1 exit i.e. departure. 2 the close of one’s career, one’s final fate. 3 departure from life, decease.
Frequency of Exodus (original languages)
Song of Solomon
Frequency of Exodus (English)
Song of Solomon
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Exodus, Book of
An account of the increase and growth of the Israelites in Egypt (ch. 1)
Preparations for their departure out of Egypt ((2-12:36).).
Their journeyings from Egypt to Sinai ((12:37-19:2).).
The giving of the law and the establishment of the institutions by which the organization of the people was completed, the theocracy, "a kingdom of priest and an holy nation" (19:3-ch. 40). The time comprised in this book, from the death of Joseph to the erection of the tabernacle in the wilderness, is about one hundred and forty-five years, on the supposition that the four hundred and thirty years (12:40) are to be computed from the time of the promises made to Abraham (Galatians 3:17 ).
The authorship of this book, as well as of that of the other books of the Pentateuch, is to be ascribed to Moses. The unanimous voice of tradition and all internal evidences abundantly support this opinion.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Exodus
the Book of: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Exodus
The great deliverance wrought for the children of Isreal when they were brought out of the land of Egypt with "a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm" (Exodus 12:51 ; Deuteronomy 26:8 ; Psalm 114 ; 136 ), about B.C. 1490, and four hundred and eighty years (1 Kings 6:1 ) before the building of Solomon's temple. The time of their sojourning in Egypt was, according to Exodus 12:40 , the space of four hundred and thirty years. In the LXX., the words are, "The sojourning of the children of Israel which they sojourned in Egypt and in the land of Canaan was four hundred and thirty years;" and the Samaritan version reads, "The sojourning of the children of Israel and of their fathers which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." In Genesis 15:13-16 , the period is prophetically given (in round numbers) as four hundred years. This passage is quoted by Stephen in his defence before the council (Acts 7:6 ).
The chronology of the "sojourning" is variously estimated. Those who adopt the longer term reckon thus:
| Years | | From the descent of Jacob into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From the death of Joseph to the birth of | Moses 278 | | From the birth of Moses to his flight into | Midian 40 | | From the flight of Moses to his return into | Egypt 40 | | From the return of Moses to the Exodus 1 | | 430
Others contend for the shorter period of two hundred and fifteen years, holding that the period of four hundred and thirty years comprehends the years from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan (see LXX. and Samaritan) to the descent of Jacob into Egypt. They reckon thus:
| Years | | From Abraham's arrival in Canaan to Isaac's | birth 25 | | From Isaac's birth to that of his twin sons | Esau and Jacob 60 | | From Jacob's birth to the going down into | Egypt 130 | | (215) | | From Jacob's going down into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 64 | | From birth of Moses to the Exodus 80 | | In all... 430
During the forty years of Moses' sojourn in the land of Midian, the Hebrews in Egypt were being gradually prepared for the great national crisis which was approaching. The plagues that successively fell upon the land loosened the bonds by which Pharaoh held them in slavery, and at length he was eager that they should depart. But the Hebrews must now also be ready to go. They were poor; for generations they had laboured for the Egyptians without wages. They asked gifts from their neighbours around them (Exodus 12:35 ), and these were readily bestowed. And then, as the first step towards their independent national organization, they observed the feast of the Passover, which was now instituted as a perpetual memorial. The blood of the paschal lamb was duly sprinkled on the door-posts and lintels of all their houses, and they were all within, waiting the next movement in the working out of God's plan. At length the last stroke fell on the land of Egypt. "It came to pass, that at midnight Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt." Pharaoh rose up in the night, and called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, "Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve Jehovah, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also." Thus was Pharaoh (q.v.) completely humbled and broken down. These words he spoke to Moses and Aaron "seem to gleam through the tears of the humbled king, as he lamented his son snatched from him by so sudden a death, and tremble with a sense of the helplessness which his proud soul at last felt when the avenging hand of God had visited even his palace."
The terror-stricken Egyptians now urged the instant departure of the Hebrews. In the midst of the Passover feast, before the dawn of the 15th day of the month Abib (our April nearly), which was to be to them henceforth the beginning of the year, as it was the commencement of a new epoch in their history, every family, with all that appertained to it, was ready for the march, which instantly began under the leadership of the heads of tribes with their various sub-divisions. They moved onward, increasing as they went forward from all the districts of Goshen, over the whole of which they were scattered, to the common centre. Three or four days perhaps elapsed before the whole body of the people were assembled at Rameses, and ready to set out under their leader Moses (Exodus 12:37 ; Numbers 33:3 ). This city was at that time the residence of the Egyptian court, and here the interviews between Moses and Pharaoh had taken place.
From Rameses they journeyed to Succoth (Exodus 12:37 ), identified with Tel-el-Maskhuta, about 12 miles west of Ismailia. (See PITHOM .) Their third station was Etham (q.v.), 13:20, "in the edge of the wilderness," and was probably a little to the west of the modern town of Ismailia, on the Suez Canal. Here they were commanded "to turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea", i.e., to change their route from east to due south. The Lord now assumed the direction of their march in the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. They were then led along the west shore of the Red Sea till they came to an extensive camping-ground "before Pi-hahiroth," about 40 miles from Etham. This distance from Etham may have taken three days to traverse, for the number of camping-places by no means indicates the number of days spent on the journey: e.g., it took fully a month to travel from Rameses to the wilderness of Sin ( Exodus 16:1 ), yet reference is made to only six camping-places during all that time. The exact spot of their encampment before they crossed the Red Sea cannot be determined. It was probably somewhere near the present site of Suez.
Under the direction of God the children of Israel went "forward" from the camp "before Pi-hahiroth," and the sea opened a pathway for them, so that they crossed to the farther shore in safety. The Egyptian host pursued after them, and, attempting to follow through the sea, were overwhelmed in its returning waters, and thus the whole military force of the Egyptians perished. They "sank as lead in the mighty waters" (Exodus 15:1-9 ; Compare Psalm 77:16-19 ).
Having reached the eastern shore of the sea, perhaps a little way to the north of 'Ayun Musa ("the springs of Moses"), there they encamped and rested probably for a day. Here Miriam and the other women sang the triumphal song recorded in Exodus 15:1-21 .
From 'Ayun Musa they went on for three days through a part of the barren "wilderness of Shur" (22), called also the "wilderness of Etham" (Numbers 33:8 ; Compare Exodus 13:20 ), without finding water. On the last of these days they came to Marah (q.v.), where the "bitter" water was by a miracle made drinkable.
Their next camping-place was Elim (q.v.), where were twelve springs of water and a grove of "threescore and ten" palm trees (Exodus 15:27 ).
After a time the children of Israel "took their journey from Elim," and encamped by the Red Sea (Numbers 33:10 ), and thence removed to the "wilderness of Sin" (to be distinguished from the wilderness of Zin, 20:1), where they again encamped. Here, probably the modern el-Markha, the supply of bread they had brought with them out of Egypt failed. They began to "murmur" for want of bread. God "heard their murmurings" and gave them quails and manna, "bread from heaven" (Exodus 16:4-36 ). Moses directed that an omer of manna should be put aside and preserved as a perpetual memorial of God's goodness. They now turned inland, and after three encampments came to the rich and fertile valley of Rephidim, in the Wady Feiran. Here they found no water, and again murmured against Moses. Directed by God, Moses procured a miraculous supply of water from the "rock in Horeb," one of the hills of the Sinai group (17:1-7); and shortly afterwards the children of Israel here fought their first battle with the Amalekites, whom they smote with the edge of the sword.
From the eastern extremity of the Wady Feiran the line of march now probably led through the Wady esh-Sheikh and the Wady Solaf, meeting in the Wady er-Rahah, "the enclosed plain in front of the magnificient cliffs of Ras Sufsafeh." Here they encamped for more than a year (Numbers 1:1 ; 10:11 ) before Sinai (q.v.).
The different encampments of the children of Israel, from the time of their leaving Egypt till they reached the Promised Land, are mentioned in Exodus 12:37-19 ; Numbers 1021-21 ; 33 ; Deuteronomy 1,2,10 .
It is worthy of notice that there are unmistakable evidences that the Egyptians had a tradition of a great exodus from their country, which could be none other than the exodus of the Hebrews.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Exodus, Book of
This book occupies the period from the death of Josephto the setting up of the Tabernacle. Under the headings of ISRAEL IN EGYPT, the PLAGUES OF EGYPT, and the EXODUS these subjects are considered, which embrace the first fifteen chapters.
Exodus 16 . After the song at the Red Sea the Israelites were led into the wilderness of Shur, and their faith was put to the test by the bitter waters of Marah; but they were afterwards refreshed by the living waters and shelter at Elim: both are types of wilderness experience. Marah answers in the first place to the experience of 1 Peter 4:1 ; then, the cross being accepted, Romans 5:3-8 becomes the happy experience of the soul. This is followed by Elim — the ministry of grace. God gave them bread from heaven, typical of the heavenly grace in Christ, the bread of life, to sustain the believer in life to God, during the wilderness. The manna was to be gathered daily . He sent them also quails to eat.
Exodus 17 . Moses smote the rock and there came water out of the rock — type of the Holy Spirit — and this was followed by conflict: they fought with Amalek (type of Satan seeking to act upon the weak flesh of the believer: comp. Deuteronomy 25:18 . Power is not in the flesh, but in the Spirit): with Amalek there was to be continued conflict, because they touched the rights of God in His people.
Exodus 18 . Jethro brought to Moses his wife and his two sons: sacrifices were offered by Jethro, a Gentile, who ate with Israel. Judges were appointed that there might be order and righteous judgement among the people: type of the millennium.
Exodus 19 — Exodus 24 . Here there was a change: up to this all had been grace, but now the people were put under law, and not knowing themselves they said, "All that the Lord hath spoken we will do." The ten commandments and various laws followed until Exodus 24 when the covenant was ratified by blood and inaugurated. On it being read the people again said, "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient." The people were sprinkled with blood, then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders ascended the mount; "they saw God, and did eat and drink." They thus entered into relationship with God. The glory of Jehovah was like devouring fire.
Exodus 25 — Exodus 31 . During these chapters Moses was in the mount: he remained there forty days, and received from God the pattern of the tabernacle, and all its accompaniments. See TABERNACLE.
Exodus 32 . While Moses was in the mount the people, under the plea of not knowing what had become of Moses, requested Aaron to make them 'gods to go before' them, and the golden calf was made. God threatened to destroy the people, but Moses pleaded for them, and asked God to remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. When Moses saw the calf he broke the two tables of the law: the people had already broken the law. The calf was destroyed and the idolaters slain.
Exodus 33 . God said He would send an angel, and not go Himself with Israel, for they were a stiff-necked people. Moses took the tabernacle and pitched it outside the camp, and those that sought the Lord went there to it: cf. Hebrews 13:12,13 . (This 'tent of meeting' was probably a provisional one, for the tabernacle had not been made.) Moses continued to plead for Israel, and became their mediator. All being ruined, God would now act in His sovereignty, and show mercy to whom He would — a sovereignty which extends mercy to Gentiles as well as Jews: cf. Romans 9:14,15 . God promised to be gracious, so that now mercy was added to law .
Exodus 34 . The two tables were renewed, but were to be placed in an ark (comp. Deuteronomy 10:1-3 ), and God proclaimed Himself as 'Jehovah, Jehovah God' — His name with Israel, but adding the characteristics of mercy and holy government. Moses was again in the mount for forty days, and when he came down his face shone. The sabbath was again rehearsed before them, as the token of this fresh covenant of mercy and holy government; but mercy will in the end rejoice over judgement. Psalm 135:13,14 and Psalm 136 .
Exodus 35 — Exodus 40 . The freewill offerings of the people were accepted for the tabernacle, and God gave skill to some for the work. The tabernacle was made and reared: the priests were sanctified and clothed, and all was finished. "Then the cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle." Moses was unable to enter the tent of the congregation because of the cloud. The cloud became their signal for movement: when that moved, they journeyed; and when that rested they abode in their tents. Thus the Israelites had God with them as Jehovah. How blessed would they have been, had they been able to keep the covenant under which God had put them, and which on their part they had promised to do, not, alas, knowing what their fallen nature really was: it was a trial of man under law.
In short, the Book of Exodus shows the redemption of the Israelites from slavery; their being brought into relationship with God, with a priesthood to maintain that relationship; and God leading and dwelling among them.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Exodus
Israel's escape from slavery in Egypt and journey towards the Promised Land under Moses. The most important event in the Old Testament historically and theologically is Israel's Exodus from Egypt. More than a hundred times in all parts of the Old Testament except the Wisdom Literature, Yahweh is proclaimed as “the one who brought you up from the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.” Israel remembered the Exodus as God's mighty redemptive act. She celebrated it in her creeds (Deuteronomy 26:5-9 ; 1 Samuel 12:6-8 ). She sang of it in worship (Psalm 78:1 ; Psalm 105:1 ; Psalm 106:1 ; Psalm 114:1 ; Psalm 135:1 ; Psalm 136:1 ). The prophets constantly reminded Israel that election and covenant were closely related to the Exodus (Isaiah 11:16 ; Jeremiah 2:6 ; Jeremiah 7:22-25 ; Ezekiel 20:6 ,Ezekiel 20:6,20:10 ; Hosea 2:15 ; Hosea 11:1 ; Amos 2:10 ; Amos 3:1 ; Micah 6:4 ; Haggai 2:5 ). (The English word “Exodus” does not occur in the King James Version). The Exodus in the Old Testament was to Israel what the death and resurrection of Christ was to Christians in the New Testament. Just as Israel commemorated her deliverance from Egyptian bondage in the feast of Passover, Christians celebrate their redemption from sin in the observance of the Lord's Supper (Luke 22:1-20 ; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 ). Historicity The only explicit account of the Exodus we have is the biblical account (Exodus 1-15 ). No extra-biblical witnesses directly speak of the sojourn of Israel's ancestors in the land of the Nile. However, Egyptian sources do confirm the general situation that we find in the end of Genesis and the beginning of the Book of Exodus. There are many reports in Egyptian sources of nomadic people called Habiru coming into Egypt from the east fleeing from famine. Extra-biblical evidence from Egypt indicates that Egypt used slave labor in building projects ( Exodus 1:11 ). At one time the land in Egypt was owned by many landholders; but after the reign of the Hyksos kings the Pharaoh owned most of the land, and the people were serfs of the king (Genesis 47:20 ). Old Testament scholars accept the essential historicity of the Exodus.
The Nature of the Event Some scholars see the Exodus as the miraculous deliverance of the people of God from the grip of Pharaoh's army at the Red Sea. Others see it as an escape across a sprawling wilderness and sweltering desert of a small mixed band of border slaves. Some argue that the military language in the account indicates that the event was a military skirmish. Such language may be the language of holy war. The people of Israel went up from the land of Egypt “equipped for battle” (Exodus 13:18 RSV), but God did not lead them by the way of the Philistines, which was the closest way but it was also the way of war. God thought that if Israel saw war she would repent and return to Egypt ( Exodus 13:17 ). God is called a “man of war” in Exodus 15:3 .
The Bible stresses that the Exodus was the work of God. God brought the plagues on Egypt (Exodus 7:1-5 ). The miracle at the sea was never treated merely as a natural event or as Israel's victory alone. In the earliest recorded response to the event Miriam sang, “Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea” (Exodus 15:21 RSV).
Elements of the wonderful and the ordinary contributed to the greatest Old Testament events. The natural and supernatural combined to produce God's deliverance. The Exodus was both miraculous and historical. An air of mystery surrounds this event as all miraculous events. We are not told when the Exodus occurred. We do not know precisely where it happened since the Hebrew term may have meant the Red Sea as we know it, one of its tributaries, or a “sea of reeds” whose location is unknown. We do not know who or how many may have been involved. The record makes it clear that God delivered Israel from bondage because of His covenant with the patriarchs and because He desired to redeem His people (Exodus 6:2-8 ).
The Date of the Exodus The Bible does not give an incontrovertible date for the Exodus. 1 Kings 6:1 says, “In the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month of Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord.” But this verse refers primarily to the beginning of the building of Solomon's Temple and only in a general way to the time of the Exodus. We do not know the precise dates of Solomon's reign. If we use 961 B.C. as the beginning of Solomon's reign, his fourth year would be 957 B.C. If we take the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 literally, the Exodus would be dated in 1437 B.C. Exodus 1:11 says, however, that the Israelites in Egypt built the store cities of Pithom and Raamses for Pharaoh. Evidently the name Raamses was not used in Egypt before 1300 B.C. If one of the store cities was named for a king by that name, the Exodus could not have happened before 1300 B.C. Thus some scholars believe the Exodus must have taken place after 1300 B.C.
Another difficulty in dating these events is that although the term “pharaoh” is used over a hundred times in the first fifteen chapters of Exodus to refer to the king of Egypt, the title is always anonymous. No personal name of any individual pharaoh is used. The text does not indicate the identity of the pharaoh of the oppression nor the one of the Exodus. Old Testament scholars have generally agreed that the Exodus occurred either during the eighteenth (1570-1310 B.C.) or nineteenth (1310-1200 B.C.) dynasties.
It has been the opinion of most scholars since the rise of modern Egyptology that the Exodus likely occurred during the reign of Ramses II in the nineteenth dynasty about 1270 B.C., although many Bible students attempt to date it in the earlier eighteenth dynasty about 1447 B.C. Several variations of these dates have been suggested, ranging all the way back to 2000 B.C. None of these attempts to redate the Exodus has gained widespread acceptance. Perhaps the best estimate of the date for the Exodus remains about 1270 B.C., but this is far from a proven fact.
The Number Involved in the Exodus In our English Bibles Exodus 12:37 says, “And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot, that were men, besides children.” For a very long time and for various reasons some Bible scholars have asked: Should the number 600,000 be understood literally? It seems to be an excessively large number. Exodus 23:29-30 and Deuteronomy 7:22 suggest the number was so small that the people would be endangered by wild beasts. Many scholars believe the Hebrew word eleph, usually translated “thousand,” can also be translated “clan” or “fighting unit.” Perhaps this is the meaning in Exodus 12:17 . Assuming this, conservative scholars have estimated the number at between 6,000,72,000. We may not know the exact date, route, or number of people in the Exodus. But the significant thing is we know and believe that such an event happened and that we interpret it as a saving act of God.
The Exodus was the work of God. It was also a historical event involving a superpower nation and an oppressed people. God acted redemptively in power, freedom, and love. When the kingdom of God did not come, the later prophets began to look for a second Exodus. That expectation was fulfilled spiritually in Christ's redemptive act.
Ralph L. Smith
Holman Bible Dictionary - Exodus, Book of
The central book of the Old Testament, reporting God's basic saving act for Israel in the Exodus from Egypt and His making of His covenant with the nation destined to be His kingdom of priests. Literary Setting The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Old Testament and of the Pentateuch. See Exodus 19:1-200 ). God delivered the baby Moses from danger, and he grew up in pharaoh's court as son of pharaoh's daughter. Still he cared for the Israelites. Trying to protect one of his own people, he killed an Egyptian. Thus Moses had to flee to the wilderness of Midian, where he helped seven endangered shepherd girls. He settled among them and married one of the girls. There, God called him at the burning bush of Mount Horeb/Sinai and sent him back to rescue Israel from Egypt (Exodus 2-4 ). With his brother Aaron, he faced a stubborn pharaoh, who refused to release the Israelites. When pharaoh made life harder for Israel, the Israelites griped about Moses. God took this as opportunity to reveal Himself to Israel, to pharaoh, and to the Egyptians. God brought the plagues upon Egypt. Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let Israel go until his firstborn son and the eldest sons of all Egypt died in the final plague. This tenth plague became the setting for Israel's central religious celebration, that of Passover and Unleavened Bread in which Israel reenacted the Exodus from Egypt and rejoiced at God's supreme act of salvation for His people (Exodus 5-13 ). As Israel fled Egypt, the pharaoh again resisted and led his army after them. The miracle of the Red Sea (or perhaps more literally, the Sea of Reeds) became the greatest moment in Israel's history, the moment God created a nation for Himself by delivering hem from the strongest military power on earth as He led them through the divided waters of the sea and then flooded the sea again as the Egyptians tried to follow (Exodus 14:1 ).
After celebrating the deliverance in song and dance (Exodus 15:1-21 ), Israel followed God's leadership into the wilderness, but soon the difficult wilderness life proved too hard. The Israelites cried for the good old days of Egypt, even after God supplied their food and drink needs and after He defeated the Amalekites (Exodus 15:22-17:15 ). Moses' father-in-law Jethro brought Moses' wife and children back to him in the wilderness and praised God for all that He had done for Moses and the people. Jethro also advised Moses how to organize a more efficient judicial system, relieving Moses of stress (Exodus 18:1 ). Then Israel came to Sinai, where God called them to become His covenant people, a holy nation to carry out Abraham's mission of blessing the nations. God gave the Ten Commandments and other laws central to the covenant (Exodus 19-23 ), and then confirmed the covenant in a mysterious ceremony (Exodus 24:1 ). Moses went to the top of the mountain to receive the remainder of God's instructions, especially instructions for building the sacred place of worship, the tabernacle (Exodus 24-31 ). Impatient Israel got Aaron to build an object of worship they could see, so he made the golden calf. The people began worshiping. This angered God, who sent Moses back down to the people. Moses prayed for the people despite their sin, but then saw the people's sinful actions and threw the tablets with the law to the ground, breaking them. Moses again went up and prayed for the people. God punished them but did not destroy them as He had threatened. God showed His continued presence in the Tent of Meeting and in letting His glory pass by Moses (Exodus 32-33 ). God then gave Moses the law on two new tablets of stone and renewed the covenant with the people, providing further basic laws for them. Such intense communication with God brought radiance to Moses' face (Exodus 34:1 ). Moses then led Israel to celebrate the Sabbath and to build the tabernacle (Exodus 35-39 ). Moses set up the tabernacle and established worship in it. God blessed the action with His holy glorious presence (Exodus 7:3-125 ). This provided the sign for Israel's future journeys, following God's cloud and fire.
Theological Teaching In Exodus Israel learned the basic nature of God and His salvation. They also learned the nature of sin, the characteristics of God's leader, the components of worship, and the meaning of salvation. In Exodus Israel learned the identity of the people of God.
God is Ruler of the world, able to act for His people even on the home territory of the world's most powerful political and military force. God chooses to act for the people He elects. God knows the situation of His people even when another nation has forced them into slavery. God saved His people through calling out a leader to communicate God's will and to face their enemies. God empowered the leader at a time of the leader's personal weakness rather than at a time of strength. He worked in the forces of nature to show His unequaled power and to demonstrate His concern for His own people. Salvation for His people involved punishing their sinful enemies, and especially their stubborn leader.
Salvation, power, and concern was not all God revealed of Himself. He also showed a holy nature in that special preparations were made to enter His presence. He revealed His great glory, so majestic even the leader could not view it. Most of all, He revealed His will to be present among His people and lead them through their daily activities.
In so doing, He showed the way He expected His people to live, a way of holiness, a way of priesthood among the nations. This way centered on life guided by the Ten Commandments. Such a life reflected the nature of God Himself, who could be identified as “The Lord God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty” (Exodus 34:6-7 ).
God expected His people to live the way of holiness, the way of the Ten Commandments. Failure to do so is sin. Sin centers particularly in giving another god credit for what God has done and in worshiping what human hands have made rather than the true God who allows no images of Himself. To avoid sin, God's people had to follow God's chosen leader, even when the path led through the wilderness and demanded a life-style lacking in some of the food and luxuries they had learned to take for granted. The leader followed God's will and not the people's. In so doing, the leader interceded with God for a sinful people, willing to give up his own place with God in exchange for the people's salvation. Only a leader who communed face to face with God could develop such an attitude. Thus Moses became the leader without parallel for Israel.
The leader's lasting role included the establishment of a worship place and worship practices. God's people gained their identity in worship. The leader showed them when, where, and how to worship.
The people offered worship because They had experienced God's salvation. For them salvation meant physical deliverance in military action against a powerful world enemy. It involved following God's instructions and waiting for God's miraculous help. Salvation set up a relationship between God and the people, a relationship based on God's initiative in delivering the people and on God's initiative in inviting the people into covenant relationship. See Covenant . This meant the people could trust God to lead them through their personal and national history. It also meant that God expected a trusting people to obey Him as He set out the way of life they should follow. Salvation was not just receiving God's salvation. It was following in faith the life-style God described for them.
I. God Saves His People (Exodus 1:1-4:17 ).
A. God's people face oppression in fear (Exodus 1:1-22 ).
B. God raises up a deliverer for His oppressed people (Exodus 2:1-4:17 ).
II. God Sends His Leader on a Difficult Mission (Exodus 4:18-7:2 ).
A. God uses all means to accomplish His will against an ungodly ruler (Exodus 4:18-26 ).
B. God fulfills His angry promise to provide a helper for His leader (Exodus 4:27-31 ).
C. God's leader delivers God's message to pagan leaders (Exodus 5:1-23 ).
D. God promises deliverance to a deaf people (Exodus 6:1-9 ).
E. God reaffirms His insecure leaders (Exodus 6:10-7:2 ).
III. God Reveals Himself in Punishing His Enemy (1618417449_37:30 ).
A. God is sovereign over enemy powers (Exodus 7:3-13 ).
B. Miracles do not bring belief (Exodus 7:14-25 ).
C. Enemy powers seek compromise not conversion (Exodus 8:1-15 ).
D. God's power convinces enemy religious leaders (Exodus 8:16-19 ).
E. Political deceit cannot defeat God's purposes (Exodus 8:20-32 ).
F. God's power is superior to pagan religious symbols (Exodus 9:1-7 ).
G. God's power affects people as well as animals (Exodus 9:8-12 ).
H. Terror and admission of sin are not adequate responses to the actions of the only God (Exodus 9:13-35 ).
I. God's saving acts are to be taught to coming generations (Exodus 10:1-20 ).
J. God's will must be followed completely (Exodus 10:21-29 ).
K. God distinguishes between His people and His enemies when He punishes (Exodus 11:1-10 ).
L. God judges other gods but preserves an obedient people (Exodus 12:1-13 ).
M. God's people are to remember and celebrate His deliverance (Exodus 12:14-28 ).
N. God punishes His proud, stubborn enemies (Exodus 12:29-30 ).
IV. God Reveals Himself by Delivering His People from Bondage (Exodus 12:31-15:21 ).
A. God delivers and blesses His people and those who join them (Exodus 12:31-51 ).
B. God instructs His people to remember, celebrate, and teach His mighty salvation (Exodus 13:1-16 ).
C. God leads and protects His obedient people (Exodus 13:17-22 ).
D. God gains glory and evokes faith by saving His troubled people (Exodus 14:1-31 ).
E. God's people praise Him for their deliverance (Exodus 15:1-21 ).
V. God Provides for His Doubting, Complaining People (Exodus 15:22-18:27 ).
A. God promises healing to an obedient people (Exodus 15:22-27 ).
B. God reveals His glory and tests His people's faith while meeting their needs (Exodus 16:1-36 ).
C. Doubting people test God's presence (Exodus 17:1-7 ).
D. God delivers His people and permanently curses their enemy (Exodus 17:8-16 ).
E. Foreign relatives testify to God's superiority over all gods (Exodus 18:1-12 ).
F. God's people must have effective teaching and administrative leadership (Exodus 18:13-27 ).
VI. God Covenants with His People (1618417449_32:21 ).
A. God's covenant is based upon His act of deliverance and upon the people's obedience as a kingdom of priests (Exodus 19:1-8 ).
B. God prepares His people for His coming down to make a covenant (Exodus 19:9-15 ).
C. God's awesome presence confirms His covenant (Exodus 19:16-25 ).
D. The Ten Commandments are God's covenant ground rules for life with Him (Exodus 20:1-17 ).
E. Awestruck people need a human mediator with the holy God (Exodus 20:18-21 ).
VII. God Gives Civil, Ceremonial, and Criminal Laws to Help His People (Exodus 20:22-23:33 ).
A. Instructions for acceptable worship (Exodus 20:22-26 )
B. Treatment of Hebrew slaves (Exodus 21:1-11 )
C. Dealing with a person who injures or kills another person (Exodus 21:12-32 )
D. Justice for damage done to another's property (Exodus 21:33-22:15 )
E. Justice when a virgin is seduced (Exodus 22:16-17 )
F. Punishment for sorcery, bestiality, and idolatry (Exodus 22:18-20 )
G. Care for the stranger, widow, orphan, and poor (Exodus 22:21-27 )
H. Respect for God and human rulers, dedication of children, and being holy (Exodus 22:28-31 )
I. Practice honesty; do not hurt the righteous or innocent (Exodus 23:1-9 ).
J. Keep the sabbatical year, the Sabbath day, sacred occasions (
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Exodus, Theology of
The disclosure of God in the Book of Exodus develops from a distant deity of an oppressed people in Egypt to one in intimate relationship with the people of Israel on their way to the promised land. A theological goldmine results, impacting the concepts and theological ideas of the rest of the Old Testament.
Perhaps the best way to approach the book's theology starts with its literary development, for the revelation of God unfolds in different ways as the book progresses. It begins with God delivering the Israelites from oppression in Egypt (chaps. 1-19). Deliverance leads to responsibility on the part of God's people (chaps. 20-40). Geographically, the first part takes place in Egypt, while the second part begins and ends at Mount Sinai in the wilderness. Themes include deliverance (chaps. 1-19), covenant (chaps. 20-24,32-34), and presence (chaps. 25-31,35-40).
Literary Development of the Theology . The book begins by tracing the growth of Jacob's family in Egypt. As a nation, Israel suffers oppression from Pharaoh (1:8-10). Despite the terrible conditions, the nation continues to grow (1:12), a hint that God is blessing them. New measures are taken to stop their population explosion, but the midwives become instruments of salvation rather than death because they "feared God" (1:17). The text states that God blesses them for their actions in preserving life (1:20-21).
Starting in 2:10, the narrator follows one child. He is named Moses, for Pharaoh's daughter "drew him out of the water." His name could also mean "deliverer, " suitable to his role as a human agent to resolve the repression by Pharaoh. His zeal to alleviate oppression leads to misfortune and personal discouragement (2:11-15), but sets up the divine initiative leading to complete liberation. Chapter 2 ends with the cries of Israel to God and the message that God hears them (vv. 23-25).
A dramatic change takes place when God appears to Moses. The disclosure of God's will and plan revolves around the conversation with Moses. First, God appears in a burning bush (3:2), producing a sanctified space (3:5). Then God speaks directly with Moses. God reveals that he is the same deity that the patriarchs knew (3:6), is concerned with the deliverance of Israel (3:7-9), and wants to use Moses in the task (3:10).
In the process of the conversation, God also discloses a personal name, Yahweh (3:15). Based upon the enigmatic phrase in 3:14, "I am who I am, " this name reveals that God exists as a deity who is active and will work in behalf of his people. Mere existence is not in mind, but the willingness to work for Israelite deliverance. The name Acts as a word of assurance to Moses and to the Israelites. Additional confirmation of this deity's ability surfaces in the signs given to Moses to answer his objections to God's call (4:1-9).
Further clarification of the name "Yahweh" occurs in God's speech of reassurance to Moses in 6:2-9. After Moses' initial attempts at deliverance from Pharaoh fail, Yahweh puts the scene into theological perspective. The paragraph revolves on the self-identification formula, "I am Yahweh" (6:2,6, 8). In the past, the patriarchs knew God as God Almighty. They did not understand the full capacity of the name "Yahweh." This limitation will now change. Continuity with the past rests in the covenant made with their forefathers (6:4-5), but full revelation of the name will involve liberation from the slavery of Egypt, redemption by God's own mighty deeds, election as his people, relational knowledge of Yahweh as their God, and the completion of the promises involving the inheritance of a land (6:6-8). Although the people are not impressed with this report, the book records the fulfillment of the speech and thus the revelation of the full capacity of this deity, Yahweh.
The ten plagues display the power of Yahweh. Nature bows under the will of this God. Each plague becomes more dangerous. They come in waves of three, the third one confirming the previous two. Although the Pharaoh's magicians imitate some of the plagues, human powers soon fade.
The conflict with Pharaoh, and probably with all that he stands for, is emphasized by the narrative. Almost every plague account notes the obstinate attitude of Pharaoh, an attitude that outwardly may give in to the danger of the moment, but resurfaces when the plague abates. God uses this hardness for his purposes (see 7:13,22; 8:15,19, 32; 9:7,12, 35; 10:20,27). What are those purposes? The narrative recounts one purpose with the words: "The Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh" (7:5; 8:22; 9:14,16; 10:1-2). God's Acts point to a reality who is able to work in powerful ways. Of course, Israel would also see this deity at work. A second purpose emerges in the direct contrast of Egypt's gods and Yahweh. Each plague addresses a deity of Egypt's pantheon (some five hundred to two thousand gods), including the tenth plague against the firstborn son (12:12). Yahweh is God of gods.
Liberation from oppression results from the contest. Israel leaves Egypt. A pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night, representing the presence of the Lord, lead them. The Egyptians follow and attempt to destroy them by the Sea of Reeds (chap. 14). Instead, deliverance comes from Yahweh through the parting of the sea. The Egyptian army drowns when they try to follow. Their words before destruction explain the intent of the events: "for Yahweh is fighting for them against Egypt" (14:25). The Lord "saves" Israel; he "is a warrior, " fighting for the people of Israel (14:30; 15:3). As a result, the people believe in Yahweh and in his servant, Moses (14:31). Chapter 15 recounts in song the victory of the Lord.
God continues to provide for them as they march toward Mount Sinai. When they suffer from bitter water at Marah and no water at Rephidim, God provides (Exodus 15:22-27 ; 17:1-7 ). When the Amalekites attack, the Lord again fights for them (17:8-13). At last, they arrive at Mount Sinai and experience the presence of the Lord in a theophany of lightning and storm (chap. 19). The people "fear" God as they prepare to meet him through the intermediary role of Moses. This deity is their God, and they are now to meet him.
As God's people, Israel must be responsible to the covenant stipulations given at the mountain. Israel agrees to obey (19:8). After the covenant commandments and ordinances are presented, the covenant is established with blood sprinkled on the people (24:8).
Relationship with Yahweh requires obedience. No other rationale is given except that the Lord requires it. A survey of the Ten Words or Commandments (20:1-17) and the "Book of the Covenant" (20:22-23:33) indicates that God's instructions cover both vertical and horizontal dimensions, involving both correct attitudes and actions toward God and toward humanity. Every area of life must yield to the relationship of covenant with the Lord, so family, social, individual, and corporate rights are presented.
While Moses and Joshua remain on the mountain to receive the tablets of Words, the people act in rebellion by making a golden calf for worship and leadership (32:1). The covenant is broken within forty days after it is initiated. After all the Lord has done for Israel, they turn away. As a result of their idolatry, God threatens to abandon Israel (32:7-10). Moses intercedes in behalf of his people (32:11-14; 33:12-16). He realizes that Israel is nothing without the Lord. In some inexplicable way, probably because of the covenant, God's character now is tied up with the destiny of Israel, God's people (33:13). God Acts in graciousness and does not destroy Israel (33:19; 34:6-7). The covenant is renewed (34:10-28).
On this occasion, Moses receives a special revelation of Yahweh's character. He requests a look at God's glory (33:18). The audacity of the request is overlooked, and Yahweh promises to reveal all his "goodness" (33:19). Whether the "glory" and the "goodness" are the same is not explained. But when Yahweh passes Moses on the mountain, six words or phrases are proclaimed that provide one of the fullest descriptions of the Lord's character, no matter whether glory or goodness. Yahweh is compassionate, gracious, slow to anger, abounding in steadfast love, abounding in faithfulness, and forgiving (34:6-7).
Woven between the chapters on covenant and its breach stand the Lord's instructions on building a symbol of the presence of Yahweh in the midst of Israel—the tabernacle. Precise guidelines for the sanctuary's materials and the priest's garments are given. These instructions serve as the template for the actions of chapters 35-40 when it is erected.
The tabernacle fulfills the Lord's promise to dwell in the midst of Israel (cf. 6:8). It provides a place where worship and instruction take place. At Mount Sinai, the glory of the Lord came as smoke enveloped the mountain (24:16). But the mountain was not the permanent home for Israel; the sanctuary would move with Israel. The Lord would always be in the midst of his people by this dwelling.
When the tabernacle is dedicated, the glory of the Lord settles upon it (40:34). The book closes with the presence of Yahweh leading from the sanctuary. The God who met Moses at the burning bush (chap. 3) and the people on the mountain (chaps. 19-20) now resides in the midst of Israel.
Theological Reflections . The Book of Exodus is rich in theology. Its main significance lies in God's deliverance of Israel from Egyptian slavery. Confessions of faith and corporate worship in the Old Testament from this point on derive from the exodus events. Almost every part of the book yields reward to theological reflection. Some theological aspects stand out and must be noted.
"Name" Theology: Yahweh . In Israel, a name stood for character. The personal name of Israel's God is revealed in this book. Moses supposes that the people are going to ask God's name. What is he to say to them? His question assumes more than a name, for the name would answer what this deity could do for Israel. God answers, "I am who I am" (3:14), a sentence that continues to beg interpretation. In the context, the name signifies that this deity will act in behalf of Israel.
How will this God act? Yahweh's reassurance speech in Exodus 6 states that he exhibits continuity with his actions in the days of the patriarchs and will reveal himself more fully as a God who liberates from oppression, redeems, elects, establishes a relationship, and fulfills his promises (6:6-8).
Yahweh confirms his statements by action, evidenced by the events in the book. Pharaoh, the Egyptians, Moses, and the people of Israel witness the quality of the name. For this reason, the name is not to be used in an empty way, according to the third commandment (20:7). When God passes by Moses on the mountain, the proclamation begins with a twofold repetition, "Yahweh, Yahweh" (34:6), and is followed by theological terms that explain God's character of glory or goodness, all part of the content of who this deity is. Yahweh is the name of Israel's God with full meaning for them.
"Power of God" Theology . The Book of Exodus exudes the power of Yahweh. In the ten plagues, Yahweh pits his power against the power of Pharaoh. Each plague shows God's control of this world. Moses participates as the messenger because he has witnessed some miracles to affirm God's call (4:1-9).
Parting the Red Sea stands as a great example of God's power (chap. 14). The event not only saves Israel, but also destroys her enemies, the Egyptian army. Chapter 15 celebrates this power of God to bring victory (see 15:6; cf. "right arm" imagery in Isaiah ). Salvation comes from the mighty Acts of God, best seen in the parting of the sea.
In addition, God's provision for Israel shows his power. Water, manna, help in combat, and guidance display his abilities to provide for Israel's needs.
"Holiness" Theology . Exodus 15:11 asks, "Who is like you, majestic in holiness?" At the burning bush, Moses is warned to take off his sandals because the area is "holy ground" (3:5). Moral quality exemplifies this deity. The commandments assume God's holiness. In light of who God is, Israel is to be "a holy nation" (19:6), obeying the commandments and ordinances (see Leviticus and the word, "holy"). The Book of the Covenant (chaps. 21-23) outlines expectations for the extent of Israel's holiness: all of life must be lived in its light.
"Faithfulness" Theology . Exodus phrases God's faithfulness in terms of "remembrance." God remembered his covenant with the "fathers, " Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (2:24; 3:6; 6:3). To remember his promises means that he Acts in light of his remembrance. In this case, he sends a deliverer (Moses) who will lead Israel to the land promised the patriarchs (6:8; 15:17).
God's promises to Moses and to the people of Israel also come true. The book records his faithfulness. In return, Israel is to be faithful to Yahweh. The first commandment states that they are to have "no other gods before" this deity (20:2). No idols or images are to replace this deity (20:4). After all, there are no other gods who can stand with this deity (15:11). Victory over the gods of Egypt confirms this viewpoint.
Israel's failure to be faithful to Yahweh leads to God's judgment (32:10,28, 35). Israel knows that Yahweh is to be feared, for they witnessed his work in Egypt and experienced his presence on the mountain (20:19-20). However, their memory appears brief. God's anger may be averted by intercession (8:8; 32:30-34) and repentance holds the possibility of aversion of God's wrath, although Pharaoh does not do so in a meaningful way. Failure to obey may lead to a sin offering, an act that satisfies God (29:10-14). Atonement by blood cleanses the priests (29:35-37) and the people (24:6-8), satisfying God's wrath.
God holds Israel responsible for obeying his instructions. Psalm 78,106 recount what God did in the Book of Exodus and how Israel knew the commandments, but failed to obey. Relationship demands that both sides act faithfully.
"Salvation" Theology . God Acts to save Israel from their plight. Salvation has a tangible side, namely, deliverance from Egypt. God initiates his salvation by observing Israel's groanings (3:7). He then takes steps to realize change, first by choosing a deliverer (chap. 3) and then by bringing out the children of Israel from Egypt (15:13).
Redemption leads to a permanent relationship with the deity who worked for Israel. Although the redemption could be limited to political and economic conditions, as liberation theologians argue, the account in Exodus includes and goes beyond these areas. The relationship with their benefactor will impact their whole existence. "Covenant, " the biblical word that indicates the relationship, demands total commitment from both parties, though God has already worked and will prove faithful in the future. Remembrance of the way God has worked takes place in the festivals (23:14-17), the Passover being the one that rehearses the exodus events (chap. 13). The festivals say to Israel that the God who worked in the past will continue to work in the present and in the future.
Israel has been chosen by God (6:7). They are his people, and he is their God. He has brought them out of Egypt, saving them, and now asks for their obedience to his instructions (20:2). This establishes the covenant upon the foundation of God's actions, actions based on his choice and grace.
"Presence" Theology . The revelation of God's presence develops from hiddenness to a permanent site of presence, the tabernacle. The narrator indicates that God lurks in the background in the first two chapters. In chapter 3 the Lord speaks with Moses, revealing himself and his plans. He even dialogues with Moses, showing that he speaks in ways humans understand.
As the book unfolds, God's presence takes tangible directions with specific instructions to Moses in Egypt and at the mountain. Israel witnesses God's presence in the storm at Mount Sinai. As the people draw nearer to the deity who has been working in their behalf, they fear for themselves and ask Moses to continue to intercede for them (20:18-21). It is as though they need distance from God; presence draws near, but the people cannot take it. God continues to speak through Moses, but Israel is held responsible for the words from their leader.
To more clearly demonstrate God's presence, the tabernacle is built. The presence of God rests in the midst of Israel in the tabernacle. It veils God's presence in a way that the people can handle. Yahweh meets with Moses there. The people understand the implications because of the specific symbolism of the sanctuary in the center of the camp.
With Yahweh at their core, Moses as intermediary, and the people in covenant relationship, Israel may advance beyond the Book of Exodus to experience the Lord's will. The book begins the great adventure of a nation in relationship with their deity, Yahweh.
G. Michael Hagan
See also Covenant ; Egypt ; Moses ; Ten Commandments
Bibliography . B. S. Childs, The Book of Exodus: A Critical, Theological Commentary ; R. Alan Cole, Exodus: An Introduction and Commentary ; J. J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt ; T. Fretheim, Exodus .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Exodus, the
(the departure of Israel from Egypt), 1652 B.C. (See CHRONOLOGY.) A grand epoch in the history of man's redemption. The patriarchal dispensation ends and the law begins here. God by His providential preparations having wonderfully led the Hebrew to sojourn in Egypt, and there to unlearn their nomadic habits and to learn agriculture and the arts of a settled life, now by equally wonderful interpositions leads them out of Egypt into the wilderness. Joseph's high position had secured their settlement in the best of the land, apart from the Egyptians, yet in a position favorable to their learning much of that people's advanced civilization, favorable also to their multiplication and to their preserving their nationality. Many causes concurred to prevent their imbibing Egypt's notorious idolatry and corruption. As shepherds they were "an abomination to the Egyptians" from the first; they sacrificed the very animal the Egyptians worshipped (compare Exodus 8:26); blood in sacrifices too was an offense to the Egyptians.
Jacob and Joseph on their deathbeds had charged that their bodies should be buried in Canaan (Genesis 1.), thereby impressing on their descendants that Egypt was only a place of sojourn, that they should look forward to Canaan as their inheritance and home. The new Pharaoh that knew not Moses was Aahmes I, 1706 B.C., about the same date as Levi's death, the last of Joseph's generation, mentioned in connection with the rise of the new king. The Exodus occurred early in the reign of Thothmes II (Cook, in Speaker's Commentary) (See EGYPT). The persecution that followed on their foretold multiplication, shortly before Moses' birth (no such difficulty attended Aaron's preservation just three years previously, Exodus 7:7), was divinely overruled toward weaning them from Egypt and binding them together as one people.
The ready supply of their bodily wants in Egypt (Numbers 11:5) and the rich valley of the Nile rendered this corrective discipline the more needful, in order to rouse them to realize their high destiny and to be willing to depart. Even Moses, who had been so marvelously trained to be their leader, failed at first to awaken them; both he and they needed a further severe discipline of 40 years. At its close he was hailed as their leader. But the Pharaoh of that day rejected with scorn Moses and Aaron's application for leave to depart; "Who is Jehovah, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, neither will I let Israel go" (Exodus 5:2). Then followed the ten plagues on the idols, as well as on the property and persons of Pharaoh and his people, culminating in the slaying of the firstborn and his own (Thothmes II) destruction at the Red Sea. Moses' first proposal to Pharaoh had been for a journey into the wilderness adjoining Goshen, not beyond the frontier, three days in all going and, returning, in order to sacrifice.
Pharaoh's refusal of this reasonable request (Exodus 3:18) ended in Moses' demand for their absolute manumission and departure (Exodus 11; Exodus 12:31-33). Israel set forth from (See RAMESES (Genesis 47:11; Aahmes I had a son, RAMSS, distinct from Ramessu two centuries later) at early morn of the 15th day of the first month (Numbers 33:3). They reached the Red Sea in three journeys. Here, while they passed safely through, Pharaoh perished in the waters (Psalms 136:15). Natural causes alone will not explain the facts of the case, especially if they are taken in connection with God's prophecy of them through Moses. The fact of the Exodus of an unwarlike people in the face of their warlike masters requires to be accounted for. No account can be given so satisfactory as that in the Pentateuch, that it was by God's miraculous interposition.
The growing severity of the plagues accords with God's judicial character in dealing with a sinner who more and more hardens himself, until he is destroyed without remedy (Psalms 7:11-13; Proverbs 29:1). Both Israel and the Egyptians were made experimentally to know Jehovah (Exodus 6:7; Exodus 7:5). The result was, the latter were so anxious for Israel's departure that these "asked" (not "borrowed," shaal ) and the Egyptians freely "complied with the request by giving" (not "lent," hishil ) raiment and jewels (Exodus 12:35-36). An earnest of the church's and Israel's final triumph over the persecuting world, "they shall spoil those that spoiled them, and rob those that robbed them" (Exodus 39:10; Zechariah 14:14). Israel's own national conviction of the truthfulness of the narrative, its geographical accuracy and local coloring, the plain evidences that it is the account of an eyewitness, and lastly the record being of what is anything but to the credit of Israel, all these circumstances are consistent only with fact, not fiction.
The desert of their wanderings was better supplied with pasture and water then than now, and doubtless they spread themselves widen over it. At the Exodus both the Hebrew and Egyptians had a contemporary literature, which is inconsistent with the theory of the story being mythical. Instead of the direct way to Canaan by Philistia on the S., God led Israel through the wilderness of the Red Sea, lest encountering the warlike Philistines they should repent when they saw war (Exodus 13:17-18). They "went up marshaled in orderly array," "five in a rank" margin (but Gesenius "eager for battle," which hardly accords with their past state as serfs), for so the Hebrew for "harnessed" means; but not yet inured to hardship or trained sufficiently for war, as subsequently. As Moses' 40 years sojourn in the wilderness trained him for being their leader there, so their 40 years in it trained them for the conflicts in Canaan.
The first two days' march brought Israel from Rameses (the general name of the district, and the city built by Israel on the canal from the Nile to lake Timsah) by way of Succoth, to Etham or Pithom, the frontier city of Egypt (Heroopolis) near the S. end of lake Timsah, on the edge of the wilderness, and the route to Palestine. Thence by God's direction they turned S. on the W. side of the Bitter Lakes to Pihahiroth (Ajrud, a two or three days march) over against Baalzephon. The Red Sea at that time extended to the Bitter Lakes, which lay at its northern end. The agency whereby the passage was effected was natural, overruled by God to subserve His purpose of redeeming His people; in this lies its supernatura1 element; "the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided" (Psalms 114:3). To the N. the water covered the whole district; to the S. was the Red Sea.
The Israelites crossed the sea at Suez, four leagues distant from the elevation above Pihahiroth, and made their first station on the E. side of the sea at the oasis of Ayun Musa (eight or nine miles below Suez) where water was abundant. Passing by Marah, they encamped under the palmtrees of Elim (wady Gharandel) by the waters. Thence to Ras Selima or Zenimeh, a headland on the Red Sea (Numbers 33:10): Next the wilderness of Sin (Debbet er Ramleh) between Elim and Sinai. There they remained some days, suffering at first from want of food (not of water) but supplied with quails anti then manna. Thence they encamped first at Dophkah, then at Alush. Thence to Rephidim, where God gave them water from the rock of Horeb; there Amalek attacked them. Next the wilderness of Sinai. Fifteen days elapsed between the encampment in the wilderness of Sin and their arrival at Sinai mount (Exodus 16:1; compare Exodus 19:1).
The Debbet er Ramleh probably is the wilderness of Sin, bore and desolate; debbet and sin alike meaning "sand level, raised, and extended through the surface of the district." Wady Nasb, the first station on this route, affords water abundant, answering to the "wilderness of Sin" encampment, where they made no complaint of want of water; the water supply accounts for their halting some days here. The route passes Sarabit el Khadim, where are ruins and inscriptions proving its occupation by an Egyptian colony before Moses' time, so that the road would be sure to be kept in order and the watersprings kept open. A small colony would neither be disposed, nor able, to attack such a host as Israel. Dophkah was in wady Sih, both names meaning "flowing waters." Alush is probably wady el Esh; wady es Sheikh is a two hours journey from this.
The wady er Rahah is the "wilderness of Sinai," where the assembled people heard the law proclaimed from Ras Sufsafeh, a bold granite cliff 2,000 ft. high, the N. point of the Sinai range. The surveyors of the wilderness of Sinai, Captain Wilson and Captain Palmer, accompanied by F. W. Holland, regard the route S. of the above N.E. route the true one, namely, by El Markha along the shore from Ras Selima, and then E. by wady Feiran, meeting the N.E. route at wady es Sheikh. Their reasons are coincidence with Scripture notices of topography, superior facilities for travel, the unlikelihood that Moses would have brought Israel down to the coast and then taken them back to pursue a more difficult road than that lying open before him. But there are no springs by their route, and Israel's march was slow (Cook). They make the battle with Amalek at the ancient city of Feiran, but this would make" the mount of God" to be mount Serbal, which is rather one of the Sinai range; and the palmgroves of Feiran could hardly be called a "wilderness."
Rephidim is probably at the pass el Watiyeh, shut in by perpendicular rocks, to Amalek a capital point for attack on Israel, commanding the entrance to the wadies surrounding the central Sinai. But the Ordnance Survey of Sinai by Captain Palmer and Captain Wilson identifies Rephidim with the part of wady Feiran N. of Serbal; then the battle would be at wady Aleyat. On the N. is a large plain without water, where Israel encamped. A bore cliff N. of the pass commanding the battle. field was such a rock as Moses may have struck with his rod. On the S. is a plain with water supply near, where Amalek might encamp. The absence of any level plain immediately below, or S.E. in the wady Sebayeh within sight of the summit of jebel Musa (the loftiest and grandest summit of all), the S. point of the Sinai range, excludes it from being the summit from which the law was proclaimed.
But on the N. end of the Sinai range Ras Sufsafeh has the wady ed Deir to the N.E., meeting the wady es Sheikh (close by Rephidim), and in front the wider plain er Rahah, 400 acres, abundantly large enough for the Israelite host. Every part of these two wadies commands the full view of the granite rocks of Ras Sufsafeh. "No spot in the world combines in a greater degree commanding height and a plain from whence the two million of Israel could see and hear all that is narrated. The awful and lengthened approach as to some natural sanctuary, the plain not shut in but presenting a long retiring sweep against which the people could remove and stand afar off; the cliff rising suddenly and steeply so that it could easily be marked off by 'bounds' like a huge altar in front of the whole congregation, and visible against the sky in lonely grandeur from end to end of the whole plain, the very image of the 'mount that might be touched,' and from which the 'voice of God' might be heard far and wide over the stillness of the plain below, widened at that point to the utmost extent by the confluence of all the contiguous valleys; the adytum (shrine) withdrawn as if in the end of the world from all the stir and confusion of earthly things" (Stanley, in Cook's essay, vol. I, Speaker's Commentary).
The physical formation favors the acoustic properties of this vast theater, which are intensified by the stillness and the clearness of the air. Ras Sufsafeh fulfills the conditions of Scripture, a mount easy of approach, with large open space before it for all to hear the law, prominent and rising abruptly so that the people "stood under the mountain which could be touched" (Exodus 19:12-17; Deuteronomy 4:2); and water and pasturage in abundance were near. A small height at the entrance of the convent valley is named as the spot from whence Aaron witnessed the feast of the golden calf. Joshua in descending with Moses, hears the shout of the feasters without seeing the cause. The sight breaks on Moses suddenly only when near the camp, and he breaks the tables "beneath the mount."
This would be exactly the case with one descending the mountain path by which Ras Sufsafeh is approached through oblique gullies (three quarters of an hour to a mountaineer). He would hear the sounds rising in the still air from the plain, but not see the plain until he emerged from the wady right under the steep rock of Sufsafeh. The brook is probably that flowing through the Seil Leja. The Israelites passed a whole year encamped "before the mount," and the pasturage and water supply at Ras Sufsafeh are much greater than those at Serbal, or in any other part of the peninsula. Within a radius of six miles there is an area of 1,200 acres in plains and wadies commanding the view of Ras Sufsafeh, and formerly the rain supply and fertility were greater when there were more trees; the wadies had dams put across to restrain the waters; the mountains were terraced with gardens.
On the N.W. of Ras Sufsafeh is a rampart of cliffs 3,000 ft. high, 14 miles long, pierced by only two defiles. This peculiar feature afforded Israel the needful security during their long stay at Sinai. At Erweis el Ebeirig, not far from the wady el Hudherah (Hazeroth), remains are found which are probably Israelite, and mark the site of the camp Kibroth Hattaavah. About 300 yds. from the base of Ras Sufsafeh there runs across the plain a low semicircular mound, forming a natural theater; further off, on either side of the plain, the slopes of the enclosing mountains would seat great hosts. Not far off, a recess one mile and a half long, three quarters broad, would form an additional camping ground.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Exodus, the Book of
The history of Israel (1) enslaved, (2) redeemed, (3) consecrated religiously and politically to God. There are two distinct parts: (1) Exodus 1-19, the history of Israel's deliverance from the beginning of their Egyptian bondage to their arrival at Sinai; (2) Exodus 20-40, the giving of the law and Israel's organization as "a kingdom of priests and an holy nation." The two parts, though differing in style as in subject matter, are closely intertwined, the institutions of the law in the second part resting on the historical facts recorded in the former part. The term Exodus, "the going forth," is drawn from the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Alexandrian Jews settled in the same country from whence Israel had "gone forth." The Palestinian Jews called the book from its first two Hebrew words, 'elleh shemot ; "these are the names." Its separation from Genesis is marked by the different circumstances under which it presents Israel at its commencement as compared with the close of Genesis.
The first seven verses are the introduction briefly recapitulating previous events and stating the existing condition of affairs. Its close is marked by the completion of the tabernacle. Its several sections were probably written on separate papyri or parchments (according to an inscription of Thothmes III his campaigns were written on parchment and hung up in the temple of Ammon). The breaks in the narrative, and the repetitions, accord with the theory that there were distinct sections, composed separately by Moses as the events transpired, and read publicly at successive times. All would be united in one work toward the close of his life, with but a few additions and explanations. The feature which is inexplicable if anyone else were the author is this, the writer's evident unconsciousness of the personal greatness of the chief actor.
The Egyptians recognized his greatness (Exodus 11:3); but the writer, while recognizing the greatness of Moses' mission, dwells especially on his want of natural gifts, his deficiencies of character and the hindrances thereby caused to his mission, and the penalties he incurred; his hasty intervention between the Israelite and Egyptian, the manslaughter, and the Israelites' rejection of him as a ruler, and his exile for the prime 40 years of his manhood. Then his unbelieving hesitancy at the divine call and pertinacious allegation of personal incapacity in spite of the miracles which might have convinced him of God's power to qualify him (Exodus 3:10-13). Then the Lord's visitation on him (probably sudden and dangerous sickness) for neglecting to circumcise his son (Exodus 4:24-26). (See CIRCUMCISION.) Then his passionate reproach of Jehovah for the failure of his first appeal to Pharaoh, which only brought more bitter hardship on Israel (Exodus 5:20-23).
His courageous boldness before Pharaoh is never praised. Not his wisdom or foresight, but God's guidance, is prominent throughout. The first battle fought is under Joshua's lead. The only step attributed to human sagacity, the organizing of a body of assistant judges (Exodus 18), is attributed to Jethro not Moses. The same feature appears in subsequent books of the Pentateuch, his shrinking from self-vindication when assailed by Miriam and Aaron (Numbers 12); his impetuous temper at the water of Meribah Kadesh, smiting the rock irreverently and hence excluded by God from the promised land. This all is what we might expect if Moses was the author; but no later writer would be so silent as to the sublime greatness of his character. Contrast the three closing verses of Deuteronomy, added by a reviser in order to record his death. Again, Exodus was evidently written by one minutely acquainted at once with Egypt and the Sinaitic peninsula.
The route from Egypt to Horeb is traced with the local coloring and specific accuracy of an eyewitness No eyewitness of Israel's journeyings possessed such means of observation as Moses. The miracles severally suit the place, the time, and the circumstances under which they are stated to have been wrought; the plagues are essentially Egyptian; the supply of Israel's wants in the wilderness is in harmony with the national characteristics of the country. Cook (Speaker's Commentary) truly says, "we find nature everywhere, but nature in its Master's hand." The nine plagues stand in three groups, each increasing in severity. Then the tenth is threatened and the failure of the other nine declared. "Jehovah hardened Pharaoh's heart so that he would not let Israel go." The delay answered a double purpose. To Pharaoh it was the longsuffering appeal of God, who is slow to anger, and who tries the milder chastisements to bring the sinner if possible to repentance before resorting to the more severe. To Israel it afforded ample time for preparation for the Exodus.
Two months elapsed between Moses' first and second interviews with Pharaoh; the former in April, when the Israelites were scattered throughout all Egypt gathering the stubble of the harvest just reaped (the reapers leaving the stalks standing and cut close to the ears), the latter in June at the time of the Nile's yearly overflow when "the king went out unto the water" to offer his devotions to Apis, whose embodiment the river was (Exodus 5:12; Exodus 7:15). Israel's "scattering" tended to uproot them from their long settlement in Goshen and to train them for their approaching wilderness life. The Nile, the center of Egypt's national and religious life, was smitten, assuring Israel of Jehovah's interposition.
Three months elapsed before the next plague, giving them time to look about them for the means of escape from present wrongs. The plague of frogs attacked the Egyptian worship of nature under that revolting form (Heka, a female deity with a frog's head, the symbol of regeneration, wife of Chnum, the god of the inundation; Seti, father of Rameses II, is represented offering wine to an enshrined frog, with the legend "the sovereign lady of both worlds"); this was in September, when the inundation is at its height and the frogs (dofda , usually appea ). Of the third plague no warning was given; so the third is marked in each of the other two groups of plagues. The lice or mosquitoes (kinnim ) penetrating into the nostrils and ears, or rather the tick (the size of a grain of sand, which when filled with blood swells to the size of a hazel nut), came soon after the frogs, early in October.
So closed the first group, none of the three causing great calamity; but enough to warn the Egyptians and to give hope to Israel. The second group began with the 'arob , dog flies (whose bite inflames severely, and particularly the eyelid), or else beetles (worshipped by the Egyptians as the symbol of creative and reproductive power; the sun god was represented as a beetle; thus their god was fittingly made the instrument of their punishment, inflicting a painful bite, and consuming various articles). This plague, exceeding the former in severity, came in November at the critical time to Egyptian agriculture when the Nile's inundation has subsided. Then first Goshen was severed from Egypt and spared the plague. Pharaoh shows the first signs of yielding, but when the plague ceased would not let Israel go.
Then came the cattle murrain or mortality, striking at the resources of Egypt; a contagious epidemic which broke out in Egypt often after the annual inundation had subsided. The cattle tire in the fields from December to April, the change from the stalls to the open air and to fresh pastures predisposing them to it. Israel's separation of their cattle from the contagion would be a step in their preparations for the Exodus. The boils (burning carbuncles) were the third and closing plague of the second group, sent without previous notice, and warning the Egyptians during its three months continuance that their bodies would suffer if Pharaoh should still resist God. The third group began with the hail, which as in the present day prevailed from the middle of February to the beginning of March. Moses for the first time warned Pharaoh to bring all cattle out of the field, on pain of their destruction.
Many of the Egyptians feared Jehovah's word and obeyed, while the rest suffered for their disregard. In Goshen alone was no hail, so Isaiah 32:18-19. Pharaoh for the first time cried, "I have sinned this time, Jehovah is righteous, I and my people are wicked" (Exodus 9:27). The flax being "boiled," i.e. in blossom, marks the time as the middle of February, when also the "barley" is "in the ear." Wheat and rye (rather spelt or doora are not ready until April, and so escaped. Israel received leave to go, and now knew they had sympathizers even among Pharaoh's servants. The locusts followed on Pharaoh's retracting leave. Vegetation was then at its full in the middle of March. The dread of such a scourge made Pharaoh's servants intercede to "let the men go" lest "Egypt should be destroyed." Pharaoh consented, but on hearing Moses' demand that young and old, sons and daughters, flocks and herds, should go, refused peremptorily, saying "evil is before you," i.e., your intentions are evil.
The E. wind upon Moses' stretching his rod over Egypt by Jehovah's command brought up the locusts. They oftener come from the western deserts, but sometimes from the E. and S.E. On Pharaoh's confession of sin and entreaty Moses besought the Lord and they disappeared as quickly as they came, before a wind from the sea (Hebrew), i.e. N.W, wind, sweeping transversely all Egypt and casting them into the Red Sea. The third of the third group followed, as in the close of the former two groups, without warning; the three days "darkness which might be felt" (probably owing to the S.W. wind from the desert after the spring equinox filling the air densely with fine sand, so that none during it rise from their place, men and beasts hide, this darkness could literally be "felt".) This preceded by but a few days the slaying of the firstborn, the plague which stands by itself, alone bringing death into every Egyptian family and ensuring Israel's deliverance.
Thus, the plagues have a genuine Egyptian coloring, and at, the same time the requisite adaptation to Israel's position, awakening their expectations and securing to them time for organization, without which they would have been an undisciplined mob in their march. None but, one thoroughly acquainted with Egypt could have written the account. Pharaoh and his people rightly regarded the successive visitations as natural to Egypt, yet so overruled in their intensity, in their coming and going at Moses' call to Jehovah, and in their gradual heightening when the divine will continued to be resisted, as to be supernatural and palpably sent from above. The divine aim was to vindicate Jehovah's lordship, not merely over the enslaved Hebrew but over Egypt and its king, the representative of the pagan world powers with whom God's controversy is, "to the end that thou mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth" (Exodus 8:22).
The most appropriate way to effect this was not to send strange terrors but to show, by intensifying and controlling at will the visitations ordinarily felt in Egypt and falsely attributed by them to particular idols, that all these visitations are at Jehovah's absolute disposal to inflict, increase, or wholly withdraw, subserving His purposes of wrath to His adversaries, of mercy to His people, and of the setting forth of His own glory to the whole world (Exodus 9:16); compare Psalms 78:43-49, "sending evil angels among them"; the plagues are figuratively His messengers ("angels") in the hands of heavenly angels, of whom the destroying angel was in closest communion with Jehovah (Psalms 78:51); compare Exodus 12:18; Exodus 12:23; Exodus 12:29; Hebrews 11:28, for God sends good angels to punish the bad, and bad angels to chastise the good.
The plagues were so mutually connected as not to leave any place for any considerable interpolations. None could be omitted without breaking the moral and natural order which is so clearly indicated though not formally expressed. Nor could they have been so harmoniously, and at the same time so artlessly, woven together from documents of different ages. Cook, whose remarks are here epitomized, gives a list of words found only in Exodus, or in the pentateuch, derived from roots common to Hebrew and Egyptian, or found only in Egyptian; and these occur indiscriminately in the so-called Jehovistic and Elohistic passages. No Hebrew born and brought up in Palestine from the Exodus down to Solomon would have had the knowledge of the Egyptian tongue apparent in Exodus; and no author would have given the Egyptian words without explanation, had he not known that his readers would be equally familiar with them.
None but one in Moses' circumstances could have described the wanderings in the wilderness of Sinai with such a peculiarly local coloring. At the same time the very objections to some of his details, on the ground of the different state of the peninsula now in some respects, only confirm the antiquity and genuineness of his record. The desert now would be utterly incapable of sustaining such a host, nor is it a sufficient answer to this objection to say that Providence interposed to feed them. For these providential interpositions were restricted to particular occasions. Ordinarily, according to God's usual way of dealing with His children, they depended on natural supplies. Inscriptions both in Egypt and in the peninsula, as early as Snefru of the third dynasty and of the three following dynasties, and of Hatasu, widow of Thothmes II (drowned in the Red Sea), describe victories over the Mentu, the mountaineers of the peninsula, and other native tribes. These prove the existence then of a population so considerable that they resisted large Egyptian armies.
The Egyptians succeeded in working copper mines at Sarbet el Khadim and Mughard, where there are many inscriptions. The springs and wells were then carefully preserved, in order to keep open their communication with these settlements. The inscription as to the gold mines near Dakkeh mentions a well 180 ft. deep, dug by order of Seti I and Rameses II. The trees were religiously preserved and fresh plantations made. But since Egypt's power has gone the Arabs have for ages cut away the trees on which the rain, and so the fertility of the district, chiefly depend. The following undesigned coincidences between the present state of the peninsula and the accounts in Exodus confirm the accurate truth and genuineness of the book.
Exodus describes water as wanting where none now is found, abundance where springs still exist and traces of a far greater supply anciently, tracts at the same distances where food would not be found, a natural manna in the rainy season especially, but not adequate in quantity and nutriment without supernatural modification; nomadic hordes attack Israel just where and when the attack, judging from present appearances of the locality, might well be expected. The unvarying tradition of the Jews, to whom Exodus was addressed, confirms the impression of genuineness which the internal innumerable coincidences produce on the mind. Finally, the form, structure, and materials of the tabernacle belong to the wilderness. The shittim or acacia, its material, was the wood of the desert; cedar took its place in Solomon's temple. The skins, its covering, belong to the same locality (See BADGER).
The bronze ("copper"), silver, and gold Israel brought from Egypt; and probably they had not mine workings until they were long settled in their inheritance. The names of many of the materials, implements, furniture, dress, and ornaments of the priests were Egyptian. The arts necessary in constructing the tabernacle were precisely those which Israelite artisans, as Bezaleel and Aholiab, would have acquired from dwelling in Egypt, the mistress of those arts; the embroidery of curtains, carving of cherubs, capitals, ornaments in imitation of natural objects. In Palestine, on the contrary, such arts were little practiced, as being often associated with idolatry in the surrounding nations; even Solomon had to call in artists from Tyre to do work for the temple which natives apparently could not. Two distinct accounts are given of the rearing of the tabernacle; in the first Moses recites his instructions, in the second the execution of them.
A later history would never have given such a double recital. Moses wrote each at the time and on the occasion to which it refers; first the instructions, that the people might know the materials and the work required of them; secondly, when the work was completed, an account of the details, in order to take away all suspicion of malappropriation of their offerings, and also to show that the divine instructions bad been duly fulfilled. In the two accounts the order is reversed; in the instructions the inner and essential objects stand first, as being those on which the people should fix chief attention, the ark, mercy-seat, cherubs, table of shewbread, golden candlesticks; then the accessories of the tabernacle, and lastly the dress of the priests. But in the account of the work executed the tabernacle comes first, being that which would naturally be begun first, then the ark, etc.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Exodus, the
This is the term commonly used to express the bringing out of the children of Israel from the slavery of Egypt. Under PLAGUES OF EGYPTare considered the preliminary dealings with Pharaoh which were intended to show him the power of that God whose people he was holdingin slavery. The death of the first-born all over Egypt made the Egyptians beg them to depart, and made them willing to give them many things for which the Israelites 'asked' (not 'borrowed'). There being 600,000 men, it is calculated that including the women and children the number of the Israelites would not have been less than two millions. There wasalso a mixed multitude which went with them, and very much cattle.It must have been a wonderful sight to have seen such a number moving away fromthe scene of their slavery, and it is often referred to as the workof the mighty God. "He brought them forth also with silver and gold: and there was not one feeble person among their tribes. Egypt was glad when they departed: for the fear of them fell upon them." Psalm 105:37,38 .
We read that the Israelites went out 'harnessed,' or 'by five in a rank' as it reads in the margin. Exodus 13:18 . The same word, chamushim, is translated 'armed,' in reference to the way in which the Israelites crossed the Jordan, when they had plenty of time to arrange themselves in due order.Joshua 1:14 ; Joshua 4:12 . It is also translated 'armed' when it refers to the army of the Midianites and the Amalekites as they were arrayed in the camp previous to action. Judges 7:11 . From this we gather that the Israelites did not travel in disorder: the heads of each tribe would have control overit, and could arrange its march. It may be they were ranked in fives,aswe afterwards read of 'captains over fifties,' but it is clear that they marchedin order: it was God who was bringing them out, and it would have been unworthy of Him to have had them moving as a disorderly rabble. Another expression is that Jehovah brought them out 'by their armies.' Exodus 12:51 .
The people were led from Rameses to Succoth, thence to Etham, and to Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon. The position of these places is not known, and there is no means of telling where they crossed the Red Sea. Attempts have been made to fix upon a part of the Red Sea where the water is shallow, so that the east wind spoken of could have driven back the waters; but these are only efforts to get rid of the miracle, and of the God who wrought it for His people. The word is very plain that the waters stood 'a wall' on their right hand and on their left; and when the waters returned they were enough to drown all Pharaoh's army: it must therefore have been at a deep part of the river that they crossed. It also typified the death of the Lord Jesus for His people, when all the billows of God's wrath against sin flowed over His soul.Psalm 42:7 . The Red Sea may have extended farther north than at present, but this does not affect the question.
The deliverance was complete: they passed the Red Sea on dry land, and they saw their enemies dead upon the sea shore. God had brought them out: His pillar of fire had protected them. God had made them willing to come; for some at least had said, "Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians." Exodus 14:12 . That might have satisfied their poor craven hearts,but it would not satisfy God, nor be according to His promise to Abraham,Isaac, and Jacob. They must be delivered and they were; and then they could sing praises to God who had 'redeemed' them and had guided them in His strength unto His holy habitation. Exodus 15:13 . The manner of their deliverance thus became a type of the Christian being delivered from the thraldom of him who had the power of death, by the death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus.
Webster's Dictionary - Exodus
(n.) The second of the Old Testament, which contains the narrative of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt.
(n.) A going out; particularly (the Exodus), the going out or journey of the Israelites from Egypt under the conduct of Moses; and hence, any large migration from a place.
(Greek: ex, out; odos, way)
The second book of the Bible, thus named because it relates the departure of the Jews from Egypt and a part of their wanderings through the wilderness, as far as Mount Sinai. The most convenient division is the following:
events preceding the going out of Egypt (1-12)
the going out of Egypt and the journey to Mount Sinai (13-18)
the promulgation of the first instalments of the Mosaic Law (19-31)
the apostasy of the Jews (the golden calf), reconciliation, and renewal of the Covenant (32-34)
construction of the Tabernacle (35-40)
from εξ , out, and οδος , a way, the name of the second book of Moses, and is so called in the Greek version because it relates to the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt. It comprehends the history of about a hundred and forty-five years; and the principal events contained in it are, the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt, and their miraculous deliverance by the hand of Moses; their entrance into the wilderness of Sinai; the promulgation of the law, and the building of the tabernacle. See PENTATEUCH .
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Exodus
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Exodus
Going out, the name of the second book of Moses and of the Bible; so called because it narrates the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. It comprises a period of about one hundred and forty-five years, from the death of Joseph to the erection of the tabernacle in the desert. The various topics of the book may be thus presented: (1.) The oppression of the Israelites, under the change of dynasty which sprung up after the death of Joseph: "There arose up another king, who knew not Joseph," Exodus 1:8 . The reference many believe is to the invasion of Egypt by the Hyksos, who are spoken of in secular history as having invaded Egypt probably about this period, and who held it in subjection for many years. The are termed shepherd-kings, and represented as coming from the east. (2.) The youth, education, patriotism, and flight of Moses, Exodus 2:1 - 6:30 . (3.) The commission of Moses, the perversity of Pharaoh, and the infliction of the ten plagues in succession, Exodus 7:1-11:10 . (4.) The institution of the Passover, the sudden departure of the Israelites, the passage of the Red Sea, and the thanksgiving of Moses and the people on the opposite shore, after the destruction of Pharaoh and his host, Exodus 12:1-15:27 . (5.) The narration of various miracles wrought in behalf of the people during their journeyings towards Sinai, Exodus 15:1-17:16 . (6.) The promulgation of the law on mount Sinai. This includes the preparation of the people by Moses, and the promulgation, first of the moral law, then of the judicial law, and subsequently of the ceremonial law, including the instructions for the erection of the tabernacle and the completion of that house of God, Exodus 19:1-40:38 .
The scope of the book is not only to preserve the memorial of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, but to present to view the church of God in her afflictions and triumphs; to point out the providential care of God over her, and the judgments inflicted on her enemies. It clearly shows the accomplishment of the divine promises and prophecies delivered to Abraham: that his posterity would be numerous, Genesis 15:5 17:4-6 46:27 Numbers 1:1-3,46 ; and that they should be afflicted in a land not their own, whence they should depart in the fourth generation with great substance,
Genesis 15:13-16Exodus 12:40-41 . Their exodus in many particulars well illustrates the state of Christ's church in the wilderness of this world, until her arrival in the heavenly Canaan. See 1 Corinthians 10:1-33Hebrews 1:1-13:25 . The book of Exodus brings before us many and singular types of Christ: Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15 ; Aaron, Hebrews 4:14-16 ; the paschal lamb, Exodus 12:46John 19:361 Corinthians 5:7-8 ; the manna, Exodus 1:1-40:38 16:151 Corinthians 10:3 ; the rock in Horeb, Exodus 17:61 Corinthians 10:4 ; the mercy seat, Exodus 37:6Romans 3:25Hebrews 4:16 ; the tabernacle, Exodus 40:1 - 38 , "The Word tabernacled among us," John 1:14 .
This departure from Egypt, and the subsequent wanderings of the children of Israel in the desert, form one of the great epochs in their history. They were constantly led by Jehovah, and the whole series of events is a constant succession of miracles. From their breaking up at Rameses, to their arrival on the confines of the promised land, there was an interval of forty years, during which one whole generation passed away, and the whole Mosaic law was given, and sanctioned by the thunders and lightnings of Sinai. There is no portion of history extant which so displays the interposition of an overruling Providence in the affairs both of nations and of individuals, as that which recounts these wanderings of Israel.
The four hundred and thirty years referred to in Exodus 12:40 , date, according to the received chronology, from the time when the promise was made to Abraham, Genesis 15:13 . From the arrival of Jacob in Egypt to the exodus of his posterity, was about two hundred and thirty years. The threescore and fifteen souls had now become 600,000, besides children. They took with them great numbers of cattle, and much Egyptian spoil. It was only by the mighty hand of God that their deliverance was effected; and there seems to have been a special vindication of his glory in the fact that the Nile, the flies, the frogs, fishes, cattle, etc., which were made the means or the subjects of the plagues of Egypt, were there regarded with idolatrous veneration.
After the tenth and decisive plague had been sent, the Israelites were dismissed from Egypt in haste. They are supposed to have been assembled at Rameses, or Heroopolis, in the land of Goshen, about thirty-five miles northwest of Suez, on the ancient canal, which united the Nile with the Red Sea. They set off on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day after the Passover, that is, about the middle of April. Their course was southeast as far as Etham; but then, instead of keeping on directly to Sinai, they turned to the south, Exodus 14:2 , on the west side of the Red Sea, which they reached three days after starting, probably near Suez. Here, by means of a strong east wind, God miraculously divided the waters of the sea in such a way that the Israelites passed over the bed of it on dry ground; while the Egyptians, who attempted to follow them, were drowned by the returning waters. The arm of the sea at Suez is now only three or four miles wide, and at low water may be forded. It is known to have been formerly wider and deeper; but the drifting sands of ages have greatly filled and altered. The miracle here wrought was an amazing one, and revealed the hand of God more signally than any of the ten plagues had done. According to the Bible, God caused a "strong east wind" to blow; the deep waters were sundered, and "gathered together;" "the floods stood upright as a heap;" "the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea, and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand and on their left." These effects continued all night till the morning watch, and without obstructing the progress of the Hebrews; whereas in the morning the pursuing Egyptians were covered by the sea, and "sank like lead in the mighty waters." These were wonders towards the effecting of which any wind must have been as insufficient as Naaman's mere washing in Jordan would have been to the healing of his leprosy. It should here be stated also, that some geographers think this miracle took place below Mount Atakah, ten or twelve miles south of Suez, where the sea is about twelve miles wide. This opinion is liable to several objections, though it cannot be proved to be false. At this late day the precise locality may be undiscoverable, like the point of a soul's transition from the bondage of Satan into the kingdom of God; but in both cases the work is of God, and the glory of it is his alone.
Having offered thanksgiving to God for their wonderful deliverance, the Israelites advanced along the eastern shore of the Red Sea and through the valleys and desert to Mount Sinai. This part of their route may be readily traced, and Marah, Elim, and the desert of Sin have been with much probability identified. They arrived at Mount Sinai in the third month, or June, probably about the middle of it, having been two months on their journey. Here the law was given, and here they abode during all the transactions recorded in Exodus 21:1 -Nu 21:1-9:23 , that is, until the twentieth day of the second month (May) in the following year, a period of about eleven months.
Breaking up at this time from Sinai, they marched northwards through the desert of Paran, or perhaps along the eastern arm of the Red Sea and north through El-Arabah, to Kadesh-barnea, near the southeast border of Canaan. Rephidim near Mount Sinai, and Taberah, Kibroth-hattaaveh, and Hazerorh, on their journey north, were the scenes of incidents, which may be found, described under their several heads. From Kadesh-barnea, spies were sent out to view the promised land, and brought back an evil report, probably in August of the same year. The people murmured, and were directed by Jehovah to turn back and wander in the desert, until the carcasses of that generation should all fall in the wilderness, Numbers 14:25 . This they did, wandering from one station to another in the great desert of Paran, lying south of Palestine, and also in the great sandy valley called El-Ghor and chiefly El-Arabah, which extends from the Dead Sea to the gulf of Akaba, the eastern arm of the Red Sea. See JORDAN. Where and how these long years were spent we are not informed, nor by what routes they traversed the desert, nor how they were furnished with food except manna. Moses says they "compassed mount Seir many days," always under the guidance of the pillar of fire and cloud, Numbers 9:22 ; he also gives a list of seventeen stations, mostly unknown, where thy rested or dwelt before reaching Ezion-gaber, Numbers 33:19-35 ; and then mentions their return to Kadesh, Numbers 33:36-37 , in the first month, Numbers 20:1 , after an interval of almost thirty-eight years. While thus a second time encamped at Kadesh, Moses sent to the king of Idumaea, to ask liberty to pass through his dominions, that is, through the chain of mountains (mount Seir) lying along the eastern side of the great valley El-Arabah. See IDUMAEA. This was refused; and Israel, feeling too weak to penetrate into Palestine from the south, in face of the powerful tribes of Canaanites dwelling there, was compelled to take the southern passage around Edom, Numbers 21:4 . Soon after turning, they came to mount Hor, where Aaron died and was buried, Numbers 20:20-28 . Proceeding southward along the valley El-Arabah to Ezion-gaber, at the head of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, they here passed through the eastern mountains, and then turned north along the eastern desert, by the route which the great Syrian caravan of Mohammedan pilgrims now passes in going to Mecca. They arrived at the brook Zered, on the southern border of Moab, just forty years after their departure from Egypt.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Exodus, the,
of the Israelites from Egypt. the common chronology places the date of this event at B.C. 1491, deriving it in this way: --In (1 Kings 6:1 ) it is stated that the building of the temple, in the forth year of Solomon, was in the 480th year after the exodus. The fourth year of Solomon was bout B.C. 1012. Add the 480 years (leaving off one years because neither the fourth nor the 480th was a full year), and we have B.C. 1491 as the date of the exodus. This is probably very nearly correct; but many Egyptologists place it at 215 years later, --about B.C. 1300. Which date is right depends chiefly on the interpretation of the Scripture period of 430 years, as denoting the duration of the bondage of the Israelites. The period of bondage given in (Genesis 15:13,14 ; Exodus 12:40,41 ) and Gala 3:17 As 430 years has been interpreted to cover different periods. The common chronology makes it extend from the call of Abraham to the exodus, one-half of it, or 215 years, being spend in Egypt. Others make it to cover only the period of bondage spend in Egypt. St. Paul says in (Galatians 3:17 ) that from the covenant with (or call of) Abraham the giving of the law (less than a year after the exodus) was 430 years. But in (Genesis 15:13,14 ) it is said that they should be strangers in a strange land,a nd be afflicted 400 years, and nearly the same is said in (Exodus 12:40 ) But, in very truth, the children of Israel were strangers in a strange land from the time that Abraham left his home for the promised land, and during that whole period of 430 years to the exodus they were nowhere rulers in the land. So in (Exodus 12:40 ) it is said that the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years. But it does not say that the sojourning was all in Egypt, but this people who lived in Egypt had been sojourners for 430 years. (a) This is the simplest way of making the various statements harmonize. (b) The chief difficulty is the great increase of the children of Israel from 70 to 2,000,000 in so short a period as 215 years, while it is very easy in 430 years. But under the circumstances it is perfectly possible in the shorter period. See on ver. 7 (C) If we make the 430 years to include only the bondage in Egypt, we must place the whole chronology of Abraham and the immigration of Jacob into Egypt some 200 years earlier, or else the Exodus 200 years later, or B.C. 1300. in either case special difficulty is brought into the reckoning. (d) Therefore, on the whole, it is well to retain the common chronology, though the later dates may yet prove to be correct. The history of the exodus itself commences with the close of that of the ten plagues.  In the night in which, at midnight, the firstborn were slain, (Exodus 12:29 ) Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites. vs. (Exodus 12:31,32 ) They at once set forth from Rameses, vs. (Exodus 12:37,39 ) apparently during the night v. (Exodus 12:42 ) but towards morning on the 15th day of the first month. (Numbers 33:3 ) They made three journeys, and encamped by the Red Sea. Here Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle occurred by which they were saved, while the pursuer and his army were destroyed. 
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Exodus
Israel’s escape from slavery in Egypt is commonly known as the exodus (meaning ‘a going out’). The most likely date for the event is about 1280 BC, and the historical account of the event is given in the book of Exodus (see EXODUS, BOOK OF).
Significance of the exodus
The actual going out from Egypt was but one part of a series of events that gave the exodus its great significance in Israel’s history. It was preceded by God’s judgment on Egypt through a number of plagues (Exodus 1; Exodus 2; Exodus 3; Exodus 4; Exodus 5; Exodus 6; Exodus 7; Exodus 8; Exodus 9; Exodus 10; Exodus 11; see PLAGUE); it came about through the decisive judgment on Passover night and the subsequent crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 12; Exodus 13; Exodus 14; Exodus 15; see PASSOVER; RED SEA); and it was followed by the covenant ceremony at Mt Sinai, where God formally established Israel as his people (Exodus 16; Exodus 17; Exodus 18; Exodus 19; Exodus 20; Exodus 21; Exodus 22; Exodus 23; Exodus 24; see COVENANT). After giving them his law, God directed them to the new homeland he had promised them in Canaan.
Throughout the years that followed, Israelites looked back to the exodus as the decisive event in their history. This was not just because the exodus led to the establishment of Israel’s national independence, but more importantly because it showed them the sort of person their God was. Yahweh revealed his character, showing that he was a God who redeems (Deuteronomy 15:15; Isaiah 43:14-2123; Nehemiah 1:8-10; Micah 6:4; cf. Exodus 6:6-8; Exodus 15:2; Isaiah 51:9-110; see REDEMPTION). The exodus was a sign to the people of this Redeemer-God’s love (Deuteronomy 4:37; Deuteronomy 7:8; Hosea 11:1), power (Deuteronomy 9:26; 2 Kings 17:36; Psalms 81:10) and justice (Deuteronomy 6:21-22; Joshua 24:5-7).
In demonstrating the character of God, the exodus gave assurance to God’s people that they could trust in him. At the same time it reminded them that he required them to be loyal, obedient and holy (Leviticus 11:45; Deuteronomy 4:37-40; Deuteronomy 5:6-7; Deuteronomy 7:7-11; cf. Hosea 11:1-4).
The pattern repeated
Even with the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BC and the subsequent captivity in Babylon, God’s people never forgot his redeeming power. They looked for a ‘second exodus’ when he would again deliver them from bondage. They prayed that as he had first brought them out of Egypt and into the promised land, so he would now bring them out of Babylon and back to their homeland (Isaiah 43:1-7; 1618417449_7; Isaiah 48:20-21; Isaiah 49:25-26; 1618417449_79; Isaiah 52:11-12; Jeremiah 31:10-12; Micah 7:14-17).
The exodus theme is prominent also in the New Testament. The word ‘exodus’ (RSV: ‘departure’) is used of Jesus’ death, by which he delivers people from the bondage of sin (Luke 9:31; cf. Colossians 1:13; Hebrews 2:14-15; see REDEMPTION). As the Passover lamb, he died in the place of those under judgment and so achieved redemption for them (1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Peter 1:18-19; see PASSOVER). Those redeemed through Christ can therefore sing the song that the redeemed Israelites sang, but with new meaning (Revelation 15:2-4; cf. Exodus 15:1-21). They must also heed the lessons that the Israelites failed to learn in the wilderness years that followed their deliverance (1 Corinthians 10:1-11; Hebrews 3:7-19).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Exodus, Book of
The books that we today refer to as the five books of Moses (or the Pentateuch) were originally one continuous volume. The Hebrews made the division into five sections so that the extremely long book would fit conveniently on to five scrolls. Exodus, being only one part of a much longer book, is therefore best understood in connection with what precedes and what follows it. (For the authorship of Exodus see PENTATEUCH.) The name Exodus, meaning ‘ a going out’, was given by those who made the first Greek translation of the Old Testament. It refers to the central event of the book, Israel’s escape from Egypt.
Message of the book
God had promised that from the descendants of Abraham he would make a nation that would in a special sense be his people, and he would give them Canaan as their national homeland (Genesis 12:1-3; Genesis 13:14-16; Genesis 17:6-8; Genesis 22:17-18). The chosen descendants of Abraham settled in Egypt in the fertile region of the Nile Delta. There, over the next four centuries, they multiplied and prospered (cf. Genesis 15:13; Exodus 12:41), till the time approached when they would be strong enough to move north and conquer Canaan. They were sadly disappointed when the Egyptian rulers, fearing the growing Israelite power, made them slaves. Among the cities built by the Israelite slaves was Rameses (Genesis 15:14; Exodus 1:8-12; see EGYPT; RAMESES).
But God had not forgotten the covenant he had made with Abraham. He therefore freed Israel from Egypt’s power and set the people on their way to the promised land (Exodus 2:24; Exodus 6:6-8). After three months journey they settled for a time at Mt Sinai. There God formally established his covenant with Israel as his chosen people, giving them a law-code and a religious order to govern their national life. The instructions concerning these matters begin in Exodus and carry on unbroken through Leviticus and into Numbers. The book of Numbers goes on to record how the people, after almost one year at Sinai, resumed their journey to Canaan (cf. Exodus 19:1; Numbers 10:11).
The events of the exodus from Egypt and the establishment of the covenant at Sinai are therefore the main issues of the book of Exodus. Israel’s experiences were part of the fulfilment of God’s covenant promises. God was in control of events and was directing them towards the goals that he had set (Exodus 14:31; Exodus 15:1-18; Exodus 19:4-6; Exodus 29:45-46; Exodus 33:14). Through all these experiences the Israelites began to understand the character of this God who had chosen them. Above all they came to know him as their Redeemer (Exodus 3:13-17; Exodus 6:6-8; Exodus 20:2).
Summary of contents
God saw how the Israelites were oppressed in Egypt (1:1-22), and prepared Moses to be the deliverer to save them. Moses was brought up in the Egyptian palace, but after forty years in Egypt he renounced his Egyptian status and spent the next forty years in the barren regions of the Sinai Peninsular (2:1-25). There God revealed himself to Moses as Yahweh, the eternal and self-sufficient God who would use Moses to save his people from Egypt (3:1-4:17; see YAHWEH).
Moses then returned to Egypt. With his brother Aaron, who was his assistant, he tried to persuade Pharaoh to release the Israelites, but without success (4:18-6:27). This began a long conflict between Moses and Pharaoh, which resulted in repeated plagues upon Egypt (6:28-10:29; see PLAGUE). In the end God destroyed the eldest in each family in Egypt. He passed over the Israelite households, because they had already sacrificed a lamb in the place of the person under judgment. The Passover was God’s great act of judgment for Egypt and redemption for Israel (11:1-13:16; see PASSOVER). The Israelites at last were free. When the Egyptians persisted in pursuing them, they were overthrown in the Red Sea (13:17-15:21).
All Dictionary (19)
Exodus - Israel’s escape from slavery in Egypt is commonly known as the Exodus (meaning ‘a going out’). The most likely date for the event is about 1280 BC, and the historical account of the event is given in the book of Exodus (see Exodus, BOOK OF). ...
Significance of the Exodus...
The actual going out from Egypt was but one part of a series of events that gave the Exodus its great significance in Israel’s history. It was preceded by God’s judgment on Egypt through a number of plagues (Exodus 1; Exodus 2; Exodus 3; Exodus 4; Exodus 5; Exodus 6; Exodus 7; Exodus 8; Exodus 9; Exodus 10; Exodus 11; see PLAGUE); it came about through the decisive judgment on Passover night and the subsequent crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 12; Exodus 13; Exodus 14; Exodus 15; see PASSOVER; RED SEA); and it was followed by the covenant ceremony at Mt Sinai, where God formally established Israel as his people (Exodus 16; Exodus 17; Exodus 18; Exodus 19; Exodus 20; Exodus 21; Exodus 22; Exodus 23; Exodus 24; see COVENANT). ...
Throughout the years that followed, Israelites looked back to the Exodus as the decisive event in their history. This was not just because the Exodus led to the establishment of Israel’s national independence, but more importantly because it showed them the sort of person their God was. Exodus 6:6-8; Exodus 15:2; Exodus 15:13; see REDEMPTION). The Exodus was a sign to the people of this Redeemer-God’s love (Deuteronomy 4:37; Deuteronomy 7:8; Hosea 11:1), power (Deuteronomy 9:26; Isaiah 52:11-12; Psalms 81:10) and justice (Deuteronomy 6:21-22; Joshua 24:5-7). ...
In demonstrating the character of God, the Exodus gave assurance to God’s people that they could trust in him. They looked for a ‘second Exodus’ when he would again deliver them from bondage. ...
The Exodus theme is prominent also in the New Testament. The word ‘exodus’ (RSV: ‘departure’) is used of Jesus’ death, by which he delivers people from the bondage of sin (Luke 9:31; cf. Exodus 15:1-21)
Embroider - shaabats (Exodus 28:39). In Exodus 26:1, "the tabernacle curtains with cherubims of cunning work," rather "of the work of the skilled weaver"; chosheeb , one who thinks and counts. The figures of cherubim were to be worked in the loom as in tapestry work, but the hangings or entrance curtains for the tent were to be embroidered with the needle (Exodus 26:36), "wrought with needlework"; roqem , "the needleworker," "the work of the embroiderer" (Exodus 35:35; Exodus 38:23). ...
Smith's Bible Dictionary makes the riqmah woven texture without gold thread, and therefore without figures; chosheb that with gold thread, which was employed to delineate figures as the cherubim; chosheb involving the idea of designing patterns (Exodus 27:16; Exodus 36:8; Exodus 36:35; Exodus 36:37; Exodus 38:18; Exodus 39:2; Exodus 39:5; Exodus 39:8; Exodus 39:29). But Septuagint favor KJV Pliny's authority weighs nothing against many proofs that, embroidery was known in Egypt and there learned by many Israelites (Exodus 35:30-35; 1 Chronicles 4:21)
Borrow, to - The principal point of interest in connection with the subject is with reference to the Israelites borrowing from the Egyptians at the Exodus, as in the A. The word there is shaal, and it is translated 'ask' 88 times; there can be no doubt therefore that 'ask' is the more appropriate word in Exodus 3:22 ; Exodus 11:2 ; Exodus 12:35 . In Exodus 22:14 and 2 Kings 6:5 however the word 'borrow' is better retained
Mount Sinai - The "mountain of God" (Exodus 3) situated in the desert of Sinai between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akabah, on which the Law was given to Moses (Exodus 31). God appeared to Moses at Horeb, from a burning bush, and told him He wouid deliver the Israelites from the Egyptians (Exodus 3); after the Exodus, Moses smote water from a rock in Horeb (Exodus 17). Mount Sinai, however, is most famous as the places where Moses recieived the tablets of the Law and spent 40 days and 40 nights with God (Exodus 19)
Sinai, Mount - The "mountain of God" (Exodus 3) situated in the desert of Sinai between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akabah, on which the Law was given to Moses (Exodus 31). God appeared to Moses at Horeb, from a burning bush, and told him He wouid deliver the Israelites from the Egyptians (Exodus 3); after the Exodus, Moses smote water from a rock in Horeb (Exodus 17). Mount Sinai, however, is most famous as the places where Moses recieived the tablets of the Law and spent 40 days and 40 nights with God (Exodus 19)
Covenant, Book of the - The oldest code of Hebrew law which has come down to us is contained in Exodus 20:22 to Exodus 23:33 . It receives its name from the expression in Exodus 24:7 , while its character as a covenant is demonstrated by the promises attached to the keeping of it ( Exodus 23:20-33 ). Owing to the confused form in which the Book of Exodus has been transmitted, doubt has been expressed as to the limits of the Book of the Covenant. Some maintain that the words in Exodus 24:7 refer only to ch. 23; others would make them include 21 23; Driver holds with the generally accepted opinion that the code begins with Exodus 20:22 . The close proximity of the Decalogue ( Exodus 20:1-17 ) might lead to the inference that both codes were given at the same time. It has been incorporated by the compiler at this particular place in the Book of Exodus, with the intention of bringing the ancient codes together. Exodus 21:26 ‘If a man smite the eye of his servant or the eye of his maid that it perish; (then) he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake. Exodus 21:12 ‘He that smiteth a man so that he die shall be surely put to death. It deals with the rights of the male and female slave ( Exodus 21:1-11 ); murder and homicide ( Exodus 21:12-15 ); injuries to the body, not resulting in death ( Exodus 21:16-32 ); injuries to cattle ( Exodus 21:33-36 ); theft ( Exodus 22:1-5 ); arson ( Exodus 22:6 ); breach of trust ( Exodus 22:7-13 ); loans ( Exodus 22:14-15 ; Exodus 22:25-27 ); seduction ( Exodus 22:16-17 ). The injunctions put in the shorter form cover murder, abduction, the cursing of parents, bestiality ( Exodus 21:12 ; Exodus 21:15-17 , Exodus 22:19 ). The prominence given in this code to the ox, ass, and sheep ( Exodus 21:28 to Exodus 22:10 ) shows that it was originally drawn up for a society that was predominantly agricultural. Exodus 20:24-26 deals with the construction of an altar. ) Other matters dealt with are witchcraft ( Exodus 22:18 ); the treatment of strangers ( Exodus 22:21 ); the reviling of God (or judges) and rulers ( Exodus 22:28-29 ); the offering of the first fruits and firstlings ( Exodus 22:29-30 ); the eating of animals found torn in the field ( Exodus 22:31 ); just judgment ( Exodus 23:1-3 ; Exodus 23:6-8 ); the year of rest, and the Sabbath ( Exodus 23:10-12 ); feasts ( Exodus 23:14-16 ). Leaven is not to be eaten in connexion with the blood of the sacrifice, and the fat of the sacrifice is to be burned the same night ( Exodus 23:16-19 ); but apart from these there are no matters of sacrificial ritual insisted on. Whoever sacrifices to any other god than Jehovah is to be placed under the ban ( Exodus 22:20 ). Exodus 23:20-33 seems to he the work of the compiler. appears in Exodus 23:23 ; but in this section there would appear to be vestiges of an older text ( Exodus 23:28-31 ). Exodus and Hexateuch
Exodus, Book of - The central book of the Old Testament, reporting God's basic saving act for Israel in the Exodus from Egypt and His making of His covenant with the nation destined to be His kingdom of priests. Literary Setting The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Old Testament and of the Pentateuch. See Exodus 1:1 ). There, God called him at the burning bush of Mount Horeb/Sinai and sent him back to rescue Israel from Egypt (Exodus 2-4 ). This tenth plague became the setting for Israel's central religious celebration, that of Passover and Unleavened Bread in which Israel reenacted the Exodus from Egypt and rejoiced at God's supreme act of salvation for His people (Exodus 5-13 ). The miracle of the Red Sea (or perhaps more literally, the Sea of Reeds) became the greatest moment in Israel's history, the moment God created a nation for Himself by delivering hem from the strongest military power on earth as He led them through the divided waters of the sea and then flooded the sea again as the Egyptians tried to follow (Exodus 14:1 ). ...
After celebrating the deliverance in song and dance (Exodus 15:1-21 ), Israel followed God's leadership into the wilderness, but soon the difficult wilderness life proved too hard. The Israelites cried for the good old days of Egypt, even after God supplied their food and drink needs and after He defeated the Amalekites (Exodus 15:22-17:15 ). Jethro also advised Moses how to organize a more efficient judicial system, relieving Moses of stress (Exodus 18:1 ). God gave the Ten Commandments and other laws central to the covenant (Exodus 19-23 ), and then confirmed the covenant in a mysterious ceremony (Exodus 24:1 ). Moses went to the top of the mountain to receive the remainder of God's instructions, especially instructions for building the sacred place of worship, the tabernacle (Exodus 24-31 ). God showed His continued presence in the Tent of Meeting and in letting His glory pass by Moses (Exodus 32-33 ). Such intense communication with God brought radiance to Moses' face (Exodus 34:1 ). Moses then led Israel to celebrate the Sabbath and to build the tabernacle (Exodus 35-39 ). God blessed the action with His holy glorious presence (Exodus 40:1 ). ...
Theological Teaching In Exodus Israel learned the basic nature of God and His salvation. In Exodus Israel learned the identity of the people of God. Such a life reflected the nature of God Himself, who could be identified as “The Lord God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty” (Exodus 34:6-7 ). God Saves His People (Exodus 1:1-4:17 ). God's people face oppression in fear (Exodus 1:1-22 ). God raises up a deliverer for His oppressed people (Exodus 2:1-4:17 ). God Sends His Leader on a Difficult Mission (Exodus 4:18-7:2 ). God uses all means to accomplish His will against an ungodly ruler (Exodus 4:18-26 ). God fulfills His angry promise to provide a helper for His leader (Exodus 4:27-31 ). God's leader delivers God's message to pagan leaders (Exodus 5:1-23 ). God promises deliverance to a deaf people (Exodus 6:1-9 ). God reaffirms His insecure leaders (Exodus 6:10-7:2 ). God Reveals Himself in Punishing His Enemy (Exodus 7:3-12:30 ). God is sovereign over enemy powers (Exodus 7:3-13 ). Miracles do not bring belief (Exodus 7:14-25 ). Enemy powers seek compromise not conversion (Exodus 8:1-15 ). God's power convinces enemy religious leaders (Exodus 8:16-19 ). Political deceit cannot defeat God's purposes (Exodus 8:20-32 ). God's power is superior to pagan religious symbols (Exodus 9:1-7 ). God's power affects people as well as animals (Exodus 9:8-12 ). Terror and admission of sin are not adequate responses to the actions of the only God (Exodus 9:13-35 ). God's saving acts are to be taught to coming generations (Exodus 10:1-20 ). God's will must be followed completely (Exodus 10:21-29 ). God distinguishes between His people and His enemies when He punishes (Exodus 11:1-10 ). God judges other gods but preserves an obedient people (Exodus 12:1-13 ). God's people are to remember and celebrate His deliverance (Exodus 12:14-28 ). God punishes His proud, stubborn enemies (Exodus 12:29-30 ). God Reveals Himself by Delivering His People from Bondage (Exodus 12:31-15:21 ). God delivers and blesses His people and those who join them (Exodus 12:31-51 ). God instructs His people to remember, celebrate, and teach His mighty salvation (Exodus 13:1-16 ). God leads and protects His obedient people (Exodus 13:17-22 ). God gains glory and evokes faith by saving His troubled people (Exodus 14:1-31 ). God's people praise Him for their deliverance (Exodus 15:1-21 ). God Provides for His Doubting, Complaining People (Exodus 15:22-18:27 ). God promises healing to an obedient people (Exodus 15:22-27 ). God reveals His glory and tests His people's faith while meeting their needs (Exodus 16:1-36 ). Doubting people test God's presence (Exodus 17:1-7 ). God delivers His people and permanently curses their enemy (Exodus 17:8-16 ). Foreign relatives testify to God's superiority over all gods (Exodus 18:1-12 ). God's people must have effective teaching and administrative leadership (Exodus 18:13-27 ). God Covenants with His People (Exodus 19:1-20:21 ). God's covenant is based upon His act of deliverance and upon the people's obedience as a kingdom of priests (Exodus 19:1-8 ). God prepares His people for His coming down to make a covenant (Exodus 19:9-15 ). God's awesome presence confirms His covenant (Exodus 19:16-25 ). The Ten Commandments are God's covenant ground rules for life with Him (Exodus 20:1-17 ). Awestruck people need a human mediator with the holy God (Exodus 20:18-21 ). God Gives Civil, Ceremonial, and Criminal Laws to Help His People (Exodus 20:22-23:33 ). Instructions for acceptable worship (Exodus 20:22-26 )...
B. Treatment of Hebrew slaves (Exodus 21:1-11 )...
C. Dealing with a person who injures or kills another person (Exodus 21:12-32 )...
D. Justice for damage done to another's property (Exodus 21:33-22:15 )...
E. Justice when a virgin is seduced (Exodus 22:16-17 )...
F. Punishment for sorcery, bestiality, and idolatry (Exodus 22:18-20 )...
G. Care for the stranger, widow, orphan, and poor (Exodus 22:21-27 )...
H. Respect for God and human rulers, dedication of children, and being holy (Exodus 22:28-31 )...
I. Practice honesty; do not hurt the righteous or innocent (Exodus 23:1-9 )
Beaten-Work - Much in the tabernacle was to be made of beaten work, Exodus 25:18,31,36 , in contrast to 'molten,' as idols were often made. The cherubim and the mercy-seat were to be beaten out of one piece, Exodus 37:7 : the candlestick also was beaten work of pure gold. Exodus 37:17,22 ...
Zipporah - ” Moses' first wife (some believe the woman named in Numbers 12:1 may be a reference to Zipporah, too) and mother of his children, Gershom and Eliezer ( Exodus 2:21-22 ; Exodus 18:4 ). She saved Moses' life when the Lord sought to kill him by circumcising Gershom (Exodus 4:24-25 ). It appears that Zipporah stayed with her father until Moses had led the people out of Egypt (Exodus 18:2-6 )
Plagues of Egypt - The ten plagues narrated in Exodus 7:1-25; Exodus 8:1-32; Exodus 9:1-35; Exodus 10:1-29; Exodus 11:1-10; Exodus 12:1-51 stand in close connection with the natural phenomena of Egypt, still they maintain their character as miracles. Exodus 8:5, etc, These ten plagues were doubtless spread over a long time, and probably they followed, as much as possible, the order of the seasons; for some of them were not only distinctively Egyptian, but really only an aggravation of yearly maladies. During this time the Israelites had frequent opportunities to gather, and thus were prepared for their Exodus
Exodus - The most important event in the Old Testament historically and theologically is Israel's Exodus from Egypt. ” Israel remembered the Exodus as God's mighty redemptive act. The prophets constantly reminded Israel that election and covenant were closely related to the Exodus (Isaiah 11:16 ; Jeremiah 2:6 ; Jeremiah 7:22-25 ; Ezekiel 20:6 ,Ezekiel 20:6,20:10 ; Hosea 2:15 ; Hosea 11:1 ; Amos 2:10 ; Amos 3:1 ; Micah 6:4 ; Haggai 2:5 ). (The English word “Exodus” does not occur in the King James Version). The Exodus in the Old Testament was to Israel what the death and resurrection of Christ was to Christians in the New Testament. Historicity The only explicit account of the Exodus we have is the biblical account (Exodus 1-15 ). However, Egyptian sources do confirm the general situation that we find in the end of Genesis and the beginning of the Book of Exodus. Extra-biblical evidence from Egypt indicates that Egypt used slave labor in building projects ( Exodus 1:11 ). Old Testament scholars accept the essential historicity of the Exodus. ...
The Nature of the Event Some scholars see the Exodus as the miraculous deliverance of the people of God from the grip of Pharaoh's army at the Red Sea. The people of Israel went up from the land of Egypt “equipped for battle” (Exodus 13:18 RSV), but God did not lead them by the way of the Philistines, which was the closest way but it was also the way of war. God thought that if Israel saw war she would repent and return to Egypt ( Exodus 13:17 ). God is called a “man of war” in Exodus 15:3 . ...
The Bible stresses that the Exodus was the work of God. God brought the plagues on Egypt (Exodus 7:1-5 ). In the earliest recorded response to the event Miriam sang, “Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea” (Exodus 15:21 RSV). The Exodus was both miraculous and historical. We are not told when the Exodus occurred. The record makes it clear that God delivered Israel from bondage because of His covenant with the patriarchs and because He desired to redeem His people (Exodus 6:2-8 ). ...
The Date of the Exodus The Bible does not give an incontrovertible date for the Exodus. ” But this verse refers primarily to the beginning of the building of Solomon's Temple and only in a general way to the time of the Exodus. If we take the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 literally, the Exodus would be dated in 1437 B. Exodus 1:11 says, however, that the Israelites in Egypt built the store cities of Pithom and Raamses for Pharaoh. If one of the store cities was named for a king by that name, the Exodus could not have happened before 1300 B. Thus some scholars believe the Exodus must have taken place after 1300 B. ...
Another difficulty in dating these events is that although the term “pharaoh” is used over a hundred times in the first fifteen chapters of Exodus to refer to the king of Egypt, the title is always anonymous. The text does not indicate the identity of the pharaoh of the oppression nor the one of the Exodus. Old Testament scholars have generally agreed that the Exodus occurred either during the eighteenth (1570-1310 B. ...
It has been the opinion of most scholars since the rise of modern Egyptology that the Exodus likely occurred during the reign of Ramses II in the nineteenth dynasty about 1270 B. None of these attempts to redate the Exodus has gained widespread acceptance. Perhaps the best estimate of the date for the Exodus remains about 1270 B. ...
The Number Involved in the Exodus In our English Bibles Exodus 12:37 says, “And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot, that were men, besides children. Exodus 23:29-30 and Deuteronomy 7:22 suggest the number was so small that the people would be endangered by wild beasts. ” Perhaps this is the meaning in Exodus 12:17 . We may not know the exact date, route, or number of people in the Exodus. ...
The Exodus was the work of God. When the kingdom of God did not come, the later prophets began to look for a second Exodus
Fire, Pillar of - By means of this miraculous phenomenon (Exodus 13), the Lord led the Hebrews of the Exodus for 40 years. Usually the cloud went before Israel, but in Exodus 14, it went behind, lighting their way, but presenting impenetrable darkness to the Egyptians, so that they could not attack
Herbs, Bitter - A salad of bitter herbs was eaten as part of the Passover observance (Exodus 12:8 ; Numbers 9:11 ). Such a meal could be quickly prepared and was appropriate to commemorate Israel's hasty retreat from Egypt (Exodus 12:11 ). Later the bitter herbs were associated with the bitterness of Egyptian slavery (compare Exodus 1:14 )
Tabernacle - (ta buhr na cle), TENT OF MEETING A sacred tent, a portable and provisional sanctuary, where God met His people (Exodus 33:7-10 ). Two compound phrases (ohel moed and ohel haeduth are used in the Bible to designate this tent: “the tabernacle of the congregation” ( Exodus 29:42 ,Exodus 29:42,29:44 ), literally the “tent of meeting” (NRSV, NIV, NAS, REB) and “the tabernacle of witness” (Numbers 17:7 ) or “tent of witness. The basic Hebrew term (mishkan ) translated as “tabernacle” (Exodus 25:9 ) comes from a verb which means “to dwell. First, after the sin of the golden calf at Mount Sinai the “provisional” tabernacle was established outside the camp and called the “tent of meeting” (Exodus 33:7 ). Second, the “Sinaitic” tabernacle was built in accordance with directions given to Moses by God (Exodus 25-40 ). ...
The original “tent of meeting” was a provisional edifice where God met with His people (Exodus 33:7-11 ; Exodus 34:34-35 ). Joshua, Moses' “servant” (Exodus 33:11 ), protected and cared for the tent. Because of this situation and to symbolize it, Moses pitched this “tent of meeting” outside the camp (Exodus 33:7 ). Ultimately, God promised again to go into the midst of Israel (Exodus 34:9 ). Joshua guarded the tent in Moses' absence (Exodus 33:11 ). Since the earliest Greek translation, some would equate Moses' tent in Exodus 18:7 with the tent of meeting, but Scripture does not explicitly make this connection. The people could all go to the tent of meeting to seek the Lord ( Exodus 33:7 ) either in looking for God's answer to a judicial case, in petition, in worship, or for a prophetic word. There God met His people when the pillar of cloud descended to the door of the tent (Exodus 33:9 ). It may have borne its appropriate name from the first, or perhaps Moses used the name from the instructions which he received regarding the permanent tabernacle (Exodus 27:21 ). This tent was cared for by Joshua (Exodus 33:11 ), while Aaron was responsible for the tabernacle (Leviticus 10:7 ). The cloud descended on this tent when Moses came to inquire of God, but the cloud stayed on the permanent tabernacle and the glory of the Lord filled it so Moses could not enter it (Exodus 40:34-35 ,Exodus 40:34-35,40:38 ). This, too, is the tent of meeting (Exodus 27:21 ), where holy God comes to sinful people. And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God” (Exodus 29:43 , Exodus 29:45 )
Kohath - The second son of Levi (Genesis 46:11 ) and father of Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel (Exodus 6:18 ) who became the heads of the Kohathite branch of the Levitical priesthood. Kohath went to Egypt with Levi (his father) and Jacob (his grandfather) (Genesis 46:11 ), had a sister named Jochebed (Exodus 6:20 ), and died at the age of 133 (Exodus 6:18 )
Pharaoh - One even tried to kill all their babies (Exodus 1:8-16; Exodus 1:22). From Moses’ first meeting with him, he showed that he despised God and had no intention of releasing the captive Israelites (Exodus 5:1-2). He was determined to resist God at all costs, in spite of the repeated opportunities God gave him to repent and in spite of the warnings God gave him through a series of plagues (Exodus 7:11-13; Exodus 8:8; Exodus 8:15; Exodus 8:28-32). By confirming Pharaoh in his hardness of heart, God showed the greatness of Pharaoh’s evil and the justice with which he punished it (Exodus 9:12; Romans 9:14-18; see PLAGUE). This prompted Pharaoh at last to release the Israelites (Exodus 11:1-9; Exodus 12:29-32). When Pharaoh changed his mind and tried to recapture the Israelites, he and his soldiers were killed in a mighty judgment at the Red Sea (Exodus 14:5-9; Exodus 14:28)
Etham - Here the Israelites made their third encampment (Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6 ). Here the Israelites were commanded to change their route (Exodus 14:2 ), and "turn" towards the south, and encamp before Pi-hahiroth. (See Exodus; PITHOM
A miraculous food sent by God to the Hebrews in the Exodus, described in Exodus 16, and Numbers 11. The etymology of the name is clearly given in Exodus 16: man hu, "wvhat is it?" It is a desperate rebellion against evidence to try to identify the miraculous manna of the Exodus with the natural exudates. " This natural exudate is only found during two months of autumn; it has been falsely described, having none of the properties asserted of the miraculous substance of the Exodus
Shemot - �names�); the Book of Exodus ...
Shemot: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Hangings - Μasak , "the covering before the door (rather 'the curtain for the entrance,' so KJV distinguishes the words rightly at Numbers 3:26) of the tabernacle" (Exodus 26:36-37); of variegated stuff "wrought with needlework" ("the work of' the embroiderer"), hung on five pillars of acacia wood; the curtain, unlike the hangings at the sides and back of the court, could be drawn up or aside at pleasure. Another before the entrance of the court (Exodus 27:16). The term also is used in connection with the veil of the holy of holies, the "veil of the covering" (Exodus 35:12). Qelaim , hangings of fine twined linen for the walls of the court of the tabernacle, like our tapestry (Exodus 27:9)
Jannes And Jambres - They could "proceed no further," though for a time they simulated Moses' miracles (Exodus 7:11). So as to the lice, the magicians confessed," this is the finger of God" (Exodus 8:18-19; Exodus 9:11). " (Speaker's Commentary, note at end of Exodus 7) The Targum of Jonathan mentions Jannes and Jannes as "chiefs of the magicians. " Paul by inspiration endorses the names given them in secular history, though not mentioned in the inspired Exodus
Breastplate - Exodus 28:15. The two upper corners were fastened to the ephod, from which it was not to be loosed, Exodus 28:28, and the two lower corners to the girdle. It was called the memorial, Exodus 28:12; Exodus 28:29, inasmuch as it reminded the priest of his representative character in relation to the twelve tribes; and it is also called the breastplate of judgment, Exodus 28:15, perhaps because it was worn by him who was instrumentally the fountain of justice and judgment to the Jewish church
Mercy Seat - This word is properly an adjective, agreeing with επιθεμα , a lid, understood, which is expressed by the LXX, Exodus 25:17 . In that version, ιλαστηριον generally answers to the Hebrew כפרת , from the verb כפר , to cover, expiate, and was the lid or covering of the ark of the covenant, made of pure gold, on and before which the high priest was to sprinkle the blood of the expiatory sacrifices on the great day of atonement, and where God promised to meet his people, Exodus 25:17 ; Exodus 25:22 ; Exodus 29:42 ; Exodus 30:36 ; Leviticus 16:2 ; Leviticus 16:14
Moses - The first period ended with his flight from Egypt to Midian (Acts 7:23-29), the second with his return from Midian to liberate his people from Egyptian power (Acts 7:30-36; Exodus 7:7), and the third with his death just before Israel entered Canaan (Deuteronomy 34:7). God spoke to the people through him (Exodus 3:10-12; Exodus 24:12; Exodus 25:22). No other person of his time, and no leader after him, had the face-to-face relationship with God that Moses had (Exodus 24:1-2; Exodus 33:11; Numbers 12:6-8; Deuteronomy 34:10). His older sister was Miriam and his older brother Aaron (Exodus 6:20; 1 Chronicles 6:1-3). Through a series of remarkable events, the young child Moses was adopted into the Egyptian royal family but grew up under the influence of his godly Israelite mother (Exodus 2:8-10; Hebrews 11:23). By such a decisive act, Moses demonstrated his total rejection of his Egyptian status (Exodus 2:11-15; Acts 7:23-29; Hebrews 11:24-25). He married one of Jethro’s daughters, and from her had two sons (Exodus 2:16-22; Exodus 18:1-3). God’s time to deliver Israel from bondage had now come, and the person he would use as the deliverer was Moses (Exodus 2:23-25; Exodus 3:1-12). He, the Eternal One, would prove himself able to meet every need of his people, but they had to learn to trust in him (Exodus 3:13-15; Exodus 6:2-8; see YAHWEH). ...
In response to Moses’ complaint that the Israelites would not believe him, God gave him three signs (Exodus 4:1-9; Exodus 4:30). In response to his excuse that he was not a good speaker, God gave him Aaron as a spokesman (Exodus 4:10-16; Exodus 7:1-2). Moses then returned to Egypt, where the elders of Israel welcomed him (Exodus 4:20; Exodus 4:29; Exodus 4:31). ...
God warned Moses that his job would be difficult and that Pharaoh would not listen to his pleas for freedom for the Israelites (Exodus 4:21-23). Pharaoh’s response to Moses’ initial meeting was to increase the Israelites’ suffering, with the result that they turned bitterly against Moses (Exodus 5:1-21). God gave Moses further assurance that Pharaoh would be defeated, but when Moses told the people, they were too disheartened to listen (Exodus 6:1; Exodus 6:9). ...
Moses again put his request to Pharaoh, and again Pharaoh refused (Exodus 7:1-13). God therefore worked through Moses and Aaron to send a series of plagues upon Egypt, resulting in the overthrow of Egypt and the release of Israel (Exodus 7:14-25; Exodus 8; Exodus 9; Exodus 10; Exodus 11; Exodus 12; Exodus 13; Exodus 14; Exodus 15:1-21; see PHARAOH; PLAGUE)
Pithom - The only mention of this city in the Bible relates to the plight of the Israelites in Egypt (Exodus 1:11 ). Coupled with the city of Rameses, it becomes an important clue to the Exodus chronology. See Exodus
Rephidim - (rehf' ih dihm) Site in the wilderness where the Hebrews stopped on their way to Canaan just prior to reaching Sinai (Exodus 17:1 ; Exodus 19:2 ). Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, came to Rephidim and helped the leader delegate his authority over the people (Exodus 18:13-26 )
Testimony - The two tables of stone on which the law or ten commandments were written, which were witnesses of that covenant made between God and his people, and testified what it was that God had required of them, have the same title, Exodus 25:16 ; Exodus 25:21 ; Exodus 31:18
Rephidim - (rehf' ih dihm) Site in the wilderness where the Hebrews stopped on their way to Canaan just prior to reaching Sinai (Exodus 17:1 ; Exodus 19:2 ). Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, came to Rephidim and helped the leader delegate his authority over the people (Exodus 18:13-26 )
Merari - Sad; bitter, the youngest son of Levi, born before the descent of Jacob into Egypt, and one of the seventy who accompanied him thither (Genesis 46:11 ; Exodus 6:16 ). He became the head of one of the great divisions of the Levites (Exodus 6:19 )
Kneading-Trough - The vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment (Exodus 8:3 ; 12:34 ; Deuteronomy 28:5,7 ). The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in haste
Elim - ” One of the encampments of the Israelites after the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 15:27 )
Passover - The Feast of Passover was God’s appointed way for the people of Israel to celebrate their miraculous escape from Egypt (Exodus 12:14; Exodus 12:24). The name of the feast recalled God’s act of ‘passing over’ the houses of the Israelites while killing the firstborn of the Egyptians (Exodus 12:27). The blood was a sign that an innocent life had been taken in place of the one under judgment (Exodus 12:5; Exodus 12:7; Exodus 12:12-13; Exodus 12:21-23; cf. This was now the beginning of the fifteenth day according to Israelite reckoning, for they considered sunset to mark the end of one day and the beginning of the next (Exodus 12:6; Exodus 12:8). ...
Each Passover meal was a re-enactment of the first Passover meal, when people prepared and ate it in haste, dressed ready for their departure in the morning (Exodus 12:11; Exodus 12:25-27). They were to burn the leftovers, and so prevent any defilement of the solemn occasion through the meat’s spoiling or the people’s keeping portions as sacred charms (Exodus 12:8-10). Having removed leaven from their houses before preparing the Passover, the people kept their houses free of leaven for the week after the Passover (Exodus 12:14-20). This reminded them that, having been saved through the Passover, they had fled from Egypt hastily, cooking unleavened bread as they travelled (Exodus 12:33-34; Exodus 12:39). ...
All adult male Israelites had to attend the Passover celebration (Exodus 23:14; Exodus 23:17), and so could foreigners, provided they had accepted circumcision and so become part of the covenant people (Exodus 12:43-49). Exodus 12:5 with 1 Peter 1:18-19; cf. Exodus 12:46 with John 19:36; cf. Exodus 12:21; Exodus 12:27 with 1 Corinthians 5:7)
Cloud, Pillar of - By day Israel saw a pillar of cloud, while by night they saw a pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21-22 ). The night before the Exodus, the cloud gave light to Israel but darkness to the Egyptians so they could not come near one another (Exodus 14:19-20 ). Coming to the tabernacle in the cloud, God spoke to Moses face to face (Exodus 33:11 ; Numbers 14:14 )
Midwife - Woman who assists in the delivery of a child (Exodus 1:15-21 ). The civil disobedience of the Hebrew midwives Siphrah and Puah confounded Pharaoh's plan to exterminate male Hebrews for a time (Exodus 1:15-21 ). Their faithfulness was rewarded with families of their own (Exodus 1:21 ), suggesting that childless women frequently served as midwives
Horeb - ) The designation of the northern part of the Sinaitic range, so Rephidim is made to be situated in it (Exodus 17:6). So the name "Sinai" is most used from Exodus 19:11 to Numbers 3:1, where Israel is described as at or about the scene of the giving of the law. (See Exodus; SINAI
Amethyst - A precious stone in the third row of the breastplate of the high priest, Exodus 28:19 ; Exodus 39:12 ; and the twelfth stone in the foundations of the wall of the heavenly Jerusalem. The Hebrew word is achlamah which is translated ἀμέθυστος in the above two passages in Exodus by the LXX, who also have the same in Ezekiel 28:13 , where there is nothing in the Hebrew
ko'Hath - ( Genesis 46:11 ; Exodus 6:16 ) In the journeyings of the tabernacle of the sons of Kohath (Kohathites) had charge of the most holy portions of the vessels. Of the personal history of Kohath we know nothing, except that he came down to Egypt with Levi and Jacob, (Genesis 46:11 ) that his sister was Jochebed, (Exodus 6:20 ) and that he lived to the age of 133 years. (Exodus 6:18 ) (B
Mosaic Legislation - The foundation of the whole Law is the Decalogue (Exodus 20), and the nucleus is the "Book of the Covenant" (Exodus 20-23). The Civil Laws are mostly found in Exodus 18-23, and Deuteronomy 16-26. The Moral Laws are found in the texts already mentioned (Exodus 20-23), supplemented by Leviticus 11-20, and Deuteronomy 5. The Religious and Ceremonial Laws, referring to persons, places, days of worship, to sacrifices and holy things, are found in Exodus 25-30, and especially in Leviticus 1-27
Engraver - In Exodus 35:35 rather "artificer" in wood, stone, or metal; so Exodus 10:28;Exodus 10:23," artificer" in weaving, etc. Bezaleel's workmanship was in gold, silver, brass, stone, wood (Exodus 31:4-5), Aboliab's in embroidery and weaving. Strict engraving of stones is mentioned in Exodus 28:9-21 in the case of the two onyx stones having six each of the 12 tribes' names, on the high priest's shoulders, and the 12 breast-plate stones with the 12 tribes' names engraven
Jochebed - A sister of Kohath, married to Amram her nephew, and mother of Aaron and Moses ( Exodus 6:20 ) and Miriam ( Numbers 26:59 ). ]'> , in narrating the birth of Moses, speaks of his mother as a daughter of Levi, but does not give her name ( Exodus 2:1 )
Levitical Priesthood - Institution founded by God when He chose Aaron and his sons to minister to Him in the sanctuary (Exodus 28). The original duties of the priests were the following: ...
to offer the daily sacrifice in the court of the Tabernacle or Temple (Exodus 29; 3Kings 8)
to sprinkle the blood of the victims on the altar (Leviticus 1)
to burn the victims on the altar (Leviticus 1)
to renew the loaves of proposition every Sabbath (Leviticus 24)
to offer incense morning and evening (Exodus 30)
to supply the lamps in the sanctuary with oil every day (Exodus 27)
to inspect the lepers (Leviticus 14)
to purify women after childbirth (Leviticus 12)
to teach and interpret the Law to the people (Leviticus 10)
to pray for the people (Leviticus 5)
Exodus, the, - 1491, deriving it in this way: --In (1 Kings 6:1 ) it is stated that the building of the temple, in the forth year of Solomon, was in the 480th year after the Exodus. 1491 as the date of the Exodus. The period of bondage given in (Genesis 15:13,14 ; Exodus 12:40,41 ) and Gala 3:17 As 430 years has been interpreted to cover different periods. The common chronology makes it extend from the call of Abraham to the Exodus, one-half of it, or 215 years, being spend in Egypt. Paul says in (Galatians 3:17 ) that from the covenant with (or call of) Abraham the giving of the law (less than a year after the Exodus) was 430 years. But in (Genesis 15:13,14 ) it is said that they should be strangers in a strange land,a nd be afflicted 400 years, and nearly the same is said in (Exodus 12:40 ) But, in very truth, the children of Israel were strangers in a strange land from the time that Abraham left his home for the promised land, and during that whole period of 430 years to the Exodus they were nowhere rulers in the land. So in (Exodus 12:40 ) it is said that the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years. 7 (C) If we make the 430 years to include only the bondage in Egypt, we must place the whole chronology of Abraham and the immigration of Jacob into Egypt some 200 years earlier, or else the Exodus 200 years later, or B. The history of the Exodus itself commences with the close of that of the ten plagues.  In the night in which, at midnight, the firstborn were slain, (Exodus 12:29 ) Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites. (Exodus 12:31,32 ) They at once set forth from Rameses, vs. (Exodus 12:37,39 ) apparently during the night v. (Exodus 12:42 ) but towards morning on the 15th day of the first month
Deposit - Something given as a downpayment (See Matthew 25:27 ); something given to another for safekeeping (Exodus 22:7 ). Exodus 22:7-13 gives guidelines for cases in which property left for safekeeping is stolen or a deposited animal is injured or dies
Amalekite - (am' ay lehk ite) A nomadic tribe of formidable people that first attacked the Israelites after the Exodus at Rephidim. They were the first to attack Israel after the Exodus (Numbers 24:20 ). Israel won the initial battle (Exodus 17:8-16 ), but later was driven back into the Sinai wilderness by a coalition of Amalekites and Canaanites (Numbers 14:39-45 ). See also Exodus and Negeb
Thief - The law allowed the killing of a night- robber, because it was supposed his intention was to murder as well as to rob, Exodus 22:2 . It condemned a common thief to make double restitution, Exodus 22:4 . If he stole an ox he was to restore it fivefold; if a sheep, only fourfold, Exodus 22:1 ; 2 Samuel 12:6 . If he did not make restitution, they seized what was in his house, put it up to sale, and even sold the person himself if he had not wherewithal to make satisfaction, Exodus 22:3
Linen - The tabernacle curtains (Exodus 26:1 ) and the high priest's garments (Exodus 28:6 ) were of “fine linen”—cloth woven so finely that it cannot be distinguished from silk without the aid of magnification
Laver - Between the altar and the tabernacle, a little to the south, stood a circular laver, which, together with its base, was made of the brazen ornaments which the women had presented for the use of the tabernacle, and was thence called כיור נחשת , Exodus 30:18 ; Exodus 40:7
Rephidim - ("rests" or "stays") (Exodus 17:1; Exodus 17:8; Exodus 19:2). But Holland (Canon Cook's essay on Exodus 16; 17; 19; Speaker's Commentary) places Rephidim after Israel traversed the wady es Sheikh at the pass el Watiyeh shut in by perpendicular rocks on either side; a choice position for Amalek as it commands the entrance to the wadies round the central group of Sinai. At the foot of the hill whereon Moses sat (Exodus 17:12 or else Exodus 18:13) the Arabs call a rock "the seat of the prophet Moses. " (See Exodus. The "hill" in Exodus 17:9-10, he identifies with that on which the church of Paran stood (Numbers 33:12-13). Wady es Sheykh , "the valley of the chiefs," may allude to the elders appointed at Jethro's suggestion to be rulers and judges under Moses (Exodus 18:21-26). Lift up, not an empty hand, but like Moses grasping the rod hold fast God's word of promise, filling the hand with this effectual plea (Exodus 17:9; Exodus 17:11-12; Job 23:4; Psalms 119:49; Isaiah 43:26; James 5:16). ) Moses struck the rock in Horeb at some point not in the people's sight, therefore not near the summit, but in the presence of selected witnesses, the elders (Exodus 17:5-6)
Aaron - The son of Amram and Jochabed, of the tribe of Levi, and brother of Moses and Miriam, Exodus 6:20 ; born about the year B. He was three years older than Moses, Exodus 7:7 and was the spokesman and assistant of the latter in bringing Israel out of Egypt, Exodus 4:16 . Cooperating with his brother in the Exodus from Egypt, Exodus 4:1-16:36 , he held up his hands in the battle with Amalek, Exodus 17:1-16 ; and ascended Mount Sinai with him to see the glory of God, Exodus 24:1,2,9-11 . He was consecrated the first high priest by God's directions, Exodus 28:1-29:46 Leviticus 8:1-36 ; and was afterwards confirmed in his office by the destruction of Korah and his company, by the staying of the plague at his intercession, and by the budding of his rod, Numbers 16:1-17:13 . Yet he fell sometimes into grievous sins: he made the golden calf at Sinai, Exodus 32:1-22 ; he joined Miriam in sedition against Moses, Numbers 12:1-16 ; and with Moses disobeyed God at Kadesh, Numbers 20:8-12
Plague - Painful afflictions or diseases, (Leviticus 13:3,5,30 ; 1 Kings 8:37 ), or severe calamity (Mark 5:29 ; Luke 7:21 ), or the judgment of God, so called (Exodus 9:14 ). ...
The river Nile was turned into blood, and the fish died, and the river stank, so that the Egyptians loathed to drink of the river (Exodus 7:14-25 ). ...
The plague of frogs (Exodus 8:1-15 ). kinnim, properly gnats or mosquitoes; Compare Psalm 78:45 ; 105:31 ), "out of the dust of the land" (Exodus 8:16-19 ). dog-fly), Exodus 8:21-24 . ...
The plague of hail, with fire and thunder (Exodus 9:13-33 ). ...
The plague of locusts, which covered the whole face of the earth, so that the land was darkened with them (Exodus 10:12-15 ). ...
After a short interval the plague of darkness succeeded that of the locusts; and it came without any special warning ( Exodus 10:21-29 ). ...
The last and most fearful of these plagues was the death of the first-born of man and of beast (Exodus 11:4,5 ; 12:29,30 )
Lord - In capitals "LORD" represents Jehovah , except Exodus 23:17. The "LORD God", Αdonai Jehovah , where it ought to be "the Lord Jehovah," and Exodus 34:23
Zipporah - Reuel's daughter, who became the wife of Moses (Exodus 2:21 ). In consequence of the event recorded in Exodus 4:24-26 , she and her two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, when so far on the way with Moses toward Egypt, were sent back by him to her own kinsfolk, the Midianites, with whom they sojourned till Moses afterwards joined them (18:2-6)
Jasper - , Exodus 28:20 ; 39:16 ), seems to have denoted a translucent stone of various colors, especially that of fire, Revelation 4:3 ; 21:11,18,19 . The sardius and the jasper, of similar color, were the first and last stones on the breastplate of the high priest, Exodus 28:17,20
Breastplate (1) - The fuller designation ‘the breastplate of judgment’ ( Exodus 28:15 , Sir 45:10 ) is significant of the purpose of the breastplate, which was to form a fitting receptacle or pouch for the Urim and Thummim (wh. The special directions for the making of the breastplate are given in Exodus 28:13-30 (cf. Exodus 39:8-21 ). ]'> continually’ ( Exodus 28:29 ). The breastplate was kept in position by means of two cords of ‘wreathen work’ of gold, by which it was attached to a couple of gold ‘ouches’ (probably rosettes of gold filigree) on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, while the lower part was fastened to the ephod by a ‘lace of blue’ ( Exodus 28:28 ) at each corner
Bezalel - ]'> ( Exodus 31:2 ) to superintend the erection of the ‘tent of meeting,’ and endowed with the special gifts required for the proper execution of his task (vv. Among the gifts thus bestowed upon him, not the least was the gift of teaching the arts of which he was himself a master, to his subordinates ( Exodus 35:34 ), the chief of whom was Oholiab ( Exodus 31:6 ; Exodus 35:34 etc
Fillets - , joinings (Exodus 27:17 ; 38:17,28 ), the rods by which the tops of the columns around the tabernacle court were joined together, and from which the curtains were suspended (Exodus 27:10,11 ; 36:38 )
Embroider - The art of embroidery was known to the Jews (Exodus 26:36 ; 35:35 ; 38:23 ; Judges 5:30 ; Psalm 45:14 ). The skill of the women in this art was seen in the preparation of the sacerdotal robes of the high priest (Exodus 28 )
Blue - Generally associated with purple (Exodus 25:4 ; 26:1,31,36 , etc. The robe of the high priest's ephod was to be all of this colour (Exodus 28:31 ), also the loops of the curtains (26:4) and the ribbon of the breastplate (28:28)
Bulrush - In Exodus 2:3 ; Isaiah 18:2 , the papyrus is referred to, a reed of which anciently paper was made. It was of this that the ark was made in which the infant Moses was put, Exodus 2:3 , and the smaller boats on the Nile
Net-Work - Exodus 27:4 ; Exodus 38:4 ; and in the temple there was net-work of brass along with checker work and chain work, as ornaments on the chapiters of the pillars, which were carried away to Babylon
Tabernacle - ...
A portable shrine (Compare Acts 19:24 ) containing the image of Moloch (Exodus 35:30-352 ; marg. mishkan, "the dwelling-place"); the movable tent-temple which Moses erected for the service of God, according to the "pattern" which God himself showed to him on the mount (Exodus 25:9 ; Hebrews 8:5 ). , where God promised to meet with Israel (Exodus 29:42 ); the "tabernacle of the testimony" (Exodus 38:21 ; Numbers 1:50 ), which does not, however, designate the whole structure, but only the enclosure which contained the "ark of the testimony" (Exodus 25:16,22 ; Numbers 9:15 ); the "tabernacle of witness" (Numbers 17:8 ); the "house of the Lord" (Deuteronomy 23:18 ); the "temple of the Lord" (Joshua 6:24 ); a "sanctuary" (Exodus 25:8 ). A particular account of the materials which the people provided for the erection and of the building itself is recorded in Exodus 2540-40 . These stores, from which they so liberally contributed for this purpose, must have consisted in a great part of the gifts which the Egyptians so readily bestowed on them on the eve of the (Exodus 12:35,36 ). Its two sides and its western end were made of boards of acacia wood, placed on end, resting in sockets of brass, the eastern end being left open (Exodus 26:22 ). This framework was covered with four coverings, the first of linen, in which figures of the symbolic cherubim were wrought with needlework in blue and purple and scarlet threads, and probably also with threads of gold (Exodus 26:1-6 ; 36:8-13 ). Above this was a second covering of twelve curtains of black goats'-hair cloth, reaching down on the outside almost to the ground (Exodus 26:7-11 ). , the dugong, a species of seal), Exodus 25:5 ; 26:14 ; 35:7,23 ; 36:19 ; 39:34 . ...
Internally it was divided by a veil into two chambers, the exterior of which was called the holy place, also "the sanctuary" (Hebrews 9:2 ) and the "first tabernacle" (6); and the interior, the holy of holies, "the holy place," "the Holiest," the "second tabernacle" (Exodus 28:29 ; Hebrews 9:3,7 ). ...
Round about the tabernacle was a court, enclosed by curtains hung upon sixty pillars (Exodus 27:9-18 ). Within it were placed the altar of burnt offering, which measured 7 1/2 feet in length and breadth and 4 1/2 feet high, with horns at the four corners, and the laver of brass (Exodus 30:18 ), which stood between the altar and the tabernacle. On the first day of the first month of the second year after the Exodus, it was formally set up, and the cloud of the divine presence descended on it (Exodus 39:22-43 ; 40:1-38 ). It cost 29 talents 730 shekels of gold, 100 talents 1,775 shekels of silver, 70 talents 2,400 shekels of brass (Exodus 38:24-31 ). ...
The word thus rendered ('ohel) in Exodus 33:7 denotes simply a tent, probably Moses' own tent, for the tabernacle was not yet erected
Mixed Multitude - Exodus 12:38, 'eereb raab ; Numbers 11:4, hasaph suph ; like our English "riff-raff," a mob gathered from various quarters; accompanied Israel at the Exodus from Egypt. " Probably among the mixed multitude at the Exodus were the remains of the Hyksos or followers of the shepherd kings who invaded from the N
Aaron - ) He was a Levite, and is first mentioned in (Exodus 4:14 ) He was appointed by Jehovah to be the interpreter, (Exodus 4:16 ) of his brother Moses, who was "slow of speech;" and accordingly he was not only the organ of communication with the Israelites and with Pharaoh, (Exodus 4:30 ; 7:2 ) but also the actual instrument of working most of the miracles of the Exodus. (Exodus 7:19 ) etc. (Exodus 17:9 ) He is mentioned as dependent upon his brother and deriving all his authority from him. (Exodus 29:9 ) From this time the history of Aaron is almost entirely that of the priesthood, and its chief feature is the great rebellion of Korah and the Levites. The wife of Aaron was Elisheba, (Exodus 6:23 ) and the two sons who survived him, Eleazar and Ithamar
Bowl - The sockets of the lamps of the golden candlestick of the tabernacle are called bowls (Exodus 25:31,33,34 ; 37:17,19,20 ); the same word so rendered being elsewhere rendered "cup" (Genesis 44:2,12,16 ), and wine "pot" (Jeremiah 35:5 ). The reservoir for oil, from which pipes led to each lamp in Zechariah's vision of the candlestick, is called also by this name (Zechariah 4:2,3 ); so also are the vessels used for libations (Exodus 25:29 ; 37:16 )
Sapphire - sappir ), a precious stone, apparently of a bright-blue color, set: ( Exodus 24:10 ) the second stone in the second row of the high priest's breastplate, (Exodus 28:18 ) extremely precious, (Job 28:16 ) it was one of the precious stones that ornamented the king of Tyre
Nisan - It was the seventh month of the civil year; but was made the first month of the sacred year, at the coming out of Egypt, Exodus 12:2 . By Moses it is called Abib, Exodus 13:4
Cloud - PILLAR OF, the miraculous token of the divine presence and care, Exodus 14:24 16:10 Numbers 12:5 , which guided the Israelites in the desert; it was a means of protection and perhaps of shade by day, and gave them light by night, Exodus 13:21,22 14:19,20
pi-Hahiroth - read "farmstead"), the name of a place in Egypt where the children of Israel encamped (Exodus 14:2,9 ), how long is uncertain. The condition of the Isthmus of Suez at the time of the Exodus is not exactly known, and hence this, with the other places mentioned as encampments of Israel in Egypt, cannot be definitely ascertained. (See Exodus
Jethro - ” In Exodus 3:1 , a priest of Midian and the father-in-law of Moses. In Exodus 2:18 , his name is Reuel. The deity whom he served is not explicitly identified; in Exodus 18:11 , however, he declared Yahweh to be greater than all gods
Laver - The bronze laver of the tabernacle was constructed from metal mirrors provided by the women who ministered at the tabernacle entrance (Exodus 38:8 ). The priests used the laver for washing their hands and feet before priestly service (Exodus 30:18 ; Exodus 40:30-31 )
Bell - The bells of ‘pure gold’ ( Exodus 39:25 ), which alternated with pomegranate ornaments on the skirt of the high priest’s robe ( Exodus 28:33 f. Their purpose is stated in Exodus 28:35 , but the underlying idea is obscure (see the Comm
Incense - Exodus 30:1 (c) A figure of the sweet, fragrant life of the Lord JESUS offered up to GOD during His life of suffering and death of agony wherein and wherewith GOD was well pleased. ...
Exodus 30:9 (c) In this case, the strange incense is a figure of human activities and religious performances which are offered to GOD for His acceptance in competition with and instead of the life of the Lord JESUS
Tabernacle - As ohel represents the outward tent of black goats' hair curtains, so mishkan is the inner covering, the curtain immediately on the boards; the two are combined, "the tabernacle of the tent" (Exodus 39:32; Exodus 40:2; Exodus 40:6; Exodus 40:29). ) Qodesh and miqdash , "sanctuary," are applied to...
(1) the whole tabernacle (Exodus 25:8),...
(2) the court of the priests (Numbers 4:12), and...
(3) in the narrowest sense to the holy of holies (Leviticus 4:6). " The predominating color was sky blue (Leviticus 13:47-5901; Exodus 26:4; Exodus 28:28; Exodus 28:31; Exodus 28:37); the curtain, loops, veil, high priest's lace of the breast-plate, ephod robe, mitre lace. The size of the cloth appears from the number and dimensions of the ten breadths ("curtains") of which it consisted (Exodus 26:1-6; Exodus 26:26-28; Exodus 36:31-33). ) THE TENT was the great cloth of goats' hair, 44 cubits by 30, and five pillars overlaid with gold, and furnished with golden hooks (waw ), used as to the veil and the tent curtains; taches, "qeres ," belong to the tabernacle cloth and the tent cloth of the sanctuary, Exodus 26:6; Exodus 26:33), from which hung the curtain that closed the entrance. The heads of the pillars were joined by connecting rods (KJV "fillets ") overlaid with gold (Exodus 36:38). There were five bars for each side of the structure, and five for the back, the middle bar alone of the five on each wall reached from end to end (Exodus 26:28), as here shown. The red rams' skins covering was over the goats' hair, and the tachash skins above this (Exodus 26:14). The tent cloth was laid over the tabernacle cloth so as to allow a cubit of tent cloth extending on each side in excess of the tabernacle cloth; it extended two cubits at the back and front (Exodus 26:13; Exodus 36:9; Exodus 36:13). " Fergusson observes, "the description (Exodus 26 and Exodus 36) must have been written by one who had seen the tabernacle standing; no one would have worked it out in such detail without ocular demonstration of the way in which the parts would fit together. The tabernacle was Jehovah's "dwelling place" where He was to "meet" His people or their representatives (Exodus 25:8; Exodus 29:42-43; Exodus 27:21; Exodus 28:12). "The tabernacle (tent) of the congregation" (rather "of meeting" without the article) is in the full designation "the tabernacle of the tent of meeting" (Exodus 40:2; Exodus 40:29), i. having within it the tables of the law) is another name (Acts 7:44; Revelation 15:5), Hebrew 'eduwth (Exodus 38:21, where it ought to be "the testimony". ...
The king-priestly functions belonging to Israel in relation to the world, but declined through slowness of faith (Exodus 19:6; Exodus 20:19; Deuteronomy 5:27-28), Jehovah keeps for them against Israel's restoration (Isaiah 61:6; Isaiah 66:21). The tabernacle was made in strict accordance with the pattern God revealed to Moses' mind; nothing was left to the taste and judgment of artificers (Exodus 25:9; Exodus 25:40). Bezaleel of Judah and Aholiab of Dan were divinely qualified for the work (Exodus 31:3) by being "filled with the Spirit of God in wisdom, understanding, knowledge, and all workmanship. ...
Moses' own "tent" (not mishkam , "tabernacle") in this transition stage was pitched far off from the camp (to mark God's withdrawal from apostate Israel) as "the tent of meeting" provisionally, to which only Moses the mediator and his faithful minister Joshua were admitted (Exodus 33:3-11). The people gave more than enough materials (Exodus 36:2; Exodus 36:5-6), and their services as workmen and workwomen (Exodus 35:25). The tabernacle was now erected on the first day of the second year from the Exodus, no longer "far off," but in the midst of the camp. ...
The cloud, dark by day, fiery red by night, rested on the tabernacle so long as Israel was to stay in the same encampment; it moved when Israel must move (Exodus 40:36-38; Numbers 9:15-23)
Borrow - In Exodus 3:22; Exodus 12:35-36 not in the sense of taking on loan, which has given a handle for scoffers, as if the Israelites borrowed what they did not return, and so purloined from the Egyptians. urged them to ask, so eager were they to get them away, through fear of the plagues, which Exodus 11:8 confirms, also Psalms 105:37-38; they allowed them to ask (not "lent"), i. ...
As they had spoiled Israel by the bondservice unremunerated, so Israel, Jehovah's host (Exodus 12:41) marched forth "with an high hand" (Exodus 14:8)," by strength of Jehovah's hand" (Exodus 13:16), having "spoiled" their spoilers, an earnest of the saints' and Israel's final victory over the world powers and the prince of this world (Zechariah 14:14)
Consecration - In the religion of Old Testament Israel, these ‘set apart’ people or things were called ‘holy’, and the act of declaring, acknowledging or making them holy was called sanctification, consecration, or dedication (Exodus 13:2; Exodus 29:1; Exodus 29:27; Exodus 29:36). Priests and the sacrifices they offered were consecrated to God (Exodus 28:38; Exodus 28:40-41), and Jesus seems to have been referring to priestly service when he spoke of himself as being consecrated to God (John 17:19)
Wanderings in the Wilderness - (Exodus 12:31 —Numbers 12:31—33:49 ). The shortest, most northerly, route along the Mediterranean shoreline was not taken because of a possible encounter with Egyptian military guarding oasis forts or returning from regular incursions and punitive raids in Canaan (Exodus 13:17 ). A second relatively direct route to Kadesh-barnea appears to have been avoided by divine plan when they approached the border at Etham and then were instructed to turn back to the seeming impossible situation “by the Sea” where God miraculously delivered them from the pharaoh's forces (Exodus 13:20-14:2 ). This route is identified with Marah (Exodus 15:23 ), Elim (Exodus 15:27 ), the Wilderness of Sin (Exodus 16:1 ), Rephidim (Exodus 17:1 ), the Wilderness of Sinai (Exodus 18:5 ; Exodus 19:1 ), Sinai (Exodus 19:2 ), the wilderness of Paran (Numbers 10:12 ), Taberah (Numbers 11:3 ) or Kibroth-hattaavah (“the cemetery of the lusters,” Numbers 11:34 ), Hazeroth (“corrals,” Numbers 11:35 ; Numbers 12:16 ) where the mention of enclosures for the livestock and a series of events in the biblical account suggest an extended stay, and, ultimately, Kadesh (Numbers 20:1 ). ...
This itinerary is complicated by a comprehensive list of place names in Numbers 33:1 related to the Exodus and wanderings that includes many more locations seemingly playing a part in this extended event. This route cannot be associated with the Moses/Joshua-led Exodus because of the specific statements in Numbers 20-21 . See Exodus ; Kadesh ; Moses ; Sinai
Priests - Other functions were blessing the people (Numbers 6:22-26 ), determining the will of God (Exodus 28:30 ), and instructing the people in the law of God (Deuteronomy 31:9-12 ). Jethro, the priest of Midian, brought sacrifices to God and worshiped with Moses, Aaron, and the elders of Israel (Exodus 18:12 ). God promised that Israel, if it were faithful, would be a “kingdom of priests, a holy nation” (Exodus 19:6 ). On the mount, God told Moses to appoint Aaron and his four sons to serve as priests, that is, to serve at the altar and in the sanctuary (Exodus 28:1 ,Exodus 28:1,28:41 ). Their holy garments are prescribed in detail and their consecration ritual is given in Exodus 28:1 and Exodus 29:1
A man who is mentioned with Moses and Aaron on the occasion of the battle with Amalek at Raphidim, (Exodus 17:10 ) when with Aaron he stayed up the hands of Moses. (Exodus 17:12 ) (B. (Exodus 24:14 ) as being, with Aaron, left in charge of the people by Moses during his ascent of Sinai. (Exodus 31:2 ; 35:30 ; 38:22 ) ...
The fourth of the five kings of Midian who were slain with Balaam after the "matter of Peor
Throughly - ]'> we find both forms used, ‘thoroughly’ in Exodus 21:18 , 2 Kings 11:18 , and ‘throughly’ elsewhere; but in the original edition of 1611 the spelling is ‘throughly’ everywhere. ]'> Exodus 14:16 reads ‘the children of Israel shall goe on dry ground thorow the mids of the Sea
Exodus, Book of - Under the headings of ISRAEL IN EGYPT, the PLAGUES OF EGYPT, and the Exodus these subjects are considered, which embrace the first fifteen chapters. ...
Exodus 16 . ...
Exodus 17 . ...
Exodus 18 . ...
Exodus 19 — Exodus 24 . " The ten commandments and various laws followed until Exodus 24 when the covenant was ratified by blood and inaugurated. ...
Exodus 25 — Exodus 31 . ...
Exodus 32 . ...
Exodus 33 . ...
Exodus 34 . ...
Exodus 35 — Exodus 40 . ...
In short, the Book of Exodus shows the redemption of the Israelites from slavery; their being brought into relationship with God, with a priesthood to maintain that relationship; and God leading and dwelling among them
Breastplate - ) ...
An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first mentioned in Exodus 25:7 . On each stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes (Exodus 28:15-29 ; 39:8-21 ). It was not to be "loosed from the ephod" (Exodus 28:28 )
Red Sea, Passage of - The account of the march of the Israelites through the Red Sea is given in Exodus 14:22-31 . The difficulty of arriving at any definite conclusion on the matter is much increased by the consideration that the head of the Gulf of Suez, which was the branch of the sea that was crossed, must have extended at the time of the Exodus probably 50 miles farther north than it does at present. (See Exodus
Flag - Exodus 2:3. An undesigned coincidence that so many Egyptian words should occur in Exodus, just what we should expect if it be, as it professes, Moses' record; but no Hebrew reared in Palestine long after the Exodus would have had the knowledge of the Egyptian tongue which the many plainly Hebraized Egyptian words in Exodus indicate that its author possessed; nor would the author have used these words with out explanation of their meaning, had he not known that his readers were equally familiar with them. Also "the Red Sea," the sea of suph (Exodus 10:19)
Decalogue - (Greek: deka, ten; logos, word) ...
An extra-biblical term which is a literal translation of the phrase "ten words" (Exodus 34); it designates the Ten Commandments which God imposed on His people in the desert of Sinai. The Decalogue, which is to be found in two sections (Exodus 20; Deuteronomy 5), is invested with full Divine authority, so that obedience to it is the test of holiness for the Chosen People and the individual
Sapphire - In general the name of sapphire is given to the blue variety, which is either of deep indigo blue, or of various lighter tints, Exodus 24:10 , and sometimes gradually passes into perfectly white or colorless, which, when cut, may also pass for a diamond, Exodus 28:18 ; 39:11 ; Revelation 21:19
Red Sea - In the Bible it is famous as the scene of the miraculous crossing of the Israelites at the time of the Exodus (Exodus 14)
Sea, Red - In the Bible it is famous as the scene of the miraculous crossing of the Israelites at the time of the Exodus (Exodus 14)
Pattern - terms in OT and NT, some of which denote a model , as in Exodus 25:9 ; Exodus 25:40 of the building model of the Tabernacle shown to Moses on the mount (cf
Knop, - --This occurs in the description of the candlestick of the sacred tent in ( Exodus 25:31-36 ) and Exodus 37:17-22 ...
The second term, Peka'im , is found only in ( 1 Kings 6:18 ) and 1 Kings 7:24 The word no doubt signifies some globular thing resembling a small gourd or an egg, though as to the character of the ornament we are quite in the dark
Pharaoh's Daughter, - (Exodus 2:6-10 ) Osborn thinks her name was Thouoris, daughter of Rameses II, others that her name was Merrhis. daughter of a Pharaoh of an uncertain age, probably of about the time of the Exodus
Mir'Iam - (rebellion ), the sister of Moses, was the eldest of that sacred family; and she first appears, probably as a young girl, watching her infant brother's cradle in the Nile, ( Exodus 2:4 ) and suggesting her mother as a nurse. (Exodus 15:20 ) The prophetic power showed itself in her under the same form as that which it assumed in the days of Samuel and David, --poetry, accompanied with music and processions. (Exodus 15:1-19 ) She took the lead, with Aaron, in the complaint against Moses for his marriage with a Cushite, (Numbers 12:1,2 ) and for this was attacked with leprosy
Candlestick, Seven-Branched - This conspicuous article of furniture of the Holy Place (Exodus 25:37), from its purpose and make-up would be better styled a lampstand. 108 pounds) of pure gold (hence the expression, "the most pure candlestick," of Exodus 31, etc. Only the best kind of olive-oil (the so-called virgin oil, "beaten with a pestle," Exodus 27) was to be used in these lamps, which, trimmed every morning and refilled every evening, were to burn continually (Exodus 27; Leviticus 24). Judas Machabeus provided a new one (1Machabees 4), somewhat different in shape from the one described in Exodus
Seven-Branched Candlestick - This conspicuous article of furniture of the Holy Place (Exodus 25:37), from its purpose and make-up would be better styled a lampstand. 108 pounds) of pure gold (hence the expression, "the most pure candlestick," of Exodus 31, etc. Only the best kind of olive-oil (the so-called virgin oil, "beaten with a pestle," Exodus 27) was to be used in these lamps, which, trimmed every morning and refilled every evening, were to burn continually (Exodus 27; Leviticus 24). Judas Machabeus provided a new one (1Machabees 4), somewhat different in shape from the one described in Exodus
Ephod - It was a common piece of Hebrew clothing (1 Samuel 2:18; 2 Samuel 6:14), but in most cases where the Bible mentions an ephod the reference is to an article of the high priest’s dress (Exodus 28:4-30; Exodus 29:5). ...
The high priest’s ephod was made of multi-coloured embroidered linen similar to the curtains of the tabernacle, but with gold thread woven into the cloth (Exodus 39:2-3; cf. Exodus 26:31). It was held in place by two shoulder straps and bound at the waist by a sash (Exodus 28:7-8)
Moses - ), at a time of grievous persecution, when Pharao had ordered the killing of all male Hebrew children (Exodus 1) Exposed on the waters of the Nile, he was rescued by Pharao's daughter and educated at court. Having killed an Egyptian to save one of his brethren from ill-treatment,he fled to Madian where he married Jethro's daughter (Exodus 2). Then began, under the leadership of Moses, a long and wearisome journey in the direction of the Promised Land, the dramatic episodes of which are related in the remaining chapter of Exodus and in Numbers. Only a few can be enumerated here: The Passage of the Red Sea and the Canticle of Moses (Exodus 14-15); the Manna (16); the promulgation of the Law on Mount Sinai (19-31); the many revolts of the people, who are saved each time by the intervention of their leader (Exodus 16; Numbers 13-14,21); the march from Mount Sinai to Cades, and the stay at Cades for 38 years during which the present generation is condemned never to enter the Promised Land (Numbers 10-20); Moses himself is excluded from it because of his lack of confidence at the "Waters of Contradiction" (ib. See also, Exodus, Numbers and Deuteronomy
Glory - The glory of God in the writings of Moses, denotes, generally, the divine presence; as when he appeared on Mount Sinai; or, the bright cloud which declared his presence, and descended on the tabernacle of the congregation, Exodus 24:9-10 ; Exodus 24:16-17 . " The glory of the Lord appeared to Israel in the cloud also, when he gave them manna and quails, Exodus 16:7 ; Exodus 16:10 . And the Lord said, There is a place by me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock: and it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in the cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by; and I will take away my hand, and thou shalt see my back parts:" (the train, the fainter rays of the glory:) "but my face shall not be seen," Exodus 33:18 . The priestly ornaments are called "garments of glory," Exodus 28:2 ; Exodus 28:40 ; and the sacred vessels, "vessels of glory," 1Ma_2:9 ; 1Ma_2:12
( a ) We begin, therefore, with ‘the court of the dwelling ’ ( Exodus 27:9 ). The entrance, which is on the eastern side, is closed by a screen ( Exodus 27:16 RV
( b ) In the centre of the court is placed the altar of burnt-offering ( Exodus 27:1-8 ), called also ‘ the brazen altar ’ and ‘ the altar ’ par excellence . ]'> ‘ grate ’) of bronze ( Exodus 27:5 , Exodus 38:4 RV  ‘tabernacle’) of ten curtains’ ( Exodus 26:1 ). ‘the work of the cunning workman’ ( Exodus 26:1 ff. ]'> ‘ taches ’) and loops , so as to form one large surface 40 (10Ã4) cubits by 28 (7Ã4), ‘for the dwelling shall be one’ ( Exodus 26:8 ). ...
( b ) The next section of the Divine directions ( Exodus 26:7-14 ) provides for the thorough protection of these delicate artistic curtains by means of three separate coverings. The two remaining coverings are to be made respectively of rams’ skins dyed red and of the skins of a Red Sea mammal, which is probably the dugong ( Exodus 26:14 , RV , lxxiii xcii. ]...
( d ) The fabric of the Tabernacle, as described up to this point in Exodus 26:1-30 , has been found to consist of three parts, carefully distinguished from each other. ...
The next step is to provide for the division of the dwelling into two parts, in the proportion of 2 Timothy 1 , by means of a beautiful portiere, termed the veil ( Exodus 26:31 ff. This is now done ( Exodus 26:36 f. Its special designation, ‘a screen for the door of the Tent’ ( Exodus 26:36 RV Exodus 37:23 ) for dressing the wicks of the lamps, the burnt portions being placed in the ‘ snuff dishes . ...
( c ) The passage containing the directions for the altar of incense ( Exodus 30:1-7 ) forms part of a section (chs. Incense of sweet spices is to be offered upon it night and morning ( Exodus 30:7 ff. In the most holy place are placed two distinct yet connected sacred objects, the ark and the propitiatory or mercy-seat ( Exodus 25:10-22 , Exodus 37:1-9 ). ]'> for the Decalogue ( Exodus 25:16 ), which was written on ‘the tables of testimony’ ( Exodus 31:18 ), deposited, according to an early tradition, within the ark. ]'> ‘tabernacle’) of the testimony’ ( Exodus 38:21 etc
Agate - Hebrew Sheba (from Sheba whence it came to Tyre), Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12, is rightly translated "agate," a semi-transparent uncrystallized quartz, mainly silica, with concentric layers of various tints; the second stone of the third row on the high priest's breast-plate
Lintel - In Exodus 12:22,23 the 'lintel' is the beam that runs along the top of a door and joins the two side-posts. The word is mashqoph, and occurs only in the above passage and in Exodus 12:7 , where it is translated 'upper door post,' but clearly means the lintel
Onyx - A nail, the eleventh stone in the high priest's breastplate, Exodus 28:20 . The Hebrew word so translated is not known with certainty to signify the onyx; but denoted some valuable stone, Genesis 2:12 ; Exodus 25:7 ; 28:9-12,20
Miriam - The sister of Moses and Aaron, probably the one who watched over Moses in the ark of bulrushes, Exodus 2:4,5 Numbers 26 59 Micah 6 4 . As a prophetess, she led the women of Israel in their song of worship and thanksgiving to God on the drowning of the Egyptians, Exodus 15:20,21
Robbery, - (Genesis 16:12 ) The Mosaic law on the subject of theft is contained in (Exodus 2:2 ) There seems no reason to suppose that the law underwent any alteration in Solomon's time. (Exodus 21:16 ; 24:7) Invasion of right in land was strictly forbidden
Slave, Slavery - In the earliest code (Book of the Covenant ) he is called his master’s money ( Exodus 21:21 ). In the Decalogue he is grouped with the cattle ( Exodus 20:17 ), and so regularly in the patriarchal narratives ( Genesis 12:16 etc. If the slave lingers a day or two before dying, the master is given the benefit of the doubt as to the cause of his death, and the loss of the slave is regarded as a sufficient punishment ( Exodus 21:21 ). Exodus 21:26 ff. with Exodus 21:22 ff. ); and it is the master of the slave, not the slave himself, who is recompensed if the slave is gored by an ox ( Exodus 21:32 ). He was flogged ( Exodus 21:20 , Proverbs 29:19 ), and at times heartlessly deserted ( 1 Samuel 30:11 ff. In the BC it is assumed that the maid-servant is at the same time a concubine ( Exodus 21:7 ff. Here the punishment ‘for the violation of a slave-girl was almost certainly a fine to be paid to the master, if we may judge from the analogous law in Exodus 22:16 = Deuteronomy 22:28 ; i. (3) From native Israelites who bad become enslaved as a punishment for theft ( Exodus 22:1-4 ), whether for other crimes also is not stated; Josephus ( Ant. (4) From native Israelites who, through poverty and debt, had been forced to sell themselves ( Exodus 21:2 , Amos 2:6 ; Amos 8:6 , Deuteronomy 15:12 , Leviticus 25:39 , Proverbs 11:29Proverbs 22:7) or their children ( Exodus 21:7 , 2 Kings 4:1 , Nehemiah 5:6 ; Nehemiah 5:8 , Isaiah 50:1 , Job 24:9 ) into servitude. The BC ( Exodus 21:32 ) fixes the average price at 30 shekels (about Â£4). In later times the price in Exodus seems to have been maintained ( 2Ma 8:11 ; Ant. In law the slave was regarded as an integral part of the master’s household ( Exodus 20:17 ), and, as such, an adherent of the family cult (cf. Accordingly the BC ( Exodus 23:12 ) and the Decalogue ( Exodus 20:10 ) guarantee to him the Sabbath rest. Thus, while the gÃ§r (sojourner) cannot partake of the Passover unless circumcised, the slave must be circumcised and so is entitled to partake ( Exodus 12:44 ; cf. ...
As to civil rights: In the BC, murder of the slave as well as of the freeman is punishable with death (Exodus 21:12 = Leviticus 24:17 ; the law is Inclusive). If death results from flogging, the master is also punished, conjecturally by a fine ( Exodus 21:20 ff. If the slave is seriously maimed by his master, he is given his freedom ( Exodus 21:26 ff. While a man could be sold into slavery for debt (see above), man-stealing is prohibited on pain of death ( Exodus 21:16 = Deuteronomy 24:7 ). Deuteronomy interprets the Exodus law correctly as a prohibition against stealing a fellow-countryman. The slave is grouped with wife and child as part of the master’s household ( Exodus 20:17 ). Children are property and can be sold as well as slaves ( Exodus 21:7 ; cf. Exodus 22:16 = Deuteronomy 22:28 where the daughter is regarded as the father’s property). Galatians 4:1 ), and the law implies the possibility of a genuine affection existing between master and man ( Exodus 21:5 = Deuteronomy 15:16 )
Bolled - KJV translation (Exodus 9:31 ) of a term that means “having bolls”—that is, having seed pods
Amethyst - Exodus 28:19 (c) This beautiful stone may be a type of the royalty and the regal splendor of those who belong to GOD
Hexateuch - (Greek: hex, six; teuchos, case, book) ...
The first six books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Josue, so caIled to mark the fact that they form a literary whole
Goshen - It was occupied by the Hebrews from the time of Joseph until the Exodus. Some scholars equate Heroonpolis with the Egyptian storage city, Pithom (Exodus 1:11 ). See Exodus 8:22 ; Exodus 9:26 ), but began their Exodus from Rameses (Exodus 12:37 ; Numbers 33:3 ), which was a city they helped to build (Exodus 1:11 ). (4) Both the two cities which the Hebrews built, Rameses and Pithom, and the Hyksos capital at Zoan are key issues for settling on a date for the Exodus
First-Fruits - ...
The feast of Tabernacles was an acknowledgement that the fruits of the harvest were from the Lord (Exodus 23:16 ; 34:22 ). ...
Every individual, besides, was required to consecrate to God a portion of the first-fruits of the land (Exodus 22:29 ; 23:19 ; 34:26 ; Numbers 15:20,21 ). (Jeremiah 2:3 ) alludes to the ordinance of "first-fruits," and hence he must have been acquainted with the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers, where the laws regarding it are recorded
Hanging - masak, (a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle ( Exodus 35:17 ); (b) before the door of the tabernacle (26:36,37); (c) before the entrance to the most holy place, called "the veil of the covering" (35:12; 39:34), as the word properly means. kelaim, tapestry covering the walls of the tabernacle (Exodus 27:9 ; 35:17 ; Numbers 3:26 ) to the half of the height of the wall (Exodus 27:18 ; comp 26:16)
Injury - Old Testament law provided two responses to injuries; retaliation in kind (“eye for eye, tooth for tooth” (Exodus 21:24 ) and compensation. For example, if the victim of an assault was confined to bed, the assailant was to pay the injured party for time lost from work as well as “health care” expenses to ensure recovery (Exodus 21:22 ). If an owner caused a slave to loose an eye or a tooth, the slave was to be freed as compensation for the loss (Exodus 21:26 )
First-Born - Under the law, in memory of the Exodus (when the first-born of the Egyptians were slain), the eldest son was regarded as devoted to God, and was in very case to be redeemed by an offering not exceeding five shekels, within one month from birth. (Exodus 13:12-15,16 ; Leviticus 27:6 ) The eldest son received a double portion of the father's inheritance, (21:17) but not of the mother's. (Exodus 13:2,12,13 ; 22:29 ; 34:19,20 ) Unclean animals were to be redeemed with the addition of one-fifth of the value, or else put to death; or, if not redeemed, to be sold, and the price given to the priests
Loop - A knotted "eye" of cord, corresponding to the "taches" or knobs in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Exodus 26:4,5,10,11 )
Cloud - The word is used as a symbol of the Divine presence, as indicating the splendour of that glory which it conceals (Exodus 16:10 ; 33:9 ; Numbers 11:25 ; 12:5 ; Job 22:14 ; Psalm 18:11 ). Jehovah came down upon Sinai in a cloud (Exodus 19:9 ); and the cloud filled the court around the tabernacle in the wilderness so that Moses could not enter it (Exodus 40:34,35 ). Cloud, the pillar of, was the glory-cloud which indicated God's presence leading the ransomed people through the wilderness (Exodus 13:22 ; 33:9,10 ). This pillar preceded the people as they marched, resting on the ark (Exodus 13:21 ; 40:36 )
Oil, Olive - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony (Exodus 27); it was also used in many religious ceremonies, e. , coronation of kings, consecration of the high priest, and ordination of the Levites, and was prominent in Mosaic ordinances (Exodus 30; Leviticus 8; Deuteronomy 28)
Olive Oil - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony (Exodus 27); it was also used in many religious ceremonies, e. , coronation of kings, consecration of the high priest, and ordination of the Levites, and was prominent in Mosaic ordinances (Exodus 30; Leviticus 8; Deuteronomy 28)
Bonnet - peer), Exodus 39:28 (RSV, "head-tires"); Ezekiel 44:18 (RSV, "tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isaiah 3:20 (RSV, "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females. In Exodus 28:40 ; 29:9 it is the translation of a different Hebrew word (migba'ah), which denotes the turban (RSV, "head-tire") of the common priest as distinguished from the mitre of the high priest
Borrow - The Israelites "borrowed" from the Egyptians (Exodus 12:35 , RSV, "asked") in accordance with a divine command (3:22; 11:2). The Egyptians were so anxious to get the Israelites away out of their land that "they let them have what they asked" (Exodus 12:36 , RSV), or literally "made them to ask," urged them to take whatever they desired and depart
Elim - Trees, (Exodus 15:27 ; Numbers 33:9 ), the name of the second station where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. The form of expression in Exodus 16:1 seems to imply that the people proceeded in detachments or companies from Elim, and only for the first time were assembled as a complete host when they reached the wilderness of Sin (q
Aaron - Brother of Moses and high priest of the Old Law; chosen by Moses to be his spokesman before Pharoah (Exodus 4,7, 8). He caused the casting of the golden calf which the Israelites worshiped in the wilderness (Exodus 32), but at the prayer of Moses he was spared the fate of the three thousand worshipers (Deuteronomy 9)
Topaz - ' It was one of the jewels in the breastplate, Exodus 28:17 ; Exodus 39:10 ; and is included in the prophetical description of the symbolical 'king of Tyrus
Migdol - (Exodus 14:2) Here it was Israel was commanded to encamp before the sea, where the Lord meant to display such a miracle in opening a way through it for Israel's safety, and the Egyptians, overthrow. (See the history, Exodus 14:1-31 throughout
Kidney - Exodus 29:13 (c) This figure probably indicates those secret activities of the life which are occupied with unpleasant things which should not be made known, and yet are necessary and must be given into
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - By far the largest group (about fifty occurrences) of these refer to the visible manifestation of the divine presence during Israel's Exodus from Egypt and wilderness wandering. This sign of God's presence is termed variously: pillar of cloud (Exodus 13:21-22 , ; plus eleven times), pillar of fire and cloud (Exodus 14:24 ); a thick cloud (Exodus 19:9,16 ), the cloud (Exodus 14:20 , plus thirty-three times); and the cloud of the Lord (Exodus 40:38 ; Numbers 10:34 ). ...
The pillar of cloud motif-set forth in the Exodus account and expanded in the prophetic announcements of a new Exodus after the Babylonian exile-encompasses a rich complex of theological meanings and functions: guidance/leading (of Israel out of Egypt and through the wilderness to Canaan, Exodus 13:21 ; Numbers 14:14 ; Nehemiah 9:12 ; Psalm 78:14 ); a signal for movement (breaking and setting up camp, Exodus 40:36-37 ; Numbers 9:17-23 ); protection from danger (as a barrier of darkness between Israel and the Egyptians, Exodus 14:19-20 ); the sustained, immediate, personal presence of Yahweh/the angel of the Lord (Exodus 13:22 ; 14:19,24 ; 40:38 ; Numbers 9:15-16 ); an agency of summons (to battle, Numbers 10:34-35 ; and to worship, Exodus 33:10 ); both a concealment and manifestation of divine glory (Exodus 16:10 ; 19:9,16 ; 20:21 ; 24:15-18 ; 34:5 ; Deuteronomy 4:11 ; 5:22 ); the place of propositional revelation (as an oracular cloud, Exodus 33:9 ; Psalm 99:7 ); the dwelling place/throne of divinity (over the tabernacle, Numbers 9:18,22 ; 10:11 ; and in particular, over the mercy seat, Leviticus 16:2 ); the locus of cultic theophany (for the investiture of the seventy elders and Joshua, Numbers 11:25 ; Deuteronomy 31:15 ; for the inauguration of the tabernacle, Exodus 40:34-35 ); shade/protection from the sun or storm (Numbers 10:34 ; Psalm 105:39 ; Isaiah 4:5 ); illumination (as a pillar of fire by night, Exodus 14:20 ; Numbers 9:15 ); and an agency of legal investigation and/or executive judgment (against Israel's enemies, Exodus 14:24 ; and against rebels within Israel, Numbers 12:5,10 ; 16:42 ). The remaining twenty-two New Testament occurrences of the word "cloud" appear in the context of theophany, and encompass six theologically crucial, eschatologically related events or visionary scenes in salvation history: (1) the pillar of cloud at the Exodus, viewed as a type of Christian baptism in the time of eschatological fulfillment (1 Corinthians 10:1-2 ); (2) Jesus' transfiguration, as a foretaste of the kingdom of God, during which the Father appears and speaks in a cloud (Matthew 17:5 ; Mark 9:7 ; Luke 9:34 ); (3) Jesus' ascension, explained by the angels as a paradigm for his return (Acts 1:9 ); (4) the "mighty angel" descending from heaven wrapped in a cloud, announcing (against the eschatological backdrop of Daniel 12:7 ) that time should be no longer (Revelation 10:1 ); (5) the two resurrected witnesses ascending to heaven in a cloud, described in the context of the eschatological measuring of the temple of God (Revelation 11:12 ); and (6) Jesus' parousia, against the backdrop of Daniel 7:13 , as the Son of Man coming with/on/in a cloud/the clouds/the clouds of heaven (Matthew 24:30 ; 26:64 ; Mark 13:26 ; 14:62 ; Luke 12:54 ; 21:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:17 ; Revelation 1:7 ; 14:14-16 )
Hur - A chief man among the Hebrews in the desert, associated with Aaron in upholding the hands of Moses at Rephidim, and in supplying his place while on the summit of Sinai, Exodus 17:10 ; 24:14
Ligure - Probably the same with the jacinth, a stone in the high priest's breastplate, Exodus 28:19 ; 39:12 , said to have been of a deep and brilliant red color, with a tinge of yellow, and transparent
Jehovah-Nissi - Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites (Exodus 17:15 )
A district in Egypt where Jacob and his family settled, and in which they remained till the Exodus (Genesis 45:10 ; 46:28,29,31 , etc. It is called "the land of Goshen" (47:27), and also simply "Goshen" (46:28), and "the land of Rameses" (47:11; Exodus 12:37 ), for the towns Pithom and Rameses lay within its borders; also Zoan or Tanis (Psalm 78:12 ). The inhabitants were not exclusively Israelites (Exodus 3:22 ; 11:2 ; 12:35,36 )
Pithom - by the Israelites (Exodus 1:11 ). Succoth (Exodus 12:37 ) is supposed by some to be the secular name of this city, Pithom being its sacred name. This was the first halting-place of the Israelites in their Exodus
Mixed Multitude - A description given (1) to certain persons who joined Israel in the Exodus from Egypt ( Exodus 12:38 ), and who fell a lusting at Kibroth-hattaavah ( Numbers 11:4 ); (2) to those who were separated from the Israelites after the return from the Captivity ( Nehemiah 13:3 ). ...
In Exodus 12:38 those referred to are probably strangers of non-Israelitic or half-Israelitic origin
Shittah - The ark, the staves, the shewbread table and staves, and the altars of burnt offering and incense, were made of shittah (Exodus 25; 26; 36-38). It was probably in the shittah or acacia that the flame appeared which did not burn the bush (Exodus 3). If the ark had been made in Palestine, oak or cedar would have been its material; its being said to be made of shittah, the wood of the wilderness, is an undesigned propriety and mark of truth (Exodus 25:10)
Evening - The Hebrews reckoned two evenings in each day; as in the phrase, "between the two evenings," Exodus 12:6Numbers 9:3 28:4 . In this interval the Passover was to be killed, and the daily evening sacrifice offered, Exodus 29:39-41 , Hebrew
Exodus - the Book of: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Witch - Occurs only in Exodus 22:18 , as the rendering of Mekhashshepheh , The feminine form of the word, meaning "enchantress" (RSV, "sorceress"), and in Deuteronomy 18:10 , as the rendering of Mekhashshepheth , the masculine form of the word, meaning "enchanter
Gershom - The elder of the two sons borne to Moses by Zipporah ( Exodus 2:22 ; Exodus 18:2-6 ; the explanation of the name given in these two passages is folk-etymology). According to Exodus 14:25 ; Exodus 14:25 , the origin of circumcision among the Israelites was connected with that of Gershom; the rite was performed by his mother; this was contrary to later usage, according to which this was always done by a man
Abib - the name of the first Hebrew sacred month, Exodus 13:4 . Abib signifies green ears of corn, or fresh fruits, according to Jerom's translation, Exodus 13:4 , and to the LXX. This change took place at the redemption of Israel from Egypt, Exodus 12:2 , "This shall be to you the beginning of months. On the seven succeeding days they celebrated the feast of unleavened bread, on the last of which days they held a solemn convocation, Exodus 12:13
Herd - (Genesis 47:6,17 ; Exodus 9:4,20 ) So the plague of hail was sent to smite especially the cattle, (Psalm 78:48 ) the firstborn of which also were smitten. (Exodus 12:29 ) The Israelites departing stipulated for, (Exodus 10:26 ) and took "much cattle" with them. (Exodus 12:38 ) Cattle formed thus one of the traditions of the Israelitish nation in its greatest period, and became almost a part of that greatness
Altar - mizbe'ah, from a word meaning "to slay"), any structure of earth (Exodus 20:24 ) or unwrought stone (20:25) on which sacrifices were offered. Altars were erected by Abraham (Genesis 12:7 ; 13:4 ; 22:9 ), by Isaac (Genesis 26:25 ), by Jacob (33:20; 35:1,3), and by Moses (Exodus 17:15 , "Jehovah-nissi"). ...
The altar of burnt offering (Exodus 30:28 ), called also the "brasen altar" (Exodus 39:39 ) and "the table of the Lord" (Malachi 1:7 ). This altar, as erected in the tabernacle, is described in Exodus 27:1-8 . Its corners were ornamented with "horns" (Exodus 29:12 ; Leviticus 4:18 ). ...
In Exodus 27:3 the various utensils appertaining to the altar are enumerated. ...
The altar of incense (Exodus 30:1-10 ), called also "the golden altar" (39:38; Numbers 4:11 ), stood in the holy place "before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony. This altar was a small movable table, made of acacia wood overlaid with gold (Exodus 37:25,26 ). " (Compare Exodus 30:1-6
Exodus, Book of - Exodus, being only one part of a much longer book, is therefore best understood in connection with what precedes and what follows it. (For the authorship of Exodus see PENTATEUCH. ) The name Exodus, meaning ‘ a going out’, was given by those who made the first Greek translation of the Old Testament. Genesis 15:13; Exodus 12:41), till the time approached when they would be strong enough to move north and conquer Canaan. Among the cities built by the Israelite slaves was Rameses (Genesis 15:14; Exodus 1:8-12; see EGYPT; RAMESES). He therefore freed Israel from Egypt’s power and set the people on their way to the promised land (Exodus 2:24; Exodus 6:6-8). The instructions concerning these matters begin in Exodus and carry on unbroken through Leviticus and into Numbers. Exodus 19:1; Numbers 10:11). ...
The events of the Exodus from Egypt and the establishment of the covenant at Sinai are therefore the main issues of the book of Exodus. God was in control of events and was directing them towards the goals that he had set (Exodus 14:31; Exodus 15:1-18; Exodus 19:4-6; Exodus 29:45-46; Exodus 33:14). Above all they came to know him as their Redeemer (Exodus 3:13-17; Exodus 6:6-8; Exodus 20:2)
Harness - ’ Similarly ‘harnessed’ ( Exodus 13:18 ) becomes ‘armed,’ and the ‘well harnessed’ camp of 1Ma 4:7 becomes ‘fortified. The only passage where ‘harness’ as a verb has its modern signification is Jeremiah 46:4 ‘harness the horses,’ the verb in the original being that used in Genesis 46:29 , Exodus 14:6 etc
Perfumes - Moses also speaks of the art of the perfumer, in the English Bible "apothecary;" and gives the composition of two perfumes, of which one was to be offered to the Lord on the golden altar, Exodus 30:34-38 . And the other to be used for anointing the high priest and his sons, the tabernacle, and the vessels of divine service, Exodus 30:23-33
Elders of Israel - Moses and Aaron treated the elders as representatives of the nation, Exodus 3:16 4:29 12:21 . When the law was given, God directed Moses to take the seventy elders, as well as Aaron, and Nadab and Abihu his sons, that they might be witnesses, Exodus 24:1,9
Aaron - First, Aaron was committed to the God of the “fathers”—Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Exodus 3:1-6 ). ...
First, he accepted God's call to be Moses' mouthpiece before Pharaoh (Exodus 4:10-17 ; 5:1-13 ; 6:10-13 ; 6:28-7:7 ), a risky assignment. ...
Second, as Moses' prophet (Exodus 7:1 ) he was an important proclaimer of God's word to Pharaoh and the other Egyptians. Moses and Aaron were allowed to enter into God's holy presence on Sinai (Exodus 19:24 ; 24:9-10 ). Aaron was directly responsible for a grave offense against God when Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the written law of Israel (Exodus 32:1-10 ). He ministered before Yahweh, whose presence-cloud dwelt above the mercy seat over the ark of the covenant in the Most Holy Place of the tabernacle (Exodus 40:38 ). Childs, The Book of Exodus ; L. Cox, Exodus ; C. Hyatt, Exodus ; C
Miriam - Miriam played a key role in the rescue of Moses (Exodus 2:4-8 ) and in the subsequent experience of the Exodus and the wilderness community. After crossing the Red Sea, she assumed the role of prophetess and led the women in the song of victory that was steeped in faith and gratitude (Exodus 15:20-21 )
Months - ירחים , sometimes also called חדשים , new moons, from the circumstance of their commencing with the new moon, anciently had no separate names, with the exception of the first, which was called Abib, that is, "the month of the young ears of corn," Exodus 13:4 ; Exodus 23:15 ; Exodus 34:18 ; Deuteronomy 16:1
Bronze - It was used in construction for hinges, pillars, and gates as well as for decoration in important buildings, such as the Tabernacle ( Exodus 25-27 ; Exodus 30:18 ; Exodus 31:4 ; Exodus 35-39 ), palace, and the Temple (1 Kings 7:13-47 NAS)
Miriam - The princess accepting the offer, Miriam fetched her own mother, to whom the young Moses was given to nurse, Exodus 2:4-5 , &c. It is thought that Miriam married Hur, of the tribe of Judah; but it does not appear that she had any children by him, Exodus 17:10-11 . Miriam had the gift of prophecy, as she intimates, Numbers 12:2 : "Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us?" After the passage of the Red Sea, Miriam led the choirs and dances of the women, and sung with them the canticle, "Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea:" while Moses led the choir of men, Exodus 15:21 . Her death happened in the first month of the fortieth year after the Exodus, at the encampment of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin, Numbers 20:1
Play - Exodus 32:6 (c) We may consider that this act represents the carelessness and the heedlessness of the unsaved, who while living in their sins, and enjoying evil pleasures, have no fear of GOD, no regard for His Word, and no care about their destiny
Ear - The perforated ear was a sign of slavery or dependence, indicating the obligation to attend ( Exodus 21:6 , Deuteronomy 15:16 f. The tip of the priest’s right ear was touched with blood in token that the sense of hearing was consecrated to God’s service ( Exodus 29:20 , Leviticus 8:23 )
Firstborn - In memory of the death of Egypt's firstborn and the preservation of the firstborn of Israel, all the firstborn of Israel, both of man and beast, belonged to Yahweh (Exodus 13:2 ,Exodus 13:2,13:15 ; compare Exodus 12:12-16 ). ...
The firstborn of a clean animal was brought into the sanctuary on the eighth day after birth (Exodus 22:30 ). According to Exodus 13:13 ; Exodus 34:20 , the firstborn of an ass was either ransomed by a sheep or lamb, or its neck had to be broken...
Figuratively, Israel was God's “firstborn” (Exodus 4:22 ; Jeremiah 31:9 ) and enjoyed priority status
Mount Sinai - Sometimes Sinai is called “the mount” (Exodus 19:2 ); sometimes “the mountain of God” (Exodus 3:1 ); sometimes “the mount of the Lord” (Numbers 10:33 ). ...
The term Horeb is often used to refer to Sinai in such a way as to make the names synonymous ( Exodus 3:1 ). The major argument for this view is that Sinai's phenomena indicate volcanic action—fire, smoke, quaking earth (Exodus 19:16-18 )—and no volcano is found in the Sinaitic peninsula. However, the phenomena that appeared at Sinai were undoubtedly supernatural in origin, for they were accompanied by the sounds of a trumpet and the voice of God (Exodus 19:19 ). ...
Another location for Sinai is sought far north of Jebel Musa, primarily because of historical references such as the battle with the Amalekites (Exodus 17:8-16 ). See Palestine ; Exodus, Wilderness Journey...
Cloud - When the Israelites had left Egypt, God gave them a pillar of cloud to direct their march, Exodus 13:21-22 . This pillar was commonly in front of the Israelites; but at Pihahiroth, when the Egyptian army approached behind them, it placed itself between Israel and the Egyptians, so that the Egyptians could not come near the Israelites all night, Exodus 14:19-20 . "The angel of God which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them,"...
Exodus 14:19 . The Lord appeared at Sinai in the midst of a cloud, Exodus 19:9 ; Exodus 24:5 ; and after Moses had built and consecrated the tabernacle, the cloud filled the court around it, so that neither Moses nor the priests could enter, Exodus 40:34-35 . The angel descended in the cloud, and thence spoke to Moses, without being seen by the people, Exodus 16:10 ; Numbers 11:25 ; Numbers 16:5
Kohath - Died 133 years old (Exodus 6:16; Exodus 6:18). From him sprang Moses and Aaron (1 Chronicles 6:2); but (See AMRAM their father is separated from the Amram, Kohath's son, by many omitted links in the genealogy, for at the Exodus Kohath's posterity numbered 2,750 between 30 and 50 years old (Numbers 4:35-36), and the males young and old 8,600, divided into the Amramites, Izharites, Hebronites, and Uzzielites (Numbers 3:25-27, etc
Candlestick, - which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, is described (Exodus 25:31-37 ; 37:17-24 ) It was not strictly a "candlestick," as it held seven richly-adorned lamps.  The candlestick was placed on the south side of the first apartment of the tabernacle, opposite the table of shewbread, (Exodus 25:37 ) and was lighted every evening and dressed every morning. (Exodus 27:20,21 ; 30:8 ) comp
Candlestick, - which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, is described (Exodus 25:31-37 ; 37:17-24 ) It was not strictly a "candlestick," as it held seven richly-adorned lamps.  The candlestick was placed on the south side of the first apartment of the tabernacle, opposite the table of shewbread, (Exodus 25:37 ) and was lighted every evening and dressed every morning. (Exodus 27:20,21 ; 30:8 ) comp
Manna - 1: μάννα (Strong's #3131 — Noun Neuter — manna — man'-nah ) the supernaturally provided food for Israel during their wilderness journey (for details see Exodus 16 and Numbers 11 ). The Hebrew equivalent is given in Exodus 16:15 , RV marg. " The vessel appointed to contain it as a perpetual memorial, was of gold, Hebrews 9:4 , with Exodus 16:33
Blue - Exodus 25:4 (c) Blue threads were woven into the various parts of the tabernacle to remind Israel that though they were traveling on earth their destination was Heaven. See also Exodus 26:1; Exodus 39:3. ...
Exodus 26:31 (c) The colors in the veil were to remind Israel that they could not enter the holy place, nor have the full enjoyment of GOD's fellowship except by the graces and privileges represented by these. ...
Exodus 26:36 (c) The blue in these door curtains was to remind Israel that they could always enter into GOD's house and GOD's fellowship by means of that heavenly revelation and heavenly salvation provided through the blood of the lamb. ...
Exodus 28:31 (c) This color on Aaron was to remind him that he was always to be enveloped with a heavenly deportment
Sabbath - The first time the Sabbath is specifically mentioned in scripture is in Exodus 16:23 , after the manna had been given from heaven; but the Sabbath clearly had its origin in the sanctification and blessing of the seventh day after the six days of creative work. ...
The words 'rest' and 'Sabbath' in the passage in Exodus have no article, so that the sentence may be translated "To-morrow is  rest,  holy Sabbath unto the Lord. " So in Exodus 16:25,26 there is no article: there is in Exodus 16:29 . The Sabbath was soon after definitely enacted in the ten commandments, Exodus 20:8-11 , and reference is there made to God having rested on the seventh day after the work of creation as the basis of the institution. Exodus 31:13,17 ; Ezekiel 20:12,20
Plague - burning fever; compare Habakkuk 3:5 margin (See EGYPT and Exodus on the ten plagues. A special reason why in this case the natural background of the miracles should appear was in order to show that Jehovah was God of Egypt as much as of Israel, and rules "in the midst of the earth" (Exodus 8:22)...
By exhibiting Jehovah through Moses at will bringing on with unusual intensity, and withdrawing in answer to intercession at once and completely, the well known Egyptian periodical scourges which their superstition attributed to false gods, Jehovah was proved more effectively to be supreme than He could have been by inflicting some new and strange visitation. , as Jehovah saith (Exodus 12:12), "against all the gods of Egypt will I execute judgment" (Exodus 18:11; Exodus 15:11; Numbers 33:4). The difference marked all along from the third plague was most marked in that on the firstborn (Exodus 11:7)
Pentateuch - Genesis is called bereshith , “in beginning”; Exodus, we'elleh shehymoth , “These are the names”; Leviticus, wayyikra , “and he called”; Numbers, bemidbar , “in the Wilderness”; and Deuteronomy, elleh haddebarim , “These are the words. Genesis means “generation” or “origin”; Exodus means “going out”; Leviticus refers to the Levitical system; Numbers refers to the numbering of the tribes, Levites, and first born (Numbers 1-4 ,Numbers 1-4,26:1 ); and Deuteronomy means “second law” (Deuteronomy 17:18 ). At the end of Genesis (Genesis 50:1 ), the stories of the Patriarchs end, and the story of the people of Israel begins in Exodus 1:1 . The division between Exodus and Leviticus marks the change from the building of the tabernacle in Exodus 35-40 to the inauguration of worship ( Leviticus 1-10 ). A division of the Pentateuch based on the contents may be outlined as: Genesis 1-11 , Primeval history, from Creation to Abraham; Genesis 12-36 , Patriarchal history; Genesis 37-50 , Joseph stories; Exodus 1-18 , The Exodus; Exodus 19:1 —Numbers 19:1—10:10 , Israel at Sinai; Numbers 10:11-21:35 , Israel in the Wilderness; Numbers 22:1 —Deuteronomy 22:1—34:1 , Israel in the Plains of Moab. ...
Divine deliverance is the major theme of Exodus 1-18 . Covenant and law are themes of Exodus 19-24 . Worship and social ethics are the concerns of Exodus 25:1 —Numbers 25:1—10:10 . The Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1 : 2-17 ; Deuteronomy 5:6-21 ) are frequently called law, but they are not law in the technical sense because no penalties or sanctions are connected with them. Other groups of laws in the Pentateuch are: the Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:22-23:19 ); the laws of sacrifice (Leviticus 1-7 ); the laws of purity (Leviticus 11-15 ); the Holiness Code (Leviticus 17-26 ); and the Deuteronomy Code (Deuteronomy 12-26 ). Four out of forty chapters in Exodus (Deuteronomy 20-23 ), most of Leviticus and a small portion of Numbers contain laws. The 65 laws in the Book of the Covenant (see Exodus 24:7 ) include rules about images and kinds of altars (Exodus 20:22-26 ); Hebrew slaves (Exodus 21:1-11 ); offences penalized by death (Exodus 21:12-17 ); bodily injury (Exodus 21:18-24 ); offences against property (Exodus 21:25-22:17 ); miscellaneous social and cultic laws (Exodus 22:18-23:9 ); a cultic calendar (Exodus 23:10-19 ); blessing and curse (Exodus 23:20-33 ). The laws for Hebrew slaves and the calendars of worship are different in Exodus and Deuteronomy. In Deuteronomy the Passover is to be observed only at the one legitimate place and the lamb is to be boiled (Deuteronomy 16:7 ), but in Exodus, Passover is a family affair and the lambs are to be roasted (Exodus 12:9 ). The people had experienced deliverance (salvation) at the Exodus. ...
The Pentateuch contains many lists: genealogical (Genesis 5:1 ; Genesis 11:1 ; Exodus 5:1 ), geographical and ethnographical (Genesis 10:1 ; Genesis 26:1 ), tribal (Genesis 49:1 ; Deuteronomy 33:1 ); offerings (Exodus 35:1 ); census (Numbers 1-4 ; Numbers 26:1 ), and campsites in the wilderness (Numbers 33:1 ). ...
I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious (Exodus 33:19 ). They sang in times of victory (Exodus 15:1 ), at work (Numbers 21:17-18 ), in times of battle (Numbers 21:14-15 ,Numbers 21:14-15,21:27-30 ), and in worship (Leviticus 19:26 ; Deuteronomy 32:1-43 ). ...
Although the books of the Pentateuch as a whole are anonymous, a number of passages refer to Moses writing at least certain things (compare Exodus 17:14 ; Exodus 24:4 ; Exodus 24:7 ; Numbers 33:1-2 ; Deuteronomy 31:9 ,Deuteronomy 31:9,31:22 )
Shekel - It was also the name of the chief silver coin of the Hebrews, and is mentioned in the Bible (Genesis 24; Exodus 30 ; 2 Kings 14)
Elim - A station of the Israelites, on their way to mount Sinai, Exodus 15:27 ; 16:1 ; Numbers 33:9 , generally taken to be the present Wady Ghurundel, a broad valley running southwest of Suez
Mirror - (Exodus 38:8 ; Job 37:18 ) The Hebrew women on coming out of Egypt probably brought with them mirrors like those which were used by the Egyptians, and were made of a mixed metal, chiefly copper, wrought with admirable skill, and susceptible of a bright lustre
Elder - Moses was desired to convey the divine message to "the elders of Israel," Exodus 3:16; and they were both to accompany him when he demanded freedom from Pharaoh, and also to be the means of communication between Moses and the mass of the people. Exodus 3:18; Exodus 4:29; Exodus 12:21. We find them after the departure from Egypt, Exodus 17:6; Exodus 19:7; and from these, 70 were selected for special worship with Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu. Exodus 24:1-2; Exodus 24:9-11. Moses had, at the suggestion of Jethro, appointed officers to administer justice, Exodus 18:26, but he seems to have required, further, a body of (if they may be so called) political advisers
Ten curtains, each twenty-eight cubits long and four wide, made of fine linen, also eleven made of goat's hair, covered the tabernacle (Exodus 26:1-13 ; 36:8-17 ). It is described as a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work" (Exodus 26:31 ; Leviticus 16:2 ; Numbers 18:7 )
Elim - One of the stations in the wanderings of the children of Israel ( Exodus 15:27 , Numbers 33:9 ); apparently the fourth station after the passage of the Red Sea, and the first place where the Israelites met with fresh water. Exodus 15:27 , twelve wells and seventy palms)
Perfume - Exodus 30:35 (b) This sweet fragrance represents the beautiful character of the Lord JESUS which is fragrant to GOD, and very precious, sweet and fragrant to us. It could not be used by anyone for personal use ( Exodus 30:37)
Art - The law of Exodus 20:4 constituted an effective bar to the development of the plastic art in particular. Of the minor arts, gem-engraving must have attained considerable development ( Exodus 28:11 ). Mention may also be made of the filigree and other gold work implied in such passages as Exodus 28:11 f. The products of the Hebrew looms must also have shown considerable artistic merit ( Exodus 26:1 )
Shofar - Ram�s horn sounded during the month of Elul, on Rosh HaShanah and at the close of Yom Kippur; reminiscent of the ram �tangled in the bush by its horns� during the Binding of Isaac (Genesis 22), the shofar sounded at Sinai (Exodus 19) and the shofar of Moshiach (Isaiah 27:13, etc
Lice - The third plague of Egypt, Exodus 8:16 ; Psalm 105:31 ; peculiarly offensive to the priests, who were obliged to shave and wash their entire body every third day, lest they should carry any vermin into the temples
Miter - The sacred turban or bonnet of the Jewish high priest, made of a piece of fine linen many yards long, wound about the head, and having in front, secured with blue lace, a plate of pure gold on which was inscribed, "HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD," Exodus 28:4,36-38 39:28-31
Calf - (1 Samuel 28:24 ; Luke 15:23 ) The molten calf prepared by Aaron for the people to worship, (Exodus 32:4 ) was probably a wooden figure laminated with gold, a process which is known to have existed in Egypt
Israel in Egypt - Exodus 12:40 says "the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years;" and Galatians 3:17 declares that the law was given four hundred and thirty years after the promise to Abraham. A much shorter period is implied in Genesis 15:16 , which says of Israel in Egypt that "in the fourth generation they shall come hither again;" and if we turn to Exodus 6:16-20 we find exactly four generations, thus:...
Jacob's son Levi. ...
Or, if we start with Levi, who entered with Jacob, there was ample time for Moses to have had a son, as he was eighty years old at the Exodus. Exodus 6:20 . If Moses was born when she was forty-seven years of age, and Moses was eighty years old at the Exodus, these sums (88 + 47 + 80 = 215 years) show that Israel may have been in Egypt about two hundred and fifteen years, and this is the period now generally supposed. ...
Age of Abraham when Isaac was born 100...
" " Abraham, when the promise was given 75...
" " Israel when Jacob was born 60...
" " Jacob when he stood before Pharaoh 130...
" " Sojourn of Israel in Egypt 215...
If then this be the correct period, how does it agree with Genesis 15:13 and Exodus 12:40 ? In Genesis 15:13 and Acts 7:6 , nothing is said about Egypt : "Thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs. " This was said to Abraham, and may include the whole period from the birth of Isaac to the Exodus, which according to the above was four hundred and five years — thus agreeing with the round number of four hundred years. Exodus 12:40 is worded differently: "The sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. Exodus 12:37 speaks of there being 600,000 men, besides children, at the Exodus. ...
Tabernacle - For its general meaning and uses, see Exodus 25:1-40 , and the following chapters. ...
The tabernacle was of an oblong rectangular form, thirty cubits long, ten broad, and ten in height, Exodus 26. We have already said that the east end of the tabernacle had no boards, but only five pillars of shittim wood; it was therefore closed with a richly embroidered curtain suspended from these pillars, Exodus 27:16 . ...
Such was the external appearance of the sacred tent, which was divided into two apartments by means of four pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold, like the pillars before described, two cubits and a half distant from each other; only they stood in sockets of silver instead of brass, Exodus 26:32 36:36 ; and on these pillars was hung a veil, formed of the same materials as the one placed at the east end, Exodus 26:31-33 36:35 Hebrews 9:3 . ...
The tabernacle thus described stood in an open space or court of an oblong form, one hundred cubits in length, and fifty in breadth, situated due east and west, Exodus 27:18 . Their sockets were of brass, and were fastened to the earth with pins of the same metal, Exodus 38:10,17,20 . Their height was probably five cubits, that being the length of the curtains that were suspended on them, Exodus 28:18 . These curtains, which formed an enclosure round the court, were of fine twined white linen yarn, Nehemiah 8:14-187 38:9,16 , except that at the entrance on the east end, which was of blue and purple and scarlet and fine white twined linen, with cords to draw it either up or aside when the priests entered the court, Exodus 27:16 38:18 . This altar was placed in a line between the door of the court and the door of the tabernacle, but nearer the former, Exodus 40:6,29 ; the laver stood the altar of burnt-offering and the door of the tabernacle, Exodus 38:8 . The altar of incense was placed in the middle of the sanctuary, before the veil, Exodus 30:6-10 40:26-27 ; and on it the incense was burnt morning and evening, Exodus 30:7,8 . On the north side of the altar of incense, that is, on the right hand of the priest as he entered, stood the table for the show-bread, Exodus 26:35 40:22,23 ; and on the south side of the Holy Place, the golden candlestick, Exodus 25:31-39 . The remarkable and costly structure thus described was erected in the wilderness of Sinai, on the first day of the first month of the second year, after the Israelites left Egypt, Exodus 40. 17 ; and when erected was anointed, together with its furniture, with holy oil, Exodus 40:9-11 , and sanctified by blood, Exodus 24:6-8Hebrews 9:21 . The altar of burnt offerings, especially, was sanctified by sacrifices during seven days, Exodus 29:37 ; while rich donations were given by the princes of the tribes for the service of the sanctuary, Numbers 7:1 . This festival was instituted in memory of the forty years' wanderings of the Israelites in the desert, Leviticus 23:42,43 , and also as a season of gratitude and thanksgiving for the gathering in of the harvest; whence it is also called the Feast of the Harvest, Exodus 23:16 34:22
Moses - (See AARON; EGYPT; Exodus. In the part of the Exodus narrative which deals with Egypt, words are used purely Egyptian or common to Hebrew and Egyptian. ...
Son of Amram (a later one than Kohath's father) and Jochebed (whose name, derived from Jehovah, shows the family hereditary devotion); Miriam, married to Hur, was oldest; Aaron, married to Elisheba, three years older (Exodus 4:10-12 compare Exodus 2:7); next Moses, youngest. His tribe Levi was the priestly one, and naturally rallied round him in support of the truth with characteristic enthusiasm (Exodus 32:27-28). Israel's "reproach" "Christ" regards as His own (2 Corinthians 1:5; Exodus 7:7,7), it will soon be the true Israel's glory (Isaiah 25:8). " Moses "feared" (Exodus 2:14-15) lest by staying he should sacrifice his divinely intimated destiny to be Israel's deliverer, which was his great aim. Despondency, when commissioned at last by God to arouse the people, was his first feeling on his return, from past disappointment in not having been able to inspire Israel with those high hopes for which he had sacrificed all earthly prospects (Exodus 3:15; Exodus 4:1; 1618417449_88). Zipporah bore him Gershom and Eliezer whose names ("stranger," "God is my help") intimate how keenly he felt his exile (Exodus 18:3-4). ...
An interval of solitude is needed especially by men of fervor and vehemence; so Paul in Arabia (Acts 24:27; Exodus 32:10-11). ...
His intercessions restored Miriam, stayed plagues and serpents, and procured water out of the rock (Galatians 1:17; Exodus 32:20-25,Exodus 32:31-32). ) His recording his own praises (Numbers 12:3-7) is as much the part of the faithful servant of Jehovah, writing under His inspiration, as his recording his own demerits (Exodus 2:12; Exodus 3:11; Exodus 4:10-14; Numbers 20:10-12). " Aaron, when he heard of Moses leaving Midian, of his own accord went to meet him; Jehovah further directed him what way to go in order to meet him, namely, by the desert (Exodus 4:14; Exodus 4:27). The two meeting and kissing on the mountain of God typify the law and the sacrificing priesthood meeting in Christ (Exodus 4:27; Psalms 85:10). Moses had neither eloquence nor military prowess (as appears Exodus 4:10; Exodus 17:8-12), qualities so needful for an ordinary popular leader. ...
His first efforts only aggravated Pharaoh's oppression and Israel's bondage (Exodus 5:2-9). Yet in a few months, without Israel's drawing sword, Pharaoh and the Egyptians urge their departure, and Israel "demands" (not "borrows," shaal ) as a right from their former masters, and receives, gold, silver, and jewels (Exodus 12:85-39). ...
Nothing but the miracle recorded can account for the issue; Egypt's king and splendid host perish in the waters, Israel passes through in triumph (Exodus 13:17; Exodus 14:3; Exodus 14:5; Exodus 14:9; Exodus 14:11-12; Exodus 14:14). The sustenance of 600,000 men besides women and children, 40 years, in a comparative desert could only be by miracle; as the Pentateuch records, they were fed with manna from heaven until they ate the grain of Canaan, on the morrow after which the manna ceased (Exodus 16; Joshua 5:12). Aaron and Hur supported Moses in the battle with Amalek (Exodus 33:18-23); Joshua was his minister. His mediatorship in giving the law answers to Christ's; also Exodus 17:11; Exodus 32:10-14; Exodus 32:31-34; Exodus 33:18-16; Galatians 3:19, compare 1 Timothy 2:5. Moses was the only prophet to whom Jehovah spoke "face to face," "as a man speaketh unto his friend" (Exodus 33:11; Numbers 12:8; Deuteronomy 34:10): so at Horeb (Exodus 17:12); compare as to Christ John 1:18. ...
Moses after the calf worship removed the temporary tabernacle (preparatory to the permanent one, subsequently described) outside the camp; and as he disappeared in this "tent of meeting" (rather than "tabernacle of congregation") the people wistfully gazed after him (Exodus 33:7-10). On his last descent from Sinai "his face shone"; and he put on a veil as the people "could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away," a type of the transitory dispensation which he represented, in contrast to the abiding Christian dispensation (Exodus 34:30; Exodus 34:38; 2 Corinthians 3:13-14; 2 Corinthians 3:7; 2 Corinthians 3:11). "They were afraid to come nigh him": Alford's explanation based on the Septuagint is disproved by Exodus 34:30; 2 Corinthians 3:7, namely, that Moses not until he had done speaking to the people put on the veil "that they might not look on the end (the fading) of his transitory glory. The limitation of life to 70 or 80 years harmonizes with the dying of all that generation at about that age; 20 to 40 at the Exodus, to which the 40 in the wilderness being added make 60 to 80. Kimchi says the older rabbis ascribed Psalm 91 also to Moses Israel's exemption from Egypt's plagues, especially the death stroke on the firstborn, which surrounded but did not touch God's people, in Exodus 8:22; Exodus 10:28; Exodus 11:7; Exodus 12:23, corresponds to Psalms 91:3-10. ...
His song in Exodus 15 abounds in incidents marked by the freshness and simplicity which we should expect from an eye-witness: he anticipates the dismay of the Philistines and Edomites through whose territories Israel's path lay to the promised land
Red Sea - In this region it is probable that the passage of the sea described in Exodus 14:1-31 took place, though it has been located by some at the present Suez, and by others still farther south. ...
This primitive extension of the gulf to the north, the region of weeds, probably accounts for its name, Yam Suph , ‘ sea of weeds ’ ( Exodus 10:19 ; Exodus 15:4 ), which was later applied also to the eastern extension, the Bay of Akabah ( Numbers 21:4 ), to the entire body of water now known as the Red Sea, stretching from the Ras Mohammed southward to the straits, and perhaps even to the Persian Gulf ( Exodus 23:31 ). long) only in connexion with the Exodus
Meribah - ) The designation which Moses gave the place at Rephidim where Israel, just before they reached Sinai in the second year after leaving Egypt, did chide with Moses, "give us water that we may drink," and tempted (from whence came the other name Massah) Jehovah, saying "is Jehovah among us or not?" (Exodus 17:7; compare as to the sin, Matthew 4:7. " But here Moses' old hastiness of spirit, which he had showed in the beginning of his career (Exodus 2), returned; "they provoked his spirit so that he spoke unadvisedly with his lips" (Psalms 106:32-33): "ye rebels, must we (forgetting that the power was that of God alone) fetch you water out of this rock?" Then lifting up his hand he smote twice, whereas God had told him, "speak unto the rock. This repetition of the miracle disproves the notion from 1 Corinthians 10:4 that the stream literally "followed" them from Rephidim (Exodus 17) to Canaan; all that is meant is a supply of water from time to time was provided naturally or miraculously, so that they never perished from thirst (so Exodus 15:24-25; Numbers 21:16). The Hebrew for "rock" in Exodus 17 at Rephidim is tsur , but in Numbers 20 cela' at Kadesh, marking undesignedly the distinctness of the miracles
Judges - An examination of Exodus 18:1-27 shows that the Hebrew word for to ‘judge’ means originally to pronounce the oracle; thus, when we read of Moses sitting to ‘judge the people’ ( Exodus 18:13 ), a reference to Exodus 18:15-16 shows that what is meant is the giving of Divine decisions: ‘â¦ the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and I make them know the statutes of God, and his laws’ (cf. Exodus 18:19-20 ). , to settle ( Exodus 18:25-26 )
Hanging, Hangings - ]'> ’s term for the portiÃ¨re closing the entrance to the court of the Tent of Meeting ( Exodus 35:17 etc. ), for the similar curtain at the entrance to the Tent itself ( Exodus 26:36 f. ]'> of a different original denoting the curtains ‘of fine twined linen’ which surrounded the court (Exodus 27:9 etc
Jethro - Father-in-law of Moses, by whose counsel Moses chose chief men from the tribes to be rulers of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and to judge minor causes, reserving the weightier ones to himself (Exodus 18). Reuel's name, from Εl ("God"), implies he too was a God-worshipping priest-prince of his tribe, though the majority of the tribe bordering on the Hamite Canaan were idolaters (Exodus 2:16). Zipporah's repugnance to circumcision (Exodus 4:24-26) shows that it was not universal even among worshippers of the true God
Ephod - Something girt, a sacred vestment worn originally by the high priest (Exodus 28:4 ), afterwards by the ordinary priest (1 Samuel 22:18 ), and characteristic of his office (1 Samuel 2:18,28 ; 14:3 ). It was made of fine linen, and consisted of two pieces, which hung from the neck, and covered both the back and front, above the tunic and outer garment (Exodus 28:31 )
Miriam - Exodus 2:4-10. After the passage of the Red Sea, she led the choir of the women of Israel in the sublime song of deliverance, Exodus 15:20, but afterward, having joined Aaron in murmuring against Moses, she was smitten with leprosy, and restored only in answer to the prayers of Moses
Nadab - Aaron's eldest son; one of the first priests in Israel (Exodus 28:1 ) along with his brother Abihu. He participated in the covenant ceremony when the agreement was presented to the people (Exodus 24:1 )
Finger - Pharaoh's magicians discovered the finger of God in the miracle which Moses wrought, Exodus 8:19 . This legislator gave the law written by the finger of God to the Hebrews, Exodus 31:18
Nadab - Aaron's eldest son; one of the first priests in Israel (Exodus 28:1 ) along with his brother Abihu. He participated in the covenant ceremony when the agreement was presented to the people (Exodus 24:1 )
Cooking - In the former case the animal was preserved entire, (Exodus 12:46 ) and roasted either over a fire, (Exodus 12:8 ) of wood, (Isaiah 44:16 ) or perhaps in an oven, consisting simply of a hole dug in the earth, well heated, and covered up
Horn - Exodus 30:2 ; the horns were of one piece with the altar, as in the case of the brazen altar, Exodus 27:2 , and were emblematic of the efficacy of the ministry connected with it); (b) metaphorically, in the singular, "a horn of salvation," Luke 1:69 (a frequent metaphor in the OT, e
Ram - ...
Exodus 25:5 (c) This is a symbol of the blessed protection from GOD's wrath, which is offered by the death of our Lord and the shedding of His precious Blood. (See also Exodus 26:14; Exodus 35:7; Exodus 36:19). ...
Exodus 29:22(c) This ram represents the Lord JESUS CHRIST as an offering of consecration for us. As the sin offering is described in Exodus 29:15, wherein the Saviour gave Himself for our own wicked selves, so He gave Himself also for our deeds and doings
Bamah - BAMAH (only Ezekiel 20:29 ) is the ordinary word for ‘high place,’ but is here retained in its Hebrew form as the word ‘manna’ in the parallel case Exodus 16:15 , on account of the word-play: ‘What ( mah ) is the ba-mah to which ye go ( bÃ¢ )?’ See, further, High Place
Priest, Priesthood - Related terms are the verb kahan [ Exodus 29:9 ; 40:15 ; Numbers 3:10 ; 18:1,7 ; 1 Samuel 2:36 ; Ezra 2:62 ; Nehemiah 7:64 ; 13:29 , ; referring to the exclusivity, perpetuity, and responsibility of the Aaronic office of "priesthood" cf. Jethro, Moses' father-in-law and the priest of Midian, was also recognized as non-Israelite priest of the true God of Sinai by Moses, Aaron, and the elders of Israel (Exodus 2:16 ; 3:1 ; 18:1,10-12 ). One of the foundational principles of the Israelite covenant with God at Sinai was that the nation as a whole would become "a kingdom of priests" (Exodus 19:6 a). This seems to be part of the intended meaning in Exodus 19:5b-6 a as well, since Israel was to become the Lord's special treasure among all the peoples. ...
Second, the covenant ratification ritual in Exodus 24:3-8 actually inaugurated Israel as a "kingdom of priests, " that is, a nation that had direct access to God through his presence in the tabernacle and to which they would come and worship. There is a striking similarity between this ritual in Exodus 24 and the consecration of the Aaronic priests by putting some of the blood of the ordination peace offering on the right ear, thumb, and big toe of Aaron and his sons, and afterwards splashing some of it around on the altar ( Exodus 29:20 ; Leviticus 8:23-24 ). ...
That differences between Exodus 24:5-8 and Exodus 29:20 are due primarily to one or both of the following factors: (1) the consecration in Exodus 24 was for the priesthood of the whole nation so that the corporate general splashing of blood was appropriate to the meaning of the ritual; and (2) in the instance of Exodus 24 specific touching of each person's body by Moses was precluded by the large number of people involved. Moreover, the connection between Exodus 24,29 is confirmed by the blood manipulation for the guilt offering used to cleanse the leper in Leviticus 14 (presumably the same for all lepers whether or not they were priests). , make him holy once again) and thereby readmit him to the national community that had originally been established as a consecrated community by the ritual in Exodus 24 . Exodus 29:21 ; and Leviticus 14:4-20 ) and further substantiates this suggestion that, from the start (i. , from Exodus 24 forward), the whole nation was a "kingdom of priests"—they were "a holy people" ( Exodus 19:6 , immediately following "a kingdom of priests" ). Therefore, Israel was to be a "kingdom of priests" in terms of its corporate participation in the service of worship to the Lord in the sanctuary (Exodus 24:3-8 ) as well as in its position and ministry toward the nations roundabout them (Isaiah 61:6 ). Moses functioned as the original priest of Israel by initially consecrating (1) the whole kingdom of priests (Exodus 24:3-8 ), (2) the perpetual priesthood of Aaron and his descendants, who would in turn mediate for that kingdom of priests (Exodus 29 ; Leviticus 8 ), and (3) the tabernacle (Numbers 7:1 ). However, there are several passages that seem to indicate that Aaron and his sons functioned as priests in Israel even before the official consecration of the Aaronic priesthood (Exodus 19:24 ; 24:1 ; 32:3-6 ). Of course, as brothers and sons of Amram and Jochebed (Exodus 6:20 ) Moses and Aaron were both from the tribe of Levi through Kohath. Exodus 33:14-15 ; Leviticus 10:2 ) according to the basic principles of holy versus profane (Leviticus 10:10 a), clean versus unclean (v. Exodus 32:35 ; 33:2-3,14-15 ) as well as for the priests in particular (see the death of Nadab and Abihu in Leviticus 10 ). Exodus 27:20-21 ), and keeping the fire continually burning on the burnt offering altar as part of the regular morning and evening burnt offering rituals (Leviticus 6:12-13 ; cf. Exodus 25:30 ), and the regular additional Sabbath burnt offerings (Numbers 28:9-10 ). ...
Sometimes this involved presiding over certain specified sacrificial cleansing procedures on irregular occasions: for example, the burnt and sin offering rituals for the woman after childbirth (Exodus 19:5 ), the combination of two bird, guilt, sin, and burnt offering rituals for the cleansing of the leper (Leviticus 8:30 ), the sin and burnt offering rituals for the man or woman with an irregular discharge (Leviticus 15:13-15,25-30 ), and the preparation of the ashes of the red heifer for purification for touching a dead corpse (Numbers 19:1-10 )
Levites - At the Exodus from Egypt the male descendants of Levi from a month old and upward numbered 22,000. Aaron and his sons were chosen for the priesthood (Exodus 8); the subordinate offices of the Temple and many other public services were assigned to the rest of the tribe
Mercy-Seat - It was of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, or perhaps rather a plate of solid gold, 2 1/2 cubits long and 1 1/2 broad (Exodus 25:17 ; 30:6 ; 31:7 ). It has been conjectured that the censer (thumiaterion, meaning "anything having regard to or employed in the burning of incense") mentioned in Hebrews 9:4 was the "mercy-seat," at which the incense was burned by the high priest on the great day of atonement, and upon or toward which the blood of the goat was sprinkled ( Leviticus 16:11-16 ; Compare Numbers 7:89 and Exodus 25:22 )
Pan - The "ash-pans" mentioned in Exodus 27:3 were made of copper, and were used in connection with the altar of burnt-offering. The "fire-pans" of Exodus 27:3 were fire-shovels used for taking up coals
Herdsman - The Israelites were known in Egypt as "keepers of cattle;" and when they left it they took their flocks and herds with them (Exodus 12:38 ). The daughters also of wealthy chiefs were wont to tend the flocks of the family (Genesis 29:9 ; Exodus 2:16 )
Head-Dress - It is first mentioned in Exodus 28:40 (A. ) and "garland" (RSV), is a head-dress or turban worn by females (Isaiah 3 :: 20 , "bonnets"), priests (Exodus 39:28 ), a bridegroom (Isaiah 61:10 , "ornament;" RSV, "garland")
Rameses (ra'Amses) - Among the cities that the Israelites built was Rameses (or Ra’amses), where the buildings included a magnificent palace, large storehouses and defence fortifications (Exodus 1:8-11). This was the region from which Jacob’s multitude of descendants set out on their flight from Egypt over four hundred years later (in 1280 BC; Exodus 12:37)
In the fourth month after the Exodus, when the people were encamped at Sinai. The number of men from twenty years old and upward was then 603,550 (Exodus 38:26 )
Israel - (Exodus 3:6-7. So again, Exodus 6:6-7) But what endears this name yet infinitely more is, that the Lord Jesus himself, as the glorious Head of his church and people, including both Jew and Gentile, calls himself by this name; and JEHOVAH doth the same by Christ
Timbrel - We do not find that the Hebrews used it in their wars, but only at their public rejoicing, Exodus 15:20Isaiah 24:8 ; and it was commonly employed by the women, Psalm 62:12 . After the passage of the Red sea, Miriam, sister of Moses, took a timbrel, and began to play and dance with the women, Exodus 15:20
Thirst - Wherefore is it that thou hast brought us out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst? Exodus 17 ...
2. Exodus 17 ...
Jehovah - See Exodus 3:14 , I AM THAT I AM, the meaning of which see under the article Exodus 6:3 , God says, "I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty; but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them;" yet the appellation Jehovah appears to have been known from the beginning, Genesis 4:2
Jethro - They met at the "mount of God," and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" (Exodus 18:8 ). This advice Moses adopted (Exodus 18 )
Moses - There are no surviving monuments to him, although some may have existed prior to his abrupt departure from Egypt (Exodus 2:15 ). In Exodus 2:10 , the name given to him by the princess is connected with a Hebrew verb meaning "to draw out" (cf. "...
The Book of Exodus divides Moses' life into three periods of forty years each. The second phase occurs in Midian, where he fled for refuge after murdering an Egyptian (Exodus 2:15 ). Accordingly we will focus on Moses' ministry as a mediator and teacher of God's revealed Word, since theology was henceforth to be the basis of Israelite life (Exodus 19:6 ). ...
While Moses may have learned about his ancestral God from Jethro, his father-in-law, the "priest of Midian" (Exodus 3:1 ), his first encounter with the Lord is at Mount Horeb, where he observes a bush burning with fire, and hears God's announcement that he is the God of Moses' ancestors. ...
This description of the divine name is supplemented by an additional revelation of his name as Yahweh (Exodus 6:3 ). The conflict ends with the first Passover celebration, which coincides with the death of Egypt's firstborn (Exodus 12:29 ). ...
God's purpose for his newly created nation is that the Israelites should be visible among their contemporaries as a priestly kingdom and a holy people (Exodus 19:6 ; Leviticus 11:44 ). He is to abstain from the iniquitous ways of pagan neighboring nations, and be to them an example of what God himself is by nature (Exodus 34:6-7 ). Moses Acts on behalf of God at the covenant ratification ceremony (Exodus 24:6-8 ) and thereafter is the recipient of instructions concerning the building of a sacred national shrine known as the tabernacle. ...
In dealing with the chosen people, Moses periodically Acts as an intercessor with God, so as to avert divine displeasure with Israel (Exodus 33:12-16 ; Numbers 12:13 ). When he is overwhelmed by the numbers of people coming to him for legal decisions (Exodus 18:13 ), he willingly follows the advice of Jethro as to how he should conduct his judicial responsibilities (Exodus 18:24-26 ). In Revelation, the victorious saints chant the song of Moses (Exodus 15:1-19 ). Harrison...
See also Exodus, Theology of ; Israel ...
Bibliography . Cole, Exodus ; R
Girdle - The "needlework" on it was figuring on one side only, "cunning work" on two sides (Exodus 28:39; the Mishna); or the "needlework" had the figures on both sides the same girdle, the "cunning work" different (Jarchi). Exodus 26:31, "needlework" was of the embroiderer, "cunning work" of the skilled weaver. The "curious girdle" was made, as the ephod, of "gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen" (Exodus 28:8), it was the band for fastening the ephod, which is upon it, and of the same work, of one piece with it
Migdol - The site is mentioned in reference to two events in biblical history—the Exodus and the Exile. One of the sites on or near the route of the Exodus, Migdol was located near the sites of Pi-hahiroth and Baal-Zephron, all of which were near the sea (Exodus 14:20 . For this reason we may assume with some certainty that there were at least two sites named Migdol: the Migdol referred to by Jeremiah and Ezekiel located near Pelusium, and the Migdol on the route of the Exodus located near Succoth
Stubble - Stubble was used by God's people to make bricks while they were slaves in Egypt (Exodus 5:12 )
Straw - The Egyptians reaped grain close to the ear, afterward they cut the straw close to the ground and laid the straw by Pharaoh refused this straw to Israel, who therefore had to gather the short stubble left; translated Exodus 5:12, "gather (qash ) stubble for the straw," i
e'Tham - " ( Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6,7 ) Etham may be placed where the cultivable land ceases, near the Seba Biar or Seven Wells, about three miles from the western side of the ancient head of the gulf
Dance - The woman nearest of kin to the champion in some national triumph or thanksgiving, and who had a kind of public character with her own sex, led a choir of women; as Miriam (Exodus 15:1-20) (while Moses led the men), Jephthah's daughter (Judges 11:34), Deborah (Judges 5) (while Barak led the men). forming the burden of the song, accompanied the dance (Exodus 32:18-19; 1 Samuel 18:7; 1 Samuel 21:11). ...
Miriam went out before "Jehovah, the Man of war" (Exodus 15:3; Exodus 15:20-21), and answered the entire chorus. David says, "All my bones shall say, Lord, who is like unto Thee?" the very language that the Israelites, while the women danced to the Lord, uttered as their song after the Red Sea deliverance (Exodus 15:11). It is mentioned as a censure on their looseness that "the people rose up to play" at Aaron's calf festival (Exodus 32:6; 1 Corinthians 10:7), also that the Amalekites were "dancing" (1 Samuel 30:16)
Jehovah - Jahaveh or Υahaveh is probahly the correct form (the vowel pointing in Jehovah is derived from Α-d-o-n-ay ) from the substantive verb haawah (found only six times in the Bible; obsolete in Moses' time; retained in Chaldee and Syriac from a time anterior to the division of the Semitic languages), for the more modern haayah , to be; a proof of the great antiquity of the name: "I AM THAT I AM" is the key of the name (Exodus 3:14), expressing unchanging Being. (See GENESIS; GOD; Exodus. )...
Exodus 6:2-3; "I am JEHOVAH, and I appeared unto Abraham,. "To be made known" (Exodus 6:3) means to be manifested in act (Psalms 9:17; Psalms 48:3-6), making good in fact all that was implied in the name (Ezekiel 20:9) (nodatiy ). ...
The name was not new to Israel, for it occurs before Exodus 6:3 in Exodus 3:16; Exodus 4:1. The "I AM" (Exodus 3:14) is to be filled up thus: I am to My people all whatever they want. ...
The Jews by a misunderstanding of Exodus 34:6-7 ("utters distinctly" instead of "blasphemeth") fear to use the name, saying instead "the name," "the four lettered name," "the great and terrible name. " So Septuagint, Vulgate, and even KJV (except in four places "Jehovah": Isaiah 12:2; Isaiah 26:4; Exodus 6:3; Psalms 83:18) has "THE LORD," which in CAPITALS represents JEHOVAH, in small letters Adonai
Spices - See Exodus 30:34-35 ). Balsam, myrrh, cinnamon, cassia, and calamus were used in the preparation of the holy anointing oil (Exodus 30:23-25 ). Cassia (Flores cassiae ) Two Hebrew words are used to translate cassia (Exodus 30:24 ; Psalm 45:8 ). Cinnamon A highly prized plant, cinnamon was used as a condiment, in the preparation of perfumes (Proverbs 7:17 ), and in the holy oil for anointing (Exodus 30:23 ). The Israelites compared the manna to the coriander seed (Exodus 16:31 ; Numbers 11:7 ). Galbanum A fragrant resin which gave a pleasant scent when burned; it was one of the ingredients of the holy incense (Exodus 30:34 ). Myrrh (Commiphora abessinica ) The resinous gum of a plant which was included in the preparation of the holy anointing oil (Exodus 30:23 ). It was used in holy incense (Exodus 30:34 ). The balsam was one of the ingredients of the anointing oil (Exodus 30:23 ). Stacte (Pistacia lentiscus ) A small tree which produced a resin used in the sacred incense (Exodus 30:34 )
Sanctuary - In the Old Testament the word miqdas [ Exodus 25:8 ), where the Israelites offered their various kinds of offerings and sacrifices to the Lord under the supervision of the priesthood. , Exodus 30:13 ). , Exodus 25:8 ), the Solomonic temple (e. ...
When referring to the tabernacle, miqdas [ Exodus 25:8 a) as the special sanctified dwelling place of the Lord among his people, in the midst of which was the building known as the "tabernacle" (25:9) and over which they stretched a "tent" (26:7). ...
Like miqdas ) which is the "Most Holy Place"), where the ark of the covenant was located. ...
The Lord determined that he would dwell in a sanctuary in the midst of his "kingdom of priests, " his "holy nation" (Exodus 19:6 ; Psalm 68:32-35 ). They were to stand in awe and fear of this (Leviticus 19:30 ) as when they "trembled" at the Lord's appearance on Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:16 ). This sanctuary was the primary place where the Lord manifested his presence in the midst of Israel (Exodus 40:34-38 ) and, therefore, became the preeminent place of worship (Leviticus 9:6,22-24 ). ...
The Lord sanctified the sanctuary and with it an officiating "Aaronic priesthood" (Exodus 29:44 ; Leviticus 8:10 ; Numbers 7:1 )
Exodus - ) The oppression of the Israelites, under the change of dynasty which sprung up after the death of Joseph: "There arose up another king, who knew not Joseph," Exodus 1:8 . ) The youth, education, patriotism, and flight of Moses, Exodus 2:1 - 6:30 . ) The commission of Moses, the perversity of Pharaoh, and the infliction of the ten plagues in succession, Exodus 7:1-11:10 . ) The institution of the Passover, the sudden departure of the Israelites, the passage of the Red Sea, and the thanksgiving of Moses and the people on the opposite shore, after the destruction of Pharaoh and his host, Exodus 12:1-15:27 . ) The narration of various miracles wrought in behalf of the people during their journeyings towards Sinai, Exodus 15:1-17:16 . This includes the preparation of the people by Moses, and the promulgation, first of the moral law, then of the judicial law, and subsequently of the ceremonial law, including the instructions for the erection of the tabernacle and the completion of that house of God, Exodus 19:1-40:38 . It clearly shows the accomplishment of the divine promises and prophecies delivered to Abraham: that his posterity would be numerous, Genesis 15:5 17:4-6 46:27 Numbers 1:1-3,46 ; and that they should be afflicted in a land not their own, whence they should depart in the fourth generation with great substance, ...
Genesis 15:13-16Exodus 12:40-41 . Their Exodus in many particulars well illustrates the state of Christ's church in the wilderness of this world, until her arrival in the heavenly Canaan. The book of Exodus brings before us many and singular types of Christ: Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15 ; Aaron, Hebrews 4:14-16 ; the paschal lamb, Exodus 12:46John 19:361 Corinthians 5:7-8 ; the manna, Exodus 1:1-40:38 16:151 Corinthians 10:3 ; the rock in Horeb, Exodus 17:61 Corinthians 10:4 ; the mercy seat, Exodus 37:6Romans 3:25Hebrews 4:16 ; the tabernacle, Exodus 40:1 - 38 , "The Word tabernacled among us," John 1:14 . ...
The four hundred and thirty years referred to in Exodus 12:40 , date, according to the received chronology, from the time when the promise was made to Abraham, Genesis 15:13 . From the arrival of Jacob in Egypt to the Exodus of his posterity, was about two hundred and thirty years. Their course was southeast as far as Etham; but then, instead of keeping on directly to Sinai, they turned to the south, Exodus 14:2 , on the west side of the Red Sea, which they reached three days after starting, probably near Suez. Here the law was given, and here they abode during all the transactions recorded in Exodus 21:1 -Nu 21:1-9:23 , that is, until the twentieth day of the second month (May) in the following year, a period of about eleven months
Ligure - leshem) occurs only in Exodus 28:19,39:12 , as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate
Carbuncle - A smaragd (Septuagint) or corundum, of green glass color, transparent, and doubly refractive; the emerald (Exodus 28:17); third stone in the first row m the high priest's breast-plate (Ezekiel 28:13)
Dowry - , price paid for a wife, Genesis 34:12 ; Exodus 22:17 ; 1 Samuel 18:25 ), a nuptial present; some gift, as a sum of money, which the bridegroom offers to the father of his bride as a satisfaction before he can receive her
Jacinth - Some English translations give jacinth as a gem in the high priest's breastplate (Exodus 28:19 , NAS, NIV, NRSV), the color of one of the riders' breastplates (Revelation 9:17 KJV), and the eleventh foundation stone of the new Jerusalem ( Revelation 21:20 , KJV, NAS, NIV, NRSV)
Baal-Zephon - Baal of the north, an Egyptian town on the shores of the Gulf of Suez (Exodus 14:2 ; Numbers 33:7 ), over against which the children of Israel encamped before they crossed the Red Sea
Baal-Berith - " The name denotes the god of the covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary to the command of Jehovah (Exodus 34:12 ), when they began to fall away to the worship of idols
Bow Down, to - Also an act of reverence to God, Psalm 95:6 ; but strictly forbidden to be done before an idol or image, Exodus 20:5 ; and treated as an act of worship
Leaven - (See Exodus 12:15-19) No doubt this had a gospel signification, and was intended to teach, that nothing would be permitted to leaven or mingle with the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ, for acceptance before God
Minister - So Joshua was the servant of Moses, Exodus 24:13 ; Exodus 33:11 . Ministers were servants, yet servants not menial, but honourable; those who explain the word, and conduct the service of God; those who dispense the laws and promote the welfare of the community; the holy angels who in obedience to the divine commands protect, preserve, succour, and benefit the godly, are all ministers, beneficial ministers, to those who are under their charge, Hebrews 8:2 ; Exodus 30:10 ; Leviticus 16:15 ; 1 Corinthians 4:1 ; Romans 13:6 ; Psalms 104:4
Exodus - The great deliverance wrought for the children of Isreal when they were brought out of the land of Egypt with "a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm" (Exodus 12:51 ; Deuteronomy 26:8 ; Psalm 114 ; 136 ), about B. The time of their sojourning in Egypt was, according to Exodus 12:40 , the space of four hundred and thirty years. Those who adopt the longer term reckon thus: ...
| Years | | From the descent of Jacob into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From the death of Joseph to the birth of | Moses 278 | | From the birth of Moses to his flight into | Midian 40 | | From the flight of Moses to his return into | Egypt 40 | | From the return of Moses to the Exodus 1 | | 430 ...
Others contend for the shorter period of two hundred and fifteen years, holding that the period of four hundred and thirty years comprehends the years from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan (see LXX. They reckon thus: ...
| Years | | From Abraham's arrival in Canaan to Isaac's | birth 25 | | From Isaac's birth to that of his twin sons | Esau and Jacob 60 | | From Jacob's birth to the going down into | Egypt 130 | | (215) | | From Jacob's going down into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 64 | | From birth of Moses to the Exodus 80 | | In all. They asked gifts from their neighbours around them (Exodus 12:35 ), and these were readily bestowed. Three or four days perhaps elapsed before the whole body of the people were assembled at Rameses, and ready to set out under their leader Moses (Exodus 12:37 ; Numbers 33:3 ). ...
From Rameses they journeyed to Succoth (Exodus 12:37 ), identified with Tel-el-Maskhuta, about 12 miles west of Ismailia. , it took fully a month to travel from Rameses to the wilderness of Sin ( Exodus 16:1 ), yet reference is made to only six camping-places during all that time. They "sank as lead in the mighty waters" (Exodus 15:1-9 ; Compare Psalm 77:16-19 ). Here Miriam and the other women sang the triumphal song recorded in Exodus 15:1-21 . ...
From 'Ayun Musa they went on for three days through a part of the barren "wilderness of Shur" (22), called also the "wilderness of Etham" (Numbers 33:8 ; Compare Exodus 13:20 ), without finding water. ), where were twelve springs of water and a grove of "threescore and ten" palm trees (Exodus 15:27 ). God "heard their murmurings" and gave them quails and manna, "bread from heaven" (Exodus 16:4-36 ). ...
The different encampments of the children of Israel, from the time of their leaving Egypt till they reached the Promised Land, are mentioned in Exodus 12:37-19 ; Numbers 1021-21 ; 33 ; Deuteronomy 1,2,10 . ...
It is worthy of notice that there are unmistakable evidences that the Egyptians had a tradition of a great Exodus from their country, which could be none other than the Exodus of the Hebrews
Jesse, Rod of - "When Pharao shall say to you: Shew signs; Thou shalt say to Aaron: Take thy rod and cast it down before Pharao, and it shall be turned into a serpent" (Exodus 7). but Aaron's rod devoured their rod" (Exodus 7)