What does Esther mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
אֶסְתֵּר֙ the queen of Persia 7
אֶסְתֵּ֔ר the queen of Persia 7
לְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר the queen of Persia 5
אֶסְתֵּ֣ר the queen of Persia 4
אֶסְתֵּֽר the queen of Persia 4
אֶסְתֵּ֖ר the queen of Persia 4
אֶסְתֵּ֨ר the queen of Persia 3
אֶסְתֵּ֑ר the queen of Persia 3
לְאֶסְתֵּ֗ר the queen of Persia 2
לְאֶסְתֵּ֔ר the queen of Persia 2
אֶסְתֵּ֤ר the queen of Persia 2
אֶסְתֵּ֛ר the queen of Persia 2
אֶסְתֵּ֗ר the queen of Persia 2
אֶסְתֵּ֜ר the queen of Persia 1
؟ אֶסְתֵּ֣ר the queen of Persia 1
לְאֶסְתֵּר֙ the queen of Persia 1
אֶסְתֵּ֥ר the queen of Persia 1
לְאֶסְתֵּ֜ר the queen of Persia 1
؟ אֶסְתֵּ֥ר the queen of Persia 1
מֵֽאֶסְתֵּ֣ר the queen of Persia 1
וְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר the queen of Persia 1
וּבְבֹאָהּ֮ to go in 1

Definitions Related to Esther

H635


   1 the queen of Persia, heroine of the book of Esther—daughter of Abihail, cousin and adopted daughter of Mordecai, of the tribe of Benjamin, made queen by king Ahasuerus to replace divorced queen, Vashti.
   Additional Information: Esther = “star”.
   

H935


   1 to go in, enter, come, go, come in.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to enter, come in.
         1a2 to come.
            1a2a to come with.
            1a2b to come upon, fall or light upon, attack (enemy).
            1a2c to come to pass.
         1a3 to attain to.
         1a4 to be enumerated.
         1a5 to go.
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to lead in.
         1b2 to carry in.
         1b3 to bring in, cause to come in, gather, cause to come, bring near, bring against, bring upon.
         1b4 to bring to pass.
      1c (Hophal).
         1c1 to be brought, brought in.
         1c2 to be introduced, be put.
         

Frequency of Esther (original languages)

Frequency of Esther (English)

Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Esther
Esther (ĕs'ter), a star, the planet Venus. A Hebrew maiden, the daughter of Abihail, of the tribe of Benjamin. At the death of her father and mother she was adopted by her cousin Mordecai, the descendant of a Jew who had been carried away captive with Jehoiachin. Mordecai resided at Shushan, or Susa. See Mordecai. On the repudiation of Vashti, Ahasuerus, king of Persia, ordered a large number of young virgins to be collected throughout his realm, and brought into his harem. Esther (her Persian name was Hadassah) was distinguished among these, and was chosen to bear the title of queen. By her influence the plot of Haman to destroy the Jews was frustrated. Haman was hanged. The Jews revenged themselves on their foes, and Mordecai was advanced to a high place in the empire. It was common with Persian kings to have many wives, and Esther was one of these.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Esther, Book of
This book is more purely historical than any other book of Scripture; and it has this remarkable peculiarity that the name of God does not occur in it from first to last in any form. It has, however, been well observed that "though the name of God be not in it, his finger is." The book wonderfully exhibits the providential government of God.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Esther
(a) (4th century BCE) First cousin of Mordecai, selected as King Ahasuerus's queen after Vashti's execution. At Mordecai's behest, she brought about Ahasuerus's annulment of Haman's decree calling for the extermination of the Jews. (b) A common Jewish name.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Fast of Esther
fast observed on the thirteenth of Adar in commemoration of Queen Esther�s fast at the time of the miracle of Purim
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Esther
The Persian name of Hadassah, daughter of Abihail, son of Shimei, son of Kish, a Benjamite. Being an orphan she was brought up by her cousin Mordecai. She was fair and beautiful and was thought suitable to be presented to the king. God gave her favour in the eyes of the royal household, and also caused the king to choose her for his queen, though she was a captive. The king is called Ahasuerus, but he is supposed to have been the Xerxes of history.
Mordecai, refusing to bow to Haman the Agagite, roused the wrath of the latter, who procured an edict for the destruction on a certain day of all the Jews in the empire. Esther was hereupon charged by Mordecai to plead with the king for their deliverance. She therefore called all the Jews in Shushan to fast with her three days and nights, saying she would go in to the king unbidden, and if she perished she perished. God gave her favour in the eyes of the king and he held out the sceptre to her. At a banquet she told the king that Haman had sold her and her people. The king was enraged, and being told at this moment of the gallows on which Haman intended to hang Mordecai (who had been the means of the king's life being saved), orders were at once given to hang Haman thereon. Esther had again to endanger her life by appearing before the king unbidden; but again the king received her graciously and gave her the desired authority to rescue the Jews from their threatened calamity: they were allowed to defend themselves when attacked by their enemies.
By a remarkable providence, the king not being able to sleep one night, Mordecai had been brought into favour, and he was now exalted to fill the office of Haman. This gave the Jews great advantage, for the provincial rulers all stood in fear of Mordecai. When the appointed day arrived, instead of the Jews being destroyed, they were able, not only to defend themselves, but avenge themselves on their enemies, ending with a day of feasting and gladness. The days of deliverance were appointed by Esther and Mordecai as an annual festival. See ESTHER, BOOK OF.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Esther
The queen of Ahasuerus, and heroine of the book that bears her name. She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when she entered the royal harem she received the name by which she henceforth became known (Esther 2:7 ). It is a Syro-Arabian modification of the Persian word satarah, which means a star. She was the daughter of Abihail, a Benjamite. Her family did not avail themselves of the permission granted by Cyrus to the exiles to return to Jerusalem; and she resided with her cousin Mordecai, who held some office in the household of the Persian king at "Shushan in the palace." Ahasuerus having divorced Vashti, chose Esther to be his wife. Soon after this he gave Haman the Agagite, his prime minister, power and authority to kill and extirpate all the Jews throughout the Persian empire. By the interposition of Esther this terrible catastrophe was averted. Haman was hanged on the gallows he had intended for Mordecai (Esther 7 ); and the Jews established an annual feast, the feast of Purim (q.v.), in memory of their wonderful deliverance. This took place about fifty-two years after the Return, the year of the great battles of Plataea and Mycale (B.C. 479). Esther appears in the Bible as a "woman of deep piety, faith, courage, patriotism, and caution, combined with resolution; a dutiful daughter to her adopted father, docile and obedient to his counsels, and anxious to share the king's favour with him for the good of the Jewish people. There must have been a singular grace and charm in her aspect and manners, since 'she obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her' (Esther 2:15 ). That she was raised up as an instrument in the hand of God to avert the destruction of the Jewish people, and to afford them protection and forward their wealth and peace in their captivity, is also manifest from the Scripture account."
Holman Bible Dictionary - Esther
(ehss' thuhr) Persian personal name meaning, “Ishtar.” Heroine of biblical Book of Esther whose Jewish name was Hadassah. Esther is the story of a Jewish orphan girl raised by her uncle, Mordecai, in Persia. She became queen when Queen Vashti refused to appear at a banquet hosted by her husband, King Ahasuerus. Esther did not reveal that she was Jewish. Mordecai heard about a plot against the king's life which he reported through Esther. Haman was made prime minister and began to plot against Mordecai and the Jews because they would not pay homage to him. The king issued a decree that all who would not bow down would be killed. Esther learned of the plot and sent for Mordecai. He challenged her with the idea, “Who knoweth whether those art come to the kingdom for such a time as this?” (Esther 4:14 ). She asked Mordecai and the Jews to fast with her while she decided. She entered the king's presence unsummoned which could have meant her death. The king granted her request.
Haman was tricked into honoring Mordecai, his enemy. At a banquet, Esther revealed Haman's plot to destroy her and her people, the Jews. Haman was hanged on the gallows prepared for Mordecai. Mordecai was promoted, and Esther got the king to revoke Haman's decree to destroy the Jews. The Jews killed and destroyed their enemies. The book closes with the institution of the festival of Purim.
The Book of Esther The Book of Esther has been placed among the writings in the Old Testament. It, along with four others small books—Song of Solomon, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, and Lamentations, was placed on one scroll called the “Meghilloth” and was used for festival readings. Many scholars feel that the Book of Esther is a short historical novel or short story sprinkled with historical data and names to make its message more urgent and important. Thus it would be comparable to Jesus' parables. Others think it is an attempt to write history with free interspersion of speeches and conversation following the conventions of history writing of its day. Others insist on the historicity of every detail, pointing to Esther 10:2 .
The Purpose of the Book The purpose is not clear from a reading of the book. It considers the question of destruction or survival of the Jews under persecution. Though the book deals with religious issues, the name of God is never mentioned in the book. The writer deliberately avoids the name of God. When Esther prepares herself to present herself unrequested into the presence of the king, prayer does not accompany fasting. Also vengeance is more prominent than devotion. An important function of the book is to explain the observance of the festival of Purim. The Purim festival was a Jewish commemoration of deliverance—deliverance of the Jews from the hands of the Babylonians.
If this is the purpose of the book, then that explains the absence of the name of God. The book was intended to be read at the Purim festival—a festival of merrymaking, noise, and conviviality. Thus the major theme of the book, persecution returning on the head of those who initiate it, leads through all the details of the story to the final victory which Purim celebrates.
Theological Teachings Many feel that the religious concepts taught in the book are sub-Christian. Probably the persons who can understand and appreciate the attitudes of Esther are those who have lived through persecution and occupation by others. In times of peace it is incomprehensible and unforgivable that hard suffering creates such rigidity and callousness. Though the book does not mention the name of God, it has a definite theology. Throughout, the book points to justice and indicates that faithfulness to the covenant people is a duty whether it pays or not. Mordecai's insistence that Esther must intervene to save her people is based on the idea that a good Jew must worship and be loyal to the covenant God and to Him alone. To be faithful to Him means to be faithful to His people.
The book teaches the axiom that “the Lord helps those who help themselves.” During the days of oppressive persecution the very survival of the people depended upon the Jews doing something. The book shows the sovereignty of God working in a foreign land to preserve His people. It shows God working through people of unpretentious backgrounds as they prove faithful to Him. It shows ultimate punishment for those who oppose God's people. It calls for celebration of God's deliverance.
Outline
I. Humble faithfulness can lead to large responsibilities (Esther 1:1-2:18 ).
A. Political power of ungodly rulers may be far-reaching (Esther 1:1-8 ).
B. Protection of personal rights may result in loss of position and rights (Esther 1:9-15 ).
C. Family relationships and respect cannot be enforced by political means (Esther 1:16-22 ).
D. Self-giving love and loyalty to family, nation, and God may require hiding one's identity to gain opportunity to serve (Esther 2:1-11 ).
E. Humble obedience can lead to opportunities to serve (Esther 2:2-18 ).
II. Faithfulness to one's people can be expressed through service to a foreign ruler (Esther 2:19-3:15 ).
A. Loyalty to one's people does not require participation in conspiracy against foreign rulers (Esther 2:19-23 ).
B. Loyalty to the foreign ruler does not mean participating in immoral government practices (Esther 3:1-2 ).
C. Loyalty to God and godly traditions over loyalty to foreign rulers may cause personal and even national persecution (Esther 3:3-15 ).
III. Positions of influence bring responsibility to act for God's people (Esther 4:1-17 ).
A. Mourning rites are appropriate responses to national danger (Esther 4:1-4 ).
B. God's people must act and pray in times of danger (Esther 4:5-17 ).
IV. Responsible actions for God are honored by God's actions for His people (Esther 5:1-8:17 ).
A. Self-giving action is rewarded in unexpected ways (Esther 5:1-8 ).
B. Human pride leads to rash actions (Esther 5:9-14 ).
C. Honor comes to God's faithful at the opportune moment (Esther 6:1-3 ).
D. Human pride often leads to humiliation (Esther 6:4-12 ).
E. God's people will experience vindication eventually (Esther 6:13-14 ).
F. Brave action for God's people brings deliverance (Esther 7:1-10 ).
G. God's providence brings reward for faithfulness and joy to God's people (Esther 8:1-17 ).
V. Celebration through the ages helps God's people remember His salvation and the lessons of history (Esther 9:1-32 ).
VI. Work for God's people can bring new opportunities for service and honor (Esther 10:1-3 ).
Jerry Stubblefield
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Esther, the Book of
(See ESTHER.)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Esther
A Jewess of Benjamin, descendant of the captivity carried to Babylon with Jeconiah, 599 or 597 B.C.; born abroad, of a family which chose to remain instead of returning to Jerusalem. Kish, the ancestor of Mordecai (Esther 2:5-7; Esther 2:15), had been carried away with Jeconiah; thus Mordecai was contemporary with Xerxes, which harmonizes with the view that (See AHASUERUS is Xerxes. Mordecai and his uncle Abihail's daughter (his own adopted ward) lived at Shushan, the Persian royal city. Mordecai probably held some office in "the palace" (Esther 2:5; Esther 2:21-23). Her original name Hadassah means "myrtle." Her Persian name Esther means and is akin to "star," implying like Venus good fortune.
Vashti the queen having been divorced for refusing to show the people and the princes her beauty, Esther was chosen out of the fairest virgins collected out of all the provinces, as her successor. Ahasuerus, unaware of her race, granted leave to Haman his favorite, who was offended with Mordecai for not doing him reverence, to destroy the whole people to which Mordecai belonged. Esther, at the risk of her own life, uninvited entered the king's presence, and obtained a virtual reversal of the decree against the Jews. Haman was hung on the gallows designed by him for Mordecai (Psalms 7:16). The Jews defended themselves so effectually on the day appointed by Haman for their slaughter that in Shushan the palace alone they slew 500 and Haman's ten sons on one day, and, by Esther's request granted by the king, slew 300 at Shushan; and the Jews in the provinces, "standing for their lives," slew 75,000, "but on the spoil laid they not their hand."
So thenceforward the feast Purlin (lots) on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar (February and March) was kept by the Jews as "a day of gladness and of sending portions to one another, and gifts to the poor." "Esther the queen wrote with all authority to confirm this second letter of Purim" (Esther 8:7-14; Esther 9:20; Esther 9:29-32); "her decree confirmed these matters of Purlin." The continuance of this feast by the Jews to our day confirms the history. It is also confirmed by the casual way in which 2 Maccabees 15:36 alludes to the feast ("Mardochaeus' day") as kept by the Jews in Nicanor's time. In the 3rd year of Xerxes (Esther 1:3-4) the disastrous expedition against Greece (foretold in Daniel 11:2, "by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia") was determined on in an assembly at Susa (Herodotus vii. 8).
The Book of Esther describes in the same year, the 3rd, the lavish feasting during which Vashti was deposed, 488 B.C. In his 7th year the battles of Plataea and Mycale, according to secular history, drove Xerxes in fright from Sardis to Susa. So, in Scripture, it was not until the tenth month of this 7th year that Esther was made queen. The long delay between Vashti's deposal and Esther's accession is satisfactorily accounted for by the Greek expedition which intervened. On returning from it Xerxes tried to bury his disgrace in the pleasures of the seraglio (Herodotus vii. 35,114); as indeed he had begun it and, according to Herodotus, at intervals continued it with feastings. Possibly Vashti answers to the Amestris of secular history, who was queen consort from the beginning to the end of his reign, and was queen mother under his son and successor Artaxerxes.
Esther cannot be Amestris, since the latter was daughter of a Persian noble, Otanes; if Vashti be Amestris, then her disgrace was only temporary. Or else Vashti and Esther were both only "secondary wives" with the title "queen." A young "secondary wife" might for a time eclipse the queen consort in the favor of the king; but the latter would ultimately maintain her due position. Esther's influence lasted at least from Ahasuerus: 7th to the 12th year and beyond, but how far beyond we know not (Esther 3:7; Esther 3:10). His marriage to a Jewess was in contravention of the law that he must marry a wife belonging to one of the seven great Persian families. But Xerxes herein, as previously in requiring the Queen Vashti to appear unveiled before revelers (such an outrage on oriental decorum that she refused to come), set at nought Persian law and prejudice.
The massacre of 75,000 by Jews (Esther 9:16) would be unlikely, if they were Persians; but they were not, they were the Jews' enemies in the provinces, idolaters, naturally hating the spiritual monotheism of the Jews, whereas the Persians sympathized with it. The Persians in the provinces would be only the officials, whose orders from court were not to take part against the Jews. The persons slain were subject races, whose lives as such Xerxes made little account of. The Book of Esther supplies the gap between Ezra 6 and Ezra 7. Xerxes, or the Ahasuerus of Esther, intervenes between Darius and Artaxerxes. The "feast unto all his princes," etc., for "an hundred and fourscore days" (Esther 1:3-4) was protracted thus long in order that. all the princes in their turn might partake of it; for all could not, consistently with their duties in the provinces, have been present all that time.
The Book of Esther describes the stare of the exiled people of God in Persia, and thus complements the narratives by Ezra and Nehemiah of what took place in the Holy Land. Possibly Mordecai was the author; for the minute details of the banquet, of the names of the chamberlains and eunuchs, of Haman's wife and sons, and of the usages of the palace, imply such an intimate acquaintance with all that concerned Esther as best fits Mordecai himself. Similarly, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, who held official posts in the Persian court, wrote under inspiration the books which bear their names, and which describe the relations of the Jews to the pagan world power. This view accords with Esther 9:20; Esther 9:23; Esther 9:32; Esther 9:10. Ezra and the men of the great synagogue at Jerusalem probably edited and added it to the canon, having previously received it, and the book of Daniel, while at the Persian court.
The last of the great synagogue was Simon the Just, high priest 310-291 B.C. The canon contained it at latest by that time, and how long earlier is unknown. "The chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia" (Esther 10:2) were at the time of the writer accessible, and the very order whereby Media is put before Persia implies it cannot have been much later than the time of the events recorded, the former and middle part of Xerxes' reign, before Artabanus became Xerxes' favorite, and Mordecai's (perhaps = Matacas the eunuch) influence waned. The Book of Esther was placed by the Jews among the Kethubim (hagiographa), in the portion called the five volumes, Megilloth. Maimonides says that in Messiah's days the prophets and hagiographa shall pass away, except "Esther," which will remain with the Pentateuch. It is read through in the synagogues during Purim.
The scribes wrote the names of Haman's ten sons in three perpendicular columns of three, three, four, hanging upon three parallel cords, three upon each, one above another, representing the hanging of Haman's sons. The absence of the name of GOD is unique to this book; the Song of Solomon similarly has no express mention of GOD. The design apparently was, in the absence of the visible theocracy while God's people were under the pagan world power, that the historic facts should speak for themselves with expressive silence (just as the book of nature does: Psalm 19; Romans 1:20), attesting God's providence even when God hid His name and verbal manifestation. When God is invisible He is not the less active. The very absence of the name sets believers about inquiring why? and then they discover that God works no less by His providence in the world where He is veiled than by His grace in the church wherein He is revealed.
The hand of Providence is to be traced palpably in the overruling of the king's reckless feastings and wanton deposing of Vashti because she shrank from violating her own self respect, to laying the train for His appointed instrument, Esther's elevation; in Mordecai's saving the king's life from the two would-be assassins, and the recording of the fact in the royal chronicles, preparing the way for his receiving the royal honors which his enemy designed for himself; in Haman's casting Pur, the lot, for an auspicious day for destroying the Jews, and the result being, by God's providence which counterworked his appeal to chance, that the feast of Purlin is perpetually kept to commemorate the Jews' preservation and his destruction; in Esther's patriotic venture before the king after previous fasting three days, and God's interposing to incline the king's heart to hold out to her the golden scepter, ensuring to her at once life and her request (Proverbs 21:1); in Haman's pride at being invited to the queen's banquet and his preparing the gallows for Haman, and Providence, the very night before it, withdrawing sleep from the king so that the chronicles were read for his pleasure, and Mordecai's service was thus brought to his remembrance, so that when Haman came to solicit that Mordecai should be hanged the king met him with the question, "What shall be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honor?"
Then, in Haman supposing himself to be the object of honor, and suggesting the highest royal honors (such as Joseph had from the Egyptian king, Genesis 41:43), and thus unwittingly being constrained with his own voice and hand to glorify him whom he had meant to destroy; then in the denouement at the queen's banquet, and Haman's execution on the very gallows he erected for Haman (Psalms 7:14-16); and the consequent preservation from extinction of the holy race of whom Messiah must spring according to prophecy, and of whom Isaiah (Isaiah 54:17) writes, "no weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper, and every tongue that shall rise against thee thou shalt condemn." Compare Isaiah 6:13; Isaiah 65:8; Jeremiah 30:10-11; Zechariah 2:8-9. The Septuagint, at, a much later date, interpolated copiously the name of GOD and other apocryphal additions.
The purity of the Hebrew canon stands out in striking contrast with the laxity of the Alexandrian Greek version. The style of the Hebrew in Esther is like that of the contemporary Ezra and Chronicles, with just such a mixture of Persian and Chaldee words as we should expect in a work of the age and country to which Esther professes to belong. Jerome (Proleg. Gal.) mentions the book by name. So Augustine, De Civit. Dei; and Origen (in Eusebius, Hist. Ecclesiastes, 6:25). Haman the Agagite (Esther 3:1; Numbers 24:7; Numbers 24:20), as being of the blood royal of Amalek, was doomed to destruction with that accursed nation (Exodus 17:14-16). His wife and all his friends shared his guilt (Esther 5:14), and therefore by a retributive providence shared his punishment (Esther 9).
Esther's own character is in the main attractive: dutiful to her adoptive father, and regardful of his counsels though a queen; having faith in the high destiny of her nation, and believing with Mordecai that even "if she held her peace at the crisis deliverance would arise to the Jews from another place," and that providentially she had "come to the kingdom for such a time as this" (Esther 4:14); brave, yet not foolhardy, but fully conscious of her peril, not having received the king's call for 30 days, with pious preparation seeking aid from above in her patriotic venture; "obtaining favor in the sight of all them that looked upon her "(Esther 2:15). At the same time Scripture does not hide from us the fact of her not being above the vindictiveness of the age and the country, in her requesting that Haman's ten sons should be hanged, and a second day given the Jews to take vengeance on the enemies who had sought to kill them.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Scroll of Esther
Scroll of Esther, The: The book of Tanach describing Haman's plot to annihilate the Jews, Mordecai and Esther's successful foiling thereof, and the institution of the holiday of Purim. It is read every year on Purim. [16 related articles; www.c
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Esther, Theology of
Understanding the Book . For many Christians, the Book of Esther is the basis for a Jewish festival that found no counterpart in the Christian calendar. The book is never alluded to in the New Testament or Dead Sea Scrolls, and even comments about it by the church fathers are rare. The book appears to be anthropocentric, and apart from fasting (4:16), there are no distinctly religious practices or concepts. God, prayer, the covenant, sacrifice, the temple, the promised land, as well as virtues such as love, kindness, mercy, and forgiveness are not mentioned. Because of the many omissions, the Greek version of Esther added personal prayers of the two main characters and reference to God. Moreover, a number of the moral and ethical practices of Esther have been considered questionable. Esther hid her identity from the king, was willing to marry a Gentile, did not feel out of place in a harem, had no mercy on Haman, did not observe dietary laws, was at first not willing to help her own people, and sanctioned the plundering of enemies. Furthermore, the author never explicitly condemns her shortcomings, but seems to describe her triumphs with approval. In spite of this, the Book of Esther was included in the canon and has significant theological value.
The Place of Haman . There is at least one aspect in Esther that is often overlooked: the association of Haman with the house of Agag, the king of Amalek (1 Samuel 15:30 ), the enemy of Israel. Long before Esther, God had ordained that there would be war with Amalek for generations (Exodus 17:16 ), and that his name would be blotted from heaven (Deuteronomy 25:19 ; 1 Samuel 15:17-18 ). Although the Amalekite king Agag was captured, Saul spared him (he was ultimately slain by Samuel); thus his descendant Haman survived to contend with the Jews. (The Chronicler describes the destruction of the Amalekites later during the reign of Hezekiah [1], but the writer of Esther believes that they did not come to a complete end. ) Likewise, the mention of Kish (the father of Saul) at the end of Mordecai's genealogy (2:5) shows that he was descended from the mortal enemy of the Agagites. Mordecai would thus fulfill the command of God to Saul. The Jews did not take the spoils of Haman because of the dictum of not dividing the booty of Amalek (1 Samuel 15:21 ).
Although falling down before a superior in Israel was common, it is easier in this context to understand why Mordecai did not fall prostrate before Haman. Mordecai was not exhibiting pride in this case, but refused to bow down before a descendant of Agag. Josephus understands Mordecai as following the law of vendetta; his personal conflict was part of the providential plan. The author of Esther sees the destruction of Haman as salvation from God, who pursued his plan independent of human action. The Jews were saved, not so much for their sake, but for the fulfillment of the destruction of the Amalekites. Their deliverance became a part of a universal pattern of history.
Purim . Another purpose of the book is to provide the historical grounds and cultic significance for the celebration of Purim, a festival that is not mentioned in the Torah. The writer, however, spends little time on the subject (3:7; 9:20-32). It is not certain whether it was a pagan festival (either Babylonian, Persian, or indigenous) that was appropriated for Jewish purposes. Even the names of Mordecai and Esther betray a pagan background. Purim appears to be an Akkadian term for lot or chance; its etymology, however, does not help us retrieve the source of the festival. The lots were used in dice throwing, serving a purpose to those who had a widespread belief in a predestined fate with which people needed to cooperate if they were to succeed. The dice were thrown to establish auspicious dates for all known events. The Jews lived in such a culture in Persia; they needed to theologically comprehend a belief in the power of God to overrule the way the dice fell. God was able to annul the good or bad omen to deliver his people. This may explain why God is not overtly mentioned in Esther. The assurance provided by Purim was that no matter how severe the threat to God's people, he would help them. Human responsibility is prominent in Esther but not isolated from God's work; Esther and Mordecai were placed providentially to act in behalf of the people. Purim answered questions the Jews had about their future as scattered groups in alien cultures. Like the Passover, it celebrated deliverance from death.
The writer of Esther kept the original story, even with its questionable brutality, nationalism, intrigue, and secularism, but gave it a new theological interpretation within the worship and sacred tradition of Israel. The story of Esther was made relevant for future generations, while Purim was drawn into the orbit of Israel's religious heritage. Furthermore, the writer of Esther has stated the strongest case for the religious significance and survival of the Jewish people in the ethnic sense. In fact, the inclusion of Esther in the Christian canon has mitigated the attempt to spiritualize the concept of Israel.
Mark W. Chavalas
See also Feasts and Festivals of Israel
Bibliography . J. Baldwin, Esther: An Introduction and Commentary ; S. Berg, The Book of Esther ; E. Bickerman, Four Strange Books of the Bible: Jonah, Daniel, Koheleth, and Esther ; T. Gaster, Purim and Hannakah in Custom and Tradition ; W. W. Hallo, BA (1983): 19-27; F. B. Huey, Esther ; J. Lewy, Revue Hittite et Asianique 5 (1939): 117-24; C. A. Moore, Esther ; S. Talmon, VT 13 (1963): 419-55.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Esther
ESTHER (‘star’). The Jewish name, of which this is the Persian (or Babylonian) form, is Hadassah (cf. Esther 2:7 ), which means ‘myrtle.’ She was the daughter of Abihail, of the tribe of Benjamin, and was brought up, an orphan, in the house of her cousin Mordecai , in Shushan. Owing to her beauty she became an inmate of the king’s palace, and on Vashti the queen being disgraced, Esther was chosen by Xerxes, the Persian king, to succeed her. The combined wisdom of Mordecai and courage of Esther became the means of doing a great service to the very large number of Jews living under Persian rule; for, owing to the craft and hatred of Haman , the chief court favourite, the Jews were in danger of being massacred en bloc ; but Esther, instigated by Mordecai, revealed her Jewish nationality to the king, who realized thereby that she was in danger of losing her life, owing to the royal decree, obtained by Haman, to the effect that all those of Jewish nationality in the king’s dominions were to be put to death. Esther’s action brought about an entire reversal of the decree. Haman was put to death, and Mordecai was honoured by the king, while Esther’s position was still further strengthened; the Jews were permitted to take revenge on those who had sought their destruction. Mordecai and Esther put forth two decrees: first, that the 14th and 15th days of the month Adar were to be kept annually as ‘days of feasting and gladness, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor’ ( Esther 9:22 ); and, second, that a day of mourning and fasting should be observed in memory of the sorrow which the king’s first decree had occasioned to the Jewish people ( Esther 9:29-32 , cf. Esther 4:1-3 ).
The attempt to identify Esther with Amestris, who, according to Herodotus, was one of the wives of Xerxes, has been made more than once in the past; but it is now universally recognized that this identification will not bear examination. All that is known of Amestris her heathen practices, and the fact that her father, a Persian general named Otanes, is specifically mentioned by Herodotus proves that she cannot possibly have been a Jewess; besides which, the two names are fundamentally distinct. As to whether Esther was really a historical personage, see the next article.
W. O. E. Oesterley.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Esther, Book of
ESTHER, BOOK OF
1. Place in the Canon . The Book of Esther belongs to the second group of the third division of the Hebrew Canon the Kethubim , or ‘Writings’ a group which comprises the Megilloth , or ‘Rolls,’ of which there are five, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lam., Eccles., Esther. It was not without much discussion that Esther was admitted into the Canon, for its right to be there was disputed both by the Jewish authorities and by the early Christian Church. As late as the 2nd cent. a.d. the greatest Jewish teacher of his day, Rabbi Jehudah, said, ‘The Book of Esther defileth not the hands’ [1]. In some of the earlier lists of the Biblical books in the Christian Church that of Esther is omitted; Athanasius (d. 373) regarded it as uncanonical, so too Gregory Nazianzen (d. 391); Jacob of Edessa ( c [2] . 700) reckons it among the apocryphal books. It is clear that Esther was not universally accepted as a book of the Bible until a late date.
2. Date and authorship . The language of Esther points unmistakably to a late date; it shows signs, among other things, of an attempt to assimilate itself to classical Hebrew; the artificiality herein betrayed stamps the writer as one who was more familiar with Aramaic than with Hebrew. Further, the Persian empire is spoken of as belonging to a period of history long since past (cf. ‘in those days,’ Esther 1:2 ); the words, ‘There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom’ ( Esther 3:8 ), show that the ‘Dispersion’ had already for long been an accomplished fact. Moreover, the spirit of the book points to the time when great bitterness and hatred had been engendered between Jew and Gentile. The probability, therefore, is that Esther belongs to the earlier half of the 2nd cent. b.c. Of its authorship we know nothing further than that the writer was a Jew who must have been in some way connected with Persia; the book shows him to have been one whose racial prejudice was much stronger than his religious fervour; it is extraordinary that a book of the Bible should never once mention the sacred name of God; the secular spirit which is so characteristic of the book must have been the main reason of the disinclination to incorporate it into the Scriptures, which has been already referred to.
3. Contents . The book purports to give the history of how the Jewish feast of Purim (‘Lots’) first originated. Xerxes, king of the Medes and Persians, gives a great feast to the nobles and princes of the 127 provinces over which he rules; the description of the decorations in the palace garden on this occasion recalls the language of the Arabian Nights . Vashti , the queen, also gives a feast to her women. On the seventh day of the feast the king commands Vashti to appear before the princes in order that they may see her beauty. Upon her refusing to obey, the king is advised to divorce her. In her place, Esther, one of Vashti’s maidens, becomes queen. Esther is the adopted daughter of a Jew named Mordecai , who had been the means of saving the king from the hands of assassins. But Mordecai falls out with the court favourite, Haman , on account of his refusing to bow down and do reverence to the latter. Haman resolves to avenge himself for this insult; he has lots cast in order to find out which is the most suitable day for presenting a petition to the king; the day being appointed, the petition is presented and granted, the promised payment of ten thousand talents of silver into the royal treasury ( Esther 3:9 ) no doubt contributing towards this. The petition was that a royal decree should be put forth to the effect that all Jews were to be killed, and their belongings treated as spoil. On this becoming known, there is great grief among the Jews. Esther, instructed by Mordecai, undertakes to interpose for her people before the king. She invites both the king and Haman to a banquet, and repeats the invitation for the next day. Haman, believing himself to be in favour with the royal couple, determines to gratify his hatred for Mordecai in a special way, and prepares a gallows on which to hang him ( Esther 5:14 ). In the night after the first banquet, Ahasuerus, being unable to sleep, commands that the book of records of the chronicles be brought; in these he finds the account of Mordecai’s former service, which has never been rewarded. Haman is sent for, and the king asks him what should be done to the man whom the king delights to honour; Haman thinking that it is he himself who is uppermost in the king’s mind, describes how such a man should be honoured. The king thereupon directs that all that Haman has said is to be done to Mordecai. Haman returns in grief to his house. While taking counsel there with his friends, the king’s chamberlains come to escort him to the queen’s second banquet ( Esther 6:1 ff.). During this Esther makes her petition to the king on behalf of her people, as well as for her own life, which is threatened, for the royal decree is directed against all Jews and Jewesses within his domains; she also discloses Haman’s plot against Mordecai. The king, as the result of this, orders Haman to be hanged on the gallows which he had prepared for Mordecai, the latter receiving the honours which had before belonged to Haman (ch. 7). Esther then has letters sent in all directions in order to avert the threatened destruction of her people; but the attempt is yet made by the enemies of the Jews to carry out Haman’s intentions. The Jews defend themselves with success, and a great feast is held on the 14th of Adar, on which the Jews ‘rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.’ Moreover, two days of feasting are appointed to be observed for all time; they are called Purim , because of the lot ( pûr ) which Haman cast for the destruction of the Jews (chs. 8, 9). The book concludes with a further reference to the power of Ahasuerus and the greatness of his favourite, Mordecai (ch. 10).
4. Historicity of the book . There are very few modern scholars who are able to regard this book as containing history; at the most it may be said that it is a historical romance, i.e . that a few historical data have been utilized for constructing the tale. The main reasons for this conclusion are, that the book is full of improbabilities; that it is so transparently written for specific purposes, namely, the glorification of the Jewish nation, and as a means of expressing Jewish hatred of and contempt for Gentiles (see also § 5 ); that a ‘strictly historical interpretation of the narrative is beset with difficulties’; that the facts it purports to record receive no substantiation from such books as Chron., Ezr., Neh., Dan., Sirach, or Philo (cf. Hastings’ DB [3] s.v .). Besides this, there is the artificial way in which the book is put together: the method of presenting the various scenes in the drama is in the style of the writer of fiction, not in that of the historian.
5. Purim . The main purpose for which the book was written was ostensibly to explain the origin of, as well as to give the authority for, the continued observance of the Feast of Purim; though it must be confessed that the book does not really throw any light on the origin of this feast. Some scholars are in favour of a Persian origin, others, with perhaps greater justification, a Babylonian. The names of the chief characters in the book seem certainly to be corrupted forms of Babylonian and Elamite deities, namely, Haman = Hamman, Mordecai = Marduk, Esther = Ishtar; while Vashti is the name of an Elamite god or goddess (so Jensen). Thus we should have the Babylonian Marduk and Ishtar on the one hand, the Elamite Haman and Vashti, on the other. Purim may, in this case, have been, as Jensen suggests, a feast commemorating the victory of Babylonian over Elamite gods which was taken over and adapted by the Jews. In this case the origin of the name Purim would be sought in the Babylonian word puru , which means a ‘small round stone,’ i.e . a lot. But the connexion between the feast and its name is not clear; indeed, it must be confessed that the mystery attaching to the name Purim has not yet been unravelled.
W. O. E. Oesterley.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Esther, Book of
In the article on ESTHER the principal events of the book are glanced at, but a few remarks are needed as to the object of the book. It has been a sad puzzle to Christians. It looks very much like a tale, they say; and how can it be inspired, they ask, without the name of God from beginning to end? How different is Mordecai from Ezra or Nehemiah, captives like him, but who were not content to spend their lives at the gate of a heathen's palace when they had the opportunity of returning to Jerusalem.
That it is a true history is manifest. The great feast with which it opens is just such as a Persian monarch would celebrate with the nobles and princes of the various provinces. If Xerxes was the Ahasuerus of the book, as is generally supposed, it quite agrees with his character, that when elatedwith wine he should send for the queen; and, on her refusal to be thus exposed, to cast her aside, and seek another queen. The way this was accomplished was exactly Persian. The posts also, on horses, mules, camels, and young dromedaries, according to the nature of the country traversed — fromIndia to Ethiopia — was also the method adopted.
The main teaching of the book is that God was watching over and caring for His ancient people during their captivity, altogether apart from their faithfulnessto Him, or their desire to return to the land of promise. They were scattered over the entire kingdom, and it is not revealed what sort of lives they were living: the only two described in the book are Mordecai and Esther. God was their God, and they were His people, and, without His name being mentioned in the book, He was surely secretly watching over them, and making things work together for their protection. The king being unable to sleep on the very night when it was needed he should remember Mordecai is a signal example of His watchfulness. Esther and Mordecai may not have acted well in wishing a second day of vengeance, and in killing the sons of Haman, and petitioning to have them hanged on the gallows: how few can have power over their enemies without abusing it! The good behaviour of the Jews forms no part of the book:they are cared for whether good or bad. God in His government would in duetime set all that right. In fine, we have an illustration of how Godcared providentially for His earthly people, when they were under the Lo-ammi sentence, and He was unable to own them publicly as in relationship with Himself.
Historically Esther comes in between the beginning of Ezra and its close; that is, at the end of Ezra 6 the Artaxerxes of Ezra 4:7 being the pseudo-Smerdis; and the Artaxerxes of Ezra 7:1 , being Artaxerxes Longimanus. The Ahasuerus of Esther (Xerxes) comes in between them. For a list of the kings see PERSIA.
There are several apocryphal additions to the book of Esther in the LXX and the Vulgate. The principal of these are:
1. A preface containing Mordecai's pedigree, his dream of what was about to happen, and his appointment to sit at the king's gate.
2. In chap. 3 a copy of Artaxerxes' decree against the Jews.
3. In chap. 4 a prayer of Mordecai, followed by a prayer of Esther, in which she excuses herself for being the wife of an uncircumcised king.
4. In chap. 8 a copy of the king's letter for reversing the previous decree, in which Haman is called a Macedonian! and the statement made that he had been plotting to betray the kingdom of Persia to the Macedonians!
5. In chap. 10 Mordecai shows how his dream had been fulfilled, and gives glory to God. Some parts of these additions are declared to be 'thorough Greek' in style, and the patchwork is very manifest elsewhere.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Megillat Esther
The Biblical book of Esther.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Esther
(Hebrew: star, happiness)
Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 B.C.). She was a daughter of Abihail of the tribe of Benjamin, her Jewish name being Edissa. She had been adopted by her father's brother, Mardochai, and her beauty caused Assuerus to choose her as his queen instead of his divorced wife Vasthi. In this position she was able to protect her people against the plots of Aman, a royal favorite, the feast of Purim being observed by the Jews in commemoration of their delivery.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Esther, Book of
A book of the Bible, relating the history of a Jewish orphan girl named Edissa, later Esther, written probably not later than the time of Esdras, by an unknown author. Catholic scholars regard it as true history. It portrays Persian court life with great exactness of detail and apparently is based upon court annals and written Jewish sources. The Jews read it on the feast of Purim. The text of Esther has come down to us in two recensions; The Hebrew is shorter than the Greek. The Latin Bible follows the Hebrew, but the missing passages are supplied from the Greek version, as an appendix (10-16); they are necessary to complete the narrative. These so-called "deuterocanonical parts" were originally in Hebrew. Theodotian translated them from that language.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Esther
Daughter of Abihail. See her history, Book of Esther 1:1 - Esther 10:3. Her name means secret, from Sathar.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Esther
THE Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther was the same sovereign as the Xerxes of Herodotus and Plutarch and Thirlwall and Grote. The Ahasuerus of Holy Scripture was the Xerxes who, after he had subdued Egypt, set out to invade Greece with an army and a navy of absolutely fabulous size and strength. He was the madman who beheaded his chief military engineers, and bastinadoed the Hellespont, and laid fetters of iron upon its waves, because a terrible storm had risen on its waters and had destroyed his great bridge of pontoon boats. He was that incubus of carnage who seated himself on a throne of gold on a hill-top of Greece to see his vast fleet of ships sweep off the sea the sea-forces of Athens.
A king sat un a rocky brow,Which looks o'er sea-born Salamis:And ships by thousands lay below,And men in nations all were his.He counted them at break of day,But when the sun set, where were they?'That Ahasuerus,' says an old Hebrew treatise called the Second Targum on Esther, 'whose counsels were perverse, and whose orders were not right: who commanded Queen Vashti to appear unveiled before him, but she would not appear. That Ahasuerus in whose time the house of Israel was sold for nought, and in whose time Israel's face became black like the side of a pot. That Ahasuerus in whose days was fulfilled the threatening that in the morning thou shalt say, Would God it were evening! and in the evening, Would God it were morning!'
The sacred writer makes us respect Queen Vashti amid all her disgusting surroundings. Whether or no the drunken despot actually sent to her the whole cruel order that the Targumist reports, the sacred writer does not in as many words say. But, whatever the royal order that came to her out of the banqueting-hall exactly was, the brave queen refused to obey it. Her beauty was her own and her husband's; it was not for open show among hundreds of half-drunk men. And in the long-run, the result of that night's evil work was that Vashti was dismissed into disgrace and banishment, and Esther, the Hebrew orphan, was promoted into her place. The whole story of Vashti's fall and Esther's rise would take us into too many miry places for us tonight to wade through. I shall leave this part of the unsavoury story veiled up in all the restrained and dignified language of the sacred writer. Only, let us take heed to note that the sacred writer's whole point is this, that the Divine Hand was, all the time, overruling Ahasuerus's brutality, and Vashti's brave womanliness, and Esther's beauty, and her elevation into Vashti's vacant seat, all this, and more than all this, to work together for the deliverance and the well-being of the remnant of Israel that still lay dispersed in the vast empire of Persia.
Mordecai was the uncle and the foster-father of the orphaned Esther. He had brought Esther up, and his one love in his whole life, after his love for Israel and for the God of Israel, was his love for his little adopted daughter. You may be sure that the devout old man had many thoughts in his heart that he could not get to the bottom of, as he stood by and watched his sister's child lifted up in a moment from her exile and poverty, and actually made the queen of the greatest empire then standing on the face of the earth; and, what was to him still more full of faith, and hope, and love, the favourite queen of the absolute earthly master of all Mordecai's brethren of the house of Israel both at home in Jerusalem, and still scattered abroad over the whole of the Persian empire. I leave you to imagine what were the prayers and psalms that Mordecai offered up with his window open towards Jerusalem, as he saw all Esther's election, and promotion, and coronation, and all her splendour and all her power. And Mordecai walked every day before the court of the women's house, to know how Esther did, and what should become of her.
You would need to transport yourselves away east to the Constantinople of our day at all to understand Haman, and all his diabolical plots against Esther, and against Mordecai, and against all the people of Israel. Diabolically wicked as our own hearts often are with jealousy and with revenge, at the same time, our hearts are so held down and covered over by religion and civilisation that we do not know ourselves. There is no difference, says Paul. All vices are in us all, says Seneca; only, all vices are not equally extant in us all. But you will see all but all the vices extant in Haman, the favourite, for the time, of Ahasuerus. How Haman rose, and how he fell: how his seat was set above all the other princes of the empire at the beginning, and how his face was covered at the end; how he and Ahasuerus arranged it between themselves that Israel should be exterminated on a set day by a universal slaughter: how Haman had a gallows of fifty cubits high built for Mordecai yesterday, only to be hanged himself on that same gallows today: how Israel was sold to Haman by the seal of Ahasuerus, and was delivered by the perilous but successful interposition of Esther, all that is told as only a sacred writer could tell it. He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it. And he that rolleth a stone, it shall return upon his own head.
Such, then, was Esther's circle, so to call it. But what, exactly, was her opportunity? What was Esther's great opportunity that put her watchful uncle Mordecai into such sleepless anxiety lest she should either miss it, or betray it? Esther's splendid opportunity rose out of that extraordinary combination and concentration of circumstances in the very heart of which she had been so providentially placed. Haman, as we have seen, was the very devil himself. Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, was seven devils rolled into one. He was a very devil of pride, and of jealousy, and of revenge, and of an insatiable thirst for Hebrew blood. How almighty God should have let so many devils loose in one devil-possessed man is another mystery of His power, and wisdom, and judgment, and love. But there it is, as plain as inspired words can write it. Only, when the end comes, we see that all the time the God of righteousness had His rope round Haman's neck. And when Haman got to the end of his rope, God said over Haman also: Hitherto thou shalt go in thy diabolical wickedness, but no farther. And, then, as another stepping-stone up to Esther's incomparable opportunity, Ahasuerus, Haman's master, was a fit master, as we have seen, for such a servant of Satan as Haman was. Till, between them, the children of Israel of that day were on the very point of being exterminated all over the land by a universal and prearranged assassination. But, as God's providence would have it, step after step, Esther was on the throne, and was in all the fulness of her first influence with Ahasuerus just at that critical moment for the Church of God in the empire of Persia. The great war with Greece; the great national feast consequent on that great war; the absolute intoxication of the king's mind with pride, and with ambition, and with wine; the brutal summons to Vashti; her brave refusal of her master's brutal demand; her fall and her banishment; the election and elevation of Esther, and her immense influence with the despot; all these things were so many stepping-stones on which Esther had so providentially risen to her splendid opportunity. And, then, to complete and finish it all, there was added to it all, Mordecai's so watchful solicitude over the wickedness of Haman, and over the caprice of Ahasuerus, and over the safety of Israel, and over the miraculous opportunity of Esther. What a long, and complex, and shining chain, link after link, till Mordecai fashioned its last link and bound it with his strong but tender hands upon both the imagination, and the conscience, and the heart of Esther in these noble words: 'Think not with thyself that thou shalt escape in the king's house, more than all the Jews. For if thou altogether holdest thy peace at this time, then shall there enlargement and deliverance arise to the Jews from another place; but both thou and thy father's house shall be destroyed; and who knoweth whether thou art come to the kingdom for such a time as this?' Then Esther bade them return to Mordecai this answer: 'I will go in unto the king, and if I perish, I perish.' But she did not perish. For she obtained favour in the sight of the king; and the king held out to her the golden sceptre that was in his hand, and said to her, 'What wilt thou, Queen Esther? And what is thy request? For it shall be given thee to the half of the kingdom.' And the end was that Haman and all his murderous plots fell, and Mordecai was promoted to sit in Haman's seat, and Israel was saved. And all because, under God, Esther had her opportunity pointed out to her till she saw it and seized it.
The Book of Esther is surely a very clear prophecy and a very impressive parable of the plots, and the persecutions, and the politics of our own day. Armenia under the Sultan is Israel over again under Haman and Ahasuerus. Western Christendom, and England especially, is Esther with her opportunity and her responsibility over again, and the voice of warning by whomsoever spoken is the summons of Mordecai to Esther over again. It is three hundred years of God's long-suffering since Bacon wrote his Holy War. 'There cannot but ensue a dissolution of the State of the Turk,' said Bacon, 'whereof the time seemeth to approach. The events of the times do seem to invite Christian kings to a war in respect of the great corruption and relaxation of discipline in the empire of the enemy of Christendom.' So wrote Bacon in 1622. But our Christian kings, if not our Christian people, are still, at the end of the nineteenth century, keeping Haman in his seat, and holding up his hands. In a very fine sermon on my present text, Mr. Spurgeon, in the very spirit and power of Mordecai, has warned England that the God of all the earth has raised her up to her supreme position among the nations of the earth, not for her own aggrandisement, and power, and glory-but for the glory of God, and for the good of mankind. And, that there is no respect or immunity of nations, any more than of men, with the Judge of all the earth. And that if England, for fear, or for favour, or for ease, or for herself only, flinches and fails God and man in the hour of her opportunity, deliverance will come somehow to the cause of God and man; and,-one holds back his tongue from saying it, and his pen from writing it-'Thou and thy father's house shall be destroyed.' As I read Captain Mahan's masterly and noble Life of Nelson the other day with Esther in my mind, I could not but mark such things as these in that great sea-captain who had such a hand in setting England up on her high opportunity. 'Opportunity,' says the excellent biographer, 'flitted by, but Nelson was always ready and grasped it.' Again, and again, and again the same thing is said of Nelson. Till it shines out above all his other great gifts, and becomes the best description of his great genius. Opportunity, opportunity, opportunity! And, again, 'duty, not ease; honour, not gain; the ideal, not the material-such, not indeed without frailty and blemish, were ever Nelson's motives.' This new Nelson is a noble book for sailors and for all men to read. It is a noble book to be written and read at any time, but especially at this present time of gain with dishonour, and of ease at the sacrifice of duty.
But we are not great queens like Esther, with the deliverance of Israel in our hands; nor are we great sea-captains like Lord Nelson, with the making of modern England in our hands. No. But we are what we are; and what God has made us to be and to do. We all have our own circle set round us of God, and out of our own circle our own opportunities continually arise. Our opportunities may not be so far-reaching or so high-sounding as some other men's are; but they are our opportunities, and they are far-reaching enough for us. Our opportunities are life or death to us and to others; they are salvation or condemnation to our immortal souls; and is that not circle and opportunity enough? We are all tempted every day to say: If I only were Esther! If I only had a great opportunity, would I not rise to it! Would I not speak out at any risk! Would I not do a work, and win a name, and deliver Israel, and glorify God! Did you ever read of Clemens, and Fervidus, and Eugenia, and their imaginary piety? Clemens had his head full of all manner of hypothetical liberalities. He kept proposing to himself continually what he would do if he only had a great estate. Come to thy senses, Clemens. Do not talk what thou wouldst be sure to do if thou wast an angel, but think what thou canst do as a man. Remember what the poor widow did with her two mites, and go and do likewise. Fervidus, again, is only sorry he is not a minister. What a reformation he would have worked in his own life by this time, and in his whole parish, if only God had made him a minister! He would have saved his own soul, and the souls of his people, in season and out of season. Do not believe yourself, Fervidus. You are deceiving yourself. You hire a cabman to drive you to church, and he sits in the wet street waiting for you, and you never ask him how he manages to live with no Sabbath. It is not asked of you, Fervidus, to live and die a martyr; but just to visit your cabman's wife and children, and have family worship with them on a Sabbath night as you would have done if you had been a minister. Eugenia, again, is a young lady full of the most devout dispositions. If she ever has a family she will let you see family religion. She is more scandalised than she can tell you at the way that some of her school-fellows have married heathens, and at the life they lead without God's worship in their newly-married houses. But, Eugenia, you may never be married so as to show married people how to live. At the same time, you have a maid already, all to yourself. She dresses you for church, and then you leave her to have as little religion as a Hottentot. You turn her away when she displeases you, and you hire another, and so on, till you will die unmarried, and without a godly household, and your circle will be dissolved and your opportunity for ever lost. Your maid, and her sister, and her widowed mother, and her ill-doing brother, and her lover, all are your circle at present, and your opportunity is fast flitting by; and, because it is so near you every day, you do not discover it. Oh, Eugenia, full to the eyes of so many vain imaginations!
You never heard of Eugenia, and Fervidus, and Clemens before, and do not know where to find them. But, no matter. You and I are Fervidus and Eugenia ourselves. You and I are Mordecai and Esther ourselves. We are in that circle, and we are amid those opportunities, the very best that all the power, and all the wisdom, and all the love of God can provide for us. If it had been better for you and me that we had been born in Jerusalem, and had been exiles in Shushan, and subjects of King Ahasuerus, instead of the free-men of Queen Victoria, Almighty God could as easily have ordered it so when He was ordering all such matters. But, according to His best judgment, you are in the very best place for you in all the world. He could as easily have made you rich as poor. He could have made you successful in life, and married, and at the head of a house of your own, as easily as He has made you what you are. He could have made you a captain as easily as a common sailor. A queen, also, is as easy to God as a kitchen-maid. But we are all talented of God, each according to our several ability. And the servant-maid has as good an opportunity, in the long-run, as her mistress. And the cabin-boy as the captain. A cabin-boy saved Nelson's life at Teneriffe, and thus won the Nile, and Copenhagen, and Trafalgar, for England. And he who with love and prayer and sweet civility keeps a door in God's house, has a far easier and a far safer life of it; he has his salvation at far less risk than he who has to work out his own salvation, and the salvation of so many others, on the slippery floor of a popular pulpit. All God's very best wisdom, and all His very deepest counsel, and all His very greatest love, have all been laid out in collecting and concentrating our circle round us, and in evoking our opportunities out of our surroundings, and we pay Him back with grumblings, and with neglect, and with the loss of our own souls and the souls of all who have anything to do with us.
Only open your eyes, and you will see all around you your circle set of God, and all dazzling you with its endless and splendid opportunities. Your most commonplace, most monotonous, most uninteresting, and most every-day circle so shines, if you only saw it aright. What a magnificent and unparalleled opportunity-you dare not deny it-is yours, for your self-control, for the reducing of your pride, for the extermination of your temper, for your humility and your patience, for the forgiving of your injuries, and for hiding your hungry, broken, bleeding heart with God I And what more would you have? Yours is a circle with opportunities in it that an elect angel might well envy. Look, O my soul! how many, and what manner of people, are in thy very family and all around thee, and every one in his evil, even more than in his good, a divine stepping-stone laid there of God for thee whereon to climb up to the place that He has prepared for thee in His heavenly kingdom. What an antipathy you feel, and cannot get over, at that pestilential man. What an ever-gnawing envy at that other man. What an everlasting resentment and retaliation at such and such a man. What a genius has that fourth man for finding out for you the most corrupt places in your so corrupt and so deceitful heart. And so on, till there is nobody on earth, or in hell, like you. What a circle for a soul like your soul to be set in! What a sin-discovering and sin-exasperating circle! What a seven-fold furnace you walk in every day! There is nobody like you. There never was. O, man, what a chance you have! They know nothing about it sitting there in their soft seats. But what is the chaff to the wheat, if only you will let God cleanse you? These are they-the elders in heaven look down and say over you-who come up hither out of great tribulation! The chaff think that I am describing a monstrosity and an impossibility in my poor description of you. Never mind them. They and their thoughts are nothing to you. You know that the half of your temptations, and exasperations, and mortifications, and humiliations, and harassments of God, and men, and devils, has not been told. There is no tongue to tell it in, and no ear on earth to hear it with. Never mind them. All the deeper, then, is God's so deep plot for thee. All the more secret and unfathomable are His judgments for thee. All the richer set about thee is thy circle. All the more a miracle of grace are thy endless opportunities. All the more incomparable will be thy salvation, and all the more lustrous and weighty thy crown. Let neither man nor devil take it. Have it on thy head, all shining with pearls out of thy seas of sorrow, to cast at thy Saviour's feet on that day.
There is just one circle in the whole universe better than yours for a sinful man's most superb sanctification and salvation, and that is the pulpit, and the pastorate round about the pulpit. I do not wonder that Fervidus never forgave his father for not having made him a minister. For the divine subtlety has surpassed itself in the circle and in the opportunity it has set round every pulpit. O, all you who are our very best young men, all you, our ablest, foremost at college, most gifted, most many-sided, most original, most speculative, most intellectually pioneering and enterprising young men, I beseech you with all my might, do not miss the magnificent opportunity that the pulpit offers to him who can fill it as you could. Even we who will never now fill it-unless it is with tears and prayers night and day-we see, when it is too late, the incomparable life it at one time held out to us, and now holds out to you. There is no circle anywhere under heaven for individual interest; for all kinds of influence, the most immediate and the most lasting; and for the ever-deepening discipline of your own mind, and heart, and life, like the evangelical pulpit. O young men of Scotland, our choicest and our best young men, why stand ye so long hesitating? Open your eyes. Look around. Look within. Look at the church. Look at the world. Look forward to death and to the last day. And then look at the everlasting reward. They that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever. Then Esther bade them return to Mordecai this answer: Fast ye, and pray for me, and so will I go in unto the king.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Esther (2)
Esther, the Book of. This book is so termed because Esther is the principal character in it, and not from any notion that she wrote it. It has generally been held in high estimation among the Jews, who class it with Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Solomon's Song, and the Lamentations, as the five megilloth or rolls, and solemnly read it at the feast of Purim. Its literary character is fully equal to the best of the other historical books of the Bible. The style is lively and almost dramatic. But the peculiarity of the book is that the name of God does not occur in any form. The omission was probably intentional, and in order to permit the reading of Esther at the joyous, even hilarious, festival of Purim, without irreverence. The language of the book contains several Persian words, translated "satrap," "post," "edict," "royal" (not "camel;" 8:10, and 14 read "swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud," R. V.), "cotton," "crown," "nobles," "a copy," and "lot." The circumstantial minuteness of detail, the vividness of the portraits, the Persian words, and the whole tone of the book indicate that the author was a Jew who lived about the time of the events recorded, at the court of Persia, where he had access to the official documents of the kingdom. Rawlinson assigns the book to a period from 20 to 30 years after Xerxes's death, b.c. 444-434.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Esther
The book of Esther is so called, because it contains the history of Esther, a Jewish captive, who by her remarkable accomplishments gained the affections of King Ahasuerus, and by marriage with him was raised to the throne of Persia; and it relates the origin and ceremonies of the feast of Purim, instituted in commemoration of the great deliverance, which she, by her interest, procured for the Jews, whose general destruction had been concerted by the offended pride of Haman. There is great diversity of opinion concerning the author of this book; it has been ascribed to Ezra, to Mordecai, to Joachim, and to the joint labours of the great synagogue; and it is impossible to decide which of these opinions is the most probable. We are told, that the facts here recorded happened in the reign of Ahasuerus king of Persia, "who reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces," Esther 1:1 ; and this extent of dominion plainly proves that he was one of the successors of Cyrus. That point is indeed allowed by all; but learned men differ concerning the person meant, by Ahasuerus, whose name does not occur in profane history; and consequently they are not agreed concerning the precise period to which we are to assign this history. Archbishop Usher supposed, that by Ahasuerus was meant Darius Hystaspes, and Joseph Scaliger contended that Xerxes was meant; but Dean Prideaux has very satisfactorily shown, that by Ahasuerus we are to understand Artaxerxes Longimanus. Josephus also considered Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes as the same person; and we may observe, that Ahasuerus is always translated Artaxerxes in the Septuagint version; and he is called by that name in the apocryphal part of the book of Esther. See ECBATANA , and See AHASUERUS .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Esther
A Persian name given to Hadassah, a daughter of Abihail, of the tribe of Benjamin. The family had not returned to Judea after the permission given by Cyrus, and she was born probably beyond the Tigris, and nearly five hundred years before Christ. Her parents being dead, Mordecai, her father's brother, took care of her education. After Ahasuerus had discovered Vashti, search was made throughout Persia for the most beautiful women, and Esther was one selected. She found favor in the eyes of the king, and he married her with royal magnificence, bestowing largesses and remissions of tribute on his people. She was thus in a position which enabled her to do a signal favor to her people, then very numerous in Persia. Their deliverance is still celebrated by the Jews in the yearly festival called Purim, which was instituted at that time. The husband of Esther is supposed to have been the Xerxes of secular history.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Esther, the Book of
Has always been esteemed canonical, both by Jews and Christians, though certain additions to it, found in some versions and manuscripts, are apocryphal. Who was its writer is not certainly known. It has been ascribed to Ezra, to a high-priest name Jehoiakim, and to Mordecai. This last opinion is supported by the internal evidence; the book having been written in Persia, by an eye-witness of the scenes it describes, B. C. 509. It presents a graphic picture of the Persian court and customs, and is intensely Jewish in its spirit. The chief value of the book is to illustrate the wonder- working providence of God, his control of human passions, his righteous judgment of sinners, and his care for his covenant people- whom, even when captives in a strange land, he can exalt above all their foes.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Esther
Esther was a Jewess who lived in Persia and became queen to the Persian king Ahasuerus, also known as Xerxes I. He reigned from 486 to 465 BC. The story of Esther is found in the book that is named after her. The book does not say who wrote it.
Features of the book
When an earlier Persian king gave the Jews permission to return to their homeland, many preferred not to go. Rather than face the hardships and risks involved in rebuilding Jerusalem and its temple, they made life more comfortable for themselves where they were. Their prosperity increased, but they showed little interest in re-establishing the Jewish religious order as a spiritual force among the Jewish people.
This attitude is reflected in the book of Esther, whose story is built around Jews in Persia. The book does not mention God, apart perhaps from one reference to some unseen force that determines events (Esther 4:14). The closest indication of any spiritual awareness in the people is in one reference to fasting, though even then there is no reference to any kind of prayer (Esther 4:16). But whether his people acknowledged him or not, God was still directing their affairs to ensure they were not destroyed.
Summary of the story
When the Persian king decided to replace his queen, the woman chosen was Esther, an orphan Jew who had been brought up by her cousin Mordecai. Mordecai worked around the palace where, on one occasion, he saved the king’s life by reporting an assassination plot (1:1-2:23).
Some time later a proud and ambitious man named Haman became chief minister in the Persian government. Haman hated the Jews, and when Mordecai refused to bow to him, he determined to destroy all Jews throughout the Empire (3:1-15). While Haman cast lots (purim) to find the right day for the Jews’ slaughter, Mordecai persuaded Esther to appeal to the king to have mercy on her people (4:1-5:14). Esther then revealed to the king that she was Jewish. When the king discovered that Haman wanted to wipe out a people that included his queen, and in particular that he wanted to kill the man who had saved the king’s life, he executed Haman (6:1-7:10).
Mordecai then became chief minister instead of Haman. The day that had been chosen by the casting of lots (purim) for the slaughter of the Jews now became the day when the Jews took revenge on their enemies. The Jews’ celebration of their victory was the origin of an annual Jewish festival known as the Feast of Purim (8:1-9:32). Through Mordecai the Jews enjoyed increased freedom and prosperity (10:1-3).

Sentence search

Phinees - = Phinehas , 1 ( Esther 5:5 Esther 5:5 ; Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2 ; 1Es 8:29 , 2E Esther 1:2 k). = Phinehas, 2 ( Esther 1:2 Esther 1:2 b)
Agagite - The designation of Haman ( Esther 3:1 ; Esther 3:10 ; Esther 8:3 ; Esther 8:5 ; Esther 9:24 ). The epithet in Esther indicates that, as Agag was Saul’s adversary, so Haman was the foe of this other Benjamite. ]'>[1] reads Bugaios , Esther 3:1 , Esther 8:5 , omits at Esther 3:10 , and at Esther 9:24 , EST 16:10 has Macedonian , a word of evil connotation after Antiochus Epiphanes
Zaraias - Esther 5:8 Esther 5:8 = Seraiah , Ezra 2:2 ; Azariah , Nehemiah 7:7 . Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2 , one of the ancestors of Ezra, called Zerahiah , Ezra 7:4 , and Arna , Esther 1:2 Esther 1:2 . Esther 1:3
Mordecai - Mordecai was a Jew who lived in the Persian capital and whose cousin Esther became queen to the Persian Emperor (Esther 2:5-7; Esther 2:17). Between them, Mordecai and Esther saved the Jewish people from threatened destruction, and Mordecai later became the Emperor’s chief minister (Esther 10:3). (For details see Esther
Mordecai - A cousin (?) of queen Esther, who thwarted Haman’s plot against the Jews. See Esther and Esther [1]. ( Ezra 2:2 , Nehemiah 7:7 ); called in Esther 5:8 Esther 5:8 Mardocheus
Vashti - VASHTI ( Esther 1:9 ; Esther 1:11 etc. See Esther [1], 3
Hadassah - The Jewish name of Esther ( Esther 2:7 only). See Esther
Salathiel - ( Esther 5:5 Esther 5:5 ; 1Es 5:48 ; 1Es 5:56 ; 1E Esther 6:2 ) = Shealtiel (wh. Another name of Esdras ( 2E Esther 3:1 )
Hieremoth - Esther 9:27 Esther 9:27 = Ezra 10:26 Jeremoth . 2 Esther 9:30 Esther 9:30 = Ezra 10:29 Jeremoth (RVm Mithradates - Esther 2:11 Esther 2:11 = Mithredath , Ezra 1:8 ; Ezra 1:2 . ]'>[1] Mithridates) Esther 2:16 Esther 2:16 = Mithredath , Ezra 4:7
Zeresh - The wife of Haman ( Esther 5:10 ; Esther 5:14 ; Esther 6:13 )
Mani - MANI ( 1E Esther 9:30 ) = Bani of Ezra 10:29 and Esther 5:12 Esther 5:12
Phoros - PHOROS ( Esther 5:9 Esther 5:9 ; 1Es 8:30 ; 1E Esther 9:26 ) = Parosh (wh
Hathach - A eunuch appointed by the king to attend on queen Esther. By his means Esther learned from Mordecai the details of Haman’s plot against the Jews ( Esther 4:5-6 ; Esther 4:9-10 )
Salem (1) - SALEM ( 1E Esther 8:1 ) = Shallum , Ezra 7:2 ; called also Salemas (?), Esther 1:1 Esther 1:1
Marimoth - MARIMOTH ( 2E Esther 1:2 ) = Meraioth ( Ezra 7:3 ); also called Memeroth, Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2
Salemas - SALEMAS ( 2E Esther 1:1 ) = Shallum , Ezra 7:2 ; called also Salem (?) in Esther 8:1 Esther 8:1
Olamus - OLAMUS ( 1E Esther 9:30 ) = Meshullam of Ezra 10:29 and Mosollamus of 1Es 8:44 ; Esther 9:14 Esther 9:14
Zeresh - ” Haman's wife and counselor (Esther 5:10 ,Esther 5:10,5:14 ; Esther 6:13 )
Memeroth - MEMEROTH ( 1E Esther 8:2 ) = Meraioth , an ancestor of Ezra ( Ezra 7:3 ); called Marimoth . in Esther 1:2 Esther 1:2
Aziei - An ancestor of Ezra ( 2E Esther 1:2 ); called Azariah , Ezra 7:3 , and Ozias , Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2
Aggaeus - The form used in Esther 6:1 Esther 6:1 ; 1E Esther 7:3 and 2Es 1:40 for Haggai (wh
Borith - An ancestor of Ezra ( 2E Esther 1:2 ); called in Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2 Boccas , and in Ezra 7:4 Bukki
Memucan - One of the seven princes of Persia who had access to the royal presence ( Esther 1:14 ; Esther 1:16 ; Esther 1:21 )
Mardocheus - The name of Mordecai , the uncle of Esther, appears in this form in Ad. Est 10:4, 11:2, 12, 12:1, 4 6, 16:13, Esther 10:2 . Esther 5:8 Esther 5:8 = Mordecai, Ezra 2:2 , Nehemiah 7:7
Mattaniah - Four of those who had married foreign wives, Ezra 10:26 (called in Esther 9:27 Esther 9:27 Matthanias ), Esther 9:27 Esther 9:27 (called in l Esther 9:28 Othonias ), Esther 9:30 (called in Esther 9:31 Esther 9:31 Matthanias ), 1Es 9:37 (combined in 1E Esther 9:31 with the following Mattenai into Mamnitanemus )
Lieutenant - KJV term for Persian officials of the rank of Satrap (Ezra 8:36 ; Esther 3:12 ; Esther 8:9 ; Esther 9:3 )
Hegai - Eunuch in charge of King Ahasuerus' harem who befriended Esther (Esther 2:8-9 ,Esther 2:8-9,2:15 )
Tattenai - He is called in Esther 6:3 Esther 6:3 ; Esther 6:7 Esther 6:7 ; 1Es 6:27 (26) 1E Esther 7:1 S isinnes , which is simply a reproduction in Greek of a Persian name Thithinaia (orig
Parosh - form Phoros is adopted in Esther 5:9 Esther 5:9 ; 1Es 8:30 ; Esther 9:26 Esther 9:26
Hadassah - Another name for Esther. Esther 2:7
Arna - One of the ancestors of Ezra ( 2E Esther 1:2 ), corresponding apparently to Zerahiah of Ezra 7:4 and Zaraias of Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2
Memucan - (mih myoo' can) One of the seven princes who served as advisors to King Ahasuerus of Persia (Esther 1:14 ,Esther 1:14,1:16 ,Esther 1:16,1:21 )
Jozabad - The eponym of a Levitical family ( 2 Chronicles 31:13 ; 2 Chronicles 35:9 [1]). A priest who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:22 [2]). A Levite ( Ezra 8:33 [3] Ezra 10:23 [4])
Amad'Atha, - (Esther 16:10,17 ) and Amad'athus . ( Esther 12:6 ) [1]
Hadassah - Myrtle, the Jewish name of Esther (q. ), Esther 2:7
Hadas'Sah - (myrtle ), probably the earlier name of Esther. ( Esther 2:7 )
Couriers - Members of the royal guard who carried messages throughout the kingdom (2Chronicles 30:6,2 Chronicles 30:10 ; Esther 3:13 ,Esther 3:13,3:15 ; Esther 8:10 ,Esther 8:10,8:14 )
Eliasimus - ELIASIMUS , Esther 9:28 Esther 9:28 = Ezra 10:27 Eliashib
Lieutenants - achashdrapan , the official title of satraps or viceroys over the provinces of the Persian empire (Esther 3:12; Esther 8:9; Esther 9:3; Ezra 8:36)
Hegai - HEGAI or HEGE ( Esther 2:8 ; Esther 2:15 ; Esther 2:3 )
Meraioth - , Ezra 7:3 ); called in Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2 Memeroth and in Esther 1:2 Esther 1:2 Marimoth
Sodomitish Sea, - SODOMITISH SEA , Esther 5:7 Esther 5:7 = the Dead Sea (wh
Belemus, - BELEMUS , Esther 2:16 Esther 2:16 (16, LXX Hatach - Chamberlain or eunuch of Ahasuerus who attended on Esther. Esther 4:5-10
Sisinnes - The governor of Cœle-Syria and Phœnicia under Darius ( 1Es 6:3 ; Esther 6:7 Esther 6:7 ; 1Es 6:27 ; 1E Esther 7:1 )
Heli - An ancestor of Ezra ( 2E Esther 1:2 ); omitted in parallel passages, Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2 , Ezra 7:2-3
Susa (Shushan) - When Elam was absorbed by Persia, Susa became capital of Persia, and remained so throughout the era of the Persian Empire (Ezra 4:9; Nehemiah 1:1; Esther 1:2; Esther 1:5; Esther 4:8; Esther 8:14; Daniel 8:2; see PERSIA)
Adinu - ADINU ( Esther 5:14 Esther 5:14 , called Adin in 8:32). to the number of 454 ( Esther 5:14 Esther 5:14 , Ezra 2:15 ) or 655 ( Nehemiah 7:20 )
Dosith'Eus - a "priest and Levite" who carried the translation of Esther to Egypt. (Esther 11:1,2 )
Salum - SALUM ( 1Es 5:28 ) = Shallum , Ezra 2:42 ; called Sallumus , Esther 9:25 Esther 9:25
Gallows - The Hebrew term translated “gallows” in Esther (Esther 2:23 ; Esther 7:9-10 ;Esther 7:9-10;9:25 ) is the word for tree
Mithredath - The Persian treasurer, whom Cyrus commanded to deliver to Sheshbazzar the sacred vessels ( Ezra 1:8 = Esther 2:11 Esther 2:11 Mithradates ). Together with his colleagues he wrote to Artaxerxes (Longimanus) to hinder the re-building of the walls of Jerusalem ( Ezra 4:7 = Esther 2:16 Esther 2:16 Mithradates )
Hadassah - ” In Esther 2:7 , another name for Esther. ” See Esther
Bebai - The eponym of a family of returning exiles ( Ezra 2:11 ; Ezra 8:11 ; Ezra 10:28 , Nehemiah 7:16 ; Nehemiah 10:15 , Esther 5:13 Esther 5:13 ; 1E Esther 9:29 )
Phaath Moab - PHAATH MOAB ( Esther 5:11 Esther 5:11 ; 1Es 8:31 ) = Pahath-moab of Ezra 2:6 etc
Chorbe - ]'>[1] Corbe ), Esther 5:12 Esther 5:12 = Zaccai , Ezra 2:9 , Nehemiah 7:14
Samellius - SAMELLIUS ( Esther 2:16-17 Esther 2:16-17 ; 1Es 2:25 ; 1Es 2:30 ) = Shimshai , Ezra 4:8 etc
Athlai - A Jew who married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:28 ; called in Esther 9:29 Esther 9:29 Emmatheis )
Esther - See her history, Book of Esther 1:1 - Esther 10:3
Mordecai - The uncle of Esther, who rose to dignity and honor in the court of Ahasuerus. See the book of Esther
Zattu - A family of exiles that returned ( Ezra 2:8 = Nehemiah 7:13 [1]); several members of this family had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:27 [2]); its head sealed the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:14 (15))
Abishua - , 1 Chronicles 6:50 , Ezra 7:5 ); called in Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2 Abisue , and in 2E Esther 1:2 Abissei
Aziza - A Jew who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:27 ); called in Esther 9:28 Esther 9:28 Zardeus
Sanabassar, Sanabassarus - Variants in Esther 2:12 Esther 2:12 ; 1Es 6:18 ; 1Es 6:20 of the name Sheshbazzar (wh
Manes - One of those who agreed to put away their ‘strange’ wives ( Esther 9:21 Esther 9:21 [1])
Sheal - One of those who had married a ‘strange’ wife; called Jasaelus in Esther 9:30 Esther 9:30
Harbona - Suggested the hanging of Haman on his own gallows (Esther 1:19; Esther 7:9)
Isshijah - One of those who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:31 ): called in Esther 9:32 Esther 9:32 Aseas
Esther - ” Heroine of biblical Book of Esther whose Jewish name was Hadassah. Esther is the story of a Jewish orphan girl raised by her uncle, Mordecai, in Persia. Esther did not reveal that she was Jewish. Mordecai heard about a plot against the king's life which he reported through Esther. Esther learned of the plot and sent for Mordecai. He challenged her with the idea, “Who knoweth whether those art come to the kingdom for such a time as this?” (Esther 4:14 ). At a banquet, Esther revealed Haman's plot to destroy her and her people, the Jews. Mordecai was promoted, and Esther got the king to revoke Haman's decree to destroy the Jews. ...
The Book of Esther The Book of Esther has been placed among the writings in the Old Testament. Many scholars feel that the Book of Esther is a short historical novel or short story sprinkled with historical data and names to make its message more urgent and important. Others insist on the historicity of every detail, pointing to Esther 10:2 . When Esther prepares herself to present herself unrequested into the presence of the king, prayer does not accompany fasting. Probably the persons who can understand and appreciate the attitudes of Esther are those who have lived through persecution and occupation by others. Mordecai's insistence that Esther must intervene to save her people is based on the idea that a good Jew must worship and be loyal to the covenant God and to Him alone. Humble faithfulness can lead to large responsibilities (Esther 1:1-2:18 ). Political power of ungodly rulers may be far-reaching (Esther 1:1-8 ). Protection of personal rights may result in loss of position and rights (Esther 1:9-15 ). Family relationships and respect cannot be enforced by political means (Esther 1:16-22 ). Self-giving love and loyalty to family, nation, and God may require hiding one's identity to gain opportunity to serve (Esther 2:1-11 ). Humble obedience can lead to opportunities to serve (Esther 2:2-18 ). Faithfulness to one's people can be expressed through service to a foreign ruler (Esther 2:19-3:15 ). Loyalty to one's people does not require participation in conspiracy against foreign rulers (Esther 2:19-23 ). Loyalty to the foreign ruler does not mean participating in immoral government practices (Esther 3:1-2 ). Loyalty to God and godly traditions over loyalty to foreign rulers may cause personal and even national persecution (Esther 3:3-15 ). Positions of influence bring responsibility to act for God's people (Esther 4:1-17 ). Mourning rites are appropriate responses to national danger (Esther 4:1-4 ). God's people must act and pray in times of danger (Esther 4:5-17 ). Responsible actions for God are honored by God's actions for His people (Esther 5:1-8:17 ). Self-giving action is rewarded in unexpected ways (Esther 5:1-8 ). Human pride leads to rash actions (Esther 5:9-14 ). Honor comes to God's faithful at the opportune moment (Esther 6:1-3 ). Human pride often leads to humiliation (Esther 6:4-12 ). God's people will experience vindication eventually (Esther 6:13-14 ). Brave action for God's people brings deliverance (Esther 7:1-10 ). God's providence brings reward for faithfulness and joy to God's people (Esther 8:1-17 ). Celebration through the ages helps God's people remember His salvation and the lessons of history (Esther 9:1-32 ). Work for God's people can bring new opportunities for service and honor (Esther 10:1-3 )
Ramiah - One of the sons of Parosh who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:25 [1])
Vashti - ” Wife of King Ahasuerus and queen of Persia and Media (Esther 1:9 ). Vashti was deposed as queen (Esther 1:19 ), and a beauty contest was arranged to select a new queen. Esther was chosen as the new queen (Esther 2:16 ). See Ahasuerus ; Esther ; Persia ; Xerxes
Hammedatha - ” Father of Haman, the villain of the Book of Esther (Esther 3:1 )
Raamiah - One of the twelve chiefs who returned with Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 7:7 = Ezra 2:2 [1], Esther 5:8 Esther 5:8 [2] )
Harbona - ” A eunuch on the staff of King Ahasuerus of Persia (Esther 1:10 ; Esther 7:9 )
Helkias - He is mentioned in Esther 1:8 Esther 1:8 = 2 Chronicles 35:8 as a governor of the Temple, subscribing handsomely to Josiah’s great Passover; in Esther 8:1 Esther 8:1 (cf
Carcas - (Esther 1:10 ). See Abagtha ; Esther
Bigthan - BIGTHAN ( Esther 2:21 ), or BIGTHANA ( Esther 6:2 )
Adar - Time of Festival of Purim established in Esther (Esther 9:21 )
Adalia - One of ten sons of Haman, villain of Book of Esther, who was slain by Jews (Esther 9:8 )
Bago - The head of a family which returned with Ezra ( 1Es 8:40 ) called in Esther 5:14 Esther 5:14 Bagoi , and in Ezra 2:14 Bigvai
Purim - (See Esther. ) From a Persian word, "lots"; because Haman had east lots to find an auspicious day for destroying the Jews (Esther 3:6-7; Esther 9:24). An introductory fast was subsequently appointed on the 13th, commemorating that of Esther and of the Jews by her desire before she ventured into Abasuerus' presence (Esther 4:16). Then the megillah "roll" of Esther is read through histrionically. ...
At the close of reading the megallah all cry out, "cursed be Haman, blessed be Mordecai; cursed be Zeresh (Haman's wife), blessed be Esther; cursed be all idolaters, blessed be all Israelites, and blessed be Harbonah who hanged Haman!" The repast at home is mainly milk and eggs. At morning service Exodus 17:8-16, the doom of Amalek the people of Agag (1 Samuel 15:8), Haman's ancestor (Esther 3:1), is read. Saturnalian-like drinking and acting, the men assuming women's attire (the Purim suspending the prohibition, Deuteronomy 22:5), and offerings for the poor, characterize the feast (Esther 9:17-18-19-32). The feast began among the Jews of their own accord; Mordecai wrote confirming it, and Esther joined with him in "writing with all authority to confirm this second letter of Purlin
Maaseiah - A priest, of the sons of Jeshua, who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:18 [1]). A priest, of the sons of Harim, who had committed the same offence ( Ezra 10:21 [2]). A priest, of the sons of Pashbur ( Ezra 10:22 [3]), and a layman, of the sons of Pahath-moab ( Esther 9:30 Esther 9:30 [4])
Mordecai - (4th century BCE) Leader of the Jews during the time of King Ahasuerus, first cousin of Esther. Encouraged Esther to beseech the king to annul Haman's decree calling for the extermination of the Jews, as recorded in the Scroll of Esther, which is read every year on Purim
Teresh - Hanged on Mordecai's information for attempting to assassinate the king (Esther 2:21; Esther 6:2)
Bishlam - ( Ezra 4:7 ); called Belemus in Esther 2:16 Esther 2:16
Shealtiel - SHEALTIEL (Salathiel of Esther 5:5 Esther 5:5 ; 1Es 5:48 ; 1Es 5:56 ; Esther 6:2 Esther 6:2 , AV Shaashgaz - Eunuch in charge of Xerxes' harem of which Esther became a member before she was chosen queen (Esther 2:14 )
Bigthan - See Esther 2:21 ). Mordecai foiled the plot, thus setting up the king's need to honor Mordecai at Haman's expense (Esther 6:1-12 )
Abihil - Father of queen Esther, and uncle of Mordecai. Esther 2:15 ; Esther 9:29 ...
Nehum - a scribal error for Rehum of Ezra 2:2 called in Esther 5:8 Esther 5:8 Roimus
Vashti - Queen of Ahasuerus or Xerxes (Esther 1 and Esther 2). ...
But more probably she and Esther were only "secondary wives" with the title "queen. Esther 5:4; Esther 5:8; Esther 5:12, shows that it was no impropriety for wives to be at banquets in front of other men (besides their husbands)
Bigthan - Persian and Sanskrit, Βagadana , "gift of fortune" (Esther 2:21; Esther 6:2). The Septuagint states that the conspirators' cause of wrath was Mordecai's advancement; but Mordecai was not advanced until subsequently, in reward for detecting the conspiracy (Esther 6)
Zeresh - Haman's wife, who instigated him to erect a high gallows and to prevail on the king to hang on it Mordecai, then to go in merrily with the king unto the banquet, but predicted Haman's own fall when she heard Mordecai was a Jew (Esther 5:10; Esther 5:14; Esther 6:13)
Shabbethai - A Levite who opposed Ezra in the matter of the foreign marriages ( Ezra 10:15 ) = Sabbateus of Esther 9:14 Esther 9:14
Abagtha - One of the seven eunuchs in Ahasuerus' court; akin to the name Bigthan (Esther 1:10; Esther 2:21)
Vajezatha - ” One of Haman's ten sons the Jews killed after Esther gained permission to retaliate against Haman's deadly plan (Esther 9:9 )
Tabeel - A Persian official ( Ezra 4:7 ); called in Esther 2:16 Esther 2:16 Tabellius
Telem - A gatekeeper who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:24 ); called in Esther 9:25 Esther 9:25 Tolbanes ; perhaps the same as Talmon of Nehemiah 12:25
Tikvah - The father of Jahzeiah ( Ezra 10:15 ); called in Esther 9:14 Esther 9:14 Thocanus
Aridai - Son of Haman, Esther, and the Jews' archenemy. He died as the Jews reversed Haman's scheme and gained revenge (Esther 9:9 )
Assuerus - the city Susan was the capital of his kingdom" (Esther 1), and to whom, in the beginning of his reign (c. He made Esther, a Jewess, his queen in the place of Vashti (Esther 2)
Agagite - Only Haman, the arch villain in the Book of Esther, is called an Agagite (Esther 3:1 )
Harbona - HARBONA ( Esther 1:10 ) or HARBONAH ( Esther 7:9 )
Reelias - REELIAS , Esther 5:8 Esther 5:8 , corresponds in position to Bigvai in Ezra 2:2 , Nehemiah 7:7 ; the form of the name may be due to a duplication of Reelaiah in the same verse of Ezra
Esther, the Book of - (See Esther
Vashti - Beautiful, the queen of Ahasuerus, who was deposed from her royal dignity because she refused to obey the king when he desired her to appear in the banqueting hall of Shushan the palace (Esther 1:10-12 ). (See Esther
Adonikam - ADONIKAM (‘my Lord has arisen’), Ezra 2:13 ; Ezra 8:13 , Neh 7:18 , Esther 5:14 Esther 5:14 ; 1Es 8:39
Abihail - ...
The father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15 )
Esther - Esther (‘star’). Esther 2:7 ), which means ‘myrtle. Owing to her beauty she became an inmate of the king’s palace, and on Vashti the queen being disgraced, Esther was chosen by Xerxes, the Persian king, to succeed her. The combined wisdom of Mordecai and courage of Esther became the means of doing a great service to the very large number of Jews living under Persian rule; for, owing to the craft and hatred of Haman , the chief court favourite, the Jews were in danger of being massacred en bloc ; but Esther, instigated by Mordecai, revealed her Jewish nationality to the king, who realized thereby that she was in danger of losing her life, owing to the royal decree, obtained by Haman, to the effect that all those of Jewish nationality in the king’s dominions were to be put to death. Esther’s action brought about an entire reversal of the decree. Haman was put to death, and Mordecai was honoured by the king, while Esther’s position was still further strengthened; the Jews were permitted to take revenge on those who had sought their destruction. Mordecai and Esther put forth two decrees: first, that the 14th and 15th days of the month Adar were to be kept annually as ‘days of feasting and gladness, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor’ ( Esther 9:22 ); and, second, that a day of mourning and fasting should be observed in memory of the sorrow which the king’s first decree had occasioned to the Jewish people ( Esther 9:29-32 , cf. Esther 4:1-3 ). ...
The attempt to identify Esther with Amestris, who, according to Herodotus, was one of the wives of Xerxes, has been made more than once in the past; but it is now universally recognized that this identification will not bear examination. As to whether Esther was really a historical personage, see the next article
Dalphon - ” One of ten sons of Haman, chief enemy of Mordecai and Esther. The sons were killed when the Jews protected themselves against the Persian attack (Esther 9:7 )
Bigtha - ” A eunuch who served King Ahasuerus of Persia and took command to Queen Vashti to come to party (Esther 1:10 ). Bigthan (Esther 2:21 ) may be same person
Gabatha - In Esther 2:21 he is called Bigthan and in Esther 6:2 Bigthana
Ahasuerus - was the king of Persia, who advanced Esther to be queen, and at her request delivered the Jews from the destruction plotted for them by Haman. Archbishop Usher is of opinion that this Ahasuerus was Darius Hystaspes; and that Atossa was the Vashti, and Artystona the Esther, of the Scriptures. But, according to Herodotus, the latter was the daughter of Cyrus, and therefore could not be Esther; and the former had four sons by Darius, besides daughters, born to him after he was king; and therefore she could not be the queen Vashti, divorced from her husband in the third year of his reign, nor he the Ahasuerus who divorced her. Besides, Atossa retained her influence over Darius to his death, and obtained the succession of the crown for his son, Xerxes; whereas Vashti was removed from the presence of Ahasuerus by an irrevocable decree, Esther 1:19 . Joseph Scaliger maintains that Xerxes was the Ahasuerus, and Hamestris his queen, the Esther, of Scripture. The opinion is founded on the similitude of names, but contradicted by the dissimilitude of the characters of Hamestris and Esther. Besides, Herodotus says that Xerxes had a son by Hamestris that was marriageable in the seventh year of his reign; and therefore she could not be Esther. The Septuagint, through the whole book of Esther, uses Artaxerxes for the Hebrew Ahasuerus wherever the appellation occurs; and the apocryphal additions to that book every where call the husband of Esther Artaxerxes; and he could be no other than Artaxerxes Longimanus. The extraordinary favour shown to the Jews by this king, first in sending Ezra, and afterward Nehemiah, to relieve this people, and restore them to their ancient prosperity, affords strong presumptive evidence that they had near his person and high in his regard such an advocate as Esther
Seraiah - Ezra claimed descent from him, Ezra 7:1 ( 1E Esther 8:1 Azarias , 2E Esther 1:1 Sam araias ). His name occurs also in Esther 5:6 Esther 5:6 Saraias . One of the twelve leaders who returned with Zerub babel, Ezra 2:2 = Nehemiah 7:7 Azariah , l Esther 5:8 Zaraias 7 . A priestly clan ( Nehemiah 10:2 ; Nehemiah 11:11 ; Nehemiah 12:2 ; Nehemiah 12:12 , Esther 5:8 Esther 5:8 = 1 Chronicles 9:11 Azariah )
Haman - ” The Agagite who became prime minister under the Persian king Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1 ). Through the intervention of Esther, however, his scheme was unmasked; and he was hanged on the gallows he had designed for Mordecai the Jew. See Esther
Jashub - A returned exile who married a foreigner ( Ezra 10:29 ); called in Esther 9:30 Esther 9:30 Jasubus
Abdi - A Jew who had married a foreign wife, Ezra 10:26 = Oabdius , Esther 9:27 Esther 9:27
Conaniah - A chief of the Levites in Josiah’s reign ( 2 Chronicles 35:9 ); called in Esther 1:9 Esther 1:9 Jeconias
Megillat esther - The Biblical book of Esther
su'sa - (Esther 11:3 ; 16:18 ) [1]
Poratha - PORATHA or PORUDATHA Esther 9:8
Haman - , the prime minister) of the Persian king Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1 , etc. He was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai the Jew (Esther 7:10 ). (See Esther
Bukki - In 1E Esther 8:2 he is called Boccas , for which Borith is substituted in Esther 1:2 Esther 1:2
Haman - He plotted to annihilate the Jews, but was thwarted by Mordecai and Esther. At Ahasuerus' behest, he was hanged, as described in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim
Hatach - ” A eunuch serving King Ahasuerus in the Persian court whom the king assigned as Esther's servant (Esther 4:5-6 ). Esther assigned him to find why Mordecai was troubled, thus initiating Esther's appearances before the king to save her people
Roimus - ROIMUS ( 1E Esther 5:8 )
Shaashgaz - A chamberlain of Ahasuerus ( Esther 2:14 )
Thar'ra, - (Esther 12:1 ) a corrupt form of Teresh
Bigtha - A eunuch of Ahasuerus ( Esther 1:10 )
Colius - COLIUS ( 1E Esther 9:23 )
Har'Bonah, - (Esther 7:9 ) the same as the preceding
he'ge, - another form of the preceding (Esther 2:3 )
India - The eastern boundary of the Persian Empire of Ahasuerus (Xeres) (Esther 1:1 ; Esther 8:9 )
India - The eastern boundary of the Persian Empire of Ahasuerus (Xeres) (Esther 1:1 ; Esther 8:9 )
Calitas - One of the Levites who undertook to repudiate his ‘strange wife,’ Esther 9:23 Esther 9:23
Esther, Theology of - For many Christians, the Book of Esther is the basis for a Jewish festival that found no counterpart in the Christian calendar. Because of the many omissions, the Greek version of Esther added personal prayers of the two main characters and reference to God. Moreover, a number of the moral and ethical practices of Esther have been considered questionable. Esther hid her identity from the king, was willing to marry a Gentile, did not feel out of place in a harem, had no mercy on Haman, did not observe dietary laws, was at first not willing to help her own people, and sanctioned the plundering of enemies. In spite of this, the Book of Esther was included in the canon and has significant theological value. There is at least one aspect in Esther that is often overlooked: the association of Haman with the house of Agag, the king of Amalek (1 Samuel 15:30 ), the enemy of Israel. Long before Esther, God had ordained that there would be war with Amalek for generations (Exodus 17:16 ), and that his name would be blotted from heaven (Deuteronomy 25:19 ; 1 Samuel 15:17-18 ). (The Chronicler describes the destruction of the Amalekites later during the reign of Hezekiah [1], but the writer of Esther believes that they did not come to a complete end. The author of Esther sees the destruction of Haman as salvation from God, who pursued his plan independent of human action. Even the names of Mordecai and Esther betray a pagan background. This may explain why God is not overtly mentioned in Esther. Human responsibility is prominent in Esther but not isolated from God's work; Esther and Mordecai were placed providentially to act in behalf of the people. ...
The writer of Esther kept the original story, even with its questionable brutality, nationalism, intrigue, and secularism, but gave it a new theological interpretation within the worship and sacred tradition of Israel. The story of Esther was made relevant for future generations, while Purim was drawn into the orbit of Israel's religious heritage. Furthermore, the writer of Esther has stated the strongest case for the religious significance and survival of the Jewish people in the ethnic sense. In fact, the inclusion of Esther in the Christian canon has mitigated the attempt to spiritualize the concept of Israel. Baldwin, Esther: An Introduction and Commentary ; S. Berg, The Book of Esther ; E. Bickerman, Four Strange Books of the Bible: Jonah, Daniel, Koheleth, and Esther ; T. Huey, Esther ; J. Moore, Esther ; S
Mor'Deca-i - [1] Three things are predicated of Mordecai in the book of Esther: (1) That he lived in Shushan; (2) That his name was Mordecai, son of Jair, son of Shimei, son of Kish the Benjamite who was taken captive with Jehoiachin; (3) That he brought up Esther
Jasaelus - JASAELUS ( 1E Esther 9:30 ) = Ezra 10:29 Sheal
Moossias - MOOSSIAS ( 1E Esther 9:31 ) = Maaseiah , Ezra 10:30
Naathus - NAATHUS ( 1E Esther 9:31 ) = Ezra 10:30 Adna
Sabathus - SABATHUS ( 1E Esther 9:28 ) = Zabad , Ezra 10:27
Sabbateus - SABBATEUS ( 1E Esther 9:14 ) = Shabbethai , Ezra 10:16
Sabbeus - SABBEUS ( 1E Esther 9:32 ) = Shemaiah , Ezra 10:31
Sadduk - SADDUK ( 1E Esther 8:2 ) = Zadok , Ezra 7:2
Saloas - SALOAS ( 1E Esther 9:22 ) = EIasah , Ezra 10:22
Sameus - SAMEUS ( 1E Esther 9:21 ) = Shemaiah , Ezra 10:21
Savias - SAVIAS ( 1E Esther 8:2 ) = Uzzi , Ezra 7:4
Semeias - Est 11:2) = Shimei , Esther 2:5
Semeis - SEMEIS ( 1E Esther 9:23 ) = Shimei , Ezra 10:23
Sesthel - SESTHEL ( 1E Esther 9:31 ) = Bezalel , Ezra 10:30
Thocanus - THOCANUS ( 1E Esther 9:14 ) = Tikvah , Ezra 10:15
Zamoth - ZAMOTH ( 1E Esther 9:28 ) = Ezra 10:27 Zattu
Zardeus - ZARDEUS ( 1E Esther 9:28 ) = Ezra 10:27 Aziza
Zechrias - An ancestor of Ezra ( 1E Esther 8:1 )
Zethar - A eunuch of king Abasnerus ( Esther 1:10 )
Hiermas - HIERMAS ( 1E Esther 9:26 ) = Ezra 10:25 Ramiah
Maelus - MAELUS ( 1E Esther 9:26 ) = Mijamin , Ezra 10:25
Mamuchus - MAMUCHUS ( 1E Esther 9:30 ) = Malluch , Ezra 10:29
Manasseas - MANASSEAS ( 1E Esther 9:31 ) = Manasseh, Ezra 10:30
Massias - MASSIAS ( 1E Esther 9:22 ) = Maaseiah Ezra 10:22
Mathelas - MATHELAS ( 1E Esther 9:11 ) = Maaseiah , Ezra 10:16
Oabdius - OABDIUS ( 1E Esther 9:27 ) = Ezra 10:26 , Abdi
Eliadas - ELIADAS ( 1E Esther 9:28 ) = Ezra 10:27 Elioeani
Ematheis - EMATHEIS ( 1E Esther 9:29 ) = Athlai , Ezra 10:28
Emmer - EMMER ( 1E Esther 9:21 ) = Ezra 10:20 Immer
Ismael - ISMAEL ( 1E Esther 9:22 ) = Ezra 10:22 Ishmael
Jarimoth - JARIMOTH ( 1E Esther 9:28 ) = Ezra 10:27 Jeremoth
Jasubus - JASUBUS ( 1E Esther 9:30 ) = Ezra 10:29 Jashub
Jedeus - JEDEUS ( 1E Esther 9:30 ) = Ezra 10:29 Adaiah
Laccunus - LACCUNUS ( 1E Esther 9:31 ) = Ezra 10:30 Chelal
Jezrielus - JEZRIELUS ( 1E Esther 9:27 ) = Ezra 10:26 Jehiel
Poratha - The fourth son of Haman ( Esther 9:8 )
Patheus - PATHEUS ( 1E Esther 9:23 ) = Ezra 10:23 Pethahiah
Haman - We have no proof of Haman's being an Amalekite; but Esther 3:1 , reads of the race of Agag. In the apocryphal Greek, Esther 9:24 , and the Latin, Esther 16:10, he is called a Macedonian, animo et gente Macedo. He was hanged on a gibbet fifty cubits high, which he had prepared for Mordecai; his house was given to Queen Esther; and his employments to Mordecai. See Esther
Eunuch - ...
So in the Persian court there were eunuchs as "keepers of the women," through whom the king gave commands to the women, and kept men at a distance (Esther 1:10; Esther 1:12; Esther 1:15-16; Esther 2:3; Esther 2:8; Esther 2:14)
Ahasue'Rus - ) ...
The third is the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther. This Ahasuerus is probably Xerxes of history, (Esther 1:1 ) (B. 485), and this conclusion is fortified by the resemblance of character and by certain chronological indications, the account of his life and character agreeing with the book of Esther In the third year of Ahaseuerus was held a great feast and assembly in Shushan the palace, (Esther 1:3 ) following a council held to consider the invasion of Greece. He divorced his queen Vashti for refusing to appear in public at this banquet, and married, four years afterwards, the Jewess Esther, cousin and ward of Mordecai. But before the day appointed for the massacre, Esther and Mordecai influenced the king to put Haman to death and to give the Jews the right of self-Defence
Ahasuerus - The third is the Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther. This Ahasuerus is probably Xerxes of history, Esther 1:1, b. 485, and this conclusion is favored by the resemblance of character and by certain chronological indications, the accounts of his life and character agreeing with the book of Esther. In the third year of Ahasuerus was held a great feast and assembly in Shushan the palace, Esther 1:3, following a council held to consider the invasion of Greece. He divorced his queen Vashti for refusing to appear in public at this banquet, and married, four years afterwards, the Jewess Esther, cousin and ward of Mordecai. But before the day appointed for the massacre, Esther and Mordecai induced the king to put Haman to death, and to give the Jews the right of self-defence
India - boundary of the empire of Ahasuerus ( Esther 1:1 ; Esther 8:9 ). Est 13:1, 14:1, Esther 3:2 Esther 3:2
Ochielus - OCHIELUS ( 1E Esther 1:9 ) = Jeiel , 2 Chronicles 35:9
Sabias - SABIAS ( 1E Esther 1:9 ) = Hashabiah , 2 Chronicles 35:9
Zabdeus - ZABDEUS ( 1E Esther 9:21 ) = Zebadiah of Ezra 10:26
Hiereel - HIEREEL ( 1E Esther 9:21 ) = Jehiel of Ezra 10:21
Naidus - NAIDUS ( 1E Esther 9:31 ) apparently = Benaiah , Ezra 10:30
Ocidelus - OCIDELUS ( 1E Esther 9:22 ) = Jozabad in Ezra 10:22
Othonias - OTHONIAS ( 1E Esther 9:28 ) = Mattaniah in Ezra 10:27
Casiphia - On the road between Babylon and Jerusalem (Esther 8:17)
Vaizatha - One of the ten sons of Haman ( Esther 9:9 )
Hegai - Eunuch, had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus (Esther 2:8 )
Satraps - ]'>[2] of ’ăchashdarpĕn îm , Ezra 8:35 , Esther 3:12 ; Esther 8:9 ; Esther 9:3 ( AV Post - rats , "a runner" (Esther 3:13; Esther 3:15; Esther 8:14)
in'Dia - The name of India does not occur in the Bible before the book of Esther where it is noticed as the limit of the territories of Ahasuerus in the east, as Ethiopia was in the west. (Esther 1:1 ; 8:9 ) The India of the book of Esther is not the peninsula of Hindostan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab and perhaps Scinde
Jehiel - One of those who had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:26 ); called in Esther 9:27 Esther 9:27 Jezrielus. A priest of the sons of Harim who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:21 ); called in Esther 9:21 Esther 9:21 Hiereel
Shethar - A star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:14 )
Hammedatha - Father of Haman, designated usually "the Agagite" (Esther 3:1,10 ; 8:5 )
Parmashta - Strong-fisted, a son of Haman, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:9 )
a'Man - [1] (Esther 10:7 ; 12:6 ; 13:3,12 ; 14:17 ; 16:10,17 )
Hammed'Atha - ( Esther 3:1,10 ; 8:5 ; 9;24 )
Ahasuerus - (4th century BCE) King of Persia, husband of Vashti and Esther. At Esther's insistence, he issued a second decree, allowing the Jews to defend themselves, rendering the first decree ineffective, as recorded in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim
Meres - One of the seven princes and counsellors of Ahasuerus ( Esther 1:14 )
Addo - The grandfather of the prophet Zechariah ( 1E Esther 6:1 )
Poratha - (Esther 9:8) The term is Persian, and signifies fruitful
Zethar - One of Ahasuerus' seven eunuchs who brought Vashti before him (Esther 1:10)
Abagtha - One of the seven eunuchs in Ahasuerus's court (Esther 1:10 ; 2:21 )
Shethar - In Xerxes' (Ahasuerus) third year (Esther 1:3-4; compare Ezra 7:14)
Bacchurus - A singer who put away his foreign wife ( 1E Esther 9:24 )
ze'Thar - (star ), one of the seven eunuchs of Ahasuerus, ( Esther 1:10 ) (B
Carshena - One of the wise men or counsellors of king Ahasuerus ( Esther 1:14 )
Sallumus - SALLUMUS ( 1E Esther 9:25 ) = Shallum , Ezra 10:24 ; called Salum , 1Es 5:28
Hadassah - Esther's original name (Esther 2:7)
Mehuman - One of the seven eunuchs in attendance upon king Ahasuerus ( Esther 1:10 )
Bigthana - (bihg thay' nuh) Alternate spelling in Hebrew of Bigthan (Esther 6:2 )
Biztha - BIZTHA ( Esther 1:10 )
Carcas - CARCAS ( Esther 1:10 )
Memucan - One of the seven princes of Persia, Esther 1:14
Phaisur - PHAISUR ( 1E Esther 9:22 ) = Ezra 10:22 Peter ashhur , 1Es 5:25 Phassurus
ze'Resh - ( Esther 5:10,14 ; 6:13 ) (B
Dal'Phon - (swift ), the second of the ten sons of Hamam ( Esther 9:7 ) (B
Pur - Pur, Phur, or Purim, was a solemn feast of the Jews, instituted in memory of the lots cast by Haman, the enemy of the Jews, Esther 3:7 . Thus the superstition of Haman, in crediting these lots, caused his own ruin, and the preservation of the Jews, who, by means of Esther, had time to avert this blow. See HAMAN , See Esther , and See MORDECAI
Purim - 473 had plotted their extermination throughout the Persian empire ( Esther 3:7 ; Esther 9:15-32 ). In later times it was celebrated by a synagogue meeting on the evening of the 13th and the morning of the 14th, when the Book of Esther was read through, special prayers and thanks were offered, and the congregation ejaculated curses on Haman and blessings on Esther and Mordecai. But later ages observed it as the Fast of Esther (cf. Esther 9:31 ; Esther 4:3 ), the celebration taking place on the 11th, if the 13th happened to be a Sabbath. It is difficult to identify any known Persian word with pur ( Esther 3:7 ; Esther 9:26 ), which gave the festival its name
Phinehas - He succeeded Eleazar as chief priest ( Exodus 6:25 , 1 Chronicles 6:4 ; 1 Chronicles 6:50 , Ezra 7:5 , 1E Esther 8:2 , 2E Esther 1:2 ), and was the superintendent of the Korahite Levites ( 1 Chronicles 9:20 ). After the Exile a clan of priests, ‘the sons of Phinehas,’ claimed descent from him ( Ezra 8:2 [3]). The younger son of Eli ( 1 Samuel 1:3 [4])
Countervail - Old English word meaning to equal, be commensurate with, compensate for in Esther 7:4
Teresh - A chamberlain of Ahasuerus ( Esther 2:21 ); called in Ad
Hatach - Verity, one of the eunuchs or chamberlains in the palace of Ahasuerus (Esther 4:5,6,9,10 )
Red - See Psalm 75:8 ); “pleasant” or “delight” (Isaiah 27:2 ); and “porphyry” (Esther 1:6 )
Aspatha - Son of Haman killed by Jews (Esther 9:10 )
Achias - An ancestor of Ezra ( 2E Esther 1:2 ), omitted in Ezr
Dalphon - DALPHON ( Esther 9:7 )
Amarias - AMARIAS ( 1E Esther 8:2 )
Aridai - ARIDAI ( Esther 9:9 )
Aridatha - ARIDATHA ( Esther 9:8 )
Arisai - ARISAI ( Esther 9:9 )
Aspatha - ASPATHA ( Esther 9:7 )
Amalek - The "Agagite," in Esther 3:1; Esther 3:10; Esther 8:3; Esther 8:5, was probably an Amalekite, whose ancestor had escaped from the general carnage
Parshandatha - An interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:7 )
Mehuman - Faithful, one of the eunchs whom Ahasuerus (Xerxes) commanded to bring in Vashti (Esther 1:10 )
Mehuman - ” Eunuch serving the Persian king Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10 )
Hammedatha - (See Esther; HAMAN
Banquet - Esther 5Job 41 Amos 6...
Ardat - ARDAT ( 2E Esther 9:26 AV Abag'Tha - ( Esther 1:10 )
Biz'Tha - ( Esther 1:10 ) (B
Queen - It is applied to a ruling queen, as the queen of Sheba, 1 Kings 10:1; and to Athaliah, 2 Kings 11:1-21; to the wives of the king, Esther 1:9; Esther 7:1; and to the queen-mother, as Bathsheba, Maachah, 1 Kings 2:19; 1 Kings 15:13; and to Jezebel, 2 Kings 10:13
Pur, Purim - Esther 3:7 ; Esther 9:24-32 . The feast is still kept by the Jews: the Book of Esther is read, and curses are pronounced on Haman and on his wife; and blessings on Mordecai, and on Harbonah
Jehohanan - Ezra 10:6 ( Jonas , Esther 9:1 Esther 9:1 ; Johanan , Nehemiah 12:22-23 ; Jonathan , Nehemiah 12:11 ) high priest. Ezra 10:28 (= Joannes , 1E Esther 9:29 ), one of those who had taken ‘strange’ wives
Hege - (hee' gee) KJV spelling of Hegai in Esther 2:3 based on variant spelling in Hebrew text
Adalia - ADALIA ( Esther 9:8 )
Biztha - Second of the seven eunuchs of king Ahasuerus' harem (Esther 1:10)
Bilshan - A companion of Zerubbabel ( Ezra 2:2 , Nehemiah 7:7 = Beelsarus , 1E Esther 5:8 )
Parmashta - The seventh of the sons of Haman, put to death by the Jews ( Esther 9:3 )
Parshandatha - The eldest of the sons of Haman, put to death by the Jews ( Esther 9:7 )
Car'Cas - ( Esther 1:10 ) (B
Esther - Kish, the ancestor of Mordecai (Esther 2:5-7; Esther 2:15), had been carried away with Jeconiah; thus Mordecai was contemporary with Xerxes, which harmonizes with the view that (See AHASUERUS is Xerxes. Mordecai probably held some office in "the palace" (Esther 2:5; Esther 2:21-23). " Her Persian name Esther means and is akin to "star," implying like Venus good fortune. ...
Vashti the queen having been divorced for refusing to show the people and the princes her beauty, Esther was chosen out of the fairest virgins collected out of all the provinces, as her successor. Esther, at the risk of her own life, uninvited entered the king's presence, and obtained a virtual reversal of the decree against the Jews. The Jews defended themselves so effectually on the day appointed by Haman for their slaughter that in Shushan the palace alone they slew 500 and Haman's ten sons on one day, and, by Esther's request granted by the king, slew 300 at Shushan; and the Jews in the provinces, "standing for their lives," slew 75,000, "but on the spoil laid they not their hand. " "Esther the queen wrote with all authority to confirm this second letter of Purim" (Esther 8:7-14; Esther 9:20; Esther 9:29-32); "her decree confirmed these matters of Purlin. In the 3rd year of Xerxes (Esther 1:3-4) the disastrous expedition against Greece (foretold in Daniel 11:2, "by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia") was determined on in an assembly at Susa (Herodotus vii. ...
The Book of Esther describes in the same year, the 3rd, the lavish feasting during which Vashti was deposed, 488 B. So, in Scripture, it was not until the tenth month of this 7th year that Esther was made queen. The long delay between Vashti's deposal and Esther's accession is satisfactorily accounted for by the Greek expedition which intervened. ...
Esther cannot be Amestris, since the latter was daughter of a Persian noble, Otanes; if Vashti be Amestris, then her disgrace was only temporary. Or else Vashti and Esther were both only "secondary wives" with the title "queen. Esther's influence lasted at least from Ahasuerus: 7th to the 12th year and beyond, but how far beyond we know not (Esther 3:7; Esther 3:10). ...
The massacre of 75,000 by Jews (Esther 9:16) would be unlikely, if they were Persians; but they were not, they were the Jews' enemies in the provinces, idolaters, naturally hating the spiritual monotheism of the Jews, whereas the Persians sympathized with it. The Book of Esther supplies the gap between Ezra 6 and Ezra 7. Xerxes, or the Ahasuerus of Esther, intervenes between Darius and Artaxerxes. , for "an hundred and fourscore days" (Esther 1:3-4) was protracted thus long in order that. ...
The Book of Esther describes the stare of the exiled people of God in Persia, and thus complements the narratives by Ezra and Nehemiah of what took place in the Holy Land. Possibly Mordecai was the author; for the minute details of the banquet, of the names of the chamberlains and eunuchs, of Haman's wife and sons, and of the usages of the palace, imply such an intimate acquaintance with all that concerned Esther as best fits Mordecai himself. This view accords with Esther 9:20; Esther 9:23; Esther 9:32; Esther 9:10. "The chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia" (Esther 10:2) were at the time of the writer accessible, and the very order whereby Media is put before Persia implies it cannot have been much later than the time of the events recorded, the former and middle part of Xerxes' reign, before Artabanus became Xerxes' favorite, and Mordecai's (perhaps = Matacas the eunuch) influence waned. The Book of Esther was placed by the Jews among the Kethubim (hagiographa), in the portion called the five volumes, Megilloth. Maimonides says that in Messiah's days the prophets and hagiographa shall pass away, except "Esther," which will remain with the Pentateuch. ...
The hand of Providence is to be traced palpably in the overruling of the king's reckless feastings and wanton deposing of Vashti because she shrank from violating her own self respect, to laying the train for His appointed instrument, Esther's elevation; in Mordecai's saving the king's life from the two would-be assassins, and the recording of the fact in the royal chronicles, preparing the way for his receiving the royal honors which his enemy designed for himself; in Haman's casting Pur, the lot, for an auspicious day for destroying the Jews, and the result being, by God's providence which counterworked his appeal to chance, that the feast of Purlin is perpetually kept to commemorate the Jews' preservation and his destruction; in Esther's patriotic venture before the king after previous fasting three days, and God's interposing to incline the king's heart to hold out to her the golden scepter, ensuring to her at once life and her request (Proverbs 21:1); in Haman's pride at being invited to the queen's banquet and his preparing the gallows for Haman, and Providence, the very night before it, withdrawing sleep from the king so that the chronicles were read for his pleasure, and Mordecai's service was thus brought to his remembrance, so that when Haman came to solicit that Mordecai should be hanged the king met him with the question, "What shall be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honor?"...
Then, in Haman supposing himself to be the object of honor, and suggesting the highest royal honors (such as Joseph had from the Egyptian king, Genesis 41:43), and thus unwittingly being constrained with his own voice and hand to glorify him whom he had meant to destroy; then in the denouement at the queen's banquet, and Haman's execution on the very gallows he erected for Haman (Psalms 7:14-16); and the consequent preservation from extinction of the holy race of whom Messiah must spring according to prophecy, and of whom Isaiah (Isaiah 54:17) writes, "no weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper, and every tongue that shall rise against thee thou shalt condemn. The style of the Hebrew in Esther is like that of the contemporary Ezra and Chronicles, with just such a mixture of Persian and Chaldee words as we should expect in a work of the age and country to which Esther professes to belong. Haman the Agagite (Esther 3:1; Numbers 24:7; Numbers 24:20), as being of the blood royal of Amalek, was doomed to destruction with that accursed nation (Exodus 17:14-16). His wife and all his friends shared his guilt (Esther 5:14), and therefore by a retributive providence shared his punishment (Esther 9). ...
Esther's own character is in the main attractive: dutiful to her adoptive father, and regardful of his counsels though a queen; having faith in the high destiny of her nation, and believing with Mordecai that even "if she held her peace at the crisis deliverance would arise to the Jews from another place," and that providentially she had "come to the kingdom for such a time as this" (Esther 4:14); brave, yet not foolhardy, but fully conscious of her peril, not having received the king's call for 30 days, with pious preparation seeking aid from above in her patriotic venture; "obtaining favor in the sight of all them that looked upon her "(Esther 2:15)
Zathui - ZATHUI ( 1E Esther 5:12 ) = Zattu , Ezra 2:8 , Nehemiah 7:13 ; called also Zathoes , 1Es 8:32
Eliasib - ELIASIB ( 1E Esther 9:1 )
Tebeth - Esther 2:16 , the tenth month of the Hebrew sacred year, commencing with the new moon in January
Thereon - Esther 7 ...
Zabbai - One of the descendants of Bebai who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:28 ); called in Esther 9:29 Esther 9:29 Jozabdus
Gallows - ]'>[1] in the Book of Esther only ( Esther 5:14 etc
Shethar - One of the seven princes who had the right of access to the royal presence ( Esther 1:14 )
Zeresh - Star of Venus, the wife of Haman, whom she instigated to prepare a gallows for Mordecai (Esther 5:10 )
Marsena - One of the seven princes who had the right of access to the royal presence ( Esther 1:14 )
Nethanel - A chief of the Levites under Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 35:9 [1]). A priest who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:22 [2])
Hanani - A priest of the sons of Immer who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:20 ); called Ananias in Esther 9:21 Esther 9:21 . Esther 9:5
Sadoc - ( 2E Esther 1:1 ) = Zadok , Ezra 7:2
Memucan - Dignified, one of the royal counsellors at the court of Ahasuerus, by whose suggestion Vashti was divorced (Esther 1:14,16,21 )
Shaashgaz - Servant of the beautiful, a chief eunuch in the second house of the harem of king Ahasuerus (Esther 2:14 )
Vajezatha - Purity; worthy of honour, one of Haman's sons, whom the Jews slew in the palace of Shushan (Esther 9:9 )
Meres - (mee rehss) One of seven princes who served as counselors to King Ahasuerus of Persia (Esther 1:14 )
Arisai - Son of Haman (Esther 9:9 ) who suffered his brothers' fate
Ahitob - AHITOB ( 1E Esther 8:2 )
Phrurai - Est 11:1 the Book of Esther is called ‘the epistle of Phrurai’ ( i
Elioenai - A son of Pashhur who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:22 ); called in 1E Esther 9:22 Elionas. A son of Zattu who had committed the same offence ( Ezra 10:27 ); called in 1E Esther 9:28 Eliadas
Abihail - Father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15 )
Harbona - (A Persian word meaning "ass-driver"), one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains of king Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10 ; 7:9 )
Agagite - A name applied to Haman and also to his father (Esther 3:1,10 ; 8:3,5 )
Vajesatha - One of Haman's ten sons, slain by the Jews in Shushan (Esther 9:9); from Ζend vatija "better," and zata "born
Mispar - ( Ezra 2:2 ) = Nehemiah 7:7 Mispereth , 1E Esther 5:8 Aspharasus
Azaraias - The father or, more probably, a more remote ancestor of Ezra ( 1E Esther 8:1 ); = Seraiah of Ezra 7:1
Joadanus - One of the sons of Jesus, the son of Josedek ( 1E Esther 9:19 ); called in Ezra 10:18 Gedaliah
Parshandatha - ” One of Haman's ten sons (Esther 9:7 )
Big'Tha - ( Esther 1:10 ) (B
Fast of esther - fast observed on the thirteenth of Adar in commemoration of Queen Esther�s fast at the time of the miracle of Purim ...
Porphyry - (pawr' fihih ree) Rock composed of feldspar crystals embedded in a dark red or purple groundmass (Esther 1:6 ; KJV, “red marble”)
Ieddias - IEDDIAS ( 1E Esther 9:26 )
Azael - Father of one of the commission appointed to investigate the foreign marriages ( 1E Esther 9:14 ); same as Asahel No
Megilah - "scroll") Usually a reference to the Scroll of Esther that is read on Purim and chronicles the story of the holiday
Bigthan - A eunuch at the court of Ahasuerus, whose conspiracy against that king was frustrated by the vigilance of Mordecai, Esther 2:21
Paranshandatha - (Esther 9:7) A Persian name, supposed to signify exposed to trouble
Mordecai - Esther's cousin and the mastermind behind her rise to power and subsequent victory over the evil Haman. Mordecai, a descendant of King Saul's family, led Esther to thwart the attempt, Haman was hanged on the gallows he had erected for Mordecai. See Esther
Susa - Some believe Susa to be the place where Queen Esther and King Ahasuerus ruled. See Esther ; Nehemiah ; Persia
Shimeon - One of the sons of Harim, who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:31 [1])
Bigtha - Garden, or gift of fortune, one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains who had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10 )
Zethar - ” One of seven eunuchs who served king Ahasuerus of Persia (Esther 1:10 )
Admatha - ” One of the leading advisors to King Ahasuerus (Xerxes) of Persia (Esther 1:14 )
Abagtha - (uh bag' thuh) One of seven eunuchs on the staff of Ahasuerus or Xerxes (486-465 BC), King of Persia (Esther 1:10 )
Abagtha - ABAGTHA ( Esther 1:10 )
Sivan - The third Hebrew ecclesiastical month, and the ninth of the civil year, beginning with the new moon of our June, Esther 8:9
Esther - She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when she entered the royal harem she received the name by which she henceforth became known (Esther 2:7 ). " Ahasuerus having divorced Vashti, chose Esther to be his wife. By the interposition of Esther this terrible catastrophe was averted. Haman was hanged on the gallows he had intended for Mordecai (Esther 7 ); and the Jews established an annual feast, the feast of Purim (q. Esther appears in the Bible as a "woman of deep piety, faith, courage, patriotism, and caution, combined with resolution; a dutiful daughter to her adopted father, docile and obedient to his counsels, and anxious to share the king's favour with him for the good of the Jewish people. There must have been a singular grace and charm in her aspect and manners, since 'she obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her' (Esther 2:15 )
Aseas - ASEAS ( 1E Esther 9:32 )
Aspharasus - ASPHARASUS ( 1E Esther 5:8 )
Esther - Esther was a Jewess who lived in Persia and became queen to the Persian king Ahasuerus, also known as Xerxes I. The story of Esther is found in the book that is named after her. ...
This attitude is reflected in the book of Esther, whose story is built around Jews in Persia. The book does not mention God, apart perhaps from one reference to some unseen force that determines events (Esther 4:14). The closest indication of any spiritual awareness in the people is in one reference to fasting, though even then there is no reference to any kind of prayer (Esther 4:16). ...
Summary of the story...
When the Persian king decided to replace his queen, the woman chosen was Esther, an orphan Jew who had been brought up by her cousin Mordecai. While Haman cast lots (purim) to find the right day for the Jews’ slaughter, Mordecai persuaded Esther to appeal to the king to have mercy on her people (4:1-5:14). Esther then revealed to the king that she was Jewish
Malluch - One of the sons of Bani who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:29 ); called in Esther 9:30 Esther 9:30 Mamuchus
Abihail - Father of Queen Esther, and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15)
Gallows - Esther 5 — Esther 9 ...
Esther - Esther (ĕs'ter), a star, the planet Venus. Esther (her Persian name was Hadassah) was distinguished among these, and was chosen to bear the title of queen. It was common with Persian kings to have many wives, and Esther was one of these
Gallows - 'ets, meaning "a tree" (Esther 6:4 ), a post or gibbet
Biztha - One of seven eunuchs who served King Ahasuerus in matters relating to his wives (Esther 1:10 )
Nahamani - One of the twelve heads of the Jewish community ( Nehemiah 7:7 ); omitted in Ezra 2:2 ; called in 1E Esther 5:8 Eneneus
te'Resh - ( Esther 2:21 ; 6:2 ) He was hanged
Kiseus - Est 11:2 of Kish ( Esther 2:5 ), the name of the great-grandfather of Mordecai
Parmashta - ” One of Haman's ten sons (Esther 9:9 )
Beelsarus - BEELSARUS ( 1E Esther 5:8 )
Eliasibus - ]'>[1] Eleazurus , 1E Esther 9:24 )
Levis - Wrongly taken in 1E Esther 9:14 as a proper name; in Ezra 10:15 ‘Shabbethai the Levite’ stands in place of ‘Levis and Sabbateus
Shaashgaz - who had been in to the king (Esther 2:14)
Rehum - One of the twelve heads of the Jewish community ( Ezra 2:2 ; in Nehemiah 7:7 , perhaps by a copyist’s error, Nehum ; in 1E Esther 5:8 Roimus ). ‘The chancellor ’ ( Ezra 4:8-9 ; Ezra 4:17 ; Ezra 4:23 ; in 1E Esther 2:16 Rathumus )
Kelaiah - A Levite who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:23 ), called in Esther 9:23 Esther 9:23 Colius
Marsena - One of "the seven princes of Persia, wise men who knew the times, saw the king's face, and sat first in the kingdom" (Esther 1:13-14)
Admatha - ADMATHA ( Esther 1:14 )
Purim - Lots, a Jewish festival instituted by Esther and Mordecai, during the reign of Ahasuerus king of Persia, in memory of the providential deliverance of the Jews from the malignant designs of Haman. The propriety of the name appears form the fact that the lot was cast in the presence of Haman for every day from the first month to the twelfth, before an auspicious day was found for destroying the Jews; and thus the superstition of Haman was made the means of giving them time to turn his devices against himself, Proverbs 16:33 Esther 3:7 9:20-32 . This festival was preceded by a day of fasting, and was observed by reading the book of Esther publicly in the synagogues, and by private festivities, mutual presents, alms, plays, and selfindulgence
Sem'ei - (Esther 11:2 ) ...
The father of Mattathias in the genealogy of Jesus Christ
Jeconias - One of the captains over thousands in the time of Josiah ( 1E Esther 1:9 ); called in 2 Chronicles 35:9 Conaniah
Aedias - AEDIAS ( 1E Esther 9:27 )
Ares - ARES ( 1E Esther 5:10 )
Shallum - A high priest ( 1 Chronicles 6:12-13 ; Ezra 7:2 = Salem of 1E Esther 8:1 and Salemas of 2E Esther 1:1 ). One of the porters who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:24 [2]). One of the sons of Bani who had committed the same offence ( Ezra 10:42 [3])
pu'Rim - ( Esther 9:1 ) . (Esther 3:7 ) They gave the name. (Esther 9:24 ) The festival lasted two days, and was regularly observed on the 14th and 15th of Adar. After a short prayer and thanksgiving, the reading of the book of Esther commences. " When the Megillah is read through, the whole congregation exclaim, "Cursed be Haman; blessed be Mordecai; cursed be Zoresh (the wife of Haman); blessed be Esther; cursed be all idolaters; blessed be all Israelites, and blessed be Harbonah who hanged Haman. (Esther 3:1 ) The Megillah is then read again in the same manner
Carshena - (cahr sshee' nuh) Wise counselor of King Ahasuerus of Persia to whom the king turned for advice on how to deal with his disobedient wife Vashti (Esther 1:14 )
Asibias - ASIBIAS ( 1E Esther 9:26 )
Tebeth - (tee' behth) Tenth month (December-January) of the Hebrew calendar (Esther 2:16 )
Megilloth - The children of Israel were used to call five books, namely, Ecclesiastes, Solomon's Song, Ruth, Esther, and the Lamentations of Jeremiah, by this name, which means a roll, or volume
Lovely - , Esther 5:1 (3rd sentence)
Homage - Homage is most often paid to the king (1 Chronicles 29:20 NAS, 2 Chronicles 24:17 NIV) or to a high-ranking official ( Genesis 43:28 ; Esther 3:2 ,Esther 3:2,3:5 NAS)
Footman - The second term refers to a runner who served in the honor guard which ran ahead of the king's chariot (1 Samuel 8:11 ; 2 Samuel 15:1 ), to the king's guards in general (1 Kings 14:27-28 ; 2 Kings 10:25 ), or to royal couriers (Esther 3:13 ,Esther 3:13,3:15 )
Ahasuerus - He is the king who features in the story of Esther. (For further details see Esther; PERSIA
Shethar - Advisor of King Ahasuerus of Persia, an expert in the “law and custom” of Persia and possibly in astrology (Esther 1:13-14 NRSV)
Arah - His family returned with Zerubbabel ( Ezra 2:5 , Nehemiah 6:18 ; Nehemiah 7:10 , 1E Esther 5:10 mg
Mordecai - He adopted his cousin Hadassah (Esther), an orphan child, whom he tenderly brought up as his own daughter. When she was brought into the king's harem and made queen in the room of the deposed queen Vashti, he was promoted to some office in the court of Ahasuerus, and was one of those who "sat in the king's gate" (Esther 2:21 ). Mordecai refused to bow down before him; and Haman, being stung to the quick by the conduct of Mordecai, resolved to accomplish his death in a wholesale destruction of the Jewish exiles throughout the Persian empire (Esther 3:8-15 ). Tidings of this cruel scheme soon reached the ears of Mordecai, who communicated with Queen Esther regarding it, and by her wise and bold intervention the scheme was frustrated
Samaias - ( 1E Esther 1:9 ) = Shemaiah , 2 Chronicles 35:9
Tebeth - (Esther 2:16 ), a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the cold time of the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the tenth month of the year
ne'Pheg - (Esther 6:21 ) ...
One of David's sons born to him in Jerusalem
Mordecai - 1:231-233), who probably saw the Medo-Persian chronicles mentioned in Esther 10:2, names a Matacas, Xerxes' chief favorite, the most powerful of the eunuchs. Mordecai had neither wife nor child, brought up his cousin Esther in his own house, and had access to the court of the women, all which circumstances accord with his being a eunuch as Matacas was, a class from whom the king had elevated many to the highest posts. Mordecai was a Benjamite at Shushan who reared his uncle's daughter Esther: Esther 2:5-7. (See Esther. )...
Probably wrote the book of Esther. Esther's favorable reception by Ahasuerus when she ventured at the risk of death, unasked, to approach him, and his reading in the Medo-Persian chronicles the record of Mordecai's unrewarded service in disclosing the conspiracy, on the very night before Haman came, and Haman's being constrained to load with kingly honors the man whom he had come to ask leave to hang, and then being hanged on the gallows he made for Mordecai, are most remarkable instances of the working of Providence, and of God's secret moral government of the world, in spite of all appearances to the contrary. " His tomb and Esther's are shown at Hamadan or Ecbatana (?). The palace at Shushan, begun by Darius Hystaspes, Loftus (Chaldaea, 28) discovered remains of; the bases of the great colonnade remain, and accord with the description in Esther 1
Lieutenant - Esther 3:12 ; 8:9 ; 9:3 ; Ezra 8:36 ), a governor or viceroy of a Persian province having both military and civil power
Marsena - One of the seven wise men or princes with access to the Persian King Ahaseurus (Esther 1:13-14 ; compare Ezra 7:14 )
Countervail - To countervail ( Esther 7:4 , Sir 6:15 ) is to make up for, give an equivalent, as in More’s Utopia : ‘All the goodes in the worlde are not liable to countervayle man’s life
Shushan - ...
Esther was queen of Ahasuerus (Xerxes), king of Persia, and resided at Shushan, and the various descriptions given in the book of Esther show that it was a place of wealth and luxury, and was of large extent. The place is frequently mentioned in the Book of Esther, and is once called SUSA (this being the Greek form of the name) in Esther 11:3 of its apocryphal additions. It may have been the one occupied in the days of Esther
Zebadiah - A priest who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:26 ); called in Esther 9:21 Esther 9:21 Zabdeus
Headtire, Tire - ]'>[1] , as one word, only Esther 3:6 Esther 3:6 , for the kidaris , the stiff upright headdress of the Persian kings
Obeisance, do - Most often persons did obeisance to the king (1 Samuel 24:8 ; 2 Samuel 1:2 ; 2 Samuel 9:6-8 ; 2 Samuel 14:4 ) or a royal official (Genesis 43:28 ; Esther 3:2 ,Esther 3:2,3:5 )
Haman - On his plot against the Jews and its frustration by Esther see art. Esther
Jeiel - The name of two Levite families: ( a ) 1Ch 15:18 ; 1 Chronicles 15:21 ; 1 Chronicles 16:5-6 , 2 Chronicles 20:14 ; ( b ) 2 Chronicles 35:9 [2]
Pethahiah - A Levite ( Ezra 10:23 , Nehemiah 9:5 ); in 1E Esther 9:23 Patheus
Ananias - This name occurs several times in the Apocrypha: in Esther 9:21 Esther 9:21 ; Esther 9:29 Esther 9:29 ; 1Es 9:43 ; 1Es 9:48 (representing ‘Hanani’ and ‘Hananiah’ of Ezra 10:20 ; Ezra 10:28 , ‘Anaiah’ and ‘Hanan’ of Nehemiah 8:4 ; Nehemiah 8:7 ) and in Tob 5:12 f
Mordecai - See Esther
Bigthan - Mordecai detected the conspiracy, and the culprits were hanged (Esther 2:21-23 ; 6:1-3 )
Nisan - (ni' ssan) A foreign term used after the Exile for the first month of the Hebrew calendar (Nehemiah 2:1 ; Esther 3:7 )
Jeremiel - ]'>[1] has Uriel , the angel sent to instruct Esdras ( 2E Esther 4:1 ; 2Es 5:20 ; 2Es 10:28 )
ja'Irus - ) ...
(Esther 11:2 ) [1]
Persia - The organization of the Persian kingdom and court as they appear in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther, accords with independent secular historians. ...
The king, a despot, had a council, "seven princes of Persia and Media which see his face and sit the first in the kingdom" (Esther 1:14; Ezra 7:14). "The law of the Persians and Medes which alters not" (Esther 1:19) also controlled him in some measure. In Scripture we read of 127 provinces (Esther 1:1) with satraps (Esther 3:12; Esther 8:9; Xerxes in boasting enlarged the list; 60 are the nations in his armament according to Herodotus) maintained from the palace (Ezra 4:14), having charge of the revenue, paid partly in money partly in kind (Ezra 7:21-22). 98), with camels (Strabo 15:2, section 10) and horses pressed into service without pay (angareuein ; Matthew 5:41; Mark 15:21), conveyed the king's orders (Esther 3:10; Esther 3:12-13; Esther 8:10; Esther 8:14), authenticated by the royal signet (so Herod. A favorite minister usually had the government mainly delegated to him by the king (Esther 3:1-10; Esther 8:8; Esther 10:2-3). Services were recorded (Esther 2:23; Esther 6:2-3) and the actors received reward as "royal benefactors" (Herodotus iii. ) The king lived at Susa (Esther 1:2; Nehemiah 1:1) or Babylon (Ezra 7:9; Nehemiah 13:6). ...
In accordance with Esther 1:6, as to "pillars of marble" with "pavement of red, blue, white, and black," and "hangings of white, green, and blue of fine linen and purple to the pillars," the remains exhibit four groups of marble pillars on a pavement of blue limestone, constructed for curtains to hang between the columns as suiting the climate. 60-84 with Esther 2:12; Esther 2:15; Esther 4:11-16; Esther 4:5). His marriage with Esther in his seventh year immediately followed his flight from Greece, when lie gave himself up to the pleasures of the seraglio
Sceptre - A "rod" or decorated staff, sometimes six feet long, borne by kings and magistrates as a symbol of authority, Genesis 49:10 Numbers 24:17 Esther 4:11 5:2 Isaiah 14:5 Zechariah 10:11
Ahasuerus - ...
The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of Esther. version of the Book of Esther the name Artaxerxes occurs for Ahasuerus. It was after his return from this invasion that Esther was chosen as his queen
Signet - Examples of such rings in the Bible are: Pharaoh's ring given to Joseph (Genesis 41:42 ), Ahasuerus' ring given to Haman and then to Mordecai after Haman was hanged (Esther 3:10 ,Esther 3:10,3:12 ; Esther 8:2 ), King Darius' sealing the den of lions after Daniel was thrown into it (Daniel 6:17 )
Esther, Book of - Esther, BOOK OF...
1. The Book of Esther belongs to the second group of the third division of the Hebrew Canon the Kethubim , or ‘Writings’ a group which comprises the Megilloth , or ‘Rolls,’ of which there are five, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lam. , Esther. It was not without much discussion that Esther was admitted into the Canon, for its right to be there was disputed both by the Jewish authorities and by the early Christian Church. the greatest Jewish teacher of his day, Rabbi Jehudah, said, ‘The Book of Esther defileth not the hands’ [1]. In some of the earlier lists of the Biblical books in the Christian Church that of Esther is omitted; Athanasius (d. It is clear that Esther was not universally accepted as a book of the Bible until a late date. The language of Esther points unmistakably to a late date; it shows signs, among other things, of an attempt to assimilate itself to classical Hebrew; the artificiality herein betrayed stamps the writer as one who was more familiar with Aramaic than with Hebrew. ‘in those days,’ Esther 1:2 ); the words, ‘There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom’ ( Esther 3:8 ), show that the ‘Dispersion’ had already for long been an accomplished fact. The probability, therefore, is that Esther belongs to the earlier half of the 2nd cent. In her place, Esther, one of Vashti’s maidens, becomes queen. Esther is the adopted daughter of a Jew named Mordecai , who had been the means of saving the king from the hands of assassins. Haman resolves to avenge himself for this insult; he has lots cast in order to find out which is the most suitable day for presenting a petition to the king; the day being appointed, the petition is presented and granted, the promised payment of ten thousand talents of silver into the royal treasury ( Esther 3:9 ) no doubt contributing towards this. Esther, instructed by Mordecai, undertakes to interpose for her people before the king. Haman, believing himself to be in favour with the royal couple, determines to gratify his hatred for Mordecai in a special way, and prepares a gallows on which to hang him ( Esther 5:14 ). While taking counsel there with his friends, the king’s chamberlains come to escort him to the queen’s second banquet ( Esther 6:1 ff. During this Esther makes her petition to the king on behalf of her people, as well as for her own life, which is threatened, for the royal decree is directed against all Jews and Jewesses within his domains; she also discloses Haman’s plot against Mordecai. Esther then has letters sent in all directions in order to avert the threatened destruction of her people; but the attempt is yet made by the enemies of the Jews to carry out Haman’s intentions. The names of the chief characters in the book seem certainly to be corrupted forms of Babylonian and Elamite deities, namely, Haman = Hamman, Mordecai = Marduk, Esther = Ishtar; while Vashti is the name of an Elamite god or goddess (so Jensen)
Did - ...
And Mordecai walked every day before the court of the womens house, to know how Esther did. Esther 2
Chosamaeus - CHOSAMÆUS ( 1E Esther 9:32 )
Scroll of esther - Scroll of Esther, The: The book of Tanach describing Haman's plot to annihilate the Jews, Mordecai and Esther's successful foiling thereof, and the institution of the holiday of Purim
Zeresh - The wife of Haman, haughty and revengeful like him, and destined to see him and her ten sons hanging on the gallows she had designed for Mordecai the servant of God, Esther 5:10-14 6:13 7:10 9:13
Eneneus - ENENEUS ( 1E Esther 5:8 )
Mordecai - 3405, Esther 2:5-6 . The book of Esther gives the whole history of Mordecai's elevation, the punishment of Haman, and the wonderful deliverance of the Jews, in clear and regular narrative. But it may be asked, For what reason did Mordecai refuse to pay that respect to Haman, the neglect of which incensed him against the Jews? Esther 3:1-6 . Beside, if nothing but civil respect had been intended to Haman, the king need not have enjoined it on his servants after he had made him his first minister and chief favourite, Esther 3:1-2 ; they would have been ready enough to show it on all occasions. As to another question, why Haman cast lots, in order to fix the day for the massacre of the Jews, Esther 3:7 ; from whence the feast of purim, which is a Persia word, and signifies lots, took its name, Esther 9:26 ; it was no doubt owing to the superstitious conceit which anciently prevailed, of some days being more fortunate than others for any undertaking; in short, he endeavoured to find out, by this way of divining, what month, or what day of the month, was most unfortunate to the Jews, and most fortunate for the success of his bloody design against them. It is very remarkable, that while Haman sought for direction in this affair from the Persian idols, the God of Israel so overruled the lot as to fix the intended massacre to almost a year's distance, from Nisan the first month to Adar the last of the year, in order to give time and opportunity to Mordecai and Esther to defeat the conspiracy
Jeremy - ]'>[2] of 1Es 1:28 ; 1Es 1:32 ; 1Es 1:47 ; 1Es 1:57 ; 1Es 2:1 , Esther 2:18 Esther 2:18 , as well as in AV Perez - Son of Judah and Tamar, and twin-brother of Zarah ( Genesis 38:29 ; in Esther 5:5 Esther 5:5 Phares ; patronymic Perezites , Numbers 26:20 )
Malchijah - Two of the sons of Parosh, who had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:25 bis ); called in 1E Esther 9:25 Malchias and Asibias respectively. He is called in Esther 9:32 Esther 9:32 Malchias
Eliashib - A singer of the time of Ezra, who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:24 ); called in Esther 9:24 Esther 9:24 Eliasibus . An Israelite of the family of Zattu ( Ezra 10:27 ; in 1E Esther 9:28 Eliasimus ); and 4
Months - סיון , Sivan, of June, Esther 8:9 . טבת , Tebeth, of January, Esther 2:16 . אדר , Adar, of March, Esther 3:7
Seal - The ring or the seal as an emblem of authority in Egypt, Persia, and elsewhere is mentioned in Genesis 41:42; 1 Kings 21:8; Esther 3:10; Esther 3:12; Esther 8:2; Daniel 6:17; and as an evidence of a covenant, in Jeremiah 32:10; Jeremiah 32:44; Nehemiah 9:38; Nehemiah 10:1; Haggai 2:23
Esther - The book of Esther is so called, because it contains the history of Esther, a Jewish captive, who by her remarkable accomplishments gained the affections of King Ahasuerus, and by marriage with him was raised to the throne of Persia; and it relates the origin and ceremonies of the feast of Purim, instituted in commemoration of the great deliverance, which she, by her interest, procured for the Jews, whose general destruction had been concerted by the offended pride of Haman. We are told, that the facts here recorded happened in the reign of Ahasuerus king of Persia, "who reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces," Esther 1:1 ; and this extent of dominion plainly proves that he was one of the successors of Cyrus. Josephus also considered Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes as the same person; and we may observe, that Ahasuerus is always translated Artaxerxes in the Septuagint version; and he is called by that name in the apocryphal part of the book of Esther
Teresh - Following their exposure by Mordecai, the two were hung (Esther 2:21-23 )
Cotton - KJV has "green" (Esther 1:6), where "cotton" ought to be; for kurpasa in Sanskrit and kindred terms of other eastern languages means "cotton
Pur - PUR, PURIM...
Feasts of the Jews, so called, Esther 3:7
Chamberlain - In eastern courts eunuchs were generally employed in this office, Esther 1:1-22,10,12,15
Runners - Runners performed two basic functions, as messengers (2Chronicles 30:6,2 Chronicles 30:10 ; Esther 3:13 ; Jeremiah 51:31 ) and royal body guards (1 Samuel 8:11 ; 1 Samuel 22:17 ; 2 Samuel 15:1 ; 1 Kings 1:5 ; 2 Kings 10:25 ; 2 Kings 11:4 )
Sackcloth - ...
Esther 4
Savour - ]'>[1] literally for taste , as Matthew 5:19 ‘If the salt have lost his savour,’ and for smell , as Esther 2:12 Esther 2:12 ‘an ointment of sweet savour
Sceptre - It was held out by the king to Esther. Esther 4:11 , etc
Joakim - Esther 1:3 . A son of Zorobabel ( 1E Esther 5:5 )
Esther, Book of - A book of the Bible, relating the history of a Jewish orphan girl named Edissa, later Esther, written probably not later than the time of Esdras, by an unknown author. The text of Esther has come down to us in two recensions; The Hebrew is shorter than the Greek
Ahasuerus - Darius Hystaspis' son was Ahasuerus the third or Xerxes (See Esther), father of Artaxerxes Longimanus (Ezra 7:1). The gap between Ezra 6 and Ezra 7 is filled up with the book of Esther. ...
In the third year was held Ahasuerus, feast in Shushan (Esther 1:3): so Xerxes in his third year held an assembly to prepare for invading Greece. In his seventh year Ahasuerus replaced Vashti by marrying Esther (Esther 2:16), after gathering all the fair young virgins to Shushan: so Xerxes in his seventh year, on his defeat and return from Greece, consoled himself with the pleasures of the harem, and offered a reward for the inventor of a new pleasure (Herodotus 9:108). The "tribute" which he "laid upon the land and upon the isles of the sea" (Esther 10:1) was probably to replenish his treasury, exhausted by the Grecian expedition. Darius Hystaspis was the first Persian king who reigned "from India (which he first subdued) to Ethiopia" (Esther 1:1); also the first who imposed a stated tribute on the provinces, voluntary presents having been customary before; also the first who admitted the seven princes to see the king's face; the seven conspirators who slew Pseudo-Smerdis having stipulated, before it was decided which of them was to have the crown, for special privileges, and this one in particular
Seresh - This event played a pivotal role in the Purim story, as described in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim
Cotton - ]'>[1] ‘green,’ Esther 1:6
Teresh - This event played a pivotal role in the Purim story, as described in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim
Hagiographa - It comprises Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles
Bigthan - This event played a pivotal role in the Purim story, as described in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim
Eddinus - One of the ‘holy singers’ at Josiah’s passover ( 1E Esther 1:15 )
Diadem - , Esther 1:11 ; 2:17 ; in some mss. in Esther 6:8 and 8:15; also in Isaiah 62:3,4
Abib - ” Later the month was called Nisan (Esther 3:7 )
Post - ‘Post’ is used in 2 Chronicles 30:6 , Esther 8:14 , Job 9:25 , Jeremiah 51:31 for ‘a bearer of despatches,’ ‘a runner
Kish - (Esther 2:5 ) ...
A Merarite of the house of Mahli, of the tribe of Levi
Esther (2) - Esther, the Book of. This book is so termed because Esther is the principal character in it, and not from any notion that she wrote it. The omission was probably intentional, and in order to permit the reading of Esther at the joyous, even hilarious, festival of Purim, without irreverence
Ashes - Ashes, mostly from burnt wood, were used as a sign of sorrow or mourning, either put on the head, 2 Samuel 13:19 , or on the body with sackcloth, Esther 4:1 ; Jeremiah 6:26 ; Lamentations 3:16 ; Matthew 11:21 ; Luke 10:13 ; or strewn on a couch on which to lie, Esther 4:3 ; Isaiah 58:5 ; Jonah 3:6
Province - Under the Persian king were 127, each having its own system of finance and its treasurer (Esther 1:1; Esther 8:9; Ezra 2:1; Ezra 2:4; Ezra 5:7; Ezra 6:6; Ezra 7:22; Ezra 7:24; Herodotus iii
Esther, Book of - In the article on Esther the principal events of the book are glanced at, but a few remarks are needed as to the object of the book. They were scattered over the entire kingdom, and it is not revealed what sort of lives they were living: the only two described in the book are Mordecai and Esther. Esther and Mordecai may not have acted well in wishing a second day of vengeance, and in killing the sons of Haman, and petitioning to have them hanged on the gallows: how few can have power over their enemies without abusing it! The good behaviour of the Jews forms no part of the book:they are cared for whether good or bad. ...
Historically Esther comes in between the beginning of Ezra and its close; that is, at the end of Ezra 6 the Artaxerxes of Ezra 4:7 being the pseudo-Smerdis; and the Artaxerxes of Ezra 7:1 , being Artaxerxes Longimanus. The Ahasuerus of Esther (Xerxes) comes in between them. ...
There are several apocryphal additions to the book of Esther in the LXX and the Vulgate. 4 a prayer of Mordecai, followed by a prayer of Esther, in which she excuses herself for being the wife of an uncircumcised king
Sackcloth - Cloth made of black goats' hair, coarse, rough, and thick, used for sacks, and also worn by mourners (Genesis 37:34 ; 42:25 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ; Esther 4:1,2 ; Psalm 30:11 , etc
Mijamin - One of those who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:25 ); called in 1E Esther 9:25 Maelus
Gladness - Esther 8
India - Esther 1:1 8:9 , the country lying east of the ancient Persia and Bactria, so named from the river Indus which passed through it
Ahasuerus - The husband of Esther, most probably Xerxes. See Esther
Mule - ]'>[1] ‘swift steeds’ ( Esther 8:10 ; Esther 8:14 )
Abihail - ( b ) It was also the name of Esther’s father, the uncle of Mordecai ( Esther 2:15 ; Esther 9:29 )
Esther - After Ahasuerus had discovered Vashti, search was made throughout Persia for the most beautiful women, and Esther was one selected. The husband of Esther is supposed to have been the Xerxes of secular history
Amariah - 1 Chronicles 6:11 , Ezra 7:3 ( Amarias , Esther 8:2 Esther 8:2 , 2E Esther 1:2 ), son of Azariah, who is said to have ministered in Solomon’s temple
Access - In the human realm access usually applied to persons who were permitted to see the king face to face (Esther 1:14 ). The Persian court which Esther faced set the death penalty for anyone who sought access to the king without royal permission (Esther 4:11 )
Myrrh - It was traded along with spices (Genesis 37:25 ), used as an ingredient in anointing oil (Exodus 30:23 ), applied as perfume (Esther 2:12 ), placed in clothes to deodorize them (Psalm 45:8 ), given as a gift (Matthew 2:11 ), and used to embalm bodies (John 19:39 )
Queen - The title was also given to the consort of a reigning sovereign, as queen Esther; and to the queen-mother, who often had great influence at court, as Bathsheba, Jezebel, etc
Tarshish - One of the seven princes who had the right of access to the royal presence ( Esther 1:14 )
Uzzi - A descendant of Aaron ( 1Ch 6:5 ; 1 Chronicles 6:9 ; 1 Chronicles 6:51 , Ezra 7:4 [1])
Malachite - (muhl' a chite) A green basic carbonate of copper used as an ore and for ornamental objects; according to the NEB and REB, a component of the mosaic pavement decorating the palace of the Persian king Ahasuerus at Susa (Esther 1:6 )
Wrath - When the wrath of king Ahasuerus was appeased--Esther 2
India - Occurs only in Esther 1:1,8:9 , where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described
Prince, Princess - ...
The "princes" mentioned in (Daniel 6:1 ) (see Esther 1:1 ) wore the predecessors of the satraps of Darius Hystaspes
Meshullam - A Levite who opposed Ezra’s proceedings in connexion with the foreign marriages ( Ezra 10:15 ); called in Esther 9:14 Esther 9:14 Mosollamus. One of those who had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:29 ); called in 1E Esther 9:30 Olamus
Haman - The chief minister of Ahasuerus in the time of Esther. Then Esther pleaded for her life, and the salvation of her people, pointing out Haman as the one who had plotted their destruction; and he was hanged on the very gallows he had prepared for Mordecai: cf. Esther 3 - 9
Agag - Haman the Agagite (Esther 3:1-10; Esther 8:3-5) was thought by the Jews his descendant, whence sprung his hatred to their race
Lots - (See Esther 3:7-15) The Jews, therefore, when through God's mercy they had caused the ruin of Haman, appointed this feast on the same month in every year, and called it Pur. (See Esther 9:18-32
Esther - Esther was hereupon charged by Mordecai to plead with the king for their deliverance. Esther had again to endanger her life by appearing before the king unbidden; but again the king received her graciously and gave her the desired authority to rescue the Jews from their threatened calamity: they were allowed to defend themselves when attacked by their enemies. The days of deliverance were appointed by Esther and Mordecai as an annual festival. See Esther, BOOK OF
Achmetha - Travelers identify it with the modern Hamadan, in which many Jews still reside, and where they profess to point out the tomb of Mordecai and Esther
Merodach - With a different vocalization, Merodach yields the name Mordecai (Esther 2:5 )
Ashes - We find it adopted by Job, Job 2:8 ; by many Jews when in great fear, Esther 4:3 ; and by the king of Nineveh, Jonah 3:6
Jarib - A priest who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:18 ); called in 1E Esther 9:19 Joribus
Ahasuerus - It is he who figures in the Book of Esther; Daniel 9:1 erroneously makes him father of Darius the Mede, confusing the latter with Darius Hystaspis, the father of Xerxes
Countervail - Esther 7
Posts - Special messengers in the East, sent on occasions of importance, when they rode swiftly, and in many cases with fresh horses or dromedaries awaiting them at convenient distances, Esther 8:10-14
ha'Man - ( Esther 3:1 ) (B
Uriel - The angel who rebukes the presumption of Esdras in questioning the ways of God ( Esther 4:1 Esther 4:1 ; 2Es 5:20 ff; 2Es 10:28 ), and converses with him at length
Ahasuerus - Persian king who "reigned from India even unto Ethiopia," and took the Jewish maiden Esther to be his queen. See Esther
Adoption - Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Exodus 2:10 ), and Mordecai Esther (Luke 12:27-3288 )
Women - Polygamy transferred power from the wives to the queen mother (called therefore gebiraah "powerful"), 1 Kings 2:19; 1 Kings 15:13; separate establishments were kept for the wives collectively or individually, "the house of the women" (Esther 2:3; Esther 2:9; 1 Kings 7:8); the wives had severally a separate tent (Genesis 31:33); the women were present at table (John 2:3; John 12:2; Job 1:4)
Deputy - ]'>[1] of Esther 8:9 ; Esther 9:3 (RV Perizzites - ]'>[3] of 1Es 8:69 , Esther 1:21 Esther 1:21 , and AV Azariah - 1 Chronicles 6:13-14 , Ezra 7:1 ( Ezerias , Esther 8:1 Esther 8:1 ; Azarias , 2E Esther 1:1 ), son of Hilkiah the high priest. Nehemiah 7:7 (called Seraiah, Ezra 2:2 ; Zacharias , 1E Esther 5:8 ), one of the twelve leaders of Israel who returned with Zerubbabel
Ring - They were given as a token of investment with authority (Genesis 41:42 ; Esther 3:8-10 ; 8:2 ), and of favour and dignity (Luke 15:22 )
Pur, Purim - A lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews (Esther 9:24-32 ) in ironical commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a Persian word), for the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious day for executing his cruel plot against their nation
Astad, Astath - 1322 or 3622 of Astad’s descendants are mentioned as returning with Zerubbabel ( 1E Esther 5:13 )
Shemaiah - ]'>[2] and in Esther 1:9 Esther 1:9 . Esther 1:15 . A priest of the family of Harim who married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:21 ), in 1E Esther 9:21 Sam ameus. A layman of the family of Harim who did the same ( Ezra 10:31 ), in 1E Esther 9:32 Sam abbeus
Deuterocanonical - ...
Of the Old Testament these are: ...
1,2Machabees
Baruch
Ecclesiasticus
Judith
Tobias
Wisdom
parts of Daniel (3,24-90; 13,14)
parts of Esther (10:4, to 16:14)
Of the New Testament these are: ...
2,3John
2Peter
Apocalypse
Hebrews
James
John (7,53, to 8,11)
Luke (22,43-44)
Mark (16,9-20)
Protestants commonly reject the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament as apocryphal
Ashes - To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation (2 Samuel 13:19 ; Esther 4:3 ; Jeremiah 6:26 , etc
Adar - Large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the ecclesiastical year of the Jews (Esther 3:7,13 ; 8:12 ; 9:1,15,17,19,21 )
Memucan - One of the seven princes who "saw the king's face and sat first in the kingdom" (Esther 1:13-14); "wise men who knew the times and law and judgment
Ring - (Genesis 41:42 ; Esther 3:10 ) Rings were worn not only by men, but by women
Diadem - Aaron the High Priest wore one (Exodus 28:37 ; Exodus 29:6 ; Leviticus 16:4 ; Zechariah 3:5 ) as did Queens Vashti (Esther 1:11 ) and Esther (Esther 2:17 )
Week - ) Seven was a predominant number in Persia; seven days of feasting, seven chamberlains, seven princes (Esther 1:5; Esther 1:10; Esther 1:14)
Months - See 1 Kings 6:1 ; Esther 3:7,13 ; Esther 8:12 ; Esther 9:1 , Zechariah 1:7 ; Lots, Casting - " He also could direct it among the heathen to work out His own purposes, as He did in the case of Haman, which so deferred the period of the execution of his design that there was time for the action of Esther, and for new edicts to be sent all over the kingdom, that the Jews might be saved from destruction. Esther 3:7 ; Esther 9:24
Pashhur - The head of a priestly family, ‘the sons of Pashhur’ mentioned in Ezra 2:38 , Nehemiah 7:41 , Ezra 10:22 , 1Es 5:25 ( Phassurus ) Esther 9:22 Esther 9:22 ( Phaisur )
Binnui - A son of Pahath-moab ( Ezra 10:30 = Balnuus of 1E Esther 9:31 )
Jahzeiah - ]'>[3] , 1E Esther 9:14 RVm Jairus - Est 11:2) for Mordecai’s father Jair ( Esther 2:5 ); and ( 1Es 5:31 ) for the head of a family of Temple servants
Pahath-Moab - See Ezra 2:6 ; Ezra 8:4 , Nehemiah 7:11 ; in 1E Esther 5:11 ; 1Es 8:31 Peter haath Moab
Shushan - He founded the grand palace described in Esther 1:5-6. "The king's gate" where Mordecai sat (Esther 2:21) was a square hall, 100 ft. ...
The inner court where Esther begged Ahasuerus' favor (Esther 5:1) was the space between the northern portico and "the king's gate"; the outer court was the space between the king's gate and the northern terrace wall. "The royal house" (Esther 1:9) and "the house of the women" (Esther 2:9; Esther 2:11) were behind the great hall toward the S. where were white, green, and blue hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble" (Esther 1:5-6)
Sceptre - On the difficulty of approaching the presence of the Persian kings referred to in Esther 4:11 , cf
Eunuch - Literally bed-keeper or chamberlain, and not necessarily in all cases one who was mutilated, although the practice of employing such mutilated persons in Oriental courts was common (2 Kings 9:32 ; Esther 2:3 )
Black - It is uncertain what the "black marble" of Esther 1:6 was which formed a part of the mosaic pavement
Ashteroth-Karnaim - Perhaps identical with Esther Sanamein ("the two idols"), 25 miles S
Tatnai - It is sometimes translated "captain" (1 Kings 20:24 ; Daniel 3:2,3 ), sometimes also "deputy" (Esther 8:9 ; 9:3 )
Queen - malkah "queen regnant" (1 Kings 10:1; Daniel 5:10; Esther 1:9); sheegal "the queen consort" (Psalms 45:9; Daniel 5:2-3); gebirah "powerful mistress," "the queen mother
Jair - The father of Mordecai ( Esther 2:5 ), 3
Agag - Haman was a descendant of the Agag family, and caused Israel great trouble in the time of Queen Esther
Rod - It also denotes a staff, used by one walking, Isaiah 3:1 Ezekiel 29:6 ; by a diviner, Hosea 4:12 ; by a surveyor, Psalm 74:2 ; by a shepherd, Leviticus 27:32 Zechariah 11:10-14 ; as an instrument of correction, Proverbs 23:13 29:15 ; as a sceptre, Esther 8:4 Isaiah 14:5 ; and as a symbol of power, Psalm 2:9 , support and direction, Psalm 23:4
Dositheus - The priest who, according to a note in one of the Greek recensions of Esther, brought the book to Alexandria in the 4th year of Ptolemy Philometor (?) and Cleopatra, c Shushan - Most of the events recorded in the Book of Esther took place here. The great hall of this palace (Esther 1 ) "consisted of several magnificent groups of columns, together with a frontage of 343 feet 9 inches, and a depth of 244 feet
Mule - Rechesh is translated "mules," Esther 8:10; Esther 8:14; but in 1 Kings 4:28 "DROMEDARIES" Micah 1:13, "swift beasts
Seal - The signet ring was the symbol of royal authority (Genesis 12:41-42; Esther 3:10; Esther 8:10)
Purim - ...
The Book of Esther purports to give the origin of Purim in the feast kept by the Jews when the afflictions that threatened them through Haman were turned into joy and blessing. This explanation is now generally regarded as fanciful, in part because of the antecedent improbability of the narrative in Esther and the lack of historical evidence for its truthfulness, and in part because of the impossibility of verifying in Persian the meaning of the word purim (= ‘lot’), upon which the connexion rests. (6) Others most recently (Zimmern, Jensen, Meissner, Wildeboer) derive it from a Babylonian New Year’s festival, and make Mordecai the same as Marduk, and Esther = the goddess Ishtar
Agag - Agagite, in Esther 3:1,10 8:3,5 is used to mark the nation whence Haman sprung
Hagiographa - The hagiographa in their Hebrew order include: Psalms, Proverbs, and Job; the “five scrolls” (Megilloth ) read at major festivals, namely, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther; Daniel; and Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles
Kish - ...
...
The great-grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5 )
Sackcloth - People put on sackcloth as a sign of mourning, whether for those who had just died (Genesis 37:34; 2 Samuel 3:31), for some personal distress (Job 16:15), or for a national disaster (Esther 4:1; Lamentations 2:10)
Ring (2) - This was not only a mark of opulence (James 2:2), it is perhaps intended also as a token that he was restored to a place of authority in the house, and allowed to issue orders in his father’s name (see Genesis 38:18; Genesis 41:42, Esther 3:10)
Prince - These are also called "lieutenants" (Esther 3:12 ; 8:9 ; RSV, "satraps")
Kish - A Benjamite ancestor of Mordecai ( Esther 2:5 )
Abroad - ...
Esther 1...
6
Chamberlain - The Hebrew word Saris , Thus translated in Esther 1:10,15 ; 2:3,14,21 , etc
a'Gag - Haman is called the AGAGITE in (Esther 3:1,10 ; 8:3,5 ) The Jews consider him a descendant of Agag the Amalekite
Jew - in Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and Jeremiah. In Esther the name is applied to all the Hebrews in Persia
Ahimaaz - Compare as to runners before kings 2 Samuel 15:1; 1 Kings 1:5; as to courier posts, 2 Chronicles 30:6; 2 Chronicles 30:10; Esther 3:13; Esther 3:15; Esther 8:14
Pavilion - Psalms 27:5, sok ; Psalms 18:11; Psalms 31:20, a spiritual pavilion, namely, Jehovah's favor and protection; explained in the parallel, "the secret of Thy presence"; none have access to an eastern king's pavilion in the "inner court" save those he admits (Esther 4:11)
Jew - In other words, it was used in general as a name for all Israelites (Ezra 6:7; Nehemiah 6:6; Esther 3:6; Esther 3:10; Jeremiah 44:1; Daniel 3:8)
Weaving - In Isaiah 19:9 Gesenius translated choral (from chur , "white") "they that weave white cloth," for "networks" (Esther 1:6; Esther 8:15)
Request - Haman stood up to make request for his life to Esther the queen. Esther 7
Garden - In biblical times, an enclosed plot of ground on which flowers, vegetables, herbs, and fruit and nut trees were cultivated (Genesis 2:8 ; 1 Kings 21:2 ; Esther 1:5 ; Isaiah 51:3 ; John 18:1-2 ). Some were large (Esther 1:5 ), the most prominent gardens being royal ones (2 Kings 25:4 ; Nehemiah 3:15 ; Jeremiah 39:4 ). As a guarded and protected place (Song of Song of Solomon 4:12 ), persons could retreat there for prayer (Matthew 26:36-46 ), for quiet or solitude (Esther 7:7 ), or even for bathing (Susanna 1:15 ). Friends could meet in gardens (John 18:1-2 ), or banquets could be served there (Esther 1:5 )
Month - (1 Kings 8:2 ) In the second place we have the names which prevailed subsequent to the Babylonish captivity; of these the following seven appear in the Bible: Nisan, the first, in which the passover was held, (Nehemiah 2:1 ; Esther 3:7 ) Sivan, the third (Esther 8:9 ) Baruch 1:8 ; Elul, the sixth, (Nehemiah 6:15 ) 1 Maccabees 14:27 ; Chisleu, the ninth, (Nehemiah 1:1 ; Zechariah 7:1 ) 1 Maccabees 1:54 ; Tebeth, the tenth, (Esther 2:16 ) Sebat, the eleventh, (Zechariah 1:7 ) 1 Maccabees 16:14 ; and Adar, the twelfth. (Esther 3:7 ; 8:1 ) 2 Maccabees 15:36
Ashes - Sitting down in, or covering one's self with, is the symbol of mourning (Job 2:8; Job 42:6; Esther 4:1; Isaiah 61:3; Matthew 11:21)
Province - Later, the Babylonians and Persians used such districts in Palestine (Esther 4:11 )
Scepter - As part of the royal regalia, the scepter was extended to a visitor or dignitary (Esther 5:2 ) to signal approval of the visit and allow the person to approach the throne
Gifts - Μaseeth , vice versa (Esther 2:18)
Street - A broad open space, as the courtyard, the space near the gate devoted to public business (Deuteronomy 13:16), or before t he temple (Ezra 10:9; Esther 4:6)
Enlargement - Esther 4
Captivities of the Jews - 598, when that prophet, like Mordecai the uncle of Esther (Esther 2:6 ) accompanied Jehoiachin. Those who were left in Assyria, (Esther 8:9,11 ) and kept up their national distinctions, were known as The Dispersion
Fall - Esther 6:13 (a) This expression is used to describe the defeat of Haman at the hands of the Jews. ...
Esther 9:3 (a) The word is used to describe the great fear and apprehension that fell upon the people because of the power given to Mordecai, the Jew
Persia, Persians - The Persians are mentioned before the Medes in Esther 1:19 . ...
For the dealings of the Persian kings with Israel, see AHASUERUS, and the names of the other kings mentioned in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. Xerxes, his son … … … … … 485 Ahasuerus of Esther. ' Esther 1:1 speaks of a hundred and twenty-seven provinces. See DANIEL and Esther
Jair - A Benjamite who was the ancestor of Mordecai, Esther's guardian (Esther 2:5 )
Scribe - Person trained in writing skills and used to record events and decisions (Jeremiah 36:26 ; 1 Chronicles 24:6 ; Esther 3:12 )
Captive - When a city was taken by assault, all the men were slain, and the women and children carried away captive and sold as slaves (Isaiah 20 ; 47:3 ; 2 Chronicles 28:9-15 ; Psalm 44:12 ; Joel 3:3 ), and exposed to the most cruel treatment (Nahum 3:10 ; Zechariah 14:2 ; Esther 3:13 ; 2 Kings 8:12 ; Isaiah 13:16,18 )
Pearl - ’ In Esther 1:6 dar should perhaps he rendered ‘pearl’ or ‘mother-of-pearl
Shimei - Ancestor of Mordecai, the cousin of Esther (Esther 2:5 )
Shu'Shan, - (Here have been found the remains of the great palace build by Darius, the father of Xerxes, in which and the surrounding buildings took place the scenes recorded in the life of Esther. Between these two was probably the inner court, where Esther appeared before the king
Adoption - in Moses being an adopted son of the daughter of Pharaoh, Exodus 2:10 , and Esther being adopted by her cousin Mordecai, Esther 2:7
Mordecai - (See Esther 3:1-15 and following. We ought not to dismiss our record of Mordecai with his name only, since the Holy Ghost hath thought proper to give the church so large an account of his history, in the book of Esther, which is principally, if not wholly, recorded for this purpose, No doubt, that the almighty Spirit intended the relation of it for much usefulness to his people in all ages; and therefore it becomes both our duty and our wisdom to attend to it. What, Haman! could not all the glory, all the riches, all the multitude of children, that you boasted, satisfy you? (See Esther 5:9-14. for it, because Mordecai sat in he king's gate, and would not rise to give you reverence! (See Esther 3:8-9
Esther - THE Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther was the same sovereign as the Xerxes of Herodotus and Plutarch and Thirlwall and Grote. He counted them at break of day,But when the sun set, where were they?'That Ahasuerus,' says an old Hebrew treatise called the Second Targum on Esther, 'whose counsels were perverse, and whose orders were not right: who commanded Queen Vashti to appear unveiled before him, but she would not appear. And in the long-run, the result of that night's evil work was that Vashti was dismissed into disgrace and banishment, and Esther, the Hebrew orphan, was promoted into her place. The whole story of Vashti's fall and Esther's rise would take us into too many miry places for us tonight to wade through. Only, let us take heed to note that the sacred writer's whole point is this, that the Divine Hand was, all the time, overruling Ahasuerus's brutality, and Vashti's brave womanliness, and Esther's beauty, and her elevation into Vashti's vacant seat, all this, and more than all this, to work together for the deliverance and the well-being of the remnant of Israel that still lay dispersed in the vast empire of Persia. ...
Mordecai was the uncle and the foster-father of the orphaned Esther. He had brought Esther up, and his one love in his whole life, after his love for Israel and for the God of Israel, was his love for his little adopted daughter. I leave you to imagine what were the prayers and psalms that Mordecai offered up with his window open towards Jerusalem, as he saw all Esther's election, and promotion, and coronation, and all her splendour and all her power. And Mordecai walked every day before the court of the women's house, to know how Esther did, and what should become of her. ...
You would need to transport yourselves away east to the Constantinople of our day at all to understand Haman, and all his diabolical plots against Esther, and against Mordecai, and against all the people of Israel. How Haman rose, and how he fell: how his seat was set above all the other princes of the empire at the beginning, and how his face was covered at the end; how he and Ahasuerus arranged it between themselves that Israel should be exterminated on a set day by a universal slaughter: how Haman had a gallows of fifty cubits high built for Mordecai yesterday, only to be hanged himself on that same gallows today: how Israel was sold to Haman by the seal of Ahasuerus, and was delivered by the perilous but successful interposition of Esther, all that is told as only a sacred writer could tell it. ...
Such, then, was Esther's circle, so to call it. But what, exactly, was her opportunity? What was Esther's great opportunity that put her watchful uncle Mordecai into such sleepless anxiety lest she should either miss it, or betray it? Esther's splendid opportunity rose out of that extraordinary combination and concentration of circumstances in the very heart of which she had been so providentially placed. And, then, as another stepping-stone up to Esther's incomparable opportunity, Ahasuerus, Haman's master, was a fit master, as we have seen, for such a servant of Satan as Haman was. But, as God's providence would have it, step after step, Esther was on the throne, and was in all the fulness of her first influence with Ahasuerus just at that critical moment for the Church of God in the empire of Persia. The great war with Greece; the great national feast consequent on that great war; the absolute intoxication of the king's mind with pride, and with ambition, and with wine; the brutal summons to Vashti; her brave refusal of her master's brutal demand; her fall and her banishment; the election and elevation of Esther, and her immense influence with the despot; all these things were so many stepping-stones on which Esther had so providentially risen to her splendid opportunity. And, then, to complete and finish it all, there was added to it all, Mordecai's so watchful solicitude over the wickedness of Haman, and over the caprice of Ahasuerus, and over the safety of Israel, and over the miraculous opportunity of Esther. What a long, and complex, and shining chain, link after link, till Mordecai fashioned its last link and bound it with his strong but tender hands upon both the imagination, and the conscience, and the heart of Esther in these noble words: 'Think not with thyself that thou shalt escape in the king's house, more than all the Jews. For if thou altogether holdest thy peace at this time, then shall there enlargement and deliverance arise to the Jews from another place; but both thou and thy father's house shall be destroyed; and who knoweth whether thou art come to the kingdom for such a time as this?' Then Esther bade them return to Mordecai this answer: 'I will go in unto the king, and if I perish, I perish. For she obtained favour in the sight of the king; and the king held out to her the golden sceptre that was in his hand, and said to her, 'What wilt thou, Queen Esther? And what is thy request? For it shall be given thee to the half of the kingdom. And all because, under God, Esther had her opportunity pointed out to her till she saw it and seized it. ...
The Book of Esther is surely a very clear prophecy and a very impressive parable of the plots, and the persecutions, and the politics of our own day. Western Christendom, and England especially, is Esther with her opportunity and her responsibility over again, and the voice of warning by whomsoever spoken is the summons of Mordecai to Esther over again. ' As I read Captain Mahan's masterly and noble Life of Nelson the other day with Esther in my mind, I could not but mark such things as these in that great sea-captain who had such a hand in setting England up on her high opportunity. ...
But we are not great queens like Esther, with the deliverance of Israel in our hands; nor are we great sea-captains like Lord Nelson, with the making of modern England in our hands. Our opportunities are life or death to us and to others; they are salvation or condemnation to our immortal souls; and is that not circle and opportunity enough? We are all tempted every day to say: If I only were Esther! If I only had a great opportunity, would I not rise to it! Would I not speak out at any risk! Would I not do a work, and win a name, and deliver Israel, and glorify God! Did you ever read of Clemens, and Fervidus, and Eugenia, and their imaginary piety? Clemens had his head full of all manner of hypothetical liberalities. You and I are Mordecai and Esther ourselves. Then Esther bade them return to Mordecai this answer: Fast ye, and pray for me, and so will I go in unto the king
Achmetha - Travellers state that the Jews exhibit a tomb in their charge in the midst of the city, which is the reputed tomb of Mordecai and Esther
ja'ir - (Esther 2:5 ) (B
Light - So also the word of God is "a light," Psalm 119:105 ; truth and Christians are lights, John 3:19 12:36 ; prosperity is "light," Esther 8:16 ; and heaven is full of light, Revelation 21:23-25
Adoption - The legal process whereby a person assumed parental responsibilities for another person's child as Mordecai did for Esther, his uncle's daughter (Esther 2:15 ). ...
The Old Testament examples of Moses (Exodus 2:10 ) and Esther (Esther 2:7 ,Esther 2:7,2:15 ) took place in foreign cultures and may reflect those settings more than the Hebrew practice
Chamberlain - ’ In Esther, however, the chamberlain evidently belongs to that class of persons who are entrusted with the watchful care of the harems of Oriental monarchs
Shephatiah - The name appears in 1E Esther 5:9 as Saphat and in 1Es 8:34 as Saphatias
Shushan - In Esther 1:2 , the city is identified as the throne city of Ahasuerus and called Susa by modern translations
Gold - (1 Kings 6:22 ) 10 passim ; ( Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 3:9,10 ; Jeremiah 10:9 ) The chief countries mentioned as producing gold are Arabia, Sheba and Ophir
Simon - Simon Chosameus, who was found to have a ‘strange’ wife ( Esther 9:32 Esther 9:32 = Ezra 10:31 Sam imeon )
Camel - ...
The dromedary (beeker ) is from a better breed, and swifter; from the Greek dromas , a runner; going often at a pace of nine miles an hour (Esther 8:10; Esther 8:14)
Medes - , and "Media," Esther 1:3, etc. Esther 1:19
Mordecai - A Benjamite, first cousin of Esther, queen of Ahasuerus, who, being an orphan, had been brought up by him. All that is known of his history is contained in the book of Esther
Benefactor - —A title conferred by a grateful sovereign or country for useful service rendered, often in time of difficulty or danger (Esther 2:23; Esther 6:2)
Banquets - Vashti's separate Women's banquet was a Persian, not Jewish, custom (Esther 1:9). The Persians reclined on couches (Esther 7:8). Portions direct from table were sent to poorer friends (Nehemiah 8:10; compare Luke 14:13; Esther 9:19; Esther 9:22)
Captivity, Babylonian - They preserved their old clan relations (1 Esdras 2); had their own judges and magistrates (Jeremiah 29; Daniel 13); and some rose to positions of honor and responsibility (Daniel 1; Jeremiah 52; Esther 2)
Deputy - In Esther 8:9 ; 9:3 (RSV, "governor") it denotes a Persian prefect "on this side" i
Doorkeeper - The Persian kings used eunuchs for doorkeepers (Esther 2:21 )
Chamberlain - The Persian officials in Esther 1:10 may have been eunuchs, since they apparently protected the king's wives and harem
Majesty - ...
When he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom--the honor of his excellent majesty many days-- Esther 1 ...
2
Dromedary - This name answers to two words in the original, בכר , and feminine בכרה , Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 2:24 ; and אחשתרנים , Esther 8:10 , "young dromedaries;" probably the name in Persian
Ordinance - , Esther 3:9 ; in some texts, Daniel 2:13,15
Babylonian Captivity - They preserved their old clan relations (1 Esdras 2); had their own judges and magistrates (Jeremiah 29; Daniel 13); and some rose to positions of honor and responsibility (Daniel 1; Jeremiah 52; Esther 2)
Jair - ...
...
A Benjamite, the father of Mordecai, Esther's uncle (Esther 2:5 )
Shimei, Shimeites - In post-exilic times the name appears among those who had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:23 [2] 33. The name occurs in the genealogy of Mordecai ( Esther 2:5 Zechariah - One of the rulers of the Temple under Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 35:8 [1]). A descendant of Elam ( Ezra 10:26 ; Ezra 10:44 [5])
Apocrypha - ), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, etc
Marble - In Esther 1:6 there are four Hebrew words which are rendered marble:,
Shesh, "pillars of marble
Gardens - Mentioned in Scripture, of Eden (Genesis 2:8,9 ); Ahab's garden of herbs (1 Kings 21:2 ); the royal garden (2 Kings 21:18 ); the royal garden at Susa (Esther 1:5 ); the garden of Joseph of Arimathea (John 19:41 ); of Gethsemane (John 18:1 )
Artaxerxes - 474-434, son of Xerxes, the Ahasuerus of Esther
Apocrypha - The entire list of books of the apocrypha are: 1 Esdras 2Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, (also titled Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah, Song of the Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Additions to Daniel, The Prayer of Manasseh, and 1,2Maccabees
Ashes - Esther 4:1,3 ; Isaiah 58:5 ; 61:3 ; Jeremiah 6:26 ; Jonah 3:6 ); of the ashes resulting from animal sacrifices, Hebrews 9:13 ; in the OT, metaphorically, of one who describes himself as dust and "ashes," Genesis 18:27 , etc
Myrrh - מור , Exodus 30:23 ; Esther 2:19 ; Psalms 45:8 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 1:13 ; Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Song of Solomon 5:1 ; Song of Solomon 5:5 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 ; σμυρνα , Sir_24:15 ; Matthew 2:11 ; Mark 15:23 ; John 19:39 ; a precious kind of gum issuing by incision, and sometimes spontaneously, from the trunk and larger branches of a tree growing in Egypt, Arabia, and Abyssinia
Marble - שיש , 1 Chronicles 29:2 ; Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 5:15 ; a valuable kind of stone, of a texture so hard and compact, and of a grain so fine, as readily to take a beautiful polish
Shushan - Between these two was probably the inner court, where Esther appeared before the king
Haman - In order to revenge himself upon Mordecai the Jew, he plotted the extermination of all the Jews in the kingdom; but in the providence of God he as thwarted by Esther, fell into disgrace with the king, and wrought his own ruin and the upbuilding of the Jews
Bed - (Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 3:9,10 ) The ordinary furniture of a bedchamber in private life is given in (2 Kings 4:10 )
Ring - So Ahasuerus in the case of Haman (Esther 3:8-10), and Mordecai (Esther 8:2)
Bed - Some bed frame is implied in Esther 1:6; 2 Samuel 3:31, "bier," margin bed. ...
Royal beds (Song of Solomon 3:9-10 margin) had pillars of marble or silver, the bottom gold, the covering of purple and divers colors, hangings fastened to the pillarsupported canopy, the beds of gold upon a tesselated pavement (Esther 1:6); compare Amos 6:4, "beds of ivory. " Often used as couches in the day (Ezekiel 23:41; Esther 7:8)
Shushan - It was the winter residence of the Persian kings, after Cyrus, Esther 1:5 ; and is deeply interesting as the scene of the wonderful events narrated in the book of Esther. It is altogether probable that this was the scene of the festival described in Esther 1:1-22
Myrrh - It was an ingredient in the holy anointing oil, Exodus 30:23; it was used in perfumes, Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 1:13; Song of Solomon 8:6; in unguents, Esther 2:12; Song of Solomon 5:5; for strengthening wine, Mark 15:23; also in embalming, John 19:30
Iddo - Zechariah 1:1 ; Zechariah 1:7 , Ezra 5:1 ; Ezra 6:14 ( 1E Esther 6:1 Addo ) grandfather (father acc
Engrave - Signet rings engraved with the sign or symbol of the owner were quite common throughout the ancient world (Genesis 38:18 ; Esther 3:12 ; Jeremiah 22:24 )
Jair - A Benjamite, son of Kish, father of Mordecai (Esther 2:5)
Jehoiachin - He is called JECONIAH in 1 Chronicles 3:16 17 ; Esther 2:6 ; Jeremiah 24:1 ; Jeremiah 27:20 ; Jeremiah 28:4 (where his return from Babylon is falsely prophesied of); Jeremiah 29:2
Achmetha - Annual pilgrimages are made to the modern city to pay homage at the traditional burial places of Esther and Mordecai, though the historical basis of the tradition is open to question
Endure - How can I endure to see the evil that shall come to my people? Esther 8
Hashabiah - A chief of the Levites in the time of Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 35:9 ); called in 1E Esther 1:9 Sabias
Horses - They were used by princes and warriors, both with and without chariots, Exodus 14:9,23 Esther 6:8 Ecclesiastes 10:7
Deliverance, Deliverer - Thus Mordecai warned Esther that is she failed to act out her role as deliverer God would provide another way (Esther 4:14 )
Garden - ’ The cool shade of the trees, the music of the stream, and the delightful variety of fruits in their season, make the gardens a favourite place of resort ( Esther 7:7 , Song of Solomon 4:16 etc
Meals - ...
Derived from the Syrians, Babylonians, and Persians (Esther 1:6; Esther 7:8). ...
After a previous invitation, on the day of the feast a second was issued to intimate all was ready (Esther 5:8; Esther 6:14; Matthew 22:3-4)
Apocrypha - ...
Additions to the Book of Esther...
The Apocrypha contains additions to the book of Esther. The Hebrew text of Esther contains 163 verses, but the Greek contains 270. These sections contain such matters as the dream of Mordecai, the interpretation of that dream, the texts of the letters referred to in the canonical book, (Esther 1:22 ; Esther 3:13 ; Esther 8:5 ,Esther 8:5,8:10 ; Esther 9:20 ,Esther 9:20,9:25-30 ) and the prayers of Esther and Mordecai. In the Old Testament book of Esther, God is never named
Castle - ’ A different word ( birah ) is used of the castle or fort which in Nehemiah’s day defended the Temple ( Nehemiah 2:8 ; Nehemiah 7:2 ), and of the fortified royal residence of the Persian kings at Susa ( Nehemiah 1:1 , Esther 1:2 etc
Coele-Syria - In 1E Esther 2:17 etc
Light - "All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light" (1 Kings 11:36 ; Isaiah 58:8 ; Esther 8:16 ; Psalm 97:11 )
Remission - RSV used remission only in the sense of refraining from exacting a tax ( Esther 2:18 )
Sackcloth - When Mordecai was informed of the destruction threatened to his nation, he put on sackcloth, and covered his head with ashes, Esther 4
Isle, Island - " It means island when used of Caphtor, for example, or Crete, Jeremiah 47:4 2:10 Psalm 97:1 Esther 10:1 , where the phrase isles of the sea is in antithesis with the land or continent
Alms - " The theological estimate of alms-giving among the Jews is indicated in the following passages: (Job 31:17 ; Proverbs 10:2 ; 11:4 ; Esther 9:22 ; Psalm 112:9 ; Acts 9:36 ) the case of Dorcas; (Acts 10:2 ) of Cornelius; to which may be added Tobit 4:10,11 ; 14:10,11 , and Sirach 3:30 ; 40:24
Jehoiachin - The Babylonians then plundered Judah’s treasures and took Jehoiachin captive to Babylon, along with the royal family, palace officials and most of Judah’s best people (2 Kings 24:8-16; Esther 2:6; Jeremiah 22:24-30; Jeremiah 24:1; Jeremiah 27:20; Jeremiah 29:2)
Banquet - A feast provided for the entertainment of a company of guests (Esther 5 ; 7 ; 1 Peter 4:3 ); such as was provided for our Lord by his friends in Bethany (Matthew 26:6 ; Mark 14:3 ; Compare John 12:2 ). Portions were sometimes sent from the table to poorer friends (Nehemiah 8:10 ; Esther 9:19,22 )
Emperor Worship - ...
In the Book of Esther, Haman was made part of the imperial cult by King Ahasuerus; all the people were required to bow to him and hail him (Esther 3:1-5 )
Camel - Perhaps the same species is alluded to in Esther 8:10-14 , that occurrence being also in the far East: the Hebrew word there is achashteranim. 1 Kings 4:28 ; Esther 8:10 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 2:23
Linen, Linen Cloth, Fine Linen - 5 (David's robe); 2 Chronicles 3:14 , bussos (the veil of the Temple); 2 Chronicles 5:12 , bussinos (the clothing of the Levite singers); Esther 1:6 (the cords of the hangings in the king's garden); Esther 8:15 (Mordecai's dress); Ezekiel 27:7 (bussos, in Syrian trade with Tyre)
Ecbatana - " Here is shown the tomb of Mordecai and Esther; as well as that of Avicenna, the celebrated Arabian physician. The sepulchre of the former stands near the centre of the city of Hamadan: the tombs are covered by a dome, on which is the following inscription in Hebrew: "This day, 15th of the month Adar, in the year 4474 from the creation of the world, was finished the building of this temple over the graves of Mordecai and Esther, by the hands of the good-hearted brothers, Elias and Samuel, the sons of the deceased Ismael of Kashan. " The following is the corresponding inscription on the sarcophagus of Esther: "I praise thee, O God, that thou hast created me! I know that my sins merit punishment, yet I hope for mercy at thy hands; for whenever I call upon thee, thou art with me; thy holy presence secures me from all evil. Lead me, O merciful Father, to the life of life: that I may be filled with the heavenly fruits of paradise!—ESTHER. " The Jews at Hamadan have no tradition of the cause of Esther and Mordecai having been interred at that place; but however that might be, there are sufficient reasons for believing the validity of their interment in this spot. It is well known, that several important events in Jewish history are thus celebrated; and among the rest, the feast of Purim is kept on the 13th and 14th of the month Adar, to commemorate the deliverance obtained by the Jews, at the intercession of Esther, from the general massacre ordered by Ahasuerus, and the slaughter they were permitted to make of their enemies. Now on this same festival, in the same day and month, Jewish pilgrims resort from all quarters to the sepulchre of Mordecai and Esther; and have done so for centuries,—a strong presumptive proof that the tradition of their burial in this place rests on some authentic foundation
Face - ’ This meant to be admitted to the presence of a potentate, king, or god ( Genesis 33:10 ; Genesis 43:3 ; Genesis 43:5 , 2 Kings 25:19 , Esther 1:14 ; Esther 4:11 ; Esther 4:16 ; cf
Races - Persians ( Esther 1:19 etc
Bible, Books of the - According to the Council of Trent, there are three groups in the Old Testament, embracing 46 books: ...
21 historical books:
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Josue
Judges
Ruth
1,2Kings (1,2Samuel)
3,4Kings (1,2Kings)
1,2Paralipomenon (1,2Chronicles)
Esdras
Nehemiah
Tobias
Judith
Esther
1,2Machabees
7 didactical books:
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Canticle of Canticles (Song of Solomon)
Wisdom and
Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)
18 prophetical books:
Isaias
Jeremias (with Lamentations)
the major prophets
Baruch
Ezechiel
Daniel
the minor prophets
Osee
Joel
Amos
Abdias or Obadiah
Jonas
Micah
Nahum
Habacuc
Sophonias or Zephaniah
Aggeus or Haggai
Zacharias
Malachias
The difference between the Jewish and Catholic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books
Ethiopia - Country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush is rendered (Genesis 2:13 ; 2 Kings 19:9 ; Esther 1:1 ; Job 28:19 ; Psalm 68:31 ; 87:4 ), a country which lay to the south of Egypt, beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ), and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue Nile
Haman - (See Esther
Eunuch - The Greek term translated eunuch is literally one in charge of a bed, a reference to the practice of using eunuchs as keepers of harems (Esther 2:3, 2:6, 2:15)
Island, Isle - Mediterranean; the ‘isles of the sea’ ( Esther 10:1 , Ezekiel 26:18 etc
Mule - Thus we may observe, especially after David's time, that mules, male and female, were common among the Hebrews; formerly they used only male and female asses, 2 Samuel 13:29 18:9 1 Kings 1:33 10:25 18:5 Esther 8:10,14
Crown - It was also worn by queens, Esther 2:17
Scorn - Esther 3
Adoption - In like manner we read that Mordecai adopted Esther, his niece; he took her to himself to be a daughter, Esther 2:7
Persia - Regions to the north of Elam that were later closely allied with Persia were Media and Parthia (Esther 1:18; Acts 2:9). )...
When at times non-Jewish people of the region opposed and persecuted the Jews in Jerusalem, the Persian rulers protected the Jews (Ezra 5:3-17; Ezra 6:1-12; Nehemiah 2:9-10; Esther 8:9-14)
Jean Racine - de Maintenon, he wrote, for her protegees at Saint Cyr, Esther 1689, and Athalie his masterpiece in 1691
Tarshish - One of seven leading officials of King Ahasuerus of Persia (Esther 1:14 )
Kish - The Benjaminite ancestor of Mordecai (Esther 2:5 )
Notable, of Note - , Genesis 30:42 ; Esther 5:4 ; 8:13 , toward the end of the verse, "a distinct (day)"
Racine, Jean - de Maintenon, he wrote, for her protegees at Saint Cyr, Esther 1689, and Athalie his masterpiece in 1691
Cush - ...
By the time of Esther, Cush represented the southwestern limits of Persian power (Esther 1:1 )
Eunuch - ...
The kings of Israel and Judah imitated their powerful neighbours in employing eunuchs (1) as guardians of the harem (2 Kings 9:32 , Jeremiah 41:16 ); Esther 1:12 ; Esther 4:4 are instances of Persian usage; (2) in military and other important posts ( 1Sa 8:15 , 1 Kings 22:9 , 2Ki 8:6 ; 2 Kings 23:11 ; 2 Kings 24:12 ; 2Ki 24:15 ; 2 Kings 25:19 , 1 Chronicles 28:1 , 2 Chronicles 18:8 , Jeremiah 29:2 ; Jeremiah 34:19 ; Jeremiah 38:7 ; cf
Governor - ]'>[1] word, pechah , used of Persian satraps in general ( Esther 3:12 ; Esther 8:8 ), and of Assyrian generals ( 2 Kings 18:24 , cf
Judaizers - The Greek verb ioudaizo
Blue - ...
Esther 1:6 (c) The wicked king seeking to justify his sins had the blue woven in the curtains so as to connect his evil orgies with something of Heaven and Heaven's business. ...
Esther 8:15 (c) It is evident that Mordecai was GOD's man for that particular time
Month - ...
After the captivity the first month (that of the Passover) was called Νisan (Nehemiah 2:1); Sivan the third (from the Assyrian siv "the moon", to whom the Assyrians consecrated it): Esther 8:9. Εlul the sixth (Nehemiah 6:15); Chisleu the ninth (Nehemiah 1:1); Τebeth (from the Egyptian tobi ) the tenth (Esther 2:16); Sebat the eleventh (Zechariah 1:7); Αdar the twelfth (Esther 3:7)
Meals - A sumptuous repast was prepared; the guests were previously invited, (Esther 5:8 ; Matthew 22:3 ) and on the day of the feast a second invitation was issued to those that were bidden. (Esther 6:14 ; Proverbs 9:3 ; Matthew 22:4 ) The visitors were received with a kiss, (Luke 7:45 ) water was furnished for them to wash their feet with, (Luke 7:44 ) the head, the beard, the feet, and sometimes the clothes, were perfumed with ointment, (Psalm 23:5 ; John 12:3 ) on special occasions robes were provided, (Matthew 22:11 ) and the head was decorated with wreaths. (Esther 1:3,4 )
Decrees - "...
Terms translated "decree" in Hebrew and/or Aramaic include dat [1] (a loanword from Persian) used in Daniel, Ezra, and Esther for decrees of God and human (especially Persian) monarchs, taam [2] for the orders of high officials including kings, hoq/huqqaa [3] used especially of God's laws, esar [4] (lit. Providence reverses Ahasuerus/Xerxes' decree to exterminate the Jews (Esther 3:7-15 ) so that the enemies of the Jews are destroyed by royal decree instead (Esther 8:8-9:16 ). Clines, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther ; H
Letter - These letters are mentioned in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. See Ezra 4-6 ; Nehemiah 2:1 ; Nehemiah 6:1 ; Esther 3:1 ; Esther 8:1 ; Esther 9:1
Apparel - Kings and nobles usually had a store of costly garments for festive occasions (Isaiah 3:22 ; Zechariah 3:4 ) and for presents (Genesis 45:22 ; Esther 4:4 ; 6:8,11 ; 1 Samuel 18:4 ; 2 Kings 5:5 ; 10:22 )
Apoc'Rypha - The rest of the chapters of the book of Esther, which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee; VI
Myrrh - It was used as a perfume, Psalm 45:8 , where the language is symbolic of the graces of the Messiah; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:13 ; 5:5 ; it was one of the ingredients of the "holy anointing oil" for the priests, Exodus 30:23 (RV, "flowing myrrh"); it was used also for the purification of women, Esther 2:12 ; for embalming, John 19:39 ; as an anodyne see B); it was one of the gifts of the Magi, Matthew 2:11
Artaxerxes - or AHASUERUS, a king of Persia, the husband of Esther, who, in the opinion of the learned Usher and Calmet, was the Darius of profane authors. Prideaux to be the Ahasuerus of Esther
Fast, Fasting - ...
As an expression of lamentation and/or penitence, fasting nearly always is associated with weeping (Judges 20:26 ; Esther 4:3 ; Psalm 69:10 ; Joel 2:12 ), confession (1 Samuel 7:6 ; Daniel 9:3 ), and the wearing of sackcloth (1 Kings 21:27 ; Nehemiah 9:1 ; Esther 4:3 ; Psalm 69:10 ; Daniel 9:3 ). Esther, under similar circumstances, urged Mordecai and the Jews to fast for her as she planned to appear before her husband the king (Esther 4:16 )
Fasting (2) - The late ‘fast of Esther,’ on the 13th of Adar (Esther 9:31; cf. Esther 4:3; cf. Esther 4:16), was not at this time observed
Feasts - He determined the date to carry out his plan by casting lots, or purim (purim being the Hebrew plural of the Persian-Assyrian word pur, meaning ‘lot’) (Esther 3:7). When Haman’s ‘lucky day’ arrived, the Jews, instead of being slaughtered, took revenge on their enemies (Esther 9:1). Mordecai then ordered that Jews celebrate the great occasion with feasting, exchanging gifts and giving to the poor (Esther 9:20-28; see Esther)
Amalekites - See the book of Esther
Decree - Some important decrees include: Cyrus' decree on rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 6:3-5 ); Esther's decree on the celebration of Purim (Esther 9:32 ); and the decree of Caesar Augustus which set the scene for the birth of Christ (Luke 2:1 )
Myrrh - It was used in embalming (John 19:39 ), also as a perfume (Esther 2:12 ; Psalm 45:8 ; Proverbs 7:17 )
Seal - (Genesis 38:18 ) The ring or the seal as an emblem of authority in Egypt, Persia and elsewhere is mentioned in (Genesis 41:42 ; 1 Kings 21:8 ; Esther 3:10,12 ; 8:2 ; Daniel 6:17 ) and as an evidence of a covenant, in (Jeremiah 32:10,44 ; Nehemiah 9:38 ; 10:1 ; Haggai 2:23 ) Engraved signets were in use among the Hebrews in early times
Concubines - Esther 2:14 and Daniel 5:2 show that concubinage was a custom also among the heathen
Throne - The same word, kisse , is translated 'seat' in Judges 3:20 ; 1 Samuel 1:9 ; 1 Samuel 4:13,18 ; Esther 3:1 ; etc
Punishments - ...
The mode of capital punishment usual among the Hebrew was stoning, Deuteronomy 13:9-10 Joshua 17:18 John 8:7 ; but various other modes became known to them by intercourse with other nations: as decapitation, 2 Kings 10:6-8 Matthew 14:8-12 ; precipitation from rocks, 2 Chronicles 25:12 Luke 4:29 ; hanging, Joshua 8:29 Esther 7:10 ; burning, Daniel 3:1-30 ; cutting asunder, Daniel 2:5 3:29 Hebrews 11:27 ; beating, on a wheel-like frame, Hebrews 11:35 ; exposure to wild beasts, Daniel 6:1-28 1 Corinthians 15:32 ; drowning, Matthew 18:6 ; bruising in a mortar, Proverbs 27:22 ; and crucifixion, John 19:18
Crown - (Esther 2:17 ) The head-dress of bridegrooms, (Ezekiel 24:17 ; Isaiah 61:10 ) Baruch 5:2 , and of women, (Isaiah 3:20 ) a head-dress of great splendor, (Isaiah 28:5 ) a wreath of flowers, (Proverbs 1:9 ; 4:9 ) denote crowns
Third, Thirdly - to 1 Samuel 30:12,13 , and Esther 4:16 ; 5:1 ; in Mark 9:31 ; 10:34 , the RV, "after three days," follows the texts which have this phrase, the AV, "the third day," those which have the same phrase as in Matthew 16:21 , etc
Elam - The region is also named Susiana or Susis from its capital Susa, called Shushah in Daniel 8:2, where Nehemiah (Nehemiah 1:1) waited on king Artaxerxes, and where Ahasuerus (Xerxes) held his court in Esther's (Esther 1:2; Esther 2:5) time
Joab - A family which returned with Zerubbabel ( Ezra 2:6 = Nehemiah 7:11 = Esther 5:11 Esther 5:11 ; cf
Media - In this way arose the Medro-Persian kingdom; and the "laws of the Medes and Persians" are always mentioned by the sacred writers together, Esther 1:19 , etc. So also the "Chronicles" of the Medes and Persians are mentioned together, Esther 10:2
Maid, Maiden - The term naarah is used both for young women ( 2 Kings 5:2 ) and specifically for servants (Ruth 2:8 ; Esther 2:4 )
Decree - ]'>[1] the term is frequently used in Esther, Ezra, Daniel, with different Heb
Abim'Elech - the name of Abimelech is given to the king, who is called Achish in (1 Samuel 21:11 )
A Philistine, king of Gerar, Genesis 20,21 , who, exercising the right claimed by Eastern princes of collecting all the beautiful women of their dominions into their harem, (Genesis 12:15 ; Esther 2:3 ) sent for and took Sarah
Rings - The ring was used chiefly to seal with, and Scripture generally assigns it to princes and great persons; as the king of Egypt, Joseph, Ahaz, Jezebel, King Ahasuerus, his favourite Haman, Mordecai, King Darius, 1 Kings 21:8 ; Esther 3:10 , &c; Daniel 6:17
Hall - The king's hall of Esther 5:1 was, likewise, the audience chamber of the Persian king
Fasting - ” The abstinence from both food and water seems to have lasted no more than three days ( Ezra 10:6 ; Esther 4:16 )
Jeshua - ( Ezra 2:6 , Nehemiah 7:11 [1]); perhaps identical with No
Anoint - In Esther 2:12 , for example, the oil of myrrh is used as a cosmetic
Post - a messenger or regulated courier appointed to carry with expedition the despatches of princes, or the letters of private persons in general, Job 9:25 ; Jeremiah 51:31 ; 2 Chronicles 30:6 ; Esther 3:13 , &c
ez'ra - The principal works ascribed to him by the Jews are--
The instruction of the great synagogue; ...
The settling the canon of Scripture, and restoring, correcting and editing the whole sacred volume; ...
The introduction of the Chaldee character instead of the old Hebrew or Samaritan; ...
The authorship of the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and, some add, Esther; and, many of the Jews say, also of the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, and the twelve prophets; ...
The establishment of synagogues
Judea - First so-called as a "province" of Persia (Daniel 5:13; Ezra 5:8; Nehemiah 11:3; Esther 8:9)
Adoption - While there are several possible allusions to adoption, such as Moses ( Exodus 2:10 ), Genubath (1 Kings 11:20 ), and Esther (Esther 2:7 ), the incidents recorded take place in foreign societies (Egyptian and Persian) and there is no evidence that legal adoptions were enacted
Linen - It formed part of the usual clothing of royalty, and of the wealthy classes ( Genesis 41:42 , Esther 8:15 , Luke 16:19 ). ’ bûts is a word of Aramæan origin, occurring only in later books ( Ezekiel 27:16 , 1 Chronicles 4:21 , Esther 1:6 ), whence comes the Gr
Persia - 521, Ezra 5:6 ; Xerxes, the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther, B. Its inhabitants retain to a remarkable extent the manners and custom of ancient Persia, of which we have so vivid a picture in Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel
Colours - Green is not a colour adjective (in Esther 1:6 read as RVm Media - Medes shared as equals with Persians in the military and civil administration of the Persian Empire, and sometimes the names Medes and Persians were used interchangeably (Ezra 6:1-3; Esther 1:3; Esther 1:14; Esther 1:19; Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:2; Jeremiah 51:11; Jeremiah 51:28; Daniel 5:30-31; Daniel 6:8; Daniel 6:28; Daniel 8:20; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 11:1)
Persia - Xerxes, who was probably the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther, succeeded him, and was defeated by the Greeks, assassinated, and succeeded by his son Artaxerxes Longimanus, who was friendly to the Jews
Seal - Seals are frequently mentioned in Jewish history (Deuteronomy 32:34 ; Nehemiah 9:38 ; 10:1 ; Esther 3:12 ; Song of Solomon 8:6 ; Isaiah 8:16 ; Jeremiah 22:24 ; 32:44 , etc
Island - Modern translations sometimes replace the island or isle of the KJV with the terms coast, coastline, or coastland (compare Genesis 10:5 ; Esther 10:1 ; Psalm 97:1 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Jeremiah 2:10 )
Hanging - Hanging was not regarded as a means of capital punishment according to biblical law, although it was practiced by the Egyptians (Genesis 40:19 ,Genesis 40:19,40:22 ) and the Persians (Esther 7:9 )
Maid - ’ In the Targums it is used of Dinah, Miriam, and Esther
Seal - (1 Kings 21:8; Esther 3:12) But what I have thought particularly worth our notice under this article is, that the Lord himself condescends to make use of this custom in relation to divine things
Ashes - We find it adopted by Job 2:8 ; by many Jews when in great fear, Esther 4:3 ; and by the king of Nineveh, Jonah 3:6
Darkness - It is also used to denote misfortunes and calamities: "A day of darkness" is a day of affliction, Esther 11:8
Fasts - (Esther 4:16 ) etc
Feasts - After the captivity the feast of purim, Esther 9:20 ff
Persia, Persians - 521 486), his son Xerxes (486 465, the ‘Ahasuerus’ of Esther), Artaxerxes i
Epistle - Hezekiah had a system of couriers or posts to transmit his letters in various quarters; the plan especially prevalent in Persia (2 Chronicles 30:6; 2 Chronicles 30:10; Esther 8:10; Esther 8:14)
Crown - ...
...
The ancient Persian crown (Esther 1:11 ; 2:17 ; 6:8 ) was called Kether ; I
Media - Madai, which is rendered in the Authorized Version (1) "Madai," Genesis 10:2 ; (2) "Medes," 2 Kings 17:6 ; 18:11 ; (3) "Media," Esther 1:3 ; 10:2 ; Isaiah 21:2 ; Daniel 8:20 ; (4) "Mede," only in Daniel 11:1
Stone - Stones were used for various purposes: city walls (Nehemiah 4:3 ), dwellings (Leviticus 14:38-40 ), palaces (1Kings 7:1,1 Kings 7:9 ), temples (1 Kings 6:7 ), pavement in courtyards and columns (Esther 1:6 ), and in Herodian times, at least, for paving streets
Seal - Haman sealed the decree of King Ahasuerus against the Jews with the king's seal, Esther 3:12
Letters - They were conveyed to their destination by friends or travelers, Jeremiah 29:3 ; or by royal couriers, 2 Chronicles 30:6 Esther 8:10
Seal, Sealing - The impress of the royal seal on any document gave it the sanction of government, 1 Kings 21:8 ; and a temporary transfer of the seal to another hand conveyed a plenary authority for the occasion, Esther 3:10,12 8:2
Ethiopia - It subsequently fell under the control of Babylon, and then under the control of Persia (Esther 1:1)
Book(s) - ...
Book (of Records) of the Chronicles or Book of Memorable Deeds The royal archives of Persia which contained, among other things, the way in which Mordecai saved the life of King Ahasuerus (Esther 2:20-23 ; Esther 6:1 ; Esther 10:2 ; compare Ezra 4:15 )
Gift, Giving - If the king looked for ‘gifts’ from his subjects, he was also expected to return them in the shape of largess, especially on festive occasions ( Esther 2:18 ). We read more generally of gifts to the needy in Nehemiah 8:10 , Esther 9:22 , Ecclesiastes 11:2 , Psalms 112:9 (see Almsgiving). Interchanges of gifts between equals are mentioned in Esther 9:19 , Revelation 11:10
Shame And Honor - To honor can mean to reward with tangible signs of respect (2 Chronicles 16:14 ; Esther 6:8-11 )
Fast - There was in addition to these the fast appointed by (Esther 4:16 )
Spices - People used spices in preparing food and drinks (Song of Song of Solomon 8:2; Ezekiel 24:10; Matthew 23:23), and in making a variety of oils, medicines, cosmetics, deodorants and disinfectants (Esther 2:12; Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Song of Solomon 4:10; Song of Solomon 4:14; Song of Solomon 5:13; Jeremiah 8:22; Jeremiah 51:8; Luke 7:46; John 12:3; John 19:39)
Lot, Lots - , Joshua 7:14 (the earliest instance in Scripture); Leviticus 16:7-10 ; Esther 3:7 ; 9:24 ; (b) "what is obtained by lot, an allotted portion," e
Dress - ...
(D) The usual outer garment consisted of a piece of woollen cloth like a Scotch plaid, either wrapped round the body or thrown over the shoulders like a shawl, with the ends hanging down in front, or it might be thrown over the head so as to conceal the face (2 Samuel 15:30 ; Esther 6:12 ). Rending the robes was expressive of grief (Genesis 37:29,34 ), fear (1 Kings 21:27 ), indignation (2 Kings 5:7 ), or despair (Judges 11:35 ; Esther 4:1 )
Colour - Another Hebrew word so rendered is applied to marble (Esther 1:6 ), and a cognate word to the lily (Song of Solomon 2:16 ). Robes of this colour were worn by kings (Judges 8:26 ) and high officers (Esther 8:15 )
Gate - In Esther's time "none might enter into the king's gate clothed with sackcloth" (Esther 4:2). Daniel "sat in" such a "gate" before the palace of Babylon as "ruler over the whole province of Babylon" (Daniel 2:48-49) The courtiers of Ahasuerus attended him "in the gate" similarly (Esther 3:2)
Wine - The vine being natural to the soil of Canaan and its vicinity, wine was much used as a beverage, especially at festivals, Esther 1:7 5:6 Daniel 5:1-4 John 2:3 . Son and shame are connected with the first mention of wine in the Bible, and with many subsequent cases, Genesis 9:20 19:31-36 1 Samuel 25:36-37 2 Samuel 13:28 Habakkuk 2:15 Esther 1:10-11 Daniel 5:23 Revelation 17:2
Touch - Matthew 9 ...
Esther drew near, and touched the top of the scepter. Esther 5 ...
2
Festivals, Religious - ), Esther 9:24-32 , was also instituted after the Exile
Palace - It denotes also a spacious building or a great house (Daniel 1:4 ; 4:4,29 : Esther 1:5 ; 7:7 ), and a fortified place or an enclosure (Ezekiel 25:4 )
Throne - A king usually sat on his throne when officiating at important ceremonies, when receiving homage or petitions from his people, or when making legal judgments (1 Kings 2:19; 2 Kings 11:19; Esther 5:1; Proverbs 20:8)
Proselyte - There were such converts from early times (Isaiah 56:3 ; Nehemiah 10:28 ; Esther 8:17 )
Deuterocanonical - The deuterocanonical books in the modern canon are, the book of Esther, either the whole, or at least the seven last chapters thereof; the epistle to the Hebrews; that of James, and that of Jude; the second of St
Lots - Haman had used lots to find the best day for the destruction (Esther 3:7 )
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - ...
478...
Esther made queen by Xerxes I
Think - Esther 3
Festivals - After the captivity, the feast of purim, (Esther 9:20 ) seq
Prayer - ...
"Esther and Mordecai prayed, and God defeated the purpose of Haman, and saved the Jews from destruction (Esther 4:15-17 ; 6:7,8 )
Fasting - Besides these, we hear of a Fast of Esther being observed; on this see Purim. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, a huge system of fasts was instituted, and the present Jewish calendar prescribes 22, besides the Day of Atonement, the Fast of Esther, and the four fasts of Zechariah 8:19
Authority - Examples include Proverbs 29:2 , describing the rejoicing of the people when the righteous are “in authority;” Esther 9:29 , speaking of “full written authority” (RSV) Esther and Mordecai exercised; Daniel 4:17 , declaring that “the most High rules the kingdom of men” (RSV); and Daniel 7:13-14 , prophesying that eternal authority will be given to the “Son of Man
Garments - 2 Samuel 15:30; Esther 6:12. The presentation of a robe was often an installation or investiture, Genesis 41:42; Esther 8:16; Isaiah 22:21; taking it away a dismissal from office
Canon of the Old Testament - the FIVE of MOSES; THIRTEEN prophetical books, namely,...
(1) Joshua,...
(2) Judges and Ruth,...
(3) the two of Samuel,...
(4) the two of Kings...
(5) the two of Chronicles,...
(6) Ezra and Nehemiah,...
(7) Esther,...
(8) Isaiah,...
(9) Jeremiah and Lamentations,...
(10) Ezekiel,...
(11) Daniel,...
(12) the twelve minor prophets,...
(13) Job; and FOUR remaining, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon: the 22 thus being made to answer to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. " The warnings: "add thou not to His words, lest He reprove thee and thou be found a liar" (Proverbs 30:6), "neither shall ye diminish ought from it" (Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32), fenced in the Old Testament canon as Revelation 22:18-19 fences in the New Testament The Lord and His apostles quote all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, the Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. 179), after an exact inquiry in the East gives the Old Testament books substantially the stone as ours, including under "Esdras" Nehemiah, Ezra, and Esther
Captivity - ) A previous deportation of Jewish captives (including Ezekiel, Ezekiel 1:1-3, and Mordecai, Esther's uncle, Esther 2:6) was tint of King Jehoiachin, his princes, men of valor, and the craftsmen, 599 B. The latter who kept up their national distinctions were termed "the dispersion" (Esther 8:9; Esther 8:11; John 7:35; 1 Peter 1:1; James 1:1). The Jews' language became then much affected by Chaldaisms (Esther 3:8), so that they could no longer understand, without interpretation, the pure Hebrew of the law
Artaxerxes - ...
The reign of Ahasuerus III = Xerxes, described in Esther, comes chronologically between Ezra 6 (515 B
Pride - Proverbs 29:23 ; what a torment it is to its possessor, Esther 5:13 ; how soon all things of a sublunary nature will end; how disgraceful it renders us in the sight of God, angels, and men; what a barrier it is to our felicity and communion with God; how fruitful it is of discord; how it precludes our usefulness, and renders us really contemptible
Sisters - Other writers give their names very variously as Mary and Salome, Anna and Salome, Esther and Thamar; while Theophylact curiously enough names three as the daughters of Joseph—Esther, Thamar, and Salome (see Donehoo’s Apocryphal and Legendary Life of Christ, p
Proselytes - Many, in Esther's time (Esther 8:17), "of the people of the land became Jews, for the fear of the Jews fell upon them. ...
(3) Esther proselytes, to escape danger (Esther 8:17)
Apocrypha - ...
The Roman Catholic Apocrypha consists of Tobit, Judith, the Additions to Esther, the Additions to Daniel (the Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon), the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (also called Sirach), Baruch (also called 1Baruch), the Letter of Jeremiah, 1Maccabees, and 2Maccabees. More interesting are the Additions to Esther. Inserted at strategic points, these clearly secondary additions, which include among other things prayers by Mordecai and Esther, serve to give a distinctively religious slant to the Book of Esther, otherwise noted for its failure to mention God or even prayer
Oil - ...
People used oils in the preparation of food (Exodus 29:2; Leviticus 2:4; 1 Kings 17:12-14), as fuels for lamps (Exodus 27:20; Zechariah 4:2-3; Zechariah 4:12; Matthew 25:3-4), as medicines and ointments (Isaiah 1:6; Luke 10:34), as cosmetics (2 Samuel 14:2; Esther 2:12; Psalms 104:15; Song of Song of Solomon 1:12; Song of Solomon 5:5) and for rubbing on the body to bring soothing and refreshment (Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 12:20; Amos 6:6; Luke 7:37-38; John 12:3)
Abbreviations - Est Additions to Esther
Cosmetics - They were considered part of the beautification process (Esther 2:12 ). In close or confined quarters, the resulting incense-smoke would act as a fumigation for both the body and the clothes, such as that which seems to be described in the beautification process noted in Esther 2:12
Oil - , an aromatic gum resin that comes from a shrub-like tree) used in the beautification process of Esther and other women in the Persian royal harem (Esther 2:12 )
Apocrypha - Legendary : Additions to Esther, History of Susanna, Song of the Three Holy Children, Bel and the Dragon, Tobit, Judith. This Council names as canonical the following hooks and parts of books: First and Second Maccabees, Additions to Esther, History of Susanna, Song of the Three Holy Children, Bel and the Dragon, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Sirach, and Wisdom of Solomon; omitting from the above list the Prayer of Manasses, First and Second Esdras [3]. Additions to Esther . The canonical Esther concludes with Esther 10:3 ; this chapter is filled out by the addition of seven verses, and the book concludes with six additional chapters (11 16)
Dress - The usual outer garment was a quadrangular woolen cloth; simlah ; beged of a handsome kind, kesuth a covering; lebush a warrior's, priest's, or king's cloak (2 Samuel 20:8; 2 Kings 10:22; Esther 6:11). The outer beged might be wrapped round the body or the shoulders, with the ends hanging in front or covering the head, as 2 Samuel 15:30; Esther 6:12. The gift of a robe installed in office (Genesis 41:42; Esther 8:15)
Providence - ...
The remarkable working of providence secretly (for God's name never occurs in the book) is apparent in the case of Esther, whereby the fate of the whole Jewish nation hung upon a despot's whim, acted on by a favorite. (See Esther. ) The providential preparations for the appointed issue, Ahasuerus' feast, Vashti's womanly pride, Mordecai's informing the king of the design against his life, the choice of Esther as queen, Haman's plot, laid so cleverly yet made to recoil on himself, so that after having himself to thank for dictating the honours which he had to pay to the very man whom he wished to destroy he was hanged on the gallows he had prepared for Mordecai
Lot - The lot was always resorted to by the Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God, and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Proverbs 16:33 ), and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7 )
Color, Symbolic Meaning of - ...
An expensive dye, purple represents wealth and royalty (Judges 8:26 ; Esther 8:15 ; Daniel 5:7,16 , 29 ; Luke 16:19 ); for this reason, idols were attired in purple (Jeremiah 10:9 )
Palace - Esther 1:6-7 describes the palace of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) of Assyria which featured fine curtains, marble pillars, and ornate mosaic floors
Palace - The word occasionally included the whole city as in (Esther 9:12 ) and again, as in (1 Kings 16:18 ) it is restricted to a part of the royal apartments
Ointment - ...
Ingredients Various spices were used in the manufacturing of ointments and perfumes: aloes (Psalm 45:8 ; John 19:39 ); balsam (Exodus 30:23 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1 ); galbanum (Exodus 30:34 ), myrrh, or more literally mastic or ladanum (Genesis 37:25 ; Genesis 43:11 ); myrrh (Esther 2:12 ; Matthew 2:11 ), nard (Song of. Perfumes were used inside the clothes (Song of Song of Solomon 1:13 ) and by women who desired to be attractive to men (Esther 2:12 )
Dress - ( 2 Samuel 15:30 ; Esther 6;12 ) The ends were skirted with a fringe and bound with a dark purple ribbon, (Numbers 15:38 ) it was confined at the waist by a girdle. The presentation of a robe in many instances amounted to installation or investiture, (Genesis 41:42 ; Esther 8:15 ; Isaiah 22:21 ) on the other hand, taking it away amounted to dismissal from office
Governor - , friend of the king; adjutant; governor of a province ( 2 Kings 18:24 ; Isaiah 36:9 ; Jeremiah 51 :: 57 ; Ezekiel 23:6,23 ; Daniel 3:2 ; Esther 3 :: 12 ), or a perfect (Nehemiah 3:7 ; 5:14 ; Ezra 5:3 ; Haggai 1:1 )
Oil - Sometimes oil was combined with perfumes and used as a cosmetic (Esther 2:12 )
Bible - (2) Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, called the five rolls, as being written for the synagogue use on five separate rolls
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - Of the Old Testament: the five books of Moses; Josue; Judges; Ruth; four books of Kings; two of Paralipomenon; two of Esdras; Tobias; Judith; Esther; Job; the Psalter; Proverbs; Ecclesiastes; Canticle of Canticles; Wisdom; Ecclesiasticus; Isaias; Jeremias with Baruch; Ezechiel; Daniel; the 12 minor prophets; and two books of Machabees
Poor - In addition, people were to give money, food and goods to help the poor (Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:35-38; Deuteronomy 15:7-8; Deuteronomy 16:9-12; Deuteronomy 26:12; Esther 9:22; Job 29:16)
Gift, Giving - Gifts were given on numerous occasions for a variety of purposes: as dowry for a wife (Genesis 34:12 ); as tribute to a military conqueror (2 Samuel 8:2 ); as bribes (Exodus 23:8 ; Proverbs 17:8 ; Isaiah 1:23 ); as rewards for faithful service and to insure future loyalty (Daniel 2:48 ); and as relief for the poor (Esther 9:22 )
Beauty - Sarah (Genesis 12:11 ), Rebekah (Genesis 24:16 ), Abigail (1 Samuel 25:3 ), Rachel, Abishag, Bathsheba, and Esther are singled out for their beauty
Castle - ...
Birah is a late loan word from Accadian and refers to the fortified acropolis, usually built at the highest and most easily defensible part of a city ( Nehemiah 1:1 ; Esther 1:2 )
Honor - Esther 6 ...
4
Pillars - Open Persian halls have the fronts supported by pillars and shaded by curtains fastened to the ground by pegs or to trees in the court (Esther 1:6)
Crown - King Ahasuerus honoured Vashti with this mark of power; and, after her divorce, the same favour was granted to Esther 2:17
Shushan - Here the transactions occurred related in the book of Esther
Ecclesiastes, the Book of - ...
(2) Words never found in Hebrew writings until the Babylonian captivity; as zimaan , "set time," for moed ; Ecclesiastes 3:1, namely, in Nehemiah 2:6; Esther 9:27; Esther 9:31. So pithgam , "sentence" (Ecclesiastes 8:11); "thought," madang ; 'illuw "though" (Ecclesiastes 6:6); bikeen , "so" (Ecclesiastes 8:10): thus, Esther approximates most to Ecclesiastes in idioms
Angel - : they appear in human form ( 2Es 1:40 ), they speak like men (To Esther 5:6 Esther 5:6 ff. in 2Es 5:40-41 , Esther 7:3 Esther 7:3 , but usually there is very distinct differentiation; sometimes the angel seems almost to be the alter ego of Esdras, arguing with himself (cf
Nebuchadnezzar - Among the captives were Mordecai, the uncle of Esther, and Ezekiel the prophet, Esther 2:6
Soul - Leviticus 17:11 ; 2 Samuel 14:7 ; Esther 8:11 ; (b) the immaterial, invisible part of man, Matthew 10:28 ; Acts 2:27 ; cp
Camel - They may be the ‘dromedaries’ of Esther 8:10
Power - Power is always a derived characteristic for people, who receive power from God (Deuteronomy 8:18 ; Isaiah 40:29 ; Micah 3:8 ; Matthew 22:29 ; 1 Corinthians 2:4 ; Ephesians 3:7 ), from political position (Esther 1:3 ; Luke 20:20 ), from armies (1 Chronicles 20:1 ), and from other structures that provide advantage over others
Greatness - Mordecai achieved greatness in his position in the Persian government (Esther 10:2 )
Apocrypha - ...
5 Chapters of Esther, not found in the Hebrew nor Chaldee
Crucifixion - was in used among the Egyptians, (Genesis 40:19 ) the Carthaginians, the Persians, (Esther 7:10 ) the Assyrians, Scythains, Indians, Germans, and from the earliest times among the Greeks and Romans
Library - Ahasuerus (Xerxes) had a servant read from his chronicle one night as a cure for his insomnia (Esther 6:1 ). They included manuscripts of all of the Old Testament books except for Esther, works from the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, and sectarian compositions such as The Manual of Discipline, The War Scroll, and The Temple Scroll
Good, Goodness - The main Old Testament words for good/goodness come from the Hebrew word tob [ Genesis 6:2 ; 24:16 ; 26:7 ; 2 Samuel 11:2 ; Esther 1:11 ; 2:2-3,7 ) and a "good" man is handsome (1 Samuel 9:2 )
Abimelech - Abimelech's taking Sarah into his harem shows that in those times kings claimed the odious despotic right of taking unmarried females, whether subjects or sojourners; compare Genesis 12:15; Esther 2:3
Mother - The phrase “father and mother” is the biblical phrase for parents: “And he brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther, his uncle’s daughter: for she had neither father nor mother [2]” ( Death - In the poetic language, mâveth is used more often than in the historical books: Job-Proverbs (about 60 times), Joshua-Esther (about 40 times); but in the major prophets only about 25 times
Drink - In one case, shâthâh by itself means “to participate in a feast”: “So the king and Haman came to the banquet that Esther had prepared” ( Elam - ( Ezra 2:7 , Nehemiah 7:12 , 1E Esther 5:12 ) and 71 with Ezra ( Ezra 8:7 , 1Es 8:33 )
Peace, Spiritual - To be at peace is to be upright (Malachi 2:6 ), to be faithful (2 Samuel 20:19 ), to be an upholder of the truth (Esther 9:30 ; Zechariah 8:19 ), and to practice justice (Isaiah 59:8 ; Zechariah 8:16 )
Jewels, Jewelry - King Ahasuerus gave his signet ring first to Haman (Esther 3:10 ), then to Mordecai (Esther 8:2 )
Targum - He has written upon the Psalms, Job, the Proverbs, the Canticles, Ecclesiastes, Ruth, and Esther
Scriptures - The Writings consisted of Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah and Chronicles
Nehemiah, the Book of - So igartha , "a letter," in the three and Esther
Horse - " In 1 Kings 4:28; Esther 8:14; Micah 1:13, rekesh "dromedary"; rather "a courser," a "racehorse," for such purposes as the royal post
Book - Esther 11 times and Nehemiah 9 times)
Fill - ” King Ahasuerus asked Esther: “Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume [1] to do so?” ( Medes, me'Dia - Finally, in Esther the high rank of Media under the Persian kings, yet at the same time its subordinate position, is marked by the frequent composition of the two names in phrases of honor, the precedence being in every ease assigned to the Persians
Apocrypha - The Protestant churches not only account those books to be apocryphal and merely human compositions which are esteemed such by the church of Rome, as the Prayer of Manasseh, the third and fourth books of Esdras, the addition at the end of Job, and the hundred and fifty-first Psalm; but also the books of Tobit, Judith, the additions to the book of Esther, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch the Prophet, with the Epistle of Jeremiah, the Song of the Three Children, the Story of Susanna, the Story of Bel and the Dragon, and the first and second books of Maccabees
Captivity - The books of Nehemiah and Daniel describe Jews in high positions at court, and the book of Esther celebrates their numbers and power in the Persian empire
Captivity - The book of Daniel shows us a Jew in a high position at court, and the book of Esther celebrates their numbers and power in the Persian empire
Targums - The Targums to the Five Megilloth (‘Rolls’), namely: Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther; the Book of Esther has three Targums to it. Of the three Targums to Esther, the second, known as Targum Sheni , has always been extremely popular
Time - Sivan (Esther 8:9 ), another Bab. Tebeth (Esther 2:18 ), taken over from the Assyrian. Adar (Ezra 6:15 , Esther 3:7 etc
Presence - We have it literally in such passages as Genesis 41:46 (‘the presence of Pharaoh’), Exodus 10:11; Exodus 10 :1 Samuel 19:7, 2 Samuel 24:4, 1 Kings 1:28; 1 Kings 12:2, 2 Chronicles 9:23, Nehemiah 2:1, Esther 1:10; Esther 8:13. Esther 8:15); when it was turned away, it foreboded refusal, the loss of favour, or serious disgrace (cf
Bible, - The Historical Books, including Joshua to the end of Esther. The Writings (Kethubim, or Hagiographa, 'holy writings'), including ...
a, the Psalms, Proverbs, Job; ...
b, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther; ...
c, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, 1 and 2Chronicles
Seal - Ahasuerus's solemn decree to annihilate the Jews (Esther 3:12 ) and then to bless them (8:8,10) was sealed with his signet ring
Delight - ...
A man might delight in another man (1 Samuel 18:22 ; Esther 6:6-11 ), or a man might delight in a woman (Genesis 34:19 )
Laying on of Hands - In addition, the Old Testament frequently uses the image of laying hands on someone as an act of arrest, capture, or violence (Genesis 27:22 ; Exodus 22:11 ; 2 Chronicles 23:15 ; Esther 2:21 )
Adoration - This token of reverence was ordered to be paid to their favourites as well as to themselves, as we learn from the history of Haman and Mordecai, in the book of Esther; and even to their statues and images; for Philostratus informs us that, in the time of Apollonius, a golden statue of the king was exposed to all who entered Babylon, and none but those who adored it were admitted within the gates
Gifts - It was the usual practice among kings and princes to present to their favourite officers in the government, to ambassadors from foreign courts, to foreigners of distinction, and to men eminent for their learning, garments of greater or less value, Genesis 45:22-23 ; Esther 8:15
Feasts - Sometimes very large numbers were present, Esther 1:3,5 Luke 14:16-24 ; and on such occasions a "governor of the feast" was appointed, whose social qualities, tact, firmness, and temperance fitted him to preside, John 2:8
Per'Sia - (Ezra 6:1-15 ) Darius was succeeded by Xerxes, probably the Ahasuerus of Esther
Ecclesiastes - , the Song of Songs, and Esther was brought up for discussion, and was confirmed. It must therefore be later (probably much later) than Esther ( c Contribution - The illustration of such giving is found in Esther 9:22 , where it is associated with the feast of Purim
Eating, Mode of - Around these tables are placed, not seats, but couches, or beds, on to each table, formed of mattresses stuffed, and often highly ornamented, Esther 1:6 7:1,8
Mourning - Anciently in times of mourning, they clothed themselves in sackcloth, or haircloth, that is, in clothes of coarse brown or black stuff, 2 Samuel 3:31 1 Kings 21:27 Esther 4:1 Psalm 35:13 69:11
Adoption - When men adopt, it is on account of some excellency in the persons who are adopted; thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses because he was exceeding fair, Acts 7:20-21 ; and Mordecai adopted Esther because she was his uncle's daughter, and exceeding fair, Esther 2:7 : but man has nothing in him that merits the divine act, Ezekiel 16:5
Deluge - ]'>[20] : Esther 3:9 Esther 3:9 f
Old Testament - Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther. At Bologna, there subsequently appeared in 1482, the Pentateuch, in folio, pointed, with the Targum and the commentary of Rashi; and the five Megilloth (Ruth--Esther), in folio with the commentaries of Rashi and Aben Ezra
Deliver - " The Hebrew word, natan [ 2 Chronicles 34:15 ), money (2 Kings 12:15 ), horses (2 Kings 18:23 ), and goods (Esther 6:9 )
Eye - The eyes despise (Esther 1:17 ), are dissatisfied (Proverbs 27:20 ; Ecclesiastes 4:8 ), and can dwell on past provocation (Job 17:2 )
Nethinim - Finally, in 1E Esther 1:3 the Levites, and in 1Es 8:22 ; 1Es 8:48 the Nethinim, are described by the same term, hierodoutoi
Ruth - But the Hebrew canon puts Ruth in the hagiographa among the five megilloth (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther), read in the synagogue at the feast of weeks
Spices - It was also used for its aromatic properties (Psalm 45:8 ) and used for female purification (Esther 2:12 )
Ishmael - Ismael , 1E Esther 9:22 )
Jairus - name is the fact that this form occurs in LXX Septuagint in Esther 2:5 for יָאִיר, the father of Mordecai (Cod
Fasting - Instances of special fasts of individuals and of the people in the Old Testament, either in mourning and humiliation or in prayer, occur in Judges 20:26; 1 Samuel 1:7; 1 Samuel 20:34; 1 Samuel 31:13; 2 Samuel 1:12; 2 Samuel 12:21; 2 Samuel 3:35; 1 Kings 21:9-12; Ezra 8:21-23; Ezra 10:6; Esther 4:16; Nehemiah 1:4
Shimei - Ancestor of Mordecai, son of Kish, of Benjamin (Esther 2:5)
Light, Noun, And Verb, Lighten - Psalm 43:3 ; (h) the guidance of God, Job 29:3 ; Psalm 112:4 ; Isaiah 58:10 ; and, ironically, of the guidance of man, Romans 2:19 ; (i) salvation, 1 Peter 2:9 ; (j) righteousness, Romans 13:12 ; 2 Corinthians 11:14,15 ; 1 John 2:9,10 ; (k) witness for God, Matthew 5:14,16 ; John 5:35 ; (l) prosperity and general well-being, Esther 8:16 ; Job 18:18 ; Isaiah 58:8-10
Promise - , Esther 4:7 , Matthew 14:7 , Mark 14:11 , Acts 7:5 , 2 Peter 2:19 ) the reference is to a man’s promises to his fellow-man ; once only ( Acts 23:21 ) the noun has this meaning in the NT
Garments - ...
The head was usually bare, or covered from too fierce a sunshine, or from rain, by a fold of the outer mantle, 2 Samuel 15:30 1 Kings 19:13 Esther 6:12
Glory - ); in Apocrypha sometimes ‘honour’ 1E Esther 8:4 etc
Day - Later in Israel's history the festival of Purim was added (Esther 9:18-32 )
Adoption - ) Natural: As Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses; Mordecai Esther; Abraham Eliezer (as a slave is often in the East adopted as son) (Genesis 15:2-3); Sarai the son to be born by Hagar, whom she gave to her husband; Leah and Rachel the children to be born of Zilpah and Bilhah, their handmaids respectively, whom they gave to Jacob their husband
Darius - DARIUS, the son of Hystaspes, has been supposed by some, on the authority of Archbishop Usher and Calmet, to be the Ahasuerus of Scripture, and the husband of Esther
Book - But the word translated open, in reference to the evidence, or book which was open, ( 1 Samuel 3:7 ; 1 Samuel 3:21 ; Daniel 2:19 ; Daniel 2:30 ; Daniel 10:1 ,) signifies the revealing of future events to the minds of men by a divine agency; and it is particularly used in the book of Esther, Esther 8:13 , to express a book's making known the decree of an earthly king. The contract, confirmed by Jeremiah for the purchase of a field, is called by the same name, Jeremiah 32:10 ; and also the edict of Ahasuerus in favour of the Jews, Esther 9:20 , though our translators have called it letters. Of this we see an instance in the history of Ahasuerus and Mordecai, Esther 4:12, 34
Bible, Canon of the - In the Old Testament canon there were questions about Esther for a period of time because it does not contain the name of God. The eleven books of the Writings contained the subdivisions of poetry (Psalms, Proverbs, Job), the five Megilloth or Rolls (Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther), and the three books of history (Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles 1-2)
Houses - A correct idea of their richness and splendour may be formed from the description which the inspired writer has given of the hangings in the royal garden at Shushan, the ancient capital of Persia: "Where were white, green, and blue hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple, to silver rings and pillars of marble," Esther 1:6 . A pavement of this kind is mentioned in the book of Esther; at the sumptuous entertainment which Ahasuerus made for the princes and nobles of his vast empire, "the beds," or couches, upon which they reclined, "were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of red and blue, and white and black marble
Jews in the New Testament - Mordecai, who is called a “Jew” in Esther 2:5 ) were those from Judah, hence the name Jews (Nehemiah 1:2 )
Persia - Esther is a story of God's rescue of His people during the rule of the Persian emperor: Ahasuerus (also known as Xerxes I)
Nehemiah - One of the twelve heads of the Jewish community ( Nehemiah 6:1-19 = Nehemiah 7:7 ), 1E Esther 5:8 Nehemiah 2:1-20
Ezra - ]'>[1] In the apocalyptic work known as 2 (4) Esdras he is represented as a ‘prophet’ ( 2E Esther 1:1 )
Rab - In Esther 1:8 , it is said, the king appointed כלאּ?רב ביתו , which we render "all the officers of his house
Bible - The Holy Writings (Hagiographa) embrace all the remaining books of the Old Testament, namely, (according to the Masorectic arrangement,) Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles
Canon of the Old Testament - The Five Megilloth (‘Rolls’): Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther. A hesitating approval was extended to Esther, Canticles, and Eccleslastes, owing to the nature of their contents. The NT expresses a doctrine of Holy Scripture; it acknowledges a threefold division ( Luke 24:44 ); it implies that Chronicles was the last book in the roll of the OT ( Matthew 23:35 , Luke 11:51 ); but it does not quote Esther, Cant
Cross, Crucifixion - Saul was decapitated and his body displayed on a wall by the Philistines (1 Samuel 31:9-10 ), and the “hanging” of Esther 2:23 ; Esther 5:14 may mean impalement (compare 1 Corinthians 1:17-2 )
Lots - 152b), while the Persians resorted to it as a means of finding out lucky days (Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24-32)
Medes - The phrases "the Medes and Persians" and "Media and Persia," even after the Persians got the supremacy (Esther 10:2), show the original supremacy of Media, which still in legal and religious formalities was retained
Crucifixion - ]'>[1] ), though death by hanging does ( Esther 7:10
Kill, Killing - The festival of Purim was associated with the slaying of political enemies (Esther 3:13 ; 7:4 ; 8:11 ; 9:2 )
Ezra, the Book of - Esther fills up the interval between Ezra 6 and Ezra 7. The succession of Persian monarchs in Ezra is Cyrus, Ahasuerus (the Cam byses of secular history), Artaxerxes (Pseudo-Smerdis, the Magian, an usurper), Darius (the Ahasuerus of Esther or Xerxes of secular history comes in here, in the interval between Ezra 6 and 7), Artaxerxes
Meals - A ‘good savour’ ( 1E Esther 1:12 ) was imparted to the stew by the addition of other vegetables of a more pungent character, such as onions. Two centuries later, Ezekiel is familiar with ‘a stately bed’ or couch (as Esther 1:5 RV Woman - Several women—including Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, and Esther—earned the respect and admiration of the Israelite nation by playing a significant role in times of national crisis. See Deborah ; Esther ; Huldah ; Miriam
Love - Esther 2:17 (the king loved Esther), everywhere else as a figure of idolatry or political theocratic unfaithfulness (Jeremiah 22:20; Jeremiah 22:22, Lamentations 1:19, Ezekiel 16:33; Ezekiel 16:36-37; Ezekiel 23:5; Ezekiel 23:9; Ezekiel 23:22, Hosea 2:7; Hosea 2:10; Hosea 2:12-13)
Furniture - By then the gap between the relatively poor and the relatively rich had grown to scandalous proportions, as evidenced by the quality of their furniture (compare Esther 1:6 )
Gestures - A hand on one's head communicates grief (2 Samuel 13:19 ; Esther 6:12 ; Jeremiah 2:37 )
Oil - With one exception ( Esther 2:12 ‘oil of myrrh’) all the Scripture references to oil are to ‘ olive oil ,’ as it is expressly termed in Exodus 27:20 , Leviticus 24:2 etc
Head, Headship - Men covered their heads in times of despair, mourning, and defeat (2 Samuel 15:30 ; Esther 6:12 ; Jeremiah 14:3 )
Life, Living, Lifetime, Life-Giving - Leviticus 17:11 ; Esther 8:11 ); (b) "the seat of personality," e
House - ]'>[5] ), the house would consist of two or even more courts, in which case the rooms about the ‘inner court’ ( Esther 4:11 ) were appropriated to the women of the family. In the palaces of royalty this was a military duty ( 1 Kings 14:27 ) and an office of distinction ( Esther 2:21 ; Esther 6:2 )
Bible - There were reckoned to be 8 books of the Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Minor Prophets) and 11 of the Hagiographa (Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, and Chronicles). The Apocrypha consists of 14 books (1 and 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, The Rest of Esther, The Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Baruch with the Epistle of Jeremy, The Song of the Three Holy Children, The History of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Prayer of Manasses, 1 and 2 Maccabees). we have Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, Zechariah (9 14), Ecclesiastes, Esther
Scripture - , Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra with Nehemiah 1:1-11 and 2 Chronicles. , Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, then Daniel, Ezra with Nehemiah 1:1-11 and 2 Chronicles
Prayer - Esther . Prayers of Mordecai (13:8 18) and Esther (14:3 19) in national peril
Lots - 152b), while the Persians resorted to it as a means of finding out lucky days (Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24-32)
Manasseh - A son of Pahath-moab ( Ezra 10:30 [3])
Ornaments - ]'>[1] , Esther 3:12 , for which see art
Jehoiachin - Kish, Mordecai's ancestor, was carried away with Jehoiachin (Esther 2:6)
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - Among the captives were Mordecai, the uncle of Esther, and Ezekiel the prophet
Exile - His son, Jehoiachin, reigned for three months before he was exiled to Babylon (2 Kings 24:6-16 ; 2 Chronicles 36:9-10 ; Esther 2:6 ; Jeremiah 22:24-30 ;)
Voice (2) - 4, 2 (4) Esther 6:13 f
Hold - ...
The king held out to Esther the golden scepter. Esther 5
Proverbs, the Book of - ) gives the order, Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra (including Nehemiah), Chronicles
Versions - Targum on the five megilloth, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Ecclesiastes. Two other targums on Esther; targum on Chronicles; targum on Daniel
Daniel - Daniel was put in training with three others of the royal seed, still "children" (Daniel 1:4), according to eastern etiquette, to become courtiers; and to mark his new position he received a Babylonian name, Belteshazzar (compare 2 Kings 23:34; 2 Kings 24:17; Ezra 5:14; Esther 2:7)
Assyria - ...
In later Persian times "the Ahashwerosh (Ahasuerus) of Ezra 4:6 and the book of Esther is Xerxes, the son of Darius, b
Daniel, Book of - ...
Canon and Authority The basic twelve chapters of Daniel appear in the Hebrew Bible between Esther and Ezra in the last section called the Writings rather than in the Law or the Prophets
Jehoshaphat - Son of Ahilud (2 Samuel 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3; compare Esther 6:1)
Benjamin - The genealogy of Kish and Saul, traced to a late date, brings us down to a Kish, father of Mordecai, the savior of the Jewish nation from Haman's intended destruction (Esther 2:5)
Feasts - (See Esther; DEDICATION, FEAST OF
Grace - ...
The last prominent example of grace in the Old Testament is found in the Book of Esther. Of course, the book does not speak of God's favor at all, but Esther's humility in seeking the favor of the king has always been understood as a pointer toward human responsibility to humbly accept the grace of God. Esther finds favor in the eyes of the king and is rewarded with the freedom of her people (5:1-8; 7:3; 8:5-8)
Greek Versions of ot - ]'>[1] text of which was much shorter than that of the Massoretic Hebrew; Esther, where the Greek has large additions, which now appear separately in our Apocrypha, but which are an integral part of the LXX Receive, Receiving - , Esther 5:1
Daniel, the Book of - Being a "seer," having the gift and spirit, not the theocratical office and work, of a prophet, his book stands in the third rank in the Hebrew canon, namely, in the Hagiographa (Kethubim) between Esther and Ezra, the three relating to the captivity
Animals - ...
The Use and Treatment of Animals Animals are of service to people, for example, for transport ( 1 Samuel 16:20 ; Esther 8:10,14 ) or for clothing (Genesis 3:21 )
Angel - "Angels" are mentioned almost three hundred times in Scripture, and are only noticeably absent from books such as Ruth, Nehemiah, Esther, the letters of John, and James
Lord - Thus the Books of Esther, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon do not use the name: Yahweh
Salvation - Through Esther's rise to power the Jewish people are spared annihilation (Esther 7 )
Divination - We have an instance of this in Esther, when Haman wanted to find a lucky day on which his plans against the Jews should be carried out
House - " ...
The chambers of the rich were often hung with velvet or damask tapestry, Esther 1:6 ; the upper part adorned with fretwork and stucco; and the ceilings with wainscot or mosaic work or fragrant wood, sometimes richly painted, Jeremiah 22:14
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - 167) and very many in the Mishna; Persian words in some of the post-exilic literature (Esther, Canticles, Tobit). Targums of the Hagiographa (with the exception of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel) exist, and there are two of the Book of Esther
Bible - The writings of the prophets are-...
1, Joshua;-...
2, Judges, with Ruth;-...
3, Samuel;-...
4, Kings;-...
5, Isaiah;-...
6, Jeremiah, with his Lamentations;-...
7, Ezekiel;-...
8, Daniel;-...
9, ...
The twelve minor prophets;-...
10, Job;-...
11, Ezra;-...
12, Nehemiah;-...
13, Esther. And the Hagiographia consists of the Psalms, the Proverbs, Job, the Song of Solomon, Ruth, the Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, the Chronicles
Synagogue - ‘The Hagiographa except Esther, were not at this period read at Divine service
Life - Such phrases as ‘the fountain of life’ ( Sir 21:13 ) and ‘the tree of life’ ( 2E Esther 2:12 ; 2Es 8:52 ) recall their use in both OT and NT
Bible, Texts And Versions - Biblical manuscripts have been found containing fragments or complete copies from every book of the Old Testament except Esther
Mockery - ‘they covered Haman’s face,’ Esther 7:8), rather than that He was blindfolded so that He might be asked to prophesy who struck Him
Abraham - ...
His disinterestedness was evinced in refusing any of the goods which Arabian war usage entitled him to, lest the king of worldly Sodom should say, "I have made Abraham rich" (compare Esther 9:15-16; 2 Kings 5:16; contrast Lot, Genesis 13:10-11)
Nehemiah - ) and only the history of the foreign Jews in Esther, and notwithstanding the additional numbers and resources which Ezra had brought, Nehemiah now, in Artaxerxes' 20th year, in his secret ride of observation by night found Jerusalem in deplorable plight (Nehemiah 2:12-16; compare Isaiah 64:9-12)
Salvation - Not only would this have been impossible to a Greek speaker or writer in cases where the saving act as a matter of fact consisted in or involved healing, but it is also excluded by the observation that Jesus more than once referred to His saving work as the work of a physician, and in the instruction to His disciples spoke also of it as ‘healing’ (Matthew 9:12; Matthew 10:1; Matthew 10:8; Matthew 13:15, Mark 2:17, Luke 4:18; Luke 5:31; Esther 4:14; Luke 10:9)
Money - In the same way that money facilitated the rewarding of work done well, it became equally easy to motivate individuals to do reprehensible crimes with bribes (Judges 16:5,18 ; Esther 3:9 ; 4:7 ; Matthew 28:12 ; Mark 14:11 )
Jews, Judaism - Even Mordecai of the tribe of Benjamin is identified as a Jew (Esther 2:5 ), although the designation "Israel" also continued in use to identify the whole of the ethnic and cultic community (Ezra 2:70 )
Heir Heritage Inheritance - By a somewhat different figure Israel is said in the OT to be God’s inheritance or portion (Deuteronomy 9:26; Deuteronomy 9:29; Deuteronomy 32:9); and in the Septuagint addition at the end of Esther 4 the Jews are spoken of as ‘thy [1] original inheritance’ (τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς κληρονομίαν σου)
Pentateuch - The five of the Pentateuch answer to the five books of the psalter, and the five megilloth of the hagiographa (Song, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther)
Adoption - Moses by Pharaoh’s daughter, Esther by Mordecai) exhibit a different reason for the act from that stated above, and are the result of foreign surroundings and influence
Bible - ...
The Hagio-grapha, or "sacred writings" (kethubim , from kathab , to write), include (1) Psalms, Proverbs, Job; (2) The Song of Solomon of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther; (3) Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, 1 and 2 Chronicles
Angels (2) - ’ Again, in many courts, and particularly in that of the Persians, there were secretaries or scribes, whose business it was to keep a ‘book of records’ (Esther 6:1), in which the names and deeds of those who had deserved well of the king were honourably recorded
Israel, History of - The Persian Period (Ezra 1 ; 5–6;9–10 ; Nehemiah 1–6 ; 8–9 ; 13 ; Haggai; Zechariah; Obadiah; Malachi; Job; Ecclesiastes; Proverbs; Ruth; Jonah; Esther) Judah's postexilic era began in late 539 with the entrance of the troops of Cyrus of Persia into Babylon
Dead Sea Scrolls - Only Esther is missing among the scrolls
Old Testament - Synagogue rolls contain separately the Pentateuch, the haphtaroth (literally, "dismissals," being read just before the congregations departed) or sections of the prophets, and the megilloth , namely, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther: all without vowels, accents, and sophpasuks
Pharaoh - And, in our measure, we should all be instructed statesmen, like the royal patron of Mordecai and Esther; and it will go ill with us, and with those who come after us, if we are like Pharaoh, who had never heard of Joseph, and what Joseph had done for the land of Egypt
Woman - Although Athaliah was a wicked queen, Esther, who came to power in Persia under most unusual circumstances, used her position to save her Jewish kinsfolk
Marriage - ( b ) The husband naturally signified his generosity and affection by gifts to his bride ( Genesis 24:53 ; Genesis 34:12 [5], Esther 2:9 )
Sanctification - Whether abounding or not (Philippians 4:11 ), whether certain of the outcome or not (Esther 4:11-5:3 ), the people of God may sanctify each situation knowing that God has allowed it and is present in it
Baruch, Apocalypse of - 25, where we read: ‘Solomon also … whithersoever he wished to send or seek for anything, commanded a bird and it obeyed him’ This is a manifest allusion to the story of the wildfowl by which Solomon sent a Letter to the Queen of sheba at Kiṭṭor (2nd Targum to " translation="">Esther 1:2), a legend familiar in Arabic, but not current in Greek]'>[12] ...
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Sin - “And Esther said, the adversary and enemy is the wicked Haman” ( Marriage - Esther 6:14); and this continues to this day in the East, where the absence of clocks makes the custom necessary
Sirach - It does not appear possible to demonstrate acquaintance on Ben-Sira’s part with Chronicles or Esther; on the other hand, it cannot be shown that he was unacquainted with them
Boyhood - Ruth as a scarcely altered love-tale; Judith and Jonah, allegorical fictions; Esther, especially in its Greek form, a greatly amplified history, are instances of books which we now have in written forms, but which were once the ‘fireside stories’ (to use a Western phrase) of many Jewish homes
English Versions - son of his patron Æthelmær, ealdorman of Devonshire and founder of Eynsham Abbey, produced a paraphrase of the Heptateuch, homilies containing epitomes of the Books of Kings and Job, and brief versions of Esther, Judith, and Maccabees
Text of the New Testament - The corrections of א ca were derived (according to a note affixed to the Book of Esther) from a MS corrected by the martyr Pamphilus, the disciple of Origen and founder of the library of Cæsarea
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - to Esther , addressed to Chrom
Archaeology And Biblical Study - At least a fragment of every Old Testament book except Esther was found in the Qumran caves
Jews - But it was in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, called in Scripture Ahasuerus, that Ezra obtained his commission, and was made governor of the Jews in their own land, which government he held thirteen years: then Nehemiah was appointed with fresh powers, probably through the interest of Queen Esther; and Ezra applied himself solely to correcting the canon of the Scriptures, and restoring and providing for the continuance of the worship of God in its original purity
Bible - the Pentateuch or five books of Moses, called Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth , 1 & 2 Samuel , 1 & 2 Kings , 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, the prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah with his Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - the Wisdom of Solomon, the Wisdom of Sirach, Esther, Judith, Tobit, the so-called Teaching of the Apostles ( διδαχὴ καλουμένη τῶν ἀποστόλον ), and the Shepherd