What does Elijah mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἠλίας a prophet born at Thisbe 16
אֵ֣לִיָּ֔הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 9
אֵלִיָּֽהוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 7
ἠλίαν a prophet born at Thisbe 7
אֵלִיָּ֗הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 6
אֵלִיָּ֜הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 6
אֵלִיָּ֙הוּ֙ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 5
אֵלִיָּ֑הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 5
ἠλίᾳ a prophet born at Thisbe 4
אֵלִיָּ֨הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 4
אֵלִיָּ֖הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 4
אֵֽלִיָּ֔הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 3
؟ אֵלִיָּֽהוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 3
אֵלִיָּ֥הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 3
וְאֵ֨לִיָּ֜הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 2
אֵלִיָּ֣ה the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 2
ἠλίου a prophet born at Thisbe 2
אֵלִיָּ֣הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
אֵלִיָּ֤הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
מֵֽאֵלִיָּ֥הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
וְאֵלִיָּ֛ה the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
אֵלִיָּֽה the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
אֵלִיָּ֥ה the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
אֵלִיָּה֮ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
אֵלִיָּ֛הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
אֵלִיָּ֔הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
؟ אֵלִיָּ֑הוּ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1
וְאֵֽלִיָּה֙ the great prophet of the reign of Ahab. / Benjamite son of Jeroham. / a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile. / a son of Harim 1

Definitions Related to Elijah

G2243


   1 a prophet born at Thisbe, the unflinching champion of the theocracy in the reigns of the idolatrous kings Ahab and Ahaziah.
   He was taken up to heaven without dying, whence the Jews expected he would return just before the advent of the Messiah, whom he would prepare the minds of the Israelites to receive.
   Additional Information: Elijah = “my God is Jehovah”.
   

H452


   1 the great prophet of the reign of Ahab.
   2 Benjamite son of Jeroham.
   3 a son of Elam with foreign wife during exile.
   4 a son of Harim, and priest, with foreign wife during exile.
   Additional Information: Elijah or Eliah = “my God is Jehovah” or “Yah(u) is God”.
   

Frequency of Elijah (original languages)

Frequency of Elijah (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Elijah
(e li' jah) Personal name meaning, “my God is Yah.” The prophet from the ninth century B.C. from Tishbe of Gilead in the Northern Kingdom has been called the grandest and the most romantic character that Israel ever produced. See 1Kings 17:12 Kings 2:18 .
He was a complex man of the desert who counseled kings. His life is best understood when considered from four historical perspectives which at times are interrelated: his miracles, his struggle against Baalism, his prophetic role, and his eschatological relationship to Messiah.
Miracles His first miracle was associated with his prophecy before King Ahab (1 Kings 17:1 ) in which he said there would be no rain or dew apart from his declaration. Immediately after the prophecy, he retreated to the brook Cherith where he was fed by ravens.
His next refuge was Zarephath where he performed the miracle of raising the widow's dead son (1 Kings 17:17-24 ). Here he was first called “a man of God.”
On Mount Carmel his greatest public miracle involved his encounter with the 450 prophets of Baal and the 400 prophets of Asherah (1 Kings 18:19-40 ). The contest was to determine the true God. The false prophets called on their gods, and Elijah called on His God to see which would rain fire from heaven. After the false prophets failed to hear from their gods, Elijah wet the wood on his altar to the true God by pouring four jars of water over it three times. In response of Elijah's prayer, Yahweh rained fire from heaven to consume the wet wood. As a result of their deception, Elijah ordered the false prophets killed.
Elijah next prophesied that the drought was soon to end (1 Kings 18:41 ) after three rainless years. From Carmel, Elijah prayed. He sent his servant seven times to see if rain was coming. The seventh time a cloud the size of a hand appeared on the horizon. Ahab was told to flee before the storm. Elijah outran his chariot and the storm to arrive at Jezreel.
Baalism Interwoven in the life of Elijah is his struggle with Baalism. Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidon and Tyre (1 Kings 16:31 ), was Ahab's wife and Israel's queen. She brought the worship of her god Baal into Ahab's kingdom. Even “Ahab served Baal a little” (2 Kings 10:18 ). The contest on Carmel showed a contrast between the contesting deities. Yahweh's power and Baal's impotence was further revealed through the drought. A later involvement with Naboth showed the moral superiority of Elijah's faith (2 Kings 9:25-37 ).
Jezebel planned revenge toward Elijah for ordering the false prophets slain, so Elijah retreated to Judah and finally Mount Horeb. There he observed the power of the wind, earthquake, and fire; but the Lord was not seen in these forces. In a small voice the Lord commanded him to go anoint Hazael king of Syria, Jehu king of Israel, and Elisha as his own successor (1 Kings 19:1-17 ).
Prophet His prophetic role constantly placed Elijah in opposition to the majority of the people of his nation. His prophetic confrontations involved King Ahab and later his son Ahaziah. Their toleration of polytheism was the ongoing reason for Elijah's prophetic denunciations.
When Ahaziah fell and injured himself, he sent messengers to ask Baal-zebub (lord of flies) about his fate. Elijah intercepted them and sent word back to Ahaziah that he was soon to die (2 Kings 1:1 ). Ahaziah sent three different detachments of fifty soldiers each to arrest Elijah. The first two units were destroyed by fire from heaven. The captain of the third group pleaded for his life. He safely escorted Elijah to the king where he delivered the prophecy of his pending death personally.
Relationship to Messiah Elijah and Elisha were involved in the schools of the prophets when Elijah struck the waters of the Jordan and they parted to allow their crossing (2 Kings 2:1-12 ). There, immediately after conferring a double portion of his spirit on Elisha (2 Kings 2:9 ), the two were separated by a chariot and horses of fire which carried Elijah away in a whirlwind as Elisha watched shouting, “My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof.”
Malachi promised God would send Elijah the prophet before the coming “day of the Lord” (Malachi 4:5 ). John the Baptist was spoken of as the one who would go before Messiah “in the spirit and power” of Elijah (Luke 1:17 ). John personally denied that he was literally Elijah reincarnate (John 1:21 ,John 1:21,1:25 ). Some considered Jesus to be Elijah (Matthew 16:14 ; Mark 6:15 ).
Elijah appeared along with Moses on the Mount of Transfiguration with Jesus to discuss His “departure.” Here Peter suggested that three tabernacles be built for Jesus, Moses, and Elijah (Matthew 17:4 ; Romans 11:2-5 ; Luke 9:33 ).
Paul used as an illustration of faithfulness the 7,000 faithful worshipers in the time of Elijah (Mark 9:5 ).
The two witnesses referred to in Revelation 11:6 are not identified by name, but their capacity “to shut heaven, that it rain not” leads many to conclude they are Moses and Elijah.
Nelson Price
Chabad Knowledge Base - Elijah
Elijah the Prophet:
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Elijah
Whose God is Jehovah.
"The Tishbite," the "Elias" of the New Testament, is suddenly introduced to our notice in 1 Kings 17:1 as delivering a message from the Lord to Ahab. There is mention made of a town called Thisbe, south of Kadesh, but it is impossible to say whether this was the place referred to in the name given to the prophet. Having delivered his message to Ahab, he retired at the command of God to a hiding-place by the brook Cherith, beyond Jordan, where he was fed by ravens. When the brook dried up God sent him to the widow of Zarephath, a city of Zidon, from whose scanty store he was supported for the space of two years. During this period the widow's son died, and was restored to life by Elijah ( 1 Kings 17 :: 224-24 ).
During all these two years a famine prevailed in the land. At the close of this period of retirement and of preparation for his work (Compare Galatians 1:17,18 ) Elijah met Obadiah, one of Ahab's officers, whom he had sent out to seek for pasturage for the cattle, and bade him go and tell his master that Elijah was there. The king came and met Elijah, and reproached him as the troubler of Israel. It was then proposed that sacrifices should be publicly offered, for the purpose of determining whether Baal or Jehovah were the true God. This was done on Carmel, with the result that the people fell on their faces, crying, "The Lord, he is the God." Thus was accomplished the great work of Elijah's ministry. The prophets of Baal were then put to death by the order of Elijah. Not one of them escaped. Then immediately followed rain, according to the word of Elijah, and in answer to his prayer (James 5:18 ).
Jezebel, enraged at the fate that had befallen her priests of Baal, threatened to put Elijah to death (1 Kings 19:1-13 ). He therefore fled in alarm to Beersheba, and thence went alone a day's journey into the wilderness, and sat down in despondency under a juniper tree. As he slept an angel touched him, and said unto him, "Arise and eat; because the journey is too great for thee." He arose and found a cake and a cruse of water. Having partaken of the provision thus miraculously supplied, he went forward on his solitary way for forty days and forty nights to Horeb, the mount of God, where he took up his abode in a cave. Here the Lord appeared unto him and said, "What dost thou here, Elijah?" In answer to his despondent words God manifests to him his glory, and then directs him to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael king over Syria, and Jehu king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room (1 Kings 19:13-21 ; Compare 2 Kings 8:7-15 ; 9:1-10 ).
Some six years after this he warned Ahab and Jezebel of the violent deaths they would die (1 Kings 21:19-24 ; 22:38 ). He also, four years afterwards, warned Ahaziah (q.v.), who had succeeded his father Ahab, of his approaching death (2 Kings 1:1-16 ). (See NABOTH .) During these intervals he probably withdrew to some quiet retirement, no one knew where. His interview with Ahaziah's messengers on the way to Ekron, and the account of the destruction of his captains with their fifties, suggest the idea that he may have been in retirement at this time on Mount Carmel.
The time now drew near when he was to be taken up into heaven ( 2 Kings 2:1-12 ). He had a presentiment of what was awaiting him. He went down to Gilgal, where was a school of the prophets, and where his successor Elisha, whom he had anointed some years before, resided. Elisha was solemnized by the thought of his master's leaving him, and refused to be parted from him. "They two went on," and came to Bethel and Jericho, and crossed the Jordan, the waters of which were "divided hither and thither" when smitten with Elijah's mantle. Arrived at the borders of Gilead, which Elijah had left many years before, it "came to pass as they still went on and talked" they were suddenly separated by a chariot and horses of fire; and "Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven, "Elisha receiving his mantle, which fell from him as he ascended.
No one of the old prophets is so frequently referred to in the New Testament. The priests and Levites said to the Baptist (John 1:25 ), "Why baptizest thou, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias?" Paul (Romans 11:2 ) refers to an incident in his history to illustrate his argument that God had not cast away his people. (James 5:17 ) finds in him an illustration of the power of prayer. (See also Luke 4:25 ; 9:54 .) He was a type of John the Baptist in the sternness and power of his reproofs (Luke 9:8 ). He was the Elijah that "must first come" (Matthew 11:11,14 ), the forerunner of our Lord announced by Malachi. Even outwardly the Baptist corresponded so closely to the earlier prophet that he might be styled a second Elijah. In him we see "the same connection with a wild and wilderness country; the same long retirement in the desert; the same sudden, startling entrance on his work (1 Kings 17:1 ; Luke 3:2 ); even the same dress, a hairy garment, and a leathern girdle about the loins (2 Kings 1:8 ; Matthew 3:4 )."
How deep the impression was which Elijah made "on the mind of the nation may be judged from the fixed belief, which rested on the words of (Malachi 4:5,6 ), which many centuries after prevailed that he would again appear for the relief and restoration of the country. Each remarkable person as he arrives on the scene, be his habits and characteristics what they may, the stern John equally with his gentle Successor, is proclaimed to be Elijah (Matthew 11:13,14 ; 16:14 ; 17:10 ; Mark 9:11 ; 15:35 ; Luke 9:7,8 ; John 1:21 ). His appearance in glory on the mount of transfiguration does not seem to have startled the disciples. They were 'sore afraid,' but not apparently surprised."
The Elijah spoken of in 2 Chronicles 21:12-15 is by some supposed to be a different person from the foregoing. He lived in the time of Jehoram, to whom he sent a letter of warning (Compare 1 Chronicles 28:19 ; Jeremiah 36 ), and acted as a prophet in Judah; while the Tishbite was a prophet of the northern kingdom. But there does not seem any necessity for concluding that the writer of this letter was some other Elijah than the Tishbite. It may be supposed either that Elijah anticipated the character of Jehoram, and so wrote the warning message, which was preserved in the schools of the prophets till Jehoram ascended the throne after the Tishbite's translation, or that the translation did not actually take place till after the accession of Jehoram to the throne (2 Chronicles 21:12 ; 2 Kings 8:16 ). The events of 2 Kings 2 may not be recorded in chronological order, and thus there may be room for the opinion that Elijah was still alive in the beginning of Jehoram's reign.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Elijah
("God-Jehovah".) (1 Kings 17:1, etc.). "The Tishbite, of the inhabitants of Gilead." No town of the name has been discovered; some explain it as "Converter." His name and designation mark his one grand mission, to bring his apostate people back to Jehovah as THE true God; compare 1 Kings 18:39 with Malachi 4:5-6. In contrast to the detailed genealogy of Samuel, Elisha, and other prophets, Elijah abruptly appears, like Melchizedek in the patriarchal dispensation, without father or mother named, his exact locality unknown; in order that attention should be wholly fixed on his errand from heaven to overthrow Baal and Asherah (the licentious Venus) worship in Israel. This idolatry had been introduced by Ahab and his idolatrous wife, Ethbaal's daughter Jezebel (in violation of the first, commandment), as if the past sin of Israel were not enough, and as if it were "a light thing to walk in the sins of Jeroboam," namely, the worship of Jehovah under the symbol of a calf, in violation of the second commandment. (See AHAB; AARON.)
Ahab and his party represented Baal and Jehovah as essentially the same God, in order to reconcile the people to this further and extreme step in idolatry; compare 1 Kings 18:21; Hosea 2:16. Elijah's work was to confound these sophisms and vindicate Jehovah's claim to be God ALONE, to the exclusion of all idols. Therefore, he suddenly comes forth before Ahab, the apostate king, announcing in Jehovah's name "As the Lord God of Israel liveth (as contrasted with the dead idols which Israel worshipped) before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word." The shutting up of heaven at the prophet's word was, Jehovah's vindication of His sole Godhead; for Baal (though professedly the god of the sky)and his prophets could not open heaven and give showers (Jeremiah 14:22). The socalled god of nature shall be shown to have no power over nature: Jehovah is its SOLE Lord.
Elijah's "effectual" prayer, not recorded in 1 Kings but in James 5:17, was what moved God to withhold rain for three years and a half; doubtless, Elijah's reason for the prayer was jealousy for the Lord God (1 Kings 19:10; John 16:6-150), in order that Jehovah's chastening might lead the people to repentance. In "standing before the Lord" he assumed the position of a Levitical priest (Deuteronomy 10:8), for in Israel the Levitical priesthood retained in Judah had been set aside, and the prophets were raised up to minister in their stead, and witness by word and deed before Jehovah against the prevailing apostasy. His departure was as sudden as his appearance. Partaking of the ruggedness of his half civilized native Gilead bordering on the desert, and in uncouth rough attire, "hairy (2 Kings 1:8, Hebrew: "lord of hair") and with a girdle of leather about his loins," he comes and goes with the suddenness of the modern Bedouin of the same region.
His "mantle," 'adereth , of sheepskin, was assumed by Elisha his successor, and gave the pattern for the "hairy" cloak which afterwards became a prophet's conventional garb (Zechariah 13:4, "rough garment".) His powers of endurance were such as the highlands of Gilead would train, and proved of service to him in his after life of hardship (1 Kings 18:46). His burning zeal, bluntness of address, fearlessness of man, were nurtured in lonely communion with God, away from the polluting court, amidst his native wilds. After delivering his bold message to Ahab, by God's warning, he fled to his hiding place at Cherith, a torrent bed E. of Jordan (or else, as many think, the wady Kelt near Jericho), beyond Ahab's reach, where the ravens miraculously fed him with "bread and flesh in the morning ... bread and flesh in the evening." (See CHERITH.)
Carnivorous birds themselves, they lose their ravenous nature to minister to God's servant, for God can make the most unlikely instruments minister to His saints. It was probably at this time that Jezebel, foiled in her deadly purpose against Elijah, "cut off Jehovah's prophets" (1 Kings 18:4; 1 Kings 19:2). The brook having dried up after a year's stay he retreated next to Zarephath or Sarepta, between Tyre and Sidon, where least of all, in Jezebel's native region, his enemies would have suspected him to lie hid. But apostates, as Israel, are more bigoted than original idolaters as the Phoenicians. From Joshua 19:28 we learn Zarephath belonged to Asher; and in Deuteronomy 33:24 Moses saith, "let Asher dip his foot in oil." At the end of a three and a half years of famine, if oil was to be found anywhere, it would be here, an undesigned coincidence and mark of genuineness.
At God's command, in the confidence of faith, he moves for relief to this unpromising quarter. Here he was the first "apostle" to the Gentiles (Luke 4:26); a poor widow, the most unlikely to give relief, at his bidding making a cake for him with her last handful of meal and a little oil, her all, and a few gathered sticks for fuel; like the widow in the New Testament giving her two mites, not reserving even one,: nor thinking, what shall I have for my next meal? (Luke 21:2.) So making God's will her first concern, her own necessary food was "added" to her (Matthew 6:33; Isaiah 33:16; Psalms 37:19; Jeremiah 37:21); "the barrel of meal wasted not, neither did the oil fail until the day that the Lord sent rain upon the earth." Blessed in that she believed, she by her example strengthened Elijah's faith in God as able to fulfill His word, where all seemed hopeless to man's eye.
Her strong faith, as is God's way; He further tried more severely. Her son fell sick, and "his sickness was so sore that no breath was left in him." Her trial brought her sins up before her, and she regarded herself punished as unworthy of so holy a man's presence with her. But he restored her son by stretching himself upon the child thrice (as though his body were the medium for God's power to enter the dead child), and crying to the Lord; hereby new spiritual life also was imparted to herself, as she said, "by this I know that thou art a man of God, and that the word of the Lord in thy mouth is truth." Toward the close of the three and a half years of famine, when it attacked Samaria the capital, Ahab directed his governor of the palace, the Godfearing Obadiah who had saved and fed a hundred prophets in a cave, to go in one direction and seek some grass to save if possible the horses and mules, while he himself went in the opposite direction for the same purpose.
Matters must have come to a crisis, when the king set out in person on such an errand. It was at this juncture, after upward of two years' sojourn at Zarephath, Elijah by God's command goes to show himself to Ahab. Overcoming the awestruck Obadiah's fear, lest, when he should tell the king, Behold Elijah is here, meanwhile the Spirit should carry him away, Elijah, whom Ahab's servants had been seeking everywhere in vain for three years, now suddenly stands before Ahab with stern dignity. He hurls back on the king himself the charge of being, like another Achan, the troubler of Israel; "I have not, troubled Israel, but thou and thy father's house, in that ye have spoken the commandments of Jehovah, and thou hast followed Baalim." On Carmel the issue was tried between Jehovah and Baal, there being on one side Baal's 450 prophets with the 400 of Asherah, "the groves"), who ate at Jezebel's table under the queen's special patronage; on the other side Jehovah's sole representative, in his startling costume, but with dignified mien. (See CARMEL; ASHTORETH.)
Amidst Elijah's ironical jeers they cried, and gashed themselves, in vain repetitions praying from morning until noon for fire from their god Baal, the sun god and god of fire (!), and leaped upon (or up and down at) the altar. Repairing Jehovah's ruined altar (the former sanctity of which was seemingly the reason for his choice of Carmel) with 12 stones to represent the tribes of all Israel, and calling upon the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to let it be known that He is the Lord God, he brought down by prayer fire from heaven consuming the sacrifice, wood, stones, and dust, and licking up the water in the trench. The idolatrous prophets were slain at the Brook Kishon, idolatry being visited according to the law with the penalty of high treason against God the king of the national theocracy (Deuteronomy 13:9-11; Deuteronomy 13:15; Deuteronomy 18:20). Then upon the nation's penitent confession of God follows God's removal of the national judgment.
The rain, beginning with the small hand-like cloud, and increasing until the whole sky became black (Luke 12:54; Luke 13:19), returned as it had gone, in answer to Elijah's effectual prayer, which teaches us to not only pray but also wait (James 5:17-18; 1 Kings 18:41-45). Ahab rides in his chariot across the plain 16 miles to Jezreel, in haste lest the rainflood of the Kishon should make the Esdraelon or Jezreel plain impassable with mud; Elijah, with Spirit-imparted strength from "the hand of the Lord upon" him, running before, but no further than the entrance of the city, for he shrank from the contamination of the court and its luxuries. Jezebel's fury upon hearing of the slaughter of her favorite prophets knew no bounds: "so let the gods do to me and more also, if I make not. thy life as the life of one of them by tomorrow" (1 Kings 19:2). Elijah fled for his life to Beersheba of Judah, with one attendant, and leaving him there went a day's journey into the wilderness.
His not having heretofore moved to the neighboring land of godly Jehoshaphat, and his now fleeing to its most southerly town, farthest from Ahab's dominion, and thence into the desert, at first sight seems strange. But upon closer search into Scripture it is an undesigned propriety that he avoids the land of the king whose one grand error was his marrying his son Jehoram to Athaliah, Ahab's and Jezebel's daughter, at least as early as the sixth or seventh year of Jehoshaphat and the tenth or eleventh of Ahab (Blunt's Undesigned Coincidences); thereby he became so closely allied to the ungodly Ahab that at the Ramoth Gilead expedition he said to the latter, "I am as thou art, my people as thy people" (1 Kings 22:4). In this flight Elijah's spirit of faith temporarily gave way.
After the excitement of the victory over the Baal priests, and the nervous tension which under God's mighty hand sustained him in running to Jezreel, there ensued a reaction physically and an overwhelming depression of mind; for the hope which had seemed so bright at Carmel, of a national repentance and return to God, the one ruling desire of his soul, was apparently blighted; his labors seemed lost; the throne of iniquity unshaken; and hope deferred made his heart sick. Sitting under a juniper (retem , rather broom) he cried in deep despondency: "It, is enough; now, O Lord, take away my life." God, with tender considerateness, first relieved his physical needs, by sending to his exhausted frame "tired nature's kind restorer, balmy sleep," and then, by His angel, food; and only when nature was refreshed proceeds to teach him spiritually the lesson he needed.
By God's command, "in the strength of that meat" (the supernatural being based on the natural groundwork) he went, Moses like, 40 days and 40 nights unto a cave at Horeb where he "lodged" for the night (Hebrew lun ). It was the same wilderness which received Moses fleeing from Pharaoh, and Elijah now fleeing from Ahab, and lastly Paul escaping from the Judaic bondage of ritualism. The lonely wilderness and awful rocks of Sinai were best fitted to draw the spirit off from the depressing influences of man's world and to raise it up to near communion with God. "He sought the ancient sanctuary connected with the holiest, grandest memories of mankind, that his spiritual longings might be gratified, that he might have the deepest sense of the greatness and nearness of God. He wished to be brought down from the soft luxuriant secondary formations of human religion (the halting between two opinions, between the luxurious Baal worship and the uncompromising holy worship of Jehovah) to the primary stratification of God's religion ... to the naked, rugged, unyielding granite of the law" (Macmillan, The Garden and City).
Jehovah there said, "What doest thou here, Elijah?" thou whose name implies thy calling to witness for God Jehovah, away from the court and people whom thou wast called to reprove! Elijah pleads his "jealousy for Jehovah God of hosts," and that with all his zeal he is left. the sole worshipper of Jehovah, and that even his life they seek to take away. God directs him to "go forth and stand upon the mountain before the Lord," as Moses did when "the Lord passed by." There by the grand voice of nature, the strong wind rending the rocks, the earthquake, and the fire, (in none of which, though emanating from God, did He reveal Himself to Elijah,) and lastly by "a still small voice," God taught the impatient and desponding prophet that it is not by astounding miracles such as the fire that consumed the sacrifice, nor by the wind and earthquake wherewith God might have swept away the guilty nation, but by the still small voice of God's Spirit in the conscience, that Jehovah savingly reveals Himself, and a revival of true religion is to be expected.
Those astounding phenomena prepared the way for this, God's immediate revelation to the heart. Miracles sound the great bell of nature to call attention; but the Spirit is God's voice to the soul. Sternness hardens; love alone melts. A John the Baptist, Elijah's antitype, the last representative of the Sinaitic law, must be followed by the Messiah and His Spirit speaking in the winning tones of Matthew 11:29. The still small voice constrained Elijah to wrap his face in his mantle; compare Moses, Exodus 3:6; Isaiah 6:2. A second time to the same question he gives the same reply, but in a meeker spirit. Jehovah therefore cheers him amidst despondency, by giving him work still to do for His name, a sure token that He is pleased with his past work: "Go, return ... to the wilderness of Damascus, and anoint Hazael king over Syria, Jehu ... over Israel, and Elisha ... prophet in thy room.
Yet (adds the Lord to cure his depression by showing him his witness for God was not lost, but had strengthened in faith many a secret worshipper) I have left Me 7,000 in Israel who have not bowed unto Baal," etc. Elisha he first sought out and found in Abel Meholah in the valley of the Jordan on his way northward, for spiritual companionship was his first object of yearning. Casting his mantle on him as the sign of a call, he was followed by Elisha, who thenceforth became his minister, and who executed subsequently the former two commands. (See ELISHA.) Apostasy from God begets injustice toward man. Puffed up with the success of his war with Syria, and forgetting the Lord who had given him victory (1 Kings 20), Ahab by Jezebel's wicked hardihood, after vainly trying to get from Naboth the inheritance of his fathers, had him and his sons (2 Kings 9:26, compare Joshua 7:24) slain for falsely alleged blasphemy, and seized his property as that of a criminal forfeited to the crown; the elders of Jezreel lending themselves to be Jezebel's ready instruments. (See NABOTH.)
With Jehu and Bidkar his retinue riding behind, he proceeded to take possession of the coveted vineyard on the following day (compare "yesterday," 'emesh , "yesternight," the mock trial and murder of Naboth having taken place the day before); but, like a terrible apparition, the first person he meets there is the enemy of his wickedness, whom his conscience quails before, more than before all other foes. "Hast thou found me (compare Numbers 32:23) O mine enemy? .... I have found thee, because thou hast sold thyself (as a captive slave bound) to work evil," etc. The dogs should lick his blood "in the place" where they licked Naboth's (fulfilled on his son Jehoram, Ahab's repentance causing judgment to be deferred); Jezebel and Ahab's posterity should be (what Orientals regard with especial horror) the food of dogs and birds (1 Kings 21:19-24). Twenty years later Jehu remembered the very words of the curse, so terrible was the impression made by the scene, and fulfilled his part of it (2 Kings 9:7-10; 2 Kings 9:25-26; 2 Kings 9:33-37).
Three years later, part of the judgment foretold came to pass upon Ahab, whose blood, after his fall in the battle of Ramoth Gilead, the dogs licked up while his chariot was being washed in the pool of Samaria. His successor Ahaziah after a two years reign, during which Moab rebelled, fell from a lattice and lay sick. Sending to consult concerning his recovery the Philistine oracle of Baalzebub at Ekron, he learned from his messengers that a man met them saying, "Is it not because there is not a God in Israel that thou sendest to inquire of Baalzebub the god of Ekron? therefore thou shalt not come down, .... but shalt surely die" (2 Kings 1:6). As usual, Elijah's appearance was sudden and startling, and he stands forth as vindicating Jehovah's honor' before the elect nation. Ahaziah, with his mother's idol-mad vindictiveness, sent a captain with fifty to arrest this "lord of hair" (Hebrew text: 2 Kings 1:8) whom he at once guessed to be Elijah.
Emerging from some recess of Carmel and taking his seat on "the hill" or "mount" (Hebrew), he thence met the captain's demand, "Man of God, the king saith, come down," with "If I be a man of God, let fire come down from heaven, and consume thee and thy fifty." So it came to pass. Again the same occurred. The third, however, escaped by begging him to hold his life precious and to spare him. Elijah went down, under God's promised protection, and spoke the same message of death to the king in person as he had previously spoken to the king's messenger. This was his last interview with the house of Ahab, and his last witness against Baal worship. The severity of the judgment by fire is due to the greatness of the guilt of the Israelite king and his minions who strove against God Himself in the person of His prophet, and hardened themselves in idolatry, which was high treason against God and incurred the penalty of death under the theocracy.
It is true the Lord Jesus reproved the fiery zeal of James and John, "the sons of thunder," as ignorant of the true spirit of His disciples, when they wished like Elias to call down fire to consume the Samaritans who would not receive Him. But the cases are distinct. He was not yet revealed to the half-pagan Samaritans as clearly as Jehovah had been through Elijah to Israel, the elect nation. His life was not sought by the Samaritans as Elijah's was by Israel's king and his minions. Moreover, the temporal penalties of the theocracy, ordained by God for the time, were in our Lord's days giving place to the antitypes which are abiding.
Shortly afterward Elijah wrote a letter (miqtab ) which came subsequently "to Joram," son of the pious Jehoshaphat: "Thus saith the Lord God of David thy father (of whom thou art proving thyself so unworthy a successor), because thou hast not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat thy father, nor... of Asa, king of Judah, but hast walked in the way of the kings of Israel, and hast made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to go a whoring like ... the house of Ahab, and hast slain (Elijah writes foreseeing the murder, for his translation was before Jehoshaphat's death, 2 Kings 3:11, after which was the murder) the brethren of thy father's house which were better than thyself, behold with a great plague will the Lord smite thy people, thy children, thy wives, and all thy goods, and thou shalt have great sickness ... until thy bowels fall out" (2 Chronicles 21).
Already in Elijah's lifetime Joram had begun to reign jointly with his father Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 8:16; 2 Kings 8:18) and had betrayed his evil spirit which was fostered by Athaliah his wife, Ahab's daughter. Jehoshaphat in his lifetime, with worldly prudence, while giving the throne to Joram, gave Joram's brethren "great gifts and fenced cities." But Elijah discerned in Joram the covetous and murderous spirit which would frustrate all Jehoshaphat's forethought, the fatal result of the latter's carnal policy in forming marriage alliance with wicked Ahab. Therefore, as Elijah had committed to Elisha the duty laid on himself by God of foretelling to Hazael his elevation to the Syrian throne (Elisha being Elijah revived in spirit), so Elijah committed to him the writing which would come after Elijah's translation to Joram with all the solemnity of a message from Elijah in the unseen world to condemn the murder when perpetrated which Elijah foresaw he would perpetrate.
The style is peculiarly Elijah's, and distinct from the narrative context. So Isaiah foretold concerning Cyrus' future kingdom (Isaiah 44-45); and Ahijah concerning Josiah (1 Kings 13:2). Fairbairn makes it be called "a letter from Elijah" because he was ideal head of the school of prophecy from which it emanated, and his spirit still rested upon Elisha. But the language, 2 Chronicles 21:12, implies in some stricter sense it was Elijah's writing delivered by Elisha, his successor, to Joram. But see Lord A. C. Hervey's view JEHORAM. Elijah's ministry was now drawing to its close. Symptoms appear of his work beginning to act on the nation, in the increased boldness of other prophets to the king's face, besides Elijah himself: e.g. 1 Kings 20:35-36; again, Micaiah, 1 Kings 22. Hence, we find not less than fifty called "sons of strength" at Elijah's translation (2 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 2:7); and these settled at Bethel, one of the two head quarters of idolatry.
To these sons of the prophets, as well as to Elisha, it was revealed that their master Elijah was about to be caught up front them. Elijah sought that privacy which he felt most suitable to the coming solemn scene; but Elisha would not leave him. To Gilgal (the one on the W. border of the Ephraimite hills), Bethel, and Jericho successively, by the Lord's mission, Elijah went, giving probably parting counsels to the prophets' schools in those places. Finally, after parting asunder the Jordan with his mantle, he gave Elisha leave to ask what he would, and having promised that he should have a double portion of Elijah's spirit, a chariot and horses of fire parted the two, and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. The "hardness" of Elisha's request, and its granting being dependent on his seeing Elijah ascend, imply that it is to be got from God not (Matthew 19:26) man; that therefore he must look up to Him who was about to translate Elijah, not to Elijah himself.
The "double portion" is not "double" what Elijah had, for Elisha had not tidal; but, as the firstborn son and heir received two portions, and the other children but one, of the father's goods (Deuteronomy 21:17), so Elisha, as Elijah's adopted son, begs a preeminent portion of Elijah's spirit, of which all the other "sons of the prophets" should have their share (Grotius); compare Deuteronomy 21:15. But the comparison in the context is not with other prophets but with Elijah. Double, literally, "a mouth of two," is probably used generally for the spirit in large or increased measure, the spirit of prophecy and of miracles. Elisha performed double as many miracles, namely, 16 as compared with Elijah's eight; and the miracles of a like kind to Elijah's; compare 1 Kings 17:17-24 with 2 Kings 4:29-37; 1 Kings 17:16 with 2 Kings 4:1-7. Elisha, when getting his choice, asked not for gains, honors, or pleasures, but for spiritual gifts, with a view, not to his own glory, but to the glory of God and the edification of the church.
Seeing that the national evils were so crying, he sought the only remedy, an increased measure of the Spirit, whose power had already began somewhat to improve the state of the nation. As Elijah's ascension was the forerunner of Elisha's possessing an influence such as Elijah had not, Elisha becoming the honored adviser of kings whereas Elijah had been their terror, Elisha on his deathbed being recognized as "the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof" by king Joash just as Elijah had been by Elisha, so Christ's ascension was the means of obtaining for the church the Holy Spirit in full measure, whereby more souls were gathered in than by Jesus' bodily presence (1618066704_8; Ephesians 4:8-14). When the Old Testament canon was being closed, Malachi, its last prophet, threw a ray over the dark period of 400 years that intervened until the New Testament return of revelation, by announcing, "Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord.
And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse." Our Lord declares that John the Baptist was the Elias to come (Matthew 11:14; Matthew 17:12). This is explained in Luke 1:11; Luke 1:17, which refers to Malachi 4:5-6; "he shall go before the Lord in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers (Jacob, Levi, Moses, Elijah, Malachi 1:2; Malachi 2:4; Malachi 2:6; Malachi 3:3-4; Malachi 4:4, who had been alienated as it were by their children's apostasy) to the children (made penitent through John's ministry), and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just." John was an Elijah, but not the Elijah, from whence to the query (John 1:21), "Art thou Elias?" he answered, "I am not." "Art thou that prophet?" "No."
Elijah is called by Malachi "the prophet," not the Tishbite, as he here represents the whole series of prophets culminating in the greatest, John (though he performed no miracles as Elijah). The Jews always understood a literal Elijah, and said, "Messiah must be anointed by Elijah." As there is a second consummating advent of Messiah, so also of His forerunner (possibly in person as at the transfiguration, Matthew 17:3, even after which He said (Matthew 17:11), "Elias shall first come and restore all things," namely, at "the times of restitution of all things"), possibly a prophet clothed with Elijah's miraculous power of inflicting judgments, which John had not. The miracles foretold of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:4-5, "fire out of their mouth," i.e. at, their word; 1 Kings 17:1; 2 Kings 1:10; "power to shut heaven that it rain not," James 5:17; Luke 4:25; and "to turn the waters to blood and smite the earth with all plagues ") are the very ones characteristic of Moses and Elijah.
The forerunning "the great and dreadful day of Jehovah" can only exhaustively refer to Messiah's second coming, preceded by a fuller manifestation of Elijah than that of John before Messiah's first coming. Moses and Elijah's appearance at the transfiguration in glorified bodies is a sample of the coming transfiguration (Moses, buried by the Lord, of the sleeping saints; and Elijah, translated without death, of living saints) and of their reign with Christ over the earth in glorified bodies, as Peter, James, and John are a sample of the nations in the flesh about to be reigned over.
The subject of Moses' and Elijah's discourse with Jesus on the mount was His decease, for this is the grand center to which the
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Elijah
Old Testament . Elijah of Tishbe was a lone figure from the remote part of Gilead east of the Jordan. One of the better known characters in the Old Testament, he also made an impact on later Judaism and on the New Testament writers. A contemporary of the Israelite kings Ahab and Ahaziah (874-852 b.c.), Elijah represented a class of prophets who were normally not associated with any sanctuary or prophetic guild (but see 2 Kings 2:3-7 ). He challenged Ahab, whose policies were designed to replace the Israelite idea of kingship with the ancient Near Eastern concept of monarchy and royal law. Elijah defended Yahweh's sovereignty over history and justice, as well as over false gods (1 Kings 17-18 ).
The stories of Elijah (known as the Elijah cycle) dominate much of the latter half of 1Kings (17-19,21) and the early chapters of 2Kings (1-2). The chronological order of the cycle is uncertain, making the course of Elijah's life obscure. The cycle was incorporated into the theological history of Israel and Judah, without which our knowledge for the reign of Ahab would be almost unknown. It contained six separate narratives that included several anecdotal stories about Elijah's life that may have circulated independently among his disciples in the northern kingdom. All but the last were concerned with the clash of Baal and Yahweh. Elijah appeared to vindicate the distinctive character of the people of God when their identification was threatened by Ahab's liberal policies. He also answered Jehoshaphat's question (2 Kings 3:11 ) and sent a letter to Jehoram (2 Chronicles 21:12-15 ).
Elijah appeared on the scene without warning, introduction, or genealogy (1 Kings 17:1 ) to deliver an oracle to Ahab announcing a drought, presumably a punishment for defection to the Baal cult. Afterward, he returned to Zarephath where he was miraculously sustained (1 Kings 17:17-24 ). God then chose a Gentile believer (the Phoenician woman of Zarephath) to shame his people and to rebuke Jezebel, Ahab's Phoenician queen, showing that there was a Yahwistic believer in her own country. The unfailing water supply shows that God—not the kingwas the dispenser of the water of life. Chrysostom said that Elijah learned compassion in the house of the widow so he could be sent to his own people. Yahweh did not just intervene at critical times in the affairs of people, but was now accessible to believers in the ordinary affairs of life (1 Kings 17:12 ).
Three years later there was a break in the drought and Elijah was successful in ending Baal worship at Carmel. The Baal priests were not completely destroyed; they actually continued on past the end of the Ahab dynasty, until the time of Athaliah of Judah (who was related to Ahab's royal house). Elijah helped Israel understand that Yahweh guided the fortunes of the nations; even the Baal cult was under his control. Yahweh, not Baal, had the power of life and death, and was the giver of rain and good things. The Carmel story showed a reminiscence of the change of political and religious sovereignty from Tyre to Israel. Israel was not truly synchretistic; Baal or Yahweh would be king, but not both (1 Kings 18:21 ). Ahab was not wholly Baalist; his family bore Yahwistic names, and he consulted with Yahweh after the encounter with Elijah (1 Kings 20:13-15,22,28 ). The Tyrian cult of Baal Melqart may have been a pseudo-monotheistic movement that precipitated this struggle. Israel now saw the mediation of God's will in history and the interpretation of his divine will.
Elijah's success was merely temporary; he fled to Mount Horeb (although this may not be in chronological order) to escape Jezebel's wrath (1 Kings 19 ). Here, the small voice of God was in direct opposition to the noisy and primitive sounds of the Canaanite deities, which pointed toward a more spiritual and transcendent concept of Yahweh. The theophany in 1 Kings 19 is similar to Exodus 33:19 , and like the story of the widow, may show that God is to be found in the daily affairs of humans, rather than in supernatural phenomena.
Like Amos in a later period, Elijah showed an astute social concern, emerging as a leader with strong ethical ideals (1 Kings 21 ). The Naboth incident shows a social dimension in the clash between Israelite law and Canaanite kingship. By appropriating Naboth's land as crown property, Ahab was out of his jurisdiction. Inalienable land in Israel was in principle hereditary, although Yahweh was the true owner. In this position, God demanded the rule of law and justice, and watched over ethical and legal morals. Elijah, whom Ahab saw as a blood avenger (v. 20), is introduced with dramatic suddenness only at the end of this section, confronting Ahab for taking possession of the vineyard. The king was indicted for infringing on two of the ten commandments that were recognized as the basis for society: murder and forcible appropriation, both capital offenses. The curse concerning Ahab was not literally executed on him, however, but on his successor. This may have been because of his repentance, but probably was due to the Hebrew idea of the extended self, taking for granted the cohesion of life and liability between generations. Ahab's dynasty ended because of the Naboth incident, not because of the Baal struggle. Later, Elijah protested Ahaziah's appeal to Baal-Zebub, the local god of Ekron (2 Kings 1:9-15 ; Josephus called this god "the lord of the flies, " as did the Ras Shamra texts ). Elijah was here described as a hairy man with a shaggy cloak, evidently the insignia of a prophet (2 Kings 1:8 ).
The translation of Elijah into heaven occurs in an anecdotal section concerned mainly with Elisha (2 Kings 2:1-12 ). Elijah was associated with the prophetic guilds in Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho. He did not bequeath his staff to Elisha, but his cloak, which had a spiritual not a magical power. Elisha desired a double portion of Elijah's spirit, a stipulation in Hebrew law whereby the eldest son received his share and was equipped as the true successor to his father. The whirlwind and sudden disappearance of Elijah, with the addition of a theophany, emphasize God's presence in the incident.
In later Old Testament prophetic tradition, Elijah was associated with the day of the Lord (Malachi 4:5-6 ), and was soon to be sent by God on the behalf of the people. He was described as similar to the messenger in Malachi 3:1 (which also may have been an allusion to Elijah, since both prepared the way for Yahweh). The purpose of Elijah's coming was either to pacify family quarrels ( Malachi 2:10-16 ), culminating in a new social order, or to restore the covenant relationship.
Later Jewish Tradition . Elijah was prominently featured in popular legend and theological discussion of eschatological expectation during the intertestamental period. The reason for this may be his enigmatic rapture in 2 Kings 2:11 (the reward for his zeal for the law, according to 1 Maccabees 2:58 , ; which fostered the idea of his sinlessness ), and the prophecy of his return in Malachi, which nurtured the idea of him becoming a messianic figure from the heavenly kingdom who came to purify the priesthood. He was said to be an intercessor for Israel in heaven, a heavenly scribe who recorded the Acts of men, and who had an eternal existence (Sirach 48:1-14 ).
New Testament . The New Testament, which mentions the prophet nearly thirty times, shows the influence of the late Jewish tradition of Elijah being the forerunner of the Messiah. The expectation of Elijah's return occurs frequently in the Gospels (Matthew 17:10 ; Mark 9:11 ). Many were convinced that either Jesus (Matthew 16:14 ; Mark 6:15 ; 8:28 ; Luke 9:8,19 ) or John the Baptist (John 1:21,25 ) were the expected prophet. Although John denied that he was Elijah, he wore the prophet's style of clothing (a mantle of camel's hair and a leather girdle Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ). Moreover, Jesus said that John went forth as Elijah in spirit; he was thus the symbolic fulfillment of the prophet's mission (Matthew 11:14 ; Mark 8:28 ; Luke 1:17 ).
Although the tradition that Moses and Elijah would appear together in the last days was not to be found in rabbinic Judaism, both of these Old Testament characters were present and spoke at the transfiguration of Jesus, testifying to the importance of the impending events as eschatological (Matthew 17:3-4 ; Mark 9:4-5 ; Luke 9:30,33 ). Some have seen the two as representing the Law and the Prophets, which were now both considered to be subservient to Christ.
Jesus' prayer on the cross with the opening words of Psalm 22:1 , "Eli, Eli" (My God, My God) was either misunderstood or willfully misinterpreted as a petition for help to Elijah (Matthew 27:46-49 ; Mark 15:34-36 ). Jewish lore identified Elijah as a helper in time of need, and since Elijah did not come, Jesus' petition was considered a failure. The church, however, did not accept this figure of Elijah; only Christ himself would be called on in stressful times.
Various events of Elijah's life are alluded to in the New Testament. James uses Elijah as a powerful example of a supplicant (5:17), relying on Jewish tradition, which credited Elijah with a reputation for prayer (although this is not specifically mentioned in 1 Kings 17-18 ). He also describes the passage of time of the drought in 1 Kings 18:1 as three and a half years (cf. Luke 4:25 ; Revelation 11:6 ). James attempts to refute the Jewish tradition of the sinlessness and eternal nature of the prophet by stating that Elijah was a man "just like us." His prayers were effective because he was righteous.
Jesus used the story of God sending Elijah to the widow of Zarephath to show that the Gentiles were not to be excluded from salvation (Luke 4:25-26 ). Later church tradition takes the two witnesses of Revelation to be modeled after Moses and Elijah (Revelation 11:3-6 ). They were given the power to shut up the heavens and to bring the fire of judgment like Elijah in 1 Kings 17-18 (cf. Malachi 4:5 ; Sirach 48:1-14 ). In a similar vein, Jesus rebuked the sons of Zebedee for wondering whether they should call down fire from heaven on the Samaritan village (Luke 9:54 ).
Paul uses the rabbinic model of Elijah and the idea of the remnant of Israel in Romans 11:2-5 (see 1 Kings 19:10-18 ). Just as Elijah became aware that a remnant of true believers still existed in Israel, Paul understands that there was still a sacred remnant of Jews who were elected by grace.
Mark W. Chavalas
See also Israel ; Kings, First and Second, Theology of ; Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy
Bibliography . F. Anderson, JBL 85 (1966): 46-57; H. Bietenhard, NIDNTT, 1:543-45; J. Gray, I-II Kings ; J. Jeremias, TDNT, 2:928-41; H. H. Rowley, BJRL 43 (1960): 190-219; R. W. Wallace, Elijah and Elisha .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Elijah
ELIJAH . 1. Elijah, the weirdest figure among the prophets of Israel, steps across the threshold of history when Ahab is on the throne ( c [1] . b.c. 876 854), and is last seen in the reign of Ahaziah (854 853), although a posthumous activity is attributed to him in 2 Chronicles 21:12 ff. A native of This be in Gilead ( 1 Kings 17:1 ), he appears on the scene unheralded; not a single hint is given as to his birth and parentage. A rugged Bedouin in his hairy mantle ( 2 Kings 1:8 ), Elijah appears as a representative of the nomadic stage of Hebrew civilization. He is a veritable incarnation of the austere morals and the purer religion of an earlier period. His name (‘Jah is God’) may be regarded as the motto of his life, and expresses the aim of his mission as a prophet. Ahab had brought on a religious crisis in Israel by marrying Jezebel, a daughter of the Tyrian king Ethbaal, who, prior to his assuming royal purple, had been a priest of Melkart, the Tyrian Baal, and in order to ascend the throne had stained his hand with his master’s blood. True to her early training and environment, Jezebel not only persuaded her husband to build a temple to Baal in Samaria ( 1 Kings 16:32 ), but became a zealous propagandist, and developed into a cruel persecutor of the prophets and followers of Jehovah. The foreign deity, thus supported by the throne, threatened to crush all allegiance to Israel’s national God in the hearts of the people.
Such was the situation, when Elijah suddenly appears before Ahab as the champion of Jehovah. The hearts of the apostate king and people are to be chastened by a drought (1 Kings 17:3 ). It lasts three years; according to a statement of Menander quoted by Josephus ( Ant . VIII. xiii. 2), in the reign of Ithobal, the Biblical Ethbaal, Phœnicia suffered from a terrible drought, which lasted one year. Providence first guides the stern prophet to the brook Cherith ( Wady Kelt in the vicinity of Jericho), where the ravens supply him with food. Soon the stream becomes a bed of stones, and Elijah flees to Zarephath in the territory of Zidon. As the guest of a poor widow, he brings blessings to the household (cf. Luke 4:25 , James 5:17 ). The barrel of meal did not waste, and the cruse of oil did not fail. Like the Great Prophet of the NT, he brings gladness to the heart of a bereaved mother by restoring her son to life ( 1 Kings 17:8 ff., cf. Luke 7:11 ff.).
The heavens have been like brass for months upon months, and vegetation has disappeared. The hearts of Ahab’s subjects have been mellowed, and many are ready to return to their old allegiance. The time is ripe for action, and Elijah throws down the gauntlet to Baal and his followers. Ahab and his chief steward, Obadiah, a devoted follower of the true God, are traversing the land in different directions in search of grass for the royal stables, when the latter encounters the strange figure of Jehovah’s relentless champion. Obadiah, after considerable hesitation and reluctance, is persuaded by the prophet to announce him to the king (1 Kings 18:7-15 ). As the two meet, we have the first skirmish of the battle. ‘Art thou he that troubleth Israel?’ is the monarch’s greeting; but the prophet’s reply puts the matter in a true light: ‘I have not troubled Israel, but thou and thy father’s house.’ At Elijah’s suggestion the prophets of Baal are summoned to Carmel to a trial by fire. The priests of the Tyrian deity, termed ‘prophets’ because they practised the mantic art, select a bullock and lay it upon an altar without kindling the wood. From morn till noon, and from noon till dewy eve, they cry to Baal for fire, but all in vain. Elijah cuts them to the quick with his biting sarcasm: ‘Cry aloud; for he is a god: either he is musing, or he is gone aside, or he is on a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth and must be awaked.’ Towards evening a dismantled altar of Jehovah is repaired, and a trench is dug round it. After the sacrificial animal has been prepared, and laid upon the wood, water is poured over it, until every thing about the altar is thoroughly soaked and the trench is full. At the prayer of Elijah, fire falls from heaven, devouring the wood, stone, and water as well as the victim. The people are convinced, and shout, ‘Jehovah, he is God; Jehovah, he is God.’ That evening, Kishon’s flood, as of old ( Judges 5:21 ), is red with the blood of Jehovah’s enemies. The guilt of the land has been atoned for, and the long hoped for rain arrives. Elijah, in spite of his dignified position, runs before the chariot of Ahab, indicating that he is willing to serve the king as well as lead Jehovah’s people ( 1 Kings 18:41-46 ). The fanatical and implacable Jezebel now threatens the life of the prophet who has dared to put her minions to death. Jehovah’s successful champion loses heart, and flees to Beer-sheba on the extreme south of Judah. Leaving his servant, he plunges alone into the desert a day’s journey. Now comes the reaction, so natural after an achievement like that on Carmel, and Elijah prays that he may be permitted to die. Instead of granting his request, God sends an angel who ministers to the prophet’s physical needs. On the strength of that food he journeys forty days until he reaches Horeb, where he receives a new revelation of Jehovah ( 1 Kings 19:1-8 ). Elijah takes refuge in a cave, perhaps the same in which Moses hid ( Exodus 33:22 ), and hears the voice of Jehovah, ‘What doest thou here, Elijah?’ The prophet replies, ‘I have been very jealous for Jehovah, God of Hosts; for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant thrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.’ Then Jehovah reveals His omnipotence in a great wind, earthquake, and fire; but we read that Jehovah was not in these. Then followed a still small voice (Heb. lit. ‘a sound of gentle stillness’), in which God made known His true nature and His real purpose ( 1 Kings 19:9-14 ). After hearing his complaint, Jehovah gives His faithful servant a threefold commission: Hazael is to be anointed king of Syria, Jehu of Israel; and Elisha is to be his successor in the prophetic order. Elijah is further encouraged with information that there are still 7000 in Israel who have not bowed the knee to Baal ( 1 Kings 19:15 ; 1 Kings 19:18 ). As far as we know, only the last of these three commissions was executed by the prophet himself, who, after this sublime incident, made his headquarters in the wilderness of Damascus ( Ki 19: 15); the other two were carried out either by Elisha or by members of the prophetic guilds ( 2 Kings 8:7 ff; 2 Kings 9:2 ).
Elijah is also the champion of that civic righteousness which Jehovah loved and enjoined on His people. Naboth owns a vineyard in the vicinity of Jezreel. In the spirit of the Israelitish law (Leviticus 25:23 , Numbers 36:8 ) he refuses to sell his property to the king. But Jezehel is equal to the occasion; at her suggestion false witnesses are bribed to swear that Naboth has cursed God and the king. The citizens, thus deceived, stone their fellow-townsman to death. Abah, on his way to take possession of his ill-gotten estate, meets his old antagonist, who pronounces the judgment of God upon him: ‘In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine,’ is the prophet’s greeting. For Ahab’s sins, every male child of his house will be swept off by an awful fate ( 1 Kings 21:19 ; 1 Kings 21:21 ; 1 Kings 21:24 ). By the ramparts of Jezreel itself, the dogs will devour the body of Jezebel ( 1 Kings 21:23 ). These predictions, although delayed for a time on account of the repentance of Ahab, were all fulfilled ( 1 Kings 22:38 , 2Ki 9:25 f., 2 Kings 9:30 f., 2 Kings 10:7 ff.).
Ahaziah is a true son of Ahab and Jezebel. Meeting with a serious accident, after his fall he sends a messenger to Ekron to inquire of Baal-zebub, the fly-god, concerning his recovery. Elijah intercepts the emissaries of the king, hidding them return to their master with this word from Jehovah: ‘Is it because there is no God in Israel, that ye go to inquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron? Thou shalt not come down from the bed whither thou art gone up, but shalt surely die.’ Ahaziah recognizes the author of this message, and sends three captains of fifties to capture the prophet, who calls down fire from heaven on the first two. The third approaches him in a humble spirit, and at God’s bidding Elijah accompanies the soldier to the palace and reiterates the message of doom (2 Kings 1:1-18 ).
Like all the great events of his life, the death of this great man of God was dramatic. Accompanied by his faithful follower Elisha, he passes from Bethel to Jericho, and from thence they cross the Jordan, after Elijah has parted the waters by striking them with his mantle. As they go on their way, buried in conversation, there suddenly appears a chariot of fire with horses of fire, which parts them asunder; and Elijah goes up by a whirlwind to heaven (cf. Elisha).
In the history of prophecy Elijah holds a prominent position. Prophetism had two important duties to perform: (1) to extirpate the worship of heathen deities in Israel, (2) to raise the religion of Jehovah to ethical purity. To the former of these two tasks Elijah addressed himself with zeal; the latter was left to his successors in the eighth century. In his battle against Baal, he struggled for the moral rights and freedom of man, and introduced ‘the categorical imperative into prophecy.’ He started a movement which finally drove the Phœnician Baal from Israel’s confines.
Elijah figures largely in later Scriptures; he is the harbinger of the Day of the Lord (Malachi 4:5 ); in the NT he is looked upon as a type of the herald of God, and the prediction of his coming in the Messianic Age is fulfilled in the advent of John the Baptist ( Matthew 11:10 ff.). On the Mount of Transfiguration he appears as the representative of OT prophecy ( Matthew 17:3 , Mark 9:4 , Luke 9:36 ). The prophet whose ‘word burned like a torch’ ( Sir 48:1 ) was a favourite with the later Jews; a host of Rabbinical legends grew up around his name. According to the Rabbis, Elijah was to precede the Messiah, to restore families to purity, to settle controversies and legal disputes, and perform seven miracles (cf. JE [2] , s.v. ; Lightfoot, Hor. Heb . on Matthew 17:10 ; Schoettgen, Hor. Heb . ii. 533 ff.). Origen mentions an apocryphal work, The Apocalypse of Elijah , and maintains that 1 Corinthians 2:9 is a quotation from it. Elijah is found also in the Koran (vi. 85, xxxvii. 123 130), and many legends concerning him are current in Arabic literature.
2. A Benjamite chief ( 1 Chronicles 8:27 ). 3. 4. A priest and a layman who had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:21 ; Ezra 10:26 ).
James A. Kelso.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Elijah
(Ἠλίας)
One incident in the life of Elijah is recalled by St. Paul (Romans 11:2-4) and another by St. James (james 5:17f.).
(1) Much is to be learned from a great man’s mistakes; the memory of his lapses may save others from falling. In a mood of despair Elijah imagined that the worst had happened to Israel, and that the worst was likely to overtake himself. The prophets were slain, the altars were digged down, he was left alone, and his enemies were seeking his life. Ahab and Jezebel and the false prophets had triumphed; it was all over with the cause of righteousness and truth for which he had laboured. Seeing that all Israel had proved unfaithful to God, there was nothing for the lonely, outlawed prophet to live for, and he requested that he might die. But the answer-ὁ χρηματισμός, the Divine oracle-proved him to be the victim of a morbid fancy, and brought him back to facts. Among the faithless many others were as faithful as he. God had reserved for Himself seven thousand men who had not bowed the knee to Baal. All Israel had not forsaken Him, and-what was still more important-He had in no wise forsaken Israel. There is but one thing that could ever conceivably justify pessimism-the failure of Divine power or love; and the fear of that calamity is but a human weakness. Now St. Paul could not help seeing the close analogy between the conditions of Elijah’s critical time and those of his own. Israel as a whole seemed once more to have forsaken God, in rejecting the Messiah. In certain moods St. Paul might be tempted to compare himself-lonely, hated, hunted-to the sad prophet. But did the ‘great refusal’ of the majority prove either that all Israel was unfaithful or that God had cast off His people? No, for (a) now as in Elijah’s time there were splendid exceptions, forming a remnant (λεῖμμα = שְׁאָר) which was the true Israel; and (b) God’s immutable faithfulness made the idea of a rejection incredible and almost unthinkable.
(2) St. James (5:17f.) takes an illustration from the story of Elijah, and in doing so reminds his readers that, though so great in life and so remote from ordinary humanity in the manner of his exodus from the world, the prophet was yet a man of like passions (or ‘nature,’ Revised Version margin) with us-ἄνθρωπος ὁμοιοπαθὴς ἡμῖν-so that his experiences may serve as a help to weak, ordinary mortals. The success of his prayer for a time of drought, and again for rain in a time of famine, is cited as an evidence of the fact that ‘the prayer of a righteous man availeth much in its working.’ It has to be noted, however, that the OT narrative (1 Kings 17) contains no reference whatever to the former petition, while the latter is scarcely deducible from 1 Kings 18:42, where it is only stated that the prophet bowed himself down upon the earth and put his face between his knees. Sirach (48:2, 3), however, affirms that he ‘brought a famine,’ and ‘by the word of the Lord he shut up the heaven’. In 4 Ezra (7:109) Elijah is cited as an example of intercession pro his qui pluviam acceperunt.
James Strahan.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Elijah (2)
ELIJAH (Authorized Version Elias) is mentioned in the Gospels on 9 occasions, reported in 15 passages (rejecting Luke 9:54). Of these passages only one, Luke 4:25 f., alludes to the story of Elijah as it is contained in the OT. Here Jesus justifies His performance of miracles in Capernaum, while refraining from working them in Nazareth, by citing the well-known story of Elijah’s going away from Israel in time of famine to relieve the distress of a Sidonian widow (1 Kings 17:8-9). All the other passages refer to the present or future work of an Elijah who, according to common Jewish belief, still lived and would appear again upon earth.
The dominant note in the belief is that the prophet was to appear as the forerunner of the Messiah. This notion appears in its simplest form in the accounts of the avowal of the Messiahship of Jesus at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:13 ff., Mark 8:27 ff., Luke 9:18 ff.). The answers then given by the disciples to Jesus’ question as to the popular estimate of Himself were varied, and doubtless representative: He was John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets (cf. Mark 6:15, Luke 9:8). Only one, Simon, saw in the work of Jesus the consummation, rather than the postponement, of their Messianic hope. The period of Elijah the forerunner is past, and the Messiah is here.
The relation between the prophet Elijah, the lawgiver Moses, and the Messiah Jesus, is dramatically presented in the narrative of the Transfiguration (Matthew 17, Mark 9:2 ff., Luke 9:28 ff.). Here, too, the logical proof is presented that Elijah has come already, and is John the Baptist. When once Jesus has been accepted as the Messiah, the work of John cannot fail to be known as the great preparatory work of Elijah. This work finds expression in St. Matthew’s report of Jesus’ characterization of John (John 11:14; omitted from the parallel in Lk.).
The Baptist’s denial that he was Elijah (John 1:21 ff.) is the natural expression of his lofty idea of the work of preparation for the Messiah contrasted with the insufficiency of the work he had actually been able to perform. The passage incidentally describes one of the functions of Elijah who was to come, viz., that he should baptize. Baptism was then one of the preliminaries of the salvation which the Messiah was to bring.
Elijah is mentioned again in connexion with the Crucifixion (Matthew 27:46-49, Mark 15:34-36). The bystanders professedly misunderstood Jesus’ cry, ‘Eli, Eli,’ as a call to Elijah. They proposed to wait and see if he would come down to help Him. Bearing in mind that Elijah is the forerunner of the Messiah, their curiosity seems not simply whether Jesus would have supernatural relief, as a man might, but whether Elijah would, by coming to His aid, prove that Jesus was after all the Messiah.
There remains the striking picture of the Baptist in the character of Elijah, drawn in Luke 1:19 ff. The passage clearly assumes the developed doctrine of the Messiahship of Jesus, and the career of John the Baptist is analyzed from this point of view. The high spiritual plane of the identification is obvious. John comes in the spirit and power of the great prophet, reconciling families, reducing the disobedient to obedience, preparing Israel for the coming of the Messiah. Only on this high plane could the identification be successful. The work of the forerunner here finds fullest expression. He not simply proclaims, he prepares. This is, however, the implication of the other passages; otherwise the suggested identification of Jesus with Elijah would not have been possible, for it was the very works of Jesus that called out the suggestion. The same is true in the case of John.
The belief in the reappearance of Elijah, held by the Jews of NT times, is a later stage of the belief which is expressed in Malachi 4:5 [1]: he would come before the great day of Jehovah to reconcile the hearts of parents and children. Sirach 48:10 ff. describes the same work more elaborately, and forms an early interpretation of the passage in Malachi.
The Rabbinical writings abound in expressions of the same belief, with characteristic extravagances and specifications. These Jewish traditions know Elijah as zealous in the service of God, and as a helper in distress, as well as the forerunner of the Messiah. Naturally his work is in behalf of their own people, and is performed in connexion with their own institutions.
As the Jews elaborated the earlier doctrine of the Messiah, and as in their thought He became more and more exalted in holiness and majesty, the impossibility of His appearance in the midst of all the sin and shame of Israel was increasingly felt; and the character of Elijah, the holy prophet, zealous in his earthly life for the political and religious integrity of the nation, and already enshrined in tradition as having been spared death, was a fitting one to be chosen to carry on the great work of preparing Israel for the blessings of the Messianic era. Indeed, in some passages the doctrine of Elijah has developed to such an extent as well nigh to usurp the functions of the Messiah.
Literature.—Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie, 192 and passim; Jewish Encyc. s.v.; Gfrörer, Jahrhundert des Heils, ii. 227 f.; Bacher, Agade d. Tannaiten, passim; Weber, Altsyn. pal. Theol. 337–339; Schurer, GJV [2] 3 [3] ii. 524 f.
O. H. Gates.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Elijah
1 Kings 17:1 (c) He is a type of CHRIST as Lord, as King, as the Lion, and as the Eagle. The word means "GOD is the Lord."
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Elijah
This remarkable prophet is introduced abruptly in scripture in the midst of the apostasy of the kingdom of Israel, which was brought to a head in the reign of Ahab. The object of his ministry was to recover the people to the God they had forsaken. This will explain the miraculous displays accompanying his testimony, by which the people were left without excuse. It may be noted however that the miracles had a judicial character. He shut heaven that it did not rain, and he called fire down on the captains and their fifties. They were intended to recall the people to their allegiance and responsibility to God.
He is called "Elijah the Tishbite who was of the inhabitants of Gilead" (1 Kings 17:1 ), and with no further introduction he delivered a message to Ahab of fearful import to Israel, that there should be no rain or dew these years but according to his word. In the Epistle of James we learn that what was pronounced so boldly in public was the outcome of inward exercise and earnest prayer. He forthwith retired from the public eye, and was miraculously cared for at the brook Cherith, being fed with bread and flesh morning and evening by ravens. The brook at length becoming dry, he went to Zarephath belonging to Zidon at the commandment of the Lord, where he lodged with a poor widow, whose faith was tested at the outset by the prophet's request that she should provide for his need first from her slender store of meal and oil, on the assurance of the Lord God of Israel that her barrel of meal and cruse of oil should not waste till He sent rain on the earth. She was further tested by the death of her son, upon which the power of God in resurrection was taught her through the instrumentality of the prophet. The soul of the child came again into him and he revived. This widow is referred to in Luke's Gospel along with the case of Naaman the Syrian, as illustrating the abounding of the grace of God beyond the limits of Israel. 1 Kings 17 .
In the third year the time had at length arrived for the rights of Jehovah to be vindicated before all Israel, to the confusion of the followers of Baal. Elijah under the full direction of the Lord came forth from his mysterious retreat, and showed himself to Obadiah, the governor of Ahab's house, who was engaged in searching the land for provender. This man, though in such apostate surroundings, was truly pious, and had befriended Jehovah's prophets when Jezebel had sought to slay them. Assured by Elijah that he was ready to show himself to Ahab (though this latter had in vain sought him in many kingdoms to wreak vengeance on him for the prolonged drought), he reported Elijah's appearance, and the prophet and king were soon face to face. Charged with troubling Israel, the prophet in the power of God rejoined that the guilt of this lay on Ahab and on his house, in forsaking Jehovah for Baal. He directed him to call all the prophets of Baal together to mount Carmel, and there before the assembled throng of Israel he stood alone for God. Nothing can exceed the interest of this moment when the question raised was whether Jehovah or Baal was the God. Sustained by the mighty power of Jehovah, His faithful servant directed everything. The issue is presented: the prophets of Baal offered their sacrifice, and from morning till noon in vain implored the intervention of their god. There was no voice nor any that regarded. Their failure being patent to all, Elijah then invited the people to draw near. He repaired Jehovah's altar that was broken down, building it of twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of Israel, he offered his sacrifice, deluged three times with water the altar, wood, and victim, till the trench around the altar was full; then offered up in the hearing of Israel an affecting prayer to the "Jehovah God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel," upon which the fire of the Lord fell, and all was consumed, the sacrifice, wood, stones, dust, and water. "Jehovah, He is the God" was the twice repeated cry of Israel in view of these things; and, controlled by the power of God in the prophet, they, at his bidding, seized the prophets of Baal, who were to a man slain by him. Upon this he told Ahab that there was a sound of abundance of rain, while he himself retired to the top of Carmel to note the first indications of the approaching blessing; and then, still in the power of God, he ran before Ahab's chariot to the entrance of Jezreel. 1 Kings 18 .
Jezebel let him know that her vengeance was at hand; and at the threat of this terrible woman, the prophet, lately so bold, fled the country. We now see Elijah in the wilderness, a weak and timid man, weary of the conflict, occupied with himself rather than the Lord, and asking to be allowed to die. Sustained by miraculous food, he went in the strength of it for forty days and nights to Horeb, the mount of God. Here the Lord dealt most graciously with his poor and feeble servant, who is found pleading his own jealousy for God while interceding against Israel. Wind, earthquake, and fire would have well suited the prophet in his frame of mind, but the still small voice was that of the Lord, and Elijah had to learn that He had not given up His people. He had yet 7000 whose knees had not bowed to Baal. But Elijah was to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria, Jehu to be king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room. Judgement should be executed where necessary and by instruments prepared of God. Elijah thereupon departed, and finding Elisha threw upon him his mantle. 1 Kings 29 .
For a time Elijah was in retirement, but he again reappeared on the occasion of Naboth's murder, and with the old energy of faith prophetically announced the doom of Ahab and Jezebel to Ahab's face. Once more the prophet is seen, confronting Ahab's successor and son Ahaziah, who, following closely in his parents' steps, had sent messengers to Baalzebub the god of Ekron to inquire whether he should recover from his sickness. Two captains and their fifties, who had been sent to arrest him, were smitten with fire from heaven at Elijah's word. Accompanying the third, who humbly begged for their lives, the prophet announced to the apostate king the judgement of the God he had despised. 1 Kings 21 ; 2 Kings 1 .
We have now reached the closing scene of this truly remarkable man's long and faithful service for Jehovah. The ordinary lot of man should not be his. Traversing in the close company of Elisha the spots which, however now perverted, told of certain great truths — Gilgal, of the necessity of the judgement of self, the place of circumcision — Bethel, of the faithfulness of God and the resources which are His for His own, the place where God had appeared to Jacob — Jericho, of the power of God as against all that of the enemy — they reached the Jordan through which they passed dry shod, the waters being separated hither and thither by Elijah smiting them with his mantle. The land of Israel is left by the well-known figure of death, "and it came to pass, that as they still went on and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." Figuratively he had passed through death, and ascended to heaven: this forms the basis of Elisha's ministry. 2 Kings 2 .
In the N.T. John the Baptist was in the character of Elijah as the prophet who was to come before "the great and terrible day of the Lord," to affect the hearts of the people, if he had been received; but not being received, except by a few, John declared to the Jews that he was not Elijah. So it remains for Elijah's ministry to be fulfilled ere Christ appears in glory. Malachi 4:5,6 ; Matthew 11:14 ; Luke 1:17 ; John 1:21 .
Moses and Elijah were seen on the mount of transfiguration, as representatives of the law and the prophets; but theirs was then a subordinate place, for the proclamation was "This is my beloved Son; hear him." Matthew 17:3 ; Mark 9: 4; Luke 9: 30. Elijah's testimony was given in righteousness: his ministry demanded that the righteous claims of God as the Jehovah of His people should be satisfied. Elisha's ministry differed from this, and was more of grace.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Elijah
Though the history of this highly favoured servant of the Lord would afford much improvement to enlarge upon, according to the Scripture testimony concerning him, yet it would swell this work to a size much beyond the limits intended, for the writer to indulge himself in it. I have therefore noticed this prophet, only with a view to remark the greatness of his name. Elijah is a compound word, including two of the names of JEHOVAH. Eli, my God; and Jah, the Lord. It would be thought presumptuous to call our children in the present hour by such names, in the plain English of the words, but with the Hebrews it was done in honour of the Lord God of their fathers. And so particular do the pious fathers of the Old Testament seem to have been, in naming their children, that they studied to give them such as might have some allusion to the Lord, or to retain one of the letters of JEHOVAH in them. If I venture to add another observation concerning this great man, it would be but just to remark, that in that memorable prophecy of Malachi, concerning the coming of Elijah before the day of Christ, (Malachi 4:5) though our Lord explained this to his disciples, in making reference to the spirit of Elias in the person of John the baptist, (Matthew 17:11-12) yet our Lord did not limit the coming of Elijah to that season only. The Evangelists, in describing the transfiguration of the Lord Jesus, relate that Elijah and Moses were present at the solemn scene. (Matthew 17:3-4) And there doth not seem an objection, wherefore Elijah may not again appear before the Lord Jesus comes in glory, as is supposed, he will in his reign upon earth. The expression of Malachi seems to warrant this conclusion, for it is said, that this mission of Elijah will be "before the great and dreadful day of the Lord." The first coming of Christ, was indeed a great and glorious, but not a dreadful day. Whereas, the second coming is uniformly spoken of as the terrible day of the Lord. For while it will be "to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe," it is no less said to be "in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ." (2 Thessalonians 1:8; 2Th 1:10)
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Elijah
THE prophet Elijah towers up like a mountain in Gilead above all the other prophets. There is a solitary grandeur about Elijah that is all his own. There is a mystery and an unearthliness about Elijah that is all his own. There is a volcanic suddenness, and a volcanic violence, indeed, about all Elijah's descents upon us and all his disappearances from us. We call him Elijah the Tishbite, but we are no wiser of that. We do not even know where Tishbe is. Elijah has neither father nor mother. As Elijah never died, so he was never born, as we are born. Elijah came from God, and he went to God. Elijah stood before God till God could dispense with and spare Elijah out of His presence no longer. Elijah's very name will tell you all that, and more than all that, concerning both Elijah and his father and his mother, Eli-jah-my God is Jehovah. You may know the hearts of fathers and mothers to some extent, even among ourselves, by the names they give to their children. And I leave you to judge what kind of a father and mother they must have been who so boldly coined out of Moses, and out of their own hearts, this magnificent name for their circumcised child. Elijah had a heavenly name, but he had, to begin with, but an earthly nature. Elijah was a man, to begin with, subject to like passions as we are. Elijah was a man, indeed, of passions all compact. We never see Elijah that he is not subject to some passion or other. A passion of scorn and contempt; a passion of anger and revenge; a passion of sadness and dejection and despair; a passion of preaching; a passion of prayer. Elijah was a great man. There was a great mass of manhood in Elijah. He was a Mount-Sinai of a man, with a heart like a thunderstorm. That man among ourselves who has the most human nature in him and the most heart; the most heart and the most passion in his heart; the most love and the most hate; the most anger and the most meekness; the most scorn and the most sympathy; the most sunshine and the most melancholy; the most agony in prayer, and the most victorious assurance that, all the time, his prayer is already answered-that man is the likest of us all to the prophet Elijah; that man has Elijah's own mantle fallen upon him. Only, alas! there is no such man among us. There is no man among us fit, for one moment, to stand like Elijah before God.
Now, whatever is the matter with us that God has not an Elijah among us, or anything like an Elijah, it is not that we are wanting in passions. We have all plenty of passions; and too much, since we are all so subject to our passions. What an ocean of all kinds of passions all our hearts are; and lashed with what winds without rest. What dark depths of self-love are in all our hearts. And what a master-passion is that same self-love. Self-love is a serpent; and, like the famous serpent in Scripture, it swallows up and swells out on all the other serpents of which our hearts are full. Yes; we all have passions enough to make us not Elijahs and Ahabs only, but angels in heaven, or devils in hell. And our passions are every day doing that within us. All the difference between Elijah and Ahab was in the subjection of their passions. Elijah was a man of immensely stronger passions than poor Ahab ever was; only Elijah's powerful passions all swept him up to heaven, whereas all Ahab's contemptible passions shouldered And shovelled and sucked him down to hell. Queen Jezebel, also, Ahab's wife, when she was still a woman-child, her passions were as sweet and pure and good and subject as were the passions of the Virgin Mary herself. The whole difference between Elijah and Ahab, and between Jezebel and the mother of our Lord was in their hearts' desires, till their hearts' desires grew up into all-consuming passions.
On life's vast ocean diversely we sail,Reason the card; but passion is the gale.May I govern my passions with absolute sway,And grow wiser and better as my strength wears away.And what a passionate preacher Elijah was. You know the story of the play-actor who scouted the minister because he dawdled over his prayers and his sermons as if he was ashamed of his message. 'We act our parts in dead earnest,' he said; 'and that is the reason that you have to sell your empty churches to us to make our theatres out of them.'
Yea,This man's brow, like to a title-page,Foretells the nature of a tragic volume.Thou tremblest, and the whiteness of thy cheekIs apter than thy tongue to tell thy errand.'Hear, O Lord, and have mercy upon me in this matter of preaching. Lord, be Thou my helper. Turn my dreamings,' implores the passionate Andrewes, 'into earnestness, my follies into cleansings of myself, my guilt into indignation, my past sin into all the greater fear for the future, my sloth into passionate desire, and my pollution into revenge. And enable me, O my God, to bend all my passions of faith, and love, and hate, and fear, revenge, and remorse, and what not, in upon my own salvation, and the salvation of my people!'
And then in prayer. The translators of the New Testament tell us that they have preserved the Apostle James's passionate idiom in the margin of the text, 'Elias with all his passions prayed in his prayer.' And I, for one, am for ever deep in their debt for their so doing, for the prophetic and apostolic idiom in the margin takes possession of my imagination. It touches my heart; it speaks to my conscience and that because, after all these years of prayer, how seldom it is that we really 'pray in our prayers,' as the apostle tells us that the prophet prayed. We repeat choice passages of scripture in our prayers. We recite with studied pathos classical paragraphs out of Isaiah and Ezekiel. We praise one man and we blame another man in our prayers. We pronounce appreciations and we pass judgments in our prayers. We do everything in our prayers but truly pray. The Bible naturally shows a preference for men of like passions with itself; and the more of his passions any man puts into his prayer, the more space and the more praise the Bible gives to that man. Jacob was a prince in the passionateness of his prayer all that night at the Jabbok. What a tempest of passion broke upon the throne of God all that night. What a tempest of fear, and despair, and remorse, and self-accusation, of all indeed that was within Jacob's passionate heart. Jacob's raging passions really tore him to pieces that terrible night in his prayer. His very thighbones were twisted and torn out of their sockets, and his strongest sinews snapped like so many silly threads. There was not on the face of the earth another night of passion in prayer like that for the next two thousand years. Esau, also, often halted upon his thigh. But that was with hunting too hard; that was with running down venison, and leaping hedges and ditches after his quarry. Esau wrestled with wild beasts with all his passions, but Jacob wrestled with the angel. Now, let any man among ourselves henceforth pray in his prayers like Jacob and Elijah: let any man among ourselves determine to put his passions into his prayers like Jacob and Elijah, and it will make him a new man. His heart, and all the passions of his heart, will, in that way, more and more be drawn off the things of this life, and will be directed in upon the great world that is within him, and above him, and before him. The heat of his heart will begin to burn after heavenly things. His passions, that have made him so impossible for men to live with, will now all become subdued, and softened, and sweetened till he will be like a little child in your hands. He was at one time so hard, so harsh, so impossible to please, so full of his own opinions and prejudices, so loud, and so forward, and so wilful. But you never hear him now, he so despises himself, and so honours, and respects, and yields up to you. Nothing in the world so renews a man as putting his passions into his prayers. This, in time, will make a saint of the very chief of sinners. This, in time, will turn a heart of stone into a heart of flesh. O why do we ministers not preach more about prayer, and about the employment of our own and our people's passions in prayer! But if your ministers do not so preach, and do not know the way-you are independent of them. There is a great literature of prayer, and it would splendidly and immediately repay and reward you and your households to have it in your hands every day.
But Elijah would not be the great lesson to us that he is if he were always Elijah, with all his passions at all times at a flame in his prayers. That no man may glory before God, after all that Elijah has done, we see him before he dies just as weak, and as downcast, and as embittered, and as unhappy as if he had never known how to subdue and subject and sanctify his passions. No. It is no strange thing that is happening to us when we sit under our juniper-bush and say, 'It is enough. Now, O Lord, take away my life, for I am no better than my fathers.' Elijah was getting old. He was feeling lonely. His work seemed to him to have all come to nothing. Till death was now his only desire, and the grave his true resting-place. All men have their own dejections, and defeats, and despairs. But ministers far more than all other men. Partly from themselves; partly from the peculiar nature of their work; and partly from the deadly opposition to it in the world, and in the hearts of their people. What have I been spending all my life for? an old minister asks himself. Who is any better of all my work? Who is any holier or any happier, or whose house? Who is any less selfish, any less proud, any less worldly-minded, any less envious, any less ill-natured, any less faultfinding, any less evil-spoken? So we despond. So we repine. So we despair. So we sit and say after the triumphs, and the praises, and the hopes of our youth are all past, and our early successes are all over. It is enough. And now, O Lord, take away my life. But it is our pride. It is our self-will. It is our passions coming out of our prayers and coming in between us and our despisers, opposers, and persecutors. How much better did Samuel behave himself when he was deprived and dismissed and his work all forgotten. Samuel's wisdom and sweetness and absolute heavenly-mindedness never came out more than in his solitary and superseded old age, when he counselled and comforted the people, and said, God forbid that I should sin against the Lord in ceasing to pray for you; but I will still teach you the good and the right way. In this way Samuel showed Elijah the way to keep his old heart young to the end, and his spirit quiet, and good, and sweet, and beautiful. And it was prayer that did it; and it was putting all his remaining passions still into his prayers to his very end; and it was in that way that Samuel did it, and that Elijah at last learned to do it also.
For Elijah's passions all came back to all their first obedience, and to all their former splendid service, as he stood by Jordan and waited for his signal from the Lord. For, what was the chariot of Israel to Elijah that day, but Elijah's heart already in heaven? And what were those horses of fire that day, but all Elijah's passions all harnessed, in all their heaven-bounding strength, to that heavenly chariot? His faith, his fearlessness, his scorn of evil, his prayerfulness, his devotion to Israel and to God. Those horses of heavenly fire all spurned the earth as they stood and champed by the Jordan. And when the Lord would take up Elijah to Himself, all those horses of fire sprang with one leap up to heaven. And when Elisha saw it he cried, My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof! And he saw him no more.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Elijah
Elijah (e-lî'jah), my God is Jehovah. 1. That most renowned prophet of Israel who, with no introduction as to his birth or parentage, or even account of the divine commission given to him, bursts forth in sacred story as the stern denouncer of judgment on apostate Israel, and who, after his marvelous course of miracle and bold vindication of God's authority, is translated without tasting death. He first appears as a messenger from God to Ahab, the wicked king of Israel, probably in the tenth year of his reign. He was sent to prophesy three years' drought in the land of Israel. After delivering this startling and distressing prophecy, he was directed to flee to the brook Cherith, where he was miraculously fed by ravens. When the brook had dried up he was sent to a widow woman of Zarephath, and again the hand of the Lord supplied his wants and those of his friends. He raised the widow's son to life. 1 Kings 17:1-24. After the famine had lasted the predicted period, Elijah encountered Ahab, and then ensued the magnificent display of divine power and of human trust upon the ridge of Carmel. 1 Kings 18:1-46. See Ahab. The reaction from such a mental strain left the prophet in a weak, nervous condition, and in a fit of despondency he fled from Jezebel into the "wilderness" and desired death. In Mount Sinai the downcast man of God was witness of Jehovah's strength and experienced Jehovah's tenderness in a very remarkable vision. 1 Kings 19:9-18. He anointed Elisha to be prophet in his room. 1 Kings 19:1-21. He then retired into privacy, but after the dastardly murder of Naboth he suddenly appeared before the guilty king and announced the judgment of Jehovah against the royal pair. 1 Kings 21:1-29. Several years after occurred the prophecy of Ahaziah's death. 2 Kings 1:1-1 See Ahaziah. The slaughter by fire of the two companies of troops sent to take Elijah must have greatly increased the popular awe of the prophet. Elijah was translated to heaven in a miraculous manner. 2 Kings 2:1-25. The character of Elijah made a deep impression upon the Jews. He was expected to return to earth as the forerunner of Messiah; an expectation encouraged by the remarkable prophecy, Malachi 4:5-6, already referred to. The prophecy was indeed fulfilled, but not in the way they imagined. John Baptist, though not personally Elijah, John 1:21, was to go before the Messiah in the spirit and power of the ancient prophet, Luke 1:17; and thus our Lord himself explained the matter to his disciples. Matthew 17:10-13. There was, it is true, a personal appearance of Elijah with Moses, when the two in glory stood beside the transfigured Saviour on the holy mount, and talked with him of his coming death—a proof how both the law and the prophets pointed to a Redeemer suffering ere he was triumphant. Matthew 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36. There are those who believe that the prediction of Elijah's coming has not yet had its full accomplishment; and they expect, before the second appearing of the Lord, that the old stern prophet of Gilead, who never died, will tread the earth again. Such a question, however, cannot be discussed here.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Elijah
Elijah or Elias, a prophet, was a native of Tishbe beyond Jordan in Gilead. Some think that he was a priest descended from Aaron, and say that one Sabaca was his father; but this has no authority. He was raised up by God, to be set like a wall of brass, in opposition to idolatry, and particularly to the worship of Baal, which Jezebel and Ahab supported in Israel. The Scripture introduces Elijah saying to Ahab, 1 Kings 17:1-2 , A.M. 3092, "As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word." It is remarkable, that the number of years is not here specified; but in the New Testament we are informed that it was three years and six months. By the prohibition of dew as well as ruin, the whole vegetable kingdom was deprived of that moisture, without which neither the more hardy, nor more delicate kinds of plants could shoot into herbage, or bring that herbage to maturity. The Lord commanded Elijah to conceal himself beyond Jordan, near the brook Cherith. He obeyed, and God sent ravens to him morning and evening, which brought him flesh and bread. Scheutzer observes, that he cannot think that the orebim of the Hebrew, rendered "ravens," means, as some have thought, the inhabitants of a town called Oreb, nor a troop of Arabs called orbhim; and contends that the bird called the raven, or one of the same genus, is intended. Suppose that Elijah was concealed from Ahab in some rocky or mountainous spot, where travellers never came; and that here a number of voracious birds had built their nests upon the trees which grew around it, or upon a projecting rock, &c. These flying every day to procure food for their young, the prophet availed himself of a part of what they brought; and while they, obeying the dictates of nature, designed only to provide for their offspring, Divine providence directed them to provide at the same time for the wants of Elijah. What, therefore, he collected, whether from their nests, from what they dropped, or under a supernatural influence, brought to him, or occasionally from all these means, was enough for his daily support. "And the orebim furnished him bread or flesh in the morning, and bread or flesh in the evening." But as there were probably several of them, some might furnish bread and others flesh, as it happened; so that a little from each formed his solitary but satisfactory meal. To such straits was the exiled prophet driven! Perhaps these orebim were not strictly ravens, but rooks. The word rendered raven, includes the whole genus, among which are some less impure than the raven, as the rook. Rooks living in numerous societies, are supposed by some to be the kind of birds employed on this occasion, rather than ravens, which fly only in pairs. But upon all these explanations we may observe, that when an event is evidently miraculous, it is quite superfluous, and often absurd, to invent hypotheses to make it appear mere easy. After a time the brook dried up, and God sent Elijah to Zarephath, a city of the Sidonians. At the city gate he met with a widow woman gathering sticks, from whom he desired a little water, adding, "Bring me, I pray thee, also a morsel of bread." She answered, "As the Lord liveth, I have no bread, but only a handful of meal, and a little oil in a cruse; and I am gathering some sticks, that I may dress it for me and my son, that we may eat it, and die." Elijah said, "Make first a little cake, and bring it me, and afterward make for thee and thy son: for thus saith the Lord, the barrel of meal shall not waste, neither shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day the Lord sendeth rain upon the earth." His prediction was fully accomplished, and he dwelt at the house of this widow. Some time after, the son of this woman fell sick, and died. The mother, overwhelmed with grief, intreated the assistance and interposition of Elijah, who taking the child in his arms, laid him on his own bed, and cried to the Lord for the restoration of the child's life. The Lord heard the prophet's petition, and restored the child.
2. After three years of drought, the Lord commanded Elijah to show himself to Ahab. The famine being great in Samaria, Ahab sent the people throughout the country, to inquire after places where they might find forage for the cattle. Obadiah, an officer of the king's household, being thus employed, Elijah presented himself, and directed him to tell Ahab, "Behold, Elijah is here!" Ahab came to meet the prophet, and reproached him as the cause of the famine. Elijah retorted the charge upon the king, and his iniquities, and challenged Ahab to gather the people together, and the prophets of Baal, that it might be determined by a sign from heaven, the falling of fire upon the sacrifice, who was the true God. In this the prophet obeyed the impulse of the Spirit of God; and Ahab, either under an influence of which he was not conscious, or blindly confident in the cause of idolatry, followed Elijah's direction, and convened the people of Israel, and four hundred prophets of Baal. The prophets of Baal prepared their altar, sacrificed their bullock, placed it on the altar, and called upon their gods. They leaped upon the altar, and cut themselves after their manner, crying with all their might. Elijah ridiculed them, and said, "Cry aloud, for he is god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked." When midday was past, Elijah repaired the altar of the Lord; and with twelve stones, in allusion to the twelve tribes of Israel, he built a new altar. He then laid his bullock upon the wood, poured a great quantity of water three times upon the sacrifice and the wood, so that the water filled the trench which was dug round the altar. After this he prayed, and, in answer to his prayer, the Lord sent fire from heaven, and consumed the wood, the burnt sacrifice, the stones, and dust of the place, and even dried up the water in the trench. Upon this, all the people fell on their faces, and exclaimed, "The Lord, he is the God." Elijah then, having excited the people to slay the false prophets of Baal, said to Ahab, "Go home, eat and drink, for I hear the sound of abundance of rain;" which long-expected blessing descended from heaven according to his prediction, and gave additional proof to the truth of his mission from the only living and true God.
3. Jezebel, the wife of Ahab, threatened Elijah for having slain her prophets. He therefore fled to Beersheba, in the south of Judah, and thence into Arabia Petrea. In the evening, being exhausted with fatigue, he laid himself down under a juniper tree, and prayed God to take him out of the world. An angel touched him, and he arose, and saw a cake baked on the coals, and a cruse of water; and he ate and drank, and slept again. The angel again awakened him, and said, "Rise and eat, for the journey is too great for thee;" and he ate and drank, and went in the strength of that meat forty days and forty nights, unto Horeb, the mount of God. Here he had visions of the glory and majesty of God, and conversed with him; and was commanded to return to the wilderness of Damascus, to anoint Hazael king over Syria, and Jehu king over Israel, and to appoint Elisha his successor in the prophetic office. Some years after, Ahab having seized Naboth's vineyard, the Lord commanded Elijah to reprove Ahab for the crime he had committed. Elijah met him going to Naboth's vineyard to take possession of it, and said, "In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth, shall they lick thy blood, even thine. And the dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel." Both of which predictions were fulfilled in the presence of the people. Ahaziah, king of Israel, being hurt by a fall from the platform of his house, sent to consult Baalzebub, the god of Ekron, whether he should recover. Elijah met the messengers, and said to them, "Is it because there is no God in Israel, that ye go to inquire of Baalzebub, the god of Ekron? Now, therefore, saith the Lord, Thou shalt surely die." The messengers of Ahaziah returned, and informed the king, that a stranger had told them he should certainly die; and Ahaziah knew that this was the Prophet Elijah.
The king, therefore, sent a captain with his company of fifty men, to apprehend him; and when the officer was come to Elijah, who was sitting upon a hill, he said, "Thou man of God, the king commands thee to come down." Elijah answered, "If I be a man of God, let fire come down from heaven, and consume thee and thy fifty." The prophet's words were followed with the effect predicted. The king sent another captain, who was also consumed; but a third captain going to Elijah, intreated him to save him and his people's lives, and Elijah accompanied him to the king. By these fearful miracles he was accredited to this successor of Ahab as a prophet of the true God, and the destruction of these companies of armed men, was a demonstration of God's anger against the people at large.
Elijah could not in this case act from any other impulse than that of the Spirit of God.
4. Elijah, understanding by revelation that God would soon translate him out of this world, was desirous of concealing this fact from Elisha, his inseparable companion. He therefore said to Elisha, "Tarry thou here, for the Lord hath sent me to Bethel." But Elisha answered, "I will not leave thee." At Bethel, Elijah said, "Tarry thou here, the Lord hath sent me to Jericho;" but Elisha replied, he would not forsake him. At Jericho Elijah desired him to stay; but Elisha would not leave him. They went therefore together to Jordan, and fifty of the sons of the prophets followed them at a distance. When they were come to the Jordan, Elijah took his mantle, and with it struck the waters, which divided, and they went over on dry ground. Elijah then said to Elisha, "Ask what I shall do for thee before I be taken away from thee." "I pray thee," said Elisha, "let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me;" that is, obtain the gift of prophecy from God for me, in the same measure that thou possessest it. Double may signify like; or the gift of prophecy, and of miracles, in a degree double to what thou dost possess, or to what I now possess. Elijah answered, "Thou hast asked me a very hard thing; yet, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so." As they journeyed, a fiery chariot, with horses of fire, suddenly separated them, and Elijah was carried in a whirlwind to heaven; while Elisha exclaimed, "My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof!"
5. Elijah was one of the most eminent of that illustrious and singular race of men, the Jewish prophets. Every part of his character is marked by a moral grandeur, which is heightened by the obscurity thrown around his connections, and his private history. He often wears the air of a supernatural messenger suddenly issuing from another world, to declare the commands of heaven, and to awe the proudest mortals by the menace of fearful judgments. His boldness in reproof; his lofty zeal for the honour of God; his superiority to softness, ease, and suffering, are the characters of a man filled with the Holy Spirit; and he was admitted to great intimacy with God, and enabled to work miracles of a very extraordinary and unequivocal character. These were called for by the stupid idolatry of the age, and were in some instances equally calculated to demonstrate the being and power of Jehovah, and to punish those who had forsaken him for idols. The author of Ecclesiasticus has an encomium to his memory, and justly describes him as a prophet "who stood up as fire, and whose word burned as a lamp." In the sternness and power of his reproofs, he was a striking type of John the Baptist, and the latter is therefore prophesied of, under his name. Malachi 4:5-6 , has this passage: "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord." Our Saviour also declares that Elijah had already come in spirit, in the person of John the Baptist. At the transfiguration of our Saviour, Elijah and Moses both appeared and conversed with him respecting his future passion, Matthew 17:3-4 ; Mark 9:4 ; Luke 9:30 . Many of the Jews in our Lord's time believed him to be Elijah, or that the soul of Elijah had passed into his body, Matthew 16:14 ; Mark 6:15 ; Luke 9:8 . In conclusion, we may observe, that to assure the world of the future existence of good men in a state of glory and felicity, and that in bodies changed from mortality to immortality, each of the three grand dispensations of religion had its instance of translation into heaven; the patriarchal in the person of ENOCH, the Jewish in the person of ELIJAH, and the Christian in the person of CHRIST.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Elijah
(Hebrew: Yahweh is God)
Prophet of the Old Testament. He announced to Achad, King of Israel, who under the influence of his Tyrian wife Jezabel had erected a temple to Baal, that Jehovah had determined to avenge the apostasy of Israel by bringing a long drought on the land. During the drought which lasted three years, Elias withdrew to the vicinity of the brook Carith, where he was fed by the ravens. After the brook had dried up he crossed over to Sarepta, where he was hospitably received by a poor widow, whose charity he rewarded by increasing her store of meal and oil and by raising her child to life. At length he once more confronted the king and challenged the prophets of Baal to a contest on Mount Carmel, when Elias's oblation was consumed by fire from heaven, and the false prophets were slain by the people at his command. He was obliged to flee from the wrath of Jezabel and while on Mount Horeb was commissioned by Jehovah to anoint Hazael to be King of Syria, Jehu to be King of Israel, and Eliseus to be his own successor. Subsequently he denounced Achab for the murder of Naboth and reprimanded Ochozias and Joram, King of Juda. While conversing with Eliseus on the hills of Moab he was translated to heaven in a fiery chariot. The Carmelite Order traces its origin to him. An apocryphal Apocalypse of Elias was partly recovered by Maspero in a Coptic translation.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Elijah
God the Lord
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Elijah
The prophet, a native of Tishbeh in Gilead, 1 Kings 17:1 . His parentage and early history are unknown. His bold faithfulness provoked the wrath of Ahab and Jezebel, especially when he threatened several years of drought and famine as a punishment for the sins of Israel, B. C. 908. By the divine direction the prophet took refuge on the bank of the brook Cherith, where he was miraculously fed by ravens. Thence he resorted to Zarephath, in Phoenicia; where one miracle provided him with sustenance and another restored to life the child of his hostess. Returning to King Ahab, he procured the great assembling at mount Carmel, where God "answered by fire," and the prophets of Baal were destroyed. Now too the long and terrible drought was broken, and a plentiful rain descended at the prophet's prayer. Finding that not even these mighty works of God would bring the nation and its rulers to repentance, Elijah was almost in despair. He fled into the wilderness, and was brought to Horeb, the mount of God, where he was comforted by a vision of God's power and grace. Again he is sent on a long journey to Damascus to anoint Hazael as king of Syria. Jehu also he anoints to be king of Israel, and Elisha he summons to become a prophet. Six years later he denounces Ahab and Jezebel for their crimes in the matter of Naboth; and afterwards again is seen foretelling the death of king Ahaziah, and calling fire from heaven upon two bands of guards sent to arrest him. Being now forewarned of the approach of his removal from earth, he gives his last instructions to the school of the prophets, crosses the Jordan miraculously, and is borne to heaven in a fiery chariot without tasting death, leaving his mantle and office to Elisha, 1 Kings 17:1-19:21 21:29 2 Kings 1:1-2:18 .
His translation occurred about B. C. 896. Previously, it is supposed, he had written the letter which, eight years afterwards, announced to king Jehoram his approaching sickness and death, 2 Chronicles 21:12-19 .
Elijah was one of the most eminent and honored of the Hebrew prophets. He was bold, faithful, stern, self-denying, and zealous for the honor of God. His whole character and life are marked by peculiar moral grandeur. He bursts upon our view without previous notice; he disappears by a miracle. He bears the appearance of a supernatural messenger of heaven, who has but one work to do, and whose mind is engrossed in its performance. His history is one of the most extraordinary on record, and is fraught with instruction. It was a high honor granted to Moses and Elijah, that they alone should appear on the mount of Transfiguration, many centuries after they had gone into heaven-to bear witness of its existence, and commune with the Savior concerning his death, Luke 9:28-35 .
John the Baptist was foretold under the name of Elias, or Elijah, from his resemblance in character and life to the ancient prophet of Israel, Malachi 4:5,6 Matthew 17:10-13 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Elijah
This remarkable prophet is introduced abruptly in scripture in the midst of the apostasy of the kingdom of Israel, which was brought to a head in the reign of Ahab. The object of his ministry was to recover the people to the God they had forsaken. This will explain the miraculous displays accompanying his testimony, by which the people were left without excuse. It may be noted however that the miracles had a judicial character. He shut heaven that it did not rain, and he called fire down on the captains and their fifties. They were intended to recall the people to their allegiance and responsibility to God.
He is called "Elijah the Tishbite who was of the inhabitants of Gilead" (1 Kings 17:1 ), and with no further introduction he delivered a message to Ahab of fearful import to Israel, that there should be no rain or dew these years but according to his word. In the Epistle of James we learn that what was pronounced so boldly in public was the outcome of inward exercise and earnest prayer. He forthwith retired from the public eye, and was miraculously cared for at the brook Cherith, being fed with bread and flesh morning and evening by ravens. The brook at length becoming dry, he went to Zarephath belonging to Zidon at the commandment of the Lord, where he lodged with a poor widow, whose faith was tested at the outset by the prophet's request that she should provide for his need first from her slender store of meal and oil, on the assurance of the Lord God of Israel that her barrel of meal and cruse of oil should not waste till He sent rain on the earth. She was further tested by the death of her son, upon which the power of God in resurrection was taught her through the instrumentality of the prophet. The soul of the child came again into him and he revived. This widow is referred to in Luke's Gospel along with the case of Naaman the Syrian, as illustrating the abounding of the grace of God beyond the limits of Israel. 1 Kings 17 .
In the third year the time had at length arrived for the rights of Jehovah to be vindicated before all Israel, to the confusion of the followers of Baal. Elijah under the full direction of the Lord came forth from his mysterious retreat, and showed himself to Obadiah, the governor of Ahab's house, who was engaged in searching the land for provender. This man, though in such apostate surroundings, was truly pious, and had befriended Jehovah's prophets when Jezebel had sought to slay them. Assured by Elijah that he was ready to show himself to Ahab (though this latter had in vain sought him in many kingdoms to wreak vengeance on him for the prolonged drought), he reported Elijah's appearance, and the prophet and king were soon face to face. Charged with troubling Israel, the prophet in the power of God rejoined that the guilt of this lay on Ahab and on his house, in forsaking Jehovah for Baal. He directed him to call all the prophets of Baal together to mount Carmel, and there before the assembled throng of Israel he stood alone for God. Nothing can exceed the interest of this moment when the question raised was whether Jehovah or Baal was the God. Sustained by the mighty power of Jehovah, His faithful servant directed everything. The issue is presented: the prophets of Baal offered their sacrifice, and from morning till noon in vain implored the intervention of their god. There was no voice nor any that regarded. Their failure being patent to all, Elijah then invited the people to draw near. He repaired Jehovah's altar that was broken down, building it of twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of Israel, he offered his sacrifice, deluged three times with water the altar, wood, and victim, till the trench around the altar was full; then offered up in the hearing of Israel an affecting prayer to the "Jehovah God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel," upon which the fire of the Lord fell, and all was consumed, the sacrifice, wood, stones, dust, and water. "Jehovah, He is the God" was the twice repeated cry of Israel in view of these things; and, controlled by the power of God in the prophet, they, at his bidding, seized the prophets of Baal, who were to a man slain by him. Upon this he told Ahab that there was a sound of abundance of rain, while he himself retired to the top of Carmel to note the first indications of the approaching blessing; and then, still in the power of God, he ran before Ahab's chariot to the entrance of Jezreel. 1 Kings 18 .
Jezebel let him know that her vengeance was at hand; and at the threat of this terrible woman, the prophet, lately so bold, fled the country. We now see Elijah in the wilderness, a weak and timid man, weary of the conflict, occupied with himself rather than the Lord, and asking to be allowed to die. Sustained by miraculous food, he went in the strength of it for forty days and nights to Horeb, the mount of God. Here the Lord dealt most graciously with his poor and feeble servant, who is found pleading his own jealousy for God while interceding against Israel. Wind, earthquake, and fire would have well suited the prophet in his frame of mind, but the still small voice was that of the Lord, and Elijah had to learn that He had not given up His people. He had yet 7000 whose knees had not bowed to Baal. But Elijah was to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria, Jehu to be king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room. Judgement should be executed where necessary and by instruments prepared of God. Elijah thereupon departed, and finding Elisha threw upon him his mantle. 1 Kings 29 .
For a time Elijah was in retirement, but he again reappeared on the occasion of Naboth's murder, and with the old energy of faith prophetically announced the doom of Ahab and Jezebel to Ahab's face. Once more the prophet is seen, confronting Ahab's successor and son Ahaziah, who, following closely in his parents' steps, had sent messengers to Baalzebub the god of Ekron to inquire whether he should recover from his sickness. Two captains and their fifties, who had been sent to arrest him, were smitten with fire from heaven at Elijah's word. Accompanying the third, who humbly begged for their lives, the prophet announced to the apostate king the judgement of the God he had despised. 1 Kings 21 ; 2 Kings 1 .
We have now reached the closing scene of this truly remarkable man's long and faithful service for Jehovah. The ordinary lot of man should not be his. Traversing in the close company of Elisha the spots which, however now perverted, told of certain great truths — Gilgal, of the necessity of the judgement of self, the place of circumcision — Bethel, of the faithfulness of God and the resources which are His for His own, the place where God had appeared to Jacob — Jericho, of the power of God as against all that of the enemy — they reached the Jordan through which they passed dry shod, the waters being separated hither and thither by Elijah smiting them with his mantle. The land of Israel is left by the well-known figure of death, "and it came to pass, that as they still went on and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." Figuratively he had passed through death, and ascended to heaven: this forms the basis of Elisha's ministry. 2 Kings 2 .
In the N.T. John the Baptist was in the character of Elijah as the prophet who was to come before "the great and terrible day of the Lord," to affect the hearts of the people, if he had been received; but not being received, except by a few, John declared to the Jews that he was not Elijah. So it remains for Elijah's ministry to be fulfilled ere Christ appears in glory. Malachi 4:5,6 ; Matthew 11:14 ; Luke 1:17 ; John 1:21 .
Moses and Elijah were seen on the mount of transfiguration, as representatives of the law and the prophets; but theirs was then a subordinate place, for the proclamation was "This is my beloved Son; hear him." Matthew 17:3 ; Mark 9: 4; Luke 9: 30. Elijah's testimony was given in righteousness: his ministry demanded that the righteous claims of God as the Jehovah of His people should be satisfied. Elisha's ministry differed from this, and was more of grace.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Elijah
The chief purpose for which God raised up Elijah was to preserve in Israel the worship of Yahweh, Israel’s covenant God. Israel had always been tempted to mix the worship of their God with the religious practices of local Baalism (see BAAL), but matters suddenly worsened after Jezebel became queen. Jezebel was daughter of the king-priest of Philistia and had married King Ahab of Israel. She brought with her a new and more dangerous form of Baalism, which she then tried to make the national religion of Israel. This was the Baalism of the god Melqart, whose influence had already spread south along the Mediterranean coast as far as Mt Carmel (1 Kings 16:30-33).
Early resistance to Baalism
Baal was supposed to control nature and fertility. Therefore, to show the powerlessness of Baal, Elijah announced a three-year drought throughout Israel and Phoenicia. God’s miraculous provisions of food, both in Israel and in Phoenicia, showed that he, not Baal, was the God of nature (1 Kings 17:1-4; 1 Kings 17:9; 1 Kings 17:16; cf. Luke 4:25-26). Elijah’s healing of the widow’s son confirmed the woman’s faith in the one true God (1 Kings 17:24).
After three years of drought, Elijah challenged Ahab to gather Baal’s prophets to Mt Carmel for a public contest to show who was the true God, Yahweh or Baal (1 Kings 18:19-21). The Baal priests considered Mt Carmel to be one of their sacred sites, yet even there they were shamefully defeated (1 Kings 18:40). As a final proof that Israel’s God, not Baal, controlled nature, Elijah announced that God would end the drought by sending a storm. That same day the drought ended (1 Kings 18:41-46; cf. James 5:17-18).
Elijah felt that he was fighting alone in his battle with Jezebel’s Baalism (1 Kings 18:22; Romans 11:1-5). This feeling was strengthened when, in spite of his spectacular victory over Baal at Mt Carmel, nothing in Israel seemed to have changed. The people did not cease from their Baal worship, and Jezebel did not cease from her efforts to kill him. He therefore fled for his life (1 Kings 19:1-3).
God directed Elijah south to Mt Sinai, the place where, centuries earlier, he had established his covenant with Israel. There he showed Elijah the difference between spectacular public events and the quiet work of God within people’s hearts. The former may have some use, but Israel would have truly lasting benefits only as people listened to the voice of God in their hearts and responded to it. God assured Elijah that a minority of people in Israel would make the quiet response of faithfulness to him (1 Kings 19:10-12; 1 Kings 19:18).
For Israel’s idolatrous majority, however, there would be further violent and spectacular events, but these would be in judgment against them rather than against Baal. God’s instruments of judgment against Israel would be an enemy king Hazael, an Israelite king Jehu, and Elijah’s successor Elisha (1 Kings 19:15-21).
Ministry fulfilled
In addition to opposing Ahab and Jezebel because of their Baalism, Elijah opposed them because of their greed and injustice. After their seizure of Naboth’s vineyard, Elijah announced the judgment of God upon them (1 Kings 21:20-24). Ahab’s son Ahaziah, who came to the throne after Ahab’s death, continued the worship of Baal and likewise met opposition from Elijah. God preserved Elijah from Ahaziah’s attempts to capture him, and then used Elijah to pronounce certain death upon the Baalist king (2 Kings 1:2-4; 2 Kings 1:13-17).
The time had now come for Elijah to pass on to Elisha the responsibility for preserving the faithful and preparing judgment for the Baalists. Elijah tested his young successor to see whether he was prepared for the difficult and wide-ranging work ahead, or whether he would rather settle at one of the schools of the prophets (2 Kings 2:1-6). Elisha stayed with Elijah to the end, and in due course received Elijah’s spiritual inheritance (2 Kings 2:9). Elijah’s earthly life ended when he was taken up to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:11).
Jews of a later era expected the return of Elijah immediately before the coming of the Messiah (Malachi 4:5-6; Mark 6:15; Mark 8:27-28). Jesus pointed out that this ‘Elijah’, this forerunner of the Messiah, was John the Baptist (Matthew 11:10-14; Matthew 17:10-13; Luke 1:17).
On the occasion of Jesus’ transfiguration, Elijah and Moses appeared together talking with Jesus about his coming death, and witnessing something of his coming glory. These two men, the great lawgiver and the great prophet, were representative figures from the former era. Their presence symbolized that the one to whom the law and the prophets pointed had now arrived. All the expectations of the former era were now fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Luke 9:28-31; cf. Luke 24:27; see TRANSFIGURATION).

Sentence search

Elias - (ih li' uhss) KJV New Testament spelling of Elijah, transliterating the Greek spelling. See Elijah
Eliah - (ih li' ah) KJV spelling of Elijah in 1 Chronicles 8:27 ; Ezra 10:26 . See Elijah
Elias - The Greek form of Elijah (Matthew 11:14 ; 16:14 , etc. (See Elijah
Mantle - Elijah, who was the master of Elisha, left this garment for Elisha, so that all would know that Elisha now was the successor to Elijah, and could and would exercise all the powers of Elijah
Elias - ELIAS or Elijah. in the Scripture portion that treats of Elijah
Cherith, Brook of - (chee' rihth) The place where God instructed Elijah to hide after the prophet had declared the coming of a drought to Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 17:3 ). See Elijah
Elias - See Elijah
Elijah - The false prophets called on their gods, and Elijah called on His God to see which would rain fire from heaven. After the false prophets failed to hear from their gods, Elijah wet the wood on his altar to the true God by pouring four jars of water over it three times. In response of Elijah's prayer, Yahweh rained fire from heaven to consume the wet wood. As a result of their deception, Elijah ordered the false prophets killed. ...
Elijah next prophesied that the drought was soon to end (1 Kings 18:41 ) after three rainless years. From Carmel, Elijah prayed. Elijah outran his chariot and the storm to arrive at Jezreel. ...
Baalism Interwoven in the life of Elijah is his struggle with Baalism. A later involvement with Naboth showed the moral superiority of Elijah's faith (2 Kings 9:25-37 ). ...
Jezebel planned revenge toward Elijah for ordering the false prophets slain, so Elijah retreated to Judah and finally Mount Horeb. ...
Prophet His prophetic role constantly placed Elijah in opposition to the majority of the people of his nation. Their toleration of polytheism was the ongoing reason for Elijah's prophetic denunciations. Elijah intercepted them and sent word back to Ahaziah that he was soon to die (2 Kings 1:1 ). Ahaziah sent three different detachments of fifty soldiers each to arrest Elijah. He safely escorted Elijah to the king where he delivered the prophecy of his pending death personally. ...
Relationship to Messiah Elijah and Elisha were involved in the schools of the prophets when Elijah struck the waters of the Jordan and they parted to allow their crossing (2 Kings 2:1-12 ). There, immediately after conferring a double portion of his spirit on Elisha (2 Kings 2:9 ), the two were separated by a chariot and horses of fire which carried Elijah away in a whirlwind as Elisha watched shouting, “My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. ”...
Malachi promised God would send Elijah the prophet before the coming “day of the Lord” (Malachi 4:5 ). John the Baptist was spoken of as the one who would go before Messiah “in the spirit and power” of Elijah (Luke 1:17 ). John personally denied that he was literally Elijah reincarnate (John 1:21 ,John 1:21,1:25 ). Some considered Jesus to be Elijah (Matthew 16:14 ; Mark 6:15 ). ...
Elijah appeared along with Moses on the Mount of Transfiguration with Jesus to discuss His “departure. ” Here Peter suggested that three tabernacles be built for Jesus, Moses, and Elijah (Matthew 17:4 ; Mark 9:5 ; Luke 9:33 ). ...
Paul used as an illustration of faithfulness the 7,000 faithful worshipers in the time of Elijah (Romans 11:2-5 ). ...
The two witnesses referred to in Revelation 11:6 are not identified by name, but their capacity “to shut heaven, that it rain not” leads many to conclude they are Moses and Elijah
Elijah - Elijah the Prophet: ...
Elias - See Elijah
Elias - Same as Elijah
Eli'as, - the Greek form of Elijah
Elias - The Greek form of Elijah, q
Elijah - The chief purpose for which God raised up Elijah was to preserve in Israel the worship of Yahweh, Israel’s covenant God. Therefore, to show the powerlessness of Baal, Elijah announced a three-year drought throughout Israel and Phoenicia. Elijah’s healing of the widow’s son confirmed the woman’s faith in the one true God (1 Kings 17:24). ...
After three years of drought, Elijah challenged Ahab to gather Baal’s prophets to Mt Carmel for a public contest to show who was the true God, Yahweh or Baal (1 Kings 18:19-21). As a final proof that Israel’s God, not Baal, controlled nature, Elijah announced that God would end the drought by sending a storm. ...
Elijah felt that he was fighting alone in his battle with Jezebel’s Baalism (1 Kings 18:22; Romans 11:1-5). ...
God directed Elijah south to Mt Sinai, the place where, centuries earlier, he had established his covenant with Israel. There he showed Elijah the difference between spectacular public events and the quiet work of God within people’s hearts. God assured Elijah that a minority of people in Israel would make the quiet response of faithfulness to him (1 Kings 19:10-12; 1 Kings 19:18). God’s instruments of judgment against Israel would be an enemy king Hazael, an Israelite king Jehu, and Elijah’s successor Elisha (1 Kings 19:15-21). ...
Ministry fulfilled...
In addition to opposing Ahab and Jezebel because of their Baalism, Elijah opposed them because of their greed and injustice. After their seizure of Naboth’s vineyard, Elijah announced the judgment of God upon them (1 Kings 21:20-24). Ahab’s son Ahaziah, who came to the throne after Ahab’s death, continued the worship of Baal and likewise met opposition from Elijah. God preserved Elijah from Ahaziah’s attempts to capture him, and then used Elijah to pronounce certain death upon the Baalist king (2 Kings 1:2-4; 2 Kings 1:13-17). ...
The time had now come for Elijah to pass on to Elisha the responsibility for preserving the faithful and preparing judgment for the Baalists. Elijah tested his young successor to see whether he was prepared for the difficult and wide-ranging work ahead, or whether he would rather settle at one of the schools of the prophets (2 Kings 2:1-6). Elisha stayed with Elijah to the end, and in due course received Elijah’s spiritual inheritance (2 Kings 2:9). Elijah’s earthly life ended when he was taken up to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:11). ...
Jews of a later era expected the return of Elijah immediately before the coming of the Messiah (Malachi 4:5-6; Mark 6:15; Mark 8:27-28). Jesus pointed out that this ‘Elijah’, this forerunner of the Messiah, was John the Baptist (Matthew 11:10-14; Matthew 17:10-13; Luke 1:17). ...
On the occasion of Jesus’ transfiguration, Elijah and Moses appeared together talking with Jesus about his coming death, and witnessing something of his coming glory
Tishbite - (tihssh' bite) Resident of an unidentified village, Tishbe, used as a title of Elijah (1 Kings 17:1 ; 1Kings 21:17,1 Kings 21:28 ; 2Kings 1:3,2 Kings 1:8 ; 2 Kings 9:36 ). See Elijah
Elijah (2) - ELIJAH (Authorized Version Elias) is mentioned in the Gospels on 9 occasions, reported in 15 passages (rejecting Luke 9:54). , alludes to the story of Elijah as it is contained in the OT. Here Jesus justifies His performance of miracles in Capernaum, while refraining from working them in Nazareth, by citing the well-known story of Elijah’s going away from Israel in time of famine to relieve the distress of a Sidonian widow (1 Kings 17:8-9). All the other passages refer to the present or future work of an Elijah who, according to common Jewish belief, still lived and would appear again upon earth. The answers then given by the disciples to Jesus’ question as to the popular estimate of Himself were varied, and doubtless representative: He was John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets (cf. The period of Elijah the forerunner is past, and the Messiah is here. ...
The relation between the prophet Elijah, the lawgiver Moses, and the Messiah Jesus, is dramatically presented in the narrative of the Transfiguration (Matthew 17, Mark 9:2 ff. Here, too, the logical proof is presented that Elijah has come already, and is John the Baptist. When once Jesus has been accepted as the Messiah, the work of John cannot fail to be known as the great preparatory work of Elijah. ...
The Baptist’s denial that he was Elijah (John 1:21 ff. The passage incidentally describes one of the functions of Elijah who was to come, viz. ...
Elijah is mentioned again in connexion with the Crucifixion (Matthew 27:46-49, Mark 15:34-36). The bystanders professedly misunderstood Jesus’ cry, ‘Eli, Eli,’ as a call to Elijah. Bearing in mind that Elijah is the forerunner of the Messiah, their curiosity seems not simply whether Jesus would have supernatural relief, as a man might, but whether Elijah would, by coming to His aid, prove that Jesus was after all the Messiah. ...
There remains the striking picture of the Baptist in the character of Elijah, drawn in Luke 1:19 ff. This is, however, the implication of the other passages; otherwise the suggested identification of Jesus with Elijah would not have been possible, for it was the very works of Jesus that called out the suggestion. ...
The belief in the reappearance of Elijah, held by the Jews of NT times, is a later stage of the belief which is expressed in Malachi 4:5 [1]: he would come before the great day of Jehovah to reconcile the hearts of parents and children. These Jewish traditions know Elijah as zealous in the service of God, and as a helper in distress, as well as the forerunner of the Messiah. ...
As the Jews elaborated the earlier doctrine of the Messiah, and as in their thought He became more and more exalted in holiness and majesty, the impossibility of His appearance in the midst of all the sin and shame of Israel was increasingly felt; and the character of Elijah, the holy prophet, zealous in his earthly life for the political and religious integrity of the nation, and already enshrined in tradition as having been spared death, was a fitting one to be chosen to carry on the great work of preparing Israel for the blessings of the Messianic era. Indeed, in some passages the doctrine of Elijah has developed to such an extent as well nigh to usurp the functions of the Messiah
Elijah - Elijah of Tishbe was a lone figure from the remote part of Gilead east of the Jordan. ), Elijah represented a class of prophets who were normally not associated with any sanctuary or prophetic guild (but see 2 Kings 2:3-7 ). Elijah defended Yahweh's sovereignty over history and justice, as well as over false gods (1 Kings 17-18 ). ...
The stories of Elijah (known as the Elijah cycle) dominate much of the latter half of 1Kings (17-19,21) and the early chapters of 2Kings (1-2). The chronological order of the cycle is uncertain, making the course of Elijah's life obscure. It contained six separate narratives that included several anecdotal stories about Elijah's life that may have circulated independently among his disciples in the northern kingdom. Elijah appeared to vindicate the distinctive character of the people of God when their identification was threatened by Ahab's liberal policies. ...
Elijah appeared on the scene without warning, introduction, or genealogy (1 Kings 17:1 ) to deliver an oracle to Ahab announcing a drought, presumably a punishment for defection to the Baal cult. Chrysostom said that Elijah learned compassion in the house of the widow so he could be sent to his own people. ...
Three years later there was a break in the drought and Elijah was successful in ending Baal worship at Carmel. Elijah helped Israel understand that Yahweh guided the fortunes of the nations; even the Baal cult was under his control. Ahab was not wholly Baalist; his family bore Yahwistic names, and he consulted with Yahweh after the encounter with Elijah (1 Kings 20:13-15,22,28 ). ...
Elijah's success was merely temporary; he fled to Mount Horeb (although this may not be in chronological order) to escape Jezebel's wrath (1 Kings 19 ). ...
Like Amos in a later period, Elijah showed an astute social concern, emerging as a leader with strong ethical ideals (1 Kings 21 ). Elijah, whom Ahab saw as a blood avenger (v. Later, Elijah protested Ahaziah's appeal to Baal-Zebub, the local god of Ekron (2 Kings 1:9-15 ; Josephus called this god "the lord of the flies, " as did the Ras Shamra texts ). Elijah was here described as a hairy man with a shaggy cloak, evidently the insignia of a prophet (2 Kings 1:8 ). ...
The translation of Elijah into heaven occurs in an anecdotal section concerned mainly with Elisha (2 Kings 2:1-12 ). Elijah was associated with the prophetic guilds in Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho. Elisha desired a double portion of Elijah's spirit, a stipulation in Hebrew law whereby the eldest son received his share and was equipped as the true successor to his father. The whirlwind and sudden disappearance of Elijah, with the addition of a theophany, emphasize God's presence in the incident. ...
In later Old Testament prophetic tradition, Elijah was associated with the day of the Lord (Malachi 4:5-6 ), and was soon to be sent by God on the behalf of the people. He was described as similar to the messenger in Malachi 3:1 (which also may have been an allusion to Elijah, since both prepared the way for Yahweh). The purpose of Elijah's coming was either to pacify family quarrels ( Malachi 2:10-16 ), culminating in a new social order, or to restore the covenant relationship. Elijah was prominently featured in popular legend and theological discussion of eschatological expectation during the intertestamental period. The New Testament, which mentions the prophet nearly thirty times, shows the influence of the late Jewish tradition of Elijah being the forerunner of the Messiah. The expectation of Elijah's return occurs frequently in the Gospels (Matthew 17:10 ; Mark 9:11 ). Although John denied that he was Elijah, he wore the prophet's style of clothing (a mantle of camel's hair and a leather girdle Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ). Moreover, Jesus said that John went forth as Elijah in spirit; he was thus the symbolic fulfillment of the prophet's mission (Matthew 11:14 ; Mark 8:28 ; Luke 1:17 ). ...
Although the tradition that Moses and Elijah would appear together in the last days was not to be found in rabbinic Judaism, both of these Old Testament characters were present and spoke at the transfiguration of Jesus, testifying to the importance of the impending events as eschatological (Matthew 17:3-4 ; Mark 9:4-5 ; Luke 9:30,33 ). ...
Jesus' prayer on the cross with the opening words of Psalm 22:1 , "Eli, Eli" (My God, My God) was either misunderstood or willfully misinterpreted as a petition for help to Elijah (Matthew 27:46-49 ; Mark 15:34-36 ). Jewish lore identified Elijah as a helper in time of need, and since Elijah did not come, Jesus' petition was considered a failure. The church, however, did not accept this figure of Elijah; only Christ himself would be called on in stressful times. ...
Various events of Elijah's life are alluded to in the New Testament. James uses Elijah as a powerful example of a supplicant (5:17), relying on Jewish tradition, which credited Elijah with a reputation for prayer (although this is not specifically mentioned in 1 Kings 17-18 ). James attempts to refute the Jewish tradition of the sinlessness and eternal nature of the prophet by stating that Elijah was a man "just like us. ...
Jesus used the story of God sending Elijah to the widow of Zarephath to show that the Gentiles were not to be excluded from salvation (Luke 4:25-26 ). Later church tradition takes the two witnesses of Revelation to be modeled after Moses and Elijah (Revelation 11:3-6 ). They were given the power to shut up the heavens and to bring the fire of judgment like Elijah in 1 Kings 17-18 (cf. ...
Paul uses the rabbinic model of Elijah and the idea of the remnant of Israel in Romans 11:2-5 (see 1 Kings 19:10-18 ). Just as Elijah became aware that a remnant of true believers still existed in Israel, Paul understands that there was still a sacred remnant of Jews who were elected by grace. Wallace, Elijah and Elisha
Tishbite - Elijah was born here, but settled in Gilead as a stranger. Paine identifies Tishbite with Listib overhung by the monastery Mar Ilyas (Elijah)
Tishbite - From Tishbe in the tribe of Naphtali, where Elijah was born, 1 Kings 17:1
Zarephath - At the God's command Elijah fled there after prophesying a drought in Israel (1 Kings 17:2-9 ). Elijah also restored her son to life and health (1 Kings 17:17-23 )
Tishbite - Elijah the prophet was thus named (1 Kings 17:1 ; 21:17,28 , etc. , "Elijah the Tishbite of Tishbi in Gilead. " Some interpret this word as meaning "stranger," and read the verse, "Elijah the stranger from among the strangers in Gilead
Elijah - Elijah or Elias, a prophet, was a native of Tishbe beyond Jordan in Gilead. The Scripture introduces Elijah saying to Ahab, 1 Kings 17:1-2 , A. The Lord commanded Elijah to conceal himself beyond Jordan, near the brook Cherith. Suppose that Elijah was concealed from Ahab in some rocky or mountainous spot, where travellers never came; and that here a number of voracious birds had built their nests upon the trees which grew around it, or upon a projecting rock, &c. These flying every day to procure food for their young, the prophet availed himself of a part of what they brought; and while they, obeying the dictates of nature, designed only to provide for their offspring, Divine providence directed them to provide at the same time for the wants of Elijah. After a time the brook dried up, and God sent Elijah to Zarephath, a city of the Sidonians. " Elijah said, "Make first a little cake, and bring it me, and afterward make for thee and thy son: for thus saith the Lord, the barrel of meal shall not waste, neither shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day the Lord sendeth rain upon the earth. The mother, overwhelmed with grief, intreated the assistance and interposition of Elijah, who taking the child in his arms, laid him on his own bed, and cried to the Lord for the restoration of the child's life. After three years of drought, the Lord commanded Elijah to show himself to Ahab. Obadiah, an officer of the king's household, being thus employed, Elijah presented himself, and directed him to tell Ahab, "Behold, Elijah is here!" Ahab came to meet the prophet, and reproached him as the cause of the famine. Elijah retorted the charge upon the king, and his iniquities, and challenged Ahab to gather the people together, and the prophets of Baal, that it might be determined by a sign from heaven, the falling of fire upon the sacrifice, who was the true God. In this the prophet obeyed the impulse of the Spirit of God; and Ahab, either under an influence of which he was not conscious, or blindly confident in the cause of idolatry, followed Elijah's direction, and convened the people of Israel, and four hundred prophets of Baal. Elijah ridiculed them, and said, "Cry aloud, for he is god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked. " When midday was past, Elijah repaired the altar of the Lord; and with twelve stones, in allusion to the twelve tribes of Israel, he built a new altar. " Elijah then, having excited the people to slay the false prophets of Baal, said to Ahab, "Go home, eat and drink, for I hear the sound of abundance of rain;" which long-expected blessing descended from heaven according to his prediction, and gave additional proof to the truth of his mission from the only living and true God. Jezebel, the wife of Ahab, threatened Elijah for having slain her prophets. Some years after, Ahab having seized Naboth's vineyard, the Lord commanded Elijah to reprove Ahab for the crime he had committed. Elijah met him going to Naboth's vineyard to take possession of it, and said, "In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth, shall they lick thy blood, even thine. Elijah met the messengers, and said to them, "Is it because there is no God in Israel, that ye go to inquire of Baalzebub, the god of Ekron? Now, therefore, saith the Lord, Thou shalt surely die. " The messengers of Ahaziah returned, and informed the king, that a stranger had told them he should certainly die; and Ahaziah knew that this was the Prophet Elijah. ...
The king, therefore, sent a captain with his company of fifty men, to apprehend him; and when the officer was come to Elijah, who was sitting upon a hill, he said, "Thou man of God, the king commands thee to come down. " Elijah answered, "If I be a man of God, let fire come down from heaven, and consume thee and thy fifty. The king sent another captain, who was also consumed; but a third captain going to Elijah, intreated him to save him and his people's lives, and Elijah accompanied him to the king. ...
Elijah could not in this case act from any other impulse than that of the Spirit of God. Elijah, understanding by revelation that God would soon translate him out of this world, was desirous of concealing this fact from Elisha, his inseparable companion. " At Bethel, Elijah said, "Tarry thou here, the Lord hath sent me to Jericho;" but Elisha replied, he would not forsake him. At Jericho Elijah desired him to stay; but Elisha would not leave him. When they were come to the Jordan, Elijah took his mantle, and with it struck the waters, which divided, and they went over on dry ground. Elijah then said to Elisha, "Ask what I shall do for thee before I be taken away from thee. Elijah answered, "Thou hast asked me a very hard thing; yet, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so. " As they journeyed, a fiery chariot, with horses of fire, suddenly separated them, and Elijah was carried in a whirlwind to heaven; while Elisha exclaimed, "My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof!"...
5. Elijah was one of the most eminent of that illustrious and singular race of men, the Jewish prophets. Malachi 4:5-6 , has this passage: "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord. " Our Saviour also declares that Elijah had already come in spirit, in the person of John the Baptist. At the transfiguration of our Saviour, Elijah and Moses both appeared and conversed with him respecting his future passion, Matthew 17:3-4 ; Mark 9:4 ; Luke 9:30 . Many of the Jews in our Lord's time believed him to be Elijah, or that the soul of Elijah had passed into his body, Matthew 16:14 ; Mark 6:15 ; Luke 9:8 . In conclusion, we may observe, that to assure the world of the future existence of good men in a state of glory and felicity, and that in bodies changed from mortality to immortality, each of the three grand dispensations of religion had its instance of translation into heaven; the patriarchal in the person of ENOCH, the Jewish in the person of Elijah, and the Christian in the person of CHRIST
Tishbite - Elijah is repeatedly designated ‘the Tishbite’ ( 1 Kings 17:1 ; 1 Kings 21:17 ; 1 Kings 21:28 etc
Cherith - Brook or wady 'before Jordan,' where Elijah was fed by the ravens during part of the three years' famine
Elijah - THE prophet Elijah towers up like a mountain in Gilead above all the other prophets. There is a solitary grandeur about Elijah that is all his own. There is a mystery and an unearthliness about Elijah that is all his own. There is a volcanic suddenness, and a volcanic violence, indeed, about all Elijah's descents upon us and all his disappearances from us. We call him Elijah the Tishbite, but we are no wiser of that. Elijah has neither father nor mother. As Elijah never died, so he was never born, as we are born. Elijah came from God, and he went to God. Elijah stood before God till God could dispense with and spare Elijah out of His presence no longer. Elijah's very name will tell you all that, and more than all that, concerning both Elijah and his father and his mother, Eli-jah-my God is Jehovah. Elijah had a heavenly name, but he had, to begin with, but an earthly nature. Elijah was a man, to begin with, subject to like passions as we are. Elijah was a man, indeed, of passions all compact. We never see Elijah that he is not subject to some passion or other. Elijah was a great man. There was a great mass of manhood in Elijah. That man among ourselves who has the most human nature in him and the most heart; the most heart and the most passion in his heart; the most love and the most hate; the most anger and the most meekness; the most scorn and the most sympathy; the most sunshine and the most melancholy; the most agony in prayer, and the most victorious assurance that, all the time, his prayer is already answered-that man is the likest of us all to the prophet Elijah; that man has Elijah's own mantle fallen upon him. There is no man among us fit, for one moment, to stand like Elijah before God. ...
Now, whatever is the matter with us that God has not an Elijah among us, or anything like an Elijah, it is not that we are wanting in passions. Yes; we all have passions enough to make us not Elijahs and Ahabs only, but angels in heaven, or devils in hell. All the difference between Elijah and Ahab was in the subjection of their passions. Elijah was a man of immensely stronger passions than poor Ahab ever was; only Elijah's powerful passions all swept him up to heaven, whereas all Ahab's contemptible passions shouldered And shovelled and sucked him down to hell. The whole difference between Elijah and Ahab, and between Jezebel and the mother of our Lord was in their hearts' desires, till their hearts' desires grew up into all-consuming passions. And what a passionate preacher Elijah was. Now, let any man among ourselves henceforth pray in his prayers like Jacob and Elijah: let any man among ourselves determine to put his passions into his prayers like Jacob and Elijah, and it will make him a new man. ...
But Elijah would not be the great lesson to us that he is if he were always Elijah, with all his passions at all times at a flame in his prayers. That no man may glory before God, after all that Elijah has done, we see him before he dies just as weak, and as downcast, and as embittered, and as unhappy as if he had never known how to subdue and subject and sanctify his passions. ' Elijah was getting old. In this way Samuel showed Elijah the way to keep his old heart young to the end, and his spirit quiet, and good, and sweet, and beautiful. And it was prayer that did it; and it was putting all his remaining passions still into his prayers to his very end; and it was in that way that Samuel did it, and that Elijah at last learned to do it also. ...
For Elijah's passions all came back to all their first obedience, and to all their former splendid service, as he stood by Jordan and waited for his signal from the Lord. For, what was the chariot of Israel to Elijah that day, but Elijah's heart already in heaven? And what were those horses of fire that day, but all Elijah's passions all harnessed, in all their heaven-bounding strength, to that heavenly chariot? His faith, his fearlessness, his scorn of evil, his prayerfulness, his devotion to Israel and to God. And when the Lord would take up Elijah to Himself, all those horses of fire sprang with one leap up to heaven
Aedias - The name is probably a corruption for Elijah of Ezra 10:26
Cruse, - a small vessel for holding water, such as was carried by Saul when on his night expedition after David, (1 Samuel 26:11,12,16 ) and by Elijah
Jezebel - Elijah proved these prophets to be false on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:1 ), bringing Jezebel's threat to kill Elijah (1 Kings 19:2 ). Elijah ran for his life to Beersheba. Elijah then prophesied Jezebel's death, she being the one who had “stirred up” Ahab to wickedness (1 Kings 21:1 )
Elijah - During this period the widow's son died, and was restored to life by Elijah ( 1 Kings 17 :: 224-24 ). At the close of this period of retirement and of preparation for his work (Compare Galatians 1:17,18 ) Elijah met Obadiah, one of Ahab's officers, whom he had sent out to seek for pasturage for the cattle, and bade him go and tell his master that Elijah was there. The king came and met Elijah, and reproached him as the troubler of Israel. " Thus was accomplished the great work of Elijah's ministry. The prophets of Baal were then put to death by the order of Elijah. Then immediately followed rain, according to the word of Elijah, and in answer to his prayer (James 5:18 ). ...
Jezebel, enraged at the fate that had befallen her priests of Baal, threatened to put Elijah to death (1 Kings 19:1-13 ). Here the Lord appeared unto him and said, "What dost thou here, Elijah?" In answer to his despondent words God manifests to him his glory, and then directs him to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael king over Syria, and Jehu king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room (1 Kings 19:13-21 ; Compare 2 Kings 8:7-15 ; 9:1-10 ). "They two went on," and came to Bethel and Jericho, and crossed the Jordan, the waters of which were "divided hither and thither" when smitten with Elijah's mantle. Arrived at the borders of Gilead, which Elijah had left many years before, it "came to pass as they still went on and talked" they were suddenly separated by a chariot and horses of fire; and "Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven, "Elisha receiving his mantle, which fell from him as he ascended. He was the Elijah that "must first come" (Matthew 11:11,14 ), the forerunner of our Lord announced by Malachi. Even outwardly the Baptist corresponded so closely to the earlier prophet that he might be styled a second Elijah. " ...
How deep the impression was which Elijah made "on the mind of the nation may be judged from the fixed belief, which rested on the words of (Malachi 4:5,6 ), which many centuries after prevailed that he would again appear for the relief and restoration of the country. Each remarkable person as he arrives on the scene, be his habits and characteristics what they may, the stern John equally with his gentle Successor, is proclaimed to be Elijah (Matthew 11:13,14 ; 16:14 ; 17:10 ; Mark 9:11 ; 15:35 ; Luke 9:7,8 ; John 1:21 ). " ...
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The Elijah spoken of in 2 Chronicles 21:12-15 is by some supposed to be a different person from the foregoing. But there does not seem any necessity for concluding that the writer of this letter was some other Elijah than the Tishbite. It may be supposed either that Elijah anticipated the character of Jehoram, and so wrote the warning message, which was preserved in the schools of the prophets till Jehoram ascended the throne after the Tishbite's translation, or that the translation did not actually take place till after the accession of Jehoram to the throne (2 Chronicles 21:12 ; 2 Kings 8:16 ). The events of 2 Kings 2 may not be recorded in chronological order, and thus there may be room for the opinion that Elijah was still alive in the beginning of Jehoram's reign
El - It is very often found in proper names, as Bethel, Daniel, Elijah, etc
ki'Shon - (winding ) , The river, a torrent or winter stream of central Palestine, the scene of two of the grandest achievements of Israelitish history --the defeat of Sisera, Judges 4 , and the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah. The part of the Kishon at which the prophets of Baal were slaughtered by Elijah was doubtless close below the spot on Carmel where the sacrifice had taken place
Plead - 1: ἐντυγχάνω (Strong's #1793 — Verb — entunchano — en-toong-khan'-o ) "to make petition," is used of the "pleading" of Elijah against Israel, Romans 11:2 , RV, "pleadeth with" (AV, "maketh intercession to")
Cherith - The ‘brook’ by which Elijah lived ( 1 Kings 17:3 ; 1 Kings 17:5 ) was ‘before,’ i
Elisha - The pupil and successor of Elijah, a prophet of Israel during the reign of Jehoram, Jehu, Jehoahaz, and Joash, B. He was a native of Abel-meholah, where he was at work ploughing when Elijah called him to become a prophet, 1 Kings 19:16 . Some years afterwards he witnessed the miraculous ascension of Elijah, divided the Jordan with his mantle, and took his place at the head of the schools of the prophets
Footmen or Runners - So Elijah ran before Ahab, 1 Kings 18:46
Elijah - Elijah is a compound word, including two of the names of JEHOVAH. If I venture to add another observation concerning this great man, it would be but just to remark, that in that memorable prophecy of Malachi, concerning the coming of Elijah before the day of Christ, (Malachi 4:5) though our Lord explained this to his disciples, in making reference to the spirit of Elias in the person of John the baptist, (Matthew 17:11-12) yet our Lord did not limit the coming of Elijah to that season only. The Evangelists, in describing the transfiguration of the Lord Jesus, relate that Elijah and Moses were present at the solemn scene. (Matthew 17:3-4) And there doth not seem an objection, wherefore Elijah may not again appear before the Lord Jesus comes in glory, as is supposed, he will in his reign upon earth. The expression of Malachi seems to warrant this conclusion, for it is said, that this mission of Elijah will be "before the great and dreadful day of the Lord
Prophet - ) One inspired or instructed by God to speak in his name, or announce future events, as, Moses, Elijah, etc
Tishbah - The birthplace of Elijah, 1 Kings 17:1, who is therefore called the Tishbite, probably identical with el-Istib, or Listib, 22 miles in an air-line south of the Sea of Galilee, and ten miles east of the Jordan
Jezebel - When Elijah caused 450 prophets of Baal to be put to death this wicked woman threatened to slay Elijah, but he escaped. The doom of this impious queen was predicted by the prophet Elijah, and was in due time visited upon her to the very letter
Obadiah - When Elijah sent Obadiah to tell Ahab that he was there, he feared that the Spirit of the Lord would catch away Elijah, and he would be slain; but he obeyed, and Elijah met the king . Obadiah is a remarkable instance of how a servant who feared the Lord could maintain his integrity amid flagrant wickedness, though otherwise he seems out of his right place, for he was not separate like Elijah
Elijah - Elijah (e-lî'jah), my God is Jehovah. After the famine had lasted the predicted period, Elijah encountered Ahab, and then ensued the magnificent display of divine power and of human trust upon the ridge of Carmel. The slaughter by fire of the two companies of troops sent to take Elijah must have greatly increased the popular awe of the prophet. Elijah was translated to heaven in a miraculous manner. The character of Elijah made a deep impression upon the Jews. John Baptist, though not personally Elijah, John 1:21, was to go before the Messiah in the spirit and power of the ancient prophet, Luke 1:17; and thus our Lord himself explained the matter to his disciples. There was, it is true, a personal appearance of Elijah with Moses, when the two in glory stood beside the transfigured Saviour on the holy mount, and talked with him of his coming death—a proof how both the law and the prophets pointed to a Redeemer suffering ere he was triumphant. There are those who believe that the prediction of Elijah's coming has not yet had its full accomplishment; and they expect, before the second appearing of the Lord, that the old stern prophet of Gilead, who never died, will tread the earth again
Elijah - Elijah . Elijah, the weirdest figure among the prophets of Israel, steps across the threshold of history when Ahab is on the throne ( c
Such was the situation, when Elijah suddenly appears before Ahab as the champion of Jehovah. Soon the stream becomes a bed of stones, and Elijah flees to Zarephath in the territory of Zidon. The time is ripe for action, and Elijah throws down the gauntlet to Baal and his followers. ’ At Elijah’s suggestion the prophets of Baal are summoned to Carmel to a trial by fire. Elijah cuts them to the quick with his biting sarcasm: ‘Cry aloud; for he is a god: either he is musing, or he is gone aside, or he is on a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth and must be awaked. At the prayer of Elijah, fire falls from heaven, devouring the wood, stone, and water as well as the victim. Elijah, in spite of his dignified position, runs before the chariot of Ahab, indicating that he is willing to serve the king as well as lead Jehovah’s people ( 1 Kings 18:41-46 ). Now comes the reaction, so natural after an achievement like that on Carmel, and Elijah prays that he may be permitted to die. Elijah takes refuge in a cave, perhaps the same in which Moses hid ( Exodus 33:22 ), and hears the voice of Jehovah, ‘What doest thou here, Elijah?’ The prophet replies, ‘I have been very jealous for Jehovah, God of Hosts; for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant thrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away. Elijah is further encouraged with information that there are still 7000 in Israel who have not bowed the knee to Baal ( 1 Kings 19:15 ; 1 Kings 19:18 ). ...
Elijah is also the champion of that civic righteousness which Jehovah loved and enjoined on His people. Elijah intercepts the emissaries of the king, hidding them return to their master with this word from Jehovah: ‘Is it because there is no God in Israel, that ye go to inquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron? Thou shalt not come down from the bed whither thou art gone up, but shalt surely die. The third approaches him in a humble spirit, and at God’s bidding Elijah accompanies the soldier to the palace and reiterates the message of doom (2 Kings 1:1-18 ). Accompanied by his faithful follower Elisha, he passes from Bethel to Jericho, and from thence they cross the Jordan, after Elijah has parted the waters by striking them with his mantle. As they go on their way, buried in conversation, there suddenly appears a chariot of fire with horses of fire, which parts them asunder; and Elijah goes up by a whirlwind to heaven (cf. ...
In the history of prophecy Elijah holds a prominent position. To the former of these two tasks Elijah addressed himself with zeal; the latter was left to his successors in the eighth century. ...
Elijah figures largely in later Scriptures; he is the harbinger of the Day of the Lord (Malachi 4:5 ); in the NT he is looked upon as a type of the herald of God, and the prediction of his coming in the Messianic Age is fulfilled in the advent of John the Baptist ( Matthew 11:10 ff. According to the Rabbis, Elijah was to precede the Messiah, to restore families to purity, to settle controversies and legal disputes, and perform seven miracles (cf. Origen mentions an apocryphal work, The Apocalypse of Elijah , and maintains that 1 Corinthians 2:9 is a quotation from it. Elijah is found also in the Koran (vi
a'Bel-Meho'Lah - (meadow of the dance ), in the northern pat of the Jordan valley, ( 1 Kings 4:12 ) to which the routed Bedouin host fled from Gideon, (Judges 7:22 ) Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah returning up the valley from Horeb
Leather - A girdle of, worn by Elijah (2 Kings 1:8 ) and John the Baptist (Matthew 3:4 )
Elisha - ...
His Name and Call Experience Elisha was plowing one day when “Elijah passed by him, and cast his mantle upon him. This action symbolically manifested God's plan to bestow the prophetic powers of Elijah upon Elisha. The chosen one understood the call of God for, “he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah” (1 Kings 19:20 ). That Elisha felt the call of prophetic succession is again clear following Elijah's dramatic ascent into heaven. There Elisha “took up also the mantle of Elijah that fell from him” (2 Kings 2:13 ). ...
His Miracles After Elijah insisted to his chosen successor that he, “Ask what I shall do for you, before I am taken from you,” Elisha answered, “Let me inherit a double portion of spirit” (2 Kings 2:9 NIV). Following this miracle the prophetic order or “sons of the prophets” declared, “The spirit of Elijah is resting on Elisha” ( 2 Kings 2:15 ). ...
In carrying out the second and third commands of the “still small voice” to Elijah (1 Kings 19:11-16 ), Elisha enhanced his legacy beyond the realm of miracle worker. ...
Powerful enough to perform miracles and appoint kings, yet sensitive enough to weep over the fate of Israel (2 Kings 8:11-12 ), Elisha, disciple and successor to Elijah, proved to be both prophet and statesman. Chosen by God and hand-picked by Elijah in the latter half of the ninth century B
Raven - When Elijah was concealed by the brook Cherith, God commanded the ravens to bring him "bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening" (1 Kings 17:3-6 ). (See Elijah
Zarephath - City belonging to Zidon, where Elijah stayed with a widow during part of a time of drought and famine, being sustained by the miraculous increase of the widow's meal and oil
Eutychus - A youth who sat in a window and, falling asleep during Paul's long and late discourse, fell from the third story, and was restored to life by the apostle, who fell on the dead body and embraced it, as Elijah of old (1 Kings 17:21), and Elisha (2 Kings 4:34)
Cherith - ) The brook or torrent channel (wady) by which Elijah sojourned in the early part of the three years drought (1 Kings 17:3; 1 Kings 17:5). side, Elijah's native region, where he would be beyond Ahab's reach
Juniper - Under its shade travellers are glad to creep on a sultry day for a noontime nap, and thus Elijah lay and slept after his long journey
Obadiah - The last notice of him is his bringing back tidings to Ahab that Elijah, whom he had so long sought for, was at hand (9-16). "Go," said Elijah to him, when he met him in the way, "go tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here
Carmel - This gives added significance to the contest on Mt Carmel where Elijah defeated the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:17-46; see Elijah)
Elisha - God his salvation, the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah, who became the attendant and disciple of Elijah (1 Kings 19:16-19 ). His name first occurs in the command given to Elijah to anoint him as his successor (1 Kings 19:16 ). This was the only one of the three commands then given to Elijah which he accomplished. Elisha accepted the call thus given (about four years before the death of Ahab), and for some seven or eight years became the close attendant on Elijah till he was parted from him and taken up into heaven. During all these years we hear nothing of Elisha except in connection with the closing scenes of Elijah's life. After Elijah, Elisha was accepted as the leader of the sons of the prophets, and became noted in Israel. He possessed, according to his own request, "a double portion" of Elijah's spirit (2 Kings 2:9 ); and for the long period of about sixty years (B. After Elijah's departure, Elisha returned to Jericho, and there healed the spring of water by casting salt into it (2 Kings 2:21 ). Thus the three commands given to Elijah (9:1-10) were at length carried out. Joash, the grandson of Jehu, comes to mourn over his approaching departure, and utters the same words as those of Elisha when Elijah was taken away: "My father, my father! the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof
Juniper - In 1 Kings 19:4 , a tree under which Elijah the prophet rested as he fled the wrath of Jezebel
Micah - ...
Micah the Prophet: (6th century BCE) Student of Elijah and a contemporary of Hosea, Isaiah and Amos
Che'Rith, the Brook - (cutting, ravine ), the torrent-bed or wady in which Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three-years drought
Thisbe - Some commentators maintain that This be was the home of Elijah ‘the Tishbite,’ but this is very doubtful
Carmel, Mount - (car' mehl) In 1 Kings 18:19 , the scene of the confrontation between the prophet Elijah and the prophets of Baal
Obadiah - (8th century BCE) An Edomite by birth, later converted to Judaism and became a disciple of Elijah
Ovadiah - (8th century BCE) An Edomite by birth, later converted to Judaism and became a disciple of Elijah
Ovadiah (2) - (8th century BCE) An Edomite by birth, later converted to Judaism and became a disciple of Elijah
Abel-Meholah - ) The birthplace of Elisha, where he was found at his plow by Elijah returning up the Jordan valley from Horeb (1 Kings 19:16)
Transfiguration, the - The transformation of Jesus in His appearance with Moses and Elijah before Peter, James, and John (Matthew 17:1-13 ; Mark 9:1-13 ; Luke 9:28-36 ; compare 2 Peter 1:16-18 ). Moses and Elijah appeared and talked with Jesus. He alone indicated that Jesus and the disciples were praying, that Moses and Elijah conversed with Jesus about His coming death, that the disciples were sleepy, and that they saw Jesus' glory. ...
The Nature of the Event It has often been claimed that the story is a misplaced resurrection appearance; but it is Moses and Elijah, not Jesus, who appear, and there is no reference to them or a voice from heaven in any other resurrection account. Moses and Elijah represented the law and the prophets respectively, which testify to but must give way to Jesus. ) Moses and Elijah themselves were heralds of the Messiah (Deuteronomy 18:15 ; Malachi 4:5-6 )
Ahab - The Baalism promoted by Ahab and Jezebel was a threat to Israel’s existence as God’s people, and for this reason God sent the prophets Elijah and Elisha to oppose it. (For details of this aspect of Ahab’s reign see BAAL; Elijah. )...
God used Elijah to tell Ahab of a drought that he was about to send as punishment on the ungodly kingdom (1 Kings 17:1). Three years later he used Elijah to announce the end of the drought, but that end came in such a way as should have convinced Ahab that he could not serve both God and Baal (1 Kings 18:1-2; 1 Kings 18:17-18; 1 Kings 18:21; 1 Kings 18:41-46). The prophet Elijah announced a horrible judgment on Ahab, and particularly on his murderous wife Jezebel (1 Kings 21:17-26). Ahab ignored the message from God, and as a result met the dreadful death that Elijah had earlier announced (1 Kings 22:29-38)
Elijah - In contrast to the detailed genealogy of Samuel, Elisha, and other prophets, Elijah abruptly appears, like Melchizedek in the patriarchal dispensation, without father or mother named, his exact locality unknown; in order that attention should be wholly fixed on his errand from heaven to overthrow Baal and Asherah (the licentious Venus) worship in Israel. Elijah's work was to confound these sophisms and vindicate Jehovah's claim to be God ALONE, to the exclusion of all idols. ...
Elijah's "effectual" prayer, not recorded in 1 Kings but in James 5:17, was what moved God to withhold rain for three years and a half; doubtless, Elijah's reason for the prayer was jealousy for the Lord God (1 Kings 19:10; 1 Kings 19:14), in order that Jehovah's chastening might lead the people to repentance. It was probably at this time that Jezebel, foiled in her deadly purpose against Elijah, "cut off Jehovah's prophets" (1 Kings 18:4; 1 Kings 19:2). " Blessed in that she believed, she by her example strengthened Elijah's faith in God as able to fulfill His word, where all seemed hopeless to man's eye. It was at this juncture, after upward of two years' sojourn at Zarephath, Elijah by God's command goes to show himself to Ahab. Overcoming the awestruck Obadiah's fear, lest, when he should tell the king, Behold Elijah is here, meanwhile the Spirit should carry him away, Elijah, whom Ahab's servants had been seeking everywhere in vain for three years, now suddenly stands before Ahab with stern dignity. )...
Amidst Elijah's ironical jeers they cried, and gashed themselves, in vain repetitions praying from morning until noon for fire from their god Baal, the sun god and god of fire (!), and leaped upon (or up and down at) the altar. ...
The rain, beginning with the small hand-like cloud, and increasing until the whole sky became black (Luke 12:54; Luke 13:19), returned as it had gone, in answer to Elijah's effectual prayer, which teaches us to not only pray but also wait (James 5:17-18; 1 Kings 18:41-45). Ahab rides in his chariot across the plain 16 miles to Jezreel, in haste lest the rainflood of the Kishon should make the Esdraelon or Jezreel plain impassable with mud; Elijah, with Spirit-imparted strength from "the hand of the Lord upon" him, running before, but no further than the entrance of the city, for he shrank from the contamination of the court and its luxuries. Elijah fled for his life to Beersheba of Judah, with one attendant, and leaving him there went a day's journey into the wilderness. In this flight Elijah's spirit of faith temporarily gave way. It was the same wilderness which received Moses fleeing from Pharaoh, and Elijah now fleeing from Ahab, and lastly Paul escaping from the Judaic bondage of ritualism. ...
Jehovah there said, "What doest thou here, Elijah?" thou whose name implies thy calling to witness for God Jehovah, away from the court and people whom thou wast called to reprove! Elijah pleads his "jealousy for Jehovah God of hosts," and that with all his zeal he is left. " There by the grand voice of nature, the strong wind rending the rocks, the earthquake, and the fire, (in none of which, though emanating from God, did He reveal Himself to Elijah,) and lastly by "a still small voice," God taught the impatient and desponding prophet that it is not by astounding miracles such as the fire that consumed the sacrifice, nor by the wind and earthquake wherewith God might have swept away the guilty nation, but by the still small voice of God's Spirit in the conscience, that Jehovah savingly reveals Himself, and a revival of true religion is to be expected. A John the Baptist, Elijah's antitype, the last representative of the Sinaitic law, must be followed by the Messiah and His Spirit speaking in the winning tones of Matthew 11:29. The still small voice constrained Elijah to wrap his face in his mantle; compare Moses, Exodus 3:6; Isaiah 6:2. As usual, Elijah's appearance was sudden and startling, and he stands forth as vindicating Jehovah's honor' before the elect nation. Ahaziah, with his mother's idol-mad vindictiveness, sent a captain with fifty to arrest this "lord of hair" (Hebrew text: 2 Kings 1:8) whom he at once guessed to be Elijah. Elijah went down, under God's promised protection, and spoke the same message of death to the king in person as he had previously spoken to the king's messenger. He was not yet revealed to the half-pagan Samaritans as clearly as Jehovah had been through Elijah to Israel, the elect nation. His life was not sought by the Samaritans as Elijah's was by Israel's king and his minions. ...
Shortly afterward Elijah wrote a letter (miqtab ) which came subsequently "to Joram," son of the pious Jehoshaphat: "Thus saith the Lord God of David thy father (of whom thou art proving thyself so unworthy a successor), because thou hast not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat thy father, nor. the house of Ahab, and hast slain (Elijah writes foreseeing the murder, for his translation was before Jehoshaphat's death, 2 Kings 3:11, after which was the murder) the brethren of thy father's house which were better than thyself, behold with a great plague will the Lord smite thy people, thy children, thy wives, and all thy goods, and thou shalt have great sickness . ...
Already in Elijah's lifetime Joram had begun to reign jointly with his father Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 8:16; 2 Kings 8:18) and had betrayed his evil spirit which was fostered by Athaliah his wife, Ahab's daughter. " But Elijah discerned in Joram the covetous and murderous spirit which would frustrate all Jehoshaphat's forethought, the fatal result of the latter's carnal policy in forming marriage alliance with wicked Ahab. Therefore, as Elijah had committed to Elisha the duty laid on himself by God of foretelling to Hazael his elevation to the Syrian throne (Elisha being Elijah revived in spirit), so Elijah committed to him the writing which would come after Elijah's translation to Joram with all the solemnity of a message from Elijah in the unseen world to condemn the murder when perpetrated which Elijah foresaw he would perpetrate. ...
The style is peculiarly Elijah's, and distinct from the narrative context. Fairbairn makes it be called "a letter from Elijah" because he was ideal head of the school of prophecy from which it emanated, and his spirit still rested upon Elisha. But the language, 2 Chronicles 21:12, implies in some stricter sense it was Elijah's writing delivered by Elisha, his successor, to Joram. Elijah's ministry was now drawing to its close. Symptoms appear of his work beginning to act on the nation, in the increased boldness of other prophets to the king's face, besides Elijah himself: e. Hence, we find not less than fifty called "sons of strength" at Elijah's translation (2 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 2:7); and these settled at Bethel, one of the two head quarters of idolatry. ...
To these sons of the prophets, as well as to Elisha, it was revealed that their master Elijah was about to be caught up front them. Elijah sought that privacy which he felt most suitable to the coming solemn scene; but Elisha would not leave him. border of the Ephraimite hills), Bethel, and Jericho successively, by the Lord's mission, Elijah went, giving probably parting counsels to the prophets' schools in those places. Finally, after parting asunder the Jordan with his mantle, he gave Elisha leave to ask what he would, and having promised that he should have a double portion of Elijah's spirit, a chariot and horses of fire parted the two, and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. The "hardness" of Elisha's request, and its granting being dependent on his seeing Elijah ascend, imply that it is to be got from God not (Matthew 19:26) man; that therefore he must look up to Him who was about to translate Elijah, not to Elijah himself. ...
The "double portion" is not "double" what Elijah had, for Elisha had not tidal; but, as the firstborn son and heir received two portions, and the other children but one, of the father's goods (Deuteronomy 21:17), so Elisha, as Elijah's adopted son, begs a preeminent portion of Elijah's spirit, of which all the other "sons of the prophets" should have their share (Grotius); compare Deuteronomy 21:15. But the comparison in the context is not with other prophets but with Elijah. Elisha performed double as many miracles, namely, 16 as compared with Elijah's eight; and the miracles of a like kind to Elijah's; compare 1 Kings 17:17-24 with 2 Kings 4:29-37; 1 Kings 17:16 with 2 Kings 4:1-7. As Elijah's ascension was the forerunner of Elisha's possessing an influence such as Elijah had not, Elisha becoming the honored adviser of kings whereas Elijah had been their terror, Elisha on his deathbed being recognized as "the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof" by king Joash just as Elijah had been by Elisha, so Christ's ascension was the means of obtaining for the church the Holy Spirit in full measure, whereby more souls were gathered in than by Jesus' bodily presence (John 16:6-15; Ephesians 4:8-14). When the Old Testament canon was being closed, Malachi, its last prophet, threw a ray over the dark period of 400 years that intervened until the New Testament return of revelation, by announcing, "Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord. This is explained in Luke 1:11; Luke 1:17, which refers to Malachi 4:5-6; "he shall go before the Lord in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers (Jacob, Levi, Moses, Elijah, Malachi 1:2; Malachi 2:4; Malachi 2:6; Malachi 3:3-4; Malachi 4:4, who had been alienated as it were by their children's apostasy) to the children (made penitent through John's ministry), and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just. " John was an Elijah, but not the Elijah, from whence to the query (John 1:21), "Art thou Elias?" he answered, "I am not. "...
Elijah is called by Malachi "the prophet," not the Tishbite, as he here represents the whole series of prophets culminating in the greatest, John (though he performed no miracles as Elijah). The Jews always understood a literal Elijah, and said, "Messiah must be anointed by Elijah. " As there is a second consummating advent of Messiah, so also of His forerunner (possibly in person as at the transfiguration, Matthew 17:3, even after which He said (Matthew 17:11), "Elias shall first come and restore all things," namely, at "the times of restitution of all things"), possibly a prophet clothed with Elijah's miraculous power of inflicting judgments, which John had not. at, their word; 1 Kings 17:1; 2 Kings 1:10; "power to shut heaven that it rain not," James 5:17; Luke 4:25; and "to turn the waters to blood and smite the earth with all plagues ") are the very ones characteristic of Moses and Elijah. ...
The forerunning "the great and dreadful day of Jehovah" can only exhaustively refer to Messiah's second coming, preceded by a fuller manifestation of Elijah than that of John before Messiah's first coming. Moses and Elijah's appearance at the transfiguration in glorified bodies is a sample of the coming transfiguration (Moses, buried by the Lord, of the sleeping saints; and Elijah, translated without death, of living saints) and of their reign with Christ over the earth in glorified bodies, as Peter, James, and John are a sample of the nations in the flesh about to be reigned over. ...
The subject of Moses' and Elijah's discourse with Jesus on the mount was His decease, for this is the grand center to which the
Elisha - At the time of the ministry of Elijah and Elisha, Israel’s ancient religion was threatened by the Baalism that Jezebel had brought with her from Phoenicia. The man who began the long and difficult job of removing this Baalism from Israel was the prophet Elijah (see Elijah). By God’s direction Elijah passed on the unfinished task to Elisha (1 Kings 19:16; 1 Kings 19:19), whose ministry lasted through the reigns of six Israelite kings. ...
Successor to Elijah...
From the beginning Elisha showed a willingness to succeed Elijah, in spite of the obvious difficulties ahead. Like Elijah, Elisha would have to move around the country, strengthening the believers and opposing the idolaters. Elijah tested him to see if he would try to avoid some of the difficulties by remaining at one of the schools for young prophets. But Elisha was determined to carry on Elijah’s work. He was Elijah’s spiritual heir, and he remained with Elijah to the end to receive the spiritual inheritance (2 Kings 2:1-12). ...
A miracle at the Jordan River quickly proved that God’s power had now passed from Elijah to Elisha (2 Kings 2:13-14). Like Elijah before him, Elisha moved around these schools, with the aim of strengthening those who could later help rebuild the religious life of the nation (2 Kings 2:1-7; 2 Kings 2:15; 2 Kings 4:38; 2 Kings 6:1)
Elisha - 663 BCE) Elijah's student and successor. Before ascending to heaven, Elijah granted him double the prophetic powers that he himself possessed
Cherith - Elijah pronounced God's judgment in the form of a two-year drought and then found God's protection at the Cherith, where he had water to drink (1 Kings 17:3 )
Ahijah the shilonite - Teacher of Elijah
Elisha - ELISHA, the servant and the successor of Elijah, was the son of a prosperous farmer in Israel. One spring day, when all Shaphat's ploughs were at work in the spring-time meadow, and Elisha's plough the foremost among them, Elijah, the old prophet, came up suddenly behind Elisha and cast his rough mantle over Elisha's shoulder. Elijah had not spoken a single word to Elisha. But Elijah's solemn silent act was sufficiently clear and eloquent to Elisha. Meholah we are back at its very beginning and first performance, when Elijah comes up behind Elisha and casts his cloak of camel's hair over the shoulders of Shaphat's son. And, as if to make it impossible for himself ever to turn back from following Elijah, Elisha made a fire of the wood of his familiar plough, and slew his favourite oxen and made a feast of the flesh, and thereby proclaimed openly to all men that he had put his hand to another plough than that plough of wood, from which he would never draw back. ...
Elijah's mantle is one of our most expressive proverbs, and so is Elisha's request for a double portion of his departing master's spirit. 'Ask what I shall do for thee,' said Elijah, 'before I be taken away from thee. ' Not the double of all the gifts and all the graces that Elijah had possessed and had so well employed. I can easily imagine Elijah feeling now that life was over with him, that he had been an unprofitable servant. I can easily imagine Elijah seeking of God in prayer that his successor should be twofold, should be tenfold, more gifted and more successful than he had been. What Elisha really asked for was simply the fulfilment of what had been already promised him when Elijah's mantle fell on his shoulders. That act of Elijah was the sign and the seal of Elisha's adoption. All the time that Elijah was repining and meditating death under the juniper tree, God was preparing the young ploughman of Abel-Meholah to wear Elijah's mantle, and to carry forward Elijah's work. Elisha was not Elijah. Elisha had been a ploughman till he became Elijah's servant. And, yet, in a moment, and without a murmur, the fifty sons of the prophets at once accept Elisha as the true successor of Elijah, and as their young master. Elisha's first instinct was to bury and blot himself out under Elijah's coat of camel's hair and his leathern girdle. He set out, and I do not wonder at it, in Elijah's mantle, and he did his first prophetical work in it; but he wore it awkwardly, and he soon laid it aside. Elisha was an altogether smaller and more homely man than Elijah, and he wisely preferred before long to put on much less startling and outstanding clothes. Elisha was a gentle, homely, kindly lowland minister; as unlike Elijah as the green meadows of Abel-Meholah were unlike the savage solitudes of mountainous Gilead. And we must not demand of our young preachers that they shall all stride out with the same step, and pronounce just with the same accent as the Elijah of our youth. We had Elijah, and he fulfilled his day, and did his work. Even the Elijah you so often go back upon, were he here again, he would not be exactly the same man, with exactly the same mantle, the hem and the hair of which you were so wont to kiss. I always regret hearing Elisha calling Elijah his father, and no more word of honest Shaphat. Fathers, come with me, and let no man run away with our best name from us! Let no man, no, not Elijah himself, take our crown
Prophets, Sons of the - We read of them only in the days of Samuel, Elijah, and Elisha, who were held in repute by them. When Elijah was about to be taken up, these prophets apparently had a revelation concerning it, and they sent fifty men 'to view afar off,' and afterwards sent fifty to look for the prophet
Jezebel - When the prophets of Baal perished at Carmel, at the word of Elijah, she sought to avenge herself on him. Afterwards, she secured the vineyard of Naboth for her husband by perjuries and murder; and her tragical death, the fitting close of a bloody life, took place, according to the prediction of Elijah, near the scene of this crime, ...
1 Kings 19:1-21 21:1-29 2 Kings 9:1-37
Leather - Elijah the prophet was recognized by his garment of haircloth and leather belt or girdle (2 Kings 1:8 )
Elijah - ...
He is called "Elijah the Tishbite who was of the inhabitants of Gilead" (1 Kings 17:1 ), and with no further introduction he delivered a message to Ahab of fearful import to Israel, that there should be no rain or dew these years but according to his word. Elijah under the full direction of the Lord came forth from his mysterious retreat, and showed himself to Obadiah, the governor of Ahab's house, who was engaged in searching the land for provender. Assured by Elijah that he was ready to show himself to Ahab (though this latter had in vain sought him in many kingdoms to wreak vengeance on him for the prolonged drought), he reported Elijah's appearance, and the prophet and king were soon face to face. Their failure being patent to all, Elijah then invited the people to draw near. We now see Elijah in the wilderness, a weak and timid man, weary of the conflict, occupied with himself rather than the Lord, and asking to be allowed to die. Wind, earthquake, and fire would have well suited the prophet in his frame of mind, but the still small voice was that of the Lord, and Elijah had to learn that He had not given up His people. But Elijah was to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria, Jehu to be king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room. Elijah thereupon departed, and finding Elisha threw upon him his mantle. ...
For a time Elijah was in retirement, but he again reappeared on the occasion of Naboth's murder, and with the old energy of faith prophetically announced the doom of Ahab and Jezebel to Ahab's face. Two captains and their fifties, who had been sent to arrest him, were smitten with fire from heaven at Elijah's word. Traversing in the close company of Elisha the spots which, however now perverted, told of certain great truths — Gilgal, of the necessity of the judgement of self, the place of circumcision — Bethel, of the faithfulness of God and the resources which are His for His own, the place where God had appeared to Jacob — Jericho, of the power of God as against all that of the enemy — they reached the Jordan through which they passed dry shod, the waters being separated hither and thither by Elijah smiting them with his mantle. The land of Israel is left by the well-known figure of death, "and it came to pass, that as they still went on and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. John the Baptist was in the character of Elijah as the prophet who was to come before "the great and terrible day of the Lord," to affect the hearts of the people, if he had been received; but not being received, except by a few, John declared to the Jews that he was not Elijah. So it remains for Elijah's ministry to be fulfilled ere Christ appears in glory. ...
Moses and Elijah were seen on the mount of transfiguration, as representatives of the law and the prophets; but theirs was then a subordinate place, for the proclamation was "This is my beloved Son; hear him. Elijah's testimony was given in righteousness: his ministry demanded that the righteous claims of God as the Jehovah of His people should be satisfied
Elijah - ...
He is called "Elijah the Tishbite who was of the inhabitants of Gilead" (1 Kings 17:1 ), and with no further introduction he delivered a message to Ahab of fearful import to Israel, that there should be no rain or dew these years but according to his word. Elijah under the full direction of the Lord came forth from his mysterious retreat, and showed himself to Obadiah, the governor of Ahab's house, who was engaged in searching the land for provender. Assured by Elijah that he was ready to show himself to Ahab (though this latter had in vain sought him in many kingdoms to wreak vengeance on him for the prolonged drought), he reported Elijah's appearance, and the prophet and king were soon face to face. Their failure being patent to all, Elijah then invited the people to draw near. We now see Elijah in the wilderness, a weak and timid man, weary of the conflict, occupied with himself rather than the Lord, and asking to be allowed to die. Wind, earthquake, and fire would have well suited the prophet in his frame of mind, but the still small voice was that of the Lord, and Elijah had to learn that He had not given up His people. But Elijah was to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria, Jehu to be king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room. Elijah thereupon departed, and finding Elisha threw upon him his mantle. ...
For a time Elijah was in retirement, but he again reappeared on the occasion of Naboth's murder, and with the old energy of faith prophetically announced the doom of Ahab and Jezebel to Ahab's face. Two captains and their fifties, who had been sent to arrest him, were smitten with fire from heaven at Elijah's word. Traversing in the close company of Elisha the spots which, however now perverted, told of certain great truths — Gilgal, of the necessity of the judgement of self, the place of circumcision — Bethel, of the faithfulness of God and the resources which are His for His own, the place where God had appeared to Jacob — Jericho, of the power of God as against all that of the enemy — they reached the Jordan through which they passed dry shod, the waters being separated hither and thither by Elijah smiting them with his mantle. The land of Israel is left by the well-known figure of death, "and it came to pass, that as they still went on and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. John the Baptist was in the character of Elijah as the prophet who was to come before "the great and terrible day of the Lord," to affect the hearts of the people, if he had been received; but not being received, except by a few, John declared to the Jews that he was not Elijah. So it remains for Elijah's ministry to be fulfilled ere Christ appears in glory. ...
Moses and Elijah were seen on the mount of transfiguration, as representatives of the law and the prophets; but theirs was then a subordinate place, for the proclamation was "This is my beloved Son; hear him. Elijah's testimony was given in righteousness: his ministry demanded that the righteous claims of God as the Jehovah of His people should be satisfied
Zarephath - Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the "great famine," when the "heaven was shut up three years and six months" (Luke 4:26 ; 1 Kings 17:10 )
Obadiah - He protected God’s prophets from Jezebel’s violence, and on one occasion carried a message from Elijah to Ahab (1 Kings 18:1-16)
Zarephath - At Zarephath, Elijah found shelter with a widow during the great famine in Israel. Jesus made reference to this incident in Elijah's life
Juniper - The bushy shrub, eight or ten feet high, shaded Elijah from the heat
Ahaziah - Elijah met the messengers on their road, and turned them back with a message to Ahaziah, reproaching him with his impiety, and telling him he should not recover from his sickness. Ahaziah, on finding by the description the messengers gave that it was Elijah, sent a captain and fifty men to seize him. Elijah called down fire from heaven and they were consumed. The captain of the third fifty begged Elijah to spare their lives, which he did, and he went with them and delivered the message to Ahaziah
Mantle - The transference of the mantle from Elijah to Elisha signified the passing of prophetic responsibility and God's accompanying power
Raven - Elijah was miraculously fed by ravens, 1 Kings 17:6
Cherith - Cherith (kç'rith), gorge, The Brook, a brook or torrent "before Jordan" where the prophet Elijah was hid
e'Noch - Like Elijah, he was translated without seeing death. Both the Latin and Greek fathers commonly coupled Enoch and Elijah as historic witnesses of the possibility of a resurrection of the body and of a true human existence in glory
Elisha - A distinguished prophet of Israel and successor of Elijah. While occupied in guiding the plow he received the call of Elijah, and appears ever after to have attended on him. How deep the affection was with which he regarded his master, the narrative of Elijah's last days on earth sufficiently testifies. At his translation Elisha asked a double portion of the departing prophet's spirit, secured his falling mantle, and had speedily full proof that the Lord God of Elijah was with him. He was the opposite to Elijah in most things. an elder brother's—portion of Elijah's spirit, both to work miracles and to give counsel for present and future emergencies
Abel-Meholah - " Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah on his return up the Jordan valley from Horeb (1 Kings 19:16 )
Elisha - Elijah was instructed by God to anoint Elisha to be prophet in his stead. Elijah cast his mantle over him, but we do not read of the anointing: doubtless it was realised in receiving a double portion of Elijah's spirit. Elisha was not prepared then to take up Elijah's mantle, but first he made a feast for his people, and then he followed Elijah and ministered unto him. When God was about to take Elijah to Himself, it became known to the sons of the prophets, and they told Elisha, but he knew it already; and when Elijah suggested to him to remain behind he refused and followed him from place to place, until he had traversed Jordan (figuratively death) with Elijah. Being thus proved to be knit together in spirit, Elijah asked Elisha what he should do for him before he was taken. " Elijah replied that, though he had asked a hard thing, it should be so if he saw him when he was taken up. A chariot and horses of fire separated them, and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven; and Elisha saw it. Elisha took up the mantle that fell from Elijah, which before he had failed to do, and went to the Jordan and smote it with the mantle, and the waters divided, and he passed over into the land, with the spirit of the ascended Elijah resting on him. Elisha had come as it were from heaven, into which Elijah had entered, and he came in grace, and if this was despised, judgement must follow, as it will be with Israel by-and-by. Elisha sent one of the sons of the prophets to anoint Jehu to be king over Israel: he was to execute God's judgement on the house of Ahab and on Jezebel, which had been prophesied by Elijah
Baalzebub - Worshipped at Ekron; consulted by Ahaziah as to his recovery, for which Jehovah by Elijah declared he should die (2 Kings 1:2-3; 2 Kings 1:16)
Tish'Bite, the, - the well-known designation of Elijah. Assuming that a town is alluded to as Elijah's native place, it is not necessary to infer that it was itself in Gilead, as many have imagined
Leather - Elijah is described as a "hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather
Zarephath - ...
During a famine in Israel, the prophet Elijah resided here, with a widow whose cruse of oil and barrel of flour were supplied and whose child was restored to life by miracle
Raven - The former from the ark of Noah, (Genesis 8:7) and the other feeding the prophet Elijah at the brook Cherith. But the Scriptures have uniformly held forth this history of Elijah as miraculous, which would not have been the case but in the supposition of his being fed by ravens
Transfiguration - Moses the lawgiver and Elijah tie chief of the prophets both appear talking with Christ the source of the gospel, to show that they are all one and agree in one. Moses and Elijah, the law and the promise, types and shadows, pass away; the gospel, the fulfilment, the substance, Christ remains—the only one who can relieve the misery of earth and glorify our nature, Christ all in all
Kishon - Later, the river was the place where Elijah brought the prophets of Baal to be executed following God's display and victory on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:40 )
Kishon, River of, Kison - It was also at this brook that Elijah slew the prophets of Baal
Zar'Ephath - (smelting place ), the residence of the prophet Elijah during the latter part of the drought
Mantle, - ...
(1 Kings 19:13,19 ; 2 Kings 2:8,13,14 ) The sole garment of the prophet Elijah
Elijah - Finding that not even these mighty works of God would bring the nation and its rulers to repentance, Elijah was almost in despair. ...
Elijah was one of the most eminent and honored of the Hebrew prophets. It was a high honor granted to Moses and Elijah, that they alone should appear on the mount of Transfiguration, many centuries after they had gone into heaven-to bear witness of its existence, and commune with the Savior concerning his death, Luke 9:28-35 . ...
John the Baptist was foretold under the name of Elias, or Elijah, from his resemblance in character and life to the ancient prophet of Israel, Malachi 4:5,6 Matthew 17:10-13
Ahab - It was chiefly in his reign that Elijah the Tishbite laboured, and he testified for Jehovah against the apostasy and corruption of the king. Elijah met him there and declared that dogs should lick his blood where they had licked the blood of Naboth. He disguised himself, but an arrow, shot at a venture, smote him between the joints of his armour, and he was wounded to death, and the prediction of Elijah came literally to pass
Transfiguration - There are several reasons why this is unlikely: the title given to Jesus ("Rabbi") in Mark 9:5 and the equation of Jesus with Moses and Elijah ( Matthew 17:4 ; Mark 9:5 ; Luke 9:33 ) would be strange addressed to the resurrected Christ; the form of this account is quite different from resurrection accounts; the presence of Peter-James-John as an inner circle occurs in other accounts during the life of Jesus, but not in a resurrection account; and the temporal designations associated with the resurrection are "first day" or "after three days, " not "after six days" (Matthew 17:1 ; Mark 9:2 ) or "about eight days after" (Luke 9:28 ). The words, "This is my Son, whom I love" (Mark 9:7 ), are a rebuke of Peter's placement of Jesus on the same level as Moses and Elijah ("Let us put up three shelters — one for you, one for Moses and one for Elijah" [1]) as well as a divine confirmation of Jesus' identity given in Peter's confession (Mark 8:29 ). The presence of Moses and Elijah is probably best interpreted as indicating that Jesus is the fulfillment of the Law (Moses) and the Prophets (Elijah). Luke adds that Moses and Elijah spoke to Jesus of his "departure" or forthcoming death ( Luke 9:31 )
Mantle - ...
(4) 'addereth , Elijah the prophet's sole mantle except the leather girdle about his loins (1 Kings 19:13; 1 Kings 19:19); the Septuagint render it "sheepskin
Mount Carmel - ) Here it was the prophet Elijah did such wonders by faith, to the glory of God
Naboth - Elijah, however, did not fear to denounce against the king and queen the vengeance of One "higher than they," 1 Kings 21:1-29 2 Kings 9:24-26,36 Ecclesiastes 5:8
Hazael - An officer of Benhadad king of Syria, whose future accession to the throne was revealed to the prophet Elijah, then at Damascus, as to his recovery from sickness, and on the next day smothered the king with a wet cloth, 2 Kings 8:7-15 , B
Than - Thus Elijah said, I am not better than my fathers
Elijah - (Ἠλίας)...
One incident in the life of Elijah is recalled by St. In a mood of despair Elijah imagined that the worst had happened to Israel, and that the worst was likely to overtake himself. Paul could not help seeing the close analogy between the conditions of Elijah’s critical time and those of his own. But did the ‘great refusal’ of the majority prove either that all Israel was unfaithful or that God had cast off His people? No, for (a) now as in Elijah’s time there were splendid exceptions, forming a remnant (λεῖμμα = שְׁאָר) which was the true Israel; and (b) God’s immutable faithfulness made the idea of a rejection incredible and almost unthinkable. ) takes an illustration from the story of Elijah, and in doing so reminds his readers that, though so great in life and so remote from ordinary humanity in the manner of his exodus from the world, the prophet was yet a man of like passions (or ‘nature,’ Revised Version margin) with us-ἄνθρωπος ὁμοιοπαθὴς ἡμῖν-so that his experiences may serve as a help to weak, ordinary mortals. In 4 Ezra (7:109) Elijah is cited as an example of intercession pro his qui pluviam acceperunt
Arabia Petraea - At Horeb, Moses saw the burning bush, and Elijah heard the "still small voice
Example - ...
Elijah, the model reformer
Man of od - ...
We shall see this in the list that follows:...
Moses, the Model of Intercession Jeremiah 15:1...
The Angel of the Lord, Model of Sufficiency Judges 13:6...
The Pre-existent CHRIST, Model of Justice1Sa2:27...
Samuel, Model of Understanding1Sa9:6...
Shemaiah, Model of Counsel1Ki12:22...
Elijah, Model of Faithfulness1Ki17:18...
Elisha, Model of Kindness2Ki4:7...
Ahijah, Model of Severity2Ki23:16...
David, Model of Praise2Ch8:14...
Isaiah, Model of Spirituality2Ch25:7...
Igdaliah, Model of Consecration Jeremiah 35:4...
Timothy, Model of Holiness1Ti6:11...
You, the Saint of GOD, Model of Godliness2Ti3:17...
Asherah - Elijah asked that 400 prophets of Asherah that ate at Jezebel's table be gathered at Carmel
Olive (Tree) - Some think that these two trees represent Moses and Elijah, Moses the lawgiver, and Elijah the grace giver. Most Bible students think they are Moses and Elijah who return to this earth in person with a message from GOD, and are persecuted
Ahab - As a judgment, a drought was sent upon the land; and then came the solemn vindication of Jehovah's authority by the prophet Elijah before Ahab and the assembled people, and the punishment, according to the law of Moses, of the idolatrous prophets. Jezebel was irritated to madness at the news of this catastrophe, and resolved to sacrifice Elijah; while Ahab was either unable or unwilling to interfere. The unscrupulous Jezebel then put him in possession of the coveted plot of ground by the judicial murder of Naboth; and Ahab went to view it, but was met by Elijah, who denounced on him a fearful judgment
Earthquake - The first earthquake mentioned is when Elijah was told to stand before the Lord. There passed by a strong wind that rent the rocks, then an earthquake, and fire; but the Lord was not in the earthquake, nor in the fire; but in a still small voice: a lesson for Elijah when he was thinking much of himself
Ahaziah - After an accident, Ahaziah sought help from Baal gods, but Elijah stopped him. Ahaziah then plotted to kill Elijah, but his plans ended in his own death (2 Kings 1:1-16)
Restore, Renew - The parallel references in Matthew and Mark focus on the disciples' question about the coming of Elijah before the day of the Lord and the scribal tradition on this subject. Some view Jesus as correcting the scribal tradition by observing that John the Baptist, who came in the spirit and power of Elijah (cf. Others contend that John fulfilled the spirit of Malachi's statement about Elijah for the first advent. Yet John was not the final Elijah of Malachi (cf. Malachi's Elijah is related to the second advent (cf. Jesus has a point to score in these texts that goes beyond the historical nature of Elijah's coming. The greater contexts of Matthew and Mark place some of the disciples with Jesus on the Mount of Transfiguration where Elijah appears and discusses the exodus (death) of the Messiah. When they raised this issue to Jesus, he notes that the rejection of John was equivalent to rejecting the spirit of Malachi's Elijah and thus implies an analogy for Jesus' own rejection and death. Therefore, while the spirit and power of Elijah in John were rejected, there remains a still future restoration
Transfiguration, the - Moses and Elijah appeared from the heavenly world, as the representatives of the Old Testament, the one of the law the other of prophecy, to do homage to him who was the fulfillment of both. ' No man knew of the sepulchre of Moses, (34:6) and Elijah had passed away in the chariot and horses of fire. Another Jewish tradition predicts his appearance with that of Elijah. " Moses the law giver and Elijah the chief of the prophets both appear talking with Christ the source of the gospel, to show that they are all one and agree in one. Moses and Elijah, the law and the promise, types and shadows, pass away; the gospel, the fulfillment, the substance Christ remains--the only one who can relieve the misery of earth and glorify our nature, Christ all in all
Elisha - —The famous disciple, companion, and successor of Elijah
Gad (2) - Jerome compares Gad to Elijah in the abruptness of his introduction; this concentrates all attention on his work and message, none on himself
Kishon - The total defeat of Sisera, Judges 4:7; Judges 5:21, and the executions of the idol-priests by Elijah, 1 Kings 18:40, took place on the shores of this river
Jezebel - When these were slain by Elijah, she threatened the life of the prophet, but he escaped out of her hands. Elijah was soon on the spot to tell Ahab his doom, and of his wife he said, "The dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel
Malachi - His prophecies are at once denunciatory of prevailing vices, and close with a prophecy of the coming of Messiah, and foretells that Elijah will return as a forerunner of Messiah—a prediction which found its striking fulfilment by the mission of John the Baptist Malachi 4:5; Luke 1:17; Matthew 11:14; Matthew 17:12
Whirlwind - The Lord used the raging wind to take Elijah to heaven (2Kings 2:1, 2 Kings 2:11 ) and to talk with Job (Job 38:1 ; Job 40:6 )
John the Baptist - Indeed, Luke says that John came "in the spirit and power of Elijah" (Luke 1:17 ). He goes on to allude to Malachi 4:5 , which states that Elijah will return "before that great and dreadful day of the Lord. " In fact, some contemporaries of John inquired if he were Elijah (John 1:21 ). ...
The belief that Elijah would return and prepare the way of the Lord can be traced to Malachi 3:1,4:5 . The Gospels also indicate that many believed that Elijah would come first, and then the Christ (Matthew 11:14 ; 17:10 ; Mark 6:15 ; 9:11 ; Luke 9:8 ). ...
John flatly denied that he was Elijah reincarnated (John 1:21,25 ). Nevertheless Jesus affirmed that Elijah must come first and that he had come in the person of John the Baptist (Matthew 17:11-13 ; Mark 9:12-13 ). In the spirit of Elijah, he preached a message of repentance and baptism. Simmons...
See also Elijah ; Jesus Christ ...
Bibliography
Elisha - On his return from Horeb, Elijah cast his mantle upon the youth, as he was directing his father’s servants at their ploughing. The young man at once recognized the call from God, and, after a hastily-devised farewell feast, he left the parental abode ( 1 Kings 19:16 ; 1 Kings 19:19 ), and ever after he was known as the man ‘who poured water on the hands of Elijah’ ( 2 Kings 3:11 ). A double portion of Elijah’s spirit (cf. In order to receive this boon he must be a witness of the translation of the mighty hero of Jehovah; and as Elijah is whirled away in the chariot of fire, his mantle falls upon his disciple, who immediately makes use of it in parting the waters of the Jordan. Elijah’s was a flint-like nature, which crushed its opponents and won its victories by hard blows. Elisha could be as stern as Elijah: at Bethel he treats the mocking youth in the spirit of Sinai (2 Kings 2:23 ), and no touch of pity can be detected in the sentence that falls on Gehazi ( 2 Kings 5:27 ). The estimate of Sirach ( Sir 48:12 ) is according to all the facts of the OT narrative:...
‘Elijah it was who was wrapped in a tempest:...
And Elisha was filled with his spirit:...
And in all his days he was not moved by the fear of any ruler,...
And no one brought him into subjection. This change of attitude on the part of the prophet may be due to the fact that Jehoram attempted to do away with Baal worship ( 2 Kings 3:2 ); but Elisha has not forgotten the doom pronounced upon the house of Ahab by Elijah. While Jehu is commanding the forces besieging Ramoth-gilead, Elisha sends one of the sons of the prophets to anoint the general as king, and thus he executes the commission which Elijah received from Jehovah at Horeb ( 1 Kings 19:16 ). Nothing is said of a formal anointing, but in this connexion Elisha seems to have carried out the commission of Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:17 )
Zarephath - It was the town in which Elijah lodged during the years of famine ( 1 Kings 17:8-24 )
Naboth - As Ahab went to take possession of the vineyard, he was met by Elijah, the prophet, who pronounced doom on him and his house
Carmel - The towering mountain (1 Kings 18:19 ) where Elijah confronted the prophets of Baal
Chariot - A CHARIOT OF FIRE and horses of fire appeared when Elijah was carried up into heaven
Enoch - And "he was not; for God took him," that is, like Elijah in subsequent times, "he was translated that he should not see death
Naboth - " Ahab arose and went forth into the garden which had so treacherously and cruelly been acquired, seemingly enjoying his new possession, when, lo, Elijah suddenly appeared before him and pronounced against him a fearful doom (1 Kings 21:17-24 ). Jehu and Bidcar were with Ahab at this time, and so deeply were the words of Elijah imprinted on Jehu's memory that many years afterwards he refers to them (2 Kings 9:26 ), and he was the chief instrument in inflicting this sentence on Ahab and Jezebel and all their house (9:30-37). Ahab humbled himself at Elijah's words (1 Kings 21:28,29 ), and therefore the prophecy was fulfilled not in his fate but in that of his son Joram (2 Kings 9:25 )
Beersheba - Here Samuel’s sons were judges ( 1 Samuel 8:2 ), and hither Elijah fled before Jezebel ( 1 Kings 19:3 ). It was an important holy place: here Abraham planted a sacred tree ( Genesis 21:33 ), and theophanies were vouchsafed to Hagar ( Genesis 21:17 ), to Isaac ( Genesis 26:24 ), to Jacob ( Genesis 46:2 ), and to Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:5 )
Carmel - It was the scene of Elijah's contest with the priests of Baal, that led to their destruction. There Elijah repaired the altar of the Lord: this may have been erected before the temple was built, and been broken down, but its moral bearing is obvious. A perennial well near by would, notwithstanding the drought, have supplied the water Elijah needed. The spot is about 1,600 feet above the sea, and Elijah's servant had to go but a short distance to have the Mediterranean in view and to watch for a cloud
Naboth - (See AHAB; Elijah
Cruelty - The spirit of Elijah may not be the spirit of Christ ( Luke 9:55 )
Enoch - It was a testimony to his rare piety in an ungodly age that he was translated without seeing death, like Elijah
Minister - One who attends or waits on another, Matthew 20:28 ; so Elisha was the minister of Elijah, 1 Kings 19:21 2 Kings 3:11
Jezreel - Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu executed his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab (2 Kings 9:14-37 ; 10:1-11 )
Naboth - Jezebel now informed her husband, and he went down to take possession of the vineyard; but God sent Elijah to tell him his doom and that of Jezebel
Gad (2) - Two famous men came from Gad—Barzillai, 2 Samuel 17:27, and Elijah, 1 Kings 17:1
Carmel - That which has made Carmel most familiar to us is its intimate connection with the history of the two great prophets of Israel—Elijah and Elisha
Transfiguration - The Law and the Prophets, in the persons of Moses and Elijah, did homage to the Gospel
Hazael - God told the prophet Elijah that Hazael of Syria would be God’s instrument to punish Israel for its Baal worship during the reign of Ahab (1 Kings 19:15-17). Elijah’s successor, Elisha, wept when he saw the suffering that the cruel Hazael would bring upon Israel (2 Kings 8:12-15)
Famine (2) - Our Lord refers to the familiar instance of famine in the days of Elijah (Luke 4:25 f. ) In order to illustrate the truth that no prophet is best received in his own country, He reminds His hearers that Elijah was at that time sent not to one of the many widows in Israel, but to the widow of Sarepta in the territory of Sidon
Ahaziah - Ahaziah sent to Baalzebub (lord of flies), god of Ekron, to inquire, should he recover? Elijah, by direction of the angel of the Lord, met the messengers, and reproving their having repaired to the idol of Ekron as if there were no God in Israel, announced that Ahaziah should die. The king sent a captain of 50 and his men to take Elijah. At Elijah's word they were consumed by fire. ...
The third was spared on his supplicating Elijah. Elijah then in person announced to the king what he had already declared to his messenger
Transmigration - Here the disciples are puzzled by the apparent inconsistency between the fact that Jesus is the Messiah and the fact that Elijah has not appeared, as, in accordance with an authoritative interpretation of the prophecy of Malachi (Malachi 4:5), he was expected, to precede and prepare the way for the Messiah. Elijah had not died and been divested of his first body. The difficulty in believing that John the Baptist was Elijah consisted. at least in part, in the fact that he was known to have had a natural birth; whereas the return of Elijah would necessarily exclude such birth. The prophecy had been fulfilled, but its fulfilment involved neither the reincarnation of Elijah nor his descent from heaven with his first body. ...
Still another case is that in which the disciples, in answer to the question of Jesus, report that some believed Him to he Elijah, others Jeremiah, and others one of the prophets (Matthew 16:14, Mark 6:14-17)
Cherith - A cutting; separation; a gorge, a torrent-bed or winter-stream, a "brook," in whose banks the prophet Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three years' drought (1 Kings 17:3,5 ). Thus Elijah's hiding-place may have been the Jermuk, in the territory of the half-tribe of Manasseh
Ahaziah - The prophet Elijah announced Ahaziah would die because he sent for help from Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, instead of from Yahweh
Baking Bread - Elijah requests the same of the widow of Zarephath, 1 Kings 17:13 , Amnon the son of David requests Tamar his sister to come and make cakes in his sight, that he might eat at her hand, 2 Samuel 13:6
Raven - That the carnivorous ravens should bring flesh as well as bread to Elijah shows God's miraculous power; He caused them to feed His servant
Chariots - Elijah went up to heaven in a chariot of fire
Chariot - Elijah, by his prayers and his counsel, was "the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. Elijah was translated in a "chariot of fire" (2 Kings 2:11 )
a'Hab - (2 Kings 9:26 ) Thereupon Elijah declared that the entire extirpation of Ahab's house was the penalty appointed for his long course of wickedness. [1] The execution, however, of the sentence was delayed in consequence of Ahab's deep repentance. " When buried in Samaria, the dogs licked up his blood as a servant was washing his chariot; a partial fulfillment of Elijah's prediction, (1 Kings 21:19 ) which was more literally accomplished in the case of his son
Baldness - If in the expression, "Go up," there was also a reference to the translation of Elijah, as turning it into jest, this was another aggravation of the sin, to which these young people were probably instigated by their parents
Beer-Sheba - Elijah rested here on his way to Horeb, 1 Kings 19:3
Car'Mel - That which has made the name of Carmel most familiar to the modern world is its intimate connection with the history of the two great prophets of Israel, Elijah and Elisha
Carmel - It was the scene of Elijah’s sacrifice ( 1 Kings 18:1-46 ), and hither after Elijah’s translation Elisha came on the way to Samaria ( 2 Kings 2:25 ). An altar of Jehovah existed here before Elijah ( 1 Kings 18:30 ). 78) refers to the mountain as the site of an oracle; the Druses hold the traditional site of the sacrifice of Elijah sacred; and the mountain has given its name to the Carmelite order of friars
Elisha - the son of Shaphat, Elijah's disciple and successor in the prophetic office, was of the city of Abelmeholah, 1 Kings 19:16 , &c. Elijah having received God's command to anoint Elisha as a prophet, came to Abelmeholah; and finding him ploughing with oxen, he threw his mantle over the shoulders of Elisha, who left the oxen, and accompanied him. Under the article Elijah, it has been observed that Elisha was following his master, when he was taken up to heaven; and that he inherited Elijah's mantle, with a double portion of his spirit. Elisha, like his master Elijah, had learned to contemn the world. At the end of the seven years' famine, which the prophet had foretold, he went to Damascus, to execute the command which God had given to Elijah many years before, of declaring Hazael king of Syria. Elisha sent one of the sons of the prophets to anoint Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, and grandson of Nimshi, to be king, in pursuance of an order given to Elijah some years before; and Jehu having received the royal unction, executed every thing that had been foretold by Elijah against Ahab's family, and against Jezebel
Ahaziah - Elijah the prophet foretold his speedy death-first to the messengers, and again to Ahaziah himself, after two companies of fifty had been consumed by fire from heaven
Hazael - , king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according to the word of the Lord to Elijah (1 Kings 19:15 ), after he had put the king to death (2 Kings 8:15 )
Juniper - It was in this very desert, a day's journey from Beersheba, that the prophet Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same shrub" (1 Kings 19:4,5 )
Ahaziah - His messengers, sent to consult the god of Ekron regarding his recovery from the effects of a fall from the roof-gallery of his palace, were met on the way by Elijah, who sent them back to tell the king that he would never rise from his bed (1Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:18 )
John - His dress, food, and manner of life were like Elijah
Ahaziah - Ahaziah is accused of sending messengers to inquire of the celebrated oracle at Ekron, and is said unexpectedly to have received his answer from Elijah ( 2 Kings 1:1-18 )
John - His dress, food, and manner of life were like Elijah
Carmel - , the place of burning), that Elijah brought back the people to their allegiance to God, and slew the prophets of Baal ( 1 Kings 18 ). To them Elijah and Elisha often resorted (1 Kings 18:19,42 ; 2 Kings 2:25 )
Kings, Books of - The prophet Elijah was God’s servant to help preserve Israel and punish the Baalists (16:29-17:24). Elijah won a great victory over the prophets of Baal on Mt Carmel (18:1-46), but when the people of Israel still did not give up their Baalism, God strengthened and reassured the discouraged Elijah (19:1-21). Through Elijah’s help, Ahab saved Israel from a Syrian attack (20:1-43), but he was doomed to suffer God’s judgment (21:1-29). ...
Contents of 2 Kings...
Elijah was succeeded as prophet by Elisha (1:1-2:14), who soon proved that the miraculous power of God worked through him as it had through Elijah (2:15-3:27)
Restitution - The prophet Malachi had foretold that Elijah should be sent as the Messiah’s forerunner (Malachi 4:5) and that he should effect a work of moral restoration (Malachi 4:6); and in the Septuagint this restoring work (Heb. הֵשִיב, English Version ‘turn’) of Elijah is expressed by the word ἀποκαταστήσει. On the ground of this saying the expectation of Elijah’s reappearance to herald the advent of the Messiah had become general among the Jews (Sirach 48:10-11; cf. [2] 156), and when Jesus, after His transfiguration, forbade His disciples to tell any one of their vision of Moses and Elijah on the mount, they asked Him, ‘Why then say the scribes that Elijah must first come?’ (Matthew 17:10; cf. ‘Elijah indeed cometh,’ was His reply, ‘and shall restore all things’ (ἀποκαταστήσει πάντα, Matthew 17:11; cf. Mark 9:12); but He immediately made them understand that Elijah had come already in the person of John the Baptist (Matthew 17:12 f
Coal - In two cases, however, the ‘live coal’ of Isaiah’s vision ( Isaiah 6:6 ) and the ‘coals’ on which was ‘a cake haken’ for Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:6 ), the Heb
Kishon - This was the scene of the defeat of Sisera (Judges 4:7,13 ), and of the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah (1 Kings 18:40 )
Table of Kings And Prophets in Israel And Judah - ...
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Omri,...
918...
Ahab,...
Elijah
Jehu - See Israel , Chronology of Biblical Period; Elijah
Malachi - In the latter part he foretells the coming of John the Baptist in the spirit and power of Elijah, Malachi 3:1 ; 4:5,6 ; Matthew 11:10,14 ; 17:10-13 ; Luke 1:17
Carmel - Now Mar Elyas (Elijah), rarely Kurmul. "Elijah's melons," or lapides Judaici, is the name applied to stones of light brown flint outside, hollow inside, and lined with quartz crystals or chalcedony, the geological "geodes. The scene of Elijah's conflict with, and execution of, Baal's prophets was at the N. The site of Elijah's sacrifice is still marked by the Arab name El-Maharrakah," the burning. " From it Ahab "went up" to the sides of Carmel to take part in the sacrificial feast; Elijah went up to "the top" of the mountain to pray for rain: while Gehazi seven times climbed the highest point from whence the Mediterranean is to be fully seen over the W. An altar of Jehovah had existed on Carmel before that Baal worship was introduced; Jezebel had east it down (1 Kings 28:30); this Elijah repaired and used as the altar for his sacrifice. Here too the successive fifties of king Ahaziah, at Elijah's call, were consumed by fire from heaven. ) Elisha repaired there, after Elijah's ascension (2 Kings 2:25). Bertholdt, a Calabrian, and a crusader in the 12th century, had founded the order, and Louis of France the convent, in the 13th century, at the traditional site of Elijah's abode. The Latin traditions as to Elijah being connected with the origin of that order of monks are purely mythical
John the Baptist - ...
Forerunner of the Messiah...
People in Israel had long expected that Elijah the prophet would return before the coming of the Messiah (Malachi 4:5). Jesus pointed out that this ‘Elijah’ was in fact John the Baptist (Matthew 11:10-14; Matthew 17:10-13). John preached in the spirit and power of Elijah (Luke 1:17) and shared the harsh existence of Elijah, living in semi-barren regions where he wore rough clothing and ate wild food (Matthew 3:4; Luke 1:80; Luke 3:2; cf
Immortality - Those who did escape death—Enoch (Genesis 5:24 ) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:10-11 )—did so only by the power of God and not by some inherent power they had to live forever
Hazael - These events had also been forecast by the prophet Elijah (1 Kings 19:15-17 )
Obadiah - He was the go-between for Elijah and Ahab (1 Kings 18:3-16 )
Intercessions - , against Paul; in Romans 11:2 , of Elijah in "pleading" with God, RV (AV, "maketh intercession to"), against Israel; (b) for, in Romans 8:27 , of the intercessory work of the Holy Spirit for the saints; Romans 8:34 , of the similar intercessory work of Christ; so Hebrews 7:25
Jez'Ebel - (1 Kings 18:13 ; 2 Kings 9:7 ) At last the people, at the instigation of Elijah, rose against her ministers and slaughtered them at the foot of Carmel
Ravels - ...
The Prophet Elijah was in his retirement fed by this bird. A writer, indeed, in the Memoirs of Literature, for April, 1710, endeavours to show, from many authors, that there was in the country of Bethschan, in Decapolis, by the brook Cherith or Carith, a little town called Aorabi or Orbo, Judges 7:25 : Isaiah 10:6 ; and he therefore explains the word orebim, which, in 1 Kings 17:4 , we translate "ravens," of the inhabitants of that village, some of whom, he contends, daily carried bread and flesh to Elijah, who had retired to and lay in a cave in the neighbourhood. The editor of Calmet, also, in the appendix, under the article Elijah, has some pertinent observations on this subject. That Ahab sought Elijah with avidity, and took an oath of every people, no doubt, also, in his dominions, that he was not concealed among its inhabitants; his situation, therefore, required the utmost privacy, even to solitude
Elisha - See his call: Elijah. Whether formally "anointed" with oil or not, he was really anointed with the Spirit, and duly called by his predecessor to the prophetic office by Elijah's crossing over, and hastily throwing upon him the rough mantle, the token of investiture, and then going as quickly as he came. ...
So bidding farewell to father and mother (contrast Matthew 8:21-22; "suffer me first to go and (tend my father until his death, and then) bury my father"; and Luke 9:61-62, where the "bidding farewell" involved in that particular case a division of heart between home relations and Christ, Luke 14:26; Matthew 10:37; Philippians 3:13), and slaying a yoke of oxen and boiling the flesh with the wooden instruments (compare 2 Samuel 24:22), a token of giving up all for the Lord's sake, he ministered to Elijah henceforth as Joshua did to Moses. His ministry is once described, "Elisha who poured water on the hands of Elijah. " He was subordinate; so the sons of the prophets represent it: "Jehovah will take away thy master (Elijah) from thy head" (2 Kings 2:3). ...
The mission of Elijah, as his name implied, was to bring Israel to confess that Jehovah alone is God ('Εel ); Elisha further taught them, as his name implies, that Jehovah if so confessed would prove the salvation of His people. Hence, Elisha's work is that of quiet beneficence; Elijah's that of judicial sternness upon all rebels against Jehovah. Elisha, the healer, fitly comes after Elijah, the destroyer. ...
Elijah, like a Bedouin, delighted in the desert, the heights of Carmel, and the caves of Horeb, and avoided cities. ...
Like Elijah, he conquered the idols on their own ground, performing without fee the cures for which Beelzebub of Ekron was sought in vain. At Bethel, on his way from Jericho to Carmel (2 Kings 2:23), where he had been with Elijah (2 Kings 2:2), he was met by "young men" (narim , not "little children"), idolaters or infidels, who, probably at the prompting of Baal's prophets in that stronghold of his worship sneered at the report of Elijah's ascension: "Go up" like thy master, said they, "thou bald head" (qereach , i. , with hair short at the back of the head, in contrast with Elijah's shaggy locks flowing over his shoulders; gibeach is the term for bald in front). The mother, inferring from God's extraordinary and unsought gift of the child to her, that it could not be God's design to snatch him from her for ever, and remembering that Elijah had restored the widow's son at Zarephath, mounted her she-ass (hathon , esteemed swifter than the he-ass), and having left her son on the bed of the man of God, without telling her husband of the death, rode 15 miles, four hours ride, to Carmel. ) Elisha, entering the room, shuts to the door (Matthew 6:6), and there stretching himself twice on the child, mouth to mouth, eyes to eyes, and hands to hands (compare Acts 20:10; antitypically the dead stoner must come into contact with the living Jesus, 1 John 1), after Elijah's pattern, and praying to Jehovah, proved the omnipotence of prayer to quicken the dead; then he delivered the resuscitated son to the happy mother. ...
Joram, in language identical with his mother Jezebel's threat against Elijah (1 Kings 19:2; 2 Kings 6:31), makes Elisha the scape-goat of the national calamity, as though his late act in leading the blinded Syrians to Samaria and glorifying Jehovah above Baal were the cause, or suspecting it was by Elisha's word of prayer, as it was by Elijah's formerly (1 Kings 17), that the famine came (See JEHORAM); "God do so and more also to me, if the head of Elisha shall stand on him this day. Elisha, when Joram and Israel failed to be reformed by God's mercies, proceeded to Damascus to execute Elijah's commission (1 Kings 19:15-16). There Elisha anointed Jehu, by the hand of one of the children of the prophets, to take vengeance on Ahab's guilty seed, having been witness of that monarch's wicked seizure of Naboth's vineyard and of Elijah's awful sentence on him (2 Kings 9:26). Elisha's last recorded act was when Jehu's grandson, Joash, wept over his deathbed in the words which Elisha had used of the departing Elijah: "my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof," i. The gentle features of his character attracted the poor and the simple to him in their troubles, whereas sternness characterized Elijah. In Herod and Herodias Ahab and Jezebel are reproduced, as in John the Baptist Elijah is reproduced; as Elijah, the representative of the law, foreruns the gentler Elisha, so John the greatest prophet of the law foreruns Jesus the gracious Savior
Servant - Thus Joshua was the servant of Moses, Elisha of Elijah, Gehazi of Elisha; St
Ahaziah - In the second year of his reign he fell through the lattice of an upper apartment of his palace, and died soon after, as Elijah had foretold, b
False Prophet - A familiar example is the story of Elijah and the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:20-39 ). In a test against Elijah and the true God, the prophets of Baal suffered humiliating defeat
Gilgal - Elijah and Elisha were associated closely with Gilgal. At one time Elisha made his headquarters there (2 Kings 4:38 ), where Elijah was taken up into heaven (2 Kings 2:1 )
Fast, Fasting - Here, as in other places, it is connected with humbling; but in the case of Elijah, as with Moses, it signifies being apart from the ordinary life of flesh, to be with the Lord. It is a contrast to Moses and Elijah, they were apart from man's natural condition to be with God; and He who as man was ever with God was so apart to be in conflict with the devil
Carmel - It gives rise to a multitude of crystal brooks, the largest of which issues from the so-called fountain of Elijah;' and they all hurry along, between banks thickly overgrown with bushes, to the Kishon. It is memorable for frequent visits of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings 2:25 4:25 , and especially for the destruction of the priests of Baal upon it, 1 Kings 18:1-46
Jezebel - When Elijah under God wrought the miracle at Carmel, and killed her favorite prophets, Jezebel still unsubdued swore by her gods to do to Elijah as he had done to them (1 Kings 19:1-3)
John the Baptist - Like the great prophet reformer (compare 1 Kings 18:36-37) Elijah in "spirit. which he preached; his raiment a camel's hair garment secured with leather girdle (2 Kings 1:8) as Elijah's; his food that supplied by the desert, locusts (Leviticus 11:22) and wild honey (Psalms 81:16). (On the "Elias who shall yet come," see Elijah, end. ...
Elijah was translated in a chariot of fire; but John died a felon's death, for the forerunner was to be as his Lord. As Ahab in spite of himself respected Elijah, so Herod John; but in both cases the bad woman counteracted the good. John in prison fell into the same dejection concerning the failure of the Messianic kingdom, because it did not come in outward manifestation, as Elijah under the juniper
Bethabara - Thence Elijah ascended
Effectual - , in the effect produced in the praying man, bringing him into line with the will of God, as in the case of Elijah
Candlestick - Some think these are Moses and Elijah
Minister - one who attends or waits on another; so we find Elisha was the minister of Elijah, and did him services of various kinds, 2 Kings 3:11
Fasting - His forty days' fast, like that of Elijah and of our Lord, was miraculous, Deuteronomy 9:9 1 Kings 19:8 Matthew 4:2
Obadiah - The latter was startled by the sudden appearance of Elijah, who had disappeared since his first announcement of the drought coming at his word (1 Kings 17:1). Obadiah knew him and reverently fell on his face saying, "art thou that my lord Elijah?"...
The suddenness of his appearing and Obadiah's past avoidance of direct contact with him for prudence sake made him ask in order to be sure he was not making a mistake. Elijah told him to tell Ahab of his presence. Obadiah in distrustful fear (for Scripture records the failings as well as the graces of its heroes, for our learning) regarded the message as tantamount to his destruction, supposing the Spirit would carry Elijah elsewhere and so Ahab, disappointed of his victim, would wreak his vengeance on Obadiah. No boastful spirit, but a desire to deprecate Elijah's exposing him to death, prompted his mention of his services to the cause of God. Elijah's assurance that he would show himself to Ahab sufficed to dispel his fears and to re-establish his faith
Persecution - ...
When we come to Elijah, we find ourselves on the confines of a new age. In the time of Elijah the antagonism between the prophet and the throne-or between religious conviction and the secular authority-issues in open conflict. Elijah is more than a passive resister; he carries the conflict into the enemy’s territory, and fights the throne with its own weapons. We have seen that Elijah, like his predecessors, advocated the sole worship of Jahweh. Elijah stemmed the tide and a strong party refused to follow the example of the throne. The conflict between Elijah and Ahab was not simply whether one god or another should be worshipped-Jahweh of Israel or Melkarth of Tyre. But from Elijah’s standpoint it was a matter of impossibility to practise this religious dualism. We can trace in Elijah’s attitude the germ of that exclusiveness which is inevitable when the terms ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ or ‘true’ and ‘false’ are introduced into religion. To Elijah ‘Baal and Yahweh represented, so to speak, a contrast of principles, of profound and ultimate practical convictions; both could not be right, nor could they exist side by side. We must not be surprised or disappointed that Elijah believed in the use of force. Elijah delighted in violent measures. It is not always easy to decide whether Elijah or Ahab is the persecutor, for both believed in violence as the only means to the end which they had in view. But we find in the story of the life and work of Elijah a religious conviction that is daring enough to stand up to the secular authority and defy its directions. Ahab’s policy may seem to suggest breadth of mind, whilst Elijah’s attitude betokens theological narrowness; but in this case the narrow way was the way of life, whilst the broad way was also the way of death. ...
But Elijah came into still closer grips with Ahab. Elijah identified the worship of Jahweh with social morality. Elijah had the courage to denounce Ahab for his treatment of Naboth, and the prophet did so, not as a statesman or economist, but as a theologian. ...
Elijah was the Wycliffe of Hebrew prophetism; the principles which emerge in connexion with the story of his life were clearly grasped by Amos and his successors, and fearlessly applied to the criticism of the religious and social situation of Israel and Judah
Ahab - In spite of the warnings and mercies of Providence, Ahab went on in sin; and at length, after the murder of Naboth, his crimes and abominable idolatries were such that God sent Elijah to denounce judgments upon him and his seed
Ahab - He was severely admonished by Elijah (q. Ahab went into the battle disguised, that he might if possible escape the notice of his enemies; but an arrow from a bow "drawn at a venture" pierced him, and though stayed up in his chariot for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy (1Kings 21:19) was fulfilled
Transfiguration - ...
Moses and Elijah, the two people of the Old Testament era who appeared with Jesus, possibly symbolized the law and the prophets (Matthew 17:3)
Gilgal - ...
...
A place, probably in the hill country of Ephraim, where there was a school of the prophets (2 Kings 4:38 ), and whence Elijah and Elisha, who resided here, "went down" to Bethel (2:1,2)
Zarephath - Luke’s report of Christ’s sermon at Nazareth distinctly connects Zarephath with Sidon, as do the LXX Septuagint and Massoretic Text in the account of Elijah’s sustenance by the widow there. The choice, among all others, of the widow of pagan Phœnician Zarephath, and of Naaman the leper of heathen Syrian Damascus, to receive the favours of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, filled the crabbed synagogue hearers of Nazareth with wrath and murder (Luke 4:25 ff
Hazael - Elijah had been bidden to anoint Hazael as king of Syria, but we do not read that he ever anointed him, neither is there any word of Elisha's doing this on the above occasion
Jezebel - These are: the account of the trial of strength between the prophets of Baal and Elijah (1 Kings 18:19 to 1 Kings 19:3 ), the narrative about Naboth and his vineyard ( 1 Kings 21:1-16 ), and, as illustrating her obstinate, unbending character to the very end note especially her words to Jehu in 2 Kings 9:31 the story of her death ( 2 Kings 9:30-37 )
Abba - Elisha used it toward Elijah; servants applied it to their masters, etc
Rest, Remain - ...
“To rest” sometimes indicates a complete envelopment and thus permeation, as in the spirit of Elijah “resting” on Elisha (2 Kings 2:15), the hand of God “resting” on the mountain ( Jealousy - Elijah is similarly characterized as jealous (or zealous) for God (1Kings 19:10,1 Kings 19:14 )
Names - ...
A Hebrew name was sometimes transferred to the Greek, with but little change: Elijah became Elias, or Elie
Fire - By sending fire from heaven to consume sacrifices, God often signified his acceptance of them: as in the case of Abel, Genesis 4:4 ; Abraham, Genesis 15:17 ; Manoah, Judges 13:19-20 ; Elijah, 1 Kings 18:38 ; and at the dedication of the tabernacle and the temple, Leviticus 9:24 2 Chronicles 7:1
Dew - On this account ‘dew and rain’ are associated in the imprecation called down by David on the mountains of Gilboa ( 2 Samuel 1:21 ); and in the curse pronounced on Ahab and his kingdom by Elijah ( 1 Kings 17:1 ), as also by the prophet Haggai on the Jews after the Restoration ( Haggai 1:10 ) owing to their unwillingness to rebuild the Temple
Raven - (Leviticus 11:15 ) Elijah was cared for by ravens
Camel - John the Baptist wore a garment made of camel hair, (Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ) the coarser hairs of the camel; and some have supposed that Elijah was clad in a dress of the same stuff
Jephthah - He has been described as "a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer, a sort of warrior Elijah
Jehoram - Because of his wickedness, Elijah assured him of a horrible death (2 Chronicles 21:11-15)
Widow - The widow of Sarepta or Zarephath, referred to by our Lord in the synagogue at Nazareth (Luke 4:25-26) as an instance of a Gentile who had entertained Elijah, and had received a blessing by his means. The people who witnessed the miracle exclaimed that a great prophet had risen up among them, probably with reference to Elijah or Elisha, the former of whom, like Christ, had raised a widow’s son
Ahab - The champion of Jahweh’s exclusive right to the worship of Israel was Elijah. These, however, were subservient to the crown, while Elijah was not only a protestant against religious changes, but the champion of the common people, whose rights were so signally violated in the case of Naboth
Malachi - ...
But Elijah will come as Christ's forerunner, to call them to repentance before the great and dreadful day of the Lord. Elijah will still come
Carmel - Mount Carmel is celebrated in the Old Testament, as the usual place of residence of the Prophets Elijah and Elisha. It was here that Elijah so successfully opposed the false prophets of Baal, 1 Kings 18; and there is a certain part of the mountain facing the west, and about eight miles from the point of the promontory, which the Arabs call Man-sur, and the Europeans the place of sacrifice, in commemoration of that miraculous event
Jeho'Ram - Jehoram, going out to meet him, fell pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the very plot of ground which Ahab had wrested from Naboth the Jezreelite; thus fulfilling to the letter the prophecy of Elijah. A prophetic writing from the aged prophet Elijah, (2 Chronicles 21:12 ) failed to produce any good effect upon him
Joash - He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, even as Jeroboam; but when Elisha was dying Joash visited him, and wept over him, uttering the same words which Elisha had uttered as he beheld Elijah taken to heaven. Joash had the sense that the powerwhich translated Elijah had been with Elisha, who was now departing
Phoenicia - See Jezebel ; Elijah
Hazael - According to 1 Kings 19:15 , Elijah is sent to anoint Hazael king of Syria; he is regarded as Jahweb’s instrument who is to punish the Baal-worshippers in Israel ( 1 Kings 19:18 )
Raven - Ravens fed Elijah at the brook Cherith (1 Kings 17:4; 1 Kings 17:6) when cut off from intercourse with men, who might have betrayed him to Ahab
Fire - He showed His acceptance of the sacrifices by fire from heaven; He vindicatedHis servant Elijah, when he stood alone against the prophets of Baal, by consuming the sacrifice, the wood and the stone, by fire from heaven (1 Kings 18:38 ); and He vindicated His own honour by fire, by destroying those who were disobedient in approaching to Him
Bird - The Lord, however, chose it to be His servant and to give the food out of its own bill to Elijah
Baal, Baalim - Elijah however stood for Jehovah, and raised the question with Israel whether Jehovah was God, or whether Baal, and established the rights of Jehovah by fire from heaven
Shalamite - Compare as to the future rapture of the saints, 1 Thessalonians 4:17; Elijah, 2 Kings 2:11-12; 2 Kings 2:16
Prophecy, Prophet - Elijah and Elisha prophesied in the midst of apostate Israel
Cave - ...
The cave of Elijah (1 Kings 19:9 ), and the "cleft" of Moses on Horeb (Exodus 33:22 ), cannot be determined
Gilead - Jacob fled toward Gilead, Genesis 31:21; it was conquered by Israel, Numbers 21:24; Judges 10:18; Joshua 12:2; Deuteronomy 2:36; was given to Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, Joshua 17:6; under Jephthah it defeated the Ammonites, Judges 10:18; was a refuge for Saul's son and for David, 2 Samuel 2:9; 2 Samuel 17:22; 2 Samuel 17:24; the home of Elijah, 1 Kings 17:1; taken in part by Syria, 2 Kings 10:33; by Assyria, 2 Kings 15:25-29; referred to in the minor prophets, Hosea 6:8; Hosea 12:11; Amos 1:3; Amos 1:13; Obadiah 1:19; Micah 7:14; Zechariah 10:10
Minister, Serve - ...
Elisha “ministered” to Elijah (1 Kings 19:21)
Ahazi'ah - But Elijah, who now for the last time exercised the prophetic office, rebuked him for this impiety, and announced to him his approaching death
Day - ' Elijah will come before the great and dreadful day of the Lord
Gil'Gal - ...
In (2 Kings 2:1,2 ; 4:38 ) is named a Gilgal visited by Elijah and Elisha
Chief Parables And Miracles in the Bible - ...
Elijah calls fire from heaven. ...
Jordan divided by Elijah and Elisha. ...
Elijah carried to heaven, 2 Kings 2:11
Sinai - ...
Several hundred years later, when the prophet Elijah felt that God’s covenant people were a total failure, God brought him to Mt Sinai to reassure him
Zeal (2) - As ‘ardour in embracing, pursuing, or defending’ an object, it is ascribed to Phinehas (Numbers 25:11; Numbers 25:13), Elijah (1 Maccabees 2:58), the Jewish people (Acts 21:20, Romans 10:2)
Alien - Thus Elijah was an alien in the home of the widow of Zarephath (1 Kings 17:20 ; “to sojourn” is to be an alien)
Alien - Thus Elijah was an alien in the home of the widow of Zarephath (1 Kings 17:20 ; “to sojourn” is to be an alien)
Beth'el - (2 Chronicles 13:19 ) Elijah visited Bethel, and we hear of "sons of the prophets" as resident there
Lent, the Season of - Elijah was forty days inthe wilderness
Camel, Camel's Hair - In Israel this coarse mantle was the badge of the prophet (Zechariah 13:4 ‘The prophets shall be ashamed each one of his vision, when he prophesieth; and they will no more wear a hairy garment in order to deceive’); and in 2 Kings 1:8 Elijah is described as being an ‘owner of hair’ בַּעַל שִעָר, that is, wearing this garment of the prophets; Authorized Version, ‘an hairy man’), and girt with leather. As the successor of Elijah and of the prophets, John the Baptist adopted the same dress (Matthew 3:4, Mark 1:6)
Ahab - God chastised Israel with drought and famine, in answer to Elijah's prayer which he offered in jealousy for the honor of God, and in desire for the repentance of his people (1 Kings 17; James 5:17-18). When softened by the visitation, the people were ripe for the issue to which Elijah put the conflicting claims to Jehovah and Baal at Carmel, and on the fire from heaven consuming the prophet's sacrifice, fell on their faces and exclaimed with one voice, "Jehovah, He is the God; Jehovah, He is the God. " Baal's prophets were slain at the brook Kishon, and the national judgment, through Elijah's prayers, was withdrawn, upon the nation's repentance. Ahab reported all to Jezebel, and she threatened immediate death to Elijah. Elijah with awful majesty denounces his sentence, "in the place where dogs licked Naboth's blood, shall dogs lick thine" (fulfilled to the letter on Joram his offspring, 2 Kings 9, primarily also on Ahab himself, but not "in the place" where Naboth's blood was shed); while the king abjectly cowers before him with the cry, "Hast thou found me, O mine enemy?" All his male posterity were to be cut off, as Jeroboam's and Baasha's, the two previous dynasties, successively had been (See Elijah)
Transfiguration (2) - ’]'>[10] And with it, from within the veil, came, standing forth as men (Luke 9:30), the greatest of OT men of God, Moses and Elijah, to talk with Him of His decease (ἔξοδος), and to manifest the absorbing interest of the spirit-world in His work (cf. ]'>[13] in the plot for Moses and Elijah (Paulus, Schleiermacher)—an unfounded conjecture, which has justly lost all repute. Here the incident is taken in connexion with the subsequent Elijah conversation (Matthew 17:10-13, Mark 9:11-13) as its duplicate, and regarded as originating at a later date, when it was not held sufficient that in the Messianic time of Jesus, Elijah should only have appeared figuratively in the person of the Baptist—when it was thought fitting that he should also have shown himself personally. The legend was constructed skilfully from OT figures and analogies (especially from the parallel illumination of Moses’ countenance on Sinai), and from the prophecies as to the appearance of the Messiah and His forerunner (Malachi 4:5) Elijah. During or after prayer offered by Jesus or by themselves, in which mention was made of Moses and Elias, and their advent as Messianic forerunners desired, the three disciples slept, and dreamed that Moses and Elijah were present, and that Jesus conversed with them—an illusion which continued during the first confused moments after waking (Neander and others)—a most superficial perception of the situation. It is then that His figure becomes framed to His friends’ eyes in the same picture with the principal figures of the sacred history of Israel: Elijah, because of his prominence in Messianic thought, and Moses, the founder of the Old Covenant: their presence indicating that He is not to destroy their work, but to carry it further. And by the ‘spirit-body’ in them, the disciples were enabled to contemplate His and those of Moses and Elijah. They were but following illustrious models on which their faith had been nurtured—of Abraham (Genesis 15), of Jacob (Genesis 28:10-22), of Elijah (1 Kings 19), of Isaiah (ch
Fast - Moses fasted forty days (Exodus 24:18 ; 34:28 ), and so also did Elijah (1 Kings 19:8 )
Gad - Barzillai (2 Samuel 17:27 ) and Elijah (1 Kings 17:1 ) were of this tribe
Intercession - Man's intercession: Romans 11:2, Elijah interceding against Israel, as elsewhere for the people (James 5:17-18)
Caves - Obadiah hid the Lord's prophets by fifties in a cave (1 Kings 18:4), Elijah at Horeb was in a cave when the Lord revealed Himself (1 Kings 19:9)
Ahimaaz - Compare as to Asahel 2 Samuel 2:18; Elijah, 1 Kings 18:46
Pekah - Became king by the help of 50 Gileadites of the king's bodyguard; perhaps Pekah was a Gileadite himself; energy for good or evil characterized the hardy highlanders of Gilead, as Jephthah and Elijah
Barley - Elijah had a present made him, of twenty barley loaves, and corn in the husk, 2 Kings 4:22
Jehoash - He held the prophet Elisha in honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying, addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof
Leontius, Priest And Martyr of Armenia - Leontius, who is everywhere mentioned with Joseph, and is usually the orator, as he is the chief inspirer, of the whole movement, delivered a fervent address before the battle (given fully by Langlois), dwelling on the examples of Phineas, Elijah, Gideon, and other famous believers in O
Jericho - A school for young prophets was located at Jericho in the time of Elijah and Elisha (2 Kings 2:4-5; 2 Kings 2:15-22)
Passion Passions - The adjective ὀμοιοπαθής, ‘of like passions,’ is entirely neutral; it is used in Acts 14:15 of Paul and Barnabas, and in James 5:17 of Elijah; in 4 Maccabees 12:11 of men; and rather curiously in Wisdom of Solomon 7:3 of the earth (AV_ ‘which is of like nature’ [1], RV_ ‘kindred,’ RVm_ ‘of like qualities’); the meaning seems to be that the earth is mother of all (cf
Bethel - The school was still functioning in the time of Elijah and Elisha (1 Samuel 7:16; 1 Samuel 10:3; 2 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 2:23)
Eli, Eli, Lama Sabachthani - If He spoke in Hebrew it would more readily explain the crowd's confusion of “my God” with “Elijah,” since the terms sound more nearly alike in Hebrew than in Aramaic
Mountain - ...
Other Old Testament mountain episodes include Aaron's death on Mount Hor (Numbers 33:38 ), the death of Moses on Mount Nebo (Deuteronomy 34:1-8 ), and Elijah's defeat of the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:15-40 ). Jesus was declared to be preeminent over both Moses and Elijah, the representatives of the Law and Prophets
Ahaziah - Elijah met the messengers, and informed them he should certainly die; and he died accordingly
Zeal - Elijah, out of zeal for God’s honour as much as fear, could not remain among a people whose daily life was blasphemous against Him. The despair of Elijah is replaced by the calmer zeal of Elisha, ever mindful of the invisible forces at work for good (2 Kings 6:16)
Miracle - The next major cluster of miracles involves the prophets Elijah and Elisha. The classic expression of this combat comes at Carmel, as fire from heaven consumes Elijah's sacrifice and the prophets of Baal are destroyed (1 Kings 18:16-40 ). But other mighty deeds also demonstrate the Lord's supremacy over the pagan god of water, fertility, and life: Elijah alone can predict drought and rain (chaps. Elijah appropriately becomes the second person in history never to die but to be taken directly to heaven (2 Kings 2:1-18 ; cf. ...
Elijah's successor certifies his prophetic role with closely parallel miracles. Indeed Jesus himself will liken parts of his ministry to God's choice in the days of Elijah and Elisha to favor those outside Israel (Luke 4:25-27 ). Raising the son of the Nain widow closely resembles the reanimations by Elijah and Elisha (Luke 7:11-17 ) and occurs on virtually the identical site as one of them (Old Testament Shunem). Luke highlights Jesus' compassion for the outcasts of society (4:18; 17:11-19) and his role as a new Moses (9:28-36) and Elijah/Elisha (7:1-28). Bronner, The Stories of Elijah and Elisha ; C
Hair - ...
Elijah is called a "hairy man" (2 Kings 1:8 ) from his flowing locks, or more probably from the shaggy cloak of hair which he wore
Michael - "...
"Michael when contending with the devil about the body of Moses (which Jehovah buried, but which was probably translated shortly afterward, for 'no man knoweth of his sepulchre'; hence, he appeared in a body, as did Elijah, at the transfiguration; Satan, the accuser of the brethren, probably opposed his translation on the ground of his sins, but Michael contended with him and prevailed) durst not (from reverence to Satan's former dignity, Daniel 10:8) bring against him a railing accusation, but said The Lord rebuke thee
Galilee - " This saying of theirs was "not historically true, for two prophets at least had arisen from Galilee, Jonah of Gath-hepher, and the greatest of all the prophets, Elijah of Thisbe, and perhaps also Nahum and Hosea
Ascension - Experienced by Enoch (Genesis 5:24 ) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:1-2 ) but supremely by Jesus Christ (Acts 1:9 )
Gehazi - He appears to stand in the same intimate relation to his master that Elisha had done to Elijah, and was probably regarded as the successor of the former
Jehu - The leader of the opposition was Elijah, and after him Elisha. Jehu, when in attendance upon Ahab, had heard Elijah’s denunciation of the murder of Naboth ( 2 Kings 9:25 f
Doorway - This word may be used of a cave’s “opening,” as when Elijah heard the gentle blowing that signified the end of a violent natural phenomenon: “… He wrapped his face in his mantle, and went out, and stood in the entering in of the cave” (1 Kings 19:13)
Head - ...
2 Kings 2:3 (c) The type is used in this place to describe the leadership of Elijah over Elisha. Elisha was subservient to Elijah. His life was directed by Elijah. It was on this peak that Elijah and Elisha saw the mighty power of GOD, and the enemies of GOD saw the wrath of GOD, as well as His wonderful display of vengeance
Hospitality - The word is not used in the Old Testament, but its elements are recognizable: Abraham and the three visitors (Genesis 18:1-8 ), Lot and the two angels (Genesis 19:1-8 ), Abraham's servant at Nahor (Genesis 24:17-33 ), Reuel and Moses (Exodus 2:20 ), Manoah and the angel (Judges 13:15 ), Elijah and the widow of Zarephath (1 Kings 17:10-11 ), and Elisha and the Shunammite woman (2 Kings 4:8-11 )
Vanity - It is the despair and frustration in seeing that projected goals are unrealized as with Job (7:3), David (2 Samuel 18:31-33 ), and Elijah (1 Kings 19:4 )
Esdraelon - For her part, Jezebel was later murdered at Jezreel as prophesied by Elijah (1 Kings 21:23 ; 2 Kings 9:36 )
Olive - The two witnesses for God (antitypes to Elijah and Moses, Zerubbabel and Joshua, the civil ruler and the priest: Malachi 4:5-6; Matthew 17:11; Acts 3:21; Judges 1:6) are "the two olive trees," channels of the oil (the Holy Spirit in them) feeding the church (Revelation 11:3-4; Zechariah 4:11-12)
Presence of God - ...
God also manifested Himself in other ways: in fire (1 Kings 18:1 ) and in a still small voice (John 21:1-140 ), both to Elijah
Remnant - The ‘remnant’ in the time of Elijah and that in the time of Isaiah are prototypes of the believing minority of Jews who accepted Jesus as the Messiah
Jezreel - Across this plain, from Carmel to Jezreel, Elijah ran before the chariot of Ahab, 1 Kings 18:46
Joram, Jehoram - He was warned as to his course by 'a writing' from the prophet Elijah (which was doubtless written some time before, 2 Chronicles 21:12 ), foretelling that God would smite His people with a great plague; the king's disease should be such that his bowels should fall out; and it was thus that he miserably died
Jehu - God foretold through the prophet Elijah that Jehu would be his instrument to wipe out their dynasty and their Baalism (1 Kings 19:15-18; see BAAL)
Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy - Even though the call was mediated through Elijah, it was nonetheless divine in origin. In 1 Kings 19:15-16 , God directed the disheartened Elijah to "Go back the way you came and anoint Elisha the son of Shaphat from Abel Meholah to succeed you as prophet. " While the text does not indicate whether the oil of anointing was poured over the head of Elisha, it does note that Elijah found Elisha plowing in the field, whereupon Elijah "threw his cloak [6]3 around [19]" (v. 19) and as a result Elisha immediately left his oxen and ran after Elijah. Indeed, as Elisha later requested, a double portion of the Spirit that rested on Elijah fell on him (2 Kings 2:9-14 ). The miracle of the parting of the waters of the Jordan River, with the use of the mantle that had dropped from the ascending Elijah, was God's further attestation to both the validity and reality of that call of God. Nearly half of these references (36) are used of Elisha, fifteen of the unnamed prophet in 1 Kings 13 , and the other twenty-five are scattered: five refer to Moses, four to Samuel, seven to Elijah, three to David, two to Shemaiah, and five to unnamed individuals. Elijah would later come to this same cave, where God would converse with his thoroughly disheartened servant (1 Kings 19:9-18 )
Prophecy, Prophets - He appeared with Elijah in the transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-8 ). Elijah and Elisha offered critique and advice for the kings. While some prophets like Moses (Exodus 4:1-9 ) and Elijah (1 Kings 17:1 ) worked many miracles, virtually all prophets occasionally saw a miraculous fulfillment of God's word (Isaiah 38:8 ). Jesus taught that the prediction about Elijah's return was fulfilled by John the Baptist and not a literal Elijah (Matthew 11:13-15 ; Malachi 3:1-4 )
Jer'Icho - In its immediate vicinity the sons of the prophets sought retirement from the world; Elisha "healed the spring of the waters;" and over against it, beyond Jordan, Elijah "went up by a whirlwind into heaven
Monotheism - The prophetic movement appears as early as the prophet Elijah. That competition came to its sharpest focus in the story about the contest between Elijah, the prophet for the Lord, and the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:1 )
Water - However, water is sometimes used in punishment for sin, as with the flood of Noah's day (Genesis 6:17 ) or the drought proclaimed by Elijah (1 Kings 17:1 )
Famine And Drought - Drought and famine also plagued the Israelites in the days of David (2 Samuel 21:1 ), Elijah (1 Kings 18:2 ), Elisha (2 Kings 4:38 ), Haggai (Haggai 1:11 ), and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 5:3 )
Bed - "...
The little chamber, bed, stool, table, and candlestick of Elijah (2 Kings 4:10) were and are the usual furniture of a sleeping room
Transfiguration - He also omits all reference to Moses and Elijah, but this does not affect the question of his source
Baal - The prophets Elijah and Elisha delivered the condemnation of God concerning Baal worship and tried to rid the land of the idolatry (1 Kings 18:17-40 ; 2 Kings 1:9-16 )
Bethel - It is noteworthy that Elijah is silent regarding the calf-worship at Bethel; and that a school of the prophets, apparently in sympathy with him, flourished there ( 2 Kings 2:2 f
Naming - ” Compound names in the main are theophoric, employing the divine names El and Yah (Elijah, Ishmael, Nathaniel)
Gilead - Elijah the Tishbite was of Gilead, and in garb, abruptness, and active energy reflected his country's characteristics
Lydda - His relics were taken to Lydda, and round his name was gradually woven a tissue of legend, in which the Greek myth of Perseus and Andromeda (see Joppa), the Moslem idea of Elijah (or alternatively of Jesus) as the destined destroyer of the Impostor (al-dajjâl) or Antichrist, and the old Hebrew story of the fall of Dagon before the ark, were all inextricably intertwined, till Lydda became the shrine of St
Lamp - " (1 Samuel 3:3-4) Was not this emblematical of the Spirit of prophecy, that before one lamp of the Lord went out another should be lighted, before Eli was quite extinguished Samuel should be kindred? Do we not find it so through the church's history in all ages? Did not the spirit of Elijah rest on Elisha? Did not all the prophets succeed one another in their ministry, as might best promote and carry on the Lord's cause in the earth? I do not presume to speak decidely upon the subject, but if the thought be right, is there not great sweetness in that Scripture explained in reference to this view, and with an eye to the Lord Jesus? "I have ordained a lamp for mine anointed
Camel - This was also the case with Elijah (2 Kings 1:8 ), who is called "a hairy man," from his wearing such raiment
je'hu - His first appearance in history is when he heard the warning of Elijah against the murderer of Naboth
Enoch - See Elijah
John the Baptist - In the Judæan wilderness the wild waste which lies to the west of the Dead Sea this Elijah-like prophet ( Luke 1:17 ) ‘on rough food throve’; but, notwithstanding his ascetic affinities with the Essenes, he was not a vegetarian, his diet consisting of edible locusts ( Leviticus 11:22 ) as well as the vegetable honey which exudes from fig-trees and palms ( Matthew 3:4 ). It was a high eulogy when Jesus said, ‘John hath borne witness unto the truth’ ( John 5:33 ); but it also implied the high claim that the lowlier members of the Church, which is His bride, enjoy greater spiritual privileges than he who, in spite of his own disclaimer ( John 1:21 ), was truly the Elijah foretold by Malachi ( Matthew 11:14 ; cf. After the transfiguration our Lord alluded to the sufferings of John, as He endeavoured to teach His disciples the lesson of His cross: ‘I say unto you that Elijah is come, and they have also done unto him whatsoever they listed’ ( Mark 9:13 )
Jehu - Jehu then gave orders that his body should be cast out into the field of Naboth the Jezreelite, thus fulfilling the prediction of the Prophet Elijah, 2 Kings 9:11-26 . To complete her destiny, and fulfil the threatenings of Elijah, the dogs came and devoured her corpse; so that when Jehu sent to have her buried, her bones only were found, 2 Kings 9:27-37
Kings, Books of - But it is quite certain that the extended life of Elijah and the equally diffuse life of Elisha never had a place in the history of the kings. There must have been a Life of Elijah circulated by some of his disciples or admirers after his death, and the probability is strong that there was also a separate Life of Elisha. Ahab appears very differently in the Elijah sections and in the chapters which treat of the Syrian wars. ...
The narratives which deal with Isaiah suggest reflexions similar to those which come to us in looking at Elijah and Elisha. In like manner Elijah appears suddenly in the narrative, without the slightest intimation as to who he is or what he has been doing
Jericho - It is mentioned in the Bible usually in association with some movement from one side of the Jordan to another—the Israelite invasion, when Ehud takes tribute to the Moabite king, when David sends envoys to the king of Ammon, when Elijah and Elisha cross the Jordan, or when Zedekiah attempts to escape the Babylonians
Rechab - , 3:10) infers from 2 Kings 2:12; 2 Kings 13:14, that Elijah and Elisha were "the chariot (recheb ) of Israel," i
Beer-Sheba - Hagar pleads at a distance not to see her son die (Genesis 21:14-16 ), and Elijah prays for death in the desert rather than at the order of Queen Jezebel (1 Kings 19:3-4 )
Keys - Thus in Sanhedrin, 113, ‘Elijah desired that there should be given to him the key of rain; he desired that there should be given to him the key of resurrection of the dead: they said to him, “Three keys are not given into the hand of a representative, the key of birth, the key of rain, and the key of resurrection of the dead
Dorcas - Peter, who was present at the raising of Jairus’ daughter, should follow the method of his Master, while we see how, with the humility of Elijah or Elisha (1 Kings 17:20, 2 Kings 4:33), he does not at first speak the word of power but kneels down in prayer
Birds - ...
God sent ravens to sustain Elijah by the brook Cherith (1 Kings 17:4-6 ). Although ravens often have been viewed as birds of evil omen, in the Elijah story they serve as symbols of God's love for His servant and of His mighty sovereignty over nature. Examples of this latter role include the dove and the raven in the flood story and the ravens who provided food in the Elijah narratives. In the Elijah story, ravens symbolize God's love for His servant as well as His sovereignty over nature
Jordan River - The Jordan River is also featured in the miracles of Elijah and Elisha
Beersheba - Here Elijah left his confidential servant (narow ) on his way to Horeb (1 Kings 19:3-4)
Banquets - After dinner the hands were wiped in a cloth, after a servant had poured water on them (compare Elisha's office for Elijah, 2 Kings 3:11), or were wiped on pieces of bread, which were then thrown to the household dogs (which illustrates Matthew 15:27)
Epistle - "A writing came to Jehoram from Elijah" (2 Chronicles 21:12)
Face - Thus Moses (Exodus 3:6 ), Elijah (1 Kings 19:13 ), and the seraphim (Isaiah 6:2 ) hide their faces in God's presence
Discipline - ” Elijah became a master to Elisha (1 Kings 19:19-21 )
Caesarea Philippi - When He asked them who men said He was, they answered that people were identifying Him with Elijah, John the Baptist, or one of the prophets (Mark 8:27-33 ; Matthew 16:13-23 )
Malachi - An announcement of the sending of Elijah (Malachi 4:5-6 )...
Ralph L
Samuel - Samuel foreshadowed Elijah in his call for rain during the wheat harvest, the usual dry season, as vindication of his word of judgment concerning Israel's demand for a king (1 Samuel 12:17-18 )
Baal, Master - Elijah stood as the opponent of the Baal priests at Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:21ff
Despondency - All these were elements in the despondency of Elijah when he sat under the juniper tree, and requested for himself that he might die (1 Kings 19:4)
Philip the Evangelist - The Spirit then caught away Philip, as Elijah of old
Fame - Others less instructed talked wildly as if Elijah had descended, or the Baptist had risen (Mark 6:14-15, Matthew 16:13-14), or some prophet of local tradition or expectation had appeared (John 7:40, Matthew 21:11)
Elisha - The successor, in the prophetical office, of Elijah
Bless - They blessed God for their present refreshment, for their deliverance out of Egypt, for the covenant of circumcision, and for the law given by Moses; and prayed that God would be merciful to his people Israel, that he would send the Prophet Elijah, and that he would render them worthy of the kingdom of the Messiah
Fasting - Elijah passed as many days without eating, 1 Kings 19:8
Persecution - Examples in the Old Testament include Abel, who offered a better sacrifice than Cain (Genesis 4:4-10 ; Hebrews 11:4 ); Lot, also a "righteous man who was distressed by the filthy lives of lawless men" (John 18:12-401 ) who rejected him and who "kept bringing pressure on [3] and moved forward to break down the door" of his house in Sodom (Genesis 19:9 ); Elijah, who spoke against the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:25-40 ) and against the idolatry of Israel (1 Kings 18:16-21 ), and was persecuted by Jezebel for his godly stand (1 Kings 19:1-3 ); David, who conducted himself in a godly manner despite the machinations and pursuit of Saul (1 Samuel 9-27:1 ); Jeremiah, who spoke God's message of condemnation against Judah for her sins and the coming judgment against her to be brought by the Babylonians (Jeremiah 9:11,13-16 ; 21:3-7 ; 25:1-14 ), had his message rejected (Jeremiah 36-37 ), was beaten (Jeremiah 37:15 ), and finally dropped into a muddy cistern (Jeremiah 38:6-13 ). The Scriptures are also full of examples of evil persons persecuting the good and righteous persons for various reasons, such as jealousy for a godly sacrifice (Genesis 4:2-10 ); revenge for a godly humanitarian deed done (1 Samuel 21:1-19 ); vengeance for action against heathen worship (1 Kings 19:2 , ; Jezebel against Elijah ); vengeance for warnings against idolatry and ungodly living, as exemplified by opposition to the messages of Jeremiah and John the Baptist (Jeremiah 37 ; Matthew 4:1-12 ); vengeance against preaching the gospel and condemnation of rebellion against God (Acts 7:54-60 ); opposition to the Jerusalem church for its stand for Jesus (Acts 8:1 ; 11:19 ), to the Thessalonian Christians for their stand for Christ (1 Thessalonians 3:3-4 ) to Paul for his faithfulness to the Lord Jesus (2 Corinthians 11:16-33 ; cf
Zedekiah - Zedekiah therefore was one of the "400 prophets of the GROVES" , (Asheerah Ashtaroth) who apparently were not slain when Elijah slew the 450 prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:19; 1 Kings 18:22; 1 Kings 18:24), or rather a prophet of the calves symbolizing "Jehovah," for they spoke in Jehovah's name (1 Kings 22:8). 8:15, section 3) that Zedekiah denounced Micaiah as contradicting Elijah, who foretold that dogs should lick up Ahab's blood in the vineyard of Naboth of Jezreel; and defied Micaiah to wither the hand with which he smote his cheek, as the prophet from Judah had done to Jeroboam
Enoch - ...
Enoch in the antediluvian generation, and Elijah in the postdiluvian, witnessed before Christ in their own persons to the truth of the resurrection of the body and its existence in heaven
Jonah - Jonah is presented as a caricature of Elijah, who obeyed God the first time ( 1 Kings 17:8-10 ; Jonah 1:1-3 ; 3:1-3 ) and had reason for despair (1 Kings 19:4 ; Jonah 4:3 )
Persecution in the Bible - Jezebel persecuted the prophets of the Lord, and the prophet Elijah persecuted and killed the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:1 )
Servant - Thus Joshua was the servant of Moses; Elisha of Elijah; and Peter, Andrew, Philip, and Paul were servants of Jesus Christ
Clouds - The clouds into which Jesus entered with Moses and Elijah as Moses had once entered on Mount Sinai (Exodus 24:18 ), are “light” but at the same time concealing
Rest - They said, the spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha
Millenarians - John the Baptist was Elijah, because he rose in the spirit of Elijah, and promoted the same cause in which Elijah lived and died; and Elijah revived and lived in John the Baptist, because he went before Christ, in the spirit and power of Elijah, Luke 1:17 . Therefore Christ says of John, "This is Elijah who was to come,"...
Matthew 11:14
Canaan, History And Religion of - Amidst the building of a Baal temple in the capital city of Samaria and the persecution of Yahweh's prophets, the prophet Elijah emerged on the scene. In a classical story of cultural confrontation, Elijah encouraged a contest atop Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18-19 ). ...
The struggle Elijah initiated with this either-Yahweh-or-Baal imperative, King Jehu (842-815) carried forward politically. See Amorites ; Anath ; Asherah ; Baal ; El ; Elijah ; Israel ; Phoenicia ; Ugarit
Palm (of Hand) - The woman of Zarephath told Elijah: “… I have not a cake, but a handful of meal in a barrel, and a little oil in a cruse …” (1 Kings 17:12)
Jericho - A school of prophets was established at Jericho (2 Kings 2:5), and it was from Jericho that Elijah and Elisha went down to Jordan
Fathers - ...
The fathers praised are Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Israel, Moses, Aaron, Phinehas, Joshua, Caleb, the Judges, Samuel, Nathan, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Hezekiah, Isaiah, Josiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Job, the Twelve, Zerubbabel, Joshua the priest, Nehemiah
Father - This noun may be used of any one of the entire line of men from whom a given individual is descended: “But he [2] himself went a day’s journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a juniper tree: and he requested for himself that he might die; and said, It is enough; now, O Lord, take away my life; for I am not better than my fathers” (1 Kings 19:4)
Answer - Paul, discussing the despair of Elijah, asks ‘What saith the answer (χρηματισμός, ‘Divine oracle’) of God unto him?’...
The passages with which we are most concerned, however, ate those which speak of the Christian answer or ‘defence’ (so usually in Revised Version ) against critics from within or without the Church (ἀπολογέομαι, ἀπολογία)
Jericho - A school of prophets was established at Jericho (2 Kings 2:5), and it was from Jericho that Elijah and Elisha went down to Jordan
Baptism - ...
The last of the prophets had foretold the coming of Elijah before the great day of the coming of the Lord, the Sun of righteousness, the messenger of the covenant. Elijah was to "turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers," namely, the disobedient children to the faith and fellowship of their pious forefathers, Abraham, Jacob, Levi, Elijah (Luke 1:17), lest Messiah at His coming" should smite the earth with a curse
Mark, Theology of - ...
The transfiguration story (9:2-13), with its emphasis on the presence of Elijah and Moses and the uniqueness of Jesus as God's beloved Son, also stresses the passion and resurrection of the Son of Man. The story makes it clear that Jesus is not just another great figure like Elijah and Moses who will not die. Jesus is to suffer the same fate as John the Baptist, the new Elijah, but will rise from the dead
Jordan - Twice afterwards its waters were miraculously divided at the same spot by Elijah and Elisha (2 Kings 2:8,14 )
Intercession - Elijah accused God of bringing “evil upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son” (1 Kings 17:20 ) and prayed successfully that the child would live again
Baal (1) - Elijah successfully for a time resisted it
Prayer - , of Abraham (Genesis 17:18,20 ; 18:23-32 ; 20:7,17,18 ), of Moses for Pharaoh (Exodus 8:12,13,30,31 ; Exodus 9:33 ), for the Israelites (Exodus 17:11,13 ; 32:11-14,31-34 ; Numbers 21:7,8 ; Deuteronomy 9:18,19,25 ), for Miriam (Numbers 12:13 ), for Aaron (Deuteronomy 9:20 ), of Samuel (1 Samuel 7:5-12 ), of Solomon (1 Kings 8 ; 2 Chronicles 6 ), Elijah (1 Kings 17:20-23 ), Elisha (2 Kings 4:33-36 ), Isaiah (2 Kings 19 ), (Jeremiah 42:2-10 ), Peter (Acts 9:40 ), the church (12:5-12), Paul (28:8)
Garments - — The first human dress was an "apron" of fig leaves, Genesis 3:7; then the skins of animals, Genesis 3:21; as later the "mantle" worn by Elijah
Build - An example is a prophet who followed Elijah (1 Kings 20:35; cf
Eucherius, Saint, Bishop of Lyons - the law was given in the wilderness and the chosen race fed with bread from heaven) and to the sanction given to retirement by the examples of Moses, Elijah, St
Israel, Kingdom of - The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah, and to extinction of the house of Ahab in obedience to the bidding of Elisha
Mountains - Mount Carmel summons us, like the prophet Elijah of old, not to "halt between two opinions;" but if Jehovah is God, to love and serve him
Hell - With rare exceptions, such as Elijah (2 Kings 2:1-12 ), all people were believed to go to Sheol when they die (1618066705_40 ; Psalm 89:48 )
Resurrection - In addition, God took from the earth two Old Testament figures before their deaths: Enoch (Genesis 5:24 ) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:9-11 )
Altar - The contest between Elijah and the prophets of Baal involving an altar demonstrated interaction between Yahweh and Baal
Gilgal - Gilgal from which Elijah and Elisha went down to Bethel (2 Kings 2:1-2)
Remnant - In the days of Elijah, when God’s chosen people in the northern kingdom had fallen into apostasy, the Lord announced: “Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal …” (1 Kings 19:18)
Jordan - Twice afterwards the Jordan was miraculously crossed, by Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings 5:14 6:6
Prophecy, Prophet - Nevertheless, when Israel’s religion was under threat from the Baal worship introduced by Jezebel, the prophets Elijah and Elisha found many faithful followers of God in these schools. ...
The language of prophecy...
Early prophets such as Deborah, Samuel, Nathan, Ahijah, Elijah and Elisha have left little or no record of their prophecies
Miracles - 10-12 ...
Dividing of Jordan by Elijah 2 Kings 2:7-8 ...
Elijah carried to heaven 2 Kings 2:11 ...
Dividing of Jordan by Elisha 2 Kings 2:14 ...
Cure of the waters of Jericho 2 Kings 2:19-22 ...
Supply of water to the army 2 Kings 3:16-20 ...
Increase of the widow's oil 2 Kings 4:2-7 ...
Raising the Shunammite's son 2 Kings 4:32-37 ...
Healing of the deadly pottage 2 Kings 4:38-41 ...
Feeding the 100 with 20 loaves 2 Kings 4:42-44 ...
Cure of Naaman's leprosy 2 Kings 5:10-14 ...
Swimming of the iron axe-head 2 Kings 6:5-7 ...
Resurrection of the dead man on touching Elisha's bones 2 Kings 13:21 ...
Return of the shadow on the dial 2 Kings 20:9-11 ...
Among the Gentiles ...
Deliverance of the three in the fiery furnace Daniel 3:19-27 ...
Deliverance of Daniel from the lions Daniel 6:16-23 ...
Jonah saved by the great fish Jonah 2:1-10 ...
In the N
Peter - (3) A week later Jesus went up to the Mount with Peter, James, and John, and ‘was transfigured before them,’ communing with Moses and Elijah, who ‘appeared in glory’ ( Matthew 17:1-8 = Mark 9:2-8 = Luke 9:28-36 ). Though awe-stricken, Peter spoke; ‘Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, I will make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah’ ( Matthew 17:4 RV Impostors - Lastly, in our own day, we have Rasputin, "the mad monk"; Dowie, of "Elijah" fame; Mary Baker G
Cosmetics - Elijah anointed Jehu (2 Kings 9:3 ), and Jehoiada anointed Joash (2 Kings 11:12 )
Devote, Devoted - ...
The prophet Malachi closes with a promise that God will send Elijah to remedy family relationships so a herem [ Mark 9:12 )
Remnant - The same could be said of Lot when Sodom was destroyed (Genesis 18:17-33 ; Genesis 19:1-29 ); Jacob's family in Egypt (Genesis 45:7 ); Elijah and the 7,000 faithful followers of the Lord (1 Kings 19:17-18 ); and Israelites going into captivity (Ezekiel 12:1-16 )
Samaria, Samaritans - ...
Here Elijah destroyed the messengers of King Ahaziah, who were seeking the consultation of Baalzebub
Gad (1) - Other famous men of Gilead or Gad were the loyal, generous, and unambitious Barzillai (2 Samuel 17:27-29; 2 Samuel 19:31-40) and the prophet Elijah
Altar - On the contrary, religious leaders such as Samuel and Elijah show their zeal for the worship of J″ Go Down - Elijah told Ahaziah: “Thou shalt not come down from that bed on which thou art gone up …” (2 Kings 1:4)
Hand - Hand is also frequently taken for the power and impression of the Holy Spirit felt by a prophet: "The hand of the Lord was on Elijah,"...
1 Kings 18:46
Prophet - The prophets were Jehovah's remembrancers, pleading for or against the people: so Elijah (1 Kings 17; 1 Kings 18:36-37; Romans 11:2-3; James 5:16; James 5:18; Revelation 11:6). Official prophets seem to have continued to the close of the Old Testament, though the direct mention of "the sons of the prophets" occurs only in Samuel's, Elijah's, and Elisha's time. Elijah stirred up the prophetic gift within him by a minstrel (2 Kings 3:15); so Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (1 Chronicles 25:5-6). The prophets so commissioned were the national poets (so David the psalmist was also a prophet, Acts 2:30), annalists (2 Chronicles 32:32), theocratic patriots (Psalm 48; 2 Chronicles 20:14-17), promoters of spiritual religion (Isaiah 1), extraordinarily authorized expounders of the spirit of the law (Isaiah 58:3-7; Ezekiel 18; Micah 6:6-8; Hosea 6:6; Amos 5:21) which so many sacrificed to the letter, official pastors, and a religious counterpoise to kingly despotism and idolatry, as Elijah was to Ahab
John - He would be filled with the Holy Spirit, and as a prophet he would have the spirit and power of Elijah. Jesus even identified John with the eschatological role of Elijah (Matthew 17:12-13 ; 1618066705_8 )
Jehoram - But Jehu, with characteristic haste, immediately after Elisha had anointed him, set out for Jezreel and with an arrow slew Jehoram and threw his body on the very plot of ground which by falsehood and murder Ahab had dispossessed Naboth of, fulfilling Elijah's prophecy (1 Kings 21:19; 1 Kings 21:22). ...
Lord Hervey thinks Elijah was not translated until the sixth year of Jehoram, whereas Elisha began ministering in the first year of Jehoram. Thus Elijah's writing to Jehoram of Judah (2 Chronicles 21:12) was addressed to him in Elijah's lifetime. (ELIJAH
mo'Ses - (This burial was thus hidden probably -- (1) To preserve his grave from idolatrous worship or superstitious reverence; and (2) Because it may be that God did not intend to leave his body to corruption, but to prepare it, as he did the body of Elijah, so that Moses could in his spiritual body meet Christ, together with Elijah, on the mount of transfiguration
Transjordan - The prophet Elijah was from Tishbi, a town in the Transjordanian territory of Gilead (1 Kings 17:1 )
Kiss - " (Job 31:26-28) A similar passage we meet with in 1 Kings 19:18 where the Lord, in telling his servant the prophet Elijah, that the idolaters in Israel, many as they were, did not yet come up to the fears of his mind, saith, "Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him
False Worship - ...
A very similar practice was prevalent in the time of Elijah
Fire - A most impressive display of fire as an instrument of judgment is the destruction of the messengers of Ahaziah of Israel who attempted to seize Elijah the prophet only to be struck with fire "from heaven" (2 Kings 1:10,12,14 )
Enthusiasm - The people believed Him to be John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets (Mark 6:14, Matthew 16:14)
Antichrist - Under the inspiration of the two Witnesses (Elijah and Enoch) the Messianic revolt against the Antichrist was to begin, the Book of Revelation being interpreted literally at this point
Spirit; Breath - Elisha asked Elijah for a double portion of his “spirit” (2 Kings 2:9) and received it
Urim And Thummim - The oracles of the Lord were thenceforth delivered by the prophets; as by Ahijah to Jeroboam 1 Kings 11:29 ; by Shemaiah to Rehoboam, 1 Kings 12:22 ; by Elijah to Ahab, 1 Kings 17:1 ; 1 Kings 21:17-29 ; by Michaiah to Ahab and Jehoshaphat, 1 Kings 22:7 ; by Elisha to Jehoshaphat and Jehoram, 2 Kings 3:11-14 ; by Isaiah to Hezekiah, 2 Kings 19:6-34 ; 2 Kings 20:1-11 ; by Huldah to Josiah, 2 Kings 22:13-20 ; by Jeremiah to Zedekiah, Jeremiah 32:3-5 , &c
Dress - (Genesis 3:21 ) Such was the "mantle" worn by Elijah
Kings, the Books of - Elijah "the prophet as fire, whose words burned as a torch" (Sirach 48:1), as champion of Jehovah, defeated Baal's and Asherah's prophets at Carmel; and averted utter apostasy front northern Israel by banding God's prophets in schools where Jehovah's worship was maintained, and a substitute supplied for the legal temple worship enjoyed by the godly in Judah. The prophets are prominent in Kings, as Nathan, Abijah, Elijah, Elisha, the prophet against the Bethel altar, Jonah, etc. The composition of the annals by prophets accounts for the prominence given to Elijah and Elisha. Even Elijah's temporary weakness of faith in fleeing from Jezebel is told as candidly and faithfully as his marvelous boldness for God
Sibylline Oracles - The apostles ask who these four persons are, and the Lord replies, ‘They are Enoch, Elijah, Schila, and Tabitha. In the Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah she encounters Antichrist, and in a fragment of some Sahidic apocalypse, quoted by Crum (ZNTW [4] 352), she is ranked with Enoch and Elijah as having entered heaven in the body
Passover - ...
Whenever the custom may have originated, it is curious to think that still in every Jewish home, just after the third cup, or cup of blessing, has been drunk, the door is opened to admit the prophet Elijah, for whom a spare cup of wine is always set, as the forerunner of the Messiah. ‘May the All-merciful send us Elijah the prophet … who shall give us good tidings, salvation, and consolation. ’ We think of the question: ‘Why then say the scribes that Elijah must first come?’ (Matthew 17:10), and of the answer: ‘Elijah is come already
Prophet - ...
The Book of Malachi closes with a prediction of the return of Elijah (Malachi 4:5), and Israel’s prophetic expectations centred thenceforth chiefly in him. The nation, galled by a foreign yoke, and meditating on the predictions found in their sacred books, and, above all, picturing the return of Elijah as a herald of emancipation, ‘mused in their heart’ whether the Baptist were himself the Messiah, or Elijah, or the Prophet, or one of the old prophets returned (Luke 3:15, John 1:20 ff. Indeed, only those who were biassed by ecclesiastical bigotry could have concluded otherwise, for His miracles of mercy were external credentials recalling the powers of Moses and Elijah; and the authoritative tone of His teaching showed that He claimed for Himself at least the position of a God-sent teacher
Send - ...
2: πέμπω (Strong's #3992 — Verb — pempo — pem'-po ) "to send," is used (a) of persons: Christ, by the Father, Luke 20:13 ; John 4:34 ; 5:23,24,30,37 ; 6:38-40,44 ; 7:16,18,28,33 ; 8:16,18,26,29 ; 9:4 ; 12:44,45,49 ; 13:20 (2nd part); 14:24; 15:21; 16:5; Romans 8:3 ; the Holy Spirit, John 14:26 ; 15:26 ; 16:7 ; Elijah, Luke 4:26 ; John the Baptist, John 1:33 ; disciples and apostles, e
Prophesy - Followers of Elijah and Elisha formed into groups to assist and/or to learn from these masters
Hosea - Hence Elijah in Israel took twelve stones to represent Judah as well as Israel (1 Kings 18:31)
Jealousy (2) - Jealousy, no doubt, is apt to be a turbid virtue; the OT examples of it—Phinehas, Elijah, and Jehn—all illustrate this; and even in Christian history jealousy for Jesus as sole Lord and Saviour has often been confounded with zeal for a definition of one’s own making, or for the predominance of one’s own ecclesiastical or political faction
Arabia - But he could scarcely have avoided specific reference to so memorable a journey, which would have brought him into a kind of spiritual contact with Moses and Elijah
Miracle - ...
Elijah fed by ravens, 1 Kings 17:6
Malachi - But still they cavil at God's service bringing no "profit," while God's people commune together; so "the day of the Lord" cometh, consuming to the proud scorners, but with healing beams of the Sun of righteousness to fearers of God's name; ushered in by the forerunner Elijah, preaching a return to the law of Moses, and to the piety of Israel's forefathers, lest Jehovah come and smite the earth with a curse
Prayer - God worked miracles through the prayers of Elijah and Elisha (1 Kings 17:19-22 ; 1 Kings 18:20-40 )
Death - You behold Moses and Aaron bearing the ark of the covenant; David and Elijah presenting the oracle of testimony
Zacharias - This son must be brought up as a Nazirite in the highest form of Levitical devotion (Numbers 6:4, Judges 13:4, Lamentations 4:7, Amos 2:12); he should, like another Elijah (1 Kings 18:37), turn many of the children of Israel unto the Lord, and be the forerunner, as foretold by Malachi, to Messiah Himself (Luke 1:15-17)
Announcements of Death - It is not necessary to suppose that they understood or even heard the conversation of Jesus with Moses and Elijah about ‘his decease which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem’ (Luke 9:31). There is a fitness both from the manner of the deaths of Moses and Elijah, and from their respective positions in law and prophecy, that these two should talk with Jesus about His atoning and predicted sacrificial death. This exalted scene lifts the curtain a little for us, so that we catch some glimpse of the consciousness of Jesus concerning His death, as He held high converse with Moses and Elijah
Spirit - John the Baptist and Elijah, though separated by centuries of time, were believed to be so far identified that the former lived and acted ‘in spirit and in power’ (ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει, Luke 1:17), i. Jesus’ method of interpreting the popular belief in the pre-Messianic return of Elijah, Matthew 11:14)
Promise - He would send His new David, new Temple, new Elijah, new heavens and new earth—but all in continuity with what He had pledged long ago!...
The New Testament Enlarges the Ancient Promises The New Testament promises may be gathered into these groups
Malachi, Theology of - Luke also connected Malachi 4:5-6 with John the Baptist, noting that John ministered "in the spirit and power of Elijah" and called the nation to repentance ( Luke 1:17 )
Poetry - Elijah, the father of the prophets, was no poet; nor were the prophets poets strictly, except insofar as in their teachings they were lifted up to the poetic modes of thought and expression
Philaster, Bishop of Brixia - 154) that the ravens brought flesh as well as bread to Elijah who surely would never have used animal food
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - To Elijah the prophet there is more than one reference. In answer to the question asked by the disciples as to what is meant by the statement of the religious authorities that Elijah must be the precursor of the Messiah (a doctrine founded on Malachi 4:5), our Lord replies that the advent of Elijah has already taken place—a statement which in one connexion (Matthew 11:14) is directly referred by Jesus in its fulfilment to John the Baptist, whereas in another place (Matthew 17:13) this interpretation is given by the Evangelist himself
Leadership - But others fared worse, for example, Elijah with Ahab and Jezebel, Amos with Jeroboam and Amaziah, priest of the Bethel calf cult, and Jeremiah with Josiah's three reigning sons and grandson. ...
Though prophets ranked in importance second only to the apostles (1 Corinthians 12:28-31 ; Ephesians 4:11 ), none carried the role of statesmen as did Samuel, Elijah, Isaiah, and Jeremiah
Gentiles - The native chiefs of Canaan treat Abraham with respect; the Pharaoh who makes Joseph lord of his house calls him ‘a man in whom the spirit of God is’; the daughter of the Pharaoh of the oppression is moved with compassion at the sight of the child Moses, and brings him up as her son; Jethro receives Moses when an exile into his family, guides him in the desert, and instructs him in the art of governing; Rahab and Ruth ‘take refuge under the wings of the God of Israel,’ and their names are in the regal genealogy; Ittai the Gittite cleaves to David, when almost all have forsaken him; the Queen of Sheba comes to hear the wisdom of Solomon; the Tyrian Hiram supplies him with materials when building the Temple, having been ‘ever a lover of David’; the widow of Zarephath, nearly destitute herself, feeds the famishing Elijah; and Naaman, the Syrian general, confesses his faith in the God of Elisha as the one true God; Ebed-melech, an Ethiopian slave, rescues Jeremiah from death, and is rewarded with a promise of personal immunity from danger; Job, an Arabian shaikh, is the lofty teacher of how ‘to suffer and be strong’; Cyrus the Persian Is the Lord’s anointed, and the deliverer of His people. Luke’s account of our Lord’s discourse at Nazareth it is clear that His hearers understood the references to the ministries of Elijah and Elisha as pointing to the admission of Gentiles into the Kingdom (Luke 4:28)
Dress - Such a coat of skin Elijah and the prophets commonly wore, 'addereth implying its amplitude
Miracles - The second period was that of Elijah and Elisha, when Israel’s religion was threatened with destruction
Moses - At the transfiguration of Christ, Moses appears with Elijah and converses with Jesus, signifying the harmony of law, prophecy, and the gospel (Mark 9:4 )
Glory (2) - It encompasses the forms of Moses and Elijah (Luke 9:31); it even transfigures material objects like Christ’s clothing (Luke 9:29)
Hunger - Robertson’s sermon on ‘Elijah,’ second series)
Samaria - Here those holy men of God, Elijah and Elisha, spoke their tremendous warnings in the ears of their incorrigible rulers, and wrought their miracles in the sight of all the people
Sinai - Here, moreover, God appeared to Moses in the burning bush, Exodus 3:1-22 and Exodus 4:1-31 ; and six centuries later, sublimely revealed himself to the prophet Elijah when fleeing from the fury of Jezebel, 1 Kings 19:1-21
Miracles - The miracles are almost entirely connected either with the Exodus from Egypt, or with the ministry of Elijah and of Elisha. While the miracles ascribed to Elijah and Elisha might be considered as their credentials, yet they cannot be regarded as essential to their prophetic ministry; and the variations with which they are recorded represent popular traditions which the compiler of the Books of Kings has incorporated without any substantial alteration
James, the Letter - This is illustrated by a reference to Elijah, whose prayers were sufficient alternately to shut up the heavens and then to open them (James 5:17-18 )
Idolatry - Elijah, the stern foe of Baalism, does not denounce the calf-worship attacked later on by Hosea
Bason - 2 Kings 3:11 ‘Elisha the son of Shaphat, which poured water on the hands of Elijah
Serve - Elisha “ministered” to Elijah (1 Kings 19:21)
Oracles - Other examples, although the word oracle is not used, include Elijah's word to Ahab ( 1 Kings 21:17-19 ) and Elisha's word to Jehoram (2 Kings 3:13-20 ). ) The pronouncement oracles were sometimes brief as when Elijah foretold a drought in Israel (1 Kings 17:1 ). Others, who heard oracles they had neither sought nor welcomed, may not have been as quick to accept the pronouncement (consider Elijah's words to Ahab, 1 Kings 21:20-24 )
Ascension of Jesus Christ - While the Old Testament contains stories of ascension that take place in dreams or visions ( Genesis 28:12 ), straightforward narratives like that of the angel of the Lord ascending in the flame of the altar while Manoah and his wife look on (Judges 13:20 ), and particularly of Elijah ascending to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:11-12 ), although not related directly in the New Testament to the ascension of Jesus, are rightly seen as fundamental to the New Testament understanding that Jesus physically came down from heaven and returned there
King - Nathan and David, Elijah and Ahab)
Names of God - Prophets, such as Elijah and Hosea, called the people away from these tendencies and back to the covenant
Sermon on the Mount - The transfiguration with God's command to listen to Jesus (17:5) makes his words superior to those of Moses and Elijah and thus in him the law and the prophets reach their conclusion (5:28)
Intercession - It is in proportion as the person praying for others is able to enlarge his own intercourse with God that he can be, like Moses, Samuel, Elijah, able to uphold others
Jordan - Lot, for example, is said to have chosen ‘all the circle of the Jordan’ because ‘it was well watered everywhere’ ( Genesis 13:10 ); Joshua and all Israel crossed over the Jordan on dry ground ( Joshua 3:17 ); Ehud seized the fords of the Jordan against the Moabites, cutting off their retreat ( Judges 3:28 ); Gideon, Jephthah, David, Elijah, and Elisha were all well acquainted with the Jordan; Naaman the Syrian was directed to go wash in the Jordan seven times, that his leprosy might depart from him ( 2 Kings 5:10 )
Intercession - It is in proportion as the person praying for others is able to enlarge his own intercourse with God that he can be, like Moses, Samuel, Elijah, able to uphold others
Preaching - At Naioth, in the suburbs of Ramah, there was one, where Samuel dwelt; there was another at Jericho, and a third at Bethel, to which Elijah and Elisha often resorted. He took Elijah for his model; and as the times were very much like those in which that prophet lived, he chose a doctrine and a method very much resembling those of that venerable man
Disciple, Discipleship - Elijah calls to the people of Israel and says, "How long will you waver between two opinions? If the Lord is God, follow him; but if Baal is God, follow him" (1 Kings 18:21 )
Games - Even this humour of the prophets, striking as it was, was intensely serious: witness the scathing ridicule of Phœnician idolatry by Elijah and Deutero-Isaiah ( 1 Kings 18:27 , Isaiah 44:12-20 ; Isaiah 46:1-2 )
Government - A more important check was found in the religious control, democratic in its best sense, exercised by the prophets (Samuel, Nathan, Elijah, Elisha, Jeremiah, etc
Antichrist - The two witnesses (Revelation 11) are variously explained as Moses and Elijah; Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel the civil prince; the Word and the faithful church, to be slain or suppressed, perhaps about the same time that the harlot too is judged by the beast or Antichrist (Revelation 17; 18; 19
Prophets - That it was usual for some of these schools, or at least for their tutors, to be endued with a prophetic spirit, appears from the relation of the prophecies concerning the ascent of Elijah, delivered to Elisha by the sons of the prophets both at Jericho and at Bethel, 2 Kings 2:3 ; 2 Kings 2:5
Deuteronomy - Elijah, far from condemning the high places, is indignant at the sacrilege which has thrown down the altars of Jahweh (1 Kings 19:10 )
Jordan - Here Elijah and Elisha divided the waters with the prophet's mantle (2 Kings 2:4; 2 Kings 2:8; 2 Kings 2:14)
John the Baptist - But spiritual instincts and powers which had long been unknown in Israel began to make themselves felt in the young man’s heart, and this son of a priest went forth into the deserts to be shaped in solitude into a prophet mightier than Elijah or Isaiah. ), and who felt himself called in particular to take up in Israel a work of reformation similar to that of Elijah (Luke 1:17; cf
Cooking And Heating - The woman from Zarephath who cared for Elijah needed only some flour (meal) and some olive oil to be able to survive through the time of famine (1 Kings 17:12 )
Jerusalem - On the mount of transfiguration He spoke with Moses and Elijah of His departure (exodus) which He was to accomplish at Jerusalem
God - He appeared to Elijah in a “still, small voice” (Colossians 1:24-27 )
Kings, 1 And 2 - God's prophets continually proclaimed them to the people: Elijah (1 Kings 17-19 ; 1 Kings 21:1 ; 2 Kings 1:1 ), Elisha (2 Kings 2:1-25 ; 2 Kings 3:9-20 ; 2 Kings 4:1-8:15 ; 2 Kings 9:1-3 ; 2 Kings 13:14-21 ), Isaiah (2 Kings 19:1-20:19 ) and others
Houses - The allusion is again involved in the declaration of Elijah to the king of Samaria: "Now, therefore, thus saith the Lord, Thou shalt not come down from that bed on which thou art gone up, but shalt surely die," 2 Kings 1:4 ; 2 Kings 1:16
Banquet - This was a part of the service which Elisha performed for his master Elijah; and in every instance under the law where water was applied to the body by another, it was done, not by plunging, but by pouring or sprinkling
Messiah - In the case of prophets like Elijah and Elisha the hope is hardly more distinct than a belief that the nation which worshipped Jehovah would he triumphant over its enemies. In Second Esdras the Christ is conceived of as pre-existent, raised from the sea in company with Enoch, Moses, and Elijah; and is addressed by God as ‘my Son
Jonah - As he sulks in a booth outside the city, waiting to see the issue, a remarkable series of experiences is arranged for his instruction ( Jonah 4:5-8 ): the shooting up of a castor-oil plant (or, as some think, a bottle-gourd) appointed by Jahweh, which delights him by its welcome shade; the killing of the plant by a worm, also appointed by Jahweh; and the springing up of a hot wind which also blows by Divine appointment, so that the now unshaded prophet is so tormented by the heat, that, like Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:4 ), he longs for death
Ezekiel - It was popularly believed that all the difficulties of the book would finally be resolved when Elijah returned
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - Despite the reference in Luke 4:25-27 to Elijah and Elisha and their ministry to foreigners, Jesus explicitly denied that He was sent to Gentiles or Samaritans ( Matthew 15:24 ; see Matthew 10:5-6 )
Heaven - 2 Kings 2:1-25 : Heaven is to be considered as a place as well as a state: it is expressly so termed in Scripture, John 14:2-3 : and the existence of the body of Christ, and those of Enoch and Elijah, is a further proof of it
Disciples - ” We may also note that the same “sending” terminology is applied to other noteworthy characters such as Elijah (2Kings 2:2,2Kings 2:4,2 Kings 2:6 ), Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:7 ), and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 2:3-4 )
Thousand Years - ...
Peter (2 Peter 1:16-18) makes the transfiguration the earnest of Christ's coming in glory (Matthew 17); it is the miniature specimen of the millennial kingdom: first, Christ in glory, then Moses a specimen of those raised from the dead at Christ's coming, then Elijah a specimen of those who never taste death, but being found alive are transfigured in a moment (1 Corinthians 15:51-52); finally Peter, James, and John, the specimen of Israel and the nations in the flesh who shall desire the tabernacling among them of Christ and the transfigured saints: "Lord, it is good to be here," etc
Luke, Gospel of - God, Moses, and Elijah affirmed Jesus' sonship (Luke 2:1 )
Mission - ...
When the prophets did speak of a hope for future deliverance "in the last days, " they refer to a mission for God's messenger or Elijah whom God sends to prepare his way (Malachi 3:1 ); of the Servant-Messiah, anointed to preach good news to the oppressed, whom the Lord sends to bring deliverance (Isaiah 61:1 ); and of a remnant of survivors who are sent to evangelize the nations: "They will proclaim my glory among the nations" (Isaiah 66:19 )
Gods And Goddesses, Pagan - The most explicit passage disclosing the close relationship between the two comes from the narrative about Ahab and Jezebel's confrontation with Elijah (1 Kings 18:1-19:18 )
Kings, First And Second, Theology of - Jehu's revolt is sanctioned by the prophets Elijah and Elisha (2 Kings 9:7-10,26,30-37 )
Sepulchre - Unlike Enoch and Elijah, Christ had died and been actually buried; hence His death was a reality, and because He had risen from the tomb His resurrection was an indisputable fact
Claims (of Christ) - It was the men who knew Jesus only in an external fashion that took Him to be John the Baptist, or Elijah, or Jeremiah, or one of the prophets (Matthew 16:14)
Prayer - ...
So in Old Testament Moses (Exodus 8:12-30; Exodus 15:25), Elijah (1 Kings 17:20; 1618066705_17), Elisha (2 Kings 4:33; 2 Kings 6:17-18), Isaiah (2 Kings 20:11)
Priest - Elijah also offered a burnt-offering upon Mount Carmel, 1 Kings 18:33
Jonah - Still Jonah's sorrow even to death was that of one desiring his country's repentance and salvation, and bitterly disappointed as if there was no hope: like Elijah (1 Kings 19:4)
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - Soon after his return, he chose his text from the history of Elijah, and exclaimed, "Gather together to me those base priests that eat at Jezebel's table, that I may say to them, as Elijah of old, 'How long halt ye between two opinions?'" ( ib
James - ...
James and John "saw" some actual collision between the Samaritans and the messengers who were sent before and whom our Lord and His apostles followed presently; just as Elijah in the same Samaria had called for fire upon the offenders face to face (2 Kings 1:10; 2 Kings 1:12). In Luke 9:55-56, "ye know not what manner of spirit ye are (not the fiery judicial spirit which befitted Elijah's times, but the spirit of love so as to win men to salvation, is the spirit of Me and Mine), for the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives but to save them," is not in Alex
Lazarus - Elijah and Elisha had wrought miracles of resuscitation (1 Kings 17:17 ff
the Disobedient Prophet - He was wholly worthy thus far to have his name held up aloft along with the names of Samuel and Elijah themselves, for he stood up alone against Jeroboam and against all Israel and nailed the curse of God to Jeroboam's altar under the king's own eyes
Enoch - What an inheritance of blessed memories Enoch's children must have had! We all have fathers and mothers with God, for God has taken them; but, unless it was Elijah's children, no man's children ever looked up to heaven with such wondering and worshipping eyes as Enoch's children looked. And, if you are not to have your name added to the names of Enoch and Elijah; if you are not to be translated; if you are not to remain and to be alive when Christ comes; even so, your death, if it must be, will only be a circumstance in your walk with God
Jeroboam - In all ages the ungodly have accused witnesses against the national sin as guilty of treason: as Elijah and Jeremiah 1 Kings 18:17; Jeremiah 37:13-14; John 19:12 the Antitype, John 11:48-50 political expediency being the plea for persecution; Acts 17:6-7; Acts 24:5, Paul
Man (2) - It was this God who despatched Elijah to Zarephath on an errand of mercy, when there were many widows in Israel
Will of God - At times he "spoke, " whether in dreams, through the burning bush, or in the "still small voice" that came to Elijah
Dress - Certain of the prophets, again, as exponents of the simple life, wore the waist-cloth as their only under garment, such as Elijah, who ‘was girt about with a loin-cloth (EV Church, the - That commemorative meal would probably have included the following: the cup of wine, calling "blessing"; the four questions of the child concerning the nature of Passover; the second cup, called "deliverance"; the singing of the first part of the Hallel (Psalm 113-14 ); the Passover meal; the third cup, called "redemption"; the eating of the dessert; the fourth cup, called the "Elijah cup"; the singing of the second part of the Hallel (Psalm 115-18 )
Number - , Isaac and Esau marry at the age of 40; there are 40 years of the wandering; Ezekiel’s 40 years’ captivity ( Ezekiel 29:11 ); 40 days was the period Moses spent in the Mount, Elijah and Christ fasted in the wilderness, etc
Jeremiah, Theology of - Like Elijah (1 Kings 19:4 ), Jeremiah would rather die than continue (20:14-18)
Influence - He was either Elijah, or the great expected Prophet, or Jeremiah, or even the Baptist risen again (Matthew 16:14 ||)
Ministry - After Peter’s confession near Caesarea Philippi, Jesus began to impress on His disciples the certainty of His approaching death (Matthew 16:16; Matthew 16:21); at the Transfiguration, Moses and Elijah talked with Him of His ‘decease (ἔξοδος) which he was to accomplish at Jerusalem’ (Luke 9:31); soon after (Matthew 17:22 f
Preaching - At Naioth, in the suburbs of Ramah, there was one where Samuel dwelt; and there was one at Jericho, and a third at Bethel, to which Elijah and Elisha often resorted
Israel, History of - This issue was addressed particularly during the reign of King Ahab (869-850) and under the auspices of the prophet Elijah (1 Kings 18-19 )
Christ, Christology - To Elijah God gives the command, "and anoint Elisha
Restoration - ...
The word ‘restoration’ (ἀποκατάστασις, Authorized Version ‘restitution’) is found only once in the Gospels, and in its verbal form, in Matthew 17:11, in connexion with a hope current in our Lord’s time of a moral renovation of the nation under the leadership of Elijah (cf
Prayer - The role of mediator in prayer was prevalent in the Old Testament (as in Abraham, Moses, David, Samuel, Amos, Solomon, Hezekiah, Elijah, Elisha, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Israel)
Ascension - The same verb is used of Elijah (2 Kings 2:11 Septuagint , Sirach 48:9) and of Enoch (Sirach 49:14), and also of the vessel received up into heaven in St
John the Baptist - Malachi has the following prediction: "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord
Weights And Measures - The dimensions of the trench which Elijah dug about his altar ( 1 Kings 18:32 ) have also recently been explained on the same principle; the trench ( i
Death of Christ - Intimations of his death are also given in his words about his anointing in Bethany being a preparation for his burial (Matthew 26:12 ; Mark 14:8 ; 1 Peter 3:17-18 ), in the parable of the wicked tenants (Matthew 21:33-39 ; Mark 12:1-12 ; Luke 20:9-17 ), at the transfiguration when Moses and Elijah spoke with him "about his departure, which he was about to bring to fulfillment at Jerusalem" (Luke 9:31 ), in the words about the bridegroom being taken away (Matthew 9:15 ; Mark 2:20 ; Luke 5:35 ), and right back in the words of Simeon to Mary about the anguish that would come to her (Luke 2:35 )
Revelation, the Book of - Though engaged in great spiritual warfare, the church, like Moses and Elijah of old, must maintain a faithfully prophetic witness to the world, a witness even unto death
Holy Spirit - By the time of the divided kingdom, the Spirit is beginning to inspire and empower prophets, guiding individuals to specific places where they proclaim messages of salvation or judgment from God to appointed audiences (Elijah 1 Kings 18:12 ; 2 Kings 2:16 ; Micaiah 1 Kings 22:24 ; Azariah 2 Chronicles 15:1 ; Jahaziel 2 Chronicles 20:14 ; Zechariah son of Jehoiada 2 Chronicles 24:20 )
Passover - The modern Jews use dry thin biscuits as unleavened bread; a shoulder of lamb thoroughly roasted, instead of a whole one; a boiled egg, symbolizing wholeness; sweet sauce to represent the sort of work in Egypt; a vessel of salt and water (representing the Red Sea) into which they dip their bitter herbs; a cup of wine stands all the night on the table for Elijah (Malachi 4:5); before filling the guests' cups a fourth time an interval of dead silence follows, and the door is opened to admit him
Assumption of Moses - This repentance in Malachi 4:6 and Luke 1:16-17 is to be brought about by Elijah
Atonement (2) - Isaiah 42:1), when the manner in which righteousness is to be fulfilled is made explicit in the subject of Jesus’ converse with Moses and Elijah, ‘the decease which he was about to fulfil’ (Luke 9:31 πληροῦν), cf
Propitiation (2) - Mark 8:30), and Luke 9:31 declares that Moses and Elijah talked with Jesus of His death as of supreme moment
Herod - Herod stood to John Baptist in the same relation that Ahab did to Elijah
Caesarea Philippi - Mark 6:14), others Elijah, and still others Jeremiah (Matthew 16:14) or one of the prophets; but in the midst of this variety there was general agreement that Jesus, whoever else He might be, was not the Messiah
Acts of the Apostles (2) - Like Moses or Elijah, He is carried up by a cloud, as He still walks on earth and still belongs to earth
Animals - ...
The only other reference to the camel occurs in the description of the dress of John the Baptist, whose garment, like that of Elijah, was of camel’s hair (Matthew 3:4, Mark 1:6)
Old Testament - In the same way the Apostle refers to Rahab, Job, and Elijah as notable examples of works, patience, and prayer respectively (James 2:25, James 5:11; James 5:17 f
Resurrection - The traditions embodied in the stories of the translations of Enoch and Elijah (Genesis 5:24 , 2 Kings 2:11 ) receive their explanation on the assumption that in this way alone would they be enabled to enjoy the continuance of a full and complete life beyond the grave
Biblical Theology - Nathan rebukes David; Ahijah and Iddo speak to Solomon's times; Elijah and Elisha minister to the northern kingdom of Israel after its split from Judah to the south following Solomon's reign
Wandering Stars - What! do you think I cannot appeal to my Father to furnish me at this moment with over twelve legions of angels? Only, how could the scriptures be fulfilled then-the scriptures that say this must be so?’ He had already told the disciples that they were being sent out like sheep among wolves, defenceless against any brutal attack; He had censured the Elijah-spirit in the two disciples who were indignant at the churlish behaviour of a Samaritan village; He had bidden His followers face arrest, ill-treatment, and death itself, rather than be untrue to their confession; and the refusal of armed help for Himself was only the climax of the regulations which He had laid down for their conduct
Jesus Christ - He was an exceptional figure, recalling the days of Elijah
God - Elijah was the exemplary prophet, calling Israel to return to Yahweh's covenant and worship only him
Offerings And Sacrifices - , Gideon in Judges 6:24-27 , ; the Benjamites in Judges 21:3-4 , ; Samuel in 1 Samuel 7:8-10 , ; David in 2 Samuel 24:25 , ; and Elijah in 1 Kings 18:23-24,30 , 36-39 )
Sirach - He looks forward to the coming of Elijah (Sirach 48:10-11), on the faith of the prophecy of Malachi; but he knows nothing of a Messiah
Complacency - Then, in full view of the cross, at the close of our Lord’s conference with Moses and Elijah concerning ‘his decease which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem,’ that Divine voice spoke in the audience of Jesus and the three disciples
Apocalyptic Literature - Akiba, The Hebrew Elijah Apocalypse, The Apocalypse of Zerubbabel, The Wars of King Messiah, The Revelations of R
Ascension (2) - Comparison with the assumption of Enoch and of Moses or the translation of Elijah, or with the deification of the Imperial representative, or with the Buddha-legend, only serves to demonstrate its striking originality, It has a character, place, and use that cannot be assigned to these
Apocalypse - In addition to these extant books are 4, which are known to us only through citations In Origen and other Fathers: (j) The Prayer of Joseph; (k) The Book of Eldad and Medad; (l) The Apocalypse of Elijah; (m [14] ) The Apocalypse of Zephaniah
Canaan - Such was the cloud, "like a man's hand," which appeared to Elijah, on Mount Carmel; which spread "till the heaven was black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain," 1 Kings 18:44
Old Testament (i. Christ as Fulfilment of) - It was thus that Jesus properly gave the name Elijah to John the Baptist (Matthew 17:10-13), and appropriated for him the utterance in Malachi 4:5 ( Israel - In the synchronous history ( 1 Kings 12:1-33 - 2 Kings 17:1-41 ) the principal sources are the ‘Book of the Chronicle of the Kings of Israel’ and the ‘Book of the Chronicle of the Kings of Judah,’ though various other writings have been drawn upon for the narratives of Elijah and Elisha
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - ) and by the saints of old-Elijah, Elisha, Ezekiel, Abraham, Job, Moses (xvii
Enoch Book of - 6th: all Israel blinded; Elijah ascends to heaven; the Dispersion
Originality - The 40 days’ fast of Moses (Exodus 34:28, Deuteronomy 9:9) and that of Elijah (1 Kings 19:8) at once suggest themselves as parallels which do not take us beyond the limits of Jewish history
Palestine - The heroes of the past were much in His thought, and His journeys from place to place reminded Him of them continually, Elijah and Elisha, Solomon, David, and Isaiah, were figures not merely remembered from reading in the sacred books
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - The indictment was formulated by a presbyter of Antioch named Pelagius, who, in language of the most atrocious violence, proceeded to demand of the council to take the sword of God and, as Samuel dealt with Agag, and Elijah with the priests of Baal, pitilessly destroy those who had introduced strange doctrines into the church