mongus, the once Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, who had, however, satisfied Acacius by subscribing the Henoticon, and afterwards the Nicene creed.
In 495 Gelasius convened a synod of 46 bishops at Rome to absolve and restore to his see Misenus of Cumae, one of the bishops sent by pope Felix to Constantinople in the affair of Acacius, who had been then won over, and in consequence excommunicated
Sheba - A kingdom in Arabia Felix
Emilianus (8), Solitary - Felix, a neighbouring hermit, for instruction in Catholic belief and practice
Gold - " Sheba was the ancient name of Arabia Felix
Procurator - Of Pontius Pilate we know almost nothing, but Felix was the first man born a slave who governed a Roman province and commanded the troops in it. Antonius Felix was brother of Claudius’ great minister of finance (a rationibus), Pallas, and, probably on account of his marriage into a higher class, was raised to the equestrian order before his appointment to Judaea . A similar experience fell to the lot of later procurators of Judaea , Felix and Cumanus, at the hands of Ummidius Quadratus, governor of Syria
Arabia Felix - The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1 , was probably queen of part of Arabia Felix
Robbery - ...
Emphatic statements respecting the prevalence of robbers during the stormy period preceding the fall of Jerusalem, and an account of the measures adopted by Felix in consequence, may be found in Josephus-‘as to the number of the robbers he caused to be crucified, and of those who were caught among them, and whom he brought to punishment, they were a multitude not to be enumerated’ (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II
Lawyer - Paul’s prosecutors before the Roman governor Felix (Acts 24:1 ff
African Church - Minucius Felix shows much literary skill in his short treatises
Fructuosus (1), m., Bishop of Tarragona - Prudentius made use of them in his hymn to the martyrs ( Felix Tarraco Fructuose vestris, etc
Oration, Orator - Examples of judicial rhetoric include the cases involving Paul which were brought before Gallio, Felix, and Festus (Acts 18:12-16 ; Acts 24:1-21 ; Acts 25:15 ,Acts 25:15,25:18-19 ; Acts 26:1-29 )
Lawyer - Paul’s prosecutors before the Roman governor Felix (Acts 24:1 ff
Irish Martyrs - ...
Archbishops ...
Dermot O'Hurley, Cashel
Edmond MacGauran, Armagh
Malachy O'Quealy, Tuam
Richard Creagh, Armagh
Bishops ...
Boetius Egan, Ross
Cornelius O'Devany, Down and Connor
Edmund Dungan, Down and Connor
Eugene MacEgan (bishop-designate), Ross
Heber MacMahon, Clogher
Maurice O'Brien, Emly
Oliver Plunket, Saint
Patrick O'Healy, Mayo
Redmond Gallagher, Derry
Terrance Albert O'Brian, Emly
William Walsh, Meath
Secular Priests ...
AEneas Penny
Andrew Stritch
Bernard Fitzpatrick
Bernard Moriarty
Bernard O'Carolan
Brian Murchertagh
Daniel Delaney
Daniel O'Brien
Daniel O'Moloney
Donatus MacCried
Donough O'Cronin
Donough O'Falvey
Edward Stapleton
Eugene Cronin
George Power
Henry White
Hugh Carrigi
James Murchu
James O'Hegarty
John Lune
John O'Grady
John O'Kelley
John Stephens
John Walsh
Laurence O'Moore
Louis O'Laverty
Maurice O'Kenraghty
Nicholas Young
Patrick O'Derry
Patrick O'Loughran
Philip Cleary
Richard French
Roger Ormilius
Theobald Stapleton
Thomas Bath
Thomas Morrissey
Walter Ternan
Order of Premonstratensians ...
John Kieran (or Mulcheran)
Order of Cistercians ...
Bernard O'Trevir
Edmund Mulligan
Eugene O'Gallagher
Gelasius O'Cullenan
James Eustace
Luke Bergin
Malachy O'Connor
Malachy Shiel
Nicholas Fitzgerald
Patrick O'Connor
the Abbot and Monks of the Monastery of Magia
the Prior and the members of the Abbey of Saint Saviour
Order of Preachers ...
32 religious of the Monastery of Londonderry
Ambrose AEneas O'Cahill
Bernard O'Ferral
Bernard O'Kelly
Clement O'Callaghan
Cormac MacEgan
Daniel MacDonnel
David Fox
David Roche
Dominic MacEgan
Dominick Dillon
Donald O'Meaghten
Donatus Niger
Edmund O'Beirne
Felix MacDonnel
Felix O'Connor
Gerald Fitzgerald
Hugh MacGoill
James Moran
James O'Reilly
James Woulf
John Keating
John O'Cullen
John O'Flaverty
John O'Luin
Lawrence O'Ferral
Myler McGrath
P
Martyrs, Irish - ...
Archbishops ...
Dermot O'Hurley, Cashel
Edmond MacGauran, Armagh
Malachy O'Quealy, Tuam
Richard Creagh, Armagh
Bishops ...
Boetius Egan, Ross
Cornelius O'Devany, Down and Connor
Edmund Dungan, Down and Connor
Eugene MacEgan (bishop-designate), Ross
Heber MacMahon, Clogher
Maurice O'Brien, Emly
Oliver Plunket, Saint
Patrick O'Healy, Mayo
Redmond Gallagher, Derry
Terrance Albert O'Brian, Emly
William Walsh, Meath
Secular Priests ...
AEneas Penny
Andrew Stritch
Bernard Fitzpatrick
Bernard Moriarty
Bernard O'Carolan
Brian Murchertagh
Daniel Delaney
Daniel O'Brien
Daniel O'Moloney
Donatus MacCried
Donough O'Cronin
Donough O'Falvey
Edward Stapleton
Eugene Cronin
George Power
Henry White
Hugh Carrigi
James Murchu
James O'Hegarty
John Lune
John O'Grady
John O'Kelley
John Stephens
John Walsh
Laurence O'Moore
Louis O'Laverty
Maurice O'Kenraghty
Nicholas Young
Patrick O'Derry
Patrick O'Loughran
Philip Cleary
Richard French
Roger Ormilius
Theobald Stapleton
Thomas Bath
Thomas Morrissey
Walter Ternan
Order of Premonstratensians ...
John Kieran (or Mulcheran)
Order of Cistercians ...
Bernard O'Trevir
Edmund Mulligan
Eugene O'Gallagher
Gelasius O'Cullenan
James Eustace
Luke Bergin
Malachy O'Connor
Malachy Shiel
Nicholas Fitzgerald
Patrick O'Connor
the Abbot and Monks of the Monastery of Magia
the Prior and the members of the Abbey of Saint Saviour
Order of Preachers ...
32 religious of the Monastery of Londonderry
Ambrose AEneas O'Cahill
Bernard O'Ferral
Bernard O'Kelly
Clement O'Callaghan
Cormac MacEgan
Daniel MacDonnel
David Fox
David Roche
Dominic MacEgan
Dominick Dillon
Donald O'Meaghten
Donatus Niger
Edmund O'Beirne
Felix MacDonnel
Felix O'Connor
Gerald Fitzgerald
Hugh MacGoill
James Moran
James O'Reilly
James Woulf
John Keating
John O'Cullen
John O'Flaverty
John O'Luin
Lawrence O'Ferral
Myler McGrath
P
Damasus, Pope - The original root of bitterness had been Arianism; and Felix the Arian antipope Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople - Finding that Peter Mongus, the patriarch of Alexandria, anathematized the council of Chalcedon, he was so indignant that before he took his seat on the patriarchal throne he solemnly separated from all communion with him, and with his own hands effaced his name from the diptychs, placing in its stead that of Felix III. ...
To pope Felix the patriarch sent letters, as was usual, to announce his election, but received the reply that he might be admitted as a private member of the church Catholic, but could not be received in communion as a bishop, because he had not removed from the diptychs the names of his predecessors, Acacius and Fravitta. 25, 492, pope Felix died. 1180) the event is placed at the beginning of the patriarchate of Euphemius, and the decrees are said to have been sent by the bishops to pope Felix III
Way - ‘Some were … speaking evil of the Way’; ‘there arose no small stir concerning the Way’; ‘I persecuted this Way unto the death’; ‘Felix, having more exact knowledge concerning the Way’ (Acts 19:9; Acts 19:23, Acts 22:4, Acts 24:22)
Incense - It has been said to grow only in the country of the Sabeans, a people in Arabia Felix; and Theophrastus and Pliny affirm that it is found in Arabia
Peraea - It was part of the jurisdiction of Felix ( BJ II
Festus, Porcius - Sent by Nero to succeed Felix as procurator of Judaea, probably in the autumn A
Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix, Bishop of Pavia - Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix , bp
Ananias - ...
...
The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the procuratorship of Felix (Acts 23:2,5,24 )
Governor - ), of Felix ( Acts 23:26 ), and of Festus ( Acts 26:30 )
Sheba (2) - SHEBA was a wealthy region of Arabia Felix or Yemen (1 Kings 10:1; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15, where "Sheba" is Joktanite, "SEBA" Cushite ; Job 1:15, the Keturahite Sheba, Job 6:19; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22, it was the Sheba son of Raamah and grandson of Cush that carried on the Indian traffic with Palestine in conjunction with the Keturahite Sheba (Joel 3:8)
Nero - Paul appealed after his imprisonment by Felix, and his examination by Festus, who was swayed by the Jews
Scillitan Martyrs - Scillitan Martyrs, 12 martyrs at Carthage (one of them Felix) from the African town of Scillita
Bartholomew - Arabia Felix, as many think) is assigned to him as his subsequent sphere of missionary labors (Eusebius, H
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - From the former authorities we learn that immediately after the exile of Liberius all the clergy, including the deacon Felix (archdeacon according to Marcellinus and Faustus), swore before the people to accept no other bishop while Liberius lived. The deacon Felix was there chosen and consecrated, three of the emperor's eunuchs representing the people on the occasion, and three heretical bishops, Epictetus of Centumellae, Acacius of Caesarea, and Basilius of Ancyra being the consecrators. Marcellinus and Faustus say that the clergy ordained him, while the people refused to take part; and Jerome states that after the intrusion of Felix by the Arians very many of the clerical order perjured themselves by supporting him. Felix appears to have been himself orthodox, no distinct charge of heresy being alleged by his accusers; only that of connivance with his own unlawful election by Arians in defiance of his oath, and of communicating with them. Constantius was so far moved as to consent to the return of Liberius on condition of his presiding over the church jointly with Felix. Felix was compelled by the populace to retire from the city after tumults and bloodshed. Baronius, however, condemns him so far as to say that his envy of Felix and his longing for the adulation to which he had been used at Rome led to his weakness
Agnoetae - Felix of Urgel maintained the limitation of the knowledge of Christ according to His human nature and appealed to Mar_13:32
Providence - In the NT it is used only once; in the exordium of his address to Felix, the orator Tertullus says: ‘By thy providence evils are corrected for this nation’ ( Acts 24:2 )
Caesarea - It was the Roman procurators' (Felix, Festus, etc
Arabia - The three divisions are Arabia Deserta, Felix, and Petraea. ...
ARABIA Felix or happy, S
Temperance - To Felix, with an adulteress by his side, St
Biblical Chronology - The imprisonment and trial of Saint Paul, and his subsequent voyage to Rome, are dated from the departure of Felix and the arrival of Festus in Palestine; but every year from 55-61 has been claimed for this event
Robber - 2), and of Fadus, Felix, and Festus destroying large numbers of them (Ant
Religion - But although Felix is not likely to ‘have used the term offensively … he may well have chosen the word because it was a neutral word (verbum μέσον, Bengel) and did not commit him to anything definite’ (R
Ananias - Cumanus the procurator, his adversary, was not successful but was banished; so that Ananias seems not to have lost office then, but lost it before Felix left the province; and was at last assassinated by the Sicarii (zealot assassins and robbers) early in the last Jewish war
Fortunatus, Bishop of Poictiers - He thus became intimate with Gregory of Tours, Syagrius of Autun, Felix of Nantes, Germanus of Paris, Avitus of Clermont, and many others, to whom his poems are addressed
Symmachus, Bishop of Rome - , had favoured; Symmachus for the maintenance of the unbending attitude taken by Felix III
Victor Vitensis - 17 we have an account of the healing of the blind man Felix by Eugenius bp
Paul - There his cause was heard by Felix, who kept him prisoner, hoping to be bribed to release him. Two years later, when superseded by Festus, Felix, to please the Jews, left Paul in bonds
Caesarea - ‘In the demonstration of the Spirit and of power,' the mighty advocate for the Christian faith had before ‘reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come,' till the Roman governor, Felix, trembled as he spoke
Collection - In the report of his defence before Felix two other words occur in the same connexion (ἐλεημοσύναι and προσφοραί [2]). The plundering and bloodshed accompanying the successive administrations of the procurators Ventidius Cumanus and Felix brought about a state of anarchy, chronic rebellion, and famine (Jos. Those suspected of the least friendliness with the Romans were unhesitatingly robbed and assassinated; and although Felix endeavoured to stem the wild religious and political torrent by wholesale crucifixion, the disorders increased. The procurators Festus, Albinus, and Florus, who succeeded Felix, were not less unfortunate in their experience (Jos
Paul - Testimony before Felix, Festus, and Agrippa (the Gospel of Luke and the Acts commenced at Cæsarea, and concluded at Rome)...
58-60...
Paul's voyage to Rome (autumn); shipwreck at Malta; arrival at...
60,61...
Paul's first captivity at Rome, Epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, Philemon...
61-63...
Conflagration at Rome (July); Neronian persecution of the Christians; martyrdom of Paul (?)...
Hypothesis of a second Roman captivity and preceding missionary journeys to the East, and possibly to Spain
Gervasius - Felix, near the rails which enclosed their tomb
New Testament - ...
Felix made procurator...
52 Paul spends a year and a half at Corinth Acts 18:11 ...
Answer - , his ‘answer’ or apologia before Felix (Acts 24:10 ff
Fathers - 116; Justin Martyr, 140; Dionysius of Corinth, 170; Tatian, 172; Hegesippus, 173; Melito, 177; Irenaeus, 178; Athenagoras, 178; Miltiades, 180; Theophilus, 181; Clement of Alexandria, 194; Tertullian, 200; Minutius Felix, 210; Ammonius, 220; Origen, 230; Firmilian, 233; Dionysius of Alexandria, 247; Cyprian, 248; Novatus or Novatian, 251; Arnobius, 306; Lactantius, 306; Alexander of Alexandria, 313; Eusebius, 315; Athanasius, 326; Cyril of Jerusalem, 348; Hilary, 354; Epiphanius, 368; Basil, 370; Gregory of Nazianzum, 370; Gregory of Nyssa, 370; Optatus, 370; Ambrose, 374; Philaster, 380; Jerome, 392; Theodore of Mopsuestia, 394; Ruffin, 397; Augustine, 398; Chrysostom, 398; Sulpitius Severus, 401; Cyril of Alexandria, 412; Theodoret, 423; and Gennadius, 494
Hear, Hearing - 1), is used technically, of "hearing" judicially, in Acts 23:35 , of Felix in regard to the charges against Paul
Henoticon, the - The first act of his successor, Felix II. A strong admonitory letter was addressed by Felix to Acacius, and another in milder terms to Zeno, the authors of the "Henoticon. " All remonstrance proving vain, Felix fulminated an anathema against Acacius, deposing and excommunicating him, July 28, a
Judgments of God - We have observed, says that learned man, that count Julian, with Felix, superintendent of the finances, and Elpidius, treasurer to the emperor, apostates all three, had received orders to go and seize the effects of the church at Antioch, and carry them to the treasury. ...
Felix, the superintendent, signalized himself also by another impiety; for as he was in viewing the rich and magnificent vessels which the emperors Constantine and Constantius had given to the church, "Behold" said he, "with what plate the son of Mary is served!" It is said, too, that count Julian and he made it the subject of banter, that God should let them thus profane his temple, without interposing by visible miracles. The disease with which God visited Felix was not, so long
Faith - , Felix) by the exhibition of the truth and by the influence of religious sympathy, or by what is sometimes styled the common operation of the Holy Spirit
Zacchaeus - Zaachaeus made haste (Psalms 119:60; contrast Felix, Acts 24:25, the Athenians, 17:32) and came down (so we must, 2 Corinthians 10:4-5) and received Him joyfully (Revelation 3:20; Acts 16:34)
Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea - 98), his influence with the emperor Constantius was considerable enough to nominate Felix (the antipope) to the see of Rome at the fall of Liberius, A
Arabia - ...
Arabia, it is well known, is divided by geographers into three separate regions, called Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. ...
The first, or Arabia Petraea, is the northwestern division, and is bounded on the north by Palestine and the Dead Sea, on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by the Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez. ...
The second region, or Arabia Deserta, is bounded on the north and north- east by the Euphrates, on the east by a ridge of mountains which separates it from Chaldea, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by Syria, Judea, and Arabia Petraea. ...
The third region, or Arabia Felix, so denominated from the happier condition of its soil and climate, occupies the southern part of the Arabian peninsula. ...
Arabia Felix is inhabited by a people who claim Joktan for their father, and so trace their descent direct from Shem, instead of Abraham and Ham
Prince (2) - So of Pilate (Matthew 27 passim, Luke 20:20), as of Felix and Festus (Acts 23:24; Acts 23:26; Acts 23:33-34; Acts 26:30)
Philippians, the Epistle to the - Nero's favorite, Pallas, brother of Felix, died, and so another source of danger passed away
Shem - The intermediate position of the Shemites brought them in contact with the Japhetic races in Cappadocia, and on the other hand with the Hamitic in Palestine, in the Yemen (Arabia Felix), in Babylonia and Elymais
Eden - By others, the garden has been placed on the eastern side of mount Libanus; and by others again, in Arabia Felix, where traces of the word Eden are found
Ananias - Paul was sent by the tribune to Caesarea, that Felix, governor of the province, might take cognizance of the affair
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - In 357 the emperor confirmed all the privileges granted to the church of Rome, at that time under the emperor's nominee, Felix, whilst Liberius was in exile. Another rescript of the same year is addressed to Felix, more explicitly guaranteeing the immunity from taxation and forced service
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - He found there a number of bishops gathered for the consecration of a new bishop, Felix, to the vacant see of Trèves. Felix was himself a good man and well fitted for the vacant see
Ananias - ), and who afterwards appeared among the Apostle’s enemies before Felix at Caesarea (Acts 24:1 ff
Paul - The chief captain, Claudius Lysias determined to send him to Caesarea to Felix, the governor or procurator of Judea. After hearing St, Paul's accusers and the apostle's defence, Felix made an excuse for putting off the matter, and gave orders that the prisoner should be treated with indulgence and that his friends should be allowed free access to him. Paul remained in custody until Felix left the province. But Festus would not comply with their request, He invited them to follow him on his speedy return to Caesarea, and a trial took place there, closely resembling that before Felix
Roman Empire - ...
In the New Testament we find such notices of Roman dominion as the Jews recognizing Caesar as sole king (John 19:15); Cyrenius "governor of Syria" (Luke 2:2); Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus, "governors," i
Gift, Giving - Even the Roman Felix expects a gift ( Acts 24:26 )
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - Kelm gathers together, and translates, the fragments of Celsus contained in Origen; and adds disquisitions of much interest, both on Celsus himself and on two of his contemporaries, Lucian of Samosata and Minucius Felix
Messiah - He entered into a city of Arabia Felix, and there he greatly oppressed the Christians; but he was taken prisoner, and put to death by Elesban, an Ethiopian general
Siricius, Bishop of Rome - His teaching came under the notice of two eminent laymen, Pammachius and Victorinus, who represented it to pope Siricius who assembled a synod of clergy at which Jovinian was excommunicated, together with his abettors, Auxentius, Genialis, Germinator, Felix, Frontinus, Martianus, Januarius, and Ingenius
Donatus And Donatism - His opponents rested their principal objection on the fact that he had been ordained by a traditor, Felix of Aptunga; and proceeded to elect Majorinus as successor to Mensurius. Both sides appealed to Constantine, and the emperor at once subjected the alleged traditorship of Felix to a thorough examination by a council at Rome (a. 313), which decided in favour of Felix, cleared his character, and consequently declared the ordination of Caecilian valid. 314), at Carthage, of proving their charge against Felix
Minucius Felix, Marcus - Minucius Felix, Marcus , one of the earliest and most pleasing of the Latin Christian apologists. 918) shows among its families one with the cognomen Felix
Jew, Jewess - Thus Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1), was a Jewess who had married a Greek, while Drusilla, the wife of Felix the governor of Syria (Acts 24:24), is also described as a Jewess
England - Felix, a Burgundian monk, converted East Anglia; and Birinus began in 634 the evangelization of Wessex
Caesarius, Bishop of Arles - A book he wrote against the semi-Pelagians, entitled de Gratiâ et Libero Arbitrio , was sanctioned by pope Felix; and the canons passed at Orange were approved by Boniface II
Herod - In 53 or 54 she was married to Felix, the Roman procurator
Solomon - " Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south" (Matthew 12:42 ), the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix
Gods - " Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Arnobius, Minutius Felix, Lactantius, Eusebius, St
Commerce - The inhabitants of Arabia Felix carried on a commerce with India
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - The most memorable incidents of the pontificate of Simplicius were his negotiations, and eventual breach, with this prelate and with the emperor Zeno who supported him leading up to the long schism between the churches of the East and West, which ensued in the time of the following pope, Felix III (or II
Claudius - Felix received the government of the whole of Judaea , Samaria, Galilee, and Peraea
Slave, Slavery (2) - Pallas, a brother of Felix (Acts 23:24), considered his slaves too abject to be spoken to, and would signify his pleasure to them only by a gesture or nod (Tac
Idol - ...
(15) maskiyt (Leviticus 26:1; Numbers 33:52): "devices"; with eben "stones of device," namely, with figures or hieroglyphics sacred to the several deities on them; "effigied stones" (Minucius Felix, 3). ...
In the Christian church "the deadly wound" that was given to "the beast" (the God-opposed world) by Christianity (Minucius Felix, A
Roman Law - Before Felix ( Acts 24:19 ), Paul objected that his accusers ought to be present
Lactantius - Lactantius enumerating previous Christian apologists seems only conscious of three—Minucius Felix Tertullian and St
Maxentius, Joannes, Presbyter And Archimandrite - Joannes, Blandus a presbyter, Felix and Dioscorus deacons, arrived at Constantinople from Hormisdas bp
Genseric, King of the Vandals - Felix of Adrumetum was banished for receiving a foreign monk
Optatus, Bishop of Milevis - It was about this time that the outrages broke out in Africa ...
[1] of which when Primosus complained the Donatist council at Theneste took no notice
Acts of the Apostles (2) - Paul declares: ‘Touching the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question’ (Acts 23:6); to Felix he says: ‘I have the hope that there shall be a resurrection both of the just and of the unjust’ (Acts 24:15). Paul before Agrippa or Felix or Festus (chs
Conscience - Herod is ill at ease by reason of self-judgment ( Mark 6:20 ), and so is Felix ( Acts 24:25 )
Asia Minor, Cities of - The title of Julia Felix Gemina Lustra was conferred upon this colony of Rome around 6 B
Simeon - 20:7, section 2) records that Simeon was Felix' tool to seduce Drusilla away from her husband Azizus, king of Emesa
Carpocrates, Philospher - that they knew each other by secret bodily marks (notaculo corporis Minucius Felix cc
Vincentius Lirinensis - The West was represented by letters of Felix and of Julius, bps
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - A part of Elesbaan's army, however, refused to leave the luxury of Arabia Felix, and not long after set up as rival to Esimiphaeus one Abrahah or Abraham, the Christian slave of a Roman merchant, who was strong enough to shut up the viceroy in a fort and seize the throne of Yemen
Providence - in Acts 24:2, where it is applied to Felix by Tertullus
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - The New Testament names only three men employed as governors in Palestine, although there were more: Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - But Theodosius appears to have yielded the point; and Celestine having already "interposed" in behalf of an Illyrian bishop named Felix, who was "in peril of being crushed by factious accusers," afterwards wrote (Cel
War - We find, even to this day, that the circular edifices of this sort, which are still erected in the solitudes of Arabia Felix, bear their ancient name of castles or towers
Eschatology - Paul’s address before Felix ( Acts 24:15 ), and in a single Johannine formula ( John 5:29 )
Beda, Historian - Felix, rendered from the poem of Paulinus; on Anastasius, a revised trans
Sidonius Apollinaris, Saint - His character and abilities commanded the respect and cordial affection of the best men of his time, as Basilius, Felix, Graecus, Lupus, Patiens, Principius, Remigius, as well as Leo and Arbogastes, and many others; and though he did not shrink from remonstrating gravely and even bitterly with some of them, especially Graecus, he does not appear to have forfeited their esteem and affection
Paul - ...
At the end of these two years Felix (q
Old Testament - ...
In 1494 Gersom printed at Brescia the edition from which Luther made his German translated Bomberg at Venice printed in 1518 the first edition with Masorah, targums, and rabbinical comments; Felix del Prato, a converted Jew, being editor
Solomon - Northern Arabia was at this time ruled by queens not kings, but she probably came from southern Arabia or Arabia Felix
Government - By following established procedures he enjoyed the protection of the state at times when fanatical Jews would have killed him (Acts 23:12-13 ), and was actually treated reasonably well by Roman authorities such as Felix, Festus, and even Agrippa, who was of the family of Herod and owed his title of "king" (Acts 25:24 ) to the Romans
Conscience - John that they must obey God rather than men (Acts 4:19; Acts 5:29), Saul’s experience that it was hard to kick against the pricks (Acts 9:5), Felix trembling as St
Fall (2) - In Christ alone, as the centre and end, is the highest possible for man realized; if this were dependent on the Fall, then sin would be a ‘felix culpa’ in the most emphatic sense
Jesus Christ - Besides his testimony, there are numberless passages in the fathers that attest the truth in question; especially in Tertullian, Hippolytus, Felix, &c
Holiness - … The most probable way to make Felix tremble is to reason with him of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come
Gospels (Uncanonical) - ...
An excellent survey of recent Oriental discoveries and discussion in this field is given in Felix Haase’s Literarische Untersuchungen zur orientalisch-apokryphen Evangelienliteratur, Leipzig, 1913; the Slavonic versions are chronicled by E
Acts of the Apostles - Contrast the account of the conduct of the Greek magistrates at Iconium and Thessalonica who were active against him, or of the Court of the Areopagus at Athens who were contemptuous, with the silence about the action of the Roman magistrates of Pisidian Antioch and Lystra, or the explicit statements about Sergius Paulus, Gallio, Felix, Festus, Claudius Lysias and Julius the centurion, who were more or less fair or friendly
Resurrection - Paul held the doctrine of the resurrection of the wicked as well as of the righteous is evident not only from the words of his defence before Felix at Cæsarea (Acts 24:15 , cf
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - For a view of papal claims over the East less than a century later see Felix III
Egypt - , and it is remarkable that his widow imported many trees from Arabia Felix
Josephus - 62 the wife, of Nero-and so securing the liberation of some Jewish priests who had been put in bonds by Felix
Messiah - He entered into a city of Arabia Felix, and there he greatly oppressed the Christians; but he was taken prisoner, and put to death by Elesban, and AEthiopian general
Paul - What followed,—his defence before Felix and Agrippa,—his long detention at Caesarea, and his appeal to the emperor, which occasioned his voyage to Rome, are all circumstantially stated in the latter chapters of the Acts
Paul - -The chronology is an extremely difficult question, because the fixed points that seem to be obtained by the sacred history touching on profane history (Aretas, 2 Corinthians 11:32; Herod, Acts 12:20-23; Claudius, Acts 11:27-30, Acts 12:25; Felix and Festus, Acts 24:27) fail, when closely scrutinized, to remain fixed
Possession - Tertullian, Origen, Lactantius, Athanasius, Augustine, and Minucius Felix all profess their faith in demonomania and exorcism
Ambrosius of Milan - Felix and St
Christ in the Middle Ages - A vigorously led Adoptianist movement in Spain during the later years of the 8th century, probably influenced by Saracen thought, led Alcuin, supported by Charlemagne and the Council of Frankfurt (794), to set forth as the Christological teaching of the Frankish Church, in opposition to the Nestorian doctrine, alleged to be involved in the Adoptianism of bishops Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel, a doctrine scarcely distinguishable from Eutychianism
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - The president was Felix of Acci (Guadix) in Baetica, probably the oldest bishop present
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - The principal in position and ability was the presbyter Novatus (Pearson's Jovinus and Maximus, and Pamelius's Repostus and Felix are impossible)
Eutyches And Eutychianism - He repeats that he could not accede to the demands of the synod, acknowledge two natures in Christ, and anathematize all who opposed this doctrine, because Athanasius, Gregory, Julius, and Felix had rejected the expression "two natures," he himself having no wish to add to the creed of Nicaea and Ephesus, nor to define too particularly the nature of God the Word
Jews - Fadus was soon succeeded by Tiberius, and he was followed by Alexander Cumanus, Felix, and Festus; but Claudius afterward gave Trachonitis and Abilene to Agrippa, and Nero added a part of Galilee and some other cities