What does Egypt mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
מִצְרַ֔יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 102
מִצְרָ֑יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 94
מִצְרָֽיִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 90
מִצְרַ֖יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 64
מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 37
מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 21
מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 19
מִצְרַ֛יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 19
מִמִּצְרָֽיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 18
בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 15
מִצְרַ֗יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 14
בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 13
αἴγυπτον a country occupying the northeast angle of Africa. 12
מִצְרַ֜יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 12
מִמִּצְרַ֙יִם֙ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 11
מִצְרַיִם֒ Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 10
αἰγύπτου a country occupying the northeast angle of Africa. 8
מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 8
מִצְרַ֔יְמָה a country at the northeastern section of Africa 7
מִצְרָֽיְמָה a country at the northeastern section of Africa 7
בְּמִצְרָֽיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 6
בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 6
מִצְרָ֑יְמָה a country at the northeastern section of Africa 6
מִצְרַיִם֮ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 5
מִצְרַ֥יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 5
αἰγύπτῳ a country occupying the northeast angle of Africa. 4
מִצְרַ֣יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 4
מִמִּצְרַ֗יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 4
בְמִצְרַ֖יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 3
בְמִצְרַ֔יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 3
מִצְרַ֖יְמָה a country at the northeastern section of Africa 3
וּמִצְרַ֖יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 3
מִצְרַ֙יְמָה֙ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 3
מִצְרַ֨יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 3
לְמִצְרָ֑יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 3
בְמִצְרַ֙יִם֙ Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 3
! מִצְרָֽיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 3
לְמִצְרַ֖יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 2
! מִצְרָ֑יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 2
؟ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 2
מִמִּצְרַ֛יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 2
מָצֽוֹר “Matsor” 2
מִצְרַיִם֩ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 2
מָצ֑וֹר siege-enclosure 2
וּמִצְרַ֣יִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 2
מִמִּצְרַ֤יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
לְמִצְרַ֗יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
לְמִצְרַ֙יִם֙ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
לְמִצְרַ֔יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
וּמִצְרַ֕יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
וּמִצְרַ֤יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
αἴγυπτος a country occupying the northeast angle of Africa. 1
מִמִּצְרַיִם֮ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
וּבְמִצְרַ֔יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
לְמִצְרַ֥יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מִמִּצְרַ֨יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
! מִצְרַ֔יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
؟ מִצְרָֽיְמָה a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
בְמִצְרַ֨יִם ׀ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מִ֭צְרַיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
בְּ֭מִצְרַיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מִמִּצְרַ֣יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
וּמִמִּצְרַ֜יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מָצוֹר֙ “Matsor” 1
וּמִמִּצְרַ֖יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
؟ מִצְרָֽיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מִצְרָֽיִם‪‬‪‬ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
؟ מִצְרַ֔יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מִצְרָ֑יְמָהּ‪‬‪‬ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
בְּמִצְרַ֗יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מִצְרַ֔֗יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
בְּמִצְרַ֛יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
בְמִצְרָֽיִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
לְמִצְרָֽיִם Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 1
מִמִּצְרַיִם֒ a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
וּלְמִצְרַ֔יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
--מִצְרָ֑יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
בְּמִצְרָֽיִם‪‬ Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 1
מִצְרַ֣יִם ׀ Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 1
מִצְרַ֤יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
--מִצְרַיִם֒ Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt. 1
מִמִּצְרַ֜יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
--מִצְרַ֔יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1
מִצְרַ֧יִם a country at the northeastern section of Africa 1

Definitions Related to Egypt

H4714


   1 a country at the northeastern section of Africa, adjacent to Palestine, and through which the Nile flows adj Egyptians = “double straits”.
   2 the inhabitants or natives of Egypt.
   Additional Information: n pr loc Egypt = “land of the Copts”.
   

G125


   1 a country occupying the northeast angle of Africa.
   2 metaph.
   Jerusalem, for the Jews persecuting the Christ and his followers, and so to be likened to the Egyptians treating the Jews.
   Additional Information: Egypt = “double straits”.
   

H4693


   1 “Matsor”, a name for Egypt.
   2 (TWOT) siege, entrenchment.
   

H4713


   1 Egyptian—an inhabitant or citizen of Egypt.
      1a an Egyptian.
      1b the Egyptian.
      Additional Information: Egyptian = see Egypte “double straits”.
      

Frequency of Egypt (original languages)

Frequency of Egypt (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - River of Egypt
Heb. nahar mitsraim, denotes in Genesis 15:18 the Nile, or its eastern branch ( 2 Chronicles 9:26 ).
In Numbers 34:5 (RSV, "brook of Egypt") the Hebrew word is Nahal , Denoting a stream flowing rapidly in winter, or in the rainy season. This is a desert stream on the borders of Egypt. It is now called the Wady el-'Arish. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between this wady and Gaza. (See Numbers 34:5 ; Joshua 15:4,47 ; 1 Kings 8:65 ; 2 Kings 24:7 ; Isaiah 27:12 ; Ezekiel 47:19 . In all these passages the RSV has "brook" and the A.V. "river.")
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Plagues of Egypt
Plagues of Egypt. The ten plagues narrated in Exodus 7:1-25; Exodus 8:1-32; Exodus 9:1-35; Exodus 10:1-29; Exodus 11:1-10; Exodus 12:1-51 stand in close connection with the natural phenomena of Egypt, still they maintain their character as miracles. They are introduced and performed by Moses; they cease at his request. Exodus 8:5, etc, These ten plagues were doubtless spread over a long time, and probably they followed, as much as possible, the order of the seasons; for some of them were not only distinctively Egyptian, but really only an aggravation of yearly maladies. Canon Cook, in the Bible Commentary, distributes them thus: The first was toward the end of June, when the Nile begins to overflow. The second came three months later, at the time of the greatest inundation, in September, and was an attack on a native worship. The third was early in October, and the fourth after the subsidence of the inundation. The fifth was in December or January; the sixth, shortly after; the seventh, at the time when hailstorms occur now in Egypt, from the middle of February to early March. The eighth was when the leaves are green, toward the middle of March. The ninth was peculiarly Egyptian, and was the immediate precursor of the tenth. During this time the Israelites had frequent opportunities to gather, and thus were prepared for their exodus.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Flight Into Egypt
After the departure of the wise men, the angel of the Lord told Joseph to fiy into Egypt with the Infant Jesus and His mother, as Herod had evil designs against them; there they remained until the death of Herod (Matthew 2). Among the many masters who have painted this subject in art are: Corneille the Elder, Durer, Ferrari, Fra Angelico, Murillo, Patinir, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Van Dyck.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Delta of the Nile, Egypt, Vicariate Apostolic of t
Prefecture apostolic erected on January 25, 1884. Elected to vicariate apostolic on September 17, 1909; entrusted to the priests of the African Missions of Lyons. Name changed to Vicariate Apostolic of Eliopoli di Egitto on January 27, 1951. United with other territories to form the Vicariate Apostolic of Alessandria di Egitto (-Eliopoli di Egitto-Port-Said) on November 30, 1987. See also:
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - River of Egypt
RIVER OF EGYPT . See Egypt [1].
Holman Bible Dictionary - River of Egypt
See Brook of Egypt .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Egypt
The Egyptians belonged to the white race, and their original home is still a matter of dispute. Many scholars believe that it was in Southern Arabia, and recent excavations have shown that the valley of the Nile was originally inhabited by a low-class population, perhaps belonging to the Nigritian stock, before the Egyptians of history entered it. The ancient Egyptian language, of which the latest form is Coptic, is distantly connected with the Semitic family of speech.
Egypt consists geographically of two halves, the northern being the Delta, and the southern Upper Egypt, between Cairo and the First Cataract. In the Old Testament, Northern or Lower Egypt is called Mazor, "the fortified land" (Isaiah 19:6 ; 37 :: 25 , where the A.V. mistranslates "defence" and "besieged places"); while Southern or Upper Egypt is Pathros, the Egyptian Pa-to-Res, or "the land of the south" (Isaiah 11:11 ). But the whole country is generally mentioned under the dual name of Mizraim, "the two Mazors."
The civilization of Egypt goes back to a very remote antiquity. The two kingdoms of the north and south were united by Menes, the founder of the first historical dynasty of kings. The first six dynasties constitute what is known as the Old Empire, which had its capital at Memphis, south of Cairo, called in the Old Testament Moph (Hosea 9:6 ) and Noph. The native name was Mennofer, "the good place."
The Pyramids were tombs of the monarchs of the Old Empire, those of Gizeh being erected in the time of the Fourth Dynasty. After the fall of the Old Empire came a period of decline and obscurity. This was followed by the Middle Empire, the most powerful dynasty of which was the Twelfth. The Fayyum was rescued for agriculture by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty; and two obelisks were erected in front of the temple of the sun-god at On or Heliopolis (near Cairo), one of which is still standing. The capital of the Middle Empire was Thebes, in Upper Egypt.
The Middle Empire was overthrown by the invasion of the Hyksos, or shepherd princes from Asia, who ruled over Egypt, more especially in the north, for several centuries, and of whom there were three dynasties of kings. They had their capital at Zoan or Tanis (now San), in the north-eastern part of the Delta. It was in the time of the Hyksos that Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph entered Egypt. The Hyksos were finally expelled about B.C. 1600, by the hereditary princes of Thebes, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty, and carried the war into Asia. Canaan and Syria were subdued, as well as Cyprus, and the boundaries of the Egyptian Empire were fixed at the Euphrates. The Soudan, which had been conquered by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty, was again annexed to Egypt, and the eldest son of the Pharaoh took the title of "Prince of Cush."
One of the later kings of the dynasty, Amenophis IV., or Khu-n-Aten, endeavoured to supplant the ancient state religion of Egypt by a new faith derived from Asia, which was a sort of pantheistic monotheism, the one supreme god being adored under the image of the solar disk. The attempt led to religious and civil war, and the Pharaoh retreated from Thebes to Central Egypt, where he built a new capital, on the site of the present Tell-el-Amarna. The cuneiform tablets that have been found there represent his foreign correspondence (about B.C. 1400). He surrounded himself with officials and courtiers of Asiatic, and more especially Canaanitish, extraction; but the native party succeeded eventually in overthrowing the government, the capital of Khu-n-Aten was destroyed, and the foreigners were driven out of the country, those that remained being reduced to serfdom.
The national triumph was marked by the rise of the Nineteenth Dynasty, in the founder of which, Rameses I., we must see the "new king, who knew not Joseph." His grandson, Rameses II., reigned sixty-seven years (B.C. 1348-1281), and was an indefatigable builder. As Pithom, excavated by Dr. Naville in 1883, was one of the cities he built, he must have been the Pharaoh of the Oppression. The Pharaoh of the Exodus may have been one of his immediate successors, whose reigns were short. Under them Egypt lost its empire in Asia, and was itself attacked by barbarians from Libya and the north.
The Nineteenth Dynasty soon afterwards came to an end; Egypt was distracted by civil war; and for a short time a Canaanite, Arisu, ruled over it.
Then came the Twentieth Dynasty, the second Pharaoh of which, Rameses III., restored the power of his country. In one of his campaigns he overran the southern part of Palestine, where the Israelites had not yet settled. They must at the time have been still in the wilderness. But it was during the reign of Rameses III. that Egypt finally lost Gaza and the adjoining cities, which were seized by the Pulista, or Philistines.
After Rameses III., Egypt fell into decay. Solomon married the daughter of one of the last kings of the Twenty-first Dynasty, which was overthrown by Shishak I., the general of the Libyan mercenaries, who founded the Twenty-second Dynasty (1 Kings 11:40 ; 14:25,26 ). A list of the places he captured in Palestine is engraved on the outside of the south wall of the temple of Karnak.
In the time of Hezekiah, Egypt was conquered by Ethiopians from the Soudan, who constituted the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. The third of them was Tirhakah (2 Kings 19:9 ). In B.C. 674 it was conquered by the Assyrians, who divided it into twenty satrapies, and Tirhakah was driven back to his ancestral dominions. Fourteen years later it successfully revolted under Psammetichus I. of Sais, the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. Among his successors were Necho (2 Kings 23:29 ) and Hophra, or Apries (Jeremiah 37:5,7,11 ). The dynasty came to an end in B.C. 525, when the country was subjugated by Cambyses. Soon afterwards it was organized into a Persian satrapy.
The title of Pharaoh, given to the Egyptian kings, is the Egyptian Per-aa, or "Great House," which may be compared to that of "Sublime Porte." It is found in very early Egyptian texts.
The Egyptian religion was a strange mixture of pantheism and animal worship, the gods being adored in the form of animals. While the educated classes resolved their manifold deities into manifestations of one omnipresent and omnipotent divine power, the lower classes regarded the animals as incarnations of the gods.
Under the Old Empire, Ptah, the Creator, the god of Memphis, was at the head of the Pantheon; afterwards Amon, the god of Thebes, took his place. Amon, like most of the other gods, was identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis.
The Egyptians believed in a resurrection and future life, as well as in a state of rewards and punishments dependent on our conduct in this world. The judge of the dead was Osiris, who had been slain by Set, the representative of evil, and afterwards restored to life. His death was avenged by his son Horus, whom the Egyptians invoked as their "Redeemer." Osiris and Horus, along with Isis, formed a trinity, who were regarded as representing the sun-god under different forms.
Even in the time of Abraham, Egypt was a flourishing and settled monarchy. Its oldest capital, within the historic period, was Memphis, the ruins of which may still be seen near the Pyramids and the Sphinx. When the Old Empire of Menes came to an end, the seat of empire was shifted to Thebes, some 300 miles farther up the Nile. A short time after that, the Delta was conquered by the Hyksos, or shepherd kings, who fixed their capital at Zoan, the Greek Tanis, now San, on the Tanic arm of the Nile. All this occurred before the time of the new king "which knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8 ). In later times Egypt was conquered by the Persians (B.C. 525), and by the Greeks under Alexander the Great (B.C. 332), after whom the Ptolemies ruled the country for three centuries. Subsequently it was for a time a province of the Roman Empire; and at last, in A.D. 1517, it fell into the hands of the Turks, of whose empire it still forms nominally a part. Abraham and Sarah went to Egypt in the time of the shepherd kings. The exile of Joseph and the migration of Jacob to "the land of Goshen" occurred about 200 years later. On the death of Solomon, Shishak, king of Egypt, invaded Palestine (1 Kings 14:25 ). He left a list of the cities he conquered.
A number of remarkable clay tablets, discovered at Tell-el-Amarna in Upper Egypt, are the most important historical records ever found in connection with the Bible. They most fully confirm the historical statements of the Book of Joshua, and prove the antiquity of civilization in Syria and Palestine. As the clay in different parts of Palestine differs, it has been found possible by the clay alone to decide where the tablets come from when the name of the writer is lost. The inscriptions are cuneiform, and in the Aramaic language, resembling Assyrian. The writers are Phoenicians, Amorites, and Philistines, but in no instance Hittites, though Hittites are mentioned. The tablets consist of official dispatches and letters, dating from B.C. 1480, addressed to the two Pharaohs, Amenophis III. and IV., the last of this dynasty, from the kings and governors of Phoenicia and Palestine. There occur the names of three kings killed by Joshua, Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem, Japhia, king of Lachish (Joshua 10:3 ), and Jabin, king of Hazor (11:1); also the Hebrews (Abiri) are said to have come from the desert.
The principal prophecies of Scripture regarding Egypt are these, Isaiah 19 ; Jeremiah 43 :: 813-13 ; 44:30 ; 46 ; Ezekiel 29-32 ; and it might be easily shown that they have all been remarkably fulfilled. For example, the singular disappearance of Noph (i.e., Memphis) is a fulfilment of Jeremiah 46:19 , Ezekiel 30:13 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Bible, Egypt in the
In Semitic languages Egypt was known under the names of Musr, Misr, Misri, the Hebrew form being Misraim, of which the termination is regarded by some as the regular dual ending used to designate at the same time both parts, Upper and Lower, of the country. Genesis 10 is commonly understood to enumerate the various peoples which made up the population of Egypt: Ludim, Anamim, Laabim, Nepthuim, Phetrusim, Chasluim, and Capthorim. Some of these names have not yet been satisfactorily identified. The Anamim (Anu of the Egyptian texts) appear to be the remnant of early settlers who, driven back by newcomers, roamed in the desert above the second cataract; the Phetrusim (southerners) inhabited the neighborhood of Thebes; the Capthorim and Chasluim are late invaders established on the Mediterranean shore. Egypt first appears in the Bible as a land of plenty, whither Abraham resorts at a time of famine (Genesis 12), and whither Jacob, in similar circumstances, sends his sons for buying wheat (Genesis 37-50). The whole family soon moved there at the bidding of Joseph. Historians usually date this migration at the time of the Hyksos rule. There, in the "land of Gessen," located by some near the mouth of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, by others half-way up that same channel, by others still south of Memphis, in the Fayum district, they increased and multiplied; and from there, after a long period of persecution which is supposed to have taken place following the overthrow of the Hyksos by native princes, they left at God's bidding, under the leadership of Moses, for the Promised Land. The disaster which overcame Pharao's army at the Red Sea apparently affected only a relatively small corps of Egyptian troops; texts need not be pressed to mean the whole military force of Egypt.
For many centuries decadent Egypt claimed possession of Palestine. This overlordship, however, was merely nominal, so that the Hebrews were fortunate in having only local Chanaanite chieftains with whom to contend. A long and hard struggle at last won for them independence under the strong hand of David. The city of Gazer, however, remained in the hands of the Pherezites (Jos., 16); its capture, in the beginning of the reign of Solomon, by Psibkhannu II, whose daughter became Solomon's wife, brings back the Egyptians into direct contact with Israel. Gazer was given to Solomon as his wife's dowry. Obviously the prince of Tanis considered Palestine as part of his kingdom, and the Hebrew king as a vassal. With the latter he maintained friendly commercial relations (3Kings 10); yet the Egyptian ruler had given shelter and a bride of the blood royal to the young Edomite prince, Adad, and did not discountenance the latter's attempt to wrest his kingdom from Solomon's hand (3Kings 11). To Psibkhannu's successor, Sheshenk I (Sesac of the Bible), the first Egyptian king whose proper name is given in Scripture (Pharao, Egypt., per o,a, the great house, is a generic title), Jeroboam fled from the wrath of. Solomon (3Kings 11), and, according to the Greek text, was later on married to the queen's own sister. Five years after Roboam's accession, Sesac, who probably wished to profit by the political division of Israel, in order to assert his suzerainty, invaded Palestine and ransacked Jerusalem (3Kings 14; Inscription of Karnak). Whether "Zara the Ethiopian," whose attempt against Palestine is recorded only in 2Par., 14, was an Egyptian king (Osorkon I or Osorkon II) is still a moot question.
Save for an obscure allusion to an alliance between Joram, king of Israel (851-842), and the reigning Pharao, Egypt does not appear again on the scene of Biblical history until the last years of the Northern Kingdom, when Osee, the last king of Israel, in order to prevent being engulfed in the ever-growing torrent of Assyrian invasion, called on the help of Sua, probably the future Shabaka, founder of the XXVth Dynasty, then a high officer in the Egyptian Empire (4Kings 17). But leaning on Egypt was leaning on a broken reed; and after the fall of Samaria, despite the oft-repeated warnings of the prophets, there existed in Jerusalem for more than a century a strong party favoring an Egyptian alliance. King Josias, who opposed this policy, was mortally wounded on the battlefield of Mageddo, whilst endeavoring to block, it appears, the advance of Nechao II against the young Babylonian Empire, just risen (609 B.C.) on the ruins of the vanquished Assyrian Kingdom (4Kings 23). Neither did this calamity, nor the conqueror's meddling with the internal affairs of Jerusalem and the heavy tribute levied by him on Jerusalem (4Kings 23), not even Nechao's subsequent defeat by Nabuchodonosor (Jer., 46), prevent the stubborn pro-Egyptian politicians of Jerusalem from reckoning on the help of Egypt when the Babylonians laid siege to the Holy City. True, Hophra (589-570) made a military demonstration in the direction of Gaza (Jer., 47); but his troops were defeated, and Jerusalem, left to its plight, succumbed in 586. Many Judeans then and thereafter sought a new country in Egypt (4Kings 25) and even compelled Jeremias to follow them (Jer., 43). After the collapse of the Chaldean Empire Egypt, now but a shadow of its former greatness, fell into the hands of the Persian king Cambyses (525) and, two centuries later (332), of Alexander the Great. Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198). The Book of Daniel and those of the Machabees contain many references to the struggle of the Lagidre and the Seleucidre for its possession. During the last three centuries before the Christian era Egypt, and especially Alexandria, became a great center of Jewish population; to this fact the world is indebted for the Greek translation of the old Hebrew Scriptures. Relations between Palestine and Egypt, particularly after the Roman occupation, were easy and frequent; and thus it is not surprising to see the Holy Family seek refuge in Egypt from the mad fury of Herod (Matthew 2).
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Stream of Egypt
occurs once in the Old Testament-- (Isaiah 27:12 ) [1] RIVER OF EGYPT - 3664
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Stream of Egypt
(Isaiah 27:12 ), the Wady el-'Arish, called also "the river of Egypt," RSV, "brook of Egypt" (Numbers 34:5 ; Joshua 15:4 ; 2 Kings 24:7 ). It is the natural boundary of Egypt. Occasionally in winter, when heavy rains have fallen among the mountains inland, it becomes a turbulent rushing torrent. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between el-'Arish and Gaza.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Egypt
A land in northeastern Africa, home to one of the earliest civilizations, and an important cultural and political influence on ancient Israel.
Geography Egypt lies at the northeastern corner of Africa, separated from Palestine by the Sinai Wilderness. In contrast to the modern nation, ancient Egypt was confined to the Nile River valley, a long, narrow ribbon of fertile land (the “black land”) surrounded by uninhabitable desert (the “red land”). Egypt proper, from the first cataract of the Nile to the Mediterranean, is some 750 miles long.
Classical historians remarked that Egypt was a gift of the Nile. The river's three tributaries converge in the Sudan. The White Nile, with its source in Lake Victoria, provides a fairly constant water flow. The seasonal flow of the Blue Nile and Atbara caused an annual inundation beginning in June and cresting in September. Not only did the inundation provide for irrigation, but it replenished the soil with a new layer of fertile, black silt each year. The Nile also provided a vital communication link for the nation. While the river's flow carried boats northward, prevailing northerly winds allowed easy sailing upstream.
Despite the unifying nature of the Nile, the “Two Lands” of Egypt were quite distinct. Upper Egypt is the arable Nile Valley from the First Cataract to just south of Memphis in the north. Lower Egypt refers to the broad Delta of the Nile in the north, formed from alluvial deposits. Egypt was relatively isolated by a series of six Nile cataracts on the south and protected on the east and west by the desert. The Delta was the entryway to Egypt for travelers coming from the Fertile Crescent across the Sinai.
History The numerous Egyptian pharaohs were divided by the ancient historian Manetho into thirty dynasties. Despite certain difficulties, Manetho's scheme is still used and provides a framework for a review of Egyptian history.
The unification of originally separate kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt about 3100 B.C. began the Archaic Period (First and Second Dynasties). Egypt's first period of glory, the Third through Sixth Dynasties of the Old Kingdom (2700-2200 B.C.) produced the famous pyramids. The first, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, was build for Djoser of the Third Dynasty. The most famous, however, are the Fourth Dynasty pyramids at Giza, especially the Great Pyramid of Pharaoh Khufu (Greek Cheops ). Much poorer pyramids demonstrate a reduction in royal power during the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties.
Low Nile inundations, the resultant bad harvests, and incursions of Asiatics in the Delta region brought the political chaos of the Seventh through Tenth Dynasties, called the First Intermediate Period (2200-2040 B.C.). Following a civil war, the Eleventh Dynasty reunited Egypt and began the Middle Kingdom (2040-1786 B.C.). Under the able pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty, Egypt prospered and conducted extensive trade. From the Middle Kingdom onward, Egyptian history is contemporary with biblical events. Abraham's brief sojourn in Egypt (Genesis 12:10-20 ) during this period may be understood in light of a tomb painting at Beni Hasan showing visiting Asiatics in Egypt about 1900 B.C.
Under the weak Thirteenth Dynasty, Egypt entered another period of division. Asiatics, mostly Semites like the Hebrews, migrated into the Delta region of Egypt and began to establish independent enclaves, eventually consolidating rule over Lower Egypt. These pharaohs, being Asiatics rather than native Egyptians, were remembered as Hyksos, or “rulers of foreign lands.” This period, in which Egypt was divided between Hyksos (Fifteenth and Sixteenth) and native Egyptian (Thirteenth and Seventeenth) dynasties, is known as the Second Intermediate or Hyksos Period (1786-1550 B.C.). Joseph's rise to power (Genesis 41:39-45 ) may have taken place under a Hyksos pharaoh. See Hyksos .
The Hyksos were expelled and Egypt reunited about 1550 B.C. by Ahmose I, who established the Eighteenth Dynasty and inaugurated the Egyptian New Kingdom. Successive Eighteenth Dynasty pharaohs made military campaigns into Canaan and against the Mitannian kingdom of Mesopotamia, creating an empire which reached the Euphrates River. Foremost among the pharaohs was Thutmose III (1479-1425 B.C.), who won a major victory at Megiddo in Palestine. Amenhotep III (1391-1353 B.C.) ruled over a magnificent empire in peace—thanks to a treaty with Mitanni—and devoted his energies to building projects in Egypt itself. The great successes of the Empire led to internal power struggles, especially between the powerful priesthood of Amen-Re and the throne.
Amenhotep III's son, Amenhotep IV (1353-1335 B.C.), changed his name to Akhenaton and embarked on a revolutionary reform which promoted worship of the sun disc Aton above all other gods. As Thebes was dominated by the powerful priesthood of Amen-Re, Akhenaton moved the capital over two hundred miles north to Akhetaton, modern tell el-Amarna. The Amarna Age, as this period is known, brought innovations in art and literature; but Akhenaton paid little attention to foreign affairs, and the Empire suffered. Documents from Akhetaton, the Amarna Letters, represent diplomatic correspondence between local rulers in Egypt's sphere of influence and pharaoh's court. They especially illuminate the turbulent situation in Canaan, a century prior to the Israelite invasion.
The reforms of Akhenaton failed. His second successor made clear his loyalties to Amen-Re by changing his name from Tutankhaton to Tutankhamen and abandoning the new capital in favor of Thebes. He died young, and his comparatively insignificant tomb was forgotten until its rediscovery in 1921. The Eighteenth Dynasty would not recover. The General Horemheb seized the throne and worked vigorously to restore order and erase all trace of the Amarna heresy. Horemheb had no heir and left the throne to his vizier, Ramses I, first king of the Nineteenth Dynasty.
Seti I (1302-1290 B.C.) reestablished Egyptian control in Canaan and campaigned against the Hittites, who had taken Egyptian territory in North Syria during the Amarna Age. See Hittites. Construction of a new capital was begun by Seti I in the eastern Delta, near the biblical Land of Goshen. Thebes would remain the national religious and traditional capital.
Ramses II (1290-1224 B.C.) was the most vigorous and successful of the Nineteenth Dynasty pharaohs. In his fifth year, he fought the Hittites at Kadesh-on-the-Orontes in north Syria. Although ambushed and nearly defeated, the pharaoh rallied and claimed a great victory. Nevertheless, the battle was inconclusive. In 1270 B.C. Ramses II concluded a peace treaty with the Hittites recognizing the status quo. At home he embarked on the most massive building program of any Egyptian ruler. Impressive additions were made to sanctuaries in Thebes and Memphis, a gigantic temple of Ramses II was built at Abu Simbel in Nubia, and his mortuary temple and tomb were prepared in Western Thebes. In the eastern Delta, the new capital was completed and called Pi-Ramesse (“domain of Ramses;” compare Genesis 47:11 ), the biblical Ramses (Exodus 1:11 ). Indeed, Ramses II may have been the unnamed pharaoh of the Exodus.
Ramses II was succeeded, after a long reign, by his son, Merneptah (1224-1214 B.C.). A stele of 1220 B.C. commemorates Merneptah's victory over a Libyan invasion and concludes with a poetic account of a campaign in Canaan. It includes the first extra-biblical mention of Israel and the only one in known Egyptian literature. After Merneptah, the Nineteenth Dynasty is a period of confusion.
Egypt had a brief period of renewed glory under Ramses III (1195-1164 B.C.) of the Twentieth Dynasty. He defeated an invasion of the Sea Peoples, among whom were the Philistines. The remainder of Twentieth Dynasty rulers, all named Ramses, saw increasingly severe economic and civil difficulties. The New Kingdom and the Empire petered out with the last of them in 1070 B.C. The Iron Age had taken dominance of the Near East elsewhere.
The Late Period (1070-332 B.C.) saw Egypt divided and invaded, but with occasional moments of greatness. While the high priesthood of Amen-Re controlled Thebes, the Twenty-first Dynasty ruled from the east Delta city of Tanis, biblical Zoan (Numbers 13:22 ; Psalm 78:12 ; Ezekiel 30:14 ; Isaiah 19:11 ; Isaiah 30:4 ). It was likely a pharaoh of this dynasty, perhaps Siamun, who took Gezer in Palestine and gave it to Solomon as his daughter's dowry (1 Kings 3:1 ; 1 Kings 9:16 ). The Twenty-second Dynasty was founded by Shoshenq I (945-924 B.C.), the Shishak of the Bible, who briefly united Egypt and made a successful campaign against the newly-divided nations Judah and Israel (1 Kings 14:25 ; Jeremiah 37:5-10 ). Thereafter, Egypt was divided between the Twenty-second through Twenty-fifth Dynasties. The “So king of Egypt” (2 Kings 17:4 ) who encouraged the treachery of Hoshea, certainly belongs to this confused period, but he cannot be identified with certainty. Egypt was reunited in 715 B.C., when the Ethiopian Twenty-fifth Dynasty succeeded in establishing control over all of Egypt. The most important of these pharaohs was Taharqa, the biblical Tirhakah who rendered aid to Hezekiah (2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 ).
Assyria invaded Egypt in 671 B.C., driving the Ethiopians southward and eventually sacking Thebes (biblical No-Amon; Nahum 3:8 ) in 664 B.C. Under loose Assyrian sponsorship, the Twenty-sixth Dynasty controlled all of Egypt from Sais in the western Delta. With Assyria's decline, Neco II (610-595 B.C.) opposed the advance of Babylon and exercised brief control over Judah (2 Kings 23:29-35 ). After a severe defeat at the Battle of Carchemish (605 B.C.), Neco II lost Judah as a vassal (2 Kings 24:1 ) and was forced to defend her border against Babylon. The Pharaoh Hophra (Greek Apries ; 589-570 B.C.) supported Judah's rebellion against Babylon, but was unable to provide the promised support (2 Chronicles 12:1 ; Jeremiah 44:30 ). Despite these setbacks, the Twenty-sixth Dynasty was a period of Egyptian renaissance until the Persian conquest in 525 B.C. Persian rule (Twenty-seventh Dynasty) was interrupted by a period of Egyptian independence under the Twenty-eighth through Thirtieth Dynasties (404-343 B.C.). With Persian reconquest in 343 B.C., pharaonic Egypt had come to an end.
Alexander the Great took Egypt from the Persians in 332 B.C. and founded the great city of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast. After his death in 323 B.C., Egypt was home to the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Empire until the time of Cleopatra, when it fell to the Romans (30 B.C.). During the New Testament period, Egypt, under direct rule of the Roman emperors, was the breadbasket of Rome.
Religion Egyptian religion is extremely complex and not totally understood. Many of the great number of gods were personifications of the enduring natural forces in Egypt, such as the sun, Nile, air, earth, and so on. Other gods, like Maat (“truth,” “justice”), personified abstract concepts. Still others ruled over states of mankind, like Osiris, god of the underworld. Some of the gods were worshiped in animal form, such as the Apis bull which represented the god Ptah of Memphis.
Many of the principal deities were associated with particular cities or regions, and their position was often a factor of the political situation. This is reflected by the gods' names which dominate pharaohs' names in various dynasties. Thus the god Amen, later called Amen-Re, became the chief god of the Empire because of the position of Thebes. The confusion of local beliefs and political circumstances led to the assimilation of different gods to certain dominant figures. Theological systems developed around local gods at Hermopolis, Memphis, and Heliopolis. At Memphis, Ptah was seen as the supreme deity which created the other gods by his own word, but this notion was too intellectual to be popular. Dominance was achieved by the system of Heliopolis, home of the sun god Atum, later identified with Ra. Similar to the Hermopolis cycle, it involved a primordial chaos from which appeared Atum who gave birth to the other gods.
Popular with common people was the Osiris myth. Osiris, the good king, was murdered and dismembered by his brother Seth. Osiris' wife, Isis, gathered his body to be mummified by the jackal-headed embalming god Anubis. Magically restored, Osiris was buried by his son, Horus, and reigned as king of the underworld. Horus, meanwhile, overcame the evil Seth to rule on earth. This cycle became the principle of divine kingship. In death, the pharaoh was worshiped as Osiris. As the legitimate heir Horus buried the dead Osiris, the new pharaoh became the living Horus by burying his dead predecessor.
The consistent provision of the Nile gave Egyptians, in contrast to Mesopotamians, a generally optimistic outlook on life. This is reflected in their preoccupation with the afterlife, which was viewed as an ideal continuation of life on earth. In the Old Kingdom it was the prerogative only of the king, as a god, to enjoy immortality. The common appeal of the Osiris cult was great, however, and in later years any dead person was referred to as “the Osiris so and so.”
To assist the dead in the afterlife, magical texts were included in the tomb. In the Old Kingdom they were for royalty only, but by the Middle Kingdom variations were written inside coffin lids of any who could afford them. In the New Kingdom and later, magical texts known as The Book of the Dead were written on papyrus and placed in the coffin. Pictorial vignettes show, among other things, the deceased at a sort of judgment in which his heart was weighted against truth. This indicates some concept of sin, but the afterlife for the Egyptian was not an offer from a gracious god, but merely an optimistic hope based on observation of his surroundings.
The Bible mentions no Egyptian gods, and Egyptian religion did not significantly influence the Hebrews. There are some interesting parallels between biblical texts and Egyptian literature. An Amarna Age hymn to the Aton has similarities to Psalm 104:1 , but direct borrowing seems unlikely. More striking parallels are found in wisdom literature, as between Proverbs 22:1 and the Egyptian Instruction of Amen-em-ope.
Daniel C. Browning, Jr.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Mary of Egypt, Saint
Penitent, born northern Egypt, c.344;died Arabian desert, 421. After living an evil life for seventeen years at Alexandria, she was miraculously converted at Jerusalem. Retiring into the Arabian desert, she passed her remaining 47 years in penance and solitude. Saint Zosimus discovered her there and administered Holy Communion to her. Relics venerated at Rome, Naples, Cremona, and Antwerp. Feast, April 2,. See also: patron saints index.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Shi'Hor of Egypt
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Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Egypt
One of the great powers of the ancient Near East, Egypt dominated the international stage during the prestate life of Israel. By the time of the united monarchy, Egypt had entered the long twilight of its power and influence. During its decline, the Nile kingdom remained a potential threat to the Hebrew state as exemplified, by the attack of Shishak in the fifth year of Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:25 ), but this threat diminished over time. To the independent states of Israel and Judah, international threats increasingly came from the north.
Despite its diminished historical role, Egypt remained a potent theological symbol. Throughout the Bible, Egypt fulfills a dual role both as a place of refuge and a place of oppression, a place to "come up out of" and a place to flee to. This role begins with Abraham. He seeks refuge in Egypt because "there was a famine in the land" (Genesis 12:10 ); yet he must leave when Pharaoh wants to place Sarah in the royal harem. This is also the first recorded encounter of the divine ruler of Egypt and Yahweh the God of Abraham.
The story of Joseph gives a much more detailed picture of Egypt and the ambiguity of its role. Egypt is a place of oppression, as Joseph is initially enslaved, eventually ending up in prison. Egypt is also a place of hope and refuge as Joseph is raised to be second in the land. From this position of great power he is able to provide a refuge from famine for his family. One of the themes of the Joseph story is that God is not restricted by national boundaries. He blesses the property of Potipher (and, by extension, Potipher himself) when Joseph is his overseer (Genesis 39:5 ). Egypt had a reputation as a place of wisdom, and Joseph appeals to this aura by calling on them to find a man "discerning and wise" (Genesis 41:33 ). Of course, Joseph is the man they need, one of the Wise, those who know the way the world works in both a divine and a human sense.
The place of wisdom, the land of refuge and hope, becomes the land of slavery when "a new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt" (Exodus 1:8 ). The harsh experience of the Israelites in Egypt colors all later references to the land. Throughout the course of the struggle between Pharaoh and Yahweh, Egypt comes to represent all that is opposed to God. The fabled wisdom of Egypt is revealed as false wisdom, powerless to help the Egyptians defeat the God of Israel. Even the divine Pharaoh is unmasked as a man subject to death like his people.
The equation of Egypt with oppression becomes foundational to the people of Israel, providing the setting for the fundamental religious ritual of Passover. For the Deuteronomist, the right of God to demand worship from his people is based partly on his historic role as liberator. "Do not forget the Lord; who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery" (Deuteronomy 6:12 ). This was done because "the Lord loved you and brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the land of slavery, from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt" (7:8).
By the time of Solomon, Egypt is no longer an oppressor but a trading partner (1 Kings 10:28 ), diplomatic relation, and cultural influence. The writer of 1Kings declares that Solomon's wisdom is "greater than all the wisdom of Egypt" (4:30). The Egyptian role as oppressor of the people of God soon shifts to Assyria and Babylonia.
In an ironic twist, Egypt becomes a place of refuge after the Babylonian capture of Jerusalem. Yet it is a false refuge, as the fleeing Hebrews place their trust in a dying nation rather than in the living God. Like the people lost in the wilderness, some of the survivors of the destruction of Judah would rather live in relative peace in Egypt than be available for God in Palestine. Jeremiah delivers the verdict of God: "I will punish those who live in Egypt with the sword, famine and plague, as I punished Jerusalem" (Jeremiah 44:13 ).
God speaks of his love for his people in an oracle of the prophet Hosea: "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son" (11:1). Yet the people reject God and he laments, "Will they not return to Egypt and will not Assyria rule over them because they refuse to repent?" (v. 5). In this oracle, Egypt functions again as a place of oppression, this time under Assyria.
In the Gospel of Matthew, Egypt is both a place of refuge and a place to come out of. One of Matthew's goals in writing his Gospel is to present Jesus as a new Moses. Matthew reports that Joseph was warned in a dream to take Jesus and his mother "and escape to Egypt" (Matthew 2:14 ). After the death of Herod, an angel tells Joseph to return to the land of Israel. Matthew applies the oracle of Hosea 11 to this situation, further linking Jesus with the historic suffering of the people of God ( Matthew 2:15 ). Like Moses, Jesus comes out from Egypt, escaping the temptation of luxury, ease, and a peaceful life. Instead, he will fulfill the will of God and follow the lifelong road to Jerusalem.
Thomas W. Davis
See also Exodus, Theology of ; Moses
Bibliography . D. Hill, The Gospel of Matthew ; J. M. Miller and J. H. Hayes, A History of Israel and Judah .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - River of Egypt
(1) Νehar Μitsraim (Genesis 15:18); "the Nile".
(2) Νahal Μitsaim (Numbers 34:5; Joshua 15:3-4; Joshua 15:47; 1 Kings 8:65; 2 Kings 24:7); "the torrent of Egypt": see above nahal , "a stream flowing rapidly in the rainy season, then drying up", inapplicable to the sluggish Nile ever flowing. The Rhinocorura or Rhinocolora (so Septuagint of Isaiah 27:12) on the sea coast, a wady and torrent running into the sea two or three days' journey from the nearest branch of the Nile. Now wady el Arish. Though not in Egypt, it was the last torrent of any raze on the way toward Egypt from the N. In Joshua 13:3, "from Sihor which is before Egypt," the same torrent is marked as Israel's southern boundary, as the entering in of Hamath is the northern (Numbers 34:5; Numbers 34:8). The Nile was not "before" (i.e. east of) Egypt, but flowed through the middle of the land; so 1 Chronicles 13:5. Shihor, "the black river," is the Nile's designation in Deuteronomy 23:3; Jeremiah 2:18.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Egypt
The genealogies in Genesis 10 concern races, not mere descent of persons; hence, the plural forms, Madai, Kittim, etc. In the case of Egypt the peculiarity is, the form is dual, Mizraim, son of Ham (i.e. Egypt was colonized by descendants of Hain), meaning "the two Egypts," Upper and Lower, countries physically so different that they have been always recognized as separate. Hence, the Egyptian kings on the monuments appear with two crowns on their heads, and the hieroglyph for Egypt is a double clod of earth, representing the two countries, the long narrow valley and the broad delta. The Speaker's Commentary suggests the derivation Mes-ra-n, "children of Ra," the sun, which the Egyptians claimed to be. It extended from Migdol (near Pelusium, N. of Suez) to Syene (in the far S.) (Ezekiel 29:10; Ezekiel 30:6 margin). The name is related to an Arabic word, "red mud."
The hieroglyphic name for Egypt is Κem , "black," alluding to its black soil, combining also the idea of heat, "the hot dark country." The cognate Arabic word means "black mud." Ham is perhaps the same name, prophetically descriptive of "the land of Ham" (Psalms 105:23; Psalms 105:27). The history of states begins with Egypt, where a settled government and monarchy were established earlier than in any other country. A king and princes subordinate are mentioned in the record of Abram's first visit. The official title Pharaoh, Egyptian Peraa, means "the great house" (De Rouge). Egypt was the granary to which neighboring nations had recourse in times of scarcity. In all these points Scripture accords with the Egyptian monuments and secular history. The crown of Upper Egypt was white, that of Lower red; the two combined forming the pschent.
Pharaoh was Suten, "king," of Upper Egypt; Shebt, "bee" (compare Isaiah 7:18), of Lower Egypt; together the SUTEN-SHEBT. The initial sign of Suten was a bent reed, which gives point to 2 Kings 17:21; "thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed ... Egypt on which if a man lean it trill go into his hand and pierce it." Upper. Egypt always is placed before Lower, and its crown in the pschent above that of the latter. Egypt was early divided into nomes, each having its distinctive worship. The fertility of soil was extraordinary, due to the Nile's overflow and irrigation; not, as in Palestine, due to rain, which in the interior is rare (Genesis 13:10; Deuteronomy 11:10-11; Zechariah 14:18). The dryness of the climate accounts for the perfect preservation of the sculptures on stone monuments after thousands of years. Limestone is the formation as far as above Thebes, where sandstone begins.
The first cataract is the southern boundary of Egypt, and is caused by granite and primitive rocks rising through the sandstone in the river bed and obstructing the water. Rocky sandstrewn deserts mostly bound the Nilebordering fertile strip of land, somewhat lower, which generally in Upper Egypt is about 12 miles wide. Low mountains border the valley in Upper Egypt. In ancient times there was a fertile valley in Lower Egypt to the east of the delta, the border land watered by the canal of the Red Sea; namely, Goshen. The delta is a triangle at the Nile's mouth, formed by the Mediterranean and the Pelusiac and Canopic branches of the river. The land at the head of the gulf of Suez in centuries has become geologically raised, and that on the N. side of the isthmus depressed, so that the head of the gulf has receded southwards. So plentiful were the fish, vegetables, and fruits, that the Israelites did "eat freely," though but bondservants.
But now political oppression has combined with the drying up of the branches and canals from the Nile and of the artificial lakes (e.g. Moeris) and fishponds, in reversing Egypt's ancient prosperity. The reeds and waterplants, haunted by waterfowl and made an article of commerce, are destroyed and Goshen, once "the best of the land," is now among the worst by sand and drought. The hilly Canaan, in its continued dependence on heaven for rain, was the emblem of the world of grace upon which "the eyes of the Lord are always," as contrasted with Egypt, emblem of the world of nature, which has its supply from below and depends on human ingenuity. The Nile's overflow lasts only about 100 days, but is made available for agriculture throughout the year by tanks, canals, and forcing machines. The "watering with the foot" was by treadwheels working sets of pumps, and by artificial channels connected with reservoirs, and opened, turned, or closed by the feet.
The shadoof , or a pole with a weight at one end and a bucket at the other, the weight helping the laborer to raise the full bucket, is the present plan. Agriculture began when the inundating water had sunk into the soil, a month after the autumn equinox, and the harvest was soon after the spring equinox (Exodus 9:31-32). Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo, and the monuments confirm Genesis 47:20; Genesis 47:26, as to Joseph's arrangement of the land, that the king and priests alone were possessors and the original proprietors became crown tenants subject to a rent or tribute of one-fifth. Joseph had taken up one-fifth in the seven plenteous years. Naturally then he fixed on one-fifth to be paid to the king, so that he might, by stores laid up, be prepared against any future famine.
The warriors too were possessors (Diodorus, 1:73, 74; and Egyptian monuments), but probably not until after Joseph's time, since they are not mentioned in Genesis, and at all events their tenure was distinct from the priests', for each warrior received (Herodotus, 2:168) 12 aruroe (each axura a square of 100 Egyptian cubits); i.e., there were no possessions vested in the soldier caste, but portions assigned to each soldier tenable at the sovereign's will. The priests alone were left in full possession of their lands. Lake Menzaleh, the most eastern of the existing lakes, has still large fisheries, which support the people on its islands and shore. Herodotus (ii. 77) and Plutarch are wrong in denying the growth of the vine in Egypt before Psammetichus, for the monuments show it was well known from the time of the pyramids. Wine was drunk by the rich people, and beer was drunk by the poor as less costly.
Wheat was the chief produce; barley and spelt (asin Exodus 9:32) ought to be translated instead of "rie," Triticum spelta, the common food of the ancient Egyptians, now called by the natives doora, the only grain, says Wilkinson, represented on the sculptures, but named on them often with other species) are also mentioned. The flax was "boiled," i.e. in blossom, at the time of the hail plague before the Exodus. This accurately marks the time just before Passover. In northern Egypt the barley ripens and flax blossoms in the middle of February or early in March, and both are gathered before April, when wheat harvest begins. Linen was especially used by the Egyptian priests, and for the evenness of the threads, without knot or break, was superior to any of modern manufacture. Papyrus is now no longer found in the Nile below Nubia. In ancient times, light boats were made of its stalks, and paper of its leaves.
It is a strong rush, three-cornered, the thickness of the finger, 10 or 15 ft. high, represented on the monuments. The "flags" are a species called tuff or sufi , Hebrew suph , smaller than that of which the ark was made (Exodus 2:3), "bulrushes," "flags" (Isaiah 18:2; Isaiah 19:7). The lotus was the favorite flower. Camels are not found on the monuments, yet they were among Abram's possessions by Pharaoh's gift. But it is certain Egypt was master of much of the Sinai Peninsula long before this, and must have had camels, "the ships of the desert," for keeping up communications. They were only used on the frontier, being regarded as unclean, and, hence, are not found on monuments in the interior. The hippopotamus, the behemoth of Job, was anciently found in the Nile and hunted. The generic term tannim , "dragon," (i.e. any aquatic reptile, here the crocodile) is made the symbol of the king of Egypt (Ezekiel 29:3-5.)
God made Amasis the hook which He put in the jaws of Pharaoh Hophra (Apries), who was dethroned and strangled, in spite of his proud boast that "even a god could not wrest from him his kingdom" (Herodotus, 2:169). Compare Isaiah 51:9-10. Rahab, "the insolent," is Egypt's poetical name (Psalms 87:4; Psalms 89:10; Isaiah 51:9). Psalms 74:13-14; Thou brokest the heads of the dragons in the waters, ... the heads of Leviathan, ... and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness"; alluding to Pharaoh and his host overthrown in the Red Sea and their bodies cast on shore and affording rich spoil to Israel in the wilderness. Compare "the people ... are bread for us" (Numbers 14:9). The marshes and ponds of Egypt make it the fit scene for the plague of frogs. Locusts come eating all before them, and are carried away by the wind as suddenly as they come.
The dust-sprung "lice" are a sort of tick, as large as a gram of sand, which when filled with blood expands to the size of a hazel nut (Exodus 8:17; Exodus 8:21, etc.). The "flies" were probably the dog-fly (Septuagint) whose bite causes severe inflammation, especially in the eyelids; compare Isaiah 7:18, "the fly that is in the uttermost parts of the rivers of Egypt" Oedmann makes it the beetle, kakerlaque, Blatta orientalis, which inflicts painful bites; peculiarly appropriate, as the beetle was the Egyptian symbol of creative power.
ORIGIN. - The Egyptians were of Nigritian origin; like modern Nigritians, the only orientals respectful of women. There was no harem system of seclusion, the wife was "lady of the house." Their kindness to Israel, even during the latter's bondservice, was probably the reason for their being admitted into the congregation in the third generation (Deuteronomy 23:3-8). An Arab or Semitic element of race and language is added to the Nigritian in forming the Egyptian people and their tongue. The language of the later dynasties appears in the demotic or enchorial writing, the connecting link between the ancient language and the present Coptic or Christian Egyptian. The great pyramid (the oldest architectural monument in existence according to Lepsius) is distinguished from all other Egyptian monuments in having no idolatrous symbols.
Piazzi Smith says, when complete, it was so adjusted and exactly fashioned in figure that it sets forth the value of the mathematical term pi, or demonstrates the true and practical squaring of a circle. The length of the front foot of the pyramid's casing stone, found by Mr. W. Dixon, or that line or edge from which the angular pi slope of the whole stone begins to rise, which therefore may be regarded as a radical length for the theory of the great pyramid, measures exactly 25 pyramid inches, i.e. the ten-millionth part of the length of the earth's semi-axis of rotation; 25 pyramid inches were the cubit of Noah, Moses, and Solomon "the cubit of the Lord their God." It is a monument of divinely-ordered number before the beginning of idolatry. (See WEIGHT AND MEASURE.)
RELIGION. - Nature worship is the basis of the Egyptian apostasy from the primitive revelation; it degenerated into the lowest fetishism, the worship of cats, dogs, beetles, etc., trees, rivers, and hills. There were three orders of gods; the eight great gods, 12 lesser, and those connected with Osiris. However, the immortality of the soul and future rewards and punishments at the judgment were taught. The Israelites fell into their idolatries in Egypt (Joshua 24:14; Ezekiel 20:7-8.) This explains their readiness to worship the golden calf, resembling the Egyptian ox-idol, Apis (Exodus 32).
THE TEN PLAGUES. -The plagues were all directed against the Egyptian goes, from whom Israel was thus being weaned, at the same time that Jehovah's majesty was vindicated before Egypt, and His people's deliverance extorted from their oppressors. Thus, the turning of the Nile into blood was a stroke upon Hapi, the Nile god. The plague of frogs attacked the female deity with a frog's head, Heka, worshipped in the district Sah, i.e. Benihassan, as wife of Chnum, god of cataracts or of the inundation; this was a very old form of nature worship in Egypt, the frog being made the symbol of regeneration; Seti, father of Rameses II, is represented on the monuments offering two vases of wine to an enshrined frog, with the legend "the sovereign lady of both worlds"; the species of frog called now dofda is the one meant by the Hebrew-Egyptian zeparda (Exodus 8:2), they are small, do not leap much, but croak constantly; the ibis rapidly consumes them at their usual appearance in September, saving the land from the "stench" which otherwise arises (Exodus 8:18-19).
The third plague of dust-sprung lice fell upon the earth, worshipped in the Egyptian pantheism as Seb, father of the gods (Exodus 8:16); the black fertile soil of the Nile basin was especially sacred, called Chemi, from which Egypt took its ancient name. The fourth plague, of flies (Exodus 8:21), was upon the air, deified as Shu, son of Ra the sun god, or as Isis, queen of heaven. The fifth was the murrain on cattle, aimed at their ox worship (Exodus 9:1-7). The sixth, the boils from ashes sprinkled toward the heaven, was a challenge to Neit, "the great mother queen of highest heaven," if she could stand before Jehovah, also a reference to the scattering of victims' ashes to the wind in honor of Sutech or Typhon; human sacrifices at Hellopolis, offered under the shepherd kings, had been abolished by Amosis I, but this remnant of the old rite remained; Jehovah now sternly reproves it 'by Moses' symbolic act.
The seventh, the hail, thunder, and lightning; man, beast, herb, and tree were smitten, so that Pharaoh for the first time recognizes Jehovah as God; "Jehovah is righteous, and I and my people are wicked" (Exodus 9:27). The eighth, the locusts eating every tree, attacked what the Egyptians so prized that Egypt was among other titles called "the land of the sycamore." The destruction at the Red Sea took place probably under Thothmes II., and it is remarkable that his widow imported many trees from Arabia Felix. The ninth, darkness, the S.W. wind from the desert darkening the arm: sphere with dense masses of fine sand, would fill with gloom the Egyptians, whose chief idol was Ra, the sun god.
The tenth, the smiting of the firstborn of man and beast, realized the threat, "against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment" (Exodus 12:12); for every town and nome had its sacred animal, frog, beetle, ram, cow, cat, etc., representing each a god; Remphan and Chiun were adopted from abroad. (See EXODUS.) Egyptian religions law depended on future rewards and punishments; the Mosaic law on the contrary mainly depended on temporal rewards and punishments, which only could have place in a system of miraculous and extraordinary divine interposition. The Mosaic law therefore cannot have been borrowed from the Egyptians. The effect of the divine plagues on the Egyptians is seen in the fact that a "mixed multitude," numbering many Egyptians who gave up their idols to follow Israel's God, accompanied Israel at the Exodus (Exodus 12:38), besides Semitics whose fathers had come in with the Hyksos.
POWER AND CONQUESTS OF KINGS. -The kings seem to have been absolute; but the priests exercised a controlling influence so great that the Pharaoh of Joseph's time durst not take their lands even for money. Tablets in the Sinaitic peninsula record the Egyptian conquest of Asiatic nomads there. The kings of the 18th dynasty reduced the countries from Syria to the Tigris under tribute, from 1500 to 1200 B.C. Hittites of the valley of the Orontes were their chief opponents.
RELATION TO ISRAEL. - Egyptian power abroad declined from 1200 to 990 B.C. the very interval in which David's and Solomon's wide empire fits in; then Shishak reigned and invaded Judah. The struggle with Assyria and Babylonia for the intermediate countries lasted until Pharaoh Necho's defeat at Carchemish ended Egypt's supremacy. Except Zerah and Shishak (of Assyrian or Babylonian extraction), the Egyptian kings were friendly to Israel in Palestine. Solomon married a Pharaoh's daughter; Tirhakah helped Hezekiah; So made a treaty with Hoshea; Pharaoh Necho was unwilling to war with Josiah; and Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) raised the Chaldaean siege of Jerusalem as Zedekiah's ally. In Africa they reduced the Rebu or Lubim. W. of Egypt; Ethiopia was ruled by a viceroy "prince of Kesh." The many papyri and inscriptions, religious, historical, and one a papyrus tale about two brothers, the earliest extant fiction (in the British Museum), show what a literary people the Egyptians were.
Geometry, mechanics, chemistry (judging from Moses' ability, acquired probably from them, to burn and grind to powder the golden calf), astronomy (whereby Moses was able to form a calendar, Acts 7:22), and architecture massive and durable, were among Egypt's sciences. Magic was practiced (Exodus 7:11-12; Exodus 7:22; Exodus 8:14; Exodus 9:11; 2 Timothy 3:8-9). Pottery was part of Israel's bondservice (Psalms 81:6; Psalms 68:13). The Israelites' eating, dancing, singing, and stripping themselves at the calf feast, were according to Egyptian usage (Exodus 32:5-25). Antiquity and dynasties. - The antiquity of the colonization of Egypt by Noah's descendants is shown by the record of the migration of the Philistines from Caphtor, which must have been before Abram's arrival in Palestine, for the Philistines were then there. (See PHILISTINES; CAPHTOR.)
The Caphtorim sprang from the Mizraim or Egyptians (Genesis 10:13-14; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7). The Egyptians considered themselves and the Negroes, the red and the black races, as of one stock, children of the god Horus; and the Shemites and Europeans, the yellow and the white, as of another stock, children of the goddess Pesht. No tradition of the flood, though found in almost every other country, is traceable among them, except their reply to Solon (Plato, Tim., 23) that there had been many floods. There are few records of any dynasty before the 18th, except those of the 4th and 12th; but the names of the Pharaohs of the first six dynasties have been found, with notices implying the complete organization of the kingdom (Rouge, Recherches). The Memphite line under the 4th dynasty raised the most famous pyramids. The shepherd kings came from the East as foreigners, and were obnoxious to native Egyptians.
Indeed so intense was Egyptian prejudice that foreigners, and especially Easterners, are described as devils; much in the same way as the Chinese regard all outside the Celestial empire. A Theban line of kings reigned in Upper Egypt while the shepherds were in Lower. Hence arose the opinion that a shepherd king, not a native Egyptian, was the foreigner Joseph's patron; Apophis is generally named. Pharaoh's invitation to Joseph's family to settle in Goshen (Genesis 46:34; Genesis 47:6), not among the Egyptians, may indicate a desire to strengthen himself against the Egyptian party. The absence of mention of the Israelites on the monuments would be accounted for by the troubled character of the times of the shepherd kings. But see below. The authorities for Egyptian history are
(1) the monuments;
(2) the papyri (the reading of hieroglyphics having been discovered by Young and Champollion from the trilingual inscription, hieroglyphics, enchorial or common Egyptian letters, and Greek, in honor of Ptolemy Epiphanes, on the Rosetta stone);
(3) the Egyptian priest Manetho's fragments in Josephus, containing the regal list beginning with gods and continued through 30 dynasties of mortals, from Menes to Nectanebo, 343 B.C., these fragments abound in discrepancies;
(4) accounts of Greek visitors to Egypt after the Old Testament period. The two most valuable papyri are the Turin papyrus published by Lepsius; and the list of kings in the temple of Abydos, discovered By Mariette, which represents Seti I with his son Rameses II worshipping his 76 ancestors, beginning with Menes. The interval between the 6th and 11th dynasties is uncertain, the monuments affording no contemporary notices. The kings of this period in Manetho's list were probably rulers of parts only of Egypt, contemporary with other Pharaohs. The Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty, and the early kings of the 13th, were lords of all Egypt, which the shepherd kings were not; the latter must therefore belong to a subsequent period. Sculpture and architecture were at their height in the 12th dynasty, and the main events of the time are recorded in many inscriptions.
From the fourth king of the 13th dynasty to the last of the 17th, the period of the Hyksos or shepherd kings, the monuments afford no data for the order of events. The complete list of the ancestors of Seti I gives no Pharaoh between Amenemha, the last king of the 12th dynasty, and Aahmes or Amosis, the first of the 18th, who expelled the Hyksos. From the 18th dynasty Egypt's monumental history and the succession of kings are somewhat complete, but the chronology uncertain. No general era is based on the ancient inscriptions.
Apephis or Apepi was the last of the Hyksos, Ta-aaken Rasekenen the last of the contemporary Egyptian line. Abram's visit (Genesis 12:10-20) was in a time of Egypt's prosperity; nor is Abram's fear lest Sarai should be taken, and he slain for her sake, indicative of a savage state such as would exist under the foreign Hyksos rather than the previous native Egyptian kings; for in the papyrus d'Orbiney in the British Museum, of the age of Rameses II of a native dynasty, the 19th, the story of the two brothers (the wife of the elder of whom acts toward the younger as Potiphar's wife toward Joseph) represents a similar act of violence (the Pharaoh of the time sending two armies to take a beautiful wife and murder her husband on the advice of the royal councilors), at the time of Egypt's highest civilization; and this attributed not to a tyrant, but to one beloved and deified at his decease.
So in an ancient papyrus at Berlin a foreigner's wife and children are taken by the king, as an ordinary occurrence. Moreover, in the Benihassan monuments, on the provincial governor's tomb is represented a nomadic chief's arrival with his retinue to pay homage to the prince. The pastoral nomads N.W. of Egypt, and the Shemites in Palestine, are called Amu; the chief, called Abshah in this papyrus (father of a multitude numerous as the sand, meaning much the same as Abraham), is the hak, i.e. sheikh, with a coat of many colors. Shasous is another name for wandering nomads; and Hyksos = prince of the Shasous. The story of Saneha (i.e. son of the sycamore) in one of the oldest papyri relates that he, an Amu, under the 12th dynasty, rose to high rank under Pharaoh, and after a long exile abroad was restored and made "counselor among the chosen ones," to develop the resources of Egypt (just as Joseph), taking precedence among the courtiers.
This proves there is nothing improbable in the account of Abram's kind reception and Joseph's elevation by the Pharaoh of a native dynasty, earlier than the foreign Hyksos, who were harsh and fierce, and more likely to repel than to welcome foreigners. Asses, regarded as unclean under the middle and later empire, were among Pharaoh's presents to Abram (Genesis 12:16). Horses are omitted, which accords with the earlier date, for they were unknown (judging from the monuments) to the 12th or any earlier dynasty, and were probably introduced from Arabia by the Hyksos. So that Abram's visit seems to have been under an early Pharaoh, perhaps Amenemha, the first king of the 12th dynasty; Joseph's visit two centuries later, toward the end of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th. Thenceforward, horses abounded in the Egyptian plains and were largely bought thence by Solomon (1 Kings 4:26; 1 Kings 10:25; 1 Kings 10:29) in defiance of the prohibition, Deuteronomy 17:16; compare 2 Kings 7:6.
SHEPHERD KINGS. - Salatis ("mighty", in Semitic) was first of the shepherd dynasty, which lasted about 250 years and comprised six kings, Apophis last. The long term, 500 years, assigned by Manetho to the shepherd kings, (and by Africanus 800,) is unsupported by the monuments, and is inconsistent with the fact that the Egyptians, at the return to native rulers under the 18th dynasty, after so complete an overthrow of their institutions for five or eight centuries (?), wrote their own language without a trace of foreign infusion, and worshipped the old gods with the old rites. The only era on Egyptian monuments distinct from the regnal year of the sovereign is on the tablet of a governor of Tanis under Rameses II, referring back to the Hyksos, namely, the 400th year from the era of Set the Golden under the Hyksos king, Set-a-Pehti, "Set the Mighty." Set was the chief god worshipped by the Hyksos from the first.
From Rameses II (1340 B.C.) 400 years would take us to 1740 or 1750 B.C. 250 years of the Hyksos dynasty would bring us to 1500 B.C. for their expulsion, and 250 before 1750 B.C. would be Abram's date. Thus the period assigned to the dynasties before Rameses by Lepsius is much reduced. Joseph was quite young at his introduction to Pharaoh, and lived 110 years; but if Apophis, the contemporary of Rasekenen, the predecessor of Aahmes I who took Avaris and drove out the Hyksos, were Joseph's Pharaoh, Joseph would have long outlived Apophis; how then after his patron's expulsion could he have continued prosperous? Moreover, Apophis was not master of all Egypt, as Joseph's Pharaoh was; Rasekenen retained the Thebaid, and after Apophis' defeat erected large buildings in Memphis and Thebes.
The papyrus Sallier I represents Apophis' reign as cruel and ending in an internecine He and his predecessors rejected the national worship for of Sutech = Set = the evil principle Typhon exclusively; his name Apepi means the great serpent, enemy of Ra and Osiris. Sutech answers to the Phoenician Baal, and is represented in inscriptions as the Hittites' chief god, and had human sacrifices at Heliopolis under the Hyksos, which Aahmes I suppressed.
JOSEPH'S PHARAOH. - There is nothing of Joseph's history which does not agree with the most prosperous period of the native dynasties; their inscriptions illustrate every fact recorded in Genesis concerning Joseph's Pharaoh. Shepherds were, according to Genesis, "an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time; this is decisive against his living under a shepherd king. The names of the first three of the 48 kings of the 13th dynasty in the papyrus at Turin resemble Joseph's Egyptian title given by Pharaoh as his grand vizier Zafnath Paanaeh the food of life," or "the living" (compare the apposite title of the type, John 6:35). Joseph may therefore have lived trader an early Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty, prior to the Hyksos, or else of the 12th; compare the story of Saneha under Osirtasin above. This 12th dynasty was especially connected with On or Heliopolis, where Osirtasin I, the second king of that dynasty, built the temple, and where his name and title stand on the famous obelisk, the oldest and finest in Egypt.
On was the sacerdotal city and university of northern Egypt; its chief priest, judging from the priests' titles, was probably a relative of Pharaoh. As absolute, Pharaoh could command the marriage of Joseph to the daughter of the priest of On, however reluctant the priesthood might be to admit a foreigner. Moreover, Joseph being naturalized would hardly be looked on as such, especially as being the king's prime minister. The "Ritual," 17th chapter, belongs to the 11th dynasty, and is the oldest statement of Egyptian views of the universe. It implies a previous pure monotheism, of which it retains the unity, eternity, self-existence of the unseen God; a powerful confirmation of the primitive Bible revelation to Adam handed down to Noah, and thence age by age becoming more and more corrupted by apostasies from the original truth; the more the old text of the "Ritual" is freed from subsequent glo
Holman Bible Dictionary - Brook of Egypt
The southwestern limit of Canaanite territory given to Israel as a possession (Numbers 34:5 NAS). It is usually identified with the Wadi el-Arish, which flows from the middle of the Sinai Peninsula to the Mediterranean Sea. It empties into the Mediterranean about midway between the sites of Gaza and Pelusium. See Rivers and Waterways in the Bible .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Egypt
EGYPT.—The Gospel narrative comes into contact with the land of Egypt at one point alone, and then only incidentally, in a manner which seems to have exercised no influence and left no trace upon the course of sacred history. The record, moreover, is confined to the first of the Evangelists, and is by him associated with the fulfilment of prophecy, as one of the links which drew together the ancient Hebrew Scriptures and the life of our Lord. The narrative is simple and brief. St. Matthew relates that Joseph, in obedience to the command of God, conveyed by an angel in a dream, took refuge in Egypt with the child and His mother from the murderous intentions of Herod the king (Matthew 2:13 f.). The return to Palestine, again at the bidding of an angel of the Lord in a dream, is described (Matthew 2:19 ff.). Joseph, however, feared to enter Judaea because of Archelaus, Herod’s son and successor; and in obedience to a second vision directed his course to Galilee, and settled at Nazareth (Matthew 2:22 f.).
To St. Matthew it would appear that the chief interest of the history lies in its relation to OT prophecy. Both movements, the Flight and the Return to Nazareth, are described as fulfilments of the word spoken ‘through the prophet’ (Matthew 2:15), or ‘through the prophets’ (Matthew 2:23). In the first instance the passage quoted is Hosea 11:1 ‘When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt’ (מִמִּצרַיִם קָרִאחי לִבִנִי, LXX Septuagint τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ, ‘his, i.e. Israel’s, children’). Hosea recalls the deliverance and mercies of the past (cf. G. A. Smith, Twelve Prophets, in loc.); the Evangelist sees history repeating itself in a new exodus, which, like the earlier departure from Egypt, signalizes the beginning of a new national life, and is the promise and pledge of Divine favour. Egypt, therefore, to the narrator is no mere ‘geographical expression.’ The name recalls the memories of a glorious past, when Israel’s youth was guided and sustained by the miracles of Divine interposition. And to him it is significant of much that this land should thus be brought into connexion with the birth of a new era for the people, in the Person of a greater Son, in whom he saw the fulfilment of the best hopes and brightest anticipations of Israel’s ancient prophets.
The narrative of the Evangelist is absolutely simple and unadorned, and amounts to little more than a mention of the journey into Egypt made under Divine direction. No indication is given either of the locality or duration of the stay in the country. The impression conveyed, however, is that the visit was not prolonged.* [1] Had the case been otherwise, it would hardly have failed to find mention in the other Synoptic Gospels, if not in St. John. The absence, therefore, of further record is hardly sufficient ground for throwing doubt upon the reality of the incident itself.
This brief statement is supplemented and expanded in the Apocryphal Gospels with a wealth of descriptive detail. The fullest accounts are found, as might be expected, in the Gospel of the Infancy, and the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, Extra Vol. p. 430 ff.).
In the Gospel of the Infancy (ch. ix. f.), Joseph and Mary with the Child set out for Egypt at cock-crow, and reach a great city and temple with an idol to whose shrine the other idols of Egypt send gifts. There they find accommodation in a hospital dedicated to the idol, and a great commotion is caused by their entrance. The people of the land send to the idol to inquire the reason of the commotion, and are told that an ‘occult god’ has come, who alone is worthy of worship, because he is truly Son of God. Thereupon the idol falls prostrate, and all the people run together at the sound. The following chapter narrates the healing of the three-year-old son of the priest of the idol, who is possessed by many demons, and whose sickness is described in terms similar to those used of the Gadarene demoniac (Luke 8:27, Mark 5:2-5). Thereafter Joseph and Mary depart, being afraid lest the Egyptians should burn them to death because of the destruction of the idol. Passing on their way they twice meet with robbers in the desert. In the first instance the robbers flee on their approach, and a number of captives are liberated. At a considerably later stage of their journey (ch. xxiii.) two handits are encountered, whose names are given as Titus and Dumachus, the former of whom bribes his companion not to molest Joseph and Mary; and the child Jesus foretells His crucifixion at Jerusalem thirty years later with these two robbers, and that Titus shall precede Him into Paradise. On the road the travellers have passed through many cities, at which a demoniac woman, a dumb bride, a leprous girl who accompanies them on their journey, and many others have been healed. Finally, they come to Memphis (ch. xxv.), where they see the Pharaoh, and remain three years, during which period Jesus works many miracles; returning at the end of the three years to Palestine, and by direction of an angel making their home at Nazareth.
In a similar strain the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (ch. xvii. ff.) records the number of attendants, with riding animals, a waggon, pack-oxen and asses, sheep and rams, that set out with Joseph and Mary from Judaea. In a cave where they had stopped to rest they are terrified by dragons, which, however, worship the child Jesus; and lions and other wild beasts escort them on their way through the desert. A palm-tree bends down its boughs that Mary may pluck the fruit; and as a reward a branch of it is carried by an angel to Paradise. A spring also breaks forth from its roots for the refreshment of man and beast. And the long thirty days’ journey into Egypt is miraculously shortened into one. The name of the Egyptian city to which they come is said to be Sotines within the borders of Hermopolis, and there, in default of any acquaintance from whom to seek hospitality, they take refuge in the temple, called the ‘capitol.’ The 355 idols of the temple, to which divine honours were daily paid, fall prostrate, and are broken in pieces; and Affrodosius, the governor of the town, coming with an army, at sight of the ruined idols worships the child Jesus, and all the people of the city believe in God through Jesus Christ. Afterwards Joseph is commanded to return into the land of Judah. Nothing, however, is said of the actual journey, but a narrative of events ‘in Galilee’ follows, beginning with the fourth year of Christ’s age.
According to the Gospel of Thomas, ch. i. ff. (Latin, Tisch. Evv. Apocr. [2] p. 156 ff.), Jesus was two years old on entering Egypt. He and His parents found hospitality in the house of a widow, where they remained for a year, at the close of which they were expelled because of a miracle wrought by Jesus in bringing a dry and salted fish to life. A similar fate overtakes them subsequently in being driven from the city. The angel directs Mary to return, and she goes with the child to Nazareth. The History of Joseph, ch. viii. f., states the duration of the stay in Egypt as a whole year, and names Nazareth as the city in which Jesus and His parents lived after their return into the land of Israel.
The Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt has been at all times a favourite subject for the exercise of Christian art. William Blake, Charles Holroyd, Eugène Girardet, Anthony van Dyke, William Dobson, and many others have painted the scenes by the way with a circumstance and detail which are indebted, where not wholly imaginary, to the accounts of the Apocryphal Gospels. The reality would doubtless differ widely from the tranquil and easy conditions under which it has usually been depicted, and from which most readers have formed their mental conceptions of the event. The simple reticence of the Gospel narrative is in striking contrast to the luxuriance and prodigality of miracle of the Apocryphal story. All that can be affirmed with certainty is that the flight would be conducted in haste and with the utmost secrecy, and probably for the most part under cover of night. See also Flight.
Literature.—For notes on the Gospel narrative see the Commentaries on St. Matthew; and for the Apocryphal additions to the history, Tischendorf’s Evangelia Apocrypha, Leipzig, 1853. Certain features in the latter appear to betray Buddbist relations or parentage. For some account of the treatment of the subject in art, see Farrar, Christ in Art, pp. 263–273.
A. S. Geden.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Egypt
Hebrews 11:26 (c) A type of the world with its riches and opportunities.
Revelation 11:8 (a) Because Jerusalem was given up to business pursuits, idolatry and pleasure, it is compared to Egypt.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Plagues of Egypt
It may not be unacceptable to the readers of this work to have brought before them in one short view the account of the plagues of Egypt, in order to take into a comprehensive manner the judgment of God over the Egyptians, while manifesting grace to his Israel.
There were ten different sorts of plagues which the Lord brought upon Egypt, all succeeding one another, with only the intermission of a few days; and each rising in succession with more tremendous judgments, until in the last of them the Egyptians began to discover that if the Lord persisted in the infliction, all Egypt was destroyed.
The first was that of turning the waters of their famous river the Nile into blood. It is worthy remark that the first miracle wrought by Moses was this of turning water into blood; but the first miracle of the Lord Jesus Christ was that of turning water into wine. (John 2:11) And was it not in both instances figurative of the different dispensations of the law and the gospel? Every thing under the law, like the full flowing streams of the Nile turned into blood, is made a source of condemnation: it is called indeed the ministration of death, (2 Corinthians 3:7) Every thing under the gospel brings with it life and liberty. Jesus puts a blessing into our most common comforts, and the whole is sanctified.
The second plague of Egypt was that of the frogs. (Exodus 8:1-2; Exo 8:14) There was somewhat particularly striking in this progression of Egypt's torments. The first was remote and distant, confined to the rivers and water; but this second is brought nearer home, and comes near their persons, in their houses, and their chambers, "Their land, (saith the Psalmist,) brought forth frogs in abundance in the chambers of their kings." (Psalms 105:30) When one affliction loseth its effect, a second and a greater shall follow. If distant corrections are not heard, the stroke shall be both seen and felt within our houses. This progressive punishment of the Lord, even upon his own people, is set forth in the most finished representation. (See Leviticus 26:3-46.)
In the third plague, that of lice, the punishment is heightened. Now the Lord is come home indeed by his afflictions on the person of the Egyptians. Before, the judgment was confined to the river and to the land; but here the Lord made a marked distinction from the former, so as to compel the magicians of Egypt to acknowledge in it the finger of God. (See Exodus 8:16-19)
The plague of flies was the fourth judgment with which the Lord smote Egypt. And here I beg the reader to remark how every visitation became more and more distressing, rising, as it did, in circumstances heightened with misery. The plague of lice was great, but this of flies abundantly more. Even in our own climate, in hot summer-seasons, when passing through narrow lanes and hedges in the country not much frequented, where insects of the winged kind increase unmolested, the horse and his rider sometimes feel their sting, and are almost made mad. But in hot countries the swarms of those creatures are at times destructive indeed. And what must the plague of flies in Egypt have been when purposely armed and sent by the Lord. We may form some conjecture of the dreadful effect that this plague wrought on Pharaoh and his people, for he called for Moses, and in his fright consented to the Israelites' departure. I beg the reader to consult the account of this plague, as recorded in Scripture. (Exodus 8:20-32) And I beg him also to observe how the Lord, concerning this plague, called upon both the Egyptians and the Israelites to observe the tokens of his discriminating grace over his people; for we are told that the Lord marked the land of Goshen, where Israel dwelt, that no swarm of flies should be there. Let the reader pause over this account; and let him say, what must Israel have felt in this marked distinction. Oh, what an evident token of the Lord's love! And is it not so now, and hath been through all ages of the church? Yea, are we not told that thus we are "to return, and discern between the righteous and the wicked, between him that serveth God and him that serveth him not?" (Malachi 3:18) I beg the reader to turn to the article: Flies, for a farther illustration of this subject.
The fifth plague of Egypt, rising still in terror, was that of the pestilence and mortality among all the cattle of the Egyptians; in which, as a continuance of the same discrimination as had been shewn before in the plague of the flies, while all the cattle of Egypt died, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. (See Exodus 9:1-7) Beside the very tremendous judgment on Egypt as a nation by this plague, we may remark somewhat leading to the gospel dispensation in this appointment. "The whole creation (we are told) groaneth and travaileth in pain together." (Romans 8:22) The earth bore part in the curse for man's disobedience; hence therefore in man's redemption, of which the bringing Israel out of Egyptian bondage is a type, the inferior creatures are made to bear part in punishment. It is more than probable also, that some among the cattle that were destroyed were included in the idols of Egypt; for certain it is, that from the Egyptians the Israelites learnt the worship of the calf, which afterwards they set up in the wilderness. (See Exodus 32:1-6) What contempt, therefore, by the destruction of cattle, was thrown upon the idols of Egypt!
In the view of the sixth plague of Egypt, "the boils breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast,"we behold the hand of the Lord falling heavier than ever. The persons of Pharaoh and his people in those boils and ulcers were most dreadfully beset. It should seem to have been not only one universal epidemic malady, but a malady hitherto unknown—bodies covered with running sores. When Moses afterwards in the wilderness was admonishing Israel to be cautious of offending the Lord, and threatening punishment to their rebellion, he adverts to those boils as among the most dreadful of divine visitations. "The Lord will smite thee with the botch of Egypt, and with the emerods, and with the scab, and with the itch, whereof thou canst not be healed." (Deuteronomy 28:27) The imagination cannot form to itself, in bodily afflictions any thing more grievous; and when to the sore of body, the corroding ulcer of soul is joined, and both beheld as coming from the Lord, surely nothing this side hell can be wanting to give the most finished state of misery! (See Exodus 9:8-12) And if the reader will read also Moses's account of a corrosive mind, he will behold the awful state of having God for our enemy. (Deuteronomy 28:15-68.)
The seventh plague of Egypt was the "thunder, lightning, rain, and hail." (Exodus 9:13-35.) This tremendous storm was ushered in with a solemn message from the Lord to Pharaoh, that there should be a succession of plagues until that the Lord had cut him off from the face of the earth; and that the Lord had indeed raised him up for this very purpose, to shew in him the Lord's power, and that the Lord's name should be declared throughout all the earth. But what I particularly beg the reader to remark in these plagues of Egypt is, the progressive order from bad to worse, leading on to the most finished and full state of misery.
In this we mark also distinguishing grace to some of the servants of Pharaoh. We are told that they, among them that feared the word of the Lord, called home their servants and their cattle to places of shelter before the storm came. And as when Israel went up afterwards with an high hand out of Egypt, a mixed multitude went with them, were not these such as grace had marked for the Lord's own? May we not consider them as types of the Gentile church given to the Lord Jesus, as well as the Jewish church? (Isaiah 49:6)
The eighth plague is introduced by the Lord with bidding Moses, the man of God, to remark to Israel that the Lord had hardened the heart of Pharaoh purposely, that he might set forth his love to Israel in shewing these signs and wonders before them. The Lord delights in distinguishing grace, and the Lord delights that his people should know the proofs of it also. "That thou mayest tell it, (saith the Lord) in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them, that ye may know how that I am the Lord." The plague of locusts succeeded that of thunder, lightning, rain and hail. (Exodus 10:1) This was so grievous that the very earth was covered with them, and the whole land was darkened. (See Locusts.) We read these transactions, and form an idea that the suffering of the people must have been great: but all apprehension must fall short of what was the reality of the evil. (See Exodus 1:1 - Exodus 20:26.)
The ninth plague was that of "darkness covering Egypt," while Goshen, the habitation of Israel, had light. (Exodus 10:21) And this both in duration and extent exceeds all that was ever heard of in the history of the world. Three days it continued in Egypt, so that they saw not one another, neither did any arise from his place; and to aggravate the horrid gloom, it was a darkness which reached to feeling also, though through mercy we know not what that means. Such perhaps as the torments of the damned. Every misery is increased, be it what it may, when the hand of an angry God is felt in it.
The tenth and last plague which the Lord inflicted upon Egypt, preparatory to Israel's departure, was that of the destruction of the first-born both of man and beast; and so universal was it, that it reached from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat upon his throne, to the first-born of the maid servant which ground at the mill. And to aggravate this finishing stroke of misery, the Lord appointed it at midnight. The imagination, can hardly conceive with what horrors the Egyptians arose to the death of their first-born when the midnight cry was so great, because there was not an house where there was not one dead. (Exodus 12:29-30) I must refer the reader to the sacred Scriptures for the wonderful account of this tremendous judgment, for it would too largely swell the pages of this work, to enter into the relation of it here. But I beg the reader, when he hath read the Holy Scriptures on this subject, as contained in the eleventh and twelfth chapters of Exodus, to pause over the history, and to remark with me whether there is not somewhat typical in the destruction of Egypt's first-born, and the salvation of Israel. The lamb the Israelites were commanded to have slain, and which was called by the Lord himself the Lord's Passover was typical of Christ. The sprinkling of the blood on their houses was also typical, and the eating of it was typical; in short, the whole of this service, and appointed in such a moment, while Egypt was destroying, was wholly typical of Christ, and Israel's alone salvation by him. And though in our present twilight of knowledge our greatest researches go but a little way, yet certain it is, the destruction of Egypt, the hardening of Pharaoh's heart, and the heart of his people, and the delivery of Israel, all pointedly preached the same solemn truth, as it is the whole, tenor of revelation to declare, that the distinguishing grace of God is the sole cause wherefore Israel is saved and the Egyptians destroyed. The apostle Paul, commenting on this history, and taught by the Holy Ghost, hath said all that can be said in confirmation of the doctrine itself, and all that can be said by the most unbelieving mind against it, in one of his chapters to the Romans. But the issue of Paul's reasoning finisheth the subject in the most decided manner, by referring the whole to the sovereignty and good pleasure of God. I cannot better close the subject on the history of the plagues of Egypt, than by referring the reader to the apostle's divine conclusions on the same, and very earnestly begging the reader to go over, with suitable diligence and attention, and with prayer to God the Holy Ghost attention, and with prayer to God the Holy Ghost to bless him in the perusal, the ninth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans (Romans 9:1-33).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Shihor of Egypt
See SIHOR.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Israel in Egypt
The details of the history of Israel in Egypt are few. When Joseph was in power, Jacob and his whole household settled in the land: there they multiplied and became a great nation. In time a king reigned who knew not Joseph, and the people were reduced to cruel bondage. Through God's intervention and after dire judgements upon the Egyptians, the Israelites were delivered. See EGYPT and JOSEPH
A question not easily answered is, How long were the Israelites in Egypt? In Genesis 15:13 ; Acts 7:6 , the period seems to be stated as four hundred years. Exodus 12:40 says "the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years;" and Galatians 3:17 declares that the law was given four hundred and thirty years after the promise to Abraham. The promise to Abraham was long before Israel went into Egypt, and the law was given after they came out; so that according to this passage their sojourning in Egypt must have been much less than four hundred years. A much shorter period is implied in Genesis 15:16 , which says of Israel in Egypt that "in the fourth generation they shall come hither again;" and if we turn to Exodus 6:16-20 we find exactly four generations, thus:
Jacob's son Levi.
Levi's son Kohath.
Kohath's son Amram.
Amram's son Moses.
Or, if we start with Levi, who entered with Jacob, there was ample time for Moses to have had a son, as he was eighty years old at the Exodus. Now if we reckon that at that time a man had his first son when he was forty years of age, there would have been ten generations in four hundred years. Further, the mother of Moses (Jochebed) was Levi's daughter, (Numbers 26:59 ), Amram having married his own aunt. Exodus 6:20 . Levi lived only a hundred and thirty-seven years in all, and supposing (it can be approximately proved) that he lived in Egypt eighty-eight years, Jochebed was born during those years. If Moses was born when she was forty-seven years of age, and Moses was eighty years old at the Exodus, these sums (88 + 47 + 80 = 215 years) show that Israel may have been in Egypt about two hundred and fifteen years, and this is the period now generally supposed.
If we admit this to be the time of the occupation, we must endeavour to see how it agrees with the four hundred and thirty years of Galatians 3:17 .
YEARS.
Age of Abraham when Isaac was born 100
" " Abraham, when the promise was given 75
25
" " Israel when Jacob was born 60
" " Jacob when he stood before Pharaoh 130
" " Sojourn of Israel in Egypt 215
430
If then this be the correct period, how does it agree with Genesis 15:13 and Exodus 12:40 ? In Genesis 15:13 and Acts 7:6 , nothing is said about Egypt : "Thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs." This was said to Abraham, and may include the whole period from the birth of Isaac to the Exodus, which according to the above was four hundred and five years — thus agreeing with the round number of four hundred years. Exodus 12:40 is worded differently: "The sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years." The Samaritan Pentateuch and the LXX add the words "and of their fathers in the land of Canaan;" but these words are not in the Arabic, Syriac, or Vulgate versions; and may therefore have been added to meet the apparent difficulty. It is better to take the four hundred and thirty years as including the sojourn of Abraham (after the promise), and of Isaac, and of Jacob, though strictly speaking Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were not 'children of Israel.'
The conclusion that the sojourn in Egypt was really for two hundred and fifteen years creates another difficulty in some minds, namely, the great increase of the Israelites during that period. Exodus 12:37 speaks of there being 600,000 men, besides children, at the Exodus. Numbers 1:46 gives the number more exactly as 603,550 from twenty years old and upwards that were able to go to war. This has been calculated to signify a total of about two million men, women, and children, without the descendants of Levi. Is this a greater number than could be the descendants of those who entered Egypt? This may be reckoned in two ways: if we deduct thirteen from the seventy (for the family of Levi and for those who could not be called heads of families at that time) Deuteronomy 10:22 , the result gives fifty-seven heads of families; and if each had 14 children,
In one generation there would be 798
In the second 11,172
In the third 156,408
In the fourth 2,189,712
To reckon fourteen children to each may seem a large number, but it must be remembered that there was the plurality of wives, and scripture speaks of their multiplying exceedingly.
Exodus 1:7,12,20 .
The increase may be reckoned in another manner by the population. If the above fifty-seven are multiplied by 3.3 it gives as the population at the commencement (excluding Levi, and his descendants, etc., as above ) 188 persons. Suppose the population doubled itself in fifteen years (as it has been known to do in some places), the number in two hundred and ten years would be over three millions. There is therefore no difficulty in the increase of the people.
Israel in Egypt is typical of mankind in the world, under the power of Satan, before being sheltered under the blood of Christ, and redeemed by the power of God.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Plagues of Egypt
These were wrought by God to show to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians His great power, and that all the elements of creation were at His disposal. Exodus 7 — Exodus 12 .
1. THE PLAGUE OF BLOOD. The water of the Nile and of the canals and pools was turned into blood. The water stank, and the fish died. This was a real punishment; for it was the water they all drank, and which was highly esteemed. The fish too was abundant: the Israelites in the wilderness could not forget the fish of which they had eaten freely, or 'for nothing.' The magicians also were able to turn water into blood: where then was the great power of the God of Israel? Pharaoh hardened his heart.
2. FROGS. The land swarmed with them: they were in their bedchambers, their ovens, and their bread pans. The magicians also were able to bring up frogs on the land. The presence of the frogs was so insufferable that Pharaoh called for Moses, and begged him to entreat Jehovah for their removal, and he would let the people go. The frogs died and were gathered in heaps; but with the relief, Pharaoh hardened his heart, and would not let the people go.
3. LICE, ken, kinnam. The dust of the land became lice in man and in beast. It has been supposed that the word signifies gnats, because the LXX has σκνίφες, which some translate 'mosquito-gnats.' But these may be included in the next plague. It is more probable that the louse or the tick is alluded to. It is described as being ' in man and in beast.' The magicians could not imitate this: it was a communication of life. They acknowledged, "This is the finger of God." Yet Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not let Israel go.
4. FLIES. In the A.V. the words 'of flies' are added, and the 'swarms' may refer to swarms of insects of different sorts. They were to come into the houses and also to corrupt the land. Gesenius gives 'gad-fly' for arob , but in Psalm 78:45 ; Psalm 105:31 , the same word is translated 'divers sorts of flies.' There is an insect that is exceedingly destructive to property, ruining the wood of a house in a short time. No doubt the common fly of Egypt is included: they are very troublesome; soon defiling food, and persistently attacking the body. One thing that characterises this plague is that these pests were not sent into the land of Goshen, where the Israelites dwelt. The plague was felt so much that Pharaoh hastened to call Moses, and proposed that they should have their sacrifice, but have it in Egypt. To this Moses could not accede, for the Israelites would have to sacrifice the animals which the Egyptians worshipped. Pharaoh at length consented to their going; but they were not to go very far away. However no sooner was the plague removed than Pharaoh again refused to let Israel go.
5. MURRAIN OF BEASTS. It fell upon the cattle, horses, asses, camels, and sheep, that were in the fields, and all that were attacked died. Of the cattle of the children of Israel none were stricken. Pharaoh sent to certify this, and one would have thought that, finding they were all safe, it would have convinced him that it was the Almighty he was fighting against. But he would not let Israel go.
6. BOILS upon man and beast. The magicians were now smitten, so that they could not stand before Pharaoh as at other times. But Pharaoh hardened his heart, and refused to let the people go.
7. HAIL, with thunder and lightning. The fire ran along upon the ground. There had not been a storm of such violence since Egypt had been a nation. This also had not fallen upon Goshen. The king said, "I have sinned this time: Jehovah is righteous, and I and my people are wicked. Entreat Jehovah (for it is enough) that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer." The hail and thunder ceased; but Pharaoh would not let Israel go.
8. LOCUSTS. Moses threatened these, and Pharaoh's servants now begged him to let the people go. He called for Moses and Aaron, and said, "Go, serve the Lord your God: but who are they that shall go?" All must go, and the flocks and herds. Pharaoh again refused, but said the men might go. The devastation of the locusts was such that Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron 'in haste,' confessed that he had sinned against Jehovah, and begged that 'this death' might be removed. A west wind carried away the locusts but Pharaoh's heart was hardened; and he again refused.
9. DARKNESS. "They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings." It was a darkness that might be felt, and Pharaoh called for Moses, and bade the Israelites to depart with their wives and their little ones; but they must leave their flocks and herds behind. Moses could not agree: all must go: not a hoof must be left behind, it was God's redemption. Pharaoh was angry, saying, "Take heed to thyself, see my face no more: for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die." Moses replied, "Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more." This is in Exodus 10:29 ; but in Exodus 11:4-8 it is clear that Moses told Pharaoh of the death of the firstborn, which might have been on the same occasion by a message direct from God. We read that Moses, though the meekest of men, went out from Pharaoh in great anger.
10. DEATH OF THE FIRSTBORN. "From the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle." The Israelites had prepared the paschal lamb, and had sprinkled its blood upon the lintel and door-posts, and the destroyer passed them by. This was typical of the precious blood of Christ, which is the testimony that judgement on man has been executed, and is the basis of all God's subsequent dealings in grace. Moses and Aaron were called for, and told to depart with flocks and herds. The Egyptians were urgent upon them to make haste, exclaiming, "We be all dead men." Thus did God bring His sore judgements upon Egypt, to let Pharaoh know that He was the mighty God, and to redeem His chosen people with a high hand.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Hermopolis Magna, Egypt, Diocese of
Coptic Rite. Comprises central Egypt, bounded north by the patriarchate; east by the Gulf of Hermopolis; south by 27° and 28° north latitude; west by the Libyan Desert; established, 1895; suffragan of Alexandria. There is a titular see of the Latin Rite. See also:
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Shihor of Egypt
The black, turbid river (Joshua 13:3; Joshua 15:4; Joshua 15:47; SIHOR is the less correct form); 1 Chronicles 13:5. "Shihor which is before (i.e. E. of) Egypt." Not the Nile, which is called "the river" (haeor ; Genesis 41:1; Genesis 41:3; Exodus 1:22), and flowed not before but through the middle of Egypt. The Rhinocorura is meant, now wady el Arish, the nachal or "river of Egypt," Canaan's southern boundary toward Egypt, (Numbers 34:5). In Isaiah 23:3; Jeremiah 2:18; Sihor means the "Nile".
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Egypt, Diocese of (Armenian Rite)
A see of the Armenian Rite, comprising Egypt, with residence at Cairo.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Egypt, City of
Seaport city, founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. It was the world's intellectual and commercial center under the ptolemies. Left to Cleopatra by Julius Caesar, 46 B.C., Augustus included it in a Roman province. Passing to the Byzantines and abandoned to the Arabs, its ruin was furthered by the Turks, 1517. It is now restored to commercial importance, and has a varied population of mixed creeds. Christianity was introduced by Saint Mark, and it became illustrious as a seat of learned doctors, Pantrenus, Clement, Origen, and as the see of Athanasius and Cyril. Under Dioscurus (444-454), successor to Saint Cyril, the Eutychian or Monophysite heresy arose. It spread rapidly and eventually effected a severance from Rome and the Church of Alexandria's ruin. Its tenet of one nature in Christ was a reaction against Nestorianism teaching two distinct natures in Christ. Eutychianism minimized the completeness of the Humanity and exaggerated the effects upon it of its union with the Divinity, thus denying the reality of the human nature. It finally divided into two communions: the native Copts, bound to error; and the foreign Greeks, faithful to schismatic orthodoxy.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Egypt, Diocese of (Latin Rite)
The diocese of Alexandria was one of the earliest. It was suppressed following the Islamic invasion. The Vicariate Apostolic of Egypt of re-established on May 18, 1839. Its name was changed to the Vicariate Apostolic of Alexandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951. Notable bishops through the years include
Saint Athanasius (c.328)
See also
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
Google Map
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Egypt
A well known kingdom in Scripture history, from whence the church, under the Lord, made their first Exodus. The believer in Christ knows also what it is to have been brought up in Egypt, and brought out of the Egypt of the soul.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Egypt
Egypt (ç'jĭpt). This is one of the oldest and most remarkable countries in ancient history, famous for its pyramids, sphinxes, obelisks, and ruins of temples and tombs. In early times it reached a high state of culture in art and literature, and is of great interest to Jew and Christian as the early home of the Israelites and of their great lawgiver Moses. Our notice of it must be confined to its relations to Bible events, and to those facts in its history that throw light on the Scripture. In Hebrew, Egypt is called Misraim, a dual form of the word, indicating the two divisions—Upper and Lower Egypt, or (as Tayler Lewis suggests), the two strips on the two sides of the Nile. It is also known as the Land of Ham, Psalms 105:23; Psalms 105:27, and Rahab, "the proud one." Psalms 87:4; Psalms 89:10; Isaiah 51:9. The Coptic and older title is Kemi, or Chemi, meaning black, from the dark color of the soil. The name Egypt first occurs in its Greek form in Homer, and is applied to the Nile and to the country, but afterward it is used for the country only. Egypt is in the northeastern part of Africa and lies on both sides of the Nile. In ancient times it included the land watered by the Nile as far as the First Cataract, the deserts on either side being included in Arabia and Libya. Ezekiel indicates that Egypt reached from Migdol, east of the Suez Canal, to Syene, now Assouan, on the border of Nubia, near the First Cataract of the Nile. Ezekiel 29:10, margin. The length of the country in a straight line from the Mediterranean to the First Cataract is about 520 miles; its breadth is from 300 to 450 miles, and its entire area is about 212,000 square miles. Nubia, Ethiopia, and other smaller districts bordering on the Nile to the south of Egypt, were, at times, under its sway. The country has three great natural divisions: 1. The Delta. 2. The Nile Valley. 3. The sandy and rocky wastes. The Delta is one vast triangular plain, chiefly formed by the washing down of mud and loose earth by the great river Nile and watered by its several mouths, and by numerous canals. The Delta extends along the Mediterranean for about 200 miles and up the Nile for 100 miles. The Tanitic branch of the Nile is on the east of the Delta, and the Canopic branch on the west, though the Delta is now limited chiefly to the space between the Rosetta and the Damietta branches, which is about 90 miles in extent.
Climate.— The summers are hot and sultry, the winters mild; rain, except along the Mediterranean, is very rare, the fertility of the land depending almost entirely upon the annual overflow of the Nile, or upon artificial irrigation by canals, water-wheels, and the shadoof, winds are strong, those from a northerly source being the most prevalent, while the simoon, a violent whirlwind and hurricane of sand, is not infrequent. The soil, when watered, is fertile, and fruits, vegetables, plants, and nuts are abundant. The papyrus reed was that from which paper was made. The reeds have disappeared, as Isaiah predicted. Isaiah 19:6-7. Domestic and wild animals were numerous, including the crocodile and hippopotamus, and vulture, hawk, hoopoe (a sacred bird), and ostrich were common. Flies and locusts were sometimes a scourge. Joel 2:1-11.
Inscriptions.— The hieroglyphic signs on the monuments are partly ideographic or pictorial, partly phonetic. The hieroglyphic, the shorter hieratic, and the demotic alphabets were deciphered by Champollion and Young by means of the famous trilingual Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799, and the Coptic language, which is essentially the same with the old Egyptian. For a summary of the respective merits of Young and Champollion with regard to the interpretation of Egyptian hieroglyphics, see Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, vol. 3, p. 2902. The process of decipherment was, briefly, as follows: the Rosetta Stone had an inscription in three characters, hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. The Greek, which was easily read, declared that there were two translations—one in the sacred, the other in the popular language of the Egyptians, adjacent to it. The demotic part was next scrutinized, and the groups determined which contained the word Ptolemy. These were compared with other framed symbols on an obelisk found at Philæ, and after a time the true interpretation of these signs discovered, so that scholars can now read most of these hieroglyphic signs with great accuracy.
History.— The ancient history of Egypt has been divided into three periods by leading writers: the old monarchy, extending from the foundation of the kingdom to the invasion of the Hyksos; the middle, from the entrance to the expulsion of the Hyksos; and the new, from the re-establishment of the native monarchy by Amasis to the Persian conquest. Manetho enumerates 30 dynasties as having ruled in Egypt before Alexander the Great, probably several of them at the same time, but over separate parts of the country. Manetho was an Egyptian priest who lived in the em of the Ptolemies in the third century b.c. His work (a history of Egypt, written in Greek) is lost, but his list of dynasties has been preserved in later writers. The beginning of the first dynasty in his list is fixed by Lepsius in 3892 b.c., but by Böckh in 5702 b.c. 1. The old monarchy: Memphis was the most ancient capital, the foundation of which is ascribed to Menes, the first historic king of Egypt. The most memorable epoch in the history of the old monarchy is that of the Pyramid kings, placed in Manetho's fourth dynasty. Their names are found upon these monuments: the builder of the great pyramid is called Suphis by Manetho, Cheops by Herodotus, and Khufu or Shufu in an inscription upon the pyramid. The erection of the second pyramid is attributed by Herodotus and Diodorus to Chephren; and upon the neighboring tombs has been read the name of Khafra or Shafre. The builder of the third pyramid is named Mycerinus by Herodotus and Diodorus; and in this very pyramid a coffin has been found bearing the name Menkura. The most powerful kings of the old monarchy were those of Manetho's twelfth dynasty; to this period is assigned the construction of the Lake of Moeris and the Labyrinth. 2. The middle monarchy. In this period the nomadic horde called Hyksos for several centuries occupied and made Egypt tributary; their capital was Memphis; they constructed an immense earth-camp, which they called Abaris; two independent kingdoms were formed in Egypt, one in the Thebaid, which held intimate relations with Ethiopia; another at Xois, among the marshes of the Nile; but finally the Egyptians regained their independence, and expelled the Hyksos; Manetho supposes they were called hyksos, from hyk, a king, and sos, a shepherd. The Hyksos form the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth dynasties. Manetho says they were Arabs, but he calls the six kings of the fifteenth dynasty Phœnicians. 3. The new monarchy covers the eighteenth to the end of the thirtieth dynasty. The kingdom was consolidated by Amosis, who succeeded in expelling the Hyksos. The glorious era of Egyptian history was under the nineteenth dynasty, when Sethi I., b.c. 1322, and his grandson, Rameses the Great, b.c. 1311, both of whom represent the Sesostris of the Greek historians, carried their arms over the whole of western Asia and southward into Soudan, and amassed vast treasures, which were expended on public works. Under the later kings of the nineteenth dynasty the power of Egypt faded: but with the twenty-second we again enter upon a period that is interesting from its associations with biblical history. The first of this dynasty, Sheshonk I., b.c. 990, was the Shishak who invaded Judea in Rehoboam's reign and pillaged the temple. 1 Kings 14:25. Probably his successor, Osorkon I., is the Zerah of Scripture, defeated by Asa. The chronology and dates in Egyptian history are very unsettled and indefinite. The two noted authorities on this subject—M. Mariette and Prof. Lepsius—differ over 1100 years in their tables as to the length of dynasties I.,—XVII. and others vary in their computations about 3000 years as to the length of the empire. Some have conjectured that Menes, the founder of Egypt, was identical with Mizraim, a grandson of Noah. Genesis 10:6. So probably the same with Shebek II., who made an alliance with Hoshea, the last king of Israel. Tehrak or Tirhakah fought Sennacherib in support of Hezekiah. After this a native dynasty—the twenty-sixth—of Saite kings again occupied the throne. Psametek I. or Psammetichus I., b.c. 664, warred in Palestine, and took Ashdod (Azotus) after a siege of 29 years. Neku or Necho, the son of Psammetichus, continued the war in the east, and marched along the coast of Palestine to attack the king of Assyria. At Megiddo Josiah encountered him, b.c. 608-7. 2 Chronicles 35:21. The army of Necho was after a short space routed at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, b.c. 605-4. Jeremiah 46:2. The second successor of Necho, Apries, or Pharaoh-hophra, sent his army into Palestine to the aid of Zedekiah, Jeremiah 37:5; Jeremiah 37:7; Jeremiah 37:11, so that the siege of Jerusalem was raised for a time. There is, however, no certain account of a complete subjugation of Egypt by the king of Babylon. Amosis, the successor of Apries, had a long and prosperous reign, and somewhat restored the weight of Egypt in the East. But Persia proved more terrible than Babylon to the house of Psammetichus, and the son of Amosis had reigned but six months when Cambyses reduced the country to the condition of a province of his empire, b.c. 525.
Egypt and the Bible.— To the Bible-reader the chief points of interest in Egyptian history are those periods when that country came in contact with the patriarchs and the Israelites. The visit of Abraham to Egypt. Genesis 12:10-20. This visit took place, according to the Hebrew (or short) chronology, about b.c. 1920, which would bring it, according to some, at the date of the Hyksos, or Shepherd-kings; others regard this as too late a date, and put it in the beginning of the twelfth dynasty; and his favorable reception is supposed to be illustrated by a picture in the tombs at Beni Hassan (where are many remarkable sculptures), representing the arrival of a distinguished nomad chief with his family, seeking protection under Osirtasen II. Next is the notice of Joseph in Egypt Genesis 37:36. This beautiful and natural story has been shown to be thoroughly in accord with what is known of Egyptian customs of that age. Inscriptions on the monuments speak of the dreams of Pharaoh; the butler's and baker's duties are indicated in pictures; one of the oldest papyri relates the story that a foreigner was raised to the highest rank in the court of Pharaoh; and Dr. Brugsch believes an inscription on a tomb at el-Kab to contain an unmistakable allusion to the seven years of famine in Joseph's time, as follows: "I gathered grain, a friend of the god of harvest. I was watchful at the seed-time. And when a famine arose through many years, I distributed the grain through the town in every famine." The greatest point of interest is, perhaps, the period of oppression of the Israelites in Egypt, and the Exodus. Exodus 1:8-22; Exodus 12:41. Who was the Pharaoh of the oppression, and who the Pharaoh of the Exodus? To this two answers are given by different scholars: 1. Amosis or Aahmes I., the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty, is identified with the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Thothmes II., about 100 years later, as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, by Canon Cook. 2. That Rameses II., the third sovereign of the nineteenth dynasty, is the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Menephthah the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The question is unsettled, leaning now to earlier date. Rameses II is the Sesostris of the Greeks, who blended him with his father, Sethi I., or Sethos. He ruled 67 years and was the great conqueror and builder, covering his empire with monuments in glory of himself. "His name," says Dr. Ebers, "may be read today on a hundred monuments in Goshen." Among his many structures noted on monuments and in papyri are fortifications along the canal from Goshen to the Bed Sea, and particularly at Pi-tum and Pi-rameses or Pi-ramessu; these must be the same as the treasure-cities Pithom and Rameses, built or enlarged by the Israelites for Pharaoh. Exodus 1:11. Herodotus tells us that a son and successor of Sesostris undertook no warlike expeditions and was smitten with blindness for ten years because he "impiously hurled his spear into the overflowing waves of the river, which a sudden wind caused to rise to an extraordinary height." Schaff says: "This reads like a confused reminiscence of the disaster at the Bed Sea." The chief objection to this view is that it allows less than 315 years between the Exodus and the building of Solomon's temple; but the present uncertainties of the Hebrew and Egyptian chronologies deprive the objection of great weight. After the Exodus the Israelites frequently came into contact with Egypt at various periods in their history. Through an Egyptian, David recovered the spoil from the Amalekites, 1 Samuel 30:11, etc.; Solomon made a treaty with king Pharaoh and married his daughter, 1 Kings 3:1; Gezer was spoiled by Pharaoh and given to Solomon's wife, 1 Kings 9:16; Solomon brought horses from Egypt; Hadad fled thither for refuge, as did also Jeroboam, 1 Kings 10:28; 1 Kings 11:17; 1 Kings 12:2; Shishak plundered Jerusalem and made Judæa tributary, 1 Kings 14:25, and a record of this invasion and conquest has been deciphered on the walls of the great temple at Karnak, or el-Karnak. In this inscription is a figure with a strong resemblance to Jewish features, which bears Egyptian characters that have been translated "the king of Judah." Pharaoh-necho was met on his expedition against the Assyrians by Josiah, who was slain. 2 Kings 23:29-30. Pharaoh-hophra aided Zedekiah, Jeremiah 37:5-11, so that the siege of Jerusalem was raised, but he appears to have been afterward attacked by Nebuchadnezzar. The sway of Egypt was checked and finally overcome by the superior power of Babylonia, and its entire territory in Asia was taken away. 2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2. The books of the prophets contain many declarations concerning the wane and destruction of the Egyptian power, which have been remarkably fulfilled in its subsequent history. See Isaiah 19:1-25; Isaiah 20:1-6; Isaiah 30:3; Isaiah 31:3; Isaiah 36:6; Jeremiah 2:36; Jeremiah 9:25-26; Jeremiah 43:11-13; Jeremiah 44:30; Jeremiah 46:1-28; Ezekiel 29:1-21; Ezekiel 30:1-26; Ezekiel 31:1-18; Ezekiel 32:1-32; Daniel 11:42; Joel 3:19; and "the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away." Zechariah 10:11. In the New Testament there are several references to the relations of the Israelites to Egypt as they existed in Old Testament times; see Acts 2:10; Acts 7:9-40; Hebrews 3:16; Hebrews 11:26-27; but the interesting fact in the New Testament period was the flight of the holy family into Egypt, where the infant Jesus and his parents found a refuge from the cruel order of Herod the Great. Matthew 2:13-19. Among the various other allusions to Egypt in the Bible are those to its fertility and productions, Genesis 13:10; Exodus 16:3; Numbers 11:5; to its mode of irrigation as compared with the greater advantages of Canaan, which had rain and was watered by natural streams, Deuteronomy 11:10; its commerce with Israel and the people of western Asia, Genesis 37:25; Genesis 37:36; 1 Kings 10:28-29; Ezekiel 27:7; its armies equipped with chariots and horses, Exodus 14:7; Isaiah 31:1; its learned men and its priests, Genesis 41:8; Genesis 47:22; Exodus 7:11; 1 Kings 4:30; its practice of embalming the dead, Genesis 50:3; its aversion to shepherds, and its sacrifices of cattle, Genesis 46:34; Exodus 8:26; how its people should be admitted into the Jewish Church, Deuteronomy 23:7-8; the warnings to Israel against any alliance with the Egyptians, Isaiah 30:2; Isaiah 36:6; Ezekiel 17:15; Ezekiel 29:6; and to the towns of the country. Ezekiel 30:13-18. The records on existing monuments have been found to confirm the accuracy of all these allusions to the customs of the people.
Ruins.—" Egypt is the monumental land of the earth," says Bunsen, "as the Egyptians are the monumental people of history." Among the most interesting ancient cities are:(a) On or Heliopolis, "the city of the sun," ten miles northeast of Cairo, where there was an obelisk of red granite 68 feet high, and erected previous to the visit of Abraham and Sarah to the land of the Pharaohs. Formerly the obelisks of Cleopatra stood here also, but were removed to Alexandria during the reign of Tiberius; and one of them now stands on the banks of the Thames, London, and another in Central Park, New York. Joseph was married at Heliopolis, Genesis 41:45, and there, according to Josephus, Jacob made his home; it was probably the place where Moses received his education, where Herodotus acquired most of his skill in writing history, and where Plato, the Greek philosopher, studied. (b) Thebes "of the hundred gates," one of the most famous cities of antiquity, is identified with No or No-Ammon of Scripture. Jeremiah 46:25; Ezekiel 30:14-16; Nan. 3:8. The ruins are very extensive, and the city in its glory stretched over thirty miles along the banks of the Nile, covering the places now known as Luxor, Karnak, and Thebes. (c) Memphis, the Noph of Scripture. Jeremiah 46:19. "Nothing is left of its temples and monuments but a colossal statue of Rameses II., lying mutilated on the face in the mud." The temples at Karnak and Luxor are the most interesting, the grandest among them all being the magnificent temple of Rameses II. There are ruins of temples at Denderah, Abydos, Philæ, Heliopolis, and at Ipsamboul, 170 miles south of Philæ, in Nubia. Among the noted tombs are those at Thebes, Beni-Hassan, and Osiout, and among the obelisks are those at Luxor, Karnak, Heliopolis, and Alexandria. In a cave near Thebes 39 royal mummies and various other objects were discovered in 1881. Among the mummies was that of Rameses II., the Pharaoh of the oppression, which has been fully described by Maspero. These wonderful ruins attest the magnificence and grandeur, but also the absolute despotism and slavery, of this land in the earliest ages and as far back as before the days of Abraham, and they also attest in the most impressive manner the fulfillment of prophecy. Over 2000 years it has been without "a prince of the land of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:13; and "the basest of the kingdoms." Ezekiel 29:15.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Egypt
a country of Africa, called also in the Hebrew Scriptures the land of Mizraim, and the land of Ham; by the Turks and Arabs, Masr and Misr; and by the native Egyptians, Chemi, or the land of Ham. Mr. Faber derives the name from Ai-Capht, or the land of the Caphtorim; from which, also, the modern Egyptians derive their name of Cophts. Egypt was first peopled after the deluge by Mizraim, or Mizr, the son of Ham, who is supposed to be the same with Menes, recorded in Egyptian history as the first king. Every thing relating to the subsequent history and condition of this country, for many ages, is involved in fable. Nor have we any clear information from Heathen writers, until the time of Cyrus, and his son Cambyses, when the line of Egyptian princes ceased in agreement with prophecies to that effect. Manetho, the Egyptian historian, has given a list of thirty dynasties, which, if successive, make a period of five thousand three hundred years to the time of Alexander, or three thousand two hundred and eighty-two years more than the real time, according to the Mosaic chronology. But this is a manifest forgery, which has, nevertheless, been appealed to by infidel writers, as authority against the veracity of the Mosaic history. The truth is, that this pretended succession of princes, if all of them can be supposed to have existed at all, constituted several distinct dynasties, ruling in different cities at the same time; thus these were the kingdoms of Thebes, Thin, Memphis, and Tanis. See WRITING .
2. In the time of Moses we find Egypt renowned for learning; for he was instructed "in all its wisdom;" and it is one of the commendations of Solomon, at a later period, that he excelled in knowledge "all the wisdom of the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt."
Astronomy, which probably, like that of the Chaldeans, comprehended also judicial astrology, physics, agriculture, jurisprudence, medicine, architecture, painting, and sculpture, were the principal sciences and arts; to which were added, and that by their wisest men, the study of divination, magic, and enchantments. They had also their consulters with familiar spirits, and necromancers, those who had, or pretended to have, intercourse with the infernal deities, and the spirits of the dead, and delivered responses to inquirers. Of all this knowledge, good and evil, and of a monstrous system of idolatry, Egypt was the polluted fountain to the surrounding nations; but in that country itself it appears to have degenerated into the most absurd and debased forms. Among nations who are not blessed by divine revelation, the luminaries of heaven are the first objects of worship. Diodorus Siculus, mentioning the Egyptians, informs us, that "the first men, looking up to the world above them, and, struck with admiration at the nature of the universe, supposed the sun and moon to be the principal and eternal gods." This, which may be called the natural superstition of mankind, we can trace in the annals of the west, as well as of the east; among the inhabitants of the new world, as well as of the old. The sun and moon, under the names of Isis and Osiris, were the chief objects of adoration among the Egyptians. But the earliest times had a purer faith. The following inscription, engraven in hieroglyphics in the temple of Neith, the Egyptian Minerva, conveys the most sublime idea of the Deity which unenlightened reason could form: "I am that which is, was, and shall be: no mortal hath lifted up my veil: the offspring of my power is the sun." A similar inscription still remains at Capua, on the temple of Isis: "Thou art one, and from thee all things proceed." Plutarch also informs us, that the inhabitants of Thebais worshipped only the immortal and supreme God, whom they called Eneph. According to the Egyptian cosmogony, all things sprung from athor, or night, by which they denoted the darkness of chaos before the creation. Sanchoniathon relates, that, "from the breath of gods and the void were mortals created." This theology differs little from that of Moses, who says, "The earth was without form, and void; darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters."
3. A superstitious reverence for certain animals, as propitious or hurtful to the human race, was not peculiar to the Egyptians. The cow has been venerated in India from the most remote antiquity. The serpent has been the object of religious respect to one half of the nations of the known world. The Romans had sacred animals, which they kept in their temples, and distinguished with peculiar honours. We need not therefore be surprised that a nation so superstitious as the Egyptians should honour, with peculiar marks of respect, the ichneumon, the ibis, the dog, the falcon, the wolf, and the crocodile. These they entertained at great expense, and with much magnificence. Lands were set apart for their maintenance; persons of the highest rank were employed in feeding and attending them; rich carpets were spread in their apartments; and the pomp at their funerals corresponded to the profusion and luxury which attended them while alive. What chiefly tended to favour the progress of animal worship in Egypt, was the language of hieroglyphics. In the hieroglyphic inscriptions on their temples, and public edifices, animals, and even vegetables, were the symbols of the gods whom they worshipped. In the midst of innumerable superstitions, the theology of Egypt contained the two great principles of religion, the existence of a supreme Being, and the immortality of the soul.
The first is proved by the inscription on the temple of Minerva; the second, by the care with which dead bodies were embalmed, and the prayer recited at the hour of death, by an Egyptian, expressing his desire to be received to the presence of the deities.
4. The opulence of Egypt was for ages increased by the large share it had in the commerce with the east; by its own favourable position, making it the connecting link of intercourse between the eastern and western nations; and especially by its own remarkable fertility, particularly in corn, so that it was, in times of scarcity, the granary of the world. Its extraordinary fertility was owing to the periodical inundation of the Nile; and sufficient proofs of the ancient accounts which we have of its productiveness are afforded to this day. The Rev. Mr. Jowett has given a striking example of the extraordinary fertility of the soil of Egypt, which is alluded to in Genesis 41:47 : "The earth brought forth by handfuls." "I picked up at random," says Mr. Jowett, "a few stalks out of the thick corn fields. We counted the number of stalks which sprouted from single grains of seed; carefully pulling to pieces each root, in order to see that it was but one plant. The first had seven stalks, the next three, the next nine, then eighteen, then fourteen. Each stalk would have been an ear.
5. The architecture of the early Egyptians, at least that of their cities and dwellings, was rude and simple: they could indeed boast of little in either external elegance or internal comfort, since Herodotus informs us that men and beasts lived together. The materials of their structure were bricks of clay, bound together with chopped straw, and baked in the sun. Such were the bricks which the Israelites were employed in making, and of which the cities of Pithom and Rameses were built. Their composition was necessarily perishable, and explains why it is that no remains of the ancient cities of Egypt are to be found. They would indeed last longer in the dry climate of this country than in any other; but even here they must gradually decay and crumble to dust, and the cities so constructed become heaps. Of precisely the same materials are the villages of Egypt built at this day. "Village after village," says Mr. Jowett, speaking of Tentyra, "built of unburnt brick, crumbling into ruins, and giving place to new habitations, have raised the earth, in some parts, nearly to the level of the summit of the temple. In every part of Egypt, we find the towns built in this manner, upon the ruins, or rather the rubbish, of the former habitations. The expression in Jeremiah 30:18 , literally applies to Egypt, in the meanest sense: ‘The city shall be builded upon her own heap.' And the expression in Job 15:28 , might be illustrated by many of these deserted hovels: ‘He dwelleth in desolate cities, and in houses which no man inhabiteth, which are ready to become heaps.' Still more touching is the allusion, in Job 4:19 , where the perishing generations of men are fitly compared to habitations of the frailest materials, built upon the heap of similar dwelling-places, now reduced to rubbish: ‘How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust!'"
6. The splendid temples of Egypt were not built, in all probability, till after the time of Solomon; for the recent progress made in the decyphering of hieroglyphics has disappointed the antiquaries as to the antiquity of these stupendous fabrics. It is well observed by Dr. Shuckford, that temples made no great figure in Homer's time. If they had, he would not have lost such an opportunity of exerting his genres on so grand a subject, as Virgil has done in his description of the temple built by Dido at Carthage. The first Heathen temples were probably nothing more than mean buildings, which served merely as a shelter from the weather; of which kind was, probably, the house of the Philistine god Dagon. But when the fame of Solomon's temple had reached other countries, it excited them to imitate its splendour; and nation vied with nation in the structures erected to their several deities. All were, however, outdone, at least in massiveness and durability, by the Egyptians; the architectural design of whose temples, as well as that of the Grecian edifices, was borrowed from the stems and branches of the grove temples.
7. It appears to be an unfounded notion, that the pyramids were built by the Israelites: they were, probably, Mr. Faber thinks, the work of the "Shepherds," or Cushite invaders, who, at an early period, held possession of Egypt for two hundred and sixty years, and reduced the Egyptians to bondage, so that "a shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time. The Israelites laboured in making bricks, not in forming stones such as the pyramids are constructed with; and a passage in Mr. Jowett's "Researches," before referred to, will throw light upon this part of their history. Mr. Jowett saw at one place the people making bricks, with straw cut into small pieces, and mingled with the clay, to bind it. Hence it is, that when villages built of these bricks fall into rubbish, which is often the case, the roads are full of small particles of straws, extremely offensive to the eyes in a high wind. They were, in fact, engaged exactly as the Israelites used to be, making bricks with straw; and for a similar purpose, to build extensive granaries for the bashaw; "treasure-cities for Pharaoh."
The same intelligent missionary also observes: "The mollems transact business between the bashaw and the peasants. He punishes them if the peasants prove that they oppress; and yet he requires from them that the work of those who are under them shall be fulfilled. They strikingly illustrate the case of the officers placed by the Egyptian taskmasters over the children of Israel; and, like theirs, the mollems often find their case is evil, Exodus 5."
8. It is not necessary to go over those parts of the Egyptian history which occur in the Old Testament. The prophecies respecting this haughty and idolatrous kingdom, uttered by Jeremiah and Ezekiel when it was in the height of its splendour and prosperity, were fulfilled in the terrible invasions of Nebuchadnezzar, Cambyses, and the Persian monarchs. It comes, however, again into an interesting connection with the Jewish history under Alexander the Great, who invaded it as a Persian dependence. So great, indeed, was the hatred of the Egyptians toward their oppressors, that they hailed the approach of the Macedonians, and threw open their cities to receive them. Alexander, merciless as he was to those who opposed his progress or authority, knew how to requite those who were devoted to his interests; and the Egyptians, for many centuries afterward, had reason to recollect with gratitude his protection and foresight. It was he who discerned the local advantages of the spot on which the city bearing his name afterward stood, who projected the plan of the town, superintended its erection, endowed it with many privileges, and peopled it with colonies drawn from other places for the purpose, chiefly Greeks. But, together with these, and the most favoured of all, were the Jews, who enjoyed the free exercise of their religion, and the same civil rights and liberties as the Macedonians themselves. Kindness shown to the people of Israel has never, in the providence of God, brought evil on any country; and there can be no doubt but that the encouragement given to this enterprising and commercial people, assisted very much to promote the interests of the new city, which soon became the capital of the kingdom, the centre of commerce, of science, and the arts, and one of the most flourishing and considerable cities in the world. Egypt, indeed, was about to see better days; and, during the reigns of the Ptolemies, enjoyed again, for nearly three hundred years, something of its former renown for learning and power. It formed, during this period, and before the rapid extension of the Roman empire toward the termination of these years, one of the only two ancient kingdoms which had survived the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Macedonian empires: the other was the Syrian, where the Seleucidae, another family of one of the successors of Alexander, reigned; who, having subdued Macedonia and Thrace, annexed them to the kingdom of Syria, and there remained out of the four kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander was divided these two only; distinguished, in the prophetic writings of Daniel, by the titles of the kings or kingdoms of the north and the south.
9. Under the reign of the three first Ptolemies, the state of the Jews was exceedingly prosperous. They were in high favour, and continued to enjoy all the advantages conferred upon them by Alexander. Judea was, in fact, at this time, a privileged province of Egypt; the Jews being governed by their own high priest, on paying a tribute to the kings of Egypt. But in the reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes, the fifth of the race, it was taken by Antiochus, king of Syria; which was the beginning of fresh sufferings and persecutions; for although this Antiochus, who was the one surnamed the Great, was a mild and generous prince, and behaved favourably toward them, their troubles began at his death; his successor, Seleueus, oppressing them with taxes; and the next was the monster, Antiochus Epiphanes, whose impieties and cruelties are recorded in the two books of Maccabees. But still, in Egypt, the Jews continued in the enjoyment of their privileges, so late as the reign of the sixth Ptolemy, called Philometor, who committed the charge of his affairs to two Jews, Onias and Dositheus; the former of whom obtained permission to build a temple at Heliopolis. The introduction of Christianity into Egypt is mentioned under the article See ALEXANDRIA .
10. The prophecies respecting Egypt in the Old Testament have had a wonderful fulfilment. The knowledge of all its greatness and glory deterred not the Jewish prophets from declaring, that Egypt would become "a base kingdom, and never exalt itself any more among the nations." And the literal fulfilment of every prophecy affords as clear a demonstration as can possibly be given, that each and all of them are the dictates of inspiration. Egypt was the theme of many prophecies, which were fulfilled in ancient times; and it bears to the present day, as it has borne throughout many ages, every mark with which prophecy had stamped its destiny: "They shall be a base kingdom. It shall be the basest of kingdoms. Neither shall it exalt itself any more among the nations: for I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations. The pride of her power shall come down; and they shall be desolate in the midst of the countries that are desolate; and her cities shall be in the midst of the cities that are wasted. I will make the land of Egypt desolate, and the country shall be desolate of that whereof it was full. I will sell the land into the hand of the wicked. I will make the land waste and all that is therein, by the hand of strangers. I the Lord have spoken it. And there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:5 ; Ezekiel 30:7 ; Ezekiel 30:12-13 . "The sceptre of Egypt shall depart away," Zechariah 10:11 .
11. Egypt became entirely subject to the Persians about three hundred and fifty years previous to the Christian aera. It was afterward subdued by the Macedonians, and was governed by the Ptolemies for the space of two hundred and ninety-four years; until, about B.C. 30, it became a province of the Roman empire. It continued long in subjection to the Romans,— tributary first to Rome, and afterward to Constantinople. It was transferred, A.D. 641, to the dominion of the Saracens. In 1250 the Mamelukes deposed their rulers, and usurped the command of Egypt. A mode of government, the most singular and surprising that ever existed on earth, was established and maintained. Each successive ruler was raised to supreme authority, from being a stranger and a slave. No son of the former ruler, no native of Egypt, succeeded to the sovereignty; but a chief was chosen from among a new race of imported slaves. When Egypt became tributary to the Turks in 1517, the Mamelukes retained much of their power; and every pasha was an oppressor and a stranger. During all these ages, every attempt to emancipate the country, or to create a prince of the land of Egypt, has proved abortive, and has often been fatal to the aspirant. Though the facts relative to Egypt form too prominent a feature in the history of the world to admit of contradiction or doubt, yet the description of the fate of that country, and of the form of its government, may be left, says Keith, to the testimony of those whose authority no infidel will question, and whom no man can accuse of adapting their descriptions to the predictions of the event. Volney and Gibbon are our witnesses of the facts: "Such is the state of Egypt. Deprived, twenty-three centuries ago, of her natural proprietors, she has seen her fertile fields successively a prey to the Persians, the Macedonians, the Romans, the Greeks, the Arabs, the Georgians, and, at length, the race of Tartars distinguished by the name of Ottoman Turks. The Mamelukes, purchased as slaves, and introduced as soldiers, soon usurped the power and elected a leader. If their first establishment was a singular event, their continuance is not less extraordinary. They are replaced by slaves brought from their original country. The system of oppression is methodical. Every thing the traveller sees or hears reminds him he is in the country of slavery and tyranny." "A more unjust and absurd constitution cannot be devised than that which condemns the natives of a country to perpetual servitude, under the arbitrary dominion of strangers and slaves. Yet such has been the state of Egypt above five hundred years. The most illustrious sultans of the Baharite and Borgite dynasties were themselves promoted from the Tartar and Circassian bands; and the four-and-twenty beys, or military chiefs, have ever been succeeded, not by their sons, but by their servants." These are the words of Volney and of Gibbon; and what did the ancient prophets foretel?— "I will lay the land waste, and all that is therein, by the hands of strangers. I the Lord have spoken it. And there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt. The sceptre of Egypt shall depart away." The prophecy adds: "They shall be a base kingdom: it shall be the basest of kingdoms." After the lapse of two thousand and four hundred years from the date of this prophecy, a scoffer at religion, but an eye witness of the facts, thus describes the self-same spot: "In Egypt," says Volney, "there is no middle class, neither nobility, clergy, merchants, landholders. A
universal air of misery, manifest in all the traveller meets, points out to him the rapacity of oppression, and the distrust attendant upon slavery. The profound ignorance of the inhabitants equally prevents them from perceiving the causes of their evils, or applying the necessary remedies. Ignorance, diffused through every class, extends its effects to every species of moral and physical knowledge. Nothing is talked of but intestine troubles, the public misery, pecuniary extortions, bastinadoes, and murders. Justice herself puts to death without formality." Other travellers describe the most execrable vices as common, and represent the moral character of the people as corrupted to the core. As a token of the desolation of the country, mud-walled cottages are now the only habitations where the ruins of temples and palaces abound. Egypt is surrounded by the dominions of the Turks and of the Arabs; and the prophecy is literally true which marked it in the midst of desolation: "They shall be desolate in the midst of the countries that are desolate, and her cities shall be in the midst of the cities that are wasted." The systematic oppression, extortion, and plunder, which have so long prevailed, and the price paid for his authority and power by every Turkish pasha, have rendered the country "desolate of that whereof it was full," and still show both how it has been "wasted by the hands of strangers," and how it has been "sold into the hand of the wicked."
12. Egypt has, indeed, lately somewhat risen, under its present spirited but despotic pasha, to a degree of importance and commerce. But this pasha is still a stranger, and the dominion is foreign. Nor is there any thing like a general advancement of the people to order, intelligence and happiness.
Yet this fact, instead of militating against the truth of prophecy, may, possibly at no distant period, serve to illustrate other predictions. "The Lord shall smite Egypt: he shall smite and heal it: and they shall return to the Lord, and he shall be entreated of them, and shall heal them. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land," &c, Isaiah 19:22-25 .
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Plagues of Egypt
The design of these visitations, growing more awful and tremendous in their progress, was to make Pharaoh know, and confess, that the God of the Hebrews was the supreme Lord, and to exhibit his power and his justice in the strongest light to all the nations of the earth, Exodus 9:16 ; 1 Samuel 4:8 , &c; to execute judgment upon the Egyptians and upon all their gods, inanimate and bestial, for their cruelty to the Israelites, and for their grovelling polytheism and idolatry, Exodus 7:14-17 ; Exodus 12:12 . The Nile was the principal divinity of the Egyptians. According to Heliodorus, they paid divine honours to this river, and revered it as the first of their gods. They declared him to be the rival of heaven, since he watered the country without the aid of the clouds and rain. His principal festival was at the summer solstice, when the inundation commenced; at which season, in the dog days, by a cruel idolatrous rite, they sacrificed red-haired persons, principally foreigners, to Typhon, or the power that presided over tempests, at Busiris, Heliopolis, &c, by burning them alive, and scattering their ashes in the air, for the good of the people, as we learn from Plutarch. Hence Bryant infers the probability, that these victims were chosen from among the Israelites, during their residence in Egypt. The judgment then inflicted upon the river, and all the waters of Egypt, in the presence of Pharaoh and of his servants, as foretold,—when, as soon as Aaron had smitten the waters of the river, they were turned into blood, and continued in that state for seven days, so that all the fish died, and the Egyptians could not drink of the waters of the river, in which they delighted as the most wholesome of all waters, but were forced to dig wells, for pure water to drink,—was a significant sign of God's displeasure for their senseless idolatry in worshipping the river and its fish, and also "a manifest reproof of that bloody edict whereby the infants were slain," Wis_11:7 .
In the plague of frogs, their sacred river itself was made an active instrument of their punishment, together with another of their gods. The frog was one of their sacred animals, consecrated to the sun, and considered as an emblem of divine inspiration in its inflations.
The plague of lice, which was produced without any previous intimation to Pharaoh, was peculiarly offensive to a people so superstitiously nice and cleanly as the Egyptians; and, above all, to their priests, who used to shave their whole body every third day, that neither louse, nor any other vermin, might be found upon them while they were employed in serving their gods, as we learn from Herodotus; and Plutarch informs us, that they never wore woollen garments, but linen only, because linen is least apt to produce lice. This plague, therefore, was particularly disgraceful to the magicians themselves; and when they tried to imitate it, but failed, on account of the minuteness of the objects, (not like serpents, water, or frogs, of a sensible bulk that could be handled,) they were forced to confess that this was no human feat of legerdemain, but rather "the finger of God." Thus were "the illusions of their magic put down, and their vaunting in wisdom reproved with disgrace," Wis_17:7 . "Their folly was manifest unto all men," in absurdly and wickedly attempting at first to place the feats of human art on a level with the stupendous operations of divine power, in the first two plagues; and being foiled in the third, by shamefully miscarrying, they exposed themselves to the contempt of their admirers. Philo, the Jew, has a fine observation on the plagues of Egypt: "Some, perhaps, may require, Why did God punish the country by such minute and contemptible animals as frogs, lice, flies, rather than by bears, lions, leopards, or other kinds of savage beasts which prey on human flesh? Or, if not by these, why not by the Egyptian asp, whose bite is instant death? But let him learn, if he be ignorant, first, that God chose rather to correct than to destroy the inhabitants; for, if he desired to annihilate them utterly, he had no need to have made use of animals as his auxiliaries, but of the divinely inflicted evils of famine and pestilence. Next, let him farther learn that lesson so necessary for every state of life, namely, that men, when they war, seek the most powerful aid to supply their own weakness; but God, the highest and the greatest power, who stands in need of nothing, if at any time he chooses to employ instruments, as it were, to inflict chastisement, chooses not the strongest and greatest, disregarding their strength, but rather the mean and the minute, whom he endues with invincible and irresistible power to chastise offenders." The first three plagues were common to the Egyptians and the Israelites, to convince both that "there was none like the Lord;" and to wean the latter from their Egyptian idolatries, and induce them to return to the Lord their God. And when this end was answered, the Israelites were exempted from the ensuing plagues; for the Lord severed the land of Goshen from the rest of Egypt; whence the ensuing plagues, confined to the latter, more plainly appeared to have been inflicted by the God of the Hebrews, Exodus 8:20-23 , to convince both more clearly of "the goodness and severity of God," Romans 11:22 ; that "great plagues remain for the ungodly, but mercy embraceth the righteous on every side," Psalms 32:10 .
The visitation of flies, of the gad fly, or hornet, was more intolerable than any of the preceding. By this, his minute, but mighty army, God afterward drove out some of the devoted nations of Canaan before Joshua, Exodus 23:28 ; Deuteronomy 7:20 ; Joshua 24:12 . This insect was worshipped in Palestine and elsewhere under the title of Baal-zebub, "lord of the gad fly," 2 Kings 1:1-2 . Egypt, we learn from Herodotus, abounded with prodigious swarms of flies, or gnats; but this was in the heat of summer, during the dog days; whence this fly is called by the Septuagint κυνομυια , the dog fly. But the appointed time of this plague was in the middle of winter; and, accordingly, this plague extorted Pharaoh's partial consent, "Go ye, sacrifice to your God, but in the land;" and when Moses and Aaron objected the offence they would give to the Egyptians, who would stone them for sacrificing "the abomination of the Egyptians," namely, animal sacrifices, he reluctantly consented, "only ye shall not go very far away;" for he was apprehensive of their flight, like his predecessor, who first enslaved the Israelites, Exodus 1:10 ; and he again desired them to "entreat for him." But he again dealt deceitfully; and after the flies were removed so effectually that not one was left, when Moses "entreated the Lord, Pharaoh hardened his heart this fifth time also, neither would he let the people go."
This second breach of promise on the part of Pharaoh drew down a plague of a more deadly description than the preceding. The fifth plague of murrain destroyed all the cattle of Egypt, but of "the cattle of the Israelites died not one." It was immediately inflicted by God himself, after previous notification, and without the agency of Moses and Aaron, to manifest the divine indignation at Pharaoh's falsehood. And though the king sent and found that not one of the Israelites was dead, yet his heart was hardened this sixth time also, and he would not let the people go, Exodus 9:1-7 .
At length, after Pharaoh had repeatedly abused the gracious respites and warnings vouchsafed to him and his servants, a sorer set of plagues, affecting themselves, began to be inflicted; and Moses now, for the first time, appears as the executioner of divine vengeance; for in the presence of Pharaoh, by the divine command, he sprinkled ashes of the furnace toward heaven, and it became a boil, breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast. And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boil, which affected them and all the Egyptians, Exodus 9:8-11 . This was a very significant plague: the furnace from which the ashes were taken aptly represented "the iron furnace" of Egyptian bondage, Deuteronomy 4:20 ; and the scattering of the ashes in the air might have referred to the usage of the Egyptians in their Typhonian sacrifices of human victims; while it converted another of the elements, and of their gods, the air, or ether, into an instrument of their chastisement. And now "the Lord," for the first time, "hardened the heart of Pharaoh," after he had so repeatedly hardened it himself, "and he hearkened not unto them, as the Lord had foretold unto Moses," Exodus 9:12 . Though Pharaoh probably felt the scourge of the boil, as well as his people, it did not soften nor humble his heart; and when he wilfully and obstinately turned away from the light, and shut his eyes against the luminous evidences vouchsafed to him of the supremacy of the God of the Hebrews, and had twice broken his promise when he was indulged with a respite, and dealt deceitfully, he became a just object of punishment; and God now began to increase the hardness or obduracy of his heart. And such is the usual and the righteous course of his providence; when nations or individuals despise the warnings of Heaven, abuse their best gifts, and resist the means of grace, God then "delivers them over to a reprobate" or undiscerning "mind, to work all uncleanness with greediness," Romans 1:28 .
In the tremendous plague of hail, the united elements of air, water, and fire, were employed to terrify and punish the Egyptians by their principal divinities. This plague was formally announced to Pharaoh and his people: "I will at this season send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth. For now I could stretch out my hand, and smite thee and thy people with pestilence," or destroy thee at once, like thy cattle with the murrain, "and thou shouldest be cut off from the earth; but, in truth, for this cause have I sustained thee, that I might manifest in thee my power, and that my name might be declared throughout the whole earth,"
Exodus 9:13-16 . This rendering of the passage is more conformable to the context, the Chaldee paraphrase, and to Philo, than the received translation, "For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence;" for surely Pharaoh and his people were not smitten with pestilence; and "they were preserved" or kept from immediate destruction, according to the Septuagint, διετηρηθης , "to manifest the divine power," by the number and variety of their plagues. Still, however, in the midst of judgment, God remembered mercy; he gave a gracious warning to the Egyptians, to avoid, if they chose, the threatened calamity: "Send, therefore, now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; every man and beast that shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die." And this warning had some effect: "He that feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh, made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses; and he that regarded not the word of the Lord, left his servants and his cattle in the field," Exodus 9:17-21 . But it may be asked, If all the cattle of the Egyptians were destroyed by the foregoing plague of murrain, as asserted Exodus 9:6 , how came there to be any cattle left? Surely the Egyptians might have recruited their stock from the land of Goshen, where "not one of the cattle of the Israelites died." And this justifies the supposition, that there was some respite, or interval, between the several plagues, and confirms the conjecture of the duration of the whole, about a quarter of a year. And that the warning, in this case, was respected by many of the Egyptians, we may infer from the number of chariots and horsemen that went in pursuit of the Israelites afterward. This was foretold to be "a very grievous hail, such as had not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof: and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along the ground; and the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field. Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there was no hail." Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, "I have sinned this time; the Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked: entreat the Lord," for it is enough, "that there might be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer." But when there was respite, Pharaoh "sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants; neither would he let the people go," Exodus 9:27-35 . In this instance, there is a remarkable suspension of the judicial infatuation. Pharaoh had humbled himself, and acknowledged his own and his people's guilt, and the justice of the divine plague: the Lord, therefore, forbore this time to harden his heart. But he abused the long sufferance of God, and this additional respite; he sinned yet more, because he now sinned wilfully, after he had received information of the truth; he relapsed, and hardened his own heart a seventh time. He became, therefore, "a vessel of wrath, fitted to destruction," Hebrews 10:26 ; Romans 9:22 .
The design of the eighth and the ensuing plagues, was to confirm the faith of the Israelites: "That thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the Lord." This plague of locusts, inflicted on the now devoted Egyptians and their king, completed the havoc begun by the hail; by this "the wheat and rye were destroyed, and every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any verdure in the trees, nor in the herbs of the field, throughout the land of Egypt. Very grievous were they; before them were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall there be such,"
Exodus 10:3-15 .
The awful plague of darkness over all the land of Egypt, for three days, "a thick darkness which might be felt," in the emphatic language of Scripture, was inflicted on the Egyptians, and their chief god, the sun; and was, indeed, a most significant sign of the divine displeasure, and of that mental darkness under which they now laboured. Their consternation thereat is strongly represented by their total inaction; neither rose any from his place for three days, petrified, as they were, with horror. They were also "scared with strange apparitions and visions, while a heavy night was spread over them, an image of that darkness which should afterward receive them. But yet, they were unto themselves more grievous than that darkness," Wis_17:3-21 ; Psalms 78:49 . This terrific and horrible plague compelled Pharaoh to relax; he offered to let the men and their families go; but he wished to keep the flocks and herds as security for their return; but Moses peremptorily declared, that not a hoof should be left behind. Again "the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let them go,"
Exodus 10:21-27 . "And the Lord said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt. And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and the Lord" ultimately "hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land," Exodus 11:9-10 . This passage forms the conclusion to the nine plagues, and should properly follow the preceding; for the result of the tenth and last plague was foretold, that Pharaoh should not only let them go, but surely thrust them out altogether, Exodus 11:1 .
The tenth plague was announced to Pharaoh with much solemnity: "Thus saith the Lord, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt, and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even to the first-born of the maid- servant that is behind the mill; and all the first-born of cattle. And there shall be a great cry throughout the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be any more. But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast; that ye may know, how that the Lord doth make a difference between the Egyptians and Israel. And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee. And after that I will go out," Exodus 11:4-8 . Such a threat, delivered in so high a tone, both in the name of the God of Israel and of Moses, did not fail to exasperate the infatuated Pharaoh, and he said, "Get thee from me; take heed to thyself; see my face no more: for in the day thou seest my face thou shalt die. And Moses said, Be it so as thou hast spoken; I will see thy face again no more. And he went out from Pharaoh in great anger,"
Exodus 10:28-29 ; Wis_18:14-18 . "And at midnight the Lord smote all the first- born in the land of Egypt; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house in which there was not one dead," Exodus 12:1-30 . This last tremendous judgment is described with much sublimity in the book of Exodus 11:8 .
"For when all things were wrapt in still silence,
And night, in her proper speed, holding her mid course, Thy all powerful oracle leapt down from heaven,
Out of the royal throne, a fierce warrior,
Into the midst of the land of destruction, Wielding a sharp sword, thine unfeigned command,
And standing up, he filled the whole with death,
He touched the heavens, indeed, but trod upon the earth!"
"And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and he called for," or sent to, "Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye said; take also your flocks and your herds, and be gone; and bless me also. And the Egyptians also were urgent upon the people, to send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We shall all be dead." It is evident from the extreme urgency of the occasion, when all the Egyptians apprehended total destruction, if the departure of the Israelites was delayed any longer, that Pharaoh had no personal interview with Moses and Aaron, which would have wasted time, and was quite unnecessary; he only sent them a peremptory mandate to be one on their own terms. "And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment. And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they freely gave what they required, and they spoiled the Egyptians," Exodus 12:31-36 , as originally foretold to Abraham, Genesis 15:14 ; and to Moses before the plagues began. This was an act of perfect retributive justice, to make the Egyptians pay for the long and laborious services of the Israelites, whom they had unjustly enslaved, in violation of their charter.
The Israelites were thrust out of Egypt on the fifteenth day of the first month, "about six hundred thousand men on foot, beside women and children. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks and herds, even very much cattle," Exodus 12:37-38 ; Numbers 11:4 ; Numbers 33:3 . "And they went out with a high hand; for the Lord went before them by day, in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light, to go by day and night. He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people," Exodus 13:22 ; Numbers 9:15-23 . And the motion or rest of this divine guide regulated their marches, and their stations or encampments during the whole of their route, Numbers 10:33-36 . See RED SEA .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - River of Egypt
The Nile. (Genesis 15:18 ) [1]
A desert stream on the border of Egypt, still occasionally flowing in the valley called Wadi-l-'Areesh . The centre of the valley is occupied by the bed of this torrent, which only flows after rains, as is usual in the desert valleys. This stream is first mentioned as the point where the southern border of the promised land touched the Mediterranean, which formed its western border. ( Numbers 34:3-6 ) In the latter history we find Solomon's kingdom extending from the "entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt," (1 Kings 8:65 ) and Egypt limited in the same manner where the loss of the eastern provinces is mentioned. (2 Kings 24:7 )
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Egypt
A celebrated country in the north of Africa, at the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hebrews called it Mizraim, Genesis 10:6 , and hence it is now called by the Arabs, Mizr. The Greeks and Romans called it Aegyptus, whence Egypt; but the origin of this name is unknown.
The habitable land of Egypt is for the most part a great valley, through which the river Nile pours its waters, extending in a straight line from north to south, and skirted on the east and west by ranges of mountains, which approach and recede from the river more or less in different parts. Where this valley terminates, towards the north, the Nile divides itself, about forty or fifty miles from the seacoast, into several arms, which inclose the so-called Delta. The ancients numbered seven arms and mouths; the eastern was that of Pelusium, now that of Tineh; and the western that of Canopus, now that of Aboukir. As these branches all separate from one point or channel, that is, from the main stream, and spread themselves more and more as they approach the coast, they form with the latter a triangle, the base of which is the seacoast; and having thus the form of the Greek letter, delta, this part of Egypt received the name of the Delta, which it has ever since retained. The prophet Ezekiel describes Egypt as extending from Migdol, that is, Magdolum, not far from the mouth of the Pelusian arm, to Syene, now Essuan, namely, to the border of Ethiopia, Ezekiel 29:10 30:6 . Essuan is also assigned by Greek and Arabian writers as the southern limit of Egypt. Here the Nile issues from the granite rocks of the cataracts, and enters Egypt proper. The length of the country, therefore, in a direct line, is about four hundred and fifty miles, and its area about eleven thousand square miles. The breadth of the valley, between Essuan and the Delta, is very unequal; in some places the inundations of the river extend to the foot of the mountains; in other parts there remains a strip of a mile or two in breadth which the water never covers, and which is therefore always dry and barren. Originally the name Egypt designated only the valley and the Delta; but at a later period it came to include also the region between this and the Red Sea.
The country around Syene and the cataracts is highly picturesque; the other parts of Egypt, and especially the Delta, are uniform and monotonous. The prospect, however, is extremely different, according to the season of the year. From the middle of spring, when the harvest is over, one sees nothing but a gray and dusty soil, so full of cracks and chasms that he can hardly pass along. At the time of the autumnal equinox, the country presents nothing but an immeasurable surface of reddish or yellowish water, out of which rise date-trees, villages, and narrow dams, which serve as a means of communication. After the waters have retreated, and they usually remain only a short time at this height, you see, till the end of autumn, only a black and slimy mud. But in winter, nature puts on all her splendor. In this season, the freshness and power of the new vegetation, the variety and abundance of vegetable productions, exceed every thing that is known in the most celebrated parts of the European continent; and Egypt is then, from one end of the country to the other, like a beautiful garden, a verdant meadow, a field sown with flowers, or a waving ocean of grain in the ear. This fertility, as is well known, depends upon the annual and regular inundations of the Nile. Hence Egypt was called by Herodotus, "the gift of the Nile." See NILE .
The sky is not less uniform and monotonous than the earth; it is constantly a pure unclouded arch, of a color and light more white than azure. The atmosphere has a splendor which the eye can scarcely bear, and a burning sun, whose glow is tempered by no shade, scorches through the whole day these vast and unprotected plains. It is almost a peculiar trait in the Egyptian landscape, that although not without trees, it is yet almost without shade. The only tree is the date-tree, which is frequent; but with its tall, slender stem, and bunch of foliage on the top, this tree does very little to keep off the light, and casts upon the earth only a pale an uncertain shade. Egypt, according, has a very hot climate; the thermometer in summer
standing usually at eighty or ninety degrees of Fahrenheit; and in Upper Egypt still higher. The burning wind of the desert, Simoom, or Camsin, is also experienced, usually about the time of the early equinox. The country is not unfrequently visited by swarms of locusts. See LOCUSTS.
In the very earliest times, Egypt appears to have been regarded under three principal divisions; and writers spoke of Upper Egypt or Thebais; Middle Egypt, Heptanomis or Heptapolis; and Lower Egypt or the Delta, including the districts lying east and west of the river. The provinces and cities of Egypt mentioned in the Bible may, in like manner, be arranged under these three great divisions:
1. LOWER EGYPT The northeastern point of this was "the river of Egypt," on the border of Palestine. The desert between this point, the Red Sea, and the ancient Pelusium, seems to have been the desert of Shur, Genesis 20:1 , now El-Djefer. Sin, "the strength [1] of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:15 , was probably Pelusium. The land of Genesis 47:11 . In this district, or adjacent to it, are mentioned also the cities Pithom, Raamses, Pi-Beseth, and On or Helipolis. In the proper Delta itself, lay Tahapanes, that is, Taphne or Daphne; Zoan, the Tanis of the Greeks; Leontopolis, alluded to perhaps in Isaiah 19:18 . West of the Delta was Alexandria.
2. MIDDLE EGYPT Here are mentioned Moph or Memphis, and Hanes, the Heracleopolis of the Greeks.
3. UPPER EGYPT The southern part of Egypt, the Hebrews appear to have called Pathros, Jeremiah 44:1,15 . The Bible mentions here only two cities, namely, No, or more fully No-Ammon, for which the Seventy put Diospolis, the Greek name for Thebes, the most ancient capital of Egypt, (see AMMON, or No-Ammon, or No;) and Syene, the southern city and limit of Egypt.
The chief agricultural productions of Egypt are wheat, durrah, or small maize, Turkish or Indian corn or maize, rice, barley, beans, cucumbers, watermelons, leeks, and onions; also flax and cotton. The date-tree and vine are frequent. The papyrus is still found in small quantity, chiefly near Damietta; it is a reed about nine feet high, as thick as a man's thumb, with a tuft of down on the top. See BOOK , BULRUSH . The animals of Egypt, besides the usual kinds of tame cattle, are the wild ox or buffalo in great numbers, the ass and camel, dogs in multitudes without masters, the ichneumon, the crocodile, and the hippopotamus.
The inhabitants of Egypt may be considered as including three divisions: 1. The Copts, or descendants of the ancient Egyptians. 2. The Fellahs, or husbandmen, who are supposed to represent the people in Scripture, called Phul. 3. The Arabs, or conquerors of the country, include the Turks, etc. The Copts are nominal Christians, and the clerks and accountants of the country. They have seen so many revolutions in the governing powers, that they concern themselves very little about the successes or misfortunes of those who aspire to dominion. The Fellahs suffer so much oppression, and are so despised by the Bedaween or wandering Arabs, and by their despotic rulers, that they seldom acquire property, and very rarely enjoy it in security; yet they are an interesting race, and devotedly attached to their native country and the Nile. The Arabs hate the Turks; yet the Turks enjoy most offices of government, though they hold their superiority by no very certain tenure.
The most extraordinary monuments of Egyptian power and industry were the pyramids, which still subsist, to excite the wonder and admiration of the world. No work of man now extant is so ancient or so vast as these mysterious structures. The largest of them covers a square area of thirteen acres, and is still four hundred and seventy-four feet high. They have by some been supposed to have been erected by the Israelites during their bondage in Egypt. But the tenor of ancient history in general, as well as the results of modern researches, is against this supposition. It is generally believed that they were erected more than two thousand years before Christ, as the sepulchres of kings.
But besides these imperishable monuments of kings long forgotten, Egypt abounds in other structures hardly less wonderful; on the beautiful islands above the cataracts, near Syene, and at other places in Upper Egypt; and especially in the whole valley of the Nile near Thebes, including Carnac, Luxor, etc. The temples, statues, obelisks, and sphinxes that cover the ground astonish and awe the beholder with their colossal height, their massive grandeur, and their vast extent; while the dwellings of the dead, tombs in the rock occupied by myriads of mummies, extend far into the adjacent mountains. The huge columns of these temples, their vast walls, and many of the tombs, are covered with sculptures and paintings which are exceedingly valuable as illustrating the public and the domestic life of the ancient Egyptians. See SHISHAK . With these are mingled many hieroglyphic records, which have begun to yield their long-concealed meaning to the inquisitions of modern science. Some of these are mere symbols, comparatively easy to understand. But a large portion of them are now found to be written with a sort of pictorial alphabet-each symbol representing the sound with which its own name commences. Thus OSIR, the name of the Egyptian god Soiris, would be represented by the picture of a reed, a child, and a mouth; because the initial sounds of the Coptic words for these three objects, namely, Ike, Si, and Ro, make up the name OSIR. There is, however, great ambiguity in the interpretation of these records; and in many cases the words, when apparently made out, are as yet unintelligible, and seem to be part of a priestly dialect understood only by the learned.
The early history of ancient Egypt is involved in great obscurity. All accounts, however, and the results of all modern researches, seem to concur in representing culture and civilization as having been introduced and spread in Egypt from the south, and especially from Meroe; and that the country in the earliest times was possessed by several contemporary kings or states, which at length were all united into one great kingdom. The common name of the Egyptian kings was Pharaoh, which signified sovereign power. History has preserved the names of several of these kings, and a succession of their dynasties. But the inclination of the Egyptian historians to magnify the great antiquity of their nation has destroyed their credibility. See PHARAOH .
This ancient and remarkable land is often mentioned in Scripture. A grandson of Noah seems to have given it his name, Genesis 10:6 . In the day of Abraham it was the granary of the world, and the patruarch himself resorted thither in a famine, Genesis 12:10 . His wife had an Egyptian handmaid, Hagar the mother of Ishmael, who also sought a wife in Egypt, Genesis 21:9,21 . Another famine, in the days of Isaac, nearly drove him to Egypt, Genesis 26:2 ; and Jacob and all his household ended their days there, Genesis 39:1-50:26 . After the escape of Israel from their weary bondage in Egypt, we read of little intercourse between the two nations for many years. In the time of David and Solomon, mention is again made of Egypt. Solomon married an Egyptian princess, 1 Kings 3:7 9:1-28 11:43 . But in the fifth year of his son Rehoboam, Judah was humbled at the feet of Shishak, king of Egypt, 2 Chronicles 12:1-16 ; and for many generations afterwards the Jews were alternately in alliance and at war with that nation, until both were subjugated to the Assyrian empire, 2 Kings 17:1-41 18:21 23:29 24:1-20 Jeremiah 25:1-38 37:5 44:1-30 46:1-28 .
Egypt was conquered by Cambyses, and became a province of the Persian empire about 525 B. C. Thus it continued until conquered by Alesander, 350 B. C., after whose death it formed, along with Syria, Palestine, Lybia, etc., the kingdom of the Ptolemies. After the battle of Actium, 30 B. C., it became a Roman province. In the time of Christ, great numbers of Jews were residents of Alexandria, Leontopolis, and other parts of Egypt; and our Savior himself found an asylum there in his infancy, Matthew 2:13 . Since that time it has ceased to be an independent state, and its history is incorporated with that of its different conquerors and possessors. In A. D. 640, it was conquered by the Arabs; and in later periods has passed from the hands of the caliphs under the power of Turks, Arabs, Kurds, Mamelukes; and since 1517, has been governed as a province of the Turkish empire. Thus have been fulfilled the ancient predictions recorded in God's word, Ezekiel 29:14,15 30:7,12,13 32:15 . Its present population is about two millions.
The religion of Egypt consisted in the worship of the heavenly bodies and the powers of nature; the priests cultivated at the same time astronomy and astrology, and to these belong probably the wise men, sorcerers, and magicians mentioned in Exodus 7:11,22 . They were the most honored and powerful of the castes into which the people were divided. It was probably this wisdom, in which Moses also was learned, Acts 7:22 . But the Egyptian religion had this peculiarity, that it adopted living animals as symbols of the real objects of worship. The Egyptians not only esteemed many species of animals as sacred, which might not be killed without the punishment of death, but individual animals were kept in temples and worshipped with sacrifices, as gods.
"The river of Egypt," Numbers 34:5 Joshua 15:4,47 1 Kings 8:65 2 Kings 24:7 Isaiah 27:12 Ezekiel 47:19 48:28 , (and, according to some, Genesis 15:18 , although in this passage a different word is used signifying a permanent stream,) designates the brook El-Arish, emptying into the southeast corner of the Mediterranean at Rhinocolura.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Egypt, Flight Into
After the departure of the wise men, the angel of the Lord told Joseph to fiy into Egypt with the Infant Jesus and His mother, as Herod had evil designs against them; there they remained until the death of Herod (Matthew 2). Among the many masters who have painted this subject in art are: Corneille the Elder, Durer, Ferrari, Fra Angelico, Murillo, Patinir, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Van Dyck.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Egypt
EGYPT . Habitable and cultivable Egypt consists practically of the broad fan-shaped’ Delta opening on to the Mediterranean, and the narrow valley of the Nile bordered by deserts as far as the First Cataract (beyond which is Nubia, i.e. Ethiopia), with a few oases westward of the valley. Amongst the latter may be counted the Fayyum, which, however, is separated from the river only by a narrow ridge, and is connected therewith by a canal or natural channel conveying the waters of the river to the oasis. The Greek name Aigyptos may perhaps be connected with Hakeptah , a name in vogue during the New Kingdom for Memphis, the northern capital. Egypt was divided anciently into Upper and Lower, the latter comprising the Delta and a portion of the valley reaching above Memphis, while Upper Egypt (the northern portion of which is often spoken of as Middle Egypt) terminated at the First Cataract (Aswan). Each of these main divisions was subdivided into nomes, or counties, varying to some extent at different times, 22 being a standard number for the Upper Country and 20 for the Lower. Each nome had its capital city the god of which was important throughout the nome and was generally governed by a nomarch. The alluvial land of Egypt is very fertile and easy to cultivate. Its fertility is independent of rainfall, that being quite insignificant except along the Mediterranean coast; it depends on the annual rise of the Nile, which commences in June and continues till October. If the rise is adequate, it secures the main crops throughout the country. In ancient times there may have been extensive groves of acacia trees on the borders of the alluvium kept moist by soakage from the Nile; but at most seasons of the year there was practically no natural pasture or other spontaneous growth except in marshy districts.
In this brief sketch it is impossible to bestow more than a glance upon the various aspects of Egyptian civilization. The ancient Egyptians were essentially not negroes, though some affirm that their skulls reveal a negro admixture. Their language shows a remote affinity with the Semitic group in structure, but very little in vocabulary; the writing for monumental and decorative purposes was in pictorial ‘hieroglyphic’ signs, modified for ordinary purposes into cursive ‘hieratic’ and in late times further to ‘demotic’: the last form preserves no traces of the pictorial origins recognizable by any one but a student. The Egyptian, like the old Hebrew writing, cannot record vowels, but only the consonantal skeletons of words. * [1]
The Egyptian artist at his best could rise to great beauty and sublimity, but the bulk of his work is dead with conventionality, and he never attained to the idea of perspective in drawing. The Egyptian engineers could accurately place the largest monoliths, without, however, learning any such mechanical contrivances as the pulley or the screw. The ‘wisdom of the Egyptians’ was neither far advanced nor profound, though many ideas were familiar to them that had never entered the heads of the nomads and inferior races about them. Their mathematics and astronomy were of the simplest kind; yet the Egyptian calendar was infinitely superior to all its contemporaries, and is scarcely surpassed by our own. The special importance attached by the Egyptians to the disposal and furnishing of the body after death may have been inspired by the preservative climate. From an early time the elaboration of doctrines regarding the afterlife went on, involving endless contradictions. We may well admire the early connexion of religion with morality, shown especially in the ‘Negative Confession’ and the judgment scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating not later than the 18th Dynasty; yet in practice the Egyptian religion, so far as we can judge, was mainly a compelling of the gods by magic formulæ. The priesthood was wealthy and powerful, and the people devout. The worship of animals was probably restricted to a few sacred individuals in early Egypt, but a degree of sanctity was afterwards extended to the whole of a species, and to almost every species.
1. The History of Egypt was divided by Manetho (who wrote for Ptolemy I. or II.) into 31 dynasties from Menes to Alexander. The chronology is very uncertain for the early times: most authorities in Germany place the 1st Dyn. about b.c. 3300, and the 12th Dyn. at b.c. 2000 1800. These dates, which depend largely on the interpretation of records of astronomical phenomena, may perhaps be taken as the minimum. The allowance of time (200 years) for the dark period between the 12th and the 18th Dyns. seems insufficient: some would place the 12th Dyn. at b.c. 2500 2300, or even a whole ‘Sothic’ period of 1460 years earlier than the minimum; and the 1st Dynasty would then be pushed back at least in equal measure. From the 18th Dyn. onwards there is close agreement.
The historic period must have been preceded by a long pre-historic age, evidenced in Upper Egypt by extensive cemeteries of graves containing fine pottery, instruments in flint exquisitely worked, and in bone and copper, and shapely vessels in hard stone. Tradition points to separate kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt towards the close of this period. Menes, the founder of the 1st Dyn., united the two lands. He came probably from This, near Abydos, where royal tombs of the first three Dyns. have been found; but he built Memphis as his capital near the dividing line between the two halves of his kingdom. The earliest pyramid dates from the end of the 3rd dynasty. The stupendous Pyramids at Gizeh are of Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus of the 4th Dyn., from which time we have also very beautiful statues in wood, limestone, and diorite. In the 5th Dyn. the relief sculpture on tombs reached its highest excellence. The 6th Dyn. is notable for long inscriptions, both religious texts in the pyramids and biographical inscriptions in the lesser tombs. The first eight Dyns., of which the 7th and 8th are utterly obscure, constitute the Old Kingdom . After the first two Dyns., best represented at Abydos, its monuments are concentrated at Memphis, but important records of the 6th Dyn. are widely spread as far south as the First Cataract, parallel with the growing power and culture of the nomarchs. Expeditions were made even under the 1st Dyn. to the copper and turquoise mines in the peninsula of Sinai, and cedar wood was probably then already obtained from Lebanon by sea. Under the 6th Dyn. Nubia furnished troops to the Egyptian armies from the distant south as far perhaps as Khartum. But at the end of it there was a collapse, probably through insufficient control of the local princes of that time by the nomarch.
In the next period, the Middle Kingdom (Dyns. 9 17), we see the rise of Thebes; but the 9th and 10th Dyns. were from Heracleopolis, partly contemporary with the 11th Dyn., which eventually suppressed the rival house. The monuments of the 11th Dyn. are almost confined to the neighbourhood of Thebes. Under the Amenemhçs and Senwosris of the 12th Dyn., Egypt was as great as it was in the 4th Dyn., but its power was not concentrated as then. The break-up of the old Kingdom had given an opportunity to a number of powerful families to grow up and establish themselves in local princedoms: the family that triumphed over the rest by arms or diplomacy could control but could not ignore them, and feudalism was the result, each great prince having a court and an army resembling those of the king, but on a smaller scale. The most notable achievement of these Dyns. was the regulation of the lake of Mœris by Amenemhç III., with much other important work for irrigation and improvement of agriculture. Literature also flourished at this period. The traditional exploits of the world-conqueror Sesostris seem to have been developed in late times out of the petty expeditions of Senwosri III. into Nubia, Libya, and Palestine. The 13th and 14th Dyns. are represented by a crowd of 150 royal names: they are very obscure, and some scholars would make them contemporary with each other and with the following. The 15th and 16th Dyns. were of the little-known Hyksos or ‘Shepherd kings,’ apparently invaders from the East, who for a time ruled all Egypt ( c [2] . b.c. 1650). Excepting scarabs engraved with the names of the kings, monuments of the Hyksos are extremely rare. Their names betray a Semitic language: they were probably barbarian, but in the end took on the culture of Egypt, and it is a strange fact that inscribed relics of one of them, Khyan, have been found in places as far apart as at Cnossus in Crete and Baghdad; no other Egyptian king, not even Thetmosi III., has quite so wide a range as that mysterious Hyksos. The foreign rulers are said to have oppressed the natives and to have forbidden the worship of the Egyptian deities. The princes of Thebes, becoming more or less independent, formed the 17th Dyn., and succeeded in ousting the hated Hyksos, now probably diminished in numbers and weakened by luxury, from Upper Egypt. The first king of the 18th Dyn., Ahmosi, drove them across the N.E. frontier and pursued them into Palestine ( c [2] . b.c. 1580).
The 18th Dyn. ushers in the most glorious period in Egyptian history, the New Kingdom , or, as it has been called on account of its far-reaching sway, the Empire, lasting to the end of the 20th Dynasty. The prolonged effort to cast out the Hyksos had welded together a nation in arms under the leadership of the Theban kings, leaving no trace of the old feudalism; the hatred of the oppressor pursued the ‘pest’ far into Syria in successive campaigns, until Thetmosi I., the second successor of Ahmosi, reached the Euphrates. Thetmosi II. and a queen, Hatshepsut ( c [2] . 1500), ruled for a time with less vigorous hands, and the latter cultivated only the arts of peace. Meanwhile the princes of Syria strengthened themselves and united to offer a formidable opposition to Thetmosi III. when he endeavoured to recover the lost ground. This Pharaoh, however, was a great strategist, as well as a valiant soldier: as the result of many annual campaigns, he not only placed his tablet on the bank of the Euphrates, by the side of that of Thetmosi I., but also consolidated the rule of Egypt over the whole of Syria and Phœnicia. The wealth of the conquered countries poured into Egypt, and the temple of the Theban Ammon, the god under whose banner the armies of the Pharaohs of two dynasties had won their victories, was ever growing in wealth of slaves, lands, and spoil. Amenhotp III. enjoyed the fruits of his predecessors’ conquests, and was a mighty builder. His are the colossi at Thebes named Memnon by the Greeks. The empire had then reached its zenith. Under Amenhotp IV. ( c [2] . 1370), in some ways the most striking figure in Egyptian history [6], it rapidly declined: the Hittites were pressing into Syria from the north, and all the while the Pharaoh was a dreamer absorbed in establishing a monotheistic worship of Aton (the sun) against the polytheism of Egypt, and more especially against the Theban and national worship of Ammon. He changed his own name to Akhenaton, built a new capital, the ‘Horizon of Aton,’ in place of Thebes, and erased the name and figure of Ammon wherever they were seen. Art, too, found in him a lavish patron, and struck out new types, often bizarre rather than beautiful. But for the empire Pharaoh had no thought or leisure. The cuneiform letters found in the ruins of his newfangled capital at el-Amarna show us his distracted agents and vassals in Syria appealing to him in vain for support against the intrigues and onslaughts of rebels and Invaders. His father Amenhotp III. had carried on an active correspondence with the distant kings of Babylonia, Assyria, and Mitanni in Mesopotamia; but after a few years Akhenaton must have lost all influence with them. Shortly after Akhenaton’s death the new order of things, for which he had striven so long and sacrificed so much, was abolished, its triumph having lasted for but 10 or 15 years. Ammon worship was then restored, and retaliated on the name and figure of the heretic king and of his god.
Although the 18th Dyn. was so powerful and active, and had built temples in Nubia as well as in Syria, the Delta was neglected. Only on the road to Asia, at Heliopolis and Bubastis, have relics been found of these kings. Until Akhenaton’s heresy, their religious zeal was devoted to honouring Ammon. The 19th Dyn., on the other hand, was as active in the Delta as in other parts of Egypt, and although Ammon remained the principal god of the State, Ptah of Memphis and Rç the sun-god of Heliopolis were given places of honour at his side. There is a famous series of reliefs at Karnak of the Syrian war of Seti I. ( c [2] . 1300); but his son Ramesses II. ( c [2] . 1290 1220) was the greatest figure in the Dynasty: he was not indeed able to drive back the Hittites, but he fought so valorously in Syria that they could make no advance southward. They were compelled to make a treaty with Pharaoh and leave him master of Syria as far as Kadesh on the Orontes. Ramesses II. was the greatest builder of all the Pharaohs, covering the land with temples and monuments of stone, the inscriptions and scenes upon them in many cases extolling his exploit against the Hittites at the battle of Kadesh, when his personal prowess saved the Egyptian camp and army from overwhelming disaster. Towards the end of his long reign of 67 years disorders multiplied, and his son and successor Mineptah had to face encroachments of the Libyans on his own soil and revolt in his frontier possessions in Palestine. Mineptah, too, was old, but by the fifth year of his reign he was able to boast of peace and security restored to his country. The 19th Dyn. ended, however, in utter confusion, a Syrian finally usurping the throne. In the 20th Dyn. the assaults on Egypt were renewed with greater violence than ever by Libyans from the west and by sea-rovers from the islands and coasts of the eastern Mediterranean. But Setnekht and his son and successor Ramesses III. ( c [2] . 1200 1165) were equal to the occasion. The latter was victorious everywhere, on sea and on land, and a great incursion from the north, after maiming the Hittite power, was hurled back by the Egyptian king, who then established his rule in Syria and Phœnicia over a wider area than his celebrated namesake had controlled. Ramesses XII. was followed by sons and others of his own name down to Ramesses XII., but all within glorious reigns. Under them the empire flickered out, from sheer feebleness and internal decay.
Egypt now ( c [2] . 1100) enters upon a new period of history, that of the Deltaic Dynasties . Thebes was no longer the metropolis. The growth of commerce in the Levant transferred the centre of gravity northward. After the fall of the New Kingdom, all the native dynasties originated in various cities of Lower, with perhaps Middle, Egypt. The later Ramessides had depended for their fighting men on Libyan mercenaries, and the tendency of the Libyans to settle on the rich lands of Egypt was thus hastened and encouraged. The military chiefs established their families in the larger towns, and speedily became wealthy as well as powerful; it was from such families of Libyan origin that the later ‘native’ dynasties arose. Dyn. 21 was from Tanis (Zoan); parallel with and apparently subject to it was a dynasty of priest-kings at Thebes. The pitiful report of a certain Unamun, sent from Thebes to obtain wood from Lebanon, shows how completely Egypt’s influence in Syria and the Levant had passed away at the beginning of this dynasty. The 22nd Dyn. ( c [2] . 950 750) arose in Bubastis, or perhaps at Heracleopolis in Middle Egypt. Its founder, Sheshonk I., the Biblical Shishak, was energetic and overran Palestine, but his successors quickly degenerated. The 23rd Dyn., said to be Tanite, was perhaps also Bubastite. There were now again all the elements of feudalism in the country except the central control, and Egypt thus lay an easy prey to a resolute invader. We find at the end of the 23rd Egyptian Dyn. Pankhi, king of Ethiopia, already in full possession of the Thebaid ( c [2] . 730). Tefnakht, prince of Sais, was then endeavouring to establish his sway over the other petty princes of the Delta and Middle Egypt. Pankhi accepted the implied challenge, overthrew Tefnakht, and compelled him to do homage. Tefnakht’s son Bocchoris alone forms the 24th Dynasty. He was swept away by another invasion led by Shabako ( c [2] . 715), who heads the Ethiopian or 25th Dynasty . Shabako was followed by his son Shabitku and by Tahrak. The kings of this dynasty, uniting the forces of Egypt and Ethiopia, endeavoured to extend their influence over Syria in opposition to the Assyrians. Tahrak (Tirhakah) was particularly active in this endeavour, but as soon as Esarhaddon was free to invade Egypt the Assyrian king had no difficulty in taking Memphis, capturing most of the royal family, and driving Tahrak southward ( c [2] . 670). The native princes were no doubt hostile at heart to the Ethiopian domination: on his departure, Esarhaddon left these, to the number of 20, with Assyrian garrisons, in charge of different parts of the country; an Assyrian governor, however, was appointed to Pelusium, which was the key of Egypt. None the less the Ethiopian returned as soon as the Assyrian host had withdrawn, and annihilated the army of occupation. Esarhaddon thereupon prepared a second expedition, but died on the way. Ashurbanipal succeeding, reinstated the governors, and his army reached Thebes. On his-withdrawal there was trouble again. The Assyrian governor of Pelusium was accused of treachery with Niku (Neko), prince of Sais and Memphis, and Pekrûr of Pisapt (Goshen), and their correspondence with Tahrak was intercepted. They were all brought in chains to Nineveh, but Niku was sent back to Egypt with honour, and his son was appointed governor of Athribis. Soon after this failure Tahrak died: his nephew Tandamane recovered Memphis, but was speedily expelled by Ashurbanipal, who advanced up the river to Thebes and plundered it.
Meanwhile the family of Neko at Sais was securing its position in the Delta, taking advantage of the protection afforded by the Assyrians and the weakening of the Ethiopian power. Neko himself was killed, perhaps by Tandamane, but his son Psammetichus took his place, founding the 26th Dynasty . Counting his reign from the death of Tahrak ( c [2] . 664), Psammetichus soon ruled both Upper and Lower Egypt, while in the absence of fresh expeditions all trace of the brief Assyrian domination disappeared. The 26th Dyn. marks a great revival; Egypt quickly regained its prosperity after the terrible ravages of civil wars and Ethiopian and Assyrian invasions. Psammetichus I., in his long reign of 54 years, re-organized the country, safeguarded it against attack from Ethiopia, and carried his arms into S.W. Palestine. His son Neko, profiting by the long weakness of Assyria, swept through Syria as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates, and put the land to tribute, until the Babylonian army commanded by Nebuchadrezzar hurled him back (b.c. 605). His successors, Psammetichus II. and Apries (Hophra), attempted to regain influence in Syria, but without success. Apries with his Greek mercenaries became unpopular with the native soldiery, and he was dethroned by Ahmasi (Amasis). This king, although he made alliances with Crœsus of Lydia, Polycrates of Samos, and Battus of Cyrene during a reign of 46 years, devoted himself to promoting the internal prosperity of Egypt. It was a golden age while it lasted, but it did not prevent the new Persian masters of the East from preparing to add Egypt to their dominions. Cyrus lacked opportunity, but Cambyses easily accomplished the conquest of Egypt in b.c. 527, six months after the death of Amasis.
The Persian Dynasty is counted as the 27th. The memory of its founder was hateful to the Egyptians and the Greeks alike; probably the stories of his mad cruelty, though exaggerated, have a solid basis. Darius, on the other hand (521 486), was a good and considerate ruler, under whom Egypt prospered again; yet after the battle of Marathon it revolted. Xerxes, who quelled the revolt, and Artaxerxes were both detested. Inaros the Libyan headed another rebellion, which was backed by an Athenian army and fleet; but after some brilliant successes his attempt was crushed. It was not till about b.c. 405 that Egypt revolted successfully; thereafter, in spite of several attempts to bring it again under the Persian yoke, it continued independent for some 60 years, through Dyns. 28 30. At length, in 345, Ochus reconquered the province, and it remained subject to Persia until Alexander the Great entered it almost without bloodshed in 332 after the battle of Issus.
Throughout the Hellenistic (Ptolemaic and Roman) period the capital of Egypt was Alexandria, the intellectual head of the world. Under the Ptolemys, Egypt on the whole prospered for two centuries, though often torn by war and dissension. [In the reign of Philo-metor ( c [2] . b.c. 170) a temple was built by the high-priest Onias for the Jews in Egypt after the model of the Temple at Jerusalem (Josephus, BJ VII. x. 3). The ruins have been recognized by Flinders Petrie at Tell el-Yahudieh.] From b.c. 70 there is a conspicuous absence of native documents, until Augustus in b.c. 30 inaugurated the Roman rule. Egypt gradually recovered under its new masters, and in the second cent. of their rule was exceedingly prosperous as a rich and well-managed cornfield for the free supply of Rome.
2. Egypt in the Bible is Egypt under the Deltaic Dynasties, or, at earliest, of the New Kingdom. This applies not only to the professedly late references in 1 and 2Kings, but also throughout. Abraham and Joseph may belong chronologically to the Middle Kingdom, but the Egyptian names in the story of Joseph are such as were prevalent only in the time of the Deltaic Dynasties. There were wide differences in manners and customs and in the condition of the country and people at different periods of the history of Egypt. In the Biblical accounts, unfortunately, there are not many criteria for a close fixing of the dates of composition. It may be remarked that there were settlements of Jews in Pathros (Upper Egypt) as early as the days of Jeremiah, and papyri indicate the existence of an important Jewish colony at Syene and Elephantine, on the S. border of Egypt, at an equally early date. The OT writers naturally show themselves much better acquainted with the eastern Delta, and especially the towns on the road to Memphis, than with any other part of Egypt. For instance, Sais, the royal city of the 26th Dyn. on the W. side of the Delta, is not once mentioned, and the situation of Thebes (No-Amon) is quite misunderstood by Nahum. Of localities in Upper Egypt only Syene and Thebes (No) are mentioned; in Middle Egypt, Hanes; while on the eastern border and the route to Memphis (Noph) are Shihor, Shur, Sin, Migdol, Tahpanhes, Pi-beseth, On; and by the southern route, Goshen, Pithom, Succoth, Rameses, besides lesser places in the Exodus. Zoan was not on the border routes, but was itself an important centre in the East of the Delta, as being a royal city. There are but few instances in which the borrowing of Egyptian customs or even words by the Hebrews can be traced; but the latter were none the less well acquainted with Egyptian ways. The Egyptian mourning of 70 days for Jacob is characteristic ( Genesis 50:3 ), so also may be the baker’s habit of carrying on the head ( Genesis 40:16-17 ). The assertion that to eat bread with the Hebrews was an abomination to the Egyptians ( Genesis 43:32 ) has not yet been satisfactorily explained. The Hebrews, no doubt, like the Greeks in Herodotus, slew and ate animals, e.g. the sheep and the cow, which Egyptians in the later days were forbidden to slay by their religious scruples. Circumcision was frequent in Egypt, but how far it was a general custom (cf. Joshua 5:9 ) is not clear. Prophecies of a Messianic type were current in Egypt, and one can be traced back to about the time of the Hyksos domination. It has been suggested that in this and in the custom of circumcision are to be seen the most notable influences of Egypt on the people of Israel.
3. Religion . The piety of the Egyptians was the characteristic that struck the Greeks most forcibly, and their stupendous monuments and the bulk of the literature that has come down to us are either religious or funerary. An historical examination of all the phenomena would show that piety was inherent in the nature of the people, and that their religious observances grew and multiplied with the ages, until the Moslem conquest. The attempt will now be made to sketch some outlines of the Egyptian religion and its practices, as they appear especially in the last millennium b.c. The piety of the Egyptians then manifested itself especially in the extraordinary care bestowed on the dead, and also in the number of objects, whether living or inanimate, that were looked upon as divine.
The priests (Egyp. ‘the pure ones’ or ‘the divine fathers’) were a special class with semi-hereditary privileges and duties. Many of them were pluralists. They received stipends in kind from the temples to which they were attached, and in each temple were divided into four phylæ or tribes, which served in succession for a lunar month at a time. The chief offices were filled by select priests entitled prophets by the Greeks (Egyp. ‘servants of the god’; Potiphera ( Genesis 41:45 ) was prophet [17] in On), of which there was theoretically one for each god in a temple. Below the priests in the temple were the pastophori (Egyp. ‘openers,’ i.e. of shrines), and of the same rank as these were the choachytes (Egyp. ‘water-pourers’) in the necropolis. These two ranks probably made offerings of incense and libations before the figure of the god or of the deceased. The priestly class were very attentive to cleanliness, wearing white linen raiment, shaving their heads, and washing frequently. They abstained especially from fish and beans, and were probably all circumcised. The revenues of the temples came from endowments of land, from offerings and from fees. The daily ritual of offering to the deity was strictly regulated, formula) with magic power being addressed to the shrine, its door, its lock, etc., as it was being opened, as well as to the deity within; hymns were sung and sistrums rattled, animals slaughtered, and the altar piled with offerings. On festal occasions the god would be carried about in procession, sometimes to visit a neighbouring deity. Burnt-offerings , beyond the burning of incense, were unknown in early times, but probably became usual after the New Kingdom. Offerings of all kinds were the perquisite of the priests when the god (image or animal) had bad his enjoyment of them. Oracles were given in the temples, not by an inspired priest, but by nods or other signs made by the god; sometimes, for instance, the decision of a god was sought in a legal matter by laying before him a papyrus in which the case was stated. In other cases the enquirer slept in the temple, and the revelation came in a dream. The oracles of the Theban Ammon and (later) of Buto were political forces: that of Ammon in the Oasis of Siwa played a part in Greek history. The most striking hymns date from the New Kingdom, and are addressed especially to the solar form of Ammon (or to the Aton during Akhenaton’s heresy); the fervour of the worshipper renders them henothelstic, pantheistic, or even theistic in tone. Prayers also occur; but the tendency was overwhelmingly greater to magic , compelling the action of the gods, or in other ways producing the desired effect. Preservative amulets, over which the formulæ had been spoken or on which such were engraved, abound on the mummies of the later dynasties, and no doubt were worn by living persons. The endless texts inscribed in the pyramids of the end of the Old Kingdom, on coffins of the Middle Kingdom, and in the Book of the Dead, are almost wholly magical formulæ for the preservation of the material mummy, for the divinization of the deceased, for taking him safely through the perils of the under world, and giving him all that he would wish to enjoy in the future life. A papyrus is known of spells for the use of a mother nursing her child; spells accompanied the employment of drugs in medicine; and to injure an enemy images were made in wax and transformed by spells into persecuting demons.
Egyptian theology was very complex and self-contradictory; so also were its views about the life after death . These were the result of the amalgamation of doctrines originally belonging to different localities; the priests and people were always willing to accept or absorb new ideas without displacing the old, and to develop the old ones by imagination in different directions. No one attempted to reach a uniform system, or, if any had done so, none would abide long by any system. Death evidently separated the elements of which the living man was composed; the corpse might be rejoined from time to time by the hawk-winged soul, while at other times the latter would be in the heavens associating with gods. To the ka (life or activity or genius) offerings were made at the tomb; we hear also of the ‘shade’ and ‘power.’ The dead man was judged before Osiris, the king of the dead, and if condemned, was devoured by a demon, but if justified, fields of more than earthly fruitfulness were awarded to him in the under world; or he was received into the bark of the sun to traverse the heavens gloriously; or, according to another view, he passed a gloomy and feeble existence in the shadows of the under world, cheered only for an hour as the sun travelled nightly between two of the hour-gates of the infernal regions. No hint of the Pythagorean doctrine of metempsychosis, attributed by Herodotus to the Egyptians, has yet been found in their writings; but spells were given to the dead man by which he could voluntarily assume the form of a lotus, of an ibis or a heron or a serpent, or of the god Ptah, or ‘anything that he wished.’ Supplies for the dead were deposited with him in the grave, or secured to him by magic formulæ; offerings might be brought by his family on appropriate occasions, or might be made more permanent by endowment; but such would not be kept up for many generations.
As to the d
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Egypt, River
EGYPT, RIVER (RV [1] ‘brook,’ better ‘wady’) OF . The S.W. boundary of Palestine ( Numbers 34:5 , Isaiah 27:12 etc.; cf. ‘river ( nahar ) of Egypt,’ Genesis 15:18 , and simply ‘the wady,’ Ezekiel 47:19 ; Ezekiel 48:28 ). It is the Wady el-Arish , still the boundary of Egypt, in the desert half-way between Pe usium and Gaza. Water is always to be found by digging in the bed of the wady, and after heavy rain the latter is filled with a rushing stream. El-Arish, where the wady reaches the Mediterranean, was an Egyptian frontier post to which malefactors were banished after having their noses cut off; hence its Greek name Rhinocorura . See also Shihor, Shur.
F. Ll. Griffith.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Egypt in the Bible
In Semitic languages Egypt was known under the names of Musr, Misr, Misri, the Hebrew form being Misraim, of which the termination is regarded by some as the regular dual ending used to designate at the same time both parts, Upper and Lower, of the country. Genesis 10 is commonly understood to enumerate the various peoples which made up the population of Egypt: Ludim, Anamim, Laabim, Nepthuim, Phetrusim, Chasluim, and Capthorim. Some of these names have not yet been satisfactorily identified. The Anamim (Anu of the Egyptian texts) appear to be the remnant of early settlers who, driven back by newcomers, roamed in the desert above the second cataract; the Phetrusim (southerners) inhabited the neighborhood of Thebes; the Capthorim and Chasluim are late invaders established on the Mediterranean shore. Egypt first appears in the Bible as a land of plenty, whither Abraham resorts at a time of famine (Genesis 12), and whither Jacob, in similar circumstances, sends his sons for buying wheat (Genesis 37-50). The whole family soon moved there at the bidding of Joseph. Historians usually date this migration at the time of the Hyksos rule. There, in the "land of Gessen," located by some near the mouth of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, by others half-way up that same channel, by others still south of Memphis, in the Fayum district, they increased and multiplied; and from there, after a long period of persecution which is supposed to have taken place following the overthrow of the Hyksos by native princes, they left at God's bidding, under the leadership of Moses, for the Promised Land. The disaster which overcame Pharao's army at the Red Sea apparently affected only a relatively small corps of Egyptian troops; texts need not be pressed to mean the whole military force of Egypt.
For many centuries decadent Egypt claimed possession of Palestine. This overlordship, however, was merely nominal, so that the Hebrews were fortunate in having only local Chanaanite chieftains with whom to contend. A long and hard struggle at last won for them independence under the strong hand of David. The city of Gazer, however, remained in the hands of the Pherezites (Jos., 16); its capture, in the beginning of the reign of Solomon, by Psibkhannu II, whose daughter became Solomon's wife, brings back the Egyptians into direct contact with Israel. Gazer was given to Solomon as his wife's dowry. Obviously the prince of Tanis considered Palestine as part of his kingdom, and the Hebrew king as a vassal. With the latter he maintained friendly commercial relations (3Kings 10); yet the Egyptian ruler had given shelter and a bride of the blood royal to the young Edomite prince, Adad, and did not discountenance the latter's attempt to wrest his kingdom from Solomon's hand (3Kings 11). To Psibkhannu's successor, Sheshenk I (Sesac of the Bible), the first Egyptian king whose proper name is given in Scripture (Pharao, Egypt., per o,a, the great house, is a generic title), Jeroboam fled from the wrath of. Solomon (3Kings 11), and, according to the Greek text, was later on married to the queen's own sister. Five years after Roboam's accession, Sesac, who probably wished to profit by the political division of Israel, in order to assert his suzerainty, invaded Palestine and ransacked Jerusalem (3Kings 14; Inscription of Karnak). Whether "Zara the Ethiopian," whose attempt against Palestine is recorded only in 2Par., 14, was an Egyptian king (Osorkon I or Osorkon II) is still a moot question.
Save for an obscure allusion to an alliance between Joram, king of Israel (851-842), and the reigning Pharao, Egypt does not appear again on the scene of Biblical history until the last years of the Northern Kingdom, when Osee, the last king of Israel, in order to prevent being engulfed in the ever-growing torrent of Assyrian invasion, called on the help of Sua, probably the future Shabaka, founder of the XXVth Dynasty, then a high officer in the Egyptian Empire (4Kings 17). But leaning on Egypt was leaning on a broken reed; and after the fall of Samaria, despite the oft-repeated warnings of the prophets, there existed in Jerusalem for more than a century a strong party favoring an Egyptian alliance. King Josias, who opposed this policy, was mortally wounded on the battlefield of Mageddo, whilst endeavoring to block, it appears, the advance of Nechao II against the young Babylonian Empire, just risen (609 B.C.) on the ruins of the vanquished Assyrian Kingdom (4Kings 23). Neither did this calamity, nor the conqueror's meddling with the internal affairs of Jerusalem and the heavy tribute levied by him on Jerusalem (4Kings 23), not even Nechao's subsequent defeat by Nabuchodonosor (Jer., 46), prevent the stubborn pro-Egyptian politicians of Jerusalem from reckoning on the help of Egypt when the Babylonians laid siege to the Holy City. True, Hophra (589-570) made a military demonstration in the direction of Gaza (Jer., 47); but his troops were defeated, and Jerusalem, left to its plight, succumbed in 586. Many Judeans then and thereafter sought a new country in Egypt (4Kings 25) and even compelled Jeremias to follow them (Jer., 43). After the collapse of the Chaldean Empire Egypt, now but a shadow of its former greatness, fell into the hands of the Persian king Cambyses (525) and, two centuries later (332), of Alexander the Great. Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198). The Book of Daniel and those of the Machabees contain many references to the struggle of the Lagidre and the Seleucidre for its possession. During the last three centuries before the Christian era Egypt, and especially Alexandria, became a great center of Jewish population; to this fact the world is indebted for the Greek translation of the old Hebrew Scriptures. Relations between Palestine and Egypt, particularly after the Roman occupation, were easy and frequent; and thus it is not surprising to see the Holy Family seek refuge in Egypt from the mad fury of Herod (Matthew 2).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Egypt
Independent state of northeastern Africa. According to tradition Saint Mark the Evangelist introduced the Catholic Faith into Alexandria which became the center of Christianity in Egypt. Until the Second Æcumenical Council (381) the Patriarch of Alexandria was recognized as next in rank to the Bishop of Rome, and the patriarchate reached its most flourishing period under Saint Athanasius (died 373), champion of the Faith against Arianism, and Saint Cyril (412-444), defender of the Divinity of Christ. In the 5th century the patriarchate fell prey to the Monophysite heresy, and the Catholic succession was twice interrupted for long periods. The Saracen invasions wrought disaster for both uniats and schismatics, and both Churches further declined in the persecutions of the 14th century. Organization of the Uniat Coptic Church dates from 1721 when Benedict XIV gave to Amba Athanasius, Coptic Bishop of Jerusalem, jurisdiction over all Catholics of the Coptic Rite in Egypt and elsewhere, and in 1895 Leo XIII restored the Patriarchate of Alexandria.
Vicariates Apostolic include:
Alessandria di Egitto (-Eliopoli di Egitto-Port-Said)
Alexandria (Armenian)
Hermopolis Magna
Eliopoli di Egitto
Port-Said
Coptic ecclesiastical divisions include:
Alessandria (Archdiocese)
Alessandria (Eparchy)
Assiut {Lycopolis} (Eparchy)
Guizeh (Eparchy)
Ismayliah (Eparchy)
Luqsor (Eparchy)
Minya (Eparchy)
Sohag (Eparchy)
Other ecclesiastical divisions include:
Alessandria (Melkite Archdiocese)
Iskanderiya (Armenian Eparchy)
Le Caire (Chaldean Eparchy)
Le Caire (Maronite Eparchy)
Le Caire (Syrian Eparchy)
See also:
World Fact Book
patron saints index: Egypt
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Egypt, Mary of, Saint
Penitent, born northern Egypt, c.344;died Arabian desert, 421. After living an evil life for seventeen years at Alexandria, she was miraculously converted at Jerusalem. Retiring into the Arabian desert, she passed her remaining 47 years in penance and solitude. Saint Zosimus discovered her there and administered Holy Communion to her. Relics venerated at Rome, Naples, Cremona, and Antwerp. Feast, April 2,. See also: patron saints index.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Plagues of Egypt
PLAGUES OF EGYPT . There are not many references in the Bible to the plagues outside the Book of Exodus. They are epitomized in Psalms 78:44-51 ; Psalms 105:28-36 . In Romans 9:14-24 God’s treatment of Pharaoh is dwelt upon, to show His absolute right to do what He will with the creatures of His own handiwork. And in Revelation 8:1-13 ; Revelation 9:1-21 ; Revelation 16:1-21 much of the imagery in the visions of the trumpets and the bowls is based upon the plagues hail and fire ( Revelation 8:7 ; Revelation 16:17 f.), water becoming blood, and the death of the creatures that were in it ( Revelation 8:8 f., Revelation 16:3 f.), darkness ( Revelation 8:12 , Revelation 16:10 ), locusts ( Revelation 9:1-11 ), boils ( Revelation 16:2 ), frogs ( Revelation 16:13 ).
The narratives of the plagues demand study from three points of view: (1) their literary history; (2) the relation of the several plagues to natural phenomena; (3) their religious significance.
1. The sources . For a full discussion of the reasons for the literary analysis reference must be made to commentaries. The analysis, on which critics are in the main agreed, is as follows:
J 7:14 15 17a 18 21a 24 25 8:1 4 8 15a E 15 17b 20b 23 P 19 20a 21b 22 5 7 R J 20 32 9:1 7 13 17 18 23b 24b J Jahwist.
E Elohist.
P Priestly Narrative.
R Redactor.
J Jahwist
If the sources have here been rightly separated, it becomes probable that the original account of JE [1] contained eight and not ten plagues. The 3rd and 4th are insect pests, the former kinnîm, kinnâm , i.e. gnats or mosquitoes (P [2] ), the latter ‘ârôbh , i.e. swarms of flies (J [3] ). These may with probability be considered duplicates. And similarly the 5th and 6th, murrain (J [3] ) and boils (P [2] ). If this is so, all the eight were originally contained in J [3] ’s narrative; E [7] has elements in the 1st, 7th, 8th, and 9th, and in the 9th E [7] ’s narrative has largely displaced that of J [3] .
2. Relation to natural phenomena . The hostility which used to exist between religion and natural science is rapidly passing away, as it is becoming more clearly recognized that science is concerned solely with the observation of physical sequences, while religion embraces science as the greater includes the less. Nothing can lie outside the activity of a God who is both a transcendent Person and an immanent sustaining Power in the universe. And therefore to point out a connexion between some of the ‘miracles’ of Scripture and ‘natural phenomena’ does not eliminate from them the Divine element; it rather transfigures an unreasoning ‘faith in the impossible’ into a faith which recognizes the ‘finger of God’ in everything. Thus the following discussion of the plagues may claim to be entirely constructive; it seeks to destroy nothing, but aims at showing it to be probable that the providence of God worked in Egypt by means of a series of natural phenomena, upon which the religious instinct of the Hebrew writers unerringly seized as signs of God’s favour to their forefathers, and of punishment to their oppressors. This religious conviction led in process of time to accretions and amplifications; as the stories were handed down, they acquired more and more of what is popularly called the miraculous. The earliest stage at which they emerge into writing is in J [3] ; In the remains of E [7] the wonders have increased, while in P [2] they are greatly multiplied.
1 st Plague . According to J [3] , this consisted in the smiting of the river by J″ [13] , and the consequent death of the fish, causing the necessity of obtaining water by digging in the neighbourhood of the river. Nothing is here said of blood , but that is introduced in the next stage of development. In E [7] the marvel is performed not directly by J″ [13] in the ordinary course of nature, but through Moses’ wonder-working staff, and the river is turned to blood. Two suggestions have been made as to the natural phenomena which might give rise to the story. When the Nile rises in June, its waters become discoloured from fragments of vegetable matter, which gradually turn to a dull red colour as the river rises to its height in August. This is confirmed by many travellers, who also speak of offensive odours emitted at the later stage. Others refer the reddening of the water to enormous quantities of minute organisms. Whatever may have been the actual cause, J [3] comes the nearest to the natural fact; a fetid exhalation killed the fish, or in Hebrew language J″ [13] smote the river. And the ease with which the belief could arise that the water was turned to blood is illustrated in 2 Kings 3:23 . In P [2] ’s final amplification, every drop of water in Egypt was turned to blood.
2 nd Plague . From whatever cause the river became fetid, a mass of organic matter and of animal life would be collected. And these conditions would be suitable to the rapid multiplication of frogs. In J [3] , J″ [13] foretells that He will Himself smite Egypt with frogs; in the ordinary course of nature ‘the river shall swarm with frogs.’ In P [2] , Aaron (as usual) is bidden by Moses to bring the plague by stretching out his staff. Plagues of frogs were not unknown in ancient times; and Haggard tells of a plague in the upper Nile valley in modern times ( Under Crescent and Star , p. 279). Frogs are most plentiful in Egypt in September.
3 rd and 4th Plagues . The mass of dead frogs collected in heaps ( Exodus 8:14 ) would lead to the breeding of innumerable insects. In J [3] , J″ [13] Himself sends ‘swarms of flies ’; in P [2] , through the stretching out of Aaron’s staff, ‘all the dust of Egypt became mosquitoes’ (EV [15] lice [27]). The ‘mosquitoes’ cannot have been, according to any natural sequence, distinct from the ‘swarms’; P [2] particularizes the general statement of J [3] . Stinging gnats of various kinds are common in Egypt about October. The insects come to maturity after the waters of the Nile inundation have receded, and the pools in which the larvæ have lived have dried up. Note that in Psalms 105:31 the ‘swarm’ and the ‘mosquitoes’ are coupled in one sentence; and Psalms 78:45 omits the ‘mosquitoes’ altogether.
5 th and 6 th Plagues . The decomposing bodies of the frogs would produce pestilential effects; and bacteriological research shows that some insects, especially mosquitoes, are a serious factor in the spread of disease. Thus the murrain (J [3] ) is amply accounted for. In the preceding narrative J [3] relates that Goshen enjoyed complete immunity from the insects. It is not impossible that the direction of the wind or other natural causes, under God’s guidance, prevented them from reaching the Israelite territory. And if the insects, which spread disease, did not enter Goshen, the statement that the murrain did not touch the cattle of the Israelites is also explained. P [2] , on the other hand, departs from natural causes. Moses and Aaron flung soot into the air, which became boils on man and beast. Cattle plagues, causing enormous mortality, are reported in Egypt. One such in a.d. 1842 killed 40,000 oxen.
7 th Plague . Thus far the series of plagues have followed one another in a natural sequence. But at this point a new series begins with a destructive thunderstorm, accompanied by hail . Such storms are rare in Egypt, but are not without example. Those which have been reported in modern times have occurred about January; and that is the point of time defined in Exodus 9:31 f., ‘the barley was in the ear, and the flax was in bud, but the wheat and the vetch … were not grown up.’ Thus the cattle plague had lasted about two months and a half (Nov. to the middle of Jan.) when the storm came; and the first five plagues (reckoning 3, 4 and 5, 6 as duplicates) occupied a period of about five months.
8 th Ptague . The atmospheric conditions which resulted in the storm also led to other plagues. A strong east wind (the sirocco) was sent by J″ [13] , and brought a dense mass of locusts (J [3] ). In E [7] , Moses brought them by lifting his staff. The lightness and fragility of the locusts render them helpless before a wind (cf. Psalms 109:23 b). And when the wind shifted to the west, they were completely swept away into the Red Sea (J [3] ); cf. Joel 2:20 .
9 th Plague . Only a fragment of J [3] ’s narrative has been preserved, which relates the effect of the ‘ darkness ’ upon Pharaoh. E [7] , as before, says that it was due to the lifting of the staff by Moses. But it is not impossible that it was a further consequence of the west wind. Dr. A. Macalister (art. ‘Plagues of Egypt’ in Hastings’ DB [39] iii.) writes: ‘The condition of darkness referred to is strikingly like that brought about by the severer form of the electrical wind hamsin . This is a S. or S.W. wind that is so named because it is liable to blow during the 25 days before and the 25 days after the vernal equinox ( hamsin = 50). It is often not so much a storm or violent wind as an oppressive hot blast charged with so much sand and fine dust that the air is darkened. It causes a blackness equal to the worst of London fogs, while the air is so hot and full of dust that respiration is impeded.… Denon says that it sometimes travels as a narrow stream, so that one part of the land is light while the rest is dark.’ And he adds that three days is not an uncommon duration for the hamsin .
10 th Plague . Malignant epidemics have at all times been the scourge of Bible lands; and it is worthy of note that many authorities state that pestilence is often worst at the time of the hamsin wind. In the Hebrew narratives, however, all thought of a ‘natural’ occurrence has passed away. Only the firstborn are smitten, as a just retribution for Pharaoh’s attempt to destroy the firstborn of the Israelites.
3. Religious value . This is manifold. Considered from the point of view of natural phenomena, the narratives teach the all-important truth that God’s providential care of men is not confined to ‘miracles’ in the commonly accepted sense of the term, else were God’s providential actions unknown to-day. The lifting of Moses’ staff to bring the plagues, and his successive entreaties for their removal, teach that prayer is not out of place or unavailing in cases where natural laws can be co-ordinated and guided by God to bring about the wished-for result. And from whatever point of view the plagues are regarded, the same great facts shine through the narratives that J″ [13] is supreme in power over the world which He made; that He has an absolute right, if He so wills, to punish Pharaoh in order to show forth in him His power; that He does so, however, only because Pharaoh is impenitent, and consequently ‘fitted for destruction,’ for J″ [13] is a God who hates sin; that if a man hardens his heart, the result will be as inevitable as results in the natural world so inevitable that it may truly be said that J″ [13] hardens his heart; that the sin of Pharaoh, and so of any other man, may entail sufferings upon many innocent men and animals; and finally, that J″ [13] is mindful of His own, and delivers them from the ‘noisome pestilence,’ ‘the pestilence that walketh in darkness,’ and ‘the destruction that wasteth at noonday,’ so that ‘no plague can come nigh their dwelling’ ( Psalms 91:1-16 ).
A. H. M‘Neile.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Egypt, Plagues of
Ten calamities sent by God to the Egyptians to overcome the obstinacy of Pharao, and consequently to force him to let the children of Israel leave Egypt (Exodus 7,12). Of the ten plagues seven were directly wrought through the agency of Moses and Aaron, or of Moses alone. The 4th, 5th, and 10th were wrought directly by God. They are:
the water of the river and all the canals and pools of Egypt was turned into blood and became so corrupted that the Egyptians could not drink it, and the fish in the waters perished
an immense number of frogs, which caused great discomfort
swarms of gnats which tormented men and beasts
pest of flies
murrain or cattle-pest which killed only the cattle of the Egyptians
epidemic of boils on man and beast
hailstorm which wrought terrific havoc
plague of locusts
the horrible darkness which covered the earth for three days
the destruction of all the first- born of Egypt on one night
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Egypt
That troubles or oppresses; anguish
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Egypt, Vicariate Apostolic of
Vicariate apostolic of Egypt established May 18, 1839; entrusted to the Friars Minor. Name changed to Vicariate Apostolic of Alessandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951. United with other territories to form the Vicariate Apostolic of Alessandria di Egitto (-Eliopoli di Egitto-Port-Said) on November 30, 1987.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Vicariate Apostolic of Egypt
Vicariate apostolic of Egypt established May 18, 1839; entrusted to the Friars Minor. Name changed to Vicariate Apostolic of Alessandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951. United with other territories to form the Vicariate Apostolic of Alessandria di Egitto (-Eliopoli di Egitto-Port-Said) on November 30, 1987.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Egypt
In Hebrew Mizraim (though really it is Mitsraim ). It is a dual form, signifying 'the two Matsors,' as some think, which represent Lower and Upper Egypt. Egypt is also called THE LAND OF HAM in Psalm 105:23,27 ; Psalm 106:22 ; and RAHAB, signifying 'the proud one'in Psalm 87:4 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 . (This name in Hebrew is not the same as Rahab, the harlot, which is really Rachab.) Upper Egypt is called PATHROS, that is, 'land of the south,' Isaiah 11:11 . Lower Egypt is MATSOR in Isaiah 19:6 ; Isaiah 37:25 , but translated 'defence' and 'besieged places' in the A.V. Egypt is one of the most ancient and renowned countries, but it is not possible to fix any date to its foundation.
The history of ancient Egypt is usually divided into three parts.
1. The Old Kingdom, from its commencement to the invasion of Egypt by those called Hyksos or Shepherd-kings. This would embrace the first eleven dynasties. In some of these the kings reigned at Memphis, and in others at Thebes, so that it cannot now be ascertained whether some of the dynasties were contemporaneous or not. To the first four dynasties are attributed the building of the great Pyramid and the second and third Pyramids, and also the great Sphinx.
2. The Middle Kingdom commenced with the twelfth dynasty. Some Hyksos had settled in Lower Egypt as early as the sixth dynasty; they extended their power in the fourteenth dynasty, and reigned supreme in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth dynasties. These were Semites from Asia. They established themselves in the north of Egypt at Zoan, or Tanis, and Avaris, while Egyptian kings reigned in the south. They are supposed to have held the north for about 500 years, but some judge their sway to have been much shorter.
3. The New Kingdom was inaugurated by the expulsion of the Hyksos in the eighteenth dynasty, when Egypt regained its former power, as we find it spoken of in the O.T.
The first mention of Egypt in scripture is when Abraham went to sojourn there because of the famine. It was turning to the world for help, and it entangled the patriarch in conduct for which he was rebuked by Pharaoh, the prince of the world. Genesis 12:10-20 . This would have been about the time of the twelfth dynasty. About B.C. 1728 Joseph was carried into Egypt and sold to Potiphar: his exaltation followed; the famine commenced, and eventually Jacob and all his family went into Egypt. See JOSEPH. At length a king arose who knew not Joseph, doubtless at the commencement of a new dynasty, and the children of Israel were reduced to slavery. Moses was sent of God to deliver Israel, and the plagues followed. See PLAGUES OF EGYPT. On the death of the firstborn of the Egyptians, Israel left Egypt. See ISRAEL IN EGYPT and the EXODUS.
Very interesting questions arise — which of the kings of Egypt was it who promoted Joseph? which king was it that did not know Joseph? and which king reigned at the time of the Plagues and the Exodus? The result more generally arrived at is that the Pharaoh who promoted Joseph was one of the Hyksos (who being of Semitic origin, were more favourable to strangers than were the native Egyptians), and was probably APEPA or APEPI II, the last of those kings. It was to the Egyptians that shepherds were an abomination, as scripture says, which may not have applied to the Hyksos (which signifies 'shepherds' and agrees with their being called shepherd-kings), and this may account, under the control of God, for 'the best of the land' being given to the Israelites.
The Pharaoh of the oppression has been thought to be RAMESES II of the nineteenth dynasty, and the Pharaoh of the Exodus to be MENEPHTHAH his son. The latter had one son, SETI II, who must have been slain in the last plague on Egypt, if his father was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The monuments record the death of the son, and the mummy of the father has not been found, but he is spoken of as living and reigning after the death of his son. This would not agree with his perishing in the Red Sea. Scripture does not state positively that he fell under that judgement, but it does say that God "overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea." Psalm 136:15 . God also instructed Moses to say to Pharaoh, "Thou shalt be cut off from the earth. And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to show in thee my power." Exodus 9:15 . Menephthah has been described as "weak, irresolute, and wanting in physical courage," and it is thought he would never have ventured into the Red Sea. The monuments depict him as "one whose mind was turned almost exclusively towards sorcery and magic." It is no wonder therefore that he was so slow to learn the power of Jehovah. As scripture does not give the names of the Pharaohs in the Pentateuch, there is really no definite link between those mentioned therein and any particular kings as found on the monuments. Some Egyptologers consider other kings more probable than the above, placing the time of Joseph before the period of the Hyksos, while others place it after their exit.
After the Exodus scripture is silent as to Egypt for about 500 years, until the days of Solomon. The Tell Amarna Tablets (to be spoken of presently) reveal that Canaan was subject to Egypt before the Israelites entered the land. Pinetem 2, of the twenty-first dynasty, is supposed to be the Pharaoh who was allied to Solomon.
The first Pharaoh mentioned by name is SHISHAK: he has been identifiedwith Shashank I. first king of the twenty-second dynasty, who heldhis court at Bubastis. He gave shelter to Jeroboam when he fled from Solomon, and after Solomon's death he invaded Judaea with 1200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen, and people without number. He took the walled cities, and pillaged Jerusalem and the temple: "he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made." 1 Kings 11:40 ; 1 Kings 14:25,26 ; 2 Chronicles 12:2-9 . It is painfully interesting to find, among the recorded victories of Shishak on the temple at Karnak, a figure with his arms tied behind, representing Judah as a captive The inscription reads JUDAH MELCHI, kingdom of Judah.
The next person mentioned is ZERAH the Ethiopian, who brought an army of 1,000,000 and 300 chariots against Asa the king of Judah. Asa piously called to the Lord for help, and declared his rest was on Him. God answered his faith, and the Egyptian hosts were overcome, and Judah took 'very much spoil.' 2 Chronicles 14:9-13 . It will be noticed that scripture does not say that Zerah was a Pharaoh. He is supposed to have been the general of Osorkon 2. the fourth king of the twenty-second dynasty.
The twenty-fifth dynasty was a foreign one, of Ethiopians who reigned in Nubia. Its first king, named Shabaka, or Sabaco, was the So of scripture. Hoshea, king of Israel, attempted an alliance with this king that he might be delivered from his allegiance to Assyria. He made presents to Egypt; but the scheme was not carried out. It led to the capture of Samaria and the captivity of the ten tribes. 2 Kings 17:4 .
Another king of this dynasty was Tirhakah or Taharka (the Tehrak of the monuments) who came into collision with Assyria in the 14th year of Hezekiah. Sennacherib was attacking Libnah when he heard that the king of Ethiopia had come out to fight against him. Sennacherib sent a second threatening letter to Hezekiah; but God miraculously destroyed his army in the night. Tirhakah was afterwards defeated by Sennacherib and again at the conquest of Egypt by Esar-haddon. 2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 .
Egypt recovered this shock under Psammetichus I of Sais (twenty-sixth dynasty), and in the days of Josiah, PHARAOH-NECHO, anxious to rival the glories of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties, set out to attack the king of Assyria and to recover the long-lost sway of Egypt over Syria. Josiah opposed Necho, but was slain at Megiddo. Necho carrying all before him proceeded as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates, and on returning to Jerusalem he deposed Jehoahaz and carried him to Egypt (where he died), and set up his brother Eliakim in his stead, calling him Jehoiakim. The tribute was to be one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. 2 Kings 23:29-34 ; 2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ; Jeremiah 26:20-23 . By Necho being able to attack the king of Assyria, in so distant a place as Carchemish shows the strength of Egypt at that time, but the power of Babylon was increasing, and after three years Nebuchadnezzar defeated the army of Necho at Carchemish, and recovered every place from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates; and "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land." 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:2-12 . The Necho of scripture is Nekau on the monuments, a king of the twenty-sixth dynasty.
The Greek writers and the Egyptian monuments mention Psamatik 2 as the next king to Necho, and then Apries (Uahabra on the monuments, the letter U being equivalent to the aspirate), the HOPHRA of scripture. Zedekiah had been made governor of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, but he revolted and formed an alliance with Hophra. Ezekiel 17:15-17 . When the Chaldeans besieged Jerusalem Hophra, true to his word, entered Palestine. Nebuchadnezzar raised the siege, attacked and defeated him, and then returned and re-established the siege of Jerusalem. He took the city and burned it with fire. Jeremiah 37:5-11 .
Hophra was filled with pride, and it is recorded that he said not even a god could overthrow him. Such arrogance could not go unpunished. Ezekiel was at Babylon: and in his prophecy (Ezekiel 29:1-16 ) he foretells the humbling of Egypt and their king, "the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers." Egypt should be made desolate from Migdol to Syene (margin ), even to the border of Ethiopia (from the north to the south) 'forty years.' Abdallatif, an Arab writer, says that Nebuchadnezzar ravaged Egypt and ruined all the country for giving an asylum to the Jews who fled from him, and that it remained in desolation forty years. Other prophecies followed against Egypt. Ezekiel 30 , Ezekiel 31 , Ezekiel 32 and in Jeremiah 44:30 Hophra is mentioned. God delivered him into the hands of those 'that sought his life,' which were some of his own people.
When Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed Jerusalem, he left some Jews in the land under Gedaliah the Governor; but Gedaliah being slain, they fled into Egypt, taking Jeremiah with them, to Tahpanhes. Jeremiah 43:5-7 . He there uttered prophesies against Egypt, Isaiah 43 and Isaiah 44 . The series of prophecies give an approximate date for the devastation of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. In taking Tyre he had no wages (they carried away their treasures in ships) and he should have Egypt as his reward. Tyre was taken in B.C. 572, and Nebuchadnezzar died B.C. 562, leaving a margin of ten years. Ezekiel 29:17-20 .
After Nebuchadnezzar, Egypt became tributary to Cyrus: Cambyses was its first Persian king of the twenty-seventh dynasty. On the passing away of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great had possession of Egypt and founded Alexandria. On the death of Alexander the Ptolemies reigned over Egypt for about 300 years. Some of the doings of the Ptolemies were prophesied of in Daniel 11 . See ANTIOCHUS. In B.C. 30 Octavius Caesar entered Egypt, and it became a Roman province. In A.D. 639 Egypt was wrested from the Eastern empire by the Saracens, and was held under the suzerainty of the Turks until the nineteenth century. It is a great kingdom in desolation. Joel 3:19 .
We have seen that at one time Egypt was able to bring a million soldiers into Palestine; and at another to attack Assyria. History also records their having sway over Phoenicia, and carrying on severe wars with the Hittites, with whom they at length made a treaty, which is given in full on the monuments.
Some prophecies have been referred to, and though they apply to events now long since past, they may have a yet future application. For instance, "The Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation, yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord and perform it . . . . . in that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance." Isaiah 19:21-25 : cf. Zephaniah 3:9,10 . Surely these statements apply to a time when God will bring Egypt into blessing. This might not have been expected, seeing that Egypt is a type of the world — the place where nature gratifies its lusts, and out of which the Christian is brought — but in the millennium the earth will be brought into blessing, and then no nation will be blessed except as they own Jehovah and His King who will reign over all the earth. Then "Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God." Psalm 68:31 .
Egypt too, it must be remembered, was the place of sojourn of God's favoured people Israel. It was a king of Egypt who caused to be translated the Old Testament into Greek, the LXX, quoted by the Lord Himself when on earth; and it was to Egypt that Joseph fled with the young child and His mother from the wrath of Herod. Egypt was a broken reed on which the Israelites rested: it oppressed them and even attacked and pillaged Jerusalem. But it has been punished and remains desolate to this day; and further, as the kingdom of the South it will yet be dealt with: cf. Daniel 11:42,43 . Afterwards God will also heal and bring it into blessing: in grace He says "Blessed be Egypt my People."
THE TELL AMARNA TABLETS. Comparatively lately a number of clay tablets have been discovered in Upper Egypt. Many of them are despatches from persons in authority in Palestine to the kings of Egypt, showing that Egypt had held more or less sway over portions of the land. The inscriptions are in cuneiform characters, but in the Aramaic language, which resembles Assyrian. The writers were Phoenicians, Philistines, and Amorites, but not Hittites, though these are mentioned on the tablets. The date for some of these despatches has been fixed as from about B.C. 1480, and they were addressed to the two Pharaohsknown as Amenophis 3 and 4. They show that Egypt had withdrawn its troops from Palestine, and was evidently losing all power in the country, the northern part of which was being invaded by the Hittites. The governors mention this in their despatches, and urge Egypt to send troops to stop the invasion. Some of the tablets are from Southern Palestine, and witness of troubles in that region also. The name Abiri occurs, describing a people invading from the desert: these are supposed to be the Hebrews. It is recorded that they had taken the fortress of Jericho, and were plundering 'all the king's lands.' The translator (Major Conder) believes he has identified the names of three of the kings smitten by Joshua: Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem; Japhia, king of Lachish; and Jabin, king of Hazor. Joshua 10:3 ; Joshua 11:1 . He also believes that the dates coinciding, with the above-named kings agree with the common chronology of scripture for the book of Joshua. If he is correct in this the Exodus can no longer be placed under the nineteenth dynasty. It may be remarked, however, that not one of the tablets from the South bears any king's name, being merely addressed 'To the King, my Lord,' etc.
A few of the principal Events with their approximatedates are added:
DYNASTIES.
i. — iii. Twenty-six names of kings are given, commencing with Menes, but some are probably mythical.
iv. At Memphis. Khufu or Suphis was the builder of the first great pyramid at Gizeh. Khafra or Shafra built the second, and Menkaura the third.
v. At Elephantine.
vi. At Memphis. Some 'shepherd-kings' invaded Lower Egypt.
vii.- x. Dynasties were contemporaneous: a period of confusion.
xi. At Thebes. Title claimed over all Egypt by Antef or Nentef.
xii. At Thebes. Amenemhat I, or Ameres, conquered Nubia (Cush). Amenemhat 3 constructed the lake Moeris, and the Labyrinth, supposed to be a national meeting place. Abraham's sojourn in Egypt was possibly in this dynasty.
xiii. At Thebes. Troublous times.
xiv. At Xois. The power of the Hyksos extends.
xv. {Hyksos kings. Apepa II supposed to be the king who exalted Joseph. The
xvi. {Israelites enter Egypt about B.C. 1706.
xvii. Vassal kings under Hyksos rule, reigned at Thebes.
xviii. At Thebes. The Hyksos driven out of Egypt. Thothmes I carried his arms into Asia. Thothmes III, the greatest warrior king; built the grand temple of Ammon at Thebes. Amenhotep, or Amenophis III erected the twin Colossi of himself at Thebes.
xix. At Thebes. Seti I or Sethos, erected the great Hall at Karnak. Rameses II attacked the Hittites on the north, but concluded an alliance. Judged to be the king who oppressed Israel, and Menephthah to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. (B.C 1491.) His son (Seti-Menephthah) died when young (perhaps at the Passover). A period of anarchy ensued
xx. At Thebes. Eleven kings named Rameses: they became idle and effeminate, until the priests seized the throne.
xxi. At Tanis. Priest-kings. Pinetem II is supposed to be the Pharaoh allied to Solomon. (About B.C. 1014.)
xxii. At Bubastis. Shashank or Shishak, the ally of Jeroboam of Israel, was conqueror of Rehoboam of Judah. (B.C. 971.) Osorkon I and Thekeleth I succeeded. Osorkon II sent Zerah his general against Asa king of Judah. (B.C. 941.)
xxiii. At Tanis. Two kings reigned, contemporaneous with dynasty twenty-two.
xxiv. At Sais. Contemporaneous with dynasty twenty-five.
xxv. In Nubia. Ethiopian kings. Shabaka, or Sabaco, the So who was allied with Hoshea of Samaria, was defeated by Sargon of Assyria. (B.C. 720.) Shabataka, defeated by Sennacherib. Taharka, or Tehrak, conquered by Esarhaddon. Thebes destroyed by the Assyrians. (B.C. 666.) Egypt became a province of Assyria.
xxvi. At Sais. Period of Greek influence in Egypt. Psamatik I. Or Psammetichus I: threw off the yoke of Assyria and ruled all Egypt. Nekau, or Necho, killed Josiah at Megiddo (B.C. 610) on his way to attack the Assyrians at Carchemish. Afterwards he was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar at the same place. (B.C. 606.) Hophra, or Apries, ally of Zedekiah, was conquered by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 581), who afterwards ravaged Egypt as far as Elephantine. Apries was put to death, and Amasis reigned as tributary to Babylon. (B.C. 571.) In after years Amasis became ally of Croesus of Lydia against Cyrus the Persian. Psamatik III was conquered by Cambyses, and Egypt became a province of the Persian empire. (B.C. 526.)
xxvii. The kings of Persia were the kings of Egypt. (B.C. 526 - 487.)
xxviii. {Native kings reigned without being subdued by Persia, to Artaxerxes III. (Ochus),
xxx. {when Egypt was again defeated. (B.C. 350.) On the Persian Empire being conquered by Alexander the Great, Egypt also became a part of the Grecian empire. (B.C. 332.) On the death of Alexander, Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemies. (B.C. 323.) See
ANTIOCHUS.
Egypt became a Roman province. (B.C. 30.)
Egypt was wrested from the Eastern Empire by the Saracens. (A.D. 639.)
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Egypt, Land of
The conformation of Egypt is peculiar. The Nile forms at the Mediterranean what is called the Delta (from the Greek letter Δ inverted); it had formerly seven mouths, Isaiah 11:15 , but now there are only two branches. On each side of the valley in which the river runs is a range of hills, outside of which is mostly desert. The Nile valley is rarely more than twelve miles wide. The Delta and the valley are very productive. As to rain the country differs materially from Palestine, which "drinketh water of the rain of heaven;" for in Egypt, except by the sea-coast, it rarely rains, the land being watered from the river, which rises once a year, overflowing its banks in many places, and, as it retires, leaving a rich sediment on the soil. Canals convey the water to more distant parts. The land is watered 'by the foot,' that is, by removing the soil, and letting the water flow.
The Delta, and as far south as Noph (Memphis, 29 51' N), is Lower Egypt: and from Noph southward to the first Cataract (24 N) is Upper Egypt. The emblematic crowns representing the two districts were not the same; but the two were united in one crown when a king reigned over all Egypt. As there were many changes by different dynasties the same boundaries may not always have been preserved. CUSH, or ETHIOPIA,extended much farther south, but is often mentioned in scripture along with Egypt: Psalm 68:31 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Isaiah 20:4 ; Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Nahum 3:9 . Ethiopian kings appear to have reigned in Egypt, and are included in their list of kings.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Egypt
EGYPT.—The Gospel narrative comes into contact with the land of Egypt at one point alone, and then only incidentally, in a manner which seems to have exercised no influence and left no trace upon the course of sacred history. The record, moreover, is confined to the first of the Evangelists, and is by him associated with the fulfilment of prophecy, as one of the links which drew together the ancient Hebrew Scriptures and the life of our Lord. The narrative is simple and brief. St. Matthew relates that Joseph, in obedience to the command of God, conveyed by an angel in a dream, took refuge in Egypt with the child and His mother from the murderous intentions of Herod the king (Matthew 2:13 f.). The return to Palestine, again at the bidding of an angel of the Lord in a dream, is described (Matthew 2:19 ff.). Joseph, however, feared to enter Judaea because of Archelaus, Herod’s son and successor; and in obedience to a second vision directed his course to Galilee, and settled at Nazareth (Matthew 2:22 f.).
To St. Matthew it would appear that the chief interest of the history lies in its relation to OT prophecy. Both movements, the Flight and the Return to Nazareth, are described as fulfilments of the word spoken ‘through the prophet’ (Matthew 2:15), or ‘through the prophets’ (Matthew 2:23). In the first instance the passage quoted is Hosea 11:1 ‘When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt’ (מִמִּצרַיִם קָרִאחי לִבִנִי, LXX Septuagint τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ, ‘his, i.e. Israel’s, children’). Hosea recalls the deliverance and mercies of the past (cf. G. A. Smith, Twelve Prophets, in loc.); the Evangelist sees history repeating itself in a new exodus, which, like the earlier departure from Egypt, signalizes the beginning of a new national life, and is the promise and pledge of Divine favour. Egypt, therefore, to the narrator is no mere ‘geographical expression.’ The name recalls the memories of a glorious past, when Israel’s youth was guided and sustained by the miracles of Divine interposition. And to him it is significant of much that this land should thus be brought into connexion with the birth of a new era for the people, in the Person of a greater Son, in whom he saw the fulfilment of the best hopes and brightest anticipations of Israel’s ancient prophets.
The narrative of the Evangelist is absolutely simple and unadorned, and amounts to little more than a mention of the journey into Egypt made under Divine direction. No indication is given either of the locality or duration of the stay in the country. The impression conveyed, however, is that the visit was not prolonged.* [1] Had the case been otherwise, it would hardly have failed to find mention in the other Synoptic Gospels, if not in St. John. The absence, therefore, of further record is hardly sufficient ground for throwing doubt upon the reality of the incident itself.
This brief statement is supplemented and expanded in the Apocryphal Gospels with a wealth of descriptive detail. The fullest accounts are found, as might be expected, in the Gospel of the Infancy, and the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, Extra Vol. p. 430 ff.).
In the Gospel of the Infancy (ch. ix. f.), Joseph and Mary with the Child set out for Egypt at cock-crow, and reach a great city and temple with an idol to whose shrine the other idols of Egypt send gifts. There they find accommodation in a hospital dedicated to the idol, and a great commotion is caused by their entrance. The people of the land send to the idol to inquire the reason of the commotion, and are told that an ‘occult god’ has come, who alone is worthy of worship, because he is truly Son of God. Thereupon the idol falls prostrate, and all the people run together at the sound. The following chapter narrates the healing of the three-year-old son of the priest of the idol, who is possessed by many demons, and whose sickness is described in terms similar to those used of the Gadarene demoniac (Luke 8:27, Mark 5:2-5). Thereafter Joseph and Mary depart, being afraid lest the Egyptians should burn them to death because of the destruction of the idol. Passing on their way they twice meet with robbers in the desert. In the first instance the robbers flee on their approach, and a number of captives are liberated. At a considerably later stage of their journey (ch. xxiii.) two handits are encountered, whose names are given as Titus and Dumachus, the former of whom bribes his companion not to molest Joseph and Mary; and the child Jesus foretells His crucifixion at Jerusalem thirty years later with these two robbers, and that Titus shall precede Him into Paradise. On the road the travellers have passed through many cities, at which a demoniac woman, a dumb bride, a leprous girl who accompanies them on their journey, and many others have been healed. Finally, they come to Memphis (ch. xxv.), where they see the Pharaoh, and remain three years, during which period Jesus works many miracles; returning at the end of the three years to Palestine, and by direction of an angel making their home at Nazareth.
In a similar strain the Gospel of pseudo-Matthew (ch. xvii. ff.) records the number of attendants, with riding animals, a waggon, pack-oxen and asses, sheep and rams, that set out with Joseph and Mary from Judaea. In a cave where they had stopped to rest they are terrified by dragons, which, however, worship the child Jesus; and lions and other wild beasts escort them on their way through the desert. A palm-tree bends down its boughs that Mary may pluck the fruit; and as a reward a branch of it is carried by an angel to Paradise. A spring also breaks forth from its roots for the refreshment of man and beast. And the long thirty days’ journey into Egypt is miraculously shortened into one. The name of the Egyptian city to which they come is said to be Sotines within the borders of Hermopolis, and there, in default of any acquaintance from whom to seek hospitality, they take refuge in the temple, called the ‘capitol.’ The 355 idols of the temple, to which divine honours were daily paid, fall prostrate, and are broken in pieces; and Affrodosius, the governor of the town, coming with an army, at sight of the ruined idols worships the child Jesus, and all the people of the city believe in God through Jesus Christ. Afterwards Joseph is commanded to return into the land of Judah. Nothing, however, is said of the actual journey, but a narrative of events ‘in Galilee’ follows, beginning with the fourth year of Christ’s age.
According to the Gospel of Thomas, ch. i. ff. (Latin, Tisch. Evv. Apocr. [2] p. 156 ff.), Jesus was two years old on entering Egypt. He and His parents found hospitality in the house of a widow, where they remained for a year, at the close of which they were expelled because of a miracle wrought by Jesus in bringing a dry and salted fish to life. A similar fate overtakes them subsequently in being driven from the city. The angel directs Mary to return, and she goes with the child to Nazareth. The History of Joseph, ch. viii. f., states the duration of the stay in Egypt as a whole year, and names Nazareth as the city in which Jesus and His parents lived after their return into the land of Israel.
The Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt has been at all times a favourite subject for the exercise of Christian art. William Blake, Charles Holroyd, Eugène Girardet, Anthony van Dyke, William Dobson, and many others have painted the scenes by the way with a circumstance and detail which are indebted, where not wholly imaginary, to the accounts of the Apocryphal Gospels. The reality would doubtless differ widely from the tranquil and easy conditions under which it has usually been depicted, and from which most readers have formed their mental conceptions of the event. The simple reticence of the Gospel narrative is in striking contrast to the luxuriance and prodigality of miracle of the Apocryphal story. All that can be affirmed with certainty is that the flight would be conducted in haste and with the utmost secrecy, and probably for the most part under cover of night. See also Flight.
Literature.—For notes on the Gospel narrative see the Commentaries on St. Matthew; and for the Apocryphal additions to the history, Tischendorf’s Evangelia Apocrypha, Leipzig, 1853. Certain features in the latter appear to betray Buddbist relations or parentage. For some account of the treatment of the subject in art, see Farrar, Christ in Art, pp. 263–273.
A. S. Geden.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Egypt
In spite of the ancient culture and civilization for which Egypt is famous, the feature highlighted in the Bible is that Egypt was a place of bondage out of which God redeemed his people (Exodus 6:6-7; Exodus 15:1-12; Exodus 20:2; Deuteronomy 6:12; Joshua 24:17). Throughout their history, the people of Israel celebrated their deliverance from Egypt, reminding themselves that God’s grace and power alone had saved them (Leviticus 23:43; Deuteronomy 16:1-3; 1 Samuel 10:17-18; Nehemiah 9:16-17; Psalms 106:7-12; Daniel 9:15; Amos 2:10; Micah 7:15; Acts 7:17-19; Acts 7:36; see PASSOVER).
Egypt continued to be involved in the history of God’s people, and is mentioned often throughout the period of the Old Testament period. Even the New Testament opens with a reference to Egypt, for Mary and Joseph spent a time there with the baby Jesus (Matthew 2:13-15).
The land and the people
Egypt
Poemen (1), ( Ποιμήν , Pastor ), a famous anchorite of Egypt. He retired very young into the monasteries of Scete c. 390, and continued there 70 years, dying c. 460. His Life occupies much space in Rosweyd's Vitae Patrum, v. 15, in Patr. Lat. t. lxxiii. and in Cotelerii Monum. Eccl. Graec. t. i. pp. 585–637. The anecdotes in the last-mentioned authority give the best idea of the man. He treated his aged mother with neglect, refusing to see her when she sought him. His solitary life destroyed all feelings of human nature. His story is concisely told in Ceillier, viii. 468–470, and Tillemont, Mém. xv. 147.
[1]
Morrish Bible Dictionary - River of Egypt
The S.W. border of the promised land was to be from 'the river of Egypt.' Genesis 15:18 . Here the word is nahar, and would seem to allude to the most eastern branch of the Delta of the Nile, called the Pelusiac mouth. In Numbers 34:5 'the river of Egypt' has the word nachal, signifying a winter torrent, and is supposed to refer to the Wady el Arish , 31 8' N, 33 50' E .

Sentence search

Pathros - Isaiah 11:11 Jeremiah 44:1,15 Ezekiel 29:14 30:14 , one of the three ancient divisions of Egypt, namely, Upper or Southern Egypt, which Ezekiel speaks of as distinct from Egypt, and the original abode of the Egyptians; as indeed Ethiopia and Upper Egypt really were. See Egypt
so - King of Egypt. See Egypt
River of Egypt - RIVER OF Egypt . See Egypt [1]
Mizraim - The name by which the Hebrews generally designated Egypt, apparently from Mizraim, the son or Ham. Called in English versions Egypt. Sometimes it seems to be employed to designate lower Egypt, to the exclusion of Pathros or upper Egypt. See Egypt
Stream of Egypt - (Isaiah 27:12 ), the Wady el-'Arish, called also "the river of Egypt," RSV, "brook of Egypt" (Numbers 34:5 ; Joshua 15:4 ; 2 Kings 24:7 ). It is the natural boundary of Egypt. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between el-'Arish and Gaza
Stream of Egypt - occurs once in the Old Testament-- (Isaiah 27:12 ) [1] RIVER OF Egypt - 3664
Egyptian - Pertaining to Egypt in Africa. A native of Egypt also, a gypsy
Pathros - A "district" (the Ρathyrite nome ) of Egypt near Thebes; named from a town called by the Egyptians Ηa-Ηather or with the article Ρha-Ηat-her , "the abode of Hather" the Egyptian Venus. Originally independent of Egypt, and ruled by its own kings, In the Mosaic genealogy the Pathros were the inhabitants of Upper Egypt; originally in the Bible view a colony of Mizraites from Lower Egypt (Genesis 10:13-14; 1 Chronicles 1:12). The Thebaid was the oldest part of Egypt in civilization and art, and was anciently called "Egypt" (Aristotle): Egypt as coming from Ethiopia, and the first dynasty as Thinite. "Ρa-t-res " in Egyptian means "the land of the South"
Hanes - A city of Egypt, Isaiah 30:4 , thought to be the modern Ehnes, in middle Egypt on the Nile
Anamim - Sprung from Mizraim (Egypt), son of Ham (Genesis 10:13). African people, early absorbed into Egypt or Ethiopia
Pathros - The name generally given to Upper Egypt (the Thebaid of the Greeks), as distinguished from Matsor, or Lower Egypt (Isaiah 11:11 ; Jeremiah 44:1,15 ; Ezekiel 30:14 ), the two forming Mizraim. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, colonies of Jews settled "in the country of Pathros" and other parts of Egypt
Pathrusim - (path ryoo' ssihm) Son of Mizraim (Egypt) and ancestor of the inhabitants of Upper (southern) Egypt who bore his name (1 Chronicles 1:12 )
Phut - Phut is placed between Egypt and Canaan in Genesis 10:6 , and elsewhere we find the people of Phut described as mercenaries in the armies of Egypt and Tyre (Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 30:5 ; 27:10 ). In a fragment of the annuals of Nebuchadrezzar which records his invasion of Egypt, reference is made to "Phut of the Ionians
Egyptian - ) Pertaining to Egypt, in Africa. ) A native, or one of the people, of Egypt; also, the Egyptian language
Shihor - (sshi' hawr) Egyptian place name meaning, “pool of Horus (a god). In Isaiah 23:3 ; Jeremiah 2:18 , the term apparently refers to one of the branches of the Nile River inside Egypt, but the border point places it outside Egypt, identical with the Brook of Egypt or extending Israel's claim to the Nile. See Brook of Egypt ; Palestine
Shihor of Egypt - of) Egypt. " Not the Nile, which is called "the river" (haeor ; Genesis 41:1; Genesis 41:3; Exodus 1:22), and flowed not before but through the middle of Egypt. The Rhinocorura is meant, now wady el Arish, the nachal or "river of Egypt," Canaan's southern boundary toward Egypt, (Numbers 34:5)
ro-Setta Stone - A stone found at Rosetta, in Egypt, bearing a trilingual inscription, by aid of which, with other inscriptions, a key was obtained to the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt
Sihor - In Joshua 13:3 it is probably "the river of Egypt", i. , the Wady el-Arish ( 1 Chronicles 13:5 ), which flows "before Egypt", i. , in a north-easterly direction from Egypt, and enters the sea about 50 miles south-west of Gaza
Shihor - SHIHOR in Isaiah 23:3 , Jeremiah 2:18 seems to mean Egypt (?), the Nile (?), or the waters of Egypt: in 1 Chronicles 13:5 , Joshua 13:3 , it is the S. name of Egypt is Kemi , meaning ‘black. name of a stream or canal, possibly the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, on or near the eastern border of Egypt (see Shur). The black alluvium might well be counted as the boundary of Canaan: but elsewhere the boundary is the ‘Brook’ (or ‘River’) of Egypt, i
Egypt - One of the great powers of the ancient Near East, Egypt dominated the international stage during the prestate life of Israel. By the time of the united monarchy, Egypt had entered the long twilight of its power and influence. ...
Despite its diminished historical role, Egypt remained a potent theological symbol. Throughout the Bible, Egypt fulfills a dual role both as a place of refuge and a place of oppression, a place to "come up out of" and a place to flee to. He seeks refuge in Egypt because "there was a famine in the land" (Genesis 12:10 ); yet he must leave when Pharaoh wants to place Sarah in the royal harem. This is also the first recorded encounter of the divine ruler of Egypt and Yahweh the God of Abraham. ...
The story of Joseph gives a much more detailed picture of Egypt and the ambiguity of its role. Egypt is a place of oppression, as Joseph is initially enslaved, eventually ending up in prison. Egypt is also a place of hope and refuge as Joseph is raised to be second in the land. Egypt had a reputation as a place of wisdom, and Joseph appeals to this aura by calling on them to find a man "discerning and wise" (Genesis 41:33 ). ...
The place of wisdom, the land of refuge and hope, becomes the land of slavery when "a new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt" (Exodus 1:8 ). The harsh experience of the Israelites in Egypt colors all later references to the land. Throughout the course of the struggle between Pharaoh and Yahweh, Egypt comes to represent all that is opposed to God. The fabled wisdom of Egypt is revealed as false wisdom, powerless to help the Egyptians defeat the God of Israel. ...
The equation of Egypt with oppression becomes foundational to the people of Israel, providing the setting for the fundamental religious ritual of Passover. "Do not forget the Lord; who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery" (Deuteronomy 6:12 ). This was done because "the Lord loved you and brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the land of slavery, from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt" (7:8). ...
By the time of Solomon, Egypt is no longer an oppressor but a trading partner (1 Kings 10:28 ), diplomatic relation, and cultural influence. The writer of 1Kings declares that Solomon's wisdom is "greater than all the wisdom of Egypt" (4:30). The Egyptian role as oppressor of the people of God soon shifts to Assyria and Babylonia. ...
In an ironic twist, Egypt becomes a place of refuge after the Babylonian capture of Jerusalem. Like the people lost in the wilderness, some of the survivors of the destruction of Judah would rather live in relative peace in Egypt than be available for God in Palestine. Jeremiah delivers the verdict of God: "I will punish those who live in Egypt with the sword, famine and plague, as I punished Jerusalem" (Jeremiah 44:13 ). ...
God speaks of his love for his people in an oracle of the prophet Hosea: "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son" (11:1). Yet the people reject God and he laments, "Will they not return to Egypt and will not Assyria rule over them because they refuse to repent?" (v. In this oracle, Egypt functions again as a place of oppression, this time under Assyria. ...
In the Gospel of Matthew, Egypt is both a place of refuge and a place to come out of. Matthew reports that Joseph was warned in a dream to take Jesus and his mother "and escape to Egypt" (Matthew 2:14 ). Like Moses, Jesus comes out from Egypt, escaping the temptation of luxury, ease, and a peaceful life
Blains - violent ulcerous inflammations, the sixth plague of Egypt, (Exodus 9:9,10 ) and hence called in (28:27,35) "the botch of Egypt
Lubims - The inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an African nation under tribute to Egypt (2 Chronicles 12:3 ; 16:8 ). Their territory was apparently near Egypt
Onions - The Israelites, having enjoyed them in Egypt, lamented their loss in the wilderness. The onions in Egypt are mild in flavour, and sweet, and are much prized
Abel-Mizraim - Meadow of Egypt, or mourning of Egypt, a place "beyond," i. " Here the Egyptians mourned seventy days for Jacob (Genesis 50:4-11 )
Osiris - ) One of the principal divinities of Egypt, the brother and husband of Isis. He was figured as a mummy wearing the royal cap of Upper Egypt, and was symbolized by the sacred bull, called Apis
Sihor - In Joshua 13:3 it is "Sihor which is before Egypt. " In Isaiah 23:3 the produce of the harvest of Egypt was brought to the sea by the river, and from thence was fetched by the Syrian merchants. In Jeremiah 2:18 Israel is warned against seeking the waters of the Nile; that is, trusting in Egypt instead of in God: cf. Some consider that Joshua 13:3 and 1 Chronicles 13:5 refer to the Wady el Arish, which was also called 'the river of Egypt
Migdol - A tower, a frontier town in Northern Egypt towards the Red Sea, Jeremiah 44:1 ; 46:14 ; Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 . The Hebrews, on leaving Egypt, encamped between it and the sea, Exodus 14:2 ; Numbers 33:7
Miz'ra-im, - (the two Egypts; red soil ), the usual name of Egypt in the Old Testament the dual of Mazor, which is less frequently employed. In the use of the name Mizraim for Egypt there can be no doubt that the dual indicates the two regions, upper and lower Egypt, into which the country has always been divided by nature as well as by its inhabitants
Chub - The name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar. They were probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt in the south
Blains - Occurs only in connection with the sixth plague of Egypt (Exodus 9:9,10 ). In Deuteronomy 28:27,35 , it is called "the botch of Egypt
Egypt - The believer in Christ knows also what it is to have been brought up in Egypt, and brought out of the Egypt of the soul
Jehoiakim - Jehoiakim was a throne name given to him by Pharaoh Neco of Egypt, who deposed his brother Jehoahaz. At the beginning of his reign, Judah was subject to Egypt. , however, Babylon defeated Egypt. Jehoiakim, who apparently had been content to be a vassal of Egypt, transferred his allegiance to Babylon, but rebelled after three years
River of Egypt - See Brook of Egypt
Nile - See RIVER OF Egypt
Necho - See Egypt [1]...
Lice - See PLAGUES OF Egypt
Pathros - (path' rahss) Hebrew transliteration of Egyptian term for Upper (southern) Egypt. Upper Egypt included the territory between modern Cairo and Aswan
Onion - One of the vegetables of Egypt for which the Hebrews murmured in the desert, Numbers 11:5 . Hasselquist says that the onions of Egypt are remarkably sweet, mild, and nutritious. Juvenal, Pliny, and Lucian satirize the superstitious regard of the Egyptians for this bulb
Baal-Zephon - A town in Egypt, probably near the modern Suez. Its location is unknown, as are the details of the route of the Hebrews on leaving Egypt
Murrain - See Plagues of Egypt
Mitzrayim - the biblical name for Egypt...
Hail - See Plagues of Egypt
Rahab - Proud; quarrelsome (applied to Egypt)
Rahab - Proud; quarrelsome (applied to Egypt)
Egypt, Vicariate Apostolic of - Vicariate apostolic of Egypt established May 18, 1839; entrusted to the Friars Minor. Name changed to Vicariate Apostolic of Alessandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951
Vicariate Apostolic of Egypt - Vicariate apostolic of Egypt established May 18, 1839; entrusted to the Friars Minor. Name changed to Vicariate Apostolic of Alessandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951
Pathros - The name of Upper Egypt, in Egyptian Pteres , ‘the South Land,’ comprising both the Thebaid and Middle Egypt from somewhat south of Memphis to Syene at the First Cataract. ‘ Mizraim ’ was generally limited to Lower Egypt, i. This division of Egypt was very ancient, corresponding, at least roughly, to the two kingdoms before Menes. While Lower Egypt was familiar to both Greeks and Hebrews, Upper Egypt was comparatively unknown, as witness Herodotus’ woeful Ignorance of Egypt above the Fay-yum, and Nahum’s description of No-amon (see No)
River of Egypt - ...
(2) Νahal Μitsaim (Numbers 34:5; Joshua 15:3-4; Joshua 15:47; 1 Kings 8:65; 2 Kings 24:7); "the torrent of Egypt": see above nahal , "a stream flowing rapidly in the rainy season, then drying up", inapplicable to the sluggish Nile ever flowing. Though not in Egypt, it was the last torrent of any raze on the way toward Egypt from the N. In Joshua 13:3, "from Sihor which is before Egypt," the same torrent is marked as Israel's southern boundary, as the entering in of Hamath is the northern (Numbers 34:5; Numbers 34:8). east of) Egypt, but flowed through the middle of the land; so 1 Chronicles 13:5
Mizraim - Elsewhere it is translated Egypt. The word is in a dual form, occasioned, it has been thought, by the division of that land into Upper and Lower Egypt. ' But it is a proper name and refers to Egypt. The Revisers and others translate it Egypt in all passages
Egyp'Tian, Egyp'Tians - the native or natives of Egypt
Tirhakah - The last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty. 692, having been previously king of Ethiopia (2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 ), which with Egypt now formed one nation. The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning twenty-six years
Pathros - Place situate in Egypt, probably a part of Upper Egypt, where there were many Jews who set Jeremiah at defiance
Migdol - Apparently distinct from another Migdol in the north of Egypt. In Ezekiel 29:10 , margin , 'from Migdol to Syene' implies from north to south of Egypt
Hanes - A place in Egypt mentioned only in Isaiah 30:4 in connection with a reproof given to the Jews for trusting in Egypt
Hair - Emblem in art associated with Saint Agnes, Saint Madeleine (Mary Magdalen), and Saint Mary of Egypt. With reference to Saint Agnes and Saint Mary of Egypt, it symbolizes the miraculous growth of hair covering their nakedness, and in the case of Saint Mary Magdalen the wiping of Our Lord's feet
Gallicanus, Saint - Martyr, died Egypt, 362. He was a Roman general and consul, converted to Christianity, and exiled to Egypt by Julian the Apostate
Exodus - ) The second of the Old Testament, which contains the narrative of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. ) A going out; particularly (the Exodus), the going out or journey of the Israelites from Egypt under the conduct of Moses; and hence, any large migration from a place
Syene - a city of Egypt, now called Assouan, situated at its southern extremity. Ezekiel 29:10 , describing the desolation to be brought upon Egypt, says, "Therefore thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will make the land of Egypt utterly desolate, from the tower of Syene even to the border of Cush," or Arabia or, as some read it, "from Migdol to Syene," implying, according to either version of the passage, the whole length of the country from north to south. The latitude of Syene, according to Bruce is 24 0'...
45'; that of Alexandria, 31 11' 33"; difference 7 10' 48", equal to four hundred and thirty geographical miles on the meridian, or about five hundred British miles; but the real length of the valley of Egypt, as it follows the windings of the Nile, is full six hundred miles
Ptolemy v - ‘Ptolemy’ was the dynastic name of the Macedonian kings who ruled over Egypt b. 305 31; during the whole of this period Egypt was an independent country; it was not until the great victory of Augustus at Actium (b. 31) that Egypt again lost her independence and became a province, this time under Roman rule. During his reign Palestine and Cœle-Syria were lost to Egypt, and were incorporated into the kingdom of Syria under Antiochus iii
Murrain - See Plagues of Egypt
Hamadryas - ) The sacred baboon of Egypt (Cynocephalus Hamadryas)
Madmannah - ) Now probably Minyay, on the route from Egypt to western Palestine, 15 miles S. from Gaza, the Ethiopian eunuch's route, traveling in his chariot from Jerusalem toward Egypt (Acts 8:26-28)
Syene - Opening (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ), a town of Egypt, on the borders of Ethiopia, now called Assouan, on the right bank of the Nile, notable for its quarries of beautiful red granite called "syenite. " It was the frontier town of Egypt in the south, as Migdol was in the north-east
Lice - The third plague of Egypt, Exodus 8:16 ; Psalm 105:31 ; peculiarly offensive to the priests, who were obliged to shave and wash their entire body every third day, lest they should carry any vermin into the temples. According to many interpreters, lest they were the small stinging gnats which abound in Egypt
Abomination - The term was used respecting the Hebrews in Egypt, Genesis 43:32 Exodus 8:26 , either because they ate and sacrificed animals held sacred by the Egyptians, or because they did not observe those ceremonies in eating which made a part of the religion of Egypt; and in Genesis 46:34 , because they were "wandering shepherds," a race of whom had grievously oppressed Egypt
Moses - Born in Egypt and raised by Pharaoh’s daughter. Deployed by G-d to Egypt to liberate the Israelites. Visited ten plagues upon Egypt, led the Israelites out, and transmitted to them the Torah at Mt
Ethiopia - This is the Greek and Roman name for CUSH, a kingdom in Africa to the south of Egypt. At times Ethiopia conquered Egypt: two of the kings mentioned in scripture were Ethiopians. See Egypt, LAND OF
Exodus - (Greek: ex, out; odos, way) ...
The second book of the Bible, thus named because it relates the departure of the Jews from Egypt and a part of their wanderings through the wilderness, as far as Mount Sinai. The most convenient division is the following: ...
events preceding the going out of Egypt (1-12)
the going out of Egypt and the journey to Mount Sinai (13-18)
the promulgation of the first instalments of the Mosaic Law (19-31)
the apostasy of the Jews (the golden calf), reconciliation, and renewal of the Covenant (32-34)
construction of the Tabernacle (35-40)
Moodir - ) The governor of a province in Egypt, etc
Maimonides - Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, known by the acronym the �Rambam�, 1135-1204; Cordoba (Spain), Fez (Morocco) and Fostat (old Cairo, Egypt); codifier, philosopher, communal leader, and court physician to Sultan Salamin of Egypt; author of a commentary on the Mishnah, the Book of Mitzvot, Mishneh Torah, the Guide to the Perplexed and many other works ...
Hanes - City in Egypt to which the ambassadors of Israel were sent when they trusted in Egypt instead of in Jehovah
Abel-Mizraim - Abel-Mizraim (â'bel-mĭz-ray'ĭm), meadow of Egypt. The place where Joseph and his company halted seven days in passing from Egypt to Canaan to bury Jacob
Onion - This product is mentioned only in (Numbers 11:5 ) as one of the good things of Egypt of which the Israel regretted the loss. Onions have been from time immemorial a favorite article of food among the Egyptians, The onions of Egypt are much milder in flavor and less pungent than those of this country
Nile - Although the Bible mentions the Nile River mainly in relation to Egypt (Genesis 41:17-19; Ezekiel 29:3), the river passes through many countries, among them Ethiopia (GNB: Sudan) (Isaiah 18:1-2). ...
Very little rain fell in Egypt, with the result that the country depended almost entirely upon the Nile for its water supply. ...
Apart from the land that extended out a few kilometres on either side of the river, plus the land of the well watered delta region (together totalling less than one twentieth of Egypt’s entire land area), Egypt was a desert. In Egypt the failure of the Nile to flood was the equivalent of a drought in other countries. Prophetic announcements of judgment on Egypt therefore often included graphic pictures of the drying up of the Nile (Ezekiel 29:1-10; Ezekiel 30:12; Zechariah 10:11). It seems that God used some of the physical characteristics of the Nile Valley in bringing the plagues on Egypt during the time of Moses (Exodus 7:14-25; Exodus 8; Exodus 9; Exodus 10; see PLAGUE)
Shiphrah - One of the Hebrew midwives in Egypt
Egypt, Land of - The conformation of Egypt is peculiar. As to rain the country differs materially from Palestine, which "drinketh water of the rain of heaven;" for in Egypt, except by the sea-coast, it rarely rains, the land being watered from the river, which rises once a year, overflowing its banks in many places, and, as it retires, leaving a rich sediment on the soil. ...
The Delta, and as far south as Noph (Memphis, 29 51' N), is Lower Egypt: and from Noph southward to the first Cataract (24 N) is Upper Egypt. The emblematic crowns representing the two districts were not the same; but the two were united in one crown when a king reigned over all Egypt. CUSH, or ETHIOPIA,extended much farther south, but is often mentioned in scripture along with Egypt: Psalm 68:31 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Isaiah 20:4 ; Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Nahum 3:9 . Ethiopian kings appear to have reigned in Egypt, and are included in their list of kings
Mizraim - It was the name generally given by the Hebrews to the land of Egypt (q. ), and may denote the two Egypts, the Upper and the Lower. The modern Arabic name for Egypt is Muzr
Rambam - Acronym for "Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon" 1135-1204; Cordoba (Spain), Fez (Morocco) and Fostat (old Cairo, Egypt); known as Maimonides, he was a codifier, philosopher, communal leader, and court physician to Sultan Salamin of Egypt; author of a commentary on the Mishnah, the Book of Mitzvot, Mishneh Torah, the Guide to the Perplexed and many other works
Baal-Zephon - ” Place in Egypt near which Israel camped before miracle of crossing the sea (Exodus 14:2 ,Exodus 14:2,14:9 ). Some suggest tell Defenneh known in Egypt as Tahpanhes in the eastern Nile delta
Sin - City in Egypt: the LXX has Σάι>ς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium. Ezekiel calls it 'the strength of Egypt
Alexandria, Egypt, Diocese of (Latin Rite) - The Vicariate Apostolic of Egypt of re-established on May 18, 1839. Its name was changed to the Vicariate Apostolic of Alexandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951
Sin - City in Egypt: the LXX has Σάι>ς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium. Ezekiel calls it 'the strength of Egypt
Backshish - ) In Egypt and the Turkish empire, a gratuity; a "tip"
Dongola - ) A government of Upper Egypt
Chub - A people in league with Egypt, otherwise unknown
No - or NO-AMMON, a city of Egypt, supposed to be Thebes
Egypt - It is a dual form, signifying 'the two Matsors,' as some think, which represent Lower and Upper Egypt. Egypt is also called THE LAND OF HAM in Psalm 105:23,27 ; Psalm 106:22 ; and RAHAB, signifying 'the proud one'in Psalm 87:4 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 . ) Upper Egypt is called PATHROS, that is, 'land of the south,' Isaiah 11:11 . Lower Egypt is MATSOR in Isaiah 19:6 ; Isaiah 37:25 , but translated 'defence' and 'besieged places' in the A. Egypt is one of the most ancient and renowned countries, but it is not possible to fix any date to its foundation. ...
The history of ancient Egypt is usually divided into three parts. The Old Kingdom, from its commencement to the invasion of Egypt by those called Hyksos or Shepherd-kings. Some Hyksos had settled in Lower Egypt as early as the sixth dynasty; they extended their power in the fourteenth dynasty, and reigned supreme in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth dynasties. They established themselves in the north of Egypt at Zoan, or Tanis, and Avaris, while Egyptian kings reigned in the south. The New Kingdom was inaugurated by the expulsion of the Hyksos in the eighteenth dynasty, when Egypt regained its former power, as we find it spoken of in the O. ...
The first mention of Egypt in scripture is when Abraham went to sojourn there because of the famine. 1728 Joseph was carried into Egypt and sold to Potiphar: his exaltation followed; the famine commenced, and eventually Jacob and all his family went into Egypt. See PLAGUES OF Egypt. On the death of the firstborn of the Egyptians, Israel left Egypt. See ISRAEL IN Egypt and the EXODUS. ...
Very interesting questions arise — which of the kings of Egypt was it who promoted Joseph? which king was it that did not know Joseph? and which king reigned at the time of the Plagues and the Exodus? The result more generally arrived at is that the Pharaoh who promoted Joseph was one of the Hyksos (who being of Semitic origin, were more favourable to strangers than were the native Egyptians), and was probably APEPA or APEPI II, the last of those kings. It was to the Egyptians that shepherds were an abomination, as scripture says, which may not have applied to the Hyksos (which signifies 'shepherds' and agrees with their being called shepherd-kings), and this may account, under the control of God, for 'the best of the land' being given to the Israelites. The latter had one son, SETI II, who must have been slain in the last plague on Egypt, if his father was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Some Egyptologers consider other kings more probable than the above, placing the time of Joseph before the period of the Hyksos, while others place it after their exit. ...
After the Exodus scripture is silent as to Egypt for about 500 years, until the days of Solomon. The Tell Amarna Tablets (to be spoken of presently) reveal that Canaan was subject to Egypt before the Israelites entered the land. God answered his faith, and the Egyptian hosts were overcome, and Judah took 'very much spoil. He made presents to Egypt; but the scheme was not carried out. Tirhakah was afterwards defeated by Sennacherib and again at the conquest of Egypt by Esar-haddon. ...
Egypt recovered this shock under Psammetichus I of Sais (twenty-sixth dynasty), and in the days of Josiah, PHARAOH-NECHO, anxious to rival the glories of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties, set out to attack the king of Assyria and to recover the long-lost sway of Egypt over Syria. Necho carrying all before him proceeded as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates, and on returning to Jerusalem he deposed Jehoahaz and carried him to Egypt (where he died), and set up his brother Eliakim in his stead, calling him Jehoiakim. By Necho being able to attack the king of Assyria, in so distant a place as Carchemish shows the strength of Egypt at that time, but the power of Babylon was increasing, and after three years Nebuchadnezzar defeated the army of Necho at Carchemish, and recovered every place from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates; and "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land. ...
The Greek writers and the Egyptian monuments mention Psamatik 2 as the next king to Necho, and then Apries (Uahabra on the monuments, the letter U being equivalent to the aspirate), the HOPHRA of scripture. Ezekiel was at Babylon: and in his prophecy (Ezekiel 29:1-16 ) he foretells the humbling of Egypt and their king, "the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers. " Egypt should be made desolate from Migdol to Syene (margin ), even to the border of Ethiopia (from the north to the south) 'forty years. ' Abdallatif, an Arab writer, says that Nebuchadnezzar ravaged Egypt and ruined all the country for giving an asylum to the Jews who fled from him, and that it remained in desolation forty years. Other prophecies followed against Egypt. ...
When Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed Jerusalem, he left some Jews in the land under Gedaliah the Governor; but Gedaliah being slain, they fled into Egypt, taking Jeremiah with them, to Tahpanhes. He there uttered prophesies against Egypt, Isaiah 43 and Isaiah 44 . The series of prophecies give an approximate date for the devastation of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. In taking Tyre he had no wages (they carried away their treasures in ships) and he should have Egypt as his reward. ...
After Nebuchadnezzar, Egypt became tributary to Cyrus: Cambyses was its first Persian king of the twenty-seventh dynasty. On the passing away of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great had possession of Egypt and founded Alexandria. On the death of Alexander the Ptolemies reigned over Egypt for about 300 years. 30 Octavius Caesar entered Egypt, and it became a Roman province. 639 Egypt was wrested from the Eastern empire by the Saracens, and was held under the suzerainty of the Turks until the nineteenth century. ...
We have seen that at one time Egypt was able to bring a million soldiers into Palestine; and at another to attack Assyria. For instance, "The Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation, yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord and perform it . in that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance. Surely these statements apply to a time when God will bring Egypt into blessing. This might not have been expected, seeing that Egypt is a type of the world — the place where nature gratifies its lusts, and out of which the Christian is brought — but in the millennium the earth will be brought into blessing, and then no nation will be blessed except as they own Jehovah and His King who will reign over all the earth. Then "Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God. ...
Egypt too, it must be remembered, was the place of sojourn of God's favoured people Israel. It was a king of Egypt who caused to be translated the Old Testament into Greek, the LXX, quoted by the Lord Himself when on earth; and it was to Egypt that Joseph fled with the young child and His mother from the wrath of Herod. Egypt was a broken reed on which the Israelites rested: it oppressed them and even attacked and pillaged Jerusalem. Afterwards God will also heal and bring it into blessing: in grace He says "Blessed be Egypt my People. Comparatively lately a number of clay tablets have been discovered in Upper Egypt. Many of them are despatches from persons in authority in Palestine to the kings of Egypt, showing that Egypt had held more or less sway over portions of the land. They show that Egypt had withdrawn its troops from Palestine, and was evidently losing all power in the country, the northern part of which was being invaded by the Hittites. The governors mention this in their despatches, and urge Egypt to send troops to stop the invasion. Some 'shepherd-kings' invaded Lower Egypt. Title claimed over all Egypt by Antef or Nentef. Abraham's sojourn in Egypt was possibly in this dynasty. {Israelites enter Egypt about B. The Hyksos driven out of Egypt. ) Egypt became a province of Assyria. Period of Greek influence in Egypt. Or Psammetichus I: threw off the yoke of Assyria and ruled all Egypt. 581), who afterwards ravaged Egypt as far as Elephantine. Psamatik III was conquered by Cambyses, and Egypt became a province of the Persian empire. The kings of Persia were the kings of Egypt. {when Egypt was again defeated. ) On the Persian Empire being conquered by Alexander the Great, Egypt also became a part of the Grecian empire. ) On the death of Alexander, Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemies. ...
Egypt became a Roman province. )...
Egypt was wrested from the Eastern Empire by the Saracens
River of Egypt - ...
In Numbers 34:5 (RSV, "brook of Egypt") the Hebrew word is Nahal , Denoting a stream flowing rapidly in winter, or in the rainy season. This is a desert stream on the borders of Egypt. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between this wady and Gaza
Tah'Panhes, Tehaph'Nehes, Tahap'Anes, - a city of Egypt, mentioned in the time of the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel. The name is evidently Egyptian, and closely resembles that of the Egyptian queen Tahpenes. It was evidently a town of lower Egypt, near or on the eastern border. When Johanan and the other captains went into Egypt "they came to Tahpanhes
Hanes - (hay' neess) Egypt place name. Isaiah condemned the government policy of seeking Egyptian help rather than trusting Yahweh. Hanes has often been located at Heracleopolis Magna in southern Egypt just north of the Nile Delta, modern Ahnas. Ashurbanipal of Egypt also mentions Hanes in listing Egyptian cities
Rameses (ra'Amses) - One reason why the Israelites of Moses’ time were slaves in Egypt was that the Pharaoh wanted a cheap work-force to carry out his spectacular building programs. (For map and other details see Egypt. This was the region from which Jacob’s multitude of descendants set out on their flight from Egypt over four hundred years later (in 1280 BC; Exodus 12:37). Rameses was also apparently known as Zoan (Psalms 78:12; Psalms 78:43), which from 1085 to 660 BC was the capital of Egypt (Isaiah 19:11; Isaiah 19:13; Isaiah 30:4; Ezekiel 30:14)
Pharaonic - ) Of or pertaining to the Pharaohs, or kings of ancient Egypt
Egyptologist - ) One skilled in the antiquities of Egypt; a student of Egyptology
Tirhakah - See Egypt
Alexandria, Egypt, Diocese of (Armenian Rite) - A see of the Armenian Rite, comprising Egypt, with residence at Cairo
Hyksos - (hik' ssohss) Racial name from the Greek form of an Egyptian word meaning “rulers of foreign lands” given to kings of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties of Egypt. ”...
With the decline of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (about 2000-1786 B. ) large numbers of Asiatics, mostly Semites like the Hebrew patriarchs, migrated into the Nile Delta of northern Egypt from Canaan. Unlike Abraham, many groups stayed in Egypt as permanent settlers. Eventually, one of these local rulers managed to consolidate the rule of northern Egypt as pharaoh, thus beginning the Fifteenth Dynasty. As these dynasties of pharaohs were not ethnic Egyptians, they were remembered by the native population as “Hyksos. ”...
While the Hyksos pharaohs ruled northern Egypt from Avaris in the eastern Delta, the native Egyptian Seventeenth Dynasty ruled southern Egypt from Thebes. As the first pharaoh of a reunited Egypt, Ahmose I established the Eighteenth Dynasty and inaugurated the Egyptian New Kingdom or Empire. Joseph was related ethnically to the Semitic Hyksos rulers, while the native Egyptians regarded Semites with contempt. If Joseph served a Hyksos pharaoh, an Egyptian king would not have “known” of him in a political or historical sense, nor would he have regarded him as significant in an ethnic sense
Ethiopia - Apart from Egypt, Ethiopia is the most frequently mentioned African country in the Bible. It bordered Egypt to Egypt’s south and, like Egypt, was centred on the Nile River. The region it occupied is today the northern part of Sudan (Isaiah 18:1-2; Jeremiah 13:23; Ezekiel 29:10; for map of the region see Egypt). During Israel’s journey from Egypt to Canaan, Moses married an Ethiopian woman, probably after his first wife had died (Numbers 12:1). Later it gained control over Upper Egypt, and for about half a century exercised a strong influence over Egypt. The challenge brought little success and soon Ethiopia, along with its ally Egypt, suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Assyria (Isaiah 20:3-6)
Pathros - A district of Egypt near Thebes. The country is mentioned in the Prophets, and nearly always in connection with Egypt
Hanes - frontier of Egypt, to which the Jews sent ambassadors with presents for the reigning Pharaoh (perhaps Zet or Sethos of the 23rd dynasty), as also to the neighbouring Zoan his capital. of the Nile in central Egypt
Cucumber - Isaiah 1:8 (b) This vegetable is used by the prophet to remind Israel that their heart's desire had led them into a life of worthless, useless activity such as they had experienced in Egypt. Cucumbers have no food value, and were one of the principle foods in Egypt
Jochebed - One of the seventy original members of Jacob’s household that emigrated to Egypt. The Talmud identifies her with the midwife Shifra, who practiced midwifery in Egypt together with Puah (Miriam), and defied Pharaoh’s orders to kill Israelite babies
Pithom - One of the cities built by the children of Israel for Pharaoh in Egypt, during their servitude, Exodus 1:11 . See Egypt
Garlic, - (Numbers 11:5 ) is the Allium sativum of Linnaeus, which abounds in Egypt
Tahpenes - Queen of Egypt and sister of the wife of Hadad
Jambres - One of those who opposed Moses in Egypt (2 Timothy 3:8 )
Mizraim - Rather the Egyptian Μes-ra-n , "children of Ra" the Sun. Son of Ham, ancestor of the Mizraim; the dual indicating the people of Upper and of Lower Egypt (Genesis 10:6). The descent of the Egyptians from Ham is recognized in Psalms 104:23; Psalms 104:27; Psalms 78:51, where Egypt is called "the land of Ham. (See HAM; Egypt
Memphis - The ancient Egyptian city of Memphis, though not in existence today, was situated on almost the same site as the present-day city of Cairo; that is, on the Nile River, about 180 kilometres from its mouth. It was the administrative centre of the first king to unite Upper and Lower Egypt (about 3000 BC), and was capital of Egypt for much of the period before Abraham. (For map and other details see Egypt
Goshen - Goshen was the territory where the family of Jacob settled in Egypt. The royal city of Rameses, which the Egyptians forced the Israelites to build by slave labour, was in Goshen (Genesis 47:6; Genesis 47:11; Genesis 47:27; Exodus 1:11; Exodus 12:37). Goshen was largely protected from the plagues that fell on other parts of Egypt during the time of Moses’ conflict with Pharaoh (Exodus 8:22; Exodus 9:26). (See also Egypt
Canonship - ) Of or pertaining to Canopus in Egypt; as, the Canopic vases, used in embalming
Dosith'Eus - a "priest and Levite" who carried the translation of Esther to Egypt
no - This is the scripture name of THEBES,a noted city in Egypt, built on both sides of the river Nile, having a hundred gates, situate about 25 46' N. Instead of 'populous No,' 'No of Amon' should be read, referring to the Egyptian god Amon; and in Jeremiah 46:25 for 'the multitude of No,' 'Amon of No' should be read. Assyria had been able to distress Egypt before this prophecy, and the reference there is probably to an attack on Egypt by Sargon (B. Nebuchadnezzar overran Egypt in B. ...
The perishable nature of human greatness is evidenced in a striking manner in Egypt by miserable huts being in close proximity to ruins of colossal buildings which could have been reared only at the cost of immense labour and the exercise of much skill
Noph - Memphis, a celebrated city of Egypt, and, till the time of the Ptolemies, who removed to Alexandria, the residence of the ancient kings of Egypt. Toward the south of this city stood the famous pyramids, two of which were esteemed the wonder of the world; and in this city was fed the ox Apis, which Cambyses slew, in contempt of the Egyptians, who worshipped it as a deity. The kings of Egypt took much pleasure in adorning this city; and it continued in all its beauty till the Arabians made a conquest of Egypt under the Caliph Omar. The general who took it built another city near it, named Fustal, merely because his tent had been a long time set up in that place; and the Fatimite caliphs, when they became masters of Egypt, added another to it, which is known to us at this day by the name of Grand Cairo
So - The king of Egypt (Mizraim), Hoshea’s correspondence with whom led shortly to the captivity of Israel ( 2 Kings 17:4 ). 725 the kingdom of Egypt was probably in confusion (end of Dyn. It is difficult to find an Egyptian name of this period that would be spelt So in Hebrew. probably Pharaob, king of Egypt), to the help of Gaza against Sargon. Shabako gained the throne of Egypt about b
Chushan-Rishathaim - It is mentioned among the countries which took part in the attack upon Egypt in the reign of Rameses III. (of the Twentieth Dynasty), but as its king is not one of the princes stated to have been conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not actually enter Egypt. corresponds with the Israelitish occupation of Canaan, it is probable that the Egyptian monuments refer to the oppression of the Israelites by Chushan-rishathaim. Canaan was still regarded as a province of Egypt, so that, in attacking it Chushan-rishathaim would have been considered to be attacking Egypt
Dragon - That it sometimes has this meaning, he thinks is clear from Ezekiel 29:3 : "Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers. " For, to what could a king of Egypt be more properly compared than the crocodile? The same argument he draws from Isaiah 51:9 : "Art thou not he that hath cut Rahab, [1] and wounded the dragon?" Among the ancients the crocodile was the symbol of Egypt, and appears so on Roman coins
Ethiopia - of Egypt. In a stricter sense the kingdom of Meroe from the junction of the Blue and the White Nile to the border of Egypt. marked the boundary from Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10; Ezekiel 30:6). In Isaiah 18:1, "the land shadowing with wings" is Ethiopia shadowing (protecting) with its two wings (Egyptian and Ethiopian forces) the Jews, "a nation scattered and peeled" (loaded with indignity, made bald) though once "terrible" when God put a terror of them into surrounding nations (Exodus 23:27; Joshua 2:9), "a nation meted out and trodden down whose land the (Assyrian) rivers (i. Ethiopia" is often used when Upper Egypt and Ethiopia are meant. It is the Thebaid or Upper Egypt, not Ethiopia by itself, that was peopled and cultivated, when most of Lower Egypt was a marsh. Thus Ethiopia and Egypt are said (Nahum 3:9) to be the "strength" of "populous No" or Thebes. of Palestine, and Tirhakah the Ethiopian who advanced toward Judah against Sennacherib, were doubtless rulers of Upper Egypt and Ethiopia combined. Hincks identifies him with Osorkon I, king of Egypt, second of the 22nd dynasty (See ASA) (2 Chronicles 14:9). Tirhakah was third of the 25th dynasty of Egypt, an Ethiopian dynasty. Osirtasin I (Sesostris, Herodotus, 2:110), of the 12th dynasty, was the first Egyptian king who ruled Ethiopia. While the shepherd kings ruled Lower Egypt the 13th native dynasty retired to the Ethiopian capital Napara. ...
The monuments confirm Isaiah 20:4; Nahum 3:5; Nahum 3:8-9, by representing Sargon as warring with Egypt and making the Pharaoh tributary; they also make Ethiopia closely united to Egypt. The inscriptions tell us Sargon destroyed No-Amon or Thebes in part, which was the capital of Upper Egypt, with which Ethiopia was joined. Esarhaddon, according to the monuments, conquered Egypt and Ethiopia Meroe was the emporium where the produce of the distant S
Chamites - The Chusites inhabited Arabia, Africa, and the valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris; Mesram occupied Egypt; Phuth, probably the region west of Egypt, particularly Libya; and Chanaan, the country later occupied by Israel
Sin, - a city of Egypt, mentioned only by Ezekiel. ( Exodus 16:1 ; Numbers 33:11 ) Ezekiel speaks of Sin as "Sin the strongholds of Egypt. " (Ezekiel 30:15 ) This place was held by Egypt from that time until the period of the Romans
Lice - (See EXODUS; Egypt. ) Mosquitoes, troublesome in Egypt toward October, soon after the plague of frogs, not only giving pain, but entering the body through the nostrils and ears; so Septuagint, Philo, and Origen. But mosquitoes' larvae are deposited in stagnant waters, whereas Exodus (Exodus 8:17) states "all the dust became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. The Egyptian chenems (related to kinnim) ), "mosquito," retained in the Coptic, favors the former. The Egyptian ken , "force," "plague," may apply to either view
River of Egypt - (Genesis 15:18 ) [1] ...
A desert stream on the border of Egypt, still occasionally flowing in the valley called Wadi-l-'Areesh . ( Numbers 34:3-6 ) In the latter history we find Solomon's kingdom extending from the "entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt," (1 Kings 8:65 ) and Egypt limited in the same manner where the loss of the eastern provinces is mentioned
Egypt, River - Egypt, RIVER (RV Cambrasine - ) A kind of linen cloth made in Egypt, and so named from its resemblance to cambric
Pharaoh - ) A title by which the sovereigns of ancient Egypt were designated
Libya - A province in Egypt: (see Acts 2:10) so called from Libin, the heart of the sea
Manna - The: the food from heaven provided to the Jews in the desert after the exodus from Egypt ...
Memphian - ) Of or pertaining to the ancient city of Memphis in Egypt; hence, Egyptian; as, Memphian darkness
Khamsin - ) A hot southwesterly wind in Egypt, coming from the Sahara
Eliezer (son of moses) - Born in Midian immediately before Moses left to Egypt to liberate the Israelites
Shadoof - ) A machine, resembling a well sweep, used in Egypt for raising water from the Nile for irrigation
Sukkiim - Allies of Shishak in his invasion of Judah, 2 Chronicles 12:3 ; probably from region southeast of Egypt
Libya, Libyans - The part of Africa west of Egypt, and the inhabitants of the same. They are classed with the Ethiopians, and were allies of Egypt
River of Egypt - border of the promised land was to be from 'the river of Egypt. In Numbers 34:5 'the river of Egypt' has the word nachal, signifying a winter torrent, and is supposed to refer to the Wady el Arish , 31 8' N, 33 50' E
Dabb - ) A large, spine-tailed lizard (Uromastix spinipes), found in Egypt, Arabia, and Palestine; - called also dhobb, and dhabb
Numbers - The third Book of Moses, so called from containing the numbers of the Israelites after coming out of Egypt
Pathros - A city of Egypt
Migdol - ” A town or a border fortress located in the northeast corner of Egypt. The coming doom of Egypt at the hand of Nebuchadnezzar was to be proclaimed there (Jeremiah 46:13-14 ). Ezekiel prophesied that the land of Egypt would be laid waste, “from Migdol to Aswan” (Ezekiel 29:10 ; Ezekiel 30:6 NIV), that is from the northern extremity of the land, Migdol, to the southern extremity of the land, Aswan. What is the exact location of the site of Migdol? Do all of the references to Migdol refer to the same site, or was there more than one site in Egypt named Migdol? More than one site may have borne the name Migdol, though the evidence we have at hand is inconclusive. The Amarna Letters from Egypt refer to an Egyptian city named Maagdali, but information about its location is not given. Both may have been part of a line of border fortresses or migdols designed to provide protection for Egypt against invasion from the Sinai. See Watchtower, Egypt
Mixed Multitude - Exodus 12:38, 'eereb raab ; Numbers 11:4, hasaph suph ; like our English "riff-raff," a mob gathered from various quarters; accompanied Israel at the Exodus from Egypt. and ruled Egypt, beginning with Salatis master of Avaris, Tanis, or Zoan, and ending with Apophis, their last king, expelled by Aahmes I the "new king that knew not Joseph. " Hated in Egypt, they naturally emigrated with Israel (compare Josephus contra Apion, 1:14, section 26)
Thebes - It was the most important city in Upper Egypt, and from 1570 to 1085 BC, the period of Egypt’s greatest power and splendour, it was the country’s capital. The wealth that poured into Thebes during those five hundred years helped to make the city the most magnificent in all Egypt. (For map and other details see Egypt
Merneptah - (mehr' neh) Personal name meaning, “beloved of Ptah” (god honored in Memphis, Egypt). Ruler in the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt 1236-1223 B. and thought by many to be the pharaoh of Egypt when the Exodus occurred
Goshen - For this place being nearer to the Mediterranean sea than Upper Egypt, had plentiful showers to make it fertile. Here it was Jacob and his children dwelt, when brought down into Egypt. (Genesis 47:1-6) Perhaps there might have been even in those days, a remote idea to the times of the gospel in the name of Goshen; for even now in the present hour, that is truly a land of Goshen where Christ is truly known, and where heaven hath shed and is shedding its blessed influences, in the showers of his Holy Spirit; while all the earth is as Egypt in the dryness, where no rains are known, and where the gospel of Christ is not
Esarhaddon - Esarhaddon was an eminent military general who defeated Taharqa, Pharaoh of Egypt, in the process of conquering the entire country. Esarhaddon ruled Egypt through Assyrian advisors and Egyptian district commanders. However, Egyptian rebellion to Assyrian domination came quickly. An ill Esarhaddon was returning to Egypt to squelch the rebellion when he died en route in 669 B. In Isaiah 19:4 he is probably the “cruel lord” and “fierce king” who conquered Egypt
Ahram - He died in Egypt, aged one hundred and thirty-seven, Exodus 6:18,20
Hor - The mountain where Aaron died, the fortieth year of Israel's departure from Egypt
Khedive - ) A governor or viceroy; - a title granted in 1867 by the sultan of Turkey to the ruler of Egypt
Shur - An enclosure; a wall, a part, probably, of the Arabian desert, on the north-eastern border of Egypt, giving its name to a wilderness extending from Egypt toward Philistia (Genesis 16:7 ; 20:1 ; 25:18 ; Egyptians built to defend their frontier on the north-east from the desert tribes
Sethians - They appeared in Egypt in the second century; and, as they were addicted to all sorts of debauchery, they did not want followers. They continued in Egypt above two hundred years
Mitanni - Mitanni rivaled Egypt in its developed culture and control of the Ancient Near East during this period. See Chariots ; Egypt ; Jebusites ; Jerusalem
Leek - The Hebrews complained in the wilderness, that manna grew insipid to them; they longed for the leeks and onions of Egypt, Numbers 11:5 . Hassel-quist says the karrat, or leek, is surely one of those after which the Israelites pined; for is has been cultivated in Egypt from time immemorial
Didymus, Saint - Martyr, died Alexandria, Egypt, 304
Azmon - border of Palestine, near the torrent of Egypt, wady el Arish (Numbers 34:4-5; Joshua 15:4)
Pelusiac - ) Of or pertaining to Pelusium, an ancient city of Egypt; as, the Pelusiac (or former eastern) outlet of the Nile
Pithom - one of the cities that the Israelites built for Pharaoh in Egypt, during the time of their servitude, Exodus 1:11
Chub - Probably in north Africa, and of a land near Egypt
Egypt - The Greeks and Romans called it Aegyptus, whence Egypt; but the origin of this name is unknown. ...
The habitable land of Egypt is for the most part a great valley, through which the river Nile pours its waters, extending in a straight line from north to south, and skirted on the east and west by ranges of mountains, which approach and recede from the river more or less in different parts. As these branches all separate from one point or channel, that is, from the main stream, and spread themselves more and more as they approach the coast, they form with the latter a triangle, the base of which is the seacoast; and having thus the form of the Greek letter, delta, this part of Egypt received the name of the Delta, which it has ever since retained. The prophet Ezekiel describes Egypt as extending from Migdol, that is, Magdolum, not far from the mouth of the Pelusian arm, to Syene, now Essuan, namely, to the border of Ethiopia, Ezekiel 29:10 30:6 . Essuan is also assigned by Greek and Arabian writers as the southern limit of Egypt. Here the Nile issues from the granite rocks of the cataracts, and enters Egypt proper. Originally the name Egypt designated only the valley and the Delta; but at a later period it came to include also the region between this and the Red Sea. ...
The country around Syene and the cataracts is highly picturesque; the other parts of Egypt, and especially the Delta, are uniform and monotonous. In this season, the freshness and power of the new vegetation, the variety and abundance of vegetable productions, exceed every thing that is known in the most celebrated parts of the European continent; and Egypt is then, from one end of the country to the other, like a beautiful garden, a verdant meadow, a field sown with flowers, or a waving ocean of grain in the ear. Hence Egypt was called by Herodotus, "the gift of the Nile. It is almost a peculiar trait in the Egyptian landscape, that although not without trees, it is yet almost without shade. Egypt, according, has a very hot climate; the thermometer in summer ...
standing usually at eighty or ninety degrees of Fahrenheit; and in Upper Egypt still higher. ...
In the very earliest times, Egypt appears to have been regarded under three principal divisions; and writers spoke of Upper Egypt or Thebais; Middle Egypt, Heptanomis or Heptapolis; and Lower Egypt or the Delta, including the districts lying east and west of the river. The provinces and cities of Egypt mentioned in the Bible may, in like manner, be arranged under these three great divisions: ...
1. LOWER Egypt The northeastern point of this was "the river of Egypt," on the border of Palestine. Sin, "the strength [1] of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:15 , was probably Pelusium. MIDDLE Egypt Here are mentioned Moph or Memphis, and Hanes, the Heracleopolis of the Greeks. UPPER Egypt The southern part of Egypt, the Hebrews appear to have called Pathros, Jeremiah 44:1,15 . The Bible mentions here only two cities, namely, No, or more fully No-Ammon, for which the Seventy put Diospolis, the Greek name for Thebes, the most ancient capital of Egypt, (see AMMON, or No-Ammon, or No;) and Syene, the southern city and limit of Egypt. ...
The chief agricultural productions of Egypt are wheat, durrah, or small maize, Turkish or Indian corn or maize, rice, barley, beans, cucumbers, watermelons, leeks, and onions; also flax and cotton. The animals of Egypt, besides the usual kinds of tame cattle, are the wild ox or buffalo in great numbers, the ass and camel, dogs in multitudes without masters, the ichneumon, the crocodile, and the hippopotamus. ...
The inhabitants of Egypt may be considered as including three divisions: 1. The Copts, or descendants of the ancient Egyptians. ...
The most extraordinary monuments of Egyptian power and industry were the pyramids, which still subsist, to excite the wonder and admiration of the world. They have by some been supposed to have been erected by the Israelites during their bondage in Egypt. ...
But besides these imperishable monuments of kings long forgotten, Egypt abounds in other structures hardly less wonderful; on the beautiful islands above the cataracts, near Syene, and at other places in Upper Egypt; and especially in the whole valley of the Nile near Thebes, including Carnac, Luxor, etc. The huge columns of these temples, their vast walls, and many of the tombs, are covered with sculptures and paintings which are exceedingly valuable as illustrating the public and the domestic life of the ancient Egyptians. Thus OSIR, the name of the Egyptian god Soiris, would be represented by the picture of a reed, a child, and a mouth; because the initial sounds of the Coptic words for these three objects, namely, Ike, Si, and Ro, make up the name OSIR. ...
The early history of ancient Egypt is involved in great obscurity. All accounts, however, and the results of all modern researches, seem to concur in representing culture and civilization as having been introduced and spread in Egypt from the south, and especially from Meroe; and that the country in the earliest times was possessed by several contemporary kings or states, which at length were all united into one great kingdom. The common name of the Egyptian kings was Pharaoh, which signified sovereign power. But the inclination of the Egyptian historians to magnify the great antiquity of their nation has destroyed their credibility. His wife had an Egyptian handmaid, Hagar the mother of Ishmael, who also sought a wife in Egypt, Genesis 21:9,21 . Another famine, in the days of Isaac, nearly drove him to Egypt, Genesis 26:2 ; and Jacob and all his household ended their days there, Genesis 39:1-50:26 . After the escape of Israel from their weary bondage in Egypt, we read of little intercourse between the two nations for many years. In the time of David and Solomon, mention is again made of Egypt. Solomon married an Egyptian princess, 1 Kings 3:7 9:1-28 11:43 . But in the fifth year of his son Rehoboam, Judah was humbled at the feet of Shishak, king of Egypt, 2 Chronicles 12:1-16 ; and for many generations afterwards the Jews were alternately in alliance and at war with that nation, until both were subjugated to the Assyrian empire, 2 Kings 17:1-41 18:21 23:29 24:1-20 Jeremiah 25:1-38 37:5 44:1-30 46:1-28 . ...
Egypt was conquered by Cambyses, and became a province of the Persian empire about 525 B. In the time of Christ, great numbers of Jews were residents of Alexandria, Leontopolis, and other parts of Egypt; and our Savior himself found an asylum there in his infancy, Matthew 2:13 . ...
The religion of Egypt consisted in the worship of the heavenly bodies and the powers of nature; the priests cultivated at the same time astronomy and astrology, and to these belong probably the wise men, sorcerers, and magicians mentioned in Exodus 7:11,22 . But the Egyptian religion had this peculiarity, that it adopted living animals as symbols of the real objects of worship. The Egyptians not only esteemed many species of animals as sacred, which might not be killed without the punishment of death, but individual animals were kept in temples and worshipped with sacrifices, as gods. ...
"The river of Egypt," Numbers 34:5 Joshua 15:4,47 1 Kings 8:65 2 Kings 24:7 Isaiah 27:12 Ezekiel 47:19 48:28 , (and, according to some, Genesis 15:18 , although in this passage a different word is used signifying a permanent stream,) designates the brook El-Arish, emptying into the southeast corner of the Mediterranean at Rhinocolura
Shiphrah - ” Midwife for Israel in Egypt who disobeyed Pharaoh because they feared God (Exodus 1:15-21 )
Jaal Goat - A species of wild goat (Capra Nubiana) found in the mountains of Abyssinia, Upper Egypt, and Arabia; - called also beden, and jaela
Amram - Leader of the Israelites while they were enslaved in Egypt
Chub, - the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar, (Ezekiel 30:5 ) and probably of northern Africa
Pharoah - King of Egypt. It should seem that Pharaoh was the common name of the kings of Egypt, since we find that both he that knew Joseph, and he that knew him not, were both called Pharaoh. The Pharaoh, the tyrant of Egypt, we know most of in Scripture, was a type of the devil; and as such the Lord's people should read his history, %with the Lord's striking observation upon him
Yarn - The Authorized Version has: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price;" but the Revised Version correctly renders: "And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; the king's merchants received them in droves, each drove at a price
Raamses - Or Rameses, a city built by the Hebrews during their servitude in Egypt, Exodus 1:11 . From it they commenced their united exodus from Egypt, Exodus 12:37 ; Numbers 33:3,5
Naphtuhim - Descendants of Mizraim, supposed to have settled in some part of Egypt, but where is unknown
Tirhakah - ) The Tehrak of the Egyptian monuments, who reigned over Egypt from 690 or 695 B. ; probably king of Ethiopia before he took the title "king of Egypt. Naturally he helped Hezekiah of Judah against their common enemy Sennacherib, who threatened, Egypt. 10:1-3) represent Sennacherib to have advanced to Pelusium; here Tirhakah, the ally of Sethos, the king priest of Lower Egypt, and of Hezekiah, forced Sennacherib to retire, His acquisition of the throne of Egypt seems subsequent to his accession to the Ethiopian throne, and to the diversion which he made in favor of Hezekiah against Sennacherib. The Ethiopian influence and authority over Egypt appear in the large proportion of Ethiopians in Shishak's and Zerah's armies (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8); also in Pharaoh Necho's (Jeremiah 46:9)
Kue - ” If the Masoretes and the KJV are correct, then Solomon imported horses and linen yarn from Egypt. If the NRSV, NAS, NIV, REB, and TEV are correct (which in all likelihood they are), then Solomon imported horses from Egypt and Kue—that is, Cilicia in southeast Asia Minor (see NEB which has the spelling Coa). Many think, further, that the Hebrew word translated as “Egypt” (Mizraim) should be translated as “Musri,” a country in Asia Minor near Cilicia. From Egypt, Solomon acquired chariots (1 Kings 10:29 )
Bubale - ) A large antelope (Alcelaphus bubalis) of Egypt and the Desert of Sahara, supposed by some to be the fallow deer of the Bible
Yom kippur war - the 1973Arab-Israeli War, fought from October 6 to October 26,1973 between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria
Azmon - Place on the south west frontier of Palestine, apparently near the Wady el-Arish, the torrent of Egypt
Thin - Genesis 41:27 (a) The Lord uses this symbol to describe the famine and dearth which was to prevail in Egypt for seven years
Indicopleustes, Cosmas - Sixth century traveler and geographer, born Alexandria, Egypt. He explored the region south of Egypt as far as Cape Guardafui and east probably as far as India (Indicopleustes = voyager to India)
Migdol - A fortified city in the northern limits of Egypt toward Palestine. , Syene the most southern border of Egypt, and Migdol the most northern
Coptic - Pertaining to the descendants of the ancient Egyptians, called Copts, or cophti, as distinct from the Arabians and other inhabitants of modern Egypt. The name is supposed to be taken from Coptos, the metropolis of the Thebaid as Egypt, is probably from that name inclosed, fortified
Jacob - He returned to Canaan but lived his final years in Egypt, where he went to be with his son Joseph, viceroy of Egypt
Papyrus - , written scrolls made of papyrus; as, the papyri of Egypt or Herculaneum. ) The material upon which the ancient Egyptians wrote. ) A tall rushlike plant (Cyperus Papyrus) of the Sedge family, formerly growing in Egypt, and now found in Abyssinia, Syria, Sicily, etc
Raamses, Rameses - District in Goshen in Lower Egypt, east of the Nile, in which Jacob and his descendants were placed, and in which they built a treasure city of the same name for Pharaoh. It was from thence the Israelites began their march out of Egypt. It is a disputed point as to whether the name of the district or of the city had any connection with the Egyptian kings named Rameses
Lizard - ( Leviticus 11:30 ) Lizards of various kinds abound in Egypt, Palestine and Arabia. The lizard denoted by the Hebrew word is probably the fan-foot lizard (Ptyodactylus gecko ) which is common in Egypt and in parts of Arabia, and perhaps is found also in Palestine
Africa - By far the most frequent mention of Africa in the Bible has to do with Egypt (see Egypt; GOSHEN; NILE)
Shur - border of Egypt ( Genesis 16:7 ; Genesis 20:1 ; Genesis 25:18 , Exodus 15:22 , 1 Samuel 15:7 ; 1 Samuel 27:8 ). frontier, and capital of the 14th nome of Lower Egypt. It is tempting to identify it with Rhinocorura (See Egypt [1]), but it was on the banks of a fresh-water canal and 10 days’ march from Gaza
Tirhakah - King of Ethiopia, or Cuch, and of Egypt. He was a powerful monarch, ruling both Upper and lower Egypt, and extending his conquests far into Asia and towards the "pillars of Hercules" in the west. His name and victories are recorded on an ancient temple at Medinet Abou, in upper Egypt; whence also the representation above given of his head was copied by Rosselini
Bricks - The bricks used were often a foot square; and great numbers of them are found, both in Babylon and Egypt, impressed with some royal or priestly stamp. The principal subject of interest connected with brick making is the fact that it was the labor in which the Hebrews in Egypt were most oppressed. On the monuments of Egypt, all the parts of this hard and ancient task-work are painted-the carrying, tempering, and molding of the clay, and the drying and pilling of the bricks-all done by foreigners under the orders of taskmasters. See Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians
Bellows - Probably they consisted of leather bags similar to those common in Egypt
Amber Seed - Seed of the Hibiscus abelmoschus, somewhat resembling millet, brought from Egypt and the West Indies, and having a flavor like that of musk; musk seed
Alexandrian - ) Of or pertaining to Alexandria in Egypt; as, the Alexandrian library
Xeriff - ) A gold coin formerly current in Egypt and Turkey, of the value of about 9s
Anamim - (an' uh mihm) A tribe or nation called “son of Egypt” in Genesis 10:13
Lib'ya - This name occurs only in (Acts 2:10 ) It is applied by the Greek and Roman writers to the African continent, generally, however, excluding Egypt
Nile - The celebrated river of Egypt. About thirteen hundred miles form the sea it receives its last branch, the Tacazze, a large stream from Abyssinia, and having passed through Nubia, it enters Egypt at the cataracts near Syene, or Essuan, which are formed by a chain of rocks stretching east and west. There are here three falls; after which the river pursues its course in still and silent majesty through the whole length of the land of Egypt. In Lower Egypt it divides into several branches and forms the celebrated Delta; for which see under Egypt . ...
As rain very seldom falls, even in winter, in Southern Egypt, and usually only slight and infrequent showers in Lower Egypt, the whole physical and political existence of Egypt may be said to depend on the Nile; since without this river, and even without its regular annual inundation's, the whole land would be but a desert. The river begins to rise in Egypt about the middle of June, and continues to increase through the month of July. From the middle of August till towards the end of October, the whole land of Egypt resembles a great lake or sea, in which the towns and cities appear as islands. ...
The cause of the fertility which the Nile imparts lies not only in its thus watering the land, but also in the thick slimy mud which its waters bring down along with them and deposit on the soil of Egypt. See Egypt . Niebuhr justly remarks, "Some descriptions of Egypt would lead us to think that the Nile, when it swells, lays the whole province under water. " In order to raise the water to grounds, which lie higher, machines have been used in Egypt from times immemorial. If it fell short of this height and in proportion as it thus fell short, the land was threatened with want and famine of which many horrible examples occur in Egyptian history. The annual rise of the river also varies exceedingly in different parts of its course, being twenty feet greater where the river is narrow than in Lower Egypt. The drying up of the waters of Egypt would involve its destruction as a habitable land to the destruction as a habitable land to the same extent; and this fact is recognized in the prophetic denunciations of this remarkable country, Isaiah 11:15 19:1-10 Ezekiel 29:10 30:12 . The Egyptians are full of its praises, and even worshipped the river as a god. In this they are borne out by Arabic writers, and also by the common people of Egypt, who to this day commonly speak of the Nile as "the sea. See Egypt , and SIHOR
Sye'ne, - properly Seventh a town of Egypt, on the frontier of Cush or Ethiopia, (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ) represented by the present Aruan or Es-Suan
Barbary - ) The countries on the north coast of Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic
Raamses - One of the cities built by the children of Israel in Egypt for Pharaoh
Cucumber, - Probably the water melon, common in Egypt and highly valued in that hot country: the Israelites longed for them
Zilla - ) A low, thorny, suffrutescent, crucifeous plant (Zilla myagroides) found in the deserts of Egypt
Libyan - ) Of or pertaining to Libya, the ancient name of that part of Africa between Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean, or of Africa as a whole
Harness - The Hebrews went out from Egypt "harnessed," that is, properly equipped or arranged
Noph - The Hebrew name of an Egyptian city (Isaiah 19:13 ; (Isaiah 44:1 ; 46:14,19 ; Ezekiel 30:13,16 ). It was one of the most ancient and important cities of Egypt, and stood a little to the south of the modern Cairo, on the western bank of the Nile. It was the capital of Lower Egypt
Migdol -
A strongly-fortified place 12 miles from Pelusium, in the north of Egypt (Jeremiah 44:1 ; 46:14 ). , from Migdol in the north to Syene in the south, in other words, the whole of Egypt
Mizraim - (mihz' ray ihm) Hebrew word for Egypt (Genesis 12:10 ; Genesis 13:10 ; Genesis 25:18 ). See Egypt
Shishak - King of Egypt, to whom Jeroboam fled for protection from Solomon. See Egypt
Ages of the World - ...
YEARS...
* The first, from the creation to the flood containing a period of 1656...
* The second, from Noah to Abraham 425...
* The third, from Abraham to the going forth of Israel from Egypt 430...
* The fourth, from the departure from Egypt to Solomon's temple 479...
* The fifth from Solomon's in the captivity in Babylon 424...
* The sixth, from the going into Babylon to the coming of Christ 584...
Pharaoh - a common name of the kings of Egypt. Josephus says, that all the kings of Egypt, from Minaeus, the founder of Memphis, who lived several ages before Abraham, always had the name of Pharaoh, down to the time of Solomon, for more than three thousand three hundred years. He adds, that, in the Egyptian language, the word Pharaoh means king, and that these princes did not assume the name until they ascended the throne, at which time they quitted their former name
Exodus - from εξ , out, and οδος , a way, the name of the second book of Moses, and is so called in the Greek version because it relates to the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt. It comprehends the history of about a hundred and forty-five years; and the principal events contained in it are, the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt, and their miraculous deliverance by the hand of Moses; their entrance into the wilderness of Sinai; the promulgation of the law, and the building of the tabernacle
Phut, Put - The few mentions of Phut in the Bible clearly indicate a country or people of Africa, and, it must be added, probably not far from Egypt. Poole, with Nubia, south of Egypt
Coffin - Genesis 50:26 only (of the disposal of Joseph’s body in Egypt)
Sirdar - ) In Turkey, Egypt, etc. the one commanding the Anglo-Egyptian army
Sakiyeh - ) A kind of water wheel used in Egypt for raising water, from wells or pits, in buckets attached to its periphery or to an endless rope
Amalek - Legendary foe of the Jewish people; the first nation to attack the Jewish people after the exodus from Egypt
Pond - The ponds of Egypt, (Exodus 7:19 ; 13:5 ) were doubtless water left by the inundation of the Nile
Joseph - Taken into Egypt, he was kindly treated and became the personal attendant of his Egyptian master, Putiphar, eunuch of Pharao (Genesis 39). His skill in interpreting dreams brought him to the notice of Pharao who made him keeper of the royal seal and second in power in Egypt. During the famine predicted by him his brothers came from Chanaan to buy grain in Egypt and failed to recognize him
Exodus, Book of - It contains, ...
An account of the increase and growth of the Israelites in Egypt (ch. 1) ...
Preparations for their departure out of Egypt ((2-12:36). ...
Their journeyings from Egypt to Sinai ((12:37-19:2)
Tirhakah - TIRHAKAH , king of Cush ( 2 Kings 19:9 , Isaiah 37:9 ), marched out from Egypt against Sennacherib shortly before the mysterious destruction of the Assyrian army│(? b. , and reigned as king of Ethiopia and Egypt from about b. 691 665; towards the end of his reign (670 665) until his death he was engaged in constant struggles with the Assyrians, who endeavoured to establish their power in Egypt by means of the native princes as against the Ethiopian
Memphis - ” An ancient capital of Egypt located just south of modern Cairo on the west bank of the Nile River. ) and became the capital of Egypt as the Third Dynasty came to power (about 2686 B. For over 300 years Memphis was the principal city of Egypt
Zoan - of Lower Egypt (Egyp. It is now San el-Hagar, one of the most important of the ancient sites in Lower Egypt, with ruins of a great temple. Zoan is not mentioned in Genesis, but elsewhere ( Psalms 78:13 ; Psalms 78:43 , Isaiah 19:11 ; Isaiah 19:13 , 30, Ezekiel 30:14 ) it appears as almost or quite the capital of Egypt, perhaps as being the royal city nearest to the frontier
Fly - , the insects of one of the plagues of Egypt, thought by some to have been cockroaches. , swarm in Palestine and Egypt. Mosquitoes, which may have been included in the ‘arôb (the ‘swarms of flies’) in Egypt, are now known to be the carriers of the poison of malaria, the greatest scourge of parts of Palestine
Ham - Mizraim and Phut, in their descendants, were mainly connected with Egypt. The dwelling place of the above in Egypt was mostly designated 'the land of Ham. Some suppose these to have been a colony from Egypt; others judge them to have been Canaanitish nomads
Jehoahaz - Josiah having been wounded mortally by Necho, king of Egypt, and dying of his wounds at Megiddo, Jehoahaz was made king in his room, though he was not Josiah's eldest son, 2 Kings 23:30-32 . He was in all probability thought fitter than any of his brethren to make head against the king of Egypt. King Necho, at his return from the expedition against Carchemish, provoked at the people of Judah for having placed this prince upon the throne without his consent, sent for him to Riblah, in Syria, divested him of the kingdom, loaded him with chains, and sent him into Egypt, where he died, Jeremiah 22:11-12
Libya - A country in the north of Africa, stretching along on the Mediterranean between Egypt and Carthage, and running back somewhat into the interior. The part adjoining Egypt was sometimes called Libya Marmarica; and that around Cyrene, Cyrenaica, from its chief city; or Pentapolitana, from its chief city; or Pentapolitana, from its five cities, Cyrene, Apollonia, Berenice, Arsinoe, and Ptolemais. Libya received its name from the Lehabim of Lubim, Genesis 10:13 ; a warlike people, who assisted Shishak king of Egypt, and Zerah the Ethiopian, in their wars against Judea, 2 Chronicles 12:3 14:9 16:8 Daniel 11:43
Famine - The most remarkable one was that of seven years in Egypt, while Joseph was governor, Genesis 41:1-57 . It was distinguished for its duration, extent, and severity; particularly as Egypt is one of the countries least subject to such a calamity, by reason of its general fertility. Famine is sometimes a natural effect, as when the Nile does not overflow in Egypt, or rains do not fall in Judea, at the customary season; or when caterpillars, locusts, or other insects, destroy the fruits
Egypt, Plagues of - Ten calamities sent by God to the Egyptians to overcome the obstinacy of Pharao, and consequently to force him to let the children of Israel leave Egypt (Exodus 7,12). They are: ...
the water of the river and all the canals and pools of Egypt was turned into blood and became so corrupted that the Egyptians could not drink it, and the fish in the waters perished
an immense number of frogs, which caused great discomfort
swarms of gnats which tormented men and beasts
pest of flies
murrain or cattle-pest which killed only the cattle of the Egyptians
epidemic of boils on man and beast
hailstorm which wrought terrific havoc
plague of locusts
the horrible darkness which covered the earth for three days
the destruction of all the first- born of Egypt on one night
Coffin - Being made in Egypt and for an embalmed body, Joseph's coffin doubtless resembled the ancient mummy cases
Melchite - ) One of a sect, chiefly in Syria and Egypt, which acknowledges the authority of the pope, but adheres to the liturgy and ceremonies of the Eastern Church
Osprey - It is thought to be the sea eagle, or the black eagle of Egypt
Ark of Moses - A small boat or basket made of the papyrus, a reed which grows in the marshes of Egypt
Israel in Egypt - The details of the history of Israel in Egypt are few. Through God's intervention and after dire judgements upon the Egyptians, the Israelites were delivered. See Egypt and JOSEPH...
A question not easily answered is, How long were the Israelites in Egypt? In Genesis 15:13 ; Acts 7:6 , the period seems to be stated as four hundred years. Exodus 12:40 says "the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years;" and Galatians 3:17 declares that the law was given four hundred and thirty years after the promise to Abraham. The promise to Abraham was long before Israel went into Egypt, and the law was given after they came out; so that according to this passage their sojourning in Egypt must have been much less than four hundred years. A much shorter period is implied in Genesis 15:16 , which says of Israel in Egypt that "in the fourth generation they shall come hither again;" and if we turn to Exodus 6:16-20 we find exactly four generations, thus:...
Jacob's son Levi. Levi lived only a hundred and thirty-seven years in all, and supposing (it can be approximately proved) that he lived in Egypt eighty-eight years, Jochebed was born during those years. If Moses was born when she was forty-seven years of age, and Moses was eighty years old at the Exodus, these sums (88 + 47 + 80 = 215 years) show that Israel may have been in Egypt about two hundred and fifteen years, and this is the period now generally supposed. ...
Age of Abraham when Isaac was born 100...
" " Abraham, when the promise was given 75...
25...
" " Israel when Jacob was born 60...
" " Jacob when he stood before Pharaoh 130...
" " Sojourn of Israel in Egypt 215...
430...
If then this be the correct period, how does it agree with Genesis 15:13 and Exodus 12:40 ? In Genesis 15:13 and Acts 7:6 , nothing is said about Egypt : "Thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs. Exodus 12:40 is worded differently: "The sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. '...
The conclusion that the sojourn in Egypt was really for two hundred and fifteen years creates another difficulty in some minds, namely, the great increase of the Israelites during that period. Is this a greater number than could be the descendants of those who entered Egypt? This may be reckoned in two ways: if we deduct thirteen from the seventy (for the family of Levi and for those who could not be called heads of families at that time) Deuteronomy 10:22 , the result gives fifty-seven heads of families; and if each had 14 children,...
In one generation there would be 798...
In the second 11,172...
In the third 156,408...
In the fourth 2,189,712...
To reckon fourteen children to each may seem a large number, but it must be remembered that there was the plurality of wives, and scripture speaks of their multiplying exceedingly. ...
Israel in Egypt is typical of mankind in the world, under the power of Satan, before being sheltered under the blood of Christ, and redeemed by the power of God
Atad - A Canaanite, at whose threshing-floor a solemn mourning was held over the remains of Jacob, on their way from Egypt to Hebron, Genesis 50:10,11
Hieracites - Heretics in the third century; so called from their leader Hierax, a philosopher, of Egypt, who taught that Melchisedec was the Holy Ghost; denied the resurrection and condemned marriage
Melons - Melons of all kinds have ever been largely cultivated in Egypt, and in summer often form the chief food and drink of the lower classes
Feast of Azymes - Jewish feast, commemorating Israel's deliverance from Egypt
Ludim - They are associated (Jeremiah 46:9 ) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt
Onan - He died before the going down of Jacob and his family into Egypt
Doom Palm - A species of palm tree (Hyphaene Thebaica), highly valued for the fibrous pulp of its fruit, which has the flavor of gingerbread, and is largely eaten in Egypt and Abyssinia
Serbonian - ) Relating to the lake of Serbonis in Egypt, which by reason of the sand blowing into it had a deceptive appearance of being solid land, but was a bog
Copts - ) An Egyptian race thought to be descendants of the ancient Egyptians. ) The principal sect of Christians in Egypt and the valley of the Nile
Saury - Called also billfish, gowdnook, gawnook, skipper, skipjack, skopster, lizard fish, and Egypt herring
ha'Nes - a place in Egypt mentioned only in (Isaiah 30:4 ) We think that the Chald Paraphr
Rehoboth - ’ ‘The River’ here may not be, as usually, the Euphrates, but the ‘River of Egypt’ (see Egypt [1])
Gera - descendant, of Benjamin; enumerated in the list when Jacob went into Egypt (Genesis 46:21); son of Bela (1 Chronicles 8:3, where probably but one Gera is genuine); in the loins of his grandfather Benjamin then, but not actually born until after the going to Egypt and before Jacob's death
Joseph - He landed in Egypt, where, after enduring slavery and prison, he interpreted Pharaoh’s puzzling dreams and became viceroy of the land. During the famine that followed he brought his family down to Egypt, setting the stage for their slavery and ultimately their Exodus
Caphtor - The name is found written in hieroglyphics in the temple of Kom Ombos in Upper Egypt. It may, however, have been a part of Egypt, the Caphtur in the north Delta, since the Caphtorim were of the same race as the Mizraite people (Genesis 10:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:12 )
Lentiles - An illustration of this is furnished in the tomb-paintings of Egypt, where there is a representation of a man cooking lentiles for soup or porridge. Mixed with barley they are said to be frequently so used in the southern parts of Egypt
Rehoboam - Within five years of Rehoboam's accession to the throne, the kingdom of Judah was invaded by Shishak, king of Egypt, who desolated the country, and made it tributary to Egypt, and Shishak's victory is noted in the great temple at Karnak
Syene - A city on the southern frontiers of Egypt, towards Ethiopia, between Thebes and the cataracts of the Nile, and now called Assouan. "From Migdol," the tower, "unto Syene," denotes the whole length of Egypt from north to south, Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 . In its vicinity are quarries of the Egyptian granite called Syenite, which furnished the material for numerous obelisks and colossal statues
Pithom - One of the ‘treasure cities’ built by the Israelites in Egypt ( Exodus 1:11 etc. It is the Egyptian Petôm (‘House of Etôm’), the site of which is now marked by Tell el-Maskhuta in the Wady Tumilat. It was capital of the 8th nome of Lower Egypt, and in it was worshipped a form of the sun-god under the name of Etôm
lu'Bim - (dwellers in a thirsty land ),a nation mentioned as contributing, together with Cushites and Sukkiim, to Shishak's army, ( 2 Chronicles 12:3 ) and apparently as forming with Cushites the bulk of Zerah's army, (2 Chronicles 16:8 ) spoken of by Nahum, (Nahum 3:9 ) with Put or Phut, as helping No-amon (Thebes), of which Cush and Egypt were the strength. Upon the Egyptian monuments we find representations of a people called Rebu or Lebu, who correspond to the Lubim, and who may be placed on the African coast to the westward of Egypt, perhaps extending far beyond the Cyrenaica
Path'Ros - (region of the south ), a part of Egypt, and a Mizraite tribe whose people were called Pathrusim. (Ezekiel 29:14 ; 30:13-18 ) It was probably part or all of upper Egypt, and we may trace its name in the Pathyrite name, in which Thebes was situated
Chub - Ptolemy (4:2, 5, 9) mentions a Chob-at in Mauritania, and a Chob-ion in the Mareotic nome in Egypt
Passover - (a) The seven-day festival (eight in the Diaspora) beginning on 15 Nissan, commemorating the Exodus from Egypt; (b) the sacrifice offered on the eve of that holiday during Temple times
Anamim - A people, not yet identified, named in Genesis 10:13 ( 1 Chronicles 1:11 ) among the descendants of Mizraim, and therefore to be found somewhere in Egypt
Shur - Outside the eastern border of Egypt. She was probably making for her country Egypt by the inland caravan route, the way by Star over jebel er Rahah as distinguished from the coast road by el Arish. of) Egypt. frontier of Egypt and Palestine, Shur being derived from the Egyptian Κhar (occurring in a papyrus of the 19th dynasty), Κh and Sh being interchanged
Phut - It is generally connected with Egypt and Ethiopia; in Genesis the order is, from the S. advancing northwards, Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim, Phut (a dependency of Egypt), Canaan (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5; Nahum 3:9; Isaiah 66:9 where "Phut" should be read for "Pul"). ...
The people of Phut dwelt close to Egypt and Ethiopia,and served in Egypt's armies with shield and bow. The Egyptian monuments mention a people, "Pet," whose emblem was the unstrung bow, and who dwelt in what is now Nubia, between Egypt and Ethiopia
Memphis - The Hebrew of this is Moph, Hosea 9:6 , and is judged to be the capital of lower or northern Egypt. ...
Memphis was one of the earliest cities of Egypt, and was in the district where some of the largest works were raised. Its downfall was predicted by Ezekiel, "Thus saith the Lord God: I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause their images to cease out of Noph; and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt. 526 that Cambyses conquered Egypt
Noph - Sometimes called also, in Hebrew, MOPH, Hosea 9:6 , the ancient city of Memphis in Egypt. ...
Memphis was the residence of the ancient kings of Egypt till the times of the Ptolemies, who commonly resided at Alexandria. The prophets, in the places above referred to, foretell the miseries Memphis was to suffer from the kings of Chaldea and Persia; and threaten the Israelites who should retire into Egypt, or should have recourse to the Egyptians, that they should perish in that country. 641; after which it was superseded as the metropolis of Egypt by Fostat, now Old Cairo, in the construction of which its materials were employed
Hophra - , PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian Herodotus) king of Egypt (B
Libya - The country of the Ludim (Genesis 10:13 ), Northern Africa, a large tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt (Acts 2:10 )
Balm of Gilead - Exported from Gilead to Egypt and Phoenicia (Genesis 37:25 ; Ezekiel 27:17 )
Casluhim - Their original seat was probably somewhere in Lower Egypt, along the sea-coast to the south border of Palestine
Jerboa - Aegyptius, which is common in Egypt and the adjacent countries
Necho - We read of Pharaoh Neeho, king of Egypt, 2 Kings 23:29
Charmers - Psalm 58:4,5 ; Ecclesiastes 10:11 ; Jeremiah 8:17 , persons very common throughout India and Egypt, who claim to have the faculty of catching, taming, and controlling serpents, even the most venomous
Ethio'Pia - The country which the Greeks and Romans described as "AEthiopia" and the Hebrews as "Cush" lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia , and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. ( Ezekiel 29:10 ) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt
Hanes - Some would place it in Lower Egypt, with Anysis in Herodotus, and Khininshi in the annals of Ashurbanipal; but there can be little doubt that it is the Egyptian Hnçs (Heracleopolis Magna) on the west side of the Nile, just south of the Fayyum. 715 600) the standard silver of Egypt was specifically that of the treasury of Harshafe, the ram-headed god of Hnçs, and during the long reign of Psammetichus i. 660 610) Hnçs was the centre of government for the whole of Upper Egypt
Onions - ]'>[1] basal ) is and always has been a prime favourite in Palestine and Egypt
Enchoric - ) Belonging to, or used in, a country; native; domestic; popular; common; - said especially of the written characters employed by the common people of ancient Egypt, in distinction from the hieroglyphics
Exode - , the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
Pul - (lord ), a country or nation mentioned in ( Isaiah 66:19 ) It is spoken of with distant nations, and is supposed by some to represent the island Philae in Egypt, and by others Libya
Pul - (lord ), a country or nation mentioned in ( Isaiah 66:19 ) It is spoken of with distant nations, and is supposed by some to represent the island Philae in Egypt, and by others Libya
e'Gypt - It is divided into upper Egypt --the valley of the Nile --and lower Egypt, the plain of the Delta, from the Greek letter; it is formed by the branching mouths of the Nile, and the Mediterranean Sea. The Delta extends about 200 miles along the Mediterranean, and Egypt Isaiah 520 miles long from north to south from the sea to the First Cataract. --The common name of Egypt in the Bible is "Mizraim. The Arabic name of Egypt --Mizr -- signifies "red mud. " Egypt is also called in the Bible "the land of Ham," ( Psalm 105:23,27 ) comp. The common ancient Egyptian name of the country is written in hieroglyphics Kem, which was perhaps pronounced Chem. We may reasonably conjecture that Kem is the Egyptian equivalent of Ham. The rise begins in Egypt about the summer solstice, and the inundation commences about two months later
Ham - The Egyptian. ) (Egypt is singularly the land of Ham, Psalms 78:51; Psalms 105:23), "black"; the sun-burnt and those whose soil is black, as Ethiopia means. ancestor) of Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim (See Egypt), Phut (Libya), and Canaan. Egypt being the first civilized was singled out as the chief country of Hamite settlements. ) Solid grandeur characterizes the Hamitic architecture, as in the earliest of Egypt, Babylonia, and S. ...
Egypt, fenced on the N. Perhaps an Egyptian settlement, Egypt being closely connected with this southern part of Palestine
Egypt - ...
Revelation 11:8 (a) Because Jerusalem was given up to business pursuits, idolatry and pleasure, it is compared to Egypt
Hazarsusah, or Hazarsusim - The names signify 'village of horses,' and it may have been a depot for horses from Egypt
Jannes - and JAMBRES, or, as Pliny calls them, Jamne and Jotape, two magicians, who resisted Moses in Egypt, 2 Timothy 3:8 . whom the Egyptians considered as one of their most celebrated sages. They are called by several names in several translations; by the Septuagint, φαρμακι , poisoners, and επαοιδοι , enchanters; by Sulpitius Severus, Chaldaeans, that is, astrologers; by others, sapientes and malefici, wise men, that is, so esteemed among the Egyptians, philosophers, and witches. Artapanus tells us, that Pharaoh sent for magicians from Upper Egypt to oppose Moses. Jerom translates their names Johannes and Mambres; and there is a tradition, they say, in the Talmud, that Juhanni and Mamre, chief of Pharaoh's physicians, said to Moses, "Thou bringest straw into Egypt, where abundance of corn grew;" that is, to bring your magical arts hither is to as much purpose as to bring water to the Nile. Some will have it that they fled away with their father; others, that they were drowned in the Red Sea with the Egyptians; others, that they were killed by Phinehas in the war against the Midianites. Numenius, cited by Aristobulus, says that Jannes and Jambres were sacred tribes of the Egyptians, who excelled in magic at the time when the Jews were driven out of Egypt. See PLAGUES OF Egypt
Famine - Egypt, again, owes all its fertility to its mighty river, whose annual rise inundates nearly the whole land. The causes of dearth and famine in Egypt are defective inundation, preceded, accompanied and followed by prevalent easterly and southerly winds. We hear no more of times of scarcity until the great famine of Egypt, which "was over all the face of the earth. " (Genesis 41:53-57 ) The modern history of Egypt throws some curious light on these ancient records of famines; and instances of their recurrence may be cited to assist us in understanding their course and extent. The most remarkable famine was that of the reign of the Fatimee Khaleefeh, El-Mustansir billah, which is the only instance on record of one of seven years duration in Egypt since the time of Joseph (A
Sin, Wilderness of - A region on the route of the Hebrews from Egypt to Mt. Sinai must be located somewhere in the Negeb, the wilderness of Sin was on the more direct route from Egypt to Kadesh, near to if not identical with the desert of Zin ( Numbers 13:21 ; Numbers 20:1 ; Numbers 27:14 ; Numbers 33:36 ; Numbers 34:3 , Deuteronomy 32:51 , Joshua 15:1-3 )
Reuben - It was he also who pledged his life and the life of his sons when Jacob was unwilling to let Benjamin go down into Egypt. After Jacob and his family went down into Egypt (46:8) no further mention is made of Reuben beyond what is recorded in ch 49:3,4
Lubim - These were a very ancient people living west of Egypt, who were subdued by the Egyptians at an early date and long furnished mercenary soldiers to their armies. At length they invaded Egypt, subdued it in the 10th cent
Shur - (a wall ), a place just without the eastern border of Egypt. (Numbers 33:8 ) Shur may have been a territory town east of the ancient head of the Red Sea; and from its being spoken of as a limit, it was probably the last Arabian town before entering Egypt
Window - " Glass has been introduced into Egypt in modern times as a protection against the cold of winter, but lattice-work is still the usual, and with the poor the only, contrivance for closing the window. In Egypt these outer windows generally project over the doorway
Nut - Sent as a present to Joseph in Egypt from Jacob in Canaan (Genesis 43:11). As the pistachio did not grow in Egypt, it would be especially acceptable
East Wind - wind (chamsin ) is what is most hurtful in Egypt to animals and vegetation. While it lasts doors and windows are shut; but the fine dust penetrates everywhere, wooden vessels warp and crack, the thermometer suddenly rises, the grass withers (Ukert in Hengstenberg on Egypt and the Books of Moses)
Shishak - (sshi' sshak) Egyptian royal name of unknown meaning. A pharaoh of Egypt known also as Sheshonk I. See Egypt
Pihahiroth - At this place the Egyptians had a migdol or tower, and one of their dunghill gods, called Baal-Zephon, had a temple here, as if to watch that no runaway servant or slave might escape from Egypt; at least, it was intended to act as a bugbear to deliver the fugitive. What a contempt did the Lord throw upon the idols of Egypt, in making this the memorable spot to deliver Israel
Zoan - City in Lower Egypt, built seven years after Hebron. It was the capital of the Hyksos or shepherd kings of Egypt
Migdol - A tower remarable in Israel's history, to which they arrived soon after their leaving Egypt. (Exodus 14:2) Here it was Israel was commanded to encamp before the sea, where the Lord meant to display such a miracle in opening a way through it for Israel's safety, and the Egyptians, overthrow. And as this was at the very mouth of the sea, namely, Pihahiroth, which signifies the opening of the Foramen, and where Baalzephon, the dunghill god of Egypt, was supposed to watch to catch runaway servants, the Lord here made the triumph more conspicuous in sight of his enemies
Phut - Calmet is of opinion that Phut, the third son of Ham, peopled either the canton of Phtemphu, Phtemphti, Phtembuti, of Pliny and Ptolemy, whose capital was Thara, in Lower Egypt, inclining toward Libya; or the canton called Phtenotes, of which Buthas was the capital. In the time of Jeremiah, Jeremiah 46:9 , Phut was under the obedience of Necho, king of Egypt
Mig'Dol - (tower ), the name of one of two places on the eastern frontier of Egypt. (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ) In the prophecy of Jeremiah the Jews in Egypt are spoken of as dwelling at Migdol
Egypt - ...
Geography Egypt lies at the northeastern corner of Africa, separated from Palestine by the Sinai Wilderness. In contrast to the modern nation, ancient Egypt was confined to the Nile River valley, a long, narrow ribbon of fertile land (the “black land”) surrounded by uninhabitable desert (the “red land”). Egypt proper, from the first cataract of the Nile to the Mediterranean, is some 750 miles long. ...
Classical historians remarked that Egypt was a gift of the Nile. ...
Despite the unifying nature of the Nile, the “Two Lands” of Egypt were quite distinct. Upper Egypt is the arable Nile Valley from the First Cataract to just south of Memphis in the north. Lower Egypt refers to the broad Delta of the Nile in the north, formed from alluvial deposits. Egypt was relatively isolated by a series of six Nile cataracts on the south and protected on the east and west by the desert. The Delta was the entryway to Egypt for travelers coming from the Fertile Crescent across the Sinai. ...
History The numerous Egyptian pharaohs were divided by the ancient historian Manetho into thirty dynasties. Despite certain difficulties, Manetho's scheme is still used and provides a framework for a review of Egyptian history. ...
The unification of originally separate kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt about 3100 B. Egypt's first period of glory, the Third through Sixth Dynasties of the Old Kingdom (2700-2200 B. Following a civil war, the Eleventh Dynasty reunited Egypt and began the Middle Kingdom (2040-1786 B. Under the able pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty, Egypt prospered and conducted extensive trade. From the Middle Kingdom onward, Egyptian history is contemporary with biblical events. Abraham's brief sojourn in Egypt (Genesis 12:10-20 ) during this period may be understood in light of a tomb painting at Beni Hasan showing visiting Asiatics in Egypt about 1900 B. ...
Under the weak Thirteenth Dynasty, Egypt entered another period of division. Asiatics, mostly Semites like the Hebrews, migrated into the Delta region of Egypt and began to establish independent enclaves, eventually consolidating rule over Lower Egypt. These pharaohs, being Asiatics rather than native Egyptians, were remembered as Hyksos, or “rulers of foreign lands. ” This period, in which Egypt was divided between Hyksos (Fifteenth and Sixteenth) and native Egyptian (Thirteenth and Seventeenth) dynasties, is known as the Second Intermediate or Hyksos Period (1786-1550 B. ...
The Hyksos were expelled and Egypt reunited about 1550 B. by Ahmose I, who established the Eighteenth Dynasty and inaugurated the Egyptian New Kingdom. ) ruled over a magnificent empire in peace—thanks to a treaty with Mitanni—and devoted his energies to building projects in Egypt itself. Documents from Akhetaton, the Amarna Letters, represent diplomatic correspondence between local rulers in Egypt's sphere of influence and pharaoh's court. ) reestablished Egyptian control in Canaan and campaigned against the Hittites, who had taken Egyptian territory in North Syria during the Amarna Age. At home he embarked on the most massive building program of any Egyptian ruler. It includes the first extra-biblical mention of Israel and the only one in known Egyptian literature. ...
Egypt had a brief period of renewed glory under Ramses III (1195-1164 B. ) saw Egypt divided and invaded, but with occasional moments of greatness. ), the Shishak of the Bible, who briefly united Egypt and made a successful campaign against the newly-divided nations Judah and Israel (1 Kings 14:25 ; 2 Chronicles 12:1 ). Thereafter, Egypt was divided between the Twenty-second through Twenty-fifth Dynasties. The “So king of Egypt” (2 Kings 17:4 ) who encouraged the treachery of Hoshea, certainly belongs to this confused period, but he cannot be identified with certainty. Egypt was reunited in 715 B. , when the Ethiopian Twenty-fifth Dynasty succeeded in establishing control over all of Egypt. ...
Assyria invaded Egypt in 671 B. Under loose Assyrian sponsorship, the Twenty-sixth Dynasty controlled all of Egypt from Sais in the western Delta. Despite these setbacks, the Twenty-sixth Dynasty was a period of Egyptian renaissance until the Persian conquest in 525 B. Persian rule (Twenty-seventh Dynasty) was interrupted by a period of Egyptian independence under the Twenty-eighth through Thirtieth Dynasties (404-343 B. , pharaonic Egypt had come to an end. ...
Alexander the Great took Egypt from the Persians in 332 B. , Egypt was home to the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Empire until the time of Cleopatra, when it fell to the Romans (30 B. During the New Testament period, Egypt, under direct rule of the Roman emperors, was the breadbasket of Rome. ...
Religion Egyptian religion is extremely complex and not totally understood. Many of the great number of gods were personifications of the enduring natural forces in Egypt, such as the sun, Nile, air, earth, and so on. ...
The consistent provision of the Nile gave Egyptians, in contrast to Mesopotamians, a generally optimistic outlook on life. This indicates some concept of sin, but the afterlife for the Egyptian was not an offer from a gracious god, but merely an optimistic hope based on observation of his surroundings. ...
The Bible mentions no Egyptian gods, and Egyptian religion did not significantly influence the Hebrews. There are some interesting parallels between biblical texts and Egyptian literature. More striking parallels are found in wisdom literature, as between Proverbs 22:1 and the Egyptian Instruction of Amen-em-ope
Tahpenes - (tah' puh neez) Egyptian royal consort; title for queen of Egypt in 1 Kings 11:19-20
Ezer - Son of Ephraim, slain by the ancient men of Gath in a foray on their cattle (1 Chronicles 7:21), during Israel's stay in Egypt
Zaph(e)Nath-p(a)Aneah - ” Pharaoh's name for Joseph when he made Joseph second only to himself in Egypt (Genesis 41:45 )
Thebaic - ) Of or pertaining to Thebes in Egypt; specifically, designating a version of the Bible preserved by the Copts, and esteemed of great value by biblical scholars
az'Mon - (strong ), a place named as being on the southern boundary of the Holy Land, apparently near the torrent of Egypt ( Wadi el-Arish )
Joseph the Son of Jacob - It recounts the events that led to their migration to Egypt and their subsequent growth and development. Although, after Joseph’s death, they suffered a period of slavery, in due course they left Egypt and took possession of Canaan (cf. ...
From Canaan to Egypt...
Joseph was Jacob’s eleventh son but, being Rachel’s firstborn, he soon became Jacob’s favourite (Genesis 30:22-24; Genesis 33:1-7). They sold him to traders who took him to Egypt, though they told their father that a wild animal had killed him (Genesis 37). The king was so impressed that he made Joseph the administrator of the famine relief program, and then governor of all Egypt (Genesis 41:1-45; Acts 7:9-10). ...
Governor of Egypt...
At the time of his appointment as governor, Joseph was thirty years of age (Genesis 49:22-268). He married an Egyptian and they produced two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim (Genesis 41:47-52). ...
Egypt alone had made preparations for the famine, with the result that people came from everywhere to buy food. He then sent wagons to Canaan to bring Jacob and all his family to Egypt (Genesis 45; Genesis 46; Acts 7:11-14). There, separated from the Egyptians, they could multiply and develop without their culture or religion being corrupted by the Egyptians (Genesis 47:1-12). Meanwhile Joseph continued as governor, and his economic policies saved Egypt from disaster (Genesis 47:13-26). ...
Joseph lived over ninety years in Egypt, but he still believed that Canaan was the land his people would one day possess
Casluh - (cass' luh), CASLUHIM (cass' lyoo hihm), CASLUHITES (cass' lyoo hitess) Clan name of “sons of Mizraim (or Egypt)” and “father” of the Philistines in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10:14 )
Shur - Wilderness towards the north east of Egypt; its situation is clearly shown in the various passages
Memphis - A city of Egypt, the residence of the ancient kings
Nile - The great river of Egypt and of Africa, its entire length being about 4000 miles. margin, "Nile," Genesis 41:1; Exodus 1:22; Exodus 2:3; Exodus 2:5, and the "flood of Egypt," R. , "River of Egypt," Amos 8:8; Amos 9:5. This famous river is connected with the earliest history of the Egyptian and the Israelitish nations. The Nile is not named in the New Testament As rain seldom falls in Egypt proper, the fertility of the country is entirely dependent upon the annual rise of the Nile. Formerly this annual inundation turned Egypt into a vast lake, but in later times the water has been distributed by a great network of canals, from which the huge basins of cultivated land into which the canals divide the country, are supplied with water of the depth required to leave a deposit of mud to fertilize the land. Both these methods are believed to be very ancient, and may be alluded to by Moses in contrasting the fountains and rainfalls in Palestine with the absence of this supply in Egypt: "For the land, whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot as a garden of herbs. The ancient Egyptians worshipped the river Nile as a god. Two of the ten plagues sent upon Pharaoh and Egypt before the departure of the Israelites were turning the water of the Nile into blood and bringing forth frogs from the river
Naphtali - When Jacob went down into Egypt, Naphtali had four sons (Genesis 46:24 )
Re - The chief Egyptian god, worshiped at his Temple in Thebes, credited with creating the universe and believed to have been the first pharaoh. See Egypt ; Gods, Pagan
Mameluke - ) One of a body of mounted soldiers recruited from slaves converted to Mohammedanism, who, during several centuries, had more or less control of the government of Egypt, until exterminated or dispersed by Mehemet Ali in 1811
Serah - A daughter of Asher, thrice named among those who migrated to Egypt, Genesis 46:17 ; Numbers 26:46 ; 1 Chronicles 7:30
Caph'Tor, Caph'Torim - (2:23) Supposed to be in Egypt, or near to it in Africa
Charoset - (from the Hebrew "cheres-clay"); a paste similar to clay reminiscent of the clay the Jews used while enslaved in Egypt, made of apples, nuts and wine, into which the maror is dipped at the Passover seder ...
Bible, Egypt in the - In Semitic languages Egypt was known under the names of Musr, Misr, Misri, the Hebrew form being Misraim, of which the termination is regarded by some as the regular dual ending used to designate at the same time both parts, Upper and Lower, of the country. Genesis 10 is commonly understood to enumerate the various peoples which made up the population of Egypt: Ludim, Anamim, Laabim, Nepthuim, Phetrusim, Chasluim, and Capthorim. The Anamim (Anu of the Egyptian texts) appear to be the remnant of early settlers who, driven back by newcomers, roamed in the desert above the second cataract; the Phetrusim (southerners) inhabited the neighborhood of Thebes; the Capthorim and Chasluim are late invaders established on the Mediterranean shore. Egypt first appears in the Bible as a land of plenty, whither Abraham resorts at a time of famine (Genesis 12), and whither Jacob, in similar circumstances, sends his sons for buying wheat (Genesis 37-50). The disaster which overcame Pharao's army at the Red Sea apparently affected only a relatively small corps of Egyptian troops; texts need not be pressed to mean the whole military force of Egypt. ...
For many centuries decadent Egypt claimed possession of Palestine. , 16); its capture, in the beginning of the reign of Solomon, by Psibkhannu II, whose daughter became Solomon's wife, brings back the Egyptians into direct contact with Israel. With the latter he maintained friendly commercial relations (3Kings 10); yet the Egyptian ruler had given shelter and a bride of the blood royal to the young Edomite prince, Adad, and did not discountenance the latter's attempt to wrest his kingdom from Solomon's hand (3Kings 11). To Psibkhannu's successor, Sheshenk I (Sesac of the Bible), the first Egyptian king whose proper name is given in Scripture (Pharao, Egypt. , 14, was an Egyptian king (Osorkon I or Osorkon II) is still a moot question. ...
Save for an obscure allusion to an alliance between Joram, king of Israel (851-842), and the reigning Pharao, Egypt does not appear again on the scene of Biblical history until the last years of the Northern Kingdom, when Osee, the last king of Israel, in order to prevent being engulfed in the ever-growing torrent of Assyrian invasion, called on the help of Sua, probably the future Shabaka, founder of the XXVth Dynasty, then a high officer in the Egyptian Empire (4Kings 17). But leaning on Egypt was leaning on a broken reed; and after the fall of Samaria, despite the oft-repeated warnings of the prophets, there existed in Jerusalem for more than a century a strong party favoring an Egyptian alliance. , 46), prevent the stubborn pro-Egyptian politicians of Jerusalem from reckoning on the help of Egypt when the Babylonians laid siege to the Holy City. Many Judeans then and thereafter sought a new country in Egypt (4Kings 25) and even compelled Jeremias to follow them (Jer. After the collapse of the Chaldean Empire Egypt, now but a shadow of its former greatness, fell into the hands of the Persian king Cambyses (525) and, two centuries later (332), of Alexander the Great. Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198). During the last three centuries before the Christian era Egypt, and especially Alexandria, became a great center of Jewish population; to this fact the world is indebted for the Greek translation of the old Hebrew Scriptures. Relations between Palestine and Egypt, particularly after the Roman occupation, were easy and frequent; and thus it is not surprising to see the Holy Family seek refuge in Egypt from the mad fury of Herod (Matthew 2)
Pharaoh - (See Egypt; EXODUS for the list of the Pharaohs. ) The official title of the Egyptian kings. " But the regular title Ρharaoh means "the great house" or "the great double house," the title which to Egyptians and foreigners represented his person. The Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is strikingly confirmed by the Egyptian words, titles, and names occurring in the Hebrew transcription. No Palestinian Hebrew after the Exodus would have known Egyptian as the writer evidently did. His giving Egyptian words without a Hebrew explanation of the meaning can only be accounted for by his knowing that his readers were as familiar with Egyptian as he was himself; this could only apply to the Israelites of the Exodus. ...
Joseph was under an early Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty, when as yet Pharaoh ruled over all Egypt, or probably under Amenemha III, sixth king of the 12th, who first regulated by dykes, locks, and reservoirs the Nile's inundation, and made the lake Moeris to receive the overflow. The Ηyksos or "shepherd kings", who ruled only Lower Egypt while native kings ruled Upper Egypt, began with the fourth of the 13th dynasty, and ended with Apophis or Apopi, the last of the 17th. " Finding Joseph's people Israel settled in fertile Goshen, commanding the entrance to Egypt from the N. (See BITHIAH and Egypt on the influence which the Jewess wife (Tei) of Amenhotep III exercised in modifying Egyptian idolatry. ) (See JOSIAH; NEBUCHADNEZZAR; JERUSALEM; Egypt, on Pharaoh Necho II and Pharaoh Hophra. , Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia revolted; so he sent his son Nebuchadnezzar to recover those countries. So Necho for a time ruled all Syria, "from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt," deposed Jehoahaz for Eliakim = Jehoiakim, and levied tribute (2 Kings 24:7; 2 Kings 23:31-35). ...
But his troops sent against Cyrene having been routed, the Egyptians, according to Herodotus, revolted and set up Amasis as king; then strangled Hophra, and raised Amasis to the throne. Ezekiel (Ezekiel 29-32) foretold the conquest of Pharaoh and invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah in Egypt subsequently foretold "Jehovah's giving Hophra into the hand of them that sought his life" (Jeremiah 44:30; Jeremiah 46:25-26). ...
Berosus alone records Nebuchadnezzar's invasion, but similarly we find Assyrian monuments recording conquests of Egypt either unnoticed by our historians extant or mentioned only by inferior authorities. National vanity would prevent the Egyptian priests from telling Herodotus of Egypt's loss of territory in Syria (which Josephus records) and of Nebuchadnezzar's share in raising Amasis to the throne instead of Hophra The language of Jeremiah 44:30 is exact to the truth: "I will give Pharaoh Hophra into the hands of his enemies, and of them that seek his life," namely, Amasis and his party; Nebuchadnezzar is not mentioned until the end of the verse. In Ezekiel 30:21, "I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt . Egypt," implies there should be no more a prince independent and ruling the whole land. Cambyses made Egypt a province of the Persian empire; since the second Persian conquest, 2,000 years ago, there has been no native prince
Egypt in the Bible - In Semitic languages Egypt was known under the names of Musr, Misr, Misri, the Hebrew form being Misraim, of which the termination is regarded by some as the regular dual ending used to designate at the same time both parts, Upper and Lower, of the country. Genesis 10 is commonly understood to enumerate the various peoples which made up the population of Egypt: Ludim, Anamim, Laabim, Nepthuim, Phetrusim, Chasluim, and Capthorim. The Anamim (Anu of the Egyptian texts) appear to be the remnant of early settlers who, driven back by newcomers, roamed in the desert above the second cataract; the Phetrusim (southerners) inhabited the neighborhood of Thebes; the Capthorim and Chasluim are late invaders established on the Mediterranean shore. Egypt first appears in the Bible as a land of plenty, whither Abraham resorts at a time of famine (Genesis 12), and whither Jacob, in similar circumstances, sends his sons for buying wheat (Genesis 37-50). The disaster which overcame Pharao's army at the Red Sea apparently affected only a relatively small corps of Egyptian troops; texts need not be pressed to mean the whole military force of Egypt. ...
For many centuries decadent Egypt claimed possession of Palestine. , 16); its capture, in the beginning of the reign of Solomon, by Psibkhannu II, whose daughter became Solomon's wife, brings back the Egyptians into direct contact with Israel. With the latter he maintained friendly commercial relations (3Kings 10); yet the Egyptian ruler had given shelter and a bride of the blood royal to the young Edomite prince, Adad, and did not discountenance the latter's attempt to wrest his kingdom from Solomon's hand (3Kings 11). To Psibkhannu's successor, Sheshenk I (Sesac of the Bible), the first Egyptian king whose proper name is given in Scripture (Pharao, Egypt. , 14, was an Egyptian king (Osorkon I or Osorkon II) is still a moot question. ...
Save for an obscure allusion to an alliance between Joram, king of Israel (851-842), and the reigning Pharao, Egypt does not appear again on the scene of Biblical history until the last years of the Northern Kingdom, when Osee, the last king of Israel, in order to prevent being engulfed in the ever-growing torrent of Assyrian invasion, called on the help of Sua, probably the future Shabaka, founder of the XXVth Dynasty, then a high officer in the Egyptian Empire (4Kings 17). But leaning on Egypt was leaning on a broken reed; and after the fall of Samaria, despite the oft-repeated warnings of the prophets, there existed in Jerusalem for more than a century a strong party favoring an Egyptian alliance. , 46), prevent the stubborn pro-Egyptian politicians of Jerusalem from reckoning on the help of Egypt when the Babylonians laid siege to the Holy City. Many Judeans then and thereafter sought a new country in Egypt (4Kings 25) and even compelled Jeremias to follow them (Jer. After the collapse of the Chaldean Empire Egypt, now but a shadow of its former greatness, fell into the hands of the Persian king Cambyses (525) and, two centuries later (332), of Alexander the Great. Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198). During the last three centuries before the Christian era Egypt, and especially Alexandria, became a great center of Jewish population; to this fact the world is indebted for the Greek translation of the old Hebrew Scriptures. Relations between Palestine and Egypt, particularly after the Roman occupation, were easy and frequent; and thus it is not surprising to see the Holy Family seek refuge in Egypt from the mad fury of Herod (Matthew 2)
Plague - burning fever; compare Habakkuk 3:5 margin (See Egypt and EXODUS on the ten plagues. )...
A close connection exists between the ordinary physical visitations of Egypt and those whereby Pharaoh was constrained to let Israel go. A special reason why in this case the natural background of the miracles should appear was in order to show that Jehovah was God of Egypt as much as of Israel, and rules "in the midst of the earth" (Exodus 8:22)...
By exhibiting Jehovah through Moses at will bringing on with unusual intensity, and withdrawing in answer to intercession at once and completely, the well known Egyptian periodical scourges which their superstition attributed to false gods, Jehovah was proved more effectively to be supreme than He could have been by inflicting some new and strange visitation. The plagues were upon Egypt's idols, the Nile water, the air, the frog, the cow, the beetle, etc. , as Jehovah saith (Exodus 12:12), "against all the gods of Egypt will I execute judgment" (Exodus 18:11; Exodus 15:11; Numbers 33:4). The plagues as they progress prove:...
(1) Jehovah's infinite power over Egypt's deified powers of nature. ...
(2) The difference marked between Israel and Egypt; the cattle, the crops, the furnaces (wherein Israel was worn with bondage) represent all the industrial resources of the nation. The plague was national, the firstborn representing Egypt: Isaiah 43:3, "I gave Egypt for thy ransom
Dine - It was the custom in Egypt to dine at noon. But it is probable that the Egyptians took their principal meal in the evening, as was the general custom in the East (Luke 14:12 )
Libya - of Egypt, opposite Crete, including Cyrene, the Cyrenaica pentepolitana, containing the five cities Berenice, Arsinoe, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and Cyrene
Rahab - A poetical name, signifying 'insolence,' given to Egypt
Lud - son of Egypt in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10:13 ) and thus, apparently, a people living near Egypt or under the political influence of Egypt. They were known for skill with the bow (Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 30:5 which place them under Egyptian influence and may refer to 1. above if a distinction is to be made at all; otherwise, the reference is to mercenary soldiers from Lydia in Asia Minor serving in the Egyptians army, a practice apparently testified under Pharaoh Psammetichus before 600 B
Swan - Neither of these birds occurs elsewhere in the catalogue; both would be familiar to residents in Egypt, and the original seems to point to some water-fowl. It frequents marshes and the sedge by the banks of rivers in all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean and is abundant in lower Egypt
Nile - ) and the "flood of Egypt" (Amos 8:8 ). (See Egypt
Rahab (2) - ) A poetical name for Egypt (Isaiah 51:9). " Egypt is put foremost, as first of the great world powers that opposed God
Alexandria, Cyril of, Saint - Confessor, Doctor of the Church, Bishop of Alexandria; born Alexandria, Egypt, 376; died there, 444. He incurred the enmity of Orestes, prefect of Egypt, by expelling the Jews and suppressing the Novatians
Reph'Idim - The place lies in the march of the Israelites from Egypt to Sinai. Here the Israelites fought their first battle and gained their first victory after leaving Egypt, the Amalekites having attacked them; here also the people murmured from thirst, and Moses brought water for them out of the rock
Handmaid - It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt
Exodus - the Book of: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Rameses - A province and city in Egypt; called also Raamses
Garlic - The Jews acquired a liking for it in Egypt, Numbers 11:5
Mup'Pim - (serpent ), a Benjamite, and one of the fourteen descendants of Rachael who belonged to the original colony of the sons of Jacob in Egypt
Jezaniah - Associated with Johanan in the flight to Egypt, in spite of God's warning by Jeremiah
Onion - Onions and garlics were highly esteemed in Egypt; and not without reason, this country being admirably adapted to their culture. He would infer this from the quantities still used in Egypt, and their goodness. "Whoever has tasted onions in Egypt," says he, "must allow that none can be had better in any part of the universe. Hence they cannot in any place be eaten with less prejudice, and more satisfaction, than in Egypt. " The Egyptians are reproached with swearing by the leeks and onions of their gardens. Juvenal ridicules some of these superstitious people who did not dare to eat leeks, garlic, or onions, for fear of injuring their gods:...
Quis nescit, Volusi Bythynice, qualia demens ...
AEgyptus portenta coit? ...
Porrum et cepe nefas violare aut frangere morsu; O sanctas gentes quibus haec nascuntur in hortis Numina! — Sat. ...
"How Egypt, mad with superstition grown, Makes gods of monsters, but too well is known. Religious nation, sure! and blest abodes, Where ev'ry garden is o'errun with gods!" ...
So Lucian in his Jupiter, where he is giving an account of the different deities worshipped by the several inhabitants of Egypt, says, Πηλουσιωταις δε κρομμυον , "those of Pelusium worship the onion. We may answer, in the first place, that whatever might be the case of the Egyptians in later ages, it is not probable that they were arrived at such a pitch of superstition in the time of Moses; for we find no indications of this in Herodotus, the most ancient of the Greek historians: secondly, the writers here quoted appear to be mistaken in imagining these plants to have been generally the objects of religious worship
So - "So, king of Egypt," is once mentioned in the Bible -- (2 Kings 17:4 ) So has been identified by different writers with the first and second kings of the Ethiopian twenty-fifth dynasty, called by Manetho, Sabakon (Shebek) and Sebichos (Shebetek)
Etham - ” The second station in Israel's wilderness wandering out of Egypt (Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6-8 )
Garlick - Abounding in Egypt
Array - Jeremiah 43:12 (a) When Nebuchadnezzar conquered Egypt and added it to his magnificent kingdom, GOD speaks of it as though the king had put on another and expensive garment
Etham - A station of the Israelites soon after leaving Egypt, Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6
Nile - (blue, dark ), the great river of Egypt. The word Nile nowhere occurs in the Authorized Version but it is spoken of under the names of Sihor [1] and the "river of Egypt. The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt. See Bartlett's "Egypt and Palestine," 1879. Thus "Egypt is the gift of the Nile. Osburn, in his "Monumental History of Egypt," thinks that the cause of the seven years of plenty was the bursting of the barriers (and gradually wearing them away) of "the great lake of Ethiopia," which once existed on the upper Nile, thus bringing more water and more sediment to lower Egypt for those years. ) The great difference between the Nile of Egypt in the present day and in ancient times is caused by the failure of some of its branches and the ceasing of some of its chief vegetable products; and the chief change in the aspect of the cultivable land, as dependent on the Nile, is the result of the ruin of the fish-pools and their conduits and the consequent decline of the fisheries. The monuments and the narratives of ancient writers show us in the Nile of Egypt in old times a stream bordered By flags and reeds, the covert of abundant wild fowl, and bearing on its waters the fragrant flowers of the various-colored lotus. Now in Egypt scarcely any reeds or waterplants --the famous papyrus being nearly, if not quite extinct, and the lotus almost unknown--are to he seen, excepting in the marshes near the Mediterranean. The Nile is constantly before us in the history of Israel in Egypt
Abelmizraim - Meadow of the Egyptians; so called from the seven days' lamentation of Joseph and his company, on bringing up the body of Jacob from Egypt for burial, Genesis 50:10,11
Dough - The dough the Israelites had prepared for baking was carried away by them out of Egypt in their kneading-troughs (Exodus 12:34,39 )
Coracle - Also, a similar boat used in Thibet and in Egypt
Shemot - �names�); the Book of Exodus ...
Shemot: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Statute - Joseph was able to create laws as a ruler in Egypt (Genesis 47:26 )
Freely - ’ as Numbers 11:5 ‘We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely’ (Vulg
Dengue - It occurs in India, Egypt, the West Indies, etc
Already - ...
Joseph was in Egypt already
Sihor - In Joshua 13:3 ; 1 Chronicles 13:5 , some have understood it of the little river between Egypt and Judah
Looking-Glasses - Similar mirrors have been found in the ruins of ancient Egypt
Nile - " The Nile has two names: the sacred name Ηapi , or Ηapi-mu , "the abyss of waters," Ηp-ro-mu , "the waters whose source is hidden"; and the common name Υeor Αor , Aur (Atur): both Egyptian names. The hieroglyphic name of Egypt is Κam , "black. " Egyptians distinguished between Ηapi-res , the "southern Nile" of Upper Egypt, and Ηapi-meheet , the "northern Nile" of Lower Egypt. (See Egypt; EXODUS. The tributaries are further up than Egypt (Psalms 78:44; Exodus 7:18-20; Isaiah 7:18; Isaiah 19:6; Ezekiel 29:3; Ezekiel 30:12). "The stream (nachal ) of Egypt" seems distinct (Isaiah 27:12), now "wady el Arish" (where was the frontier city Rhino-corura) on the confines of Palestine and Egypt (Joshua 15:4; Joshua 15:47, where for "river" should stand "stream," nachal) ). "The rivers of Ethiopia" (Isaiah 18:1-2), Cush, are the Atbara, the Astapus or Blue river, between which two rivers Meroe (the Ethiopia meant in Isaiah 18) lies, and the Astaboras or White Nile; these rivers conjoin in the one Nile, and wash down the soil along their banks from Upper Egypt, and deposit it on Lower Egypt; compare "whose land (Upper Egypt) the rivers have spoiled" or "cut up" or "divided. " The Nile is called "the sea" (Isaiah 19:5), for it looks a sea at the overflow; the Egyptians still call it El Bahr "the sea" (Nahum 3:8). The shorter confluent, the Blue river, is what brings down from the Abyssinian mountains the alluvial soil that fertilizes Egypt. The two join at Khartoom, the capital of Soodan, the black country under Egypt's rule. On the confines of Upper Egypt it forms two cataracts, the lower near Syene. Egypt having only a little rain (Zechariah 14:17-18) depends on the Nile for its harvests; see in Deuteronomy 11:10-12 the contrast to the promised land, where the husbandman has to look up to heaven for rain instead of looking down, irrigating the land. with watercourses turned by the foot as in Egypt (a type of the spiritual state of the two respectively), and where Jehovah's eyes are upon it from the beginning to the end of the year. 8 inches (Lepsius in the Imperial Dictionary) The average rate of deposit in Egypt now is four and a half inches in the century. The burnt brick still lower, on which he laid stress, was itself enough to have confuted him, for burnt brick was first introduced into Egypt under Rome (see Quarterly Revue, April, 1859). Champollion holds no Egyptian monument to be older than 2,200 B. In Upper Egypt bore yellow mountains, a few hundred feet high, and pierced with numerous tombs, bound the N. on both sides; this gives point to Israel's sneer, "because there were no graves in Egypt hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness?" (Exodus 14:11). ...
In Lower Egypt the land spreads out on either side of the Nile in a plain bounded E
Onias - He fled into Egypt where he built, near Heliopolis, a new temple for the use of the many Jews in Egypt (160 B
Flax - The flax of Egypt was destroyed by the plague of hail when it "was bolled", i. It was extensively cultivated both in Egypt and Palestine
Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter - He was sent to Egypt on a mission to the sultan. , and an account of Egypt
Uri'Jah - 600, and the king sought to put him to death; but he escaped, and fled into Egypt. His retreat was soon covered; Elnathan and his men brought him up out of Egypt, and Jehoiakim slew him with the sword and cast his body forth among the graves of the common people (Jeremiah 26:20-23 )
Adonizedec - Letters from Adonizedec entreating the king of Egypt to send soldiers to defend him from the Abiri (Hebrews) have been found among the Tell Amarna Tablets (see under Egypt) These letters give a vivid account, from a Canaanitish point of view, of the wars which took place when Joshua took possession of the land
Ashkelon - It is mentioned on an inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king Rameses II. " Among the Tell Amarna tablets (see Egypt ) are found letters or official despatches from Yadaya, "captain of horse and dust of the king's feet," to the "great king" of Egypt, dated from Ascalon
Hophra - Jeremiah 44:30 ; the Egyptian Wahebrç, Apries of Herodotus, fourth king of the 26th Dyn. There is no evidence that Nebuchadnezzar plundered Egypt, as was anticipated by Ezekiel, though he seems to have attacked Hophra’s successor Amasis in b. 568 with some success, and may have overrun some part of Lower Egypt. Another mutiny of the Egyptian soldiery, recorded by Herodotus, resulted in Amasis being put upon the throne as champion of the natives. Hophra relied on the Greek mercenaries, and maintained himself, perhaps in a forced co-regency, in Lower Egypt until the third year of Amasis, when he was defeated and slain
Ham - To the Cushites, or children of his eldest son, Cush, were allotted the hot southern regions of Asia, along the coasts of the Persian Gulf, Susiana or Chusistan, Arabia, &c; to the sons of Canaan, Palestine and Syria; to the sons of Misraim, Egypt and Libya, in Africa. The first great empires of Assyria and Egypt were founded by them; and the republics of Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage, were early distinguished for their commerce: but they sooner also fell to decay; and Egypt, which was one of the first, became the last and "basest of the kingdoms," Ezekiel 29:15 ; and has been successively in subjection to the Shemites, and Japhethites; as have also the settlements of the other branches of the Hamites
Wilderness - Wilderness, The, in which the Israelites spent 40 years, between Egypt and Canaan, is called sometimes the "great and terrible wilderness" by way of eminence. In general it may be identified with the peninsula of Sinai, the triangular region between the Gulf of Akabah, on the east, and the Gulf of Suez and Egypt on the west. The route of the Israelites from Egypt to Kadesh can be traced with reasonable accuracy
Egypt - The Egyptians belonged to the white race, and their original home is still a matter of dispute. Many scholars believe that it was in Southern Arabia, and recent excavations have shown that the valley of the Nile was originally inhabited by a low-class population, perhaps belonging to the Nigritian stock, before the Egyptians of history entered it. The ancient Egyptian language, of which the latest form is Coptic, is distantly connected with the Semitic family of speech. ...
Egypt consists geographically of two halves, the northern being the Delta, and the southern Upper Egypt, between Cairo and the First Cataract. In the Old Testament, Northern or Lower Egypt is called Mazor, "the fortified land" (Isaiah 19:6 ; 37 :: 25 , where the A. mistranslates "defence" and "besieged places"); while Southern or Upper Egypt is Pathros, the Egyptian Pa-to-Res, or "the land of the south" (Isaiah 11:11 ). " ...
The civilization of Egypt goes back to a very remote antiquity. The capital of the Middle Empire was Thebes, in Upper Egypt. ...
The Middle Empire was overthrown by the invasion of the Hyksos, or shepherd princes from Asia, who ruled over Egypt, more especially in the north, for several centuries, and of whom there were three dynasties of kings. It was in the time of the Hyksos that Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph entered Egypt. Canaan and Syria were subdued, as well as Cyprus, and the boundaries of the Egyptian Empire were fixed at the Euphrates. The Soudan, which had been conquered by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty, was again annexed to Egypt, and the eldest son of the Pharaoh took the title of "Prince of Cush. , or Khu-n-Aten, endeavoured to supplant the ancient state religion of Egypt by a new faith derived from Asia, which was a sort of pantheistic monotheism, the one supreme god being adored under the image of the solar disk. The attempt led to religious and civil war, and the Pharaoh retreated from Thebes to Central Egypt, where he built a new capital, on the site of the present Tell-el-Amarna. Under them Egypt lost its empire in Asia, and was itself attacked by barbarians from Libya and the north. ...
The Nineteenth Dynasty soon afterwards came to an end; Egypt was distracted by civil war; and for a short time a Canaanite, Arisu, ruled over it. that Egypt finally lost Gaza and the adjoining cities, which were seized by the Pulista, or Philistines. , Egypt fell into decay. ...
In the time of Hezekiah, Egypt was conquered by Ethiopians from the Soudan, who constituted the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. ...
The title of Pharaoh, given to the Egyptian kings, is the Egyptian Per-aa, or "Great House," which may be compared to that of "Sublime Porte. " It is found in very early Egyptian texts. ...
The Egyptian religion was a strange mixture of pantheism and animal worship, the gods being adored in the form of animals. ...
The Egyptians believed in a resurrection and future life, as well as in a state of rewards and punishments dependent on our conduct in this world. His death was avenged by his son Horus, whom the Egyptians invoked as their "Redeemer. ...
Even in the time of Abraham, Egypt was a flourishing and settled monarchy. In later times Egypt was conquered by the Persians (B. Abraham and Sarah went to Egypt in the time of the shepherd kings. On the death of Solomon, Shishak, king of Egypt, invaded Palestine (1 Kings 14:25 ). ...
A number of remarkable clay tablets, discovered at Tell-el-Amarna in Upper Egypt, are the most important historical records ever found in connection with the Bible. ...
The principal prophecies of Scripture regarding Egypt are these, Isaiah 19 ; Jeremiah 43 :: 813-13 ; 44:30 ; 46 ; Ezekiel 29-32 ; and it might be easily shown that they have all been remarkably fulfilled
ir-ha-Heres - Smitten with "terror" at Jehovah's judgments, Egypt shall be converted to Him. The conversion (through the Jewish settlement in Egypt and the Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament) of many Ethiopians to the God of the Jews (Acts 2:6; Acts 2:10-11), e. Alexander the Great, the temporal "saviour" of Egypt from the Persians, was a type of the true Saviour. Onion, a Jewish city in Egypt, is supposed in Smith's Bible Dictionary to be "the city of destruction"; its destruction by Titus being thus foretold
Amarna, Tell el - is a site approximately two hundred miles south of Cairo, Egypt, where, in 1888, clay tablets were found describing the period of history when the Israelites were in bondage in Egypt. ...
Tell el-Amarna is the present location of the ancient Egyptian city Akhenaton. ...
The 300 clay tablets discovered in 1888 at Tell el-Amarna have vastly expanded scholarly knowledge about Egyptian culture. Although the site is not mentioned in the Bible, the discovery of the tablets is important to biblical studies because the tablets relate to the general period in history surrounding the Israelite bondage in Egypt. ...
The letters were primarily diplomatic communications between Egypt and Egyptian-controlled territories, including Syria and Palestine. Rulers of small Palestinian city-states including Shechem, Jerusalem, and Megiddo complain of mistreatment by other rulers and ask for Egyptian aid
Bondage - Of Israel in Egypt (Exodus 2:23,25 ; 5 ), which is called the "house of bondage" (13:3; 20:2)
Genesis - Genesis ends with the Israelites' descent to Egypt and Jacob's passing
So - (Nubian, Sabako), an Ethiopian king who brought Egypt under his sway
Cotton - " Cotton was manufactured, though not grown, anciently in Egypt
Adar - a Hebrew month, answering to the latter part of February, and the beginning of March, the 12th of the sacred and 6th of the year so named to become glorious, from the exuberance of vegetation, in that month, in Egypt and Palestine
Pul (1) - Philae, an island in the Nile, the border between Egypt and Ethiopia (Bochart)
Midwives - God blessed the Hebrew midwives who would not obey the king of Egypt by killing the male infants
Dothan - It was on the caravan-route from Syria to Egypt, about eleven miles north of Samaria
Mizraim - A son of Ham, and father of various African races, Genesis 10:6 , but particularly of the Egyptians, to whom his name was given. Mizraim is also the Hebrew word for Egypt in the Bible, and this country is still called Misr in Arabic
Chameleon, - The reference in (Leviticus 11:30 ) is to some kind of an unclean animal, supposed to be the lizard, known by the name of the "monitor of the Nile," a large, strong reptile common in Egypt and other parts of Africa
on (2) - "Nebuchadnezzar shall break the standing images of Beth Shemesh in Egypt. high above the pedestal, the oldest and one of the finest in Egypt. Josephus (Ant 10:9, section 7) says Nebuchadnezzar, the fifth year after Jerusalem's fall, left the siege of Tyre to march against Egypt. Re-Athom is the Egyptian hieroglyphical designation, the sun (Ra) the father of the gods, as Adam or Athom was of mankind. In Isaiah 19:18, "five cities in Egypt shall speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall be called the 'city of destruction' " (Ηa-Ηeres ). Onias who fled into Egypt, in disappointment at not getting the high priesthood, and rose to rank under Ptolemy Philometor, read "city of the sun" (Ηa-Cheres ). )...
Ηa-ra is the Egyptian sacred name, "abode of the sun"; Αn is the Egyptian common name; Cyril of Alexandria says Οn means "the sun"; the hieroglyphic uben , related to aven , means "shining". Reputed the oldest capital in Egypt, it and Memphis are mentioned in very early inscriptions as the two seats of justice; Thebes is added in hieroglyphics of the 18th dynasty; "the three seats of justice of both Egypts. It was the ecclesiastical metropolis of Lower Egypt, where the Greek historians and philosophers obtained their information about Egypt. fortified, for the Egyptians (Exodus 1:11)
Exodus, the, - of the Israelites from Egypt. This is probably very nearly correct; but many Egyptologists place it at 215 years later, --about B. The common chronology makes it extend from the call of Abraham to the exodus, one-half of it, or 215 years, being spend in Egypt. Others make it to cover only the period of bondage spend in Egypt. So in (Exodus 12:40 ) it is said that the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years. But it does not say that the sojourning was all in Egypt, but this people who lived in Egypt had been sojourners for 430 years. 7 (C) If we make the 430 years to include only the bondage in Egypt, we must place the whole chronology of Abraham and the immigration of Jacob into Egypt some 200 years earlier, or else the Exodus 200 years later, or B
Dathan - They are also identified as the two quarreling Israelites whom Moses reprimanded in Egypt
Coriander - Used as a condiment with food in Egypt, and in making confectionery
Mallows - "salt-wort," Job 30:4, is derived from melahh = "salt;" and seems to designate a saline plant—perhaps a species of salt-wort; or perhaps the garden mallow, reared in Egypt, and boiled with meat, is intended
Sukkiims - (ssyook' keemss) Mentioned only in 2 Chronicles 12:3 , these people were part of Shishak's (king of Egypt) army when he fought against Rehoboam of Judah. They may have been desert-dwelling mercenaries out of Libya, known in Egyptian sources as Tjukten from 1300 to 1100 B
Baalzephon - Place on the border of Egypt, near the Gulf of Suez
Hermopolis Magna, Egypt, Diocese of - Comprises central Egypt, bounded north by the patriarchate; east by the Gulf of Hermopolis; south by 27° and 28° north latitude; west by the Libyan Desert; established, 1895; suffragan of Alexandria
Idolize - ) To make an idol of; to pay idolatrous worship to; as, to idolize the sacred bull in Egypt
Abiram - They are also identified as the two quarreling Israelites whom Moses reprimanded in Egypt
Gen'Ubath, - the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess, the sister of Tahpenes, the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the latter part of the reign of David
Raamses, Rameses - One of the treasure cities built by the Israelites in Egypt, and the starting-point of the Exodus ( Exodus 1:11 ; Exodus 12:37 , Numbers 33:3 ; Numbers 33:5 ). In Genesis 47:11 Joseph, by Pharaoh’s command, gives to Jacob’s family ‘a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses
Night-Hawk - On the whole, it should seem to be the strix orientalis, which Hasselquist thus describes: It is of the size of the common owl, and lodges in the large buildings or ruins of Egypt and Syria, and sometimes even in the dwelling houses. The Arabs settled in Egypt call it "massasa," and the Syrians "banu
Geshem - His name appears on a silver vessel dedicated by his son Qainu to the goddess Han-Ilat at tell el-Maskhuta in Lower Egypt. He was in name a vassal of Persia but apparently wielded great personal power with tribes in the Syrian desert, southern Palestine, the delta of Egypt, and northern Arabia
Libya - (lihb' ee uh) A large land area between Egypt and Tunisia. Most of our knowledge of Libya comes from Egyptian records which mention border wars and invasions. He began a dynasty in Egypt which reigned for over 200 years
Yarn, Linen - only in 1 Kings 10:28 and 2 Chronicles 1:16 , as being brought out of Egypt; but as 'horses' are mentioned just before and just after, it is improbable that 'linen yarn' is intended. — similarly to what it had been previously translated by others — reads "And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; and the king's merchants received them 'in droves,' each 'drove' at a price
Ham - Mizraim, the Hebrew word for Egypt, was the ancestor of the Egyptians. Egypt is called "the land of Ham
Horse - This most valuable animal was first domesticated in the East, and was probably brought by those who emigrated westward from Asia into Arabia and Egypt. No mention is made of horses as forming any part of the possessions of the patriarchs; nor are any noticed among the presents Abraham received from the kings of Egypt and Gerar
Aven - a city of Egypt, afterward called Heliopolis, and On, Ezekiel 30:17 . It appears, however, highly probable, by the behaviour of Pharaoh to Joseph and Jacob, and especially by Joseph's care to preserve the land to the priests, Genesis 47:22-26 , that the true religion prevailed in Egypt in his time; and it is incredible that Joseph should have married the daughter of the priest of On, had that name among the Egyptians denoted only the material light; which, however, no doubt they, like all the rest of the world, idolized in after times, and to which we find a temple dedicated among the Canaanites, under this name, Joshua 7:2
Abel-Misraim - the floor of Atad, beyond the river Jordan, where Joseph, his brethren, and the Egyptians mourned for the death of Jacob, Genesis 50:11 . On this occasion the funeral procession was, at the command of Joseph, attended by "all the elders of Egypt, and all the servants of Pharaoh, and all his house, and the house of his brethren, chariots and horsemen, a very great company;" an affecting proof, as it has been remarked, of Joseph's simplicity and singleness of heart, which allowed him to give to the great men of Egypt, over whom he bore absolute rule, an opportunity of observing his own comparatively humble origin, by leading them in attendance upon his father's corpse to the valleys of Canaan, the modest cradle of his race, and to their simple burial places
Sin, Desert of - To this the tenth station the Israelites came exactly in a month after they left Egypt. And here again they murmured for "the bread and the flesh-pots of Egypt. On this occasion the institution of the Sabbath was revived, as a day of rest, which had been intermitted during their Egyptian bondage
Lentil - The lentils of Egypt were very much esteemed among the ancients. Austin says, they grow abundantly in Egypt, are much used as a food there, and those of Alexandria are considered particularly valuable
Sargon - , Syria, Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt, W. He subdued Philistia, and brought Egypt under tribute; in his second year (720) he fought to gain Gaza; in his sixth against Egypt (715); in his ninth (712) he took Ashdod by Tartan. ) Then, according to the inscriptions, he invaded Egypt and Ethiopia, and received tribute from a Pharaoh of Egypt, besides destroying in part the Ethiopian No-Amon or Thebes (Nahum 3:8); confirming Isaiah 20:2-4, "as Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia, so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot," etc. ...
The monuments also represent Egypt at this time in that close connection with Ethiopia which the prophet implies
Ostraka - They are identified with oriental countries, particularly Egypt
Suk'Kiim - (booth-dwellers ), a nation mentioned ( 2 Chronicles 12:3 ) with the Lubim and Cushim as supplying part of the army which came with Shishak out of Egypt when he invaded Judah. The Sukkiim may correspond to some one of the shepherd or wandering races mentioned on the Egyptian monuments
Mason - This art the Hebrews no doubt learned in Egypt (Exodus 1:11,14 ), where ruins of temples and palaces fill the traveller with wonder at the present day
Merari - Sad; bitter, the youngest son of Levi, born before the descent of Jacob into Egypt, and one of the seventy who accompanied him thither (Genesis 46:11 ; Exodus 6:16 )
Elim - ” One of the encampments of the Israelites after the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 15:27 )
Genubath - Son of Hadad, an Edomite of the king's seed, by an Egyptian princess, sister of Tahpenes, queen of the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt in David's reign (1 Kings 11:14-20)
Heres - The same name occurs in the margin of Isaiah 19:18 as the name of the 'city of destruction,' or 'city of the sun' in Egypt
Garlic, - The garlic of Egypt is the Allium sativum of the botanists, but there are different species in Palestine, where it is cultivated and prized
Emerald - The emerald was anciently obtained from Egypt
Remphan - " It is probable, therefore, that they are names for a god worshipped secretly by the Israelites in Egypt and in the wilderness, answering, probably, to Saturn or Moloch, the star-god
Baal-Zephon - One thing however is certain concerning it, that it was over against Baal-zephon, the Lord directed Israel to encamp, when the Egyptians were pursuing them after their departure from Egypt. And Migdol, which means a tower, was a watch-place, where it is probable that this idol was placed to watch, or pretend to watch, at the extremity of the kingdom of Egypt, on this part to the sea, by way of deterring runaway servants, or slaves, like Israel, from attempting their escape. It was in this very spot, as if, at once, to shew Israel the folly of such ridiculous idols; and to shew Egypt of what little avail their dunghill deities were; Israel was commanded to encamp, from whence they should behold the arm of the Lord displayed for their deliverance, and at the same time Egypt's destruction
Embalming - Embalming originated in Egypt and was seldom used by the Hebrews. Genesis 50:26 says Joseph was embalmed and laid to rest in Egypt. ...
The Egyptian art of mummification was an elaborate version of embalming which required seventy days for completion. That the Hebrews did not perform embalming reflects not only rival conceptions of the afterlife between Israel and Egypt but also aversion toward Egyptian religious practice in general
no, no-Amon - (noh, noh-ay' mahn) Ancient name for Egyptian city of Thebes (modern Luxor). No is a word for the best of cities and Amon the name of the Egyptian god, Amun-Re. To attack this capital city was to strike at the heart and spirit of Egypt. ) Thebes became the worship and cultural center of Egypt. See Egypt
Bricks - As early as Genesis 11:3 we read of bricks being made and burnt; and in Egypt the bricks were made with an admixture of straw. ...
On the monuments in a tomb the process of brick-making in Egypt is fully delineated: a task-master stands over the men with a stick in his hand, as doubtless was the case in the time of Moses. Bricks brought from Egypt vary in size, from 20 inches to 14-1/4 in
Shishak - A king of Egypt, who declared war against Rehoboam king of Judah in the fifth year of his reign. 971, with an innumerable multitude of people out of Egypt, the countries of Lubim, of Suchim, and of Cush, captured the strongest places in the country, and carried away from Jerusalem the treasures of the Lord's house and of the king's palace, as well as the golden bucklers of Solomon. In the palace-temple of Karnak in Egypt, the walls of which are yet standing, Sesonchis is represented in a large basrelief, dragging captive kings in triumph before the three chief Theban gods
no-a'Mon - (temple of Amon ) ( Nahum 3:8 ) No, (Jeremiah 46:25 ; Ezekiel 30:14,16 ) a city of Egypt, better known under the name of Thebes or Diospolis Magna, the ancient and splendid metropolis of upper Egypt The second part of the first form as the name of Amen , the chief divinity of Thebes, mentioned or alluded to in connection with this place in Jeremiah. It was emphatically the city of temples, in the ruins of which many monuments of ancient Egypt are preserved, The plan of the city was a parallelogram, two miles from north to south and four from east to west, but none suppose that in its glory if really extended 33 miles along both aides of the Nile
ex'Odus - (that is, going out [1]), the second book of the law or Pentateuch. (Exodus 19:40 ; 38:1 ) ...
The first part contains an account of the following particulars: the great increase of Jacob's posterity in the land of Egypt, and their oppression under a new dynasty, which occupied the throne after the death of Joseph; the birth, education, flight and return of Moses; the ineffectual attempts to prevail upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go; the successive signs and wonders, ending in the death of the first-born, by means of which the deliverance of Israel from the land of bondage is at length accomplished, and the institution of the Passover; finally the departure out of Egypt and the arrival of the Israelites at Mount Sinai
Cush - A nation situated south of Egypt with differing boundaries and perhaps including differing dark-skinned tribes (Jeremiah 13:23 ) at different periods of history. Cush was an enemy of Egypt for centuries, being controlled by strong pharaohs but gaining independence under weak pharaohs. Finally, Pi-ankhi of Cush conquered Egypt and established the twenty-fifth dynasty of Egyptian rulers (716-656) with their capital at Napata above the fourth cataract. Isaiah 18:1 may describe some of the political activity involved in Cush's establishing their power in Egypt. Isaiah acted out judgment against Cush, probably as the rulers of Egypt (1618106859_3 ; compare Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Psalm 68:31 ; Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 30:4-5 ,Ezekiel 30:4-5,30:9 ). In Ezekiel's day Cush represented the southern limit of Egyptian territory (Ezekiel 29:10 ). Other Bible students would see Gihon here as another name for the Nile River and Cush as referring to the land south of Egypt
Ethiopia - The scanty and barbarous population of the valley and the deserts on either side was divided in early times among different tribes, which were completely at the mercy of the Egyptians. In the time of the New Kingdom, Cush southward to Napata was a province of Egypt, dotted with Egyptian temples and governed by a viceroy. With the weakening of the Egyptian power Cush grew into a separate kingdom, with Napata as its capital. Its rulers were probably of Egyptian descent; they are represented as being entirely subservient to Ammon, i. 730, when a certain Pankhi, reigning at Napata and already in possession of the Egyptian Thebaid, added most of Middle Egypt to his dominions and exacted homage from the princes of the Delta. Tahraku and his successor Tandamane were driven into Ethiopia by the Assyrian invasions, and Egypt became independent under the powerful XXVIth Dynasty. For the Persian period it is known that Ethiopia, or part of it, was included in one satrapy with Egypt under Darius. 24 the Romans invaded Ethiopia in answer to an attack on Egypt by queen Candace, and destroyed Napata, but the kingdom continued to be independent. The Egyptian culture of Ethiopia had by that time fallen into a very barbarous state. Inscriptions exist written in a peculiar character and in the native language, as yet undeciphered; others are in a debased form of Egyptian hieroglyphic. ...
The name of Cush was familiar to the Hebrews through the part that its kings played in Egypt and Syria from b
Goshen - Three Egyptian homes in the Delta, and extending over part of Goshen, bore a name beginning with ka or ga, "a bull," namely, Mnevis, worshipped at On, representing Turn the unknown source of all existence. of Lower Egypt, having the Mediterranean on N. Joseph naturally placed his family on the border land between Egypt and Palestine, the promised land, and at the same time near himself at Tunis or else Memphis the capital of Egypt. Goshen, for every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians,") proves that Goshen was regarded by Egyptians as scarcely Egypt proper, though having many Egyptians in it, as is recorded during the ten plagues; also foreigners. ...
Pharaoh calls Goshen "the best of the land" (Genesis 47:5-11), namely, for a pastoral people as Israel; for in tillage the parts of Egypt next the Nile are more fertile than Goshen. Now Esh-Shurkiyeh, well intersected by canals; Egypt's best province, yielding the largest revenue. Doubtless named in remembrance of Israel's original place of sojourn in Egypt
Canaanite - a member of any of the tribes who inhabited Canaan at the time of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
Leather - It was probably learned in Egypt
Cethites - A people of Asia Minor, descendants of Chanaan (Genesis 10), occupying the territory between Chaldea and Egypt, one of the richest commercial countries in the East
Flesh Pot - The murmuring of the Israelites against Moses (Exodus 16:3 ) included the exaggerated claim that they customarily relaxed by the flesh pots in Egypt and had more than enough bread
Nourry, Agathangelus, Blessed - He took the Capuchin habit at Le Mans, taught theology at Rennes, and was sent to Egypt to convert the Copts
Agathangelus Nourry, Blessed - He took the Capuchin habit at Le Mans, taught theology at Rennes, and was sent to Egypt to convert the Copts
Tahapenes - A city of Egypt. It is an Egyptian word, but supposed to be derived from a root, which signifies hidden
Ashmedai - At last Tobias drove him off and he fled to Egypt
Asmodeus - At last Tobias drove him off and he fled to Egypt
Abel-Mizraim - (ay' behl-mihz' ray' ihm) Place name meaning either “brook of Egypt,” or if derived from a different Hebrew word with similar spelling, “mourning of the Egyptians. In giving the name the Canaanites identified Jacob's sons as Egyptians
Hethites - A people of Asia Minor, descendants of Chanaan (Genesis 10), occupying the territory between Chaldea and Egypt, one of the richest commercial countries in the East
Libya - "Put,"), and Acts 2:10, and Lybia is the classic name of northern Africa, west of Egypt
Mirror - (Exodus 38:8 ; Job 37:18 ) The Hebrew women on coming out of Egypt probably brought with them mirrors like those which were used by the Egyptians, and were made of a mixed metal, chiefly copper, wrought with admirable skill, and susceptible of a bright lustre
pi-Hahi'Roth, - a place before or at which the Israelites encamped, at the close of the third march from Rameses (the last place before they crossed the Red Sea), when they went out of Egypt. (Exodus 14:2,9 ; Numbers 35:7,8 ) It is an Egyptian word, signifying "the place where sedge grows
Coriander - The plant called Coriandrum sativum is found in Egypt, Persia and India, and has a round tall stalk; it bears umbelliferous white or reddish flowers, from which arise globular, grayish, spicy seed-corns, marked with fine striae
pi-Hahiroth - read "farmstead"), the name of a place in Egypt where the children of Israel encamped (Exodus 14:2,9 ), how long is uncertain. The condition of the Isthmus of Suez at the time of the Exodus is not exactly known, and hence this, with the other places mentioned as encampments of Israel in Egypt, cannot be definitely ascertained
Johanan - He and his associates subsequently fled to Tahpanhes in Egypt (43:2,4,5), taking Jeremiah with them. "The flight of Gedaliah's community to Egypt extinguished the last remaining spark of life in the Jewish state
Abrech - ]'>[3] ( Genesis 41:43 ‘then he made him [4] to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee; and he set him over all the land of Egypt’). The word should be either Hebrew or Egyptian. abarakku , the title of one of the highest officials in the Assyrian Empire, but no such borrowings from Assyria are known in Egypt. Egyptian hitherto has furnished two that are possible: (1) ‘Praise!’ but the word is rare and doubtful; (2) abrak , apparently meaning ‘Attention!’ ‘Have a care!’ (Spiegelberg)
Esar-Haddon - He made war with the Philistines, and took Azoth, by Tartan, his general: he attacked Egypt, Cush, and Edom, Isaiah 20, 34; designing, probably, to avenge the affront Sennacherib his father had received from Tirhakah, king of Cush, and the king of Egypt, who had been Hezekiah's confederates
On - A noted city of Lower Egypt, Genesis 41:45; Genesis 41:50; called Beth-shemesh, or "house of the sun," Jeremiah 43:13, and known to the Greeks as Heliopolis, or "city of the sun. It has been considered the Rome and the Athens of ancient Egypt, the centre of its religion and learning. In it stood the great temple of Ra, with one exception the most famous ancient shrine in Egypt, its companies of priests and attendants are reputed to have numbered over 12,000. " Josephus reports that On was the home of Jacob on his arrival in Egypt. In its schools and universities Moses, according to Manetho, was instructed in all the learning of the Egyptians, and hither came Plato, Eudoxus, and Herodotus
Fly - (See Egypt and (See EXODUS on the plague of flies. However, an old Egyptian word retained in Coptic abeb , "a beetle," seems related. The sun god in Egypt was represented in the form of a beetle; thus their sin would be made their instrument of punishment. summon, as a beemaster whistles for bees) the fly (zibub ) in the rivers of Egypt. " The dthebab of Egypt (Sir G
Pharaoh - This was the regal title of the kings of Egypt, so the mere appellation, 'Pharaoh' in no way intimates which king is alluded to. Some kings of Egypt are mentioned in scripture without this title, as Shishak, Necho, Hophra, So, and Tirhakah, the last two of whom were Ethiopians. 1715), and received into Egypt Jacob and his sons and their families. See Egypt and PLAGUES
Reed - There can be no doubt that it denotes some aquatic reed-like plant, probably the Phragmitis communis , which, if it does not occur in Palestine and Egypt, is represented by a very closely-allied species, viz. ( Isaiah 58:5 ) ...
Gnome , translated "rush" and "bulrush" by the Authorized Version, without doubt denotes the celebrated paper-reed of the ancients, Papyrus antiquorum , which formerly was common in some parts of Egypt. The papyrus reed is not now found in Egypt; it grows however, in Syria. (2) A stronger reed, Arundo donax , the true reed of Egypt and Palestine, which grows 8 or 10 feet high, and is thicker than a man's thumb
Seba - ...
...
The name of a country and nation (Isaiah 43:3 ; 45:14 ) mentioned along with Egypt and Ethiopia, and therefore probably in north-eastern Africa
Libya - Military dictatorship on the northern coast of Africa, between Tunis and Egypt, comprising Tripolitania and Cyrenaica
Tiras - A son of Japheth ( Genesis 10:2 ), formerly identified with Thrace , but of late much more plausibly with the Turusha , a piratical people who invaded Syria and Egypt in the 13th cent
Beans - They are extensively cultivated in Egypt and Arabia and Syria
Gadfly - Jeremiah 46:20 pictured Nebuchadnezzar as a gadfly attacking Egypt which was pictured as a fat heifer
Rosetta Stone - Stone monument engraved with a trilingual text (Egyptian hieroglyphic, Demotic, and Greek), honoring Ptolemy V Epiphanes (196 B. ), which provided the necessary clues for deciphering the two dead languages (Egyptian hieroglyphic and Demotic). See Archaeology; Egypt
Sar hamashkim - He later recommended that Joseph interpret Pharaoh's dreams, leading to Joseph's appointment as viceroy of Egypt
Frog - tsephardça‘ , Exodus 8:2-14 , Psalms 78:45 ; Psalms 105:30 one of the plagues of Egypt
Spelt - Egyptians made bread from it. It had not sprouted when the plagues struck Egypt (Exodus 9:32 )
Pharaoh's butler - He later recommended that Joseph interpret Pharaoh's dreams, leading to Joseph's appointment as viceroy of Egypt
Flies - ...
Isaiah 7:18 (a) This type is used to describe the army of Egypt which would persecute and annoy Israel
Caphtor - ' Caphtor is supposed to be somewhere in Egypt, but has not been identified
Sansannah - of Gaza, the first resting place for horses from Gaza to Egypt
Paper, Paper Reeds - Some of such paper has been found in the tombs of Egypt, but it is very fragile
Abib - (ay' bib) The month of the Exodus deliverance from Egypt (Exodus 13:4 ) and thus of the Passover festival (Exodus 23:15 ; Exodus 34:18 ; Deuteronomy 16:1 )
Frog - We find frogs mentioned only in connection with the plague inflicted upon the Egyptians. Naturalists disagree as to the species of frogs at present found in Egypt
pi'Thom - 1 159), a town on the borders of Egypt, nest which Necho constructed a canal from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf
Corner-Stone, - The phrase "corner-stone" is sometimes used to denote any principal person, as the princes of Egypt, (Isaiah 19:13 ) and is thus applied to our Lord
pi-be'Seth, - a town of lower Egypt, mentioned in (Ezekiel 30:17 ) the same as Bubastis, so named from the goddess Bubastis
Calf - (1 Samuel 28:24 ; Luke 15:23 ) The molten calf prepared by Aaron for the people to worship, (Exodus 32:4 ) was probably a wooden figure laminated with gold, a process which is known to have existed in Egypt
Plagues of Egypt - It may not be unacceptable to the readers of this work to have brought before them in one short view the account of the plagues of Egypt, in order to take into a comprehensive manner the judgment of God over the Egyptians, while manifesting grace to his Israel. ...
There were ten different sorts of plagues which the Lord brought upon Egypt, all succeeding one another, with only the intermission of a few days; and each rising in succession with more tremendous judgments, until in the last of them the Egyptians began to discover that if the Lord persisted in the infliction, all Egypt was destroyed. ...
The second plague of Egypt was that of the frogs. (Exodus 8:1-2; Exo 8:14) There was somewhat particularly striking in this progression of Egypt's torments. Now the Lord is come home indeed by his afflictions on the person of the Egyptians. Before, the judgment was confined to the river and to the land; but here the Lord made a marked distinction from the former, so as to compel the magicians of Egypt to acknowledge in it the finger of God. (See Exodus 8:16-19)...
The plague of flies was the fourth judgment with which the Lord smote Egypt. And what must the plague of flies in Egypt have been when purposely armed and sent by the Lord. (Exodus 8:20-32) And I beg him also to observe how the Lord, concerning this plague, called upon both the Egyptians and the Israelites to observe the tokens of his discriminating grace over his people; for we are told that the Lord marked the land of Goshen, where Israel dwelt, that no swarm of flies should be there. ...
The fifth plague of Egypt, rising still in terror, was that of the pestilence and mortality among all the cattle of the Egyptians; in which, as a continuance of the same discrimination as had been shewn before in the plague of the flies, while all the cattle of Egypt died, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. (See Exodus 9:1-7) Beside the very tremendous judgment on Egypt as a nation by this plague, we may remark somewhat leading to the gospel dispensation in this appointment. " (Romans 8:22) The earth bore part in the curse for man's disobedience; hence therefore in man's redemption, of which the bringing Israel out of Egyptian bondage is a type, the inferior creatures are made to bear part in punishment. It is more than probable also, that some among the cattle that were destroyed were included in the idols of Egypt; for certain it is, that from the Egyptians the Israelites learnt the worship of the calf, which afterwards they set up in the wilderness. (See Exodus 32:1-6) What contempt, therefore, by the destruction of cattle, was thrown upon the idols of Egypt!...
In the view of the sixth plague of Egypt, "the boils breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast,"we behold the hand of the Lord falling heavier than ever. "The Lord will smite thee with the botch of Egypt, and with the emerods, and with the scab, and with the itch, whereof thou canst not be healed. )...
The seventh plague of Egypt was the "thunder, lightning, rain, and hail. But what I particularly beg the reader to remark in these plagues of Egypt is, the progressive order from bad to worse, leading on to the most finished and full state of misery. And as when Israel went up afterwards with an high hand out of Egypt, a mixed multitude went with them, were not these such as grace had marked for the Lord's own? May we not consider them as types of the Gentile church given to the Lord Jesus, as well as the Jewish church? (Isaiah 49:6)...
The eighth plague is introduced by the Lord with bidding Moses, the man of God, to remark to Israel that the Lord had hardened the heart of Pharaoh purposely, that he might set forth his love to Israel in shewing these signs and wonders before them. "That thou mayest tell it, (saith the Lord) in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them, that ye may know how that I am the Lord. )...
The ninth plague was that of "darkness covering Egypt," while Goshen, the habitation of Israel, had light. Three days it continued in Egypt, so that they saw not one another, neither did any arise from his place; and to aggravate the horrid gloom, it was a darkness which reached to feeling also, though through mercy we know not what that means. ...
The tenth and last plague which the Lord inflicted upon Egypt, preparatory to Israel's departure, was that of the destruction of the first-born both of man and beast; and so universal was it, that it reached from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat upon his throne, to the first-born of the maid servant which ground at the mill. The imagination, can hardly conceive with what horrors the Egyptians arose to the death of their first-born when the midnight cry was so great, because there was not an house where there was not one dead. But I beg the reader, when he hath read the Holy Scriptures on this subject, as contained in the eleventh and twelfth chapters of Exodus, to pause over the history, and to remark with me whether there is not somewhat typical in the destruction of Egypt's first-born, and the salvation of Israel. The sprinkling of the blood on their houses was also typical, and the eating of it was typical; in short, the whole of this service, and appointed in such a moment, while Egypt was destroying, was wholly typical of Christ, and Israel's alone salvation by him. And though in our present twilight of knowledge our greatest researches go but a little way, yet certain it is, the destruction of Egypt, the hardening of Pharaoh's heart, and the heart of his people, and the delivery of Israel, all pointedly preached the same solemn truth, as it is the whole, tenor of revelation to declare, that the distinguishing grace of God is the sole cause wherefore Israel is saved and the Egyptians destroyed. I cannot better close the subject on the history of the plagues of Egypt, than by referring the reader to the apostle's divine conclusions on the same, and very earnestly begging the reader to go over, with suitable diligence and attention, and with prayer to God the Holy Ghost attention, and with prayer to God the Holy Ghost to bless him in the perusal, the ninth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans (Romans 9:1-33)
Senuti, an Anchorite - His father was a farmer in Egypt, and Senuti fed his sheep in boyhood. He attached himself to the monastery of Panopolis near Athrebi in Upper Egypt, where he soon attained such fame for sanctity and orthodoxy that Cyril would only set out for the council of Ephesus if he had the company of Senuti and Victor, archimandrite of Tabenna. He was wafted on a cloud to Egypt. 450 the dux of Upper Egypt, Maximin, hurrying to repel a terrific invasion of the Blemmyes, before he would advance sought the presence of Senuti, who gave Maximin his girdle to wear whenever he joined battle. Senuti followed Nestorius with bitter persecution to the last, even offering him personal violence when he lay dying in Egypt
Demetrius Nikator - He was later captured by the Parthians; on his release, after attacking Egypt he was defeated by Alexander Zabinas, a pretender, and assassinated at Tyre, 128 B
Onion - The Israelites in the wilderness longed for the "onions and garlick of Egypt" (Numbers 11:5 )
Nikator, Demetrius - He was later captured by the Parthians; on his release, after attacking Egypt he was defeated by Alexander Zabinas, a pretender, and assassinated at Tyre, 128 B
Nubians - (nyoo' bih uhnss) Residents of an ancient kingdom along the Nile river in southern Egypt and northern Sudan (Daniel 11:43 , NIV; also NRSV margin)
Passover - ) A feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the sparing of the Hebrews in Egypt, when God, smiting the firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites which were marked with the blood of a lamb
Urijah - Son of Shemaiah: he prophesied against Jerusalem and the land, and then fled into Egypt, but was sent for by Jehoiakim and put to death
Migdol - Moses writes, that when the Israelites came out of Egypt, the Lord commanded them to encamp over against Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-Zephon, Exodus 14:2
Naph'Tuhim - (border-people ), a Mizraite (Egyptian) nation or tribe mentioned only in the account of the descendants of Noah. ( Genesis 10:13 ; 1 Chronicles 1:11 ) If we may judge from their position in the list Of the Mizraites, the Naphtuhim were possibly settled, at first, either in Egypt or immediately to the west of it
Plough - The ploughs of ancient Egypt consisted of a share-often pointed with iron or bronze--two handles and a pole which was inserted into the base of the two handles
Plagues of Egypt - Plagues of Egypt. The ten plagues narrated in Exodus 7:1-25; Exodus 8:1-32; Exodus 9:1-35; Exodus 10:1-29; Exodus 11:1-10; Exodus 12:1-51 stand in close connection with the natural phenomena of Egypt, still they maintain their character as miracles. Exodus 8:5, etc, These ten plagues were doubtless spread over a long time, and probably they followed, as much as possible, the order of the seasons; for some of them were not only distinctively Egyptian, but really only an aggravation of yearly maladies. The fifth was in December or January; the sixth, shortly after; the seventh, at the time when hailstorms occur now in Egypt, from the middle of February to early March. The ninth was peculiarly Egyptian, and was the immediate precursor of the tenth
Habiru - in Mesopotamia, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt. In letters written from Palestine to Amarna in Egypt, they appear as rebels attacking cities belonging to the pharaohs of the fourteenth century, and in one text they are further identified as former slaves who had revolted. About the only possible relationship is that the Hebrews might have included some Habiru from Egypt or Canaan
Myra - The Alexandrian ships did not coast round the Levant, but took advantage of the steady west winds to cross direct between Lycia and Egypt. These winds made it easier for a ship sailing from Egypt to make for Myra, but a ship sailing to Egypt would be sailing more before the wind by taking a line from Patara
Nebuchadrezzar - The fall of Nineveh gave Egypt a chance to reclaim Syria, and Pharaoh-Necho made an attempt to regain it. He then recovered the whole of the West, and seems to have been threatening Egypt when recalled to Babylon by news of his father’s death. fought against Amasis in Egypt (cf
Zoan - Egypt would be important at that time. ...
Moses' exposure must have been in a branch of the Nile not infested by crocodiles, for neither would the parents have exposed him nor would Thermuthis ("the great mother", a designation of Neith the deity of Lower Egypt), Pharaoh's daughter, have bathed in a place infested by them; therefore not at Memphis where anciently they were common, but at Zoan on the Tanitic branch, near the sea, where crocodiles are never found, probably the western boundary of the district occupied by Israel. Amosis or Aahmes captured Zoan or Avaris from the shepherd kings, their last stronghold after ruling (See Egypt for 511 years
Egypt - According to tradition Saint Mark the Evangelist introduced the Catholic Faith into Alexandria which became the center of Christianity in Egypt. Organization of the Uniat Coptic Church dates from 1721 when Benedict XIV gave to Amba Athanasius, Coptic Bishop of Jerusalem, jurisdiction over all Catholics of the Coptic Rite in Egypt and elsewhere, and in 1895 Leo XIII restored the Patriarchate of Alexandria. ...
Vicariates Apostolic include: ...
Alessandria di Egitto (-Eliopoli di Egitto-Port-Said)
Alexandria (Armenian)
Hermopolis Magna
Eliopoli di Egitto
Port-Said
Coptic ecclesiastical divisions include: ...
Alessandria (Archdiocese)
Alessandria (Eparchy)
Assiut {Lycopolis} (Eparchy)
Guizeh (Eparchy)
Ismayliah (Eparchy)
Luqsor (Eparchy)
Minya (Eparchy)
Sohag (Eparchy)
Other ecclesiastical divisions include: ...
Alessandria (Melkite Archdiocese)
Iskanderiya (Armenian Eparchy)
Le Caire (Chaldean Eparchy)
Le Caire (Maronite Eparchy)
Le Caire (Syrian Eparchy)
See also: ...
World Fact Book
patron saints index: Egypt
Migdol - A Semitic word meaning ‘tower,’ borrowed by the Egyptians of the New Kingdom, and common as a word and in place-names. Exodus 14:2 , Numbers 33:7 , on the border of Egypt, near the spot where the Israelites crossed the Red Sea: probably a mere guardhouse on the road. extremity of Egypt, as Seveneh is the S
Fly - 'divers sorts of flies,' referring to one of the plagues in Egypt, and is translated 'swarms [1]' in Exodus 8:21-31 : so that more than one kind may have been meant. In the judgements of God in the days of Ahaz He hissed for the fly from the rivers of Egypt
Lotus - ) A name of several kinds of water lilies; as Nelumbium speciosum, used in religious ceremonies, anciently in Egypt, and to this day in Asia; Nelumbium luteum, the American lotus; and Nymphaea Lotus and N. caerulea, the respectively white-flowered and blue-flowered lotus of modern Egypt, which, with Nelumbium speciosum, are figured on its ancient monuments. ) An ornament much used in Egyptian architecture, generally asserted to have been suggested by the Egyptian water lily
Septuagint - , at Alexandria for the Jewish colonists of Egypt. It takes its name from a false legend which says that at the request of Ptolemy II (284-247), 72 scholars were sent from Jerusalem to Egypt to translate the Pentatetuch into Greek
Nile - the river of Egypt, whose fountain is in the Upper Ethiopia. Having crossed several kingdoms and provinces, it falls into Egypt at the cataracts, which are waterfalls over steep rocks of the length of two hundred feet. At the bottom of these rocks the Nile returns to its usual pace, and thus flows through the valley of Egypt. Homer, Xenophon, and Diodorus Siculus testify, that the ancient name of this river was Egyptus; and the latter of these writers says, that it took the name Nilus only since the time of a king of Egypt called by that name. The Egyptians paid divine honours to this river, and called it Jupiter Nilus. ...
Very little rain ever falls in Egypt, never sufficient to fertilize the land; and but for the provision of this bountiful river, the country would be condemned to perpetual sterility. It is probable, that, while in these countries, on the occasion referred to, the seven years' famine was the result of the absence of rain, in Egypt it was brought about by the inundation being withheld: and the consternation of the Egyptians, at witnessing this phenomenon for seven successive years, may easily be conceived. Although the Nile, by way of eminence, has been called "the river of Egypt," it must not be confounded with another stream so denominated in Scripture, an insignificant rivulet in comparison, which falls into the Mediterranean below Gaza
Lud - ...
...
One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Genesis 10:13 ), a people of Africa (Ezekiel 27:10 ; 30:5 ), on the west of Egypt
Apis - (ay' pihss) Sacred bull worshiped in Memphis, Egypt
Benjamin - Pressed by famine, Jacob would not send Benjamin with his brethren into Egypt, to seek grain, but consented when Joseph refused to give the grain unless the brothers were accompanied by Benjamin, to whom he was very devoted (Genesis 42,43)
Bolled - It is the fact that in Egypt when barley is in ear (about February) flax is blossoming
Jean de Mandeville - 1372),whose journeyings were limited to Egypt, adopted the name Mandeville in describing his supposed wanderings through Africa and Asia, as he was plagiarizing most of his work from the writings of the early Dominican and Franciscan missionaries and older authors
Birth-Day - They were specially celebrated in the land of Egypt (Genesis 40:20 )
Kesitah - The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used
Becher - First-born; a youth, the second son of Benjamin (Genesis 46:21 ), who came down to Egypt with Jacob
Muppim - Of Benjamin, one of Rachel's 14 descendants who went down to Egypt with Jacob (Genesis 46:21)
Bitter Herbs - They were interpreted as symbolizing the bitter experiences of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt
si'Hor - (dark ), accurately Shi'hor, once The Shihor, or Shihor of Egypt, when unqualified a name of the Nile
Tir'Hakah, - Possibly Tirhakah ruled over Ethiopia before becoming king of Egypt
Church, Greek or Eastern - Comprehends the churches of all the countries anciently subject to the Greek or Eastern empire, and through which their language was carried; that is, all the space extended from Greece to Mesopotamia and Persia, and thence into Egypt
Naphtuhim - The term may come from Egyptian for Ptah, pointing to Middle Egypt
Caravan - Palestine lay along the main travel route between Egypt, Arabia, and Mesopotamia and had many caravans passing through it
Amalecites - Instead of showing ordinary humanity to the stragglers of the Israelites when emerging from Egypt, they slew them, and incurred the Israelites' everlasting hatred
Artemius Megalomartyr, Saint - Appointed, by Emperor Constantius, imperial prefect of Egypt, he was a fanatical Arian, hunting down Athanasius and other bishops, monks, and virgins
Manasseh - Born in Egypt before the onset of the fateful famine
Anachorets - Such were Paul, Anthony, and Hilarion, the first founders of monastic life in Egypt and Palestine
Cush - The country peopled by Cush or the Ethiopians, Genesis 10:6, lying to the south of Egypt, on the upper Nile, and possibly extending its rule into southern Arabia
Nitre - It is found deposited in, or floating upon, certain lakes west of the Delta of Egypt
Passover - A feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the providential escape of the Hebrews, in Egypt, when God smiting the first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites, which were marked with the blood of the paschal lamb
Ger'Zites - (dwellers in the desert ), The, a tribe who with the Geshurites and the Amalekites occupied the land between the south of Palestine and Egypt in the time of Saul
Ger'Shon - The eldest of the three sons of Levi, born before the descent of Jacob's family into Egypt
Bereishit - Genesis ends with the Israelites' descent to Egypt and Jacob's passing
Camphire - The henna plant grows in Egypt, Syria, Arabia and northern India
Arimathea, or Ramah - It has generally been located at the modern Ramleh, a town near Lydda, of 3,000 inhabitants, in which the route from Egypt to Syria crosses that from Egypt to Syria crosses that from Jerusalem to Joppa
Herdsman - In Egypt herdsmen were probably of the lowest caste. The Israelites were known in Egypt as "keepers of cattle;" and when they left it they took their flocks and herds with them (Exodus 12:38 )
Paper - This plant (Papyrus Nilotica) is now unknown in Egypt; no trace of it can be found. The unaccountable disappearance of this plant from Egypt was foretold by (Isaiah 19:6,7 ) as a part of the divine judgment on that land
Famine - The first mentioned in Scripture was so grievous as to compel Abraham to go down to the land of Egypt (Genesis 26:1 ). But the most remarkable of all was that which arose in Egypt in the days of Joseph, which lasted for seven years (Genesis 4145-45 )
Pharaoh's Daughters - It would seem that she was alive and in some position of influence about the court when Moses was compelled to flee from Egypt, and thus for forty years he had in some way been under her influence. This is the first reference since the Exodus to any connection of Israel with Egypt
Tahapanes, Tahpanhes, Tehaphnehes - City in Lower Egypt, where Pharaoh had a house, and whither in disobedience the people of Judah fled after the murder of Gedaliah, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with them. Jeremiah prophesied that the king of Babylon should set his throne in that city and smite the land of Egypt
Tahpanhes - (tah' puhn heess) Hebrew transliteration of an Egyptian place name meaning, “fortress of Penhase” or “house of the Nubian. ” City in the Nile Delta near the eastern border of Egypt (Jeremiah 2:16 ). then crown prince Nebuchadrezzar defeated the Egyptian forces at Carchemish on the northern Euphrates and pursued them to the border of Egypt. Nebuchadrezzar and Pharoah Neco again fought to a stalemate at the Egyptian border
Neco - ) of the 26th dynasty of Egypt whose forces killed Josiah in battle ( 2 Kings 23:29-35 ; 2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ) and who installed Jehoiakim as king of Judah in his place (2 Kings 23:34-35 ). See Assyria; Egypt ; Josiah
Sin (1) - ) Pelusium (Ezekiel 30:15-16), the strength of Egypt, its frontier fortress on the N. of Egypt. " Ezekiel's prophecy "Sin shall have great pain" was fulfilled in the Persian Cambyses' great cruelty to the Egyptians after conquering Psammenitus near Pelusium
Put, Phut - A people counted amongst the sons of Ham ( Genesis 10:6 , 1 Chronicles 1:8 ), and frequently mentioned in the prophets as an ally of Egypt ( Jeremiah 46:9 , Ezekiel 27:10 ; Ezekiel 30:5 ; Ezekiel 38:5 , Nahum 3:9 ). : warriors may perhaps have been obtained thence for Egypt; or (2) Libya, whose people were called by the Egyptians Paiat (in the times of the Hebrew prophets the Libyans were the backbone of the semi-native army); or (3) the bow-bearing allies pidati (?); (4) being generally associated with Lud = Lydians (once in Nah
Libya - (Λιβύη, the country of the Λίβυες or Lubim)...
Libya was the name given by the Greeks to the great undefined region lying to the west of Egypt. It was for a long time equivalent to Africa, a Roman term which did not embrace Egypt till the days of Ptolemy (2nd cent. The beautiful and fertile country occupied and developed by them remained independent till it was annexed by the Macedonian conquerors of Egypt in 330 b
Hittites - ...
In various parts of Palestine and Syria monuments have been found of the Hittites, and in Egypt there are records of a long defensive treaty that was made between the Egyptians and the Hittites, showing that the latter were an important race. The Tell Amarna tablets show that they seized upon Damascus then held by Egypt. Letter after letter urged Egypt to come to the rescue
Abel-Mizraim - ("the mourning of the Egyptians" or "the funeral from Egypt". ) The threshingfloor of Atad; so called by the Canaanites, because it was the chief scene of the funeral laments of Joseph and his Egyptian retinue for Jacob (Genesis 50:4-11). The same route by which Joseph was led captive was, in the striking providence of God, that which they took to do honor to his deceased father, being the longer and more public way from Egypt to Canaan. " The phrase, "Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh" implies that Pharaoh and his estates in council decreed a state funeral for Jacob, in which the princes, nobles, and chief men of Egypt, with their pomp of chariots and equipages, took part. The usual Egyptian rites on such occasions consisted in banquets and games, as Egyptian monuments show
Oil - The great demand for it in Egypt led the Jews to send it thither. The Prophet Hosea thus upbraids his degenerate nation with the servility and folly, of their conduct: "Ephraim feedeth on wind, and followeth after the east wind; he daily increaseth falsehood and vanity; and a league is made with Assyria, and oil carried into Egypt," Hosea 12:1 . The Israelites, in the decline of their national glory, carried the produce of their olive plantations into Egypt as a tribute to their ancient oppressors, or as a present to conciliate their favour, and obtain their assistance in the sanguinary wars which they were often compelled to wage with the neighbouring states
Dragon - The dragon temples are serpentine in form; dragon standards were used in Egypt and Babylon, and among the widely-scattered Celts. Large whales do not often frequent the Mediterranean, which was the sea that the Israelites knew; they apply "sea" to the Nile and Euphrates, and so apply "tannin " to the crocodile, their horror in Egypt, as also to the large serpents which they saw in the desert. ...
In Psalms 74:13, "Thou brokest the heads of the dragons in the waters," Egypt's princes and Pharaoh are poetically represented hereby, just as crocodiles are the monarchs of the Nile waters. So (Isaiah 51:9-10) the crocodile is the emblem of Egypt and its king on coins of Augustus struck after the conquest of Egypt
Fly - They abound in Egypt, and are annoying and vexatious in the extreme, attacking the eyelids, etc. ...
In Isaiah 7:18 , the prophet describing the armies of Egypt and Assyria, each under the symbol of one of the prevalent insects in those countries, says, "And it shall come to pass in that day that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt;" (or rather, as the same Hebrew word is rendered in Exodus 16:35 , the fly that is in the borders of the streams of Egypt,)" and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria
Hellenist - , a person of Jewish extraction who used the Greek language as his mother tongue, as did the Jews of Asia Minor, Greece, Syria, and Egypt; distinguished from the Hebraists, or native Jews (Acts vi
Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus - Caesar of Syria and Egypt from the year 305 under his uncle Augustus Galerius
Maximinus, Gaius Valerius Galerius - Caesar of Syria and Egypt from the year 305 under his uncle Augustus Galerius
Zipporah - Stayed behind in Midian with their two sons while Moses went to Egypt to liberate the Israelites
Ephraim - Born in Egypt before the onset of the fateful famine
Harrow - It may have resembled the instrument still in use in Egypt
Nitre - , "soda"), properly "natron," a substance so called because, rising from the bottom of the Lake Natron in Egypt, it becomes dry and hard in the sun, and is the soda which effervesces when vinegar is poured on it
Ceilings - The vermilion painting of the ceiling in Jehoiakim's palace was probably borrowed from Egypt
Attalia - The city was founded by and named from Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamus, as a port at the mouth of the river Catarrhactes, for the commerce of Egypt and Syria, as Troas was for that of the AEgean
Jehucal - Apparently, Zedekiah wanted blessing on his efforts to cooperate with Egypt against Babylon about 587 B
Blains - The sixth Egyptian plague, which followed after Moses' sprinkling of the furnace ashes toward heaven; "the botch of Egypt" (Deuteronomy 28:27; Deuteronomy 28:35), black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcerous pustules on the skin
Thebes - (theebess) The capital of Egypt's Upper Kingdom for most of its history (about 2000-661 B. Thebes (called No in KJV) was the center of worship for the god Amon, a chief deity in Egyptian religion. See Egypt
Dough - The necessity for haste at the Hebrews' departure from Egypt caused them to carry their dough before it was leavened (Exodus 12:34 )
Husks - Greek keratia ("horns"), the horn-like pods of the carob tree, abounding in Syria and Egypt, Ceratonia siliqua (Luke 15:16)
Hashmannim - Hebrew for "princes shall come out of Egypt" (Psalms 68:31); rich nobles, whence the Maccabees took their name Asmonaeans. The Egyptian civil name of Hermopolis Magna was Hashmen. The idol of wisdom, Hermes, Thoth, gave his name to the city; thus the derived term Hashmannim means "wisest Egyptian princes
Honoratus, Saint - 368,to visit Palestine and Egypt
Cub - Nahum 3:9 , where Lybians are mentioned along with Cush (Ethiopia), Egypt, and Put, as here; also 2Ch 12:3 ; 2 Chronicles 16:8
Dromedary - It is a common beast of burden in Egypt, Syria, and the neighboring countries
Stubble - Stubble was used by God's people to make bricks while they were slaves in Egypt (Exodus 5:12 )
Mixed Multitude - The term is used for those foreigners who joined with the Israelites in the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:38 ), who became associated with the people of Judah during the Exile (Nehemiah 13:3 ), or who were associated with the Egyptians (Jeremiah 25:20 ) or Babylonians (Jeremiah 50:37 )
Arkite - Thutmose III of Egypt conquered it
Syene - Town in the south of Egypt, bordering on Ethiopia
Shishak - King of Egypt, known as Sheshonk I
Shiphrah And Puah - Midwives in Egypt, who through the fear of God spared the newborn sons of the Hebrews, contrary to the orders of the king
Skull - Emblem in art, symbolic of meditation and of detachment from the world, usually associated with hermits and solitaries, especially ...
Saint Bruno
Saint Francis Borgia
Saint Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Paola
Saint Gebhard of Constance
Blessed Godfrey of Cappenberg
Saint Jerome
Saint Mary of Egypt
Saint Macarius the Younger
Saint Odilo of Cluny
Blessed Peter of Città di Castello
Cotton - Was a native product of India, and perhaps of Egypt, and is supposed to be intended in some of the passages where the English version has "fine linen. " It had been much disputed whether cotton clothe was used by the ancient Hebrews and Egyptian mummies were wrapped, proves that this material was sometimes used, especially for children
e'Tham - (bounded by the sea ), one of the early resting-places of the Israelites when they quitted Egypt; described as "in the edge of the wilderness
Nose-Jewel, - In Egypt it is now almost confined to the lower classes
Cupbearer, - an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian and Assyrian as well as Jewish monarchs. (Nehemiah 1:11 ) The chief cupbearer, or butler, to the king of Egypt was the means of raising Joseph to his high position
es'Dras, the Second Book of - Like the first book, it was probably written in Egypt
Ethiopia - (ee' thi oh' pi uh) The region of Nubia just south of Egypt, from the first cataract of the Nile into the Sudan. The Old Testament Hebrew (and Egyptian) name for the region was Cush. In biblical times, Ethiopia was equivalent to Nubia, the region beyond the first cataract of the Nile south, or upstream, of Egypt. This region, with an abundance of natural resources, was known to the Egyptians as Cush and was occupied by them during periods of Egyptian strength. ), Ethiopia was totally incorporated into the Egyptian Empire and ruled through an official called the “viceroy of Cush. ”...
When Egyptian power waned, Nubia became independent under a line of rulers who imitated Egyptian culture. When Egypt fell into a period of chaos about 725 B. , they succeeded in establishing control over all of Egypt and ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. ...
The Assyrian Empire invaded Egypt in 671 B. , driving the Ethiopian pharaohs southward and eventually sacking the Egyptian capital Thebes (biblical No-Amon; Nahum 3:8 ) in 664 B. Excavations in Nubia have revealed numerous pyramid tombs at Napata and Meroe as well as several temples to the Egyptian god Amun
Pharaoh - The common title of the king of Egypt—also called Pharaoh-necho and Pharaoh-hophra. The date of Abraham's visit to Egypt is most probably fixed at about b. The Pharaoh of the Oppression—" the new king over Egypt who knew not Joseph," Exodus 1:8, and under whose reign Moses was born—probably Rameses II. , the Sesostris of the Greeks, the master-builder of Egypt, whose statues and temples in ruins are found all over the Nile valley from Zoan (Tanis) to Karnak. The Pharaoh who gave the sister of his queen in marriage to Hadad, an Edomite of royal blood, who escaped the massacre of Joab and fled to Egypt. Jerusalem fell, and Nebuchadnezzar made a successful invasion into Egypt
Calf Worship - ) The Israelites "in Egypt" had served the Egyptian idols (Joshua 24:14), including the sacred living bulls Apis, Basis, and Mnevis, and sacred cows Isis and Athor; worshipped for their utility to man, and made symbols of the sun and Osiris. But Aaron's golden calf he expressly calls, "thy Elohim which brought thee up out of Egypt"; and the feast to it "a feast to Jehovah" (Exodus 32:4-8; Exodus 32:17-19). Israel too had just seen that "upon Egypt's gods Jehovah executed judgments" (Numbers 33:4). What they yearned for therefore was not the vanquished Egyptian idols, but some visible symbol of the unseen Jehovah; the cherubic emblem, the calf or ox, furnished this. God) into the similitude of an ox that eateth grass"; indeed the Egyptians used to offer a bottle of hay to Apis. , which the Israelites were familiar with in Egypt, they transferred to Jehovah's calf image. Jeroboam's calves, which his exile in Egypt familiarized him with, and which he subsequently set up at Dan and Bethel similarly, were not set up to oppose Jehovah's worship, but to oppose His worship by Jeroboam's subjects at Jerusalem, lest they should thereby be alienated from him (1 Kings 12:26-29). It was notorious that it was Jehovah who delivered Israel out of Egypt; and, like Aaron, Jeroboam says of the calves, thereby identifying them with Jehovah, "Behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of Egypt
Horse - The patriarchs had none; and after the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, God expressly forbade their ruler to procure them: "He shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the Lord hath said, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way," Deuteronomy 17:16 . As horses appear to have been generally furnished by Egypt, God prohibits these,...
1. Lest there should be such commerce with Egypt as might lead to idolatry. To Moses, educated as he was in Egypt, and, with his people, at last chased out by Pharaoh's cavalry, the use of the horse for war and for travelling was well known; but as it was his object to establish a nation of husbandmen, and not of soldiers for the conquest of foreign lands, and as Palestine, from its situation, required not the defence of cavalry, he might very well decline introducing among his people the yet unusual art of horse breeding. Solomon, having married a daughter of Pharaoh, procured a breed of horses from Egypt; and so greatly did he multiply them, that he had four hundred stables, forty thousand stalls, and twelve thousand horsemen, 1 Kings 4:26 ; 2 Chronicles 9:25 . It seems that the Egyptian horses were in high repute, and were much used in war. When the Israelites were disposed to place too implicit confidence in the assistance of cavalry, the prophet remonstrated in these terms: "The Egyptians are men, and not God, and their horses are flesh, not spirit,"...
Isaiah 31:3
Pharaoh - Is properly an Egyptian word adopted into the Hebrew, and signifies king; so that when we find this name it means everywhere the king. ...
Of the kings of Egypt, there are not less than twelve or thirteen mentioned in Scripture, all of whom bore the general title of Pharaoh, except four. Indeed, so brief, obscure, and conflicting are the details of Egyptian history and ancient chronology, which no name before that of Shishak can be regarded as identified beyond dispute. ...
Very probably there was another Pharaoh reigning at the time when Moses fled into Midian, and who died before Moses at the age of eighty returned from Midian into Egypt, Exodus 2:11-23 4:19 Acts 7:23 . Pharaoh, under whom the Israelites left Egypt, and who perished in the Red Sea, Exodus 5:1-14:31 2 Kings 17:7 Nehemiah 9:10 Psalm 135:9 136:13 Romans 9:17 Hebrews 11:27 , B. From this time onward the proper name of the Egyptian kings are mentioned in Scripture. Zerah, king of Egypt and Ethiopia in the time of Asa, B. Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia and Egypt, in the time of Hezekiah, B. Zedekiah formed an alliance with him against Nebuchadnezzar, and he drove the Assyrians from Palestine, took Zidon and Tyre, and returned to Egypt with great spoil
Exodus - Israel's escape from slavery in Egypt and journey towards the Promised Land under Moses. The most important event in the Old Testament historically and theologically is Israel's Exodus from Egypt. More than a hundred times in all parts of the Old Testament except the Wisdom Literature, Yahweh is proclaimed as “the one who brought you up from the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Just as Israel commemorated her deliverance from Egyptian bondage in the feast of Passover, Christians celebrate their redemption from sin in the observance of the Lord's Supper (Luke 22:1-20 ; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 ). However, Egyptian sources do confirm the general situation that we find in the end of Genesis and the beginning of the Book of Exodus. There are many reports in Egyptian sources of nomadic people called Habiru coming into Egypt from the east fleeing from famine. Extra-biblical evidence from Egypt indicates that Egypt used slave labor in building projects ( Exodus 1:11 ). At one time the land in Egypt was owned by many landholders; but after the reign of the Hyksos kings the Pharaoh owned most of the land, and the people were serfs of the king (Genesis 47:20 ). The people of Israel went up from the land of Egypt “equipped for battle” (Exodus 13:18 RSV), but God did not lead them by the way of the Philistines, which was the closest way but it was also the way of war. God thought that if Israel saw war she would repent and return to Egypt ( Exodus 13:17 ). God brought the plagues on Egypt (Exodus 7:1-5 ). 1 Kings 6:1 says, “In the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month of Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord. Exodus 1:11 says, however, that the Israelites in Egypt built the store cities of Pithom and Raamses for Pharaoh. Evidently the name Raamses was not used in Egypt before 1300 B. ...
Another difficulty in dating these events is that although the term “pharaoh” is used over a hundred times in the first fifteen chapters of Exodus to refer to the king of Egypt, the title is always anonymous. ...
It has been the opinion of most scholars since the rise of modern Egyptology that the Exodus likely occurred during the reign of Ramses II in the nineteenth dynasty about 1270 B
Egypt - a country of Africa, called also in the Hebrew Scriptures the land of Mizraim, and the land of Ham; by the Turks and Arabs, Masr and Misr; and by the native Egyptians, Chemi, or the land of Ham. Faber derives the name from Ai-Capht, or the land of the Caphtorim; from which, also, the modern Egyptians derive their name of Cophts. Egypt was first peopled after the deluge by Mizraim, or Mizr, the son of Ham, who is supposed to be the same with Menes, recorded in Egyptian history as the first king. Nor have we any clear information from Heathen writers, until the time of Cyrus, and his son Cambyses, when the line of Egyptian princes ceased in agreement with prophecies to that effect. Manetho, the Egyptian historian, has given a list of thirty dynasties, which, if successive, make a period of five thousand three hundred years to the time of Alexander, or three thousand two hundred and eighty-two years more than the real time, according to the Mosaic chronology. In the time of Moses we find Egypt renowned for learning; for he was instructed "in all its wisdom;" and it is one of the commendations of Solomon, at a later period, that he excelled in knowledge "all the wisdom of the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt. Of all this knowledge, good and evil, and of a monstrous system of idolatry, Egypt was the polluted fountain to the surrounding nations; but in that country itself it appears to have degenerated into the most absurd and debased forms. Diodorus Siculus, mentioning the Egyptians, informs us, that "the first men, looking up to the world above them, and, struck with admiration at the nature of the universe, supposed the sun and moon to be the principal and eternal gods. The sun and moon, under the names of Isis and Osiris, were the chief objects of adoration among the Egyptians. The following inscription, engraven in hieroglyphics in the temple of Neith, the Egyptian Minerva, conveys the most sublime idea of the Deity which unenlightened reason could form: "I am that which is, was, and shall be: no mortal hath lifted up my veil: the offspring of my power is the sun. According to the Egyptian cosmogony, all things sprung from athor, or night, by which they denoted the darkness of chaos before the creation. A superstitious reverence for certain animals, as propitious or hurtful to the human race, was not peculiar to the Egyptians. We need not therefore be surprised that a nation so superstitious as the Egyptians should honour, with peculiar marks of respect, the ichneumon, the ibis, the dog, the falcon, the wolf, and the crocodile. What chiefly tended to favour the progress of animal worship in Egypt, was the language of hieroglyphics. In the midst of innumerable superstitions, the theology of Egypt contained the two great principles of religion, the existence of a supreme Being, and the immortality of the soul. ...
The first is proved by the inscription on the temple of Minerva; the second, by the care with which dead bodies were embalmed, and the prayer recited at the hour of death, by an Egyptian, expressing his desire to be received to the presence of the deities. The opulence of Egypt was for ages increased by the large share it had in the commerce with the east; by its own favourable position, making it the connecting link of intercourse between the eastern and western nations; and especially by its own remarkable fertility, particularly in corn, so that it was, in times of scarcity, the granary of the world. Jowett has given a striking example of the extraordinary fertility of the soil of Egypt, which is alluded to in Genesis 41:47 : "The earth brought forth by handfuls. The architecture of the early Egyptians, at least that of their cities and dwellings, was rude and simple: they could indeed boast of little in either external elegance or internal comfort, since Herodotus informs us that men and beasts lived together. Their composition was necessarily perishable, and explains why it is that no remains of the ancient cities of Egypt are to be found. Of precisely the same materials are the villages of Egypt built at this day. In every part of Egypt, we find the towns built in this manner, upon the ruins, or rather the rubbish, of the former habitations. The expression in Jeremiah 30:18 , literally applies to Egypt, in the meanest sense: ‘The city shall be builded upon her own heap. The splendid temples of Egypt were not built, in all probability, till after the time of Solomon; for the recent progress made in the decyphering of hieroglyphics has disappointed the antiquaries as to the antiquity of these stupendous fabrics. All were, however, outdone, at least in massiveness and durability, by the Egyptians; the architectural design of whose temples, as well as that of the Grecian edifices, was borrowed from the stems and branches of the grove temples. Faber thinks, the work of the "Shepherds," or Cushite invaders, who, at an early period, held possession of Egypt for two hundred and sixty years, and reduced the Egyptians to bondage, so that "a shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time. They strikingly illustrate the case of the officers placed by the Egyptian taskmasters over the children of Israel; and, like theirs, the mollems often find their case is evil, Exodus 5. It is not necessary to go over those parts of the Egyptian history which occur in the Old Testament. So great, indeed, was the hatred of the Egyptians toward their oppressors, that they hailed the approach of the Macedonians, and threw open their cities to receive them. Alexander, merciless as he was to those who opposed his progress or authority, knew how to requite those who were devoted to his interests; and the Egyptians, for many centuries afterward, had reason to recollect with gratitude his protection and foresight. Egypt, indeed, was about to see better days; and, during the reigns of the Ptolemies, enjoyed again, for nearly three hundred years, something of its former renown for learning and power. Judea was, in fact, at this time, a privileged province of Egypt; the Jews being governed by their own high priest, on paying a tribute to the kings of Egypt. But still, in Egypt, the Jews continued in the enjoyment of their privileges, so late as the reign of the sixth Ptolemy, called Philometor, who committed the charge of his affairs to two Jews, Onias and Dositheus; the former of whom obtained permission to build a temple at Heliopolis. The introduction of Christianity into Egypt is mentioned under the article See ALEXANDRIA . The prophecies respecting Egypt in the Old Testament have had a wonderful fulfilment. The knowledge of all its greatness and glory deterred not the Jewish prophets from declaring, that Egypt would become "a base kingdom, and never exalt itself any more among the nations. Egypt was the theme of many prophecies, which were fulfilled in ancient times; and it bears to the present day, as it has borne throughout many ages, every mark with which prophecy had stamped its destiny: "They shall be a base kingdom. I will make the land of Egypt desolate, and the country shall be desolate of that whereof it was full. And there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:5 ; Ezekiel 30:7 ; Ezekiel 30:12-13 . "The sceptre of Egypt shall depart away," Zechariah 10:11 . Egypt became entirely subject to the Persians about three hundred and fifty years previous to the Christian aera. In 1250 the Mamelukes deposed their rulers, and usurped the command of Egypt. No son of the former ruler, no native of Egypt, succeeded to the sovereignty; but a chief was chosen from among a new race of imported slaves. When Egypt became tributary to the Turks in 1517, the Mamelukes retained much of their power; and every pasha was an oppressor and a stranger. During all these ages, every attempt to emancipate the country, or to create a prince of the land of Egypt, has proved abortive, and has often been fatal to the aspirant. Though the facts relative to Egypt form too prominent a feature in the history of the world to admit of contradiction or doubt, yet the description of the fate of that country, and of the form of its government, may be left, says Keith, to the testimony of those whose authority no infidel will question, and whom no man can accuse of adapting their descriptions to the predictions of the event. Volney and Gibbon are our witnesses of the facts: "Such is the state of Egypt. Yet such has been the state of Egypt above five hundred years. And there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt. The sceptre of Egypt shall depart away. " After the lapse of two thousand and four hundred years from the date of this prophecy, a scoffer at religion, but an eye witness of the facts, thus describes the self-same spot: "In Egypt," says Volney, "there is no middle class, neither nobility, clergy, merchants, landholders. Egypt is surrounded by the dominions of the Turks and of the Arabs; and the prophecy is literally true which marked it in the midst of desolation: "They shall be desolate in the midst of the countries that are desolate, and her cities shall be in the midst of the cities that are wasted. Egypt has, indeed, lately somewhat risen, under its present spirited but despotic pasha, to a degree of importance and commerce. "The Lord shall smite Egypt: he shall smite and heal it: and they shall return to the Lord, and he shall be entreated of them, and shall heal them. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land," &c, Isaiah 19:22-25
Atad - Buckthorn, a place where Joseph and his brethren, when on their way from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of their father Jacob, made for seven days a "great and very sore lamentation
Zipporah - In consequence of the event recorded in Exodus 4:24-26 , she and her two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, when so far on the way with Moses toward Egypt, were sent back by him to her own kinsfolk, the Midianites, with whom they sojourned till Moses afterwards joined them (18:2-6)
Fuel - Wood or charcoal is much used still in all the towns of Syria and Egypt
Elnathan - Jehoiakim's ready tool for evil, in fetching the prophet Urijah out of Egypt to be killed (Jeremiah 26:22-23); one of the king's council when Jeremiah's roll was burned (Jeremiah 36:12; Jeremiah 36:25); he interceded with the king not to burn it
Amram - He died in Egypt at the age of 137 years (Exodus 6:20 )
Paran - ) Refugees at times escaped to Paran, and the people of Israel camped there on their way from Egypt to Canaan (Genesis 21:21; Numbers 10:12; Numbers 13:25-26; 1 Kings 11:17-18)
Heifer - Israel is compared to a heifer in Hosea 4:16 , and so is Egypt in Jeremiah 46:20 , and Chaldæa in Jeremiah 50:11
Sarah - She was miraculously protected when she was abducted by the kings of Egypt and Philistine
Sin, Wilderness of - The Hebrew people stopped here on their journey from Egypt to the Promised Land (Exodus 16:1 )
Candace - The Candace who invaded Egypt in b
Ink, Inkhorn - We know from the papyrus rolls discovered in Egypt that writing with pen, or reed, and ink was practised in early days
Pipe - They were sometimes double, as seen on the Egyptian monuments, and in present use in Egypt: a number of them fastened together was called an 'organ
Enchantment - ...
The magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments
Redemption - The Israelites were redeemed from Egypt
Alexandria, Patriarchate of - Founded in Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist
a'Bel-Mizra'im - (meadow of Egypt ), the name given by the Canaanites to the floor of Atad, at which Joseph, his brothers and the Egyptians made their mourning for Jacob
pi-Beseth - A city of Egypt, called by the Greeks Bubastos, and containing a famous temple of the goddess Bubastis, who was compared to the Diana of Southern Europe
Weaving - An art very early practiced by all nations, and exhibited on the ancient monuments of Egypt, Genesis 41:42
Hormah - Destruction, Numbers 21:1-3 ; also called Zephath; a city in the extreme south of Canaan, near which the rebellious Hebrews were defeated, in the second year after leaving Egypt, Numbers 14:45 ; it was afterwards laid waste, Judges 1:16,17
Aaron - Moses’ partner and spokesman in his mission to free the Israelites from Egypt
o'Nan - (Genesis 38:9 ) His death took place before the family of Jacob went down into Egypt
Pharaoh - A title meaning, “great house” for the ancient kings of Egypt. ...
Egyptians applied “pharaoh” to the royal palace and grounds in the fourth dynasty (about 2500 B. ...
References to ten pharaohs can be clearly distinguished in the Old Testament: the Pharaoh of Abraham, Genesis 12:10-20 ; of Joseph, Genesis 39-50 ; of the Oppression, Exodus 1:1 ; of the Exodus, Exodus 2:23-15:19 ; of 1 Chronicles 4:18 ; of Solomon, 1 Kings 3-11 ; of Rehoboam, called Shishak, king of Egypt, 1 Kings 14:25 ; of Hezekiah and Isaiah, 2 Kings 18:21 ; Isaiah 36:1 ; of Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29 ; of Jeremiah 44:30 and Ezekiel 29:1-16 . See Egypt ; Exodus
Plague - ...
The ten plagues of Egypt were judgments of God on the stubborn nation and its king. Both people and king were bitterly opposed to Yahweh, the God of Israel, and were devoted followers of Yahweh’s real enemies, the Egyptian gods (Exodus 9:27; Exodus 12:12). These were gods of nature and were therefore connected with the Nile River, upon which Egypt depended entirely for its agricultural life. The tenth plague was God’s final great judgment on Egypt and at the same time his act of redemption for his people
Famine - wind on the contrary brings rains, and retards the too rapid current) in Egypt, the ancient granary of the world, often brought famines (Genesis 41:25-36; Genesis 41:42). Abraham's faith was tried by the famine which visited the land promised as his inheritance immediately after his entering it; yet though going down to Egypt for food, it was only "to sojourn," not to live there, for his faith in the promise remained unshaken. has been found in China, which agrees with the time of Joseph's seven years of famine in Egypt
Ptolemies - (ptahl' eh meess) Dynastic powers which emerged in Egypt in the aftermath of the conquests of Alexander the Great. ) established the dynasty which bears his name and moved the capitol of Egypt from Memphis to Alexandria, the city Alexander founded. During the campaigns to secure Palestine for Egypt, Ptolemy I transported large numbers of Jews from Palestine to Alexandria for settlement. Egypt successfully resisted the Seleucid challenge under the first three Ptolemaic rulers. , Antiochus III defeated the Egyptian army at Banyas (later Caesarea Philippi) and seized control of Palestine. Cleopatra VII was the last Ptolemaic ruler prior to the annexation of Egypt to Rome in 30 B
Ham - The original (?) use of the name as = Egypt appears in Psalms 78:51 ; Psalms 105:23 ; Psalms 105:27 ; Psalms 106:22 . It has been derived from an Egyptian word kem , ‘black,’ in allusion to the dark soil of Egypt as compared with the desert sands (but see Ham [1]). Hâm came to be considered the eponymous ancestor of a number of other peoples, supposed to have been connected with Egypt ( Genesis 10:6-20 ). ) The peoples connected, geographically, with Hâm include Egypt (Mizraim), and the country S. The descendants of these four respectively are so described in most cases from their geographical position, but at least one nation, the Caphtorim, from its political connexion with Egypt (see Driver on Genesis 9:14 )
Apries - a king of Egypt, called in the sacred writings Pharaoh Hophrah, Jeremiah 44:30 . The Egyptians resolved to make him responsible for this ill success, rebelled, and pretended that he undertook the war. But Apries not daring to hazard a battle against the Chaldeans, retreated into Egypt, and abandoned Zedekiah. Ezekiel reproaches Egypt severely with this baseness, and says that it had been a staff of reed to the house of Israel, and an occasion of falling; for when they took hold of it by the hand, it broke and rent all their shoulder. He therefore prophesies that Egypt should be reduced to a solitude, and that God would send against it the sword, which would destroy in it man and beast, Ezekiel 29. This was afterward accomplished, first, in the time of Apries; and secondly, in the conquest of Egypt by the Persians
Eliezer - He remained with his mother and brother Gershom with Jethro when Moses returned to Egypt. They were restored to Moses when Jethro heard of his departure out of Egypt
Zoan - (Old Egypt. This great and important city was the capital of the Hyksos, or Shepherd kings, who ruled Egypt for more than 500 years
Necho - King of Egypt. 610, he halted in Riblah in Syria, and sending for Jehoahaz, king of the Jews, he deposed him, loaded him with chains, and sent him into Egypt
Miriam - She was a prophetess, and led the celebration that followed Israel’s victory over Egypt at the Red Sea (Exodus 15:19-21). ...
Miriam died in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan
Calves, Golden - The bull was used to represent many gods in the Ancient Near East, particularly Amon-Re in Egypt and El and Baal in Canaan. In both instances the calves represent the gods who brought Israel up from Egypt
Goshen - The name of the tract of country in Egypt which was inhabited by the Israelites from the time of Jacob to that of Moses. It was near Heliopolis and Rameses, and not far from the capital of Egypt, Genesis 45:10 47:11 Exodus 8:1-12:51 . Many Egyptians dwelt among and around them
Cucumbers - This word occurs in ( Numbers 11:5 ) as one of the good things of Egypt produces excellent cucumbers, melons, etc. sativus ), of which the Arabs distinguish a number of varieties, is common in Egypt
ha'Dad - In his childhood he escaped the massacre under Joab, and fled with a band of followers into Egypt. He left Egypt and returned to his own country
Flax, - Egypt was celebrated for the culture of flax and the manufacture of linen. It seems probable that the cultivation of flax for the purpose of the manufacture of linen was by no means confined to Egypt, but that, originating in India, it spread over Asia at a very early period of antiquity
Pottery - They had themselves been concerned in the potter's trade in Egypt, (Psalm 81:6 ) and the wall-paintings minutely illustrate the Egyptian process. How early the wheel came into use in Palestine is not known, but it seems likely that it was adopted from Egypt
Egypt - Egypt . Habitable and cultivable Egypt consists practically of the broad fan-shaped’ Delta opening on to the Mediterranean, and the narrow valley of the Nile bordered by deserts as far as the First Cataract (beyond which is Nubia, i. Egypt was divided anciently into Upper and Lower, the latter comprising the Delta and a portion of the valley reaching above Memphis, while Upper Egypt (the northern portion of which is often spoken of as Middle Egypt) terminated at the First Cataract (Aswan). The alluvial land of Egypt is very fertile and easy to cultivate. ...
In this brief sketch it is impossible to bestow more than a glance upon the various aspects of Egyptian civilization. The ancient Egyptians were essentially not negroes, though some affirm that their skulls reveal a negro admixture. The Egyptian, like the old Hebrew writing, cannot record vowels, but only the consonantal skeletons of words. * [1] ...
The Egyptian artist at his best could rise to great beauty and sublimity, but the bulk of his work is dead with conventionality, and he never attained to the idea of perspective in drawing. The Egyptian engineers could accurately place the largest monoliths, without, however, learning any such mechanical contrivances as the pulley or the screw. The ‘wisdom of the Egyptians’ was neither far advanced nor profound, though many ideas were familiar to them that had never entered the heads of the nomads and inferior races about them. Their mathematics and astronomy were of the simplest kind; yet the Egyptian calendar was infinitely superior to all its contemporaries, and is scarcely surpassed by our own. The special importance attached by the Egyptians to the disposal and furnishing of the body after death may have been inspired by the preservative climate. We may well admire the early connexion of religion with morality, shown especially in the ‘Negative Confession’ and the judgment scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating not later than the 18th Dynasty; yet in practice the Egyptian religion, so far as we can judge, was mainly a compelling of the gods by magic formulæ. The worship of animals was probably restricted to a few sacred individuals in early Egypt, but a degree of sanctity was afterwards extended to the whole of a species, and to almost every species. The History of Egypt was divided by Manetho (who wrote for Ptolemy I. ...
The historic period must have been preceded by a long pre-historic age, evidenced in Upper Egypt by extensive cemeteries of graves containing fine pottery, instruments in flint exquisitely worked, and in bone and copper, and shapely vessels in hard stone. Tradition points to separate kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt towards the close of this period. Nubia furnished troops to the Egyptian armies from the distant south as far perhaps as Khartum. , Egypt was as great as it was in the 4th Dyn. were of the little-known Hyksos or ‘Shepherd kings,’ apparently invaders from the East, who for a time ruled all Egypt ( c [6], it rapidly declined: the Hittites were pressing into Syria from the north, and all the while the Pharaoh was a dreamer absorbed in establishing a monotheistic worship of Aton (the sun) against the polytheism of Egypt, and more especially against the Theban and national worship of Ammon. , on the other hand, was as active in the Delta as in other parts of Egypt, and although Ammon remained the principal god of the State, Ptah of Memphis and Rç the sun-god of Heliopolis were given places of honour at his side. was the greatest builder of all the Pharaohs, covering the land with temples and monuments of stone, the inscriptions and scenes upon them in many cases extolling his exploit against the Hittites at the battle of Kadesh, when his personal prowess saved the Egyptian camp and army from overwhelming disaster. the assaults on Egypt were renewed with greater violence than ever by Libyans from the west and by sea-rovers from the islands and coasts of the eastern Mediterranean. The latter was victorious everywhere, on sea and on land, and a great incursion from the north, after maiming the Hittite power, was hurled back by the Egyptian king, who then established his rule in Syria and Phœnicia over a wider area than his celebrated namesake had controlled. ...
Egypt now ( c
Throughout the Hellenistic (Ptolemaic and Roman) period the capital of Egypt was Alexandria, the intellectual head of the world. Under the Ptolemys, Egypt on the whole prospered for two centuries, though often torn by war and dissension. 170) a temple was built by the high-priest Onias for the Jews in Egypt after the model of the Temple at Jerusalem (Josephus, BJ VII. Egypt gradually recovered under its new masters, and in the second cent. Egypt in the Bible is Egypt under the Deltaic Dynasties, or, at earliest, of the New Kingdom. Abraham and Joseph may belong chronologically to the Middle Kingdom, but the Egyptian names in the story of Joseph are such as were prevalent only in the time of the Deltaic Dynasties. There were wide differences in manners and customs and in the condition of the country and people at different periods of the history of Egypt. It may be remarked that there were settlements of Jews in Pathros (Upper Egypt) as early as the days of Jeremiah, and papyri indicate the existence of an important Jewish colony at Syene and Elephantine, on the S. border of Egypt, at an equally early date. The OT writers naturally show themselves much better acquainted with the eastern Delta, and especially the towns on the road to Memphis, than with any other part of Egypt. Of localities in Upper Egypt only Syene and Thebes (No) are mentioned; in Middle Egypt, Hanes; while on the eastern border and the route to Memphis (Noph) are Shihor, Shur, Sin, Migdol, Tahpanhes, Pi-beseth, On; and by the southern route, Goshen, Pithom, Succoth, Rameses, besides lesser places in the Exodus. There are but few instances in which the borrowing of Egyptian customs or even words by the Hebrews can be traced; but the latter were none the less well acquainted with Egyptian ways. The Egyptian mourning of 70 days for Jacob is characteristic ( Genesis 50:3 ), so also may be the baker’s habit of carrying on the head ( Genesis 40:16-17 ). The assertion that to eat bread with the Hebrews was an abomination to the Egyptians ( Genesis 43:32 ) has not yet been satisfactorily explained. the sheep and the cow, which Egyptians in the later days were forbidden to slay by their religious scruples. Circumcision was frequent in Egypt, but how far it was a general custom (cf. Prophecies of a Messianic type were current in Egypt, and one can be traced back to about the time of the Hyksos domination. It has been suggested that in this and in the custom of circumcision are to be seen the most notable influences of Egypt on the people of Israel. The piety of the Egyptians was the characteristic that struck the Greeks most forcibly, and their stupendous monuments and the bulk of the literature that has come down to us are either religious or funerary. The attempt will now be made to sketch some outlines of the Egyptian religion and its practices, as they appear especially in the last millennium b. The piety of the Egyptians then manifested itself especially in the extraordinary care bestowed on the dead, and also in the number of objects, whether living or inanimate, that were looked upon as divine. ...
Egyptian theology was very complex and self-contradictory; so also were its views about the life after death . No hint of the Pythagorean doctrine of metempsychosis, attributed by Herodotus to the Egyptians, has yet been found in their writings; but spells were given to the dead man by which he could voluntarily assume the form of a lotus, of an ibis or a heron or a serpent, or of the god Ptah, or ‘anything that he wished
Borrow - From that memorable passage in Scripture, Exodus 3:22, where the Lord commanded Moses, that the people should borrow of their neighbours, on their departure from Egypt, jewels of gold and of silver, the idea hath arisen in many minds, that as the things then borrowed were never afterwards returned, there was intended, and committed, a real fraud. Let it be remembered, that when the children of Israel, under the first Pharaoh, went down into Egypt, they were commanded by the king not "to regard their stuff; for the good of all the land of Egypt was to be theirs. " (Genesis 45:16-20) But it appears from their history, that when Jacob and his family went down to sojourn in "Egypt, they took their cattle and their goods with them. " (Acts 7:19) When, therefore, the Lord had turned their tables upon them, and by the plagues upon Pharaoh, and all his people, had made a way for the Exodus, of his chosen, no doubt, under the remorse of their minds, and their sorrow of heart, the Egyptians were glad to part with the Israelites at any rate, and therefore lent them, or gave them such things as they asked. ...
I only beg to add, under this view of the subject, that as the tabernacle in the wilderness was afterwards adorned with the gold and silver the Israelites brought with them from Egypt, it is plain that the Lord approved of the conduct of his servants in asking from their neighbours such things as they needed, and as the Lord himself had commanded. (Exodus 3:22)...
And might there not be somewhat typical in the thing itself, in reference to the future call (as was all along intended) of the Gentile church? I beg the reader to read that sweet passage of the prophet Isaiah 19:18-25; and see the rich promises of the call of Egypt with Assyria, when the Lord shall set up the New Testament altar, even the Lord Jesus Christ, in the midst of the land of Egypt; and five cities shall speak the language of Canaan, even the gospel language of salvation by the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ. And I would ask, Is not that day, yea, that very day, at hand? Hath not the Lord, even now, been planting the gospel in Egypt? Hath not our God, when working by terrible things in righteousness, as he doth in the present awful war, caused even the Musselmen and inhabitants of Egypt to look on the congregations and prayer meetings of some of our pious soldiers who have been there? The writer of this hath himself received testimony to this striking providence of our God from a faithful soldier of the Lord Jesus Christ, as well as a faithful servant of his king and country, who was there, and an eye-witness to such characters looking in upon them, when he and a few of his devout comrades met together to read the Scriptures, and pray, and sing praises to the Lord. And who shall say what eventual blessed consequences may arise out of it? Who knows, but from this may spring up, as from a grain of mustard seed, a glorious harvest to our God? Oh! for that happy period when, according to this sweet prophecy, "the Lord of hosts himself shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hand, and Israel mine inheritance
Beriah - A son of Ephraim, so-called "because it went evil with Ephraim's house" at the time, the men of Gath "born in that land" (Goshen, or else the eastern part of Lower Egypt) having slain his sons in a raid on cattle (1 Chronicles 7:20-23). The incident perhaps belongs to the time, otherwise unnoticed, between Jacob's death and the Egyptian enslaving of his seed; for Ephraim's sons must, some of them, have been full grown and the Hebrew still free. In Joshua 13:2-3 the Sihor, or (Pelusiac branch of) the Nile, is the boundary between Egypt and Canaan; and in Genesis 46:34 the pastoral population in Goshen being an "abomination to the Egyptians," Goshen must have been regarded as non-Egyptian, but a kind of border land between the two countries, Egypt and Canaan. ...
The men of Gath may have been mercenaries in the Egyptian army, with lands allotted them in that quarter. The bloody attack of Simeon and Levi on Shechem (Genesis 34:25-29), and Pharaoh's fear lest in war the Israelites should join Egypt's foes and so get up out of the land (Exodus 1), show the possibility of their having been the aggressors, but as "come down" is more applicable to coming into than going from Egypt, probably the men of Gath were the aggressors
No - Under the 19th and 20th Dynasties, Ammon was still the national god, and Thebes the capital of Egypt. ]'>[1] ) ‘I will punish Amon of No and Pharaoh and Egypt with her gods and their kings,’ Amon is probably not taken as the representative god of Egypt, a position which he no longer held in the 6th cent. : the passage rather indicates the completeness of Egypt’s fall by the punishment of the remote Thebes, which could not be accomplished till Lower Egypt was prostrate
Hesychius (3), Egyptian bp - of an Egyptian see, mentioned as the author, with Phileas, Theodorus, and Pachumius, of a letter to Meletius, schismatic bp. of Lycopolis in Egypt. , or at least of the Gospels, which obtained extensive currency in Egypt. This Hesychian recension is mentioned more than once by Jerome, who states that it was generally accepted in Egypt, as that of his fellow-martyr, Lucian of Antioch, was in Asia Minor and the East (Hieron. It was doubtless an attempt, like that of Lucian, to purify the text in use in Egypt, by collating various manuscripts and by recourse to other means of assistance at hand
Philistines - They were a warlike people, which was the reason that God did not lead the Israelites near to them when He led them out of Egypt. It is probable that at first they were a sort of colony of Egypt. Their five cities commanded the coast road from Egypt to Syria, and there is proof that Egypt had a strong hold on Palestine before the arrival of Joshua; but it was then declining
Mambre, Vale of - When Abraham was dismissed from Egypt by the Pharao, he went with his nephew Lot towards Bethel, where they separated, and Abraham "came and dwelt by the vale of Mambre, which is in Hebron, and he built there an altar to the Lord" (Genesis 13)
Herbs, Bitter - Such a meal could be quickly prepared and was appropriate to commemorate Israel's hasty retreat from Egypt (Exodus 12:11 ). Later the bitter herbs were associated with the bitterness of Egyptian slavery (compare Exodus 1:14 )
Flight Into Egypt - After the departure of the wise men, the angel of the Lord told Joseph to fiy into Egypt with the Infant Jesus and His mother, as Herod had evil designs against them; there they remained until the death of Herod (Matthew 2)
Toparchy - 1Ma 10:30 ; 1Ma 10:38 ; 1Ma 10:11-34 ) among the sacred books, but very many times in the papyri of Egypt (with reference to that country)
Zarakes - Called in 1Es 1:38 brother of Joakim or Jehoiakim, king of Judah, and said to have been brought up out of Egypt by him
Hail - Frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt (Exodus 9:23 )
Lubim - Allies or tributaries of Egypt (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8; Nahum 3:9; Daniel 11:23)
Melon - It is meat, drink and physic to the Egyptians. The common melon (Cucumis melo ) also grows well in Egypt
Non-Uniat Churches - ...
Abyssinian Church
Armenian Church
Bulgarian Church (considers itself part of the "Orthodox" Church, but is not so considered by some bodies of the Orthodox Church)
Coptic Church (Egypt)
Jacobite Church (Syria)
Malabar Christians (India)
Nestorian Church (Persia)
The "Orthodox" Church (with 17 subdivisions)
See also the article on the Uniat Churches
Mary of Egypt, Saint - Penitent, born northern Egypt, c
Ram - Hezron's second son, born in Egypt after Jacob settled there, for he is not mentioned in Genesis 46:4
Benefactor - kings of Egypt before Christ’s day, Ptolemy III
Botch - It occurs in reference to Deuteronomy 28:27 ‘the botch of Egypt
Abib - Its name is derived from the full growth of wheat in Egypt, which took place anciently, as it does now, at that season
Infinite - There was 'no end' to the strength of Ethiopia and Egypt in supporting the city No; yet it was carried away: so would God's judgements fall upon Nineveh
Soap - Many plants yielding alkalies exist in Palestine and around: hubeibet (Salsola kali ) with glass-like leaves near the Dead Sea; ajram near Sinai, pounded for use as soap; the gilloo or soap plant of Egypt; and the heaths near Joppa
Mortar - The monuments of Egypt show that anciently, as now, stone mortars with stone pestles were used for pounding hard seeds
Sirocco - ) In general, any hot dry wind of cyclonic origin, blowing from arid or heated regions, including the desert wind of Southern California, the harmattan of the west coasts of Africa, the hot winds of Kansas and Texas, the kamsin of Egypt, the leste of the Madeira Islands, and the leveche of Spain
Leeks, - The Israelites longed for such as they had eaten in Egypt
Chimham - From there they escaped to Egypt (Jeremiah 41:17 )
Chub - ” If “Libya” is not the original reading, “Chub” remains a people about whom nothing is known except that Ezekiel announced judgment on them as a partner of Egypt
Vale of Mambre - When Abraham was dismissed from Egypt by the Pharao, he went with his nephew Lot towards Bethel, where they separated, and Abraham "came and dwelt by the vale of Mambre, which is in Hebron, and he built there an altar to the Lord" (Genesis 13)
Egypt, Flight Into - After the departure of the wise men, the angel of the Lord told Joseph to fiy into Egypt with the Infant Jesus and His mother, as Herod had evil designs against them; there they remained until the death of Herod (Matthew 2)
Cucumber - A vegetable very plentiful in the East, especially in Egypt, Numbers 11:5 , where they are esteemed delicacies, and form a great part of the food of the lower class of people, especially during the hot months. The Egyptian cucumber is similar in form to ours, but larger, being usually a foot in length
Zipporah - When Moses fled from Egypt into Midian, and there stood up in defense of the daughters of Jethro, priest or prince of Midian, against shepherds who would have hindered them form watering their flocks, Jethro took him into his house, and gave him his daughter Zipporah in marriage, Exodus 2:15-22 ; 4:25 ; 18:2-4
Hailstones - Hail was among the plagues of Egypt, Exodus 9:24 , and was the more terrible, because it rarely occurred in that country
Egypt, Mary of, Saint - Penitent, born northern Egypt, c
Scythians - They are said by Herodotus to have made an incursion into Southwestern Asia and Egypt, some seven hundred years before Christ; and it was perhaps a fragment of this host, located at Bethshean, which gave that city its classical name Scythopolis
Hail - Frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt (Exodus 9:23 )
Egypt - Egypt (ç'jĭpt). In Hebrew, Egypt is called Misraim, a dual form of the word, indicating the two divisions—Upper and Lower Egypt, or (as Tayler Lewis suggests), the two strips on the two sides of the Nile. The name Egypt first occurs in its Greek form in Homer, and is applied to the Nile and to the country, but afterward it is used for the country only. Egypt is in the northeastern part of Africa and lies on both sides of the Nile. Ezekiel indicates that Egypt reached from Migdol, east of the Suez Canal, to Syene, now Assouan, on the border of Nubia, near the First Cataract of the Nile. Nubia, Ethiopia, and other smaller districts bordering on the Nile to the south of Egypt, were, at times, under its sway. The hieroglyphic, the shorter hieratic, and the demotic alphabets were deciphered by Champollion and Young by means of the famous trilingual Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799, and the Coptic language, which is essentially the same with the old Egyptian. For a summary of the respective merits of Young and Champollion with regard to the interpretation of Egyptian hieroglyphics, see Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, vol. The Greek, which was easily read, declared that there were two translations—one in the sacred, the other in the popular language of the Egyptians, adjacent to it. — The ancient history of Egypt has been divided into three periods by leading writers: the old monarchy, extending from the foundation of the kingdom to the invasion of the Hyksos; the middle, from the entrance to the expulsion of the Hyksos; and the new, from the re-establishment of the native monarchy by Amasis to the Persian conquest. Manetho enumerates 30 dynasties as having ruled in Egypt before Alexander the Great, probably several of them at the same time, but over separate parts of the country. Manetho was an Egyptian priest who lived in the em of the Ptolemies in the third century b. His work (a history of Egypt, written in Greek) is lost, but his list of dynasties has been preserved in later writers. The old monarchy: Memphis was the most ancient capital, the foundation of which is ascribed to Menes, the first historic king of Egypt. In this period the nomadic horde called Hyksos for several centuries occupied and made Egypt tributary; their capital was Memphis; they constructed an immense earth-camp, which they called Abaris; two independent kingdoms were formed in Egypt, one in the Thebaid, which held intimate relations with Ethiopia; another at Xois, among the marshes of the Nile; but finally the Egyptians regained their independence, and expelled the Hyksos; Manetho supposes they were called hyksos, from hyk, a king, and sos, a shepherd. The glorious era of Egyptian history was under the nineteenth dynasty, when Sethi I. Under the later kings of the nineteenth dynasty the power of Egypt faded: but with the twenty-second we again enter upon a period that is interesting from its associations with biblical history. The chronology and dates in Egyptian history are very unsettled and indefinite. Some have conjectured that Menes, the founder of Egypt, was identical with Mizraim, a grandson of Noah. There is, however, no certain account of a complete subjugation of Egypt by the king of Babylon. Amosis, the successor of Apries, had a long and prosperous reign, and somewhat restored the weight of Egypt in the East. ...
Egypt and the Bible. — To the Bible-reader the chief points of interest in Egyptian history are those periods when that country came in contact with the patriarchs and the Israelites. The visit of Abraham to Egypt. Next is the notice of Joseph in Egypt Genesis 37:36. This beautiful and natural story has been shown to be thoroughly in accord with what is known of Egyptian customs of that age. " The greatest point of interest is, perhaps, the period of oppression of the Israelites in Egypt, and the Exodus. " The chief objection to this view is that it allows less than 315 years between the Exodus and the building of Solomon's temple; but the present uncertainties of the Hebrew and Egyptian chronologies deprive the objection of great weight. After the Exodus the Israelites frequently came into contact with Egypt at various periods in their history. Through an Egyptian, David recovered the spoil from the Amalekites, 1 Samuel 30:11, etc. ; Solomon made a treaty with king Pharaoh and married his daughter, 1 Kings 3:1; Gezer was spoiled by Pharaoh and given to Solomon's wife, 1 Kings 9:16; Solomon brought horses from Egypt; Hadad fled thither for refuge, as did also Jeroboam, 1 Kings 10:28; 1 Kings 11:17; 1 Kings 12:2; Shishak plundered Jerusalem and made Judæa tributary, 1 Kings 14:25, and a record of this invasion and conquest has been deciphered on the walls of the great temple at Karnak, or el-Karnak. In this inscription is a figure with a strong resemblance to Jewish features, which bears Egyptian characters that have been translated "the king of Judah. The sway of Egypt was checked and finally overcome by the superior power of Babylonia, and its entire territory in Asia was taken away. The books of the prophets contain many declarations concerning the wane and destruction of the Egyptian power, which have been remarkably fulfilled in its subsequent history. See Isaiah 19:1-25; Isaiah 20:1-6; Isaiah 30:3; Isaiah 31:3; Isaiah 36:6; Jeremiah 2:36; Jeremiah 9:25-26; Jeremiah 43:11-13; Jeremiah 44:30; Jeremiah 46:1-28; Ezekiel 29:1-21; Ezekiel 30:1-26; Ezekiel 31:1-18; Ezekiel 32:1-32; Daniel 11:42; Joel 3:19; and "the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away. In the New Testament there are several references to the relations of the Israelites to Egypt as they existed in Old Testament times; see Acts 2:10; Acts 7:9-40; Hebrews 3:16; Hebrews 11:26-27; but the interesting fact in the New Testament period was the flight of the holy family into Egypt, where the infant Jesus and his parents found a refuge from the cruel order of Herod the Great. Among the various other allusions to Egypt in the Bible are those to its fertility and productions, Genesis 13:10; Exodus 16:3; Numbers 11:5; to its mode of irrigation as compared with the greater advantages of Canaan, which had rain and was watered by natural streams, Deuteronomy 11:10; its commerce with Israel and the people of western Asia, Genesis 37:25; Genesis 37:36; 1 Kings 10:28-29; Ezekiel 27:7; its armies equipped with chariots and horses, Exodus 14:7; Isaiah 31:1; its learned men and its priests, Genesis 41:8; Genesis 47:22; Exodus 7:11; 1 Kings 4:30; its practice of embalming the dead, Genesis 50:3; its aversion to shepherds, and its sacrifices of cattle, Genesis 46:34; Exodus 8:26; how its people should be admitted into the Jewish Church, Deuteronomy 23:7-8; the warnings to Israel against any alliance with the Egyptians, Isaiah 30:2; Isaiah 36:6; Ezekiel 17:15; Ezekiel 29:6; and to the towns of the country. —" Egypt is the monumental land of the earth," says Bunsen, "as the Egyptians are the monumental people of history. Over 2000 years it has been without "a prince of the land of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:13; and "the basest of the kingdoms
Zerah - The defeat of the army of such a great world power as Egypt or Ethiopia is unparalleled in Israel's history, and could only have been through the divine aid. The greatness of Egypt which Shishak had caused diminished at his death. Zerah seems to have taken advantage of Egypt's weakness to extort permission to march his enormous force, composed of the same nationalities (Ethiopians and Lubims: 2 Chronicles 16:8; 2 Chronicles 12:3) as those of the preceding invader Shishak, through Egypt, into Judah
zo'an - (place of departure ), an ancient city of lower Egypt, called Tanis by the Greeks. Its name indicates a place of departure from a country, and hence it has been identified with Avaris (Tanis, the modern San ), the capital of the Shepherd dynasty in Egypt, built seven years after Hebron and existing before the time of Abraham. It was taken by the Shepherd kings in their invasion of Egypt, and by them rebuilt, and garrisoned, according to Manetho, with 240,000 men
Ishmael - He was at first regarded as "the son of the promise;" but after the birth and weaning of Isaac he was driven from his father's house, at the age of about seventeen, and took with his mother the way to Egypt her native land. Overcome with heat and thirst, and then miraculously relieved, he remained in the wilderness of Paran, took a wife from Egypt, and was the father of twelve sons, heads of Arab tribes. ...
The Ishmaelites, his posterity, were said, in the days of Moses, to dwell "from Havilah unto Shur that is before Egypt," that is, in the northwestern part of Arabia
Nile River - (Nile) The major river considered the “life” of ancient Egypt. This is in fact borrowed from the Egyptian word itrw or itr by which the Egyptians referred to the Nile and the branches and canals that led from it. ...
The Egyptian Nile is formed by the union of the White Nile which flows out of Lake Victoria in Tanzania and the Blue Nile from Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The first of these, going upstream, is found at Aswan, generally recognised as the southern boundary of Egypt. This cultivated area the Egyptians called the Black Land from the color of the rich soil. At the cliff tops was the great inhospitable desert where few Egyptians ventured. ...
The Nile is the basis of Egypt's wealth, indeed of its very life. Egypt was unique as an agricultural community in not being dependent on rainfall. Irrigation waters raised laboriously from the river, let the Egyptians produce many varieties of crops in large quantities (Numbers 11:5 ; Genesis 42:1-2 ). All major journeys in Egypt were undertaken by boat helped by the current when traveling north or by the prevailing wind when headed south. God may have used such natural conditions with His timing to plague Egypt. See Egypt ; Plagues
Pachomius, Saint - Founder of the cenobitical life, born near Esneh, Egypt; died Phebôou c346 After spending some time with the hermit Palemon, he withdrew to Tabennisi where he introduced community life among the hermits who gathered around him
Cup-Bearer - An officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is mentioned in connection with Joseph's history (Genesis 40:1-21 ; 41:9 )
Leah - She accompanied Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time of the going down into Egypt (Genesis 31 ), and was buried in the cave of Machpelah (49:31)
Bethmarcaboth - Depots or stations of chariots were required in Solomon's reign, when a regular trade in them was carried on with Egypt (1 Kings 9:19)
Baal Zephon - In Egypt, where Israel encamped before Pharaoh overtook them at the Red Sea (Ezekiel 14:2; Ezekiel 14:9; Numbers 33:7), W
Myrrh - It is imported from Egypt, but chiefly from the southern or eastern parts of Arabia from what species of tree or plant it is procured, is unknown
Onycha - A similar product is still used in Upper Egypt for fumigations
Kohath - Kohath went to Egypt with Levi (his father) and Jacob (his grandfather) (Genesis 46:11 ), had a sister named Jochebed (Exodus 6:20 ), and died at the age of 133 (Exodus 6:18 )
Miriam - The Talmud identifies her with the midwife Puah, who practiced midwifery in Egypt together with Shifrah (Jochebed), and defied Pharaoh’s orders to kill Israelite babies
Apis - In mythology, an ox, worshiped in ancient Egypt, or a divinity or idol in the figure of an ox
Balm, - It was carried by the merchants into Egypt and elsewhere
Canaan - Stephen, in making reference to the famine which sent Jacob’s sons into Egypt; and by St
Pibeseth - Place whose young men were to fall by the sword and others be carried into captivity, mentioned in the judgement of God upon Egypt, Ezekiel 30:17
Achbor - Father of Elnathan, whom Jehoiakim sent to bring back prophet Uriah from Egypt to execute him (Jeremiah 26:22 )
Dinah - Nothing more is certainly known of her; she probably accompanied her family into Egypt
Paint - Archaeologists have uncovered numerous tomb and palace paintings in both Egypt and Mesopotamia
Hissing - " The same custom is evidently alluded to in Isaiah 5:26 ; 7:18 ; "The Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt," etc
Frog - A well known amphibious animal, famous in connection with the plagues in Egypt, Exodus 8:1-14 . They penetrated everywhere-to the beds of the Egyptians, which were near the ground; and to their ovens, which were cavities in the ground
Bitter Herbs - " (Exodus 12:8 ) These "bitter herbs" consisted of such plants as chicory, bitter cresses, hawkweeds, sow-thistles and wild lettuces, which grow abundantly in the peninsula of Sinai, in Palestine and in Egypt. The purpose of this observance was to recall to the minds of the Israelites their deliverance from the bitter bondage of the Egyptians
Memphis - Capital of Lower Egypt, on the W. Second only to Thebes in all Egypt; the residence of the kings until the Ptolemies moved to Alexandria. Plutarch makes it mean "the port of good things," the sepulchre of Osiris, the necropolis of Egypt, "the haven of the blessed," for the right of burial was given only to the good. Thus Memphis was built in the narrow part of Egypt, on a marsh reclaimed by Menes' dyke and drained by his artificial lake. Memphis commanded the Delta on one hand and Upper Egypt on the other; on the W. Apis was thought the incarnation of Osiris, who with Isis was the universal object of worship in Egypt. Aaron's calf, and Jeroboam's two calves, were in part suggested by the Egyptian sacred bull, in part by the cherubim ox. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 46:20) alludes to Apis, "Egypt is like a very fair heifer. The Memphite necropolis ranges about 15 miles to Gizeh, including many pyramids of Egyptian sovereigns; the pyramids at Gizeh are the largest and oldest. See Piazzi Smyth, "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid," on the scientific bearings of this extraordinary and, in his view, divinely planned monument, which has no idolatrous emblem on it, unlike other Egyptian monuments. the military caste with all the famed "wisdom of Egypt" err in fancying themselves secure, namely, from Sargon, Nebuchadnezzar, and Cambyses, who successively conquered Egypt. Its dykes and canals still are the basis of the irrigation of Lower Egypt
Pha'Raoh, - the common title of the native kings of Egypt in the Bible, corresponding to P-ra or Ph-ra "the sun," of the hieroglyphics. Brugsch, Ebers and other modern Egyptologists define it to mean 'the great house," which would correspond to our "the Sublime Porte. ( Genesis 12:15 ) --At the time at which the patriarch went into Egypt, it is generally held that the country, or at least lower Egypt, was ruled by the Shepherd kings, of whom the first and moat powerful line was the fifteenth dynasty, the undoubted territories of which would be first entered by one coming from the east. The date at which Abraham visited Egypt was about B. The general view is that he was an Egyptian. One class of Egyptologists think that Amosis (Ahmes), the first sovereign of the eighteenth dynasty, is the Pharaoh of the oppression; but Brugsch and others identify him with Rameses II. "The events which form the lamentable close of his rule over Egypt are Passed over by the monuments (very naturally) with perfect silence. ( 2 Kings 23:29,30 ; 2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ) Necho seems to have soon returned to Egypt. (Jeremiah 46:1,2,6,10 ) This battle led to the loss of all the Asiatic dominions of Egypt. --The next king of Egypt mentioned in the Bible is Pharaoh-hophra, the second successor of Necho, from whom he was separated by the six-years reign of Psammetichus II. In the Bible it is related that Zedekiah, the last king of Judah was aided by a Pharaoh against Nebuchadnezzar, in fulfillment of it treaty, and that an army came out of Egypt, so that the Chaldeans were obliged to raise the siege of Jerusalem. The Egyptian army returned without effecting its purpose. 2 Kings 25:1-4 No subsequent Pharaoh is mentioned in Scripture, but there are predictions doubtless referring to the misfortunes of later princes until the second Persian conquest, when the prophecy, "There shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt," ( Ezekiel 30:13 ) was fulfilled
Month - We meet with constant mention in the Bible concerning the months; but it is remarkable, that the Israelites had no particular names for their months until alter their connection, with Egypt. After the Exodus took place, and Israel went out of Egypt, we find names first began to be given by the Hebrews to their months, though still numbering them as before. " (Exodus 13:4) And so again, (Deuteronomy 16:1) "Observe the month Abib, (Chodeseh Abib) the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night. The children of Israel came into the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month, after their departing out of the land of Egypt. So again, Exodus 19:1) In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they unto the wilderness of Sinai. Thus 1 Kings 6:1 "And it came to pass, in the four hundred and eighteenth year, after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord. But whether the name Abib, which signifies green fruit, or ears of corn, and which was the spring answering to our March, was so particularly called in Egypt, and the Hebrews borrowed the name from thence, or Solomon learnt the names of Zif and Bul from the Phenicians When trading with them, is not easy to determine, neither perhaps is it important to know
Bulrush - " This was the Egyptian papyrus (papyrus Nilotica). It was anciently very abundant in Egypt. The Egyptians made garments and shoes and various utensils of it. It is no longer found in Egypt, but grows luxuriantly in Palestine, in the marshes of the Huleh, and in the swamps at the north end of the Lake of Gennesaret
Bithiah - Her name shows she was a convert from Egyptian idolatry to Jehovah's worship; and Mered's other wife is distinguished from her, as" Jehudijah" the Jewess. ...
Perhaps the disaster of Egypt at the Red Sea led some Egyptians to become proselytes. (See Egypt, where is stated Canon Cook's view that Thothmes II, much earlier; was the Pharaoh drowned; Amenophis III had a wife not Egyptian in creed, and not of royal birth, named Tel, and her parents Juaa and Tuaa, names not unlike Bithia
Alexandria - The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years
Church - " The use of the term ecclesia came originally fromthe calling out of Israel from Egypt; "out of Egypt have I calledmy Son;" this is the first use of the word
Corn - Wheat, barley, spelt (as the Hebrew for "rye," Exodus 9:32, ought to be translated, for it was the common food of the Egyptians, called doora , as the monuments testify; also in Ezekiel 4:9 for "fitches" translated "spelt". "Seven ears on one stalk" (Genesis 41:22) is common still in Egypt. It is possible Indian grain or maize was known and used in Palestine as it was at Thebes in Egypt, where grains and leaves of it have been found under mummies
Jehoahaz - He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho, who sent him in chains to Egypt, where he died. In the parable of the Lion's whelps in Ezekiel 19:1-9 this king is referred to as being carried in chains to Egypt
Esarhaddon - 671 he conquered Egypt, took Memphis, and captured two of the king's sons. He divided Egypt into twenty provinces, placing some of them under native princes, and others under Assyrian governors with Assyrian troops
Embalming - When Jacob died in Egypt, "Joseph commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father, for burial in Canaan. Joseph also was himself embalmed, that his body might be carried with the children of Israel when they left Egypt for Palestine. It does not appear that the Hebrews practiced the mode of embalming of the Egyptians
Ptolemae'us, - was the common name of the Greek dynasty of Egyptian kings. SOTER, the son of Lagus, a Macedonian of low rank, distinguished himself greatly during the campaigns of Alexander; at whose death he secured for himself the government of Egypt, where he proceeded at once to lay the foundations of a kingdom, B. The conflict between Egypt and Syria was renewed during his reign in consequence of the intrigue of his half brother Magas. A second time and in new fashion Egypt disciplined a people of God. (Daniel 11:7 ) He extended his conquests as far as Antioch, and then eastward to Babylon, but was recalled to Egypt by tidings of seditions which had broken out there. He carried "captives into Egypt their gods of the conquered nations, with their princes and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold. " After his return to Egypt, cir. The rivalry between the Syrian and Egyptian parties, some time divided the people, came to an open rupture in the struggles which marked his minority. Antiochus Epiphanes seems to have made the claim a pretext for invading Egypt. 171,1 Maccabees 1:16 ff; and in the next year Antiochus, having secured the person of the young king, reduced almost the whole of Egypt. But while doing so he prepared for another invasion of Egypt, and was already approaching Alexandria when he was met by the Roman embassy led by C. 170,168, are briefly described in (Daniel 11:25,30 ) The whole of Syria was afterward subdued by Ptolemy, and he was crowned at Antioch king of Egypt and Asia. Ptolemy Philometor is the last king of Egypt who is noticed in sacred history, and his reign was marked also by the erection of the temple at Leontopolis
Plague - Plagues of Egypt were ten in number. ...
The river Nile was turned into blood, and the fish died, and the river stank, so that the Egyptians loathed to drink of the river (Exodus 7:14-25 ). It is called (Deuteronomy 28:27 ) "the botch of Egypt," A. ; but in RSV, "the boil of Egypt. The darkness covered "all the land of Egypt" to such an extent that "they saw not one another. The Lord "put a difference" between them and the Egyptians
Pharaoh - Egyptian kings were known by the title Pharaoh. To the Egyptian people Pharaoh was a god-king, one who embodied a god during his life and went to the world of the gods at his death (see Egypt). ...
In the final plague on Egypt, the firstborn in all Egyptian families, including Pharaoh’s, died. ...
Most of the remaining Pharaohs of the Bible story are mentioned in relation to Egypt’s political and military involvement with Judah during the time of the Israelite monarchy (e. Some of them feature in prophetic announcements of judgment upon Egypt (e. Ezekiel 29; Ezekiel 30; Ezekiel 31; Ezekiel 32; see Egypt)
Kithlish - ," the droughty land between Palestine and Egypt (2 Samuel 23:20; Isaiah 30:6)
Chameleon - This animal is very common in Egypt and in the Holy Land, especially in the Jordan valley
League - Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre and Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and Egypt
Etham - Perhaps another name for Khetam, or "fortress," on the Shur or great wall of Egypt, which extended from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Suez
Bricks - The making of, formed the chief labour of the Israelites in Egypt (Exodus 1:13,14 )
Tabernacle - Exodus 26:27 : Feast of Tabernacles, a solemn festival of the Hebrews, observed after harvest, on the 15th day of the month Tisri, instituted to commemorate the goodness of God, who protected the Israelites in the wilderness, and made them dwell in booths when they came out of Egypt
Leeks - The poor in Egypt eat them raw with bread, and as sauce to roast meat. But Septuagint and the Egyptian usage favor KJV
Allegory - In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc
Hawk - The sacred monuments show that one kind was sacred in Egypt
Carites - The Carites were either mercenary soldiers recruited from Cilicia by Judah and other countries such as Egypt, or the meaning of the term can no longer be determined
Blain - In one of the plagues of Egypt the dust became a ‘boil breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast’ ( Exodus 9:9-10 )
Aven - Referred to On or Heliopolis in Egypt (Ezekiel 30:17 )
Boil - The boils were doubtless malignant when sent as a plague in Egypt, Exodus 9:9-11 ; and they were severe in the case of Job when smitten by Satan
Satyrs - At Mendes in Lower Egypt the goat was worshipped with foul rites
Asp - ) A small, hooded, poisonous serpent of Egypt and adjacent countries, whose bite is often fatal
Gerrenians - The analogy of 1Ma 11:59 suggests some place near the border of Egypt; but Gerrha , between Pelusium and Rhinocolura, was in Egyptian territory
Frog - in connection with the second of the plagues in Egypt
Bitter Herbs - The use of them on that occasion was intended to call to their remembrance the severe and cruel bondage from which God delivered them when they were brought out of Egypt
le'Habim - There can be no doubt that they are the same as the Rebu or Lebu of the Egyptian inscriptions,a nd that from them Libya and the Libyans derived their name. These primitive Libyans appear to have inhabited the northern part of Africa to the west of Egypt, though latterly driven from the coast by the Greek colonists of the Cyrenaica
Nisan - It was made the first month of the second year, at the coming out of Egypt, Exodus 12:2 ; and it was the seventh month of the civil year
Jehoiakim - or ELIAKIM, the brother and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Judah, was advanced to the throne by Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, A
Asp - ) A small, hooded, poisonous serpent of Egypt and adjacent countries, whose bite is often fatal
Nisan - It was the seventh month of the civil year; but was made the first month of the sacred year, at the coming out of Egypt, Exodus 12:2
Gezer - The Canaanites long retained a foothold in it, Joshua 16:10 Judges 1:29 ; but were dispossessed by a king of Egypt, and the place given to his daughter, the wife of Solomon, 1 Kings 9:16 , who fortified it
Remphan - There have been found among the foreign gods in Egypt one named RENPU, and a goddess KEN, which may have been those referred to
Egypt - EGYPT. —The Gospel narrative comes into contact with the land of Egypt at one point alone, and then only incidentally, in a manner which seems to have exercised no influence and left no trace upon the course of sacred history. Matthew relates that Joseph, in obedience to the command of God, conveyed by an angel in a dream, took refuge in Egypt with the child and His mother from the murderous intentions of Herod the king (Matthew 2:13 f. In the first instance the passage quoted is Hosea 11:1 ‘When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt’ (מִמִּצרַיִם קָרִאחי לִבִנִי, LXX Septuagint τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ, ‘his, i. ); the Evangelist sees history repeating itself in a new exodus, which, like the earlier departure from Egypt, signalizes the beginning of a new national life, and is the promise and pledge of Divine favour. Egypt, therefore, to the narrator is no mere ‘geographical expression. ...
The narrative of the Evangelist is absolutely simple and unadorned, and amounts to little more than a mention of the journey into Egypt made under Divine direction. ), Joseph and Mary with the Child set out for Egypt at cock-crow, and reach a great city and temple with an idol to whose shrine the other idols of Egypt send gifts. Thereafter Joseph and Mary depart, being afraid lest the Egyptians should burn them to death because of the destruction of the idol. And the long thirty days’ journey into Egypt is miraculously shortened into one. The name of the Egyptian city to which they come is said to be Sotines within the borders of Hermopolis, and there, in default of any acquaintance from whom to seek hospitality, they take refuge in the temple, called the ‘capitol. ), Jesus was two years old on entering Egypt. , states the duration of the stay in Egypt as a whole year, and names Nazareth as the city in which Jesus and His parents lived after their return into the land of Israel. ...
The Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt has been at all times a favourite subject for the exercise of Christian art
Egypt - EGYPT. —The Gospel narrative comes into contact with the land of Egypt at one point alone, and then only incidentally, in a manner which seems to have exercised no influence and left no trace upon the course of sacred history. Matthew relates that Joseph, in obedience to the command of God, conveyed by an angel in a dream, took refuge in Egypt with the child and His mother from the murderous intentions of Herod the king (Matthew 2:13 f. In the first instance the passage quoted is Hosea 11:1 ‘When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt’ (מִמִּצרַיִם קָרִאחי לִבִנִי, LXX Septuagint τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ, ‘his, i. ); the Evangelist sees history repeating itself in a new exodus, which, like the earlier departure from Egypt, signalizes the beginning of a new national life, and is the promise and pledge of Divine favour. Egypt, therefore, to the narrator is no mere ‘geographical expression. ...
The narrative of the Evangelist is absolutely simple and unadorned, and amounts to little more than a mention of the journey into Egypt made under Divine direction. ), Joseph and Mary with the Child set out for Egypt at cock-crow, and reach a great city and temple with an idol to whose shrine the other idols of Egypt send gifts. Thereafter Joseph and Mary depart, being afraid lest the Egyptians should burn them to death because of the destruction of the idol. And the long thirty days’ journey into Egypt is miraculously shortened into one. The name of the Egyptian city to which they come is said to be Sotines within the borders of Hermopolis, and there, in default of any acquaintance from whom to seek hospitality, they take refuge in the temple, called the ‘capitol. ), Jesus was two years old on entering Egypt. , states the duration of the stay in Egypt as a whole year, and names Nazareth as the city in which Jesus and His parents lived after their return into the land of Israel. ...
The Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt has been at all times a favourite subject for the exercise of Christian art
Exodus - The great deliverance wrought for the children of Isreal when they were brought out of the land of Egypt with "a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm" (Exodus 12:51 ; Deuteronomy 26:8 ; Psalm 114 ; 136 ), about B. The time of their sojourning in Egypt was, according to Exodus 12:40 , the space of four hundred and thirty years. , the words are, "The sojourning of the children of Israel which they sojourned in Egypt and in the land of Canaan was four hundred and thirty years;" and the Samaritan version reads, "The sojourning of the children of Israel and of their fathers which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. Those who adopt the longer term reckon thus: ...
| Years | | From the descent of Jacob into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From the death of Joseph to the birth of | Moses 278 | | From the birth of Moses to his flight into | Midian 40 | | From the flight of Moses to his return into | Egypt 40 | | From the return of Moses to the Exodus 1 | | 430 ...
Others contend for the shorter period of two hundred and fifteen years, holding that the period of four hundred and thirty years comprehends the years from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan (see LXX. and Samaritan) to the descent of Jacob into Egypt. They reckon thus: ...
| Years | | From Abraham's arrival in Canaan to Isaac's | birth 25 | | From Isaac's birth to that of his twin sons | Esau and Jacob 60 | | From Jacob's birth to the going down into | Egypt 130 | | (215) | | From Jacob's going down into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 64 | | From birth of Moses to the Exodus 80 | | In all. 430 ...
During the forty years of Moses' sojourn in the land of Midian, the Hebrews in Egypt were being gradually prepared for the great national crisis which was approaching. They were poor; for generations they had laboured for the Egyptians without wages. At length the last stroke fell on the land of Egypt. "It came to pass, that at midnight Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt. " ...
The terror-stricken Egyptians now urged the instant departure of the Hebrews. This city was at that time the residence of the Egyptian court, and here the interviews between Moses and Pharaoh had taken place. The Egyptian host pursued after them, and, attempting to follow through the sea, were overwhelmed in its returning waters, and thus the whole military force of the Egyptians perished. Here, probably the modern el-Markha, the supply of bread they had brought with them out of Egypt failed. ...
The different encampments of the children of Israel, from the time of their leaving Egypt till they reached the Promised Land, are mentioned in Exodus 12:37-19 ; Numbers 1021-21 ; 33 ; Deuteronomy 1,2,10 . ...
It is worthy of notice that there are unmistakable evidences that the Egyptians had a tradition of a great exodus from their country, which could be none other than the exodus of the Hebrews
Zedekiah - His officials encouraged him to seek help from Egypt and rebel against Babylon. ...
Zedekiah, however, followed the advice of the pro-Egypt party and rebelled against Babylon. ...
When Egypt came to Jerusalem’s aid, Babylon lifted the siege temporarily, but Jeremiah warned Zedekiah that Babylon would return and crush both Egypt and Judah (Jeremiah 37:1-10). ...
Back in Jerusalem, the pro-Egypt party accused Jeremiah of being a traitor and had him imprisoned
Paran - Paran comprises one third of the peninsula which lies between Egypt and Canaan, the eastern half of the limestone plateau which forms the center of the peninsula. by the brook or river of Egypt, parting it from Shur wilderness, the other half of the plateau; on the S. or the Egyptian side of Horeb, between Midian and Egypt. The Ηaj route from Egypt by Elath to Mecca still runs through the Paran desert. Hadad would take that road to Egypt, "taking men with them out of Paran" as guides through the desert
Outcasts - " And agreeably to this, the prophet Isaiah was commissioned to tell the church that in that day, meaning the gospel-day, "five cities in Egypt should speak the language of Canaan. And in that day there shall be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt; and the Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day. " And after many blessings of grace that the Lord promiseth shall be shown to Egypt in smiting and healing, it is added, "whom the Lord of hosts will bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of mine hands, and Israel mine inheritance
Hobah - Attempts to identify Hobah with Apum or Upe in the Amarna letters from Egypt have recently been questioned
East Country - At 1 Kings 4:30 the wisdom of the East, either of Mesopotamia or of the desert dwelling Arabs, together with the wisdom of Egypt signifies all wisdom
Ape - They were at one time worshipped in Egypt; and still are adored in some parts of India, where one traveller describes a magnificent temple dedicated to the monkey
Avim, or Avites - Descendants of Canaan, Genesis 10:17 , who occupied a portion of the coast of Palestine from Gaza towards the river of Egypt, but were expelled and almost destroyed by invading Philistines or Caphtorim, before the time of Moses, Deuteronomy 2:23
Arabia - On the north it is bounded by part of Syria, on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates, on the south by the Arabian Sea and the straits of Babelmandel, and on the west by the Red sea, Egypt, and Palestine
Dreams, Interpretation of - , Jacob's ladder dream (Genesis 28) and that of Saint Joseph on the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt (Matthew 2), still dreams generally arise from merely natural causes and convey no knowledge beyond what could be obtained from other natural sources
Interpretation of Dreams - , Jacob's ladder dream (Genesis 28) and that of Saint Joseph on the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt (Matthew 2), still dreams generally arise from merely natural causes and convey no knowledge beyond what could be obtained from other natural sources
Habergeon - Such linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The word used in these verses is Tahra , which is of Egyptian origin
Frog - This reptile is mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Exodus 8:2-14 ; Psalm 78:45 ; 105:30 )
Geruth - ” Fugitives stopped there near Bethlehem on their way to Egypt fleeing from Ishmael, who had killed Gedaliah, whom Babylon had appointed governor of Judah after the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B. It may have represented the first stop across the border from Judah into Egyptian-controlled territory
Serapis - (sseh ray' pihss) Also known as Sarapis, this Egyptian-Greek sun deity was worshiped first at Memphis along with the bull-god, Apis. Serapis was introduced to Egypt by the Greeks and was worshiped originally as a god of the underworld
Benefactors - The title in Greek is Euergetes and was held by some of the Hellenistic kings of Egypt
Beer-Lahai-Roi - It is a station where there are several wells, on the caravan route from Syria to Egypt
Bough - Genesis 49:22 (a) This is a picture of the blessed and fruitful influence of Joseph in the life of all nations when he was governor of Egypt
Aven - On, or Heliopolis, 'House of the Sun,' in northern Egypt, a seat of idolatry: its young men should fall by the sword
Straw - It was used in Egypt for mixing with the clay in making bricks: in some of the ancient Egyptian bricks the straw can be seen
Ham, Land of - A poetical designation of Egypt used in the Psalms in reference to the sojourn there of the Children of Israel ( Psalms 105:23 ; Psalms 105:27 ; Psalms 106:22 ). ]'>[1] ‘tents’) of Ham’ ( Psalms 78:51 ) stands for the dwellings of the Egyptians. The Egyptian etymologies that have been proposed for Hâm are untenable, and the name must be connected with that of the son of Noah
Euphrosyne, Saint - (Greek: mirth) ...
Virgin; born Alexandria, Egypt, 413; died 470
Angle - Fishing was very common in Egypt, not only with the net, but with the line and hook, Isaiah 19:8 ; and the same were used by the Israelites, for nets are often referred to, and the fish that had the piece of money in its mouth was caught with a hook
Melons, - The melon was one of the fruits the Israelites had eaten in Egypt, and for which they longed in the wilderness
Dothan - Caravans still pass this place, as of old, on their way from Damascus to Egypt
Tirhakah - Tirhakah (tir'ha-kah), exalted? King of Ethiopia and upper Egypt
Pelatiah - Judean prince who offered “wicked counsel,” perhaps appealing to Egypt for help in a revolt against the Babylonians (Ezekiel 11:1 ,Ezekiel 11:1,11:13 ; compare 1618106859_34 ; Jeremiah 37:5 ,Jeremiah 37:5,37:7 ,Jeremiah 37:7,37:11 )
Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus - The society has houses, colleges, academies, elementary and high schools, in Italy, France, Belgium, England, Ireland, Scotland, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, the United States, Canada, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Peru, Chile, Argentine, Uruguay, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Congo, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and China
Carchemish - It was attacked by Pharaohnecho king of Egypt, near the close of king Josiah's reign, 2 Chronicles 35:20
Beth-She'Mesh - (Joshua 19:38 ; Judges 1:33 ) ...
An idolatrous temple, or place in Egypt
Cush - It is the same as the Egyptian Kash or Kesh . More specifically, the Egyptian Kash extended southwards from the first Cataract at Syene ( Ezekiel 29:10 ), and in the periods of widest extension of the empire it embraced a portion of the Sudan. It was conquered and annexed by Egypt under the 12th Dynasty ( c Necho or Pharaoh-Necho - An Egyptian king, mentioned not only in Scripture, but by Herodotus, who says that he was son of Psammetichus, king of Egypt: and that, having succeeded him in the kingdom, he raised great armies, and sent out great fleets, as well on the Mediterranean as the Red Sea; that he expended a vast sum and many thousands of lives in a fruitless effort to unite and Nile and the Red Sea by a canal; and that he was the first to send a ship wholly around Africa. 610, he halted at Riblah in Syria; and sending for Jehoahaz, king of the Jews, he deposed him, loaded him with chains, and sent him into Egypt. The accompanying cut from the great "Tomb of the Kings" in Egypt, explored by Belzoni, is believed to represent four Jewish hostages or captives of distinction presented before Pharaoh-Necho. They were led before the king, seated on his throne, by one of the hawk-headed figures so frequent on Egyptian monuments
Dispersion - 608, Necho took king Jehoahaz and probably others to Egypt. In this general period colonies of Jews were living at Memphis, Migdol, Tahpanhes, and Pathros in Egypt (Jeremiah 44:1 ). Other Jews seem to have followed Alexander the Great to Egypt (Jos. Many others migrated to Egypt under the Ptolemys ( Ant . Philo estimated the number of Jews in Egypt in the reign of Caligula (a. ...
At Leontopolis in Egypt, Onias III
Egypt - In the case of Egypt the peculiarity is, the form is dual, Mizraim, son of Ham (i. Egypt was colonized by descendants of Hain), meaning "the two Egypts," Upper and Lower, countries physically so different that they have been always recognized as separate. Hence, the Egyptian kings on the monuments appear with two crowns on their heads, and the hieroglyph for Egypt is a double clod of earth, representing the two countries, the long narrow valley and the broad delta. The Speaker's Commentary suggests the derivation Mes-ra-n, "children of Ra," the sun, which the Egyptians claimed to be. "...
The hieroglyphic name for Egypt is Κem , "black," alluding to its black soil, combining also the idea of heat, "the hot dark country. The history of states begins with Egypt, where a settled government and monarchy were established earlier than in any other country. The official title Pharaoh, Egyptian Peraa, means "the great house" (De Rouge). Egypt was the granary to which neighboring nations had recourse in times of scarcity. In all these points Scripture accords with the Egyptian monuments and secular history. The crown of Upper Egypt was white, that of Lower red; the two combined forming the pschent. ...
Pharaoh was Suten, "king," of Upper Egypt; Shebt, "bee" (compare Isaiah 7:18), of Lower Egypt; together the SUTEN-SHEBT. Egypt on which if a man lean it trill go into his hand and pierce it. Egypt always is placed before Lower, and its crown in the pschent above that of the latter. Egypt was early divided into nomes, each having its distinctive worship. ...
The first cataract is the southern boundary of Egypt, and is caused by granite and primitive rocks rising through the sandstone in the river bed and obstructing the water. Rocky sandstrewn deserts mostly bound the Nilebordering fertile strip of land, somewhat lower, which generally in Upper Egypt is about 12 miles wide. Low mountains border the valley in Upper Egypt. In ancient times there was a fertile valley in Lower Egypt to the east of the delta, the border land watered by the canal of the Red Sea; namely, Goshen. Moeris) and fishponds, in reversing Egypt's ancient prosperity. The hilly Canaan, in its continued dependence on heaven for rain, was the emblem of the world of grace upon which "the eyes of the Lord are always," as contrasted with Egypt, emblem of the world of nature, which has its supply from below and depends on human ingenuity. ...
The warriors too were possessors (Diodorus, 1:73, 74; and Egyptian monuments), but probably not until after Joseph's time, since they are not mentioned in Genesis, and at all events their tenure was distinct from the priests', for each warrior received (Herodotus, 2:168) 12 aruroe (each axura a square of 100 Egyptian cubits); i. 77) and Plutarch are wrong in denying the growth of the vine in Egypt before Psammetichus, for the monuments show it was well known from the time of the pyramids. ...
Wheat was the chief produce; barley and spelt (asin Exodus 9:32) ought to be translated instead of "rie," Triticum spelta, the common food of the ancient Egyptians, now called by the natives doora, the only grain, says Wilkinson, represented on the sculptures, but named on them often with other species) are also mentioned. In northern Egypt the barley ripens and flax blossoms in the middle of February or early in March, and both are gathered before April, when wheat harvest begins. Linen was especially used by the Egyptian priests, and for the evenness of the threads, without knot or break, was superior to any of modern manufacture. But it is certain Egypt was master of much of the Sinai Peninsula long before this, and must have had camels, "the ships of the desert," for keeping up communications. any aquatic reptile, here the crocodile) is made the symbol of the king of Egypt (Ezekiel 29:3-5. Rahab, "the insolent," is Egypt's poetical name (Psalms 87:4; Psalms 89:10; Isaiah 51:9). The marshes and ponds of Egypt make it the fit scene for the plague of frogs. The "flies" were probably the dog-fly (Septuagint) whose bite causes severe inflammation, especially in the eyelids; compare Isaiah 7:18, "the fly that is in the uttermost parts of the rivers of Egypt" Oedmann makes it the beetle, kakerlaque, Blatta orientalis, which inflicts painful bites; peculiarly appropriate, as the beetle was the Egyptian symbol of creative power. - The Egyptians were of Nigritian origin; like modern Nigritians, the only orientals respectful of women. An Arab or Semitic element of race and language is added to the Nigritian in forming the Egyptian people and their tongue. The language of the later dynasties appears in the demotic or enchorial writing, the connecting link between the ancient language and the present Coptic or Christian Egyptian. The great pyramid (the oldest architectural monument in existence according to Lepsius) is distinguished from all other Egyptian monuments in having no idolatrous symbols. - Nature worship is the basis of the Egyptian apostasy from the primitive revelation; it degenerated into the lowest fetishism, the worship of cats, dogs, beetles, etc. The Israelites fell into their idolatries in Egypt (Joshua 24:14; Ezekiel 20:7-8. ) This explains their readiness to worship the golden calf, resembling the Egyptian ox-idol, Apis (Exodus 32). -The plagues were all directed against the Egyptian goes, from whom Israel was thus being weaned, at the same time that Jehovah's majesty was vindicated before Egypt, and His people's deliverance extorted from their oppressors. Benihassan, as wife of Chnum, god of cataracts or of the inundation; this was a very old form of nature worship in Egypt, the frog being made the symbol of regeneration; Seti, father of Rameses II, is represented on the monuments offering two vases of wine to an enshrined frog, with the legend "the sovereign lady of both worlds"; the species of frog called now dofda is the one meant by the Hebrew-Egyptian zeparda (Exodus 8:2), they are small, do not leap much, but croak constantly; the ibis rapidly consumes them at their usual appearance in September, saving the land from the "stench" which otherwise arises (Exodus 8:14). ...
The third plague of dust-sprung lice fell upon the earth, worshipped in the Egyptian pantheism as Seb, father of the gods (Exodus 8:16); the black fertile soil of the Nile basin was especially sacred, called Chemi, from which Egypt took its ancient name. The eighth, the locusts eating every tree, attacked what the Egyptians so prized that Egypt was among other titles called "the land of the sycamore. wind from the desert darkening the arm: sphere with dense masses of fine sand, would fill with gloom the Egyptians, whose chief idol was Ra, the sun god. ...
The tenth, the smiting of the firstborn of man and beast, realized the threat, "against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment" (Exodus 12:12); for every town and nome had its sacred animal, frog, beetle, ram, cow, cat, etc. ) Egyptian religions law depended on future rewards and punishments; the Mosaic law on the contrary mainly depended on temporal rewards and punishments, which only could have place in a system of miraculous and extraordinary divine interposition. The Mosaic law therefore cannot have been borrowed from the Egyptians. The effect of the divine plagues on the Egyptians is seen in the fact that a "mixed multitude," numbering many Egyptians who gave up their idols to follow Israel's God, accompanied Israel at the Exodus (Exodus 12:38), besides Semitics whose fathers had come in with the Hyksos. Tablets in the Sinaitic peninsula record the Egyptian conquest of Asiatic nomads there. - Egyptian power abroad declined from 1200 to 990 B. The struggle with Assyria and Babylonia for the intermediate countries lasted until Pharaoh Necho's defeat at Carchemish ended Egypt's supremacy. Except Zerah and Shishak (of Assyrian or Babylonian extraction), the Egyptian kings were friendly to Israel in Palestine. of Egypt; Ethiopia was ruled by a viceroy "prince of Kesh. " The many papyri and inscriptions, religious, historical, and one a papyrus tale about two brothers, the earliest extant fiction (in the British Museum), show what a literary people the Egyptians were. ...
Geometry, mechanics, chemistry (judging from Moses' ability, acquired probably from them, to burn and grind to powder the golden calf), astronomy (whereby Moses was able to form a calendar, Acts 7:22), and architecture massive and durable, were among Egypt's sciences. The Israelites' eating, dancing, singing, and stripping themselves at the calf feast, were according to Egyptian usage (Exodus 32:5-25). - The antiquity of the colonization of Egypt by Noah's descendants is shown by the record of the migration of the Philistines from Caphtor, which must have been before Abram's arrival in Palestine, for the Philistines were then there. )...
The Caphtorim sprang from the Mizraim or Egyptians (Genesis 10:13-14; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7). The Egyptians considered themselves and the Negroes, the red and the black races, as of one stock, children of the god Horus; and the Shemites and Europeans, the yellow and the white, as of another stock, children of the goddess Pesht. The shepherd kings came from the East as foreigners, and were obnoxious to native Egyptians. ...
Indeed so intense was Egyptian prejudice that foreigners, and especially Easterners, are described as devils; much in the same way as the Chinese regard all outside the Celestial empire. A Theban line of kings reigned in Upper Egypt while the shepherds were in Lower. Hence arose the opinion that a shepherd king, not a native Egyptian, was the foreigner Joseph's patron; Apophis is generally named. Pharaoh's invitation to Joseph's family to settle in Goshen (Genesis 46:34; Genesis 47:6), not among the Egyptians, may indicate a desire to strengthen himself against the Egyptian party. The authorities for Egyptian history are...
(1) the monuments;...
(2) the papyri (the reading of hieroglyphics having been discovered by Young and Champollion from the trilingual inscription, hieroglyphics, enchorial or common Egyptian letters, and Greek, in honor of Ptolemy Epiphanes, on the Rosetta stone);...
(3) the Egyptian priest Manetho's fragments in Josephus, containing the regal list beginning with gods and continued through 30 dynasties of mortals, from Menes to Nectanebo, 343 B. , these fragments abound in discrepancies;...
(4) accounts of Greek visitors to Egypt after the Old Testament period. The kings of this period in Manetho's list were probably rulers of parts only of Egypt, contemporary with other Pharaohs. The Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty, and the early kings of the 13th, were lords of all Egypt, which the shepherd kings were not; the latter must therefore belong to a subsequent period. From the 18th dynasty Egypt's monumental history and the succession of kings are somewhat complete, but the chronology uncertain. ...
Apephis or Apepi was the last of the Hyksos, Ta-aaken Rasekenen the last of the contemporary Egyptian line. Abram's visit (Genesis 12:10-20) was in a time of Egypt's prosperity; nor is Abram's fear lest Sarai should be taken, and he slain for her sake, indicative of a savage state such as would exist under the foreign Hyksos rather than the previous native Egyptian kings; for in the papyrus d'Orbiney in the British Museum, of the age of Rameses II of a native dynasty, the 19th, the story of the two brothers (the wife of the elder of whom acts toward the younger as Potiphar's wife toward Joseph) represents a similar act of violence (the Pharaoh of the time sending two armies to take a beautiful wife and murder her husband on the advice of the royal councilors), at the time of Egypt's highest civilization; and this attributed not to a tyrant, but to one beloved and deified at his decease. of Egypt, and the Shemites in Palestine, are called Amu; the chief, called Abshah in this papyrus (father of a multitude numerous as the sand, meaning much the same as Abraham), is the hak, i. son of the sycamore) in one of the oldest papyri relates that he, an Amu, under the 12th dynasty, rose to high rank under Pharaoh, and after a long exile abroad was restored and made "counselor among the chosen ones," to develop the resources of Egypt (just as Joseph), taking precedence among the courtiers. Thenceforward, horses abounded in the Egyptian plains and were largely bought thence by Solomon (1 Kings 4:26; 1 Kings 10:25; 1 Kings 10:29) in defiance of the prohibition, Deuteronomy 17:16; compare 2 Kings 7:6. The long term, 500 years, assigned by Manetho to the shepherd kings, (and by Africanus 800,) is unsupported by the monuments, and is inconsistent with the fact that the Egyptians, at the return to native rulers under the 18th dynasty, after so complete an overthrow of their institutions for five or eight centuries (?), wrote their own language without a trace of foreign infusion, and worshipped the old gods with the old rites. The only era on Egyptian monuments distinct from the regnal year of the sovereign is on the tablet of a governor of Tanis under Rameses II, referring back to the Hyksos, namely, the 400th year from the era of Set the Golden under the Hyksos king, Set-a-Pehti, "Set the Mighty. Joseph was quite young at his introduction to Pharaoh, and lived 110 years; but if Apophis, the contemporary of Rasekenen, the predecessor of Aahmes I who took Avaris and drove out the Hyksos, were Joseph's Pharaoh, Joseph would have long outlived Apophis; how then after his patron's expulsion could he have continued prosperous? Moreover, Apophis was not master of all Egypt, as Joseph's Pharaoh was; Rasekenen retained the Thebaid, and after Apophis' defeat erected large buildings in Memphis and Thebes. Shepherds were, according to Genesis, "an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time; this is decisive against his living under a shepherd king. The names of the first three of the 48 kings of the 13th dynasty in the papyrus at Turin resemble Joseph's Egyptian title given by Pharaoh as his grand vizier Zafnath Paanaeh the food of life," or "the living" (compare the apposite title of the type, John 6:35). This 12th dynasty was especially connected with On or Heliopolis, where Osirtasin I, the second king of that dynasty, built the temple, and where his name and title stand on the famous obelisk, the oldest and finest in Egypt. ...
On was the sacerdotal city and university of northern Egypt; its chief priest, judging from the priests' titles, was probably a relative of Pharaoh. The "Ritual," 17th chapter, belongs to the 11th dynasty, and is the oldest statement of Egyptian views of the universe
Ethiopia - Country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush is rendered (Genesis 2:13 ; 2 Kings 19:9 ; Esther 1:1 ; Job 28:19 ; Ezekiel 30:4-94 ; 87:4 ), a country which lay to the south of Egypt, beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ), and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue Nile. " They are frequently represented on Egyptian monuments, and they are all of the type of the true negro. As might be expected, the history of this country is interwoven with that of Egypt
Fly - The prophet (Isaiah 7:18 ) alludes to some poisonous fly which was believed to be found on the confines of Egypt, and which would be called by the Lord. 'arob, the name given to the insects sent as a plague on the land of Egypt (Exodus 8:21-31 ; Psalm 78:45 ; 105:31 )
Ekron - ) Most northerly of the five Philistine lordship cities, farthest from the sea, to the right of the great road from Egypt northwards to Syria, in the shephelah (low country). Zechariah 9:5, "Ekron for her expectation shall be ashamed": she had expected Tyre would withstand Alexander in his progress southward toward Egypt; but her expectation shall bear the shame of disappointment
Irrigation - Owing to the lack of a sufficient rainfall, Babylonia and Egypt have to be supplied with water from their respective rivers. In Palestine the need for artificial irrigation is not so great, as is indicated by the contrast with Egypt in Deuteronomy 11:10
Hadad - son of the king of East Edom, was carried into Egypt by his father's servants, when Joab, general of David's troops, extirpated the males of Edom. The king of Egypt gave him a house, lands, and every necessary subsistence, and married him to the sister of Tahpenes, his queen
Famine - Two are mentioned as occurring in Canaan in the days of Abraham and Isaac, compelling those patriarchs to remove to Egypt and to Gerar. Then succeeded that remarkable famine which Joseph was enabled to predict, and which extended widely over Egypt and various other regions
Seal - Among seals used in Egypt at a very early period were engraved stones, pierced through their length and hung by a string or chain from the arm or neck, or set in rings for the finger. The ring or the seal as an emblem of authority in Egypt, Persia, and elsewhere is mentioned in Genesis 41:42; 1 Kings 21:8; Esther 3:10; Esther 3:12; Esther 8:2; Daniel 6:17; and as an evidence of a covenant, in Jeremiah 32:10; Jeremiah 32:44; Nehemiah 9:38; Nehemiah 10:1; Haggai 2:23
Potiphar - Genesis 39:1-23 , a high Egyptian official in the story of Joseph. see) or an unsuccessful attempt to form an Egyptian name on the same lines. ; as yet, too, there is little indication that eunuchs were employed in Egypt even at a later period: so this also was but an honorific official title; the Hebrew word saris is actually found attached to the names of Persian officers in Egypt. The office thus held by Potiphar cannot yet be precisely identified in Egyptian documents. In the passage Genesis 41:45 and the repeated description of Joseph’s wife, the forms of the names and the title of the priest are much more precisely Egyptian
Paint - We have abundant evidence of the practice of painting the eyes both in ancient Egypt and in Assyria; and in modern times no usage is more general. Antimony is still used for the purpose in Arabia and in Persia, but in Egypt the kohl is a root produced by burning either a kind of frankincense or the shells of almonds
Ishmaelites - the descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham by Hagar, his Egyptian bond-maid. 1910, and his name, founded on a circumstance which afforded relief to his mother, when she was wandering from her master's house toward Egypt, her native country, is derived from the Hebrew ישמעאל , formed of שמע , to hear, and אל , God, and denoting, "the Lord hath hearkened. In process of time his mother procured for him a wife out of Egypt, by whom he had twelve sons, who eventually established themselves as the heads of so many distinct Arabian tribes. His descendants, according to the Scripture account, spread themselves "from Havilah to Shur, that is, before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria. " From this brief statement, we may conjecture how far their territory extended; for Havilah, according to the generality of writers, was situated near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates, and Shur, on the isthmus which separates Arabia from Egypt, now called the isthmus of Suez
Plague - ) An acute malignant contagious fever, that often prevails in Egypt, Syria, and Turkey, and has at times visited the large cities of Europe with frightful mortality; hence, any pestilence; as, the great London plague
Liturgy, Ethiopic - The basic text is that of Egypt, but numerous additions were made from time to time till the 16th century, fewer till the 20th century
Leek - The leek was a favourite vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated there and in Palestine
Merom - Thutmose III and Rameses II of Egypt claimed to have captured the area during their respective reigns
Hazarsusah - ("horse village"); belonging to Simeon, in southern Judah (Joshua 19:5; 1 Chronicles 4:31); possibly made a depot for horses in the trade with Egypt in Solomon's time; the name may be changed from some ancient name, as the import of horses was prohibited, and not practiced until David's and Solomon's time
Passover - A solemn festival of the Jews, instituted in commemoration of their coming out of Egypt; because, the night before their departure, the destroying angel, who put to death the first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Hebrews, without entering therein; because they were marked with the blood of the lamb, which was killed the evening before, and which for this reason was called the paschal lamb
Decease - exodos in NT is in Hebrews 11:22 , of the Exodus from Egypt (AV Ethiopic Liturgy - The basic text is that of Egypt, but numerous additions were made from time to time till the 16th century, fewer till the 20th century
Chest - The two exceptions alluded to are (a) the "coffin" in which the bones of Joseph were carried from Egypt, ( Genesis 50:26 ) and (b) the "chest" in which Jehoiada the priest collected the alms for the repairs of the temple
Abimelech - This seems to have been the title of the kings of Philistia, as Caesar was of the Roman emperors, and Pharaoh of the sovereigns of Egypt
Religious of Notre Dame de Sion - The congregation has houses, schools and orphanages in France, Belgium, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Palestine, Egypt, Tunis, England, Australia, Canada, Brazil, Costa Rica, and the United States
Dinah - She seems to have gone with the family to Egypt, Genesis 46:15
Ash'Dod, - Its chief importance arose from its position on the high road from Palestine to Egypt
Nebuchadnezzar - , the king of Egypt, gained a victory over the Assyrians at Carchemish. ) This secured to Egypt the possession of the Syrian provinces of Assyria, including Palestine. The Egyptians met him at Carchemish, where a furious battle was fought, resulting in the complete rout of the Egyptians, who were driven back (Jeremiah 46:2-12 ), and Syria and Phoenicia brought under the sway of Babylon (B. From that time "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land" (2 Kings 24:7 ). ...
Three years after this, Jehoiakim, who had reigned in Jerusalem as a Babylonian vassal, rebelled against the oppressor, trusting to help from Egypt (2 Kings 24:1 ). He also, heedless of the warnings of the prophet, entered into an alliance with Egypt, and rebelled against Babylon. " ...
A clay tablet, now in the British Museum, bears the following inscription, the only one as yet found which refers to his wars: "In the thirty-seventh year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon, he went to Egypt [1] to make war. Amasis, king of Egypt, collected [2], and marched and spread abroad. Having completed the subjugation of Phoenicia, and inflicted chastisement on Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar now set himself to rebuild and adorn the city of Babylon (Daniel 4:30 ), and to add to the greatness and prosperity of his kingdom by constructing canals and aqueducts and reservoirs surpassing in grandeur and magnificence everything of the kind mentioned in history (Daniel 2:37 )
ir-ha-Heres - In Isaiah 19:18 the name to be given in the ideal future to one of the ‘five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah of hosts’; AV [4] , in which the ancient rites of his people might be carried on without molestation, and which might form a religions centre for the Jews settled in Egypt. ]'>[4] was to be built in Egypt (Jos. MSS), being the original reading, which was altered afterwards by the Jews of Palestine into heres , ‘destruction,’ in order to obtain a condemnation of the Egyptian temple, and by the Jews of Egypt into tsedek , ‘righteousness’ (LXX No - ) Nahum describes Thebes as "situate among the rivers" (including the canals watering the city) on both sides of the Nile, which no other town of ancient Egypt is. ...
"The monuments represent Sargon warring with Egypt and imposing tribute on the Pharaoh of the time, also Egypt as in that close connection with Ethiopia which Isaiah and Nahum imply" (G. , the Hyksos or shepherd kings, invaded Egypt and fixed their capital at Memphis, a native dynasty was maintained in Thebes. Ultimately, the Hyksos were expelled and Thebes became the capital of all Egypt under the 18th dynasty, the city's golden era. Nahum (Nahum 3:8; Nahum 3:10) in the latter part of that reign speaks of her being already "carried away into captivity, her young children dashed in pieces at the top of all the streets, lots cast for her honourable men, and all her great men bound in chains," notwithstanding her having Ethiopia, Egypt, Put, and Lubim as "her strength and it was infinite," and makes her a warning to Nineveh. ...
A still heavier blow was dealt by Nebuchadnezzar, as Jeremiah (Jeremiah 46:25-26) foretells: "Behold I will punish Anjou No and Pharaoh and Egypt, with their gods and their kings. " This last prophecy was fulfilled 40 years after Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Egypt, when under Cyrus it threw off the Babylonian yoke. Egypt . bring again the captivity of Egypt
Dung - ...
...
Used as fuel, a substitute for firewood, which was with difficulty procured in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt (Ezekiel 4:12-15 ), where cows' and camels' dung is used to the present day for this purpose
Pithom - (pi' thahm) Egyptian place name Per-Atum meaning, “mansion or estate of Atum” (an Egyptian god). The only mention of this city in the Bible relates to the plight of the Israelites in Egypt (Exodus 1:11 )
Rahab - Symbolic name for Egypt (Psalm 87:4 )
Dioscorus - Anti-pope, born Alexandria, Egypt; died 530
Jean Champollion - He was particularly distinguished as an Egyptologist, was curator of the Egyptian museum of the Louvre, accompanied Rosellini on a voyage of exploration to Egypt, and was appointed to the chair of Egyptian archaeology at the College de France, a post specially created for him. He was the author of numerous works on Egyptology, including a valuable Egyptian grammar and dictionary
Hadad - " He fled into Egypt, where he married the sister of Pharaoh's wife (1 Kings 11:14-22 )
Archelaus - It was for fear of him that Joseph and Mary turned aside on their way back from Egypt
Shebna - He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria
Migdol - Now Bir Suweis, two miles from Suez, having wells of water, for Magdal or Maktal (Migdol), visited by Sethos I returning from a Syrian campaign, was built over a large well (Chabas, Voyage d'un Egyptien, 286). Mentioned also in Jeremiah 44:1; Jeremiah 46:14; Ezekiel 29:10, "I will make Egypt desolate from Migdol (in the extreme N
Jezaniah - Rather, he helped carry Jeremiah into Egypt (Jeremiah 42-43 )
Dinah - She is mentioned among the rest of Jacob's family that went down into Egypt (Genesis 46:8,15 )
Execration - The term appears in the KJV twice (Jeremiah 42:18 ,Jeremiah 42:18,44:12 ), both times in reference to the fate of the remnant who disobeyed God's word and sought safety in Egypt
Put - (puht) Personal name and a geographic designation, perhaps derived from the Egyptian pdty meaning, “foreign bowman. Designation for a region of Africa bordering Egypt (Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 27:10 ; Ezekiel 30:5 ; Ezekiel 38:5 ; Nahum 3:9 ; and, by emendation, Isaiah 66:19 )
Urijah - When king Jehoiakim ordered his execution, Urijah fled to Egypt
Naphtuhim - Many suggestions have been made to account for the name, which does not appear exactly in Egyptian or Assyrian inscriptions, but in Ashurhanipal’s Annals (col. 94, 99) a district Nathu , probably in Lower Egypt, occurs, which may be the same. An Egyptian n-idhw , ‘the marshes,’ used in contrast to Pathros, may be intended; but the discovery of Caphtor, so long a puzzle, may warn us to wait for further evidence
Accho - It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about B
Scourging - The instrument of punishment in ancient Egypt, as it is also in modern times generally in the East, was usually the stick, applied to the soles of the feet --bastinado
Hammon Gog, the Valley of - ("the 'ravine' (gey ) of Gog's multitude") After the burial of Gog and his multitude there, the ravine shall be so named, which bad been called "the ravine of passengers (from Syria to Petra and Egypt) on the E
Melons - Here the water-melon is specially referred to, as it was common in Egypt in ancient times
Ephraim - Younger son of the patriarch Joseph (Genesis 41), born in Egypt, during the seven years of plenty
Havilah - District near or connected with that of theAmalekites, on the south of Palestine, reaching towards Shur 'that is over against Egypt
Painting - Small bottles and the short sticks which were used to apply the moistened powder have been found in the tombs of Egypt
Zipporah - It appears that Zipporah stayed with her father until Moses had led the people out of Egypt (Exodus 18:2-6 )
Puteoli - The port of Italy to which ships from Egypt and the Levant commonly sailed (Josephus, Leather - We read of Simon a tanner in Acts 9:43 ; Acts 10:6,32 ; and the monuments show that the art of tanning was practised in Egypt, so that without doubt it was also known to the Israelites
Baal Zephon - It was situated on a cape or promontory on the eastern side of the western or Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea, near its northern extremity, over against Pi-hahiroth, or the opening in the mountains which led from the desert, on the side of Egypt, to the Red Sea
Cucumber - They are very plentiful in the east, especially in Egypt, and much superior to ours. Maillet, in describing the vegetables which the modern Egyptians have for food, tells us, that melons, cucumbers, and onions are the most common; and Celsius and Alpinus describe the Egyptian cucumbers as more agreeable to the taste and of more easy digestion than the European
Shalmaneser - Hoshea revolted a second time and allied himself with So, king of Egypt, and Shalmaneser returned, ravaged Samaria, besieged Hoshea, and after three years Samaria fell
Pots - In Psalm 68:13 , "though ye have lain among the pots," the Hebrew word means originally cattle-folds; and in Psalm 81:6 , "his hands were delivered from the pots," it refers to the baskets used by the Hebrews in the hard service exacted of them in Egypt, Exodus 1:14
Rahab - Symbolic name for Egypt (Psalm 87:4 )
Hadad - Another Edomite of the royal family, who fled to Egypt while young, upon David's conquest of Edom, 2 Samuel 8:14 ; was well received, and married the queen's sister
Lentile - Augustine says, "Lentils are used as food in Egypt, for this plant grows abundantly in that country, which renders the lentils of Alexandria so valuable that they are brought from thence to us, as if none were grown among us
Zoan - A very ancient city of Lower Egypt, Numbers 13:22 , on the east side of the Tanitic arm of the Nile, and called by the Greeks Tanis, now San
Leah - She is supposed to have died before the removal of the family into Egypt, Genesis 49:31
lu'Dim - It is probable that the Ludim were settled to the west of Egypt, perhaps farther than any other Mizraite tribe
Frog, - The only known species of frog which occurs at present in Egypt is the Rana esculenta , the edible frog of the continent
Birthday - " In Persia birthdays were celebrated with peculiar honors and banquets, and in Egypt those of the king were kept with great pomp
Husks - This tree is very commonly met with in Syria and Egypt, it produces pods, shaped like a horn, varying in length from six to ten inches, and about a finger's breadth, or rather more; it is dark-brown, glossy, filled with seeds and has a sweetish taste
Ammon, or no-Ammon, or no - A city of Egypt. " The name designates, beyond all reasonable doubt, the city of Thebes, the ancient and renowned capital of Upper Egypt. Homer describes her as "The world's great empress on the Egyptian plains, That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states, And pours her heroes through a hundred gates
Paper - From Egypt its use spread to other countries and it was the universal material for writing in general in Greece and Italy during the most flourishing periods of their literature. , when the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs led to the disuse of the material for literary purposes and the use of vellum till the 12th century
Midwives - Egyptians: translated Exodus 1:15 "midwives of the Hebrew women," for Pharaoh would never employ Hebrew women to destroy the males of their own nation; the answer of the midwives implies they were used to attend Egyptian women (Exodus 1:19). Egyptian women rarely employ them, and only in difficult cases. " Two sufficed: Ρuah (from the Egyptian pa , with a determination, "child bearing") and Shiphrah ("prolific," also Egyptian, cheper ). ...
The "stools" (literally two stones) mean the unique seat on which the mothers sat for parturition, as represented on monuments of the 18th dynasty, and still used in Egypt, now called kursee elwiladee (Lane, Mod. The queen receives the god Thoth's announcement of the coming birth; she is placed on a stool, two midwives chafe her hands, and a third holds up the babe (Sharpe's History of Egypt i
Pyramids - (pihr' eh mihd) Four-sided structures have captivated visitors to Egypt for centuries. See Archaeology; Egypt
Embalming - Jacob and Joseph were both embalmed in Egypt, but we do not read that it was ever practised by the children of Israel. The historians Herodotus and Diodorus describe the process of embalming in Egypt. In many museums Egyptian mummies may be seen, and the marvellous preservation of the body be attested
Ambassador - Isaiah condemned Israel for sending ambassadors to Egypt seeking military aid rather than seeking God's aid (Isaiah 30:4 ). ) for sending ambassadors to Egypt seeking help in rebelling against Babylon (Ezekiel 17:15 )
Leek - The kind called karrat by the Arabians, the allium porrum of Linnaeus, Hasselquist says, must certainly have been one of those desired by the children of Israel, as it has been cultivated and esteemed from the earliest times to the present in Egypt. Ludolphus supposes that it may mean lettuce and sallads in general; and Maillet observes, that the succory and endive are eaten with great relish by the people in Egypt: some or all of these may be meant
Rings - When Pharaoh committed the government of Egypt to Joseph, he gave him his ring from his finger, Genesis 41:42 . ...
The ring was used chiefly as a signet to seal with, and Scripture generally assigns it to princes and great persons; as the king of Egypt, Joseph, Ahaz, Jezebel, king Ahasuerus, his favorite Haman, Mordecai, king Darius, etc
Drink, Strong - With regard to the application of the term in later times we have the explicit statement of Jerome, as well as other sources of information, from which we may state the that following beverages were known to the Jews:--
Beer , which was largely consumed in Egypt under the name of zythus , and was thence introduced into Palestine. ...
Date wine , which was also manufactured in Egypt
Euphrates - It is next mentioned in connection with the covenant which God entered into with Abraham (15:18), when he promised to his descendants the land from the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates (Compare Deuteronomy 11:24 ; Joshua 1:4 ), a covenant promise afterwards fulfilled in the extended conquests of David (2 Samuel 8:2-14 ; 1 Chronicles 18:3 ; 1 Kings 4:24 ). In the ancient history of Assyria, and Babylon, and Egypt many events are recorded in which mention is made of the "great river. " Just as the Nile represented in prophecy the power of Egypt, so the Euphrates represented the Assyrian power (Isaiah 8:7 ; Jeremiah 2:18 )
Leviathan - " As behemoth is the hippopotamus, so leviathan is the crocodile, both found in Egypt along the Nile. " The king of Egypt is symbolized by the "dragons" and "leviathan" (compare Ezekiel 32:2; Ezekiel 29:3); he and his host at their overthrow in the Red Sea became a spoil to Israel (compare "bread for us," Numbers 14:9) "in the wilderness. Typhon, the destroyer, was worshipped in Egypt under the form of a crocodile
no-Amon - No-amon (nô-â'mon), portion, or, temple of Amon? A large and most important city of Egypt. There can be no doubt that the city intended was that called Thebes, in upper Egypt, seated on both banks of the Nile, renowned for its hundred gates and vast population, and as being the principal seat of the worship of the god Amon. Some of the mightiest Egyptian dynasties reigned at Thebes, and embellished it with crowds of unrivalled palaces and temples. Rawlinson, Esar-haddon and his son Assur-bani-pal both conquered Egypt, and the latter took Thebes twice. " Pictured records and hieroglyphic inscriptions abound in the temples and the tombs; and when these shall be fully deciphered we may hope for much additional information in regard to Egyptian history and customs, illustrating and corroborating the sacred books
Glass - in Egypt. In Egypt and Phoenicia glass was opaque and was used chiefly to make ornamental objects—especially beads, jewelry, and small bottles. The Egyptians and Phoenicians made small bottles for perfume by welding sticks of glass round a core of sand and clay built around a bar of metal. During this period, Alexandria, Egypt, became world famous as a center for the production of glassware
Horse - The Israelites must have been acquainted with horses in Egypt ( Genesis 47:17 ), and it is evident, too, from the Tell el-Amarna correspondence that horses were familiar animals in Palestine at an early period; but it would appear that the children of Israel were slow in adopting them. David commenced acquiring chariots ( 2 Samuel 8:4 ), and Solomon greatly added to their numbers, obtaining horses for them from Musri [1] in N. Syria and Kue , in Cilicia ( 1 Kings 10:28 , 2 Chronicles 1:16 [1]4). Horses were obtained also from Egypt ( Isaiah 31:1 ; Isaiah 31:3 , Ezekiel 17:15 )
Hadad - He escaped the massacre of Edomites perpetrated by Joab, David’s general, and fled (according to the received reading) to Egypt, whose king befriended him, and gave him his sister-in-law as his wife. instead of Mitsraim (Egypt) Mitsri should be read in the Hebrew as the name of a region west of Edom, which in the old MSS was several times confounded with the word for Egypt
Ethiopia - Called Cash by the Hebrews, a country south of Egypt. In the Scriptures "Ethiopia" usually refers to the region extending from Egypt southward beyond the junction of the White and Blue Nile. It is noticed in, connection with Egypt, Isaiah 20:4; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 45:14; with Libya (Phut), Jeremiah 46:9 : Lydia and Chub (Lub and Lud), Ezekiel 30:5, and the Sukkiim
Copts - a name given to the Christians of Egypt who do not belong to the Greek church, but are Monophysites, and in most respects Jacobites. Scaliger and Father Simon derive the name from Coptos, once a celebrated town of Egypt, and the metropolis of the Thebaid; but Volney and others are of opinion, that the name Copts is only an abbreviation of the Greek word Aigouptios, "an Egyptian. " The Copts have a patriarch, whose jurisdiction extends over both Egypts, Nubia, and Abyssinia; who resides at Cairo, but who takes his title from Alexandria. At present, however, little more than the mere shadow of Christianity can be seen in Egypt; and, in point of numbers, not more than fifty thousand Christians in all can be found in this country
Whale - Our translators render it by dragon in Isaiah 27:1 , where the prophet gives this name to the king of Egypt: "He shall slay the dragon, that is in the sea. On this passage Bochart remarks, "The תנין is not a whale, as people imagine; for a whale has neither feet nor scales, neither is it to be found in the rivers of Egypt; neither does it ascend therefrom upon the land; neither is it taken in the meshes of a net; all of which properties are ascribed by Ezekiel to the תנין of Egypt
Philistines - , probably Crete, or, as some think, the Delta of Egypt. In the whole record from Exodus to Samuel they are represented as inhabiting the tract of country which lay between Judea and Egypt (Exodus 13:17 ; 15:14,15 ; Joshua 13:3 ; 1 Samuel 4 ). ...
The Philistines are called Pulsata or Pulista on the Egyptian monuments; the land of the Philistines (Philistia) being termed Palastu and Pilista in the Assyrian inscriptions. They occupied the five cities of Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, in the south-western corner of Canaan, which belonged to Egypt up to the closing days of the Nineteenth Dynasty. The Philistines had formed part of the great naval confederacy which attacked Egypt, but were eventually repulsed by that Pharaoh, who, however, could not dislodge them from their settlements in Palestine
Sycamore or Sycamine - The sycamore is thus described by Norden: "I shall remark that they have in Egypt divers sorts of figs; but if there is any difference between them, a particular kind differs still more. This sort of tree is pretty common in Egypt. From 1 Kings 10:27 1 Chronicles 27:28 2 Chronicles 1:15 , it is evident that this tree was quite common it Palestine, as well as in Egypt; and from its being joined with the vines in Psalm 78:47 , as well as from the circumstance of David's appointing a particular officer to superintend the plantations of them, it seems to have been as much valued in ancient as in modern times. ...
Describing the catacombs and mummies of Egypt, Dr
Herb - They were bitter plants of various sorts, and referred symbolically to the oppression in Egypt
Hazeroth - ” Wilderness station on Israel's journey from Egypt (Numbers 11:35 )
Gum - Gum was an item of the Ishmaelites' caravan trade with Egypt (Genesis 37:25 ; KJV, spicery) and was regarded as one of the choice products of the land (Genesis 43:11 )
Juda - On the second journey to Egypt he persuaded Jacob to consent to the departure of Benjamin, for whom he pleaded before Joseph after the incident of the cup, thus forcing Joseph to reveal his identity
Fitches - (Isaiah 28:25,27 ), the rendering of the Hebrew Ketsah , "without doubt the Nigella sativa, a small annual of the order Ranunculacece, which grows wild in the Mediterranean countries, and is cultivated in Egypt and Syria for its seed
Melons - Of this plant there are various kinds, the Egyptian melon, the Cucumus chate, which has been called "the queen of cucumbers;" the water melon, the Cucurbita citrullus; and the common or flesh melon, the Cucumus melo. "A traveller in the East who recollects the intense gratitude which a gift of a slice of melon inspired while journeying over the hot and dry plains, will readily comprehend the regret with which the Hebrews in the Arabian desert looked back upon the melons of Egypt" (Kitto)
Jannes And Jambres - Though the names do not appear in the Old Testament, rabbinic tradition identified Jannes and Jambres as being among those Egyptian magicians who sought to duplicate for Pharaoh the miracles performed by Moses (Exodus 7:11 ). Eusebius of Caesarea described them as sacred scribes of Egypt
Finger of God - Elsewhere the finger of God suggests God's power to bring plagues on Egypt (Exodus 8:19 ) and in making the heavens (Psalm 8:3 )
Tarsus - It was famous for its educational institutions, and was considered the centre of learning in Asia Minor (as Athens was in Greece and as Alexandria was in Egypt)
Sin, Wilderness of - While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on account of the want of nourishment, as they had by this time consumed all the corn they had brought with them out of Egypt
Shallum - Shallum of Judah (who was also known as Jehoahaz) reigned only three months before Pharaoh Necho deposed him and took him captive to Egypt (in 609 BC; 2 Kings 23:30-34; Jeremiah 22:11-12; see JEHOAHAZ)
Coptic Church - The native church of Egypt or church of Alexandria, which in general organization and doctrines resembles the Roman Catholic Church, except that it holds to the Monophysitic doctrine which was condemned (a
Philo Judaeus - A member of a wealthy Jewish family in Alexandria, Egypt, He was well educated in Greek schools and used the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint, as his Bible
Hauran - It was a battle ground among Assyria, Syria, Israel, Judah, and Egypt, appearing in Egyptian and Assyrian records
Lydda - It was located at the intersection of the caravan routes from Egypt to Babylon and the road from Joppa to Jerusalem
Lice - ’ All the insects named are only too common in Palestine and Egypt
Hallel - (Hebrew: praise) ...
A Jewish ritualistic term to designate Psalms 113-118 (Vulgate 112-117) inclusively, known as the "Hallel of Egypt
Carchemish - Apparently it was taken by the Assyrians, Isaiah 10:5,9 ; afterwards conquered by Necho king of Egypt, after the battle of Megiddo, in which Josiah was killed, 2 Chronicles 35:20 , where it is CHARCHEMISH
Bellows - Bellows are seen on the monuments of Egypt, having two bags on which a man stands; by lifting up each foot alternately, and pulling a string, each bag is inflated, and the wind is forced to the fire as the foot descends
Ivory - Ancient ivories of Egypt and Assyria have been found
Puah - One of the midwives of Egypt
Zin - (zihn) Rocky desert area through which Israel passed en route from Egypt to Canaan (Numbers 20:1 ; Numbers 27:14 ; Numbers 33:36 )
Zoan - (zohuhn) Hebrew name for Egyptian city of Tanis located at San el-Hagar on the Tanitic arm of the Nile. Zoan became capital of Egypt about 1070 B. The prophets used Zoan to refer to the Egyptian government and its activities ( Isaiah 19:11 ,Isaiah 19:11,19:13 ; Isaiah 30:4 ; Ezekiel 30:14 )
Carchemish - The Babylonian army, under Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, here met and conquered the army of Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt (B
Sycamore, - It was known in Egypt, and was plentiful in Palestine. The Egyptian mummy coffins made of it have remained sound after the entombment of thousands of years
Meletians - The name of a considerable party who adhered to the cause of Meletius, bishop of L