What does Election mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἐκλογὴν the act of picking out 5

Definitions Related to Election

G1589


   1 the act of picking out, choosing.
      1a of the act of God’s free will by which before the foundation of the world he decreed his blessings to certain persons.
      1b the decree made from choice by which he determined to bless certain persons through Christ by grace alone.
   2 a thing or person chosen.
      2a of persons: God’s elect.
      

Frequency of Election (original languages)

Frequency of Election (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Election of Grace
The Scripture speaks (1) of the election of individuals to office or to honour and privilege, e.g., Abraham, Jacob, Saul, David, Solomon, were all chosen by God for the positions they held; so also were the apostles. (2) There is also an election of nations to special privileges, e.g., the Hebrews (Deuteronomy 7:6 ; Romans 9:4 ). (3) But in addition there is an election of individuals to eternal life (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ; Ephesians 1:3-6 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ; John 13:18 ). The ground of this election to salvation is the good pleasure of God (Ephesians 1:5,11 ; Matthew 11:25,26 ; John 15:16,19 ). God claims the right so to do (Romans 9:16,21 ).
It is not conditioned on faith or repentance, but is of soverign grace (Romans 11:4-6 ; Ephesians 1:4 ). All that pertain to salvation, the means (Ephesians 2:8 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:13 ) as well as the end, are of God (Acts 5:31 ; 2 Timothy 2:25 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; Ephesians 2:5,10 ). Faith and repentance and all other graces are the exercises of a regenerated soul; and regeneration is God's work, a "new creature."
Men are elected "to salvation," "to the adoption of sons," "to be holy and without blame before him in love" (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ; Galatians 4:4,5 ; Ephesians 1:4 ). The ultimate end of election is the praise of God's grace (Ephesians 1:6,12 ). (See PREDESTINATION .)
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Elect, Elected, Election
A — 1: ἐκλεκτός (Strong's #1588 — Adjective — eklektos — ek-lek-tos' ) lit. signifies "picked out, chosen" (ek, "from," lego, "to gather, pick out"), and is used of (a) Christ, the "chosen" of God, as the Messiah, Luke 23:35 (for the verb in Luke 9:35 see Note below), and metaphorically as a "living Stone," "a chief corner Stone," 1 Peter 2:4,6 ; some mss. have it in John 1:34 , instead of huios, "Son;" (b) angels, 1 Timothy 5:21 , as "chosen" to be of especially high rank in administrative association with God, or as His messengers to human beings, doubtless in contrast to fallen angels (see 2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 1:6 ); (c) believers (Jews or Gentiles), Matthew 24:22,24,31 ; Mark 13:20,22,27 ; Luke 18:7 ; Romans 8:33 ; Colossians 3:12 ; 2 Timothy 2:10 ; Titus 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ; 2:9 (as a spiritual race); Matthew 20:16 ; 22:14 ; Revelation 17:14 , "chosen;" individual believers are so mentioned in Romans 16:13 ; 2 John 1:1,13 .
Believers were "chosen" "before the foundation of the world" (cp. "before times eternal," 2 Timothy 1:9 ), in Christ, Ephesians 1:4 , to adoption, Ephesians 1:5 ; good works, Ephesians 2:10 ; conformity to Christ, Romans 8:29 ; salvation from the delusions of the Antichrist and the doom of the deluded, 2 Thessalonians 2:13 ; eternal glory, Romans 9:23 .
The source of their "election" is God's grace, not human will, Ephesians 1:4,5 ; Romans 9:11 ; 11:5 . They are given by God the Father to Christ as the fruit of His death, all being foreknown and foreseen by God, John 17:6 ; Romans 8:29 . While Christ's death was sufficient for all men, and is effective in the case of the "elect," yet men are treated as responsible, being capable of the will and power to choose. For the rendering "being chosen as firstfruits," an alternative reading in 2 Thessalonians 2:13 , see FIRSTFRUITS. See CHOICE , B.
A — 2: συνεκλεκτός (Strong's #4899 — Adjective — suneklektos — soon-ek-lek-tos' ) means "elect together with," 1 Peter 5:13 .
B — 1: ἐκλογή (Strong's #1589 — Noun Feminine — ekloge — ek-log-ay' ) denotes "a picking out, selection" (Eng., "eclogue"), then, "that which is chosen;" in Acts 9:15 , said of the "choice" of God of Saul of Tarsus, the phrase is, lit., "a vessel of choice." It is used four times in Romans; in Acts 9:11 , of Esau and Jacob, where the phrase "the purpose ... according to election" is virtually equivalent to "the electing purpose;" in Acts 11:5 , the "remnant according to the election of grace" refers to believing Jews, saved from among the unbelieving nation; so in Acts 11:7 ; in Acts 11:28 , "the election" may mean either the "act of choosing" or the "chosen" ones; the context, speaking of the fathers, points to the former, the choice of the nation according to the covenant of promise. In 1 Thessalonians 1:4 , "your election" refers not to the church collectively, but to the individuals constituting it; the Apostle's assurance of their "election" gives the reason for his thankgiving. Believers are to give "the more diligence to make their calling and election sure," by the exercise of the qualities and graces which make them fruitful in the knowledge of God, 2 Peter 1:10 . For the corresponding verb eklegomai, see CHOOSE.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Election
Andrew Fuller remarks, in a letter to two relatives:: ' I used to think that the doctrine of election was a reason why we need not pray, and I fear there are many who split upon this rock, who think it is to no purpose to pray, as things will be as they will be. But I now see that the doctrine of election is the greatest encouragement instead of a discouragement to prayer. He that decreed that any one should be finally saved, decreed that it should be in the way of prayer; as much as he that has decreed what we shall possess of the things of this life, has decreed that it shall be in the way of industry; and as we never think of being idle in common business, because God has decreed what we shall possess of this world's good, so neither should we be slothful in the business of our souls, because our final state is decreed.'
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Election
This word has different meanings.
1. It signifies God's taking a whole nation, community, or body of men, into external covenant with himself, by giving them the advantage of revelation as the rule of their belief and practice, when other nations are without it, Deuteronomy 7:6 .
2. A temporary designation of some person or station in the visible church, or office in civil life, John 6:70 . 1 Sam.x. 24.
3. That gracious and almighty act of the Divine Spirit, whereby God actually and visibly separates his people from the world by effectual calling, John 15:19 .
4. That eternal, sovereign, unconditional, particular, and immutable act of God, whereby he selected some from among all mankind, and of every nation under heaven, to be redeemed and everlastingly saved by Christ, Ephesians 1:4 . 2 Thessalonians 2:13 .
See DECREE, and PREDESTINATION.
Webster's Dictionary - by-Election
(n.) An election held by itself, not at the time of a general election.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Election
God's plan to bring salvation to His people and His world. The doctrine of election is at once one of the most central and one of the most misunderstood teachings of the Bible. At its most basic level, election refers to the purpose or plan of God whereby He has determined to effect His will. Thus election encompasses the entire range of divine activity from creation, God's decision to bring the world into being out of nothing, to the end time, the making anew of heaven and earth. The word “election” itself is derived from the Greek word, eklegomai, which means, literally, “to choose something for oneself.” This in turn corresponds to the Hebrew word, bachar. The objects of divine selection are the elect ones, a term found with increasing frequency in the later writings of the Old Testament and at many places in the New (Matthew 22:14 ; Luke 18:7 ; Colossians 3:12 ; Revelation 17:14 ). The Bible also uses other words such as “choose,” “predestinate,” “foreordain,” “determine,” and “call” to indicate that God has entered into a special relationship with certain individuals and groups through whom He has decided to fulfill His purpose within the history of salvation.
Israel as the Object of God's Election The doctrine of election is rooted in the particularity of the Judeo-Christian tradition, that is, the conviction that out of all the peoples on earth God has chosen to reveal Himself in a special, unique way to one particular people. This conviction resonates through every layer of Old Testament literature from the early awareness of Israel as “the people of Yahweh” through the Psalms (Psalm 147:19-20 , “He sheweth his word unto Jacob, his statutes and his judgments unto Israel. He hath not dealt so with any nation”; compare Isaiah 14:1 ; Ezekiel 20:5 ). Five major motifs in the Old Testament portray God's election of Israel.
(1) Election is the result of the sovereign initiative of God. At the very beginning of Israel's role in salvation history is the call of Abraham to leave his homeland for a new one which would be shown unto him (Genesis 12:1-7 ). This directive came to Abraham from God who also promised to bless his descendants and all peoples on earth through them. While Abraham responded to this call in obedience and faith, his election was not the result of his own efforts, but solely of God's decision. (2) The central word in Israel's vocabulary for describing their special relationship with God was covenant . This covenant was not a contract between equal partners, but a bond established by God's unmerited favor and love. The gracious character of the covenant is a major theme in Deuteronomy. “For thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God: the Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth. The Lord did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people; for ye were the fewest of all people” (Deuteronomy 7:6-7 ). (3) Within the covenanted community God selected certain individuals to fulfill specific functions. The following persons are said to be elected in this sense: Abraham (Nehemiah 9:7 ), Moses (Psalm 106:23 ), Aaron (Numbers 16:1-17:13 ), David (Psalm 78:70 ), Solomon (1 Chronicles 28:10 ), and Zerubbabel (Haggai 2:23 ). Kings, priests, and prophets are all chosen by God, though in different ways and for various purposes. Jeremiah believed that he had been elected and set apart as a prophet even before he was born (Jeremiah 1:4-5 ). (4) Israel's election was never intended to be a pretext for pride, but rather an opportunity for service. “I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, for a light of the Gentiles” (Isaiah 42:6 ). From time to time the children of Israel were tempted to presume upon God's gracious favor, to assume, for example, that because the Lord had placed His temple at Jerusalem, they were exempt from judgment. Again and again the prophets tried to disabuse them of this false notion of security by pointing out the true meaning of the covenant and their mission among the nations (Jeremiah 7:1-14 ; Amos 3:2 ; Jonah). (5) In the later Old Testament writings, and especially during the intertestamental period, there is a tendency to identify the “elect ones” with the true, faithful “remnant” among the people of God. The birth of the Messiah is seen to mark the dawn of the age of salvation for the remnant (Ezekiel 34:12-13 , Ezekiel 34:23-31 ; Micah 5:1-2 ). The community of Essenes at Qumran saw themselves as an elect remnant whose purity and faithfulness presaged the Messianic Age.
Election and the New Covenant The early Christians saw themselves as heirs of Israel's election, “a chosen generation, a holy nation, a peculiar people” (1 Peter 2:9 ). Paul treats this theme most extensively, but we should not overlook its central importance for the entire New Testament. Again, certain individuals are singled out as chosen by God: the twelve apostles (Luke 6:13 ), Peter (Acts 15:7 ), Paul (Acts 9:15 ), and Jesus Himself (Luke 9:35 ; Luke 23:35 ). In the Synoptic Gospels the term “elect ones” is always set in an eschatological context, that is, the days of tribulation will be shortened “for the elect's sake, whom he hath chosen” (Mark 13:20 ). Many of the parables of Jesus, such as that of the marriage feast (Matthew 22:1-14 ) and that of the laborers in the vineyard (Matthew 20:1-16 ), illustrate the sovereignty of God in salvation. In John, Jesus is the unmistakable Mediator of election: “Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you,” He reminded the disciples (John 15:16 ). Again, His followers are those who have been given to Him by the Father “before the world was” and “none of them is lost” (John 17:5 ,John 17:5,17:12 ). Also in John the shadow side of election is posed in the person of Judas, “the son of perdition.” Though his status as one of the elect is called into question by his betrayal of Christ, not even this act was able to thwart the fulfillment of God's plan of salvation.
There are three passages where Paul deals at length with different aspects of the doctrine of election. In the first (Romans 8:28-39 ) divine election is presented as the ground and assurance of the Christian's hope. Since those whom God has predestinated are also called, justified, and glorified, nothing can separate them from the love of God in Christ Jesus. The second passage (Romans 9-11 ) is preoccupied with the fact of Israel's rejection of Christ which, in the purpose of God, has become the occasion for the entrance of Gentile believers into the covenant. In the third passage (Ephesians 1:1-12 ) Paul pointed to the Christocentric character of election: God has chosen us in Christ before the foundation of the world. We can refer to this statement as the evangelical center of the doctrine of election. Our election is strictly and solely in Christ. As the eternal Son, He is along with the Father and the Holy Spirit, the electing God; as the incarnate Mediator between God and humankind, He is the elected One. We should never speak of predestination apart from this central truth.
Election and the Christian Life Paul admonished the Thessalonians to give thanks because of their election (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ), while Peter said that we should make our “calling and election sure” (2 Peter 1:10 ). However, in the history of Christian thought few teachings have been more distorted or more misused. The following questions reveal common misperceptions. (1) Is not election the same thing as fatalism? Predestination does not negate the necessity for human repentance and faith; rather it establishes the possibility of both. God does not relate to human beings as sticks and stones but as free creatures made in His own image. (2) If salvation is based on election, then why preach the gospel? Because God has chosen preaching as the means to awaken faith in the elect (1 Corinthians 1:21 ). We should proclaim the gospel to everyone without exception, knowing that it is only the Holy Spirit who can convict, regenerate, and justify. (3) Does the Bible teach “double predestination,” that God has selected some for damnation as well as some for salvation? There are passages (Romans 9:11-22 ; 2 Corinthians 2:15-16 ) which portray God as a potter who has molded both vessels of mercy and vessels of destruction. Yet the Bible also teaches that God does not wish any one to perish but for all to be saved (John 3:16 ; 2 Peter 3:9 ). We are not able to understand how everything the Bible says about election fits into a neat logical system. Our business is not to pry into the secret counsel of God but to share the message of salvation with everyone and to be grateful that we have been delivered from darkness into light. (4) Does not belief in election result in moral laxity and pride? Paul says that God chose us “to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit” (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ). We are to work out our salvation with fear and trembling, even though to be sure, it is God who is at work within us both to will and do His good pleasure (Philippians 2:12-13 ). The proper response to election is not pride but gratitude for God's amazing grace which saves eternally. Election, then, is neithr a steeple from which we look in judgment on others, nor a pillow to sleep on. It is rather a stronghold in time of trial and a confession of praise to God's grace and to His glory.
Timothy George
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Elect, Election
The term "elect" means essentially "to choose." It involves discriminatory evaluation of individuals, means, ends, or objects with a view to selecting one above the others, although not necessarily passing negative judgment on those others. It also involves the will, in that a determination is made, a preference expressed that one seeks to bring to reality. In that preference is expressed, the idea of bestowing favor or blessing is often present. After Judah had fallen because of her sin in 586 b.c., the prophet Zechariah proclaimed forgiveness, saying God would again "choose" (show favor to) Jerusalem (2:12), and he was told "Proclaim further: This is what the Lord Almighty says: My towns will again overflow with prosperity, and the Lord will again comfort Zion and choose Jerusalem'" (1:17).
In the Scriptures the term "choose" is used of both God and human beings. With respect to human beings, it covers all human decisions. We choose husbands or wives (Genesis 6:2 ), working companions (Acts 15:40 ), where to live (Genesis 13:11 ), and our way of life, whether good or bad (1 Peter 4:3 ). Sometimes the choice thrust on us is of the utmost consequence. We may choose life or death (Deuteronomy 30:19 ; 2 Kings 18:32 ); we may choose to serve (or not to serve) God (Joshua 24:15 ). Our choices are seen to be consistent with what we are. A good tree bears good fruit, a brackish spring pours forth brackish water, and the pig returns to wallowing in the mire.
God also makes choices and by a large margin, the term "choose" is used in Scripture to refer to the choices of God rather than human choices. Indeed, we often do not know what to choose (Philippians 1:22 ) and often our choices are wrong and need to be overridden by God. David chose to build a temple for God, but was told by God, "Solomon your son is the one who will build my house and my courts, for I have chosen him" (1 Chronicles 28:6 ). What human beings should ideally do is choose what is right and pleasing to God (Isaiah 56:4 ). If we adjust our choices to God's choices (line our wills up with his will), we will have the fullest of God's blessings.
Since it is true that mere human choices are made according to what the person is, it goes without saying that God's choices are made in accordance with who God is. God's choices and decisions are fully consistent with his eternal wisdom, goodness, justice, fairness, and love. Nothing that God chooses to do is mean-spirited, vindictive, or wrong. God cannot act any other way than consistently with his eternal divine nature. For this reason, human beings may trust God to do what is right, and our highest good is to choose the will of God for ourselves.
This does not mean that we will always understand God's ways and the choices he makes. Often we will not. There are times when the ways of God are decidedly not our ways and his thoughts are past finding out. When Habakkuk was confronted by his own people's sin, he cried out for an answer as to why God seemingly chose to do nothing about it. "How long, O Lord, must I call for help? Why do you tolerate wrong?" (1:2-3) was his question. But the answer was even more disturbing than the problem. God had chosen to use the Babylonians to punish sinful Judah (1:12-13). The Lord had determined that judgment would come upon Judah, but he also determined that Babylon would be held accountable for its sins, and in the end "the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea" (2:13-14). God would triumph and Habakkuk was to live by faith in God, because God's choices, no matter how inexplicable they might be, in the end, produce what is best (2:4; 3:19).
God's choices not only arise from within his own eternal being and are consistent with what he is, but they are also based on his own divinely chosen plan. This renders them purposeful rather than arbitrary. They are not a randomly chosen collection of Acts or decisions that have no inner coherence. Rather, according to an eternal plan, based on God's goodness, grace, and love, he weaves his will into the fabric of fallen human history and there triumphs (Ephesians 1:9-12 ). Again, we might not always be able to see the ultimate intent of that plan but we may live in the assurance that it is operative in our lives and that it takes precedence over lesser plans and intents, no matter how urgent and all-encompassing they may seem at the moment. The ultimate explanation awaits its appointed time; it will certainly come and will not prove false (Habakkuk 2:2-3 ).
God's Election of Angels . There is only one reference to elect angels in the Scripture (1 Timothy 5:21 ). In this passage Paul is admonishing Timothy in the presence of God, Jesus Christ, and the elect angels to live a godly life. Here, the angels are described as elect, in all probability because of their confirmed goodness or perfection. Just as God and Jesus Christ are unalterably good, so are these angels of God, and we are to live in the presence of every form of ultimate goodness with that as a reference point.
God's Election of Israel . Both the Old and the New Testaments affirm the gracious election of Israel. It is clearly stated in terms such as these: "The Lord your God has chosen you out of all the peoples on the face of the earth to be his people, his treasured possession" (Deuteronomy 7:6 ). There is an inexplicable mystery in this. Israel was not chosen because they were better, more faithful, more numerous, or more obedient than anyone else. The only reason given for Israel's election is the love of God—"Because he loved your forefathers and chose their descendants after them, he brought you out of Egypt by his presence and his great strength" (Deuteronomy 4:37 ). The election of Israel was structured within the covenant that God made with his people. By accepting the terms of the covenant that signaled their election, Israel was privileged to experience a personal relationship with God. But it also brought with it a heavy responsibility. They were to be obedient to God and follow his commands implicitly. If they refused to do God's will they would experience the heavy hand of God's judgment to the same degree that they had experienced the grace and blessing of God. "You only have I chosen [1] of all the families of the earth; therefore I will punish you for all your sins" (Amos 3:2 ). But, as the apostle Paul saw it, the gifts and calling of God are irrevocable (Romans 11:29 ) and Israel's disobedience did not cancel her out, but opened the way for everyone to enter in. This, to Paul, was perhaps the ultimate mystery: One man's fall (Adam) meant the redemption of many and one nation's sin (Israel) meant the inclusion of all. The grace of God was so vast and overwhelming that it broke apart every conventional limiting structure through that very limiting structure itself (election).
God's Election of the Place of Worship . God chose Israel to be his people and to reveal the truth about himself to them. This included the proper way to worship him, so he also chose the land they should dwell in (Deuteronomy 10:11 ; 1 Kings 8:48 ), the mountain on which worship should take place (Psalm 68:16 ), the city where this worship should occur (1 Kings 8:48 ; 11:13 ; 14:21 ), and a temple for the people to worship in (1 Kings 9:3 ; 2 Kings 21:7 ). God also chose the priesthood (Numbers 16:5,7 ) as well as the way sacrifices should be offered.
God's Election of People to an Office . In order for Israel and later the church to function as God's people, specific functions of leadership needed to be exercised and God's choices needed to be honored. If the wrong people led, as was too often the case, disaster frequently followed. When God was consulted and his guidance was followed, blessing also ensued. The two areas where official leadership was exercised in the Old Testament were in the civil and the religious spheres. The civil leader was the king and Israel was told "be sure to appoint over you the King the lord your God chooses" (Deuteronomy 17:15 ). That was the general rule. Specific kings were also pointed out, such as Saul (1 Samuel 9:15-17 ), David (1 Samuel 16:1-12 ), and Solomon (1 Chronicles 28:5-7 ; 2 Chronicles 1:8-10 ). God also made it known when he had not chosen someone (1 Samuel 16:5-10 ). In the religious sphere, the tribe of Levi was chosen as the priests (Deuteronomy 21:5 ; 2 Chronicles 29:5,11 ) and Aaron to be the high priest (Numbers 17:5,8 ; 1 Samuel 2:27-28 ). In the New Testament, the apostles were originally chosen by Christ (Luke 6:13 ; Acts 1:2 ), but then after Christ's ascension, the church needed to fill the place of Judas. Two men were selected and then they prayed, "Lord, you know everyone's heart. Show us which of these two you have chosen to take over this apostolic ministry" (Acts 1:24-26 ).
God's Election of Individuals for Various Reasons . In addition to specific offices, God often chooses individuals for special tasks or for special reasons. There are many examples of this in both the Old and New Testaments. In the Old Testament, God chose Bezalel (Exodus 31:2 ; 35:30-33 ), Abraham (Genesis 18:19 ), Jacob (Psalm 135:4 ), Judah (1 Chronicles 28:4 ; Psalm 78:68 ), Moses (Psalm 106:23 ), and Zerubbabel (Haggai 2:23 ). In the New Testament, God chose special individuals as witnesses to Christ's resurrection (Acts 10:41 ), Paul to be an apostle to the Gentiles (Acts 9:15 ; 22:13-14 ), Peter to be the first to minister to the Gentiles (Acts 15:7 ), and Barnabas to accompany Paul on his first missionary journey (Acts 13:2-3 ).
God's Election of the Messiah . The redemptive ministry of God's Anointed One, the Messiah, was carefully planned for by God. The Messiah, his own Son Jesus Christ, was the Chosen One, par excellance. Through prophetic utterances in the Old Testament there gradually accumulated a virtually complete picture of who the Messiah was to be, what he would do, and the consequences of his ministry. Isaiah 42:1 speaks of him as "My chosen one, in whom I delight." Jesus heard these very words on the Mount of Transfiguration ( Luke 9:35 ) and his tormenters hurled these words at him while he was on the cross, fulfilling the prophecies spoken of old (Luke 23:35 ). Peter later reflects on Jesus' chosenness and speaks of it as eternal (1 Peter 1:20 ), as indeed it was, and emphasizes Jesus' divinely chosen task (2:4-5) and his chosen place as cornerstone of the church (2:6).
God's Election of Means to Accomplish Ends . In some instances the specific ways God chooses to accomplish his purposes are emphasized. This is usually to highlight that God's ways are not the ways human beings would have chosen. So Paul points out that God has chosen the foolish, weak, and lowly things, from the world's point of view as the instruments of mighty saving grace (1 Corinthians 1:27-28 ). James says God chooses the poor to be rich in faith (James 2:5 ).
God's Election to Salvation of Believers and the Believing Community . In Scripture salvation is considered the work of God. People are lost and it is God alone who saves them; beside him there is no other savior (Isaiah 43:11 ) and no other plan of salvation (Acts 4:12 ). Whatever it be, whether false gods, other human beings, angels or other supernatural beings, or even ourselvesthey cannot save us. Because it is God alone who saves, those who are saved are seen to be the ones whom God has chosen (or elected) to be saved. This does not mean that they were not in some way involved in their salvation, but it does mean that God took the initiative, effected the plan, provided the grace, and deserves all the credit for the salvation of his people. None who is ultimately redeemed can boast that they saved themselves or that they added anything to the salvation that they received through Jesus Christ.
Those who are saved, the believers in Jesus Christ, are called "the elect (chosen)" (Matthew 24:22 ; Romans 8:33 ; Colossians 3:12 ; Ephesians 1:4-5 ; Revelation 17:14 ). This is based on Old Testament usage, where Israel is God's elect community. In the New Testament, the believers are God's elect. They are called the elect because God chose them to be saved (Matthew 22:14 ; John 6:37,39 ; 15:16,19 ; Acts 13:48 ; Romans 11:5 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:4 ). This election is understood to be an eternal act in accordance with God's foreknowledge or predetermination (Ephesians 1:4 ; 1 Peter 1:1-2 ). The term is applied to those who believe and also to potential believersthose whom God has yet to save are called the elect (2 Timothy 1:9 ).
Inasmuch as God has chosen some to be saved, he has also chosen how he will save them. Jesus the Messiah is God's Chosen One and believers are chosen in him (Ephesians 1:4 ). God chooses to regenerate through the word of truth (James 1:18 ), the work of the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 1:1-2 ) and personal faith (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ).
God's elect are chosen specifically to show both God's praise (1 Peter 2:9 ) and to live in obedience to Christ (1 Peter 1:2 ). As God's chosen ones they are protected by himGod works everything together for their good (Romans 8:28 ), none can bring any charge against them (Romans 8:33 ), and nothing can separate them from the love of God in Jesus Christ the Lord (Romans 8:39 ).
As with Israel in the Old Testament, so with the believers in the New Testament, the only reason given for why God chose someone to salvation is his love (Titus 1:1 ).
Conclusion . Scripture presents God as a loving, personal being who created the universe and is intimately involved in its affairs, maintaining it and working out everything according to a benevolent, eternal plan. In order to accomplish this he elects (chooses) that certain things be done, that certain people do them, that it be done a certain way, and that, in the end, his redemptive purposes be accomplished. When human beings acknowledge God's choices by participating in them, they find life and blessing at its fullest. If they reject his choices, God will still accomplish his ultimate ends, but they suffer the consequences that attend the rejection of God's will.
Walter A. Elwell
See also Israel ; Messiah
Bibliography . G. C. Berkouwer, Divine Election ; D. A. Carson, Divine Sovereignty and Human Responsibility ; L. Coenen, NIDNTT, 1:533-43; F. Davidson, Pauline Predestination ; G. Quell, TDNT, 4:145-68; H. H. Rowley, The Biblical Doctrine of Election ; G. Schrenk, TDNT , 4:172-92; H. Seebass, TDOT, 2:73-87; N. Turner, Christian Words .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Election
(See ELECT.)
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Election
ELECTION . The idea of election, as expressive of God’s method of accomplishing His purpose for the world in both providence and grace, though (as befits the character of the Bible as peculiarly ‘the history of redemption’) especially in grace, goes to the heart of Scripture teaching. The word ‘election’ itself occurs but a few times ( Acts 9:15 ‘vessel of election,’ Romans 9:11 ; Romans 11:5 ; Romans 11:7 ; Romans 11:28 , 1 Thessalonians 1:4 , 2 Peter 1:10 ); ‘elect’ in NT much oftener (see below); but equivalent words in OT and NT, as ‘choose,’ ‘chosen,’ ‘foreknow’ (in sense of ‘fore-designate’), etc., considerably extend the range of usage. In the OT, as will be seen, the special object of the Divine election is Israel ( e.g. Deuteronomy 4:37 ; Deuteronomy 7:7 etc.); but within Israel are special elections, as of the tribe of Levi, the house of Aaron, Judah, David and his house, etc.; while, in a broader sense, the idea, if not the expression, is present wherever individuals are raised up, or separated, for special service (thus of Cyrus, Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1-6 ). In the NT the term ‘elect’ is frequently used, both by Christ and by the Apostles, for those who are heirs of salvation ( e.g. Matthew 24:22 ; Matthew 24:24 ; Matthew 24:31 ||, Isaiah 49:1-26 , Romans 8:33 , Colossians 3:12 , 2 Timothy 2:10 , Titus 1:1 , 1 Peter 1:2 ), and the Church, as the new Israel, is described as ‘an elect race’ ( 1 Peter 2:9 ). Jesus Himself is called, with reference to Isaiah 42:1 , God’s ‘chosen’ or ‘elect’ One ( Matthew 12:18 , Luke 9:35 RV [1] , Luke 23:35 ); and mention is once made of ‘elect’ angels ( 1 Timothy 5:21 ). In St. Paul’s Epistles the idea has great prominence ( Romans 9:1-33 , Ephesians 1:4 etc.). It is now necessary to investigate the implications of this idea more carefully.
Election, etymologically, is the choice of one, or of some, out of many . In the usage we are investigating, election is always, and only, of God. It is the method by which, in the exercise of His holy freedom, He carries out His purpose (‘the purpose of God according to election,’ Romans 9:11 ). The ‘call’ which brings the election to light, as in the call of Abraham, Israel, believers, is in time, but the call rests on God’s prior, eternal determination ( Romans 8:28-29 ). Israel was chosen of God’s free love ( Deuteronomy 7:6 ff.); believers are declared to be blessed in Christ, ‘even as he chose’ them ‘in him’ the One in whom is the ground of all salvation ‘before the foundation of the world’ ( Ephesians 1:4 ). It is strongly insisted on, therefore, that the reason of election is not anything in the object itself ( Romans 9:11 ; Romans 9:16 ); the ground of the election of believers is not in their holiness or good works, or even in fides prœvisa , but solely in God’s free grace and mercy ( Ephesians 1:1-4 ; holiness a result, not a cause). They are ‘made a heritage, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his will’ ( Ephesians 1:11 ); or, as in an earlier verse, ‘according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace’ ( Ephesians 1:6 ). Yet, as it is axiomatic that there is no unrighteousness with God ( Romans 9:14 ); that His loving will embraces the whole world ( John 3:16 , 1 Timothy 2:4 ); that He can never, in even the slightest degree, act partially or capriciously ( Acts 10:34 , 2 Timothy 2:13 ); and that, as salvation in the case of none is compulsory, but is always in accordance with the saved person’s own free choice, so none perishes but by his own fault or unbelief it is obvious that difficult problems arise on this subject which can be solved, so far as solution is possible, only by close attention to all Scripture indications.
1. In the OT . Valuable help is afforded, first, by observing how this idea shapes itself, and is developed, in the OT. From the first, then, we see that God’s purpose advances by a method of election, but observe also that, while sovereign and free, this election is never an end in itself, but is subordinated as a means to a wider end. It is obvious also that it was only by an election that is, by beginning with some individual or people, at some time, in some place that such ends as God had in view in His Kingdom could be realized. Abraham, accordingly, is chosen, and God calls him, and makes His covenant with him, and with his seed; not, however, as a private, personal transaction, but that in him and in his seed all families of the earth should be blessed ( Genesis 12:2-3 etc.). Further elections narrow down this line of promise Isaac, not Ishmael; Jacob, not Esau (cf. Romans 9:7-13 ) till Israel is grown, and prepared for the national covenant at Sinai. Israel, again, is chosen from among the families of the earth ( Exodus 19:3-6 , Deuteronomy 4:34 , Amos 3:2 ); not, however, for its own sake, but that it may be a means of blessing to the Gentiles. This is the ideal calling of Israel which peculiarly comes out in the prophecies of the Servant of Jehovah ( Isaiah 41:1-29 ; Isaiah 42:1-25 ; Isaiah 43:1-28 ; Isaiah 44:1-28 ; Isaiah 45:1-25 ; Isaiah 46:1-13 ; Isaiah 47:1-15 ; Isaiah 48:1-22 ; Luke 18:7 ) a calling of which the nation as a whole so fatally fell short ( Isaiah 42:19-20 ). So far as these prophecies of the Servant point to Christ the Elect One in the supreme sense, as both Augustine and Calvin emphasize His mission also was one of salvation to the world.
Here, however, it will naturally be asked Is there not, after all, a reason for these and similar elections in the greater congruity of the object with the purpose for which it was designed? If God chose Abraham, was it not because Abraham was the best fitted among existing men for such a vocation? Was Isaac not better fitted than Ishmael, and Jacob than Esau, to be the transmitters of the promise? This leads to a remark which carries us much deeper into the nature of election. We err grievously if we think of God’s relation to the objects of His choice as that of a workman to a set of tools provided for him, from which he selects that most suited to his end. It is a shallow view of the Divine election which regards it as simply availing itself of happy varieties of character spontaneously presenting themselves in the course of natural development. Election goes deeper than grace even into the sphere of nature. It presides, to use a happy phrase of Lange’s, at the making of its object (Abraham, Moses, David, Paul, etc.), as well as uses it when made. The question is not simply how, a man of the gifts and qualifications of Abraham, or Moses, or Paul, being given, God should use him in the way He did, but rather how a man of this spiritual build, and these gifts and qualifications, came at that precise juncture to be there at all. The answer to that question can be found only in the Divine ordering; election working in the natural sphere prior to its being revealed in the spiritual, God does not simply find His instruments He creates them: He has had them, in a true sense, in view, and has been preparing them from the foundation of things. Hence St. Paul’s saying of himself that he was separated from his mother’s womb ( Galatians 1:15 ; cf. of Jeremiah, Jeremiah 1:5 ; of Cyrus, Isaiah 45:5 etc.).
Here comes in another consideration. Israel was the elect nation, but as a nation it miserably failed in its vocation (so sometimes with the outward Church). It would seem, then, as if, on the external side, election had failed of its result; but it did not do so really. This is the next step in the OT development the realization of an election within the election, of a true and spiritual Israel within the natural, of individual election as distinct from national. This idea is seen shaping itself in the greater prophets in the doctrine of the ‘remnant’ (cf. Isaiah 1:9 ; Isaiah 6:13 ; Isaiah 8:16-18 etc.); in the idea of a godly kernel in Israel in distinction from the unbelieving mass (involved in prophecies of the Servant); and is laid hold of, and effectively used, by St. Paul in his rebutting of the supposition that the word of God had failed ( Romans 9:6 ‘for they are not all Israel that are of Israel,’ Romans 11:5 ; Romans 11:7 etc.). This yields us the natural transition to the NT conception.
2. In the NT . The difference in the NT standpoint in regard to election may perhaps now be thus defined. (1) Whereas the election in the OT is primarily national, and only gradually works round to the idea of an inner, spiritual election, the opposite is the case in the NT election is there at first personal and individual, and the Church as an elect body is viewed as made up of these individual believers and all others professing faith in Christ (a distinction thus again arising between inward and outward). (2) Whereas the personal aspect of election in the OT is throughout subordinate to the idea of service, in the NT, on the other hand, stress is laid on the personal election to eternal salvation; and the aspect of election as a means to an end beyond itself falls into the background, without, however, being at all intended to be lost sight of. The believer, according to NT teaching, is called to nothing so much as to active service; he is to be a light of the world ( Matthew 5:13-16 ), a worker together with God ( 1 Corinthians 3:9 ), a living epistle, known and read of all men ( 2 Corinthians 3:2-3 ); the light has shined in his heart that he should give it forth to others ( 2 Corinthians 4:6 ); he is elected to the end that he may show forth the excellencies of Him who called him ( 1 Peter 2:9 ), etc. St. Paul is a ‘vessel of election’ to the definite end that he should bear Christ’s name to the Gentiles ( Acts 9:15 ). Believers are a kind of ‘first-fruits’ unto God ( Romans 16:5 , 1 Corinthians 16:15 , James 1:18 , Revelation 14:4 ); there is a ‘fulness’ to be brought in ( Romans 11:25 ).
As carrying us, perhaps, most deeply into the comprehension of the NT doctrine of election, it is lastly to be observed that, apart from the inheritance of ideas from the OT, there is an experiential basis for this doctrine, from which, in the living consciousness of faith, it can never be divorced. In general it is to be remembered how God’s providence is everywhere in Scripture represented as extending over all persons and events nothing escaping His notice, or falling outside of His counsel (not even the great crime of the Crucifixion, Acts 4:28 ) and how uniformly everything good and gracious is ascribed to His Spirit as its author ( e.g. Acts 11:18 , Ephesians 2:8 , Philippians 2:13 , Hebrews 13:20-21 ). It cannot, therefore, be that in so great a matter as a soul’s regeneration (see Regeneration), and the translating of it out of the darkness of sin into the light and blessing of Christ’s Kingdom ( Acts 26:18 , Colossians 1:12-13 , 1 Peter 2:9-10 ), the change should not be viewed as a supreme triumph of the grace of God in that soul, and should not be referred to an eternal act of God, choosing the individual, and in His love calling him in His own good time into this felicity. Thus also, in the experience of salvation, the soul, conscious of the part of God in bringing it to Himself, and hourly realizing its entire dependence on Him for everything good, will desire to regard it and will regard it; and will feel that in this thought of God’s everlasting choice of it lies its true ground of security and comfort ( Romans 8:28 ; Romans 8:33 ; Romans 8:38-39 ). It is not the soul that has chosen God, but God that has chosen it (cf. John 15:16 ), and all the comforting and assuring promises which Christ gives to those whom He describes as ‘given’ Him by the Father ( John 6:37 ; John 6:39 etc.) as His ‘sheep’ ( John 10:3-5 etc.) are humbly appropriated by it for its consolation and encouragement (cf. John 6:39 ; John 10:27-29 etc.).
On this experiential basis Calvinist and Arminian may be trusted to agree, though it leaves the speculative question still unsolved of how precisely God’s grace and human freedom work together in the production of this great change. That is a question which meets us wherever God’s purpose and man’s free will touch, and probably will be found to embrace unsolved element till the end. Start from the Divine side, and the work of salvation is all of grace; start from the human side, there is responsibility and choice. The elect, on any showing, must always be those in whom grace is regarded as effecting its result; the will, on the other hand, must be freely won; but this winning of the will may be viewed as itself the last triumph of grace God working in us to will and to do of His good pleasure (Philippians 2:13 , Hebrews 13:20-21 ). From this highest point of view the antinomy disappears; the believer is ready to acknowledge that it is not anything in self, not his willing and running, that has brought him into the Kingdom ( Romans 9:16 ), but only God’s eternal mercy. See, further, Predestination, Regeneration, Reprobate.
James Orr.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Election
1. Definition.-Election, in the teaching of the apostles, is the method by which God gives effect to His eternal purpose to redeem and save mankind; so that the elect are those who are marked out in God’s purpose of grace from eternity as heirs of salvation.
2. Election in the OT.-The doctrine of a Divine election lies at the very heart of revelation and redemption. Abraham was chosen that in him all the families of the earth should be blessed (Genesis 12:3). It was through the chosen people, the seed of Abraham, that God was pleased to make the clearest and fullest revelation of Himself to man and to prepare the way in the fullness of the time for the world’s redemption. Through their patriarchs and their Divinely guided history, through the laws and institutions of the Mosaic economy, through tabernacle and temple, through prophets and psalmists, through their sacred Scriptures, and at length through the Incarnate Word, born of the chosen people, the world has received the knowledge of the being and spirituality of God, of the love and mercy and grace of our Father in heaven. To Israel their great legislator said: ‘Thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God: the Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all peoples that are upon the face of the earth. The Lord did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people; for ye were the fewest of all peoples: but because the Lord loveth you’ (Deuteronomy 7:6 f.). Israel was chosen to spread abroad the Divine glory, and God designates them by His prophet ‘My chosen, the people which I formed for myself, that they might set forth my praise’ (Isaiah 43:20-21). They were taught, also, to realize how great were their privileges: ‘Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord; the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance’ (Psalms 33:12; cf. Psalms 135:4). Their very position on the face of the earth, placed in the midst; of the nations, was chosen with a view to their discipline and sanctification, for thus the Maccabaean annalist puts it: ‘Howbeit the Lord did not choose the nation for the place’s sake, but the place for the nation’s sake’ (2 Maccabees 5:19). And the destiny of the elect people was to culminate in the Elect Servant of the Lord: ‘Behold my servant whom I uphold; my chosen (בְּחָירִי, ὁ ἐκλεκτός μον) in whom my soul delighteth: I have put my spirit upon him; he shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles’ (Isaiah 42:1 Revised Version ; ‘the Elect one’ appears as a Messianic designation in the Book of Enoch; xl. 5, xlv. 3, 4, 5, xlix. 2, 4, and is found applied to Christ in Luke 9:35; Luke 23:35). This conception of Israel as the people of God’s election colours the whole of the teaching of the apostles and forms the subject of St. Paul’s great discussion in the chapters where he deals with the problem of their rejection (Romans 9-11). That the Jewish people had come to attribute to it an exaggerated and erroneous value is clear not only from St. Paul’s argument but also from the Rabbinical literature of the time (see Sanday-Headlam, Romans 5, p. 248ff.).
3. Biblical use of the word.-In biblical Greek the word ἐκλεκτοί (ἐκλέγεσθαι, ἐκλογή) is of frequent occurrence. In the OT we find ἐκλεκτός used in the sense of picked men [1]; David, Psalms 89:20-21 [2]); of the nation Israel (Psalms 106:5 [3], Isaiah 45:4; Isaiah 65:9; Isaiah 65:15); of the Servant of the Lord (Isaiah 42:1; cf. Isaiah 52:13). In the NT we find the verb used, always in the middle voice, of our Lord’s choice of the Twelve from the company of the disciples (Luke 6:13, John 6:70; John 13:18; John 15:19, Acts 1:2); of the choice of an apostle in the place of Judas (Acts 1:24); of Stephen and his colleagues (Acts 6:5); of God’s choice of the patriarchs (Acts 13:17); and of the choice of delegates to carry the decisions of the Apostolic Council to the Gentile churches (Acts 15:22; Acts 15:25). It is used of God’s choice of the foolish things of the world to put to shame them that are wise, and the weak things to put to shame the things which are strong (1 Corinthians 1:27); and of His choice of the poor to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom promised to them that love Him (James 2:5).
In the Gospels ἐκλεκτοί and κλητοί are distinguished: κλητοί, as Lightfoot puts it (Colossians3, 1879, p. 220), ‘being those summoned to the privileges of the Gospel, and ἐκλεκτοί those appointed to final salvation (Matthew 24:22; Matthew 24:24; Matthew 24:31, Mark 13:20; Mark 13:22; Mark 13:27, Luke 18:7). But in St. Paul no such distinction can be traced. With him the two terms seem to be co-extensive, as two aspects of the same process, κλητοί having special reference to the goal, and ἐκλεκτοί to the starting-point. The same persons are “called” to Christ and “chosen out” from the world.’ It is to be noticed in the Epistles that while ὁ καλῶν is used of God or Christ in the present tense (1 Thessalonians 2:12; Romans 9:11-13 1 Thessalonians 1:4-6), ὁ ἐκλεγόμενος is never used, nor the present tense of any part, the aorist being employed to describe what depended upon God’s eternal purpose (Ephesians 1:14, 2 Thessalonians 2:13). In St. Peter’s Epistles κλητός is not found, nor ἐκλέγεσθαι, but the verbal adjective ἐκλεκτός is found four times, once of ‘elect’ people (1 Peter 1:1), once of Christians as an ‘elect race’ (1 Peter 2:9), and twice, following the OT, of Christ as the Living Stone, choice and ‘chosen’ to be the corner-stone (1 Peter 2:4; Romans 11:5-7). ἐκλολή is found of the Divine act (Acts 9:15, Romans 9:11; Romans 11:5; Romans 11:28, 1 Thessalonians 1:4, 2 Peter 1:10), and once as the abstract for the concrete ἐκλεκτοί (Romans 11:7).
4. St. Paul’s doctrine.-It is St. Paul who most fully develops the doctrine in its strictly theological aspects. His teaching, however, only expands that of our Lord on the same subject, as when He speaks of those whom the Father had given Him (John 6:37; John 6:39; John 17:2; John 17:24), to whom He should give life eternal, and whom He should keep so that they would never perish (John 10:28). St. Paul from an early period of his missionary labours saw results which were recognized in his circle to be due to an influence higher than man’s-to the predestinating counsel of God. For the historian tells how, on St. Paul’s preaching for the first time to Gentiles at Antioch of Pisidia, ‘as many as were ordained to eternal life believed’ (Acts 13:48). This was on his first missionary journey. On his second he preached to the Thessalonians among others, and in the two Epistles written to them on that extended journey there is the clear recognition of the same influence. Giving thanks to God for them, St. Paul in the opening words of the First Epistle discerns in their experience, and sets forth for their comfort, the proofs of their ‘election’ (1 Thessalonians 1:2-10). From their response to the gospel call, their acceptance of the gospel message, their patient endurance of affliction, and the joy they had in their new spiritual life, a joy begotten in them of the Holy Spirit, St. Paul inferred and knew their election. And not long after, when he wrote the Second Epistle to correct misapprehensions produced by the First, he set before the Thessalonian Christians, in language still loftier and more explicit, this profound and encouraging truth of a Divine election (2 Thessalonians 2:13-15). God is here represented as taking them for His own (the verb is εἵλατο, not ἐξελέξατο), and it is ‘from the beginning,’ from eternity (there is a reading ἀπαρχήν, ‘firstfruits,’ instead of ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς), that the transaction dates. It is not to religious privileges merely, nor even to a possible or contingent salvation, that they have been chosen, but to an actual and present experience of its blessings, felt in holiness of life and assurance of the truth. This was, indeed, what they were called to enjoy through the gospel preached by St. Paul and his colleagues, so as at length to obtain the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. In his Epistle to the Romans, written not long after, St. Paul, in ch. 8, rising to the loftiest heights of Divine inspiration, and penetrating, as it might seem, to the secret place of the counsels of the Most High, apprehends or himself, and makes known for the encouragement of faith, the links of the great chain of the Divine election by which the Church of believers is bound about the feet of God-‘foreknown,’ ‘foreordained,’ ‘called,’ ‘justified,’ ‘glorified’ (Romans 8:28-30). Here ‘they that love God’ are co-extensive and identical with ‘them that are called according to his purpose.’ They are ‘foreordained,’ so that they may attain the likeness of God’s Son, and, further, that He may be glorified in them and see of the travail of His soul and be satisfied. God’s elect (Romans 8:33) may have the assaults of temptation and trial to face, and tribulation, anguish, persecution, famine, nakedness, peril, and sword to endure; but nothing can separate them from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus.
These disclosures regarding God’s eternal purpose of grace are continued and extended by St. Paul in the Epistle to the Ephesians, where the spiritual blessings enjoyed in such abundance by them are traced up to their election by God-‘even as he chose us in him (Christ) before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blemish before him in love: having foreordained us unto adoption as sons through Jesus Christ unto himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace’ (Ephesians 1:4-6). It is a further development of this when St. Paul says again in the same Epistle: ‘We are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God afore prepared that we should walk in them’ (Ephesians 2:10). The unconditional character of the Divine choice, emphasized in these statements of the Apostle, is affirmed again when, writing to Timothy, he bids him suffer for the gospel ‘according to the power of God, who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose of grace which was given in Christ Jesus before times eternal’ (2 Timothy 1:9).
In a separate passage of the Epistle to the Romans (chs. 9-11) St. Paul deals with the mystery of the call of the Gentiles to take the place of gainsaying and disobedient Israel. In so doing he first vindicates God from the reproach of having departed from His ancient covenant-a reproach which would be well-founded if the covenant people were rejected and the Gentiles put in their place. Such a rejection, he contends, would not be altogether out of keeping with God’s treatment of His people in the course of their history.
‘There was from the first an element of inscrutable selectiveness in God’s dealings within the race of Abraham. Ishmael was rejected, Isaac chosen: Esau was rejected and Jacob chosen, antecedently to all moral conduct, though both were of the same father and mother. Such selectiveness ought at least to have prevented the Jews from renting their claims simply on having “Abraham to their father” ’ (Gore, ‘Argument of Romans ix.-xi.’ in Studia Biblica. iii. 40; cf. A. B. Bruce, St. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, p. 312ff.).
‘The election within the election’ here, St. Paul argues, is the Christian Church-the Israel after the Spirit; and the reproach of the objector falls to the ground (Romans 9:6-9). Besides, the Apostle further maintains, God, in His electing purpose, is sovereign, as is seen in the difference between the two sons of Rebecca; in the Divine word to Moses: ‘I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy’; and in the hardening of the heart of Pharaoh (Romans 9:10-24). And after all, if the election were cancelled, the blame would be Israel’s own, because of unbelief and disobedience, such as Moses denounced, and Isaiah bewailed when he said: ‘All the day long did I spread out my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people’ (Romans 10:21).
But, despite appearances, Israel was not cast off. Their rejection was not final. There were believing Israelites, like St. Paul himself, in all the churches; and he could say: ‘At this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace’ (Romans 11:5). Meanwhile the problem of Israel’s unbelief and of the passing over of spiritual privilege to the Gentiles (Romans 11:11) is to be solved by the Gentiles provoking Israel to jealousy-appreciating and embracing and profiting by the blessings of the Christian salvation to such an extent that Israel will be moved to desire find to possess those blessings for their own. When Jews in numbers come to seek as their own the righteousness and goodness which they see thus manifested in the lives of Christians, and are stirred up to envy and emulation by the contemplation of them, the time will be at hand when all Israel-Israel as a nation-shall be saved. Of that issue St. Paul has no doubt, for ‘the gifts and calling of God are without repentance’ (Romans 11:29).
To sum up St. Paul’s teaching, election (1) is the outcome of a gracious purpose of the heart of God as it contemplates fallen humanity from all eternity (Romans 8:28-29; cf. Romans 5:8-10); (2) is a display of Divine grace calculated to redound to the glory of God by setting forth His love and mercy towards sinful men (Ephesians 1:3-14); (3) is not conditioned upon any good foreseen in the elect, nor in any faith or merit which they may exhibit in time (1 Thessalonians 5:24,), but is ‘according to the good pleasure of his will’ (Ephesians 1:5), ‘according to his own purpose of grace’ (2 Timothy 1:9), of God’s sovereign purpose and grace (Romans 9:15; 1 Peter 2:6); (4) is carried out ‘in Christ’ (Ephesians 1:4; Ephesians 2:10) through the elect being brought into union with Him by faith, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places (Ephesians 1:3; Ephesians 1:5); (5) issues in sanctification by the Spirit and assurance of the truth (2 Thessalonians 2:13 f.) and heavenly glory (Romans 8:30); and (6) is proved by acceptance of the gospel call and by the trust and peace and joy of believing and obedient hearts (Galatians 5:8).
5. St. Peter’s doctrine.-If St. Peter’s allusions to the subject of election are few they fully support the teaching of St. Paul. In his addresses at Jerusalem after Pentecost, he speaks of ‘the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God’ (Acts 2:23) with reference to Jesus. It is fitting that the Apostle of the Circumcision should speak of Him as ‘a living stone, rejected indeed of man, but with God elect, precious’ (1 Peter 2:4; cf. ἀποδεδειγμένον, ‘approved,’ 1 Peter 2:22), and even quote concerning Him the prophetic Scripture: ‘Behold I lay in Zion a chief corner-stone, elect, precious’ (1Pe:6; cf. Isaiah 28:16). Of Christ he speaks, too, as ‘foreknown’ (1 Peter 1:20; Hort, ad loc., ‘designated afore’) before the foundation of the world.
St. Peter gives manifest prominence to the doctrine of election when, in the opening words of his First Epistle, he addresses the Jewish Christians of Pontus and other Asiatic provinces as ‘the elect who are sojourners’ there (ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς Πόντου, κτλ.). ‘Elect’ they are because their lot is cast in favoured lands where the messengers of the gospel have proclaimed the good tidings-still more because they have obeyed and believed the message, and have had experience of the blood of sprinkling and of the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit-yea, because they have been ‘designated afore,’ not to service as Christ was from the foundation of the world (1 Peter 1:20), but to blessing, even all the blessings of the Christian salvation by God the Father Himself (1 Peter 1:1-2). Conceived of as the Christian Israel, the Israel after the Spirit, these Jewish believers are, as St. Peter elsewhere calls them, ‘an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession’ (1 Peter 2:9, where election is seen to be not simply to privilege, but to character and service, to holy living and the setting forth of the Divine glory). Although they are an ‘elect race’ they are also in the same context described as ‘living stones’ (1Pe2:5), and Hort is right when he says ‘the whole spirit of the Epistle excludes any swallowing up of the individual relation to God in the corporate relation to Him; and the individual relation to God implies the individual election’ (First Epistle of St. Peter, I. 1-II. 17, 1898, p. 14).
Few as are St. Peter’s utterances regarding the doctrine, they entirely support St. Paul, even when, emphasizing the urgency of the matter as a part of practical religion, he bids his readers give diligence to make their ‘calling and election sure’ (2 Peter 1:10).
6. St. John’s doctrine.-It is from St. John that we have the record of our Lord’s most impressive teaching on the subject of those whom the Father had given Him (John 6:37; John 6:39; John 17:2; John 17:24). In his Gospel he uses ἐκλέγεσθαι, always, however, as employed in His discourses by the Lord Himself and with a definite reference to the Twelve, or to the company of the disciples. In his Second Epistle (2 John 1:1; 2 John 1:13) he has ἐκλεκτή. Whether the word describes an individual or a society it is not easy to say, but at least it has the same theological signification as in St. Paul and St. Peter. In the Apocalypse (Revelation 17:14) ἐκλεκτοί is used in a very significant connexion, where they that are with the Lamb in His warfare against the powers of evil, and in His victory over them, are ‘called and chosen and faithful,’ They are ‘called’ (κλητοί) in having heard and accepted the gospel message; ‘chosen’ (ἐκλεκτοί) as thus having given evidence of their Divine election; ‘faithful’ (πιστοί) as having yielded the loyal devotion of their lives to their Divine Leader, and persevered therein to the end. That ‘the elect’ are the same as ‘the sealed’ (Revelation 7:4) may be inferred from the manner in which the 144,000 pass unscathed through the conflicts and terrors let loose upon them (Revelation 14:1).
From this passage apparently comes the thought of the ‘number’ of the elect an in the Book of Common Prayer (‘Order for the Burial of the Dead’): ‘that it may please Thee to accomplish the number of Thine elect.’ The thought appears early in the sub-Apostolic Church, For in Clement’s Epistle to the Corinthians he urges them to ‘pray with earnest supplication and intercession that the Creator of all would preserve unharmed the constituted number of His elect in all the world through His beloved Son, Jesus Christ, through whom He called us from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge of the glory of His name’ (lix. 2; cf. ii. 4, lviii. 2; Apostol. Const. v. 15, viii. 22). No countenance is given in the Early Church to the idea that ‘the elect’ may live as they list and at last be saved, ‘Let us cleave to the innocent and the righteous,’ says Clement of Rome, ‘for such are the elect of God’ (op. cit. xlvi. 4). ‘It is through faith,’ says Hermas (Vis. III. viii. 3), ‘that the elect of God are saved.’ ‘In love all the elect of God were made perfect,’ says Clement again (xlix. 5), ‘for without love nothing is wellpleasing unto God.’
Literature.-C. Hodge, Systematic Theology 1874, ii. 333ff.; H. C. G. Moule, Outlines of Christian Doctrine, 1889, p. 37ff.; C. Gore, in Studia Biblica, iii. [4] 37ff.; Sanday-Headlam, Romans 5 (International Critical Commentary , 1902), 248ff.; A. B. Brace, St. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, 1894, p. 310ff.; Commentaries on passages noticed above, especially Lightfoot and Hort, ad locc.
Thomas Nicol.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Elect, Election
ELECT, ELECTION (ἐκλέγεσθαι, ἐκλεκτός, ἐκλογή).—Though we have no reference in the Gospels to any conscious effort on the part of the writers to grasp the significance of the Divine action in choosing and rejecting the human objects of His favour and the instruments of His will, we have sufficiently explicit statements, incidentally valuable, to show clearly that they inherited the OT conceptions on this question. The self-identification of Jesus with the ideal Servant of Jehovah (Luke 4:18 f. = Isaiah 61:1 f.) at the outset of His public ministry at once widens the scope of the revelation of His Father’s elective activity, and emphasizes the profound depths in human-Divine relationships to which this activity in the freedom of its manifestation has penetrated. Once again, in what may without exaggeration be called the most critical moment of Jesus’ public life, when suffering and death (Luke 9:31) assumed large proportions in His sight, the revelation of His position as the elect of God (ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος, Luke 9:35) not only assured His fearful disciples, but strengthened Himself in His often-expressed conviction that the consciousness of His eternal Sonship was well founded.
The variant reading ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος instead of ὁ ἀγατητός (Mark 9:7 = Matthew 17:5) is generally recognized as the genuine one, not only on account of the high authority of א and B, but also because, according to an obvious canon of textual criticism, it is the more likely reading of the two (see Scrivener’s . to the Criticism of the NT, ii. 247 f.; cf., however, Nestle’s of the Greek NT2 [1] , p. 52, and art. ‘Ascension of Isaiah’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. ii. p. 501a). The Matthaean and Markan versions bear evident traces of assimilation to the voice at Jesus’ baptism. In this connexion it is important to remember how fully Jesus recognized that His position as the elect Son involved the fulfilment (ἐμελλεν τληροῦν, Luke 9:31) by Him of conditions foreordained as inseparable from His earthly life (cf. Luke 9:22; Luke 13:33; Luke 24:7, in each of which places is found St. Luke’s favourite and emphatic ΔέΙ: see also Mark 8:31, Matthew 17:21). The determining factor in the free choice (cf. ἐξουσίαν ἐχω θεῖναι αὐτήν, κ.τ.λ., John 10:18) by Jesus of the cross as the crowning act of His self-ahnegation was its absolute necessity (οὑχί ταῦτα ἔδει ταθεῖν, Luke 24:26). The ultimate synthesis of these apparently irreconcilable hypotheses may elude the keenest observation, but the reflexion that, in acting as He did, Jesus was fulfilling conditions which lie at the root of all well-ordered moral and spiritual activity (cf. ἔτρετιεν αὐτῶ, Hebrews 2:10; ὥφειλεν, Hebrews 2:17) will serve to remind us of a sphere where these seeming contradictions are discovered to be profoundly at one, both in their origin and in the end at which they aim. It is noteworthy that St. Luke not only gives the burden of the conversation between Jesus and His heavenly visitants; he also implies that Jesus was there informed in detail of the character of the death which He was about to suffer (συνελάλουν αὐτῳ … ἑλεγον την ἔξοδον αὑτοῦ, Luke 9:30 f.).
How universally the title of ‘the Elect’ or ‘the Elect One’ had become identified with that of ‘the Christ’ is best seen in the contemptuous irony of the scoffing rulers who mocked on the day of the Crucifixion. The demonstrative οὗτος and the titular ὁ ἑκλεκτός combine to mark the emphasis with which they rejected the Messianic claims of Jesus; and not only the claims, but the foundation upon which those claims rested (cf. Luke 23:35). It is remarkable that St. Luke seems to be the only NT writer who has adopted the use of the word as a designation, strictly speaking, of the Messiah (cf., however, the variant reading ὁ ἐκλεκτός in the Baptist’s testimony to Jesus, John 1:34 WH [2] ). This statement is not affected by St. Matthew’s quotation from Isaiah (Isaiah 42:1), who may be regarded as the originator of the title. Here we have the idea in prominence, but by way of interpretation rather than by direct statement (cf. his use of the verb ᾘΡέΤΙΣΑ, Matthew 12:18, instead of the merely descriptive Ὁ ἘΚΛΕΚά ΜΟΥ of Isaiah 42:1).
The only other writing of a late date in which ‘the Elect One appears as a Messianic title is the Book of Enoch, which seems to have been the chief means of popularizing its use. Indeed, it would be interesting to trace the influence of that work in this, as well as in other respects, upon the Gospels of the NT. Of the many names by which the coming Messiah is designated there, the favourite one seems to be ‘the Elect One’ (see 40:5, 45:3f., 49:2, 4, 51:3, 5, 52:6, 9, 55:4, 61:5, 8, 10, 62:1), and on a couple of occasions this is joined with another word or words which are equivalent to a characterization of the conditions upon which His election to the Messiahship rests (‘the righteous and elect one,’ 53:6; ‘the elect one of righteousness and faith,’ 39:6 [3]). A somewhat fantastic representation of the method by which the Divine election of Jesus was consummated occurs in Hermas, where the servant elected by his lord (ἑκλεξάμενος δοῦλόν τινα τιστόν, κ.τ.λ.), after having approved himself as a zealous guardian of his master’s interests, is chosen by the latter (μετὰ τοῦ τνεὐματος ἁγιου εἱλατο κοινωνἱον) to occupy the position of ‘great power and lordship.’ Whatever we may think of the orthodoxy of this teaching, it is at least interesting as showing how completely the habits of thought in the early Church were dominated by this aspect of the Incarnation, and how men strove by the aid of reason to harmonize the ideas underlying the titles of ‘Servant’ and ‘Son’ (see Sim. 5, i.–vi.).
As the Christological ideas of the early Church begin to emerge and to crystallize, we find this one holding a firm place, while at the same time another equally emphatic conception begins to assert itself. The election, by God, of Jesus was held to be a means to a wider end—the establishment of a chosen body which should exhibit on earth the graces and virtues of Him in and through whom their election was accomplished (cf. 1 Peter 2:4 f., 9f., where the writer’s insistence on the profound oneness of Jesus and His people is fundamentally and essentially Pauline, though he elaborates no argument to prove what he States; cf. ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ, Ephesians 1:4).
‘The fundamental conception of Jesus dominating everything was, according to the OT, that God had chosen Him and through Him the Church. God had chosen Him and made Him to be both Lord and Christ. He had made over to Him the work of setting up the Kingdom,’ etc. (Harnack, Dogmengeschichte, English translation vol. i. p. 81). ‘The Christian community must be conceived as a communion resting on a divine election’ (ib. p. 148).
We must not forget, however, that this Divine election has its roots struck deep in the election which issued in the Incarnation, and that, apart from the latter, which is the rationale and guarantee of the former, we cannot believe in the existence of ‘an elect race’ (ὑμεῖς δὲ γένος ἐκλεκτόν, 1 Peter 2:9). This was apprehended very soon by the Fathers of the Church, who never separate the idea of the election of Jesus from that of the community (ὁ ἐκλεξάμενος τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν καὶ ἡμᾶς διʼ αὑτοῦ, κ.τ.λ., Clem. Rom. [3]5 Ep. ad Cor. lxiv.; cf. also the Paulinism ὁ λαὸς δν ἡτοίμασεν ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημὲνῳ αὐτοῦ, Ep. of Barnabas iii. 6). While it is recognized that the ultimate Author of all elective purpose is God the Father, it is agreed that the active Agent in giving expression to the Divine decree is the Son, apart from whom (εἰ μὴ διʼ ἐμοῦ, John 14:6) it is not only impossible for men to approach God, but even to hear the voice of that calling (κλήσεως ἐπουρανίου, Hebrews 3:1; cf. Hebrews 12:25) which He addresses to them in Christ (ὁ καλέσας ὑμᾶς … ἐν Χριστῷ, 1 Peter 5:10), and which, when heard, is the antecedent condition of their election (cf. 2 Peter 1:10; see οἱ κλητοὶ καὶ ἐκλεκτοὶ καὶ πιστοί. Revelation 17:14).
It will scarcely be contended that there is any practical difference in the Christology of those who speak of an election διἀ Χριστοῦ, and of those who in the same connexion use the phrase ἐν Χριστω. We are able, perhaps, to see in the former expression an emphatic assertion of the delegated activity of Christ who prepares ‘for Himself’ a people (αὑτος ἑαυτῶ τον λαον τόν καινον ἑτοιμαζων ἑτιδειξη, Barn. v. 7, cf. xiv. 6) whose prerogatives and position shall be in correspondence with His royal priesthood, and with the Sonship to which He was chosen (1 Peter 2:4; 1 Peter 2:9, Revelation 20:6; Revelation 1:6; cf. Hebrews 7:24 ἁταράβατον τὴν ἱερωσύιην, Romans 8:14-17 οὖτοι υἱοὶ θεοῦ εἰσιν … συνκληρονομοι δὲ Χριστοῦ, κ.τ.λ.).
Nor is the teaching of Jesus Himself devoid of references to those chosen by God out of mankind ‘as vessels made to honour’ (cf. 2 Timothy 2:21, Romans 9:21). He indirectly tells us that ‘the elect’ have an influence in the Divine government of the world which makes for mercy and pity and salvation. The awful scenes accompanying the destruction of Jerusalem would result in the annihilation of its doomed inhabitants, were it not that, ‘for the sake of his chosen,’ the Lord (some of the old Latin versions read Deus) had determined to cut short the duration of that period (cf. Mark 13:20 = Matthew 24:22, in both of which passages occurs the verb κολοβοῦν, found nowhere else in the NT, showing the interdependence of the two authors, although the forms of the verb in both places are not the same). St. Luke does not make any mention in this part of his record of the elect, but curiously enough he makes a reference to the vengeance of God being wreaked (ἡμέραι ἐκδικήσεως, Luke 21:22) on the unfortunate city, which reminds us of the words of Jesus contained in another passage in the same Gospel. Jesus there is said to speak of God ‘avenging his elect’ (ὁ δὲ θεὸς οὐ μὴ ποιήσῃ τὴν ἐκδίκησιν τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ, Luke 18:7). It may be permissible to conjecture that St. Luke omitted to mention Jesus’ reference to the elect in the former context because of the promise implied in the interrogatory sentence just quoted. On the other hand, it is possible that a displacement has occurred in the text, with the result that we have a double reference to God’s activity on behalf of His chosen, each being suitable to the textual position it occupies. The subject of the prayers of those who appeal (τῶν βοώντων αὐτῷ) ‘day and night’ is that, in the first place, they may lie delivered from injustice; and, secondly, that they may soon see the vengeance of God active on their behalf against those who oppress them (cf. ἑκδίκησόν με ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀντιδίκου μου, Luke 18:3, where the first idea is prominent; and ἐκδικεῖς … ἐκ τῶν, κ.τ.λ., Revelation 6:10, in which the second thought is emphasized; cf. also the reference to the cry of Abel’s blood for vengeance, cf. Hebrews 12:24 = Genesis 4:10). It is possible that, by interpreting the cry of the elect in this twofold sense, we are able to obtain a clearer idea of the meaning of the ‘longsuffering’ of God with regard to them (μακροθυμεῖ ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς). The ambiguity of the expression is mitigated if we remember that the patience of God is needed even by His elect, whose insistent (cf. φωνῇ μεγάλῃ, Revelation 6:10, and ἠμέρας καἰ νυκτός, Luke 18:7) appeal for vengeance on their enemies and oppressors is not in harmony with the voice of that blood by which they were redeemed (αἶμα ῥαντισμοῦ, Hebrews 12:24). Much more, of course, does the patient waiting of God, sometimes amounting even to seeming tardiness, reveal His tenderness when exemplified in the case of those who torment His elect (ὥς τινες βραδυτῆτα ἡγοῦνται, 2 Peter 3:9). Arising out of this thought we are not surprised to find on more than one occasion that not only is it insufficient for their final acceptance that men should be ‘called’ (cf. the contrast πολλοὶ κλητοί and ὀλίγοι ἐκλεκτοί, Matthew 22:14), for this is in harmony with much of Jesus’ teaching elsewhere (cf. Matthew 7:24; Matthew 7:26 etc.), but that there is even a danger that the elect may lose that to and for which they were chosen (see … ἀποπλανᾷν … τοὺς ἐκλεκτούς, Mark 13:22, cf. Matthew 24:24; εἰ δυνατόν can hardly be an implied assertion of the impossibility of success attending the efforts of the false teachers to lead astray the elect; it rather refers to that object which they had in view). Another and a further condition must be fulfilled before the chosen of God may claim the salvation to which they were elected (… τὴν ἡτοιμασμένην ἡμῖν βασιλείαν ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, Matthew 25:34; cf. Matthew 20:23, Hebrews 11:6). On more than one occasion Jesus insists on the necessity of endurance or perseverance up to the very end of their experiences (ὁ ὑπομείνας … σωδήσεται, Mark 13:13 = Matthew 24:13; cf. Matthew 10:22, Ephesians 6:18), and, on the other hand, we are justified in applying to this place His warning, which He gave to those whose joy in receiving the gospel message was but a transitory (πρόσκαιρος, Matthew 13:21 = Mark 4:17) emotion. Of a like nature is the incidental remark of the seer of the Apocalypse, that Jesus’ companions in His warfare with ‘the beast’ are those who not only were called and elected, but whose calling and election had been crowned by their enduring faithfulness (πιστοί, Revelation 17:14). We are thus able to appreciate the anxiety of later Christian writers, who emphasized this part of Jesus’ teaching, and who reminded their readers that their entrance into the eternal kingdom of Jesus was conditioned by their enduring zeal; for in this way alone their ‘calling’ and ‘election’ were made stable and lasting and certain (βεβαίαν ὑμῶν τὴν κλῆσιν καὶ ἐκλογὴν ποιεῖσθαι, 2 Peter 1:10, cf. Hebrews 3:14).
That Jesus held firmly by the Jewish belief in the election of that race to spiritual privilege, is evidenced by many signs both in His teaching and His methods of work. It is true that His words are in perfect harmony with the Baptist’s scornful warning against that foolish pride of birth which leaves out of sight the responsibility involved by privilege (cf. Matthew 3:8 f. and John 8:39 f.). At the same time, He is no less ready to assert the claims of His fellow-countrymen to the rights which were theirs as the Divinely chosen people (ἠ σωτηρία ἐκ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἐστίν, John 4:22; cf. τὸν ἄρτον τῶν τέκνων, Matthew 15:26). The sting of His bitter denunciation of contemporary religionists lay in His recognition of their spiritual position, and of the fact that they of right were the teachers of the people (ἐπὶ τῆς Μωσέως καθέδρας, Matthew 23:2, cf. Matthew 23:13 ff.). In spite of many disappointing experiences, He was again and again amazed at the lack of faith and spiritual insight amongst ‘Israelites’ (Matthew 8:10 = Luke 7:9; John 3:10, cf. Mark 6:6), and His pathetic lament over the decaying Jerusalem shows how eagerly He had hoped to make the Jewish nation realize its ancient place as the ‘first-begotten’ in the family of His Father (Exodus 4:22, Jeremiah 31:9, cf. Hebrews 12:23). His activity in this direction betrays itself both in His words which incidentally express His feelings (ἄφες πρῶτον χορτασθῆναι τὰ τέκνα, Mark 7:27, Matthew 15:24), and in His deliberate instructions to His disciples to confine their missionary labours ‘to the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matthew 10:6). We are, however, bound to remember that St. Matthew alone records this restriction, and that there are some evidences of the abandonment of its strict enforcement even by Jesus Himself (John 4:39-42, cf. Acts 1:8; Acts 8:14 ff.).
Though Jesus felt Himself forced to recognize, in the attitude of the Pharisees and lawyers of His day, the failure of God’s people to realize the Divine purpose in them, He also recognizes no less distinctly that, according to that purpose, theirs was a high destiny (… τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θεοῦ ἠθέτησαν εἰς ἐαυτούς, Luke 7:30 [5]), and it seems as if at times His realization of what this people might have become, and His keen disappointment at their actual achievement, led Him into speaking disparagingly of those who were outside the Jewish covenant (cf. the contrast ὑμεῖς … ἠμεῖς John 4:23, which is the verbal expression of a contrast running through the whole narrative [6]; cf. also the privilege involved in the word πρῶτον as well as the harsh contrast τέκνα [7] … κυνάρια, Mark 7:27 f.).
We may here note that St. Matthew has preserved several fragments which deal with the claim of Israel as God’s people to be the sole recipients of the gospel message (Matthew 10:5 f., Matthew 10:23, Matthew 15:24, Matthew 23:2 f.), though he also records sayings of Jesus which conflict with this (Matthew 24:14, Matthew 28:19, cf. Mark 13:10; Mark 11:17; Mark 14:9; Mark 16:15, Luke 24:47). Perhaps the most striking instance of these just referred to is that in which Jesus avers, as His reason for the evangelization of Israel alone, that His ‘coming’ is imminent, and that no time is to be lost, because, in any event, the work will not be completed before that occurrence (… ἔως ἐλθη ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἁνθρώτου, Matthew 10:23). It is evident that whatever may have been the case with regard to Jesus’ actual knowledge of the date of His parousia, those who heard His words understood Him to mean that it would take place soon (cf. καὶ τοτε, Mark 13:25, Luke 21:27, Matthew 24:30; οὐ μὴ τκρἐλθῃ ἡ γενεὰ αὐτη ἐως τἀντα γέοηται, Luke 21:32, see 1 Thessalonians 4:15 ff.). Moreover, the Evangelists seem to have established an intimate connexion in the consciousness of early Christianity between His second coming and the preaching of His gospel to ‘the cities of Israel’ (Acts 3:26, Romans 1:16; see Edersheim, Life and Times, i. 644 ff.; cf. also O. Holtzmann, Leben Jesu, English translation pp. 160, 301, etc.). ‘It might, of course, be objected, that the idea of the universality of the judgment leaves no sufficient reason for restricting the disciples’ work to the Jewish people, and that the heathen were perhaps even in more urgent need of the disciples’ preaching than the Jews, since to the latter had been given the Law and the Prophets. The justness of the objection may be granted. But agai
Webster's Dictionary - Election
(1):
(a.) The act of choosing; choice; selection.
(2):
(a.) Divine choice; predestination of individuals as objects of mercy and salvation; - one of the "five points" of Calvinism.
(3):
(a.) The choice, made by a party, of two alternatives, by taking one of which, the chooser is excluded from the other.
(4):
(a.) Discriminating choice; discernment.
(5):
(a.) Power of choosing; free will; liberty to choose or act.
(6):
(a.) Those who are elected.
(7):
(a.) The act of choosing a person to fill an office, or to membership in a society, as by ballot, uplifted hands, or viva voce; as, the election of a president or a mayor.
King James Dictionary - Election
ELEC'TION, n. L. electio. The act of choosing choice the act of selecting one or more from others. Hence appropriately,
1. The act of choosing a person to fill an office or employment, by any manifestation of preference, as by ballot, uplifted hands or viva voce as the election of a king, of a president, or a mayor. Corruption in elections is the great enemy of freedom.
2. Choice voluntary preference free will liberty to act or not. It is at his election to accept or refuse. 3. Power of choosing or selecting. 4. Discernment discrimination distinction. To use men with much difference and election is good.
5. In theology, divine choice predetermination of God, by which persons are distinguished as objects of mercy, become subjects of grace, are sanctified and prepared for heaven. There is a remnant according to the election of grace.
Romans 11
6. The public choice of officers. 7. The day of a public choice of officers. 8. Those who are elected. The election hath obtained it. Romans 11
CARM Theological Dictionary - Elect, Election
The elect are those called by God to salvation. This election occurs before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4) and is according to God's will not man's (Romans 8:29-30; Rom 9:6-23) because God is sovereign (Romans 9:11-16). The view of election is especially held by Calvinists who also hold to the doctrine of predestination.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Election
Of a divine election, a choosing and separating from others, we have three kinds mentioned in the Scriptures. The first is the election of individuals to perform some particular and special service. Cyrus was "elected" to rebuild the temple; the twelve Apostles were "chosen,"
elected, to their office by Christ; St. Paul was a "chosen," or elected "vessel," to be the Apostle of the Gentiles. The second kind of election which we find in Scripture, is the election of nations, or bodies of people, to eminent religious privileges, and in order to accomplish, by their superior illumination, the merciful purposes of God, in benefiting other nations or bodies of people. Thus the descendants of Abraham, the Jews, were chosen to receive special revelations of truth; and to be "the people of God," that is, his visible church, publicly to observe and uphold his worship. "The Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth." "The Lord had a delight in thy fathers to love them, and he chose their seed after them, even you, above all people." It was especially on account of the application of the terms elect, chosen, and peculiar, to the Jewish people, that they were so familiarly used by the Apostles in their epistles addressed to the believing Jews and Gentiles, then constituting the church of Christ in various places. For Christians were the subjects, also, of this second kind of election; the election of bodies of men to be the visible people and church of God in the world, and to be endowed with peculiar privileges. Thus they became, though in a more special and exalted sense, the chosen people, the elect of God. We say "in a more special sense," because as the entrance into the Jewish church was by natural birth, and the entrance into the Christian church, properly so called, is by faith and a spiritual birth, these terms, although many became Christians by mere profession, and enjoyed various priviledges in consequence of their people or nation being chosen to receive the Gospel, have generally respect, in the New Testament, to bodies of true believers, or to the whole body of true believers as such. They are not, therefore, to be interpreted according to the scheme of Dr. Taylor of Norwich, by the constitution of the Jewish, but by the constitution of the Christian, church.
2. To understand the nature of this "election," as applied sometimes to particular bodies of Christians, as when St. Peter says, "The church which is at Babylon, elected together with you," and sometimes to the whole body of believers every where; and also the reason of the frequent use of the term election, and of the occurrence of allusions to the fact; it is to be remembered, that a great religious revolution, so to speak, had occurred in the age of the Apostles; with the full import of which we cannot, without calling in the aid of a little reflection, be adequately impressed. This change was no other than the abrogation of the church state of the Jews, which had continued for so many ages. They had been the only visibly acknowledged people of God in all the nations of the earth; for whatever pious people might have existed in other nations, they were not, in the sight of men, and collectively, acknowledged as "the people of Jehovah." They had no written revelations, no appointed ministry, no forms of authorized initiation into his church and covenant, no appointed holy days, or sanctioned ritual. All these were peculiar to the Jews, who were, therefore, an elected and peculiar people. This distinguished honour they were about to lose. They might have retained it as Christians, had they been willing to admit the believing Gentiles of all nations to share it with them; but the great reason of their peculiarity and election, as a nation, was terminated by the coming of the Messiah, who was to be "a light to lighten the Gentiles," as well as "the glory of his people Israel." Their pride and consequent unbelief resented this, which will explain their enmity to the believing part of the Gentiles, who, when that which St. Paul calls "the fellowship of the mystery" was fully explained, chiefly by the glorious ministry of that Apostle himself, were called into that church relation and visible acknowledgment as the people of God, which the Jews had formerly enjoyed, and that with even a higher degree of glory, in proportion to the superior spirituality of the new dispensation. It was this doctrine which excited that strong irritation in the minds of the unbelieving Jews, and in some partially Christianized ones, to which so many references are made in the New Testament. The were "provoked," were made "jealous;" and were often roused to the madness of persecuting opposition by it. There was then a new election of a new people of God, to be composed of Jews, not by virtue of their natural descent, but through their faith in Christ, and of Gentiles of all nations, also believing, and put as believers, on an equal ground with the believing Jews: and there was also a rejection, a reprobation, but not an absolute one; for the election was offered to the Jews first, in every place, by offering them the Gospel. Some embraced it, and submitted to be the elect people of God, on the new ground of faith, instead of the old one of natural descent; and therefore the Apostle, Romans 11:7 , calls the believing part of the Jews, "the election," in opposition to those who opposed this "election of grace," and still clung to their former and now repealed election as Jews and the descendants of Abraham; "But the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded." The offer had been made to the whole nation; all might have joined the one body of believing Jews and believing Gentiles; but the major part of them refused: they would not "come into the supper;" they made "light of it;" light of an election founded on faith, and which placed the relation of "the people of God" upon spiritual attainments, and offered to them only spiritual blessings. They were, therefore, deprived of election and church relationship of every kind: their temple was burned; their political state abolished; their genealogies confounded; their worship annihilated; and all visible acknowledgment of them by God as a church withdrawn, and transfer red to a church henceforward to be composed chiefly of Gentiles:
and thus, says St. Paul, "were fulfilled the words of Moses, I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people, and by a foolish," ignorant and idolatrous, "people I will anger you." It is easy, therefore, to see what is the import of the "calling" and "election" of the Christian church, as spoken of in the New Testament. It was not the calling and the electing of one nation in particular to succeed the Jews; but it was the calling and the electing of believers in all nations, wherever the Gospel should be preached, to be in reality what the Jews typically, and therefore in an inferior degree, had been,—the visible church of God, "his people," under Christ "the Head;" with an authenticated revelation; with an appointed ministry, never to be lost; with authorized worship; with holy days and festivals; with instituted forms of initiation; and with special protection and favour.
3. The third kind of election is personal election; or the election of individuals to be the children of God, and the heirs of eternal life. This is not a choosing to particular offices and service, which is the first kind of election we have mentioned; nor is it that collective election to religious privileges and a visible church state, of which we have spoken. For although "the elect" have an individual interest in such an election as parts of the collective body, thus placed in possession of the ordinances of Christianity; yet many others have the same advantages, who still remain under the guilt and condemnation of sin and practical unbelief. The individuals properly called "the elect," are they who have been made partakers of the grace and saving efficacy of the Gospel. "Many," says our Lord, "are called, but few chosen." What true personal election is, we shall find explained in two clear passages of Scripture. It is explained by our Lord, where he says to his disciples, "I have chosen you out of the world:" and by St. Peter, when he addresses his First Epistle to the "elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus." To be elected, therefore, is to be separated from "the world," and to be sanctified by the Spirit, and by the blood of Christ, It follows, then, not only that election is an act of God done in time, but also that it is subsequent to the administration of the means of salvation. The "calling" goes before the "election;" the publication of the doctrine of "the Spirit," and the atonement, called by Peter "the sprinkling of the blood of Christ," before that "sanctification" through which they become "the elect" of God. In a word, "the elect" are the body of true believers; and personal election into the family of God is through personal faith. All who truly believe are elected; and all to whom the Gospel is sent have, through the grace that accompanies it, the power to believe placed within their reach; and all such might, therefore, attain to the grace of personal election.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Election
(Latin: eliere, to choose)
Selection of a person for a post by the votes of those authorized to fill the vacancy. In canon law, its ordinary meaning is the appointment, by legitimate electors, of a fit person to an ecclesiastical office. In Scripture, the calling or selection by God of chosen servants, like Saint Paul, "a vessel of election" (Acts 9); and all Christians: "knowing, brethren beloved of God, your election" (1 Thessalonians 1).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Election,
ἐκλογή, 'choice.' Spoken of :
1. the Lord Jesus: "Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect (bachir ) in whom my soul delighteth." Isaiah 42:1 ; 1 Peter 2:6 . He was fore-ordained to be a mercy-seat through faith in His blood. Romans 3:25 , margin ; 1 Peter 1:20 .
2. Cyrus, who was called by God to be His 'shepherd' to work out His will, saying to Jerusalem, "Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid." Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1-4 . It was Cyrus who released the captives to go to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. Ezra 1:2,3 .
3. When Jacob and Esau were born, Jacob was elected for blessing, and his descendants as the only nation chosen by God for His special favour. Romans 9:11-13 ; Amos 3:2 .
4. When God again restores Israel into blessing it will be a remnant that will be chosen, whom He calls His 'elect.' Isaiah 65:9,15,22 ; Matthew 24:22,24,31 ; Romans 11:28 .
5. Elect angels. 1 Timothy 5:21 .
6. Election of persons to eternal life. Romans 8:29,30,33 ; Romans 11:5,7 ; Colossians 3:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:4 ; 2 Timothy 2:10 ; Titus 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ; 1 Peter 5:13 ; 2 Peter 1:10 ; 2 John 1,13 .
The reason Christians feel a difficulty as to the doctrine of election to eternal life, is because they do not see the extent of the fall of man, and his utterly lost condition. Were it not for election, and the prevailing grace that follows it, not one would be saved. Christ died for all, and the gospel is proclaimed to all, Romans 3:22 ; Hebrews 2:9 ; but alas, except for the election and grace of God, none would respond. Luke 14:18 . God must have all the glory.
Another error that has caused a difficulty as to 'election ' is the idea which some maintain that as some are ordained to eternal life, others likewise are fore-ordained by God to perdition, called 'reprobation.' But this is not taught in scripture — God desires that all men should be saved, 1 Timothy 2:4 , and His election to life ensures that some will be. It was not before Esau was born, nor until long after he was dead, that it was said he was hated of God. Malachi 1:3 . Some even judge that it refers, not to Esau personally, but to his descendants after their deeds had been fully manifested. Cf. Obadiah 10 ; Ezekiel 35 .
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Election
God is a loving and merciful God, and in his grace chooses people for purposes that he has planned. This exercise of God’s sovereign will is called election.
In the Old Testament God’s election applied particularly to his choice of Abraham and, through Abraham, to his choice of Israel to be his people (Genesis 12:1-3; Nehemiah 9:7-8; Isaiah 41:8-9). From this people he produced one man, Jesus the Messiah, chosen by him before the foundation of the world to be the Saviour of the world (Luke 9:35; Acts 2:23; Acts 4:27-28; Ephesians 1:9-10; 1 Peter 1:20; 1 Peter 2:4; 1 Peter 2:6). All who believe in Jesus, whether Jew or Gentile, are the true people of God, the true descendants of Abraham (Romans 9:6-9; Galatians 3:14; Galatians 3:26-29). God has chosen them to receive his salvation, and together they form God’s people, the church (John 6:37; John 6:44; John 15:19; John 17:2; John 17:6; Ephesians 1:4-6; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14; 1 Peter 2:9). ‘The elect’ is therefore another name for the people of God (Matthew 24:22; Luke 18:7; 2 Timothy 2:10).
God’s activity in determining beforehand what will happen, particularly in relation to people’s destiny, is sometimes called predestination. This predestination originates in God himself, who acts according to his own will and purpose (Psalms 139:16; Isaiah 14:24; Isaiah 37:26; Isaiah 46:9-10; Romans 9:14-239; Acts 2:23; Acts 4:27-28; Ephesians 1:5; Romans 8:28-30; 1 Thessalonians 5:9; see PREDESTINATION).
The gracious work of God
Election has its source in the sovereign love of God. No one deserves to be chosen by God, but in his immeasurable mercy he has chosen to save some (Romans 9:15; Romans 11:5; Ephesians 1:5). God’s choice of people does not depend on anything of merit in them. It depends entirely on his unmerited favour towards them (Deuteronomy 7:6-8; Deuteronomy 9:6; Romans 11:6; 1 Corinthians 1:27-29; 2 Timothy 1:9; James 2:5).
Neither does God choose people because he foresees their faith or their good intentions (Romans 9:11; Romans 9:16). Salvation is not a reward for faith. Faith is simply the means by which people receive the undeserved salvation that God, in his mercy, gives (Romans 9:16; John 6:37-4084; Ephesians 2:8-9; see FAITH). Or, to put it another way, faith is the means by which God’s eternal choice becomes a reality in their earthly experience (Micah 3:9-129; 1 Thessalonians 1:4-9). By coming to believe in Jesus, they show that God has chosen them. Eternal life is not their achievement, but God’s (John 6:37; John 6:40).
All the merit for a person’s salvation is in Jesus Christ, whose work of atonement is the basis on which God can forgive repentant sinners (Romans 3:23-26; see JUSTIFICATION). They are chosen only because of their union with Christ, and they are to be changed into the likeness of Christ (Ephesians 1:4; Isaiah 41:8-97; cf. Romans 8:29; 2 Thessalonians 2:14).
No one can argue with God concerning his work of election, for the entire human race is guilty before him and in no position to demand mercy from him. God is the sovereign Creator; human beings are but his rebellious creatures. The amazing thing is not that God shows mercy on only some, but that he shows mercy on any at all (1618617169_29).
Election and calling
Sometimes the Bible speaks of God’s choosing as his calling (1618617169_86; Isaiah 51:2; Romans 9:11), but other times it makes a distinction (Matthew 22:14; see CALL). God chose his people from eternity (Ephesians 1:4; 2 Timothy 1:9) and determined to save those whom he had chosen (Romans 8:28-29; Ephesians 1:5; Ephesians 1:11). The historical event when each chosen person repented, believed, and accepted God’s salvation is sometimes spoken of as the call of God to that person (Romans 8:30; Romans 9:23-24; 1 Thessalonians 2:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14; 2 Timothy 1:9).
Side by side with the truth of the sovereign and divine will is the truth of human responsibility. The gospel is available to all, and those who refuse it have no one to blame but themselves (Romans 10:13; 1 Timothy 2:3-4; 2 Peter 3:9).
The knowledge that God has chosen sinners to receive salvation is a great encouragement to those who preach the gospel. It urges them on in their preaching, so that people might hear the message of grace that is God’s means of bringing his chosen to himself (John 10:14-16; John 17:6-8; Acts 13:48; Acts 18:10; Romans 10:13-14; 2 Timothy 2:10). And the salvation of those who respond in faith is eternally secure; for it depends not upon their efforts, but upon the sovereign choice of God (1618617169_2; John 10:27-29; Romans 8:33-39; Romans 11:29; see ASSURANCE).
Responsibilities of the elect
Although believers may feel secure because their salvation is centred in God, they deceive themselves if they think their behaviour is unimportant (2 Peter 1:9-11). There is nothing mechanical about election. Human beings are not lifeless robots manipulated by some impersonal fate. They are creatures made in God’s image, whose lives reflect their relationship with him. Those who have truly been chosen by God will show it by lives of perseverance in the faith he professes. The Bible often links statements about election with warnings and commands concerning the necessity for steadfastness, watchfulness and perseverance (Mark 13:13; Mark 13:22-23; Mark 13:27; Mark 13:33; Acts 13:48; Acts 14:22; 1 Thessalonians 5:23-24; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-15; 1 Timothy 6:11-12; see PERSEVERANCE).
Those whom God has chosen to be his people are, by that fact, chosen to be holy (Deuteronomy 7:6; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:15). Since they belong to God, they are to be separate from sin and uncleanness, bringing praise to him (Isaiah 43:21; Ephesians 1:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:13; see HOLINESS). They are to reflect the glory of Christ now, and will one day share in that glory fully (Romans 8:29-30; Romans 9:23; 1 Corinthians 2:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:14). Part of God’s purpose in choosing them is that their lives might bear fruit for God, as they develop Christian character and do good for others (John 15:16; Ephesians 2:10). God has chosen them to be his channel of blessing to an ever-increasing number of people (1 Peter 2:9-10; cf. Genesis 12:1-3).
Awareness of their election should not lead Christians to complacency. Rather the opposite, for God requires a higher standard of conduct in those who are his chosen people (Amos 3:2; 1618617169_80; 1 Peter 4:17). The way people live is the proof or disproof of their election (2 Peter 1:9-11; cf. Titus 1:1; 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:10).
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Bishop, Election of
The provisions made by the general canons ofthe American Church for the election of a Bishop are as follows:The Bishop of a Diocese is elected by the Clergy and Laity of theDiocese in council assembled. (The method of election is differentin different Dioceses.) On a Bishop being chosen, certificates ofhis election and also testimonials of his being worthy must besigned by a constitutional majority of the convention by whom he iselected. These, together with the approbation of his testimonialsby the House of Deputies in General Convention and its consent tohis consecration are then presented to the House of Bishops. If theHouse of Bishops consent to his consecration, the Presiding Bishopnotifies the Bishop-elect of such consent. If the Bishop-electaccepts, the Presiding Bishop then takes order for his consecration,either by himself and two other Bishops, or by three Bishops whomhe may appoint for that purpose. In case the election takes placeduring a recess of the General Convention and more than three monthsbefore the meeting of the next General Convention, then theabove certificates of election and testimonials must be submittedto the Standing Committees of the different Dioceses. If a majorityof the Standing Committees consent to the proposed consecration,the Presiding Bishop is notified of the fact, and the same iscommunicated to all the Bishops of this church in the United States(except those whose resignations have been accepted), and if amajority of the Bishops consent to the consecration, the PresidingBishop takes order for the consecration of the Bishop-elect. It isfurther ordered that "no man shall be consecrated a Bishop of thisChurch until he shall be thirty years old."
Bishop, Missionary—A Bishop elected by the House of Deputies ofthe General Convention, on nomination by the House of Bishops,and consecrated to exercise Episcopal functions in States orTerritories, or parts thereof, not organized into Dioceses.Missionary Bishops are in the same manner nominated, elected andconsecrated for the work of the Church in foreign fields.

Sentence search

by-Election - ) An Election held by itself, not at the time of a general Election
Electioneer - ) To make interest for a candidate at an Election; to use arts for securing the Election of a candidate
Foreordain - See Election
Choose - See Elect, Election ...
...
Preelection - ) Election beforehand
Ibhar - Election; he that is chosen
Reprobation - The act of abandoning, or state of being abandoned, to eternal destruction, and is applied to that decree or resolve which God has taken from all eternity to punish sinners who shall die in impenitence; in which sense it is opposed to Election. ...
See Election and PREDESTINATION
Election - The act of choosing a person to fill an office or employment, by any manifestation of preference, as by ballot, uplifted hands or viva voce as the Election of a king, of a president, or a mayor. Corruption in Elections is the great enemy of freedom. It is at his Election to accept or refuse. To use men with much difference and Election is good. There is a remnant according to the Election of grace. The Election hath obtained it
Chosen People - See Election
Choosing - Choice Election
Scrutineer - ) A scrutinizer; specifically, an examiner of votes, as at an Election
Elect, Election - This Election occurs before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4) and is according to God's will not man's (Romans 8:29-30; Rom 9:6-23) because God is sovereign (Romans 9:11-16). The view of Election is especially held by Calvinists who also hold to the doctrine of predestination
Reelection - ) Election a second time, or anew; as, the reelection of a former chief
Semibull - ) A bull issued by a pope in the period between his Election and coronation
Mugwump - ) A bolter from the Republican party in the national Election of 1884; an Independent
Election of Grace - The Scripture speaks (1) of the Election of individuals to office or to honour and privilege, e. (2) There is also an Election of nations to special privileges, e. (3) But in addition there is an Election of individuals to eternal life (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ; Ephesians 1:4 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ; John 13:18 ). The ground of this Election to salvation is the good pleasure of God (Ephesians 1:5,11 ; Matthew 11:25,26 ; John 15:16,19 ). The ultimate end of Election is the praise of God's grace (Ephesians 1:6,12 )
Election - (Latin: eliere, to choose) ...
Selection of a person for a post by the votes of those authorized to fill the vacancy. In Scripture, the calling or selection by God of chosen servants, like Saint Paul, "a vessel of Election" (Acts 9); and all Christians: "knowing, brethren beloved of God, your Election" (1 Thessalonians 1)
Destiny - See Election ; Fate ; Predestination
Election - Of a divine Election, a choosing and separating from others, we have three kinds mentioned in the Scriptures. The first is the Election of individuals to perform some particular and special service. The second kind of Election which we find in Scripture, is the Election of nations, or bodies of people, to eminent religious privileges, and in order to accomplish, by their superior illumination, the merciful purposes of God, in benefiting other nations or bodies of people. For Christians were the subjects, also, of this second kind of Election; the Election of bodies of men to be the visible people and church of God in the world, and to be endowed with peculiar privileges. To understand the nature of this "election," as applied sometimes to particular bodies of Christians, as when St. Peter says, "The church which is at Babylon, elected together with you," and sometimes to the whole body of believers every where; and also the reason of the frequent use of the term Election, and of the occurrence of allusions to the fact; it is to be remembered, that a great religious revolution, so to speak, had occurred in the age of the Apostles; with the full import of which we cannot, without calling in the aid of a little reflection, be adequately impressed. They might have retained it as Christians, had they been willing to admit the believing Gentiles of all nations to share it with them; but the great reason of their peculiarity and Election, as a nation, was terminated by the coming of the Messiah, who was to be "a light to lighten the Gentiles," as well as "the glory of his people Israel. There was then a new Election of a new people of God, to be composed of Jews, not by virtue of their natural descent, but through their faith in Christ, and of Gentiles of all nations, also believing, and put as believers, on an equal ground with the believing Jews: and there was also a rejection, a reprobation, but not an absolute one; for the Election was offered to the Jews first, in every place, by offering them the Gospel. Some embraced it, and submitted to be the elect people of God, on the new ground of faith, instead of the old one of natural descent; and therefore the Apostle, Romans 11:7 , calls the believing part of the Jews, "the Election," in opposition to those who opposed this "election of grace," and still clung to their former and now repealed Election as Jews and the descendants of Abraham; "But the Election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded. " The offer had been made to the whole nation; all might have joined the one body of believing Jews and believing Gentiles; but the major part of them refused: they would not "come into the supper;" they made "light of it;" light of an Election founded on faith, and which placed the relation of "the people of God" upon spiritual attainments, and offered to them only spiritual blessings. They were, therefore, deprived of Election and church relationship of every kind: their temple was burned; their political state abolished; their genealogies confounded; their worship annihilated; and all visible acknowledgment of them by God as a church withdrawn, and transfer red to a church henceforward to be composed chiefly of Gentiles:...
and thus, says St. " It is easy, therefore, to see what is the import of the "calling" and "election" of the Christian church, as spoken of in the New Testament. The third kind of Election is personal Election; or the Election of individuals to be the children of God, and the heirs of eternal life. This is not a choosing to particular offices and service, which is the first kind of Election we have mentioned; nor is it that collective Election to religious privileges and a visible church state, of which we have spoken. For although "the elect" have an individual interest in such an Election as parts of the collective body, thus placed in possession of the ordinances of Christianity; yet many others have the same advantages, who still remain under the guilt and condemnation of sin and practical unbelief. " What true personal Election is, we shall find explained in two clear passages of Scripture. " To be elected, therefore, is to be separated from "the world," and to be sanctified by the Spirit, and by the blood of Christ, It follows, then, not only that Election is an act of God done in time, but also that it is subsequent to the administration of the means of salvation. The "calling" goes before the "election;" the publication of the doctrine of "the Spirit," and the atonement, called by Peter "the sprinkling of the blood of Christ," before that "sanctification" through which they become "the elect" of God. In a word, "the elect" are the body of true believers; and personal Election into the family of God is through personal faith. All who truly believe are elected; and all to whom the Gospel is sent have, through the grace that accompanies it, the power to believe placed within their reach; and all such might, therefore, attain to the grace of personal Election
Election - The doctrine of Election is at once one of the most central and one of the most misunderstood teachings of the Bible. At its most basic level, Election refers to the purpose or plan of God whereby He has determined to effect His will. Thus Election encompasses the entire range of divine activity from creation, God's decision to bring the world into being out of nothing, to the end time, the making anew of heaven and earth. The word “election” itself is derived from the Greek word, eklegomai, which means, literally, “to choose something for oneself. The objects of divine selection are the elect ones, a term found with increasing frequency in the later writings of the Old Testament and at many places in the New (Matthew 22:14 ; Luke 18:7 ; Colossians 3:12 ; Revelation 17:14 ). ...
Israel as the Object of God's Election The doctrine of Election is rooted in the particularity of the Judeo-Christian tradition, that is, the conviction that out of all the peoples on earth God has chosen to reveal Himself in a special, unique way to one particular people. Five major motifs in the Old Testament portray God's Election of Israel. ...
(1) Election is the result of the sovereign initiative of God. While Abraham responded to this call in obedience and faith, his Election was not the result of his own efforts, but solely of God's decision. (4) Israel's Election was never intended to be a pretext for pride, but rather an opportunity for service. ...
Election and the New Covenant The early Christians saw themselves as heirs of Israel's Election, “a chosen generation, a holy nation, a peculiar people” (1 Peter 2:9 ). In John, Jesus is the unmistakable Mediator of Election: “Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you,” He reminded the disciples (John 15:16 ). Also in John the shadow side of Election is posed in the person of Judas, “the son of perdition. ...
There are three passages where Paul deals at length with different aspects of the doctrine of Election. In the first (Romans 8:28-39 ) divine Election is presented as the ground and assurance of the Christian's hope. In the third passage (Ephesians 1:1-12 ) Paul pointed to the Christocentric character of Election: God has chosen us in Christ before the foundation of the world. We can refer to this statement as the evangelical center of the doctrine of Election. Our Election is strictly and solely in Christ. ...
Election and the Christian Life Paul admonished the Thessalonians to give thanks because of their Election (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ), while Peter said that we should make our “calling and Election sure” (2 Peter 1:10 ). (1) Is not Election the same thing as fatalism? Predestination does not negate the necessity for human repentance and faith; rather it establishes the possibility of both. (2) If salvation is based on Election, then why preach the gospel? Because God has chosen preaching as the means to awaken faith in the elect (1 Corinthians 1:21 ). We are not able to understand how everything the Bible says about Election fits into a neat logical system. (4) Does not belief in Election result in moral laxity and pride? Paul says that God chose us “to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit” (2 Thessalonians 2:13 ). The proper response to Election is not pride but gratitude for God's amazing grace which saves eternally. Election, then, is neithr a steeple from which we look in judgment on others, nor a pillow to sleep on
Tanistry - ) In Ireland, a tenure of family lands by which the proprietor had only a life estate, to which he was admitted by Election
Elector - ) Pertaining to an Election or to electors. ) One who elects, or has the right of choice; a person who is entitled to take part in an Election, or to give his vote in favor of a candidate for office
Damasus ii, Pope - Bishop of Brixen, in Tyrol, he was nominated by Henry III, but reigned only 23 days after his Election
Innocent ii, Pope - Before his Election he was a cardinal-deacon and with Lambert, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, helped draw up the Concordat of Worms, 1122. His Election was opposed by the anti-pope Pietro Pierleone who seized Rome. His Election was ratified at a synod at Würzburg, 1131, and in the same year he crowned King Lothair and Queen Richenza at Liege; opened the synod at Rheims; and crowned Prince Louis of France
Gregorio Papareschi - Before his Election he was a cardinal-deacon and with Lambert, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, helped draw up the Concordat of Worms, 1122. His Election was opposed by the anti-pope Pietro Pierleone who seized Rome. His Election was ratified at a synod at Würzburg, 1131, and in the same year he crowned King Lothair and Queen Richenza at Liege; opened the synod at Rheims; and crowned Prince Louis of France
Unseat - ) Specifically, to deprive of the right to sit in a legislative body, as for fraud in Election
Particularism - ) The doctrine of particular Election
Bishop, Election of - The provisions made by the general canons ofthe American Church for the Election of a Bishop are as follows:The Bishop of a Diocese is elected by the Clergy and Laity of theDiocese in council assembled. (The method of Election is differentin different Dioceses. ) On a Bishop being chosen, certificates ofhis Election and also testimonials of his being worthy must besigned by a constitutional majority of the convention by whom he iselected. In case the Election takes placeduring a recess of the General Convention and more than three monthsbefore the meeting of the next General Convention, then theabove certificates of Election and testimonials must be submittedto the Standing Committees of the different Dioceses
Capitulation - An agreement by which those taking part in Elections imposed certain conditions upon a candidate to be fulfilled by him after Election; an agreement by which the Turkish government granted special immunities and privileges to aliens
Election, - Election of persons to eternal life. ...
The reason Christians feel a difficulty as to the doctrine of Election to eternal life, is because they do not see the extent of the fall of man, and his utterly lost condition. Were it not for Election, and the prevailing grace that follows it, not one would be saved. Christ died for all, and the gospel is proclaimed to all, Romans 3:22 ; Hebrews 2:9 ; but alas, except for the Election and grace of God, none would respond. ...
Another error that has caused a difficulty as to 'election ' is the idea which some maintain that as some are ordained to eternal life, others likewise are fore-ordained by God to perdition, called 'reprobation. ' But this is not taught in scripture — God desires that all men should be saved, 1 Timothy 2:4 , and His Election to life ensures that some will be
Election - Election . The idea of Election, as expressive of God’s method of accomplishing His purpose for the world in both providence and grace, though (as befits the character of the Bible as peculiarly ‘the history of redemption’) especially in grace, goes to the heart of Scripture teaching. The word ‘election’ itself occurs but a few times ( Acts 9:15 ‘vessel of Election,’ Isaiah 42:19-20 ; Romans 11:5 ; Romans 11:7 ; Romans 11:28 , 1 Thessalonians 1:4 , 2 Peter 1:10 ); ‘elect’ in NT much oftener (see below); but equivalent words in OT and NT, as ‘choose,’ ‘chosen,’ ‘foreknow’ (in sense of ‘fore-designate’), etc. In the OT, as will be seen, the special object of the Divine Election is Israel ( e. ); but within Israel are special Elections, as of the tribe of Levi, the house of Aaron, Judah, David and his house, etc. ...
Election, etymologically, is the choice of one, or of some, out of many . In the usage we are investigating, Election is always, and only, of God. It is the method by which, in the exercise of His holy freedom, He carries out His purpose (‘the purpose of God according to Election,’ Romans 9:11 ). The ‘call’ which brings the Election to light, as in the call of Abraham, Israel, believers, is in time, but the call rests on God’s prior, eternal determination ( Romans 8:28-29 ). It is strongly insisted on, therefore, that the reason of Election is not anything in the object itself ( Romans 9:11 ; Romans 9:16 ); the ground of the Election of believers is not in their holiness or good works, or even in fides prœvisa , but solely in God’s free grace and mercy ( Ephesians 1:1-4 ; holiness a result, not a cause). From the first, then, we see that God’s purpose advances by a method of Election, but observe also that, while sovereign and free, this Election is never an end in itself, but is subordinated as a means to a wider end. It is obvious also that it was only by an Election that is, by beginning with some individual or people, at some time, in some place that such ends as God had in view in His Kingdom could be realized. Further Elections narrow down this line of promise Isaac, not Ishmael; Jacob, not Esau (cf. ...
Here, however, it will naturally be asked Is there not, after all, a reason for these and similar Elections in the greater congruity of the object with the purpose for which it was designed? If God chose Abraham, was it not because Abraham was the best fitted among existing men for such a vocation? Was Isaac not better fitted than Ishmael, and Jacob than Esau, to be the transmitters of the promise? This leads to a remark which carries us much deeper into the nature of Election. It is a shallow view of the Divine Election which regards it as simply availing itself of happy varieties of character spontaneously presenting themselves in the course of natural development. Election goes deeper than grace even into the sphere of nature. The answer to that question can be found only in the Divine ordering; Election working in the natural sphere prior to its being revealed in the spiritual, God does not simply find His instruments He creates them: He has had them, in a true sense, in view, and has been preparing them from the foundation of things. It would seem, then, as if, on the external side, Election had failed of its result; but it did not do so really. This is the next step in the OT development the realization of an Election within the Election, of a true and spiritual Israel within the natural, of individual Election as distinct from national. The difference in the NT standpoint in regard to Election may perhaps now be thus defined. (1) Whereas the Election in the OT is primarily national, and only gradually works round to the idea of an inner, spiritual Election, the opposite is the case in the NT Election is there at first personal and individual, and the Church as an elect body is viewed as made up of these individual believers and all others professing faith in Christ (a distinction thus again arising between inward and outward). (2) Whereas the personal aspect of Election in the OT is throughout subordinate to the idea of service, in the NT, on the other hand, stress is laid on the personal Election to eternal salvation; and the aspect of Election as a means to an end beyond itself falls into the background, without, however, being at all intended to be lost sight of. Paul is a ‘vessel of Election’ to the definite end that he should bear Christ’s name to the Gentiles ( Acts 9:15 ). ...
As carrying us, perhaps, most deeply into the comprehension of the NT doctrine of Election, it is lastly to be observed that, apart from the inheritance of ideas from the OT, there is an experiential basis for this doctrine, from which, in the living consciousness of faith, it can never be divorced
Exclusion, Right of - A right, now explicitly rejected by the Church but in former times claimed by France, Austria, Spain, and Germany, to veto the Election of a particular cardinal as pope
Right of Exclusion - A right, now explicitly rejected by the Church but in former times claimed by France, Austria, Spain, and Germany, to veto the Election of a particular cardinal as pope
Lambruschini, Luigi - In the papal conclave of 1846 he received a majority of votes in the first ballot, but not enough for Election. After the Election of Pius IX he resigned his office for that of secretary of Briefs; later Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina, and Abbot of Farfa
Luigi Lambruschini - In the papal conclave of 1846 he received a majority of votes in the first ballot, but not enough for Election. After the Election of Pius IX he resigned his office for that of secretary of Briefs; later Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina, and Abbot of Farfa
Electorate - ) The whole body of persons in a nation or state who are entitled to vote in an Election, or any distinct class or division of them
Elect, Elected, Election - ...
The source of their "election" is God's grace, not human will, Ephesians 1:4,5 ; Romans 9:11 ; 11:5 . ...
B — 1: ἐκλογή (Strong's #1589 — Noun Feminine — ekloge — ek-log-ay' ) denotes "a picking out, selection" (Eng. according to Election" is virtually equivalent to "the electing purpose;" in Acts 11:5 , the "remnant according to the Election of grace" refers to believing Jews, saved from among the unbelieving nation; so in Acts 11:7 ; in Acts 11:28 , "the Election" may mean either the "act of choosing" or the "chosen" ones; the context, speaking of the fathers, points to the former, the choice of the nation according to the covenant of promise. In 1 Thessalonians 1:4 , "your Election" refers not to the church collectively, but to the individuals constituting it; the Apostle's assurance of their "election" gives the reason for his thankgiving. Believers are to give "the more diligence to make their calling and Election sure," by the exercise of the qualities and graces which make them fruitful in the knowledge of God, 2 Peter 1:10
Romanus, Pope - Little is known of his life except the fact that he was a cardinal and that after his Election he granted the pallium to Vitalis of Grado
Loving Kindness - It is variously called God's Election-, covenant-keeping, or steadfast love
Elective - ) Dependent on choice; bestowed or passing by Election; as, an elective study; an elective office
Octavius, Pope - A son of Alberic II, his Election was secured by his father. He refused to recoguize it and was deposed, while a layman, the antipope Leo VIII, was elected in his stead; the proceeding was uncanonical and the Election regarded as invalid
John Xii, Pope - A son of Alberic II, his Election was secured by his father. He refused to recoguize it and was deposed, while a layman, the antipope Leo VIII, was elected in his stead; the proceeding was uncanonical and the Election regarded as invalid
John Nepomucene, Saint - The legend recounts that his Election as vicar-general of Bohemia aroused the rage of King Wenceslaus, who had him tortured and finally drowned in the river Moldau because he had refused to reveal to the king the queen's confession
Nepomucene, John, Saint - The legend recounts that his Election as vicar-general of Bohemia aroused the rage of King Wenceslaus, who had him tortured and finally drowned in the river Moldau because he had refused to reveal to the king the queen's confession
John Xiv, Pope - Prior to his Election, he was Bishop of Pavia and chancellor of the empire under Otto II
Campanora, Peter - Prior to his Election, he was Bishop of Pavia and chancellor of the empire under Otto II
Conclave - ) The body of cardinals shut up in the conclave for the Election of a pope; hence, the body of cardinals
Aleric - After a mock Election at Saint Peter's, 1102, he was dragged to the Lateran to the lawful pope, Paschal II, who imprisoned him and then sent him to Saint Lawrence's monastery at Aversa, where he died
Sergius ii, Pope - His Election was disputed by the antipope John
Election - Andrew Fuller remarks, in a letter to two relatives:: ' I used to think that the doctrine of Election was a reason why we need not pray, and I fear there are many who split upon this rock, who think it is to no purpose to pray, as things will be as they will be. But I now see that the doctrine of Election is the greatest encouragement instead of a discouragement to prayer
Ticket - ) A printed list of candidates to be voted for at an Election; a set of nominations by one party for Election; a ballot
Military - ) Performed or made by soldiers; as, a military Election; a military expedition
Felix ii - Many historians consider his Election uncanonical
Fate - See Election and Predestination
Campaign - ) Political operations preceding an Election; a canvass
Biennial - ) Happening, or taking place, once in two years; as, a biennial Election
Precinct - ) A district within certain boundaries; a minor territorial or jurisdictional division; as, an Election precinct; a school precinct
Bishop - The Election, by the chapter, must be made within twelve days, or the king has a right to appoint whom he pleases. By the canons of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States, no diocese or state shall proceed to the Election of a bishop, unless there are at least six officiating presbyters residing therein, who shall be qualified, according to the canons, to vote for a bishop a majority of whom at least must concur in the Election. But the conventions of two or more dioceses, or states, having together nine or more such presbyters,may join in the Election of a bishop. The mode of Election, in most or all of the states,is by a concurrent vote of the clergy and laity, in convention, each body voting separately
Testimonials - So, also, whena Bishop is elected, testimonials of his Election by the Conventionwhich elected him, and from the House of Deputies of the GeneralConvention, or from the Standing Committees of the various Dioceses,of their approbation of his Election and also of his fitness for theoffice of a Bishop, must be presented to the House of Bishops beforeorder can be taken for his consecration
Semi-Pelagian - ) A follower of John Cassianus, a French monk (died about 448), who modified the doctrines of Pelagius, by denying human merit, and maintaining the necessity of the Spirit's influence, while, on the other hand, he rejected the Augustinian doctrines of Election, the inability of man to do good, and the certain perseverance of the saints
Acclamation - ) the Election of a pope or other ecclesiastic by unanimous consent of the electors, without a ballot. in Elections;...
(4):...
(n
Scrutiny - ) An examination by a committee of the votes given at an Election, for the purpose of correcting the poll
Liveryman - ) A freeman of the city, in London, who, having paid certain fees, is entitled to wear the distinguishing dress or livery of the company to which he belongs, and also to enjoy certain other privileges, as the right of voting in an Election for the lord mayor, sheriffs, chamberlain, etc
Canonical Provision - This is the only legitimate way of obtaining an ecclesiastical office, and is made by free appointment, nomination and investiture, Election and postulation
Ordo Salutis - In the Reformed camp, the ordo solutis Isaiah 1:1-31) Election, 2) predestination, 3) calling, 4) regeneration, 5) faith, 6) repentance, 7) justification, 8) sanctification, and 9) glorification
Calling - Give all diligence to make your calling and Election sure
Conclave - The assembly or meeting of the cardinals shut up for the Election of a Pope. ...
The conclave is very strictly guarded by troops: neither the cardinals, nor any person shut up in the conclave, are spoken to, but at the hours allowed of, and then in Italian or Latin: even the provisions for the conclave are examined, that no letters be conveyed by that means from the ministers of foreign powers, or other persons, who may have an interest in the Election of the pontiff
Lucius ii, Pope - Before his Election he was a canon in Bologna, cardinal-priest, papal legate to Germany, papal chancellor, and papal librarian
Benedict Viii, Pope - Count of Tusculum, and brother of Pope John XIX (XX), he was a layman before his Election
Chosen - (See Election
Progressive Party - Among the chief articles in the platform are those demanding direct primaries, preferential primaries for presidential nominations, direct Election of United States senators, women's suffrage, and recall of judicial decisions in certain cases
Gherardo Caccianemici Dal Orbo - Before his Election he was a canon in Bologna, cardinal-priest, papal legate to Germany, papal chancellor, and papal librarian
Innocent ix, Pope - Previous to his Election he had been Bishop of Nicastro, nuncio to Venice, and cardinal-priest, and had borne the burden of papal administration during the reign of Gregory XIV
Doctrines of Grace - Let the poor trembler who is sincerely seeking Jesus, rest assured that the seemingly dreadful doctrines of Election and predestination are not one whit more terrible, and are far more sweetly fragrant
Benefices, Collation of - The giving of a vacant benefice to one canonically fit by competent ecclesiastical authority, with due respect to an acquired right of presentation, Election, etc
Diligence - ...
Brethren, give diligence to make your calling and Election sure
Direct Nomination - The term is applied both to the nomination of candidates without any nominating convention, and, loosely, to the nomination effected, as in the case of candidates for president or senator of the United States, by the Election of nominating representatives pledged or instructed to vote for certain candidates dssignated by popular vote
Rota - Harrington to inculcate the democratic doctrine of Election of the principal officers of the state by ballot, and the annual retirement of a portion of Parliament
Matthias - Luke 10:1 ), and he justified his Election by evangelizing the savages of Ethiopia and writing two books a Gospel and a work entitled ‘Traditions’ ( Paradoseis ). ...
It is thought by some that the Election of Matthias was a blunder, due to the impetuosity of St. As a matter of fact the Election of Matthias was set aside by God
John Mincius - He was elected in opposition to Pope Nicholas II by a faction of the Roman nobility after the death of Stephen (IX) X, who had commanded before he died that no Election should take place until Hildebrand returned from Germany
Mincius, John - He was elected in opposition to Pope Nicholas II by a faction of the Roman nobility after the death of Stephen (IX) X, who had commanded before he died that no Election should take place until Hildebrand returned from Germany
Fabian, Pope, Saint - A farmer, he came into the city to attend the papal Election
Benedict x Anti-Pope - He was elected in opposition to Pope Nicholas II by a faction of the Roman nobility after the death of Stephen (IX) X, who had commanded before he died that no Election should take place until Hildebrand returned from Germany
Ballot - ) The whole number of votes cast at an Election, or in a given territory or electoral district
Arminianism - He opposed Calvin's doctrines of predestination, Election, the teaching that Christ died for the elect only, and that grace benefits only the elect
Repeater - ) A person who votes more than once at an Election
Eugene ii, Pope - The archpriest of Santa Sabina, his Election was a triumph for the Roman nobility and the Franks whose power his predecessor, Pope Paschal I, had attempted to curb
Option - ) The power of choosing; the right of choice or Election; an alternative
Maginulf - The Election took place during the Truce of God when the pope's followers were unarmed, but on the following day when Paschal advanced on the city Maginulf fled from Rome to the protection of the German nobles
Damasus i, Pope Saint - His Election, 366, was disputed by the anti-pope Ursicinus but Valentinian recognized him as the legitimate pontiff
Marcello Cervini Degli Spannochi - Before his Election he was prothonotary apostolic, papal secretary, adviser to Cardinal Earnese, who was charged with the temporal power of the Church, Bishop of Nicastro, cardinal, Bishop of Reggio, Bishop of Gubbio, legate to Emperor Charles V and to the Council of Trent, and Vatican Librarian
Marcellus ii, Pope - Before his Election he was prothonotary apostolic, papal secretary, adviser to Cardinal Earnese, who was charged with the temporal power of the Church, Bishop of Nicastro, cardinal, Bishop of Reggio, Bishop of Gubbio, legate to Emperor Charles V and to the Council of Trent, and Vatican Librarian
Sylvester iv - The Election took place during the Truce of God when the pope's followers were unarmed, but on the following day when Paschal advanced on the city Maginulf fled from Rome to the protection of the German nobles
Maximianus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - A large proportion of the citizens held strongly to Nestorius; the clergy, with one voice, agreed in the anathema; and when the deposition became a fact no longer to be disputed, the excitement was continued about the Election of a successor. After four months, agreement was arrived at in the Election of Maximian. It was the custom for occupants of the principal sees on Election to send a synodical letter to the most considerable bishops of the Christian world, asking for the assurance of their communion. Harmony being restored, John of Antioch and the other Eastern bishops wrote Maximian a letter of communion indicating their consent to his Election and to the deposition of Nestorius
Facts, Dogmatic - They are involved, for instance, in such questions as these: Was the Election of Pius XI canonical, so that he is the rightful successor of Saint Peter? Are the Saints canonized by the Church really in heaven? Is this or that condemned teaching really contained in a certain book? If the Church did not enjoy infallible authority to determine such matters, it would be practically impossible for her to carry out her Divine mission
Dogmatic Facts - They are involved, for instance, in such questions as these: Was the Election of Pius XI canonical, so that he is the rightful successor of Saint Peter? Are the Saints canonized by the Church really in heaven? Is this or that condemned teaching really contained in a certain book? If the Church did not enjoy infallible authority to determine such matters, it would be practically impossible for her to carry out her Divine mission
John Xiii, Pope - Upon his Election to the Holy See, he was imprisoned in the Castle of Sant' Angelo by the Italian nobles who resented the fact that he was the choice of Emperor Otto I
Innocent v, Pope, Blessed - He was known, prior to his Election, as the "most famous doctor
Martin iv, Pope - After his Election at Viterbo he was unable to go to Rome for his coronation because of the anti-French spirit there
Altieri, Emilio - He fulfilled many important missions before his Election, especially as Nuncio to Naples, Secretary of the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, and Superintendent of the Papal Exchequer, and was made cardinal in 1669
Giovanni de Gaeta - His Election was contested by Cenzio Frangipani who maltreated and imprisoned him
Gaeta, Giovanni de - His Election was contested by Cenzio Frangipani who maltreated and imprisoned him
Eugene i, Pope Saint - He was elected pontiff during the compulsory exile of Martin I, who would not submit to Byzantine direction in the matter of Monothelitism, and his Election was subsequently approved by Martin
Emilio Altieri - He fulfilled many important missions before his Election, especially as Nuncio to Naples, Secretary of the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, and Superintendent of the Papal Exchequer, and was made cardinal in 1669
Gelasius ii, Pope - His Election was contested by Cenzio Frangipani who maltreated and imprisoned him
Simon de Brie - After his Election at Viterbo he was unable to go to Rome for his coronation because of the anti-French spirit there
Acclamation - The laudes were also often repeated on festivals, at a bishop's Election, and since about the eighth century, at the papal Mass. Other meanings attached to the word are: the applause of the congregation which often, in ancient times, interrupted the sermons of favorite preachers; the prayers and good wishes found upon sepulchral monuments; brief liturgical formulre, such as "Deo gratias"; a form of papal Election in which the cardinals without previous consultation or the formality of balloting, unanimously proclaim one of the candidates Supreme Pontiff
Elias Bonibarone - This action alienated those members of the order who agreed with Saint Francis on the subject of poverty and Elias was rejected at the chapter held for the Election of the second general. He was elected, however, at the chapter of 1232 and his conduct after his Election helped to widen the breach between the two parties in the order advocating respectively relaxation and strict observance of the rule
Elias Bonusbaro - This action alienated those members of the order who agreed with Saint Francis on the subject of poverty and Elias was rejected at the chapter held for the Election of the second general. He was elected, however, at the chapter of 1232 and his conduct after his Election helped to widen the breach between the two parties in the order advocating respectively relaxation and strict observance of the rule
Elias of Cortona - This action alienated those members of the order who agreed with Saint Francis on the subject of poverty and Elias was rejected at the chapter held for the Election of the second general. He was elected, however, at the chapter of 1232 and his conduct after his Election helped to widen the breach between the two parties in the order advocating respectively relaxation and strict observance of the rule
Election - This exercise of God’s sovereign will is called Election. ...
In the Old Testament God’s Election applied particularly to his choice of Abraham and, through Abraham, to his choice of Israel to be his people (Genesis 12:1-3; Nehemiah 9:7-8; Isaiah 41:8-9). ...
The gracious work of God...
Election has its source in the sovereign love of God. ...
No one can argue with God concerning his work of Election, for the entire human race is guilty before him and in no position to demand mercy from him. ...
Election and calling...
Sometimes the Bible speaks of God’s choosing as his calling (Isaiah 41:8-9; Isaiah 51:2; Romans 9:11), but other times it makes a distinction (Matthew 22:14; see CALL). There is nothing mechanical about Election. The Bible often links statements about Election with warnings and commands concerning the necessity for steadfastness, watchfulness and perseverance (Mark 13:13; Mark 13:22-23; Mark 13:27; Mark 13:33; Acts 13:48; Acts 14:22; 1 Thessalonians 5:23-24; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-15; 1 Timothy 6:11-12; see PERSEVERANCE). ...
Awareness of their Election should not lead Christians to complacency. The way people live is the proof or disproof of their Election (2 Peter 1:9-11; cf
Imposition of Hands - ...
[In the Methodist Episcopal Church, a bishop is constituted by the Election of the general conference, and the laying on of the hands of three bishops, or at least of one bishop and two elders; unless it happen that, by death or otherwise, there be no bishop remaining in the church: in this case, the general conference is empowered to elect a bishop, and the elders, or any three of them appointed by the general conference for that purpose, to ordain him. An elder is constituted by the Election of an annual conference, and the laying on of the hands of a bishop and of two or more elders. A deacon,...
by the Election of an annual conference, and the laying on of the hands of a bishop
John Xix, Pope - A brother of Benedict VIII, he was a layman at the time of his Election
Fitz-Simons, Thomas - He was in America as early as 1758, and took a prominent part in the Revolutionary movement; his Election as one of the Provincial Deputies in July, 1774, is the first instance of a Catholic being named for a public office in Pennsylvania
Lucius Iii, Pope - Before his Election he was a cardinal-priest, legate to France and to Sicily, and Bishop of Ostia and Velletri
Election - ) The act of choosing; choice; selection. ) The act of choosing a person to fill an office, or to membership in a society, as by ballot, uplifted hands, or viva voce; as, the Election of a president or a mayor
Eusebius, Saint Bishop - In 361 he assisted in the Election of Saint Meletius to the Patriarchate of Antioch and, notwithstanding the threats of the Emperor Constantius, refused to deliver to the Arians the synodal acts which proved its lawfulness
Manipulate - ) To control the action of, by management; as, to manipulate a convention of delegates; to manipulate the stock market; also, to manage artfully or fraudulently; as, to manipulate accounts, or Election returns
Romanus - A brother of Benedict VIII, he was a layman at the time of his Election
Thomas Fitz-Simons - He was in America as early as 1758, and took a prominent part in the Revolutionary movement; his Election as one of the Provincial Deputies in July, 1774, is the first instance of a Catholic being named for a public office in Pennsylvania
Heritage - The meaning "were chosen by lot," as in the Vulgate, and in 1 Samuel 14:41 , indicating the freedom of Election without human will (so Chrysostom and Augustine), is not suited to this passage
Choice - The act of choosing the voluntary act of selecting or separating from two or more things that which is preferred or the determination of the mind in preferring one thing to another Election. The thing chosen that which is approved and selected in preference to others selection. The act of electing to office by vote Election
Institution, Office of - "Canon 18, Title I of the Digest requires "that on the Election of aMinister into any Church or Parish, the Vestry shall notify theBishop of such Election, in writing; and if the Minister be a Priest,the Bishop may, if requested by the Vestry to do so, institute himaccording to the Office established by this Church
Esau - Paul (Romans 9:10-13) uses the pre-natal oracle regarding Esau and his brother (Genesis 25:22-23) as an illustration of the principle of Divine Election. His purpose is to sweep away a narrow, particularistic doctrine of Election, according to which God’s action ends in Israel, and to replace it by a grand universalistic conception, according to which the world, or all humanity, is the end of the Divine action, and Election itself is controlled by an all-embracing purpose of love. The Jews so little understood the humbling principle of Election, which ascribes all the merit of salvation to God, that they prided themselves on having been chosen, while their neighbours, Ishmael and Edom, had been rejected
John Xxiii, Anti-Pope - His Election to the papacy was brought about through the efforts of the Pisan party, the city of Florence, and the House of Anjou
Flavian, Saint - His Election was opposed by Chrysaphius, minister to Emperor Theodosius
Human Acts - They are imputable to their human author to the extent that he has knowledge of his own activity and its import, and to the extent that he has freedom of Election
Floater - ...
(3):...
A person who votes illegally in various polling places or Election districts, either under false registration made by himself or under the name of some properly registered person who has not already voted
Acts, Human - They are imputable to their human author to the extent that he has knowledge of his own activity and its import, and to the extent that he has freedom of Election
Sixtus iv, Pope - After his Election he interested himself in secular affairs; favored the conspiracy of the Pazzi against the Medici
Baldassare Cossa - His Election to the papacy was brought about through the efforts of the Pisan party, the city of Florence, and the House of Anjou
Elect - Saint Paul (Romans 8) describes the five degrees of Election as follows: the elect are foreknown, predestined, called, justified, and glorified
Israel, Spiritual - ...
Such interpretations seek to understand the mystery of divine Election which began with Israel and climaxed in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. The history of divine Election includes Israel's disobedience by depending on human achievement rather than divine mercy which led to their rejection of Jesus, and will climax in the salvation of “all Israel” (Romans 11:26 ). What is certain is that God in His grace of Election opens the door to salvation by faith to all people regardless of the race or tradition out of which they come
Felix (4) iv, Bishop of Rome - Theodoric took the unprecedented step of appointing his successor on his own authority, without waiting for the customary Election by clergy and people. No subsequent king or emperor laid claim to a like power of interference in the appointment of popes, though the confirmation of Elections by the civil power was insisted on, and continued till the Election of Zachary in 752, when the confirmation of the exarch of Ravenna, as representing the Eastern emperor, was first dispensed with under the Carlovingian empire. The same freedom of Election by clergy and people continued to be the theory till the appointment was given to the College of Cardinals during the pontificate of Nicholas II
Calandio or Calendio, Bishop of Antioch - There is a large body of evidence (not, however, to be admitted without grave question) that Calandio's Election was of the same uncanonical character as that of his predecessor in the see Election (Labbe, Conc. 1035), suggests a possible confusion between the Election of Calandio and of Stephen II
Otto Iii, Emperor - Otto assumed the government, 994, and convinced of his divine prerogatives, entered Rome, where he presided over synods and caused the Election of Bruno as Pope Gregory V
Ministration - They state the number and qualifications of the new officials, leave the Election to the whole body of Christians, and ordain the elected
Consist - ...
Necessity and Election cannot consist together in the same act
Benedict Xiii, Anti-Pope - A cardinal-deacon, he assisted at the Election of Urban VI, but later joined the French cardinals when they elected the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII), falsely claiming that Urban's Election had been secured under pressure from the Roman people
Luna, Pedro de - A cardinal-deacon, he assisted at the Election of Urban VI, but later joined the French cardinals when they elected the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII), falsely claiming that Urban's Election had been secured under pressure from the Roman people
Poll - ) To vote at an Election. ) Specifically, the register of the names of electors who may vote in an Election
Heraclides Cyprius, Bishop of Ephesus - 401, there being a deadlock in the Election through the number of rival candidates and the violence of the opposing factions, Chrysostom brought Heraclides forward, and he was elected by the votes of seventy bishops to the vacant see. The Election at first only increased the disturbance, and loud complaints were made of the unfitness of Heraclides for the office, which detained Chrysostom in Asia (Socr
Eulalius, an Antipope - They throw light on the conflicts attending the Election of bishops, and on the powers exercised by the emperors in connexion therewith. 29, 418) to Honorius at Ravenna from Symmachus the Praefectus Urbis, stating that, after he had warned the people to proceed to a new Election without disturbance, Eulalius the archdeacon had been taken to the Lateran church by the clergy and people, duly elected, and ordained; while certain presbyters, accompanied by a crowd, had gone with Bonifacius, a presbyter, to the church of Theodora, and, though warned to do nothing rashly, had ordained him in the church of St. 3, 419) by ordering Boniface to be expelled from the city, and the authors of the sedition in his favour punished, Eulalius having been duly appointed according to the rule of Catholic discipline (competens numerus ordinantium, solemnitas temporis, locique qualitas) and the rival Election being deficient in these respects. First, that with the ancient custom of Election of a new bishop by the clergy, with the assent of the laity, and confirmation by provincial bishops, there was no desire on the part of the civil power to interfere. Secondly, that Elections had come to be conducted in an irregular and tumultuous manner, giving rise [1] to violent conflicts, with bloodshed even in the churches. Fourthly, that in this case the emperor did not insist on a right to decide on the validity of either Election without first submitting the question to an episcopal synod. Fifthly, eventually, serious provocation being given, he settled the question on his own authority, without the sanction of a synod or regard to the canonicity of the original Election
Mariano Rampolla Del Tindaro - After the Election of Pope Pius X, he was Librarian of the Holy Roman Church
Fulgentius, Fabius Claudius Gordianus, Saint - At that time the Arian persecutions had ceased, but the Election of Catholic bishops was forbidden
Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius, Saint - At that time the Arian persecutions had ceased, but the Election of Catholic bishops was forbidden
Rampolla Del Tindaro, Mariano - After the Election of Pope Pius X, he was Librarian of the Holy Roman Church
Elect, Election - ...
God's Election of Angels . ...
God's Election of Israel . Both the Old and the New Testaments affirm the gracious Election of Israel. The only reason given for Israel's Election is the love of God—"Because he loved your forefathers and chose their descendants after them, he brought you out of Egypt by his presence and his great strength" (Deuteronomy 4:37 ). The Election of Israel was structured within the covenant that God made with his people. By accepting the terms of the covenant that signaled their Election, Israel was privileged to experience a personal relationship with God. The grace of God was so vast and overwhelming that it broke apart every conventional limiting structure through that very limiting structure itself (election). ...
God's Election of the Place of Worship . ...
God's Election of People to an Office . ...
God's Election of Individuals for Various Reasons . ...
God's Election of the Messiah . ...
God's Election of Means to Accomplish Ends . ...
God's Election to Salvation of Believers and the Believing Community . This Election is understood to be an eternal act in accordance with God's foreknowledge or predetermination (Ephesians 1:4 ; 1 Peter 1:1-2 ). Berkouwer, Divine Election ; D. Rowley, The Biblical Doctrine of Election ; G
Elect - ELECT or Election: (See PREDESTINATION. Election...
(2) of Israel in the Old Testament as a nation, and of the visible Christian church, to spiritual privileges (Isaiah 45:4; Isaiah 44:1; 2 John 1:3; 1 Peter 5:18). ...
The Election being entirely of grace, not for our foreseen works (Romans 11:6), the glory all redounds to God
Predestination - (See Election. "Predestination" refers to God's decree, embodied in God's "election" of us out of the mass; His grand end. God the Father gives us salvation by gratuitous Election; the Son earns it by His blood-shedding; the Holy Spirit applies the Son's merits to the soul by the gospel word (Calvin): Galatians 1:4; Galatians 1:15; 1 Peter 1:2; the element IN (Greek) which we are elected is "sanctification of (consecration once for all by) the Spirit unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ" (the end aimed at by God as regards us)
Choose - 9:7-8 describes God’s “choosing” (election) of persons as far back as Abram: “You are the Lord God, who chose Abram … and you made a covenant with him” (NIV). The covenant called men to respond to God’s Election: “… I have set before you life and death … : therefore choose life …” (John 15:16 expresses the central truth of Election in both Testaments: “Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, … that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain
People of God - ...
Election and Covenant The Election of Israel as people of God may be traced from Abraham (Genesis 12:1 ; compare Exodus 19:5-61 ; Romans 9:7-8 ). See Church ; Covenant ; Election ; Israel, Spiritual
Election - -Election, in the teaching of the apostles, is the method by which God gives effect to His eternal purpose to redeem and save mankind; so that the elect are those who are marked out in God’s purpose of grace from eternity as heirs of salvation. Election in the OT. -The doctrine of a Divine Election lies at the very heart of revelation and redemption. This conception of Israel as the people of God’s Election colours the whole of the teaching of the apostles and forms the subject of St. Paul in the opening words of the First Epistle discerns in their experience, and sets forth for their comfort, the proofs of their ‘election’ (1 Thessalonians 1:2-10). Paul inferred and knew their Election. And not long after, when he wrote the Second Epistle to correct misapprehensions produced by the First, he set before the Thessalonian Christians, in language still loftier and more explicit, this profound and encouraging truth of a Divine Election (Acts 15:22). 8, rising to the loftiest heights of Divine inspiration, and penetrating, as it might seem, to the secret place of the counsels of the Most High, apprehends or himself, and makes known for the encouragement of faith, the links of the great chain of the Divine Election by which the Church of believers is bound about the feet of God-‘foreknown,’ ‘foreordained,’ ‘called,’ ‘justified,’ ‘glorified’ (Romans 8:28-30). Paul in the Epistle to the Ephesians, where the spiritual blessings enjoyed in such abundance by them are traced up to their Election by God-‘even as he chose us in him (Christ) before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blemish before him in love: having foreordained us unto adoption as sons through Jesus Christ unto himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace’ (Ephesians 1:4-6). ...
‘The Election within the Election’ here, St. And after all, if the Election were cancelled, the blame would be Israel’s own, because of unbelief and disobedience, such as Moses denounced, and Isaiah bewailed when he said: ‘All the day long did I spread out my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people’ (Romans 10:21). Paul himself, in all the churches; and he could say: ‘At this present time also there is a remnant according to the Election of grace’ (Romans 11:5). Paul’s teaching, Election (1) is the outcome of a gracious purpose of the heart of God as it contemplates fallen humanity from all eternity (Isaiah 42:1; cf. Peter’s allusions to the subject of Election are few they fully support the teaching of St. Peter gives manifest prominence to the doctrine of Election when, in the opening words of his First Epistle, he addresses the Jewish Christians of Pontus and other Asiatic provinces as ‘the elect who are sojourners’ there (ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς Πόντου, κτλ. Peter elsewhere calls them, ‘an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession’ (1 Peter 2:9, where Election is seen to be not simply to privilege, but to character and service, to holy living and the setting forth of the Divine glory). Although they are an ‘elect race’ they are also in the same context described as ‘living stones’ (1Pe2:5), and Hort is right when he says ‘the whole spirit of the Epistle excludes any swallowing up of the individual relation to God in the corporate relation to Him; and the individual relation to God implies the individual Election’ (First Epistle of St. Paul, even when, emphasizing the urgency of the matter as a part of practical religion, he bids his readers give diligence to make their ‘calling and Election sure’ (2 Peter 1:10). In the Apocalypse (Revelation 17:14) ἐκλεκτοί is used in a very significant connexion, where they that are with the Lamb in His warfare against the powers of evil, and in His victory over them, are ‘called and chosen and faithful,’ They are ‘called’ (κλητοί) in having heard and accepted the gospel message; ‘chosen’ (ἐκλεκτοί) as thus having given evidence of their Divine Election; ‘faithful’ (πιστοί) as having yielded the loyal devotion of their lives to their Divine Leader, and persevered therein to the end
Asiarch - The honour lasted one year, but re-election was possible
Canvass - ) To sift; to strain; to examine thoroughly; to scrutinize; as, to canvass the votes cast at an Election; to canvass a district with reference to its probable vote
Honorius iv, Pope - Cardinal-deacon, and papal prefect in Tuscany, he did not receive ordination until six weeks after his Election
Guibert of Ravenna - He was imperial chancellor for Italy, 1057-1063; helped secure the Election of the anti-pope Cadalous, and accepted the Archbishopric of Ravenna to which he had been nominated by Henry IV
Savelli, Giacomo - Cardinal-deacon, and papal prefect in Tuscany, he did not receive ordination until six weeks after his Election
Giacomo Savelli - Cardinal-deacon, and papal prefect in Tuscany, he did not receive ordination until six weeks after his Election
Ravenna, Guibert of - He was imperial chancellor for Italy, 1057-1063; helped secure the Election of the anti-pope Cadalous, and accepted the Archbishopric of Ravenna to which he had been nominated by Henry IV
Benedetto Gaetani - Prior to his Election, he was cardinal-priest, and papal legate to Sicily, France, and England. He secured the release of Jens Grand, Archbishop of Lund, imprisoned by Eric VIII of Denmark; recognized the Election of Albert, Duke of Austria, as King of Germany; and conquered and excommunicated the warlike leaders of the Colonna faction in Rome for their tyranny and treason
Gaetani, Benedetto - Prior to his Election, he was cardinal-priest, and papal legate to Sicily, France, and England. He secured the release of Jens Grand, Archbishop of Lund, imprisoned by Eric VIII of Denmark; recognized the Election of Albert, Duke of Austria, as King of Germany; and conquered and excommunicated the warlike leaders of the Colonna faction in Rome for their tyranny and treason
Call - This aspect of the call of God is sometimes referred to as Election (Romans 9:11; see Election)
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius - He resigned the purple at Milan after the Election of his son Maxentius, but the new emperor proved incapable of governing and Maximianus was recalled to restore order, in which he failed
Choice - ) The thing or person chosen; that which is approved and selected in preference to others; selection. ) Act of choosing; the voluntary act of selecting or separating from two or more things that which is preferred; the determination of the mind in preferring one thing to another; Election
Liberius, Pope - At the time of his Election, the Christian world was perturbed by the exiling of Saint Athanasius and the activities of the Arians
Melchior Cano - His Election as provincial of his order was contested, but finally confirmed by Pius IV
John xv, Pope - John XV (XVI), who before his Election was a cardinal-priest, remained throughout his pontificate under the influence of John Crescentius
John Xxii, Pope - During his pontificate he was involved in controversies with the Franciscans and Conventuals, and with Louis of Bavaria whom he admonished not to exercise his rights until the legitimacy of the Election had been approved
Cano, Melchior - His Election as provincial of his order was contested, but finally confirmed by Pius IV
Jacques d'Euse - During his pontificate he was involved in controversies with the Franciscans and Conventuals, and with Louis of Bavaria whom he admonished not to exercise his rights until the legitimacy of the Election had been approved
Rebecca - In the OT those preferences were regarded as purely arbitrary, Jahweh having the right to do as He pleased with any mother’s sons; but the Apostle discerns in His sovereign decrees a gracious design which embraces all mankind-‘the purpose of God working by means of Election’ (ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις)
Bath Abbey - By a decree of Innocent IV the Election was held alternately in either city, the bishop had a throne in both churches, and was thenceforth styled Bishop of Bath and Wells
Calvinism - Calvinism teaches: 1) Total depravity: that man is touched by sin in all parts of his being: body, soul, mind, and emotions, 2) Unconditional Election: that God’s favor to Man is completely by God’s free choice and has nothing to do with Man
Slate - ) A list of candidates, prepared for nomination or for Election; a list of candidates, or a programme of action, devised beforehand
Predestination - This doctrine of predestination or Election is beset with many difficulties. (See DECREES OF GOD; Election
Elect - (1 Timothy 5:21) No doubt they owe their steadfastness to Christ, as their Head and Sovereign, in Election and dominion; while Christ's seed, the church, are preserved by union. But without this preservation in Christ, by Election, angels are no more secure from falling than men, who have fallen. And when we read of the elect angels, it implies their Election, and upholding in Christ
Innocent iv, Pope - The Council deposed Frederick, and the pope made an attempt to secure the Election of a candidate of his own
John Viii, Pope - He was an archdeacon before his Election and is considered one of the greatest popes of the 9th century
Hippolytus of Rome, Saint - After the death of Pope Zephyrinus he secured his Election by a small band of followers in opposition to Callistus I whom he considered a heretic
Sabinus, Bishop of Heraclea - ) speaks strongly of Sabinus's unscrupulous handling of history, calls him "homo mendacissimus," and suggests that Sozomen gives a garbled account of the Election of Athanasius, "ex officina Sabini
Pharaoh Pharaohis Daughter - Paul in his great argument for Election in Romans (ch
Pope - On the demise of a pope his pontifical seal is immediately broken by the chamberlain, and all public business is interrupted that can be delayed; messengers are despatched to all the Catholic sovereigns to acquaint them of the event, that they may take what measures they think proper: and that the cardinals, in their dominions, if any there be, may hasten to the future Election, if they choose to attend; whilst the whole attention of the sacred college is turned to the preservation of tranquillity in the city and state, and to the necessary preparations for the future Election. In the mean time, all necessary preparations for the Election are made; and the place where they assemble for that purpose, which is called the Conclave, is fitted up in that part of the Vatican palace, which is nearest to St. We now come to the Election itself; and that this may be effectual, two-thirds of the cardinals present must vote for the same person. They meet in the chapel twice every day for giving their votes; and the Election may be effectuated by scrutiny, accession, or acclamation. The names of all the cardinals that are voted for are taken down in writing, with the number of votes for each; and when it appears that any one has two-thirds of the number present in his favour, the Election is over; but when this does not happen, the voting papers are all immediately burnt, without opening up the inner part. By it, when a cardinal perceives that when one or very few votes are wanting to any one for whom he has not voted at that time, he must say that he accedes to the one who has near the number of votes requisite; and if his one vote suffices to make up the two-thirds, or if he is followed by a sufficient number of aceeders, or new voters, for the said cardinal, the Election is accomplished. If he is properly supported, the Election becomes unanimous; those who would, perhaps, oppose it, foreseeing that their opposition would be fruitless, and rather hurtful to themselves. When a pope is chosen in any of the three above-mentioned ways, the Election is immediately announced from the balcony in the front of St
Foreknowledge - " Foreknowledge is closely connected to Election and predestination and to God's sovereign rule of his universe. ...
The same juxtaposition of foreknowledge, Election, and predestination also applies to individual salvation. In each case foreknowledge precedes Election and is intricately linked with God's will and purpose. Wolf...
See also Elect, Election ; God ; Predestination ...
Bibliography
Return - ) To render, as an account, usually an official account, to a superior; to report officially by a list or statement; as, to return a list of stores, of killed or wounded; to return the result of an Election. ) Hence, to elect according to the official report of the Election officers. ) An account, or formal report, of an action performed, of a duty discharged, of facts or statistics, and the like; as, Election returns; a return of the amount of goods produced or sold; especially, in the plural, a set of tabulated statistics prepared for general information
Frederick Barbarossa - He succeeded in recovering the royal influence in the selection of bishops, but his attempt to obtain the incomes from vacant benefices in northern Italy, and thereby prove his superiority over the pope, failed. The disputed papal Election in 1159 gave Frederick the opportunity he sought to demonstrate his imperial supremacy over the papacy
Frederick i - He succeeded in recovering the royal influence in the selection of bishops, but his attempt to obtain the incomes from vacant benefices in northern Italy, and thereby prove his superiority over the pope, failed. The disputed papal Election in 1159 gave Frederick the opportunity he sought to demonstrate his imperial supremacy over the papacy
Barbarossa, Frederick - He succeeded in recovering the royal influence in the selection of bishops, but his attempt to obtain the incomes from vacant benefices in northern Italy, and thereby prove his superiority over the pope, failed. The disputed papal Election in 1159 gave Frederick the opportunity he sought to demonstrate his imperial supremacy over the papacy
Apostolic Blessing - The benediction given by the pope at the end of liturgical functions at which he presides, and sometimes after audiences; also the solemn benediction "Urbi et Orbi" (to the city and world) pronounced by the pope immediately after his Election, from the balcony of Saint Peter's, as well as on Maundy Thursday, Easter, Ascension Day, and the Assumption
Predestine, Predestination - (See also Election and Sovereignty
Elect, Election - ELECT, Election (ἐκλέγεσθαι, ἐκλεκτός, ἐκλογή). , 49:2, 4, 51:3, 5, 52:6, 9, 55:4, 61:5, 8, 10, 62:1), and on a couple of occasions this is joined with another word or words which are equivalent to a characterization of the conditions upon which His Election to the Messiahship rests (‘the righteous and elect one,’ 53:6; ‘the elect one of righteousness and faith,’ 39:6
We must not forget, however, that this Divine Election has its roots struck deep in the Election which issued in the Incarnation, and that, apart from the latter, which is the rationale and guarantee of the former, we cannot believe in the existence of ‘an elect race’ (ὑμεῖς δὲ γένος ἐκλεκτόν, 1 Peter 2:9). This was apprehended very soon by the Fathers of the Church, who never separate the idea of the Election of Jesus from that of the community (ὁ ἐκλεξάμενος τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν καὶ ἡμᾶς διʼ αὑτοῦ, κ. Hebrews 12:25) which He addresses to them in Christ (ὁ καλέσας ὑμᾶς … ἐν Χριστῷ, 1 Peter 5:10), and which, when heard, is the antecedent condition of their Election (cf. ...
It will scarcely be contended that there is any practical difference in the Christology of those who speak of an Election διἀ Χριστοῦ, and of those who in the same connexion use the phrase ἐν Χριστω. Of a like nature is the incidental remark of the seer of the Apocalypse, that Jesus’ companions in His warfare with ‘the beast’ are those who not only were called and elected, but whose calling and Election had been crowned by their enduring faithfulness (πιστοί, Revelation 17:14). We are thus able to appreciate the anxiety of later Christian writers, who emphasized this part of Jesus’ teaching, and who reminded their readers that their entrance into the eternal kingdom of Jesus was conditioned by their enduring zeal; for in this way alone their ‘calling’ and ‘election’ were made stable and lasting and certain (βεβαίαν ὑμῶν τὴν κλῆσιν καὶ ἐκλογὴν ποιεῖσθαι, 2 Peter 1:10, cf. ...
That Jesus held firmly by the Jewish belief in the Election of that race to spiritual privilege, is evidenced by many signs both in His teaching and His methods of work
Blindness - Yet this did not contradict God’s Election and promise. For, firstly, some Jews had always remained faithful to the Election, and secondly, the blindness of the remainder was only temporary-until the ‘fullness of the Gentiles,’ when all Israel, beholding the salvation of the Gentiles, should once more turn to God. Whether all the community living in the interim, that is, previous to the removal of the social blindness, will share in the recognition and acceptance of the Election, is not considered by the Apostle
Dioceses, Cardinalitial - , the bishops of Ostia in the 4th century consecrated the pope, the Bishop of Albano in the 6th century recited the second prayer in the consecration ceremony, the Bishop of Porto the third, and probably as early as the 11th century they had the right of participating in the Election of the pope
Dioceses, Suburbicarian - , the bishops of Ostia in the 4th century consecrated the pope, the Bishop of Albano in the 6th century recited the second prayer in the consecration ceremony, the Bishop of Porto the third, and probably as early as the 11th century they had the right of participating in the Election of the pope
Cardinalitial Dioceses - , the bishops of Ostia in the 4th century consecrated the pope, the Bishop of Albano in the 6th century recited the second prayer in the consecration ceremony, the Bishop of Porto the third, and probably as early as the 11th century they had the right of participating in the Election of the pope
Honorius Iii, Pope - Honorius, in an attempt to engage the aid of the emperor Frederick II approved the Election of his son Henry as King of the Romans, thereby uniting the empire and the Sicilian Kingdom, a measure which was detrimental to the papacy
Calling - The Christian is exhorted to use diligence to make his 'calling and Election' sure, 2 Peter 1:10 , evidently not in the mind of God, but in his own mind
Felicissimus, Deacon of Carthage - 59) of the anti-Cyprianic party, which combined the five presbyters originally opposed to Cyprian's Election with the later-formed party for the easy readmission of the lapsed ( Epp
Doctor - ) To tamper with and arrange for one's own purposes; to falsify; to adulterate; as, to doctor Election returns; to doctor whisky
Savelli, Cencio - Honorius, in an attempt to engage the aid of the emperor Frederick II approved the Election of his son Henry as King of the Romans, thereby uniting the empire and the Sicilian Kingdom, a measure which was detrimental to the papacy
Suburbicarian Dioceses - , the bishops of Ostia in the 4th century consecrated the pope, the Bishop of Albano in the 6th century recited the second prayer in the consecration ceremony, the Bishop of Porto the third, and probably as early as the 11th century they had the right of participating in the Election of the pope
Innocent Iii, Pope - He reasserted the papal suzerainty over Sicily, which he ruled conscientiously during the minority of his ward Frederick II; was arbiter in Germany between Otto and Philip of Swabia; secured the Election of Frederick II, 1211; and formed a truce between France and England
Lotario de' Conti - He reasserted the papal suzerainty over Sicily, which he ruled conscientiously during the minority of his ward Frederick II; was arbiter in Germany between Otto and Philip of Swabia; secured the Election of Frederick II, 1211; and formed a truce between France and England
Gregory i, Pope Saint - His desire was realized when he sent Saint Augustine, with a band of missionaries to England, c590 Upon his Election to the papacy, he published a work on episcopal duties, which was used for centuries
Gregory the Great, Pope Saint - His desire was realized when he sent Saint Augustine, with a band of missionaries to England, c590 Upon his Election to the papacy, he published a work on episcopal duties, which was used for centuries
Refer - ) To carry the mind or thought; to direct attention; as, the preacher referred to the late Election
Confirmation - In church affairs, the act of ratifying the Election of an archbishop or bishop, by the king, or by persons of his appointment
Vestry - The purpose and duties of the Vestry as commonlyunderstood may be stated as follows: It is the duty of the Wardensand Vestry (it ought to be always with the advice of the Bishop) toconsider and determine upon the Election of a minister when theRectorship is vacant; to see that the minister is well and properlysupported, sufficiently and punctually paid; to make and execute allcontracts for the erection of church edifices, rectories and otherchurch buildings; to provide for their furnishing and repair and duepreservation; to hold all Church property as Trustees of the Parish,and as such generally to transact all temporal and financialbusiness of the Parish
Decree - ‘The purpose of God according to Election’ (ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις τοῦ θεοῦ, Romans 9:11) is to stand, not of works but of His own sovereign grace who calls them that believe. See articles Call, Election, and Predestination
Ministerial Call - An ecclesiastical call consists in the Election which is made of any person to be a pastor. Daily experience may convince us how injudiciously preferment would be distributed by popular Elections. The Scriptures allow the Election of pastors in ordinary cases to adult Christians, and to none else, Acts 1:15 ; Acts 1:26
Choice, Choose, Chosen - " In the six other places where this word is found it is translated "election. " See Election
Mammaea or Mamaea, Julia - On the Election of her nephew Elagabalus as emperor, she went with him and her son Alexander, then 13 years old, to Rome, and it speaks well for her prudence and goodness that she continued to secure the life of her son from the jealous suspicions of the tyrant and to preserve him from the fathomless impurity which ran riot in the imperial court. 222, and the Election of her son by the Praetorian Guard, she attained great influence
Decree - ‘The purpose of God according to Election’ (ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις τοῦ θεοῦ, Romans 9:11) is to stand, not of works but of His own sovereign grace who calls them that believe. See articles Call, Election, and Predestination
Call, Calling - ” This calling of Israel stands closely related to its Election (Isaiah 45:4 ). Also, they are urged to make their calling and Election sure (2 Peter 1:10 ). See Election ; Predestination
Foreknowledge - We accept the perfect purposes of a sovereign God and at the same time acknowledge the free will of responsible human beings (Luke 22:22; Acts 2:23; see also Election)
Bonifacius i, Pope - This was the third disputed Election (see full account, with all the documents, in Baronius s. The people of Corinth had elected a certain Perigenes bishop, and sent to Rome to ask the pope to ratify the Election. Proposals, however, had actually been made for the convocation of a provincial council to consider the Corinthian Election
Ambrose, Saint - When striving to hold an orderly Election of a bishop to that see in 374, the people acclaimed him, although, out of reverence for Baptism, he was still only a catechumen preparing for it
Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius - There are other great directive meditations: the Two Standards, the Three Classes of Men, and the Three Modes of Humility; and the second week culminates in the Election of a state of life, or of methods of amending the one already adopted
Predestination - The particular aspect of predestination that is concerned with God’s salvation of sinners through Christ is commonly referred to as Election (Romans 8:29-30; Romans 8:33; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:2; see Election)
Calvinism - " After having spoken of the Election of the race of Abraham, and then of particular branches of that race, he proceeds: "Though it is sufficiently clear, that God, in his secret counsel, freely chooses whom he will, and rejects others, his gratuitous Election is but half displayed till we come to particular individuals, to whom God not only offers salvation, but assigns it in such a manner that the certainty of the effect is liable to no suspense or doubt. In the elect, we consider calling as an evidence of Election; and justification as another token of its manifestation, till they arrive in glory, which constitutes its completion. Thus they not only obscure Election by covering it with the veil of foreknowledge, but pretend that it originates in another cause," book iii, chap. Consistently with this, he a little farther on asserts, that Election does not flow from holiness, but holiness from Election: "For when it is said, that the faithful are elected that they should be holy, it is fully implied, that the holiness they were in future to possess had its origin in Election. " He proceeds to quote the example of Jacob and Esau, as loved and hated before they had done good or evil, to show that the only reason of Election and reprobation is to be placed in God's "secret counsel. ) "Many, indeed, as if they wished to avert odium from God, admit Election in such a way as to deny that any one is reprobated. But this is puerile and absurd; because Election itself could not exist, without being opposed to reprobation;—whom God passes by he therefore reprobates; and from no other cause than his determination to exclude them from the inheritance which he predestines for his children," book iii, chap. Thus the Election taught by Calvin is not the choice of some persons to peculiar grace from the whole mass, equally deserving of punishment; (though this is a sophism;) since, in that case, the decree of reprobation would rest upon God's foreknowledge of those passed by as corrupt and guilty, which notion he rejects: "For since God foresees future events only in consequence of his decree that they shall happen, it is useless to contend about foreknowledge, while it is evident that all things come to pass rather by ordination and decree. And here, especially, a deep discrimination, at the same time both merciful and just; a discrimination of men equally lost, opens itself to us; or that decree of Election and reprobation which is revealed in the word of God; which, as perverse, impure, and unstable persons do wrest to their own destruction, so it affords ineffable consolation to holy and pious souls. But Election is the immutable purpose of God; by which, before the foundations of the world were laid, he chose, out of the whole human race, fallen by their own fault from their primeval, integrity into sin and destruction, according to the most free good pleasure of his own will, and of mere grace, a certain number of men, neither better nor worthier than others, but lying in the same misery with the rest, to salvation in Christ; whom he had, even from eternity, constituted Mediator and head of all the elect, and the foundation of salvation; and therefore he decreed to give them unto him to be saved, and effectually to call and draw them into communion with him, by his word and Spirit; or he decreed himself to give unto them true faith, to justify, to sanctify, and at length powerfully to glorify them, &c, Ephesians 1:4-6 ; Romans 8:30 . ...
This same Election is not made from any foreseen faith, obedience of faith, holiness, or any other good quality and disposition, as a prerequisite cause or condition in the man who should be elected, &c. Moreover, Holy Scripture doth illustrate and commend to us this eternal and free grace of our Election, in this more especially, that it doth testify all men not to be elected; but that some are non-elect, or passed by, in the eternal Election of God, whom truly God, from most free, just, irreprehensible, and immutable good pleasure, decreed to leave in the common misery into which they had, by their own fault, cast themselves; and not to bestow on them living faith, and the grace of conversion; but having been left in their own ways, and under just judgment, at length, not only on account of their unbelief, but also of all their other sins, to condemn and eternally punish them, to the manifestation of his own justice. God, who is rich in mercy, from his immutable purpose of Election, does not wholly take away his Holy Spirit from his own, even in lamentable falls; nor does he so permit them to glide down, ( prolabi, ) that they should fall from the grace of adoption, and the state of justification; or commit the ‘sin unto death,' or against the Holy Spirit; that, being deserted by him, they should cast themselves headlong into eternal destruction. Several of the brightest and most acute wits in Europe occupied themselves in sublimating to the height of extravagance the two kindred branches of predestination,—the eternal and absolute Election of certain men to everlasting glory, and the reprobation of the rest of mankind to endless punishment, without regard in the divine mind to the foreseen faith of one class or to the foreseen unbelief of the other
Orsini - 1305),imprisoned at the instance of the French party at the conclave of Viterbo to secure the Election of Martin IV
Goodness of God - To saints, in Election, calling, justification, adoption, sanctification, perseverance, and eternal glorification
Monastic - Oddo first began to retrieve it in the monastery of Cluny: that monastery, by the conditions of its erection, was put under the immediate protection of the holy see; with a prohibition to all powers, both secular and ecclesiastical, to disturb the monks in the possession of their effects or the Election of their abbot
Decree - The equivalents are to be sought for under such headings as Election, Predestination, Providence, Reprobate
Hardening - Paul confines his thought when he insists on the sovereignty of God as manifested in the Election of grace ( Romans 9:18 ); but having vindicated the absolute freedom of the Divine action, the Apostle proceeds to show that the Divine choice is neither arbitrary nor unjust
Alexander vi, Pope - His Election as pope met with general approval, and the attempts to attribute it to simony were never clearly proven
Edward the Confessor, Saint - Upon the Election of Canute to the throne of England, when Edward was only ten years of age, he went with his brother Alfred and his mother to live at the court of his uncle, the duke of Normandy
Otto Eduard Leopold Von Bismarck - With the Election of Pope Leo XIII a reconciliation was effected, and by 1884 diplomatic relations had been resumed with Rome
Frederick ii - After the Election of Innocent IV, Frederick was again excommunicated by the Council of Lyons; several pretenders appeared in Germany, but at the time of his death several years had elapsed without a decisive conflict
Presents - (2 Kings 18:31) And it is marked with peculiar emphasis's in the slights put upon Saul at his Election, that they brought him no presents
Agrippa - 41, and having used his influence in the Election of Caligula's successor Claudius, this emperor not only confirmed the previous grants, but added those of Judaea, Samaria, and Abilene, so that his possessions were nearly identical with those of his grandfather Herod the Great
Lucius (1) i - His banishment was of very short duration; for Cyprian, in his one extant letter addressed to him, while alluding to his Election as recent, congratulates him also on his return (Ep
Moses - ...
Moyses' severance was not because Novatian had already left the Catholics, which he did not do till June 4, after the Election of Cornelius; and Novatus, who induced it, did not leave Carthage for Rome until April or May (Rettberg, p
Predestination - The Election of believers, to which ‘predestination’ is sometimes narrowed, is hut a specific case of the ‘purpose’ of Him ‘who worketh all things after the counsel of his will’ ( Ephesians 1:11 ). The doctrine of foreordination (predestination) here coalesces practically with that of Election (wh. ...
Election, in the NT, as seen in the article referred to, relates to the eternal choice of the individual to salvation. Thus regarded, ‘election’ and ‘foreordination’ to salvation seem to have much the same meaning. It may perhaps be stated thus, that ‘election’ denotes the Divine choice simply, while ‘foreordain’ has generally (in sense of ‘predestinate’) a reference to the end which the foreordination has in view. In 1 Peter 1:1 , on the other hand, ‘foreknowledge’ is distinguished from Election still, however, in sense of pre-designation
Daniel o'Connell - He struggled undauntedly against bigotry and government oppression for years, opposing the proposed English veto power over episcopal Elections and welcoming George IV to Ireland, 1820. By 1826 his Catholic Association was strong enough to contest parliamentaiy Elections successfully; two years later he himself won the Election in Clare amidst tremendous popular enthusiasm
Feudalism And the Church - Disputed ecclesiastical Elections followed, with coveted church property as the bone of contention; while secular princes claimed the right of investiture of spiritual offices. Pope Nicholas II, in 1059, issued a decree which took the Election of the pope once and for all out of the hands of the emperor and the people of Rome, and placed it in the hands of the cardinals
o'Connell, Daniel - He struggled undauntedly against bigotry and government oppression for years, opposing the proposed English veto power over episcopal Elections and welcoming George IV to Ireland, 1820. By 1826 his Catholic Association was strong enough to contest parliamentaiy Elections successfully; two years later he himself won the Election in Clare amidst tremendous popular enthusiasm
Convocation - In 1665, the convocation of the clergy gave up the privilege of taxing themselves to the house of commons, in consideration of their being allowed to vote at the Election of members for that house
Stones - If the reference be to Greek ideas, the white conveys the idea of acquittal, the stone that of Election
Vocation - The end intended is, that they who have been called answer by faith to God and to Christ who give the call, and that they thus become the covenanted people of God through Christ the Mediator of the new covenant; and, after having become believers and parties to the covenant, that they love, fear, honour, and worship God and Christ, render in all things obedience to the divine precepts "in righteousness and true holiness," and that by this means they "make their calling and Election sure," Proverbs 1:24 ; Hebrews 3:7 ; Revelation 3:20 ; Ephesians 2:11-16 ; Titus 3:8 ; Deuteronomy 6:4-5 ; Jeremiah 32:38-39 ; Luke 1:74-75 ; 2 Peter 1:1 ; 2 Peter 1:10
Choice - And these at once define the nature of the choice, which is not that of ‘decision,’ but that of ‘selection. And this point is of some importance in view of the use to which some passages of the NT have been put by those who have attempted to elaborate from them doctrines of Election or predestination. Stress is never laid chiefly on the Election or predestination of the Almighty, but on the fact that such and such are actually found among those whom God has culled for Himself, and who constitute His own people. A further selection for some special service is indicated in such passages as—‘God made choice among you that by my mouth …’ (Acts 15:7, cf. Individuals are spoken of as chosen (Romans 16:23; 1 Peter 5:13, 2 John 1:13), and also angels (1 Timothy 5:21); while God’s purpose of selection is mentioned (Romans 9:11), and the status of those selected (1 Thessalonians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:10). ...
From the foregoing it is clear that in the Gospels, and in the NT generally, ‘choice’ expresses a selection of some among other alternatives, and commonly selection for some special service; God’s people being selected that they may become His servants who serve Him and so serve all in the furtherance of His purposes of love, rather than on their own account alone
Felix ii, Bishop of Rome - Felix was driven from the city, but soon after, at the instigation of the clergy who had perjured themselves in his Election, burst into it again, taking his position in the basilica of Julius beyond the Tiber. The other writers mentioned tell us that the Election and consecration of Felix took place in the imperial palace, since the people debarred the Arians from their churches; that three of the emperor's eunuchs represented the people, the consecrators being three heretical bishops, Epictetus of Centumellae, Acacius of Caesarea, and Basil of Ancyra; and it was only the Arian section of the clergy, though apparently a large one, that supported Felix
Asiarch - ]'>[1] ), but he was eligible for re-election. Their Election by their fellow-citizens to this honorary position was rewarded by games and gladiatorial shows
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - Peter's church to elect a successor to Simplicius, Basilius (Praefectus Praetorio and Patrician) interposed in the name of his master Odoacer the Herulian, who since 476 had ruled the West as king of Italy, alleging, as a fact known to his hearers, that Simplicius before his death had conjured the king to allow no Election of a successor without his consent; and this to avoid the turmoil and detriment to the church that was likely to ensue. The assembled clergy seem to have assented to this, and to have been then allowed to proceed with their Election, their choice falling on Caelius Felix, the son of a presbyter also called Felix. The Roman synod under pope Symmachus (498-514) protested against this interference of laymen with the Election of a pope, and Symmachus consented to declare it void, but required the re-enaction of the law against the alienation of farms, etc
Bishop - At first popular Election and Apostolic institution seem to have gone together. In these cases popular Election and laying-on of hands are not mentioned; but neither are they excluded. Conversely, popular Election is very prominent (Clement, and Teaching ) in the next age; but neither does this exclude formal approval and institution. First popular Election, then formal approval by authority and institution by prayer, with (at least commonly) its symbolic accompaniments of laying-on of hands and fasting
Sure - ...
A — 2: βέβαιος (Strong's #949 — Adjective — bebaios — beb'-ah-yos ) "firm, steadfast," is used of (a) God's promise to Abraham, Romans 4:16 ; (b) the believer's hope, Hebrews 6:19 , "steadfast;" (c) the hope of spiritual leaders regarding the welfare of converts, 2 Corinthians 1:7 , "steadfast;" (d) the glorying of the hope, Hebrews 3:6 , "firm;" (e) the beginning of our confidence, Hebrews 3:14 , RV, "firm" (AV, "steadfast"); (f) the Law given at Sinai, Hebrews 2:2 , "steadfast;" (g) the testament (or covenant) fulfilled after a death, Hebrews 9:17 , "of force;" (h) the calling and Election of believers, 2 Peter 1:10 , to be made "sure" by the fulfillment of the injunctions in 2 Peter 1:5-7 ; (i) the word of prophecy, "made more sure," 2 Peter 1:19 , RV, AV, "a more sure (word of prophecy);" what is meant is not a comparison between the prophecies of the OT and NT, but that the former have been confirmed in the person of Christ (2 Peter 1:16-18 )
Chaplain - Their only duty at present is to say prayers at the Election of peers for Scotland to sit in parliament
Resurrection - From the doctrines of grace, as union, Election, redemption, &c
Race - Genesis 12:1-3; see Election; COVENANT)
Conventicle - A diminutive of convent, denoting properly a cabal, or secret assembly of a part of the monks of a convent, to make a party in the Election of an abbot
Carry - ) To bear or uphold successfully through conflict, as a leader or principle; hence, to succeed in, as in a contest; to bring to a successful issue; to win; as, to carry an Election
Western Schism - General dissatisfaction, especially on the part of the French members of the Sacred College, and disagreement concerning the validity or the choice led to a second conclave at Fondi (September 20,) and the Election of another pope, a Frenchman, as Clement VII, who immediately took up his residence in Avignon
Schism, Western - General dissatisfaction, especially on the part of the French members of the Sacred College, and disagreement concerning the validity or the choice led to a second conclave at Fondi (September 20,) and the Election of another pope, a Frenchman, as Clement VII, who immediately took up his residence in Avignon
Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople - in 528 and 529) regulating episcopal Elections and duties. In 519, the year before his Election, he was sent with bp. Four letters remain of Epiphanius to Hormisdas, telling him of his Election, sending him his creed, and declaring that he condemned all those whose name the pope had forbidden to be recited in the diptychs
Call, Calling - This prominent biblical term is used with particular theological significance in three ways: in connection with worship, with Election, and with vocation. ...
Election . "Call" is one of the biblical words associated with the theme of Election. ...
Thus in Isaiah "call" brings together the ideas of naming, Election, ownership, and appointment, as the word is used with different nuances in different contexts
Supralapsarians - ...
The question which he proposes to discuss, is, "Whether men were considered in the mind of God in the decree of Election as fallen or unfallen, as in the corrupt mass through the fall, or in the pure mass of creatureship, previous to it, and as to be created?" There are some who think that the latter, so considered, were the objects of Election in the divine mind. The decree of Election respecting any part of them, may be distinguished into the decree of the end and the decree of the means
Predestination - ...
Francis Foulkes...
See also Elect, Election ; Foreknowledge ...
Bibliography . Berkouwer, Divine Election ; P. Rowley, The Biblical Doctrine of Election
Charles Borromeo, Saint - Upon the Election of Pius IV, he was summoned to Rome; the administration of all the papal states was intrusted to him; and he was made cardinal-deacon and administrator of the archdiocese of Milan though only 22 years old
Mufti - " The Election of the Mufti is solely in the grand seignior, who presents him with a vest of rich sables, and allows him a salary of a thousand aspers a day, which is about five pounds sterling
Israelite - The Apostle applies the term in its natural sense to himself in Romans 11:1, ‘I also am an Israelite,’ in order to show that all the members of the race have not been rejected by God, but that there is a remnant according to the Election of grace-Israelites who are Israelites indeed, not merely by outward physical connexion, but also by moral and spiritual characteristics
Assemblies of the French Clergy - The organization provided for the Election of four deputies from each ecclesiastical province; parish priests and even subdeacons were competent to act as delegates, but those selected were nearly always from the higher ranks, and a bishop invariably acted as president
Laurentius, an Antipope - Laurentius at first acquiesced, and accepted the see of Nucerina, but his partisans at Rome recalled him, and for three years after his Election Rome was divided into two parties, headed by Festus and Probinus on the side of Laurentius, and by Faustus on the side of Symmachus
Matthias the Successor to Judas Iscariot - And thus it is that Peter is now sitting in that seat of honour and influence and authority, and is conducting the Election of a successor to Judas, with all that holy fear and with all that firm faith which makes that upper room, under Peter's presidency, such a pattern to all vacant congregations to all time. ...
Now, somewhat remarkable to say, never before the day of his Election, and never after it, is Matthias's name so much as once mentioned in all the New Testament. And when Peter tabled Matthias's name on the day of the Election, he certified all these things about Matthias to the ten, and to the women, and to Mary the mother of Jesus, and to His brethren, and to the whole hundred-and-twenty. But instead of being invited to do what with all his heart he wished to do, Matthias was deliberately passed over by our Lord in His Election of the twelve. He was like the defeated candidate in Plutarch who, departing home from the Election to his house, said to them at home that it did him good to see that there were three hundred men in Athens who were better men than he was. And thus it was that when many men would have turned away and gone after another master, Matthias said to himself: 'Office or no office, Election or rejection, call or no call, to whom else can I go?' Nay, not only did Matthias keep true to his Master through all these humiliations and disappointments, but he continued to behave himself and to lay out his life just as if he had been elected and ordained. You cannot, with all your ill-cast lots, either embitter or alienate a truly elect, and humble-minded, and diligent disciple of Christ, And with all your ill-advised Elections the stone that is fit for the wall will not always be let lie in the ditch
Immutability of God - He expresses love (Proverbs 3:12 ) in the Election of His people for service (Hosea 11:1 ; Matthew 28:19-20 ; Ephesians 1:4 ) and by sending His one and only Son as the Savior of the world (John 3:16 ; Romans 5:8 ; 1 John 4:9-10 )
Demophilus - Demophilus, soon after his accession, went to Cyzicus in conjunction with Dorotheus, or Theodorus, of Heraclea, to procure the Election of an Arian bishop, that see having been vacant since the banishment of Eunomius
Reprobate - Paul and the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews in these passages are not presenting a reasoned system of predestination and Election, but rather dealing with what may happen under the stress and strain of temptation and trial in the ordinary tenor of the Christian life, and emphasizing the need of diligence and watchfulness, if they and their readers would make their calling and Election sure
Flavianus (8), Bishop of Constantinople - He is described by Nicephorus as being at his Election guardian of the sacred vessels of the great church of Constantinople, with a reputation for a heavenly life
Rebekah - ...
Before they were born she was told, in answer to her inquiry of the Lord because of her sensations, the elder shall serve the younger (Genesis 25:21-23; Romans 9:10-12), illustrating "the purpose of God, according to Election, not of works but of Him that calleth," inasmuch as it was when "neither had done any good or evil
Bonifacius ii, Pope - ) that the double Election was brought about by Athalaric the Gothic king, that he might have an opportunity to intervene after the example of Theodoric, and place a partisan of his own upon the papal throne
Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, , Disciple And Companion of Ruspe - , chiefly appertaining to the Election, ordination, and character of bishops, presbyters, and deacons; the feasts of the church; the duties of virgins, catechumens, etc
Judah - Thus is traced the terribly corrupt history of the family of whom according to Election Christ was to be born
Irenaeus, Bishop of Tyre - He was plied with missives from the dominant clerical party at Constantinople, asserting that the Election of a convicted heretic and a digamus was ipso facto null and void and charging him under severe threats to proceed to a fresh Election
Olive - The tree was shaken to get the remnant left after the general gathering (by "beating," Deuteronomy 24:20), Isaiah 24:13; image of Israel's "remnant according to the Election of grace
Remnant - ]'>[1] , λίμμα): ‘Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the Election of grace
Fravitta, Bishop of Constantinople - Zeno, ashamed of his failure, entrusted the Election of the new patriarch to the clergy
Countenance - The Election being done, he made countenance of great discontent thereat
House - One of the estates of a kingdom assembled in parliament or legislature a body of men united in their legislative capacity, and holding their place by right or by Election
Cornelius, Bishop of Rome - 251, Cornelius was elected to the vacant post; and, although very reluctantly, he accepted an Election almost unanimously made by both orders, during the life of a tyrant who had declared that he would rather see a new pretender to the empire than a new bishop of Rome (Cyprian
Marcellus, Bishop of Rome - ...
It would appear from these lines, together with those on Eusebius [1], that when persecution ceased at Rome conflicts arose in the Christian community as to the terms of readmission of the lapsi to communion; that Marcellus after his Election had required a period of penance before absolution; that this stern discipline evoked violent opposition, the subjects of it being doubtless numerous anal influential; that the church had been split into parties in consequence, and riots, anarchy, and even bloodshed, had ensued; that "the tyrant" Maxentius had interposed in the interests of peace and banished the pope as the author of the discord
Bereans - The Bereans agree with the great majority of Christians respecting the doctrine of the Trinity, which they hold as a fundamental article; and they also agree in a great measure with the professed principles of both our established churches respecting predestination and Election, though they allege that these doctrines are not consistently taught in either church. A God without Election, they argue, or choice in all his works, is a God without existence, a mere idol, a nonentity. And to deny God's Election, purpose, and express will in all his works is to make him inferior to ourselves
Lot - Thus the lot was used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral tribes (Numbers 26:55 ; 34:13 ), at the detection of Achan (Joshua 7:14,18 ), the Election of Saul to be king (1 Samuel 10:20,21 ), the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service (1 Chronicles 24:3,5,19 ; Luke 1:9 ), and over the two goats at the feast of Atonement (Leviticus 16:8 )
Hate, Hatred - God hates Esau (Malachi 1:2-5 ; Romans 9:13 ) stresses divine freedom in Election, not an emotional reaction
Donatists - But, notwithstanding the severities they suffered, it appears that they had a very considerable number of churches towards the close of this century; but at this time they began to decline, on account of a schism among themselves occasioned by the Election of two bishops, in the room of Parmenian, the successor of Donatus: one party elected Primian, and were called Primianists; and another Maximian, and were called Maximianists
Esau - ...
Jacob, through want of faith in God, surreptitiously obtained the blessing of his father (who, contrary to God's Election, intended it for Esau), in which Isaac said that he had made Jacob Esau's lord, and given all his brethren to be his servants
Catholic Emancipation - The Catholics then passed a resolution to oppose all government candidates, whereupon O'Connell stood for Parliament against Vesey Fitzgerald seeking re-election for Clare, and won, through the support of the forty-shilling freeholders who defied their landlords. Several other concessions to bigotry were made, ostensibly to placate the king, the most injurious being the raise of the franchise to ten pounds, which dispossessed the forty-shilling freeholders, and as the bill was not retroactive the old oath was offered to O'Connell, who refused and had to seek re-election for Clare, a proceeding felt to be an insult to all Ireland
Foreknowledge - Other terms such as “election” and “predestination” are closely related to foreknowledge. See Knowledge ; Election ; Predestination
Emancipation, Catholic - The Catholics then passed a resolution to oppose all government candidates, whereupon O'Connell stood for Parliament against Vesey Fitzgerald seeking re-election for Clare, and won, through the support of the forty-shilling freeholders who defied their landlords. Several other concessions to bigotry were made, ostensibly to placate the king, the most injurious being the raise of the franchise to ten pounds, which dispossessed the forty-shilling freeholders, and as the bill was not retroactive the old oath was offered to O'Connell, who refused and had to seek re-election for Clare, a proceeding felt to be an insult to all Ireland
Roman Catholic Relief Bill - The Catholics then passed a resolution to oppose all government candidates, whereupon O'Connell stood for Parliament against Vesey Fitzgerald seeking re-election for Clare, and won, through the support of the forty-shilling freeholders who defied their landlords. Several other concessions to bigotry were made, ostensibly to placate the king, the most injurious being the raise of the franchise to ten pounds, which dispossessed the forty-shilling freeholders, and as the bill was not retroactive the old oath was offered to O'Connell, who refused and had to seek re-election for Clare, a proceeding felt to be an insult to all Ireland
Arminianism - ...
Arminianism, in its proper sense, is to be considered as a separation from Calvinism, with regard to the doctrines of unconditional Election, particular redemption, and other points necessarily resulting from these. The Calvinists held that God had elected a certain portion of the human race to eternal life, passing by the rest, or rather dooming them to everlasting destruction; that God's Election proceeded upon no prescience of the moral principles and character of those whom he had thus predestinated, but originated solely in the motions of his free and sovereign mercy; that Christ died for the elect only, and therefore that the merits of his death can avail for the salvation of none but them; and that they are constrained by the irresistible power of divine grace to accept of him as their Saviour. ...
They do not deny an Election; but they deny that it is absolute and unconditional. They argue, that an Election of this kind is inconsistent with the character of God, that it destroys the liberty of the human will, that it contradicts the language of Scripture, and that it tends to encourage a careless and licentious practice in those by whom it is believed. And those who are not elected are allowed to perish, not because they were not elected, but merely and solely in consequence of their infidelity and disobedience; on account, indeed, of which infidelity and disobedience being foreseen by God, their Election did not take place. But the most eminent of those who became Arminians, or ranked among his professed followers, by embracing and avowing his peculiar tenets with respect to Election and redemption, soon began to depart widely from the other tenets of his theological creed. That God, from all eternity, determined to bestow salvation on those whom he foresaw would persevere unto the end in their faith in Christ Jesus: and to inflict everlasting punishment on those who should continue in their unbelief, and resist unto the end his divine succours; so that Election was conditional, and reprobation in like manner the result of foreseen infidelity and persevering wickedness
Sanctification, Sanctify - The sanctification of the Spirit is associated with the choice, or Election, of God; it is a Divine act preceding the acceptance of the Gospel by the individual
Rejection - ‘And so all Israel shall be saved’ and their Election at the first upheld, seeing that the gifts and calling of God are incapable of being revoked (Romans 11:25; Romans 11:29)
Nation - This was not because Israel was better than other nations (Deuteronomy 7:6-7; Deuteronomy 9:9), but because God wanted a channel of communication through which he could send his blessings to all the people of the world (Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:17-18; see Election)
Gregorius, Bishop of Merida - "...
From these notices it appears that Gregory succeeded Patruinus in the metropolitan see of Merida shortly after the council of Toledo in 400, that in his youth and after baptism he had practised as an advocate; that his Election to the bishopric was therefore, strictly speaking, illegal, and that his appointment had met with great opposition
Eusebius, Bishop of Rome - At any rate, the subject of dispute was the same as had led to the first Election of an antipope, viz
Nation - ” Certainly all this is viewed as the result of divine Election ( Jansenists - Jansenius himself, undoubtedly, held the opinions of Calvin on unconditional Election, though he seems to have been reserved in avowing them
Silverius, Bishop of Rome - Silverii ) the Election of Silverius was forced upon the Romans by the Gothic king Theodatus, who then held the city, the presbyters assenting for the sake of unity
Grace - He chooses to save people because of his sovereign grace alone, not because of their good works (Romans 11:6; Ephesians 1:5-6; see Election)
Timotheus Salofaciolus - Ten orthodox Egyptian bishops had also written to Leo that the Election had been unstained by "canvassing, sedition, or unfairness of any kind," and that Timotheus was approved as worthy of so eminent a bishopric for purity of character and integrity of faith ( Ep
Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople - ...
To pope Felix the patriarch sent letters, as was usual, to announce his Election, but received the reply that he might be admitted as a private member of the church Catholic, but could not be received in communion as a bishop, because he had not removed from the diptychs the names of his predecessors, Acacius and Fravitta. After the death of Zeno, the empress Ariadne procured the Election of Anastasius, on the understanding that he was to marry her. Replying to these temperate counsels, Gelasius allows that in other circumstances he would have written to announce his Election, but sourly observes that the custom existed only among those bishops who were united in communion, and was not to be extended to those who, like Euphemius, preferred a strange alliance to that of St
Predestination - -Election and predestination belong to the purpose of grace cherished in the Divine mind from all eternity; and as far as salvation is concerned they are the expression of the entire dependence of sinful man upon the grace of God from the beginning to the end. Election has in view the persons who are to be the objects of Divine blessing; predestination the privileges and blessings which are to be their portion (Romans 8:29-30, Ephesians 1:4-5). Here, again, as in his teaching upon Election, St. Election is a spontaneous act of God’s favour and grace, uncalled for by anything in the objects of it moving Him thereto. 8), ‘is to be handled with special prudence and care, that men attending to the will of God revealed in His word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may, from the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of their eternal Election
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - In ordinary cases he treats the Election by neighbour bishops as necessary to a valid episcopate ( Ep. The skill and toil of such a selection are admirable. 22), grew very quickly under the influence of some of those clergy who had opposed Cyprian's Election. The party were in episcopal communion, took part in the episcopal Election at Carthage, presently elected a new bishop for themselves, and procured episcopal consecration for him. When Novatus visited Rome, he threw himself into the Election then proceeding, and, after opposing the candidate who was chosen, procured episcopal consecration for his nominee there also. 251 the Roman confessors were liberated; they lost whatever influence Moyses had exercised on them; they had been drawn towards Novatian, and when Novatus, arriving from Carthage, attached himself to this party, because, though its puritanism was alien to his own practices at home, it was the only opposition existing in the capital which threatened to overthrow the Cyprianic side, they were at once organized into a party to secure the Election of a bp. The moment for Election was given by the absence of Decius and his leading officers on the frontier or in Illyria on account of the base alliance of Priscus with Cniva, and the revolt of Valens. The party of moderation, however, prevailed and secured the Election of Cornelius: and consecrated him in spite of himself by 16 bishops ("vim" Ep 55, vii. Cornelius's announcement of his Election ( Ep. This surprise (for fuller details of which see Novatian) was prepared by the party of severity, who were disappointed by the Election of Cornelius, stimulated by Evaristus, whom Cyprian regarded as the author of the movement ( Ep
Ordination - -The normal method of choosing men for the Christian ministry in the Apostolic Age, as certainly in those which succeeded it, was Election by those to whom the ordained was to minister. Whatever their exact office was-and it is not likely, in view of the solemn procedure adopted, to have been only an office of serving tables, a supposition which seems also to be contrary to the evidence of evangelistic activity by Stephen, Philip, and the rest-the people (‘the whole multitude’) elected (ἐξελέξαντο, ‘chose for themselves,’ Acts 6:5) the Seven and presented them to the apostles (Acts 6:6), who after Election ‘appointed’ them (Acts 6:3, καταστήσομεν) and prayed and laid their hands on them (Acts 6:6). ...
We do not read of Election in some cases; notably it is not mentioned when the presbyters are appointed in Acts 14:23, and some have taken the pronoun in the phrase ‘appointed for them’ as indicating that Paul and Barnabas acted without consulting the people. Yet, as has been said above (1), we ought probably to presume Election to have taken place unless there is evidence to the contrary. It is also probable that Election existed at Ephesus and in Crete, though we nowhere read of it in the Pastoral Epistles. ...
Other cases of Divine intervention are mentioned, and in such cases it would seem that there was no Election. ’ But it does not necessarily imply laying on of hands; it may mean Election, properly through a show of hands, or at any rate by an assembly, as in 2 Corinthians 8:19; or it may even mean an appointment by God (Acts 10:41) or by man (Acts 14:23). Even in the case of Matthias the special intervention extended only to God’s selection (so they regarded the lot) of one out of two men; the choice of the two was made by the people
Nectarius, Archbaptist of Constantinople - "...
The bishops of the West were not disposed to accept the Election, and asked for a common synod of East and West to settle the succession. Ambrose, in his 63rd letter, adduces the Election of Nectarius as an approval of his own by the East
Romania - His son, Bogdan III, allowed the maintenance of the Christian faith, the free Election of its princes, and independent domestic administration
Rumania - His son, Bogdan III, allowed the maintenance of the Christian faith, the free Election of its princes, and independent domestic administration
Judges - Although God alone regularly appointed the judges, yet the people, on some occasions, chose that individual who appeared to them most proper to deliver them from oppression; and as it often happened that the oppressions which occasioned recourse to the Election of a judge were not felt over all Israel, the power of such judge extended only over that province which he had delivered
Joannes ii, Mercurius, Bishop of Rome - ) The canvassings and contests then usual delayed the Election 11 weeks
Macedonius ii, Patriarch of Constantinople - For an account of his Election see EUPHEMIUS (4)
Diligence, Diligent, Diligently - 2; it signifies "to hasten to do a thing, to exert oneself, endeavor, give diligence;" in Galatians 2:10 , of remembering the poor, AV, "was forward," RV, "was zealous;" in Ephesians 4:3 , of keeping the unity of the Spirit, AV "endeavoring," RV, "giving diligence;" in 1 Thessalonians 2:17 , of going to see friends, "endeavored;" in 2 Timothy 4:9 ; 4:21 , "do thy diligence;" in the following the RV uses the verb "to give diligence:" 2 Timothy 2:15 , AV, "study;" Titus 3:12 , AV, "be diligent;" Hebrews 4:11 , of keeping continuous Sabbath rest, AV, "let us labor;" in 2 Peter 1:10 , of making our calling and Election sure; in 2 Peter 1:15 , of enabling believers to call Scripture truth to remembrance, AV, "endeavour;" in 2 Peter 3:14 , of being found in peace without fault and blameless, when the Lord comes, AV, "be diligent
Swedenborgians - ...
He denies the doctrine of atonement, or vicarious sacrifice; together with the doctrines of predestination, unconditional Election, justification by faith alone, the resurrection of the material body, &c
Atticus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - Four months of intrigue ended in the selection of Atticus. Another rescript declaring his right to decide on and approve of the Election of all the bishops of the province was more effectual
Georgius (3), Bishop of Laodicea - On the expulsion of Anianus from the see of Antioch George was mainly responsible for the Election of Meletius believing him to hold the same opinions as himself
Symmachus, Bishop of Rome - For the circumstances of his Election see LAURENTIUS (10)
Union With Christ - Christ is not only the means of Election (1:5), but is depicted as the first elect (1:9). Election is made "in Christ, " denoting the execution of God's purposes in and through his Son. Given the corporate nature of Paul's "in Christ" formula, Election "in Christ" entails God's gracious choice of a people, a corporate Election relative to the Election of the Son
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - The latter regarded this as a pretext, and in a tone of mingled affection and reproach declined to go until after the Election of the archbishop (Ep. of Nazianzus to be present at the Election was answered, as all the editors with almost certainty judge, by the hands of the son. He wrote also to Eusebius of Samosata by the hands of the deacon Eustathius, urging him to go to Caesarea and promote Basil's Election ( Ep. He did not go even after the Election, but contented himself at first with writing letters which witness to his wisdom and affection ( Epp. But in the opposition caused by the bishops defeated in the Election, and in the persecution organized by the prefect Modestius at the command of Valens, Gregory was foremost as a personal friend and as a defender of the faith (Socr. He soon gave further proof of affection by taking an active part in the Election of Eulalius as bp. ...
For two years after the bishop's death Gregory in vain pressed for the Election of a successor
Schism - which divided the church for forty or fifty years, and was at length ended by the Election of Martin V
Galba - He was the earliest of all the Emperors not of Caesarian blood, and he first manifested clearly that the Election to the principate lay in the hands of the army
Firstborn - As He is "the firstborn" in relation to the Election church, so it is "the church of the firstborn," "a kind of first-fruits of His creatures" (James 1:18), in relation to the millennial church, and to the hereafter to be regenerated natural creation
Chosen One - ‘whom I elected,’ and refers in the thought of the Evangelist to the Divine Election of Christ by God (cf. To these should be added the citation in Matthew 12:18 ‘Behold my son (servant?) whom I adopted, my beloved in whom my soul was well pleased,’ where the aorists are most easily explained as expressing the Divine selection and appointment of the Messiah in a pre-temporal period
Baptists - The polity of the Baptist Church is congregational, each church being independent of control regarding discipline and worship, appointment of pastor, and Election of deacons and other officers
Take Away - God’s taking sometimes connotes Election, as when He “took” Abraham from his father’s house ( Universalists - They teach the doctrine of Election, but not in the exclusive Calvinistic sense of it
Rest - ...
The Election hath obtained it and the rest were blinded
Joannes Talaia, Bishop of Nola - John sent the usual synodic announcement of his Election to Simplicius, bp
Calvinists - Thou wilt say, then, Why doth he yet find fault; for who hath resisted his will? Nay, but, O man! who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour and another unto dishonour?...
Hath God cast away his people whom he foreknew? Wot ye not what the Scripture saith of Elias? Even so at this present time, also, there is a remnant according to the Election of grace. What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for, but the Election hath obtained it, and the rest are blinded. With respect to the conditional predestination admitted by the Arminians, they say that an Election upon faith or good works foreseen, is not that of the Scriptures; for that Election is there made the cause of faith and holiness, and cannot, for this reason, be the effect of them
Lots - ...
In course of time the procedure which had been primarily and essentially sacred was applied to secular affairs such as the selection of people to inhabit and guard a city (Nehemiah 11:1). ]'>[15] the Election was by ballot. This, of course, is not in harmony with Jewish practice, as seen in the selection of the goats (Leviticus 16:8). From the result being indicated by the words ‘the lot fell’ and not ‘the Lord chose,’ it has been argued that the Election was unwarranted and that the Divine intention was that St. The fact that the Election took place before Pentecost has no vital significance
Mission(s) - Still, the Election was not an end in itself. See Confession ; Election ; Evangelism ; Gospel ; Holy Spirit ; Kingdom of God ; Paul ; Salvation
Adoption - Only God's Election in grace, Christ's work in redemption, and the Spirit's work in the life of the believer bring adoption and make one a child of God
Damasus, Pope - 366) the factions which had disgraced his Election broke out with redoubled violence
Grace - Hence, concepts of Election, salvation, mercy, and forgiveness are all linked in this first illustration of grace in the Old Testament. He then makes a statement that is connected with grace throughout Scripture, one that Paul will quote in the context of Election in Romans 9 : "I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. We see it related to Election (Ephesians 1:3-6 ), to the gospel (2Col 4:15; Colossians 1:5-6 ), explicitly to justification (Romans passim, Election Paul sees God as electing us before the creation of the world for the purpose of holiness and blamelessness (Ephesians 1:4 ). " In other words, Election and grace go hand in hand because of their free character
Predestination - ...
In a discussion of Election and predestination, questions about Jacob and Esau (Romans 9:13 ) arise, as do questions about God “hardening Pharaoh's heart” (Romans 9:17-18 ). See Election ; Salvation
Judas Iscariot - Peter in his opening address at the Election of St
Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome - But the consuls given in the Liberian catalogue as contemporary with his Election and death are those of 171 and 185
Nerva - After Election to various priesthoods he attained the consulship (with the Emperor Vespasian) in the year 71 (for the second time in 90 with the Emperor Domitian)
Maximus the Cynic, Bishop of Constantinople - Having only his own representations to guide them, and there being no question that Gregory's translation was uncanonical, while the Election of Nectarius was open to grave censure as that of an unbaptized layman, Maximus also exhibiting letters from Peter the late venerable patriarch, to confirm his asserted communion with the church of Alexandria, it is not surprising that the Italian bishops pronounced decidedly in favour of Maximus and refused to recognize either Gregory or Nectarius
Petrus, Surnamed Fullo - 463, Peter's unbridled ambition soared to the patriarchal throne, then filled by Martyrius, and having gained the ear of the rabble, be adroitly availed himself of the powerful Apollinarian element among the citizens and the considerable number who favoured Eutychian doctrines, to excite suspicions against Martyrius as a concealed Nestorian, and thus caused his tumultuous expulsion and his own Election to the throne
Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata - ), the father of Gregory of Nazianzus, advising the selection of Eusebius of Samosata for the vacant bishopric. The part which Eusebius did take in the Election of Basil is well known. ) shews that Eusebius had successfully secured the Election of a Catholic bishop at Tarsus
King - Adonijah assumed that, as David’s son, he had a right to the throne ( 1 Kings 2:15 ), and even the succession of his younger half-brother Solomon was secured without any popular Election. Saul, even after his Election, resided on his ancestral estate, and came forth only as necessity called him (cf
Kulturkampf - ...
With the Election of Pope Leo XIII in 1878, the restoration of peace began
Seceders - A petition to the same effect, subscribed by several hundreds of elders and private Christians, was offered at the same time; but the assembly refused a hearing to both, and enacted, that the Election of ministers to vacant charges, where an accepted presentation did not take place, should be competent only to a conjunct meeting of elders and heritors, being Protestants. It was also said that this act was extremely prejudicial to the honour and interest of the church, as well as to the edification of the people; and, in fine, that it was directly contrary to the appointment of Jesus Christ, and the practice of the apostles, when they filled up the first vacancy in the apostolic college, and appointed the Election of deacons and elders in the primitive church. Believing that the people have a natural right to choose their own pastors, the settlement of their ministers always proceeds upon a popular Election; and the candidate, who is elected by the majority, is ordained among them
Lots - ...
In course of time the procedure which had been primarily and essentially sacred was applied to secular affairs such as the selection of people to inhabit and guard a city (Nehemiah 11:1). ]'>[15] the Election was by ballot. This, of course, is not in harmony with Jewish practice, as seen in the selection of the goats (Leviticus 16:8). From the result being indicated by the words ‘the lot fell’ and not ‘the Lord chose,’ it has been argued that the Election was unwarranted and that the Divine intention was that St. The fact that the Election took place before Pentecost has no vital significance
Decrees - ...
God's Decrees and Election
Arminians - That God, from all eternity, determined to bestow salvation on those who he foresaw would persevere unto the end; and to inflict everlasting punishments on those who should continue in their unbelief, and resist his divine succours; so that Election was conditional, and reprobation in like manner the result of foreseen infidelity and persevering wickedness
Eustathius (3), Bishop of Berrhoea - of Antioch and that his Election to that see was the unanimous act of the bishops presbyters and faithful laity of the city and province (Theod
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - After Dioscorus was deposed by that council, the emperor Marcian ordered a new Election to the see
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - Orthodoxy was at stake in Basil's Election. All the best of the people, together with the clergy and the monks, warmly advocated Basil's Election, which was vigorously opposed by other classes. The people warmly espoused Basil's cause; the bishops were compelled to give way, and the triumph of the orthodox cause was consummated by the arrival of the venerable Gregory, who, on learning that one vote was wanting for the canonical Election of Basil, while his son was still hesitating full of scruples and refused to quit Nazianzus, left his bed for a litter, had himself carried to Caesarea at the risk of expiring on the way, and with his own hands consecrated the newly elected prelate, and placed him on his episcopal throne (Greg. 343) Basil's Election filled the orthodox everywhere with joy. The bishops who had opposed his Election and refused to take part in his consecration, now exchanged their open hostility for secret opposition. To heal the fountain-head, Basil made himself as far as possible master of episcopal Elections, and steadily refused to admit any he deemed unworthy of the office
Calling - For personal Election, and a purpose of effectual personal calling, could not have been hidden till manifested by the "appearing of Christ;" since every instance of true conversion to God in any age prior to the appearing of Christ, would be as much a manifestation of eternal Election, and an instance of personal effectual calling, according to the Calvinistic scheme, as it was after the appearance of Christ
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - After 11 years in his monastery, his reputation led to his Election to the see of Tours. A crowd of the people of Tours and from neighbouring cities had been gathered together, and the all but unanimous desire was for the Election of Martin
Hussites - ...
He also multiplied the number of his enemies in the year 1408, by procuring, through his own credit, a sentence in favour of the Bohemians, who disputed with the Germans concerning the number of suffrages which their respective nations were entitled to in all matters that were carried by Election in this university
Gentiles - ...
The doctrine of Election in which Israel became a holy nation (Exodus 19:16 ; Leviticus 19:2 ) among the nations by the covenant at Sinai draws attention to the fact that no other nation has such a God or such laws
Providence - See Election ; God ; Predestination
Truth - The great confession given by Ezra after the Jews returned from bondage in Babylon emphasized God's nature as truth (faithfulness) in what He did in creation, Election, redemption, and the giving of the law: “You came down also upon Mount Sinai, and spoke with them from heaven and gave them right ordinances and true laws, good statutes and commandments, and you made known your holy sabbath to them and gave them commandments and statutes and a law through your servant Moses” (Nehemiah 9:13-14 NRSV)
Neighbor - Election set Israel apart, made the people particularly loyal to their own kind (cf
Call - Divine sovereignty and Election are extended over all generations, for God “called” them all from the beginning ( Assurance - Assurance of final salvation must stand or fall with the doctrine of personal unconditional Election, and is chiefly held by divines of the Calvinistic school; and that nothing is an evidence of a state of present salvation but so entire a persuasion as amounts to assurance in the strongest sense, might be denied upon the ground that degrees of grace, of real saving grace, are undoubtedly mentioned in Scripture
Reformation - It had become common, before the Election of a new pontiff, to frame certain articles of reformation, which the successful candidate was required to swear that he would carry into effect; and although the oath was uniformly disregarded or violated, the views which led to the imposition of it indicated the existence of a spirit which could not be eradicated, and which might, from events that could not be foreseen, and could not be controlled, acquire a vigour which no exertion of power could resist
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - sent orders to Stilas, the "dux" commanding at Alexandria, to expel Timotheus from the church, and to promote the Election of an orthodox bishop (Liberat
Kings, First And Second, Theology of - Yahweh's Election and covenant with Israel were bound with David, although the continuation of the Davidic dynasty was conditioned upon the proper cultic observances and the acceptance of the Mosaic covenant. The release of the Davidide Jehoiachin at the end of Kings serves as a subtle reminder that the covenant was still in effect; the people could be assured of their continuing Election by God
the Importunate Widow - And this is as good to them all as the seal of their Election, this, that their only and real adversary is sin. But you do not need to climb up to heaven in order to make your Election sure
Apostle - The first act of the infant Church was to restore the typical number twelve by the Election of Matthias; and it is worthy of note, as indicating both the undeveloped condition of the ministry and also the germs of future developments, that in Acts all three terms, ‘diaconate’ (Acts 1:17; Acts 1:25), ‘bishopric’ (Acts 1:20), and ‘apostleship’ (Acts 1:25), are used in connexion with the Election of Matthias
Time (2) - 1, but in a few cases the emperors dated their years from the date of their Election as tribunes of the people on Dec
Freedom - See Election, Slavery
Doctrine - For instance, what we say about humanity affects what we say about Christology; what we say about Election shapes what we believe about the church
Trajan - After a period of inaction he was, at the Election of Nerva as Emperor in 96, appointed governor of the mountainous part of Germany (provincia Germania Superior), to secure a new frontier to the Empire, taking in the Agri Decumates (modern Schwarzwald, Black Forest)
Judas Iscariot - Peter’s speech at the Election of Matthias (Acts 1:18-19 )
Peter, Second, Theology of - Traveling on this righteous road (2:21) is the way to confirm their calling and Election (1:10-11), and to enjoy the new heaven and earth (3:13)
Know, Knowledge - The statement of Amos 3:2 , "You (Israel) only have I chosen of all the families of the earth, " indicates divine selection. ...
Carl Schultz...
See also Elect, Election ; God ; Knowledge of God ...
Bibliography
Church - ...
Election, Romans 9:11
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - Gregory was at once unanimously chosen by senate, clergy, and people to succeed Pelagius; but to him his Election was distressing, and he wrote to the emperor Mauricius imploring him not to confirm it. The emperor confirmed the Election of Gregory, who fled in disguise, was brought back in triumph, conducted to the church of St. Maximus having been elected in opposition to Honoratus, whom Gregory had recommended, the latter disallowed the Election, and wrote to the clergy of Salona forbidding them to choose a bishop without the consent of the apostolic see. Meanwhile the emperor had confirmed the Election
Amos, Theology of - This grace is evident, first of all, in his Election of Israel (Amos 3:2 a; cf. As already indicated, Amos asserts the fact of Israel's Election. But the prophet goes on to say that the privilege of Election brings with it a high degree of accountability to the God with whom Israel is in relationship
Henoticon, the - He at once, according to custom, dispatched synodical letters to the chief bishops of Christendom, to notify his Election. On his death in 498 a contested Election ensued, exasperated by differences of opinion on the "Henoticon" and the schisms in the East
Apostle - Peter states the qualifications before the Election of Judas' successor (Acts 1:21), namely, that he should have companied with the followers of Jesus "all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among them, beginning from the baptism of John unto the day that He was taken up, to be a witness with the others of His resurrection
Exodus - The prophets constantly reminded Israel that Election and covenant were closely related to the Exodus (Isaiah 11:16 ; Jeremiah 2:6 ; Jeremiah 7:22-25 ; Ezekiel 20:6 ,Ezekiel 20:6,20:10 ; Hosea 2:15 ; Hosea 11:1 ; Amos 2:10 ; Amos 3:1 ; Micah 6:4 ; Haggai 2:5 )
Peter, First, Theology of - This unity of the Godhead is made explicit in salvation by the Election of the Father, the sanctifying of the Spirit, and the sacrificial death of Christ (1:2)
Abomination of Desolation - The original reference is clearly to the desecration of the Temple by the soldiers of Antiochus Epiphanes, the ceasing of the daily burnt-offering, and the Election of an idol-altar upon the great Altar of Sacrifice in b
Call, Called, Calling - It is, therefore, well designated ‘the high calling of God (ἡ ἄνω κλῆσις τοῦ Θεοῦ) in Christ Jesus’ (Philippians 3:14), ‘a heavenly calling’ (κλῆσις ἐπουράνιος, Hebrews 3:1); and these who are partakers of it are exhorted to make their ‘calling and Election sure’ (2 Peter 1:10)
Pharisees - Pharisaism was inseparable from the popularization of monotheism, and the universal acceptance by the nation of its Divine Election and calling
Stephanus i., Bishop of Rome - The synodical letter of the council (drawn up, without doubt, by Cyprian) confirmed the deposition of the two prelates and the Election of their successors, on the ground that compliance with idolatry incapacitated for resumption of clerical functions, though not for reception into the church through penance
Ephesians, Theology of - The Gentiles have since been included, largely by Paul's own work, in keeping with divine forethought and Election. It is in the context of the role of Israel as the elect, the chosen, descended from Abraham to propagate the Messiah, rather than in the context of individual predestination to salvation, that Paul speaks of Election
Saul - As also when he hid himself among the stuff on the day of his Election. As also when he held his peace at the men of Belial mocking at his Election
Jonah, Theology of - " There is no direct reference in the book to Israel's Election or to their special salvation history
King, Kingship - Kings were of three basic kinds in the Ancient Near East: (1) kings of great nations often identified with a god (for example, in Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt); (2) kings from a military elite who had taken control of a local population by force (for example, Canaanite city kings); and (3) kings who arose from tribal or clan-oriented groups whose Election to or inheritance of the kingship was determined in part by the people's will (for example, Israel, Edom, Moab, and Ammon)
Salvation - See Atonement ; Conversion ; Election ; Eschatology ; Forgiveness ; Future Hope ; Grace ; Justification ; New Birth ; Predestination ; Reconciliation, Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer; Repentance ; Sanctification ; Security of the Believer
Malachi, Theology of - In Romans Paul was dealing with Election, and this helps us understand that to "love" Jacob was to choose Israel as his special people
Ministry, Minister - The Election and call of Israel is the foundation of the service of Israel to God
Titus, Theology of - Many of the major theological terms are found within this short epistle, terms like Election (1:1), salvation (2:11), faith and believing (1:1; 2:2; 3:8), the grace of God (2:11; 3:7), redemption (2:14), regeneration (3:5), and justification (3:7)
Remember, Remembrance - And he is present as the same, living God, bound to them in Election and covenant as he was to their ancestors in days past, for he is Yahweh, "I am who I am
Home (2) - As soon as the child could speak, his mother taught him a verse of the Torah (on the unity of God; and on the Election of Israel)
Arnobius - In many places he shews by implication a total ignorance of the national Election and the ritual of the Jews (to whom he scarcely alludes at all) and of the Scriptural prophecies and chronology
Zechariah, Book of - Vision One: God's Election mercy for His people replaces His anger (Zechariah 1:7-17 )
Judah, Kingdom of - The object of God's Election of the Jews was not merely for themselves, as if their perversity frustrated God's purpose; but to be, even in their temporary rejection, a standing monument to the world of the unity, supremacy, and providence of Jehovah ("ye are My witnesses," saith Jehovah: Isaiah 44:8; Isaiah 43:10; Isaiah 43:12), and ultimately to be blessed temporally and spiritually themselves, and to be a blessing to all nations
Joshua, Book of - So the Christian must make his calling and Election sure, entering into the possession of his heavenly privileges
Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - When describing the uncanonical intrusion of Lucius, he refers to the three elements of a proper episcopal Election, as fixed by "the institutions of the church"—(1) the joint action of the assembled bishops of the province, (2) the vote (ψήφω ) of "genuine" clergy, (3) the request of the people (αἰτήσει , the Latin suffragium , as Cyprian uses it, Ep
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - Simplicius received a notification of the Election from the synod, and was about to express his assent, when he was startled by a letter from Zeno accusing Talaias of perjury, and intimating that Peter Mongus was the most proper person to succeed Salofaciolus
Theodoricus, the Ostrogoth - Italy during the war with Odoacer; and in his interference in the troubles following the disputed Election of SYMMACHUS and LAURENTIUS he seems to have acted solely with a view to benefit the church
Baxterianism - a modification of the Calvinistic doctrine of Election advocated by the celebrated Baxter in his treatise of "Universal Redemption," and in his "Methodus Theologiae. "...
Thus the whole theory amounts to this, that, although a conditional salvation has been purchased by Christ for all men, and is offered to them, and all legal difficulties are removed out of the way of their pardon as sinners by the atonement, yet Christ hath not purchased for any man the gift of FAITH, or the power of performing the condition of salvation required; but gives this to some, and does not give it to others, by virtue of that absolute dominion over men which he has purchased for himself, so that, as the Calvinists refer the decree of Election to the sovereignty of the Father, Baxter refers it to the sovereignty of the Son; one makes the decree of reprobation to issue from the Creator and Judge, the other, from the Redeemer himself
Inheritance - Moreover, the exceptions to the rule are presented as examples of a Divine Election rather than a human preference (Isaac, Genesis 21:12 ; Jacob, Malachi 1:2-3 , Romans 9:13 ; Joseph, Genesis 49:24 ff
Remnant - The story of the primeval history was discontinued in favor of the Election of Abram, a remnant, so to speak, from the larger group
Amphilochius, Archbishop of Iconium - At this council a metropolitan authority was confirmed to, rather than conferred on, his see of Iconium; for we find it occupying this position even before his Election to the episcopate
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - Flavian's influence prevented the Election of a successor
Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - Hadrian had himself proclaimed emperor by the army communicated the Election to the senate and received their formal sanction
Thessalonians, Epistles to the - " The apostle gives thanks in respect of their faith, love, and hope, which gave evidence of their Election of God
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - They represent him as already recognised as the prophet like unto Moses, whom Jehovah was to raise up; when Simon with difficulty and entreaty obtained Election among his 30 disciples
Dead Sea Scrolls - Other aspects of personal piety included a deep sense of human frailty and sinfulness and thanksgiving to God for his grace and Election. Themes that permeate these hymns include a deep sense of human frailty and sinfulness, an affirmation of God's grace and Election, a division of humanity into the righteous and the wicked, and God's revelation of this knowledge within the covenant community
Church - ...
The faultless perfection and the glorious promises in Scripture assigned to the church (election, adoption, spiritual priesthood, sure guidance by the Spirit into all truth, eternal salvation) belong not to all of the visible church, but to those alone of it who are in living union with Christ (Ephesians 5:23-27; Hebrews 12:22-23)
Unbelief - ‘Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the Election of grace’ (Romans 11:5)
Vessels And Utensils - Paul took up the same analogy to make a point about Election (Romans 9:20-21 ): the potter can make any sort of vessel he chooses
Reconciliation - So, in Romans 11:28 , the Jews, rejected and punished for refusing the Gospel, are said by the Apostle, "as concerning the Gospel," to be "enemies for your sakes;" treated and accounted such; "but, as touching the Election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes
Perseverance - _ The gift was solely of the Divine mercy, unconditional; it followed as a necessary sequence from personal Election. This is the absolute datum (not idea) set forth in the predestinarian definitions of Election and perseverance: it is a datum of soul perception and persuasion induced by the soul’s experience of the Power that holds it and guides and guards it, the only adequate equivalent of the profound apostolic intuition: ‘in God we live, and move, and have our being’ (Acts 17:28)
Hopkinsians - The Hopkinsians warmly contend for the doctrine of the divine decrees, that of particular Election, total depravity, the special influences of the Spirit of God in regeneration, justification by faith alone, the final perseverance of the saints, and the consistency between entire freedom and absolute dependence; and therefore claim it as their just due, since the world will make distinctions, to be called Hopkinsian Calvinists
Trinity - The scattered Christians are reminded through reference to the Trinity that their Election (foreknowledge of the Father) and redemption (the sanctifying work of the Spirit) should lead to holy living obedience to the Son)
Hopkinsians - The Hopkinsians warmly advocate the doctrine of the divine decrees, not only particular Election, but also reprobation; they hold also the total depravation of human nature, the special influences of the Spirit of God in regeneration, justification by faith alone, the final perseverance of the saints, and the consistency between entire freedom and absolute dependence; and therefore claim it as their just due, since the world will make distinctions, to be called Hopkinsian Calvinists
David - Upon the death of Saul, he cut off the Amalekite who came to make a merit of having slain him; and by the immediate direction of God, who had promised him the succession, went up to Hebron, where, on a free Election, he was anointed king over the house of Judah; and after about a seven years' contest, he was unanimously chosen king by all the tribes of Israel, "according to the word of the Lord by Samuel
Romans, Theology of - The mission of proclaiming the gospel will for Paul always articulate the theology of up and down, life and death, and these vectors will be seen to be connected to preaching, hearing, receiving, or rejecting, all under the sovereign Election of God (v. ...
Yet there is an added ingredient in the formula of Election, for God does not choose capriciously but through valid secondary agents, and in each case the nonelect are seen to be lacking in faith: Esau, Pharaoh, and now Israel who have not pursued righteousness through faith, but as it were based on works (9:30-33)
Esther - I leave you to imagine what were the prayers and psalms that Mordecai offered up with his window open towards Jerusalem, as he saw all Esther's Election, and promotion, and coronation, and all her splendour and all her power. The great war with Greece; the great national feast consequent on that great war; the absolute intoxication of the king's mind with pride, and with ambition, and with wine; the brutal summons to Vashti; her brave refusal of her master's brutal demand; her fall and her banishment; the Election and elevation of Esther, and her immense influence with the despot; all these things were so many stepping-stones on which Esther had so providentially risen to her splendid opportunity
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - The populace, who appear throughout strongly on his side, debarred the Arians from the churches, so that the Election of a successor, on which the emperor was determined, had to be made in the imperial palace. Felix appears to have been himself orthodox, no distinct charge of heresy being alleged by his accusers; only that of connivance with his own unlawful Election by Arians in defiance of his oath, and of communicating with them
Nestorian Church - He was able to establish rules for the Election of the patriarch which still hold good in theory, and founded schools and colleges (in particular, one at Seleucia), in addition to the one at Nisibis. The patriarchate was then vacant (Chosroes had been so annoyed by the substitution of another Gregory for the Gregory whom he had nominated to that office, that he had refused to allow any Election when that man died in 608), and when petition was made for the granting of a patriarch, the Monophysites, whose interest at court was powerful, petitioned for the nomination of a man of their own
Disciple, Discipleship - This is also understood by Paul to be the final goal of eternal Election (Romans 8:29 )
Christians, Names of - The New Testament names, the called (Revelation 17:14 ), the chosen (Colossians 3:12 ; 1 Peter 2:9 ; Revelation 17:14 ), and the elect (Mark 13:20,22 , 27 ; 1 Peter 1:13-16 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ), clearly indicate that believers are joined to God by his sovereign Election to salvation
Saul - The singular providential circumstances connected with his Election as king are recorded in 1 Samuel 810-10
Romans, the Epistle to the - The casting away of the Jew, though most sad, is neither universal now (for there is a remnant according to the Election of grace, and God's foreordaining is to be accepted not criticized by finite man), nor final, for "all Israel shall be saved" in the coming age, and their being received will be as life from the dead to the Gentile world (Romans 9; Romans 11)
Government - At least at first the people bad a voice in his Election (David, Rehoboam)
Idol, Idolatry - God's Election separated the people from unholiness and to himself as his special possession. From the selection of materials to the final embellishment of eye paint the process is most effectively portrayed in the great prophetic parodies of Isaiah 44:6-20 and Jeremiah 10:1-16
Discipline - They will give the more diligence to make their calling and Election sure
Terah - All this time, then, all this disappointed and postponed time, the angel of the covenant had been passing unceasingly from land to land, and from nation to nation, and from tongue to tongue seeking for some of Adam's sons who should be found worthy to take up the calling and Election of God; till, at last, the star came and stood over the house of Terah, on the other side of the flood. Terah was taken in Ur of the Chaldees, and was there made the type and the teacher of all those wise men of the east, and of the west, and of the north, and of the south: all the elect within the Election, and without: all those men old in years, but whose eye is not dim, nor their intellectual nor their spiritual strength one iota abated
Complacency - Εὐδοκία evidently occurs in the latter sense in those passages which refer to Election, the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God. And, it is worthy of special note, it is in this connexion that we find the expression ‘be well pleased,’ ‘take pleasure in’ (εὐδοκεῖν ἑν), where text and context plainly indicate that the thought of complacency is intended, as distinguished from the other sense in which the words εὐδοκεῖν, εὐδοκία occur in the NT, that of the Divine Election, the will or purpose of God, ‘His mere good pleasure
Family Life And Relations - ...
Rooted in the promise given to Abraham, and through him to his seed (1 Samuel 16:5 ), lay the assurance of an Election, ever present and articulated in the covenant
Ordination - Election and ordination are spoken of as the same; the latter is expressed and explained by the former
Salvation - Further, salvation involves the paradox of human freedom and divine Election
Jerusalem - This stronghold was taken, and Jerusalem became the royal city; but the great interest that attaches to it arises from its being the city of Jehovah's Election on the one hand, and the place of Jehovah's temple, where mercy rejoiced over judgement
Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra - It must have been almost the first act of Julius, after his Election (Feb
God - He still causes to happen whatever does happen, even to the salvation of rebellious sinners (Isaiah 14:24; Isaiah 37:26; Romans 8:15-17; Acts 2:23; Ephesians 1:5; Ephesians 3:20; see Election)
Covenant - Also in the context of Yahweh's claim to Abraham's seed as his, the concept of divine Election is included. Election to covenantal privileges and responsibilities was not on the basis of merit, but according to Yahweh's sovereign will and mercy (Romans 9:10-18 )
Chronology of the New Testament - We have to include in this period the spread of the Church among the Hellenists, the Election of the Seven, and the death of Stephen, followed closely by St
Children (Sons) of God - It fulfils the typical distinction within Israel itself of ‘children of the flesh’ and ‘children of the promise’: by Divine Election alone men become ‘children of God,’ ‘sons of the living God’ ( Galatians 4:28 , Romans 9:8 ; Romans 9:26 )
Time, Meaning of - Most notably, there was a “day” of Israel's Election (Deuteronomy 9:24 ; compare Ezekiel 16:4-5 ), a “day” when God brought His people out of Egypt (Judges 19:30 ; 1 Samuel 8:8 ; 2 Samuel 7:6 ; Isaiah 11:16 ; Jeremiah 7:22 ,Jeremiah 7:22,7:25 ), but also a “day” of restoration (Zechariah 8:9-12 )
Thousand Years - Earthly and heavenly glories shall be united in the twofold Election: elect Israel in the flesh shall stand at the head of the earthly nations; the elect spiritual church, in the heavenly kingdom, shall reign over both. These Elections are for the good of those to whom they minister respectively; compare, as to Israel's mediating blessedness to the nations, Romans 11:12; Romans 11:15; Micah 5:7
Hilarius Arelatensis, Saint, Bishop of Arles - He further charged Hilary with having traversed Gaul attended by a band of armed men, and with hastily, without waiting for Election by the clergy and laity, consecrating a new bishop in place of Projectus, a bishop (according to Hilary within his province) who was at that time ill
Church Government - ...
The Twelve left the selection of the Seven, which was a first step towards development, to the whole body of Christians, most of whom were Palestinian Jews. They are ‘spiritual’ men (πνευματικοί), endowed by the Spirit (πνεῦμα) with powers (χαρίσματα) which are not common to all Christians; and their authority depends not upon Election or appointment by others, but upon these personal endowments, exercised with the consent of the congregation
the Thorn in Paul's Flesh - His Election out of all living men for the greatest service and the greatest reward after the service and the reward of Jesus Christ Himself; his miraculous conversion; his unparalleled honours and privileges after his conversion far above all the greatest Apostles taken together; his labours more abundant than they all, and his transcending successes-all that was enough, according to Paul's own admission and confession afterwards, to exalt him above measure
the Merchant Man Who Sold All That he Had And Bought the Pearl of Great Price - And as George Whitefield, John Wesley's predecessor in field-preaching, discovered such unsearchable riches to him in the Pauline doctrines of Election, and assurance, and perseverance to the end
Sanctify - In a more emphatic nuance the word is a correlative of Election, signifying God’s appointing someone to His service: “… Before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations” ( Reprobation - But, if the doctrine of absolute Election and reprobation be true; if we are to understand that men like Jacob and Esau, in the Calvinistic construction of the passage, while in the womb of their mother, nay, from eternity, are loved and hated, elected or reprobated, before they have done "good or evil," then it necessarily follows, that there is precisely this kind of respect of persons with God; for his acceptance or rejection of men stands on some ground of aversion or dislike, which cannot be resolved into any moral rule, and has no respect to the merits of the case itself; and if the Scripture affirms that there is no such respect of persons with God, then the doctrine which implies it is contradicted by inspired authority
Prosper, Saint, a Native of Aquitaine - No man, therefore, need despair of salvation, but this selection on God's part makes human exertion needless either for recovery from sin or for progress in holiness. He therefore begs Augustine to explain (a ) how Christian faith can escape division through these disputes; (b ) how free will can be independent of prevenient grace; (c ) whether God's foreknowledge is absolute and complete; (d ) whether foreknowledge depends in any way on human purpose, and whether there can be any good which does not proceed from God; (e ) how those who despair of their own Election can escape carelessness of life
Methodists, Protestant - Wesley, on the contrary, professed the Arminian doctrine, and had printed, in favour of perfection and universal redemption, and very strongly against Election, a doctrine which Mr. ...
The spirit of inquiry being roused did not stop here; for it appeared agreeable both to reason and the customs of the primitive church, that the people should have a voice in the temporal concerns of the societies, vote in the Election of church officers, and
Synods - The first was convened for the Election of a successor to Judas in the apostleship, Acts 1:26 . ...
In the year 498, Symmachus and Laurentius were elected to the pontificate on the same day by different parties; and while they maintained the validity of their respective Elections, they reciprocally denounced each other. By the forcible and illegal removal of the old burgomasters and governors, and the appointment of new ones; by the preponderance which these newly elected individuals gave to their own party in their Election of persons to fill the higher offices of state in the various towns which had been ill-affected toward Calvinism and arbitrary power; and by the untrue and scandalous reports which were invented and industriously propagated respecting the alleged secret intentions of Barnevelt and the Arminians to deliver up their country to the Spaniards; the prince was enabled to succeed in his ambitious enterprises
Leo i, the Great - telling him of his Election to succeed Flavian ( Ep. ), announcing his Election, promised the council to beheld specially under Leo's influence ("te auctore"), and the letter which followed the arrival of Leo's messengers at Constantinople asked him either to come to the East to assist at it or, if that was impossible, to let the emperor summon the Eastern, Illyrian, and Thracian bishops to some place "ubi nobis placuerit " ( Ep. He is to be to the metropolitans as they are to the ordinary bishops, and a regular system of provincial administration is ordained, by which the assent of the papal vicarius is required for all episcopal Elections and by which metropolitans are to be ordained actually by him ( Ep
Old Testament in the New Testament, the - Thus, all the great themes of the Old Testament are confirmed, even when they are also developed in various ways: God as the one creator and ruler of the nations, the Election of Israel to be the light of salvation for the world, the presence of God with his people, the possibility (and actuality) of revelation through appointed instruments, history as moving toward God's purposed goal for the world
Peter - For what is enthusiasm? What is it but the heart, and the imagination, and the whole man, body and soul, set on fire? And the Election, the call, the experience, and the promised reward of the true prophet, apostle, and evangelist, are surely enough to set on fire and keep on fire a heart of stone
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - Remigius (in which he gives him vicariate jurisdiction over the kingdom of Clovis which he had converted, is probably spurious, as it implies that Clovis was still reigning, though he had died in 511, more than two years before the Election of Hormisdas
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - ...
It is greatly to our historian's credit that, during the bitter strife which raged long among the Monophysites themselves, in the matter of the double Election of Theodore and Peter to succeed Theodosius as their patriarch of Alexandria, he maintained an honourable neutrality, standing equally aloof from Paulites and Jacobites, although his sympathies were with Theodore, the injured patriarch (iv
Sin - Here the determinative process of Divine Election is seen in its widest and most elaborate working
Exodus, Theology of - Continuity with the past rests in the covenant made with their forefathers (6:4-5), but full revelation of the name will involve liberation from the slavery of Egypt, redemption by God's own mighty deeds, Election as his people, relational knowledge of Yahweh as their God, and the completion of the promises involving the inheritance of a land (6:6-8)
Hating, Hatred - The Election of Israel, taken with the rules concerning the above nations, would foster an aversion to foreigners which was ever increasing in intensity; cf
Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - Cross at Poictiers, who, according to Fortunatus, helped to procure his Election (Carm
Will of God - Towner...
See also Elect, Election ; Foreknowledge ; Predestination ; Providence of God ...
Bibliography
Michal, Saul's Daughter - You must have had David's birth and upbringing; David's Election and anointing and call; David's sins and David's salvation; David's falls and David's restorations; David's offices and David's services in the church of God
Hannah - Till it came to be nothing short of the mark of a special Election, and a high calling, and a great coming service of God in Israel to have no children
Paul as a Pastor - But after I am like to drop with my work; and most of all with the arrears of it; Paul absolutely prostrates me, and tramples me to death, when he stands up among his elders and deacons and says: "I take you to record this day that I am pure from the blood of all men!" I do not find his rapture into the third heavens hard to be understood, nor his revelations and inspirations, nor his thorn in the flesh, nor any of his doctrines of Adam, or of Christ, or of Election, or of justification or of sanctification, or of the final perseverance of the saints
Esau - ...
What with the purpose of God according to Election, and that purpose communicated to Rebekah when she went to inquire of the Lord; what with Isaac's love for Esau because he did eat of his venison; what with Rebekah's retaliatory love for Jacob; what with Esau's increasing levity and profanity, and Jacob's increasing subtlety; what with Esau's defiant Canaanite marriage; and now, to crown all, Isaac's old age, blindness, and fast-approaching end-what with all that, that was as unhappy a house as was at that moment on the face of this unhappy earth
Deuteronomy, Theology of - The arbitrary definition of a clean animal suggests the sovereign Election by Yahweh of a people whom he alone declares to be holy
Thessalonians Epistles to the - The constancy of the Thessalonians under persecution not only had proved them worthy of their ‘election,’ but had also caused their example to be held up for imitation to all believers throughout Macedonia and Achaia (1 Thessalonians 1:2-10; 1 Thessalonians 3:5-8) yet they were beset by dangers
Forgiveness - Israel's Election has its roots in God's covenant with Abraham, renewed with Isaac and Jacob, thus giving God's relationship with the nation an unconditional basis (Genesis 12:1-3 ; 15:18 ; 17:8,21 ; 22:17 ; 26:3-5 ; 28:13-15 ; 35:11-12 ; Romans 6:3-4 ; 6:4 ; 13:5,11 ; 32:13 ; 33:1 ; Deuteronomy 1:8 ; 4:37 ; 7:8 ; 10:11 ; 26:15 ; 34:4 ; Joshua 1:6 ; 21:43-44 ; 1 Kings 8:40 ; 1 Chronicles 16:16-18 ; 2 Chronicles 20:7 ; Nehemiah 9:7-8 ; Psalm 105:8-11 )
Pharaoh - That will be the best Election-time Scotland has ever seen, not when this or that party comes into power, but when every enfranchised man has already read about Wallace and Bruce, and about Cromwell and Milton, and about Hampden and Pym, and about Knox and Melville, and about Henderson and Rutherford and Chalmers
Ebionism And Ebionites - The day of Baptism was thus the day of His "anointing by Election and then becoming Christ" (cf
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - (5) In selecting men for special duties : the Election of Saul ( 1 Samuel 10:20 ), the choice of the men to attack Gibeah ( Judges 20:9 ), the division of duties among the priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:5 )
Sanctification - Peter reminds believers to be diligent in making their calling and Election sure (2 Peter 1:10 )
Presbyterians - ...
Every royal borough sends one ruling elder, and Edinburgh two, whose Election must be attested by the kirk sessions of their respective boroughs
Brethren of the Lord (2) - He probably owed in part at least to this his Election to the see of Jerusalem
Government of the Hebrews - The Election of king, however, was committed to God, who chose one by lot: so that God was still the Ruler, and the king the vicegerent
Jeremiah - (In Jeremiah 45, concerning an individual, subjoined to his prophecies concerning nations, though belonging to the time just after (Jeremiah 36) the close of Jehoiakim's reign, Jeremiah, in Jeremiah 18-19 (probably in Jeconiah's reign), by the symbols of the remaking by the potter of the marred vessel, and of the breaking of the bottle in the valley of Hinnom, sets forth God's absolute power over His creatures to give reprobates to destruction, and to raise others instead of the people who prove unfaithful to His Election (Isaiah 45:9; Isaiah 64:8; Romans 9:20-21)
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - Our knowledge of him commences with his Election as successor to Theodotus in the see of Antioch
Presbyterians - ...
Every royal borough sends one ruling elder, and Edinburgh two, whose Election must be attested by the kirk sessions of their respective boroughs
Joshua - Moses, and John, and Paedaritus of Sparta, Moses' contemporary, who, when he was passed over and left out in the Election of the Three Hundred, went home to his house beaming with happiness, it did him so much good to see that there were so many men in Sparta who were better men than himself
Temple - Compare 1 Peter 2:5; the Election of the church, the spiritual temple, in God's eternal predestination, before the actual rearing of that temple (Ephesians 1:4-5; Romans 8:29-30), and the peace that reigns within and above, in contrast to the toil and noise outside in the world below wherein the materials of the spiritual temple are being prepared (John 16:33), are the truths symbolized by the mode of rearing Solomon's temple
Gospels (2) - Principle which guided the Church in her selection of Gospel material. Even if we make the large assumption that every one of the 120 persons who were gathered together for the Election of Matthias (Acts 1:15), or of the 500 brethren to whom the Lord appeared (1 Corinthians 15:6), could be so described, and that they were all subsequently engaged in active evangelistic work, yet the labour of spreading the new faith, even within the limits of Palestine, would have soon outgrown their power to cope with it
Arius, Followers of - The orthodox party had elected Paul as their bishop, but Eusebius contrived to get this Election annulled, and to secure the vacant post for himself
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - —Immediately after his Election Innocent wrote to Anysius, bp
Paul the Apostle - Paul would not have written to the Romans as be did without knowing them personally; that the large experience and wide field of vision shown in the Epistles were an impossibility at so early a date; that time was required for ‘Paulinism,’ which was a radical reformation of the older Christianity, to spring up; that the problems discussed (the Law and the Gospel, Justification, Election, etc
Peter - He heads the list of the Eleven, and takes the initiative in the Election of a successor to Judas (Acts 15:141; Acts 1:15)
Moravians - In the first sitting a president is chosen, and these elders lay down their office; but they do not withdraw from the assembly; for they, together with all bishops, seniores civiles, or lay elders, and those ministers who have the general care or inspection of several congregations in one province, have seats in the synod without any particular Election
Arius the Heresiarch - The emperor did his best to secure an honest selection and an honest decision. When Alexander died at Alexandria in 327, the Election of Athanasius in his place was only secured in the face of violent opposition from the Arianizing faction
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - "Basilides" furnishes the terms "the Ogdoad," "the Election," "supermundane"; while such subjects as the nature of faith, the relation of the passions to the animal soul, and the meaning of Christ's saying about eunuchs, occur in the other group, though they remind us rather of Basilides himself
Hippolytus Romanus - Döllinger contends that the schism could not have occurred immediately on the Election of Callistus; but there is exactly the same reason for saying that Hippolytus refused to recognize Zephyrinus as bishop, as that he rejected Callistus; for he speaks of the former also as "imagining" that he governed the church
Apostles - He had determined to make a formal selection of a definite number from the body of His disciples (Mark 3:13, Mark 3:16-19,8). The nature of the selection He was about to make was of supreme consequence. ...
It is a noteworthy circumstance that few writers have spent any time in describing the actual selection of the Twelve. Many of those who have sought for traces of this relationship have been governed by motives very different from those influencing our Lord, who would have been the last person to allow His selection of an Apostle to be determined by the ties of blood. The vindication of the wisdom shown in the selection is the future career and achievements of the Twelve. Had the selection been left to them individually or to any two or three among them, the persons included would have been very different. Its import could not have been lost on the Twelve themselves when they were first called, or on the multitude who witnessed their Election. Matthew as to the selection of the Twelve, and the omission of the list of the Twelve from the Gospel of St. Matthew furnishes a list of the Twelve, and therefore presupposes their selection. Matthew takes the selection of the Twelve (John 6:67; John 6:70) as known, and even makes our Lord refer to His appointment of them (John 15:16)