What does Elder mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
πρεσβύτερος elder 3
πρεσβυτέρων elder 1
πρεσβυτέρῳ elder 1
πρεσβυτέρας elder 1
πρεσβυτέρου elder 1
συμπρεσβύτερος a fellow elder. 1
הַגְּדוֹלָ֤ה great. 1
הַגְּדוֹלָה֙ great. 1
הַגָּדֽוֹל great. 1
הַגָּדֹל֙ great. 1
הַגְּדֹלָה֙ great. 1
וְזָקֵֽן old. 1
בַּזָּקֵ֔ן old. 1
זָקֵ֥ן old. 1
יָמִֽים day 1

Definitions Related to Elder

G4245


   1 Elder, of age,.
      1a the Elder of two people.
      1b advanced in life, an Elder, a senior.
         1b1 forefathers.
   2 a term of rank or office.
      2a among the Jews.
         2a1 members of the great council or Sanhedrin (because in early times the rulers of the people, judges, etc.
         , were selected from elderly men).
         2a2 of those who in separate cities managed public affairs and administered justice.
      2b among the Christians, those who presided over the assemblies (or churches) The NT uses the term bishop, elders, and presbyters interchangeably.
      2c the twenty four members of the heavenly Sanhedrin or court seated on thrones around the throne of God.
      

H1419


   1 great.
      1a large (in magnitude and extent).
      1b in number.
      1c in intensity.
      1d loud (in sound).
      1e older (in age).
      1f in importance.
         1f1 important things.
         1f2 great, distinguished (of men).
         1f3 God Himself (of God) subst.
      1g great things.
      1h haughty things.
      1i greatness.
      

H2205


   1 old.
      1a old (of humans).
      1b Elder (of those having authority).
      

H3117


   1 day, time, year.
      1a day (as opposed to night).
      1b day (24 hour period).
         1b1 as defined by evening and morning in Genesis 1.
         1b2 as a division of time.
            1b2a a working day, a day’s journey.
      1c days, lifetime (pl.
      ).
      1d time, period (general).
      1e year.
      1f temporal references.
         1f1 today.
         1f2 yesterday.
         1f3 tomorrow.
         

G4850


   1 a fellow Elder.
   

Frequency of Elder (original languages)

Frequency of Elder (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Durandus, William, the Elder
Canonist and liturgist, born Puimisson, Provence, France, c.1237;died Rome, Italy, 1296. Uncle of William Durandus the Younger. He studied law at Bologna, taught it at Modena, and was attached to the papal curia. In 1274 he went to the Second Council of Lyons as secretary of Gregory X and drew up its decrees. He was elected Bishop of Mende, Narbonne, and was papal governor of Romagna and Ancona. His most famous liturgical work is the "Rationale divinorum officiorum," written in 1286, which consists of eight books treating of church buildings and their appointments, of the ministers, vestments, the Mass, canonical hours, the Proper of the Season, the Proper of the Saints, the calendar, etc. This book, the most complete medieval treatise of its kind, is still the standard authority for 13th-century ritual and for the symbolism of rites and vestments. In the third book, vestments are allegorically explained as signifying virtues or the garments worn by Our Lord in His Passion. He wrote several other books on canon law.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Francisco the Elder
Painter, born Seville, Spain, 1576; died Madrid, Spain, 1656. Famous for his bold realism, he is considered the founder of the Spanish school. He was the teacher of Velasquez until his temper drove the pupil away as it had many others. His paintings were mainly religious and genre subjects. His masterpiece is the "Last Judgment," in the church of San Bernardo in Seville. In the archiepiscopal palace in Madrid is his "Moses smiting the Rock," and in the Louvre "Saint Basil dictating his Doctrine."
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Elder
A name frequently used in the Old Testament as denoting a person clothed with authority, and entitled to respect and reverence (Genesis 50:7 ). It also denoted a political office (Numbers 22:7 ). The "elders of Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of authority. Moses opened his commission to them (Exodus 3:16 ). They attended Moses on all important occasions. Seventy of them attended on him at the giving of the law (Exodus 24:1 ). Seventy also were selected from the whole number to bear with Moses the burden of the people (Numbers 11:16,17 ). The "elder" is the keystone of the social and political fabric wherever the patriarchal system exists. At the present day this is the case among the Arabs, where the sheik (i.e., "the old man") is the highest authority in the tribe. The body of the "elders" of Israel were the representatives of the people from the very first, and were recognized as such by Moses. All down through the history of the Jews we find mention made of the elders as exercising authority among the people. They appear as governors (Deuteronomy 31:28 ), as local magistrates (16:18), administering justice (19:12). They were men of extensive influence (1 Samuel 30:26-31 ). In New Testament times they also appear taking an active part in public affairs (Matthew 16:21 ; 21:23 ; 26:59 ). The Jewish eldership was transferred from the old dispensation to the new. "The creation of the office of elder is nowhere recorded in the New Testament, as in the case of deacons and apostles, because the latter offices were created to meet new and special emergencies, while the former was transmitted from the earlies times. In other words, the office of elder was the only permanent essential office of the church under either dispensation."
The "elders" of the New Testament church were the "pastors" (Ephesians 4:11 ), "bishops or overseers" (Acts 20:28 ), "leaders" and "rulers" (Hebrews 13:7 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:12 ) of the flock. Everywhere in the New Testament bishop and presbyter are titles given to one and the same officer of the Christian church. He who is called presbyter or elder on account of his age or gravity is also called bishop or overseer with reference to the duty that lay upon him (Titus 1:5-7 ; Acts 20:17-28 ; Philippians 1:1 ).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Elder, Eldest
A — 1: πρεσβύτερος (Strong's #4245 — Adjective — presbuteros — pres-boo'-ter-os ) an adjective, the comparative degree of presbus, "an old man, an elder," is used (a) of age, whether of the "elder" of two persons, Luke 15:25 , or more, John 8:9 , "the eldest;" or of a person advanced in life, a senior, Acts 2:17 ; in Hebrews 11:2 , the "elders" are the forefathers in Israel; so in Matthew 15:2 ; Mark 7:3,5 ; the feminine of the adjective is used of "elder" women in the churches, 1 Timothy 5:2 , not in respect of position but in seniority of age; (b) of rank or positions of responsibility, (1) among Gentiles, as in the Sept. of Genesis 50:7 ; Numbers 22:7 ; (2) in the Jewish nation, firstly, those who were the heads or leaders of the tribes and families, as of the seventy who assisted Moses, Numbers 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 27:1 , and those assembled by Solomon; secondly, members of the Sanhedrin, consisting of the chief priests, "elders" and scribes, learned in Jewish law, e.g., Matthew 16:21 ; 26:47 ; thirdly, those who managed public affairs in the various cities, Luke 7:3 ; (3) in the Christian churches, those who, being raised up and qualified by the work of the Holy Spirit, were appointed to have the spiritual care of, and to exercise oversight over, the churches. To these the term "bishops," episkopoi, or "overseers," is applied (see Acts 20 , ver. 17 with ver. 28, and Titus 1:5,7 ), the latter term indicating the nature of their work, presbuteroi their maturity of spirtual experience. The Divine arrangement seen throughout the NT was for a plurality of these to be appointed in each church, Acts 14:23 ; 20:17 ; Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 5:17 ; Titus 1:5 . The duty of "elders" is described by the verb episkopeo. They were appointed according as they had given evidence of fulfilling the Divine qualifications, Titus 1:6-9 ; cp. 1 Timothy 3:1-7 ; 1 Peter 5:2 ; (4) the twenty-four "elders" enthroned in heaven around the throne of God, Revelation 4:4,10 ; 5:5-14 ; 7:11,13 ; 11:16 ; 14:3 ; 19:4 . The number twenty-four is representative of earthly conditions. The word "elder" is nowhere applied to angels. See OLD.
A — 2: συμπρεσβύτερος (Strong's #4850 — Noun Masculine — sumpresbuteros — soom-pres-boo'-ter-os ) "a fellow-elder" (sun, "with"), is used in 1 Peter 5:1 .
A — 3: μείζων (Strong's #3187 — Adjective — meizon — mide'-zone ) "greater," the comparative degree of megas, "great," is used of age, and translated "elder" in Romans 9:12 , with reference to Esau and Jacob. See GREATER , GREATEST , MORE.
B — 1: πρεσβυτέριον (Strong's #4244 — Noun Neuter — presbuterion — pres-boo-ter'-ee-on ) "an assembly of aged men," denotes (a) the Council or Senate among the Jews, Luke 22:66 ; Acts 22:5 ; (b) the "elders" or bishops in a local church, 1 Timothy 4:14 , "the presbytery." For their functions see A, No. 1, (3).
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Elder
An overseer, ruler, leader. Elders, or seniors, in ancient Jewish polity, were persons the most considerable for age, experience, and wisdom. Of this sort were the 7- men whom Moses associated with himself in the government: such likewise afterwards were those who held the first rank in the synagogue as presidents.
Elders, in church history, were originally those who held the first place in the assemblies of the primitive Christians. The word presbyter is often used in the New Testament in this signification; hence the first councils of Christians were called Presbyteria, or councils of elders.
Elders in the presbyterian discipline, are officers, who, in conjunction with the ministers and deacons, compose the kirk sessions, who formerly used to inspect and regulate matters of religion and discipline; but whose principal business now is to take care of the poor's funds. They are chosen from among the people, and are received publicly with some degree of ceremony. In Scotland there is an indefinite number of elders in each parish, generally about twelve.
See PRESBYTERIANS. It has long been a matter of dispute, whether there are any such officers as lay-elders mentioned in Scripture. On the one side it is observed, that these officers are no where mentioned as being alone or single, but always as being many in every congregation. They are also mentioned separately from the brethren. Their office, more than once, is described as being distinct from that of preaching, not only in Romans 12:1-21 : where he that ruleth is expressly distinguished from him that exhorteth or teacheth, but also in that passage, 1 Timothy 5:17 . On the other side it is said, that from the above-mentioned passages, nothing can be collected with certainty to establish this opinion; neither can it be inferred from any other passage that churches should be furnished with such officers, though perhaps prudence, in some circumstances, may make them expedient. "I incline to think, " says Dr. Guise, on the passage 1 Timothy 5:17 , "that the apostle intends only preaching elders, when he directs double honour to be paid to the elders that rule well, especially those who labour in the word and doctrine; and that the distinction lies not in the order of officers, but in the degree of their diligence, faithfulness, and eminence in laboriously fulfilling their ministerial work; and to the emphasis is to be laid on the word labour in the word and doctrine, which has an especially annexed to it."
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Elder
This is the English translation of the Greek word Presbuteros,meaning Presbyter or Priest, the title of one admitted to the secondOrder of the Ministry. It has been pointed out that "in Scripturalusage and in Church History such a person as a lay Elder is animpossible person; the words contradict each other. The first hintof such an office was given by Calvin." (See PRIEST.)
Holman Bible Dictionary - Elder
Prominent member of both Jewish and early Christian communities. In the Old Testament, “elder” usually translates the Hebrew word zaqen from a root which means “beard” or “chin.” In the New Testament, the Greek word is presbuteros , which is transliterated in English as “presbyter” and from which the word “priest” was derived.
Elders in the Old Testament From the beginning of Israelite history, the elders were the leaders of the various clans and tribes. When the tribes came together to form the nation of Israel, the elders of the tribes naturally assumed important roles in governing the affairs of the nation. Moses was commanded to inform the “elders of Israel” of the Lord's intention to deliver Israel from Egypt and to take the elders with him to confront the pharaoh (Exodus 3:16 ,Exodus 3:16,3:18 ). Similarly, seventy of the elders participated with Moses at the covenant meal at Sinai (Exodus 24:9-11 ). As the task of governing Israel grew in complexity, part of the burden was transferred from Moses to a council of seventy elders (Numbers 11:16-17 ).
During the period of the Judges and the monarchy, the elders were prominent in the political and judicial life of Israel. They demanded that Samuel appoint a king (1 Samuel 8:4-5 ); they played crucial roles in David's getting and retaining the throne (2 Samuel 3:17 ; 2 Samuel 5:3 ; 2 Samuel 17:15 ; 2 Samuel 19:11-12 ); and they represented the people at the consecration of the Temple of Solomon (1Kings 8:1,1 Kings 8:3 ). In the legal codes of Deuteronomy the elders are responsible for administering justice, sitting as judges in the city gate (Deuteronomy 22:15 ), deciding cases affecting family life (Deuteronomy 21:18-21 , Deuteronomy 22:13-21 ), and executing decisions (Deuteronomy 19:11-13 ; Deuteronomy 21:1-9 ).
Although elders were less prominent in the post-exilic period and the term was apparently not much used in Jewish communities outside Palestine, the “council of elders” was an integral part of the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem. In the New Testament, frequent reference is made to the elders of the Jews, usually in conjunction with the chief priests or scribes (for example, Matthew 21:23 ; Mark 14:43 ). In this context the elders, apparently members of leading families, had some authority but were not the principal leaders in either religious or political affairs. Elders did have leading roles in the government of synagogues and after the fall of the Temple became even more central to Jewish religious life.
Elders in the New Testament In the earliest Jewish Christian churches, at least the church in Jerusalem, the position of “elder” was almost certainly modeled after the synagogue pattern. Although there are few specific details about the function of elders in the Jerusalem church, they apparently served as a decision-making council. They are often mentioned in conjunction with the apostles, and some passages give the impression that the apostles and elders of Jerusalem considered themselves to be a decision-making council for the whole church (Acts 15:1 ; Acts 21:17-26 ). As the Jewish character of the Jerusalem church increased with the departure of Philip, Peter, and others more amenable to preaching to Gentiles, the synagogue pattern probably became even more pronounced in Jerusalem.
Other churches also had elders. Acts 14:23 reports that Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in churches on their missionary journey. These elders do not seem to fit the Jewish pattern, however. In the address to the Ephesian elders Paul referred to them as overseeing the church and serving as shepherds of the church ( Acts 20:28 ). Paul did not use the term “elders” often usually referring to the functions of ministry rather than titles of offices. For example, in Romans 12:6-9 , Paul referred to those with gifts for prophecy, serving, teaching, and several other aspects of ministry (compare 1 Corinthians 12:1 ). Although those exercising such gifts in churches are not expressly called elders, it is likely that at least some of them were elders. Thus, elders in the Pauline churches were probably spiritual leaders and ministers, not simply a governing council.
One of the most debated questions concerning the pattern of early Christian ministry is the relationship between bishops and elders. Some scholars believe the two terms are interchangeable; others argue that they refer to distinct offices. Nowhere in the letters of Paul is there any explicit reference to the duties of either, nor is there any listing of the qualifications of elders. Titus 1:1 : 5-9 is the only passage which mentions both terms. The passage begins with a direction that elders be appointed in every town and continues with a description of the qualifications for a bishop. The context leads to the conclusion that the directions and the qualifications refer to the same persons, thus implying that the terms are interchangeable.
The qualifications in Titus 1:6-9 and in 1 Timothy 3:1-7 apparently apply to elders. It becomes apparent that the elders were the spiritual leaders of the churches. Taken as a whole, the qualifications describe one who is a mature Christian of good repute, with gifts for teaching, management, and pastoral ministry. The only specific reference to the ministry of elders is the description ( James 5:14-15 ) of elders praying for and anointing a sick person. Although “bishop” usually occurs in the singular form, none of these passages indicate that there was only one elder in each congregation. The nature of the relationship between the various elders is nowhere described.
Although some translations use the term “ordain” in reporting the appointment of elders (Acts 14:23 ; Titus 1:5 ), there is little evidence concerning the church's practice of commissioning elders. The reference to laying on of hands in 1 Timothy 4:14 , as well as the analogous ceremony in commissioning the seven (Acts 6:6 ), seems to indicate that the church did make formal recognition of their function, or office. With the possible exception of 1 Timothy 4:14 , however, none of the references to such ceremonies contain any implication that the ceremony gave the recipient any special status or power.
After the New Testament period, the structure of the ministry became more formalized. By the early second century, many churches were governed by one ruling bishop, assisted by presbyters (elders). These presbyters performed pastoral tasks, preached sermons, and conducted worship services. Often, perhaps usually, bishops were chosen from the ranks of the presbyters, thus making the bishops the “chief presbyters.” By the third century, as the Lord's Supper was increasingly conceived as a reenactment of the sacrifice of Christ, the priestly function became more central to the presbyter's role. Thus, the English word “priest” was derived from “presbyter.”
Fred A. Grissom
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Elder
In both the Old and New Testaments, the term "elder" indicates one of advanced age (Heb. zaqen [1]; Gk. presbyteros [2]) who had a office of leadership within the people of God.
The Old Testament . We are not informed about the origin of this office, which was also known outside Israel (Genesis 50:7 ; Numbers 22:7 ). It probably developed from the tribal structure, the elder being the head of a family or tribe. The basic criterion of age was significant, for it connoted both the experience and wisdom that comes with age (Deuteronomy 32:7 ; cf. 1 Kings 12:6-8,13 ; Psalm 37:25 ) and the respect owing the elder (Lamentations 5:12 ). Growing older, however, did not necessarily mean growing wiser. Wisdom could be with the young rather than the old. Therefore elders had to be chosen carefully. Elders could serve locally as elders of a city (Judges 8:14 ), regionally as elders of a tribe (Judges 11:5 ), and nationally as elders of the nation (Exodus 3:16 ).
The key duties of the elders could be summarized as being the twofold task of judging and discipline generally, and of ruling and guiding the people in an orderly way. In this manner the elders were to be in God's serve and to be instrumental for the preservation of life with God in the covenant community.
With respect to the task of judging, elders were appointed in the wilderness wanderings by Moses, with the cooperation of Israel, in order to help him judge the people (Exodus 18:13-26 ; Deuteronomy 1:13 ). In the promised land, elders were also to be appointed to maintain justice locally (Deuteronomy 16:18 ; 21:18-21 ; 22:15-19 ; Ruth 4:1-12 ), but a higher tribunal of priests and a judge existed for difficult cases (Deuteronomy 17:8-9 ).
The ruling task of elders was theirs from earliest times. Their leadership position was evident from the fact that Moses had to go to the elders, he would have to go to Pharaoh (Exodus 3:16-18 ). The elders' position of authority was also clear from their asking Jephthah to lead them in the fight against the Ammonites (Judges 11:4-11 ), from their seeking a king from Samuel (1 Samuel 8:4-5 ), and from their anointing David king over all Israel (Revelation 21:12-145 ; 1 Chronicles 11:3 ; cf. 2 Samuel 3:17-18 ; cf. also the presence of the elders in 2 Samuel 17:1-4 ). The elders' leadership was evident in other ways as well. Along with the priests, they were responsible for seeing to it that Israel walked obediently in God's ways. They too received the law, which had to be read every seven years (Deuteronomy 31:9-13 ). They had to make sure that the law functioned and that God's people remembered the mighty Acts of God (Deuteronomy 27:1 ; 31:28 ; 32:7 ; cf. 2 Kings 23:1-3 ). Faithful elders were of great importance to keep the nation faithful to their God (Joshua 24:31 ; Judges 2:7 ). Indeed, the elders' first responsibility was to God. In this way they would serve the well-being of Israel.
To do their vital tasks of judging and ruling, elders were to be capable men who feared God and were upright (Exodus 18:21,25 ); they were to be wise, understanding, and experienced (Deuteronomy 1:13 ); and they were empowered by the Holy Spirit (Numbers 11:16-17 ). Although bad counsel could be given (4:3), generally good advice was expected and that characteristic became associated with the elder.
The Intertestamental Period . The office of elder survived the Babylonian exile, but not without change. As previously, elders were in positions of leadership both in the homeland (Ezra 10:14 ) and Babylon (Jeremiah 29:1 ; Ezekiel 8:1 ; 14:1 ; 20:1,3 ). With the disintegration of the tribal unit, influential families came to fill the void of authority left by the breakdown of the clan. Whereas the elders' authority once derived from their position within the tribe, real authority now became based on the prominence of a particular family and an aristocratic ruling class emerged.
By the second century b.c., we read of a council comprised of aristocratic elders (cf. 1 Maccabees 12:6 ; 14:20 ; Josephus, Antiquities, 12.3.3 ), which by the first century was known as the Sanhedrin (Josephus, Antiquities, 14.9.3-5). Although elders were historically the oldest members, in later times they became less important compared to the priests and scribes and the term "elders" came to signify lay members. This is the situation encountered in the New Testament, where the triad of chief priests, scribes, and elders is often referred to as the Sanhedrin (Mark 11:27 ; 14:43 ; also cf. Matthew 16:21 ; Mark 15:1 ).
The New Testament . The office of elder in the New Testament church cannot be fully understood without the background of the Old Testament local elder, an office still functioning in New Testament Judaism with duties pertaining to discipline and leadership (cf. Luke 7:3 ; and the implications of Matthew 10:17 ; and John 9:22 ). The first Christians were Jewish and the office was familiar to them. Thus Luke did not need to explain his first reference to Christian elders in Acts 11:30 .
New Testament elders (presbyteroi [ Titus 1:5-9 ; and 1 Timothy 3:1-7 ). The term "elder" stresses the connection with the age of the office bearer, while the term "bishop" emphasizes the nature of the task that is to be done. A distinction is made (in 1 Timothy 5:17 ) between those elders who rule well, especially those who labor in the preaching and teaching (who are now called ministers), and others (who are now referred to as elders and whose full-time task is directing the affairs of the church).
With respect to the duties of an elder, there is a continuity with the basic tasks of the elder in the Old Testament. All elders have the task of oversight and discipline of the congregation (Acts 20:28 ) and all have the responsibility to rule and guide the people of God with the Word in a manner that is pleasing to God (Acts 20:29-31 ). Also elders in the new dispensation are to preserve and nurture life with God in the covenant community (1 Thessalonians 2:11-12 ). In executing this task they are in the service of their risen Lord (to whom they will have to give account 1 Thessalonians 5:12 ; Hebrews 13:17 ) and they are empowered by his Spirit (Acts 20:28 ; 1Col 12:4-6).
The elders' task of oversight and discipline can be described in terms of keeping watch and shepherding on behalf of the great shepherd Jesus Christ. In Paul's farewell to the Ephesian elders he said: "Keep watch over yourselves and all the flock of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers. Be shepherds of the church of God, which he bought with his own blood" (Acts 20:28 ). The pastoral character of this task of oversight is also indicated when Peter writes: "To the elders among you, I appeal as a fellow elder Be shepherds of God's flock that is under your care, serving as overseers—not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not greedy for money, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock. And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away" (1 Peter 5:1-4 ).
With respect to the elder's task of ruling and guiding, he has been set over the congregation (1 Thessalonians 5:12 ; 1 Timothy 5:17 ). He is a steward of God (Titus 1:7 ), a manager of God's household who administers the spiritual treasures of the mysteries of God (1Col 4:1; cf. Matthew 13:11,52 ). Of prime importance, therefore, is to be the administration of the glad tidings. False doctrine must be opposed and the true safeguarded (Acts 20:28,31 ; Titus 1:9-11 ). Like their Old Testament counterparts, the elders are to see to it that the gospel and the demands of the Lord are imprinted in the hearts and lives of God's people (1 Thessalonians 2:11-12 ; 2 Timothy 2:24-26 ).
In light of the awesome responsibilities, it is not surprising that the prerequisites of the office are high (1 Timothy 3:1-7 ; Titus 1:6-9 ). The elder must be a blameless and God-fearing man who shows the fruits of the Spirit in his walk of life. He must also be able to teach others the way of the Lord, and confute heretics (1 Timothy 3:2 ; 2 Timothy 3:14-17 ; Titus 1:9 ), but not be quarrelsome (1 Timothy 3:3 ) or enter into senseless controversies (1 Timothy 1:3 ; 6:4-5 ). A good knowledge of the Word of God is therefore essential.
The necessary qualifications for the office suggest that elders must be chosen very carefully. They are not to be recent converts (1 Timothy 3:6 ) and must have proven themselves (1 Timothy 3:7 ). Elders could be simply appointed (Titus 1:5 ) although congregational participation may very well have been involved in at least some instances.
In Revelation 4:4 the twenty-four elders sitting on twenty-four thrones surrounding the throne of God probably represent the entire church (twenty-four for the twelve patriarchs of the Old Testament and the twelve apostles of the New Testament cf. 1618178760_88 ). These heavenly elders wear white garments, have crowns of gold, and worship God (4:4,10-11; 5:7-10; 11:16-18; 19:4).
Cornelis Van Dam
Bibliography . G. Berghoef and L. De Koster, The Elders Handbook: A Practical Guide for Church Leaders ; W. Hendriksen, Exposition of the Pastoral Epistles ; idem, More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation ; G. W. Knight, III, The New Testament Teaching on the Role Relationship of Men and Women ; J. B. Lightfoot, The Christian Ministry ; J. Piper and W. Grudem, Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood: A Response to Evangelical Feminism .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Elder
Age is the standard of dignity in a patriarchal system. Hence, the office of elder was the basis of government; as in our "alderman," the Arab sheikh = "old man" (Joshua 24:31; 1 Kings 12:6). The institution existed when Moses first opened his divine commission to Israel. Even in their Egyptian bondage they retained their national organization and government by elders, who represented the people (Exodus 3:16; Exodus 4:29; Joshua 24:1-2). After the settlement in Canaan they were named "elders of Israel" or "of the land" (1 Samuel 4:3; 1 Kings 20:7) or "of the tribes" (Deuteronomy 31:28) or "of the city," (Deuteronomy 19:12, compare Deuteronomy 16:18; Ruth 4:9; Ruth 4:11).
They retained their position under the judges (Judges 2:7), the kings (2 Samuel 17:4), in the captivity (Jeremiah 29:1), and on the return (Ezra 5:5); and in New Testament times as one of the classes from which the Sanhedrin members were chosen, and are associated with the chief priests and scribes (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:23; Matthew 26:59; Luke 22:66), "the presbytery of the people" (Greek). Ecclesiastical elders or presbyters (from whence "priest" is contracted) of the Christian church were a class of church governors borrowed naturally from the synagogue; especially as cases occurred of whole synagogues and their officers embracing Christianity. (See SYNAGOGUE; BISHOP; DEACON; CHURCH.)
Paul ordained them on his first missionary journey (compare Acts 14:23). The four and twenty elders (Revelation 4) represent the combined heads of the Old and New Testament congregations, the twelve patriarchs and twelve apostles; answering to the typical 24 courses of priests, "governors of the sanctuary and governors of God" (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 25:31).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Elder
‘Elder’ preserves better than ‘presbyter’ the history of the title, which goes back to the fact that tribes wore governed by the heads of their component families. ‘Elder’ is probably the earliest name, after ‘apostle,’ for a Christian official (Acts 11:30). See Bishop and Church Government.
A. Plummer.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Elder (2)
ELDER.—In the Gospels the term ‘elder’ (πρεσβύτερος) does not occur in the later Christian sense, denoting an officer of the Church (as in Acts 14:23; Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5, James 5:14; 1 Peter 5:1). In the Gospel of St. John the word occurs only once, and that in the doubtful passage concerning the adulteress (John 8:9), where it has not any official sense, but simply means older in years. In the Synoptics there is more frequent use, mostly in the official sense. The few cases of unofficial meaning of the term are: Luke 15:25, where it describes the ‘elder brother’ in the parable of the Prodigal; and Matthew 15:2, Mark 7:3; Mark 7:5, where it means ‘the elders’ of a former age, the men of old from whom customs and maxims are handed down. In all the other passages (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:28; Matthew 26:3; Matthew 26:47; Matthew 26:57; Matthew 26:59; Matthew 27:1; Matthew 27:3; Matthew 27:12; Matthew 27:20; Matthew 27:41, Mark 8:31; Mark 11:27; Mark 14:43; Mark 14:53, Luke 9:22; Luke 20:1; Luke 22:52) the term ‘elders’—invariably plural—bears the official meaning current among the Jews of our Lord’s time. What is that meaning?
In the OT and Apocr. [1] there is frequent mention of ‘elders’ in the official sense (see, e.g., Genesis 50:7, Exodus 3:18; Exodus 3:18, Leviticus 4:15, Numbers 11:25, Deuteronomy 31:28, Joshua 20:4, Judges 8:18, 1 Samuel 16:4, 2 Samuel 5:3, 1 Kings 20:7, Ezra 5:5, Ezekiel 8:1, Judith 6:21, 1 Maccabees 7:33; 1 Maccabees 11:23, Sus 8, 18 etc.). From a study of these and similar passages it appears that in all the history of Israel, from the Egyptian bondage down to the time of Christ, ‘elders’ appear as an official class; but the descriptions and statements are not explicit enough to give a definite idea of how they were appointed to office, or of their exact functions. It is not improbable that they were chosen as representatives of the people; and the duties of the office appear to have been threefold—advisory, executive, judicial. Further, there is a distinction between local ‘elders’ (those of a city) and ‘the elders of Israel,’ ‘elders of the congregation,’ ‘elders of the people,’ as they are variously called. We are now to inquire how far this OT use of the word is illustrated in that of the Gospels.
One passage only (Luke 7:3) seems to indicate the local ‘elders’—those of Capernaum, the scene of the event described; and even here the turn of the expression, ‘elders of the Jews,’ might possibly point to national ‘elders’ present or resident at Capernaum. But on the whole it seems more natural to take the term here in its local sense. In all the remaining passages cited above, the reference is to the national ‘elders.’ From Vitringa (de Synag. Vet. iii. i. 1) downwards, NT scholars have held with apparent unanimity that the term designates the members of the Sanhedrin (wh. see). This view is sustained by the connexion and association of the term,—usually with ‘scribes’ and ‘chief priests,’—and by Luke 22:66, where the Sanhedrin is called ‘the presbytery,’ or assembly of ‘elders’ (πρεσβυτέριον, cf. Acts 22:5). There are various forms of expression: sometimes ‘elders’ simply, and sometimes ‘elders of the people,’ commonly associated with ‘chief priests and scribes.’ This is held by some to indicate that there were three orders or grades in the Sanhedrin, the ‘elders’ being the lay element, or representatives of the people. This may be the case, but is at best only an inference, neither contradicted nor supported.
Literature.—Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, art. ‘Elder,’ and the lit. there mentioned; Jewish Encyc. and lit.; Grimm-Thayer, Lexicon of the NT; Cremer, Biblico-Theol. Lex.; Vitringa, de Syn. Vet.; Schurer, HJP [2] ; Morrison, The Jews under Roman Rule; Weiss, Life of Christ; Edersheim, Life and Times.
E. C. Dargan.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Hans Holbein the Elder
Painter, born Augsburg, Germany, c.1460;died Isenheim, 1524. Little is known of his life. In art he was influenced by Roger Van der Weyden, and as an excellent painter of religious subjects he is well represented in the galleries of Germany. His masterpiece is "The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian" in the Old Pinakothek of Munich. Father of Hans Holbein the Younger.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Apollinaris, the Elder, of Alexandria
Apollinaris (or, according to Greek orthography, Apollinarius ) the Elder , of Alexandria, was born about the beginning of the 4th cent. After teaching grammar for some time at Berytus in Phoenicea, he removed, A.D. 335, to Laodicea, of which church he was made presbyter. Here he married and had a son, afterwards the bp. of Laodicea. [1] Both father and son were on intimate terms with the heathen sophists Libanius and Epiphanius of Petra, frequenting the lecture-room of the latter, on which account they were admonished and, upon their venturing to sit out the recitation of a hymn to Bacchus, excommunicated by Theodotus, bp. of Laodicea, but restored upon their subsequent repentance (Socr. Eccl. Hist. iii. 16; Soz. vi. 25).
The elder Apollinaris is chiefly noted for his literary labours. When the edict of Julian, A.D. 362, forbade the Christians to read Greek literature, he undertook with the aid of his son to supply the void by reconstructing the Scriptures on the classical models. Thus the whole Biblical history down to Saul's accession was turned into 24 books of Homeric hexameters, each superscribed, like those of the Iliad, by a letter of the alphabet. Lyrics, tragedies, and comedies, after the manner of Pindar, Euripides, and Menander, followed. Even the Gospels and Epistles were adapted to the form of Socratic disputation. Two works alone remain as samples of their indomitable zeal: a tragedy entitled Christus Patiens, in 2601 lines, which has been edited among the works of Gregory Nazianzen; and a version of the Psalms, in Homeric hexameters. The most that can be said of this Psalter is that it is better than the tragedy, and that as a whole it fully bears out the reputation of the poet (Basil. Ep. 273, 406) that he was never at a loss for an expression. Socrates, who is more trustworthy than Sozomen (v. 18), ascribes the O.T. poems to the father (iii. 16), and adds that the son as the greater rhetorician devoted his energies to converting the Gospels and Epistles into Platonic dialogues. He likewise mentions a treatise on grammar compiled by the elder Apollinaris, χριστιανικῷ τύπῳ . For different opinions as to the authorship of father and son, cf. Vossius, de Hist. Graec. ii. 18; de Poet. Graec. c. 9; Duport, Praef. ad Metaph. Psalm. (Lond. 1674).
The Metaphrasis Psalmorum was published at Paris 1552; by Sylburg, at Heidelberg, 1596; and subsequently in various collections of the Fathers. The latest edition is that in Migne's Patr. Gk. xxiii.
[2]
Webster's Dictionary - Elder
(1):
(a.) An aged person; one who lived at an earlier period; a predecessor.
(2):
(a.) A person who, on account of his age, occupies the office of ruler or judge; hence, a person occupying any office appropriate to such as have the experience and dignity which age confers; as, the elders of Israel; the elders of the synagogue; the elders in the apostolic church.
(3):
(a.) A clergyman authorized to administer all the sacraments; as, a traveling elder.
(4):
(n.) A genus of shrubs (Sambucus) having broad umbels of white flowers, and small black or red berries.
(5):
(a.) One who is older; a superior in age; a senior.
(6):
(a.) Born before another; prior in years; senior; earlier; older; as, his elder brother died in infancy; - opposed to younger, and now commonly applied to a son, daughter, child, brother, etc.
(7):
(a.) Older; more aged, or existing longer.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Antonio da Sangallo, the Elder
Brother of Giuliano Giamatti da Sangallo. Born in Florence, Italy in 1455; died there in 1534. He was engaged by Pope Alexander VI to erect the fortification of the Castel Sant' Angelo and the fort Civita Castellana. He later erected the church of Madonna di San Biagio at Montepulciano, one of the handsomest in Italy, as well as many splendid palaces, and became chief engineer of the fortifications of Florence.
King James Dictionary - Elder
EL'DER, n. A species of duck.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Bishop, Elder, Presbyter
The origin of the episcopate is, and is likely to remain, unknown. All the available evidence has been carefully collected, sifted, and estimated, and it is insufficient. Equally honest and equally capable critics infer different theories of the episcopate from it, and no solution of the problem can claim demonstration. We may hold, and perhaps be able to convince others, that one solution is more probable than another, but we cannot prove that it is the true one. All conclusions are tentative.
The problem is an old one, and as early as the 4th cent. there were two leading theories respecting the origin of the episcopate-that of Theodore of Mopsuestia and that of Jerome-but they are theories and no more. These two writers drew inferences from facts, or what they believed to be facts; they did not know more about the origin than we do. And they both start from the same fact, viz. that in the NT ‘bishop’ and ‘presbyter’ (or ‘elder’) are synonyms; they are two names for the same official. This is so generally recognized that there is no need to repeat the evidence. The two names are still synonymous in Clement of Rome (Cor. 42, 44), and by implication in Polycarp (Philippians 1) and the Didache (15), which we may date about a.d. 130-150. Ignatius is the earliest writer known to us who clearly separates ‘bishop’ from ‘elder’; with him ‘bishop’ means the monarchical ruler of a local church, distinct from, and superior to, the ‘presbyters’ or ‘elders.’
Starting from the original identity of ‘bishop’ and ‘presbyter,’ Theodore (on 1 Timothy 3:1-8) infers that episcopacy existed from the first. The first bishops, among whom were Timothy and Titus, were consecrated by apostles, governed whole provinces, and were sometimes called ‘apostles.’ Theodore erroneously supposed that ‘laying on of the hands of the presbytery’ (1 Timothy 4:14) meant consecration of Timothy by some of the Twelve. He was consecrated by St. Paul with certain elders (2 Timothy 1:6). ‘The presbytery,’ which in Luke 22:66 and Acts 22:5 means the body of elders in the Sanhedrin, here means a body of Christian elders. The details of Theodore’s theory need not detain us; the central point in it is the proposition that the apostles instituted a distinct class of officials to be their successors. But did they? The question admits of no secure answer. It must be remembered that we have no evidence that either Christ or the apostles ever prescribed any particular form of government for the society which they founded; and there is the improbability that men who believed that Christ would very soon return would think it worth while to devise and prescribe a particular form of government for the increasing number of Christian communities. On the other hand, it is probable that, as the apostles passed away, and the Lord still did not appear, the communities would be driven to devise some form of government for themselves.
Jerome (Ep. 146, ad Evangelum) answers the question in the negative. The apostles did not institute distinct officials to be their successors. Churches were governed by a council of presbyters. But when presbyters began to form parties, and each presbyter thought that those whom he baptized belonged to him, it was decreed throughout the world that one of them should be elected and set over the others, and that on him should rest the general supervision of the Church. On Titus 1:5 he says that it is ‘by custom rather than by the Lord’s arrangement that bishops are a higher order.
There is no need to assume that party spirit was in all cases, or even in most, the chief reason for setting one presbyter above the rest. The more usual reasons would be the obvious advantage of having one person to whom doubtful matters might be referred, and the fact that in most colleges of presbyters there was one who was manifestly more capable than the others. When once a particular presbyter had been either formally elected, or allowed more and more to take the lead, his special functions would be likely to grow. The dignity of bishops appears to have developed rapidly. They led their congregations in public worship, regulating liturgical forms and the distribution of the alms. They also regulated the congregation’s power of punishing and forgiving offenders. They represented their congregations in all relations, Godward and manward. They gradually absorbed the functions of the expiring charismatic ministry, and were at once prophets and teachers, and they conducted the correspondence with other local churches. The frequent appearance of questionable doctrines greatly augmented the importance of bishops, who came to be regarded as teaching with unique authority. Montanism was a revolt against this official episcopacy-an attempt to restore the charismatic ministry of the prophets, and when it failed, the triumph of episcopacy wag complete. And it deserved to fail, not merely because of its extravagances, but because of its rebellion against external forms. In one sense, forms are unessential; the realities which the forms express are the things which matter. But it is only by continuity in the forms that the realities can be preserved; ‘formlessness inspired by enthusiasm melts away.… The elaboration of a close hierarchical organization and the setting up of a fixed dogmatic teaching were proved to be the necessary means of self-preservation, if the Gospel itself was not to be lost in the vortex of Gnosticism’ (Dobschütz, Apostol. Age, Eng. translation , London, 1909, pp. 122, 141). The bishops were witnesses to the deposit of faith, and as such decided as to the soundness of doctrines.
Probably the first function that was assigned to the bishop was that of being leader and guide in public worship. But we know very little about the beginnings of this worship. The influence of the synagogue in determining the form was considerable, and it is possible that certain heathen mysteries exercised some influence, but the latter point has been exaggerated. Clement’s Epistle shows that the trouble at Corinth was about persons-whether certain presbyters had been rightly deposed; not about principles-whether government by presbyters could be rightly maintained. Clement himself was not a bishop in the later sense: he was president of the college of presbyters in Rome. But such a president would be likely to develop into a monarchical bishop. Clement is the first Christian writer to take the fateful first step of interpreting the nature of office in the Church by reference to Jewish institutions, for which, to a certain extent, the way is prepared in 1 Corinthians 9:9 and 1 Timothy 5:18 (Harnack, Constitution and Law of the Church, London, 1910, p. 72). He draws a parallel between the Jewish priest and Levite and the Christian priest and deacon, and bases an argument from analogy on the resemblance (Cor., ch. 40). It is doubtful whether the mention of the high priest has any reference to a monarchical episcopate.
In James, the brother of the Lord, we seem to have the first instance of a monarchical ruler in a Christian community. But it is improbable that in connexion with him the idea of one ruler for the whole Church arose, and still more improbable that Matthew 16:18 was written as a protest against any such claim being made for one who was not one of the Twelve. It was not in Jerusalem, but in Asia Minor, that the monarchical episcopate as a permanent Christian institution had its rise, owing to causes which are unknown to us.
There are three possibilities with regard to the origin of both bishops and elders, and what is true of one need not be true of the other. Each may be (1) copied from Jewish synagogue officials, or (2) copied from Gentile municipal officials, or (3) due to spontaneous production. On the whole, it is probable that elders or presbyters were adopted from the synagogue, and that bishops arose spontaneously. But here we must carefully distinguish between origin and subsequent development. It is possible in both cases, and probable in the case of bishops, that the development of the office was influenced by secular municipal institutions.
In neither case does the word give us any definite information. By ‘elders’ (πρεσβύτεροι) may be meant either (1) seniors in age, or (2) people to be honoured for personal excellence, or (3) members of a council. The term ‘bishop’ (ἐπίσκοπος) denotes a supervisor or inspector, but tells us nothing of what he supervises or inspects. It may be buildings, or business, or men. In the NT it means an overseer of men in reference to their spiritual life, and is closely connected with the idea of shepherding; ‘the shepherd (ποιμήν) and overseer (ἐπίσκοπος) of your souls’ (1 Peter 2:25); ‘the flock (ποίμνιον) in the which the Holy Ghost had made you overseers (ἐπίσκοποι) to tend (ποιμαίνειν) the Church (ἐκκλησία) of God’ (Acts 20:28). Only once in the NT is ‘shepherd’ or ‘pastor’ used of Christian ministers (Ephesians 4:11); but it is used of Christ in Hebrews 13:20, 1 Peter 2:25; 1 Peter 5:4; cf. John 10:11; John 10:14.
The term ‘overseer’ or ‘bishop’ (ἐπίσκοπος) having been used of Christ as ‘the Overseer of souls,’ it would be natural to use it of those of His ministers who in a special way continued this work; and it is more probable that the Christian use of the title arose in this way than that it was adopted in imitation of the secular ἐπίσκοπος in a city. As the specially gifted persons known as ‘apostles, prophets, and teachers’ became less common, their functions would be transferred to the permanent local officials, especially to the highest of them, viz. the bishops (Didache, 15.1, 2). Neither bishops, elders, nor deacons appear in the lists of ministers and ministerial gifts in 1 Corinthians 12:28-30, Romans 12:6-8, Ephesians 4:11. But this does not prove that St. Paul did not know or care about such officials. Where these officials existed, they were as yet only local ministers, and there was no need to mention them in speaking of gifts to the Church as a whole.
Timothy and Titus were not monarchical bishops. They were temporary delegates or representatives of St. Paul at Ephesus or in Crete; they were forerunners of the monarchical bishops, not the first examples of them. Nor can the ‘angels’ of the Seven Churches (Revelation 1-3) be regarded as the bishops of those Churches. ‘The invariable practice’ of the writer of that book ‘forbids such an interpretation’ (Swete on Revelation 1:20), Excepting James, and perhaps ‘the Elder’ in 3 Jn., there is no instance of the monarchical episcopate in the NT; but it was established in Asia Minor before a.d. 100, and had become wide-spread in Christendom by 150.
Literature.-J. B. Lightfoot, Philippians, London, 1891 ed., pp. 95-99, 181-269, Dissertations, do. 1892, pp. 137-246 (which contains additional notes to the essay in Philippians); M. R. Vincent, Philippians, Edinburgh, 1897, pp. 36-51; J. H. Bernard, Pastoral Epistles, Cambridge, 1899, pp. lvi-lxxv; Priesthood and Sacrifice, a conference ed. by W. Sanday, Oxford, 1900; A. Deissmann, Bible Studies, translation Grieve, Edinburgh, 1901, pp. 154-157, 230; A. Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, Eng. translation 2, London, 1908, i. 445-482; P. Batiffol, L’église naissante3, Paris, 1909, pp. 115-152 (Eng. translation , Primitive Catholicism, London, 1911, pp. 97-163). See also works mentioned under Church Government.
Alfred Plummer.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ebba the Elder, Saint
Virgin, abbess, died 683. She was the daughter of King Ethelfrith and sister of Saint Oswald and Oswy, King of the Northumbrians. She founded the convent of Ebchester, and the monastery for men and women at Coldingham, Berwickshire, where, as abbess, she became the spiritual guide of Saint Etheldreda. The promontory of Saint Abb's Head, Berwickshire, is named after her. Feast, August 25,.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Elder; Aged
Zâqên (זָקֵן, Strong's #2204, זָקֵן, Strong's #2205), “old man; old woman; elder; old.” Zâqên occurs 174 times in the Hebrew Old Testament as a noun or as an adjective. The first occurrence is in Gen. 18:11: “Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in age; and it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.” In Gen. 19:4, the word “old” is used as an antonym of “young”: “But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young [1], all the people from every quarter” (cf. Josh. 6:21). A similar usage of zâqên and “young” appears in other Bible references: “But [2] forsook the counsel of the old men, which they had given him, and consulted with the young men [3] that were grown up with him …” (1 Kings 12:8). “Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, both young men [4] and old together: for I will turn their mourning into joy, and will comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow” (Jer. 31:13). The “old man” is described as being advanced in days (Gen. 18:11), as being satisfied with life or full of years. A feminine form of zâqên refers to an “old woman” (zâqênah). The word zâqên has a more specialized use with the sense of “elder” (more than 100 times). The “elder” was recognized by the people for his gifts of leadership, wisdom, and justice. He was set apart to administer justice, settle disputes, and guide the people of his charge. Elders are also known as officers (shotrim), heads of the tribes, and judges; notice the parallel usage: “Joshua called for all Israel, and for their elders and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers, and said unto them; I am old and stricken in age …” (Josh. 23:2). The “elders” were consulted by the king, but the king could determine his own course of action (1 Kings 12:8). In a given city, the governing council was made up of the “elders,” who were charged with the well-being of the town: “And Samuel did that which the Lord spake, and came to Bethlehem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou peaceably?” (1 Sam. 16:4). The elders met in session by the city gate (Ezek. 8:1). The place of meeting became known as the “seat” or “council” (KJV, “assembly”) of the elders (Ps. 107:32).
The Septuagint gives the following translations: presbutera (“man of old; elder; presbyter”), presbutes (“old man; aged man”), gerousia (“council of elders”). The KJV gives various translations of zâqên “old; elder; old man; ancient.” Note that the KJV distinguishes between “elder” and “ancient”; whenever the word zâqên does not apply to age or to rule, the KJV uses the word “ancient.”
Zâqên means “beard.” The word zâqên refers to a “beard” in Ps. 133:2: “It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron’s beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments.…” The association of “old age” with a “beard” can be made, but should not be stressed. The verb zâqên (“to be old”) comes from this noun.
Webster's Dictionary - Water Elder
The guelder-rose.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Elder
Elder. We find the "eldest servant" of Abraham's house "ruling over all that he had," Genesis 24:2; we have also mention of "the elders of Joseph's house," and the "elders of the land of Egypt," Genesis 50:7, obviously indicating the chiefs of Joseph's establishment, and high Egyptian officers. Moses was desired to convey the divine message to "the elders of Israel," Exodus 3:16; and they were both to accompany him when he demanded freedom from Pharaoh, and also to be the means of communication between Moses and the mass of the people. Exodus 3:18; Exodus 4:29; Exodus 12:21. We are not told who these elders were, probably the leading persons in each tribe. We find them after the departure from Egypt, Exodus 17:6; Exodus 19:7; and from these, 70 were selected for special worship with Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu. Exodus 24:1-2; Exodus 24:9-11. Moses had, at the suggestion of Jethro, appointed officers to administer justice, Exodus 18:26, but he seems to have required, further, a body of (if they may be so called) political advisers. Accordingly 70 out of the general class of elders were chosen, approved men; and on these the divine Spirit was especially poured. Numbers 11:10-30. Possibly it was from this example that the Sanhedrin was afterwards constituted. There were "elders" of neighboring nations, synonymous with "princes," as of Moab and Midian, Numbers 22:7; Numbers 22:13, and of the Hivites. Joshua 9:11. And we find the institution remaining in Israel through the whole history, under every change of government, and a certain authority exercised by them to which the people submitted. Sometimes they are mentioned as local magistrates, presiding over separate tribes or districts, and sometimes as the superior class, it is likely, acting generally for the nation. Deuteronomy 19:12; Deuteronomy 21:2-3; Deuteronomy 21:6; Deuteronomy 31:28; Joshua 9:15; Joshua 9:18-21; Joshua 24:1; Judges 2:7; Judges 8:14; Judges 11:5; 1 Samuel 4:3; 1 Samuel 8:4; 1 Samuel 16:4; 1 Samuel 30:26; 2 Samuel 17:4; 2 Samuel 19:11; 1 Kings 12:6; 1 Kings 20:8; 1 Kings 21:11; 2 Kings 10:1; 2 Kings 10:5; 1 Chronicles 21:16; Ezra 5:5; Ezra 6:7; Ezra 6:14; Ezra 10:8; Ezra 10:14; Jeremiah 29:1; Ezekiel 8:1; Ezekiel 8:12. Those who locally administered justice are said to have been termed "elders of the gate," Proverbs 31:23; Lamentations 5:14; because that was the place where a court was often held. Ruth 4:2; Ruth 4:4; Ruth 4:9; Ruth 4:11. Elders are mentioned in Maccabean times, apparently distinct from the Sanhedrin, 1 Maccabees 7:33; 1 Maccabees 12:6. In the New Testament history they are associated with the chief priests and scribes, but yet not to be confounded with them. Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:23; Matthew 26:59; Matthew 27:41. And an analogous class yet subsists among Arab tribes, viz., their sheikhs, a word implying "old men." Officers of the Christian church are designated by elders, Acts 14:23; Acts 20:17; and regulations are given in regard to them, 1 Timothy 5:1; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Timothy 5:19; the Greek word for elder being presbuteros. In every congregation of believers, as gathered by the apostles, a number of elders were ordained. Acts 14:23; Acts 20:17; Titus 1:5. Their duty was to feed, oversee and look after the flock. They were called elders, overseers, or bishops, Acts 20:28; 1 Timothy 3:5; 1 Peter 5:1; 1 Peter 5:3; Hebrews 13:17, showing that their duties were similar. Titus 1:5; Titus 1:7; Acts 20:28; Philippians 1:1. The injunction, "Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially they who labor in the word and doctrine," shows, that the office, as ruler and teacher, is united. 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 5:17, Romans 12:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:12-13; 1 Peter 5:2; Titus 1:9. They were local officers of congregations, sometimes called bishops or overseers. See Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28; Titus 1:5 ff.; 1 Peter 5:1. The distinction in Scripture between the teaching and the ruling elder is not very clear, unless it can be found in 1 Timothy 5:17.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sangalo, Antonio da, the Elder
Brother of Giuliano Giamatti da Sangallo. Born in Florence, Italy in 1455; died there in 1534. He was engaged by Pope Alexander VI to erect the fortification of the Castel Sant' Angelo and the fort Civita Castellana. He later erected the church of Madonna di San Biagio at Montepulciano, one of the handsomest in Italy, as well as many splendid palaces, and became chief engineer of the fortifications of Florence.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - William Durandus the Elder
Canonist and liturgist, born Puimisson, Provence, France, c.1237;died Rome, Italy, 1296. Uncle of William Durandus the Younger. He studied law at Bologna, taught it at Modena, and was attached to the papal curia. In 1274 he went to the Second Council of Lyons as secretary of Gregory X and drew up its decrees. He was elected Bishop of Mende, Narbonne, and was papal governor of Romagna and Ancona. His most famous liturgical work is the "Rationale divinorum officiorum," written in 1286, which consists of eight books treating of church buildings and their appointments, of the ministers, vestments, the Mass, canonical hours, the Proper of the Season, the Proper of the Saints, the calendar, etc. This book, the most complete medieval treatise of its kind, is still the standard authority for 13th-century ritual and for the symbolism of rites and vestments. In the third book, vestments are allegorically explained as signifying virtues or the garments worn by Our Lord in His Passion. He wrote several other books on canon law.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Elder
ELDER (in OT). The rudimentary form of government which prevailed amongst the Hebrews in primitive times grew out of family life. As the father is head of the household, so the chiefs of the principal families ruled the clan and the tribe, their authority being ill-defined, and, like that of an Arab sheik, depending on the consent of the governed. In our earliest documents the ‘elders of Israel’ are the men of position and influence, who represent the community in both religious and civil affairs ( Exodus 3:16 ; Exodus 3:18 ; Exodus 12:11 ; Exodus 17:5 f., Exodus 18:12 ; Exodus 19:7 , Numbers 11:16 , Deuteronomy 5:23 ; Deuteronomy 27:1 ; Deuteronomy 31:28 ): the ‘elders’ of Exodus 24:1 are the ‘nobles’ of Exodus 24:11 . Josephus sums up correctly when he makes Moses declare: ‘Aristocracy … is the best constitution’ ( Ant . VI. viii. 17). The system existed in other Semitic races ( Numbers 22:4 , Joshua 9:11 , Ezekiel 27:9 , Psalms 105:22 ). After the settlement in Canaan the ‘elders’ still possessed much weight ( 1Sa 4:3 ; 1 Samuel 8:4 ; 1 Samuel 15:30 , 2Sa 3:17 ; 2 Samuel 5:3 ; 2 Samuel 17:14 f., 1 Kings 8:1 ). And now we find ‘elders of the city’ the governing body of the town ( Ruth 4:2 ; Rth 4:9 , 1 Samuel 11:3 , 1 Kings 21:8 ; 1Ki 21:11 , 2 Kings 10:1 ; 2 Kings 10:5 ); the little town of Succoth boasted no fewer than seventy-seven ( Judges 8:14 ). Deuteronomy brings into prominence their judicial functions ( Deuteronomy 16:18 ; Deuteronomy 19:12 ; Deuteronomy 21:2 ff; Deuteronomy 22:15 ff; Deuteronomy 25:7 ff.), which were doubtless infringed upon by the position of the king as supreme judge ( 1Sa 8:20 , 2 Samuel 15:4 , 1Ki 3:9 , 2 Kings 15:5 , Isaiah 11:5 , Amos 2:3 ), but could not be abolished ( 1 Kings 20:7 ff., 2 Kings 10:1 ff; 2 Kings 23:1 ). During the Exile the ‘elders’ are the centre of the people’s life ( Jeremiah 29:1 , Ezekiel 8:1 ; Ezekiel 14:1 ; Ezekiel 20:1 , Ezra 5:9 ff; Ezra 6:7 ff.; cf. Sus 5), and after the Return they continue active ( Ezra 10:8 ; Ezra 10:14 , Psalms 107:32 , Proverbs 31:23 , Joel 1:14 ; Joel 2:16 ). It is not improbable that the later Sanhedrin is a development of this institution.
J. Taylor.
ELDER (in NT). See Bishop; Church Government, 6 ( 2 ).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Elder, Francisco the
Painter, born Seville, Spain, 1576; died Madrid, Spain, 1656. Famous for his bold realism, he is considered the founder of the Spanish school. He was the teacher of Velasquez until his temper drove the pupil away as it had many others. His paintings were mainly religious and genre subjects. His masterpiece is the "Last Judgment," in the church of San Bernardo in Seville. In the archiepiscopal palace in Madrid is his "Moses smiting the Rock," and in the Louvre "Saint Basil dictating his Doctrine."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Elder, Ebba the, Saint
Virgin, abbess, died 683. She was the daughter of King Ethelfrith and sister of Saint Oswald and Oswy, King of the Northumbrians. She founded the convent of Ebchester, and the monastery for men and women at Coldingham, Berwickshire, where, as abbess, she became the spiritual guide of Saint Etheldreda. The promontory of Saint Abb's Head, Berwickshire, is named after her. Feast, August 25,.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Elder
The term elder, or old man as the Hebrew literally imports, was one of extensive use, as an official title, among the Hebrews and the surrounding nations, because the heads of tribes and the leading people who had acquired influence were naturally the older people of the nation. It had reference to various offices. ( Genesis 24:2 ; 50:7 ; 2 Samuel 12:17 ; Ezekiel 27:9 ) As betokening a political office, it applied not only to the Hebrews, but also to the Egyptians, (Genesis 50:7 ) the Moabites and the Midianites. (Numbers 22:7 ) The earliest notice of the elders acting in concert as a political body is at the time of the Exodus. They were the representatives of the people, so much so that elders and people are occasionally used as equivalent terms; comp. ( Joshua 24:1 ) with (Joshua 24:2,19,21 ) and (1 Samuel 8:4 ) with (1 Samuel 8:7,10,19 ) Their authority was undefined, and extended to all matters concerning the public weal. Their number and influence may be inferred from (1 Samuel 30:26 )ff. They retained their position under all the political changes which the Jews underwent. The seventy elders mentioned in Exodus and Numbers were a sort of governing body, a parliament, and the origin of the tribunal of seventy elders called the Sanhedrin or Council. In the New Testament Church the elders or presbyters were the same as the bishops. It was an office derived from the Jewish usage of elders or rulers of the synagogues. [1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Macrina, the Elder
Macrina (1) , the Elder , the paternal grandmother of Basil and Gregory Nyssen, resident at and probably a native of Neocaesarea in Pontus. Both Macrina and her husband, of whose name we are ignorant, were deeply pious Christians. Macrina had been trained on the precepts of the celebrated bp. of Neocaesarea, Gregory Thaumaturgus, by some of his hearers. In the persecution of Galerius and Maximin, Macrina and her husband, to save their lives, left home with a slender equipment and escaped to a hill forest of Pontus, where they are said to have lived in safe retirement for seven years. On the cessation of the persecution, a.d. 311, they returned to Neocaesarea. On the renewal of the persecution they appear to have again suffered. Their goods were confiscated and Macrina and her husband obtained the right to be reckoned among confessors of the faith (Greg. Nys. de Vit. S. Macr. t. ii. pp. 178, 191). In due time their son Basil married Emmelia, and became the father of ten children, the eldest bearing her grandmother's name Macrina, and the second that of his father Basil. This boy, afterwards the celebrated bp. of Caesarea Basil the Great, was brought up from infancy by his grandmother Macrina, at her country house at Annesi, to which she seems to have retired after her husband's death (Basil. Ep. 204 [1], § 6; 223 [2], § 3). Her death cannot be placed before 340.
[3]
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Elder
Within the community of God’s people, God marks out certain people for responsibilities of care and leadership. The Bible refers to these people by a number of words, one of them ‘elders’. This is the word that the Old Testament uses for those in Israel who exercised leadership in the community (Exodus 24:1; Deuteronomy 21:1-6; Ruth 4:2-11; 1 Samuel 8:4; see RULER), and that the New Testament uses for Jewish officials who administered Jewish affairs through the synagogue councils and the Sanhedrin (Mark 15:1; Luke 7:3; Acts 4:5; see SANHEDRIN; SYNAGOGUE). It is also the word that the New Testament uses for leaders in God’s new community, the church (Acts 14:23; Acts 15:4).
Developments in church leadership
The first Christian church was in Jerusalem, and in its early days its leadership came from the group of apostles whom Jesus had earlier appointed (Acts 4:37; Acts 6:2; Acts 11:1). God did not provide these apostles with a master plan of detailed procedures upon which they were to structure the church, whether in Jerusalem or elsewhere. Instead he left them to respond to the church’s needs as his Spirit directed them. As the church grew, they introduced whatever organizational arrangements they considered necessary (e.g. Acts 6:1-6).
As the church expanded into neighbouring regions and countries, the apostles had increasing responsibilities outside Jerusalem. Soon the church in Jerusalem had its own group of governing elders, and these were distinct from the apostles (Acts 11:30; Acts 15:6). The practice of appointing elders was later copied in other churches (Acts 14:23), though there is not enough information to indicate whether the form of church government was the same in all the churches.
The New Testament speaks consistently of leaders in the churches, though it does not always give them an official title (1 Corinthians 16:16; Galatians 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:12; Hebrews 13:7; Hebrews 13:17). Even where the Bible recognizes a title, the emphasis is usually more on the work the elders do than on the office they hold (1 Peter 5:1-3; Acts 20:28; 1 Thessalonians 5:13; 1 Timothy 3:1; Acts 20:17).
English versions of the Bible use various words for church leaders – ‘elders’, ‘overseers’, ‘guardians’, ‘bishops’. These names are translations of only two words in the Greek of the original New Testament, presbuteroi and episkopoi, and both words seem to apply to the same office and person. For example (quoting the RSV), in Acts 20:17 Paul sends for the elders (presbuteroi) of the Ephesian church, but when they arrive (v. 28) he calls them guardians (episkopoi). Likewise in Titus 1:5 he tells Titus to appoint elders (presbuteroi), and then in the same sentence (v. 7) he calls them bishops (episkopoi). In reference to any specific local church, the Bible always speaks of a plurality of elders (Acts 14:23; Acts 20:17; Philippians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:12).
Responsibilities of elders
Elders are likened to shepherds over a flock. They are the leaders of the church, whom God has placed over the church to guide it and care for it (Acts 20:28; 1 Timothy 3:5; 1 Timothy 5:17; Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 5:1-3; see PASTOR; SHEPHERD). Others in the church can help the elders by taking responsibility for many of the practical ministries of the church. In this way they give the elders more time for the important pastoral ministries God has entrusted to them (Acts 6:2-4; James 5:14; see DEACON).
All elders should have some ability at teaching (1 Timothy 3:2), though some will be more gifted than others, and therefore more occupied than others, in public preaching (1 Timothy 5:17). Through their own ministry and that of teachers from elsewhere, elders should provide the church with teaching that is upbuilding and protect it from what is harmful (Acts 20:28-30; Titus 1:9). Elders must therefore be people of discernment (1 Timothy 1:3-7; 1 Timothy 6:3-5; 2 Timothy 2:14-16; 2 John 1:7-11).
In addition to having qualifications in relation to gift and ability, each elder must fulfil certain minimum requirements in relation to his character and behaviour. As a leader he is in a position of example to others, and therefore his family life and public reputation must be of the highest order (1 Timothy 3:1-7; Titus 1:5-9). Any accusation of wrongdoing against an elder must be supported by witnesses. If the elder is proved guilty, he should be publicly rebuked, again because of the high standards required of those in positions of leadership (1 Timothy 5:19-20).
Appointment of elders
The Bible gives no specific instructions concerning how elders are chosen or appointed. In the case of the churches that Paul and Barnabas established in Galatia, the first elders were appointed by those who planted the churches (Acts 14:23). Normally, people should not be appointed elders too soon after their conversion, because time is needed for Christian character and spiritual gift to develop (1 Timothy 3:6; 1 Timothy 5:22). If a church is left without elders, it is liable to lose direction (Titus 1:5; Titus 1:10-11).
Those who have the responsibility to appoint elders must realize that only the Holy Spirit can really make a person an elder (Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 12:11; 1 Corinthians 12:28). They should also make sure, through prayer and consultation with the church as a whole, that those whom they appoint are those whom the church recognizes as elders. Church members must have confidence in their leaders if they are to respect them and heed their instruction (1 Thessalonians 5:12-13; Hebrews 13:17). They should also give the elders suitable payment for the work they do and the time they spend in the service of the church (1 Timothy 5:17-18; cf. Galatians 6:6).
With the passing of years and the growth of the church, additional elders will be needed. Certain believers may recognize the direction in which their spiritual gifts are developing and desire to be elders (1 Timothy 3:1; see GIFTS OF THE SPIRIT). People in the church will recognize his gift; in fact, elders have a responsibility to train those who appear to have leadership ability (2 Timothy 2:2; cf. Acts 13:5; Acts 16:1-3). The example of the apostles in the early church suggests that the existing elders are the ones who make the appointment (Acts 1:21-26; cf. 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 5:22), but before doing so they find out the mind of the church (Acts 6:3; cf. Acts 15:22).
Some may be tempted to avoid eldership because of the difficulties and tensions that come with it (1 Peter 5:2 a). Others may be tempted in the opposite direction, and try to use the position of elder to further their personal ambitions (1 Peter 5:2 b,3). Elders can learn how to be true shepherds of the flock by following the example of the Chief Shepherd, Jesus Christ, who gave himself for it (1 Peter 5:4; cf. John 10:11; Ephesians 5:25).

Sentence search

Diselder - ) To deprive of an Elder or Elders, or of the office of an Elder
Danewort - ) A fetid European species of Elder (Sambucus Ebulus); dwarf Elder; wallwort; Elderwort; - called also Daneweed, Dane's weed, and Dane's-blood
Presbyter - See Elder
Presbyter Presbytery - See Elder, Bishop
Officers Church - See CHURCH, DEACON, Elder
Eldern - ) Made of Elder
Elder - ‘Elder’ preserves better than ‘presbyter’ the history of the title, which goes back to the fact that tribes wore governed by the heads of their component families. ‘Elder’ is probably the earliest name, after ‘apostle,’ for a Christian official (Acts 11:30)
Presbytery - * For PRESBYTERY see Elder, A and B ...
Presbyter - See next article; and articles DEACON, Elder
Wallwort - ) The dwarf Elder, or danewort (Sambucus Ebulus)
Ambassador, Ambassage - A — 1: πρεσβεύω (Strong's #4243 — Verb — presbeuo — pres-byoo'-o ) denotes (a) "to be Elder or eldest, prior in birth or age;" (b) "to be an ambassador," 2 Corinthians 5:20 ; Ephesians 6:20 ; for Philemon 1:9 see under AGED. There is a suggestion that to be an "ambassador" for Christ involves the experience suggested by the word "elder. " Elder men were chosen as "ambassadors. " ...
B — 1: πρεσβεία (Strong's #4242 — Noun Feminine — presbeia — pres-bi'-ah ) primarily, "age, Eldership, rank," hence, "an embassy or ambassage," is used in Luke 14:32 ; in 19:14, RV, "ambassage," for AV, "message
Presbyter - presbyteros , ‘elder’). ]'>[2] marginal alternative for ‘ Elders ’ in Acts 20:17 ; the Gr. presbyteros , which is of frequent occurrence, being otherwise invariably rendered ‘elder. ’ In this case the Revisers doubtless put ‘presbyters’ In the margin because the passage furnishes one of the leading proofs for the identity of the presbyter or Elder with the bishop or overseer (cf
Sambucus - ) A genus of shrubs and trees; the Elder
Jer'Ioth - (curtains ), one of the Elder Caleb's wives
Shearjashub - Symbolical name given to the Elder son of the prophet Isaiah, signifying 'a remnant shall return
Eldership - ) Office of an Elder; collectively, a body of Elders
Ozem - An Elder brother of David ( 1 Chronicles 2:15 )
Art, Passion of Christ in - Among the many masters who have represented this subject are: Correggio, Domenichino, Durer, El Greco, Mantegna, Memling, Holbein the Elder, Luini, Perugino, Titian and Veronese
Presbyter - The original word for "Elder" in the New Testamentis Presbuteros, shortened in English to Presbyter; furthershortened to Prester, and finally to PRIEST (which see, alsoELDER)
Mahlon - Sickly, the Elder of Elimelech the Bethlehemite's two sons by Naomi
Eldest - See Elder
Martha - Martha is always named before Mary, probably because she was the Elder sister
Mulier - ) Lawful issue born in wedlock, in distinction from an Elder brother born of the same parents before their marriage; a lawful son
Shem - The words "brother of Japheth the Elder" in Genesis 10:21 are more correctly rendered "the Elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version
Legitimist - ) Specifically, a supporter of the claims of the Elder branch of the Bourbon dynasty to the crown of France
Porphyrogenitism - ) The principle of succession in royal families, especially among the Eastern Roman emperors, by which a younger son, if born after the accession of his father to the throne, was preferred to an Elder son who was not so born
Abi'hu - (Exodus 6:23 ) Being, together with his Elder brother Nadab, guilty of offering strange fire to the lord, he was consumed by fire from heaven
Lia - (Hebrew: weary) ...
Elder daughter of Laban, married by stratagem to Jacob who had no love for her (Genesis 29); mother of Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Juda, Issachar, Zabulon, and Dina (Genesis 29,30)
Leah - (Hebrew: weary) ...
Elder daughter of Laban, married by stratagem to Jacob who had no love for her (Genesis 29); mother of Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Juda, Issachar, Zabulon, and Dina (Genesis 29,30)
Presbyter - ) An Elder in the early Christian church
Pharez - Breach, the Elder of the twin sons of Judah (Genesis 38:29 )
Elder, Eldest - A — 1: πρεσβύτερος (Strong's #4245 — Adjective — presbuteros — pres-boo'-ter-os ) an adjective, the comparative degree of presbus, "an old man, an Elder," is used (a) of age, whether of the "elder" of two persons, Luke 15:25 , or more, John 8:9 , "the eldest;" or of a person advanced in life, a senior, Acts 2:17 ; in Hebrews 11:2 , the "elders" are the forefathers in Israel; so in Matthew 15:2 ; Mark 7:3,5 ; the feminine of the adjective is used of "elder" women in the churches, 1 Timothy 5:2 , not in respect of position but in seniority of age; (b) of rank or positions of responsibility, (1) among Gentiles, as in the Sept. of Genesis 50:7 ; Numbers 22:7 ; (2) in the Jewish nation, firstly, those who were the heads or leaders of the tribes and families, as of the seventy who assisted Moses, Numbers 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 27:1 , and those assembled by Solomon; secondly, members of the Sanhedrin, consisting of the chief priests, "elders" and scribes, learned in Jewish law, e. The duty of "elders" is described by the verb episkopeo. 1 Timothy 3:1-7 ; 1 Peter 5:2 ; (4) the twenty-four "elders" enthroned in heaven around the throne of God, Revelation 4:4,10 ; 5:5-14 ; 7:11,13 ; 11:16 ; 14:3 ; 19:4 . The word "elder" is nowhere applied to angels. ...
A — 2: συμπρεσβύτερος (Strong's #4850 — Noun Masculine — sumpresbuteros — soom-pres-boo'-ter-os ) "a fellow-elder" (sun, "with"), is used in 1 Peter 5:1 . ...
A — 3: μείζων (Strong's #3187 — Adjective — meizon — mide'-zone ) "greater," the comparative degree of megas, "great," is used of age, and translated "elder" in Romans 9:12 , with reference to Esau and Jacob. ...
B — 1: πρεσβυτέριον (Strong's #4244 — Noun Neuter — presbuterion — pres-boo-ter'-ee-on ) "an assembly of aged men," denotes (a) the Council or Senate among the Jews, Luke 22:66 ; Acts 22:5 ; (b) the "elders" or bishops in a local church, 1 Timothy 4:14 , "the presbytery
e'Phra-im - ) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his Elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob
e'Phra-im - ) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his Elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob
e'Phra-im - ) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his Elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob
e'Phra-im - ) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his Elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob
Expect - Expect also if anie that is Elder, or better able, will answer first
Forerunner - My Elder brothers, my forerunners came
Lucre - it is called 'filthy' or 'base gain:' the desire for it rendered a man ineligible for the position of Elder in the church, etc
Sin: One the Souls Ruin (2) - ...
Presently, an old Elder tree said, Flowers, shake off your caterpillars!' ...
'Why?' said a dozen altogether: for they were like some children, who always say 'Why,' when they are told to do anything: bad children those! ...
The Elder said, 'If you don't, they'll eat you up alive. ' ...
The Elder overheard her, and called out, 'One caterpillar is enough to spoil you
Life: Explains Religion - ONE of our party greatly needed some Elder-flower water for her face upon which the sun was working great mischief. Bright thought, I would go down by the river, and walk until I could gather a bunch of Elder-flowers, for the tree was then in bloom
Elder - ) A person who, on account of his age, occupies the office of ruler or judge; hence, a person occupying any office appropriate to such as have the experience and dignity which age confers; as, the Elders of Israel; the Elders of the synagogue; the Elders in the apostolic church. ) A clergyman authorized to administer all the sacraments; as, a traveling Elder. ) Born before another; prior in years; senior; earlier; older; as, his Elder brother died in infancy; - opposed to younger, and now commonly applied to a son, daughter, child, brother, etc
Majordomo - (Latin: major, Elder; domus, house) ...
The chief governor of the papal household, formerly Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, whose principal office is to supervise religious functions at which the pope and his court assist, to draw up nominations to court offices or posts of honor in the Vatican, and to act as Governor of the Conclave during a vacancy
Amnon - He is known only by his guilt in violating his half-sister Tamar; for which Absalom, two years after, caused him to be assassinated, 2 Samuel 13:1-39, thus also getting an Elder brother out of his way to the throne
James - Hence by way, of distinction, they are called James the Elder, and James the Less. James the Elder was the son of Zebedee; James the Less the son of Alpheus, (Matthew 10:2-3) The former was killed by Herod,; (Acts 12:1) the latter we have no scriptural relation of his death
Keturah - Hagar's son Ishmael's posterity was the Elder branch of the "sons of the concubines
Lem'Uel - Others regard him as king or chief of an Arab tribe dwelling on the borders of Palestine, and Elder brother of Agur, whose name stands at the head of (Proverbs 30:1 )
Elder; Aged - Zâqên (זָקֵן, Strong's #2204, זָקֵן, Strong's #2205), “old man; old woman; Elder; old. The word zâqên has a more specialized use with the sense of “elder” (more than 100 times). The “elder” was recognized by the people for his gifts of leadership, wisdom, and justice. Elders are also known as officers (shotrim), heads of the tribes, and judges; notice the parallel usage: “Joshua called for all Israel, and for their Elders and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers, and said unto them; I am old and stricken in age …” (1 Kings 12:8). In a given city, the governing council was made up of the “elders,” who were charged with the well-being of the town: “And Samuel did that which the Lord spake, and came to Bethlehem. And the Elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou peaceably?” ( Elders met in session by the city gate ( Elders ( Elder; presbyter”), presbutes (“old man; aged man”), gerousia (“council of Elders”). The KJV gives various translations of zâqên “old; Elder; old man; ancient. ” Note that the KJV distinguishes between “elder” and “ancient”; whenever the word zâqên does not apply to age or to rule, the KJV uses the word “ancient
Elder - It has been pointed out that "in Scripturalusage and in Church History such a person as a lay Elder is animpossible person; the words contradict each other
Onan - After the decease of his Elder brother, Er, he was instructed by his father to contract a levirate marriage with Tamar
Absalom - To avenge his sister's dishonor he killed his Elder stepbrother, Amnon
o'Nan - " ( Genesis 38:4 ; 1 Chronicles 2:3 ) "What he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah and he slew him also, as he had slain his Elder brother
Priest - (See PRESBYTER, also Elder
Bishop - ...
Note: Presbuteros, "an Elder," is another term for the same person as bishop or overseer. The term "elder" indicates the mature spiritual experience and understanding of those so described; the term "bishop," or "overseer," indicates the character of the work undertaken. See Elder
Elder - The "elders of Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of authority. The "elder" is the keystone of the social and political fabric wherever the patriarchal system exists. The body of the "elders" of Israel were the representatives of the people from the very first, and were recognized as such by Moses. All down through the history of the Jews we find mention made of the Elders as exercising authority among the people. The Jewish Eldership was transferred from the old dispensation to the new. "The creation of the office of Elder is nowhere recorded in the New Testament, as in the case of deacons and apostles, because the latter offices were created to meet new and special emergencies, while the former was transmitted from the earlies times. In other words, the office of Elder was the only permanent essential office of the church under either dispensation. " ...
The "elders" of the New Testament church were the "pastors" (Ephesians 4:11 ), "bishops or overseers" (Acts 20:28 ), "leaders" and "rulers" (Hebrews 13:7 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:12 ) of the flock. He who is called presbyter or Elder on account of his age or gravity is also called bishop or overseer with reference to the duty that lay upon him (Titus 1:5-7 ; Acts 20:17-28 ; Philippians 1:1 )
Flight Into Egypt - Among the many masters who have painted this subject in art are: Corneille the Elder, Durer, Ferrari, Fra Angelico, Murillo, Patinir, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Van Dyck
Merab - The Elder daughter of Saul, promised to the slayer of Goliath ( 1 Samuel 17:25 ), and then to David personally as a reward for prowess against the Philistines ( 1 Samuel 18:17 ), but given as wife to Adriel the Meholathite
Egypt, Flight Into - Among the many masters who have painted this subject in art are: Corneille the Elder, Durer, Ferrari, Fra Angelico, Murillo, Patinir, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Van Dyck
pe'Leg - " The reference is to a division of the family of Eber himself, the younger branch of which (the Joktanids) migrated into southern Arabia, while the Elder remained in Mesopotamia
Bahai - ) A member of the sect of the Babis consisting of the adherents of Baha (Mirza Husain Ali, entitled "Baha 'u 'llah," or, "the Splendor of God"), the Elder half brother of Mirza Yahya of Nur, who succeeded the Bab as the head of the Babists
Patriarch - ) A venerable old man; an Elder
Laying on of Hands - Usually, during the ordination of an Elder, hands are laid on him as symbol of a transfer of authority and power
Bishop - In the New Testament the term is synonymous with presbyter or Elder, with this difference—that bishop is borrowed from the Greek and signifies the function; presbyter is derived from an office in the synagogue and signifies the dignity of the same office. Each congregation of Christians as gathered by the apostles, was organized into a church, having a number of Elders, or bishops, ordained over it, Acts 15:23; Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28; Philippians 1:1; Titus 1:5; Titus 1:7, indicating that the office was the same. See Elder
Melania the Younger, Daughter of Publicola - The young husband and wife were induced by Melania the Elder in 397 to take a vow of continence, but refused to separate. On the death of the Elder Melania the still considerable remains of her estates became the property of her granddaughter. Their ascetic convictions had so developed that they now accepted that separation which the Elder Melania had vainly urged in her lifetime. , date 415) Jerome still has a bitter expression about the Elder Melania, in his last wetter to Augustine (cxliii
Bearded, George the - He was trained for the Church, but after the death of his Elder brother he succeeded to the title, 1500
George the Bearded - He was trained for the Church, but after the death of his Elder brother he succeeded to the title, 1500
Leah - The Elder daughter of Laban, given to Jacob as wife through the artifice of her father
John, the Letters of - Others, citing stylistic and theological differences between the Gospel and the Letters, contend that they were written by an Elder in the Johannine community, who was not the evangelist. Twice he claims the title “the Elder” (2 John 1:1 ; 3 John 1:1 ), but he never calls himself an apostle. ” These “opponents” of the Elder's group are charged with not following the command to love one's fellow Christians. Both groups held that believers have “passed from death unto life” (1 John 3:14 ), but the Elder recognized the potential danger in this teaching and contended that the future coming of the Lord (1 John 3:2 ) requires that believers purify themselves and be righteous (1 John 3:3-7 ). ...
As a way of refuting the false teaching that threatened the community, the Elder quoted tenets of the opponents in 1John 1:6,1John 1:8,1 John 1:10 ; 1John 2:4,1 John 2:6 , and 1 John 2:9 , and answered each point. The Elder gave assurance to the community and warned the believers that they cannot practice love for one another and love for the world at the same time (1 John 2:15-17 ). Dissension had already split the community, and the Elder warned those who remained about the dangers of the false teaching (1 John 2:18-27 ). The Elder reasserted a more traditional eschatology (see 1 John 3:2 ). By this the Elder probably meant denying Christ, the one through whom sin is forgiven. The Epilogue (1 John 5:13-21 )...
Second John was written by the Elder to a sister community to warn the church about the dangers of the false teaching that had already threatened the Elder's church. ...
The Elder praised the sister church for following the truth and appealed for her to continue to show love. The Elder apparently wanted to be sure that the sister church would continue in fellowship with his church. Personal Conclusion (12-13)...
Third John is a personal letter from the Elder to Gaius, who had been providing hospitality to fellow Christians and messengers from the Elder's community. Diotrephes, however, refused to receive those sent by the Elder. The Elder charged that Diotrephes “loveth to have the preeminence among them” (3 John 1:9 ), but Diotrephes' position is unclear. The Elder praised Gaius and commended Demetrius (who may have carried the letter) as a faithful witness
Manasseh - In almost typical Old Testament fashion, Manasseh, the Elder brother, did not receive the blessing of the firstborn (Genesis 48:13-20 ). When the Promised Land was apportioned, half of the tribe of Manasseh, the Elder brother, did not receive the blessing of the firstborn (Genesis 48:13-20 )
Chilion - The two names occur in varying order in Ruth 1:2 ; Ruth 4:9 , so that no conclusion can be drawn as to which was the Elder
Matilda, Saint - After her husband's death she made an unsuccessful attempt to secure the throne for her favorite son Henry, but his Elder brother was elected and crowned in 936
Elders - In the church of the Old Testament, Elders were the fathers of the tribes, and had the government in a great measure committed to them. Hence when the Lord appeared unto Moses at the bush, with a view to reveal himself in the deliverance of the people; he said, "Go and gather the Elders of Israel together. Peter called himself an Elder
Bishop - In apostolic times, it is quite manifest that there was no difference as to order between bishops and Elders or presbyters (Acts 20:17-28 ; 1 Peter 5:1,2 ; Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3 ). The term bishop is never once used to denote a different office from that of Elder or presbyter
Presbytery - ) A body of Elders in the early Christian church. ) A judicatory consisting of all the ministers within a certain district, and one layman, who is a ruling Elder, from each parish or church, commissioned to represent the church in conjunction with the pastor
Giuliano da Sangallo - Architect and sculptor; Antonio da Sangallo, the Elder
Ephraim - The first indication of the superiority of Ephraim over his Elder brother, Manasses, is seen in the blessing given by their grandfather Jacob (Genesis 48)
Salome - The wife of Zebedee, and the mother of James the Elder and John the Evangelist, and was one of the followers of Christ, Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40; Mark 16:1, though she seems, like many others, to have at first mistaken the true nature of his kingdom
Sangallo, Giuliano Giamatti da - Architect and sculptor; Antonio da Sangallo, the Elder
Leah - The Elder daughter of Laban, and the first wife of Jacob, though less beloved than her sister Rachel
Young - Come, Elder brother, thourt too young in this
Durandus, William, the Younger - Canonist, nephew of William Durandus the Elder, died Cyprus, 1328
Damian, Peter, Saint - Left an orphan at an early age, he was adopted by an Elder brother and became a swineherd
Arphaxad - Professor Rawlinson translates: "unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the Elder brother of Japhet, were children born, Arphaxad": Genesis 11:10) ("the stronghold of the Chaldees"
Mnason - As an "elder" Mnason was "given to hospitality" (1 Timothy 3:2)
Prodigal Son - The parable focuses not on the reckless-then-repentant younger son but on the waiting father who rushes to welcome his child home and calls all, Elder brother included, to share the joy of homecoming
Priest - ) A presbyter Elder; a minister...
(2):...
(n
Dwarf - When it is applied to plants, it is more generally used in composition as a dwarf-tree dwarf-elder
William Durandus the Younger - Canonist, nephew of William Durandus the Elder, died Cyprus, 1328
Ephraim - The intention of Joseph was that the right hand of the aged patriarch should be placed on the head of the Elder of the two; but Jacob set Ephraim the younger before his brother, "guiding his hands wittingly
Ner - Kish in 1 Chronicles 9:35-36, is an Elder Kish, brother of Ner; or else is enumerated with Jehiel's "sons" (though really his grandson), because he was head of a house of fathers
Jediael - But Jediael may have been a later descendant from Benjamin who, by superior fruitfulness of his house, superseded an Elder branch (Ashbel's) whose issue failed
Ransom - The Son of God therefore became man in order that as our Elder brother He should redeem us (Hebrews 2:14-15)
Saturn - ) One of the Elder and principal deities, the son of Coelus and Terra (Heaven and Earth), and the father of Jupiter
Best - See Elder , GREATER and MORE
Leah - The Elder daughter of Laban
Salome - Wife of Zebedee, mother of James the Elder and John the evangelist, one of those holy women of Galilee who attended our Savior in his journeys and ministered to him, Matthew 20
Elder - In both the Old and New Testaments, the term "elder" indicates one of advanced age (Heb. It probably developed from the tribal structure, the Elder being the head of a family or tribe. 1 Kings 12:6-8,13 ; Psalm 37:25 ) and the respect owing the Elder (Lamentations 5:12 ). Therefore Elders had to be chosen carefully. Elders could serve locally as Elders of a city (1 Peter 5:1-48 ), regionally as Elders of a tribe (Judges 11:5 ), and nationally as Elders of the nation (Exodus 3:16 ). ...
The key duties of the Elders could be summarized as being the twofold task of judging and discipline generally, and of ruling and guiding the people in an orderly way. In this manner the Elders were to be in God's serve and to be instrumental for the preservation of life with God in the covenant community. ...
With respect to the task of judging, Elders were appointed in the wilderness wanderings by Moses, with the cooperation of Israel, in order to help him judge the people (Exodus 18:13-26 ; Deuteronomy 1:13 ). In the promised land, Elders were also to be appointed to maintain justice locally (Titus 1:5-96 ; 21:18-21 ; 22:15-19 ; Ruth 4:1-12 ), but a higher tribunal of priests and a judge existed for difficult cases (Deuteronomy 17:8-9 ). ...
The ruling task of Elders was theirs from earliest times. Their leadership position was evident from the fact that Moses had to go to the Elders, he would have to go to Pharaoh (Exodus 3:16-18 ). The Elders' position of authority was also clear from their asking Jephthah to lead them in the fight against the Ammonites (Judges 11:4-11 ), from their seeking a king from Samuel (1 Samuel 8:4-5 ), and from their anointing David king over all Israel (2 Samuel 5:3 ; 1 Chronicles 11:3 ; cf. also the presence of the Elders in 2 Samuel 17:1-4 ). The Elders' leadership was evident in other ways as well. Faithful Elders were of great importance to keep the nation faithful to their God (Joshua 24:31 ; Judges 2:7 ). Indeed, the Elders' first responsibility was to God. ...
To do their vital tasks of judging and ruling, Elders were to be capable men who feared God and were upright (Exodus 18:21,25 ); they were to be wise, understanding, and experienced (Deuteronomy 1:13 ); and they were empowered by the Holy Spirit (Numbers 11:16-17 ). Although bad counsel could be given (4:3), generally good advice was expected and that characteristic became associated with the Elder. The office of Elder survived the Babylonian exile, but not without change. As previously, Elders were in positions of leadership both in the homeland (Ezra 10:14 ) and Babylon (Jeremiah 29:1 ; Ezekiel 8:1 ; 14:1 ; 20:1,3 ). Whereas the Elders' authority once derived from their position within the tribe, real authority now became based on the prominence of a particular family and an aristocratic ruling class emerged. , we read of a council comprised of aristocratic Elders (cf. Although Elders were historically the oldest members, in later times they became less important compared to the priests and scribes and the term "elders" came to signify lay members. This is the situation encountered in the New Testament, where the triad of chief priests, scribes, and Elders is often referred to as the Sanhedrin (Mark 11:27 ; 14:43 ; also cf. The office of Elder in the New Testament church cannot be fully understood without the background of the Old Testament local Elder, an office still functioning in New Testament Judaism with duties pertaining to discipline and leadership (cf. Thus Luke did not need to explain his first reference to Christian Elders in Acts 11:30 . ...
New Testament Elders (presbyteroi [ 1618178760_13 ; and Matthew 10:17 ). The term "elder" stresses the connection with the age of the office bearer, while the term "bishop" emphasizes the nature of the task that is to be done. A distinction is made (in 1 Timothy 5:17 ) between those Elders who rule well, especially those who labor in the preaching and teaching (who are now called ministers), and others (who are now referred to as Elders and whose full-time task is directing the affairs of the church). ...
With respect to the duties of an Elder, there is a continuity with the basic tasks of the Elder in the Old Testament. All Elders have the task of oversight and discipline of the congregation (Acts 20:28 ) and all have the responsibility to rule and guide the people of God with the Word in a manner that is pleasing to God (Acts 20:29-31 ). Also Elders in the new dispensation are to preserve and nurture life with God in the covenant community (1 Thessalonians 2:11-12 ). ...
The Elders' task of oversight and discipline can be described in terms of keeping watch and shepherding on behalf of the great shepherd Jesus Christ. In Paul's farewell to the Ephesian Elders he said: "Keep watch over yourselves and all the flock of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers. The pastoral character of this task of oversight is also indicated when Peter writes: "To the Elders among you, I appeal as a fellow Elder Be shepherds of God's flock that is under your care, serving as overseers—not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not greedy for money, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock. ...
With respect to the Elder's task of ruling and guiding, he has been set over the congregation (1 Thessalonians 5:12 ; 1 Timothy 5:17 ). Like their Old Testament counterparts, the Elders are to see to it that the gospel and the demands of the Lord are imprinted in the hearts and lives of God's people (1 Thessalonians 2:11-12 ; 2 Timothy 2:24-26 ). The Elder must be a blameless and God-fearing man who shows the fruits of the Spirit in his walk of life. ...
The necessary qualifications for the office suggest that Elders must be chosen very carefully. Elders could be simply appointed (Titus 1:5 ) although congregational participation may very well have been involved in at least some instances. ...
In Revelation 4:4 the twenty-four Elders sitting on twenty-four thrones surrounding the throne of God probably represent the entire church (twenty-four for the twelve patriarchs of the Old Testament and the twelve apostles of the New Testament cf. These heavenly Elders wear white garments, have crowns of gold, and worship God (4:4,10-11; 5:7-10; 11:16-18; 19:4). De Koster, The Elders Handbook: A Practical Guide for Church Leaders ; W
Ordain - The word usually means ‘appoint’, as for example when Jesus appointed apostles (Mark 3:13-14; John 15:16; see APOSTLE), and the apostles appointed church leaders (Acts 6:3; Acts 6:6; Acts 14:23; see DEACON; Elder)
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary - The Annunciation is represented in art by many masters, among them Fra Angelico, Hubert Van Eyck, Jan Van Eyck, Ghirlandajo, Holbein the Elder, Lippi, Pinturicchio, and Del Sarto
Antonio da Sangallo, the Younger - Nephew, of Antonio da Sangallo, the Elder
Kirk Sessions - Each parish according to its extent is divided into several particular districts, every one of which has its own Elder and deacons to oversee it. A consistory of the ministers, Elders, and deacons of a parish form a kirk session
Methodist - ) Of or pertaining to the sect of Methodists; as, Methodist hymns; a Methodist Elder
Sangalo, Antonio da, the Younger - Nephew, of Antonio da Sangallo, the Elder
Gallio - He was the Elder brother of the philosopher Seneca, who describes him as uncommonly amiable and upright
Apollinaris, the Elder, of Alexandria - Apollinaris (or, according to Greek orthography, Apollinarius ) the Elder , of Alexandria, was born about the beginning of the 4th cent. ...
The Elder Apollinaris is chiefly noted for his literary labours. He likewise mentions a treatise on grammar compiled by the Elder Apollinaris, χριστιανικῷ τύπῳ
Woman - " ...
3: πρεσβύτερος (Strong's #4245 — Adjective — presbuteros — pres-boo'-ter-os ) "elder, older," in the feminine plural, denotes "elder women" in 1 Timothy 5:2 . See Elder , A, No
Aristion (Aristo) - Interpretation) of the Lord’s Oracles ‘referred frequently by name’ to ‘Aristion and the Elder John’ as his authorities. From the Preface (προοίμιον) Eusebius cited the following sentence to prove that Irenaeus had misunderstood Papias in taking him to refer to the Apostle John as his authority, whereas the ‘John’ in question was not the ‘disciple of the Lord,’ but a comparatively obscure ‘Elder. by compensation rendering ‘Aristo and John the Elders. 20) omit οἱ...
Deferring the question of the significance of the valiant readings, it is apparent that ‘Aristion and the Elder John’ are in several ways placed in contrast with the group of ‘disciples of the Lord’ mentioned immediately before, by whom Papias certainly means the twelve Apostles, enumerating seven (including James the Lord’s brother; cf. The group next mentioned, ‘Aristion and the Elder John,’ are distinguished expressly and implicitly as belonging to a subsequent generation. ...
(1) As Eusebius points out, the John spoken of in connexion with Aristion is (a) ‘mentioned after an interval,’ (b) ‘classed with others outside the number of the Apostles,’ (c) has ‘Aristion mentioned before him,’ (d) is ‘distinctly called an Elder’ (in contrast with the John mentioned just before, who is called a ‘disciple of the Lord’). Nowhere in the context should the term ‘Elder’ be taken as = ‘Apostle. ’...
(2) A distinction not referred to by Eusebius, but at least equally important, is the contrast of tense (disregarded by Rufinus and Jerome), whereby Papias makes it apparent that at the time of his inquiries the Apostles, including John, were dead; whereas Aristion and the Elder John were living. He ‘used to inquire of those who came his way what had been said (τί εἶπεν) by Andrew, Peter, Philip, Thomas, James, John or Matthew, or any other of the Lord’s disciples; as well as what was being said (ἅτε λέγουσιν) by Aristion and the Elder John. On the other hand, great difficulty and dispute are caused by the descriptive clause attached in most texts to his name and that of John the Elder, because it is identical with that by which the Apostles are appropriately designated as traditores of the first generation; whereas the distinctions already noted, especially the contrast of tense τί εἶπεν—ἅτε λέγουσιν, make it certain that Papias did not regard Aristion and the Elder John as belonging to this group. ...
The Armenian version makes a natural inference when it forms the second group by reading ‘Aristo and John the Elders. Papias applies the title ‘the Elder’ only to ‘John’ to distinguish him from the Apostle. ἀνέκρινον λόγους as an ellipsis: ‘I would inquire the utterances of the Elders (reporting) what Andrew or Peter … had said,’ because ‘Elder’ is then used consistently throughout the paragraph for traditor of the post-Apostolic generation (cf. ) to make the distinction of the Apostolic from the post-Apostolic generation, but only of the two homonymous individuals, John the Apostle and John the Elder. But even if this exegesis be rejected, there is no escape from the following alternative: Either the descriptive phrase οἱ τοῦ Κυρίου μαθηταί, appended after ‘Aristion and the Elder John’ precisely as after the list of Apostles, is textually corrupt (assimilated to the preceding clause); or the designation is used in a different and very loose significance. ’ For Eusebius’ statement that ‘Papias was himself a hearer, not of the Apostles, but of Aristion and the Elder John,’ is made in the interest of his desire to find ‘some other John in Asia’ besides the Apostle (Zahn, Forsch. τῶν ἀποστόλων) as the true text of Papias, on the internal evidence, and because ‘the Elders’ of Papias are twice referred to by Irenaeus (Haer. ’ The corruption followed by Eusebius (and probably even by Irenaeus in this passage, though he transcribed others where ‘the Elders’ were correctly described as ‘disciples of the Apostles’), involves only the change (by assimilation) of three letters, ΟΙΤΟΥ(ΤΩΝ)ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ becoming ΟΙΤΟΥ(ΚΥ)ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ. ) the incompleteness of sense produced by simple omission of the descriptive clause and (in Rufinus) the incongruity of applying to ‘Aristion and John the Elder’ the same designation by which the Apostles had just been distinguished They would have great importance if it could be made probable that they rest, directly or indirectly, upon a knowledge of Papias (or, much less probably, of Aristion-Aristo) independently of Eusebius. To speak of him and ‘the Elder John,’ if by the latter were meant John the Elder of the Jerusalem Church (Eus. 6 with the ‘Elder Aristion’ of Historia Ecclesiastica iii. 989, in which the longer ending of Mark (Mark 16:9-20) has the separate title in red ink, corresponding to the other Gospel titles: ‘From the Elder Aristo’ (Expositor, Oct. But, besides the precariousness of this inference, it would scarcely be possible to write a gloss ‘against the name Aristion’ which would not be equally ‘against the name of the Elder John’ immediately adjoining; and as mediaeval legend reported the story of the poison cup of John (i. the Apostle, identified with the Elder in the glossator’s period) this would seem to be the more natural reference and meaning of the gloss. ’ The statement has been generally received at its face value, but with different identifications of ‘the Elder Aristo. 627) stands apparently alone in identifying the ‘Aristion’ of Papias with Aristo of Pella, ‘a notable contemporary of Papias,’ and refusing to the Aristo of the Eçmiadzin codex any significance beyond that of ‘some Elder Aristo or other before circa (about) 500 a. ), that this ‘Elder Aristo’ may be no other than Aristo of Pella, but gives no other reason than the date (circa (about) 140); which, as he rightly says, is irreconcilable with the (disputed) phrase οἱ τοῦ Κυρίου μαθηταί (Chron. In particular, the same Eçmiadzin codex which attributes the Appendix to ‘the Elder Aristo’ has a version of the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53 to John 8:11 TR Mochuda, Saint - He spent his youth as a swineherd near Castlemaine, entered a neighboring monastery, studied under Saint Carthage the Elder, and was ordained
Carthage, Saint - He spent his youth as a swineherd near Castlemaine, entered a neighboring monastery, studied under Saint Carthage the Elder, and was ordained
Nahor - ...
...
A son of Terah, and Elder brother of Abraham (Genesis 11:26,27 ; Joshua 24:2 , RSV)
Lysanias - It is not the Elder Lysanias, who died 34 B
Martha - Martha has been supposed the Elder sister, as the house is called hers, and she undertook the special charge of entertaining the Lord
Peleg - Arabia the Elder Peleg remaining in Mesopotamia
Senior - ) More advanced than another in age; prior in age; Elder; hence, more advanced in dignity, rank, or office; superior; as, senior member; senior counsel
Laban - The Elder branch of Abram's family remained at Haran, in Mesopotamia, when Abraham removed to the land of Canaan
Shem - In Genesis 10:21 , the word Elder may be applied to Shem, instead of Japheth
Esau - He was the Elder of the two, and was therefore legally the heir, but sold his birthright to Jacob
Abel - Like his Elder brother Cain, he made an offering to God of things God had given him (Genesis 4:1-4)
Joannes Presbyter - What concerns us here is that Papias, speaking of his care in collecting oral traditions of the apostolic times, says, "on any occasion when a person came in my way, who had been a follower of the Elders, I would inquire about the discourses of the Elders—what was said by Andrew, or by Peter, or by Philip, or by Thomas or James, or by John or Matthew or any other of the Lord's disciples, and what Aristion and the Elder John, the disciples of the Lord say" (Lightfoot's trans. Eusebius points out that as the name John occurs here twice: the first time in a list of apostles, no doubt representing John the apostle; the second time in a different list, after the name of Aristion and with the title Elder prefixed, it must represent a different person. Thus the John whose traditions Papias several times records is the Elder, not the apostle. 69); while less orthodox critics with one consent base their theories with confidence on John the Elder being as historical as SS. ...
If, then, both John the apostle and the Elder taught in Asia, can we transfer to the second anything traditionally told of the first? Dionysius and Eusebius transfer to him the authorship of the Apocalypse, but those who now divide the Johannine books between these two Johns unanimously give the Apocalypse to the first. Jerome assigns to "the Elder" the two minor epistles, and this is a very natural inference from their inscription. That is a modest one, if the writer could have claimed the dignity of apostle; but if not, it seems arrogant to designate himself as the Elder when there must have been Elders in every city. One Eusebian argument must then be rejected, namely, that by calling his second John the Elder, Papias meant to distinguish him from the apostle. This would be so if he had called the first John an apostle, but actually he calls him an Elder. If we suppose, as do Lightfoot and others, that he uses the word Elder in two different senses, at least the word cannot be used the second time to distinguish him from those to whom it is applied the first time. Some light is thrown on the sense in which the word Elder is applied to John by Papias in his preface by the fact that one of his traditions is told with the formula, "These things the Elder used to say. " This must surely mean more than that the authority cited was one of the many presbyters of the church and we cannot help connecting with it the fact revealed by the minor Johannine epistles, that there was some one in the Asiatic church who spoke of himself, and no doubt was habitually spoken of by others, as "the Elder. The second time the title "elder" is used it does not mean "one of the first generation of Christians," for Aristion to whom the title is refused was that; it does not mean merely one holding the office of presbyter, for then the phrase "the Elder" would have no meaning
Gallio - The Elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero
Francisco Herrera (2) - Son of Francisco the Elder, born Seville, Spain, 1622; died Madrid, Spain, 1685
Francisco the Younger - Son of Francisco the Elder, born Seville, Spain, 1622; died Madrid, Spain, 1685
Lemuel - Not, as Hitzig guessed, Elder brother to Agur, king of an Arab tribe in Massa, on the borders of Palestine, and both sprung from the Simeonites who drove out the Amalekites from Mount Seir under Hezekiah, as if Lemuel were an older form of Nemuel, or Jemuel, Simeon's oldest son
Gershom - ...
...
The Elder of the two sons of Moses born to him in Midian (Exodus 2:22 ; 18:3 )
Herrera, Francisco (2) - Son of Francisco the Elder, born Seville, Spain, 1622; died Madrid, Spain, 1685
Cockle - By the Chaldee it is rendered noxious herbs; by Symmachus, ατελεσφορητα , plants of imperfect fruit; by the Septuagint, βατος , the blackberry bush; by Castelio, ebulus, "dwarf Elder;" by Celsius, aconite; and by Bishop Stock and Dr
el Mozo - Son of Francisco the Elder, born Seville, Spain, 1622; died Madrid, Spain, 1685
Younger, Francisco the - Son of Francisco the Elder, born Seville, Spain, 1622; died Madrid, Spain, 1685
Mar'Tha - (John 11:5 ) Her position is obviously that of the Elder sister the head and manager of the household
Julianus Sabas, an Anchorite - Sabas or Sabbas, says Theodoret, was a title of veneration, meaning an Elder, corresponding with "abbas" or father, commonly applied to anchorites in the East
Prodigal Son - ...
The Elder brother, however, is very indignant, and refuses to take any part in the general rejoicing. The fact of the young man’s wrongdoing and the sincerity of his repentance are accepted by both; but while the Elder brother challenges the justice and propriety of rejoicing over the return of one who had been so headstrong and foolish, the father firmly defends the course he had followed, and, in terminating the discussion, speaks with a finality that is not to be questioned: ‘It was meet that we should make merry and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found. The contrast is drawn between the father and the Elder brother in reference to their treatment of the wrongdoer, and not between the brothers either in regard to character or conduct. The substance of the parable is this: a father who welcomes back an erring and repentant son has his action emphatically approved, and an Elder brother who maintains an attitude of surly aloofness is shown to merit severe disapprobation. For what was it that led the father to act as he did? Was it not just the love he bore his son, foolish and erring though he had been? The Elder son reasoned on the lines of cold and rigid law, whereas the heart of the father spoke, and the voice of love was obeyed. And was it not just the want of this affectionate heart that allowed the Elder brother to act so ungenerously? Had he loved his brother, he would have vied with his father in the warmth of his welcome; had he even loved his father, he would have acquiesced in his father’s wish for his father’s sake. The Elder brother failed in his duty to brother and father alike, because he lacked the affection that would have swept away his shallow notions of justice, and pointed out a better way
Elder (2) - ELDER. —In the Gospels the term ‘elder’ (πρεσβύτερος) does not occur in the later Christian sense, denoting an officer of the Church (as in Acts 14:23; Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5, James 5:14; 1 Peter 5:1). The few cases of unofficial meaning of the term are: Luke 15:25, where it describes the ‘elder brother’ in the parable of the Prodigal; and Matthew 15:2, Mark 7:3; Mark 7:5, where it means ‘the Elders’ of a former age, the men of old from whom customs and maxims are handed down. In all the other passages (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:28; Matthew 26:3; Matthew 26:47; Matthew 26:57; Matthew 26:59; Matthew 27:1; Matthew 27:3; Matthew 27:12; Matthew 27:20; Matthew 27:41, Mark 8:31; Mark 11:27; Mark 14:43; Mark 14:53, Luke 9:22; Luke 20:1; Luke 22:52) the term ‘elders’—invariably plural—bears the official meaning current among the Jews of our Lord’s time. ]'>[1] there is frequent mention of ‘elders’ in the official sense (see, e. From a study of these and similar passages it appears that in all the history of Israel, from the Egyptian bondage down to the time of Christ, ‘elders’ appear as an official class; but the descriptions and statements are not explicit enough to give a definite idea of how they were appointed to office, or of their exact functions. Further, there is a distinction between local ‘elders’ (those of a city) and ‘the Elders of Israel,’ ‘elders of the congregation,’ ‘elders of the people,’ as they are variously called. ...
One passage only (Luke 7:3) seems to indicate the local ‘elders’—those of Capernaum, the scene of the event described; and even here the turn of the expression, ‘elders of the Jews,’ might possibly point to national ‘elders’ present or resident at Capernaum. In all the remaining passages cited above, the reference is to the national ‘elders. This view is sustained by the connexion and association of the term,—usually with ‘scribes’ and ‘chief priests,’—and by Luke 22:66, where the Sanhedrin is called ‘the presbytery,’ or assembly of ‘elders’ (πρεσβυτέριον, cf. There are various forms of expression: sometimes ‘elders’ simply, and sometimes ‘elders of the people,’ commonly associated with ‘chief priests and scribes. ’ This is held by some to indicate that there were three orders or grades in the Sanhedrin, the ‘elders’ being the lay element, or representatives of the people. ‘Elder,’ and the lit
Father - ); and (2) as a title of respect to a chief, ruler, or Elder, etc
Nachor - ) Nahor was his Elder brother; married Milcah his niece, Haran's daughter, who bore eight sons (Genesis 11:26-29; Genesis 22:20-24)
Mahli - ’ According to 1 Chronicles 23:22 , these Mahlites were descended from the daughters of Eleazar, the Elder son of the Mahli mentioned in Exodus 6:19
Hubert Van Eyck - He was the Elder of two brothers who settled in Flanders and were the founders of the Flemish school of painting (see also Jan van Eyck
Leah - Thus was preserved the ancient Near Eastern tradition of the Elder marrying first
Leah - The Elder daughter of Laban, married to Jacob by stratagem ( Genesis 29:21 ff
Pique - ) In piquet, the right of the Elder hand to count thirty in hand, or to play before the adversary counts one
Basil the Great, Saint - His father was Saint Basil the Elder, his grandmother Saint Macrina
Eyck, Hubert Van - He was the Elder of two brothers who settled in Flanders and were the founders of the Flemish school of painting (see also Jan van Eyck
Abishag - Adonijah was his Elder brother, an intriguing man, and had aspired to be king before the death of David, and had had his life spared only upon the condition of his peaceable conduct
Birthright - Thus Isaac was preferred to Ishmael, Jacob to Esau, Joseph to Reuben, David to his Elder brethren, Solomon to Adonijah
Free Will Baptists - Religious body organized in Chowan County, North Carolina, in 1727 by Elder Paul Palmer
Adonijah - After the death of his Elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he became heir-apparent to the throne
Rebecca - (Ῥεβέκκα)...
Rebecca, the wife of Isaac, received a Divine oracle before the birth of her twin sons, Esau and Jacob, foretelling her that she would be the mother of two nations or peoples, of whom the Elder would serve the younger (Romans 9:10-12, from Genesis 25:24-26)
Greater, James the, Saint - ), son of Zebedee and Salome, Elder brother of John the Baptist, called James the Greater to distinguish him from James the Less who was probably shorter in stature
Abihu - With his father and Elder brother he accompanied the seventy Elders part of the way up the mount with Moses (Exodus 24:1,9 )
Joseph - No man can see the Father's face unless he comes with the Lord JESUS, the Elder brother
Baptists, Free Will - Religious body organized in Chowan County, North Carolina, in 1727 by Elder Paul Palmer
Bishop - The titles bishop and Elder, or presbyter, were essentially equivalent. Of the order in which the first Elders or bishops were appointed, as of the occasion which led to the institution of the office, we have no record. The duties of the bishop-elders appear to have been as follows:
General superintendence over the spiritual well-being of the flock
James the Apostle - ...
The other apostle named James was the Elder brother of the apostle John (Matthew 10:2)
Birthright - Thus Isaac is preferred to Ishmael, Jacob to Esau, Joseph to Reuben, David to his Elder brothers. Solomon to Adonijah the Elder of the two (1 Kings 2:15)
Ancient - ) A senior; an Elder; a predecessor
Ithamar - With Eleazar the Elder he succeeded to the priestly offices vacated by the death of Nadab and Abihu, which he and Eleazar were forbidden to mourn (Exodus 28:1; Exodus 28:40; Exodus 28:48; Leviticus 10:1-2; Leviticus 10:6-7; Numbers 3:3-4; 1 Chronicles 24:2)
la'Ban - ) The Elder branch of the family remained at Haran, Mesopotamia, when Abraham removed to the land of Canaan, and it is there that we first meet with Laban, as taking the leading part in the betrothal of his sister Rebekah to her cousin Isaac
Macarius, an Egyptian Hermit or Monk - The Elder is called the Egyptian, the younger the Alexandrine
Bedan - A Bedan is mentioned among Manasseh's descendants (1 Chronicles 7:17), whence some identify him with the Jair (Judges 10:3), and suppose the surname Bedan was added to distinguish him from the Elder Jair (Numbers 32:41)
Aaron - Son of Amram, and the Elder brother of Moses
Evangelist - The evangelist might or might not be a bishop-elder or a deacon
mi'Chael - (1 Chronicles 27:18 ) ...
One of the sons of Jehoshaphat who were murdered by their Elder brother, Jehoram
Jeho'Ahaz - He was chosen by the people in preference to his Elder (comp
Elder - Elder (in OT). In our earliest documents the ‘elders of Israel’ are the men of position and influence, who represent the community in both religious and civil affairs ( Exodus 3:16 ; Exodus 3:18 ; Exodus 12:11 ; Exodus 17:5 f. , Exodus 18:12 ; Exodus 19:7 , Numbers 11:16 , Deuteronomy 5:23 ; Deuteronomy 27:1 ; Deuteronomy 31:28 ): the ‘elders’ of Exodus 24:1 are the ‘nobles’ of Exodus 24:11 . After the settlement in Canaan the ‘elders’ still possessed much weight ( 1Sa 4:3 ; 1 Samuel 8:4 ; 1 Samuel 15:30 , 2Sa 3:17 ; 2 Samuel 5:3 ; 2 Samuel 17:14 f. And now we find ‘elders of the city’ the governing body of the town ( Ruth 4:2 ; Rth 4:9 , 1 Samuel 11:3 , 1 Kings 21:8 ; 1Ki 21:11 , 2 Kings 10:1 ; 2 Kings 10:5 ); the little town of Succoth boasted no fewer than seventy-seven ( Judges 8:14 ). During the Exile the ‘elders’ are the centre of the people’s life ( Jeremiah 29:1 , Ezekiel 8:1 ; Ezekiel 14:1 ; Ezekiel 20:1 , Ezra 5:9 ff; Ezra 6:7 ff. ...
Elder (in NT)
Madonna - Noted masters who have represented her are: ...
Fra Angelico
Fra Bartolommeo
Bellini, Giovanni
Botticelli
Cimabue, Giovanni
Correggio
Dolci, Carlo
Zampieri, Domenichino
Eyck, Jan van
Giotto di Bondone
Holbein, Hans the Elder
Lippi, Fra Filippo
Memling, Hans
Albertinelli
Alvise Vivarini
Andrea da Solario
Antonio da Solario
Antonio Vivarini
Baroccio
Bellini, Jacopo
Boltraffio
Borgognone
Cariani
Carpaccio
Cignani
Cima da Conegliano
Credi
Crivelli
Da Vinci
Della Robbia
El Greco
Ferrari
Feuerbach
Francia
Lochner
Loefen
Lotto
Luini
Mantegna
Master of the Moulins
Mengs
Moretto
Morone
Murillo
Pacchiarotto
Perugino, Pinturicchio
Raphael
Reni
Rubens
San Severino
Santi
Sarto
Sassoferrato
Sesto
Signorelli
Squarcione
Titian
Trevisant
Van Dyck
Verocchio
Veronese
Among famous paintings of the Madonna are ...
Sistine Madonna
Madonna della Sedia di Foligno
Madonna of the Goldfinch
Madonna of the Harpies
Minister - The pastoral leaders of the church, who are distinct from the deacons, are also ministers (Ephesians 4:11-12; Colossians 1:7; 1 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 4:5; see APOSTLE; Elder; TEACHER; PREACHING)
Gallio - The Elder brother of Seneca
Age, Old (the Aged) - The office of "elder" took on political connotations when it referred to David's chief servants (2 Samuel 12:17 ), as well as to the Elders of Egypt, Moab, or Midian (Genesis 50:7 ; Numbers 22:7 ). During the time of Moses, "the Elders of Israel" were an important group of leaders who accompanied him on his first meeting with Pharaoh (Exodus 3:18 ), served as intermediaries with the nation (Exodus 19:7 ), assisted Moses at the ratification of the Sinai covenant (Exodus 24:1 ), and assisted Moses in many other ways throughout his lifetime (Exodus 17:5 ; Numbers 11:16-17 ). The Old Testament places high value on the Elderly, as is evident from the command in Leviticus 19:32 : "Rise in the presence of the aged (seba [1]), show respect for the Elderly (zaqen [2]) and revere your God. "...
As in the Old Testament, the New Testament term "elder" (presbytes [ Luke 1:18 ). The "elders" were apparently an unofficial political group that played an active role in public affairs. ...
Later in the New Testament period, the "elders" became the official religious leadership in the early church. Though the specific origins of Eldership in the early church are uncertain, it seems clear that the office was based on the Old Testament and early Jewish custom of bestowing honor and respect to members of the community of advanced age. As the fledgling church began to grow, Elders were appointed or ordained as overseers for each local congregation (Acts 14:23 ). ...
The officers known as "elders" in the early church are also sometimes called "bishops" ("overseers, " episkopos [ Acts 20:28 ), pastors (Ephesians 4:11 ), and leaders (Hebrews 13:7 ), who had authority over the flock of God (1 Thessalonians 5:12 ). Elders were protected from malicious accusations, but if they persisted in sin, they were to be rebuked publicly as an example for all believers (1 Timothy 5:19-20 ). A church without an Elder appointed over it meant the work of the missionary was "left unfinished" (Titus 1:5 ). Qualifications for the office of Elder included a righteous lifestyle, monogamy, and humility. The Old Testament custom of honoring the aged with positions of favor politically and socially was continued in the New Testament practice of conferring leadership roles on the "elders. Harris, Biblical Perspectives on Aging: God and the Elderly ; R
Elder - The Bible refers to these people by a number of words, one of them ‘elders’. Soon the church in Jerusalem had its own group of governing Elders, and these were distinct from the apostles (Acts 11:30; Acts 15:6). The practice of appointing Elders was later copied in other churches (Acts 14:23), though there is not enough information to indicate whether the form of church government was the same in all the churches. Even where the Bible recognizes a title, the emphasis is usually more on the work the Elders do than on the office they hold (Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28; 1 Thessalonians 5:13; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Peter 5:1-3). ...
English versions of the Bible use various words for church leaders – ‘elders’, ‘overseers’, ‘guardians’, ‘bishops’. For example (quoting the RSV), in Acts 20:17 Paul sends for the Elders (presbuteroi) of the Ephesian church, but when they arrive (v. Likewise in Titus 1:5 he tells Titus to appoint Elders (presbuteroi), and then in the same sentence (v. In reference to any specific local church, the Bible always speaks of a plurality of Elders (Acts 14:23; Acts 20:17; Philippians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:12). ...
Responsibilities of Elders...
Elders are likened to shepherds over a flock. Others in the church can help the Elders by taking responsibility for many of the practical ministries of the church. In this way they give the Elders more time for the important pastoral ministries God has entrusted to them (Acts 6:2-4; James 5:14; see DEACON). ...
All Elders should have some ability at teaching (1 Timothy 3:2), though some will be more gifted than others, and therefore more occupied than others, in public preaching (1 Timothy 5:17). Through their own ministry and that of teachers from elsewhere, Elders should provide the church with teaching that is upbuilding and protect it from what is harmful (1 Corinthians 16:16; Titus 1:9). Elders must therefore be people of discernment (1 Timothy 1:3-7; 1 Timothy 6:3-5; 2 Timothy 2:14-16; 2 John 1:7-11). ...
In addition to having qualifications in relation to gift and ability, each Elder must fulfil certain minimum requirements in relation to his character and behaviour. Any accusation of wrongdoing against an Elder must be supported by witnesses. If the Elder is proved guilty, he should be publicly rebuked, again because of the high standards required of those in positions of leadership (1 Timothy 5:19-20). ...
Appointment of Elders...
The Bible gives no specific instructions concerning how Elders are chosen or appointed. In the case of the churches that Paul and Barnabas established in Galatia, the first Elders were appointed by those who planted the churches (Acts 14:23). Normally, people should not be appointed Elders too soon after their conversion, because time is needed for Christian character and spiritual gift to develop (1 Timothy 3:6; 1 Timothy 5:22). If a church is left without Elders, it is liable to lose direction (Titus 1:5; Titus 1:10-11). ...
Those who have the responsibility to appoint Elders must realize that only the Holy Spirit can really make a person an Elder (Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 12:11; 1 Corinthians 12:28). They should also make sure, through prayer and consultation with the church as a whole, that those whom they appoint are those whom the church recognizes as Elders. They should also give the Elders suitable payment for the work they do and the time they spend in the service of the church (1 Timothy 5:17-18; cf. ...
With the passing of years and the growth of the church, additional Elders will be needed. Certain believers may recognize the direction in which their spiritual gifts are developing and desire to be Elders (1 Timothy 3:1; see GIFTS OF THE SPIRIT). People in the church will recognize his gift; in fact, Elders have a responsibility to train those who appear to have leadership ability (2 Timothy 2:2; cf. The example of the apostles in the early church suggests that the existing Elders are the ones who make the appointment (Acts 1:21-26; cf. ...
Some may be tempted to avoid Eldership because of the difficulties and tensions that come with it (1 Peter 5:2 a). Others may be tempted in the opposite direction, and try to use the position of Elder to further their personal ambitions (1 Peter 5:2 b,3). Elders can learn how to be true shepherds of the flock by following the example of the Chief Shepherd, Jesus Christ, who gave himself for it (1 Peter 5:4; cf
Bishop - Bischof ), Elder (Gr. Paul reminds the Elders of Ephesus that the Holy Ghost has made them bishops over the flock; in Philippians 1:1 he sends a greeting to the saints at Philippi ‘with bishops and deacons’; in 1 Timothy 3:2 he tells Timothy that ‘the bishop must be blameless,’ etc. ’...
In the OT the word ‘elder’ is used from early times of an official class having jurisdiction both civil and religious, so that when synagogues were built, the Elders of the city would naturally be the Elders of the synagogue, with the right of regulating the services and excluding offenders. It is indirectly recognized in Luke 22:26 ; but we cannot infer the existence of Elders from Acts 5:6 , for ‘the younger men’ who carry out Ananias are simply ‘the young men’ in Acts 5:10 when they carry out Sapphira. The first clear trace of Christian Elders is at Jerusalem. ...
For the last two hundred years it has been generally agreed that bishops and Elders in the NT and for some time later are substantially identical. For (1) bishops and Elders are never joined, like bishops and deacons, as distinct classes of officials. ’ Had there been an intermediate class of Elders, it could not well have been omitted. So 1 Timothy 3:1-16 ignores the Elders, though ( 1 Timothy 5:17 ) there were Elders at Ephesus, and had been ( Acts 20:17 ) for some time. Conversely, Titus 1:6-7 describes Elders instead, and nearly in the same words. (3) The bishop described to Timothy, the Elders of Acts 20:1-38 , those of 1 Timothy 5:17 , those described to Titus, and those of 1 Peter 5:2 , all seem to hold a subordinate position, and to have rather pastoral duties than what we should call episcopal. (4) The same persons are called Elders and bishops ( Acts 20:17 ; Acts 20:28 ). This would seem proved by Titus 1:5 ; Titus 1:7 ‘that thou appoint Elders …, for the bishop (overseer) must be blameless. ’ The argument is that the Elder must be so and so, because the bishop must be so and so. This is vain repetition if the bishop is only the Elder under another name, and bad logic if he is a ruler over the Elders; but it becomes dear if the ‘bishop’ is not a defined official, but an overseer generally. Then, the Elder being a particular sort of overseer, the argument will be from a general rule to a particular case. In the case of the Lycaonian Elders ( Acts 14:23 ) the Apostles ‘appointed’ them with prayer and fastings. Similarly the Elders in Crete ( Titus 1:6 ) are ‘appointed’ by Titus, and apparently the bishops at Ephesus by Timothy. The Elders are already attached ( 1 Timothy 4:14 ) to the Apostles in the conveyance of special gifts; and when the Apostles died out, they would act alone in the institution to local office. The development of an episcopate is a further question, and very much a question of words if the bishop (in the later sense) was gradually developed upward from the Elders. But the next stage after this was that, while the bishop instituted his own Elders, he was himself instituted by the neighbouring bishops, or in still later times by the bishops of the civil province or by a metropolitan. Duties...
(1) General superintendence : Elders in Acts 20:28 , 1Ti 5:17 , 1 Peter 5:2 ; 1 Peter 5:2 (ruling badly); bishops in 1 Timothy 3:5 . ’ and Hebrews 13:7 ; Hebrews 13:17 ; Hebrews 13:24 ‘them that have the rule over you,’ remind us of the bishops and Elders who rule ( 1 Timothy 3:4 ; 1 Timothy 5:17 ). So, too, the ‘rulers’ in Clement must be bishops or Elders, for these bishops plainly have no earthly superior, so that they must be themselves the rulers. ...
Under this head we may place the share taken by the Elders: ( a ) at Jerusalem ( Acts 15:6 ) in the deliberations of the Apostolic Conference, and ( Acts 21:18 ) in the reception held by James; ( b ) elsewhere ( 1 Timothy 4:14 ) in the laying-on of hands on Timothy, whether that corresponds to ordination or to something else. ...
(2) Teaching : 1 Thessalonians 5:12 rulers admonishing in the Lord; 1 Timothy 3:2 the bishop apt to teach; 1 Timothy 5:17 double honour to the Elders who rule well, especially those who toil in word and teaching; Titus 1:9 the Elder or bishop must be able to teach, and to convince the gainsayers. Yet 1 Timothy 5:17 seems to imply that Elders might rule well who toiled in other duties than word and teaching; and if so, these were not the sole work of all Elders
James, Epistle of Saint - By the epithet "the Less" he is distinguished from the "brother of John," the son of Zebedee, known as "James the Elder
Elihu - Elihu's reasoning is not condemned, as is that of the three Elder friends and previous speakers, for whom and not for Elihu Job is directed to sacrifice and intercede (See JOB)
Gallio - ...
Gallio was the son of Marcus Annaeus Seneca, a Spanish orator and financier, and the Elder brother of Seneca, the philosopher and tutor of Nero
Jehoiakim - After deposing Jehoahaz, Pharaoh-necho set Eliakim, his Elder brother, upon the throne, and changed his name to Jehoiakim
Epistle of Saint James - By the epithet "the Less" he is distinguished from the "brother of John," the son of Zebedee, known as "James the Elder
Cyrillus (13), Hagiologist - Saba, deriving his information from the Elder monks who had known those saints
Manas'Seh - Whether the Elder of the two sons was inferior in form or promise to the younger, or whether there was any external reason to justify the preference of Jacob, we are not told
Manas'Seh - Whether the Elder of the two sons was inferior in form or promise to the younger, or whether there was any external reason to justify the preference of Jacob, we are not told
Elder - Elder. We find the "eldest servant" of Abraham's house "ruling over all that he had," Genesis 24:2; we have also mention of "the Elders of Joseph's house," and the "elders of the land of Egypt," Genesis 50:7, obviously indicating the chiefs of Joseph's establishment, and high Egyptian officers. Moses was desired to convey the divine message to "the Elders of Israel," Exodus 3:16; and they were both to accompany him when he demanded freedom from Pharaoh, and also to be the means of communication between Moses and the mass of the people. We are not told who these Elders were, probably the leading persons in each tribe. Accordingly 70 out of the general class of Elders were chosen, approved men; and on these the divine Spirit was especially poured. There were "elders" of neighboring nations, synonymous with "princes," as of Moab and Midian, Numbers 22:7; Numbers 22:13, and of the Hivites. Those who locally administered justice are said to have been termed "elders of the gate," Proverbs 31:23; Lamentations 5:14; because that was the place where a court was often held. Elders are mentioned in Maccabean times, apparently distinct from the Sanhedrin, 1 Maccabees 7:33; 1 Maccabees 12:6. " Officers of the Christian church are designated by Elders, Acts 14:23; Acts 20:17; and regulations are given in regard to them, 1 Timothy 5:1; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Timothy 5:19; the Greek word for Elder being presbuteros. In every congregation of believers, as gathered by the apostles, a number of Elders were ordained. They were called Elders, overseers, or bishops, Acts 20:28; 1 Timothy 3:5; 1 Peter 5:1; 1 Peter 5:3; Hebrews 13:17, showing that their duties were similar. The injunction, "Let the Elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially they who labor in the word and doctrine," shows, that the office, as ruler and teacher, is united. The distinction in Scripture between the teaching and the ruling Elder is not very clear, unless it can be found in 1 Timothy 5:17
Difference - In heraldry, a certain figure added to a coat of arms, serving to distinguish one family from another, or to show how distant a younger branch is from the Elder or principal branch
Envy - Examples abound in the Bible, such as are suggested by the relations between Cain and Abel, Jacob and Esau, Rachel and Leah, Joseph and his brothers, Saul and David, Haman and Mordecai, the Elder brother and the prodigal son, the Roman evangelists of Philippians 1:15 and the Apostle Paul, and many others
Bastard - ...
Bastard eigne', or bastard Elder, in law, is when a man has a bastard son, and afterward marries the mother, and has a legitimate son, called mulier puisne, or younger
Essenes - The chief sources of their history are: Philo (Quod omnia probus liber, II); Pliny the Elder (Historia Naturalis, V); and Flavius Josephus (Jewish War, II, V; Antiquities, XIII, XV, XVII, XVIII)
James -
The son of Zebedee and Salome; an Elder brother of John the apostle
Jethro - ...
She circumcised the younger son only to save Moses from God's wrath, the Elder was evidently already circumcised. Jethro of Midian (Abraham's descendant) celebrated a sacrificial meal with Aaron and Israel's Elders; the representative firstfruits of the pagan who would afterward enter into fellowship with God and His people; as Amalek, another descendant of Abraham, represents on the contrary the pagan world hostile to the Lord and His people
Macrina, the Elder - Macrina (1) , the Elder , the paternal grandmother of Basil and Gregory Nyssen, resident at and probably a native of Neocaesarea in Pontus
Herod Agrippa i. - He put the apostle James the Elder to death, and cast Peter into prison (Luke 3:1 ; Acts 12:1-19 )
Manaen - 5) the story of an Elder Manaen, father or uncle of the present one, a noted Essene, who made a prophecy to Herod the Great that he would become king of Judaea ; and when the prophecy was fulfilled Herod treated Manaen, and the Essene sect to which he belonged, with great consideration
e'li - (1 Kings 2:35 ) Its return to the Elder branch was one part of the punishment which had been denounced against Eli during his lifetime, for his culpable negligence
Jeho-i'Akim - After deposing Jehoahaz, Pharaoh-necho set Eliakim, his Elder brother, upon the throne, and changed his name to Jehoiakim, B
Elder - The term Elder, or old man as the Hebrew literally imports, was one of extensive use, as an official title, among the Hebrews and the surrounding nations, because the heads of tribes and the leading people who had acquired influence were naturally the older people of the nation. (Numbers 22:7 ) The earliest notice of the Elders acting in concert as a political body is at the time of the Exodus. They were the representatives of the people, so much so that Elders and people are occasionally used as equivalent terms; comp. The seventy Elders mentioned in Exodus and Numbers were a sort of governing body, a parliament, and the origin of the tribunal of seventy Elders called the Sanhedrin or Council. In the New Testament Church the Elders or presbyters were the same as the bishops. It was an office derived from the Jewish usage of Elders or rulers of the synagogues
Theodorus Lector - He also composed a history which extends from the last days of Theodosius the younger to the reign of the Elder Justin, A
Gershom - The Elder of the two sons borne to Moses by Zipporah ( Exodus 2:22 ; Exodus 18:2-6 ; the explanation of the name given in these two passages is folk-etymology)
Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea - But the counsels of the Elder Gregory of Nazianzus prevailed (Greg
Eli - We do not know how or when the high priesthood passed from Eleazar's family to that of Ithamar; but because of Eli's sin in not restraining his ungodly sons, it reverted again to the Elder line
Fellow - (4) For the word in combination with various nouns see CITIZEN , DISCIPLE , Elder , HEIR , HELPER , LABORER , MEMBER , PARTNER , PRISONER , SERVANT , SOLDIER , WORK , WORKER
Elder - Hence, the office of Elder was the basis of government; as in our "alderman," the Arab sheikh = "old man" (Joshua 24:31; 1 Kings 12:6). Even in their Egyptian bondage they retained their national organization and government by Elders, who represented the people (Exodus 3:16; Exodus 4:29; Joshua 24:1-2). After the settlement in Canaan they were named "elders of Israel" or "of the land" (1 Samuel 4:3; 1 Kings 20:7) or "of the tribes" (Deuteronomy 31:28) or "of the city," (Deuteronomy 19:12, compare Deuteronomy 16:18; Ruth 4:9; Ruth 4:11). Ecclesiastical Elders or presbyters (from whence "priest" is contracted) of the Christian church were a class of church governors borrowed naturally from the synagogue; especially as cases occurred of whole synagogues and their officers embracing Christianity. The four and twenty Elders (Revelation 4) represent the combined heads of the Old and New Testament congregations, the twelve patriarchs and twelve apostles; answering to the typical 24 courses of priests, "governors of the sanctuary and governors of God" (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 25:31)
Genealogy - , a marriage of a man to the childless widow of his Elder brother, the children of the second marriage being reckoned as the legal descendants of the first husband
Ephraim - But he placed the younger, Ephraim, before the Elder, Manasseh, "guiding his hands wittingly," in spite of Joseph's remonstrance, and prophetically declaring that the posterity of Ephraim should be far greater and more powerful than the posterity of Manasseh
Theodora i., Empress - When old enough, she appeared on the stage, as her Elder sister had done
Shem - Translated "the Elder brother of Japheth," as Arabic, Syriac, and Vulgate. If "Japheth the Elder" had been meant Hebrew idiom would have added "son," "the Elder son of Noah
Mamertus, Saint, Bishop of Vienne - of Vienne, the Elder brother of Claudian the poet, whom he ordained priest, and who is said to have assisted him in his episcopal labours
Jannes And Jambres - Pliny the Elder (a
Hans Holbein the Younger - Renaissance painter, son of Hans Holbein the Elder, born Augsburg, Germany, c
Jerahmeel - , 1 Chronicles 2:35-42 : here Jerahmeel is Caleb’s Elder brother; the list of his descendants in 1 Chronicles 2:35-42 is of later origin than 1 Chronicles 2:9 ; 1 Chronicles 2:25-27 and brings them down to the Chronicler’s day)
ze'Rah - ) ...
Less properly, Zarah, twin son, with his Elder brother Pharez, of Judah and Tamar
Dan - The tribe of Dan was descended from the Elder of two sons whom Rachel’s maid Bilhah bore to Jacob (Genesis 30:1-6)
Caleb - In 1 Chronicles 4:15 Caleb the spy is called "son of Jephunneh," and in 1 Chronicles 2:49 the Elder Caleb seemingly is father of the daughter Achsa. This genealogy (1 Chronicles 2), drawn up in Hezekiah's reign, alone mentions the supposed Elder Caleb
Elder - In the Old Testament, “elder” usually translates the Hebrew word zaqen from a root which means “beard” or “chin. ...
Elders in the Old Testament From the beginning of Israelite history, the Elders were the leaders of the various clans and tribes. When the tribes came together to form the nation of Israel, the Elders of the tribes naturally assumed important roles in governing the affairs of the nation. Moses was commanded to inform the “elders of Israel” of the Lord's intention to deliver Israel from Egypt and to take the Elders with him to confront the pharaoh (Exodus 3:16 ,Exodus 3:16,3:18 ). Similarly, seventy of the Elders participated with Moses at the covenant meal at Sinai (Exodus 24:9-11 ). As the task of governing Israel grew in complexity, part of the burden was transferred from Moses to a council of seventy Elders (Numbers 11:16-17 ). ...
During the period of the Judges and the monarchy, the Elders were prominent in the political and judicial life of Israel. In the legal codes of Deuteronomy the Elders are responsible for administering justice, sitting as judges in the city gate (Deuteronomy 22:15 ), deciding cases affecting family life (Deuteronomy 21:18-21 , Deuteronomy 22:13-21 ), and executing decisions (Deuteronomy 19:11-13 ; Deuteronomy 21:1-9 ). ...
Although Elders were less prominent in the post-exilic period and the term was apparently not much used in Jewish communities outside Palestine, the “council of Elders” was an integral part of the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem. In the New Testament, frequent reference is made to the Elders of the Jews, usually in conjunction with the chief priests or scribes (for example, Matthew 21:23 ; Mark 14:43 ). In this context the Elders, apparently members of leading families, had some authority but were not the principal leaders in either religious or political affairs. Elders did have leading roles in the government of synagogues and after the fall of the Temple became even more central to Jewish religious life. ...
Elders in the New Testament In the earliest Jewish Christian churches, at least the church in Jerusalem, the position of “elder” was almost certainly modeled after the synagogue pattern. Although there are few specific details about the function of Elders in the Jerusalem church, they apparently served as a decision-making council. They are often mentioned in conjunction with the apostles, and some passages give the impression that the apostles and Elders of Jerusalem considered themselves to be a decision-making council for the whole church (Acts 15:1 ; Acts 21:17-26 ). ...
Other churches also had Elders. Acts 14:23 reports that Paul and Barnabas appointed Elders in churches on their missionary journey. These Elders do not seem to fit the Jewish pattern, however. In the address to the Ephesian Elders Paul referred to them as overseeing the church and serving as shepherds of the church ( Acts 20:28 ). Paul did not use the term “elders” often usually referring to the functions of ministry rather than titles of offices. Although those exercising such gifts in churches are not expressly called Elders, it is likely that at least some of them were Elders. Thus, Elders in the Pauline churches were probably spiritual leaders and ministers, not simply a governing council. ...
One of the most debated questions concerning the pattern of early Christian ministry is the relationship between bishops and Elders. Nowhere in the letters of Paul is there any explicit reference to the duties of either, nor is there any listing of the qualifications of Elders. The passage begins with a direction that Elders be appointed in every town and continues with a description of the qualifications for a bishop. ...
The qualifications in Titus 1:6-9 and in 1 Timothy 3:1-7 apparently apply to Elders. It becomes apparent that the Elders were the spiritual leaders of the churches. The only specific reference to the ministry of Elders is the description ( James 5:14-15 ) of Elders praying for and anointing a sick person. Although “bishop” usually occurs in the singular form, none of these passages indicate that there was only one Elder in each congregation. The nature of the relationship between the various Elders is nowhere described. ...
Although some translations use the term “ordain” in reporting the appointment of Elders (Acts 14:23 ; Titus 1:5 ), there is little evidence concerning the church's practice of commissioning Elders. By the early second century, many churches were governed by one ruling bishop, assisted by presbyters (elders)
Ministry, Minister - Apart from the apostles, prophets, and evangelists, we read of Elders/presbyters, bishops, and deacons, who were settled in local congregations. ...
Elder/presbyter (presbuteros [ Acts 15:2 ; 20:17 ; 21:18 ; 1 Timothy 3:1-7 ; 5:17 ; Titus 1:5-9 ; Hebrews 13:17 ). Therefore, in terms of what he did the Elder was sometimes called the bishop or overseer (episcopos ). That the Elder is the bishop seems to be the natural meaning of Acts 20:17,28 ; Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:4-5 ; 5:17-19 ; Titus 1:5-7 ; 1 Peter 5:2 (KJV). Apparently the Elder was set in office by an act of ordination, but there are only minimal details of this in the New Testament (e
Rebuke - ...
A — 3: ἐπιπλήσσω (Strong's #1969 — Verb — epiplesso — ep-ee-place'-so ) "to strike at" (epi, "upon" or "at," plesso, "to strike, smite"), hence, "to rebuke," is used in the injunction against "rebuking" an Elder, 1 Timothy 5:1
Lord, Brethren of the - " ...
 ...
Jude or Judas Thaddeus was, like his Elder brother James (Matthew 13; Jude 1:1), slow to understand Jesus's true mission (as, indeed, all the brothers were, according to John 7), like him, drawn to the apostleship (Luke 6), and, like him, the author of a catholic epistle
Aging - See Elder . ...
Practical Concerns The biblical view of aging is unequivocally positive, though allowing for foolish Elderly (Ecclesiastes 4:13 )
Naphtali - Instigated by Asa, Benhadad the Elder, king of Syria, terribly ravaged the land of Naphtali; and what it suffered in after invasions by the Syrians we are partly told, 1 Kings 15:20
Bishop - The word, as used by the Apostolic writers, when referring to the pastors of Christian churches, is evidently of the same import as presbyter or Elder; for the terms, as they occur in the New Testament, appear to be synonymous, and are used indifferently. Thus the same persons that are called επισκοποι , bishops are also called ωρεσβυτεροι , Elders. In Titus 1:5 , it is said, "For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain Elders" (Greek πρεσβυτερους ) "in every city;" and then it follows in Titus 1:7 , "For a bishop" (επισκοπον ) "must be blameless. " In like manner, the Apostle Peter, 1 Peter 5:1 : "The Elders" (πρεσβυτερους ) "which are among you I exhort; feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof; επισκοπουντες , that is, discharging the office of bishops
Paper, Papyrus - The only biblical reference to papyrus paper is found in 2 John 1:12 , where the Elder writes: “Having many things to write unto you, I would not write with paper and ink” (author's italics)
Peter, First Epistle of, - Such an attestation was especially needed by the Hebrew Christians, who were to appeal from Paul's authority to that of the Elder apostles, and above all to that of Peter
Isaac - God had said that the Elder should serve the younger, but Rebekah, instead of leaving the matter in God's hands, contrived by a deceitful stratagem to get the blessing for Jacob instead of Esau the firstborn. The deception was soon found out; but how was it that Isaac intended to bless the Elder, thus disregarding the word of the Lord? It is to be feared that his love of the venison and savoury meat led him astray
Elders - This term occurs first in Genesis 50:7 , where it applies to the Egyptians of the house of Pharaoh and to the Elders of Egypt. In Numbers 22:7 we read also of the Elders of Moab and the Elders of Midian, so that the term was not confined to Israel. The word is saqen which implies 'aged man;' they were no doubt also men of repute, including heads of houses of each tribe, without having any official place such as was given to the seventy appointed by God to work with Moses: these were chosen from among the Elders. ...
Elders would be found in every city, and could act in all matters of the common weal as the responsible members of the community. For instance, when a dead man was found in a field, and it was not known who had slain him, the Elders of the city to which it was nearest, must assemble, and, with their hands over a heifer, beheaded for the occasion, must solemnly declare that they had no knowledge of the murder. The 'judges ' are here named as distinct from the Elders. In any ratification as to the redemption of an inheritance the Elders were called together to be witnesses. The Elders being heads of houses and related by blood to the people, Israel must have been in a dire condition when the Elders were not honoured. the Elders of Israel are often referred to and their traditions spoken of. 'All the Elders' in Matthew 27:1 would include the Sanhedrim: cf. The Elders continued their opposition as long as there was any open testimony in Jerusalem. ...
Elder IN THE CHURCH. ' There were Elders at Jerusalem, though we do not read of their appointment, Acts 11:30 ; Acts 15:2-23 ; Acts 21:18 ; but the choice of Elders in the Gentile assemblies was by apostolic authority, either direct or delegated. Paul and Barnabas chose, or appointed, Elders in every city. Titus was delegated by Paul to establish Elders in every city in Crete. In Titus 1:7 they are called bishops, or overseers; so in Acts 20 Paul called for the Elders of Ephesus, to whom he said that the Holy Ghost had made them bishops, or overseers, showing that those appointed as Elders and bishops were the same persons. Elders were such by apostolic authority, direct or delegated. There can be now no such Elders either in the source of their authority, or in the sphere of its exercise. ...
ElderS IN HEAVEN. The four and twenty Elders seen by John in heaven are frequently referred to in the Revelation. T, when all was in order there were twenty-four courses of the priesthood, each course having an Elder as head or chief, 1 Chronicles 24:7-18 ; and the Elders in the Revelation being twenty-four in number may be in allusion to them. The Elders in heaven have harps and golden vials full of odours, "which are the prayers of saints," showing that they act as priests, Revelation 5:8 ; and in Revelation 5:9 they celebrate redemption in a song
Church Government - The Apostles were founders of churches, and therefore regulated and supervised the first arrangements; then were added sundry local and unlocal rulers; then the unlocal died out, and the local settled down into the three permanent classes of bishops, Elders, and deacons. We have (1) the appointment of the Seven at Jerusalem ( Acts 6:1-15 ); (2) Elders at Jerusalem in the years 44, 50, 58 ( Acts 11:30 ; Acts 15:8 ; Acts 6:1-15 ; Acts 21:18 ), appointed by Paul and Barnabas in every church about 48 ( Acts 14:23 ), mentioned James 5:14 ; at Ephesus in 58 ( Acts 20:17 ), mentioned 1 Peter 5:1 ; (3) Phœhe a deaconess at Cenchreæ in 58 ( Romans 16:1 ), bishops and deacons at Philippi in 63 ( Philippians 1:1 ). Also in the Pastoral Epistles, Timothy at Ephesus about 66 is ( 1 Timothy 3:1-16 ; 1 Timothy 4:1-16 ) in charge of four orders: (1) bishops (or Elders) ( 1 Timothy 5:1 ); (2) deacons; (3) deaconesses ( 1 Timothy 3:11 ) (‘women’
(2) Elders . Elders at Jerusalem receive the offerings in 44 from Saul and Barnabas. As Paul and Barnabas appoint Elders in every city on their first missionary journey, and we find Elders at Ephesus in 58, we may infer that the churches generally had Elders, though there is no further certain mention of them till the Pastoral Epistles and 1Peter . ...
The difference of name between Elders and bishops may point to some difference of origin or duties; but in NT (and in Clement of Rome) the terms are practically equivalent. Thus the Elders of Ephesus are reminded (
Acts 20:28 ) that they are bishops. In the Pastoral Epistles, Timothy appoints ‘bishops and deacons’; Titus, ‘elders and deacons,’ though Timothy also ( 1 Timothy 5:17 ) has Elders under him. The qualifications of the Elder, as described to Titus, are practically those of the bishop as given to Timothy, and it is added ( Titus 1:7 ) that the Elders must be such ‘because the bishop must be blameless,’ etc. which is decisive that the bishop’s office was at least as wide as the Elder’s. If the Elder’s duty is to rule ( 1 Timothy 5:17 ), he does it subject to Timothy, much as a modern Elder rules subject to his bishop
James - James the son of Zebedee, one of the twelve apostles, and Elder brother of John
Zadok - ]'>[1] in 2 Samuel 8:17 (= 1 Chronicles 18:16 ) being doubtful, there is no definite information concerning his family except in the genealogical lists in 1 Chronicles 6:4-15 ; 1Ch 6:50-53 ; 1 Chronicles 24:3 , in which his descent is traced from Eleazar the Elder son of Aaron; but these details are of doubtful reliability
Pastor - Others may be settled residents of particular localities, and most likely be Elders in their local churches (Acts 20:28-32; Colossians 4:12-13). Elders must have pastoring abilities (1 Peter 5:1-4) and teaching abilities (1 Timothy 6:3-21). Their leadership and care of the church involves feeding it on teaching that is wholesome and protecting it from teaching that is harmful (Acts 20:29; 1 Timothy 1:3-7; 1 Timothy 3:2; Titus 1:9; see Elder)
Ammonius Saccas - Plotinus is said to have been most strongly impressed with his first hearing of Ammonius, and to have cried out, "This is the man I was looking for!" ( τοῦτον ἐζήτουν ), after which he remained his constant friend till the death of the Elder philosopher
Archelaus - He was the Elder of the two sons of Herod the Great by Malthace, a Samaritan woman (Josephus BJ i
Barley - According to the Elder Pliny (HN xviii
Imposition of Hands - ...
[In the Methodist Episcopal Church, a bishop is constituted by the election of the general conference, and the laying on of the hands of three bishops, or at least of one bishop and two Elders; unless it happen that, by death or otherwise, there be no bishop remaining in the church: in this case, the general conference is empowered to elect a bishop, and the Elders, or any three of them appointed by the general conference for that purpose, to ordain him. An Elder is constituted by the election of an annual conference, and the laying on of the hands of a bishop and of two or more Elders
Up - From younger to Elder years as from his youth up
Pinianus, Husband of Melania the Younger - Melania the Elder having died at Bethlehem, they inherited her vast estates
Jeroboam - Jeroboam married Ano, the Elder sister of the Egyptian queen Tahpenes, and returned to Shechem, where took place the conference with Rehoboam, and the final revolt which ended in the elevation of Jeroboam to the throne of the northern kingdom
Azariah - about one generation Elder than Joash
Esau - Son of Isaac and Rebecca; Elder twin brother of Jacob (Genesis 25:24-26 ; Genesis 27:1 ,Genesis 27:1,27:32 ,Genesis 27:32,27:42 ; Genesis 26:34-35 ); father of the Edomite nation (Genesis 33:4-1693 ; Deuteronomy 2:4-29 ; Malachi 1:2-3 )
Uzzah - Eleazar was his Elder brother (1 Samuel 7:1), Ahio his younger brother
Absalom - Amnon being dead, and perhaps Chileab, his two Elder brothers, he might naturally have thought that the throne should have descended to him, and this may have led to his treason
Ammon Ammonites Children of Ammon - Psalms 83:7-8, as Moab was by the Elder; and dating from the destruction of Sodom
James - He was Elder brother of the evangelist John
Presbyterians - The title Presbyterian comes from the Greek word which signifies senior or Elder, intimating that the government of the church in the New Testament was by presbyteries, that is, by association by presbyteries, that is, by association of ministers and ruling Elders, possessed all of equal powers, without any superiority among them, either in office or order. This is apparent from Peter's exhortation to the Elders or presbyters who were among the Jewish Christians. 'The Elders (presbyters) which are among you I exhort, who am also an Elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed: feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, (acting as bishops thereof, ) not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being LORDS over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock, 1 Peter 5:2-3 . From this passage it is evident that the presbyters not only fed the flock of God, but also governed that flock with episcopal powers; and that the apostle himself, as a church officer, was nothing more than a presbyter or Elder. Hammond, who was a very learned divine, and a zealot for episcopacy, that the Elders whom the apostle James desires (James 5:14 . ) the sick to call for, were of the highest permanent order of ecclesiastical officers; but it is self-evident that those Elders cannot have been diocesan bishops, otherwise the sick must have been often without the reach of the remedy proposed to them. we read, that 'from Miletus Paul sent to Ephesus, and called the Elders (presbyters) of the church. Hammond, indeed, imagines, that the Elders whom Paul called to Miletus, were the bishops of Asia, and that he sent for them to Ephesus, because that city was the metropolis of this province. ...
But, were this opinion well founded, it is not conceivable that the sacred writer would have called them the Elders of the church of Ephesus, but the Elders of the church in general, or the Elders of the churches in Asia. Besides, it is to be remembered, that the apostle was in such haste to be at Jerusalem, that the sacred historian measures his time by days; whereas it must have required several months to call together the bishops or Elders of all the cities of Asia; and he might certainly have gone to meet them at Ephesus in less time than would be requisite for their meeting in that city, and proceeding thence to him at Miletus. It is to be observed, too, that the first epistle to Timothy, which alone was written to him during his residence at Ephesus, was of a date prior to Paul's meeting with the Elders of that church at Miletus; for in the epistle he hopes to come to him shortly; whereas he tells the Elders at Miletus that they should see his face no more. ...
The laymen who thus form an essential part of the ecclesiastical courts of Scotland are called ruling Elders, and hold the same office, as well as the same name, with those brethren (Acts 15:1-41 :) who joined with the apostles and Elders at Jerusalem in determining the important question concerning the necessity of imposing upon the Gentile converts the ritual observances of the law of Moses. These lay-elders Paul enjoined Timothy, ( 1 Timothy 5:17 . In the church of Scotland every parish has two or three of those lay-elders, who are grave and serious persons chosen from among the heads of families, of known orthodoxy, and steady adherence to the worship, discipline, and government of the church. Being solemnly engaged to use their utmost endeavours for the suppression of vice and the cherishing of piety and virtue, and to exercise discipline faithfully and diligently, the minister, in the presence of the congregation, sets them apart to their office by solemn prayer; and concludes the ceremony, which is sometimes called ordination, with exhorting both Elders and people to their respective duties. The kirk session, which is the lowest ecclesiastical judicatory, consists of the minister and those Elders of the congregation. The minister is ex officio moderator, but has no negative voice over the decision of the session; nor, indeed, has he a right to vote at all, unless when the voice of the Elders are equal and opposite. He may, indeed, enter his protest against their sentence, if he think it improper, and appeal to the judgment of the presbytery; but this privilege belongs equally to every Elder, as well as to every person who may believe himself aggrieved by the proceedings of the session. ...
The deacons, whose proper office it is to take care of the poor, may be present in every session, and offer their counsel on all questions that come before it; but, except in what relates to the distribution of alms, they have no decisive vote with the minister and Elders. The next judicatory is the presbytery, which consist of all the pastors within a certain district, and one ruling Elder from each parish, commissioned by his brethren to represent, in conjunction with the minister, the session of that parish. ...
The fact, however, is, that in presbyters the only prerogatives which the pastors have over the ruling Elders are, the power of ordination by imposition of hands, and the privilege of having the moderator chosen from their body. The highest authority in the church of Scotland is the general assembly, which consists of a certain number of ministers and ruling Elders delegated from each presbytery, and of commissioners from the universities and royal boroughs. A presbytery in which there are fewer than twelve parishes sends to the general assembly two ministers and one ruling Elder; if it contain between twelve and eighteen ministers, it sends three of these, and one ruling Elder; if it contain between eighteen and twenty-four ministers, it sends four ministers, and two ruling Elders; and of twenty-four ministers, when it contains so many, it sends five, with two ruling Elders. ...
Every royal borough sends one ruling Elder, and Edinburgh two, whose election must be attested by the kirk sessions of their respective boroughs. The commissioners are chosen annually six weeks before the meeting of the assembly; and the ruling Elders are often men of the first eminence in the kingdom for rank and talents
Presbyterians - The title Presbyterian comes from the Greek word which signifies senior or Elder, intimating that the government of the church in the New Testament was by presbyteries, that is, by association by presbyteries, that is, by association of ministers and ruling Elders, possessed all of equal powers, without any superiority among them, either in office or order. This is apparent from Peter's exhortation to the Elders or presbyters who were among the Jewish Christians. 'The Elders (presbyters) which are among you I exhort, who am also an Elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed: feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, (acting as bishops thereof, ) not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being LORDS over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock, 1 Peter 5:2-3 . From this passage it is evident that the presbyters not only fed the flock of God, but also governed that flock with episcopal powers; and that the apostle himself, as a church officer, was nothing more than a presbyter or Elder. Hammond, who was a very learned divine, and a zealot for episcopacy, that the Elders whom the apostle James desires (James 5:14 . ) the sick to call for, were of the highest permanent order of ecclesiastical officers; but it is self-evident that those Elders cannot have been diocesan bishops, otherwise the sick must have been often without the reach of the remedy proposed to them. we read, that 'from Miletus Paul sent to Ephesus, and called the Elders (presbyters) of the church. Hammond, indeed, imagines, that the Elders whom Paul called to Miletus, were the bishops of Asia, and that he sent for them to Ephesus, because that city was the metropolis of this province. ...
But, were this opinion well founded, it is not conceivable that the sacred writer would have called them the Elders of the church of Ephesus, but the Elders of the church in general, or the Elders of the churches in Asia. Besides, it is to be remembered, that the apostle was in such haste to be at Jerusalem, that the sacred historian measures his time by days; whereas it must have required several months to call together the bishops or Elders of all the cities of Asia; and he might certainly have gone to meet them at Ephesus in less time than would be requisite for their meeting in that city, and proceeding thence to him at Miletus. It is to be observed, too, that the first epistle to Timothy, which alone was written to him during his residence at Ephesus, was of a date prior to Paul's meeting with the Elders of that church at Miletus; for in the epistle he hopes to come to him shortly; whereas he tells the Elders at Miletus that they should see his face no more. ...
The laymen who thus form an essential part of the ecclesiastical courts of Scotland are called ruling Elders, and hold the same office, as well as the same name, with those brethren (Acts 15:1-41 :) who joined with the apostles and Elders at Jerusalem in determining the important question concerning the necessity of imposing upon the Gentile converts the ritual observances of the law of Moses. These lay-elders Paul enjoined Timothy, ( 1 Timothy 5:17 . In the church of Scotland every parish has two or three of those lay-elders, who are grave and serious persons chosen from among the heads of families, of known orthodoxy, and steady adherence to the worship, discipline, and government of the church. Being solemnly engaged to use their utmost endeavours for the suppression of vice and the cherishing of piety and virtue, and to exercise discipline faithfully and diligently, the minister, in the presence of the congregation, sets them apart to their office by solemn prayer; and concludes the ceremony, which is sometimes called ordination, with exhorting both Elders and people to their respective duties. The kirk session, which is the lowest ecclesiastical judicatory, consists of the minister and those Elders of the congregation. The minister is ex officio moderator, but has no negative voice over the decision of the session; nor, indeed, has he a right to vote at all, unless when the voice of the Elders are equal and opposite. He may, indeed, enter his protest against their sentence, if he think it improper, and appeal to the judgment of the presbytery; but this privilege belongs equally to every Elder, as well as to every person who may believe himself aggrieved by the proceedings of the session. ...
The deacons, whose proper office it is to take care of the poor, may be present in every session, and offer their counsel on all questions that come before it; but, except in what relates to the distribution of alms, they have no decisive vote with the minister and Elders. The next judicatory is the presbytery, which consist of all the pastors within a certain district, and one ruling Elder from each parish, commissioned by his brethren to represent, in conjunction with the minister, the session of that parish. ...
The fact, however, is, that in presbyters the only prerogatives which the pastors have over the ruling Elders are, the power of ordination by imposition of hands, and the privilege of having the moderator chosen from their body. The highest authority in the church of Scotland is the general assembly, which consists of a certain number of ministers and ruling Elders delegated from each presbytery, and of commissioners from the universities and royal boroughs. A presbytery in which there are fewer than twelve parishes sends to the general assembly two ministers and one ruling Elder; if it contain between twelve and eighteen ministers, it sends three of these, and one ruling Elder; if it contain between eighteen and twenty-four ministers, it sends four ministers, and two ruling Elders; and of twenty-four ministers, when it contains so many, it sends five, with two ruling Elders. ...
Every royal borough sends one ruling Elder, and Edinburgh two, whose election must be attested by the kirk sessions of their respective boroughs. The commissioners are chosen annually six weeks before the meeting of the assembly; and the ruling Elders are often men of the first eminence in the kingdom for rank and talents
Jerobo'am - After a year's longer stay in Egypt, during which Jeroboam married Ano, the Elder sister of the Egyptian queen Tahpenes, he returned to Shechem, where took place the conference with Rehoboam [1], and the final revolt which ended in the elevation of Jeroboam to the throne of the northern kingdom
Archelaus - Originally Herod excluded him from any share in his dominions, because of his Elder brother Antipater's accusations
Japheth - Probably the second son of Noah, from the youngest (Genesis 9:24; Genesis 10:2; Genesis 10:6; Genesis 10:21, where the Syriac, the Arabic, and the Vulgate translate as Gesenius "the Elder brother of Japheth"; but Septuagint as KJV)
Rebekah - ...
Before they were born she was told, in answer to her inquiry of the Lord because of her sensations, the Elder shall serve the younger (Genesis 25:21-23; Romans 9:10-12), illustrating "the purpose of God, according to election, not of works but of Him that calleth," inasmuch as it was when "neither had done any good or evil
Concordances - Nathan’s work was revised and enlarged by John Buxtorf, the Elder, whose Concordantiœ Bibliorum Hebraicœ (1632) held the place of standard Concordance for two centuries, and served as the model for many others
Elisha - an Elder brother's—portion of Elijah's spirit, both to work miracles and to give counsel for present and future emergencies
James - Surnamed the greater, or the Elder, to distinguish him from James the younger, was one of the twelve apostles, brother of John the evangelist, and son of Zebedee and Salome, Matthew 4:21 27:56
Deacon - The deacons were, however, distinct from the Elders (GNB: leaders) (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 3:8; see Elder). The church Elders invite the church members to select those they think suitable, then the Elders, after due consideration, make the appointment (Acts 6:3)
Bishop - In addressing the Elders of the church of Ephesus the Apostle Paul stated, “the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers (episcopous ), to feed the church of God” (1 Timothy 3:1-79 ). ...
Paul, addressing the Ephesian “elders,” reminded them that the Holy Spirit made them “overseers” (episkopous ) “to feed (verb which is cognate to the noun “pastor”) the church of the Lord. ” From this many conclude that in Paul's time “elder,” “bishop,” and “pastor” were terms used to describe three different functions of the same Christian leader, not three distinct ministerial offices
Widow - destitute, and therefore to be relieved by the church, not having younger relatives, whose duty it is to relieve them (let them, the children or descendants, learn first, before calling the church to support them; to show reverent dutifulness toward their own Elder destitute female relatives)
Hermenigild, a Saint - The dates of their births are unknown (? 560–562), but Hermenigild was the Elder
Bishop - In the primitive church, a spiritual overseer an Elder or presbyter one who had the pastoral care of a church. The same persons are in this chapter called Elders or presbyters,and overseers or bishops
Old - ...
A — 3: πρεσβύτερος (Strong's #4245 — Adjective — presbuteros — pres-boo'-ter-os ) "olde, Elder," is used in the plural, as a noun, in Acts 2:17 , "old men. " See Elder
Marcus, a Gnostic - ...
Marcus appears to have been an Elder contemporary of Irenaeus, who speaks of him as though still living and teaching. Irenaeus more than once tells of the resistance to Marcus of a venerated Elder, from whom he quotes some iambic verses, written in reprobation of that heretic
Jacob - As to the purchase of the birthright, Jacob appears to have been innocent so far as any guile on his part, or real necessity from hunger on the part of Esau, is involved in the question; but his obtaining the ratification of this by the blessing of Isaac though agreeable, indeed, to the purpose of God, that the Elder should serve the younger, was blamable as to the means employed. For Jacob afterward reverenced Esau as his Elder brother, and insisted on Esau's accepting a present from his hand in token of submission Genesis 33:3-15 . He next blessed the infant children of Joseph; but, as he placed his hands upon their heads, he crossed them, putting his right upon Ephraim the younger, and his left upon Manasseh the Elder. Joseph wished to correct the mistake of his father, but Jacob persisted, being guided by a divine impulse; and he gave to each of the lads a portion in Israel, at the same time declaring that the younger should be greater than the Elder, Genesis 48:22
Devotion to the Holy Family - Cranach the Elder, Credi, Da Vinci, EI Greco, Fra Bartolommeo, Franeia, Imola, Lanzano, Luini, Mantegna, Mengs, Michelangelo, Murillo, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Piombo, N
Family, Holy - Cranach the Elder, Credi, Da Vinci, EI Greco, Fra Bartolommeo, Franeia, Imola, Lanzano, Luini, Mantegna, Mengs, Michelangelo, Murillo, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Piombo, N
Serve - 1, above), is used (a) of serving God (and the impossibility of serving mammon also), Matthew 6:24 and Luke 16:13 ; Romans 7:6 ; in the gospel, Philippians 2:22 ; (b) Christ, Acts 20:19 ; Romans 12:11 ; 14:18 ; 16:18 ; Ephesians 6:7 ; Colossians 3:24 ; (c) the law of God, Romans 7:25 ; (d) one another, Galatians 5:13 , RV, "be servants to" (AV, "serve"); (e) a father, Luke 15:29 (with a suggestion of acting as a slave); (f) earthly masters, Matthew 6:24 ; Luke 16:13 ; 1 Timothy 6:2 , RV, "serve;" (g) the younger by the Elder, Romans 9:12 ; (h) of being in bondage to a nation, Acts 7:7 ; Galatians 4:25 , to the Romans, actually, though also spiritually to Judaizers; (i) to idols, Galatians 4:8 , RV, "were in bondage" (AV, "did service"); (j) to "the weak and beggarly rudiments," Galatians 4:9 (RV), "to be in bondage" (aorist tense in the best texts, suggesting "to enter into bondage"), i
Evangelist - The evangelist was not necessarily an apostle, bishop-elder, or deacon, but might be any of these
Quartus - simply ‘fellow-Christians,’ members of the one great spiritual family of which God is Father and Jesus Christ the Elder Brother, ‘the firstborn among many brethren’ (Acts 8:29)
Holy Family, Devotion to the - Cranach the Elder, Credi, Da Vinci, EI Greco, Fra Bartolommeo, Franeia, Imola, Lanzano, Luini, Mantegna, Mengs, Michelangelo, Murillo, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Piombo, N
Esau - It was foretold that the Elder shouldserve the younger before they were born, and before they could have done either good or bad: this was God's sovereignty
Jacob - (Concerning the lesser blessings given to the Elder brother see ESAU. Laban tricked Jacob by giving him Leah, the Elder daughter, instead
Joseph - The Elder of Jacob’s two sons by Rachel, the eleventh Patriarch, the ancestor of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. In Hebrews 11:22 Joseph is placed on the roll of the ‘elders’-saints of the OT-who by their words and deeds gave evidence of their faith
Hobab - ...
Hobab and Jethro ("excellency") were probably brothers of Zipporah, Moses' wife, and sons of Reuel; Hobab the younger, and therefore not bound, as Jethro the Elder, to his own tribe by the duties of an hereditary priesthood
Esau - Before they were born, when neither had any merit or demerit, the Elder was destined to serve the younger
Joseph - The Elder of Jacob's two sons by Rachel, Genesis 37:3, and beloved by his father
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - Isaacus (31) Antiochenus, born at Amid (Diarbekir) in Mesopotamia, called "the Great" and "the Elder," a priest of Antioch in Syria, said to have visited Rome
Coelicolae - Migne) wrote to the "Elder" of one of these sects, the Coelicolae, inviting him to a conference
Home, at Home - " ...
B — 1: οἰκουργός (Strong's #3626 — Adjective — oikourgos — oy-koo-ros' ) "working at home" (oikos, and a root of ergon, "work"), is used in Titus 2:5 , "workers at home," RV, in the injunction given to Elder women regarding the training of the young women
Nard - But our chief authority is Pliny the Elder (Nat
Symmachus, Author o.t. in Greek - The extract from Palladius roughly fixes limits for the possible date of Symmachus, by shewing that he was an Elder contemporary of Juliana, who was contemporary with Origen, but that he had died before Origen's sojourn in her house
Manaen (2) - Antipas was a son of Herod the Great, and if the old king had an Elder Manaen living in his household, nothing would be more natural than that a young Herod and a young Manaen (perhaps a grandson, since Manaen the Elder was a man of standing when Herod the Great was a boy) should be brought up together
James - James, surnamed the greater, or the Elder, to distinguish him from James the younger, was brother to John the evangelist, and son to Zebedee and Salome, Matthew 4:21 . ...
It is evident that this epistle could not have been written by James the Elder, for he was beheaded by Herod Agrippa in the year 44, and the errors and vices reproved in this epistle show it to be of a much later date; and the destruction of Jerusalem is also here spoken of as being very near at hand, James 5:8-9
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - that in the NT ‘bishop’ and ‘presbyter’ (or ‘elder’) are synonyms; they are two names for the same official. Ignatius is the earliest writer known to us who clearly separates ‘bishop’ from ‘elder’; with him ‘bishop’ means the monarchical ruler of a local church, distinct from, and superior to, the ‘presbyters’ or ‘elders. Paul with certain Elders (2 Timothy 1:6). ‘The presbytery,’ which in Luke 22:66 and Acts 22:5 means the body of Elders in the Sanhedrin, here means a body of Christian Elders. ...
There are three possibilities with regard to the origin of both bishops and Elders, and what is true of one need not be true of the other. On the whole, it is probable that Elders or presbyters were adopted from the synagogue, and that bishops arose spontaneously. By ‘elders’ (πρεσβύτεροι) may be meant either (1) seniors in age, or (2) people to be honoured for personal excellence, or (3) members of a council. Neither bishops, Elders, nor deacons appear in the lists of ministers and ministerial gifts in 1 Corinthians 12:28-30, Romans 12:6-8, Ephesians 4:11. ‘The invariable practice’ of the writer of that book ‘forbids such an interpretation’ (Swete on Revelation 1:20), Excepting James, and perhaps ‘the Elder’ in 3 Jn
Rebekah - Before their birth Rebekah received the oracle from Jehovah, that two nations were in her womb and that the Elder should serve the younger
Shepherd - As Elders of a church they have the responsibility to lead it, feeding it with spiritual food and protecting it from spiritual harm (John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28-29; 1 Peter 5:1-3; see Elder; PASTOR)
Martha - Martha, as presumably the Elder sister, ‘served,’ while Mary poured the precious ointment on the Saviour’s head and feet
Ammon - A nation sprung from Ben-ammi, Lot's son by his younger daughter (Genesis 19:38; Psalms 83:7-8), as Moab by his Elder, after Lot escaped from Sodom
Gallio - He was the Elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, to whose influence at court he may have owed his governorship
Arsenius - About 383, Theodosius the Great being desirous of finding a suitable instructor for his sons Arcadius and Honorius, the Elder of whom was then about six years old, Arsenius was recommended to him, it is said, by the Roman bishop, and in this way came into the service of the best of the Christian Caesars
Ephraim - When Israel blessed the two sons of Joseph he set Ephraim before his Elder brother, saying he should be greater, and his seed should become a multitude (or, 'fatness') of nations
Presbytery - ]'>[1] of NT the word occurs only in 1 Timothy 4:14 , where it denotes the body of Christian presbyters or Elders (no doubt those belonging to the church at Lystra; cf. ]'>[2] ‘elders,’ RV [3] ‘assembly of the Elders’) and Acts 22:5 (AV [3] ‘estate of the Elders’), as an expression for the body of Jewish Elders who with the ‘chief priests’ and the scribes composed the Sanhedrin. This twofold use of the word (like the corresponding twofold use of ‘elder’) affords a strong confirmation of the view, which is otherwise most probable, that the presbytery of the Christian Church finds its roots in the Eldership of the Jewish ecclesia . the Letters of Ignatius, passim ), corresponding not to the modern presbytery of the Presbyterian Churches, which is a district court composed of ministers and Elders drawn from a number of separate congregations, but to the kirk-session or body of Elders by which in those churches a single congregation is ruled. The presbyters or Elders, otherwise known as bishops (see art. 1 Timothy 5:17 , ‘Let the Elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially those who labour in the word and in teaching’), to a position of predominance, and was now known as the ‘bishop’ par excellence , in distinction from the other presbyters (cf. in the Presbyterian and Congregational Churches the precedence of the minister over the Elders and deacons respectively, although, properly speaking, a ‘minister’ is simply a diakonos or deacon)
Ephraim - When Israel blessed the two sons of Joseph he set Ephraim before his Elder brother, saying he should be greater, and his seed should become a multitude (or, 'fatness') of nations
Petrus, Bishop of Sebaste - of Sebaste, the youngest brother of Basil the Great and Gregory Nyssen, and the last of the ten children of Basil the Elder and Emmelia
John the Apostle - John was one of the most highly respected leaders in the early church, and later generations knew him as ‘the Elder’ (2 John 1:1; 3 John 1:1)
Esau - From before the birth of both it was foretold her, "the Elder shall serve the younger. Isaac too erred through carnal partiality, which he sought to stimulate by eating his favorite's venison, determining to give to Esau the blessing in spite of the original divine intimation, "the Elder shall serve the younger," and in spite of Esau's actual sale of the birthright to Jacob, and though Esau had shown his unworthiness of it by taking when he was forty years of age two Hittite wives from among the corrupt Canaanites, to his father's and mother's grief
Bishop - " Presbyter or Elder was the term in the Christian church at Jerusalem for the pastoral superintendent; episcopus or bishop was naturally adopted in Gentile Christian churches, the word being already in use among the Greeks. Those called "elders" (presbyters) are also termed "overseers" (bishops, Greek) as if the terms were interchangeable (Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28; Titus 1:5; Titus 1:7). "Elder" is the correlative term to "younger men" (Greek neoteroi ), Acts 5:6. "Elders" are first mentioned in the church in Judaea (Acts 11:30). ...
Paul and Barnabas transplanted the same Jewish government to the Gentile churches (Acts 14:23) by "ordaining Elders in every church. " "Bishops" are first mentioned in Paul's address at Miletus (Acts 20:28), describing the duty of the Elders, namely, to be faithful "overseers. " Then, during Paul's first imprisonment, in Philippians 1:1 "bishops" is the recognized term for "elders" Every Jewish synagogue had its council of "elders" (Luke 7:3) presided over by one of themselves, "the chief ruler of the synagogue. "...
The Jewish council was composed of the Elders (the presbytery, Luke 22:66; Acts 22:5), and a presiding rabbi; so the Christian church was composed of Elders and a president (Acts 15:19; Acts 15:23). Timothy as vicar apostolic heard accusations against Elders, and deposed the guilty, and ordained presbyters and deacons (1 Timothy 5:19; Titus 3:10)
Offices in the New Testament - Positions of leadership in the New Testament church including deacons , Elders , pastors , apostles , bishops , and evangelists . ...
Two offices which apparently appeared in almost every church, at least by the end of the New Testament period, were Elder and deacon . Although the evidence is not clear and is variously interpreted, the office of bishop was probably originally equivalent to that of Elder. The qualifications for bishops (elders) indicate that the office included a wide range of pastoral and administrative functions. Elders should be mature Christians of good repute, with gifts for teaching and pastoral ministry (1 Timothy 3:1-7 ; Titus 1:6-9 ). In every passage in which Elders and/or bishops are mentioned, they appear to be ministers settled in local churches. Sometimes reference to a distinct office may be intended ( 1 Corinthians 12:28 ), but in many cases teaching was apparently a function of the Elders (1 Timothy 3:2 ), as well as the apostles and perhaps the prophets. Apparently the Elders (bishops) and deacons were charged with pastoral functions
Tyre - ...
The Elder Pliny refers to the prosperity of Tyre, in the middle of the 1st cent
Witness, Martyr - This is beautifully illustrated in Ruth 4:9-11 where Boaz called on the Elders of the city to be witnesses to his act of redemption. In a more technical sense of witness, he reminded Timothy not to act too hastily in accusing an Elder without at least two or three witnesses (1 Timothy 5:19 )
Hagar - Ishmael the Elder brother, the son of Hagar the bondwoman, the seed of Abraham by nature, persecuted Isaac the younger brother, the son of the freewoman, the child of promise and heir of the birthright, and was therefore east out and excluded from the inheritance of the blessing
Priest - These cannot consider themselves as priests in the rigid sense of the word, but only as presbyters, of which the word priest is a contraction of the same import with Elder
Dancing - The Elder brother could take no part in mirth and dancing of which the occasion was so affronting and offensive to himself (Luke 15:25-28)
Esau - The Elder brother of Jacob, who despised the blessing, and was rejected
Evagrius Ponticus, Anchoret And Writer - Here he was hospitably received by Melania the Elder, by whom he was nursed during a severe attack of fever, and who, perceiving the weakness of his disposition, led him to embrace an ascetic life as the only safeguard against the temptations of the flesh
Stone - In those Elder ages, before the use of writing, these monuments were instead of inscriptions, pyramids, medals, or histories
Idumea - The true Idumaeans, or Edomites, were, as their name implies, descendants of Edom, or Esau, Elder brother of Jacob, Genesis 36:6-9
Marriage - When the time for solemnizing the marriage arrived, the Elder daughter, who was not so beautiful, was conducted by the parents to the altar, and the young man was unconsciously married to her. And ‘it came to pass, that in the morning, behold, it was the Elder daughter. ' It is really the rule among the Armenians, that neither a younger son nor daughter be married, till their Elder brother or sister have preceded them
Ephraim (1) - ...
(2) Ephraim the younger was preferred to Manasseh the Elder, just as Jacob himself was preferred before the Elder Esau
Cain (1) - Jehovah, who still vouchsafed intercourse to man though fallen, argues with Cain as a wayward child, "If thou doest well shalt thou not be accepted?" (or "have the excellency," namely, that belonging to the Elder born. "And unto thee shall be his desire" as that of a younger brother subordinate in rank to the Elder
Titus, Theology of - It would appear from Paul's teaching to Titus that the positions of Elder (1:5) and bishop or overseer (1:7) were one and the same office in the early days of the church. It is important to note also that Paul commands Titus "to appoint" Elders in every city (1:5). Paul lists for Titus those qualities that should characterize men appointed to the position of Elder-bishop (1:5-9)
Scribes - Such were Hillel and Shammai, Elder contemporaries of our Lord
James - James, the son of Zehedee , one of the Twelve, the Elder brother of John. (3) James was the acknowledged head of the Church at Jerusalem, and when Paul returned from his third missionary journey he waited on him and made a report to him in presence of the Elders ( Acts 21:18-19 )
Ministry - ( a ) First there is the presbyter or Elder, otherwise known as the bishop or overseer (for the substantial identity between the presbyter and the bishop, see art
John, Letters of - ...
No names are mentioned in the letter, but it seems that ‘the Elder’ who wrote it was John the aged apostle, and ‘the elect lady’ who received it was a church whose ‘children’ (members) had so far kept the true Christian teaching (v
Papias - The latter’s title, ‘the Elder,’ itself implies the need for distinguishing him from a greater namesake residing in the same neighbourhood. A man so situated, and with a passion for first-hand information as to Christ’s teaching, had special chances of intercourse with such disciples of the first generation (‘elders’ he calls them) as visited or worked in Asia, so far as his youth or early manhood overlapped their later years. ]'>[1] which was perhaps meant to lower the authority of both Gospels (since Mark also had Jewish features of the kind in question), Papias cites a tradition derived from a man of the first Christian generation, ‘the Elder’ (? John, see below), as he styles him—...
‘And this the Elder used to say: Mark, indeed (μέν), having been Peter’s interpreter, wrote down with accuracy, yet not in order, everything he bore in mind—the things, namely, either said or done by the Christ (or Lord). Such, however, was the Gospel composed by the Apostle Matthew, as we may infer that Papias went on to quote ‘the Elder’ as saying in effect. 24, possibly from Clement of Alexandria, whose account of the Gospels as contained in ‘a tradition of the Elders of earlier times’ (τῶν ἀνέκαθεν πρεσβυτέρων) he elsewhere cites (vi. ...
While it is likely that Papias based on the Elder’s testimony his own assertion that Matthew himself wrote his collection of the Lord’s Oracles, it seems precarious to lean much weight on the statement. ...
(b) Papias’ relation to ‘the Elders,’ the prime witnesses to the meaning of the Oracles. 39) to which we owe our knowledge of it—...
‘But I will not scruple to set down for thee everything, too, that once on a time I learned right well from the Elders and right well bore in mind—in juxtaposition with the (= my own) interpretations, so confirming their truth. But if haply one also who had been a companion of the Elders came (my way), I used to make careful inquiry into the discourses of the Elders—what had been said by Andrew, or what by Peter, or what by Philip, or what by Thomas or by James, or what by John or Matthew, or by any other of the Lord’s disciples, and what things Aristion and the Elder John, disciples of the Lord, have to say (λέγουσιν). Much depends on the relation of the clause, ‘But if haply one also who had been a companion of the Elders (= the worthies of the first generation, e. If it expresses a less direct contact with the Elders, then Papias virtually claims himself to have heard some Apostles or personal disciples of Christ. that Papias had heard ‘from the Elders’ only indirectly, though in certain cases at only one remove, best suits the extract as a whole. Yet even at that date two of His personal disciples, Aristion and the Elder John, were still living, most likely in Ephesus or its neighbourhood, somewhere about a
Jephthah And His Daughter - The iron had entered Jephthah's soul while yet he lay in his mother's womb; and both his father and his brothers and the Elders of Israel helped forward Jephthah's affliction, till the Lord rose up for Jephthah and said, It is enough; took the iron out of His servant's soul, and poured oil and wine into the lifelong wound. And then he hurled them like a stone cut out of the mountain against the enemies of the King of Tob; till the Elders of Israel in their absolute despair were compelled to approach and to beseech Jephthah to come down from his fastness and rid them of their enemies also. ...
It was a bitter pill to those Elders of Israel. You will know, then, what it was to be an Elder in Israel in that day and among the hills of Tob. Look at that poor Elder of Israel of eighty. Who, you ask, is that so venerable figure they have placed at the head of the sacred deputation? Oh, that, you must know, is the ruling Elder, to whose door Jephthah went in his despair when his mother was dying in Gilead's stable. That old Elder's sin found him out that day, when the sweetest woman-child he had ever seen washed his feet, and anointed his head, and kissed his outstretched and deprecating hand, Jephthah's daughter shall never wash my feet! the old man had said; but she both washed his feet and kissed them too, in her beautiful honour to old age. Jephthah would have been more than a mere man, as, indeed, he sometimes was, if he had not reminded those Elders of the old days. And he was very glad when he got all those Elders of Israel safely out of Tob and back again within the borders of their own land. ...
Along with Jephthah we have Jephthah's father, and his mother, and his brothers, and the Elders of Israel, and the King of Ammon, and Jephthah's daughter, and the daughters of Israel-but we have not one word about Jephthah's wife. Those terrified Elders owed their life that day to her. Moses had laid down a law that Jephthah was never to get a wife out of any family in Israel, nor was he ever to be let worship God in the same house with the virtuous Elders of Israel. No Elder in Israel but spat in my face. And many of the sons of the Elders of Israel ate the fat and drank the sweet at Jephthah's orphaned table, because of what Jephthah had read long ago on the Lord's wall at Mizpeh
the Angel of the Church of Ephesus - He was just a chosen and faithful Elder who had begun by being a deacon and who had purchased to himself a good degree, like any one of yourselves. This angel, so to call him, had grown grey in his Eldership and he was beginning to feel that the day could not now be very far distant when he would be able to lay down his office for ever. " And, with many mistakes, and with many shortcomings, this ruling and teaching Elder of Ephesus has not been wholly unmindful of his ordination vows. But we understand this Ephesus Elder's nature and office quite well. And that because he knows quite well that there is nothing for him to do in the whole of heaven for one moment to be compared with the daily round on this earth of a minister, or an Elder, or a deacon, or a collector, or a Sabbath-school teacher
James the Lord's Brother - And the child James would be the daily delight of his Elder Brother; he would be His continual charge and joy; just as you see two such brothers in your own family life at home. James was not old enough yet for his first passover, but you may be sure he missed nothing with his father and mother and Brother to tell him all about Jerusalem and the passover when they came home; James both hearing his Elder Brother and asking Him questions. The Scribes and the Pharisees were continually finding fault with James's Brother for His laxity in the traditions of the Elders, and no man would feel that laxity so acutely as James would feel it. Had his Elder Brother been a Pharisee, had He been a Scribe, had He been a John the Baptist, had His raiment been of camel's hair, had His meat been locusts and wild honey, and had He had His dwelling among the rocks, James would have found it far easier to believe in his Brother
Parables - In His most famous parable, He extolled the forgiving love of the father and exposed the hostile criticism of the unforgiving Elder brother (Luke 15:11-32 ). ” The Elder brother refused to enter the festivities in honor of the prodigal son (Luke 15:28 ), and wedding guests rejected the invitation to attend the festivities of a wedding (Matthew 22:3 ). The segment about the Elder brother (Luke 15:25-32 ) is unfinished and open-ended
Hagar - Being the Elder he prided himself above "him that was born after the Spirit," i
Anger - Anger can divide a church (2 Corinthians 12:20 ) and frustrate prayer (1 Timothy 2:8 ); an Elder must not be "quick-tempered" (Titus 1:7 )
Barrenness - Then did the wife forget her jealousy, and provoke, instead of resenting, the faithlessness of her husband, Genesis 16:2 ; Genesis 30:3 ; Genesis 30:9 ; then did the mother forget a parent's part, and teach her own child treachery and deceit, Genesis 25:23 ; Genesis 27:13 ; then did daughters turn the instincts of nature backward, and deliberately work their own and their father's shame, Genesis 19:31 ; then did the daughter-in-law veil her face, and court the incestuous bed, Genesis 38:14 ; and to be childless, was to be a by- word, Genesis 16:5 ; Genesis 30:1 ; and to refuse to raise up seed to a brother, was to be spit upon, Genesis 38:26 ; Deuteronomy 25:9 ; and the prospect of the promise, like the fulfilment of it, did not send peace into families, but a sword; and three were set against two, and two against three, Genesis 27:41 ; and the Elder, who would be promoted unto honour, was set against the younger, whom God would promote, Genesis 4:5 ; Genesis 27:41 ; and national differences were engendered by it, as individuals grew into nations, Genesis 19:37 ; Genesis 26:35 ; and even the foulest of idolatries may be traced, perhaps, to this hallowed source; for the corruption of the best is the worst corruption of all, Numbers 25:1-3
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - "And I will not scruple also to give for thee a place along with my interpretations to whatsoever at any time I well learned from the Elders and well stored up in memory, guaranteeing its truth. And if ever any one came who had been a follower of the Elders, I would inquire as to the discourses of the Elders, what was said by Andrew, or what by Peter, or what by Philip, or what by Thomas or James, or what by John or Matthew or any other of the disciples of the Lord; and the things which Aristion and the Elder John, the disciples of the Lord, say. Papias enumerates the ultimate sources of his traditions in two classes: Andrew, Peter, and others, of whom he speaks in the past tense; Aristion and John the Elder, of whom he speaks in the present. As the passage is generally understood, Papias only claims a second-hand knowledge of what these had related, but had inquired from any who had conferred with Elders, what Andrew, Peter, etc. The word "elders" is ordinarily used of men of a former generation, and would be most naturally understood here of men of the first generation of Christians; if it were not that in the second clause the title seems to be refused to Aristion, who is nevertheless described as a disciple (by which we must understand a personal disciple) of our Lord; and as those mentioned in the first group are all apostles, the word "elder," as Papias used it, may have included, besides antiquity, the idea of official dignity. Concerning Mark he says, "This also the Elder [1] said: Mark having become the interpreter of Peter wrote accurately everything that he remembered of the things that were either said or done by Christ; but however not in order. John's Gospel; and though Irenaeus only gives it as a saying of the Elders, Lightfoot (Contemp. 33) that Papias, in his fourth book, told, on the authority of "the Elder" [1], how our Lord had said that "the days will come when there shall be vines having 10,000 stems, and on each stem 10,000 branches, and on each branch 10,000 shoots, and on each shoot 10,000 clusters, and in each cluster 10,000 grapes, and each grape when pressed shall give 25 measures of wine
Painting, Religious - Herrera the Elder and his son established a typically national school
Essenes (2) - Josephus has also scattered references to individual Essenes, and the Elder Pliny (HN v
Firstborn - And other instances occur of the younger being preferred to the Elder, e
Heritage - (Isaiah 52:3) Jesus our Elder brother, our nearest of kin, hath ransomed both person and property
Religious Painting - Herrera the Elder and his son established a typically national school
Jude, the Epistle of - As John (second and third Epistles) calls himself "the Elder," so James and Jude call themselves "servants of Jesus Christ
Debt, Debtor (2) - ...
The Elder brother of the Prodigal (Luke 15:25-32) illustrates the point; representing as he does the Pharisaic type of mind—common in all ages and pronouncedly so in the time of Jesus—which complacently fancies itself well within the Kingdom, but shows by its harsh attitude to fellow-mortals that it is inwardly not right with God. The Elder brother is pictured, not without point, as remaining outside the banquet-hall, so long as he continued in his implacable mood
Michal - Saul had promised David the Elder, but gave her to Adriel
Jehoahaz - , in preference to his two Elder brothers, Johanan and Jehoiakim (1 Chronicles 3:15; Jeremiah 22:11; 2 Kings 23:30-31; 2 Kings 23:36; 2 Chronicles 36:2)
Government - The Elders held a major source of authority during this period and later periods as well. The Elders for a clan were probably the heads of the households that comprised the clan. For a tribe, the Elders would have been all the household heads, or selected Elders from each clan. Thus the Elders were the leaders of the local community. The Elders were representatives of the community as a whole in religious and military matters. The Elders could conclude a covenant (2 Samuel 5:3 ) or treaty on behalf of the people. The Elders regularly dispensed justice at the city gate (Deuteronomy 21:19 ). The Elders continued to function well into the period of the monarchy as a governing body. Josiah gathered the Elders of Judah and Jerusalem after finding the Book of the Law in the Temple, and they covenanted to keep that law (2 Kings 23:1-3 ). The Elders still had a role after the Exile in administering Ezra's reforms (Ezra 10:8 ). In addition to the Elder, Israel also had, following the period of Moses and Joshua, the office of judge. The nation was divided into administrative districts with administrators who stood alongside the old system of Elders. The old system of local government based on the city and the Elder still existed, but a burgeoning bureaucracy developed parallel to the old system. The Elders continued to function as local leaders, but the royal officials were replaced by new imperial and military officials of the conquering power—first Assyria, then successively, Babylon, Persia, and Hellenistic and Roman states. Even the Elders came to have an especially religious role as judicial officers. The Elders belonged to a formal body, the Sanhedrin, as also did certain priests
Manasseh -
The Elder of the two sons of Joseph
Akeldama - Arculf seems to place the latter upon the Hill of Evil Counsel (§ 18), where it is shown at the present day; but the tradition has not been constant, the ‘elder-tree’ of Judas having been pointed out to Sir J
Adoption - Jacob adopted as his own Joseph's two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, on the same footing as Reuben and Simeon, his two Elder sons (Genesis 48:5)
Lysanias - The Elder Lysanias inherited from his father a kingdom including Chalkis on the Lebanon
Caligula - Caligula, who was named at birth Gains Iulius Caesar, was the third son of the distinguished general Germanicus, and Agrippina (the Elder)
Akeldama - Arculf seems to place the latter upon the Hill of Evil Counsel (§ 18), where it is shown at the present day; but the tradition has not been constant, the ‘elder-tree’ of Judas having been pointed out to Sir J
Sanhedrin - 3; 2 Maccabees 1:10; 2 Maccabees 4:44; 2 Maccabees 11:27, 1 Maccabees 12:6, Judith 4:8, and elsewhere; also simply ‘the Elders’ or ‘the Elders of the people’ (1 Maccabees 7:33; 1 Maccabees 11:23; 1 Maccabees 12:35; 1 Maccabees 14:20); cf. Ziḳnê ‛amkâ bçth Yisrâçl in the ancient eighteen benedictions for the Sanhedrin, zâḳçn, ‘elder,’ being the name of the single member of the Sanhedrin = σύνεδρος (Jos. 2a) and the seventy Elders on Numbers 11:16 (Sifrç). The seventy Elders invested with spiritual powers (Numbers 11:16; Numbers 11:24 f. This was an aristocratic body of Elders of the nation with the high priest at its head, which had charge of the government of the Jewish people under Persian and then under Ptolemaic and Seleucidaean rule; nor was it different under Roman rule (ib. 65, 18), and most probably identical with the Hasidaean leader Razis (?) (2 Maccabees 14:37 ‘an Elder and father of the Jews’) and Jose b. 17a), and then by the significant fact that nowhere else are these men spoken of as Nâsî, Hillel being simply called ‘the Elder’ = senator (Suk. -The Great Sanhedrin consisted of seventy-one members, the seventy Elders and the Nâsî or president (Sanh. ), the final judgment of a rebellious Elder (Deuteronomy 17:12), the bringing of a guilt offering in the case of an unintentional sin committed by the whole congregation of Israel (Leviticus 4:13), the installation of a king or of a high priest (Tôs
Paul as a Pastor - But he has now for some time past been away preaching the Gospel and planting Churches elsewhere, and another Elder of experience and of authority has all that time sat in the Ephesian chair that the Apostle used to occupy with such authority and acceptance. Paul had given three of the best years of his life to Ephesus, and it was only natural that he should take occasion to go over those three years and look at some of the lessons that those three years had left behind them, both for himself and for his successors in the Eldership of Ephesus. This sederunt, and this extract-minute of it, is a very glass in which every minister and every Elder may to this day see themselves, and what manner of minister and what manner of Elder they are, and are not. No: the Elders of Ephesus did not need to be reminded that Paul had not spent those three years serving and satisfying them. If Paul had both forgiven and forgotten those unfortunate misunderstandings and self-assertions that will come up among the very best ministers and Elders, they had not forgiven or forgotten themselves for those days, or for their part in them. Yea, ye yourselves know that these hands-and as he held them up, the assembled Elders saw a tongue of truth in every seam and scar that covered them-these hands have ministered to all my own necessities, and to them that were with me. He would never again either please or displease any of those Elders, or any of their wives or children any more. With all humility of mind, says Paul to the assembled Elders of Ephesus. But after I am like to drop with my work; and most of all with the arrears of it; Paul absolutely prostrates me, and tramples me to death, when he stands up among his Elders and deacons and says: "I take you to record this day that I am pure from the blood of all men!" I do not find his rapture into the third heavens hard to be understood, nor his revelations and inspirations, nor his thorn in the flesh, nor any of his doctrines of Adam, or of Christ, or of election, or of justification or of sanctification, or of the final perseverance of the saints. But it absolutely passes my imagination how a horny-handed tent-maker, with twelve hours in his day, or make it eighteen, and with seven days in his week; a mortal man, and as yet an unglorified, and indeed, far from sanctified man, could look all his Elders, and all their wives, and all their sons and daughters in the face, and could say those terrible words about their blood
Timothy, Epistles to - But as his delegates, even though temporarily, they had full jurisdiction over the various officers of the Church, and full instructions are given to them to guide them as to the qualifications necessary to be found in those to be appointed to the offices of bishop (or Elder) and deacon. The bishop and Elder are spoken of as identical ( Titus 1:6-7 ), showing that at the date of the Epistles these two titles had not yet been given to distinct offices (cf
Ordination - ...
Paul and Barnabas are said to ordain Elders in every church (Acts 14:1-28 ; Acts 15:1-41 ; Acts 16:1-40 ; Acts 17:1-34 ; Acts 18:1-28 ; Acts 19:1-41 ; Acts 20:1-38 ; Acts 21:1-40 ; Acts 22:1-30 ; Acts 23:1-35 ; Acts 24:1-27 ; Acts 25:1-27 ; Acts 26:1-32 ; Acts 27:1-44 ; Acts 28:1-23 . ) or to choose them; that is, they gave orders and directions to every church as to the choice of Elders over them: for sometimes persons are said to do that which they give orders and directions for doing; as Moses and Solomon, with respect to building the tabernacle and temple, though done by others; and Moses particularly is said to choose the judges, Exodus 18:25 . But ordinary officers, as Elders and pastors of churches, were chosen and ordained by the votes of the people, expressed by stretching out their hands; thus it is said of the apostles, Acts 14:23 . ...
When they had ordained them Elders in every church, by taking the suffrages and votes of the members of the churches, shown by the stretching out of their hands, as the word signifies; and which they directed them to, and upon it declared the Elders duly elected and ordained. A whole nation might be corrupted, and every bishop and Elder therein might have apostatized from the faith, as it was in England in the days of popery. There is scarcely a simple ecclesiastical writer that does not expressly mention ordination as the work of the Elders, and as being regarded as a distinct thing from the choice of the people, and subsequent to it. Elders and bishops were ordained in every church, not without any church. prophets, teachers, Elders, or a presbytery, as in Acts 13:1 . and 1 Timothy 4:14 ; since there is sometimes mention made of the imposition of hands in the mission of a minister, and sometimes no mention of it; and since it is evident that in some cases popular ordinations are and must be valid without any bishop or Elder; I think none of these differences should be made a matter of violent contest among Christians; nor ought any words to be pronounced against each other by those of the episcopal, presbyterian, or independent way
Saul - Merab, Saul’s Elder daughter, was also offered to David, but withdrawn when he should have had her
Jacob - Before the children were born it was said, "the Elder shall serve the younger
Attila, King And General of the Huns - 36) had two pretexts for his attack—his claim to the hand of Honoria and the vindication of the rights of an Elder son of a Frank prince against his brother whom Aetius had given possession of their paternal territory (Prisc
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - The council had also enacted canons of discipline, the 9th and the 17th giving to the patriarchal throne of Constantinople the final determination of causes against metropolitans in the East; and the 28th assigning to the most holy throne of Constantinople, or new Rome, equal privileges with the Elder Rome in ecclesiastical matters, as being the second after her, with the right of ordaining metropolitans in the Pontic and Asian and Thracian dioceses, and bishops among the barbarians therein
Thorn - So does Pliny; and Pliny the Elder says that it is laevis, ‘smooth;' and that it is one of those plants that are cultivated in gardens
Jacob - Before the children were born it was said, "the Elder shall serve the younger
Isaac - Two children were born to him at one time, concerning whom the divine purpose was declared to the mother, and no doubt to the father also, that "the Elder should serve the younger
Rab - They did not always, saith he, lay their hands on the head of the Elder to be ordained; but called him rabbi, and said, "Behold thou art ordained, and hast power," &c
jo'Seph -
The Elder of the two sons of Jacob by Rachel
Apostle - As the authoritative interpretation of Christ and the gospel became firmly established in written form (2 Thessalonians 2:15; see GOSPEL; SCRIPTURES), and as the churches became firmly established through their local leaders (2 Corinthians 12:12; Acts 14:23; Acts 20:28; see Elder), the necessity for apostles decreased
Logia - 39), who interpreted ‘the oracles of the Lord’ (λόγια κυριακά) in accordance with the tradition of Elders who had been followers of the Apostles. The true interpretation of these logia is matter of tradition transmitted through (1) the Apostles, (2) the Elders ‘the disciples of these’ (lege οἱ τούτων—8c. As regards the ‘commandments’ which Papias sought to hear and to expound as ‘oracles,’ the fragment states as a tradition (probably from the same authority, ‘John the Elder, who gave that regarding Mark) that ‘Matthew made a compend (συνετάξατο v. , which shows it to be in his hands an heirloom, not a manufacture; partly because it is independently attested; partly because it seems to be connected internally with the tradition concerning Mark explicitly ascribed to ‘the Elder’ (John of Jerusalem [3]1), and in that relation becomes both intelligible and historically probable in view of known conditions in the Palestinian Church. Finally, the internal evidence of the tradition itself indicates a close relation to the testimony of ‘the Elder’ as to Mk
John, the Epistles of - 25) says "John never names himself in his epistles, not even in the second and third, though short, but calls himself the presbyter (elder)": 2 John 1; 3 John 1:1, so 1 Peter 5:1. A forger would never call John "the Elder
Korah - ...
Elizaphan of the youngest branch, descended from Uzziel (Numbers 3:27; Numbers 3:30), was preferred before Korah of the Elder Izharite branch and made "chief of the house of the father of the families of the Kohathites"; hence probably arose his pique against Moses
Sandemanians - Robert Sandeman, an Elder in one of these churches in Scotland, published a series of letters addressed to Mr. ...
They maintain a plurality of Elders, pastors, or bishops, in each church; and the necessity of the presence of two Elders in every act of discipline, and at the administration of the Lord's supper. In the choice of these Elders, want of learning and engagement in trade are no sufficient objection, if qualified according to the instructions given to Timothy and Titus; but second marriages disqualify for the office; and they are ordained by prayer and fasting, imposition of hands, and giving the right hand of fellowship
Trajan - a long line of celebrated names to Roman literature,-the Elder Seneca, Seneca the philosopher, Columella the agriculturist, Pomponius Mela the geographer, Lucan the epic poet, Martial the epigrammatist, and Quintilian the rhetorician,-gave in Trajan its first Emperor to the Roman Empire
Mary - His approach was reported to Martha, apparently the Elder sister and mistress of the house; and she went to meet Him and sorrowfully upbraided Him: ‘Lord, hadst thou been here, my brother had not died
Aaron - He, Nadah and Ahihu, along with 70 Elders, accompanied Moses up Mt. In the former passage he is distinguished from the priests, who are forbidden to come up; he would seem, therefore, to have been an Elder or sheikh , perhaps somewhat superior to the 70. ] In Exodus 18:12 Aaron, with the Elders, was called to Jethro’s sacrifice an incident which must he placed at the end of the stay at Horeb
Firstborn - The right of priesthood was with the Elder son, and a double portion among his brethren
Wells - I have seen the Elder ones sitting and chatting at the well, and spinning the coarse cotton of the country, while the young girls filled the skins which contain the water, and which they all carry on their backs into the town
Priest - The English word is derived from the Greek presbyter , signifying an "elder" (Heb
Mary - His approach was reported to Martha, apparently the Elder sister and mistress of the house; and she went to meet Him and sorrowfully upbraided Him: ‘Lord, hadst thou been here, my brother had not died
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - Gregory Nazianzen speaks of this Elder Basil in terms of the highest commendation as one who was regarded by the whole of Pontus as "the common instructor of virtue" ( Or. The Elder Basil and Emmelia had ten children, five of each sex, of whom a daughter, Macrina, was the eldest. To Annesi his mother Emmelia and his sister Macrina had retired after the death of the Elder Basil, and were living a semi-monastic life. The momentous importance of the juncture was more evident to the Elder man
Episcopalians - Paul, in his progress through Asia Minor, ordaining in every church Elders, πρεσβυτερους ; the name properly expressive of age being transferred, after the practice of the Jews, as a mark of respect, to ecclesiastical rulers, Acts 14:23 . Over the persons to whom he thus conveyed the office of teaching, he exercised jurisdiction; for he sent to Ephesus, to the Elders of the church to meet him at Miletus; and there, in a long discourse, gave them a solemn charge, Acts 20:17-35 ; and to Timothy and Titus he writes epistles in the style of a superior. He gives him directions about the ordination of bishops and deacons; he places both these kinds of office-bearers in Ephesus under his inspection, instructing him in what manner to receive an accusation against an Elder who laboured in word and doctrine; and he commands him to charge some that they teach no other doctrine but the form of sound words. In like manner he says to Titus, "For this cause left I thee in Crete that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain Elders in every city, as I had appointed thee," Titus 1:5 . He describes to Titus the qualifications of a bishop or Elder, making him the judge how far any person in Crete was possessed of these qualifications; he gives him authority over all orders of Christians there; and he empowers him to reject heretics. But there is also mention of the Elders of the church, who, according to the Scripture representation of Elders, must have discharged the ministerial office, but over whom the Apostle James presided. Upon the principles which have now been stated, it is understood, according to the episcopal form of government, that there is in the church a superior order of office-bearers, the successors of the Apostles, who possess in their own persons the right of ordination and jurisdiction, and who are called επισκοποι , as being the overseers not only of the people, but also of the clergy; and an inferior order of ministers, called presbyters, the literal translation of the word πρεσβυτεροι , which is rendered in our English Bibles Elders, persons who receive from the ordination of the bishop, power to preach and to administer the sacraments, who are set over the people, but are themselves under the government of the bishop, and have no right to convey to others the sacred office, which he gives them authority to exercise under him
Simon Magus - Hence it is the writer's opinion that the Simon described by Justin was his Elder only by a generation; that he was a Gnostic teacher who had gained some followers at Samaria; and that Justin rashly identified him with the magician of the Acts of the Apostles. We are therefore asked to detect here a covert account of the refusal of the Elder apostles to admit Paul's claim to rank with them backed though it was by a gift of money for the poor saints in Jerusalem
World, the - In this sense, the Elder admonished the Johannine community, “Do not love the world or anything in the world” (1 John 2:15 NIV; compare 1 John 2:16-17 )
Arabia - For this reason, and the greater simplicity of Hebrew modes of expression, it seems probable the Hebrew is the Elder sister
Peter, First, Theology of - ...
The author calls himself Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1), a fellow Elder, a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and a participant in the eschatological glory (5:1). ...
The church lives under the authority of Jesus Christ through his apostle (1:1) and the Elders (5:1-4). The Elders are responsible for the particular implementation of this letter, which they must do in an exemplary and honorable fashion. Younger men must submit to these Elders, and all Christians must live in humility toward each other (5:5-7), especially before God, who gives honor at the appropriate time, when they will inherit the fullness of their salvation (1:4-5)
Ordination - Watts, that since there are some texts in the New Testament, wherein single persons, either Apostles, as Paul and Barnabas, ordained ministers in the churches, or evangelists, as Timothy and Titus; and since other missions or ordinations are intimated to be performed by several persons, namely, prophets, teachers, Elders, or a presbytery, Acts 13:1 ; 1 Timothy 4:14 ; since there is sometimes mention made of the imposition of hands in the mission of a minister, and sometimes no mention is made of it; and since it is evident that in some cases popular ordinations are and must be valid without any bishop or Elder,—I think none of these differences should be made a matter of violent contest among Christians; nor ought any words to be pronounced against each other by those of the episcopal, presbyterian, or independent way
Phoebe - , ours and yours, to remind those to whom he would introduce her that all Christians, whether personally acquainted or not, are already members of the same great spiritual family, of which God is Father and Jesus Christ the Elder Brother, and that they only need to be made known to one another to realize their close relationship in mutual love and helpfulness
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - He visited the μοναστήριον (also μονή ) of the Elder St
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - 78), and passing thence to Jerusalem formed the acquaintance of Melania the Elder and Rufinus, the latter of whom he highly commends ( ib
Gospels - 140), who gives it on the authority of ‘the Elder’ (Eus. (1) The earliest witness, Papias or the Elder quoted by him, speaks of a work of St. Irenaeus misunderstood Polycarp and attributed the Gospel to John the Apostle when he ought to have assigned it to John the Elder
John, Epistles of - The title ‘the Elder’ does not militate against this, but rather supports it. No ordinary presbyter would assume the style of the Elder and write in such a tone of absolute command, whilst an anonymous writer, wishing to claim the sanction of the Apostle, would have inserted his name. But Diotrephes an official of the church, perhaps its ‘bishop’ or a leading Elder who loved power, asserted himself arrogantly, and was disposed to resist the Apostle’s authority
Friendship - The outwardly proper behaviour of the Elder brother is marred by the lack of filial love; and his complaint, ‘Thou never gavest me a kid that I might make merry with my friends,’ shows how blind he was to the lavish affection of a father who bestowed his all upon him,—‘Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine. The unpleasant impression left by the picture of the Elder brother is Christ’s way of giving His opinion of a friendship which shuts itself up within the circle of favourite comrades, and is careless of the higher claims of love and benevolence
King - ...
The king selected his successor, under God's direction, as David chose Solomon before the Elder son Adonijah (1 Kings 1:30; 1 Kings 2:22; 2 Samuel 12:24-25); compare 1618178760_20 Rehoboam, Abijah; the firstborn was usually appointed (2 Chronicles 21:3-4)
Solomon - " His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his Elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me
Manasseh - Jacob’s name, we are told, was afterwards changed to Israel, and Manasseh is said to have been the Elder brother of Ephraim, the name which later became almost synonymous with Israel, and, finally, in Judges 1:27-28 Manasseh and Israel appear to be used as equivalents
Magic - The only other magicians mentioned by name were Jannes and Jambres, the Egyptian priests of Moses' time (2 Timothy 3:6-8 ); these names were noted in later Jewish writings and even by Pliny the Elder, who thought Moses was one of the Egyptian magicians (Natural History 30,1 11)
Moses - Though Aaron was the Elder brother, Moses had the place of leader and apostle
Jonath - THE Prophet Jonah was both the Elder son and the unmerciful servant of the Old Testament. He was the Elder son
Joseph -
The Elder of the two sons of Jacob by Rachel (Genesis 47:29-313 ), who, on the occasion of his birth, said, "God hath taken away Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - 24) agree in making Simon Magus a disciple of Dositheus, and the Recognitions would lead us to suppose that Dositheus was clearly the Elder
Burial - In the Talmud it is said, that no less than eighty pounds of spices were consumed at the funeral of rabbi Gamaliel the Elder
Nero, Claudius Caesar - 16), and Pliny the Elder (xvii
Offices of Christ - The richness of Christ’s humanity has been so energetically unfolded, that there is an aversion to contemplate Him in any aspect which might be suspected of dehumanizing Him by representing Him more in the light of a formal functionary than of a loving Son of Man and Elder Brother
Timothy, First And Second, Theology of - ...
The officers in the early church organization, according to Paul, were Elders or bishops, deacons, and possibly deaconesses. The title "elder" referred to the honor and respect due the office of pastor while the title "bishop" or "overseer" stressed the function of the office. ) Those who believe Paul was addressing another office in the early church point out that he does not single out the wives of the Elders or overseers for special instructions. Gerig...
See also Church, the ; Deacon, Deaconess ; Elder ; Laying on of Hands ; Leadership ; Overseer ; Paul the Apostle ; Titus, Theology of ...
Bibliography
Timothy And Titus Epistles to - The honourable position of the Elder. -The Elder who fulfils his function well, especially if he can preach and teach, is to be given double honour (or it may be double pay), and, in accordance with our Lord’s instructions, is to be supported for his work’s sake. The dignity of the office demands that charges preferred against Elders are not to be lightly received; though, if they be substantiated, the rebuke is to be public
Jacob - ...
Having bought the birthright from Esau, he afterward, at Rebekah's instigation, stole the blessing which his father intended for Esau, but which God had appointed to him even when the two sons were yet unborn; "the Elder shall serve the younger" (Genesis 25:23; Genesis 27:29; Malachi 1:3; Romans 9:12). a present unto my lord Esau," was calculated by successive appeals to impress the impulsive Elder brother (Matthew 5:25)
John the Apostle - Two of these were John and his Elder brother James, who were with their father in a boat on the Lake of Galilee, mending their nets. The former says that ‘all the Elders associated with John the disciple of the Lord in Asia bear witness,’ and that he remained in Ephesus until the time of Trajan. The theory that confusion had arisen between John the Apostle and a certain ‘John the Elder’ is discussed in a subsequent article (see p
John, the Gospel of - ...
We do not know what happened to the Johannine community after the writing of the epistles, but we may conjecture that the remnant that followed the Elder was assimilated into the emerging church of the second century while the Elder's opponents, with their Docetic Christology, probably found their way into the developing Gnostic groups
Mines And Mining - Egyptian paintings depict the washing of river sand to extract nuggets, and authors such as Strabo and Pliny the Elder (60 B
Domitian - It was unfortunate for his future career that his father and Elder brother were absent for a lengthy period from Rome and Italy, being detained by the Jewish War
Brother - (Isaiah 49:1; Titus 1:2) And they are all brethren by Jesus's side himself, for he is their Elder brother, and the "first born among many brethren
Essenes - Neander's account of the Essenes is as follows:—A company of pious men, much experienced in the trials of the outward and of the inward life, had withdrawn themselves out of the strife of theological and political parties, at first apparently (according to Pliny the Elder) to the western side of the Dead Sea; where they lived together in intimate connection, partly in the same sort of society as the monks of later days, and partly as mystical orders in all periods have done
Woman - Just as in the Old Testament women enjoyed many prominent roles save one, the rest of the New Testament reveals women in all positions of spiritual leadership save that of Elder or overseer. The term used here, presbytera, is the feminine form of "elder" (presbyteros [6]), but the context and parallel passage in Titus 2:3 , which uses a more unambiguous term for "old woman" (presbytis [7]), suggests a nontechnical sense
Genseric, King of the Vandals - The Elder became the wife of his son Hunneric; the younger, with her mother, was eventually surrendered to the emperor Leo
Son, Sonship - The more usual course is exemplified in the case of the Elder son, whose share in the patrimony was still in his father’s hands (Luke 15:31), but was fully assured to him in spite of his complaint in Luke 15:30 (ὁ καταφαγών σου τὸν βίον)
Edom - The scattering of Israel among the pagan (Psalms 44:11) was but partial, enough to gratify Edom's desire to falsify the prophecy, "the Elder shall serve the younger
Imitation - We are to resemble Him, partly as the younger born resemble the Elder brother, partly as the saved resemble the Saviour
Apostolic Fathers - —Of the respective provinces of the Apostolic Fathers, we may say that Clement co-ordinates the different elements of Christian teaching as left by the Apostles; and Ignatius consolidates the structure of ecclesiastical polity, as sketched out by them; while for Polycarp, whose active career was just beginning as theirs ended, and who lived on for more than half a century after their deaths, was reserved the task of handing down unimpaired to a later generation the Apostolic doctrine and order thus co-ordinated and consolidated by his Elder contemporaries—a task for which he was eminently fitted by his passive and receptive character
Education in Bible Times - Parents and Elders of the clan or extended family were responsible for the education of children. In addition, one of the requirements for the office of bishop or Elder in the church was the ability to teach (1 Timothy 3:2 ; 2 Timothy 2:24 ; Titus 2:9 ). Bonner, Education in Ancient Rome from the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny ; W
Benjamin - Joseph's gifts to him exceeded far those to each of his Elder brothers (Genesis 43:34; Genesis 45:22)
Jacob - Laban tricked him into marrying poor Leah, the Elder daughter, before he got his beloved Rachel, the younger
Idol, Idolatry - Politically the leaders were deeply involved—from the Elder who sat at the city gate (Ezekiel 8:11 ) to the king as final authority
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - He harmonizes them (expressly, however, not as a matter of tradition) on the theory of levirate marriages, supposing that two half-brothers, sons of different fathers, married the same woman, and that the issue of the second marriage was therefore legally accounted to the Elder, but physically to the younger brother
David - After he had married Saul's younger daughter Michal, instead of the Elder Merab, who had been promised him, Saul, further enraged by David's increasing credit with the nation, and understanding, it is likely, by this time, that the young Bethlehemite was the chosen of the Lord, to whom the kingdom was to be transferred, sent to arrest him in his house
Methodists - Each district is committed to the care of an Elder, denominated the presiding Elder, who is appointed, annually, and may remain four years successively on a district, but not longer; and all the districts comprising the whole extent of the church, are under the general superintendence of the bishops. They preside in the annual and general conferences, station the preachers, with (by established usage) the counsel of the presiding Elders, and are jointly and severally responsible to the general conference for their administration and conduct
Joseph - He is called" son of Jacob's old age," as the comfort of his father's declining years, when his Elder brothers by misconduct grieved their father, and Benjamin as yet was too young to minister to him. An Egyptian story, in the papyrus d'Orbiney in the British Museum, The Two Brothers, in later times, seems founded on that of Joseph, the Elder brother's wife tempting the younger with almost the same words as Potiphar's wife used to Joseph
Family Life And Relations - God is their Father and Christ their Elder brother (Romans 8:29 )
John - ...
The author of the epistles identifies himself as “the Elder” (2 John 1:1 , 3 John 1:1 ), but never claims to be the apostle
the Unprofitable Servant - "We've gotten a minister noo!" said an old Elder to me after his hitherto unprofitable minister had been induced and enabled to make such a visit
James - James the brother of John (Matthew 10:2, Mark 3:17, Luke 6:14, Acts 1:13), Elder* the Man Who Had Not on a Wedding Arment - One of our own Elders on the Sabbath before one communion heard a sermon on the text, "Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way: first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. " Now that Elder had long ago had a miserable quarrel with a man in the same profession as his own, and whose office was in the same street as his own. And if your heart has resisted all the preparations of the week and you are ready to sink into the earth when the Elders bring forward the elements, then give vent to your heavy heart in such ejaculations as this: I am not worthy, Holy Lord
the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans - These words: "If any man hear My voice, and open the door,"-communicants, He means, or non-communicants; members or adherents; young or old; minister or Elder; especially any minister
Idolatry - ...
Sanchoniathon, who wrote his "Phenician Antiquities" apparently with a view to apologize for idolatry, traces its origin to the descendants of Cain, the Elder branch, who began with the worship of the sun, and afterward added a variety of other methods of idolatrous worship: proceeding to deify the several parts of nature, and men after their death; and even to consecrate the plants shooting out of the earth, which the first men judged to be gods, and worshipped as those that sustained the lives of themselves and of their posterity
Aaron - ...
Moses having ascended the mountain to receive the law from God, Aaron, his sons, and seventy Elders, followed him, Exodus 24:1-2 ; Exodus 24:9-11 ; not indeed to the summit, but "afar off," "and they saw the God of Israel," that is, the glory in which he appeared, "as it were the paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven for clearness;"—a clear and dazzling, azure, a pure, unmingled splendour like that of the heavens. "And upon the nobles of Israel," Aaron, his sons, and the seventy Elders, "he laid not his hand,"—they were not destroyed by a sight which must have overwhelmed the weakness of mortal men had they not been strengthened to bear it; "and they did eat and drink,"—they joyfully and devoutly feasted before the Lord, as a religious act, upon the sacrifices they offered. Aaron, as being the Elder brother, could not perhaps brook his superiority
Valentinus, Founder of a Gnostic Sect - His labours in Asia were probably contemporaneous with Valentinus's residence and activity at Rome, and there a "godly Elder and herald of the truth," whom Irenaeus quotes from as an older authority, made him the subject of metrical objurgation as the "forerunner of anti-Christian malice" (Iren. 150) by the "godly Elder," quoted by Irenaeus ( Haer
Targums - In the tractate Abodah zara , 11 a , we are told that this Onkelos was the pupil of Rabbi Gamaliel the Elder, who lived in the second half of the 1st cent
Justice - ...
( b ) The next stage was that in which justice was administered by the ‘elders’ of a clan or tribe (see Numbers 11:16 ). In Exodus 18:13-27 we have what purports to be the original institution of the administration of justice by the Elders of clans, Moses himself acting in the capacity of a kind of court of appeal ( Exodus 18:26 ); it is, of course, quite possible that, so far as Israel was concerned, this account is historically true, but the institution must have been much older than the time of Moses, and in following Jethro’s guidance, Moses was probably only re-instituting a régime which had long existed among his nomad forefathers. It is a more developed form of tribal justice that we read of in Deuteronomy 21:18-21 ; here the father of a rebellious son, finding his authority set at nought, appeals to the ‘elders of the city’; in the case of being found guilty the death-sentence is pronounced against the son, and the sentence is carried out by representatives of the community. The passage is an important one, for it evidently contains echoes of very early usage, the mention of the mother may imply a distant reminiscence of the matriarchate; and the fact that the head of the family exercises his power recalls the earlier régime already referred to, while the present institution of the administration of justice by Elders is also borne witness to. ...
( c ) In the monarchical period a further development takes place; the older system, whereby justice was administered by the Elders of the cities, is indeed still seen to be in vogue (cf. 1 Kings 21:8-13 ); but two other powers had now arisen, and both tended to diminish the power and moral influence of the Elders of the cities, so far as their judicial functions were concerned. One of the worst results, however, of this was that the motives of administering justice became different; in the old days, when the sheik, or the city Elder, was called upon to decide an issue, he did it rather in the capacity of a friend who desired peace between two other friends than as a strictly legal official; his interest in the disputants, as being both of his own kin, or at all events both members of the same community to which he belonged, impelled him to do his utmost to make peace. It was otherwise when a stranger had to decide between two men of whom he knew nothing; he had no personal interest in them, nor would it have been his main endeavour to try to secure a lasting peace between the two, as had been the case in earlier days among the sheiks and city Elders; the tie of kinship was absent. What must have contributed to this more than anything else was the fact that from early times such matters as seemed to the Elders of the city to defy a satisfactory solution were, as we have already seen, submitted to the judgment of God; the intermediaries between God and men were the priests, who carried the matter into the Divine presence, received the Divine answer, and announced that answer to those who came for judgment (see Exodus 22:8-9 , and esp. ...
But in spite of the rise of these two new factors the king and the priesthood it must be borne in mind that the Elders of the cities still continued to carry out their judicial functions. At the time of Ezra we find that the administration of justice by the Elders of the city, which had continued throughout the period of the monarchy, is still in vogue (see Ezra 7:25 ; Ezra 10:14 ); they presided over the local courts in the smaller provincial towns
the Labourer With the Evil Eye - Why, then, do I do this and that work in the vineyard? Why do I study? Why do I preach? Why do I visit the sick and dying? Why am I an Elder? Why am I a deacon? Why do I subscribe to this fund and that? Why am I a Sabbath-school teacher? And why am I a member of this church rather than of that? It is our mean and self-seeking motives that lurk so unexamined in our hearts that make us all so many dogs in the manger, and so many envious and murmuring labourers in the vineyard
Church Government - ...
The first line of distinction is between the apostles and the other believers; and this line is continued as a distinction between rulers of any kind and those who are ruled-the Seven, Elders, deacons, etc. Luke’s silence about Elders in this connexion is the more remarkable, because distribution of the means of life was one of their functions (Acts 11:30). Congregations which consisted chiefly of Jewish Christians had ‘elders’ analogous to ‘elders’ among the Jews; and in the Gentile communities something similar would grow up, with or without the suggestion of the Apostle who founded the church. ‘the Elder brethren,’ which is the true reading in Acts 15:23. Luke calls them ‘the Elders of the Church,’ but he does not report that St. Paul does not mention ‘elders. When official appointments began to be made, persons with this double qualification would be chosen, and they became ‘presbyters’ or ‘elders’ in the technical sense. Here for the first time ‘presbytery’ is used of a body of Christian Elders. He and Barnabas appointed Elders in every church (Acts 14:23). ‘Elders’ are borrowed from it. The ritual which Jewish and Christian Elders regulate is similar-praise, reading of Scripture, exposition, and prayer
the Slothful Servant Who Hid His Lord's Money - They need above everything else an Elder sister and a more talented sister just like you
Euchites - Adelphius, having been thus enticed into a full disclosure of his sentiments, was rebuked in the words addressed by Daniel to the wicked Elder (Susanna, 52) and punished as convicted out of his own mouth
Ananias And Sapphira - The offices and services of the early Church had not as yet been divided up and specialised into the apostleship, and the Eldership, and the deaconship, and, till that was done, Peter had to be everything himself. Peter was premier apostle, ruling Elder, leading deacon, and all
Priest - But it is likewise improperly applied to Christian ministers, who have no sacrifices to offer; unless, indeed, when it is considered as contracted from presbyter, which signifies an Elder, and is the name given in the New Testament to those who were appointed to the office of teaching and ruling in the church of God
Assyria - Pul was succeeded on the throne of Assyria by his Elder son Tiglath-pileser; and at the same time he left Babylon to his younger son Nabonassar, B
Simon Magus - Thus, Peter’s refusal to give Simon Magus the power of the Holy Spirit is a covert account of the refusal of the Elder Apostle to admit Paul’s claims to rank with them, backed though the claim was by a gift of money for the poor saints in Jerusalem. ’ His conclusion is that ‘the Simon described by Justin was his Elder only by a generation; that he was a Gnostic teacher who had gained some followers at Samaria; and that Justin rashly identified him with the magician told of in the Acts of the Apostles’ (ib
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - In this he was aided by the Elder Gregory, and the son yielded against his own will ( Orat. ) Early in 374 the Elder Gregory died, and the son delivered a discourse, at which his mother Nonna and his friend Basil were present, and which was an eulogy of both his parents and of his friend ( Orat
James - ...
James was probably the Elder brother, whence John is twice called "brother of James" (Mark 5:37; Matthew 17:1). Being His Elders, they went on one occasion to "lay hold on Him," saying that He was "beside Himself"; as He was so pressed by multitudes that He and His disciples "could not so much as eat bread," His cousin brethren thought they would restrain what seemed to them mad zeal (Mark 3:20-21; Mark 3:31-33). 57 Paul, having been on the previous day "received gladly" by the brethren, went in officially, with Luke and his other assistant ministers, in the presence of all the Elders, and "declared particularly what God had wrought among the Gentiles by his ministry" (Acts 21:17-19)
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - He says, "Know therefore, most holy one, that, according to what I have written, agreeing in the truth with thee, I too, loving peace, renounce all the heretics repudiated by thee: for I hold the most holy churches of the Elder and of the new Rome to be one; I define that see of the apostle Peter and this of the imperial city to be one see
Job - He speaks of the sins of his youth, Job 13:26 , and of the prosperity of his youth; and yet Eliphaz addresses him as a novice: "With us are both the gray-headed and very aged men, much Elder than thy father," Job 15:10
War - When David, Jesse's younger son, stayed behind to look after his father's flocks while his Elder brothers went to the wars along with Saul, Jesse sent David to carry provisions to his brothers, 1 Samuel 17:13
Apostle - Barnabas was probably an Elder of the first rank; he had seen Christ in the flesh, had been an eye witness of his being alive again after his crucifixion, and had received the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, as being one of the hundred and twenty
Passover (ii. in Relation to Lord's Supper). - And the Lord’s Supper is the occasion of a glad spiritual communion of those who belong to the household of faith, both with Christ Himself—the Elder Brother and the Head—and with their fellow-members in the one family of God
Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis - At Rome he was domiciled in the house of the Elder Paula, who, under the spiritual guidance of St
Lot - Had Lot just held on as he began; had he kept close to Abraham, and had he been content to share Abraham's prospects and prosperity and peace, Lot would have lived a pure and a happy life; he would have escaped many sorrows, and, instead of being scarcely saved; saved indeed, but saved with the fire and brimstone of Sodom and Gomorrah smouldering in his skirts; he would have gone down to a truly patriarchal grave, an Elder of a good report and a father of a blameless name
Bible - The Elder Stephens, in a riding journey from Paris to Lyons, subdivided the New Testament chapters into verses, and the first edition with this division appeared in 1551
Maccabees - In May 142Samimon was able to seize the citadel, and in September 141, at a great assembly of priests and people, and princes of the people, and Elders of the land, he was elected to be high priest and military commander and civil governor of the Jews, ‘for ever until there should arise a faithful prophet. Alexander , the Elder son of Aristobulus ii
Diseases - Pliny the Elder, in his Naturalis Historia, described many of the substances used by physicians in the first century to treat disease
Leadership - By the time of the exodus, tribal Elders were on the scene. By the time of the judges and the monarchy there were Elders of Israel who met for common decisions, such as the appointment of a king. There were Elders in the individual towns (Judges 11:3-11 ; 1 Samuel 16:4 ; 30:26-31 ; 1 Kings 21:8,11 ). First Samuel 30:26-31 indicates that the Elders of Judah were comprised of the Elders of the individual towns, though later Ezekiel speaks of "seventy Elders of Israel" (8:11-12). The local Elders were responsible for legal action at the city gate (Deuteronomy 22:15 ; 25:7 ; Ruth 4:1-11 ) in cases of murder (Deuteronomy 19:11-13 ; 21:1-9 ) and in cases dealing with family matters (21:18-21; 22:13-21; 25:5-10). ...
During the exile there were still Elders in Judah (Ezekiel 8:11-12 ). In exile also there were Elders heading up the community (Jeremiah 29:1 ; Ezekiel 8:1 ; 14:1 ; 20:1,3 ). The Elders stood at the head of the people in the rebuilding of the temple and even in dealings with the Persian government (Ezra 5:9 ; 6:7,8 , 14 ). The system of city Elders is evidenced with Ezra resolved to excommunicate those who had married foreign wives (Ezra 10:8,14 ). By Nehemiah's time the Elders are referred to as the nobility (Nehemiah 2:16 ; 4:14,19 ; 5:7 ; 7:5 ). Forty years later he was clearly called of God, and this time he returned to Egypt and first gained the support of the Elders of Israel (Exodus 4:29-31 ). When problems arose they took the lead in their resolution, including the Elders in the process. These leaders were referred to as presbuteroi [ Acts 20:28 ), yet in verse 17 they are called Elders. Their status was "elder" and their Job was to oversee. ...
The Elders are first mentioned in Acts 11:30 . Out beyond Jerusalem Elders were appointed in the churches founded by Paul and Barnabas already on their first missionary journey (14:23; cf. In the early Jerusalem church the apostles yet carried out the functions that would be taken up by the overseers/elders, and accordingly the need for deacons became the first obvious vacancy in church community leadership
Messiah - The influence not only of his great Elder contemporary Jeremiah, but also of the earlier prophets Hosea and Isaiah, is unmistakable
Children of God - Then he will walk in step with the great Elder Brother
Paul as a Man of Prayer - How happy to have been his fellow-elder in Ephesus, his physician, his son in the Gospel
Joseph - Jacob’s eleventh son, the Elder of the two sons of Rachel; born in Haran
Family - The relation of the younger to the Elder in the family must have been greatly simplified by the spread of monogamy in the OT (see Marriage), and in Christian times there would have been very few complications in this respect
Peter, the Epistles of - The author calls himself the apostle Peter (1 Peter 1:1), "a witness of Christ's sufferings," and "an Elder" (1 Peter 5:1). In Caria was Miletus, where Paul convened the Ephesian Elders. These churches were in much the same state (1 Peter 5:1-2 "feed") as when Paul addressed the Ephesian Elders at Miletus (Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28, "feed". He exhorts all, husbands, wives, servants, Elders, and people, by discharging relative duties to give the foe no handle for reproaching Christianity, rather to attract them to it; so Peter seeks to establish them in "the true grace of God wherein they stand "; but the Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus manuscripts read "stand ye," imperatively (1 Peter 5:12), "Grace" is the keynote of Paul's doctrine which Peter confirms (Ephesians 2:5; Ephesians 2:8; Romans 5:2)
Jonathan - Jonathan, as being the Elder man, had for long been looking and longing for a soul like David's soul to which his own soul might be knit; and before the sun set that day the son of Saul had found in the son of Jesse a soul after his own soul, and he was at rest
Dead Sea Scrolls - Most scholars identify this community as a group of Essenes, a monastic sect of Jews described by the ancient writers Josephus, Philo, and Pliny the Elder. Next come the Levites, or Elders. Aspects of the organizational structure (elders, overseer) are reminiscent of that found in the Pastorals
Living (2) - But the σου τὸν βίον may have been due to correct feeling; the Elder son not regarding the share which he himself had received as being absolutely his own as long as his father lived (cf
Vespasian - His Elder brother, Flavius Sabinus, had attained senatorial rank, and Vespasian was ambitious to follow in his footsteps
Food - A kid, as less valuable than a well-fleeced lamb, was the most frequent and readiest victim, especially among the poor, a fact which gives point to the complaint of the Elder Son in the parable ( Luke 15:29 )
Peter, First Epistle of - ...
( a ) Counsel to Elder of the Church, and to the younger men, 1 Peter 5:1-6 1 Peter 5:1-6
Mark, Gospel According to - 140 or earlier), as derived from ‘the Elder’ from whom he gleaned traditions:...
‘Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately everything that he remembered, without, however recording in order what was either said or done by Christ Herod - He skillfully gained the favor of Antony, who made him and his Elder brother Phasael joint tetrarchs of Judea
Hell - 13) to that region of dire punishment allotted to the Elder gods, whose sway Zeus had usurped
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - However we interpret the relation of lrenaeus to Polycarp, and the former’s account of the latter in his Letter to Florinus, we cannot be sure that the John of whom Polycarp used to speak was really the Apostle and not the ‘Elder,’ or the author of the Apocalypse (if these two are not to be identified). And if Irenaeus derived from Papias not only the words of the Elders but also the description which he gives of them, the words ‘non solum Joannem, sed et alios apostolos’ (Iren
Mark, Gospel According to - ‘Gospels’) differs from him are noted: ‘For our present purpose we will merely add to his [3] words which have been quoted above, a tradition which has been set forth through these sources concerning Mark who wrote the Gospel: “And the Elder said this also: Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately everything that he remembered [4], without, however, recording in order what was either said or done by Christ
Animals - The Elder brother complains that he has never been allowed to offer his friends the entertainment which his father is wont to provide for any chance visitor; while for the graceless prodigal is killed the fatted calf, which is destined only for high festivals
Hell - 13) to that region of dire punishment allotted to the Elder gods, whose sway Zeus had usurped
Priest (2) - It is also the contraction of presbyter (‘prester,’ ‘prest,’ ‘priest’), which is the transliteration of πρεσβύτερος and LXX Septuagint rendering of וָקֵן (elder)
Quakers - Among these was their honourable Elder, George Fox, who, being quickened by the immediate touches of divine love, could not satisfy his apprehensions of duty to God without directing the people where to find the like consolation and instruction. "...
In order that those who are in the situation of Ministers may have the tender sympathy and counsel of those of either sex, who by their experience in the work of religion, are qualified for that service, the monthly meetings are advised to select such, under the denomination of Elders. These, and ministers approved by their monthly meetings, have meetings peculiar to themselves, called meetings of ministers and Elders; in which they have an opportunity of exciting each other to a discharge of their several duties, and of extending advice to those who may appear to be weak, without any needless exposure
Boyhood of Jesus - The current views would never have been brought forward, but for the assumption by the Elder Lightfoot and others that in this Talmudic rule we find the explanation of the mention of our Lord’s age. ...
‘Stand thou in the multitude of the Elders;...
And whoso is wise, cleave thou unto him,...
Be willing to listen to every godly discourse;...
And let not the proverbs of understanding escape thee
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - The urgent remonstrances of his friend Gregory Nazianzen would have an earnest supporter in his Elder sister, the holy recluse Macrina, who doubtless used the same powerful arguments which had induced Basil to give up all prospect of worldly fame for the service of Christ
Jeremiah - ...
The reign of Mattaniah-Zedekiah, raised to the throne by Nebuchadrezzar, was in effect a repetition of that of his Elder brother
John, Gospel of - , however, and especially after the publication of Bretschneider’s Probabilia in 1820, an almost incessant conflict has been waged between the traditional belief and hypotheses which in more or less modified form attribute the Gospel to an Ephesian Elder or an Alexandrian Christian philosopher belonging to the first half of the 2nd century. Clement of Alexandria, in handing down ‘the tradition of the Elders from the first,’ says that ‘John, last of all, having observed that the bodily things had been exhibited in the Gospels, exhorted by his friends and inspired by the Spirit, produced a spiritual gospel’ (Eus. ‘We know that his witness is true’ is probably intended as an endorsement on the part of certain Ephesian Elders, whilst the ‘I suppose’ of John 1:25 may indicate yet another hand
Barnabas, Epistle of - Of these, the Jews, the Elder, are in the position of Esau and of Manasseh, who, though the first-born of their respective fathers, did not inherit the blessing; the Christians, like Jacob and Ephraim, though in each case the younger, have been made the recipients of the promise (ch
Palestine - Palestine is the southern and eastern limit of the Asia Minor flora, one of the richest in the earth, and contains many trees and herbs as the pine, oak, Elder, bramble, dogrose, hawthorn, which do not grow further S
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - But Hermippus the Elder son of Hermokrates was opposed to Paul, and the younger son, Dion, died
Paulinus, Bishop of Nola - —Besides Paulinus, his parents had an Elder son and a daughter
Mss - ; but one, which has them, has a marginal note assigning them to ‘the Elder Ariston,’ i
Roads And Travel - Pliny the Younger tells that his uncle, the Elder Pliny, used to help the Emperor Vespasian x dawn (Ep
Egypt - Abram's visit (Genesis 12:10-20) was in a time of Egypt's prosperity; nor is Abram's fear lest Sarai should be taken, and he slain for her sake, indicative of a savage state such as would exist under the foreign Hyksos rather than the previous native Egyptian kings; for in the papyrus d'Orbiney in the British Museum, of the age of Rameses II of a native dynasty, the 19th, the story of the two brothers (the wife of the Elder of whom acts toward the younger as Potiphar's wife toward Joseph) represents a similar act of violence (the Pharaoh of the time sending two armies to take a beautiful wife and murder her husband on the advice of the royal councilors), at the time of Egypt's highest civilization; and this attributed not to a tyrant, but to one beloved and deified at his decease
Church - In the mis-called ‘Apostolic Council’ at Jerusalem, which was really a conference of apostles, Elder brethren, and the whole Church of Jerusalem (Acts 15:6; Acts 15:12; 1 Corinthians 2:7), there was no conflict between the Twelve and St
Jews - In 3939, Aristobulus invited the Romans to assist him against Hircanus, his Elder brother
Moses - ...
At length, when the oppression of the Israelites was come to the full, and they cried to God for succour, and the king was dead, and all the men in Egypt that sought his life, "the God of glory" appeared to Moses in a flame of fire, from the midst of a bush, and announced himself as "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob," under the titles of Jahoh and AEhjeh, expressive of his unity and sameness; and commissioned him first to make known to the Israelites the divine will for their deliverance; and next to go with the Elders of Israel to Pharaoh, requiring him, in the name of "the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, to suffer the people to go three, days' journey into the wilderness, to sacrifice unto the Lord their God," after such sacrifices had been long intermitted during their bondage; for the Egyptians had sunk into bestial polytheism, and would have stoned them, had they attempted to sacrifice to their principal divinities, the apis, or bull, &c, in the land itself: foretelling, also, the opposition they would meet with from the king, the mighty signs and wonders that would finally compel his assent, and their spoiling of the Egyptians, by asking or demanding of them (not borrowing) jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, (by way of wages or compensation for their services,) as originally declared to Abraham, that "they should go out from thence with great substance,"...
Genesis 15:14 ; Exodus 2:23-25 ; Exodus 3:2-22 ; Exodus 8:25-26 . To assist him, also, in his arduous mission, when Moses had represented that he was "not eloquent, but slow of speech," and of a slow or stammering tongue, God inspired Aaron, his Elder brother, to go and meet Moses in the wilderness, to be his spokesman to the people, Exodus 4:1-31 , and his prophet to Pharaoh; while Moses was to be a god to both, as speaking to them in the name, or by the authority, of God himself, Exodus 7:1-2
Poet - Suddenly, on the entrance of the Elder brother, all is damped down, and the story drags itself to the close like a stricken thing
John, Gospel of (Critical) - ) Papias is best known by the famous extract from the Preface to his work which is preserved by Eusebius:...
‘I will not hesitate to place before you, along with my interpretations (of the Oracles of the Lord), everything that carefully learned, and carefully remembered in time past from the Elders, and I can guarantee its truth. Moreover, if met with anyone on any occasion who had attended the Elders, I used to inquire about the words of the Elders; what Andrew or what Peter said, or what Philip, or what Thomas, or James or John or Matthew, or any other of the disciples of the Lord said, and what Aristion and the Elder John, disciples of the Lord, say
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - γεγόνασι ), and continued quite as late as the age of the Elder Antoninus
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - " Hermas was an Elderly man with a grown-up family, and Rhoda must have been at least as old as himself. He would probably also have made him a man of some eminence, holding high church office, whereas Hermas always speaks of the presbyters as if he were not one of them, and could have no motive for making his hero one engaged in trade unsuccessfully and not very honestly, and an Elderly man with a termagant wife and ill brought-up children. He appears to use ἐπίσκοπος as synonymous with πρεσβύτερος and always speaks of the government of the church as in the hands of the Elders, without hinting that one Elder enjoyed authority over others
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - Besides the "God-loving Elder," from whom he borrows the Iambic Senarii against Marcus, Irenaeus cites on various occasions from "presbyters and disciples of the apostles" ; under which title, besides Polycarp, bp
Jerusalem - Within the space of sixty-six years more it was taken by Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, whom Josiah, king of Judah, had opposed in his expedition to Carchemish; and who, in consequence, was killed at the battle of Megiddo, and his son Eliakim placed on the throne in his stead by Necho, who changed his name to Jehoiakim, and imposed a heavy tribute upon him, having sent his Elder brother, Jehoahaz, who had been proclaimed king at Jerusalem, a prisoner to Egypt, where he died, 2 Kings 23; 2 Chronicles 35
Synods - Paul and Barnabas opposed this attempt; and after "no small dissension and disputation," it was determined, that the question should be referred to the judgment of the Apostles and Elders at Jerusalem. Accordingly, some of the Apostles and several of the "elders came together" to deliberate on the propriety of dispensing with the ceremonial law. Whatever deference she might claim as an Elder branch of the church of Christ, she raised no pretensions to a lordly preeminence over the rights and privileges of other churches
Odes of Solomon - ): ‘No man, O my God, changeth thy holy place; and it is not [14] that he should change it and put it in another place: because he hath no power over it: for thy sanctuary Thou hast designed before Thou didst make places: that which is the Elder shall not be altered by those that are younger than itself
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - Julian and his Elder half-brother Gallus, who was sick of an illness which was expected to be mortal, were alone preserved, by the compassion or the policy of Constantius (cf