What does Eli mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
עֵלִ֔י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 5
עֵלִ֗י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 4
עֵלִ֑י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 3
עֵלִ֖י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 3
וְעֵלִ֖י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 3
עֵלִי֙ descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 3
עֵלִֽי descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 2
עֵלִ֛י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 2
עֵלִ֜י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 2
לְעֵלִֽי descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 1
עֵ֠לִי descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 1
ἠλὶ Eli 1
עֵלִ֣י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 1
עֵלִ֥י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 1
וַיִּפֹּ֣ל to fall 1
וְעֵלִ֣י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 1
וְעֵלִ֕י descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child. 1

Definitions Related to Eli

H5941


   1 descendant of Aaron through Ithamar and high priest and judge of Israel when Samuel entered service as a child.
   Additional Information: Eli = “ascension”.
   

G2241


   1 Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani.
   The Hebrew form, as Elio, Elio, etc.
   , is the Syro-Chaldaic (the common language in use by the Jews in the time of Christ) of the first words of the twenty second Psalm; they mean “My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?”.
   

H5307


   1 to fall, lie, be cast down, fail.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to fall.
         1a2 to fall (of violent death).
         1a3 to fall prostrate, prostrate oneself before.
         1a4 to fall upon, attack, desert, fall away to, go away to, fall into the hand of.
         1a5 to fall short, fail, fall out, turn out, result.
         1a6 to settle, waste away, be offered, be inferior to.
         1a7 to lie, lie prostrate.
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to cause to fall, fell, throw down, knock out, lay prostrate.
         1b2 to overthrow.
         1b3 to make the lot fall, assign by lot, apportion by lot.
         1b4 to let drop, cause to fail (fig.
         ).
         1b5 to cause to fall.
      1c (Hithpael).
         1c1 to throw or prostrate oneself, throw oneself upon.
         1c2 to lie prostrate, prostrate oneself.
      1d (Pilel) to fall.
      

Frequency of Eli (original languages)

Frequency of Eli (English)

Dictionary

Chabad Knowledge Base - Eli, the high priest
(a) Last of the Judges, judged the Israelites for forty years (931-891 BCE). High Priest in the Tabernacle in Shiloh. Samuel�s teacher. (b) Common Jewish name.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Eli
Ascent, the high priest when the ark was at Shiloh (1 Samuel 1:3,9 ). He was the first of the line of Ithamar, Aaron's fourth son (1 Chronicles 24:3 ; Compare 2 Samuel 8:17 ), who held that office. The office remained in his family till the time of Abiathar (1 Kings 2:26,27 ), whom Solomon deposed, and appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (35). He acted also as a civil judge in Israel after the death of Samson (1 Samuel 4:18 ), and judged Israel for forty years. His sons Hophni and Phinehas grossly misconducted themselves, to the great disgust of the people (1 Samuel 2:27-36 ). They were licentious reprobates. He failed to reprove them so sternly as he ought to have done, and so brought upon his house the judgment of God (2:22-33; 3:18). The Israelites proclaimed war against the Philistines, whose army was encamped at Aphek. The battle, fought a short way beyond Mizpeh, ended in the total defeat of Israel. Four thousand of them fell in "battle array". They now sought safety in having the "ark of the covenant of the Lord" among them. They fetched it from Shiloh, and Hophni and Phinehas accompanied it. This was the first time since the settlement of Israel in Canaan that the ark had been removed from the sanctuary. The Philistines put themselves again in array against Israel, and in the battle which ensued "Israel was smitten, and there was a very great slaughter." The tidings of this great disaster were speedily conveyed to Shiloh, about 20 miles distant, by a messenger, a Benjamite from the army. There Eli sat outside the gate of the sanctuary by the wayside, anxiously waiting for tidings from the battle-field. The full extent of the national calamity was speedily made known to him: "Israel is fled before the Philistines, there has also been a great slaughter among the people, thy two sons Hophni and Phinehas are dead, and the ark of God is taken" (1 Samuel 4:12-18 ). When the old man, whose eyes were "stiffened" (i.e., fixed, as of a blind eye unaffected by the light) with age, heard this sad story of woe, he fell backward from off his seat and died, being ninety and eight years old. (See ITHAMAR .)
Eli, Heb. eli, "my God", ( Matthew 27:46 ), an exclamation used by Christ on the cross. (Mark 15:34 ), as usual, gives the original Aramaic form of the word, Eloi.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Eli
(ee' li) Personal name meaning, “high.” The priest at Shiloh who became the custodian of the child Samuel (1 Samuel 1:3 ). He was the father of Hophni and Phinehas. After Samuel's birth Hannah, his mother, brought him to the sanctuary at Shiloh in fulfillment of a vow she had made to the Lord. Eli thereby became the human agent largely responsible for the religious and spiritual training of the boy. When Samuel mistook the voice of God for the voice of Eli, Eli instructed him to ask the Lord to speak the next time he heard the voice (1 Samuel 3:1 ). Eli's death was precipitated by the news of the death of his sons and the capture of the ark of God by the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:18 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Eli, Eli, Lama Sabachthani
This cry of Jesus on the cross, traditionally known as the “fourth word from the cross” means, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” (Matthew 27:46 ; Mark 15:34 ). It is a quotation from Psalm 22:1 . The Markan form, Eloi , is closer to Aramaic than Matthew's more Hebraic Eli . Both the evangelists translated the quotation into Greek for their readers.
Scholars are uncertain whether Jesus spoke these words in Hebrew or Aramaic. If He spoke in Hebrew it would more readily explain the crowd's confusion of “my God” with “Elijah,” since the terms sound more nearly alike in Hebrew than in Aramaic.
This saying of Jesus from the cross strikes a dissonant chord for some Christians, because it seems to indicate that Jesus felt forsaken by the Father. There are several ways to consider the meaning of this passage in reverent faith. It is possible to interpret these words as a beautiful testimony to Jesus' love of His Bible, the Old Testament, and His quoting of it in this hour of darkest crisis. In this case, such verses in Psalm 22:1 as 5,7, 8,12, 14, and 18 indicate that Jesus sees Himself and His fate in this Psalm. However, since the Gospels record only the first verse of the Psalm and we do not know whether Jesus quoted the entire Psalm, this view may run the risk of not taking the phrase at face value.
Another view sees this cry as indicating a genuine forsaking of Jesus by the Father, a forsaking which was necessary for our redemption. This view leads some to questions about the nature of the godhead and theories of atonement which we cannot address in this brief discussion. Perhaps the most serious difficulty of this view is that it raises the question of whether the idea of God the Father turning His back on the obedient Son is consistent with the general biblical teaching of the steadfastness and faithfulness of God. Would He desert a trusting child in such an hour?
A view which takes into consideration the full humanity—as well as full divinity—of Jesus seems most helpful. Obviously Jesus felt deserted as He bore the burden of human sin and suffered the agony of crucifixion. This feeling of His death as a “ransom for many” may, indeed, have obscured for a time His feeling of closeness with the Father, so that even in dying He was tempted as we are. Rather than forsaking the Father in that moment, He cried out to Him in prayer.
Earl Dans
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Eli
Sprung from Ithamar, Aaron's younger surviving son (Leviticus 10:1-2; Leviticus 10:12). (Compare ABIATHAR.) (1 Kings 2:26-27; 1 Chronicles 24:3; 2 Samuel 8:17). Compare Eleazar's genealogy, wherein Eli and Abiathar do not appear (1 Chronicles 6:4-15; Ezra 7:1-5). No high priest of Ithamar's line is mentioned before Eli, whose appointment was of God (1 Samuel 2:30). His grandson Ahitub succeeded (1 Samuel 14:3). Abiathar. Ahitub's grandson, was thrust out by Solomon for his share in Adonijah's rebellion and the high priesthood reverted to Eleazar's line in Zadok (1 Kings 2:35). The transfer was foretold to Eli by the unnamed man of God first, and by the child Samuel next (1 Samuel 2:3): a punishment from God, because though Eli reproved his wicked sons Hophni and Phinehas in word he did not in act, put forth his authority as a judge to punish, coerce, and depose them, "because his sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not."
Another part of the curse, "I will cut off the arm of thy father's house that. there shall not be an old man in thine house," was being fulfilled in David's days, when "there were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar (16) than of the sons of Ithamar" (8) (1 Chronicles 24:4). Eli's grace shone in the meekness with which he bowed to the Lord's sentence, "It is the Lord, let Him do what, seemeth Him good." His patriotism and piety especially appear in his intense anxiety for the safety of the ark; "his heart trembled for the ark of God." The announcement after the battle, of the slaughter of the people and even of his sons did not so much overwhelm him as that of the ark of God: instantly "he fell from off the seat backward by the side of the gate, and his neck broke and he died; for he was old and heavy." The Hebrew Scriptures make his term of office as judge 40 years; the Greek Septuagint 20 years.
Some reconcile the two by making him co-judge with Samson for 20 years, and sole judge for 20 more years. He was 98 years of age at his death. His failing and its penalty are a warning to all parents, even religious ones, and all in authority, to guard against laxity in ruling children and subordinates in the fear of the Lord, punishing strictly, though in love, all sin, jealous for God's honor even at the cost of offending man and of painting natural parental feeling. Condoning sin is cruel to children as well as dishonoring to God. Children will respect most the parent who respects God. Perhaps Eli clung to office too long, when through age he was no longer able vigorously to fulfill it. He who cannot rule his own house is unfit to rule the house of God (1 Timothy 3:5).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Eli
ELI (possibly an abbreviated form of Eliel , ‘God is high’). The predecessor of Samuel as ‘judge,’ and high priest in the sanctuary at Shiloh. Excepting in the final scene of his life, every time he comes before us it is in connexion with others who occupy the position of greater interest. Thus in his interviews with Hannah, in the first one it is she in whom the chief interest centres ( 1 Samuel 1:12 ff.); in the second it is the child Samuel ( 1 Samuel 1:24 ff.). The next time he is mentioned it is only as the father of Hophni and Phinehas, the whole passage being occupied with an account of their evil doings ( 1 Samuel 2:12 ff.). Again, in 1 Samuel 2:27 ff., Eli is mentioned only as the listener to ‘a man of God’ who utters his prophecy of evil. And lastly, in his dealings with the boy Samuel the whole account (ch. 3) is really concerned with Samuel, while Eli plays quite a subsidiary part. All this seems to illustrate the personality of Eli as that of a humble-minded, good man of weak character; his lack of influence over his sons only serves to emphasize this estimate.
W. O. E. Oesterley.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Eli, Eli, Lama Sabachthani
ELI, ELI, LAMA SABACHTHANI . See Eloi, Eloi, etc.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Eli [Eloi], Eli [Eloi
ELI [1], ELI [1], etc.—See Seven Words.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Eli
The High Priest, in the days of the judges. (1 Samuel 2:11) His name is very significant, meaning, my God. The sin of Eli is remarkably striking. And it teaches most powerfully. We see in him a decided proof of the great danger of consulting the feelings of nature, rather than obeying the precepts of grace. His tenderness, as a father, tempted him to lose sight of his reverence for God. He therefore contented himself with reproving his sons for their vileness, when he should have publicly stript them of their office, and banished them from his presence. And though he was admonished of this evil conduct by the child Samuel, speaking to him in a vision from the Lord, yet we find no firmness to reform. And though the Lord deferred the threatened punishment of his two sons for near twenty and seven years, yet he allowed them still to minister in the service of the sanctuary. At length the judgment came, and a most tremendous judgment it was. (See Hophni, 1 Samuel 4:12-22) How different from him, of whom it is said, "He did not acknowledge his brethren, nor know his own children!" (Deuteronomy 33:9)
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Eli Eli Lama Sabachthani
The reader will not wish to pass over this well known cry of Jesus on the cross; but will be gratified with the continued attention of it. Those words of Christ are full of important signification; and every pious reader of his Bible ought to have a proper conception of their meaning. They are partly in the Hebrew, and partly in the Syriac tongue, and which, perhaps occasioned the perverse misconstruction in some, who supposed the Lord called Elias, when Jesus said Eli. The prophet had said, "That the Lord should roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem, and the heavens and the earth should shake." (Joel 3:16) And hence we find that prophecy fulfilled. The loud voice of Jesus was not like one whose strength was gone, but rather uttered in proof of what Jesus had said: "No man taketh my life from me, but I lay it down of myself, I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father." (John 10:18) The words themselves seem to be a quotation from Psalms 22:1, thereby intimating, that the prophet in that Psalm spake wholly of Christ. This was highly important for the church to know. And the meaning yet more important. The Holy Ghost hath caused his servants the Evangelists, to give the church the interpretation: Eli, Eli, lama, are Hebrew; Sabacthani, or Sabadetani, is Syriac. Astonishing words for the only beloved of the Father to utter! Jesus had uttered no cry of pain in the great tortures of his body; neither do we hear the meek Lamb of God complain of the insults of the rabble, in the unequalled repreaches cast upon him. These, and every other sorrow, seem to have been swallowed up and forgotten in the flood of divine wrath, which now opened like cataracts from heaven in the Father's desertion. Who shall say what this was? Who is competent to describe the horrors of it, when it induced such a cry in the soul agonies of Jesus? Well may every child of God pause over the renewed reading of it, and in the contemplation, consider the love and tenderness of Jesus to his people, who thus endured the being forsaken of his Father for a season, that they might not be forsaken for ever. (Hebrews 5:7-9)
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Eli
HIS SONS MADE THEMSELVES VILE, AND HE RESTRAINED THEM NOT
'SEEST thou a man that is hasty in his words? There is more hope of a fool than of him.' Yes; but we have hope of Eli in spite of his hasty words. For Eli never forgave himself for his hasty words to Hannah. Eli had many bitter memories as he sat by the wayside watching for the ark of God. And one of the bitterest of those memories was the lasting memory of his insulting language to Hannah. No sooner was that hasty word gone out of Eli's mouth than he would have given all the world to have had that hasty word back again. 'Go in peace,' Eli said, 'and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition which thou hast asked of Him.' And all his days, in his sore remorse for what he had said to Samuel's mother before Samuel was born, Eli tried to make up for that insult to Samuel her son. Eli's extraordinary care over young Samuel; his extraordinary tenderness toward the child; and, as Samuel grew up, the old priest's secret fear at Samuels; and his growing reverence for him,-all that was all that Eli could do to undo the insult and the injury he had done to Samuel's mother.
Samuel was predestinated soon to succeed to all Eli's forfeited offices. All Eli's high positions were soon to descend to Samuel. And Eli saw all that preparing to come about, and preparing to come about soon. But all that did not alter or abate by one iota Eli's notable goodness to Samuel. Eli could not have treated Hophni or Phinehas better than he treated Samuel, his immediate successor. Frederick Robertson, in his able apology for Eli, makes a great deal of the total absence of envy in Eli. But surely not with that great preacher's wonted insight. My tongue may be cleaving to the roof of my mouth with envy; I may be as blind with envy as Eli was blind with old age; the hair may have fallen off my head till I am bald with envy-and yet no man about me may so much as guess it. What Eli is to be praised for is this-not that he felt no envy of Samuel; but that, feeling envy every day, as he could not fail to feel it, he kept his envy down, and did not let it come out in his treatment of Samuel. Of course Eli had envy of Samuel; all men have envy in their hearts who are placed by God in Eli's circumstances, and it is misleading and mischievous in the last degree in any preacher to say anything else. God alone could say whether Eli had envy or not. And he never says that about Eli or any other man. He says about Eli and all men the very opposite. The point with God is not whether I have envy or not; but it is this, how I deal with the envy that He knows I have. All that my fellow-men can see in me is not the envy of my heart, but that of my life. They can see and hear whether or no I backbite, and belittle, and detract, and depreciate; as also whether I consent and take part and pleasure with them who do. And while that is much to see and to judge, it is far from being all. If the Baptist had no envy and no jealousy of his fast-rising Cousin, then he has all that the less praise for his noble reply to his envious and jealous disciples. But if the Forerunner had to fast from his locusts to help him to subdue his pride; if it was only after many unwitnessed days and nights of sweat and prayer and blood that he was enabled to hand over John and Andrew to Jesus whom he had baptized but yesterday beyond Jordan; then John the Baptist is of some use to you and to me. But if John had no such envy and no such jealousy himself as his disciples had on his account, then he was not a man of like passions as we are. If John did not sometimes find himself hating Jesus in his heart till, in his agony, he threw himself over the bleeding rocks of the wilderness, then all I can say is, that Elizabeth's sanctified son was not made of the same rotten stuff with you and me.
Not only had Eli, with all his envy, a very real and a very deep love for little Samuel; but along with that, and kept alive by that, he had a real, a living, and a deep faith in God, and in God's voices and visions and answers to men. Eli's fine benediction spoken over Hannah the next moment after he had mistaken her for a daughter of Belial; his openhearted adoption of little Samuel to be his assistant and successor in the temple service; his rich and recompensing benediction pronounced on Samuel's mother because she had lent little Samuel to the Lord; his midnight lesson to his little elect companion; his solemn demand next morning to be told what the Lord had said to the prophetic child during the night; and his instant acceptance of the terrible message that little Samuel was compelled to deliver,-all that shows us that Eli, with all his shipwreck of life and opportunity and privilege, had the root of the matter all the time in him. There had been no 'open vision' for many a day in Israel. But Eli's mind had been open all the time. You will see men with great faults, and even with completely lost and wasted lives, who yet all through, and to the end, have a certain openness of mind to divine truth, and a certain sure and spontaneous sympathy with divine truth to whomsoever it comes, and through whomsoever it speaks. And poor old Eli was one of those open-minded and truth-loving men. If his own sins and his sons' sins had shut silent the divine vision, then Eli was all the more prepared to believe that the divine vision would hereafter speak to better men than he had been. And when the divine vision did begin to break its long silence, and to speak again,-for Eli to accept that vision, even when it came in the shape of a sentence of capital punishment on himself and on his house,-well, if ever faith had her perfect work in an open mind, it was surely in castaway Eli's open mind. What a lesson is here, and what a noble example to all old castaways among ourselves! The Spirit and the providences of God in His Church have stood still in our day. There has been nothing to call an open vision. We have sinned away the open vision. We have quenched the speaking Spirit. But, all the time, the Spirit of God is only waiting till we are out of His way, and then He will return and will not tarry. As soon as we are dead and gone, and obstruct the Spirit of God no more, Samuel will come, and the Lord will be with Samuel, and will let none of his words fall to the ground. But God's mercies always come mingled up with God's judgments, and if you have Eli's loving heart for the rising generation of God's ministers; and if with that you have a still living, if hitherto a too-barren faith in the ever-living God; in alleviation of your punishment, and in reward of your faith and your love, He will send the beginning of the returning vision before the end of your lost life. And even if that vision comes to condemn your whole life, and to pass sentence on you, and on your evil house; yet, even so, better that than to live and die in the long absence and the total silence of an angry God. Let us expect, then, for our successors what we have sinned away from ourselves. Let us believe and be sure that the coming generation will see visions and hear voices that we have not been counted worthy to see or to hear, because of our great unfaithfulness and unfruitfulness, and because of our great blindness and disobedience.
And then, look at old Eli's splendid resignation and Gethsemane-like submission. 'It is the Lord: let Him do what seemeth Him good. I shall never believe that Eli is lost. Broken neck; dead sons and daughters lying strewed all around him; the ark taken; the temple in ruins, and the glory departed, and all-Eli is not lost. No man is wholly lost who lies lost before God like that. 'Though He slay me,' said Job. But He did not slay Job as He slew Eli. Job's patience, and meekness, and submission, and resignation were terribly enough tried; but they were not tried down to death as Eli was. And He who so rewarded Job, and who so supported and rewarded His own Son-no, I shall not believe it till I see it that Eli is among the reprobate. 'It is the Lord.' If anything will cover a multitude of sins; if anything will draw down the mercy of God, surely that cry of Eli's will do it.
Away back, at the beginning of his life, Eli had taken far too much in hand. Eli was not a great man like Moses or Aaron, but he took both the office of Moses and the office of Aaron upon his single self. Eli was both the chief judge and the high priest in himself for the whole house of Israel. The ablest, the most laborious, the most devoted, the most tireless and sleepless of men could not have done what Eli undertook to do. They called Origen 'Brazen-bowels,' he was such a sleepless student. But Eli would have needed both bowels of brass, and a head and a heart of gold, to have done the half of what he undertook to do.
And, taking up what was beyond mortal power to perform, the certain result was that he did nothing well, but did everything ill. Both his high priesthood at the altar, and his chief judgeship at the gate, and his sole fatherhood in his own house; both God's house and his own house, and the whole house of Israel, went to wreck and ruin under overladen Eli. It is startling and terrible to think that the unparalleled catastrophe of Eli's awful end had its first and far-back roots in what is as much a virtue, surely, as a vice: his determination to do two men's work with his own hands. But, whatever Eli's motives were for loading himself with all this plurality of offices and emoluments, the terrible catastrophe of his own end and his sons' end and the end of Shiloh-all this had its earliest roots in Eli's vaulting ambition and consequent incapacity and neglect. The mischief was widespread. But it was at home that the widespread mischief rose to a height that went beyond human remedy and beyond divine forgiveness. And may something of that same kind not be the explanation of some of those sad cases where the houses of able and good and devoted ministers come to such ruin? What with the pulpit of our land and our day-more than enough of itself; and what with the resulting and accompanying pastorate-more than enough of itself also for one man working at it in season and out of season; with so many public demands and claims, and with such incessant calls and encroachments at all hours of the day and night, there is neither time nor strength to do any part of a minister's work as it ought to be done. And one worried week follows another worried week till his children grow up and grow out of his knowledge. 'A bishop must be vigilant.' Yes; but a bishop in our day would need to have a hundred eyes and a hundred hands and a hundred feet. 'He must rule well the house of God.' Yes; but the apostle tells Timothy that he must know how to rule his own house first. It is a fine picture: 'One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity.' It would almost seem that Paul had had the ruins of Eli's house before his mind when he wrote that fine instruction. All other men have the grave sweet Sabbath-day to spend with their children, ruling and teaching them: all but ministers, and policemen, and some other slaves. But ministers have neither Saturday, nor Sabbath, nor Monday. And I never hear them complaining of that, unless it is when they think of their children. We call Eli old, and blind, and idle, and inefficient, and ignorant, and neglectful of his own children and of God's people; and so he was. But all that was not because he did nothing, but because he did too much to do anything well. Till, at last, broken in life and broken in heart, with his nation and his church and his household lying all in ruins round about him, we see Eli sitting by the wayside waiting for death. A terrible end to such a bold and ambitious beginning.
'Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial; they knew not the Lord.' Impossible! you would protest, if it were not in the Bible. But just because it is in the Bible, we are compelled to ask ourselves how it could possibly come about that the sons of such a sacred man as Eli was could ever become sons of Belial. What! not know the Lord, and they born and brought up within the very precincts of the Lord's house! Were not the first sounds they heard the praises of God in His sanctuary? Were not the first sights they saw their father in his robes beside the altar with all the tables, and the bread, and the sacrifices, and the incense round about him? And yet, there it is in black and white; there it is in blood and tears-'The sons of Eli were sons of Belial; they knew not the Lord.' Let me think. Let me consider well how, conceivably, it could come about that Hophni and Phinehas could be born and brought up at Shiloh and not know the Lord? Well, for one thing, their father was never at home. What with judging all Israel, and what with sacrificing and interceding for all Israel, Eli never saw his children till they were in their beds. 'What mean ye by this ordinance?' all the other children in Israel asked at their fathers as they came up to the temple. And all the way up and all the way down again those fathers took their inquiring children by the hand and told them all about Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron, and the exodus, and the wilderness, and the conquest, and the yearly passover. Hophni and Phinehas were the only children in all Israel who saw the temple every day and paid no attention to it. And, then, every father and mother knows this, how the years run away, and how their children grow up, till all of a sudden they are as tall as themselves. And very much faster than our tallest children did Eli's children grow up. All things, indeed, were banded against Eli. the very early ripeness of his sons was against Eli; He thought he would one day have time; but it was his lifelong regret that he had never had time. And, what with one thing, and what with another; what with their father's preoccupation and their own evil hearts; the two young men were already sons of Belial when they should still have been little children. 'Why do ye do such things? For I hear of all your evil dealings by all this people. Nay, my sons, this is no good report that I hear.' Like our own proverb, Eli is seen shutting the stable-door with many tears and sobs years and years after the steeds have been stolen. I have spoken of Job. Well, I always think that Job was the very best father in all the Old Testament, while Eli was surely the very worst. Job-let this passage be repeated to himself by every father every day from the first day he is a father, this golden passage-'Job was one that pleased God and eschewed evil. And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning and offered burnt-offerings according to the number of them all; for Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned and cursed God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually.' Our old ministers when they had a father at the pulpit-foot were used to make him swear that he would pray 'both with and for' his children. Now, it was just here that Eli went wrong. And it is just here that so many of ourselves go wrong, and our children. We scold and scowl at them, and we beat and bruise and lock them up, when we should pray both with them and for them. If, when they tell a lie, or steal, or speak bad language, or strike one another, or defiantly disobey us, we would neither lift a hand nor a tongue at them, but would take them to our place of prayer, and there pray both with and for them,-as sure as I stand here and you sit there,-there would be fewer sons and daughters of Belial in our houses. Let us do it. Let us, after Eli tonight, go home and do it. And if our children are grown up and gone away, let us all the more go after them, like Job, with that Sacrifice and that importunity which have the promise and the power to apprehend them and to bring them back. Thus did Job continually. You will all have it well in your mind how this all ended. How the ark of God was taken, and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain. And how Eli, when he heard the evil tidings, fell from off his seat backward, and his neck brake, and he died. And how his daughter-in-law, her pains came upon her, but she answered not, neither regarded it; and how she named her son Ichabod, and so died.
'The Psalm of Ichabod, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, which he sang after that the Lord had repented Him of the evil, and had restored the priesthood to the house of Eli: I will confess my iniquity and the iniquity of my fathers. The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge. But pardon the iniquity of Thy servant, according to Thy great mercy, and as Thou hast been a father to the fatherless, so hast Thou been to Thy servant. I was a reproach among all mine enemies, but especially among my neighbours, and a fear to mine acquaintances. I was like a broken vessel. But I trusted in Thee, and Thou didst deliver me. I was cast upon thee from my mother's knees, and Thou didst hide me in the secret of Thy presence from the pride of men. Thou didst show me Thy loving-kindness in a fenced city. I am a wonder to many, but my boast is in God. Thou hast restored to me what the locust had eaten. Thou hast anointed my head with oil and made my cup to run over. Thou hast taken off my sackcloth and hast girded me with gladness. Come, all ye that fear God, and I will declare what He hath done for my soul. The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold on me; but Thou hast brought up my life from the pit that I might show forth Thy praise. O Lord, I am Thy servant: I am Thy servant, and the son of Thine handmaid. I will pay Thee my vows which my mouth spake when I was in trouble. Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all His benefits.' Thus sang Ichabod, the son of Phinehas, after that the Lord had repented Him of the evil.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Eli
The offering or lifting up
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Eli
a high priest of the Hebrews, of the race of Ithamar, who succeeded Abdon, and governed the Hebrews, both as priest and judge, during forty years. How Eli came to the high priesthood, and how this dignity was transferred from Eleazar's family to that of Ithamar, who was Aaron's youngest son, we know not. This much, however, is certain, that it was not done without an express declaration of God's will, 1 Samuel 2:27 , &c. In the reign of Solomon, the predictions in relation to Eli's family were fulfilled; for the high priesthood was taken from Abiathar, a descendant of Eli, and given to Zadok, who was of the race of Eleazar, 1 Kings 2:26 .
Eli appears to have been a pious, but indolent man, blinded by paternal affection, who suffered his sons to gain the ascendancy over him; and for want either of personal courage, or zeal for the glory of God sufficient to restrain their licentious conduct, he permitted them to go on to their own and his ruin. Thus he carried his indulgence to cruelty; while a more dignified and austere conduct on his part might have rendered them wise and virtuous, and thereby have preserved himself and family. A striking lesson for parents! God admonished him by Samuel, then a child; and Eli received those awful admonitions with a mind fully resigned to the divine will. "It is the Lord," said he, "let him do what seemeth him good." God deferred the execution of his vengeance many years. At length, however, Hophni and Phineas, the sons of Eli, were slain by the Philistines, the ark of the Lord was taken, and Eli himself, hearing this melancholy news, fell backward from his chair and broke his neck, in the ninety-eighth year of his age, 1 Samuel 4:12 ; 1 Samuel 4:18 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Eli
Descendant of Ithamar, and high priest in Israel. It is not recorded whom he succeeded; the book of 1Samuel opens with Eli as priest. Samuel was lent to the Lord by his pious mother, and he ministered unto the Lord before Eli. The two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were 'sons of Belial:' they assisted their father, but interfered with the due offering of the sacrifices, and sinned greatly before the people. Eli spoke to his sons of their evil doings, but he did not with energy prevent the dishonour to the Lord. It should be remembered that the responsibility of maintaining Israel, the people of the Lord, before Him, rested on the priestly house, hence the enormity of the young men's sin, and the solemnity of Eli's negligent conduct. A man of God came and told Eli plainly that he honoured his sons before the Lord, and detailed some judgements that should befall his house, and that his two sons should be slain in one day.
As Eli allowed his sons to continue in their evil ways, God sent a message to him by Samuel, reminding him of the judgements of which the man of God had warned him, and repeating that it was because "his sons made themselves vile and he restrained them not." Alas, poor Eli merely said, "It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good." A pious remark, but which did not correct the evil. This was Eli's great failing, though he otherwise apparently cared for God's honour. He trembled when the ark of God was carried to the war, which ended so disastrously. His two sons were killed and the ark was taken by the Philistines, and 'Ichabod' — 'the glory is departed' — marked the state of Israel through Eli's sin. When Eli heard these sad tidings he fell backward, and his neck brake. He had judged Israel forty years and was 98 years old. 1 Samuel 1 - 1 Samuel 4 . Abiathar his descendant was thrust from the priesthood by Solomon that the word of the Lord might be fulfilled which He spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh. 1 Kings 2:27 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Eli
Eli (ç'li), summit, the highest, according to some, adopted of the Lord. A noted high priest and judge of Israel. He was of the family of Ithamar, Aaron's youngest son; for his descendant Ahimelech or Abiathar, 1 Samuel 14:3; 1 Samuel 22:20; 2 Samuel 8:17, is expressly said to be of that house. 1 Chronicles 24:3. We do not know how or when the high priesthood passed from Eleazar's family to that of Ithamar; but because of Eli's sin in not restraining his ungodly sons, it reverted again to the elder line. 1 Samuel 2:22-25; 1 Kings 2:35. With the exception of this great fault, of which he was repeatedly warned, Eli appears to have been a holy man. To him was committed the charge of Samuel the prophet when a child. And his anxiety for the ark of God, carried with the Israelitish army to battle, is graphically depicted in the sacred history. He sat watching for news in the open road; and when he heard the disastrous intelligence, the death of his two sons, and, worst of all the capture of the ark by the Philistines, he who could have borne the desolation of his own house sank down in grief, and his neck brake, and he died. He was 98 years old, and had judged Israel 40 years: some of these years probably including the time of Samuel. 1 Samuel 1:1-28; 1 Samuel 2:1-36; 1 Samuel 3:1-21; 1 Samuel 4:1-22. Part of the fulfillment of the threatening against Eli's house is noted in 1 Kings 2:27.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Eli
A high priest of the Jews, the first in the line of Ithamar, 1 Samuel 2:27 . He was also a judge of Israel forty years, and was eminent for piety and usefulness, but criminally negligent of family discipline. For this the judgments of God fell upon his house, 1 Samuel 3:11-18 . In battle with the Philistines his two sons were slain, and Israel defeated; but it was the capture of the ark of God that broke his heart, 1 Samuel 4:1-22 . The divine threatening was fully performed in the day of Abiathar, which see.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Eli Lama Sabacthani
One of the last words of Our Lord dying on the Cross, as narrated by Matthew 27, and Mark 15.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Eli
The offering or lifting up
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Eli
Descendant of Ithamar, and high priest in Israel. It is not recorded whom he succeeded; the book of 1Samuel opens with Eli as priest. Samuel was lent to the Lord by his pious mother, and he ministered unto the Lord before Eli. The two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were 'sons of Belial:' they assisted their father, but interfered with the due offering of the sacrifices, and sinned greatly before the people. Eli spoke to his sons of their evil doings, but he did not with energy prevent the dishonour to the Lord. It should be remembered that the responsibility of maintaining Israel, the people of the Lord, before Him, rested on the priestly house, hence the enormity of the young men's sin, and the solemnity of Eli's negligent conduct. A man of God came and told Eli plainly that he honoured his sons before the Lord, and detailed some judgements that should befall his house, and that his two sons should be slain in one day.
As Eli allowed his sons to continue in their evil ways, God sent a message to him by Samuel, reminding him of the judgements of which the man of God had warned him, and repeating that it was because "his sons made themselves vile and he restrained them not." Alas, poor Eli merely said, "It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good." A pious remark, but which did not correct the evil. This was Eli's great failing, though he otherwise apparently cared for God's honour. He trembled when the ark of God was carried to the war, which ended so disastrously. His two sons were killed and the ark was taken by the Philistines, and 'Ichabod' — 'the glory is departed' — marked the state of Israel through Eli's sin. When Eli heard these sad tidings he fell backward, and his neck brake. He had judged Israel forty years and was 98 years old. 1 Samuel 1 - 1 Samuel 4 . Abiathar his descendant was thrust from the priesthood by Solomon that the word of the Lord might be fulfilled which He spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh. 1 Kings 2:27 .
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Eli
At the time when Eli was chief priest and chief administrator in Israel, the tabernacle was at Shiloh, in central Israel. Eli sat outside the tabernacle to give advice and settle disputes, while his sons carried out the routine work connected with the sacrifices and ceremonies (1 Samuel 1:3; 1 Samuel 1:9; 1 Samuel 4:18).
Eli’s sons were corrupt, but Eli did not remove them from office, even though he disagreed with their conduct. God announced to Eli, first through a prophet and then through the boy Samuel, that he would punish Eli’s household with shame, poverty and early death. Only one would be left functioning as a priest, and eventually he too would be removed (1 Samuel 2:12-36; 1 Samuel 3:11-14). (For the fulfilment of these prophecies see 1 Samuel 4:11; 1 Samuel 14:3; 1 Samuel 22:11-20; 1 Kings 2:26-27.)

Sentence search

Lama - See Eli , Eli, Lama Sabachthani
Sabachthani - See Eli Eli Lama Sabachthani
Eli, Eli, Lama Sabachthani - Eli, Eli, LAMA SABACHTHANI
Eli [Eloi], Eli [Eloi - ELI [1], Eli [1], etc
Lama - (See Eli Eli Lama Sabachthani
Eloi - ” See Eli Eli Lama Sabachthani
Sabachthani - See Eli , Eli, Lama Sabachthani
Hophni - See Eli
Ahitub - Grandson of Eli, and son of Phinehas, in whose place he succeeded to the high priesthood on the death of Eli, Phinehas having perished in battle, B
Eli - It is not recorded whom he succeeded; the book of 1Samuel opens with Eli as priest. Samuel was lent to the Lord by his pious mother, and he ministered unto the Lord before Eli. The two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were 'sons of Belial:' they assisted their father, but interfered with the due offering of the sacrifices, and sinned greatly before the people. Eli spoke to his sons of their evil doings, but he did not with energy prevent the dishonour to the Lord. It should be remembered that the responsibility of maintaining Israel, the people of the Lord, before Him, rested on the priestly house, hence the enormity of the young men's sin, and the solemnity of Eli's negligent conduct. A man of God came and told Eli plainly that he honoured his sons before the Lord, and detailed some judgements that should befall his house, and that his two sons should be slain in one day. ...
As Eli allowed his sons to continue in their evil ways, God sent a message to him by Samuel, reminding him of the judgements of which the man of God had warned him, and repeating that it was because "his sons made themselves vile and he restrained them not. " Alas, poor Eli merely said, "It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good. This was Eli's great failing, though he otherwise apparently cared for God's honour. His two sons were killed and the ark was taken by the Philistines, and 'Ichabod' — 'the glory is departed' — marked the state of Israel through Eli's sin. When Eli heard these sad tidings he fell backward, and his neck brake. Abiathar his descendant was thrust from the priesthood by Solomon that the word of the Lord might be fulfilled which He spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh
Eli - It is not recorded whom he succeeded; the book of 1Samuel opens with Eli as priest. Samuel was lent to the Lord by his pious mother, and he ministered unto the Lord before Eli. The two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were 'sons of Belial:' they assisted their father, but interfered with the due offering of the sacrifices, and sinned greatly before the people. Eli spoke to his sons of their evil doings, but he did not with energy prevent the dishonour to the Lord. It should be remembered that the responsibility of maintaining Israel, the people of the Lord, before Him, rested on the priestly house, hence the enormity of the young men's sin, and the solemnity of Eli's negligent conduct. A man of God came and told Eli plainly that he honoured his sons before the Lord, and detailed some judgements that should befall his house, and that his two sons should be slain in one day. ...
As Eli allowed his sons to continue in their evil ways, God sent a message to him by Samuel, reminding him of the judgements of which the man of God had warned him, and repeating that it was because "his sons made themselves vile and he restrained them not. " Alas, poor Eli merely said, "It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good. This was Eli's great failing, though he otherwise apparently cared for God's honour. His two sons were killed and the ark was taken by the Philistines, and 'Ichabod' — 'the glory is departed' — marked the state of Israel through Eli's sin. When Eli heard these sad tidings he fell backward, and his neck brake. Abiathar his descendant was thrust from the priesthood by Solomon that the word of the Lord might be fulfilled which He spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh
Eli - At the time when Eli was chief priest and chief administrator in Israel, the tabernacle was at Shiloh, in central Israel. Eli sat outside the tabernacle to give advice and settle disputes, while his sons carried out the routine work connected with the sacrifices and ceremonies (1 Samuel 1:3; 1 Samuel 1:9; 1 Samuel 4:18). ...
Eli’s sons were corrupt, but Eli did not remove them from office, even though he disagreed with their conduct. God announced to Eli, first through a prophet and then through the boy Samuel, that he would punish Eli’s household with shame, poverty and early death
Ich'Abod - (inglorious ), the son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli
Hophni And Phinehas - The guilty and wretched sons of Eli the high priest. See Eli . Men in all ages are prone to rely on a form of religion, while the heart and life are not right with God; and all who thus sin, like the sons of Eli, must perish likewise
Eli - How Eli came to the high priesthood, and how this dignity was transferred from Eleazar's family to that of Ithamar, who was Aaron's youngest son, we know not. In the reign of Solomon, the predictions in relation to Eli's family were fulfilled; for the high priesthood was taken from Abiathar, a descendant of Eli, and given to Zadok, who was of the race of Eleazar, 1 Kings 2:26 . ...
Eli appears to have been a pious, but indolent man, blinded by paternal affection, who suffered his sons to gain the ascendancy over him; and for want either of personal courage, or zeal for the glory of God sufficient to restrain their licentious conduct, he permitted them to go on to their own and his ruin. A striking lesson for parents! God admonished him by Samuel, then a child; and Eli received those awful admonitions with a mind fully resigned to the divine will. At length, however, Hophni and Phineas, the sons of Eli, were slain by the Philistines, the ark of the Lord was taken, and Eli himself, hearing this melancholy news, fell backward from his chair and broke his neck, in the ninety-eighth year of his age, 1 Samuel 4:12 ; 1 Samuel 4:18
Eli - Eli thereby became the human agent largely responsible for the religious and spiritual training of the boy. When Samuel mistook the voice of God for the voice of Eli, Eli instructed him to ask the Lord to speak the next time he heard the voice (1 Samuel 3:1 ). Eli's death was precipitated by the news of the death of his sons and the capture of the ark of God by the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:18 )
Eli - Eli (possibly an abbreviated form of Eliel , ‘God is high’). , Eli is mentioned only as the listener to ‘a man of God’ who utters his prophecy of evil. 3) is really concerned with Samuel, while Eli plays quite a subsidiary part. All this seems to illustrate the personality of Eli as that of a humble-minded, good man of weak character; his lack of influence over his sons only serves to emphasize this estimate
Hophni And Phinehas - The two sons of Eli; they were priests in the sanctuary at Shiloh, where, in spite of the presence of their father, they carried on their evil practices. In consequence of their deeds a curse is twice pronounced upon the house of Eli, first by a ‘man of God’ ( 1 Samuel 2:27 ) who is not named, and again by the mouth of Samuel (ch. The curse was accomplished when Hophni and Phinehas were slain at the battle of Aphek, and the ark of God was lost an incident which was the cause of the death of Eli (ch
Jar'ha, - the Egyptian servant of Sheshan, about the time of Eli, to whom his master gave his daughter and heir in marriage; (1 Chronicles 2:34,35 ) (B
El - It is very often found in proper names, as Bethel, Daniel, Elijah, etc. Eloi, like Eli, means, My God
Ichabod - Where is the glory? A son of Phinehas, and grandson of Eli, both of whom, and his mother also, died on the day of his birth, 1 Samuel 4:19 - 22 ; 14:3
Ahas'ba-i - (blooming ), father of Eli-phelet, one of David's thirty-seven captains. ( 2 Samuel 23:34 ) In the corrupt list in (1 Chronicles 11:35 ) Eliphelet appears as "Eliphal the son of Ur
Eli - ' Yes; but we have hope of Eli in spite of his hasty words. For Eli never forgave himself for his hasty words to Hannah. Eli had many bitter memories as he sat by the wayside watching for the ark of God. No sooner was that hasty word gone out of Eli's mouth than he would have given all the world to have had that hasty word back again. 'Go in peace,' Eli said, 'and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition which thou hast asked of Him. ' And all his days, in his sore remorse for what he had said to Samuel's mother before Samuel was born, Eli tried to make up for that insult to Samuel her son. Eli's extraordinary care over young Samuel; his extraordinary tenderness toward the child; and, as Samuel grew up, the old priest's secret fear at Samuels; and his growing reverence for him,-all that was all that Eli could do to undo the insult and the injury he had done to Samuel's mother. ...
Samuel was predestinated soon to succeed to all Eli's forfeited offices. All Eli's high positions were soon to descend to Samuel. And Eli saw all that preparing to come about, and preparing to come about soon. But all that did not alter or abate by one iota Eli's notable goodness to Samuel. Eli could not have treated Hophni or Phinehas better than he treated Samuel, his immediate successor. Frederick Robertson, in his able apology for Eli, makes a great deal of the total absence of envy in Eli. My tongue may be cleaving to the roof of my mouth with envy; I may be as blind with envy as Eli was blind with old age; the hair may have fallen off my head till I am bald with envy-and yet no man about me may so much as guess it. What Eli is to be praised for is this-not that he felt no envy of Samuel; but that, feeling envy every day, as he could not fail to feel it, he kept his envy down, and did not let it come out in his treatment of Samuel. Of course Eli had envy of Samuel; all men have envy in their hearts who are placed by God in Eli's circumstances, and it is misleading and mischievous in the last degree in any preacher to say anything else. God alone could say whether Eli had envy or not. And he never says that about Eli or any other man. He says about Eli and all men the very opposite. They can see and hear whether or no I backbite, and belittle, and detract, and depreciate; as also whether I consent and take part and pleasure with them who do. If John did not sometimes find himself hating Jesus in his heart till, in his agony, he threw himself over the bleeding rocks of the wilderness, then all I can say is, that Elizabeth's sanctified son was not made of the same rotten stuff with you and me. ...
Not only had Eli, with all his envy, a very real and a very deep love for little Samuel; but along with that, and kept alive by that, he had a real, a living, and a deep faith in God, and in God's voices and visions and answers to men. Eli's fine benediction spoken over Hannah the next moment after he had mistaken her for a daughter of Belial; his openhearted adoption of little Samuel to be his assistant and successor in the temple service; his rich and recompensing benediction pronounced on Samuel's mother because she had lent little Samuel to the Lord; his midnight lesson to his little elect companion; his solemn demand next morning to be told what the Lord had said to the prophetic child during the night; and his instant acceptance of the terrible message that little Samuel was compelled to deliver,-all that shows us that Eli, with all his shipwreck of life and opportunity and privilege, had the root of the matter all the time in him. But Eli's mind had been open all the time. And poor old Eli was one of those open-minded and truth-loving men. If his own sins and his sons' sins had shut silent the divine vision, then Eli was all the more prepared to believe that the divine vision would hereafter speak to better men than he had been. And when the divine vision did begin to break its long silence, and to speak again,-for Eli to accept that vision, even when it came in the shape of a sentence of capital punishment on himself and on his house,-well, if ever faith had her perfect work in an open mind, it was surely in castaway Eli's open mind. But God's mercies always come mingled up with God's judgments, and if you have Eli's loving heart for the rising generation of God's ministers; and if with that you have a still living, if hitherto a too-barren faith in the ever-living God; in alleviation of your punishment, and in reward of your faith and your love, He will send the beginning of the returning vision before the end of your lost life. Let us believe and be sure that the coming generation will see visions and hear voices that we have not been counted worthy to see or to hear, because of our great unfaithfulness and unfruitfulness, and because of our great blindness and disobedience. ...
And then, look at old Eli's splendid resignation and Gethsemane-like submission. I shall never believe that Eli is lost. Broken neck; dead sons and daughters lying strewed all around him; the ark taken; the temple in ruins, and the glory departed, and all-Eli is not lost. But He did not slay Job as He slew Eli. Job's patience, and meekness, and submission, and resignation were terribly enough tried; but they were not tried down to death as Eli was. And He who so rewarded Job, and who so supported and rewarded His own Son-no, I shall not believe it till I see it that Eli is among the reprobate. ' If anything will cover a multitude of sins; if anything will draw down the mercy of God, surely that cry of Eli's will do it. ...
Away back, at the beginning of his life, Eli had taken far too much in hand. Eli was not a great man like Moses or Aaron, but he took both the office of Moses and the office of Aaron upon his single self. Eli was both the chief judge and the high priest in himself for the whole house of Israel. The ablest, the most laborious, the most devoted, the most tireless and sleepless of men could not have done what Eli undertook to do. But Eli would have needed both bowels of brass, and a head and a heart of gold, to have done the half of what he undertook to do. Both his high priesthood at the altar, and his chief judgeship at the gate, and his sole fatherhood in his own house; both God's house and his own house, and the whole house of Israel, went to wreck and ruin under overladen Eli. It is startling and terrible to think that the unparalleled catastrophe of Eli's awful end had its first and far-back roots in what is as much a virtue, surely, as a vice: his determination to do two men's work with his own hands. But, whatever Eli's motives were for loading himself with all this plurality of offices and emoluments, the terrible catastrophe of his own end and his sons' end and the end of Shiloh-all this had its earliest roots in Eli's vaulting ambition and consequent incapacity and neglect. ' It would almost seem that Paul had had the ruins of Eli's house before his mind when he wrote that fine instruction. We call Eli old, and blind, and idle, and inefficient, and ignorant, and neglectful of his own children and of God's people; and so he was. Till, at last, broken in life and broken in heart, with his nation and his church and his household lying all in ruins round about him, we see Eli sitting by the wayside waiting for death. ...
'Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial; they knew not the Lord. But just because it is in the Bible, we are compelled to ask ourselves how it could possibly come about that the sons of such a sacred man as Eli was could ever become sons of Belial. What! not know the Lord, and they born and brought up within the very precincts of the Lord's house! Were not the first sounds they heard the praises of God in His sanctuary? Were not the first sights they saw their father in his robes beside the altar with all the tables, and the bread, and the sacrifices, and the incense round about him? And yet, there it is in black and white; there it is in blood and tears-'The sons of Eli were sons of Belial; they knew not the Lord. What with judging all Israel, and what with sacrificing and interceding for all Israel, Eli never saw his children till they were in their beds. And very much faster than our tallest children did Eli's children grow up. All things, indeed, were banded against Eli. the very early ripeness of his sons was against Eli; He thought he would one day have time; but it was his lifelong regret that he had never had time. And, what with one thing, and what with another; what with their father's preoccupation and their own evil hearts; the two young men were already sons of Belial when they should still have been little children. ' Like our own proverb, Eli is seen shutting the stable-door with many tears and sobs years and years after the steeds have been stolen. Well, I always think that Job was the very best father in all the Old Testament, while Eli was surely the very worst. Now, it was just here that Eli went wrong. If, when they tell a lie, or steal, or speak bad language, or strike one another, or defiantly disobey us, we would neither lift a hand nor a tongue at them, but would take them to our place of prayer, and there pray both with and for them,-as sure as I stand here and you sit there,-there would be fewer sons and daughters of Belial in our houses. Let us, after Eli tonight, go home and do it. How the ark of God was taken, and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain. And how Eli, when he heard the evil tidings, fell from off his seat backward, and his neck brake, and he died. ...
'The Psalm of Ichabod, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, which he sang after that the Lord had repented Him of the evil, and had restored the priesthood to the house of Eli: I will confess my iniquity and the iniquity of my fathers. But I trusted in Thee, and Thou didst deliver me
Eloi, Eloi, Lama Sabachthani - ...
In the parallel passage in Matthew 27:46 we find Eli, Eli (though Cod. Eli is a Heb
Phinehas - This promise was fulfilled; for except the interval from Eli to Zadok, the priesthood continued in the family of Phinehas until the destruction of the temple and the Babylonian captivity. A son of Eli, and noted for his wickedness
Hophni And Phinehas - "Sons of Belial," who, though knowing externally and professionally, "knew not the Lord" experimentally and practically (1 Samuel 2:12, compare Jeremiah 22:16; Titus 1:16). In vain Israel relied on the ark of God when Hophni and Phinehas were its escort. If Eli had "restrained them" firmly when "they made themselves vile," and had Israel thoroughly amended their ways, the ark, so far from falling into the foe's hands, would have been the pledge of victory over the foe (Jeremiah 7:4; Isaiah 48:2). (See Eli
Ichabod - (ihk' uh bahd) Personal name meaning “where is the glory?” The son of Phinehas, Eli's son (1 Samuel 4:21 ). See Eli
Ahitub - On the death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1Samuel 14:3; 22:9,11,12,20)
Ahi'Tub -
The son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli, and therefore of the family of Ithamar
Phinehas - (Numbers 25:6-13) There was another Phinehas in Scripture, but of a very different character, namely, Phineas the son of Eli
Meraioth - 4:1) thought that he was next before Eli, and that at his death the high priesthood passed from Eleazar's to Ithamar's line
Handmaid, Handmaiden - These words often refer in scripture to a female slave, as applied to Hagar the Egyptian, Genesis 25:12 ; but were also used by women themselves as a term of humility, as when Hannah spake to Jehovah and to Eli, 1 Samuel 1:11,16,18 ; as Abigail to David, 1 Samuel 25:24-41 ; and by Mary and Elizabeth as handmaids of the Lord
Ichabod - Son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli
Eli - Compare Eleazar's genealogy, wherein Eli and Abiathar do not appear (1 Chronicles 6:4-15; Ezra 7:1-5). No high priest of Ithamar's line is mentioned before Eli, whose appointment was of God (1 Samuel 2:30). The transfer was foretold to Eli by the unnamed man of God first, and by the child Samuel next (1 Samuel 2:3): a punishment from God, because though Eli reproved his wicked sons Hophni and Phinehas in word he did not in act, put forth his authority as a judge to punish, coerce, and depose them, "because his sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not. Eli's grace shone in the meekness with which he bowed to the Lord's sentence, "It is the Lord, let Him do what, seemeth Him good. His failing and its penalty are a warning to all parents, even religious ones, and all in authority, to guard against laxity in ruling children and subordinates in the fear of the Lord, punishing strictly, though in love, all sin, jealous for God's honor even at the cost of offending man and of painting natural parental feeling. Perhaps Eli clung to office too long, when through age he was no longer able vigorously to fulfill it
Ithamar - The high priesthood in Eli's person (probably on account of the high qualities for which he was made judge) passed to the line of Ithamar, but reverted to Eleazar's line in Zadok, because of Abiathar's share in Adonijah's rebellion; thus the prophecy against Eli was fulfilled (1 Samuel 2:31-35; 1 Samuel 3:12-14; 1 Kings 2:26-27; 1 Kings 2:35). (See ABIATHAR; Eli
Abiathar - the son of Ahimelech, and the tenth high priest among the Jews, and fourth in descent from Eli. 2989 and the race of Zadok alone performed the functions of that office during the reign of Solomon, to the exclusion of the family of Ithamar, according to the word of the Lord to Eli
Hophni - Son of Eli the priest
Shmuel - (a) (931-877 BCE) Son of Hannah and Elkanah, a nazirite from birth, a disciple of Eli the last of the Judges, he would travel throughout Israel to teach and judge the people. Anointed Saul and David, the first two Israelite monarchs. ...
Shmuel: The (two-part) book of Tanach relating the history of the Israelites during Samuel's lifetime and during the reigns of Saul and David (931-c
Samuel - (a) (931-877 BCE) Son of Hannah and Elkanah, a nazirite from birth, a disciple of Eli the last of the Judges, he would travel throughout Israel to teach and judge the people. Anointed Saul and David, the first two Israelite monarchs. ...
Samuel, the book of: The (two-part) book of Tanach relating the history of the Israelites during Samuel's lifetime and during the reigns of Saul and David (931-c
Ahitub - Son of Phinehas, and grandson of Eli
Vile - The sons of Eli made themselves vile
Hophni - Pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest (1 Samuel 1:3 ; 2:34 ), who, because he was "very old," resigned to them the active duties of his office. For their wickedness they were called "sons of Belial," i
Abishua - 8:1, 3) says he was succeeded in the priesthood by Eli; his descendants, until Zadok, falling to the rank of private persons
Arm - Thus God is said to have delivered his people from Egyptian bondage "with a stretched-out arm," Deuteronomy 5:15 ; and he thus threatens Eli the high priest, "I will cut off thine arm, and the arm of thy father's house,"...
1 Samuel 2:31 ; that is, I will deprive thee and thy family of power and authority
Ithamar - He and his family occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (1 Kings 2:27 ), the reasons for which are not recorded
Hannah - She fulfilled her vow by bringing her son to the sanctuary at Shiloh, where he served the Lord under the direction of Eli
Phinehas - ) Eli of Ithamar's line interrupted the succession of the line of Phinehas; Zadok resumed it under Solomon. Second son of Eli, killed with Hophni, in battle with the Philistines (1 Samuel 1:3); according to the prophecy: 1 Samuel 2:34; 1 Samuel 4:4; 1 Samuel 4:11; 1 Samuel 4:17; 1 Samuel 4:19; 1 Samuel 14:3. (See Eli; HOPHNI
Ithamar - In addition, the house of Eli evidently was descended from Ithamar
Samuel - Samuel was also a faithful judge in Israel, and acted as priest when Eli and his sons were dead. He is called SHEMUELin 1 Chronicles 6:33
Belial - The phrase, "sons of Belial," signifies wicked, worthless men. It was given to the inhabitants of Gibeah, who abused the Levite's wife, Judges 19:22 ; and to Hophni and Phineas, the wicked and profane sons of Eli. In later times the name Belial denoted the devil: "What concord hath Christ with Belial?" ...
2 Corinthians 6:15 ; for as the word literally imports "one who will do no one good," the positive sense of a doer of evil was applied to Satan, who is the author of evil, and, eminently, "the Evil One
Eleazar - The high priesthood continued in his family through seven generations; till the time of Eli, when we find it transferred to the line of Ithamar
Vinegar - ‘He is King of Israel,’ they cried: ‘let him come down now from the cross, and we will believe on him. ...
Again, after He had uttered His cry of desolation: Eli, Eli, lama ‘ăzabhtâni (see Dereliction), Jesus moaned, ‘I thirst’; and one of the bystanders, probably a Roman soldier,§ Eli Eli Lama Sabachthani - They are partly in the Hebrew, and partly in the Syriac tongue, and which, perhaps occasioned the perverse misconstruction in some, who supposed the Lord called Elias, when Jesus said Eli. The Holy Ghost hath caused his servants the Evangelists, to give the church the interpretation: Eli, Eli, lama, are Hebrew; Sabacthani, or Sabadetani, is Syriac
Ithamar - The high-priesthood came into the family of Ithamar in the person of Eli, and it reverted to the descendants of Eleazar in Zadok on the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon
Ahitub - Priest, son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli ministering in Shiloh (1 Samuel 14:3 ). Ahitub thus illustrates the many people who exercised great influence in Israel's history and religion but who play a small role in the Bible
Ith'Amar - (Exodus 28:1,40,43 ; Numbers 3:3,4 ; 1 Chronicles 24:2 ) In the distribution of services belonging to the tabernacle, and its transport on the march of the Israelites, the Gershonites and the Merarites were placed under the superintendence of Ithamar. (Exodus 38:21 ; Numbers 4:21-33 ) The high priesthood passed into the family of Ithamar in the person of Eli, but for what reason we are not informed
Hoph'ni - (pugilist ) and PHINEHAS (brazen mouth ), the two sons of Eli, who fulfilled their hereditary sacerdotal duties at Shiloh
Phinehas - ) ...
...
One of the sons of Eli, the high priest ( 1 Samuel 1:3 ; 2:12 ). He and his brother Hophni were guilty of great crimes, for which destruction came on the house of Eli (31)
Hannah - God heard her prayer, and she became the mother of Samuel (which means 'asked of God'), who, when he had been weaned, was given to be servant of Eli the priest. Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife, and she became the mother of three sons and two daughters
e'li - (1 Kings 2:35 ) Its return to the elder branch was one part of the punishment which had been denounced against Eli during his lifetime, for his culpable negligence. (1 Samuel 2:27-36 ) with 1 Kings 2:27 Notwithstanding this one great blemish, the character of Eli is marked by eminent piety, as shown by his meek submission to the divine judgment, ( 1 Samuel 3:18 ) and his supreme regard for the ark of God
Heli - Either Jacob and Heli are variant names of the same person, “son of” means “descendant of” as in other genealogies, or Luke preserved the genealogy of Mary rather than of Joseph. The name probably represents a Greek form of the Hebrew Eli (NAS)
Amariah - He was probably the last of the high priests of Eleazar's line prior to the transfer of that office to Eli, of the line of Ithamar
Ahitub - Thus there would seem to have been in the same age Ahitub of the house of Eli, sprung from Ithamar, and also Ahitub of the house of Eleazar
Eleazar - The high priesthood continued in his family till the time of Eli
Eli - The Israelites proclaimed war against the Philistines, whose army was encamped at Aphek. There Eli sat outside the gate of the sanctuary by the wayside, anxiously waiting for tidings from the battle-field. ) ...
Eli, Heb. Eli, "my God", ( Matthew 27:46 ), an exclamation used by Christ on the cross
Eli - Eli (ç'li), summit, the highest, according to some, adopted of the Lord. We do not know how or when the high priesthood passed from Eleazar's family to that of Ithamar; but because of Eli's sin in not restraining his ungodly sons, it reverted again to the elder line. With the exception of this great fault, of which he was repeatedly warned, Eli appears to have been a holy man. And his anxiety for the ark of God, carried with the Israelitish army to battle, is graphically depicted in the sacred history. Part of the fulfillment of the threatening against Eli's house is noted in 1 Kings 2:27
Hophni - One of the sons of Eli. Alas! what accumulated evils follow the commission of sin in the service of the sanctuary!...
See Eli...
Phin'Ehas - ...
Second son of Eli. ) [1] ...
A Levite of Ezra's time, (Ezra 8:33 ) unless the meaning be that Eleazar was of the family of the great Phinehas
Shiloh - ” About thirty miles north of Jerusalem sat the city which would be Israel's religious center for over a century after the conquest, being the home of Israel's tabernacle (Joshua 18:1 ). Thus, Shiloh became home for Samuel as he lived under the care of Eli, the high priest, and his two wicked sons, Hophni and Phinehas. Later, Samuel received the Lord's message that the priesthood would be taken from Eli's family (1 Samuel 3:1 ). Years later, following a defeat at Aphek, the Israelite army sent for the ark of the covenant from Shiloh. Mistakenly thinking that the ark would bring victory, the Israelites lost the second battle of Aphek to the Philistines. Results included losing the ark; the deaths of Hophni, Phinehas, and Eli; and the apparent conquering of Shiloh (1 Samuel 4:1 ). See Joshua ; Eli ; Samuel
Ichabod - " As in the case of her pious and patriotic father-in-law, Eli, the overwhelming sorrow that caused her death was "because the ark of God was taken," hence this is thrice repeated
Uzzi - Contemporary with, or earlier somewhat than, Eli
Ithamar - The fourth and youngest son of Aaron and Elisheba ( Exodus 6:23 etc. also Exodus 38:21 ); ancestor of Eli (cf
Abiathar - Solomon succeeding to the throne, degraded him from the priesthood, and sent him to Anathoth, 1 Kings 2:26,27 ; thus fulfilling the prediction made to Eli 150 years before, 1 Samuel 2:27-36 . Saul, it would appear, had transferred the dignity of the high priesthood from the line of Ithamar, to which Eli belonged, to that of Eleazar, by conferring the office upon Zadok
Languages of the Bible - The New Testament was written in Greek, though Jesus and the early believers may have spoken Aramaic. Hebrew then continued as the religious language of the Jews, but the Aramaic alphabet was borrowed for writing it. New Testament Greek is heavily infused with Semitic thought modes, and many Aramaic words are found rendered with Greek letters (for example, talitha cumi , Mark 5:41 ; ephphatha , Mark 7:34 ; Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani , Mark 15:34 ; marana-tha , 1 Corinthians 16:22 )
Tim'Nath-se'Rah - Eli Smith
Phinehas - Son of Eli: he degraded the priesthood by his wickedness, and was slain with his brother Hophni by the Philistines when the ark was taken
Captivity - God generally punished the sins and infidelities of the Jews by different captivities or servitudes. The first captivity is that of Egypt, from which they were delivered by Moses, and which should be considered rather as a permission of providence, than as a punishment for sin. Six captivities are reckoned during the government by judges: the first, under Chushanrishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, which continued about eight years; the second, under Eglon, king of Moab, from which the Jews were delivered by Ehud; the third, under the Philistines, from which they were rescued by Shamgar; the fourth, under Jabin, king of Hazor, from which they were delivered by Deborah and Barak; the fifth, under the Midianites, from which Gideon freed them; and the sixth, under the Ammonites and Philistines, during the judicatures of Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Eli, Samson, and Samuel
Abiathar - ” The son of Ahimelech and the eleventh high priest in succession from Aaron through the line of Eli. Solomon deposed him from the priesthood and banished him to Anathoth, his home town, fulfilling the prophecy to Eli (1 Samuel 2:31-35 )
Judges, Book of, - We may observe in general on this portion of the book that it is almost entirely a history of the wars of deliverance. The dates given in the last article amount to 410 years, without the 40 years of Eli; but in ( 1 Kings 6:1 ) the whole period from the exodus to the building of the temple is stated as 480 years. ...
Oppression of the Philistines, contemporary with the judgeships of Eli, Samson (and Samuel?)
uz'zi - He must have been contemporary with, but rather earlier than, Eli
Forty - ...
1 Samuel 4:18 (c) Eli was tested
Hannah - When Hannah returned home, she left Samuel with the priest Eli, who was to bring him up as a dedicated servant of God
Phinehas - When Israelite men brought God’s judgment upon themselves through their immorality with foreign women, Phinehas dealt with the rebels. He and his brother, who were sons of the priest Eli, corrupted the priesthood so badly that God removed them in a dramatic judgment
Hannah - ’ Eli, the high priest, mistakes the silent movement of her lips as she prays, and accuses her of drunkenness; but when he finds out the mistake he has made, he gives her his blessing, and prays that her petition may be granted
Ahi'ah -
Son of Ahitub, grandson of Phinehas and great-grandson of Eli, succeeded his father as high priest in the reign of Saul
Hannah - On occasion of one of these "yearly" visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah's conduct toward her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the sanctuary she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at the entrance to the holy place, observed her, and misunderstanding her character he harshly condemned her conduct (1 Samuel 1:14-16 ). " After the child was weaned (probably in his third year) she brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to Eli the aged priest, "Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the Lord
Samuel, First Book of - The wickedness of the sons of Eli is then brought out, and Eli is solemnly warned by 'a man of God. God called Samuel, but he supposed it was Eli. On this being repeated three times, Eli instructed him, if he was called again, to say, "Speak, Lord, for thy servant heareth. Because Eli did not restrain his sons, judgement should fall upon his house. When told of this, Eli answered, "It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good. Israel was smitten before the Philistines; but instead of turning to the Lord and confessing their sins, they sent for the ark of the covenant, saying that it should save them, and made a great shout; but God was not in this act, the Israelites were smitten, including the two sons of Eli, and the ark was captured by the Philistines. When Eli heard the sad news he fell back and died. The Israelites were in weakness, they had even to resort to the Philistines to sharpen their weapons. The Israelites were hiding themselves in caves. The Israelites also attacked them, and there would have been a greater victory had not Saul, in fleshly zeal, put all under a curse who should eat before the evening. Saul had all the outward forms of reverence for God, but he was not a man of faith: he called the Israelites Hebrews, missing the point of their relationship with God. Then began the flight of David from the wrath of Saul, and Saul's pursuit of him; the grace of David in twice saving the life of Saul when he had him in his power; the wickedness of Saul in slaying the priestly house of Ahimelech; the mistake of David in joining himself to the Philistines, from which the Lord delivered him; and his discipline in the destruction of Ziklag, and the carrying away of his two wives with the inhabitants, but in mercy all were recovered. ...
In the meantime Samuel had passed away, with the simple notice that he died, and all the Israelites gathered together and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah: 1 Samuel 25:1 . Not only had the priest failed in the house of Eli, but the ark of the covenant, the symbol of Israel's relationship with God, was in the hands of their enemies, this being permitted by God to bring things to an issue
Eli - The sin of Eli is remarkably striking. We see in him a decided proof of the great danger of consulting the feelings of nature, rather than obeying the precepts of grace
Sam'Uel - ) Before his birth he was dedicated by his mother to the office of a Nazarite and when a young child, 12 years old according to Josephus he was placed in the temple, and ministered unto the Lord before Eli. (1 Samuel 7:16 ) His own residence was still native city, Ramah, where he married, and two sons grew up to repeat under his eyes the same perversion of high office that he had himself witnessed in his childhood in the case of the two sons of Eli. (1 Samuel 9:13 ) A peculiar virtue was believed to reside in his intercession. It is said with peculiar emphasis, as if to mark the loss, that "all the Israelites were gathered together" from all parts of this hitherto-divided country, and "lamented him," and "buried him" within his own house, thus in a manner consecrated by being turned into his tomb. He is also the founder of the first regular institutions of religious instructions and communities for the purposes of education
Samuel - At a very tender age he was carried to Shiloh, and brought up beside the tabernacle under the care of Eli the high priest. Having been conserated to God from his birth, and devoted to Nazariteship, he began to receive divine communications even in his childhood, 1 Samuel 3:1-21 ; and after the death of Eli, he became established as the judge of Israel. The twelve tribes, when he assumed their charge, were in a low condition both morally and politically he freed them from all foreign yokes, administered justice with vigor and impartiality, promoted education and true religion, united the tribes, and raised them higher in the scale of civilization
Samuel - "And the child Samuel ministered unto the Lord before Eli. The preciousness of the Lord's words, in this period of the church, when open visions were for a time suspended; the special grace shewn to Samuel in a season of general depravity, and when even the sons of Eli, who were priests of the Lord, were given up to a state of daring impiety end uncleanness; the childhood of Samuel, so particularly noted in the history, as if to encourage the youthful part of the Lord's people to be found waiting on the Lord in ordinances; all these, and more to the same purport, which this relation of the call of Samuel brings forward, would furnish much observation for improvement. Eli heard it not, though the priest of God; it was Samuel only and this by name. Had thousands been present like Eli, it was a voice they would not have heard, and in which they had no concern. Samuel never lost sight of it, I venture to believe, through all the after-stages of his life. And how earnestly was the Lord Jesus asked by the Old Testament saints before his coming! How blessedly did JEHOVAH, in the opening of Samuel's life, point to the Lord Jesus as the faithful Priest he would raise up, who should do according to all that was in his heart! (1 Samuel 2:35) And what a delightful view doth the prophet Samuel exhibit, as typical of the Lord Christ, under the several offices he sustained, not only as prophet, as Priest and as Judge in Israel!...
Abi'Athar - liberal ), High priest and fourth in descent from Eli
a'Phek - ...
A place at which the Philistines encamped while the Israelites pitched in Eben-ezer, before the fatal battle in which the sons of Eli were killed and the ark was taken
Eleazar - Thirdson of Aaron and Elisheba (a descendant of Judah through Pharez). The priesthood continued in his house until it passed to Eli who was of the family of Ithamar; Solomon restored it again to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok. Son of Eliud, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus
Samuel, Books of - It contains (1) the history of Eli (1-4); (2) the history of Samuel (5-12); (3) the history of Saul, and of David in exile (13-31)
Antipatris - Eli Smith
Judges - The judges were rulers sent of God to deliver the Israelites from their oppressors. Their chief work was that of deliverers and captains in war. Thirteenth judge: Samson—20 years; fourteenth judge: Eli—40 years; fifteenth judge: Samuel
Thistles And Thorns - Eli Smith, visiting the plain where Gideon once threatened to tear the flesh of the princes of Succoth with thorns and briers, noticed such plants there of remarkable size, some of the thistles rising above his head on horseback, Judges 8:7
Samuel - Here his bodily wants and training were attended to by the women who served in the tabernacle, while Eli cared for his religious culture. A mysterious voice came to him in the night season, calling him by name, and, instructed by Eli, he answered, "Speak, Lord; for thy servant heareth. " The message that came from the Lord was one of woe and ruin to Eli and his profligate sons. Samuel told it all to Eli, whose only answer to the terrible denunciations (1 Samuel 3:11-18 ) was, "It is the Lord; let him do what seemeth him good", the passive submission of a weak character, not, in his case, the expression of the highest trust and faith. The Israelites were defeated, leaving 4,000 dead "in the field. " A second battle was fought, and again the Philistines defeated the Israelites, stormed their camp, slew 30,000 men, and took the sacred ark. The tidings of this fatal battle was speedily conveyed to Shiloh; and so soon as the aged Eli heard that the ark of God was taken, he fell backward from his seat at the entrance of the sanctuary, and his neck brake, and he died. " Samuel summoned the people to Mizpeh, one of the loftiest hills in Central Palestine, where they fasted and prayed, and prepared themselves there, under his direction, for a great war against the Philistines, who now marched their whole force toward Mizpeh, in order to crush the Israelites once for all. In memory of this great deliverance, and in token of gratitude for the help vouchsafed, Samuel set up a great stone in the battlefield, and called it "Ebenezer," saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us" (1 Samuel 7:1-12 ). This was the spot where, twenty years before, the Israelites had suffered a great defeat, when the ark of God was taken. The schools of the prophets, thus originated, and afterwards established also at Gibeah, Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho, exercised an important influence on the national character and history of the people in maintaining pure religion in the midst of growing corruption. At the close of this period, when he was now an old man, the elders of Israel came to him at Ramah (1 Samuel 8:4,5,19-22 ); and feeling how great was the danger to which the nation was exposed from the misconduct of Samuel's sons, whom he had invested with judicial functions as his assistants, and had placed at Beersheba on the Philistine border, and also from a threatened invasion of the Ammonites, they demanded that a king should be set over them
Abiathar - He may have been a more worthy man than his father, who was thrust out of the priesthood for his own sin, though it fulfilled the prophecy concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh
Bethlehem - (Micah 5:2; Joshua 19:15) The Holy Ghost evidently had Jesus in view in that sweet history of Ruth, when the certain man, Eli-melech, representing our whole nature, left Bethlehem the land of bread, for the Moab of the world; and when with his children Mahlon and Chillon, sickness and disease overtook him and all his posterity
Shiloh - 1116, when it was taken by the Philistines, under the administration of the high priest Eli
Zadok - So Solomon put Zadok instead of Abiathar, fulfilling the curse on Eli (1 Samuel 2; 3; 1 Kings 2:27; 1 Kings 2:35; 1 Kings 4:4; 1 Chronicles 29:22). Even while the line of Ithamar in the person of Eli was foremost, Eleazar's house held its ground on a kind of parity, Ahitub, Zadok's father, being called "ruler of the house of God" (1 Chronicles 9:11; Nehemiah 11:11)
Hannah - Zacharias and Elizabeth had no children. There were more sons and daughters of Belial being born and brought up in the house of Israel in these days, than Hophni and Phinehas. Take this child also, Belial had said to Peninnah over her successive child-beds, bring this one also up for me. ...
I am filled with shame for myself and for my order as I see Eli sitting upon a seat by a post of the temple, and as I see Hannah's lips moving in prayer, and then hear Eli's rebuke of Hannah. 'Put away thy wine,' said Eli to Hannah. If he had said that to Hophni and Phinehas twenty years before, and had, at the same time, put away his own, Eli would have had another grandson than Ichabod to bear and to transmit his name. 'How long wilt thou be drunken?' said Eli to Hannah. What else could they become with such a father? When the blind lead the blind, what can you look for? That temple post, and that doited old priest sitting idle in the sun, and Hannah drunk with sorrow, and the way that Eli looks at her, and the things he says to her-Rock of Ages, let me hide myself in Thee! Only to Thy cross I cling-as I see Eli, and myself in Eli, and my children in Hophni and in Phinehas and in Ichabod. I see in Eli my idleness, my blindness to my own vices, and to my children's vices, my blindness also to my people's trials and temptations-one provoking and another being provoked, one drunk with pride and insolence, and another drunk with ill-usage and sorrow. I see in Eli my brutish ignorance while all that is going on round about me; as also my headlong and unjust judgments, and the way I preach at my people when I should be away out of sight and deep in God's holy place in prayer for them and for myself and for my children. You would never, all her days, have seen Hannah the wife of a son of Belial. Hannah was a saint; but she was a woman-saint; and hence her reeling heart. Elkanah's happiness through any other wife but herself, and his rapture over her adversary's child's delightful ways, made Hannah sometimes go away to her bed like a she-tiger to her den. No, they held, He is neither Moses nor Elias: He is the Man whose sorrow was like no other sorrow that has ever been seen. Who would not have been sad who had eyes to see what went on in Elkanah's house at Shiloh? No man but a blind and a hopeless fool would have been other than sad over houses like the house of Elkanah and Peninnah, and Eli and Hophni and Phinehas
Judges - The judges were temporary and special deliverers, sent by God to deliver the Israelites from their oppressors; not supreme magistrates, succeeding to the authority of Moses and Joshua. Their first work was that of deliverers and leaders in war; they then administered justice to the people, and their authority supplied the want of a regular government. Fourteenth judge: Eli; 40 years
Shiloh - Here the Israelites assembled at the completion of the conquest, and erected the Tent of Meeting; portions were assigned to the still landless tribes, and cities to the Levites ( Joshua 18:1 etc. At Shiloh the congregation deliberated regarding the altar built by the men of the eastern tribes in the Jordan Valley ( Joshua 22:12 ff. During the period of the Judges, it was the central sanctuary ( Judges 18:31 ), the scene of great religious festivals and pilgrimages ( Judges 21:19 , 1 Samuel 1:2 ). Here the youth of Samuel was spent, and from this narrative we gather that the ‘tent’ had given place to a permanent structure, a ‘ temple ’ ( hçkâl ), under the care of the high priest Eli and his family. The loss of the ark and the disaster to his sons proved fatal to Eli ( 1 Samuel 4:12 ff. Eli’s descendants are afterwards found at Nob ( 1 Samuel 14:3 ; 1 Samuel 22:11 )
Samuel - When his parents returned home, Samuel remained at Shiloh, to be brought up by the priest Eli (1 Samuel 1:24; 1 Samuel 1:28; 1 Samuel 2:11). He grew up to become Eli’s helper in the duties of the tabernacle (1 Samuel 2:18). By bringing God’s message of judgment to Eli, he showed that God was preparing him to be a prophet (1 Samuel 3:10-18). ...
When Eli died, Samuel succeeded him as chief administrator in Israel (1 Samuel 4:18; 1 Samuel 7:15). People everywhere acknowledged him as a prophet from God and the religious leader of the nation (1 Samuel 3:20; 1 Samuel 7:3-6; Acts 3:24; Acts 13:20). The religious life of Israel now centred on Samuel, who set up an altar of sacrifice in Ramah (for the Philistines had destroyed the tabernacle; Psalms 78:60-61; Jeremiah 7:14). Saul was impatient and wanted complete power, religious as well as political
Judge - This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judges 2:18 ), a period of general anarchy and confusion. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel. ' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him
Abiathar - He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in descent from Eli
Shiloh - 2560 till 2888, when it was taken by the Philistines, under the administration of the high priest Eli
Phinehas - ’ An Israelite brought into the camp a woman from the Midianites who had beguiled the people into foreign worship. The younger son of Eli ( 1 Samuel 1:3 [4])
Samuel - Eli raised Samuel at the Shiloh sanctuary (1 Samuel 2:11 ). God's initial word to Samuel concerned God's rejection of Eli's family from service as priests as punishment for the sins of Eli's sons. ...
Following the death of Eli and his sons, Israel experienced twenty years (1 Samuel 7:2 ) of national sin and Philistine oppression. Samuel reemerged in the role of judge, calling Israel to repentance and delivering them from foreign domination. Samuel foreshadowed Elijah in his call for rain during the wheat harvest, the usual dry season, as vindication of his word of judgment concerning Israel's demand for a king (1 Samuel 12:17-18 )
Jonathan - He is the last descendant of Eli of whom there is any record
Eleazar - Aaron's third son by Elisheba, Amininadab's daughter, descended from Judah through Pharez (Exodus 6:23; Exodus 6:25; Exodus 28:1; Genesis 38:29; Genesis 46:12; Ruth 4:18; Ruth 4:20). The high priesthood passed to Ithamar's line in the person of Eli, but for the sin of Eli's sons reverted to Eleazar's line in the person of Zadok (1 Samuel 2:27; 1 Chronicles 6:8; 1 Chronicles 24:3; 1 Kings 2:27). Eliud's son, three generations above Joseph, husband of the Virgin Mary (Matthew 1:15)
Abiathar - Tenth high priest and descendant of Levi through Eli
Gaza or Azzah - The ark of God was there in the days of Eli, 1 Samuel 6:1-21
Philistines - They were a warlike people, which was the reason that God did not lead the Israelites near to them when He led them out of Egypt. ...
As they occupied a part of the promised land, the Israelites should have dispossessed them; but when Joshua was old 'all the borders of the Philistines' were still unoccupied by the Israelites. Nazariteship in Samson is God's way of deliverance, but the Nazarite utterly failed, and in the days of Eli the Israelites were conquered by them and the ark taken
Eleazar - The high-priesthood remained in his family till the time of Eli, into whose family it passed, till it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok (1 Samuel 2:35 ; Compare 1 Kings 2:27 )
Eli, Eli, Lama Sabachthani - The Markan form, Eloi , is closer to Aramaic than Matthew's more Hebraic Eli . Both the evangelists translated the quotation into Greek for their readers. If He spoke in Hebrew it would more readily explain the crowd's confusion of “my God” with “Elijah,” since the terms sound more nearly alike in Hebrew than in Aramaic. This feeling of His death as a “ransom for many” may, indeed, have obscured for a time His feeling of closeness with the Father, so that even in dying He was tempted as we are
Zadok - Abiathar was soon removed in accordance with the prophecy to Eli (1 Samuel 2:31-33 ; 1 Kings 2:26-27 ). The line of Ithamar after the removal of Eli's family was of less importance
Abiathar - —The son of Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli
High Priest - Eleazar was his immediate successor, Numbers 3:32; Numbers 20:28; Deuteronomy 10:6, and the priesthood remained in his family till Eli, 1 Chronicles 24:3; 1 Chronicles 24:6, who was of the house of Ithamar
Elijah - Elijah is a compound word, including two of the names of JEHOVAH. Eli, my God; and Jah, the Lord. If I venture to add another observation concerning this great man, it would be but just to remark, that in that memorable prophecy of Malachi, concerning the coming of Elijah before the day of Christ, (Malachi 4:5) though our Lord explained this to his disciples, in making reference to the spirit of Elias in the person of John the baptist, (Matthew 17:11-12) yet our Lord did not limit the coming of Elijah to that season only. The Evangelists, in describing the transfiguration of the Lord Jesus, relate that Elijah and Moses were present at the solemn scene. (Matthew 17:3-4) And there doth not seem an objection, wherefore Elijah may not again appear before the Lord Jesus comes in glory, as is supposed, he will in his reign upon earth. The expression of Malachi seems to warrant this conclusion, for it is said, that this mission of Elijah will be "before the great and dreadful day of the Lord. For while it will be "to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe," it is no less said to be "in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ
City - ...
This word can represent “those who live in a given town”: “And when he came, lo, Eli sat upon a seat by the wayside watching: for his heart trembled for the ark of God
Aaron - ) He was a Levite, and is first mentioned in (Exodus 4:14 ) He was appointed by Jehovah to be the interpreter, (Exodus 4:16 ) of his brother Moses, who was "slow of speech;" and accordingly he was not only the organ of communication with the Israelites and with Pharaoh, (Exodus 4:30 ; 7:2 ) but also the actual instrument of working most of the miracles of the Exodus. The wife of Aaron was Elisheba, (Exodus 6:23 ) and the two sons who survived him, Eleazar and Ithamar. The high priesthood descended to the former, and to his descendants until the time of Eli, who, although of the house of Ithamar, received the high priesthood and transmitted it to his children; with them it continued till the accession of Solomon, who took it from Abiathar and restored it to Zadok (of the house of Eleazar)
Samuel - Samuel is therefore the son of answered prayer, and is in due time dedicated to the Temple service at Shiloh, where he assists Eli , is warned by Jehovah of the coming destruction of Eli’s house, and receives the call to the prophetic office. ...
After the death of Eli and the return of the ark from the Philistines, Samuel becomes ‘judge’ of Israel, calls the people to repentance at Mizpah, and saves them miraculously from the invading Philistines (ch. The Philistines were closing in upon Saul, his army was fast melting away, it was necessary to give battle, and it would have been considered irreligious to inaugurate the battle without sacrifice
High Priest - Aaron, Eliezar, and Phineas are typically called the priest. Neither Eli, Ahimelech, Abiathar, nor Zadok are called high or chief priest, though all four headed priestly families and are mentioned in connection with items usually associated with the high priest (the ark, the ephod, the Urim and Thummim: 1 Samuel 3:3 ; Numbers 35:28,35 ; 1 Samuel 21:6 , 1 Samuel 21:9 ; 2 Samuel 15:24-29 ). Until Eli's appearance at end of the period of the judges, a puzzling silence surrounds the high priesthood. Nor is Eli included among this list, though he functioned as the chief priest of the Shiloh sanctuary. ...
Eli is best known for his rearing of Samuel (1 Samuel 1:25-28 ; 1 Samuel 3:1 ) and for his inability to control his own sons (1Samuel 2:12-17,1 Samuel 2:22-25 ; 1 Samuel 3:13 ), which, in time, resulted in the forfeiture of the high priesthood by his line (1 Samuel 2:27-35 ). Following the death of Eli, the Shiloh priesthood apparently relocated to Nob
Jon'Athan, - ) ...
The son of Abiathar, the high priest, is the last descendant of Eli of whom we hear anything. ) ...
A priest of the family of Melieu
Elijah (2) - ELIJAH (Authorized Version Elias) is mentioned in the Gospels on 9 occasions, reported in 15 passages (rejecting Luke 9:54). , alludes to the story of Elijah as it is contained in the OT. Here Jesus justifies His performance of miracles in Capernaum, while refraining from working them in Nazareth, by citing the well-known story of Elijah’s going away from Israel in time of famine to relieve the distress of a Sidonian widow (1 Kings 17:8-9). All the other passages refer to the present or future work of an Elijah who, according to common Jewish belief, still lived and would appear again upon earth. ...
The dominant note in the belief is that the prophet was to appear as the forerunner of the Messiah. The answers then given by the disciples to Jesus’ question as to the popular estimate of Himself were varied, and doubtless representative: He was John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets (cf. The period of Elijah the forerunner is past, and the Messiah is here. ...
The relation between the prophet Elijah, the lawgiver Moses, and the Messiah Jesus, is dramatically presented in the narrative of the Transfiguration (Matthew 17, Mark 9:2 ff. Here, too, the logical proof is presented that Elijah has come already, and is John the Baptist. When once Jesus has been accepted as the Messiah, the work of John cannot fail to be known as the great preparatory work of Elijah. ...
The Baptist’s denial that he was Elijah (John 1:21 ff. The passage incidentally describes one of the functions of Elijah who was to come, viz. Baptism was then one of the preliminaries of the salvation which the Messiah was to bring. ...
Elijah is mentioned again in connexion with the Crucifixion (Matthew 27:46-49, Mark 15:34-36). The bystanders professedly misunderstood Jesus’ cry, ‘Eli, Eli,’ as a call to Elijah. Bearing in mind that Elijah is the forerunner of the Messiah, their curiosity seems not simply whether Jesus would have supernatural relief, as a man might, but whether Elijah would, by coming to His aid, prove that Jesus was after all the Messiah. ...
There remains the striking picture of the Baptist in the character of Elijah, drawn in Luke 1:19 ff. This is, however, the implication of the other passages; otherwise the suggested identification of Jesus with Elijah would not have been possible, for it was the very works of Jesus that called out the suggestion. ...
The belief in the reappearance of Elijah, held by the Jews of NT times, is a later stage of the belief which is expressed in Malachi 4:5 [1]: he would come before the great day of Jehovah to reconcile the hearts of parents and children. ...
The Rabbinical writings abound in expressions of the same belief, with characteristic extravagances and specifications. These Jewish traditions know Elijah as zealous in the service of God, and as a helper in distress, as well as the forerunner of the Messiah. ...
As the Jews elaborated the earlier doctrine of the Messiah, and as in their thought He became more and more exalted in holiness and majesty, the impossibility of His appearance in the midst of all the sin and shame of Israel was increasingly felt; and the character of Elijah, the holy prophet, zealous in his earthly life for the political and religious integrity of the nation, and already enshrined in tradition as having been spared death, was a fitting one to be chosen to carry on the great work of preparing Israel for the blessings of the Messianic era. Indeed, in some passages the doctrine of Elijah has developed to such an extent as well nigh to usurp the functions of the Messiah
Samuel, Books of, - The books of Samuel commence with the history of Eli and Samuel, and contain all account of the establishment of the Hebrew monarchy and of the reigns of Saul and David, with the exception of the last days of the latter monarch which are related in the beginning of the books of Kings, of which those of Samuel form the previous portion. On the other hand, it could hardly have been written later than the reformation of Josiah, since it seems to have been composed at a time when the Pentateuch was not acted on as the rule of religious observances, which received a special impetus at the finding of the Book of the Law at the reformation of Josiah
Aaron - The sons and descendants of Aaron served as priests at the sanctuary; while the other families of the tribe of Levi performed those religious duties which were of an inferior kind. ...
Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, probably a prince of the tribe of Judah, and had four sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. The Jewish priesthood began in the family of Aaron and remained in its possession, though not uninterruptedly, in the line of Eleazar; it passed into the family of Ithamar, the brother of Eleazar, in the person of Eli; but, in consequence of the wickedness of Ell's sons, God declared that it should be taken from his family, 1 Samuel 2:30, and this prophecy was fulfilled in the time of Solomon, who took the priesthood from Abiathar and restored it to Zadok, of the line of Eleazar
Aaron - He married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab of the house of Judah (6:23; 1 Chronicles 2:10 ), by whom he had four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. When the time for the deliverance of Isarael out of Egypt drew nigh, he was sent by God (Exodus 4:14,27-30 ) to meet his long-absent brother, that he might co-operate with him in all that they were required to do in bringing about the Exodus. Of Aaron's sons two survived him, Eleazar, whose family held the high-priesthood till the time of Eli; and Ithamar, in whose family, beginning with Eli, the high-priesthood was held till the time of Solomon
Judges - None of the nation's deliverers called "judges" (Judges 2:16-19; Acts 13:20) were of a priest's family; Eli was not a deliverer or saviour (Obadiah 1:21; Judges 3:9; Judges 3:15). Their main office was to judge or rule righteously ("feed" or tend, 1 Kings 2:5-6) in deciding cases (Judges 4:5; Judges 10:2; 1 Samuel 7:15; 1 Samuel 8:3), this function of the priesthood being in abeyance after the time of Joshua; their delivering Israel was an act of Jehovah's "righteousness" or faithfulness to His covenant, consequent upon the people's penitently turning to Him (Judges 5:11; Isaiah 45:8). The judges ruled more continuously from Gideon's time; his sons are regarded as his natural successors (Judges 9:1-3); so Samuel's sons (1 Samuel 8:1; 1 Samuel 7:15), he ruled until his death; so too Eli (Judges 4:18)
Samuel - In the beautiful picture that sanctifies the walls of all our nurseries our children see and hear little Samuel kneeling and saying, Speak, Lord, for Thy servant heareth. And many a mother has taken the opportunity from that sweet picture to teach her child the same lesson that Eli taught the child Samuel. That is to say, she lent Samuel to Eli the Lord's servant, and to the temple at Shiloh, which was the Lord's house. And she said to Eli: O my lord, as thy soul liveth, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the Lord. He ran messages also for Eli. ...
If Samuel's mother was still in this world when the ark was taken, and when Shiloh was laid waste, then the likelihood is that he went back to live with his mother till he should see what the Lord had for him to do. As he lay awake till the morning he saw what was the wages of all that wickedness that had so horrified him to see and to hear in Eli's sons. And he saw what would be the end of all that to Eli also, his father in the Lord. Till it was no wonder that he hesitated to tell to Eli all that he had seen and heard that terrible night. Had Hannah been their mother; had Hannah adopted the two sacred orphans; and had she adopted them in time: then they, as well as Samuel, would have seen God; and all the awful overthrow of Eli's house, and God's house, and the whole house of Israel would have been averted and escaped. Teach them early, as Eli taught Samuel. Israel had already a divine deposit of religion and worship and morality and civilisation, all of which they had but to accept and assimilate in order to be the strongest, the safest, and the happiest nation on the face of the earth. But the throne was destined to stand long after Saul was cast out of it; and Samuel is determined to do his very best to secure it that Saul's successors shall have around them and over their people a class of men who, if not indeed prophets,-Samuel cannot secure that-the wind bloweth where it listeth,-yet Samuel can and will secure that there shall be an estate of learned and earnest-minded men, who shall watch over the religion and the morals of the people, in the prophetical spirit and in the prophetical name
Arm - The doom pronounced on the house of Eli contains this word to express the removal of that latent vitality which shows itself in prolonged hereditary strength and activity ( 1 Samuel 2:31 , cf
Lamp - " (1 Samuel 3:3-4) Was not this emblematical of the Spirit of prophecy, that before one lamp of the Lord went out another should be lighted, before Eli was quite extinguished Samuel should be kindred? Do we not find it so through the church's history in all ages? Did not the spirit of Elijah rest on Elisha? Did not all the prophets succeed one another in their ministry, as might best promote and carry on the Lord's cause in the earth? I do not presume to speak decidely upon the subject, but if the thought be right, is there not great sweetness in that Scripture explained in reference to this view, and with an eye to the Lord Jesus? "I have ordained a lamp for mine anointed
Bottle - ...
The bottle of wine which Samuel's mother brought to Eli
Admonition, Admonish - For example, though Eli remonstrated with his sons, 1 Samuel 2:24 , he failed to admonish them, 1 Samuel 3:13 , LXX
Winds - Eli Smith, who experienced it effects during the summer, at Beyrout, describes it as possessing the same qualities and characteristics as the Sirocco, which he had felt at Malta, and which also prevails in Sicily and Italy; except that the Sirocco, in passing over the sea, acquires great dampness
Spitting - ...
And amidst all these instances of mockery and shame, so cruelly and wantonly poured upon the sacred person of Jesus, there was one to heighten all, which I believe never before was heard of in the annals of mankind, in the vilest malefactor which ever suffered death for his crimes; I mean when the rabble mocked at the dying prayers of Jesus, and endeavoured to turn them into ridicule. " (Psalms 69:19-20) When therefore, under the pressure of a broken heart, Jesus cried out, "Eli, Eli, why hast thou forsaken me?" instantly they perverted the cry of Jesus, and jeered him, as if instead of calling as he did, upon his God and Father, he had called for one that was no helper, in Elias, and cruelly insulted him with adding,"Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him!"...
Reader, I would only add, amidst the glories of Jesus, in the hall of Pilate, and on the cross, do not overlook the glory of the Son of God in the voluntary shame he endured
Dereliction - DERELICTION. About three o’clock in the afternoon, when Jesus had hung for six hours on the cross, the bystanders were startled by a loud cry from the meek Sufferer: Eli, Eli, lama ‘ăzabhtâni,* High Priest - The office continued in the line of Eleazar, Aaron's eldest son, for two hundred and ninety-six years, when it passed to Eli, the first of the line of Ithamar, who was the fourth son of Aaron
Ashdod - Perhaps the most infamous contact between Ashdod and Israel is reported in 1 Samuel 4-6 when the Philistines defeated the army of Israel in battle, killed the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, and captured the ark of the covenant
Shiloh (2) - Though the scenery is not striking the seclusion was favorable to worship and religious study. In the rockhewn sepulchres may have been laid the remains of some of Eli's house. Here Eli judged Israel and died of grief at the capture of the ark by the Philistines. The position of the sanctuary was central for the Israelites W
Philistines - Their state was divided into five little principalities, at the head of each of which was a "lord," namely, Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath, and Ekron-and they oppressed Israel during the government of the high-priest Eli, that of Samuel, and during the reign of Saul, for about one hundred and twenty years
Abiathar - Eli, of whose family it had been foretold 150 years before that the priesthood should pass from it, was Abiathar's progenitor fourth backward, and Abiathar would naturally fear the coming realization of the curse
Fill - For example, in 1 Kings 2:27 we read: “So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord; that he might fulfill the word of the Lord, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh. This verb is used to signify filling something to the full extent of what is necessary, in the sense of being “successfully completed”: “When her days to be delivered were fulfilled …” ( Shekinah - Eli failed to recognize Hannah’s condition, because it had left him. ’ It was believed that the Shekinah would return with the Messiah; ‘the glory of the Lord shall he seen and the cloud’ ( 2M Malachi 2:8 )
Ark - During the journeys of the Israelites the ark was carried by the priests in advance of the host (Numbers 4:5,6 ; 10:33-36 ; Psalm 68:1 ; 132:8 ). After the settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark remained in the tabernacle at Gilgal for a season, and was then removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli, between 300,400 years (Jeremiah 7:12 ), when it was carried into the field of battle so as to secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and was taken by the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:3-11 ), who sent it back after retaining it seven months (1 Samuel 5:7,8 )
Serve - When Samuel was still a boy, he “… did minister unto the Lord before Eli the priest” ( Eli” ( Elisha “ministered” to Elijah (1 Kings 19:21). 14:31: “… [5] believed the Lord, and his servant Moses. The psalmist said: “I am thy servant” (116 indicating the appropriateness of the title to all believers. 24:13), and Elisha had a “servitor” (2 Kings 4:43; NASB, “attendant”)
Mary - She is called by the Jews the daughter of Eli; and by the early Christian writers, the daughter of Joakim and Anna: but Joakim and Eliakim are sometimes interchanged, 2 Chronicles 36:4 ; and Eli, or Heli, is therefore the abridgment of Eliakim, Luke 3:23 . She was of the royal race of David, as was also Joseph her husband; and she was also cousin to Elizabeth, the wife of Zacharias the priest, Luke 1:5 ; Luke 1:36 . To confirm his message, and to show that nothing is impossible to God, he added that her cousin Elizabeth, who was old, and had been hitherto barren, was then in the sixth month of her pregnancy. She set out for Hebron, a city in the mountains of Judah, to visit her cousin Elizabeth. As soon as Elizabeth heard the voice of Mary, her child, John the Baptist, leaped in her womb; and she was filled with the Holy Ghost, and spake with a loud voice, saying, "Blessed art thou among women,"...
&c. Mary continued with Elizabeth about three months, and then returned to her own house. But while they were here, the time being fulfilled in which Mary was to be delivered, she brought forth her first-born son. Peter, the faithful assembled in this house, and were praying there when Peter, delivered by the ministry of an angel, knocked at the door of the house, Acts 12:12 . Others believe, with greater probability, that she was wife of Cleophas, as our version of the New Testament makes her, by supplying the word wife, John 19:25 , and mother of James the less, and of Simon, brethren of our Lord. John gives her the name of Mary of Cleophas; and the other evangelists, the name of Mary, mother of James. She was an early believer in Jesus Christ, and attended him on his journeys, to minister to him. He informs us, also, in the same place, that Jesus, in company with his Apostles, preached the Gospel from city to city; and that there were several women with them, whom he had delivered from evil spirits, and healed of their infirmities; among whom was this Mary, whom some, without a shadow of proof, have supposed to be the sinful woman spoken of, Luke 7:37-39 ; as others have as erroneously imagined her to be Mary, the sister of Lazarus. Mary Magdalene, is mentioned by the evangelists as being one of those women that followed our Saviour to minister to him according to the custom of the Jews
Judges, the Book of - The time comprised extends from Joshua to Eli. Judges 1, Israel's relations to Canaan, geographical and political, what the several tribes and houses achieved, or otherwise, in conquering the land; Judges 2 - 3:6, Israel's relations religiously to the Lord, this second portion tells us the reason of Israel's failure to drive out the Canaanite remnant and of their falling under oppressors, namely, apostasy; Jehovah leaving those nations in order to prove Israel whether they would obey Him. These two histories appended depict the spirit of the age morally and religiously. The aim is not to give a continuous history of the period between Joshua and Samuel, but to illustrate in striking particular deliverances the divine principle of dealing with Israel laid down in 1618538910_38. Each only delivered one part of Israel: Shamgar the region toward Philistia; Deborah and Barak northern Israel (Judges 4:10); so Gideon (Judges 6:35), Jephthah, eastern Israel; Samson, Judah, Dan and the region adjoining Philistia. Eli and Samuel are not included, because Eli was high priest, and as such was officially judge, not, as the rest, especially called to be judges. Samuel was the Lord's prophet, delivering Israel, not by the sword, but by the word and by prayer (1 Samuel 7:3-10). ...
Samson was born during Eli's high priesthood, for before his birth the Philistines ruled Israel (Judges 13:5); "he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines. " Samuel completed Israel's deliverance from them which Samson began. Israel's unfaithfulness punished by the foe's oppression, and Jehovah's faithfulness in raising up judges to deliver them at their cry, are the two hinges upon which the history turns (Keil). The men of Judah were so degenerate as to seek to give up Samson, their deliverer, to the Philistines (Judges 15:9-14). So the divine Angel four times appears, the Spirit following to qualify the judge for delivering Israel:...
(1) Judges 2:1-5; Judges 3:10;...
(2) Judges 6:11; Judges 6:34;...
(3) Judges 10:10-16, compare Isaiah 63:8-9; Judges 11:29;...
(4) Judges 13:3-25. Or rather, "Israel chose new gods"; therefore in penal retribution from God "war was in their gates," and among the 40,000 (see Joshua 4:13) Israelites fit for war no shield nor spear was to be seen wielded against the enemy. It must be not earlier than the end of that servitude to the Philistines which Samson "began" (Judges 13:5) to deliver Israel out of, and from which Samuel completed their deliverance (1618538910_88). all the time that the house of God was in Shiloh" (awful perversity! in the face of divine light close to them) imply that the book was written after the Philistine capture of the ark, and after its return and setting up at, Nob in Saul's reign (1 Samuel 21); it remained at Shiloh only until its capture at Eli's death (1 Samuel 1:3; 1 Samuel 3:21; 1 Samuel 4:3), in David's reign the tabernacle was at Gibeon (1 Chronicles 16:39; 1 Chronicles 21:29)
Aaron - With his wife Elisheba, Aaron had four sons: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. Two priestly lines developed from the remaining sons: (1) Ithamar through Eli to Abiathar and (2) Eleazar to Zadok (1 Samuel 14:3 ; 1 Samuel 22:20 ; 1 Kings 2:26-27 ; 1 Chronicles 6:50-53 )
Elijah - Elijah of Tishbe was a lone figure from the remote part of Gilead east of the Jordan. A contemporary of the Israelite kings Ahab and Ahaziah (874-852 b. ), Elijah represented a class of prophets who were normally not associated with any sanctuary or prophetic guild (but see 2 Kings 2:3-7 ). He challenged Ahab, whose policies were designed to replace the Israelite idea of kingship with the ancient Near Eastern concept of monarchy and royal law. Elijah defended Yahweh's sovereignty over history and justice, as well as over false gods (1 Kings 17-18 ). ...
The stories of Elijah (known as the Elijah cycle) dominate much of the latter half of 1Kings (17-19,21) and the early chapters of 2Kings (1-2). The chronological order of the cycle is uncertain, making the course of Elijah's life obscure. It contained six separate narratives that included several anecdotal stories about Elijah's life that may have circulated independently among his disciples in the northern kingdom. Elijah appeared to vindicate the distinctive character of the people of God when their identification was threatened by Ahab's liberal policies. ...
Elijah appeared on the scene without warning, introduction, or genealogy (1 Kings 17:1 ) to deliver an oracle to Ahab announcing a drought, presumably a punishment for defection to the Baal cult. God then chose a Gentile believer (the Phoenician woman of Zarephath) to shame his people and to rebuke Jezebel, Ahab's Phoenician queen, showing that there was a Yahwistic believer in her own country. Chrysostom said that Elijah learned compassion in the house of the widow so he could be sent to his own people. Yahweh did not just intervene at critical times in the affairs of people, but was now accessible to believers in the ordinary affairs of life (1 Kings 20:13-15,22,28 ). ...
Three years later there was a break in the drought and Elijah was successful in ending Baal worship at Carmel. Elijah helped Israel understand that Yahweh guided the fortunes of the nations; even the Baal cult was under his control. The Carmel story showed a reminiscence of the change of political and religious sovereignty from Tyre to Israel. Ahab was not wholly Baalist; his family bore Yahwistic names, and he consulted with Yahweh after the encounter with Elijah (1 Kings 17:12 ). ...
Elijah's success was merely temporary; he fled to Mount Horeb (although this may not be in chronological order) to escape Jezebel's wrath (1 Kings 19 ). ...
Like Amos in a later period, Elijah showed an astute social concern, emerging as a leader with strong ethical ideals (1 Kings 21 ). The Naboth incident shows a social dimension in the clash between Israelite law and Canaanite kingship. Elijah, whom Ahab saw as a blood avenger (v. Later, Elijah protested Ahaziah's appeal to Baal-Zebub, the local god of Ekron (2 Kings 1:9-15 ; Josephus called this god "the lord of the flies, " as did the Ras Shamra texts ). Elijah was here described as a hairy man with a shaggy cloak, evidently the insignia of a prophet (2 Kings 1:8 ). ...
The translation of Elijah into heaven occurs in an anecdotal section concerned mainly with Elisha (2 Kings 2:1-12 ). Elijah was associated with the prophetic guilds in Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho. He did not bequeath his staff to Elisha, but his cloak, which had a spiritual not a magical power. Elisha desired a double portion of Elijah's spirit, a stipulation in Hebrew law whereby the eldest son received his share and was equipped as the true successor to his father. The whirlwind and sudden disappearance of Elijah, with the addition of a theophany, emphasize God's presence in the incident. ...
In later Old Testament prophetic tradition, Elijah was associated with the day of the Lord (Malachi 4:5-6 ), and was soon to be sent by God on the behalf of the people. He was described as similar to the messenger in Malachi 3:1 (which also may have been an allusion to Elijah, since both prepared the way for Yahweh). The purpose of Elijah's coming was either to pacify family quarrels ( Malachi 2:10-16 ), culminating in a new social order, or to restore the covenant relationship. Elijah was prominently featured in popular legend and theological discussion of eschatological expectation during the intertestamental period. The New Testament, which mentions the prophet nearly thirty times, shows the influence of the late Jewish tradition of Elijah being the forerunner of the Messiah. The expectation of Elijah's return occurs frequently in the Gospels (Matthew 17:10 ; Mark 9:11 ). Although John denied that he was Elijah, he wore the prophet's style of clothing (a mantle of camel's hair and a leather girdle Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ). Moreover, Jesus said that John went forth as Elijah in spirit; he was thus the symbolic fulfillment of the prophet's mission (Matthew 11:14 ; Revelation 11:3-6 ; Luke 1:17 ). ...
Although the tradition that Moses and Elijah would appear together in the last days was not to be found in rabbinic Judaism, both of these Old Testament characters were present and spoke at the transfiguration of Jesus, testifying to the importance of the impending events as eschatological (Matthew 17:3-4 ; Mark 9:4-5 ; Luke 9:30,33 ). ...
Jesus' prayer on the cross with the opening words of Psalm 22:1 , "Eli, Eli" (My God, My God) was either misunderstood or willfully misinterpreted as a petition for help to Elijah (Matthew 27:46-49 ; Mark 15:34-36 ). Jewish lore identified Elijah as a helper in time of need, and since Elijah did not come, Jesus' petition was considered a failure. The church, however, did not accept this figure of Elijah; only Christ himself would be called on in stressful times. ...
Various events of Elijah's life are alluded to in the New Testament. James uses Elijah as a powerful example of a supplicant (5:17), relying on Jewish tradition, which credited Elijah with a reputation for prayer (although this is not specifically mentioned in 1 Kings 17-18 ). James attempts to refute the Jewish tradition of the sinlessness and eternal nature of the prophet by stating that Elijah was a man "just like us. ...
Jesus used the story of God sending Elijah to the widow of Zarephath to show that the Gentiles were not to be excluded from salvation (Luke 4:25-26 ). Later church tradition takes the two witnesses of Revelation to be modeled after Moses and Elijah (Mark 8:28 ). They were given the power to shut up the heavens and to bring the fire of judgment like Elijah in 1 Kings 17-18 (cf. ...
Paul uses the rabbinic model of Elijah and the idea of the remnant of Israel in Romans 11:2-5 (see 1 Kings 19:10-18 ). Just as Elijah became aware that a remnant of true believers still existed in Israel, Paul understands that there was still a sacred remnant of Jews who were elected by grace. Wallace, Elijah and Elisha
Ruth - " Ruth is an instance of natural affection made instrumental in leading to true religion. Boaz was an Israelite without guile, full of holy reverence for every ordinance of God and man, and full of benevolent love and friendliness toward the poor pagan woman. He simply gives the forms and words used in common conversation, as he found them in the written documents which he used for his book, probably relics of the archaic language subsequently appropriated by Chaldee. In a famine under the judges (whether caused by Eglon's occupation of Judah, or under Gideon, Judges 6:3-4, or in Eli's time) Elimelech and Naomi migrated to Moab, where Ruth married Mahlon their son. At Naomi's suggestion she claimed from him that he should perform the part of her late husband's near kinsman by purchasing Elimelech's inheritance and marrying her. The date of the events is brought down to the time of Eli by the supposition that names have been omitted in the genealogical list of Boaz' ancestors
Think, Devise - 38:15); and Eli “thought” Hannah was drunk ( Government - They had the responsibility to decide many of the everyday matters, religious and judicial. The elders were representatives of the community as a whole in religious and military matters. The judge became a priestly official, as in the casefjcr ncof Eli and Samuel. Although there were some cases where one judge attempted to have his sons succeed him (as did both Eli and Samuel), the office was not regularly hereditary. In actual function, the judge seldom played a strong role in maintaining the people's religious traditions until Samuel (Judges 2:10 ; Judges 17:6 ; Judges 21:25 ). In all likelihood this change was felt more on the national level than on the local level. This is seen especially in the trial of Jesus which involved hearings before the religious court (at that time the highest Jewish court) and before the Roman authorities. Even the elders came to have an especially religious role as judicial officers. “Law” became virtually synonymous with the religious covenant, so that obeying the law meant keeping God's covenant. Since political power was not possible for the most part, power was consolidated where it could still be exercised, in the religious area. Religion was simply expanded to cover all of life. Religious authority still existed. The high priest and the priesthood exercised considerable authority, though it remained in name “religious” authority. Civil government now belonged basically to the foreign overlord, but religious power rested in the hands of the priests and Sanhedrin
Tabernacle - The first encampment of the Israelites after crossing the Jordan was at Gilgal, and there the tabernacle remained for seven years (Joshua 4:19 ). It was afterwards removed to Shiloh (Joshua 18:1 ), where it remained during the time of the Judges, till the days of Eli, when the ark, having been carried out into the camp when the Israelites were at war with the Philistines, was taken by the enemy (1 Samuel 4 ), and was never afterwards restored to its place in the tabernacle
Ephraim - Nor are there any reliable memories of the way in which Ephraim came into possession of the best and central portion of the land. Eli, priest of Shiloh and judge of Israel, Samuel, and Jeroboam I
Borrow - For when she brought Samuel to the temple, she tells Eli, for this child (said she) I prayed, and the Lord "hath given me my petition which I asked of him;" therefore also, I have lent him to the Lord; as long as he liveth he shall be lent to the Lord. " (Acts 7:19) When, therefore, the Lord had turned their tables upon them, and by the plagues upon Pharaoh, and all his people, had made a way for the Exodus, of his chosen, no doubt, under the remorse of their minds, and their sorrow of heart, the Egyptians were glad to part with the Israelites at any rate, and therefore lent them, or gave them such things as they asked. ...
I only beg to add, under this view of the subject, that as the tabernacle in the wilderness was afterwards adorned with the gold and silver the Israelites brought with them from Egypt, it is plain that the Lord approved of the conduct of his servants in asking from their neighbours such things as they needed, and as the Lord himself had commanded
Judges, Book of - The Angel of the Lord was at Gilgal during the book of Joshua (to which place the Israelites should in spirit have constantly returned: it is the place of circumcision, that is, for the Christian, thorough separation from the first man); but now He came to Bochim, and reminded them that He had delivered them from Egypt, and had declared that He would never break His covenant with Israel; they were to make no league with the people of the land, but they had not obeyed His voice. Then they were oppressed by their enemies; but as often as they turned to the Lord, He raised up a judge who delivered them from the hand of their oppressors. This experience of evil doing — oppression, repentance, and deliverance — occurred again and again during a period of over three hundred years. }...
Oppression by the | Oppression by the }...
Philistines, during which | Ammonites Judges 10:8 18 }...
Samson was judge, and | Jephthah Judges 12:7 6 }...
Samuel after Eli
Heart - A similar failure proved fatal in the case of Eli, also in extreme old age ( 1 Samuel 4:13-18 ; cf. ), we shall be enabled to grasp the religious ideas enshrined in the teaching of the NT
Ark of the Covenant - ...
Because of the faithless superstition of the wicked sons of Eli, the Hebrew tribes were defeated in the battle of Ebenezer, and the ark was captured by the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:1 ). More cautiously and with great religious fervor, David succeeded the second time in taking the ark into his capital city (2 Samuel 6:12-19 )
Jephtha - ...
Thirdly, Human sacrifices were prohibited by the law, neither would the priest have offered the daughter of Jephtha; so that, unless it be supposed, that Jephtha invaded the priestly office, and offered his daughter himself, there should seem even hence to have arisen a great difficulty to the belief, that the daughter of Jephtha was really sacrificed. "And Jephtha vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hand, then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering. And when she had weaned him, she brought him into the house of the Lord in Shiloh, and brought the child to Eli: and she said, For this child I prayed, and the Lord hath given me my petition; therefore also I have lent him to the Lord: as long as he liveth he shall be lent unto the Lord
Keep, Watch, Guard - In extended application this emphasis comes to mean “to watch, observe”: “And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the Lord, that Eli [1] her mouth” ( Philistines - During the time of Eli these invaders were trying to make their way into the central ridge of Palestine, and in one of the battles captured the ark of Jahweh, which a pestilence (probably bubonic plague) induced them to return ( 1 Samuel 4:1-22 ; 1 Samuel 5:1-12 ; 1 Samuel 6:1-21 ). ...
Probably the Philistines adopted in the main the religion and civilization of the Canaanites. If their religion was Semitic, so also were probably the other features of their civilization
Luke, the Gospel According to - " But as the phrase "they delivered them to us" (paredosan ) includes both written and oral transmission (2 Thessalonians 2:15) Luke's words do not oppose, as Alford thinks, but favor the opinion that those two Gospels were among the sources of Luke's information, especially as Matthew was an "eye-witness," and Mark a "minister of the word. " Possibly during Paul's three months' sojourn there (Acts 20:3) Luke was sent to Corinth, and it is to his evangelistic labours the reference is. As being chosen of the churches of Macedonia to be their "messenger," traveling with Paul, the "brother" meant must have been one of those mentioned in Acts 20:4-6 as accompanying Paul into Asia with the alms. Luke either by his written Gospel or by his evangelistic labours was one "whose praise in the Gospel was throughout the churches. ...
Alford rejects ancient testimony that Paul's teaching constitutes the substance of Luke's Gospel, on the grounds that the evangelist asserts that his Gospel is drawn from those who "from the beginning" were eye witnesses of Christ's ministry, among whom Paul cannot be reckoned. Light to lighten the Gentiles"; Luke 4:25, Christ's reference to Elijah's mission to the Gentile widow of Sarepta; Luke 9:52; Luke 10:30, the good Samaritan; Luke 17:18, the only grateful one of the ten cleansed lepers, a Samaritan; the mission of the seventy, a number typical of the nations, as the twelve represent the twelve tribes of Israel. ...
Theophilus, to whom he writes, was a Gentile believer, as appears from the geographical and other explanations given of many things, which would have been needless had he been a Jew (Luke 1:26, Nazareth; Luke 4:31, Capernaum; Luke 23:51, Arimathea; Luke 24:13, Emmaus; Acts 1:12, Olivet). He omits Hosanna, Eli Eli lama sabacthani, Rabbi, Golgotha (for which he substitutes the Greek kranios , "calvary:' or "place of a skull". )...
The phrases (parakoloutheoo , katecheoo , pleroforeo ) "having perfect understanding," "instructed" (catechetically and orally), "most surely believed" (Luke 1:1-14) are all used similarly by Paul (1 Timothy 4:6; Romans 2:18; 2 Timothy 4:17). "To evangelize" or "preach the gospel" is frequent in Luke, once in Matthew, not at all in Mark and John. The oldest reliable testimony to the Gospel according to Luke is Marcion, whose Gospel so called (A. He alone mentions the subject of Moses and Elias' conversation with our Lord at the transfiguration, "His decease (Exodus, Peter's very word, 2 Peter 1:15, in alluding to his own decease, and in the same context the transfiguration of which he was eyewitness) which He should accomplish at Jerusalem. "...
Luke is fullest of the evangelists in describing our Lord's private prayers. ...
The portion Luke 9:51-18;Luke 9:15 is vague as to dates, and probably is designed by the Holy Spirit to supplement what the other evangelists had not recorded
High Priest - Rabbi Eliezer in Hadrian's reign saw it at Rome, probably with the other temple spoils deposited in the Temple of Peace. Annas retained in the Jews' feeling the lawful high priesthood, and had influence enough to get his five sons successively appointed; as sagan he evaded the Roman deposition and kept his power. "Tempted Himself in all points like as we are, yet without sin," He is able to succour the tempted (Hebrews 2:18); "touched with the feeling of our infirmities," and so having the needful qualification of a priest, that He "can have compassion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way" (Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 5:2). Phinehas, son of Eleazar, is the last of Eleazar's line before Eli (Judges 20:28). Eli in 1 Samuel 1:3, the next, is of Ithamar's line. How the transfer to Ithamar's line occurred we do not know; possibly by Abishua's son at his death being under age, and Eli so succeeding. Excepting Jehoiada, who overthrew Athaliah, and Azariah who withstood Uzziah, the kings took the lead in great religious movements. His successors were Joiakim, Eliashib, Joiada, Johanan (Jonathan), and Jaddua. (See EliASHIB; ALEXANDER
Aaron - There Aaron, evidently a man of influence already among the Israelites, introduced Moses to their assembled elders; and, as his mouthpiece, declared to them the divine commission of Moses with such persuasive power, under the Spirit, that the people "believed, bowed their heads, and worshipped" (Exodus 4:29-31). During Moses' forty years' absence in Midian, Aaron had married Elisheba or Elizabeth, daughter of Amminadab, and sister of Naashon, a prince of the children of Judah (Exodus 6:23; 1 Chronicles 2:10). Then he burned the calf in the fire, ground it to powder (a process which required a considerable acquaintance with chemistry), strewed it upon the water, and made the Israelites drink of it. Their pretext against Moses was his Ethiopian wife, a marriage abhorrent to Hebrew feelings. His numbers were so reduced that Moses prays for his deliverance from extinction: "Let Reuben live, and not die, and let not his men be few. As Moses' self-reliance was thereby corrected, so was Aaron's tendency to be led unduly by stronger natures than his own. Eleazar's descendants held the priesthood until the time of Eli, who, although sprung from Ithamar, received it. With Eli's family it continued until the time of Solomon, who took it from Abiathar, and restored it to Zadok, of the line of Eleazar; thus accomplishing the prophecy denounced against Eli (1 Samuel 2:30)
Zacharias - A Jewish priest, a member of the family of Abijah, Zacharias had been so careful to observe the law regarding the marriage of priests (Leviticus 21:7-14), that he chose for wife one of the sacerdotal house, a daughter of Aaron (Luke 1:5), named after Aaron’s wife (Exodus 6:23), Elisabeth, who was as pious as himself. It was due to Elisabeth’s barrenness (Luke 1:7); and she keenly felt the reproach which it occasioned (Luke 1:25), for it was a common opinion among the Jews that childlessness was God’s punishment for guilt. In the presence of the supernatural, Zacharias feared and trembled; but the angel reassured him, told him that his prayer was heard, that his wife Elisabeth should bear him a son, whom he should live to see, and name John (= ‘the grace of Jehovah’), which would be no barren title, but describe his character and mission: ‘he shall be great in the sight of the Lord’ (cf. This son must be brought up as a Nazirite in the highest form of Levitical devotion (Numbers 6:4, Judges 13:4, Lamentations 4:7, Amos 2:12); he should, like another Elijah (1 Kings 18:37), turn many of the children of Israel unto the Lord, and be the forerunner, as foretold by Malachi, to Messiah Himself (Luke 1:15-17). ...
Zacharias had not the faith of Abraham, who staggered not through unbelief (Romans 4:19) at a promise of God exactly similar, ‘involving human generation, but prophetically announced and supernatural’ (Alford). Thus, on the threshold of the Gospel, at the very outset of its great series of miracles, is unbelief chastised. The soul that will not believe shall not be allowed to speak (cf. ...
It was not, the Talmudists inform us, the custom of the priests, when officiating inside the Holy Place, to make their own devotions long, lest the people outside should be anxious; but Zacharias’ interview with Gabriel, and perhaps the feelings it awakened, caused him to delay. Here we need only note in it an evident allusion to his own name (signifying ‘Remembered by Jehovah’) and his wife’s (Elisabeth = Eli-sheba = ‘the oath of God’)—‘to remember his holy covenant; the oath which he sware to our father Abraham’ (Luke 1:72-73). Zacharias having been by this mistake made a martyr, his relies were forthcoming, and Cornelius a Lapide speaks of seeing and venerating his head in the Lateran basilica at Rome
Live - 1:26 Hannah employs a similar phrase summoning Eli himself to attest the truthfulness of her statement: “And she said, Oh my lord, as thy soul liveth, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the Lord
Ephraim (1) - baseline of the tribe, running to the Jordan. In it were Shechem, Jacob's original settlement, "his parcel of ground" and well; Ebal and Gerizim, the mounts of cursing and blessing; and Shiloh, the seat of the sanctuary until the time of Eli. Psalm 78 was designed to soothe their tribal soreness at the transference of the religious capital from Shiloh to Jerusalem (Psalms 78:60-70). ...
But her continually increasing moral degeneracy and religious apostasy rendered all her natural advantages unavailing. No temporary revival, as in Judah's case, relieves the gloomy picture, until the cup of her iniquity was full; and God, though His amazing love long forbore to judge her, at last swept her away permanently from her home and her abused privileges and opportunities
Temple - ]'>[1] is that of Shiloh ( 1 Samuel 1:9 ), ‘where the ark of God was’ ( 1 Samuel 3:3 ) in the period of the Judges, under the guardianship of Eli and his sons. ; for the descendants of Eli are found, a generation afterwards, acting as priests of a temple at Nob ( 1Sa 21:1 ff. With the capture of Jerusalem by David, and the transference thither of the ark, a new political and religious centre was provided for the tribes of Israel. ’...
The remarkable persistence of sacred sites in the East is a phenomenon familiar to all students of religion, and there can be little doubt that the Chronicler is right in identifying the site of ‘the altar of burnt-offering for Israel’ (1 Chronicles 22:1 ) with the spot ‘by the threshing-floor of Oman [3] the Jehusite,’ where the angel of the plague stayed his hand, and on which David by Divine command erected his altar of commemoration (see, further, § 6 ( b )). As there are good grounds for believing that a special altar of incense was first introduced into the second Temple (see § 9 ), the former is now identified by most writers with the table of shewbread (see Shewbread; and Tabernacle, § 6 ( a ))
Philistia - , emigrants, probably Israelites from Palestine. They sold Israelites as slaves to Edom and Greece, for which God threatens retribution in kind, and destruction (Amos 1:6-8; Joel 3:3-8). They had advanced military posts or garrisons in Israel's land (1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Samuel 13:3; 1 Samuel 13:17); from whence they sent forth spoilers, so that travelers durst not go by the highways (Judges 5:6), and the Israelites hid from the Philistines in caves, or else fled beyond Jordan (1 Samuel 13:6-7). Neither Shamgar nor Samson delivered Israel permanently from the Philistines. The Israelites so lost heart that they in fear of the Philistines bound Samson (Judges 15:12). The effort to deliver the nation from the Philistines was continued unsuccessfully under Eli (1 Samuel 4), successfully under Samuel (1 Samuel 7:9-14); Saul (Israel's desire for a king was that he might lead them in war: 1 Samuel 8:20), 1 Samuel 8:1 Samuel 13; 14; 17; David (after the disaster at Gilboa: 1 Samuel 31), 2 Samuel 5:17-25, when they dared to penetrate even to the valley of Rephaim, S
Priests And Levites - The chief authority for the religious institutions of the early period of the Second Temple is the document known as the Priestly Code (P Philistim - But these conquests of Joshua must have been ill maintained, since, under the Judges, under Saul, and at the beginning of the reign of King David, the Philistines had their kings, and their lords, whom they called Sazenim; since their state was divided into five little kingdoms, or satrapies; and since they oppressed the Israelites during the government of the high priest Eli, and of Samuel, and during the reign of Saul, for about a hundred and twenty years, from A. But it has belied, for many ages, every promise which the fertility of its soil, and the excellence both of its climate and situation, gave for many preceding centuries of its permanency as a rich and well cultivated region. Volney, (though, like one who in ancient times was instrumental to the fulfilment of a special prediction, "he meant not so, neither did his heart think so,") from the manner in which he generalizes his observations, and marks the peculiar features of the different districts of Syria, with greater acuteness and perspicuity than any other traveller whatever, is the ever ready purveyor of evidence in all the cases which came within the range of his topographical description of the wide field of prophecy: while, at the same time, from his known, open, and zealous hostility to the Christian cause, his testimony is alike decisive and unquestionable: and the vindication of the truth of the following predictions may safely be committed to this redoubted champion of infidelity. How is the wrath of man made to praise his Creator! Hath he not said, and shall he not do it? The oracle was delivered by the mouth of the prophet more than five hundred years before the Christian era, and we beheld its accomplishment eighteen hundred years after that event
Disease - Detailed religious rites of "purification" from leprosy's "uncleanness" were elaborated. The paralysis of Mark 2:3 and the "shriveling" of Mark 3:1 were possibly of nervous origin, if not accidental. ...
Blindness was very common—both the highly contagious, lice-carried trachoma and optic atrophy in the aged (Genesis 27:1 Isaac; 1 Samuel 3:2 Eli). Disease had a religious dimension for all ancient peoples, partly from the natural recourse to superhuman help in danger or distress; idol shrines at Corinth, Ephesus, and Rome were as beset with sufferers as was the Jerusalem temple. In Israelite thought, some spirits, although working to hinder and deceive humans, were nevertheless messengers of God (Judges 9:23 ; 1 Samuel 16:14 note contrast with "the Spirit of the Lord" 1 Kings 22:20-23 ). ...
New Testament belief in evil spirits ("demons") under the direction of a supreme devil was almost universal. All were believed to be under the ultimate control of God, but he permitted their activity when sin gave them entrance, to punish sinfulness in humankind. Luke, a physician, delights to show that Christ had overcome Satan, binding "the strong one" and spoiling his possessions. Jesus watched Satan fall from above, and by superior power delivered those whom demons had bound or afflicted (4:1-13,36, 41; 6:18; 8:2,26-35; 10:18; 11:15-26; 13:16). ...
The prevalence of disease and suffering in the ancient world inevitably influenced religious and ethical language. The thought is carried further in the "soundness, " "healthiness" of true doctrine, teaching, words, faith, and speech, referred to nine times in the Pastoral Epistles, as appealing to, and promoting, sane, safe religion
Elijah - THE prophet Elijah towers up like a mountain in Gilead above all the other prophets. There is a solitary grandeur about Elijah that is all his own. There is a mystery and an unearthliness about Elijah that is all his own. There is a volcanic suddenness, and a volcanic violence, indeed, about all Elijah's descents upon us and all his disappearances from us. We call him Elijah the Tishbite, but we are no wiser of that. Elijah has neither father nor mother. As Elijah never died, so he was never born, as we are born. Elijah came from God, and he went to God. Elijah stood before God till God could dispense with and spare Elijah out of His presence no longer. Elijah's very name will tell you all that, and more than all that, concerning both Elijah and his father and his mother, Eli-jah-my God is Jehovah. Elijah had a heavenly name, but he had, to begin with, but an earthly nature. Elijah was a man, to begin with, subject to like passions as we are. Elijah was a man, indeed, of passions all compact. We never see Elijah that he is not subject to some passion or other. Elijah was a great man. There was a great mass of manhood in Elijah. That man among ourselves who has the most human nature in him and the most heart; the most heart and the most passion in his heart; the most love and the most hate; the most anger and the most meekness; the most scorn and the most sympathy; the most sunshine and the most melancholy; the most agony in prayer, and the most victorious assurance that, all the time, his prayer is already answered-that man is the likest of us all to the prophet Elijah; that man has Elijah's own mantle fallen upon him. There is no man among us fit, for one moment, to stand like Elijah before God. ...
Now, whatever is the matter with us that God has not an Elijah among us, or anything like an Elijah, it is not that we are wanting in passions. Yes; we all have passions enough to make us not Elijahs and Ahabs only, but angels in heaven, or devils in hell. All the difference between Elijah and Ahab was in the subjection of their passions. Elijah was a man of immensely stronger passions than poor Ahab ever was; only Elijah's powerful passions all swept him up to heaven, whereas all Ahab's contemptible passions shouldered And shovelled and sucked him down to hell. The whole difference between Elijah and Ahab, and between Jezebel and the mother of our Lord was in their hearts' desires, till their hearts' desires grew up into all-consuming passions. And what a passionate preacher Elijah was. The translators of the New Testament tell us that they have preserved the Apostle James's passionate idiom in the margin of the text, 'Elias with all his passions prayed in his prayer. Now, let any man among ourselves henceforth pray in his prayers like Jacob and Elijah: let any man among ourselves determine to put his passions into his prayers like Jacob and Elijah, and it will make him a new man. ...
But Elijah would not be the great lesson to us that he is if he were always Elijah, with all his passions at all times at a flame in his prayers. That no man may glory before God, after all that Elijah has done, we see him before he dies just as weak, and as downcast, and as embittered, and as unhappy as if he had never known how to subdue and subject and sanctify his passions. ' Elijah was getting old. He was feeling lonely. In this way Samuel showed Elijah the way to keep his old heart young to the end, and his spirit quiet, and good, and sweet, and beautiful. And it was prayer that did it; and it was putting all his remaining passions still into his prayers to his very end; and it was in that way that Samuel did it, and that Elijah at last learned to do it also. ...
For Elijah's passions all came back to all their first obedience, and to all their former splendid service, as he stood by Jordan and waited for his signal from the Lord. For, what was the chariot of Israel to Elijah that day, but Elijah's heart already in heaven? And what were those horses of fire that day, but all Elijah's passions all harnessed, in all their heaven-bounding strength, to that heavenly chariot? His faith, his fearlessness, his scorn of evil, his prayerfulness, his devotion to Israel and to God. And when the Lord would take up Elijah to Himself, all those horses of fire sprang with one leap up to heaven. And when Elisha saw it he cried, My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof! And he saw him no more
Gods And Goddesses, Pagan - People in the lands surrounding Israel had deities that continually tempted the Israelites to turn from their own God. The most explicit passage disclosing the close relationship between the two comes from the narrative about Ahab and Jezebel's confrontation with Elijah (1 Kings 18:1-19:18 ). Their endorsement of and participation in the worship of these Canaanite deities is the most extreme of any incidents related in Scripture concerning Israelite rulers who adopted the worship of these gods. ...
The most shocking endorsement of Israel's buying into Canaanite religion was the construction of a temple for the worship of Baal at Samaria. ) Canaanite religion was appropriated by the people of Judah from Geba to Beer-sheba (2 Kings 16:4-14 ). Manasseh added various aspects of Canaanite (a carved image of Asherah, 2 Kings 21:7 ) and other religions to the city of Jerusalem. ...
The Israelites had been warned before settling the land of Canaan about established religious worship sites, particularly the "high places" taken over intact during the conquest. "...
Several Canaanite high places were appropriated by Israel's religious leaders early in the settlement, including Bethel (Judges 1:22-26 ), Shiloh (1 Samuel 1:1-18 ), and Gibeah (1 Samuel 13:1-4 ). Her worship attracted the Israelites shortly after their settlement in Canaan. At the heart of this pagan religion was the worship of the fertility or fecundity "forces/features" that characterized the animate aspects of the created world. ...
The major confrontation between Ashtoreth and Yahweh took place during the days of Eli, Samuel, and Saul. The numerous references to Baal in the Old Testament indicate his attractiveness and influence on the Israelites. Ahab agreed with her to make Baal worship the royal religion of the northern kingdom (1 Kings 16:29-31 ). The Moabites are called the "people of Chemosh" in the passage of Scripture that details the travels of the Israelites through Edom, Moab, and Ammon, (Numbers 21:21-32 ). Dagon had delivered their enemy into their hands (Judges 16:23-24 )! The Philistines called for a sacrifice to their god. The Israelites relied on their theological understanding that Yahweh was mightier than Dagonbut, unfortunately, with an inexcusable naivete. However, the presence of the ark in Philistine hands led to the challenge to their god, Dagon, and the return of the ark to the Israelites. The name appears especially in the Edomite genealogy of Genesis 36 and in the history of the two Israelite kingdoms to the downfall of the northern kingdom in 722 b. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel ; idem, From the Stone Age to Christianity ; idem, History, Archaeology and Christian Humanism ; idem, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan ; W. Eliade, ed. , Encyclopedia of Religion ; J
Wages - In Israelite society the wage-earning class was small, placed on the social scale somewhere between land owners and slaves. Moreover, the law intended to prevent the Israelite legal system from corruption. The moral nadir of this period occurs when Eli is high priest and his sons exploit their position to gratify their material and sensual lusts (1 Samuel 1-2 ). The Elide priesthood is judged harshly, but the new order evolves slowly. One of the few bright moments during the dark days of the judges is reflected in the story of Ruth, a Moabite widow, who faithfully determines to help her widowed Israelite mother-in-law. She merits the blessing of Boaz, who believes that Yahweh is a good God, who will fully pay her wages (Ruth 2:12 ). Israel is called to believe that Yahweh is for her even in the midst of judgment. But an important message of the book is that Lord himself is the believer's reward. The stress on wages and rewards is an important religious concern in the Judaism of Jesus' time. It forms the background to the Sermon on the Mount, in which Jesus emphasizes that those for whom religion is an external form already have their reward, while the true disciple will receive in secret a wage from God (Matthew 6:1-4,5-6,16-18 ; 5:12,46 ). Consequently God's act of forgiveness should stimulate believers to forgive each other (Matthew 18:21-35 ). Satan is a hard taskmaster, doling out the wages of death for sin (Romans 6:23 ), but God is a loving Father who lavishes believers with the gifts of life and adoption and promises an infinitely rich inheritance—all things! (1 Corinthians 3:22-23 ; Ephesians 1:5-12 ). God is immeasurably rich in mercy (Ephesians 2:4 )! As proof he has offered up Christ as a payment for humanity's sins, and given believers a downpayment of their gracious wage to come in the presence of the Holy Spirit who takes up residence within them (2 Corinthians 1:22 ; 5:5 ; Ephesians 1:14 ). Until then, believers are encouraged with the promise that "no eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love him" (1 Corinthians 2:9 )
Barzillai - From within the walls of his lofty keep in far-off Gilead, Barzillai had watched the ways of God with His people Israel in the south country all through the days of Eli, and Samuel, and Saul, and David, and Joah, and Jonathan, and Mephibosheth, and Absalom, and his humble heart and his hospitable house had always been open to the oppressed, and to the persecuted, and to the poor. Then come the two chapters about the successful battle; after which, when David sets out to return to Jerusalem, the sacred writer takes up the noble name of Barzillai again in this fine passage: 'And Barzillai the Gileadite came down from Rogelim, and went over Jordan with the king, to conduct him over Jordan, And the king said to Barzillai, Come thou over with me, and I will feed thee with me in Jerusalem, And Barzillai said unto the king, How long have I to live that I should go up with the king to Jerusalem? I am this day fourscore years old, and can I discern between good and evil? Can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? Can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women? Wherefore, then, should thy servant be yet a burden to my lord the king? Thy servant will go a little way over the Jordan with the king; and why should the king recompense it me with such a reward? Let thy servant, I pray thee, turn back again, that I may die in mine own city, and be buried by the grave of my father and my mother. Had Barzillai been tempted to hedge at dangers, and to calculate chances, and to weigh likelihoods, and to find excuses, he would not have wanted materials. There are always sufficient reasons why a deliberating and a considering man should stand aloof for a time from a fallen man. There is not a day passes but our boldness, and our courage, and our loyalty, and our fidelity are put to the test. ...
Barzilla's truly Highland courtesy, also, is abundantly conspicuous in the too-short glimpse we get of the lord of Rogelim. As hospitable as Barzillai of Rogelim, they used to say. A bishop must be like Barzillai of Rogelim, wrote Paul to both Timothy and Titus. He had found out how much charity a strong ass could carry when he and his master lived on charity at Rogelim and Lodebar. A couple of asses saddled as they used to saddle them at Rogelim and Lodebar could carry two hundred loaves of bread, and a hundred bunches of raisins, and a hundred of summer fruits and a bottle of wine. But it is not great lords only like Barzillai of Rogelim and Machir of Lodebar and Shobi of Rabbah who are summoned to show hospitality. As also his brooding, emotional, melting, Gaelic-like eloquence when he opens his whole heavenly-minded heart to David. I shall need all my time; for I am fourscore years old this day, and how shall I go up with the king to Jerusalem?' Who can help loving the octogenarian Barzillai, with his 'courtesy in conversation,' and when, like Pompey in Plutarch, he 'gave without disdain, and took with great honour'? And the king kissed Barzillai and blessed him, and Barzillai returned to his place at Rogelim
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - He says that if all the four Gospels are to be believed, the truth of them cannot be in their ‘bodily characters,’ but in their spiritual meaning. There is a subordinate element of apologetic, but the main object is clearly to edify and teach the faithful, not to convert the unbeliever. He wishes, not to prove a theological thesis, but to confirm and perfect the believer in his adhesion to Christ as the Incarnate Word, the principle of spiritual regeneration, and the nourishment of ‘eternal’ life. But for what Christians? It has often been maintained or assumed that his object is to teach a philosophy of religion—that he is, in fact, the author of the formula ‘Jesus Christ, the promised Messiah of the Jews, is the Incarnate Logos of God. , as we see from the caution imposed upon Clement of Alexandria by conservative prejudice, and on the other side by the diatribes of the obscurantist Tertullian against philosophy? At that period Gnosticism had gained a footing within the Church, and orthodoxy had become alive to the dangers which threatened the Christian religion from this side. the great Gnostics were outside the Church, and the chief danger was that the party of ψιλὴ πίστις, ignorant and superstitious, with materialistic notions of religion and hopes of a coming reign of the saints, might make the position of the Christian philosopher impossible, and drive him into the arms of the Gnostics. ...
A glance at one of the old-fashioned ‘Harmonies’ of the four Evangelists makes us realize how few of the events of our Lord’s life, before the last few days, are recorded by the Synoptists and also by St. Our Evangelist, on the other hand, represents Jesus as taking part in long polemical disputations with ‘the Jews,’ who are as much His enemies as they were the enemies of the Christian Church 80 years later; the parables have disappeared, and their place is taken by ‘proverbs’ or symbolic language; and, above all, His whole teaching is centred upon faith in and devotion to Himself. Many facts to which our Evangelist attaches great importance are completely strange to the Synoptic tradition. ), following the miracle of the 5000, and does not wish the truth of the mystical union to be bound up too closely with the participation in an ecclesiastical rite; he omits the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, and the cry, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani,’ because the impression which he wishes to convey of the complete voluntariness of Christ’s sufferings and death, and of the ‘glory’ which was manifested by His humiliation as well as by His triumph over death, might be impaired by incidents which seem to indicate human weakness and hesitation; and, lastly, he omits the Ascension and the descent of the Paraclete, because he does not wish the withdrawal of Christ’s bodily presence, and the continuation of the Incarnation in another more spiritual form, to be associated with physical portents, or to be assigned to particular days. ...
There can be no question that these omissions are deliberate, and not the result of ignorance. , and there are no signs that our Evangelist wishes to correct his predecessors from the standpoint of one who has had access to better information. 17, in which almost every clause of the Lord’s Prayer is represented, though in each case, except the last (‘Deliver us from the evil one’), the petition is changed into a statement that the work has been done, the boon conferred. In the marriage at Cana, the feeding of the multitude, the healing of the blind man, and the raising of Lazarus, the Evangelist himself tells us the spiritual meaning of the miracle, in words spoken either by the Lord Himself or by some one else. There are, we might venture to say, three temples in the mind of the Evangelist—the material temple built by Herod, the temple of Christ’s natural body, which was to be destroyed and raised up ‘in three days,’ and the temple which is the spiritual body of Christ—namely, the Church. There can be no doubt, in the opinion of the present writer, that the Philonic method of playing with numbers had a strong fascination for our Evangelist. It is thoroughly in accordance with the method of the Evangelist, that he avoids the word ἑπτά, just as he avoids the two crucial words γνῶσις and πίστις, which had become watchwords of parties. With regard to higher numbers, the extreme precision of the Evangelist must excite suspicion of an allegorical motive; and when we find that 38, 46, and 153 can be plausibly explained on Philonic principles, the suspicion becomes almost a certainty. The ‘forty-six years’ since the beginning of the building of the Temple may possibly be connected with the age assigned to Jesus (‘not yet fifty years old’); it has been suggested that the Evangelist wishes to make Him seven times seven years old at the Crucifixion; but this is very doubtful. But the question really is whether the Evangelist has not done all that he need have done in order to be understood by those among his first readers who knew his method. There are some religious truths which can only be safely imparted orally. ...
The Evangelist writes throughout for two classes of readers—for the simpliciores, who would be satisfied by the narrative in its plain sense, and for the ‘Gnostic,’ who could read between the lines without difficulty. The proverb is different from the Synoptic παραβολή, which is a story with a religious and moral application—a story which has a complete sense in itself, apart from the lesson, which is generally conveyed by the story as a whole, and not by the details. Whenever the Johannine Christ begins to teach—whether His words are addressed to Nicodemus, the Samaritan woman, ‘the Jews,’ or His own disciples—He nearly always begins by enunciating a proposition which contains, under a sensible and symbolic image, a religious truth. 3) the Evangelist seems to have quite forgotten. ...
One of the most difficult problems in connexion with the classes of readers for whom the Gospel was intended is presented by certain explanations introduced by the Evangelist. A more plausible hypothesis is that the Evangelist deliberately introduced these childlike observations for the benefit of the simpliciores, trusting to the educated reader being able to divine his purpose. The phraseology is Hebraic, not Greek; in the Prologue we have a species of rhythm which recalls the old prophets, and in many places we find the parallelism of Hebrew poetry. The appearance of detailed accuracy is not, as has often been seriously argued, a proof of first-hand knowledge, but is due to the vividness of the Evangelist’s mental images. No difference can he detected between the style of the various speakers, or between the discourses of Christ and the Evangelist’s own comments
Call, Calling - Eli suspected Hannah (1 Samuel 1:13) not because her lips moved in private prayer—rather because in the intensity and modesty of her desire she prayed without sound. Proverbs 1:20); the solemn religious conception of the call rejected (Proverbs 1:24); the call as an invitation to a feast (ch. When compounds of καλέω are used, or when φωνέω is used, we need not suspect deep religious or theological significance in the word. All believers ‘partake of a heavenly calling’ (Hebrews 3:1), but none may take high honour or office upon himself except when ‘called’ by God thereto (Hebrews 5:4). Later in the history of English speech, the physical implications of the noun ‘call’ having been in some measure rubbed off, it came into religious use, so as generally to displace ‘calling
Pentateuch - " In Deuteronomy 17:18-19, the king is required to "write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests, the Levites"; and Deuteronomy 31:9-11, "Moses wrote this law and delivered it unto the priests, the son of Levi," who should "at the end of every seven years read this law before all Israel in their hearing"; and Deuteronomy 31:24," Moses made an end of writing the words of this law in a book," namely, the whole Pentateuch ("the law," Leviticus 24:2-319; Galatians 4:21), "and commanded the Levites . Eli, high priest, is sprung from Aaron through Ithamar (1 Chronicles 24:3; 2 Samuel 8:17; 1 Kings 2:27). The transfer from Eli's descendants back to Eleazar's line fulfills Numbers 25:10-13. The historical facts of the Pentateuch are alluded to: Jacob's descent to Egypt, Israel's deliverance by Moses and Aaron (1 Samuel 12:8); the Egyptian plagues (1 Samuel 4:8; 1 Samuel 8:8); the Kenites' kindness (1 Samuel 15:6). He destroyed the relic, the brazen serpent which remained from Moses' time, because of its superstitious abuse
Saul - Hannah, and Samuel, and Eli, and Hophni and Phinehas, and Ichabod were all household words, as we say, in every household in Israel. ' If you have no more sense of religion and life than Saul and his father had, at least, like them, see that you have a religious servant. In his youth he had not one spark of insight or interest in the religious life and worship of lsrael. So much so that Saul for the moment was almost persuaded to become an Israelite indeed. At the death of a father or a mother; at the time of leaving home to take our place in a lonely world; or, again, at that happy time when our loneliness was so graciously dealt with by God. God, I feel sure, lets no man become a married man, for instance, without giving him the great opportunity and the new start in religion He gave to Saul when He made him king of Israel. As also when he held his peace at the men of Belial mocking at his election. We would have had no hesitation in setting all that down to the best motives had it not been that all his future so terribly belied all such modesty, humility, self-command, magnanimity, and piety. ...
Who is your Saul, my brethren? Who is the man that stands in the way of your promotion? Who sits in the seat that should by this time have been yours? Who is the man that casts the javelin of slander and detraction at your good name? Who has cost you home and friends by his spite, and malice, and jealousy? Mark that man
Solomon - Its objective character accords with Solomon's other writings, whereas subjective feeling characterizes David's psalms. for Israelites going up to the great feasts at Jerusalem (Psalm 127), was also Solomon's. ) Abiathar he banished to Anathoth for treason, thus fulfilling the old curse on Eli (1 Samuel 2:31-35). 10,000 a month, the other 20,000 having two months' relief, cut timber in Lebanon; 70,000 bore loads; 80,000 hewed stone in the mountains and under the rock, where the mason's Phoenician marks have been found; chiefly Canaanites, spared on conforming to Judaism; 3,300 officers were over these workmen. After kneeling in prayer Solomon stood to bless God, at the same time begging Him to incline Israel's heart unto Himself and to "maintain their cause at all times as the matter shall require" (Hebrew "the thing of a day in its day") 1 Kings 8:59; Luke 11:3. Northern Arabia was at this time ruled by queens not kings, but she probably came from southern Arabia or Arabia Felix. ...
The queen of Sheba confessed that she believed not the report until her own eyes saw its truth, yet that half was not told her, his wisdom and prosperity exceeded the fame which she had heard (compare spiritually John 1:46; John 4:42)
Government of the Hebrews - The posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were set apart and destined to the great object of preserving and transmitting the true religion, Genesis 18:16-20 ; Genesis 17:9-14 ; Genesis 12:3 ; Genesis 22:18 ; Genesis 28:14 . These were to be brought back again to the knowledge of the true God, and all were to be excited to engage in those undertakings which should be found necessary for the support of the true religion. God promulgated, from the clouds of Mount Sinai, the prominent laws for the government of his people, considered as a religious community, Exodus 20. The priests, who were the learned class of the community, and beside were hereditary officers in the state, being set apart for civil as well as religious purposes, had, by the divine command, a right to a sitting in this assembly, Exodus 32:29 ; Numbers 8:5-26 . In order to confirm them in the duties which devolved upon them, and to throw at the greatest distance the mean and lurking principle just mentioned, God, after the sedition of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, sanctioned the separation of the whole tribe, which had been previously made to the service of religion and the state, by a most evident and striking miracle, Numbers 16:1-7 . When we remember that God was expressly chosen the King of the people, and that he enacted laws and decided litigated points of importance, Numbers 17:1-11 ; Numbers 27:1-11 ; Numbers 36:1-10 ; when we remember also that he answered and solved questions proposed, ...
Numbers 15:32-41 ; Joshua 7:16-22 ; Judges 1:1-2 ; Judges 20:18 ; Judges 20:27-28 ; 1 Samuel 14:37 ; 1 Samuel 23:9-12 ; 1 Samuel 30:8 ; 2 Samuel 2:1 ; that he threatened punishment, and that, in some instances, he actually inflicted it upon the hardened and impenitent, Numbers 11:33-35 ; Numbers 12:1-15 ; Numbers 16:1-50 ; Leviticus 26:3-46 ; Deuteronomy 26-30; when, finally, we take into account, that he promised prophets, who were to be, as it were, his ambassadors, Deuteronomy 18, and afterward sent them according to his promise, and that, in order to preserve the true religion, he governed the whole people by a striking and peculiar providence, we are at liberty to say, that God was, in fact, the Monarch of the people, and that the government was a theocracy. But from the circumstance that the people possessed so much influence, as to render it necessary to submit laws to them for their ratification, and that they even took upon themselves sometimes to propose laws or to resist those which were enacted; from the circumstance also that the legislature of the nation had not the power of laying taxes, and that the civil code was regulated and enforced by God himself, independently of the legislature, Lowman and Michaelis are in favour of considering the Hebrew government a democracy. But the title most appropriate to Moses, and most descriptive of the part he sustained, is that of legislator of the Israelites, and their deliverer from the Egyptians. If the same question should be put in respect to Joshua, the answer would be, that he was not properly the successor of Moses, and that, so far from being the ruler of the state, he was designated by the ruler to sustain the subordinate office of military leader of the Israelites in their conquest of the land of Canaan. For many of the judges, for instance, Jair, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Eli, and Samuel, ruled the nation in peace. They subserved the public good without emolument, that the state might be prosperous, that religion might be preserved, and that God alone might be King in Israel. God, in the character of King, had governed the Israelites for sixteen ages. The terms of the government, as respected God, were the same as before, and the same duties and principles were inculcated on the Israelites as had been originally, 1 Samuel 8:7 ; 1 Samuel 10:17-23 ; 1 Samuel 12:14-15 ; 1 Samuel 12:20-22 ; 1 Samuel 12:24-25 . 1 Chronicles 28:7-10 ; he religiously obeyed his statutes, the people adhered firmly to God, and his reign was prosperous. 543,) he authorized the Jews, by an edict, to return into their own country, with full permission to enjoy their laws and religion, and caused the city and temple of Jerusalem to be rebuilt. After their death the Jews were governed by their high priests, in subjection however to the Persian kings, to whom they paid tribute, Ezra 4:13 ; Ezra 7:24 , but with the full enjoyment of their other magistrates, as well as their liberties, civil and religious. Under the able conduct of Judas, surnamed Maccabeus, and his valiant brother, the Jews maintained a religious war for twenty-six years with five successive kings of Syria; and after destroying upward of two hundred thousand of their best troops, the Maccabees finally established the independence of their own country and the aggrandizement of their family
Mark, Gospel According to - 170 200?) begins in the middle of a sentence which is generally believed to refer to Mk. , and which may mean that the Evangelist was present at some of Peter’s discourses only, or perhaps that he heard some of our Lord’s discourses; but the latter interpretation is against the words that follow, which say of Luke: ‘Neither did he himself see the Lord in the flesh. In describing our Lord’s Person, the Evangelist lays great emphasis on His Divinity, but still more on His true humanity, ( a ) For the former we note how in Mk. ( b ) For the latter we note not only (as with the other Evangelists) the references to Jesus’ human body weariness and sleep ( Mark 4:33 ), eating and drinking ( Mark 14:3 , Acts 9:1-43 ), etc. ]'>[10] (the word denotes sternness, not necessarily anger but deep feeling), Mark 3:5 , Mark 6:8 , Mark 10:14 ; note especially Mark 14:33 f. on the true humanity of our Lord that Augustine assigns to the Second Evangelist the symbol of the man; by other Fathers the other Evangelic symbols are assigned to him. Yet here the other Synoptists, feeling that the phrase might he misunderstood as taking from the Master’s glory, have altered or omitted it. Also the Second Evangelist alone relates the two cock-crowings ( Mark 14:30 ; Mark 14:68 ; Mark 14:72 ), though the state of the text suggests that perhaps originally only one was mentioned in Mk. only in unessential particulars, lay before the First and Third Evangelists when they wrote. The characteristics already mentioned, the description of Jesus’ inner feelings, the style and details of the Gospel, give the same indications. Eli ); and several Aramaic proper names are noticeable: Bartimæus Mark 10:48 (a patronymic), Cananæan Mark 3:18 , Iscariot Mark 3:19 , Beelzebub Mark 3:22 , Golgotha Mark 15:22
Samuel, First And Second, Theology of - The Books of Samuel are particularly significant for understanding Israel's religious and historical development because they tell of the momentous transition from the period of the judges to that of the monarchy. These chapters include descriptions of Samuel's birth and call to be a prophet (1-3); Israel's defeat by the Philistines and the capture of the ark (4-6); and the role of Samuel as a judge and deliverer (7). He had delivered them out of Egypt and brought them to Sinai where he entered into covenant with them. , Eli, who is held responsible for the evils practiced at the tabernacle during the time of his priesthood [1] Saul, who is held responsible for his rejection of the Word of the Lord [2] David, who is held responsible for his actions in the incident with Bathsheba [3]). In fact the whole history of the period of the judges reflected in the cycles of oppression, repentance, and restoration demonstrated the reliability of God's covenant faithfulness. But evidently this was not sufficient for the Israelites. He betrayed his reliance on military might rather than trust in the Lord, when he took the census of his army later in his reign (2 Samuel 24 ). , the role it played at the crossing of the Jordan [7]) it is not surprising that when the Israelites were defeated by the Philistines (1 Samuel 4 ) the elders requested that the ark be brought to the battlefield. In these chapters it becomes clear that while the Lord will not permit his people to manipulate the symbol of his presence to gain victory over the Philistines, neither will he permit the Philistines to conclude that because they defeated the Israelites, their god, Dagon, was more powerful than the God of Israel. It was not until David was made king that the ark was returned to its rightful place at the political and religious center of the nation
Offering - The delivering of the “tribute” of the people of Israel to the king of Moab by their judgedeliverer became the occasion for the deliverance of Israel from Moabite control as Ehud assassinated Eglon by a rather sly maneuver ( Eli were simply designated as “the offering of the Lord” (
The terûmâh sometimes was an “offering” which had the meaning of a tax, an obligatory assessment which was made against every Israelite male who was twenty years old or older, to be paid for the support of the tabernacle and later, the temple ( Eliab’s “offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, … both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering; One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense; One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering” ( Moses - This illustrious legislator of the Israelites was of the tribe of Levi, in the line of Koath and of Amram, whose son he was, and therefore in the fourth generation after the settlement of the Israelites in Egypt. The time of his birth is ascertained by the exode of the Israelites, when Moses was eighty years old, Exodus 7:7 . ...
When Moses was grown to manhood, and was full forty years old, he was moved by a divine intimation, as it seems, to undertake the deliverance of his countrymen; "for he supposed that his brethren would have understood how that God, by his hand, would give them deliverance; but they understood not. ...
At length, when the oppression of the Israelites was come to the full, and they cried to God for succour, and the king was dead, and all the men in Egypt that sought his life, "the God of glory" appeared to Moses in a flame of fire, from the midst of a bush, and announced himself as "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob," under the titles of Jahoh and AEhjeh, expressive of his unity and sameness; and commissioned him first to make known to the Israelites the divine will for their deliverance; and next to go with the elders of Israel to Pharaoh, requiring him, in the name of "the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, to suffer the people to go three, days' journey into the wilderness, to sacrifice unto the Lord their God," after such sacrifices had been long intermitted during their bondage; for the Egyptians had sunk into bestial polytheism, and would have stoned them, had they attempted to sacrifice to their principal divinities, the apis, or bull, &c, in the land itself: foretelling, also, the opposition they would meet with from the king, the mighty signs and wonders that would finally compel his assent, and their spoiling of the Egyptians, by asking or demanding of them (not borrowing) jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, (by way of wages or compensation for their services,) as originally declared to Abraham, that "they should go out from thence with great substance,"...
Genesis 15:14 ; Exodus 2:23-25 ; Exodus 3:2-22 ; Exodus 8:25-26 . ...
To vouch his divine commission to the Israelites, God enabled Moses to work three signal miracles:...
1. And the people believed the signs, and the promised deliverance, and worshipped. But the king not only refused, but increased the burdens of the people, Exodus 5:1-19 ; and the people murmured, and hearkened not unto Moses, when he repeated from the Lord his assurances of deliverance and protection, for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage, Exodus 5:20-23 ; Exodus 6:1-9 . For the conduct of Moses as the deliverer and lawgiver of the Israelites, See PLAGUES OF EGYPT , See RED SEA , and See LAW . He was also reproved for unbelief. He again refused the divine offer to disinherit the Israelites, and make of him and his family a "greater and mightier nation than they. ...
On the return of the Israelites, after many years' wandering, to the same disastrous station of Kadesh-barnea, even Moses himself was guilty of an offence, in which his brother Aaron was involved, and for which both were excluded, as a punishment, from entering the promised land. And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel; therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them," Numbers 20:1-13 ; and afterward in stronger terms: "Because ye rebelled against my commandment," &c. He distrusted or disbelieved that water could be produced from the rock only by speaking to it; which was a higher miracle than he had performed before at Rephidim, Exodus 17:6 . From an obscure passage in the New Testament, in which Michael the archangel is said to have contended with the devil about the body of Moses, Judges 1:9 , some have thought that he was buried by the ministry of angels, near the scene of the idolatry of the Israelites; but that the spot was purposely concealed, lest his tomb might also be converted into an object of idolatrous worship among the Israelites, like the brazen serpent. " The Jewish historian has here, perhaps, imitated the account of our Lord's ascension, furnished by the evangelist, Luke 24:50 ; Acts 1:9 ; wishing to raise Moses to a level with Christ. As to himself personally: He is destined to die in the wilderness; he is never to taste the tranquillity, the plenty, and the delight, the possession of which he promises to his countrymen; he shares with them only their fatigues and privations; he has more anxieties than they, on their account, in their acts of disobedience, and in their perpetual murmurings. Samuel and Eli assign a part of their paternal authority to their sons, and permit them even to abuse it; but the sons of Moses, in the wilderness, are only the simple servants of the tabernacle; like all the other sons of Kohath, if they even dare to raise the veil which covers the sacred furniture, the burden, of which they carry, death is denounced against them. We have, indeed, in it the early history of religion, and a key to all the subsequent dispensations of God to man
Archaeology And Biblical Study - ), contained hundreds of feet of wall space lined with sculptured reliefs depicting the exploits of the king. The debris of the earlier occupation was made smooth by leveling off and filling in, and a new village was built on top of the ruins. Examination of human skeletons and burial customs provides important clues about the health of the people and about some of their religious beliefs. In 1838, an American explorer by the name of Edward Robinson, and his assistant, Eli Smith, made a trip through Palestine on horseback. The Tell Amarna tablets found by a peasant woman in Egypt are letters from Palestinian rulers to the reigning pharaohs; but they show the unstable conditions in Palestine prior to the Israelite conquest which enabled Israel to conquer the enemy one by one. Here is clear evidence that Israelites were in the land of Canaan by no later than the thirteenth century B. Though the claim was earlier made on inadequate basis, evidence of cities built by the Israelites in Egypt has not actually been found. ...
Though searched for in the Jericho area, the location of Gilgal, the Israelites' camping place, remains elusive. ...
The Philistines, a part of the “Sea Peoples” who came into the land following their being blocked in Egypt by Rameses III, and who left their name on the land, offered major opposition to the Israelites. ...
Interesting sidelights on the general period of the Judges and Kings include the Egyptian custom of counting the victims of a campaign from stacks of severed hands (compare Judges 8:6 ), the putting out of an eye (1 Samuel 11:1-11 ), or both eyes (2 Kings 25:7 ), and depiction of circumcised men on a Megiddo ivory [2] where the subject described his ordeal