What does Education mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Catholic Education Council
An advisory body to the hierarchy of England and Wales on all matters relating to elementary schools, secondary schools, and training colleges. It is recognized by the Board of Education as the agent of Catholic managers and governors in any difficulties connected with Catholic schools arising in the administration of the Education Acts 1921. Its main source of income is an annual collection, made in all churches by direction of the hierarchy from which it votes grants for educational purposes. The council also acts as a bureau of information and advice for Catholic managers and governors. In recent years it has organized an educational section at the National Catholic Congress. (E.V.W.)
Holman Bible Dictionary - Education in Bible Times
While the word “school” occurs in the Bible only once (Acts 19:9 ), there are numerous references to teachers and teaching in both Testaments. There are many references in the Old Testament to the importance of religious training but there is no Mosaic legislation requiring the establishment of schools for formal religious instruction.
Education in Old Testament Times The primary purpose of education among the Jews was the learning of and obedience to the law of God, the Torah. Whereas the word torah can be used to refer to all Jewish beliefs, it generally refers to the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
The secondary purpose in education was to teach about the practical aspects of everyday life: a trade for the boy and the care of the house, application of dietary laws and how to be a good wife for the girl.
The home was considered the first and most effective agency in the education process, and parents were considered the first and most effective teachers of their children. This responsibility is expressed in Genesis 18:19 where God states his expectation that Abraham will train his children and his household to walk in the ways of the Lord. Matthew 28:19-2075 is another familiar exhortation for parents to teach their children according to the way of the Lord.
Deuteronomy 6:7 gives an interesting insight into how parents were to teach their children about God: “And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.” The parent was to use the various ordinary activities of life as avenues to teach about God. All of life was permeated by religious meaning and teaching about God should flow naturally from its activities.
Primary ways of imparting religious knowledge to children were example, imitation, conversation and stories. Parents could utilize the interest aroused in their children by actual life observances such as Sabbath or Passover to teach about God.
Training in the Torah began very early. The father had an obligation to teach his children the Law by words and example. A child could observe his father binding the phylacteries on his arm and head. The natural question, “What are you doing?”, could be used to teach the child that it was everyone's duty to “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5 ).
When the son reached the age of twelve, the Jews believed his education in the Torah was complete enough to help him know the Law and keep it. He was then known as a “son of the Law.” As a symbol of this attainment, the father would fasten the phylacteries upon the arm and forehead of his son. The box placed on the forehead indicated that the laws must be memorized. The other box was placed on the left arm so that it would press against the heart when the arms were folded or the hands were clasped in prayer. The box pressed against the heart would symbolize that the laws were to be loved and obeyed.
Girls received their education at home. A girl's mother taught her what she needed to know to be a good wife and mother.
She learned about such things as dietary laws which had to do with the family's devotion to God. Girls learned the practical side of the laws the boys studied.
A girl learned how to make the home ready for special holidays and Sabbath. In such preparation she learned the manning of the customs and history behind the events. This heritage she would be able to pass on to her own children in their very early years.
The girl would learn a variety of skills such as weaving, spinning, and treating illnesses. She might also learn to sing and dance and play a musical instrument such as a flute or harp.
The Jewish people had opportunity to receive religious education from priests and Levites (Leviticus 10:10-11 ). The priests and Levites were to be supported by the offerings of the people and were to be the religious teachers of the nation. Apparently the educational function of their work was not well maintained. During the revival under King Jehoshaphat, the teaching function of Priests and Levites was resumed and the people were taught the ordinances of the Law. (2 Chronicles 17:7-9 ).
The ineffective work of the priests was supplemented by the teaching of the prophets. The first of these prophets, Samuel, attempted to make his reform permanent by instituting a school of the prophets in Ramah (1 Samuel 19:19-20 ). Later other schools of the prophets were begun at other places. The main study at these centers was the Law and its interpretation. Not all of the students of these schools had predictive gifts nor were all the prophets students in such schools. Amos is a notable example of a prophet who was not educated in one of these schools (Amos 7:14-15 ).
Education in New Testament Times. The synagogue apparently came into existence during the Babylonian captivity when the Jews were deprived of the services of the Temple. During captivity they began meeting in small groups for prayer and Scripture reading. When they returned to Israel the synagogue spread rapidly and developed into an important educational institution. Synagogue services made an important educational contribution to the religious life of the community. The elementary school system among the Jews developed in connection with the synagogue. Even before the days of Jesus, schools for the young were located in practically every important Jewish community.
The teacher was generally the synagogue “attendant.” An assistant was provided if there were more than twenty-five students. The primary aim of education at the synagogue school was religious. The Old Testament was the subject matter for this instruction. Reading, writing and arithmetic were also taught. Memorization, drill and review were used as approaches to teaching.
Boys usually began formal schooling at the “house of the book” at age five. He would spend at least a half day, six days a week for about five years, studying at the synagogue. Parents brought their son at daybreak and came for him at midday. While not at school the boy was usually learning a trade, such as farming or carpentry.
If a boy wanted training beyond that given in a synagogue, he would go to a scholarly scribe. Saul of Tarsus received such advanced theological training “at the feet of Gamaliel” in Jerusalem (Acts 22:3 ).
No formal educational approach is described in the New Testament. However, Jesus is pictured as teaching large crowds (Mark 4:1-2 ). While Jesus was much more than a teacher, he was recognized as a teacher by his contemporaries. He was a God-sent teacher who taught with an authority and challenge which held his audiences captive.
Jesus was also a trainer of teachers. He selected the twelve and taught them how to teach others.
As risen Lord, Jesus commissioned his followers to carry their evangelism and teaching ministry into all the world (1618104475_7 ). As seen in Acts 2:42 , Acts 4:1-2 ; Acts 5:21 ,Acts 5:21,5:28 , teaching became an important work in the early church in Jerusalem.
The New Testament places importance on the teaching function of the church. Teaching is regarded as a primary function of the pastor (1 Timothy 3:2 ). Volunteer teachers are also important to the work of the church (James 3:1 ).
In New Testament times churches met in the homes of members and Christian teaching was done there (Romans 16:3-5 ).
While the synagogue school still existed, the home was still considered a primary place of education for children. Timothy is a notable example of a child who had been educated in the Scriptures in the home (2 Timothy 1:5 ).
Cos Davis
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Education in Bible Times
Education is essential to the survival of any social group, since a community secures its continued existence and development only through the transmission of its accumulated knowledge, derived power, and ideological aims to the next generation. Education may be simply (and narrowly) defined as the process of teaching and learning, the imparting and acquisition of knowledge and skill(s).
The need for education was no less true for the Israelites than for any of the peoples of the ancient world. In fact, the Old Testament record indicates repeatedly that the success of the Hebrew community and the continuity of its culture were conditioned by the knowledge of and obedience to God's revealed law (Joshua 1:6-8 ). Thus, to ensure their prosperity, growth, and longevity as the people of Yahweh, Israel's mandate was one of education—diligently teaching their children to love God, and to know and obey his statues and ordinances (Deuteronomy 6:1-9 ). Likewise, the New Testament record links the success of the church of Jesus Christ, as a worshiping community of "salt and light" reaching out to a dark world, to the teaching of sound doctrine (John 13:34-35 ; Mark 9:33-3717 ; 1 Timothy 1:10 ; Titus 2:1 ).
Education in the Ancient Near East . Since education is basic to the existence of any community or society it is only natural that certain foundational ideals, methods, and principles of education are shared properties among diverse people groups. The case is no different when we study the educational practices of the Israelites within the context of education in world of the ancient Near East.
Education in the ancient world was rooted in religious tradition and theological ideals. The goal of education was the transmission of that religious tradition, along with community mores and values, and vocational and technical skills. The by-product of this kind of education was a model citizen, loyal to family, gods, and king, upright in character, and productive in community life. More than liberally educated "free-thinkers, " the important outcome of the educational system for the ancients was utilitarianequipping people to be functional members of family and society.
For the most part the teaching method was based upon rote learning. This memorization of the curricular materials was accomplished by both oral and written recitation. Disciplined learning characterized educational instruction, with lessons taught at fixed times during the day and often for a set number of days in a month. In addition to being teachers and drill masters, parents (in the home) and tutors (in the formal schools) also functioned as mentors and role-models, teaching by example and lifestyle.
The primary agency of education in both ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia was the home. Parents and elders of the clan or extended family were responsible for the education of children. The invention of writing systems and the increasing shift toward urbanization gave rise to specialized schools associated with the major institutions of the ancient worldthe temple and the palace. Whereas education in the home focused on vocational training and moral development, the temple and palace schools were designed to produce literate, informed, and capable religious and sociopolitical leaders and administrators.
However, more striking than these similarities are the difference between the educational ideals and practices of the Hebrews and those of their ancient counterparts. It is important to note that these educational distinctives of the Israelites are directly related to singular aspects of Hebrew religion. Five specific characteristics were not common to the religions of the ancient Near East.
First, the emphasis upon individual personality in Hebrew faith meant that education must respect the individual and seek to develop the whole person.
Second, the emphasis on the fatherhood of God in Israelite religion brought a sense of intimacy to the Creator-creature relationship and a sense of purpose and urgency to human history. Thus Hebrew education stressed the importance of recognizing and remembering Acts and events of divine providence in history.
Third, the idea of indeterminism or personal freedom in Hebrew religion gave man and woman dignity as free moral agents in creation; likewise Hebrew education stressed the responsibility individuals have toward God and others, accountability of human behavior, and the need for disciplined training in making "right" choices.
Fourth, the notion of the Israelites as a divinely chosen people encouraged fierce nationalistic overtones in Hebrew religion and education; religiously the Israelites were obligated to the demands of God's holiness in order to remain his special possession, while educationally they were obligated to instruct all nations in divine holiness and redemption as Yahweh's instrument of light to the nations.
Fifth, the doctrine of human sin and sinfulness stamps both Hebrew religion and education; this introduced the concept of mediation in Israelite religiona requirement for bridging the gap between a righteous God and his fallen creation; educationally this meant human knowledge and wisdom were flawed and limited and that divine illumination was necessary for grasping certain truths and divine enablement was necessary for doing right.
Education in Old Testament Times . Hebrew education was both objective (external and content oriented) and subjective (internal and personally oriented), cognitive (emphasis on the intellect) and affective (emphasis on the will and emotions), and both active (investigative and participatory) and passive (rote and reflective). Specifically the teaching-learning process involved disciplined repetition in observation, experiential learning (doing), listening, reciting, and imitating. On occasion special guidance (directed study) as well as correction and warning were a part of the educational experience. And finally, critical thinking skills were an important educational outcome because learning had application to daily living.
Aims . The aim or purpose of Old Testament education is encapsulated within the revelation given to Abraham concerning the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. Here God bids Abraham to direct his children in "the way of the Lord." This divine directive embodies the very essence of Hebrew education in the Old Testament, affirming the primacy of parental instruction. In addition, the verse identifies the desired goal or outcome of education: a lifestyle of doing justice and righteousness. There was also an attendant benefit attached to this "behavior modification in Yahwistic moral values"the possession of the land of covenant promise for those Israelites who followed through on the charge to educate their children in the way of the Lord.
Content . Genesis 18:19 cryptically describes the content of Hebrew education as "the way of the Lord." What is meant by this phrase and how does it relate to the religious content of education in the Old Testament?
Generally speaking, "the way of the Lord" refers to knowledge of and obedience to the will of God as revealed through act and word in Old Testament history. The way or will of God for humanity reflects his personal character and attributes. As human beings love their neighbors as themselves (Leviticus 19:18 ), practice righteousness and justice (Genesis 18:19 ), and pursue holiness (Leviticus 11:44 ) they walk in the way of the Lord in that they mirror God's character.
More specifically, "the way of the Lord" denotes the particular content of the series of covenant agreements or treaties Yahweh made with his people Israel. These covenants formed the basis of Israel's relationship to Yahweh and were characterized by a stylized literary pattern that included legislation or stipulations necessary for maintaining that relationship. Often the covenant or treaty concluded with the promise of blessings or curses conditioned by Israel's obedience (or lack thereof) to the specific covenant stipulations.
Thus, Hebrew education was essentially instruction in covenant obedience or "keeping the way of the Lord" (Genesis 18:19 ). Moses summarized the basic components of this covenant obedience in his farewell address to the Israelites as loving God, walking in his ways, and keeping his commandments, statutes, and ordinances (Deuteronomy 30:16 ). Later, the psalmist condensed this covenant content of Old Testament education into the phrase "the law of the Lord" (Psalm 119:1 ).
Naturally, the content of Hebrew education expanded as God continued to reveal himself and his redemptive plan to the Israelites through the centuries of Old Testament history. For example, the details of Yahweh's covenant with Abraham fills but three chapters in Genesis (12,15, 17). By contrast, the details of the Mosaic covenant dominate the greater portions of the biblical literature found in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Since the Israelites recognized Yahweh as the God of history, providentially active in the course of human events, history too became part of the content or curriculum of Hebrew education. The recitation and festal remembrance of divine Acts in human history were instructive as to the nature of God and his purposes in creation. Of course, the primary example of this historical trajectory in Hebrew education is the Passover feast and exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:24-27 ; 13:11-16 ).
In time, the Hebrew poetic and wisdom traditions and the prophetic tradition were included in the covenant content of Old Testament education. The wisdom tradition served as a practical commentary on the law or covenant legislation, while the prophetic tradition functioned as a theological commentary on Old Testament law. Like the legal tradition associated with the covenants, both wisdom and prophecy were rooted in the behavioral outcomes of loving God and doing righteousness and justice (Proverbs 1:3,2:9 ; Hosea 6:6 ; Micah 6:8 ).
The Practice of Education . Until a child was about five years old informal education in the home was largely the responsibility of the mother, a nurse, or a male guardian. A youth between the ages of five and twenty usually worked with his father as an apprentice learning a vocation. No doubt parental instruction in the ways of the Lord continued through these years, reinforced by association with the extended family and involvement in the ritual of community worship. In later Judaism, male children between the ages of five and twenty usually attended synagogue schools and were trained in the Torah, the Mishnah, and the Talmud. At age twenty a young man was ready for marriage and independent full-time employment, and at age thirty he might assume an official position of responsibility.
Young women were educated in the way of the Lord and culturally acceptable domestic skills by their mothers or other women of some standing. Several professions were open to women, including those of nurse and midwife, cook, weaver, perfumer, singer, mourner, and servant. In certain cases women assumed prominent positions of leadership, like the prophet-judge Deborah (Judges 4:4-5 ) and the prophetess-sage Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-15 ). It seems likely that women of royal standing in Jerusalem received some kind of formal schooling similar to that of their male counterparts since they were part of the official political system and queen rule was a possibility in the ancient Near Eastern world. Of course, common and cultic prostitution remained a source of employment for women in ancient society.
Outcomes . Theologically, the practice of education as outlined in Old Testament revelation resulted in God's covenant blessing for the Hebrew people. These divine blessings included political autonomy and security, and agricultural and economic prosperity (Leviticus 26:1-8 ). Sociologically, the practice of education facilitated assimilation into the community of faith and ensured the stabilization of that community because the principle of "doing justice" permeated society (Leviticus 19:15,18 ). Religiously, the practice of education sustained covenant relationship with God through obedience and proper ritual, which prompted God's favor and presence with Israel (Leviticus 26:9-12 ).
The Agencies of Education . There were basically three agencies or institutions responsible for the education of youth in Old Testament times: the home or family, the community, and formal centers of learning. Here it is important to remember that the process of education described in Scripture was predominantly informal (home and community), not the formal education of learned institutions.
The home was the primary agency for instruction in Hebrew society. While the Old Testament emphasizes the role of the father as teacher, both parents are given charge to train their children (Proverbs 1:8,6:20 ; 31:26 ). Since ancient Israel was largely a clan society, extended family members like grandparents, aunts and uncles, and even cousins might also participate in the educational process within the home. The "home school" curriculum was both religious and vocational, as parents and other family members tutored children in "the fear of the Lord" (Proverbs 2:5 ) and a trade or professional skillmost often that of the father.
Since all Israelites were bonded together in covenant relationship as the people of God before Yahweh, the religious community also played an important role in the education of the Hebrew youth. Again, community instruction was essentially religious in nature and purpose and took the form of didactic and historical meditation, moral training, sign and symbol, memorization and catechism, festival and sacrificial liturgy, ritual enactment, and priestly role modeling. Specific examples of community education include: the three great pilgrimage festivals (Unleavened Bread, Weeks, and Tabernacles Deuteronomy 16:16 ; cf. Exodus 12:14-28 ), the public reading of the Mosaic law every seventh year (Deuteronomy 31:12-13 ), the covenant renewal enactments (Deuteronomy 29-30 ; Joshua 23-24 ), the annual national festivals/fasts, sabbath worship, historical teaching memorials, tabernacle/temple architecture and furnishings, the sacrificial system, and priestly dress and liturgical function.
Although the Old Testament lacks specific documentation, it is assumed by analogy to known practices in the rest of the ancient Near East that formal learning centers or schools existed in ancient Israel. Hints of these organized schools for particular training are scattered throughout the Old Testament, especially in the company of the prophets associated with Elisha (2 Kings 2:3,5 ; 6:1-2 ; cf. 1 Samuel 19:20 ), the wisdom tradition of the Book of Proverbs, the Jerusalem temple conservatory of music (cf. 1 Chronicles 25:8 ), and the office of sage or counselor associated with Israelite kingship (cf. 1 Kings 4:5-6 ; 12:6,10 ; Jeremiah 18:18 ).
In addition to formal learning centers, the Old Testament indicates specialized training took place in organized labor guilds of various sorts. This instruction for vocational, technical, and professional service to society (and especially palace and temple) included military training, arts and crafts (smiths, artisans, weavers, potters), music, royal officials (scribes, historians, overseers), temple personnel (priests, levites, gatekeepers, treasurers, judges), and domestic servants (midwives, cooks, bakers, perfumers).
Education in Later Judaism . Important developments in education during this period included the rise of the synagogue as both a religious and educational institution; the emergence of scribal schools for copying, studying, and interpreting the Hebrew Scriptures; and the establishment of "schools" or academies for the study of the Torah under the tutelage of well-known rabbis or teachers. However, three items deserve mention in the development of the educational process in Judaism because of their theological significance for the New Testament and Christianity.
First, the formative period of Judaism (roughly from the reforms of Ezra to the time of Maccabees) witnessed the expansion of the religious content or curriculum of Jewish education. This new material, known as the Mishnah, was accumulated oral tradition supplementing the Mosaic law. The Mishnah, along with analysis and commentary, was eventually codified in the Talmud, the final written form of this earlier oral tradition. The Talmud was accorded equal standing with the Old Testament Scriptures in the Jewish rabbinic schools. In part, this led to the rift between Jesus and his religious Jewish counterparts because he rejected the authority of the oral tradition, decrying a religion that neglected the law of God to cling to the traditions of men (Mark 7:1-9 ).
Second, the emphasis on law keeping or obedience to God's commands eventually led to a pharisaical legalism that tithed spice seeds with ruthless calculation (Matthew 23:23 ). Regrettably, devotion to the law of God displaced devotion to God himself so that certain circles of Judaism now ignored the very essence of Torahfaith, justice, and mercy. Ironically, this was the intended educational outcome of that original mandate for instruction in the way of the Lord given to Abraham (Genesis 18:19 ).
Third, the idea of biblical study (and study in general) as worship emerges during this time period. The precedent for understanding study as an act of worship stems from the Old Testament, where the psalmist remarked that all those who delight in the works of God study (or "worshipfully investigate") them (Psalm 111:2 ).
Education in New Testament Times . Much of the New Testament understanding of education is simply assumed from the practice of the Old Testament and Judaism. For example, the family remains the primary context for education, with prominence also given to the church as the extended family or community of faith. Likewise, the goal of educating the whole person, mind and character, carries over from Hebrew practice in the Old Testament. Even the methodology of both instilling information and drawing out or developing the innate talents and abilities of the student finds its antecedent in the Old Testament.
The New Testament focuses its attention on educating the whole person (intellect, emotions, and will), educating through personal relationship (i.e., the mentoring relationship of teacher and disciple), the process of both instilling knowledge and encouraging learning through discovery, and educating through experiential learning. Especially important theologically are the truths of educating the whole person (so that intellectual knowledge is applied to personal behavior James 1:25 ; 1 John 2:2-6 ); and the work of God's Spirit in illuminating the learner as he or she is instructed in the faith (John 16:5-15 ; 1 John 2:26-27 ).
The Teacher Come from God . According to the Gospel records, much of Jesus' public ministry was spent teaching his disciples, as well as the crowds. Jesus was recognized and acknowledged as a teacher (or rabbi) by his disciples, the general public, and contemporary Jewish religious leaders, including Nicodemus who identified Jesus as "a teacher who has come from God" (John 3:2 ). Indeed, Jesus even referred to himself as teacher on several occasions (Mark 14:14 ; John 13:13 ).
The Gospels consistently report that people were astonished or amazed at the teaching of Jesus (Mark 1:22 ; 11:18 ; Luke 4:32 ). What made Jesus a "master teacher"? Granted he was God incarnatea unique human being as the Son of Man. And yet, the approach, method, and content utilized by Jesus in his teaching continue to be paradigmatic for Christian education.
By way of approach, for instance, Jesus sometimes initiated the teaching moment (e.g., the Samaritan woman in John 4 ), but many times the learner(s) actually engaged Jesus in a teaching moment (Nicodemus in John 3 ). Jesus also had the ability to teach effectively informal educational settings (Mark 12:35 ), or more spontaneously as the need arose or circumstance dictated (1618104475_4 ). Jesus was not afraid to hide the truth from some (those who were not seeking the truth or those who in their pride thought they already possessed it) so others find the truth (Matthew 13:10-17 ).
Perhaps the best word for describing the method of Jesus' teaching is "varied." Whether by object lesson or alternative speech forms (parable, rhetorical question, personal conversation, or public discourse), Jesus arrested and held the attention of the learner. His knowledge of human personality and behavior and his sensitivity to human need enabled him to meet the learner on his or her terms and turf.
Finally, Jesus amazed his audiences because he taught with authority. Not only was he forceful, persuasive, and dynamic in his presentation, but the content of his teaching was rooted in the message of the Old Testament Scripturesthe word of God. More important, he knew well the curriculum he taught and owned it personallyhis life mirrored his teachingmuch to the chagrin of the hypocrites who challenged him.
The Apostles' Teaching . Religious education or instruction in the Christian faith served another important purpose in the New Testament: exposing false teachers and their subversive doctrines. The teaching of sound biblical doctrine prevented the individual Christian and the Christian church(es) from being duped by "strange teachings" (Ephesians 4:14 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:15 ; Hebrews 13:9 ). Also, the teaching of apostolic doctrine both fostered Christian discernment of false teachers and their lies (1 Timothy 1:3-7 ) and authenticated the veracity of the Christian message (1 Timothy 6:1-5 ; 1 Peter 5:12 ). So much so that Paul reminded Titus that sound teaching shames the critics of Christianity because the doctrine of God is adorned by the lifestyle of "model citizens"believers in Christ trained in godliness (2:6-10).
Catechism . Teaching, along with prophecy and revelation, are identified as those activities that will prove most beneficial for the building up of the church (1 Corinthians 14:6,12 ). Teaching was integral to the apostolic mission as Jesus charged his disciples to take the gospel of the kingdom of God to the nations (Matthew 28:20 ). Early on this teaching consisted of systematic instruction in the apostles' doctrine (informally? cf. Acts 2:42 ), and the public reading and teaching of Scripture in corporate worship (1 Timothy 4:13 ). Later, catechism or oral instruction in Christian doctrine became a necessary prelude to baptism in early church practice. Only through sound teaching could people come to know the truth and escape the snare of the evil one (2 Timothy 2:24-26 ).
Since teaching was vital to Christian faith, life, and growth, Christ endowed his church with spiritual gifts including the office of pastor-teacher (Ephesians 4:11 ) and the gift of teaching (Romans 12:7 ; 1Col 14:6,26). Teachers were distinguished as leaders in the church, along with apostles and prophets, from the earliest days of church history (cf. Acts 13:1 ). In addition, one of the requirements for the office of bishop or elder in the church was the ability to teach (1 Timothy 3:2 ; 2 Timothy 2:24 ; Titus 2:9 ). The basic purpose of Christian teaching according to Paul was godlinessinstruction leading to maturity in Christ (Colossians 1:28 ).
The New Testament teaches us several important pedagogical and theological lessons appropriate for application in contemporary Christian education. First, education attends to the whole personmind and body, emotions and will. Second, the New Testament understands education as a process of both instilling (imparting information to the pupil) and extracting (drawing out learning from the pupil or self-discovery). Third, effective education is rooted in a mentoring relationship (note Jesus with his disciples or the apostles training others to follow their lead). Fourth, the content of Jesus' and the apostles' teaching was essentially ethical; being or character and doing or practice are vitally connected with knowing.
Ultimately, biblical education is instruction in a lifestyle. For this reason, the apostle Paul reminded his pupil Timothy, "you know all about my teaching, my way of life continue in what you learned" (2 Timothy 3:10,14 ). Not only is biblical education a lifestyleit is a lifetime!
Andrew E. Hill
Bibliography . J. Adelson, ed., Handbook of Adolescent Psychology ; W. Barclay, Educational Ideals in the Ancient World ; S. Benko and J. J. O'Rourke, eds., The Catacombs and the Colosseum ; S. F. Bonner, Education in Ancient Rome from the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny ; W. Brueggemann, The Creative Word: Canon as Model for Biblical Education ; R. P. Chadwick, Teaching and Learning ; M. L. Clarke, Higher Education in the Ancient World ; N. Drazin, History of Jewish Education from 515 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. ; J. Elias, ed., Psychology and Religious Education ; T. H. Groome, Christian Religious Education ; M. Haran, VTSup 40 (1988): 81-95; ISBE, 2:21-27; S. N. Kramer, The Sumerians ; H. I. Marrou, A History of Education in Antiquity ; F. Mayer, A History of Educational Thought ; G. F. Moore, Judaism ; I. A. Muirhead, Education in the New Testament ; R. N. Whybray, The Intellectual Tradition in the Old Testament ; M. Wilson, Our Father Abraham ; R. Zuck, Teaching as Jesus Taught .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Education
Chiefly in the law of God (Exodus 12:26; Exodus 13:8; Exodus 13:14; Deuteronomy 4:5; Deuteronomy 4:9-10; Deuteronomy 6:2; Deuteronomy 6:7; Deuteronomy 6:20; Deuteronomy 11:19; Deuteronomy 11:21; Acts 22:3; 2 Timothy 3:15). The Book of Proverbs inculcates on parents, as to their children, the duty of disciplinary instruction and training in the word of God. This was the ONE book of national education in the reformations undertaken by Jehoshaphat and Josiah (2 Chronicles 17:7-9; 2 Chronicles 34:30). The priests' and Levites' duty especially was to teach the people (2 Chronicles 15:3; Leviticus 10:11; Malachi 2:7; Nehemiah 8:2; Nehemiah 8:8-9; Nehemiah 8:13; Jeremiah 18:18).
The Mishna says that parents ought to teach their children some trade, and he who did not virtually taught his child to steal. The prophets, or special public authoritative teachers, were trained in schools or colleges (Amos 7:14). "Writers," or musterers general, belonging to Zebulun, who enrolled recruits and wrote the names of those who went to war, are mentioned (Judges 5:14). "Scribes of the host" (Jeremiah 52:25) appear in the Assyrian bas-reliefs, writing down the various persons or objects brought to them, so that there is less exaggeration than in the Egyptian representations of battle. Seraiah was David's scribe or secretary, and Jehoshaphat, son of Ahilud, was "recorder" or writer of chronicles, historiographer (2 Samuel 8:16-17); Shebun was Hezekiah's scribe (2 Kings 18:37).
The learned, according to the rabbis, were called "sons of the noble," and took precedence at table. Boys at five years of age, says the Mishna, were to begin reading Scripture, at ten they were to begin reading the Mishna, and at thirteen years of age they were subject to the whole law (Luke 2:46); at fifteen they entered study of the Gemara. The prophetic schools included females such as Huldah (2 Kings 22:14). The position and duties of females among the Jews were much higher than among other Orientals (Proverbs 31:10-31; Luke 8:2-3; Luke 10:38, etc.; Acts 13:50; 2 Timothy 1:5).
Webster's Dictionary - Chautauqua System (of Education)
The system of home study established in connection with the summer schools assembled at Chautauqua, N. Y., by the Methodist Episcopal bishop, J. H. Vincent.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Education
1. Jewish.-The Jews from early times prized education in a measure beyond the nations around them. It was the key to the knowledge of their written Law, the observance of which was required by the whole people without respect of rank or class. They were the people of a Book, and wherever there is a written literature, and that religiously binding, elementary education, at least in the forms of reading and writing, is imperative and indispensable. The rise of the synagogue, and of the order of Scribes in connexion therewith, exercised a powerful influence upon the progress of education among the mass of the people. In the 4th cent. b.c. there was a synagogue in every town, and in the 2nd cent. in every considerable village as well. To the synagogues there were in all probability attached schools, both elementary and higher, and the ḥazzân (‘the attendant,’ Luke 4:20 Revised Version ) may well have been the teacher. The value of education was understood among the Jews before the Christian era. In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs we read: ‘Do ye also teach your children letters, that they may have understanding all their life, reading unceasingly the Law of God’ (‘Levi,’ xiii. 2). In the Psalms of Solomon the frequent use of παιδεύειν, παιδευτής, and παιδεία (with the significant addition of ῥάσδος, 7:8, and of μάδτιξ, 18:8) points to the existence of schools and of a professional class of teachers. By the Apostolic Age there is abundant evidence of the general diffusion of education among the people. ‘Our principal care of all,’ says Josephus (c. Ap. i. 12), comparing the Jews with other nations, ‘is to educate our children well, and to observe the laws, and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life to keep this religion which has been handed down to us.’ Among the Jews every child had to learn to read; scarcely any Jewish children were to be found to whom reading of a written document was strange, and therefore were there so many poor Jewish parents ready to deny themselves the necessaries of life in order to let their children have instruction (c. Ap. ii. 26; cf. B. Strassburger, Gesch. der Erziehung bei den Israeliten, 1885, p. 7). The result of instruction from the earliest years in the home, and of teaching received on the Sabbath, and on the frequent occasions of national festivals, is, according to the Jewish historian, ‘that if anybody do but ask any one of our people about our laws, he could more easily tell them all than he could tell his own name. For because of ear having learned them as soon as ever we became sensible of anything, we have them as it were engraven on our souls’ (c. Ap. ii. 19).
Education began, as Josephus says, ‘with the earliest infancy.’ Philo speaks of Jewish youth ‘being taught, so to speak, from their very swaddling clothes by parents and teachers and inspectors, even before they receive instruction in the holy laws and unwritten customs of their religion, to believe in God the one Father and Creator of the world’ (Legat. ad Gaium, 16). ‘From a babe thou hast known the sacred writings,’ writes St. Paul to Timothy (2 Timothy 3:15), recalling his disciple’s early acquaintance with the OT Scriptures. At the age of six the Jewish boy would go to the elementary school (Bêth ha-Sçpher), but before this he would have received lessons in Scripture from his parents and have learned the Shʿma‘ and the Hallçl, From the sixth to the tenth year he would make a study of the Law, along with writing and arithmetic. At the age of ten he would be admitted to the higher school (Bêth ha-Midrâsh), where he would make the acquaintance of the oral Law, beginning with the Mishna, ‘repetition,’ the oral traditions of the Law. At the age of thirteen he would be acknowledged by a sort of rite of confirmation as a ‘Son of the Commandment’ (Bar-miṣvâh), and from this point his further studies would depend upon the career he was to follow in life. If he was to become a Rabbi, he would continue his studies in the Law, and, as Saul of Tarsus did, betake himself to some famous teacher and sit at his feet as a disciple.
Although schools were thus in existence in connexion with the synagogues, it was not till comparatively late that schools, in the modern sense, for the education of children by themselves, seem to have been instituted (see article ‘Education’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ). They are said to have been first established by Simon bên-Shetach in the 1st cent. b.c., but this is disputed. However this may be, schools were placed upon a satisfactory and permanent footing by Joshua bên-Gamaliel, who is said to have been high priest from a.d. 63 to 65, and who ordained that teachers of youth should be placed in every town and every village, and that children on arriving at school age should be sent to them for instruction. Of him it is said that if he had not lived, the Law would have perished from Israel. The love of sacred learning and the study of the Law in synagogue and school saved the Jewish people from extinction. When Jerusalem had been destroyed and the Jewish population had been scattered after the disastrous events of a.d. 70, the school accompanied the people into the lands of their dispersion. Jamnia, between Joppa and Ashdod, then became the headquarters of Jewish learning, and retained the position till the unhappy close of Bar Cochba’s rebellion. The learned circle then moved northwards to Galilee, and Tiberias and Sepphoris became seats of Rabbinical training. Wherever the Jews were settled, the family gathering of the Passover, the household instruction as to its origin and history, and the training in the knowledge of the Law, served to knit them together and to intensify their national feeling even in the midst of heathen surroundings.
While the great subject of school instruction was the Law, the work of the elementary school embraced reading, writing, and arithmetic. To make the Jewish boy familiar with the Hebrew characters in every jot and tittle, and to make him able to produce them himself, was the business of the Bêth ha-Sçpher, ‘the House of the Book.’ Reading thus came to be a universal accomplishment among the Jewish people, and it was a necessary qualification where the sacred books were not the exclusive concern of a priestly caste, but were meant to be read and studied in the home as well as read aloud and expounded in the synagogue. The case of Timothy already referred to is evidence of this; and the Scriptures which the Jewish converts of Berœa ‘examined daily’ were no doubt the OT in Greek which they were trained to study for themselves. Writing may not have been so general an accomplishment, but it must also have been in considerable demand. This can be inferred from the numerous copies of the Scripture books which had to be produced; and from the prevalence of tʿphillîn (‘phylacteries’) and mʿzûzôth, little metal cases containing the Shʿma‘, the name of God, and texts of Scripture, fastened to the ‘doorposts’ of Jewish houses, which were in use before the Apostolic Age. The simple rules of arithmetic would be wanted to calculate the weeks, months, and festivals of the Jewish year.
In the higher school, Bêth ha-Midrâsh, ‘the House of Study,’ the contents of the Law and the Books of Scripture as a whole were expounded by the authorities. It is said to have been a rule of the Jewish schools not to allow all and sundry, without regard to age, to read all the books of Holy Scripture, but to give to the young all those portions of Scripture whose literal sense commanded universal acceptance, and only after they had attained the age of twenty-five to allow them to read the whole. Origen lefts of the scruples of the Jewish teachers in regard to the reading of the Song of Solomon by the young (Harnack, Bible Reading in the Early Church, 1912, p. 30f.). But there was no lack of materials for reading and exposition. In course of time there grew up the great and varied literature now contained in the Talmud-the Mishna, the Gemara, and the Midrâshic literature of all sorts-narrative, illustrative, proverbial, parabolic, and allegorical (see I. Abrahams, Short History of Jewish Literature, 1906, ch. iv.; Oesterley and Box, Religion and Worship of the Synagogue2, 1911, ch. v.).
In the school the children sat on the floor in a circle round the teacher, who occupied a chair or bench (Luke 2:46; Luke 10:39, Acts 22:3). The method of instruction was oral and catechetical. In the schools attached to the synagogues of Eastern Judaism to this day, committing to memory and learning by rote are the chief methods of instruction, and the clamour of infant and youthful voices is heard repeating verses and passages of Scripture the whole school day. This kind of oral repetition and committing to memory undoubtedly occupied a large place in the earliest Christian teaching, and had an important influence in the composition of the gospel narratives. The purpose of St. Luke in writing his Gospel was that Theophilus might know more fully the certainty of the things concerning Jesus wherein he had been instructed (κατηχήθης) (Luke 1:4). Apollos having been thus instructed in the way or the Lord (Acts 18:25) taught with accuracy the facts concerning Jesus. But whilst the method had great advantages, it had also great dangers, tending to crush out all originality and life, and to result in barren formalism.
In the education of the Jewish boy, punishment, we may be sure, was not withheld. The directions of the Book of Proverbs, which is itself a treasury of sound educational principles, were carried out not only in the home but in the school (Proverbs 12:24; Proverbs 19:18; Proverbs 23:13). St. Paul, addressing a self-righteous Jew, exposes the inconsistency of the man who professes to be a guide of the blind (ὀδηγὸν τυφλῶν), a corrector of the foolish (παιδευτὴν ἀφρόνων), and a teacher of infants (διδάσκαλον νηπίων), and yet does not know the inwardness of the Law (Romans 2:19 f.).
Games had some part in the life of Jewish schoolboys. One game consisted in imitating their elders at marriages and funerals (Matthew 11:16 f.). Riddles and guesses seem to have been common, and story-telling, music, and song were not wanting. But when, under the influence of Antiochus Epiphanes, a gymnasion for the athletic performances of the Greeks was set up in Jerusalem and the youth of the city were required to strip themselves of their clothing, it became a grievous cause of offence to the pious among the people (1 Maccabees 1:11 ff.). See art ‘Games’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) .
Whilst the education of Jewish youth on the theoretical side centred in the Law and was calculated to instil piety towards God, no instruction was complete without the knowledge of some trade or handicraft. To circumcise him, to teach him the Law, to give him a trade, were the primary obligations of a father towards his son. ‘He that teacheth not his son a trade doeth the same as if he taught him to be a thief,’ is a Jewish saying. Jesus Himself was the carpenter (Mark 6:3), and Saul of Tarsus, the scholar of Gamaliel, was a tent-maker (Acts 18:3). We hear of Rabbis who were needle-makers, tanners, and followed other occupations, and who, like St. Paul, made it their boast that their own hands ministered to their necessities and to them that accompanied them (Acts 20:34).
The education of the Jewish youth began at home, and the parents were the first instructors. Of a noted teacher of the 2nd cent. a.d. it was said that he never broke his fast until he had first given a lesson to his son. But in due course the children were sent to school, in Rabbinic times apparently under the protection of a pœdagogue, better known, however, in Greek family life (Galatians 3:24). The teacher was required to be a man of unblemished character, of gentle and patient disposition, with aptness to teach. Only married men could be employed as teachers. Women and unmarried men were excluded from the office. The office itself was full of honour: ‘A city which neglects to appoint teachers ought to be destroyed,’ runs the saying. One teacher was to be employed where there were 25 scholars (with an assistant where the number exceeded 25), and two where they exceeded 40. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Christian era teachers received salaries, but the remuneration was in respect of the more technical part of the instruction. Nothing was to be charged for the Midrâsh, the exposition of Scripture.
The girls in Jewish families were not by any means left without instruction. The women of the household, like Eunice, the mother, and Lois, the grandmother, of Timothy (2 Timothy 1:5), who at least influenced the boys, would have a more active part in the instruction of the girls. This means that they were not themselves left without education. The example of Priscilla, the wife of Aquila, shows that a Jewess (who did not owe all her training to Christianity) might be possessed of high gifts and attainments (Acts 18:26). In the Talmud similar instances of gifted and accomplished women are to be found. One of the most notable features in what is known as the Reform movement in modern Judaism is the earnestness with which its adherents insist upon the mere general and the higher education of women.
Literature.-Relevant articles in J. Hamburger, Real-Encyclopädie für Bibel und Talmud2, 1884ff. S. S. Laurie, Hist. Survey of pre-Christian Education, 1895; ‘The Semitic Races’; A. Büchler, The Economic Conditions of Judœa after the Destruction of the Second Temple, 1912 article ‘Education (Jewish)’ by Morris Joseph in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics v. [1] 194, and Literature there cited.
2. Greek.-Among the Greeks education was the affair of the State. Its purpose was to prepare the sons of free citizens for the duties awaiting them, first in the family and then in the State. Whilst among the Jews education was meant for all, without respect of rank or class, among the Greeks it was intended for the few-the wealthy and the well-born. Plutarch in his treatise on the education of children says: ‘Some one may object that I in undertaking to give prescriptions in the training of children of free citizens apparently neglect the training of the poor townsmen, and only think of instructing the rich-to which the obvious answer is that I should desire the training I prescribe to be attainable alike by all; but if any through want of private means cannot attain it, let them blame their fortune and not their adviser. Every effort, however, must be made even by the poor to train their children in the best possible way, and if this is beyond them to do it according to their means’ [de Lib. Educ. ii.). Down to the Roman period at least, this educational exclusiveness was maintained, and only the sons of those who were full citizens were the subjects of education, although there were cases in which daughters rose to distinction in letters, and even examples of slaves, like the philosopher Epictetus, who burst the restraints of their position and showed themselves capable of rising to eminence in learning and virtue. We even read of bequests being made to provide free education to children of both sexes, but the rule was that women needed no more instruction than they were likely to receive at home. Being an affair of the State, education was under the control of officials appointed to superintend it. Gymnastic, for the training of the body, and music in the larger sense, including letters, for the training of the mind, were the subjects of instruction. These-athletics, literature, music-were regulated by a body of guardians of public instruction (παιδονόμοι.) We hear of an Ephebarch at the head of a college of ἔφηβοι, or youths who have entered the higher school, and of a Gymnasiarch who superintends the exercises of the παλαίστρα and pays the training-masters.
The stages of education were practically the same in all the different branches of the wide-spread Grecian people. First, there was the stage of home education, extending from birth to the end of the seventh year, when the children were under parental supervision; second, the stage of school education, beginning with the eighth year and lasting to the sixteenth or eighteenth year; thirdly, there was the stage from the sixteenth or eighteenth to the twenty-first year, when the youths were ἔφηβοι, and were subjected to strict discipline and training. Before a youth was enrolled among the ἔφηβοι he had to undergo an examination (δοκιμασία) to make sure that he was the son of an Athenian citizen and that he had the physique for the duties now devolving upon him. This was really the university stage of his career, for he then attended the class of the rhetors and sophists who lectured in such institutions as the Lyceum and the Academy, and devoted himself to the study of rhetoric and philosophy (cf. Acts 19:9). On the completion of this course he was ready to enter upon the exercise of his duties towards the State.
When the boy, at the age of seven, went to school-the grammar school and the gymnastic school-he was accompanied by a servant called a παιδαγωγός who carried his books and writing materials, his lyre and other instruments, and saw him to school and back (see Schoolmaster, Tutor). The school-rooms of ancient Athens seem to have been simple enough, containing little or no furniture-they were often nothing but porches open to wind and sun, where the children sat on the ground, or on low benches, and the teacher on a high chair. At first the child would be exercised in ‘the rudiments,’ τὰ στοιχεῖα (cf. Colossians 2:8 and Xen. Mem. II. i. 1). Great stress was laid upon reading, recitation, and singing. In particular, the memory was exercised upon the best literature, and cultivated to an extraordinary degree of retentiveness. The works of aesop and Theognis were much in use in the class-rooms. Homer was valued not merely as a poet but as an inspired moral teacher, and the Iliad and Odyssey were the Bible of the Greeks. Great pains were also taken with the art of writing. Tablets covered with wax formed the material to receive the writing, and the stylus was employed to trace the letters. By apostolic times papyrus or parchment was in use, written upon with pen (κάλαμος) and ink (μέλαν) (2 John 1:12, 3 John 1:13; cf. 2 Corinthians 3:3 and 2 Timothy 4:13). Sherds (ὄστρακα) were a common writing material-that used by the very poor in ancient Egypt. Exercises in writing and in grammar have been preserved to us in the soil of Egypt written on ostraca, on wooden tablets, on tablets smeared over with wax, and have now been recovered to let us see the performances of the school children of twenty centuries ago. Among them are school copies giving the letters of the alphabet, Syllables, common words and proper names, conjugation of verbs, pithy or proverbial sayings as headlines, and there are even exercises having the appearance of being school punishments (E. Ziebarth, Aus der antiken Schule, 1910, in Lietzmann’s Kleine Texte).
The mention of school punishments leads to the subject of school discipline. At home, at school, and in the palaestra, the rod and the lash were freely used. It is from school life, both Jewish and Greek, that St. Paul, as noted already, derives the imagery of a well-known passage in his Epistles (Romans 2:17-21). In the Psalms of Solomon, a Jewish book written under Greek influence, there is reference both to the rod (ῥάβδος, 7:8) and to the lash (μάστιξ, 18:8) as instruments of punishment; and ‘chastening,’ ‘correction’ (παιδεία), occurs again and again in this sense (Ephesians 6:4, 2 Timothy 3:16, Hebrews 12:11; cf. Didache, 4).
‘We are given over to grammar,’ says Sextus Empiricus (adv. Math. i. 41), ‘from childhood, and almost from our baby-clothes.’ Grammar was succeeded by rhetoric, which had accomplished its purpose when the student had acquired the power of speaking offhand on any subject under discussion. In addition to these subjects, philosophy was also taught, its technical terms being mastered and its various schools discriminated. Arithmetic, geometry, astronomy belonged to the programme of secondary education, and from Plato and Aristotle there have come down to us the seven liberal arts-the trivium and the quadrivium of the Middle Ages. All the while gymnastic training went hand in hand with the training of the intellect. The gymnasion, where the youths of Greece exercised themselves naked, was enclosed by walls and fitted up with dressing-rooms, bath-rooms, and requisites for running, leaping, wrestling, boxing, and other athletic exercises, and there were seats round about the course for spectators, and porticoes where philosophers gathered.
By the Apostolic Age it had become the practice for promising students to supplement their school education by seeking out and attending the lectures of eminent teachers in what we should call the great universities. Roman Emperors like Claudius and Nero had done much to encourage Greek culture and to introduce it into Rome itself, where the Athenaeum was a great centre of learning. At this epoch Athens and Rome had famous schools, but even they had to yield to Rhodes, Alexandria, and Tarsus; and Marseilles, which had been from the very early days of Greek history a centre of Greek influence, was in the time of Strabo more frequented than Athens. The idea that Barnabas of Cyprus and Saul of Tarsus had met in early life at the university of Tarsus is by no means fanciful, and it was to his education at Tarsus that St. Paul owed the power to ‘move in Hellenic Society at his ease’ (W. M. Ramsay, Pictures of the Apostolic Church, 1910, p. 346). That St. Luke had received a medical education and was familiar with the great medical writers of the Greek world is now almost universally admitted; his literary style and the frequent echoes of Greek authors, at least in the Acts of the Apostles, prove him to have been a well-educated and cultured Hellenist. Of the various philosophic schools then exercising an influence upon thought in the Greek world two are expressly mentioned in the Acts (17:18)-the Stoics and the Epicureans. St. Paul must have received Stoic teaching at Tarsus, where the school flourished, and he knew and quoted at least one Stoic poet (Acts 17:28). A century later Marcus Aurelius endowed the four great philosophical schools of Athens-the Academic, the Peripatetic, the Epicurean, and the Stoic. Justin Martyr, a little earlier, in the account he gives of his conversion to Christianity (Dial. cum Tryph. 2ff.), shows how the representatives of the Stoic, the Peripatetic, the Pythagorean, and the Academic (Platonic) Schools in turn failed to satisfy his yearning after truth, and satisfaction came to him when he found Christianity to be the only philosophy sure and suited to the needs of man. Christianity, brought into contact with the society in which this philosophical habit of mind had established itself, modified, stimulated, and elevated it, and in turn was modified by the habit of mind of those who accepted it. ‘It was impossible for Greeks, educated as they were with an education which penetrated their whole nature, to receive or to retain Christianity in its primitive simplicity. Their own life had become complex and artificial: it had its fixed ideas and its permanent categories: it necessarily gave to Christianity something of its own form’ (E. Hatch, Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church [2], 1890, ch. ii. p. 48f.).
Literature.-T. Davidson, Aristotle (in Great Educators), 1892; S. S. Laurie, Hist. Survey of Pre-Christian Education, 1895: ‘The Hellenic Race’; J. P. Mahaffy, The Greek World under Roman Sway, 1890; article ‘Education (Greek)’ by W. Murison in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics v. 185 and Literature there cited.
3. Christian.-The sentiment which caused education to be so prized among the Jews must in course of time have caused it to be greatly desired among the followers of Christ. To the first Christians, as to the Lord and His apostles, the OT Scriptures were the Bible, and, outside the Holy Land at least, the Bible in the Septuagint translation. No doubt it was a roll of this translation which the Ethiopian eunuch was carrying back with him to his home far up the Nile, when Philip the Evangelist joined him in his chariot on the Gaza road (Acts 8:27 ff.). It was the same Scriptures wherein the youthful Timothy was instructed from infancy in the home of his Greek father, under the guidance of Eunice and Lois (2 Timothy 3:15). St. Paul, in the many quotations he makes from the OT, quotes from the Septuagint rather than from the Hebrew original. ‘The Septuagint was to him as much “the Bible” as our English version is to us; and, as is the case with many Christian writers, he knew it so well that his sentences are constantly moulded by its rhythm, and his thoughts incessantly coloured by its expressions’ (Farrar, St. Paul, 1879, i. 47). It was not till the second half of the 2nd cent. that most of the NT books were recognized in the Church as the Oracles of God, and on the same level of authority as the books of the OT. ‘Among the Jewish Christians,’ as Harnack points out, ‘the private use of the Holy Scriptures simply continued; for the fact that they had become believers in the Messiahship of Jesus had absolutely no other effect than to increase this use, in so far as it was now necessary to study not only the Law but also the Prophets and the Kethubim, seeing that these afforded prophetic proofs of the Messiah-ship of Jesus, and in so far as the religious independence of the individual Christian was still greater than that of the ordinary Jew’ (Bible Reading in the Early Church, p. 32).
That the private study which had been devoted to the OT came in due course to be given to the books of the NT may be seen from the use of them in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers. The OT, the Gospels, and the Epistles of St. Paul had a wide circulation at an early period, in all the provinces of the early Church, and were perused and applied to their spiritual needs by multitudes of Christians, not clerical only, but lay; not men only, but women. ‘Ye know the Holy Scriptures,’ writes Clement of Rome to the Corinthian Christians (1 Clem. liii. 1), ‘Yea, your knowledge is laudable, and ye have deep insight into the Oracles of God.’ ‘What are these articles in your hand bag?’ asks the proconsul Saturninus when examining Speratus, one of the band of Scillitan martyrs in N. Africa. ‘The books and epistles of St. Paul,’ was the reply (Texts and Studies i. 2 [3], p. 114). The feeling grew and spread that it was at once a privilege and a duty thus to make acquaintance with the meaning and teaching of Holy Scripture. In Asia Minor and in Gaul, in Syria and Egypt, this feeling prevailed. Men like Justin Martyr, Tatian, Theophilus of Antioch, became Christians-such is their own acknowledgment-by reading the Scriptures for themselves. By and by wealthy Christians had Bibles copied at their own expense to be given or lent to their poorer brethren. Pamphilus, the friend of Eusebius, whose library at Caesarea was famous, had Bibles copied to keep in stock and to be given away as occasion demanded, ‘not only to men but also to women whom he saw devoted to the reading of Scripture’ (Jerome, Apol. c. Rufin. i. 9).
All this intellectual activity devoted to the study of the Scriptures implies throughout the early Church a considerable level of educational attainment. That many of the poorest
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Education (2)
EDUCATION.—Among the Apocryphal Gospels’ fables of what befell during the Silent Years, there are some that are concerned with the school-days of Jesus—mostly silly and sometimes blasphemous stories of the sort which St. Paul brands as ‘profane and old-wifish myths’ (1 Timothy 4:7). For instance, it is told in Arab. [1] Evang. Inf. xlix. that the wondrous Child one day had a dispute with His teacher about the Hebrew alphabet; and when the latter would have chastised Him, his impious arm was withered, and he died. Such stories are, of course, absolutely unhistorical; but it is indubitable that during His early years at Nazareth Jesus had to do with school and teacher. It is mentioned incidentally by St. Luke that He could read (Luke 4:16), and by St. John that He could write (John 8:8); and it is impossible that He should have grown up without an education. It is not the least merit of the Jewish people that they recognized the value of education, and brought it within the reach of the poorest. ‘Our ground,’ says Josephus,* [2] ‘is good, and we work it to the utmost; but our chief ambition is for the education of our children.’ A father, according to R. Salomo,† [3] had as well bury his son as neglect his instruction; and it was a saying of R. Judah the Holy that ‘the world exists by the breath of school-children.’
A child’s first school was his home and his first teachers his parents, in accordance with Deuteronomy 6:6-7; and his instruction began very early, since youth was recognized as the season of opportunity. ‘He who learns as a lad,’ said R. Abujah, ‘to what is he like? To ink written on fresh paper. And he who learns when old, to what is he like? To ink written on used paper.’‡ [4] St. Paul testifies that Timothy had known sacred literature ‘from his infancy’ (ἀπὸ βρέφους), his teachers being—since his father was a Greek and apparently deceased—his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice (2 Timothy 3:15; 2 Timothy 1:5); and Josephus says that ‘from the very dawn of understanding’ a Jewish child ‘learned the Law by heart, and had it, as it were, engraved on his soul.’§ [5] It may be assumed that Joseph and Mary would be no less zealous than others in the discharge of this sacred and imperative duty.
When he reached the age of six or seven years, the boy was sent to the elementary school, which, since the subject of study was the Book of the Law, was styled the House of the Book (bêth ha-Sçpher).|| [6] This admirable institution, comparable to John Knox’s parish school, was attached to the synagogue; and since there was a synagogue in every village in the land, there was also an elementary school in every village.* [5] The establishment of this system of education was ascribed to the celebrated Simon ben Shetach, brother of Salome Alexandra, the queen of Alexander Jannaeus (b.c. 104–78), and his successor on the throne (b.c. 78–69). Schürer† [8] summarily dismisses the tradition with the remark that ‘this Simon ben Shetach is a meeting-place for all kinds of myths.’ Whatever be the worth of the tradition, Josephus’ reiterated ascription to Moses of the exceedingly thorough system of education which prevailed in his day,‡ [9] proves it no recent institution.
From the House of the Book such as desired to prosecute their studies and become teachers themselves passed into the Scribal College, styled the House of the Midrash (bêth ha-Midrâsh),§ [10] where the great Rabbis taught. There were several of these colleges in Palestine. Sometimes, like the Christian ἐκκλησία (cf. 1 Corinthians 16:19, Colossians 4:15), they met in an upper room in a private house,|| [11] but generally in some special place. The college at Jabne, where R. Eleasar and R. Ishmael taught, met in a place called the Vineyard. The principal college was that of Jerusalem, and it met within the Temple-precincts (cf. Luke 2:46), probably in the Temple-synagogue. The Rabbi occupied a low platform, and his disciples sat round him on the floor, ‘powdering themselves in the dust of the feet of the wise,’¶ [9] —an arrangement which explains St. Paul’s expression, ‘educated at the feet of Gamaliel’ (Acts 22:3).
The disciples were employed in the study of the Oral Law—the Tradition of the Elders (Matthew 15:2), which in those days was regarded with even greater veneration than the Written Law,** [4] and which until, at the earliest, the 5th cent. of our era†† [14] was preserved in the memories of the Rabbis and orally transmitted from generation to generation. The method of study was Mishna, i.e. ‘repetition,’‡‡ [15] the lesson being repeated over and over again until it was fixed in the memory; and proliciency lay in faithful reproduction of the ipsissima verba of the Tradition. It was a high eulogy of Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, a disciple of R. Johanan ben Zakai, when he was likened to ‘a plastered cistern which loses not a drop.’§§ [2]
This mnemonic drill was not the sole employment in the House of the Midrash. Whatever difficulties they felt, the disciples propounded to the Rabbis for elucidation.
Often their questions were ridiculous quibbles, like that put to R. Levi ben Susi in connexion with Deuteronomy 25:9 ‘If his brother’s wife have lost her hands, how is she to loose his shoe?’|||| [17] But they were not always quite so trivial. One much discussed quaestio theologicalis was, ‘Are they few that are being saved?’ Some Rabbis held that ‘all Israel would have a portion in the world to come’; others, that as only two of all that came out of Egypt entered into the land of Canaan, so would it be in the days of the Messiah.¶¶ [9] Another question was, ‘May a man divorce his wife for any cause?’ (cf. Matthew 19:3). The strict school of Shammai permitted divorce only on the ground of unfaithfulness; but that of Hillel granted greater facility, allowing a man to put away his wife if he hated her; if he was dissatisfied with her cooking; if she went deaf or insane; if he saw another women whom he fancied more.*** [19]
Not being designed for a Rabbi, Jesus never studied at any of the Scribal Colleges; but once He sat at the feet of the Rabbis in the House of the Midrash at Jerusalem—on that memorable occasion when, on attaining the age of twelve years and becoming ‘a son of the Law,’ He for the first time (?) accompanied Joseph and Mary on their annual pilgrimage to the sacred capital to celebrate the Feast of the Passover. He lingered in the city when His parents set forth on their return journey, and they found Him on the third day after in the school of the Rabbis. ‘Raise up many disciples’ was the Rabbinical maxim,* [20] and the new recruit would be welcome when He took His place among the disciples. He was ‘sitting in the midst of the Teachers, both listening to them and questioning them’ (Luke 2:46), and evincing an intelligence which amazed them.
There prevailed in early times a singularly unhappy misconception, that the Holy Child was confounding the wise men by an exhibition of Divine wisdom. The Arab. [1] Evang. Inf. (l.–lii.) declares that He was puzzling them with questions about theology, astronomy, physics, metaphysics, and anatomy, ‘things which the mind of no creature could reach’; and Origen says: ‘He was questioning the Teachers; and because they could not answer, He Himself was answering the questions which He asked.’ ‘He was questioning the Teachers, not that He might learn aught, but that by questioning He might instruct them.’† [22] This is rank Docetism, and is refuted by the Evangelist’s testimony that ‘Jesus made progress in wisdom and age’ (ἩΛΙΚΙΑ) (Luke 2:52), as it were, pari passu. He had a human education. His mind grew even as His body.
It made Jesus an object of disdain in the eyes of the rulers that He had never attended a Rabbinical College. They called Him ‘a Samaritan,’ which was a nickname that they had for one who had never sat at the feet of the Rabbis.‡ [23] At the same time they could not deny that He had a knowledge of the things of God far transcending their theological lore. Again and again He encountered the wise men of Israel in debate, and worsted them on their own proper field (cf. Mark 12:28-34 = Matthew 22:34-40; Matthew 22:41-46 = Mark 12:35-37 = Luke 20:41-44). And once, when they heard Him discoursing in the Temple-court, they marvelled whence He had derived His wisdom. ‘How,’ they asked, ‘hath this man learning, though he hath not studied?’ (John 7:15). His wisdom flowed from a higher source. The lofty truths which they were blindly groping after and ignorantly reasoning about, the Father had revealed to Him (cf. John 5:20).
All the vaunted wisdom of the Rabbis Jesus held in very slight esteem. It was not indeed His manner to despise the searchings of earnest souls after the knowledge of God, but the theology of His day was the very arrogance of ignorance, and blinded its votaries to the truth. It is a pathetic fact that nothing so effectually prevented the recognition of Jesus by the men of Jerusalem as their fancied knowledge of the things of God. Bred in an atmosphere of disputation, they were all controversialists, and at every turn they would raise some theological objection to His claims. Once, when some wondered if He were the Messiah, others answered that His origin was known, and, according to the Rabbinical teaching, the Messiah would appear suddenly, none would know whence, like a serpent by the way or a treasure-trove (John 7:20-27; cf. John 7:41 f.). Again it was objected that He testified concerning Himself; and it was a Rabbinical maxim that a man’s testimony concerning himself was invalid (John 8:13).§ [24] Thus it fared with the Messiah when He made His appeal to the men of Jerusalem. Their minds were fenced by an impenetrable barrier of theological prejudice. It was otherwise in Galilee. Among the unsophisticated folk of that despised province the gospel gained a fair hearing and a ready welcome. All the Apostles save Judas were Galiaeans. ‘I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth,’ said Jesus, perhaps when He was leaving Jerusalem, rejected by her wise men (John 10:39-40),* [25] ‘that thou didst hide these things from wise and understanding, and didst reveal them to babes’ (Matthew 11:25).
It is important to take account of this. Does it not explain a difficulty which has been felt in connexion with the Fourth Gospel? St. John represents Jesus as a controversialist absolutely unlike the gracious Teacher of the Synoptists; and it has been alleged that these representations are incompatible. If Jesus spoke as the Synoptists report, He cannot have spoken after the Johannine fashion. But the difference is really a mark of verisimilitude. Jesus had different audiences in Galilee and in Jerusalem. To the simple people of the north He spoke the language of the heart, and couched His teaching in parable and poetry; but in Jerusalem He had to do with men whose minds were steeped in theology, and He met them on their own ground, talked to them in their own language, and encountered them with their own weapons. He adapted His teaching to His audiences. See, further, art. Boyhood.
Literature.—Schürer, HJP [26] ii. ii. p. 44 ff.; art. on ‘Education’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible and in Encyc. Biblica.
David Smith.
EGG.—See Animals, p. 66b.
Webster's Dictionary - Education
(n.) The act or process of educating; the result of educating, as determined by the knowledge skill, or discipline of character, acquired; also, the act or process of training by a prescribed or customary course of study or discipline; as, an education for the bar or the pulpit; he has finished his education.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Education
Consists in developing intelligence, acquiring knowledge, and forming character. This is done by the three agencies most competent to do it, the home, the school, and the Church. Its object is to train the child or immature mind for life here and hereafter, for the destiny allotted to each, and for the relations which each one has to God, to the neighbor, and to the world at large. Literature, art, science, and moral, social, and religious principle are the means of this training, and no education is complete without some knowledge and practise in all of them. Practise is the special element which Christianity introduced in education. Besides a new conception of life, and new sources of knowledge, it brought new principles of action and inculcated the necessity of reducing its ideals and principles into action. Christ taught truth as a way of life; the new things He insisted on, self-denial, love of neighbor, civicfidelity, were not matters of speculation merely, but of conduct. What He taught He bade His Apostles and their followers to teach all nations, even to the consummation of the world. All this was wholly different from the speculative and uncertain maxims of morality taught by paganism. He laid stress on the work and worth of the individual, and gave men a new sense of personality. He brought about respect for womanhood, for the sanctity of marriage, and for the ties of home life. He spoke with authority and with finality on the truths which had perplexed the pagan world, the existence of God, the moral order, immortality, the value of the present and of the future life.
The Apostles were real teachers; witness the Acts. Their followers imitated them and made use of the literatures, the philosophy, history, and science of the day when instructing catechumens or candidates for the priesthood, preaching, writing, and setting forth for the world the reasonableness of Christianity. The ritual of the Church, by its ceremonial and symbolism, appealed to sense, imagination, memory, and feeling. It too is knowledge in action since the faithful actually take part in it. So also is the study of history, of the types and ideals in the Old and New Testament, of the leaders and heroes of Christianity and its saints. The Church gave civilization and culture to the rude people from the North. It was the chief educational agency during the Middle Ages, and the home and the State cooperated with it in this function. With barbarism invading and the old civilization disappearing, the work of the Church in education had to be creative as well as constructive. The monasteries first were its centers, preserving ancient texts, and forming an organized body of teachers dedicated to their tasks. The schools followed, developing into the universities. In them Greek culture was harmonized with Christianity. Popes and secular rulers chartered and helped in many instances to found them. They aimed at maintaining complete faculties for the study of religion and science.
With the Reformation came the rupture between the two, the separation of morals and religion from philosophy and science generally. Then followed the sequestration of the universities, the confiscation of the monasteries, the opposition of governments, the ostracism of Catholics in many countries, in a word, the devastation of the work of the Church for centuries. It is only within the past 25 years that scholars, led by men like Denifle, Rashdall, and by Haskins and Rand, in the United States, and the Mediaeval Society, have begun to show what the Church had done to save and promote learning and develop civilization and culture. The story of the gradual recovery, by the Church, of its proper position in this respect will some day read like an epic of education. Beginning with the establishment of seminaries after the plan of the Council of Trent, of the academies and colleges of the religious orders, notably of the Jesuits and Benedictines, of the elementary schools in parishes and other centers, the Church today has a vast system of education in almost every country. This it maintains not only for teaching religion, but for teaching the entire cycle of human science, and for restoring the union which should exist between both. Gradually the schools founded under the control of various Protestant sects have become secularized. Religion has little or no place in them. On the contrary, besides being excluded, it is made little of, if not dismissed as a superstition. Leaders of the various churches are becoming alive to this situation and attempting to remedy it. Religion, not speculation only, but practical also, is more and more recognized as an essential of any education that prepares men and women for life. On the necessity of the study of morals in education all agree, but that is impossible without religion. This is why the Church insists on parents providing for the education of their children in religion, and, as a rule, in Catholic schools.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Education
EDUCATION . In the importance which they attached to the education of the young, it may fairly be claimed that the Hebrews were facile princeps among the nations of antiquity. Indeed, if the ultimate aim of education be the formation of character, the Hebrew ideals and methods will bear comparison with the best even of modern times. In character Hebrew education was predominantly, one might almost say exclusively, religious and ethical. Its fundamental principle may be expressed in the familiar words: ‘The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge’ ( Proverbs 1:7 ). Yet it recognized that conduct was the true test of character; in the words of Simeon, the son of Gamaliel, that ‘not learning but doing is the chief thing.’
As to the educational attainments of the Hebrews before the conquest of Canaan, it is useless to speculate. On their settlement in Canaan, however, they were brought into contact with a civilization which for two thousand years or more had been under the influence of Babylonia and in a less degree of Egypt. The language of Babylonia, with its complicated system of wedge-writing, had for long been the medium of communication not only between the rulers of the petty states of Canaan and the great powers outside its borders, but even, as we now know from Sellin’s discoveries at Taanach, between these rulers themselves. This implies the existence of some provision for instruction in reading and writing the difficult Babylonian script. Although in this early period such accomplishments were probably confined to a limited number of high officials and professional scribes, the incident in Gideon’s experience, Judges 8:14 (where we must render with RVm [1] ‘wrote down’), warns us against unduly restricting the number of those able to read and write in the somewhat later period of the Judges. The more stable political conditions under the monarchy, and in particular the development of the administration and the growth of commerce under Solomon, must undoubtedly have furthered the spread of education among all classes.
Of schools and schoolmasters, however, there is no evidence till after the Exile, for the expression ‘schools of the prophets’ has no Scripture warrant. Only once, indeed, is the word ‘school’ to be found even in NT ( Acts 19:9 ), and then only of the lecture-room of a Greek teacher in Ephesus. The explanation of this silence is found in the fact that the Hebrew child received his education in the home, with his parents as his only instructors. Although he grew up ignorant of much that ‘every school-boy’ knows to-day, he must not on that account be set down as uneducated. He had been instructed, first of all, in the truths of his ancestral religion (see Deuteronomy 6:20-25 and elsewhere); and in the ritual of the recurring festivals there was provided for him object-lessons in history and religion ( Exodus 12:26 f., Exodus 13:8 ; Exodus 13:14 ). In the traditions of his family and race some of which are still preserved in the older parts of OT he had a unique storehouse of the highest ideals of faith and conduct, and these after all are the things that matter.
Descending the stream of history, we reach an epoch-making event in the history of education, not less than of religion, among the Jews, in the assembly convened by Ezra and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 8:1 ff.), at which the people pledged themselves to accept ‘the book of the law of Moses’ as the norm of their life in all its relations. Henceforward the Jews were pre-eminently, in Mohammed’s phrase, ‘the people of the Book.’ But if the Jewish community was henceforth to regulate its whole life, not according to the living word of priest and prophet, but according to the requirements of a written law, it was indispensable that provision should be made for the instruction of all classes in this law. To this practical necessity is due the origin of the synagogue (wh. see), which, from the Jewish point of view, was essentially a meeting-place for religious instruction, and, indeed, is expressly so named by Philo. In NT also the preacher or expounder in the synagogue is invariably said to ‘teach’ ( Matthew 4:23 , Mark 1:21 , and passim ), and the education of youth continues to the last to be associated with the synagogue (see below). The situation created by this new zeal for the Law has been admirably described by Wellhausen: ‘The Bible became the spelling-book, the community a school.… Piety and education were inseparable; whoever could not read was no true Jew. We may say that in this way were created the beginnings of popular education.’
This new educational movement was under the guidance of a body of students and teachers of the Law known as the Sôpherim (lit. ‘book-men’) or scribes , of whom Ezra is the typical example ( Ezra 7:6 ). Alongside these, if not identical with them, as many hold, we find an influential class of religious and moral teachers, known as the Sages or the Wise, whose activity culminates in the century preceding the fall of the Persian empire (b.c. 430 330). The arguments for the identity in all important respects of the early scribes and the sages are given by the present writer in Hastings’ DB [2] i. 648; but even if the two classes were originally distinct, there can be no doubt that by the time of Jesus hen Sira, the author of Ecclesiasticus ( cir . b.c. 180 170), himself a scribe and the last of the sages, they had become merged in one.
To appreciate the religious and ethical teaching of the sages, we have only to open the Book of Proverbs. Here life is pictured as a discipline, the Hebrew word for which is found thirty times in this book. ‘The whole of life,’ it has been said, ‘is here considered from the view-point of a pædagogic institution. God educates men, and men educate each other’ (O. Holtzmann).
With the coming of the Greeks a new educational force in the shape of Hellenistic culture entered Palestine a force which made itself felt in many directions in the pre-Maccabean age. From a reference in Josephus ( Ant . XII. iv. 6) it may be inferred that schools on the Greek model had been established in Jerusalem itself before b.c. 220. It was somewhere in this period, too, that the preacher could say: ‘Of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh’ ( Ecclesiastes 12:12 ) reflexions which necessarily presuppose a wide-spread interest in intellectual pursuits. The edict of Antiochus Epiphanes at a later date ( 1Ma 1:57 ) equally implies a considerable circulation of the Torah among the people, with the ability to profit by its study.
Passing now, as this brief sketch requires, to the period of Jewish history that lies between the triumph of the Maccabees and the end of the Jewish State in a.d. 70, we find a tradition there is no valid reason for rejecting it as untrustworthy which illustrates the extent to which elementary education, at least, was fostered under the later Maccabean princes. A famous scribe of the period ( cir . b.c. 75), Simon ben-Shetach, brother of Queen Alexandra, is said to have got a law passed ordaining that ‘the children shall attend the elementary school.’ This we understand on various grounds to mean, not that these schools were first instituted, but that attendance at them was henceforth to be compulsory. The elementary school, termed ‘the house of the Book’ ( i.e. Scripture), in opposition to ‘the house of study’ or college of the scribes (see below), was always closely associated with the synagogue. In the smaller places, indeed, the same building served for both.
The elementary teachers , as we may call them, formed the lowest rank in the powerful guild of the scribes. They are ‘the doctors (lit. teachers) of the law,’ who, in our Lord’s day, were to be found in ‘every village of Galilee and Judæa’ ( Luke 5:17 RV [3] ), and who figure so frequently in the Gospels. Attendance at the elementary school began at the age of six. Already the boy had learned to repeat the Shema (‘Hear, O Israel,’ etc., Deuteronomy 6:4 ), selected proverbs and verses from the Psalms. He now began to learn to read. His only textbooks were the rolls of the sacred Scriptures, especially the roll of the Law, the opening chapters of Leviticus being usually the first to be taken in hand. After the letters were mastered, the teacher copied a verse which the child had already learned by heart, and taught him to identify the individual words. The chief feature of the teaching was learning by rote, and that audibly, for the Jewish teachers were thorough believers in the Latin maxim, repetitio mater studiorum . The pupils sat on the floor at the teacher’s feet, as did Saul at the feet of Gamaliel ( Acts 22:3 ).
The subjects taught were ‘the three R [4] ’s’ reading, writing, and arithmetic, the last in a very elementary form. The child’s first attempts at writing were probably done, as in the Greek schools of the period, on sherds of pottery; from these he would be promoted to a wax tablet (Luke 1:63 RV [3] ), on which he wrote ‘with a pointed style or metal instrument, very much as if one wrote on thickly buttered bread with a small stiletto.’ Only after considerable progress had been made would he finally reach the dignity of papyrus.
For the mass of young Jews of the male sex, for whom alone public provision was made, the girls being still restricted to the tuition of the home, the teaching of the primary school sufficed. Those, however, who wished to be themselves teachers, or otherwise to devote themselves to the professional study of the Law, passed on to the higher schools or colleges above mentioned. At the beginning of our era the two most important of these colleges were taught by the famous ‘doctors of the law,’ Hillel and Shammai. It was a grandson of the former, Gamaliel I., who, thirty years later, numbered Saul of Tarsus among his students (Acts 22:3 ). In the Beth hammidrash (house of study) the exclusive subjects of study were the interpretation of the OT, and the art of applying the regulations of the Torah, by means of certain exegetical canons, to the minutest details of the life of the time.
A. R. S. Kennedy.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Education
There is little trace among the Hebrews in earlier times of education in any other subjects than the law. The wisdom therefore and instruction, of which so much is said in the book of Proverbs, are to be understood chiefly of moral and religious discipline, imparted, according to the direction of the law, by the teaching and under the example of parents. (But Solomon himself wrote treatises on several scientific subjects, which must have been studied in those days.) In later times the prophecies and comments on them, as well as on the earlier Scriptures, together with other subjects, were studied. Parents were required to teach their children some trade. (Girls also went to schools, and women generally among the Jews were treated with greater equality to men than in any other ancient nation.) Previous to the captivity, the chief depositaries of learning were the schools or colleges, from which in most cases proceeded that succession of public teachers who at various times endeavored to reform the moral and religious conduct of both rulers and people. Besides the prophetical schools instruction was given by the priests in the temple and elsewhere. [1]
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Education
In early times there were no schools such as we know them today, and most children were educated at home. It was the responsibility of parents to teach their children the history and social customs of their nation, to instruct them in right living and to prepare them for adult life. This preparation involved teaching and training in reading, writing, crafts, trades and household work (Exodus 13:8; Exodus 13:14; Deuteronomy 4:9-10; Proverbs 1:8; Proverbs 4:1-9; Proverbs 31:1). In the case of Israelites, parents had a particular responsibility to teach their children the religion given them by God (Deuteronomy 6:6-9). Christian parents have a similar responsibility (Ephesians 6:4; 2 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 3:15; see FAMILY).
All Dictionary (12) 1910 New Catholic Dictionary (2) Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology (1) Bridgeway Bible Dictionary (1) Fausset's Bible Dictionary (1) Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible (1) Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament (2) Holman Bible Dictionary (1) Smith's Bible Dictionary (1) Webster's Dictionary (2)

Sentence search

Schools - See Education
Teaching - See Education; Instruction
School - See Education, Tyrannus
Teacher, Teaching, - TEACHER, TEACHING , See Education
Hellenism - See Education, Greece
School (2) - —See Boyhood and Education
Opsimathy - ) Education late in life
Educational - ) Of or pertaining to Education
Didactics - The branch of Education dealing with teaching
Wax - See Education, p
Son of the Law - —See Boyhood and Education
Pestalozzianism - ) The system of Education introduced by Pestalozzi
Education - ) The act or process of educating; the result of educating, as determined by the knowledge skill, or discipline of character, acquired; also, the act or process of training by a prescribed or customary course of study or discipline; as, an Education for the bar or the pulpit; he has finished his Education
Reading - 222b, Education, Reader
Reading - 222b, Education, Reader
Self-Culture - ) Culture, training, or Education of one's self by one's own efforts
Didactic - ) A treatise on teaching or Education
Educative - ) Tending to educate; that gives Education; as, an educative process; an educative experience
Educationist - ) One who is versed in the theories of, or who advocates and promotes, Education
Educated - ) Formed or developed by Education; as, an educated man
Populace - ) The common people; the vulgar; the multitude, - comprehending all persons not distinguished by rank, office, Education, or profession
Philanthropinism - ) A system of Education on so-called natural principles, attempted in Germany in the last century by Basedow, of Dessau
Finished - ) Polished to the highest degree of excellence; complete; perfect; as, a finished poem; a finished Education
Training - ; Education
Finished - Complete perfect polished to the highest degree of excellence as a finished poem a finished Education
Education in Bible Times - Education is essential to the survival of any social group, since a community secures its continued existence and development only through the transmission of its accumulated knowledge, derived power, and ideological aims to the next generation. Education may be simply (and narrowly) defined as the process of teaching and learning, the imparting and acquisition of knowledge and skill(s). ...
The need for Education was no less true for the Israelites than for any of the peoples of the ancient world. Thus, to ensure their prosperity, growth, and longevity as the people of Yahweh, Israel's mandate was one of Education—diligently teaching their children to love God, and to know and obey his statues and ordinances (Deuteronomy 6:1-9 ). ...
Education in the Ancient Near East . Since Education is basic to the existence of any community or society it is only natural that certain foundational ideals, methods, and principles of Education are shared properties among diverse people groups. The case is no different when we study the Educational practices of the Israelites within the context of Education in world of the ancient Near East. ...
Education in the ancient world was rooted in religious tradition and theological ideals. The goal of Education was the transmission of that religious tradition, along with community mores and values, and vocational and technical skills. The by-product of this kind of Education was a model citizen, loyal to family, gods, and king, upright in character, and productive in community life. More than liberally educated "free-thinkers, " the important outcome of the Educational system for the ancients was utilitarianequipping people to be functional members of family and society. Disciplined learning characterized Educational instruction, with lessons taught at fixed times during the day and often for a set number of days in a month. ...
The primary agency of Education in both ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia was the home. Parents and elders of the clan or extended family were responsible for the Education of children. Whereas Education in the home focused on vocational training and moral development, the temple and palace schools were designed to produce literate, informed, and capable religious and sociopolitical leaders and administrators. ...
However, more striking than these similarities are the difference between the Educational ideals and practices of the Hebrews and those of their ancient counterparts. It is important to note that these Educational distinctives of the Israelites are directly related to singular aspects of Hebrew religion. ...
First, the emphasis upon individual personality in Hebrew faith meant that Education must respect the individual and seek to develop the whole person. Thus Hebrew Education stressed the importance of recognizing and remembering Acts and events of divine providence in history. ...
Third, the idea of indeterminism or personal freedom in Hebrew religion gave man and woman dignity as free moral agents in creation; likewise Hebrew Education stressed the responsibility individuals have toward God and others, accountability of human behavior, and the need for disciplined training in making "right" choices. ...
Fourth, the notion of the Israelites as a divinely chosen people encouraged fierce nationalistic overtones in Hebrew religion and Education; religiously the Israelites were obligated to the demands of God's holiness in order to remain his special possession, while Educationally they were obligated to instruct all nations in divine holiness and redemption as Yahweh's instrument of light to the nations. ...
Fifth, the doctrine of human sin and sinfulness stamps both Hebrew religion and Education; this introduced the concept of mediation in Israelite religiona requirement for bridging the gap between a righteous God and his fallen creation; Educationally this meant human knowledge and wisdom were flawed and limited and that divine illumination was necessary for grasping certain truths and divine enablement was necessary for doing right. ...
Education in Old Testament Times . Hebrew Education was both objective (external and content oriented) and subjective (internal and personally oriented), cognitive (emphasis on the intellect) and affective (emphasis on the will and emotions), and both active (investigative and participatory) and passive (rote and reflective). On occasion special guidance (directed study) as well as correction and warning were a part of the Educational experience. And finally, critical thinking skills were an important Educational outcome because learning had application to daily living. The aim or purpose of Old Testament Education is encapsulated within the revelation given to Abraham concerning the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. " This divine directive embodies the very essence of Hebrew Education in the Old Testament, affirming the primacy of parental instruction. In addition, the verse identifies the desired goal or outcome of Education: a lifestyle of doing justice and righteousness. Genesis 18:19 cryptically describes the content of Hebrew Education as "the way of the Lord. " What is meant by this phrase and how does it relate to the religious content of Education in the Old Testament?...
Generally speaking, "the way of the Lord" refers to knowledge of and obedience to the will of God as revealed through act and word in Old Testament history. ...
Thus, Hebrew Education was essentially instruction in covenant obedience or "keeping the way of the Lord" (Genesis 18:19 ). Later, the psalmist condensed this covenant content of Old Testament Education into the phrase "the law of the Lord" (Psalm 119:1 ). ...
Naturally, the content of Hebrew Education expanded as God continued to reveal himself and his redemptive plan to the Israelites through the centuries of Old Testament history. ...
Since the Israelites recognized Yahweh as the God of history, providentially active in the course of human events, history too became part of the content or curriculum of Hebrew Education. Of course, the primary example of this historical trajectory in Hebrew Education is the Passover feast and exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:24-27 ; 13:11-16 ). ...
In time, the Hebrew poetic and wisdom traditions and the prophetic tradition were included in the covenant content of Old Testament Education. ...
The Practice of Education . Until a child was about five years old informal Education in the home was largely the responsibility of the mother, a nurse, or a male guardian. Theologically, the practice of Education as outlined in Old Testament revelation resulted in God's covenant blessing for the Hebrew people. Sociologically, the practice of Education facilitated assimilation into the community of faith and ensured the stabilization of that community because the principle of "doing justice" permeated society (2 Timothy 2:24-26 ). Religiously, the practice of Education sustained covenant relationship with God through obedience and proper ritual, which prompted God's favor and presence with Israel (Leviticus 26:9-12 ). ...
The Agencies of Education . There were basically three agencies or institutions responsible for the Education of youth in Old Testament times: the home or family, the community, and formal centers of learning. Here it is important to remember that the process of Education described in Scripture was predominantly informal (home and community), not the formal Education of learned institutions. Since ancient Israel was largely a clan society, extended family members like grandparents, aunts and uncles, and even cousins might also participate in the Educational process within the home. ...
Since all Israelites were bonded together in covenant relationship as the people of God before Yahweh, the religious community also played an important role in the Education of the Hebrew youth. Specific examples of community Education include: the three great pilgrimage festivals (Unleavened Bread, Weeks, and Tabernacles Deuteronomy 16:16 ; cf. ...
Education in Later Judaism . Important developments in Education during this period included the rise of the synagogue as both a religious and Educational institution; the emergence of scribal schools for copying, studying, and interpreting the Hebrew Scriptures; and the establishment of "schools" or academies for the study of the Torah under the tutelage of well-known rabbis or teachers. However, three items deserve mention in the development of the Educational process in Judaism because of their theological significance for the New Testament and Christianity. ...
First, the formative period of Judaism (roughly from the reforms of Ezra to the time of Maccabees) witnessed the expansion of the religious content or curriculum of Jewish Education. Ironically, this was the intended Educational outcome of that original mandate for instruction in the way of the Lord given to Abraham (Genesis 18:19 ). ...
Education in New Testament Times . Much of the New Testament understanding of Education is simply assumed from the practice of the Old Testament and Judaism. For example, the family remains the primary context for Education, with prominence also given to the church as the extended family or community of faith. And yet, the approach, method, and content utilized by Jesus in his teaching continue to be paradigmatic for Christian Education. Jesus also had the ability to teach effectively informal Educational settings (Mark 12:35 ), or more spontaneously as the need arose or circumstance dictated (Mark 9:33-37 ). Religious Education or instruction in the Christian faith served another important purpose in the New Testament: exposing false teachers and their subversive doctrines. ...
The New Testament teaches us several important pedagogical and theological lessons appropriate for application in contemporary Christian Education. First, Education attends to the whole personmind and body, emotions and will. Second, the New Testament understands Education as a process of both instilling (imparting information to the pupil) and extracting (drawing out learning from the pupil or self-discovery). Third, effective Education is rooted in a mentoring relationship (note Jesus with his disciples or the apostles training others to follow their lead). ...
Ultimately, biblical Education is instruction in a lifestyle. Not only is biblical Education a lifestyleit is a lifetime! ...
Andrew E. Barclay, Educational Ideals in the Ancient World ; S. Bonner, Education in Ancient Rome from the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny ; W. Brueggemann, The Creative Word: Canon as Model for Biblical Education ; R. Clarke, Higher Education in the Ancient World ; N. Drazin, History of Jewish Education from 515 B. , Psychology and Religious Education ; T. Groome, Christian Religious Education ; M. Marrou, A History of Education in Antiquity ; F. Mayer, A History of Educational Thought ; G. Muirhead, Education in the New Testament ; R
True-Bred - ) Being of real breeding or Education; as, a true-bred gentleman
Accomplished - Well endowed with good qualities and manners complete in acquirements having a finished Education
Saint Bonaventure's College, New York - Comprised of a preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, Education; graduate and summer schools
Saint Thomas, College of - Consists of a preparatory school; college of arts and sciences, special and Education courses; summer school
Our Lady of the Lake College - Preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, Education, sociology; home economics, music; graduate and special courses; summer school
Saint Mary's College, California - Consists of a preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, engineering, commerce, Education, music, law, medicine
Irish College of Louvain - Founded, 1624, for the Education of Irish priests, the charter being granted by the Holy See at the instance of the Most Reverend Eugene; Macmahon; closed by the French, 1795
Mount Saint Mary's Seminary of the West - Founded May 18, 1829 by Bishop Edward Fenwick as part of the Athenaeum of Ohio Education center
Louvain, Irish College of - Founded, 1624, for the Education of Irish priests, the charter being granted by the Holy See at the instance of the Most Reverend Eugene; Macmahon; closed by the French, 1795
Saint Mary's College, Indiana - Consists of a preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, commerce, journalism, Education, fine arts, music
Saint Louis University - Consists of a preparatory school, schools of arts and sciences, nursing, divinity, commerce, Education, law, medicine, dentistry; graduate and summer schools
Catholic Educational Association - Voluntary organization of Catholic educators and others interested in Catholic Education in America, founded in Saint Louis, Missouri, 1904. Its purpose is to provide the opportunity for Catholic educators to meet for the discussion of their problems, and to safeguard the interests of Catholic Education. The Educational Association Bulletin is issued quarterly
Association, Catholic Educational - Voluntary organization of Catholic educators and others interested in Catholic Education in America, founded in Saint Louis, Missouri, 1904. Its purpose is to provide the opportunity for Catholic educators to meet for the discussion of their problems, and to safeguard the interests of Catholic Education. The Educational Association Bulletin is issued quarterly
Educational Association Bulletin - Voluntary organization of Catholic educators and others interested in Catholic Education in America, founded in Saint Louis, Missouri, 1904. Its purpose is to provide the opportunity for Catholic educators to meet for the discussion of their problems, and to safeguard the interests of Catholic Education. The Educational Association Bulletin is issued quarterly
Dayton, University of - Dayton, 0hio, USA; founded 1850; conducted by the Society of Mary; preparatory school; colleges of arts, letters, and sciences; commerce and finance; engineering; law; Education; evening and Saturday courses; summer school
University of Dayton, Ohio - Dayton, 0hio, USA; founded 1850; conducted by the Society of Mary; preparatory school; colleges of arts, letters, and sciences; commerce and finance; engineering; law; Education; evening and Saturday courses; summer school
Froebelian - ) Pertaining to, or derived from, Friedrich Froebel, or the kindergarten system of Education, which he organized
Catholic Sisters College of the Catholic Universit - Washington, DC, founded, 1911; conducted by the hierarchy of the United States; colleges of arts and sciences, Education, music; graduate, extension, correspondence and summer schools; professors, 48; students, 208; degrees conferred in 1929,59
Piarist - ) One of a religious order who are the regular clerks of the Scuole Pie (religious schools), an institute of secondary Education, founded at Rome in the last years of the 16th century
Completion - ) The act or process of making complete; the getting through to the end; as, the completion of an undertaking, an Education, a service
Scholarship - ) Literary Education
Catholic Education Council - It is recognized by the Board of Education as the agent of Catholic managers and governors in any difficulties connected with Catholic schools arising in the administration of the Education Acts 1921. Its main source of income is an annual collection, made in all churches by direction of the hierarchy from which it votes grants for Educational purposes. In recent years it has organized an Educational section at the National Catholic Congress
Sisters of Saint Joseph of Saint Hyacinthe - Founded at Saint Hyacinthe, Canada in 1877 by Bishop Louis Zephirin Moreau, for the Education of children
Catholic Educational Review - Monthly magazine published by the Catholic Educational Press at Washington, District of Columbia, devoted to the interests of Catholic schools, and under the direction of the Department of Education, Catholic University of America; founded 1911; circulation, 1,800
Marywood University - Scranton, Pennsylvania, conducted by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; colleges of arts and sciences, commerce, Education, social service, home economics, fine arts, music; graduate and extension courses; summer school
Confucianism - ) The political morality taught by Confucius and his disciples, which forms the basis of the Chinese jurisprudence and Education
Sisters of the Incarnate Word And Blessed Sacramen - A religious order founded by Jeanne Chezard de Matel at Rouen, France in 1625 for the Education of youth
Review, Catholic Educational - Monthly magazine published by the Catholic Educational Press at Washington, District of Columbia, devoted to the interests of Catholic schools, and under the direction of the Department of Education, Catholic University of America; founded 1911; circulation, 1,800
Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross - An order founded by Father Charles Nemcky in Kentucky in 1812 for the Education of the young
Sisters of Saint Joseph -(Beaverton, Oregon) - Founded in 1886 by Archbishop Gross at Sublimity, Oregon for the Education of youth
University, Marywood - Scranton, Pennsylvania, conducted by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; colleges of arts and sciences, commerce, Education, social service, home economics, fine arts, music; graduate and extension courses; summer school
Mount Saint Joseph on the Ohio - Preparatory school, colleges of arts and sciences, Education, home economics, music, extension courses, summer school
Mount Saint Joseph, College of - Preparatory school, colleges of arts and sciences, Education, home economics, music, extension courses, summer school
Sisters of Divine Providence (Lorraine) - Founded in Lorraine, France in 1762 by Father Jean Martin Moye, for the propagation of the faith, the ensuring of a Christian Education to children, especially those of the rural population, for the care of the sick, and other works of mercy. The American province of the Sisters of Divine Providence of Saint-Jean-de-Bassel was founded in 1889 at Covington, Kentucky by three sisters of the general mother-house at Saint-Jean-de-Bassel, for the Christian Education of youth in America
Duquesne University - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, founded 1878; conducted by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost; preparatory school; colleges of arts, sciences, Education; schools of accounts, finance, and commerce, oratory, law, pharmacy, music; graduate, special, pre-medical and pre-dental, extension, and summer schools
Vested School - In Ireland, a national school which has been built by the aid of grants from the board of Commissioners of National Education and is secured for Educational purposes by leases to the commissioners themselves, or to the commissioners and the trustees
University, Duquesne - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, founded 1878; conducted by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost; preparatory school; colleges of arts, sciences, Education; schools of accounts, finance, and commerce, oratory, law, pharmacy, music; graduate, special, pre-medical and pre-dental, extension, and summer schools
Seton Hall University - Founded in 1856 as Seton Hall College, conducted by the diocesan clergy with a schools of arts and sciences, Education; graduate schools. Co-educational in 1968
Pestalozzian - ) Belonging to, or characteristic of, a system of elementary Education which combined manual training with other instruction, advocated and practiced by Jean Henri Pestalozzi (1746-1827), a Swiss teacher
Lorettine - The members of the order (called also Sisters of Loretto, or Friends of Mary at the Foot of the Cross) devote themselves to the cause of Education and the care of destitute orphans, their labors being chiefly confined to the western United States. The members of the order (called also Sisters of Loretto, or Friends of Mary at the Foot of the Cross) devote themselves to the cause of Education and the care of destitute orphans, their labors being chiefly confined to the Western United States
Catholic Work For the Blind - Although there was no Education for the blind until the 18th century, mainly due to the error as to their mental capacities, the Church provided for their corporeal needs from the earliest ages. In the 16th century special processes for their Education, attempted by Cardano and the Jesuit, Francesco Lana-Terzi, met with little success. The modern movement for Education of the blind was originated by Valentin Haüy (1745-1822), who provided a system of tactual printing which resulted in a permanent literature, and founded the first school for the blind, 1784
Melzar - An official title, for the precedes Melzar in the Hebrew "The steward" or" tutor," superintending the nurture and Education of the young, subordinate to "the master of the eunuchs" (Daniel 1:11; Daniel 1:16); from Persian mal cara , "head cupbearer," or nazar to guard
Pestle - Proverbs 27:22 (b) We are assured in this passage that no amount of good associations nor splendid Education will change a fool's heart
Sisters of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin - Their work consists of the Education of the young
School - Place and agency for Education, particularly of children. ), the Education of children was like that of all ancient peoples: it was centered in the home. The main concern of the Jewish people was for religious Education in the home. ...
A new stage in Jewish Education came about due to the catastrophe of the Babylonian Exile when the upper classes of Judea were transported to Babylon. A strong sense of community responsibility, evidenced by an Education tax on all parents, had by A. See Education; Scribes; Synagogue ; Torah
Kitson, Samuel z - His artistic Education was obtained at Leeds and in Rome, where his prizes included the papal gold medal
Accomplishment - ) That which completes, perfects, or equips thoroughly; acquirement; attainment; that which constitutes excellence of mind, or elegance of manners, acquired by Education or training
Sisters of the Sorrowful Mother - A community founded for the Education of children and the care of the sick; established in America, 1889
Samuel Kitson - His artistic Education was obtained at Leeds and in Rome, where his prizes included the papal gold medal
Cos - It was a center for Education, trade, wine, purple dye, and ointment
Accomplishment - Acquirement that which constitutes excellence of mind, or elegance of manners, acquired by Education
Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus And Mary - A religious congregation founded at Longueuil, Quebec, under the patronage of Bishop Bourgot of Montreal in 1843 for the Christian Education of youth
Sisters of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin - Religious congregation founded at Thueyts, France, by Mother Marie Rivier in 1796 for the Education of girls
University of Santo Tomas - Faculties of theology, law, philosophy, medicine, pharmacy, engineering, Education, liberal arts; central preparatory and major seminary
Santo Tomas, University of - Faculties of theology, law, philosophy, medicine, pharmacy, engineering, Education, liberal arts; central preparatory and major seminary
Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word - Congregation founded at Galveston, Texas by Bishop Claude Dubuis in 1866 for the Education of the young, and the care of the aged, the sick, and orphans
Kindergarten - ) A school for young children, conducted on the theory that Education should be begun by gratifying and cultivating the normal aptitude for exercise, play, observation, imitation, and construction; - a name given by Friedrich Froebel, a German educator, who introduced this method of training, in rooms opening on a garden
Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Presentation - Louise Lemarchand, for the care and Education of children
Scots College, Rome - Founded by Bull of Pope Clement VIII in 1600 for the Education of Scottish priests
Ross, School of - Founded by Saint Fachtna, and famous for its study of Sacred Scripture and its liberal Education
School of Ross - Founded by Saint Fachtna, and famous for its study of Sacred Scripture and its liberal Education
Institute of the Brigidines - Founded by Most Reverend Doctor Delaney, at Tullow, Ireland, 1807, for the instruction of children and of adults in Christian Doctrine, and for the work of general Education
Schoolship - ) A vessel employed as a nautical training school, in which naval apprentices receive their Education at the expense of the state, and are trained for service as sailors
Sisters of Our Lady of Perpetual Help - Brousesau for the Education of the young, and the care of the aged and infirm of both sexes
Silvia of Rome, Saint - She gave her sons an excellent Education, and after the death of her husband devoted herself to religion
Sylvia of Rome, Saint - She gave her sons an excellent Education, and after the death of her husband devoted herself to religion
Rome, Silvia of, Saint - She gave her sons an excellent Education, and after the death of her husband devoted herself to religion
Sisters of Saint Brigid - Founded by Most Reverend Doctor Delaney, at Tullow, Ireland, 1807, for the instruction of children and of adults in Christian Doctrine, and for the work of general Education
Society of Saint Francis de Sales - Founded for the Christian Education of the young by Saint John (Don) Bosco near Turin, Italy in 1844. The work of Education was divided into two classes, students and artisans, the second enabling boys to learn a trade
Salesians of Don Bosco - Founded for the Christian Education of the young by Saint John (Don) Bosco near Turin, Italy in 1844. The work of Education was divided into two classes, students and artisans, the second enabling boys to learn a trade
Schooling - ) Instruction in school; tuition; Education in an institution of learning; act of teaching
Sisters of Charity of Saint Augustine - Caberet in Cleveland, Ohio in 1851 for the Education of the young and the care of the sick
Society of the Sisters, Faithful Companions of Jes - An institute founded by the Viscountess d'Houet, at Amiens, France in 1820, for the Education of all classes
Lady - Originally, the title of lady was given to the daughters of earls and others in high rank, but by custom, the title belongs to any woman of genteel Education
Sisters of the Holy Childhood of Jesus And Mary - Anne Victoire Mejanes, at Metz, Lorraine, France in 1807, for the Education of girls and the care of the sick poor
Dupanloup, Felix Antoine Philibert - He was an illegitimate child whose mother sought to lessen his disgrace by providing him with an excellent Education. In 1844 he inaugurated with Montalembert and De Ravignan the long struggle for liberty of Education
Irish Hedge-Schools - A term which originated in Ireland during the 18th century and denoted the proscribed gatherings of Catholic children and their teachers, when the repression of the Catholic schools by the Penal Laws made secret meetings necessary for the continuation of Catholic Education
Jesus-Mary, Congregation of - Founded by Claudine Thevenet at Lyons, France, 1818, primarily for the Education of girls
Holy And Immaculate Heart of Mary, Congregation of - A congregation founded for the Education of girls by Father Dupuis in Pondicherry, India, 1844, under the rules of the Third Order Regular of Saint Francis of Assisi
William Byrne - In 1821 he opened Saint Mary's College, Bardstown, which exerted a wide influence in spreading Education throughout Kentucky
Sisters of Saint Agnes of Rome - Founded at Barton, Wisconsin in 1846, by the missionary priest Father Caspar Rehrl for the Education of children
Sister-Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (g - Marie Roy, to shelter penitent girls, and to provide Christian Education for children
Hedge-Schools, Irish - A term which originated in Ireland during the 18th century and denoted the proscribed gatherings of Catholic children and their teachers, when the repression of the Catholic schools by the Penal Laws made secret meetings necessary for the continuation of Catholic Education
Saint Isidore, College of - Father Luke Wadding converted it into a college for the Education of Irish Franciscan students in 1625
Unlearned - Acts 4:13, Peter and John; John 7:15, "how knoweth this man letters, having never learned?" The Jewish literati did not mean without common Education, reading and writing, etc
Sisters of the Holy Ghost - A congregation founded by Renee Burel and Marie Balavenne in Brittany, France in 1706 primarily for the Education of children, but for other charitable works, including the care of the sick in their own homes
Carlovingian Schools - A system of Educational reform was inaugurated by Charlemagne under the advice of Alcuin who became his "prime minister of Education. In 787 Charlemagne issued the famous capitulary on Education and Theodulf, who succeeded Alcuin as court adviser, enacted that priests should establish free schools in every town and village
Mantellate - Education and the instruction of converts also engage the nuns, who have houses in Italy, France, Spain, England, Canada, and the United States
Ancilla Domini Sisters - (Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ) A community founded by Catherine Kaspar, at Dernbach, Germany, 1851, for the Education of the young and the care of the aged and infirm
Anglesey, Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of - He originated the Board of Education in Ireland
Servants of the Holy Heart of Mary - Religious congregation founded at Paris, France in 1860 by Pere Delaplace and Marie Jeanne Moisan for the Christian Education of children and the visitation and care of the sick in hospitals and in their own homes
Sisters of the Heart of Mary - Religious congregation founded at Paris, France in 1860 by Pere Delaplace and Marie Jeanne Moisan for the Christian Education of children and the visitation and care of the sick in hospitals and in their own homes
Society of the Holy Child Jesus - Cornelia Connelly, primarily for the Education of girls
Education - Literature, art, science, and moral, social, and religious principle are the means of this training, and no Education is complete without some knowledge and practise in all of them. Practise is the special element which Christianity introduced in Education. It was the chief Educational agency during the Middle Ages, and the home and the State cooperated with it in this function. With barbarism invading and the old civilization disappearing, the work of the Church in Education had to be creative as well as constructive. The story of the gradual recovery, by the Church, of its proper position in this respect will some day read like an epic of Education. Beginning with the establishment of seminaries after the plan of the Council of Trent, of the academies and colleges of the religious orders, notably of the Jesuits and Benedictines, of the elementary schools in parishes and other centers, the Church today has a vast system of Education in almost every country. Religion, not speculation only, but practical also, is more and more recognized as an essential of any Education that prepares men and women for life. On the necessity of the study of morals in Education all agree, but that is impossible without religion. This is why the Church insists on parents providing for the Education of their children in religion, and, as a rule, in Catholic schools
Order of the Presentation - Founded at Cork, Ireland, 1775, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle, under the title Sisters of the Sacred Heart (which was changed to Presentation Sisters, 1791), for the Education of the young
Mount Saint Vincent, College of - Includes colleges of arts and sciences, journalism, Education, social service, music; graduate and extension courses
Breeding - ) Nurture; Education; formation of manners
Alumnus - (Latin: one that nourishes) Originally, an adopted or foster child, a child of the camp, native-born of a country; in post-Reformation times, a student who was adopted by the Alumnat, an institution endowed for the support and Education of poor students; in modern use, a graduate of any institution of learning; in ecclesiastical usage, since the Council of Trent, a seminarian
Bar Convent - This, the oldest convent now existing in England, is still one of the most noted English schools for young ladies; the course comprises all the branches of a higher Education, and prepares students for the Higher Certificate London Matriculation, Oxford Local Examinations, and the Royal Academy of Music
Ursuline - The members are devoted entirely to Education
Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul (Halif - The Education of the young and care of orphans and the sick constitlltes their purpose
Sisters of Notre Dame (of Cleveland) - They arrived in Cleveland from Germany in 1874 to devote themselves to the Education of girls
Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Apparition - A religious congregation founded at Gaillac, France in 1832 by Emilie de Vialar for the Education of children, the care of the sick, and various kinds of charitable works in the missions
Sisters of the Sacred Heart - Founded at Cork, Ireland, 1775, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle, under the title Sisters of the Sacred Heart (which was changed to Presentation Sisters, 1791), for the Education of the young
Saint Mary's Convent - This, the oldest convent now existing in England, is still one of the most noted English schools for young ladies; the course comprises all the branches of a higher Education, and prepares students for the Higher Certificate London Matriculation, Oxford Local Examinations, and the Royal Academy of Music
National Catholic Welfare Conference - Its administrative Committee is established in five departments: ...
Department of Education, which safeguards the interests of Catholic Education
Department of Press, Publicity, and Literature, which has charge of the news service and issues the N. weekly news sheet to 3 dailies and 84 weeklies
Department of Social Action, which deals with industrial relations, civiceducation, social welfare, and rural life
Department of Laws and Legislation, which protects Catholic interests in state and nation
Department of Lay Organization, which endeavors to organize Catholic men and women
The Executive Department supervises the work of the Welfare Conference as a whole and keeps in touch with government officials
Visitandines - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative life and the care of children and young ladies needing home life and Education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. , that of Georgetown, DC, founded in 1789, for secondary Education
Nuns of the Visitation of Mary - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative life and the care of children and young ladies needing home life and Education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. , that of Georgetown, DC, founded in 1789, for secondary Education
Galesians - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative life and the care of children and young ladies needing home life and Education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. , that of Georgetown, DC, founded in 1789, for secondary Education
Visitation Nuns - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative life and the care of children and young ladies needing home life and Education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. , that of Georgetown, DC, founded in 1789, for secondary Education
Federico Borromeo - He was a cousin of Saint Charles Borromeo, possessed extraordinary erudition, and was a model of episcopal zeal, an indefatigable preacher, a reformer of abuses, and an apostle of religious Education
Oblate Sisters of Providence - It was the first congregation in the New World for women of African descent; their mission was the Education of black children
Little Brothers of Mary - A non-ecclesiastic Catholic institution for the Education of youth, founded, 1817, at Lavalla, France, by the Venerable Benedict Marcellin Champagnat, a seminarian associated with the Marist Fathers (Society of Mary)
Marist School Brothers - A non-ecclesiastic Catholic institution for the Education of youth, founded, 1817, at Lavalla, France, by the Venerable Benedict Marcellin Champagnat, a seminarian associated with the Marist Fathers (Society of Mary)
Fribourg, Switzerland, University of - The supreme authority is vested in the cantonal department of public Education, all expenses being borne by the canton
Goss, Alexander - Zealous, and outspoken, he was a champion of Catholic Education and of the welfare of the Church
Alexander Goss - Zealous, and outspoken, he was a champion of Catholic Education and of the welfare of the Church
Tarsus - " It was renowned as a place of Education under the early Roman emperors
University of Fribourg, Switzerland - The supreme authority is vested in the cantonal department of public Education, all expenses being borne by the canton
National Catholic Alumni Federation - The purpose of the federation is to further the Educational and intellectual ideals for the attainment of which Catholic colleges are rounded, and to uphold and advance the ideals of higher Catholic Education
Omer, Saint - , in 1592 or 1593, for the Education of English youth during the Elizabethan persecution
Public School - , and commonly, any of various select and usually expensive endowed schools which give a liberal modern Education or prepare pupils for the universities
Seminary - ) A place of Education, as a scool of a high grade, an academy, college, or university
Sisters of the Immaculate Conception - A division of the Institute of the Holy Family, engaged in Educational work for all classes of society, and in visiting the sick and poor. They conduct houses of higher Education, day and boarding schools, high and elementary schools, kindergartens, houses of refuge, and workrooms, in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, France, Belgium, Spain, South Africa, and Asia
Sisters of the Holy Humility of Mary - Begel at Dom-martin-sous-Amance, France in 1855 for the Education of poor children
Saint Omer - , in 1592 or 1593, for the Education of English youth during the Elizabethan persecution
Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus - Founded in Paris, France in 1800 by Saint Madeleine Sophie Barat for the Education of youth and the giving of retreats
University of Saint Thomas - Consists of a preparatory school, known as Saint Thomas Military Academy; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, Education, and law; graduate and summer schools. It became co-educational in 1977
Saint Thomas, University of - Consists of a preparatory school, known as Saint Thomas Military Academy; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, Education, and law; graduate and summer schools. It became co-educational in 1977
Josephites (2) - Congregation founded at Ghent, Belgium in 1817 by Canon van Crombrugghe for the Christian Education of the poor. In 1830 when Dutch rule in Belgium was discontinued and liberty of instruction was included in the new constitution, the Josephites began to take an active part in the work of Education
Frederick ii (2) - Son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea, English princess, his father planned his Education along strictly military lines. Education and science were encouraged; the Bank of Berlin established; the city became a center of commerce and industry; and the opera house and other buildings testify to his love of art
Frederick the Great - Son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea, English princess, his father planned his Education along strictly military lines. Education and science were encouraged; the Bank of Berlin established; the city became a center of commerce and industry; and the opera house and other buildings testify to his love of art
Alpha - There would be no such thing as Education, or understanding, or learning, were it not that He gave man the ability to learn, and then unveiled to man's mind the multitude of matters which we call Education
Sons of Saint Joseph - Congregation founded at Ghent, Belgium in 1817 by Canon van Crombrugghe for the Christian Education of the poor. In 1830 when Dutch rule in Belgium was discontinued and liberty of instruction was included in the new constitution, the Josephites began to take an active part in the work of Education
Saint Joseph, Sons of - Congregation founded at Ghent, Belgium in 1817 by Canon van Crombrugghe for the Christian Education of the poor. In 1830 when Dutch rule in Belgium was discontinued and liberty of instruction was included in the new constitution, the Josephites began to take an active part in the work of Education
Zebadiah - ...
...
A Levite who took part as one of the teachers in the system of national Education instituted by Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:7,8 )
Breeding - Nurture Education instruction formation of manners
Sisters of Notre Dame - A branch of the Congregation of Notre Dame founded in France by Saint Peter Fourier in 1597 for the Education of youth
School Sisters of Notre Dame - A branch of the Congregation of Notre Dame founded in France by Saint Peter Fourier in 1597 for the Education of youth
Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth - A community founded by Sister Xavier Ross in 1858, a member of the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, for the Education and care of children and the care of the sick, in the unexplored territory of the West, where they accompanied the pioneer settlers
Religious of Notre Dame de Sion - A religious congregation founded by the brothers Marie-Theodore and Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne in Paris, France in 1843 for the conversion of the Jews and the Education of the young
Joseph of Cupertino, Saint - Of lowly origin and no Education, he was apprenticed in his youth to a shoemaker
Belmont, North Carolina, Abbey Nullius of - The college received its charter for secular Education in 1886
Maryhelp Abbey - The college received its charter for secular Education in 1886
Complete - ) To bring to a state in which there is no deficiency; to perfect; to consummate; to accomplish; to fulfill; to finish; as, to complete a task, or a poem; to complete a course of Education
Abbey, Maryhelp - The college received its charter for secular Education in 1886
Abbey Nullius of Belmont, North Carolina - The college received its charter for secular Education in 1886
Talent - Others are not so well gifted, but are able to do their work according to their knowledge, Education and zeal
Resurrectionists - The congregation devotes itself to work in parishes and missions, and to the Education of youth in colleges and seminaries, established in Italy, Canada, and in the United States
Theodor Ratisbonne - Established the Order of Our Lady of Sion for the Christian Education of Jewish boys and girls
Ratisbonne, Maria Theodor - Established the Order of Our Lady of Sion for the Christian Education of Jewish boys and girls
Sisters of the Most Holy Sacrament - A religious congregation established in Louisiana in 1872 primarily for the Education of children
Jesus And Mary, Congregation - Ecclesiastical society founded in 1643, at Caen, France, by Saint John Eudes, for the Education of priests in seminaries, and for the giving of missions. Too late to resume the direction of seminaries, the Eudists entered upon missionary work and secondary Education in colleges
Fathers, Eudist - Ecclesiastical society founded in 1643, at Caen, France, by Saint John Eudes, for the Education of priests in seminaries, and for the giving of missions. Too late to resume the direction of seminaries, the Eudists entered upon missionary work and secondary Education in colleges
Eudist Fathers - Ecclesiastical society founded in 1643, at Caen, France, by Saint John Eudes, for the Education of priests in seminaries, and for the giving of missions. Too late to resume the direction of seminaries, the Eudists entered upon missionary work and secondary Education in colleges
Christian Retreat, Congregation of the - The Fathers of the Christian Retreat formerly directed colleges in France, and still hold the office of chaplains to the various houses of the congregation, whose purpose is the giving of spiritual retreats and the Education of the young
Fathers of the Christian Retreat - The Fathers of the Christian Retreat formerly directed colleges in France, and still hold the office of chaplains to the various houses of the congregation, whose purpose is the giving of spiritual retreats and the Education of the young
Son - At other times a son by adoption is meant, Genesis 48:5 ; or by law, Ruth 4:17 ; or by Education, 1 Samuel 3:6 20:35 ; or by conversion, as Titus was Paul's "son father the common faith," Titus 1:4
Molloy, Gerald - He was assistant commissioner under the Educational Endowments Act, served on the Board of Intermediate Education, and became a member of the Senate, Fellow, and finally Vice-chancellor of the Royal University of Ireland
Tarsus - It was famous for its Educational institutions, and was considered the centre of learning in Asia Minor (as Athens was in Greece and as Alexandria was in Egypt). Tarsus was Paul’s home town (Acts 9:11; Acts 9:30; Acts 11:25; Acts 22:3) and this may have had some influence on his Education. Paul’s style of systematic thinking suggests a Greek Educational background of the kind available in Tarsus
Humility - ' Who among us can after this talk of finishing our Education? We have need to learn of all around us
Abroad - Beyond the bounds of a country in foreign countries - as to go abroad for an Education
Zemstvo - Theoretically the zemstvo has large powers relating to taxation, Education, public health, etc
Sisters of the Christian Retreat - The Fathers of the Christian Retreat formerly directed colleges in France, and still hold the office of chaplains to the various houses of the congregation, whose purpose is the giving of spiritual retreats and the Education of the young
Gerald Molloy - He was assistant commissioner under the Educational Endowments Act, served on the Board of Intermediate Education, and became a member of the Senate, Fellow, and finally Vice-chancellor of the Royal University of Ireland
Liberal - General extensive embracing literature and the sciences generally as a liberal Education. This phrase is often but not necessarily synonymous with collegiate as a collegiate Education
Education in Bible Times - ...
Education in Old Testament Times The primary purpose of Education among the Jews was the learning of and obedience to the law of God, the Torah. ...
The secondary purpose in Education was to teach about the practical aspects of everyday life: a trade for the boy and the care of the house, application of dietary laws and how to be a good wife for the girl. ...
The home was considered the first and most effective agency in the Education process, and parents were considered the first and most effective teachers of their children. ...
When the son reached the age of twelve, the Jews believed his Education in the Torah was complete enough to help him know the Law and keep it. ...
Girls received their Education at home. ...
The Jewish people had opportunity to receive religious Education from priests and Levites (Leviticus 10:10-11 ). Apparently the Educational function of their work was not well maintained. ...
Education in New Testament Times. When they returned to Israel the synagogue spread rapidly and developed into an important Educational institution. Synagogue services made an important Educational contribution to the religious life of the community. The primary aim of Education at the synagogue school was religious. ...
No formal Educational approach is described in the New Testament. ...
While the synagogue school still existed, the home was still considered a primary place of Education for children
Oxford Catholic Worker's College - One of five institutions recognized by the British Board of Education as residential colleges giving "full-time instructions of a university standard in subjects of liberal Education to adult students, whose full-time Education has been interrupted by employment. trustees of the college, which is governed by the executive of the Catholic Social Guild; finances of the guild and college being separate, the principal being advised in regard to the students by an Educational committee in Oxford
Flaccus, Saint - In 782 he was called by Charlemagne to organize Education in his palace-school at Aix-la-Chapelle
Nagle, Honoria - As the Ursuline Rule did not permit entire consecration to the visitation of the sick and the Education of poor children, she founded the Presentation Order, 1775
Nagle, Nano - As the Ursuline Rule did not permit entire consecration to the visitation of the sick and the Education of poor children, she founded the Presentation Order, 1775
Nano Nagle - As the Ursuline Rule did not permit entire consecration to the visitation of the sick and the Education of poor children, she founded the Presentation Order, 1775
Charity - ) Eleemosynary appointments [1] including relief of the poor or friendless, Education, religious culture, and public institutions
Honoria Nagle - As the Ursuline Rule did not permit entire consecration to the visitation of the sick and the Education of poor children, she founded the Presentation Order, 1775
Onion - It may consist of pleasures, business, sports, Education, music, religion or evil practices
Alrinus, Saint - In 782 he was called by Charlemagne to organize Education in his palace-school at Aix-la-Chapelle
University - ) An institution organized and incorporated for the purpose of imparting instruction, examining students, and otherwise promoting Education in the higher branches of literature, science, art, etc
Alcuin, Saint - In 782 he was called by Charlemagne to organize Education in his palace-school at Aix-la-Chapelle
Saint Paul's School - The largest free grammar school in England, it was to provide a sound Christian Education; Greek was to have equal standing with Latin
Education - -The Jews from early times prized Education in a measure beyond the nations around them. They were the people of a Book, and wherever there is a written literature, and that religiously binding, elementary Education, at least in the forms of reading and writing, is imperative and indispensable. The rise of the synagogue, and of the order of Scribes in connexion therewith, exercised a powerful influence upon the progress of Education among the mass of the people. The value of Education was understood among the Jews before the Christian era. By the Apostolic Age there is abundant evidence of the general diffusion of Education among the people. ...
Education began, as Josephus says, ‘with the earliest infancy. ...
Although schools were thus in existence in connexion with the synagogues, it was not till comparatively late that schools, in the modern sense, for the Education of children by themselves, seem to have been instituted (see article ‘Education’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ). ...
In the Education of the Jewish boy, punishment, we may be sure, was not withheld. The directions of the Book of Proverbs, which is itself a treasury of sound Educational principles, were carried out not only in the home but in the school (Proverbs 12:24; Proverbs 19:18; Proverbs 23:13). ...
Whilst the Education of Jewish youth on the theoretical side centred in the Law and was calculated to instil piety towards God, no instruction was complete without the knowledge of some trade or handicraft. ...
The Education of the Jewish youth began at home, and the parents were the first instructors. This means that they were not themselves left without Education. One of the most notable features in what is known as the Reform movement in modern Judaism is the earnestness with which its adherents insist upon the mere general and the higher Education of women. Survey of pre-Christian Education, 1895; ‘The Semitic Races’; A. Büchler, The Economic Conditions of Judœa after the Destruction of the Second Temple, 1912 article ‘Education (Jewish)’ by Morris Joseph in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics v. -Among the Greeks Education was the affair of the State. Whilst among the Jews Education was meant for all, without respect of rank or class, among the Greeks it was intended for the few-the wealthy and the well-born. Plutarch in his treatise on the Education of children says: ‘Some one may object that I in undertaking to give prescriptions in the training of children of free citizens apparently neglect the training of the poor townsmen, and only think of instructing the rich-to which the obvious answer is that I should desire the training I prescribe to be attainable alike by all; but if any through want of private means cannot attain it, let them blame their fortune and not their adviser. Down to the Roman period at least, this Educational exclusiveness was maintained, and only the sons of those who were full citizens were the subjects of Education, although there were cases in which daughters rose to distinction in letters, and even examples of slaves, like the philosopher Epictetus, who burst the restraints of their position and showed themselves capable of rising to eminence in learning and virtue. We even read of bequests being made to provide free Education to children of both sexes, but the rule was that women needed no more instruction than they were likely to receive at home. Being an affair of the State, Education was under the control of officials appointed to superintend it. ...
The stages of Education were practically the same in all the different branches of the wide-spread Grecian people. First, there was the stage of home Education, extending from birth to the end of the seventh year, when the children were under parental supervision; second, the stage of school Education, beginning with the eighth year and lasting to the sixteenth or eighteenth year; thirdly, there was the stage from the sixteenth or eighteenth to the twenty-first year, when the youths were ἔφηβοι, and were subjected to strict discipline and training. Arithmetic, geometry, astronomy belonged to the programme of secondary Education, and from Plato and Aristotle there have come down to us the seven liberal arts-the trivium and the quadrivium of the Middle Ages. ...
By the Apostolic Age it had become the practice for promising students to supplement their school Education by seeking out and attending the lectures of eminent teachers in what we should call the great universities. The idea that Barnabas of Cyprus and Saul of Tarsus had met in early life at the university of Tarsus is by no means fanciful, and it was to his Education at Tarsus that St. Luke had received a medical Education and was familiar with the great medical writers of the Greek world is now almost universally admitted; his literary style and the frequent echoes of Greek authors, at least in the Acts of the Apostles, prove him to have been a well-educated and cultured Hellenist. ‘It was impossible for Greeks, educated as they were with an Education which penetrated their whole nature, to receive or to retain Christianity in its primitive simplicity. Survey of Pre-Christian Education, 1895: ‘The Hellenic Race’; J. Mahaffy, The Greek World under Roman Sway, 1890; article ‘Education (Greek)’ by W. -The sentiment which caused Education to be so prized among the Jews must in course of time have caused it to be greatly desired among the followers of Christ. ...
All this intellectual activity devoted to the study of the Scriptures implies throughout the early Church a considerable level of Educational attainment
Learning - —To what extent did learning prevail in Palestine in the time of Christ? and is it correct to say that He Himself and His Apostles and disciples were illiterate?...
Higher Education existed at least in the collegiate institutions of the capital. This Education was professional, and contained no secular culture; and it was intensely national or Jewish. ...
But the work of the scribes was not confined to ‘higher Education. Now Education was made compulsory. Whether or not school-masters are included, the reference implies a wide diffusion of Education. ...
The instruction given in these schools is considered by Ramsay (Education of Christ) supérior to that of Greece or any other ancient land. And while in most cases no regular secondary Education followed, it is to be remembered that the synagogue remained a place of instruction rather than of formal worship, and also that talented young men could carry reading and study farther than public provision was made for. His Education in Scripture would begin in the family circle, and most probably be continued in a synagogue school. Education. ‘Education’; Schürer, HJP Laicism - Anti-clerical proponents of a separation of Church and State laicize, by measures of governmental supervision and control, functions that for ages belonged to the Church: Education, marriage, hospitals, and charity organizations and maintenance of parishes, churches, convents and other religious institutions
Child Apostles - Among its activities are the building of churches in poor districts and the support of priests in such parishes, the Education of students for missionary work, and the circulation of Catholic literature
Melanchthon, Philipp - The embodiment of intellectual culture, Melanchthon helped to found higher Education in Protestant Germany
John Baptist Mary Vianney, Saint - Overcoming the difficulties caused by a meager primary school Education and defective talents, he was ordained in 1815 and sent for a time to Ecully
National University of Ireland - Constituent colleges: ...
National University of Ireland, Cork
National University of Ireland, Dublin
National University of Ireland, Galway
National University of Ireland, Maynooth
Recognized colleges: ...
Institute of Public Administration
Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy
National College of Art and Design
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Saint Angela's College of Education, Sligo
Shannon College of Hotel Management
See also the university's web site
District of Columbia - Georgetown University, the oldest Catholic institution of higher Education in the United States, was founded in 1789, two years before the selection of the site of Washington
Cajetan, Tommaso de Vio Gaetani - Courageously he faced the trying issues of his day, and by tact, Education and tolerance, he endeavored to appease the antagonistic, to reform the sinners, to check the spread of heresy, and to avert schism
Census - An official enumeration of the people of a country to obtain statistics concerning their ages, occupations, Education, and the like
Catholic Church Extension Society - Among its activities are the building of churches in poor districts and the support of priests in such parishes, the Education of students for missionary work, and the circulation of Catholic literature
Catholic Church Extension Society of Canada - Among its activities are the building of churches in poor districts and the support of priests in such parishes, the Education of students for missionary work, and the circulation of Catholic literature
Charles Gordon - He introduced music into the church in Aberdeen, 1814, and perhaps the most important work of his ministry was the erection of a parochial school, 1833, and the opening of the College of Saint Mary for the Education of young men destined for the Church
Intend - Having no children, she did with singular care and tenderness intend the Education of Phillip
Buildeth - Proverbs 14:1 (a) This figure is used to describe definite planning in the home so that there will be provision for the knowledge of GOD, Education, culture, food, rest and pleasure
Gordon, Charles - He introduced music into the church in Aberdeen, 1814, and perhaps the most important work of his ministry was the erection of a parochial school, 1833, and the opening of the College of Saint Mary for the Education of young men destined for the Church
Amos - The writer must have been a man of some Education, as is evident from his observations relating to geography, history, and astronomy
Tommaso de Vio Gaetani Cajetan - Courageously he faced the trying issues of his day, and by tact, Education and tolerance, he endeavored to appease the antagonistic, to reform the sinners, to check the spread of heresy, and to avert schism
Pasture - Human culture Education
Society, Catholic Church Extension - Among its activities are the building of churches in poor districts and the support of priests in such parishes, the Education of students for missionary work, and the circulation of Catholic literature
Vianney, John Baptist Mary, Saint - Overcoming the difficulties caused by a meager primary school Education and defective talents, he was ordained in 1815 and sent for a time to Ecully
Nippur - ...
Nippur was a flourishing center of industry and scribal Education. Scribal Education concerned the use of one of the earliest forms of writing called cuneiform. Also part of Education was an emphasis on mathematics
Oliver Plunket - During his episcopacy he convened a national council, 1670, a provincial synod, 1678, defended the rights of his see against Dublin, and promoted Catholic Education
Professor - There are many who become professors, not from principle, from investigation, from love to the truth; but from interested motives, prejudice of Education, custom, influence of connections, novelty, &c
Conversant - Education is conversant about children
Ecclesias'Tes - The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a divine Education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him
Education - Education . In the importance which they attached to the Education of the young, it may fairly be claimed that the Hebrews were facile princeps among the nations of antiquity. Indeed, if the ultimate aim of Education be the formation of character, the Hebrew ideals and methods will bear comparison with the best even of modern times. In character Hebrew Education was predominantly, one might almost say exclusively, religious and ethical. ’...
As to the Educational attainments of the Hebrews before the conquest of Canaan, it is useless to speculate. The more stable political conditions under the monarchy, and in particular the development of the administration and the growth of commerce under Solomon, must undoubtedly have furthered the spread of Education among all classes. The explanation of this silence is found in the fact that the Hebrew child received his Education in the home, with his parents as his only instructors. ...
Descending the stream of history, we reach an epoch-making event in the history of Education, not less than of religion, among the Jews, in the assembly convened by Ezra and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 8:1 ff. In NT also the preacher or expounder in the synagogue is invariably said to ‘teach’ ( Matthew 4:23 , Mark 1:21 , and passim ), and the Education of youth continues to the last to be associated with the synagogue (see below). … Piety and Education were inseparable; whoever could not read was no true Jew. We may say that in this way were created the beginnings of popular Education. ’...
This new Educational movement was under the guidance of a body of students and teachers of the Law known as the Sôpherim (lit. ...
With the coming of the Greeks a new Educational force in the shape of Hellenistic culture entered Palestine a force which made itself felt in many directions in the pre-Maccabean age. 70, we find a tradition there is no valid reason for rejecting it as untrustworthy which illustrates the extent to which elementary Education, at least, was fostered under the later Maccabean princes
Bethlehemites - They came from Palestine to Bohemia, 1217, and now devote themselves to care of the sick and Education
Machale, John - He labored and wrote incessantly to secure Catholic Emancipation, legislative independence, justice for tenants and the poor, and vigorously assailed the proselytizers and the anti-Catholic anti-national system of public Education
Dunkards - They took no vows, but aimed at the interior life and devoted themselves to Education and literature
John Baptist de la Salle, Saint - After completing his Education, he decided to serve the Church, was installed as a canon of the metropolitan See of Rheims, 1667, ordained priest, 1678, and in 1680 took his doctorate in theology
Daughters of the Cross (French) - Congregation of women founded at Roy, Picardy, France, 1625, by Father Pierre Guerin, Françoise Unalet, and Marie Fannier, for the Christian Education of girls
Marianists - Christian Education especially appeals to its members, who have devoted most of their energies to the management of schools
Jakob Behmen - He had little Education, but having studied the Bible and several mystics, as a devout Lutheran, he preached and wrote on religious and philosophical subjects
Jakob Boehme - He had little Education, but having studied the Bible and several mystics, as a devout Lutheran, he preached and wrote on religious and philosophical subjects
John Machale - He labored and wrote incessantly to secure Catholic Emancipation, legislative independence, justice for tenants and the poor, and vigorously assailed the proselytizers and the anti-Catholic anti-national system of public Education
Tar'Sus, - " It was renowned as a place of Education under the early Roman emperors
Schools - Rest assured, dear reader, that next to godliness, Education is the mainstay of order
Behmen, Jakob - He had little Education, but having studied the Bible and several mystics, as a devout Lutheran, he preached and wrote on religious and philosophical subjects
Behminists - He had little Education, but having studied the Bible and several mystics, as a devout Lutheran, he preached and wrote on religious and philosophical subjects
Gioacchino Rossini - He owed his Education to his singing masters and to the Chevalier Giusti
Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio - He owed his Education to his singing masters and to the Chevalier Giusti
Society of Mary, of Paris - Christian Education especially appeals to its members, who have devoted most of their energies to the management of schools
Paula, Daughter of Toxotius - Laeta embraced Christianity and wrote to consult Jerome as to Paula's Education, who replied in Ep
Chinese Mission Society of Saint Columban - The Society engages in the Education of priests for the Chinese missions, and publishes "The Far East," a periodical devoted to the conversion of China
Missionary Sisters at Saint Columban - The Society engages in the Education of priests for the Chinese missions, and publishes "The Far East," a periodical devoted to the conversion of China
Maynooth Mission to China - The Society engages in the Education of priests for the Chinese missions, and publishes "The Far East," a periodical devoted to the conversion of China
Denifle, Heinrich Seuse - While assistant to the general of his order, in Rome, he took up the study of the controversy between the Paris University and the mendicant orders, and in 1885 published a history of the medieval universities which put an end to the misrepresentations of Protestant and other historians about the opposition of the Church to higher Education
Marriage - Marriage was instituted by God himself for the purpose of preventing the promiscuous intercourse of the sexes, for promoting domestic felicity,and for securing the maintenance and Education of children
Antonio Rosmini-Serbati - He has written a valuable work on Education, Dell' Educazione Cristiana
me'Shach - (Daniel 1:20 ) But notwithstanding their Chaldeans Education, these three young Hebrews were strongly attached to the religion of their fathers; and their refusal to join in the worship of the image on the plain of Dura gave a handle of accusation to the Chaldeans
Sisters Marianites of the Holy Cross - Founded near Le Mans, France in 1841 by Blessed Basile Moreau for the care of the sick, Education of youth, and care of orphans
Society of Saint Columban For Missions Among the c - The Society engages in the Education of priests for the Chinese missions, and publishes "The Far East," a periodical devoted to the conversion of China
Heinrich Denifle - While assistant to the general of his order, in Rome, he took up the study of the controversy between the Paris University and the mendicant orders, and in 1885 published a history of the medieval universities which put an end to the misrepresentations of Protestant and other historians about the opposition of the Church to higher Education
Rosmini-Serbati, Antonio - He has written a valuable work on Education, Dell' Educazione Cristiana
Schools - Their idea of the value of schools may be gained from such sayings from the Talmud as "The world is preserved by the breath of the children in the schools;" "A town in which there are no schools must perish;" "Jerusalem was destroyed because the Education of children was neglected. Beyond the schools for popular Education there were higher schools or colleges scattered throughout the cities where the Jews abounded
Druidism - Their chief duties were to teach youths by means of a system of oral Education, and to preside over the traditional religious ceremonies
Fathers of the Holy Cross - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Josephites - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Montcalm, Louis Joseph Gozon, Marquis de - Of warlike ancestry, he was a soldier at 15, but continued his excellent classical Education by reading
Louis Gozon - Of warlike ancestry, he was a soldier at 15, but continued his excellent classical Education by reading
Nun - , but the principal objects of all congregations are practically the same: either purely contemplative, seeking personal perfection by close union with God, or partly contemplative and partly active in works of charity, such as the Education of youth, the care of the sick, orphans, lepers, lunatics, the wayward, and the aged
Nuns - , but the principal objects of all congregations are practically the same: either purely contemplative, seeking personal perfection by close union with God, or partly contemplative and partly active in works of charity, such as the Education of youth, the care of the sick, orphans, lepers, lunatics, the wayward, and the aged
Holy Cross, Congregation of the - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Holy Cross, Fathers of the - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Holy Cross, Priests of the - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Holy Cross, Religious of the - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Gozon, Louis Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm - Of warlike ancestry, he was a soldier at 15, but continued his excellent classical Education by reading
Dorotheus (3) Presbyter of Antioch - Eusebius speaks of him with high commendation, as distinguished by a pure taste and sound learning, of a wide and liberal Education, well acquainted not only with the Hebrew Scriptures, which Eusebius says he had heard him expounding in the church at Antioch, with moderation ( μετρίως ) but also with classical literature
Ecclesiastes - The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has suffered for his sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a divine Education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him
Matthias - We have no particulars of his youth or Education, for we may reckon as nothing, what is read in Abdias, or Obadiah, concerning this matter
Schoolmaster - It is probable that elementary Education was under the charge of the minister of religion, as well as the instruction of those of riper years
Religious of the Holy Cross - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Religious of the Notre Dame of the Holy Cross - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Salvatorists - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
Saint Joseph, Brothers of - The congregation consists of priests and lay brothers bound by simple vows and the threefold purpose of self-sanctification, preaching the Divine Word, and the Christian Education of youth in all phases of instruction
School - A place of Education, or collection of pupils, of any kind as the schools of the prophets. In modern usage, the word school comprehends every place of Education, as university, college, academy, common or primary schools, dancing schools, riding schools, &c. What is the great community of christians, but one of the innumerable schools in the vast plan, which God has instituted for the Education of various intelligences? ...
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Lanfranc - After a liberal Education in England, he went to Normandy and entered the monastery at Bec, where he opened a famous school
Neumann, John Nepomucene, Saint - Elevated to the See of Philadelphia, 1852, he worked indefatigably to promote Education in his diocese, and to minister to the spiritual and material welfare of his flock
John Neumann, Saint - Elevated to the See of Philadelphia, 1852, he worked indefatigably to promote Education in his diocese, and to minister to the spiritual and material welfare of his flock
Marie de Rabutin Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne - Married at 18, she was a widow at 25, devoting all her time and energy to the Education of her two children, Charles and Frances-Margaret who became Marquise de Grignan and whom she idolized
Christianity - The institutions of mercy, of every form of sociological relief, of Education, and even of religion, though they do not profess belief in Christ or inculcate Christian practises, still feel constrained to continue and imitate the benevolence, the enlightenment, and to some extent even the worship and ceremonial, to which all such institutions must trace their origin
Catholic Central Verein of America - It has exerted its influence in the field of Catholic Education and has aided German immigrants by the founding of the Leo Home in New York, 1881
Silas, Silvanus - Many believe that he composed and arranged most of the letter since Peter probably had little Education
Provide - ) To procure supplies or means in advance; to take measures beforehand in view of an expected or a possible future need, especially a danger or an evil; - followed by against or for; as, to provide against the inclemency of the weather; to provide for the Education of a child
Complete - To finish to end to perfect as, to complete a bridge, or an edifice to complete an Education
Defraud - A man of fortune who permits his son to consume the season of Education in hunting, shooting, or in frequenting horse-races, assemblies, &c
Alexander Pope - Frail and deformed in body, he was able to acquire only a spasmodic and irregular Education, and after thirteen was self-educated
William Cobbett - The son of a Surrey farmer, he derived his Education mostly from intensive reading
Bacon, Roger - His most noted works are the Opus Majus, Opus Minus, and Opus Tertium, comprising recommendations for reform in ecclesiastical studies and in the system of Education
Esther - Her parents being dead, Mordecai, her father's brother, took care of her Education
Scolopii - A religious order founded in Rome in 1597 by Saint Joseph Calasanctius, to provide free Education for poor children
Hawaii - The Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace was dedicated, 1843, and the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary arrived, 1859, to assist in the Education of Hawaiian girls
Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools - The founder, struck by the pitiful ignorance of the poor, undertook the work of gratuitous elementary Education. They add also vows which attach them permanently to the Education of the poor, specializing as catechists
Knights of Columbus - A fraternal benefit society for Catholic men founded by Venerable Michael James McGivney, and incorporated in New Haven, Connecticut in 1882, for the purpose of developing a practical Catholicity among its members, of promoting Catholic Education and clarity, and of furnishing at least temporary financial aid to the families of deceased members, by means of its insurance department
Montalembert - He fought for liberty of Education until the passage of the "Falloux Law," 1850
Johann Pestalozzi - In spite of numerous deficiencies, Pestalozzi originated the modern psychological tendency in Education and the "object lesson" method, the core of his whole system
Marist Fathers - The work of the order includes missions, both domestic and foreign, colleges for the Education of youth, and seminaries for the training of clerics
Fathers, Marist - The work of the order includes missions, both domestic and foreign, colleges for the Education of youth, and seminaries for the training of clerics
Ecclesiastes - "The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a divine Education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him
Nathan - He was charged with the Education of (Song of Solomon 12:25 ), at whose inauguration to the throne he took a prominent part (1 Kings 1:8,10,11,22-45 )
Page - ) A serving boy; formerly, a youth attending a person of high degree, especially at courts, as a position of honor and Education; now commonly, in England, a youth employed for doing errands, waiting on the door, and similar service in households; in the United States, a boy employed to wait upon the members of a legislative body
Gondi, Jean Francois Paul - Destined for the Church, he acquired a solid Education, studying sacred and profane literature
Society of Mary (Fathers) - The work of the order includes missions, both domestic and foreign, colleges for the Education of youth, and seminaries for the training of clerics
Large - I might be very large on the importance and advantages of Education
Roman Colleges - Various institutions in Rome for the Education of seminarians, most of them national
May Laws - Preliminary to the May Laws was the abolition of the Catholic department in the ministry of public worship (1871), the placing of the State in exclusive control of Education, and the expulsion of the Jesuits from the empire (1873). The May Laws proper of 1873 were chiefly as follows: ...
The law of May respected the Education and nomination of the clergy. The May Laws were finally modified by two comprehensive laws (May 21, 1886, and April 29, 1887), which in substance yielded to the Church the control of ecclesiastical Education; permitted the reassertion of the papal disciplinary authority over the clergy; allowed the restoration of public worship and the administration of the sacraments; the application of ecclesiastical disciplinary measures; and held out to the religious orders the hope of returning
Laws, May - Preliminary to the May Laws was the abolition of the Catholic department in the ministry of public worship (1871), the placing of the State in exclusive control of Education, and the expulsion of the Jesuits from the empire (1873). The May Laws proper of 1873 were chiefly as follows: ...
The law of May respected the Education and nomination of the clergy. The May Laws were finally modified by two comprehensive laws (May 21, 1886, and April 29, 1887), which in substance yielded to the Church the control of ecclesiastical Education; permitted the reassertion of the papal disciplinary authority over the clergy; allowed the restoration of public worship and the administration of the sacraments; the application of ecclesiastical disciplinary measures; and held out to the religious orders the hope of returning
Franz Liszt - After his first performance in public at Oedenburg when nine years of age, his musical Education was continued under Czerny and Salieri, and he became a conspicuous figure in Vienna and Paris
Liszt, Ferencz - After his first performance in public at Oedenburg when nine years of age, his musical Education was continued under Czerny and Salieri, and he became a conspicuous figure in Vienna and Paris
Liszt, Franz - After his first performance in public at Oedenburg when nine years of age, his musical Education was continued under Czerny and Salieri, and he became a conspicuous figure in Vienna and Paris
Innocent xi, Pope - He encouraged daily communion, insisted on a high standard of Education in the seminaries, condemned immodesty in dress, gambling, and laxism in moral theology
School, Schoolmaster - Education, p
Chantry - Henry VIII and Edward VI suppressed the chantries and confiscated the moneys, inflicting grave injury on Education
Claudia - Cogidunus' daughter would be Claudia, probably sent to Rome for Education, as a pledge of her father's fidelity
Alms - In the temple there was one box for the reception of alms to be dedicated to the Education of the poor children of good family
Education - There is little trace among the Hebrews in earlier times of Education in any other subjects than the law
Albany - Bishop McCloskey erected other churches to accommodate the increase in immigration which had been brought about by the construction of the Erie Canal, and, to provide for Catholic Education, installed the Religious of the Sacred Heart. He also contributed greatly to the advancement of Catholic Education. Educational institutions in addition to parochial schools include the College of Saint Rose conducted by the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Carondelet, and the Christian Brothers Academy
Isaac Hecker - Owing to family reverses, Hecker began to work as a baker's assistant before completing his Education
Habit - A great point in the Education of children, is to prevent the formation of bad habits
Chasten, Chastening, Chastise, Chastisement - A — 1: παιδεύω (Strong's #3811 — Verb — paideuo — pahee-dyoo'-o ) primarily denotes "to train children," suggesting the broad idea of Education (pais, "a child"), Acts 7:22 ; 22:3 ; see also Titus 2:12 , "instructing" (RV), here of a training gracious and firm; grace, which brings salvation, employs means to give us full possession of it; hence, "to chastise," this being part of the training, whether (a) by correcting with words, reproving, and admonishing, 1 Timothy 1:20 (RV, "be taught"); 2 Timothy 2:25 , or (b) by "chastening" by the infliction of evils and calamities, 1 Corinthians 11:32 ; 2 Corinthians 6:9 ; Hebrews 12:6,7,10 ; Revelation 3:19
Hecker, Isaac Thomas - Owing to family reverses, Hecker began to work as a baker's assistant before completing his Education
Maximianus i., m. Aurelius Valerius - He was a barbarian soldier without honour, principle, or Education; crime was familiar to him, though he seems not to have practised cruelty for its own sake
Quebec, Canada, City of - The Jesuit college, opened in 1635, was the seat of higher Education, and all pupils of the seminary, founded in 1663, were trained there until after the conquest. Their college having been turned into military stores and barracks, the responsibility of Education devolved upon the seminary where classes were opened in 1765. Other historic monuments are: ...
the church of Notre Dame des Victoires which dates from 1690, when, after several unsuccessful attacks upon the city, Admiral Phipps withdrew, and Bishop Saint-Vallier dedicated the church to Our Lady of Victory
the Ursuline church and convent, the oldest Educational establishment for women in North America, occupying the same ground granted to the religious by the Company of New France upon their arrival in 1639; here Montcalm is buried
the General Hospital of Quebec, established in 1693
the Hotel Dieu, rebuilt after the fire which destroyed it in 1755
Laval University, founded in 1852, the outgrowth of the first Council of Quebec, held in 1851
During the celebration of the tercentenary of the founding of Quebec in 1908, a monument was erected to Bishop Laval
Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint - Particular care was taken with his Education, because his great destiny had been predicted before his birth; he showed remarkable interest and talent in litcrature
Hippo, Augustine of, Saint - He was the son of Patricius, a pagan, and of Saint Monica, and received a Christian Education but, on proceeding to Carthage to study law, he became a slave to immorality and eventually embraced Manichaeism
Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte Guyon - Due to illhealth her Education was neglected
Breed - ) To educate; to instruct; to form by Education; to train; - sometimes followed by up
Discipline - ) The treatment suited to a disciple or learner; Education; development of the faculties by instruction and exercise; training, whether physical, mental, or moral
Augustine of Hippo, Saint - He was the son of Patricius, a pagan, and of Saint Monica, and received a Christian Education but, on proceeding to Carthage to study law, he became a slave to immorality and eventually embraced Manichaeism
ex'Odus - (Exodus 19:40 ; 38:1 ) ...
The first part contains an account of the following particulars: the great increase of Jacob's posterity in the land of Egypt, and their oppression under a new dynasty, which occupied the throne after the death of Joseph; the birth, Education, flight and return of Moses; the ineffectual attempts to prevail upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go; the successive signs and wonders, ending in the death of the first-born, by means of which the deliverance of Israel from the land of bondage is at length accomplished, and the institution of the Passover; finally the departure out of Egypt and the arrival of the Israelites at Mount Sinai
Justinus i - He was a man of no Education, and the affairs of the state were managed chiefly by his prudent minister Proclus the quaestor and afterwards by his nephew and eventual successor Justinian
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, City of - She was followed, 1653, by Marguerite Bourgeoys who, five years later, established the Sisters of the Congregation, for the Education of girls, and, 1694, the Charron Brothers came to establish the General Hospital of Montreal. This event was followed by rapid progress in the work of Education; the Brothers of the Christian Schools arrived the following year; the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 1841; the Grand Seminaire, founded, 1840, was followed by the Seminaire de Philosophie, 1894; by order of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples a branch of Laval University was opened in Montreal, 1876, and in 1896 the Jesuits established Loyola College
Letters - ...
With the rudiments of the Law every Jew was made thoroughly and intimately conversant from his earliest intelligent years (see Education). The Education of the Jewish child had the primary purpose of enabling him to read the passages which it was essential for him to know for the proper discharge of his religious duties
Education (2) - EDUCATION. John that He could write (John 8:8); and it is impossible that He should have grown up without an Education. It is not the least merit of the Jewish people that they recognized the value of Education, and brought it within the reach of the poorest. ]'>[2] ‘is good, and we work it to the utmost; but our chief ambition is for the Education of our children. ]'>[7] The establishment of this system of Education was ascribed to the celebrated Simon ben Shetach, brother of Salome Alexandra, the queen of Alexander Jannaeus (b. ’ Whatever be the worth of the tradition, Josephus’ reiterated ascription to Moses of the exceedingly thorough system of Education which prevailed in his day,‡
Johann Gorres - Two years later he was again at Coblenz, where he devoted himself to mythology and was named superintendent of Education
Foundling Asylums - The great objection to such institutions has been the high infant death rate, and the imperfect Education given children who remain in the institution until maturity
Belgium - The constitution proclaimed freedom of worship, of the press, and of Education, and the civilmarriage ceremony became obligatory
Gorres, Johann Joseph - Two years later he was again at Coblenz, where he devoted himself to mythology and was named superintendent of Education
Asylums, Foundling - The great objection to such institutions has been the high infant death rate, and the imperfect Education given children who remain in the institution until maturity
Ecclesiastical Seminary - In larger dioceses two seminaries should be established; a minor or preparatory seminary for secondary and collegiate Education, and a major seminary for the courses in philosophy and theology
Bastard - The Jewish father bestowed as little attention on the Education of his natural children as the Greek: he seems to have resigned them, in a great measure, to their own inclinations; he neither checked their passions, nor corrected their faults, nor stored their minds with useful knowledge
Seminary, Ecclesiastical - In larger dioceses two seminaries should be established; a minor or preparatory seminary for secondary and collegiate Education, and a major seminary for the courses in philosophy and theology
Pietists - His followers laid it down as an essential maxim, that none should be admitted into the ministry but those who not only had received a proper Education, but were also distinguished by their wisdom and sanctity of manners, and had hearts filled with divine love. That the whole course of their Education was to be so directed as to render them useful in life, by the practical power of their doctrine, and the commanding influence of their example
Chastisement - In classical usage these words refer to the whole of the Education of the παῖς, including the training of the body. In the OT, Apocrypha, and NT this idea of correction, discipline, chastening, is added to that of the general cultivation of mind and morals: the Education is ‘per molestias’ (Augustine, Enarr. ‘education’)
Matthew, Saint - A Galilean Jew by birth, the son of Alpheus, he was a publican by trade, and therefore despised by the Pharisees; he possessed some Education and a knowledge of Greek
Character - ) The peculiar quality, or the sum of qualities, by which a person or a thing is distinguished from others; the stamp impressed by nature, Education, or habit; that which a person or thing really is; nature; disposition
Discipline - Education instruction cultivation and improvement, comprehending instruction in arts, sciences, correct sentiments, morals and manners, and due subordination to authority
Ursulines - The principal employ of the Ursulines, since their establishment into a regular order, were to instruct young women; and their monasteries were a kind of schools, where young ladies of the best families received their Education
Class - An order or rank of persons a number of persons in society, supposed to have some resemblance or equality, in rank, Education, property, talents, and the like as in the phrase, all classes of men in society
Uide - ) To regulate and manage; to direct; to order; to superintend the training or Education of; to instruct and influence intellectually or morally; to train
Daniel - He was chosen, with his three companions, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, to reside at Nebuchadnezzar's court, where he received a suitable Education, and made great progress in all the sciences of the Chaldeans, but declined to pollute himself by eating provisions from the king's table, which would often be ceremonially unclean to a Jew, or defiled by some connection with idol-worship. At the end of their three years' Education, Daniel and his companions excelled all others, and received honorable appointments in the royal service
Layman - Organizations of laymen have always been a powerful arm of the clergy, and individual laymen in every country have been distinguished champions of religion in political life, journalism, literature, Education, and social and professional matters
Theatines - In France they built the church of Saint Anne la Royale; in Spain under Philip II, the Theatine cardinal Paolo Burali d'Arezzo filled various embassies at the command of the vIceroy of Naples; in Portugal John IV, 1648, gave them a house and a college for the Education of noble youth; in England, under Henry VIII, Thomas Goldwell, bishop of Saint Asaph, entered the order
Order of Clerks Regular - In France they built the church of Saint Anne la Royale; in Spain under Philip II, the Theatine cardinal Paolo Burali d'Arezzo filled various embassies at the command of the vIceroy of Naples; in Portugal John IV, 1648, gave them a house and a college for the Education of noble youth; in England, under Henry VIII, Thomas Goldwell, bishop of Saint Asaph, entered the order
Nain - Ramsay thinks ‘there can be little doubt that the ancient city was on the top’ of the hill ( The Education of Christ , Preface, ix), but the evidence is not stated
Alexander vi, Pope - He was well versed in canon law, a patron of literature and science, a promoter of Education, and the originator of missions to the New World
Edward the Confessor, Saint - There he received a pious Education, his chief interests being ecclesiastical
Manning, Henry Edward - To his zeal in the cause of elementary religious Education he added in his later days his efforts on behalf of the laboring classes, the poor, and the outcast
James Gibbons - Receiving his early Education in Ireland, he returned to the United States and was ordained a priest, 1861
Unbelievers - ...
Who could henceforth place any dependence on such? They no longer fear a God; they no longer respect men; they look forward to nothing after this life: virtue and vice are merely prejudices of Education in their eyes, and the consequences of popular credulity
Catechising - Children should not be suffered to grow up without instruction, under the pretence that the choice of religion ought to be perfectly free, and not biased by the influence and authority of parents, or the power of Education
Luke, Saint - A native of Antioch, Luke received an excellent Education in that city renowned for its learning; he studied medicine at Tarsus, and rose to prominence in his profession
World - Moore on Education, chap
Heraclides Cyprius, Bishop of Ephesus - of Ephesus; a native of Cyprus, who had received a liberal Education, was versed in the Scriptures, and had passed some years in ascetic training in the desert of Scetis under Evagrius
Henry Manning - To his zeal in the cause of elementary religious Education he added in his later days his efforts on behalf of the laboring classes, the poor, and the outcast
Acadia - In 1903 the Societe l'Assomption was founded at Waltham, Massachusetts, by New England men of Acadian extraction for the purpose of uniting in a common bond of brotherhood all men and women of Acadian blood, to promote higher Education among its members through scholarships, to pay death and sick benefits, etc
Eton College - Until the middle of the 19th century Education was purely classical; mathematics was introduced in 1851, natural science in 1869, and an army class now prepares boys for that service
Luke (2) - His writings prove him to have been a man of Education and attainment
Gibbons, James - Receiving his early Education in Ireland, he returned to the United States and was ordained a priest, 1861
Sisters of Saint Joseph - Founded at Le Puy, France in 1650 by Father Jean Paul Medaille, SJ, assisted by Rightt Reverend Henri de Maupas, a friend and disciple of Saint Vincept de Paul, for the Christian Education of children
Childhood - In the stories, again, relating to His early Education, Jesus is represented as being un enfant terrible to more than one master to whom He was sent to learn His letters. Boyhood and Education), can be employed to help us to form a sober and reverent conception of Him in the days of His childhood. ...
‘He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up’ (Luke 4:16)—how much that phrase covers! The great factors entering into His Education were home training, the synagogue both as a place of worship and as a school, the many-coloured life of the district in which He spent His youth, the natural features of the locality, and all the scenery round about Nazareth, so full of beauty and stirring historical associations. ...
Jesus belonged to a people unsurpassed for the care bestowed upon the Education of children. This is quite consistent with the fact that Education was one of the things for which the father was held responsible as regards his son. It was in a supreme degree a religious Education, designed to fit children for the practical duties of life. The Education of Jesus was just that of the great mass of the people: unlike Saul of Tarsus, no bêth ha-Midrâsh, or college of Scribes, received Him as a student (‘Whence hath this man these things?’ Mark 6:2; cf. The whole unfolding of His life in all the religious discipline and Education of the home, the synagogue and the whole round of the Jewish year of feasts and fasts, must have been beautiful to those to whose care He was entrusted. Boyhood, and Education; cf. ‘Education’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible and the Encyc. Coe, Education in Religion and Morals, 1904; S. 151; Donehoo, Apocryphal and Legendary Life of Christ; Ramsay, Education of Christ; Schürer, HJP Morality - The chief conditions necessary for the growth and development of morality in the individual and the community are a right Education of the young in the home and the school, where religion and virtue are impressed upon the child, a healthy public opinion, and sound legislation
Center Party - Essentially a middle party, with firm Catholic principles, it has as a whole advocated recognition of the Weimar constitution, fulfilment of the Treaty of Versailles with the object of conciliating Germany's former enemies, a policy of compromise and moderation to adjust conflicting interests in the Reich, and denominational Education and closer relations with the Vatican
Fornication - It leaves the maintenance and Education of children as to the father at least, utterly unsecured
Marana And Cyra - Marana and Cyra , two ladies of birth and Education of Beroea in Syria, who in their youth devoted themselves to a solitary life of the extremest austerity, which they had persevered in for 42 years when Theodoret wrote his Religiosa Historia
Fit - ) Adapted to an end, object, or design; suitable by nature or by art; suited by character, qualitties, circumstances, Education, etc
Raca - ’ Several instances of its use occur in the Talmud as a term of contempt applied to a person devoid of Education and morals
Education - This was the ONE book of national Education in the reformations undertaken by Jehoshaphat and Josiah (2 Chronicles 17:7-9; 2 Chronicles 34:30)
Breed - To educate to instruct to form by Education often, but unnecessarily, followed by up as, to breed a son to an occupation a man bred at a university
Alsace-Lorraine - Readjustments in finance, Education, and language were difficult problems of administration
Concern - A kind parent concerns himself in the virtuous Education of his children
Society - , Education, recreation, business, or politics, etc
Principles - ): ‘Since milk is the food of infants, but cakes of wheat (τὰ ἐκ πυρῶν πέμματα) are the food of full-grown men, so also the soul must have a milk-like nourishment in its age of childhood, namely, the elementary lessons of art and science (τὰ τῆς ἐγκυκλίου μουσικῆς προπαιδεύματα), but the perfect food which is for men is Education in prudence, temperance, and every virtue
Parents - The duties of parents to children relate to their health, their maintenance, their Education, and morals. In respect to their Education and morals, great care should be taken
Marriage - By Grove thus: "A society formed between two persons of different sexes, chiefly for the procreation and Education of children. And, farther, were it allowed, young persons instead of entering into marriage upon mature consideration, with a settled esteem and friendship, and a proper concern and provision for the support and Education of children, would be in danger (through the intimacy and affection produced by their near relation, and being bred together) of sliding in their inconsiderate years into those criminal familiarities which are most destructive of the great ends of marriage
Hilarion (1), a Hermit of Palestine - 300, of heathen parents, who sent him for Education to Alexandria. There he shewed great talents and proficiency in rhetoric, which then comprehended nearly the whole of a liberal Education
Francis Xavier, Saint - After a preliminary Education in Spain, Francis Xavier went to the College de Sainte-Barbe in Paris, 1525
Memorial - Even the Shema (6:4-12) stresses remembering the Lord as the fundamental element in the Israelites' theological Education
Australia - In 1882 Education was secularized and state aid withdrawn from denominational schools; Catholic primary schools, however, proved self-supporting
Edesius - The queen-mother earnestly besought them to remain, to undertake the Education of the young prince Erazanes, and to assist her in the regency during his minority
Saint Louis, Missouri, City of - The same year he founded the Latin Academy, later the University of Saint Louis, and the Religious of the Sacred Heart arrived from France to take up the Education of girls, making their first foundation in Saint Charles
Nain - Ramsay (Education of Jesus, Preface, p
Baltimore, Maryland, City of - The Second Plenary Council (1866) declared the Catholic doctrine on Divine Revelation, the one Church of Christ, nature and necessity of faith, the Holy Scripture, the Holy Trinity, the future life, and veneration of the Blessed Virgin and the saints; adopted regulations on the hierarchy and government of the Church, ecclesiastical persons, ecclesiastical property, the sacraments, Divine worship, uniformity of discipline, and Education of youth. The Third Plenary Council (1884) made further regulations for parochial and diocesan government, the sacraments, Education of the clergy and Catholic Youth, church property, and ecclesiastical trials; decreed six holy days of obligation for the country, appointed a commission to prepare a catechism for general use, to be obligatory when published, and signed the postulation for the introduction of the cause of the beatification of the Jesuit martyrs Isaac Jogues and Rene Goupil and the Iroquois virgin Catherjne Tekakwitha
the Wedding Guest Who Sat Down in the Lowest Room - ...
Parents are terribly perplexed at present as to what is the proper Education for their children; and for their sons especially. Shall they take the ancient or the modern side of the University? Shall it be the classics, and almost nothing else, as was the old way? Or shall it be a commercial Education almost exclusively? And one adviser advises the one way, and another adviser advises the other way, till many anxious parents are driven distracted. Or if it is a military or a commercial Education, still take Æsop as above, even if it is only in translation. That will make your sons true gentlemen, whichever side they take in Education. Only begin their Education while they are yet infants; or, at any rate, little children
Christian Science - Subject to hysterical and cataleptic attacks, she had a meager common school Education, unable often to attend
Hedge - The parabolical use of the ‘hedge’ is rooted in the Education of Israel
Apocrypha - ...
The following is a list of the Apocrypha: ...
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Jewish Apocalypses ...
Book of Henoch
Assumption of Moses
Fourth Book of Esdras
Apocalypse of Baruch
Apocalypse of Abraham
Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis
Third Book of Esdras
Third Book of Machabees
History and Maxims of Ahikar, the Assyrian
Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers ...
Psalms of Solomon
Prayer of Manasses
Jewish Philosophy ...
Fourth Book of Machabees
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin with Christian Accretions ...
Sibylline Oracles
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Ascension of Isaias
Apocrypha Of Christian Origin ...
Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin ...
Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James, describing the birth, Education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin
Gospel of the Pseudo-Matthew
Arabic Gospel of the Infancy
History of Joseph the Carpenter
Transitu Marire, or Evangelium Joannis, describing the death and assumption of the Blessed Virgin
Judaistic and Heretical Gospels ...
Gospel according to the Hebrews
Gospel according to the Egyptians
Gospel of Peter
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Marcion
Gospel of Bartholomew
Gospel of Matthias
Gospel of Nicodemus
Gospel of the Twelve Apostles
Gospel of Andrew
Gospel of Barnabas
Gospel of Thaddeus
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Eve
Gospel of Judas Iscariot
Pilate Literature and Other Apocrypha concerning Christ ...
Report of Pilate to the Emperor
Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea
Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa
Gnostic Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter
Acts of John
Acts of Andrew
Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew
Acts of Thomas
Acts of Bartholomew
Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter and Paul
Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul and Thecla
Acts of Philip
Acts of Matthew
Acts of Simon and Jude
Acts of Barnabas
Acts of James the Greater
Apocryphal Doctrinal Works ...
Testamentum Domini
Nostri Jesu
Preaching of Peter, or Kerygma Petri
Apocryphal Epistles ...
Pseudo-Epistle of Peter
Pseudo-Epistles of Paul
Pseudo-Epistles to the Laodiceans
Pseudo-Correspondence of Paul and Seneca
Christian Apocryphal Apocalypses ...
Apocalypse of Peter
Apocalypse of Paul
On - The inhabitants of this city are represented by Herodotus as the wisest of the Egyptians; and here Moses resided, and received that Education which made him "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians
Science, Christian - Subject to hysterical and cataleptic attacks, she had a meager common school Education, unable often to attend
Rousseau, Jean Jacques - His chief works are: The Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, in which he, assails reason and science; the Discourse on the origin of inequality among men, in which he develops his favorite theory that man is by nature good and virtuous but is depraved by society; the Social Contract, which became the gospel of the Revolution; Emile, in which he develops his theories on Education, and which contains, alongside of some excellent ideas, many utopian views and very grave errors; the New Heloise, a novel in which he preaches a return to the natural state; and the famous Confessions, in which imagination plays such a part that they are unreliable as an autobiography
Eucherius, Saint, Bishop of Lyons - Their two sons, Salonius and Veranius, received an ecclesiastical Education in the monastery of Lerinum under St. Here he pursued an ascetic life of study and worship, devoting himself also to the Education of his children
Teach, Teacher - Such Education should occur in the context of the Passover feast and the consecration of the firstborn (Exodus 13:1-16 ). Proverbs repeatedly enjoins the Education of children, with particular stress on sons obeying their fathers and mothers. ...
Israel's prophets also have much to say about Education. Barclay, Train Up a Child: Educational Ideals in the Ancient World ; M
Francis of Assisi, Saint - The son of a wealthy cloth merchant, Pietro Bernadone, Francis received a fair Education and entered his father's business
Sam'Uel - He is also the founder of the first regular institutions of religious instructions and communities for the purposes of Education
Alexandria - , his Alexandrine Education would familiarize him with Philo's idea of the word as the mediating instrument of creation and providence; and John the Baptist's inspired announcement of the personal Messiah would enable him to "teach accurately the things of the Lord" up to that point, when Aquila's and Priscilla's teaching more perfectly informed him of the whole accomplished Christian way of salvation
Assisi, Francis of, Saint - The son of a wealthy cloth merchant, Pietro Bernadone, Francis received a fair Education and entered his father's business
Samuel - The twelve tribes, when he assumed their charge, were in a low condition both morally and politically he freed them from all foreign yokes, administered justice with vigor and impartiality, promoted Education and true religion, united the tribes, and raised them higher in the scale of civilization
Kulturkampf - Both the Protestant and the Liberal Party united in the opinion that a permanent political unity of Germany depended absolutely on unity of religion, language and Education. Education was put exclusively into the hands of the state and the Jesuits were expelled from the empire, 1873
Lazarists - During the 18th century the Vincentians passed over into China; they were called to Macao by the Portuguese Government in 1784, and directed many houses of Education there; after the suppression of the, Jesuits they replaced that order in the Levant and in China
Louvain, University of - After an interval marked by the establishment of a state university under the Dutch government, 1815, the episcopate of Belgium decided to create a free Catholic institution for higher Education
House - This house must have a right foundation, JESUS CHRIST:...
...
a heating plant to keep the heart and soul on fire for GOD;...
a kitchen so that the food may be prepared for the soul;...
a library for the Education and instruction of the mind;...
a music room to keep the heart singing;...
a parlor for hospitality;...
a bedroom for rest;...
a bath room for cleansing;...
an attic for storage;...
and also the light of the Word and the water of the Spirit
Caesarius, of Nazianzus - He betook himself to Alexandria, "the workshop of every sort of Education," for better instruction in physical science than he could obtain in Palestine
Vincentians - During the 18th century the Vincentians passed over into China; they were called to Macao by the Portuguese Government in 1784, and directed many houses of Education there; after the suppression of the, Jesuits they replaced that order in the Levant and in China
University of Louvain - After an interval marked by the establishment of a state university under the Dutch government, 1815, the episcopate of Belgium decided to create a free Catholic institution for higher Education
Society of Priests of Saint Sulpice - The object of the society was to labor, in direct dependence on the bishops, for the Education and perfection of ecclesiastics
Sulpicians - The object of the society was to labor, in direct dependence on the bishops, for the Education and perfection of ecclesiastics
Joannes, Silentiarius, Bishop of Colonia - His father and mother, noble and wealthy Christians, gave him a Christian Education
Mother (2) - Ramsay, in his Education of Christ, shows how thorough was the instruction given to the Jewish youth
Nazareth - Nazareth was in truth the best of all places for the Education of the Messiah (cf. Ramsay, The Education of Christ2, 1902)
Nazareth - Nazareth was in truth the best of all places for the Education of the Messiah (cf. Ramsay, The Education of Christ2, 1902)
Luke (2) - 42 this place was well known to all persons of any Education. From the character of the language of his writings it is evident that he had a good Education, both rhetorical and medical. It is impossible to say where he was educated, as higher Education was widespread in the Greek world
Daniel, Prophet - A preliminary section (1 to 2,4) in Hebrew, tells of Daniel's capture and Education
Baptists - There is likewise an academy at Bristol for students, generally known by the name of the Bristol Education Society
Ignorant, Ignorance - Thus Education is not so much needed as is the proclamation of the gospel (Romans 1:16-17 )
Steward, Stewardship - Meyer’s view is probably true of the Gospels, although if Chuza as ἐπίτροπος (Luke 8:3) had special charge of the Education of the royal children, it might lend further colour to Sanday’s theory of Joanna’s relation to the authorship of Luke 1:2. The Education of the children as well as their maintenance was under his charge
Areopagite, Areopagus - In ancient times it had supreme authority in both criminal and religious matters, and its influence, ever tending to become wider, affected laws and offices, Education and morality. Moreover, the Apostle’s speech was not a philosophical disquisition but rather a popular oration, suited to the general populace of idle Athenians and dilettante Roman youths whose Education was not considered complete until they had spent some time in the purlieus of the ancient university
John - He was doubtless trained in all that constituted the ordinary Education of Jewish youth
Monachism - Agriculture, the copying of manuscripts, Education; the fine arts, historical and patristic writings, and missionary work have engaged the monks at various periods throughout their history
Monasticism - Agriculture, the copying of manuscripts, Education; the fine arts, historical and patristic writings, and missionary work have engaged the monks at various periods throughout their history
Middle Ages - Brown proves in "The Achievement of the Middle Ages"; or, as shown in "The Legacy of the Middle Ages," in preparing for the modern age a legacy of Christian life, art in all its forms, particularly architecture, literature, philosophy, Education, law growing out of sacred customs, civiland Roman law also, the dignification of womanhood, economit activity and political thought, organization of government, peace, union of Christendom
Homosexuality - The ministry of the church to homosexuals should include: conversion, counseling, Education, and support-group relationships
Scribe - (e) The Education of the young in schools was the charge of the scribe
Schoolmaster - His office in the old Greek system of Education was to accompany the children of the family to and from their schools, the school of the music-master and the school of the physical trainer
Ages, Middle - Brown proves in "The Achievement of the Middle Ages"; or, as shown in "The Legacy of the Middle Ages," in preparing for the modern age a legacy of Christian life, art in all its forms, particularly architecture, literature, philosophy, Education, law growing out of sacred customs, civiland Roman law also, the dignification of womanhood, economit activity and political thought, organization of government, peace, union of Christendom
Eusebius Emesenus, Bishop of Emesa - His Education was continued in Palestine and subsequently at Alexandria
Low - Vulgar common as a low Education
Rome And the Roman Empire - They were the product of a complicated interaction of numerous components that included: changes in the values, wealth, and Education of the upper classes; innovations in finances, agriculture, and commerce; expansion of the senate; enormous increases in citizenship; unrest among the classes; problems in maintaining order in the districts in and around Rome, and difficulty in recruiting sufficient personnel for the army. ...
Education in the empire was the prerogative of the wealthy. The poor had neither the time, the money, nor the need for an Education that was designed to prepare the upper classes for positions of public service. The goal of Education was to master the spoken word
Philosophists - the command to love one's parents is more the work of Education than of nature. By degrees they got possession nearly of all the reviews and periodical publications, established a general intercourse by means of hawkers and pedlars with the distant provinces, and instituted an office to supply all schools with teachers; and thus did they acquire unprecedented dominion over every species of literature, over the minds of all ranks of people, and over the Education of youth, without giving any alarm to the world
Cassiodorus (or Rather, Cassiodorius) Magnus Aurelius - Cassiodorus was brought up under circumstances highly favourable to his Education, which included the study of grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, music, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, mechanics, anatomy, Greek, and the sacred Scriptures. By his influence the Goths were kept in subjection to the new rule, notwithstanding the Roman proclivities of Amalasuntha as displayed in the Education of the young prince
Maronites - The court of Rome, in affiliating the Maronites, has granted them a hospitium at Rome, to which they may send several of their youth to receive a gratuitous Education. It should seem that this institution might introduce among them the ideas and arts of Europe; but the pupils of this school, limited to an Education purely monastic, bring home nothing but the Italian language, which is of no use, and a stock of theological learning, from which as little advantage can be derived; they accordingly soon assimilate with the rest
Conscience - ...
(4) The Education of conscience. -Some intuitionalists have held that conscience, being an infallible oracle, is incapable of Education; and Kant’s famous utterance, ‘An erring conscience is a chimera’ (op. In the NT, however, as in general usage, ‘conscience’ is not restricted to the intuitive discernment of the difference between right and wrong, but is applied to the whole moral nature of man; and when understood in this way there can be no question that it shares in the general weakness of human nature, and that it is both capable of Education and constantly in need of an educative discipline. The distinction made by the NT writers between a good and an evil conscience implies the need of Education; their moral precepts imply its possibility. Education of this kind can be obtained from many masters, but the best teachers of all are Scriptures Inspired of God (ib. ...
(c) But something more is required before the Education of conscience is complete
Chicago, Illinois - In 1846 the Sisters of Mercy started a school, which became a great Educational influence in the city; they later established a hospital. Catholic Education was promoted under Archbishop Augustine Feehan, the De La Salle Institute, Saint Cyril's College, and Saint Vincent's College, now De Paul University, being started about this time
Evagrius - 536 or 537, but accompanied his parents to Apamea for his Education, and from Apamea seems to have gone to Antioch, the capital of Syria, and entered the profession of the law
Pamphilus, Presbyter of Caesarea - Having received his earlier Education in his native city, he passed to Alexandria, where he devoted himself to theological studies under Pierius, the head of its catechetical school (Routh, Rel
Character of Christ - Education. Education. Such a literature is the most splendid instrument of Education the world has ever seen; and such was the Education even of a carpenter’s son in an obscure village. No doubt even a system so excellent might be perverted; but always in Education the result is determined not by the perfection of the instrument, but by the reaction of the pupil. If He did not, if His thought is wide, His insight deep, His spirit noble and gentle; if He moves on the plane of the greatest prophets of the OT, and sees beyond their highest vision; we must trace this result to His Education, and to the response made to it by His quick and intelligent sympathy. We can come within sight of Him only by retracing the steps of His own Education, and approaching Him from the point of view of the OT. Other Educational influences must be remembered and their power duly estimated: the historic scenes which were within His view, with the splendid and tragic memories they were fitted to awaken; the highways of the world’s business which were visible from the hills behind which Nazareth lay; the pleasant country which was spread all around His home. Operating upon Him, through parentage and home and Education, operating within Him in ways beneath consciousness and beyond observation, the Divine Spirit had led Him into, and enabled Him to abide within, a continuous, loving fellowship with God, of which the earthly relationship of father and son is the reflexion and the symbol
New York, City of - Thomas Dongan, Catholic Governor of New York enacted, 1683, the first law establishing religious liberty passed in New York, and, 1685, the first Catholic Educational institution in New York State, the New York Latin School, was established by the Jesuits Father Thomas Harvey, Father Henry Harrison, and Father Charles Gage. The foundation of several institutions of higher Education followed rapidly; among these may be mentioned Mount Saint Vincent Academy and College, Manhattanville College, Manhattan College, Fordham University, and Saint Francis Xavier College. ...
The rôle played by New York Catholic publishers in Catholic Education is important, for from early times New York has been a great producing and distributing center for Catholic literature of all types
Paul - At a suitable age he was sent to Jerusalem to complete his Education in the school of Gamaliel, the most distinguished and right-minded of the Rabbis of that age. Probably, however a learned Greek Education cannot with propriety be ascribed to him
Swedenborgians - He apears to have had a good Education; for his learning was extensive in almost every branch
Discipline - Such an Education was to avoid the heavy-handed, physical brutality practiced by their pagan neighbors
Atticus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - Born at Sebaste in Armenia, he early embraced a monastic life, and received his Education from some Macedonian monks near that place
Accountability, Age of - They also receive a varied religious Education because of parents, teachers, and other significant adults to whom they are exposed
Handicraft - (Acts 18:3 ; 19:25 ; Revelation 18:22 ) A trade was taught to ail the Jewish boys as a necessary part of their Education
Sozomen, Author of a History - His Education finished, he proceeded to Constantinople, and there entered on his profession (ii
je'Sus Christ - Deutsch, in the Quarterly Review, says, "Eighty years before Christ, schools flourished throughout the length and the breadth of the land: Education had been made compulsory. According to Ellicott, the stages of Jewish childhood were marked as follows: "At three the boy was weaned, and word for the first time the fringed or tasselled garment prescribed by (Numbers 15:38-41 ) and Deuteronomy 22:12 His Education began at first under the mother's care
Unitarians - Belsham says, "The Unitarian doctrine is, that Jesus of Nazareth was a man constituted in all respects like other men, subject to the same infirmities, the same ignorance, prejudices, and frailties; descended from the family of David, the son of Joseph and Mary, though some indeed still adhere to the popular opinion of the miraculous conception; that he was born in low circumstances, having no peculiar advantages of Education or learning, but that he was a man of exemplary character; and that, in conformity to ancient prophecy, he was chosen and appointed by God to introduce a new moral dispensation into the world, the design of which was to abolish the Jewish economy, and to place believing Gentiles upon an equal ground of privilege and favour with the posterity of Abraham; in other words, he was authorized to reveal to all mankind, without distinction, the great doctrine of a future life, in which men shall be rewarded according to their works. Samuel Clarke, &c, thought that Christ might be worshipped; others of them affect to have no distinct notion of what the Holy Ghost meant, and to believe that worship is not to be addressed to Christ, but through Christ! These variations in the Unitarian creed have been deduced from the evidence of Unitarians themselves, given before the Commissioners of Education Inquiry in Ireland in 1826, as detailed in their Report to Parliament; a circumstance that renders them the more valuable, as it imparts to them a living, speaking authority
Order of Saint Benedict - The influence of the monks has manifested itself in missionary works, notably by the conversion of the Teutonic races, in the civilization of northwestern Europe, and in the fields of art, literature, and Education. The nuns engage principally in Educational work, and have monasteries in the United States, British Isles, and Malta, Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Holland, Italy, and Poland
New Orleans, Louisiana, City of - The establishment of several institutions of higher Education including a seminary, hospitals, asylums, and various charitable institutions followed rapidly
America (Land) - Conversion of the Indians was stipulated in every royal contract with the explorers, and the Church undertook Education and civilization of the Indians as soon as governmental administration was stabilized
Lord's Name Taken in Vain - More on Education, vol
Daniel - His habit of attention gained during his Education in Jerusalem enabled him soon to master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and even to excel his compeers
Benedictine Order - The influence of the monks has manifested itself in missionary works, notably by the conversion of the Teutonic races, in the civilization of northwestern Europe, and in the fields of art, literature, and Education. The nuns engage principally in Educational work, and have monasteries in the United States, British Isles, and Malta, Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Holland, Italy, and Poland
Benedictines - The influence of the monks has manifested itself in missionary works, notably by the conversion of the Teutonic races, in the civilization of northwestern Europe, and in the fields of art, literature, and Education. The nuns engage principally in Educational work, and have monasteries in the United States, British Isles, and Malta, Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Holland, Italy, and Poland
Talmud - The Talmud became the central document for Jewish Education during the medieval period
Authority - The state, however, is not to be obeyed as against God, neither can a state command anything and everything; thus to dictate to conscience, to interfere with man's eternal destiny, or his relation with his Maker, to formulate civillaws in conflict with the moral law, to deny the parents' right in the Education of the child, and to prevent religious instruction are beyond the power of the state
Law - The “instruction” of the sages of Israel, who were charged with the Education of the young, was intended to cultivate in the young a fear of the Lord so that they might live in accordance with God’s expectations
Occupation (2) - And however far removed our Lord might be in later life from quondam fellow-craftsmen, this technical Education kept Him in touch with His industrial compatriots
Elements - The word unquestionably has this meaning in Hebrews 5:12, ‘the rudiments of the first principles (τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀρχῆς) of the oracles of God’-the ABC of Christian Education, what is milk for babes but not solid food for men (Hebrews 5:13). Finally, a man’s knowledge of the στοιχεῖα is not approved as his beginning of religious Education, but condemned as his ‘philosophy and vain deceit’ (Colossians 2:8)
Jesuits - It was the first order which enjoined by its constitutions devotion to the cause of Education
Jesus, Company of - It was the first order which enjoined by its constitutions devotion to the cause of Education
Jesus, Society of - It was the first order which enjoined by its constitutions devotion to the cause of Education
Society of Jesus - It was the first order which enjoined by its constitutions devotion to the cause of Education
Russia - The Russians were baptized but they did not receive Christian Education, so the moral influence of Christianity was not efficiently exercised upon them. Within two years great numbers were converted to Catholicity, and great social and Educational activity was developed by the clergy
Masona, Bishop of Merida - The facts it gives regarding Masona are briefly: his Gothic extraction, his Education in the church of St
Polychronius, Bishop of Apamea - He belonged to a wealthy family of position at Antioch, and the literary character of his remains indicates that his early Education was liberal and many-sided
Boyhood - In any ease this higher Education belonged to an age beyond boyhood. ...
How far was elementary Education universal and compulsory? The Jewish tradition asserts that it was both (cf. ’ At least it is possible that Education was fairly universal in our Lord’s day, within the limits indicated above. Education. —Although the school Education was on a religious basis, it does not appear to have clashed with or superseded the religious teaching of the home
Worldliness - If in a special situation he seems to deprecate and even disparage marriage and the family-life (1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 7:7-8; 1 Corinthians 7:28; 1 Corinthians 7:40), he yet shows unrivalled insight into their ideal significance and their value for spiritual Education (Ephesians 5:22-33; Ephesians 6:1-9). In a higher sense than to other men the world belongs to the Christian (1 Corinthians 3:22), as a system of Divinely appointed duties and opportunities, all subservient to the Education and development of Christian character-as that apprenticeship in doing the will of God which is most perfectly adapted to his present capabilities and needs (1 Corinthians 7:24)
Pietists - Looking upon this as the root of the evil, it was but natural that their plans of reformation should begin here; and accordingly, they laid it down as an essential principle that none should be admitted into the ministry but such as had received a proper Education, were distinguished by their wisdom and sanctity of manners, and had hearts filled with divine love. Hence they proposed, in the first place, a thorough reformation of the schools of divinity; and they explained clearly enough what they meant by this reformation, which consisted in the following points: That the systematic theology which reigned in the academies, and was composed of intricate and disputable doctrines, and obscure and unusual forms of expression, should be totally abolished; that polemical divinity, which comprehended the controversies subsisting between Christians of different communions, should be less eagerly studied, and less frequently treated, though not entirely neglected; that all mixture of philosophy and human learning with divine wisdom, was to be most carefully avoided; that, on the contrary, all those who were designed for the ministry, should be accustomed from their early youth to the perusal and study of the holy Scriptures; that they should be taught a plain system of theology, drawn from these unerring sources of truth; and that the whole course of their Education was to be so directed as to render them useful in life, by the practical power of their doctrine, and the commanding influence of their example. The second great object that employed the zeal and attention of the persons now under consideration, was, that the candidates for the ministry should not only for the future receive such an academical Education as would tend rather to solid utility than to mere speculation, but also that they should dedicate themselves to God in a peculiar manner, and exhibit the most striking examples of piety and virtue
Hilkiah - The ignorance of the law which this narrative implies accords with the prevalence of idolatry and of a low state of Education ever since Jehoshaphat's alliance with Abab, except in Hezekiah's reign
Grecians - Their Grecian or foreign culture and Education made them clever disputants; hence, their keenness in controverting the new convert who had before sided with them against Stephen; the latter also was once a Grecian (Hellenist) Jew before his conversion to Christianity (Acts 7:58; Acts 6:9-14)
Nerva - In most of the Italian towns he provided contributions from the privy purse for the Education of the children of freeborn parents of slender means
Moses - " His Education would doubtless be carefully attended to, and he would enjoy all the advantages of training both as to his body and his mind. Egypt had then two chief seats of learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of Heliopolis, his Education was completed
Scribes - Education and life
Zechari'ah - Some faint traces, however, we may observe in them, of his Education in Babylon
Behmenists - His conceptions are often clothed under allegorical symbols; and in his latter works he had frequently adopted chemical and Latin phrases to express his ideas, which phrases he borrowed from conversation with learned men, the Education he had received being too illiterate to furnish him with them: but as to the matter contained in his writings, he disclaimed having borrowed it either from men or books
Liberality - The contents of these were at fixed times placed in the treasury; and in addition to these there was a chamber where donations to be applied to the maintenance and Education of poor children might be given
Minister - Now, while ministers ought to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints, they must remember that men always will think different from each other; that prejudice of Education has great influence; that difference of opinion as to non-essential things is not of such importance as to be a ground of dislike
Catholic Emancipation - Catholic priests were ipso facto guilty of high treason; it was treason to become reconciled to the Church of Rome; children were denied Education in the Catholic religion and were disqualified from owning or acquiring property in any way if sent abroad to Catholic schools by their parents, who were fined for the offense; failure to attend the Established Church incurred a fine for recusancy, and a convicted recusant was outlawed; members of both houses of Parliament were obliged before taking their seats to denounce Transubstantiation, the Mass, and invocation of the saints as idolatrous
Establishments - He presided in their Education and discipline, in their religious worship, and in their general government
Tim'Othy - (2 Timothy 1:5 ) Under their training his Education was emphatically Jewish
Aurelius, Marcus, Roman Emperor - The policy adopted by Marcus Aurelius towards the Christian church cannot be separated from the Education which led him to embrace Stoicism, and the long training which he had, after he had attracted the notice of Hadrian and been adopted by Antoninus Pius, in the art of ruling
Deceit, Deception, Guile - The faculty of conscience requires a great deal of Education if we are to distinguish between the right and the wrong in all the details of life’ (The Evangelical Revival, p
Emancipation, Catholic - Catholic priests were ipso facto guilty of high treason; it was treason to become reconciled to the Church of Rome; children were denied Education in the Catholic religion and were disqualified from owning or acquiring property in any way if sent abroad to Catholic schools by their parents, who were fined for the offense; failure to attend the Established Church incurred a fine for recusancy, and a convicted recusant was outlawed; members of both houses of Parliament were obliged before taking their seats to denounce Transubstantiation, the Mass, and invocation of the saints as idolatrous
Agrippa - After the death of his father Aristobulus, Josephus informs us that Herod, his grandfather, took care of his Education, and sent him to Rome to make his court to Tiberius
Rab - As for rab and rabbi, the only difference between them is, that rab was the title of such as had had their Education, and taken their degree, in some foreign Jewish school; suppose at Babylon, where there was a school or academy of considerable note; rabbi was the title of such as were educated in the land of Judea, who were accounted more honourable than the others
Roman Catholic Relief Bill - Catholic priests were ipso facto guilty of high treason; it was treason to become reconciled to the Church of Rome; children were denied Education in the Catholic religion and were disqualified from owning or acquiring property in any way if sent abroad to Catholic schools by their parents, who were fined for the offense; failure to attend the Established Church incurred a fine for recusancy, and a convicted recusant was outlawed; members of both houses of Parliament were obliged before taking their seats to denounce Transubstantiation, the Mass, and invocation of the saints as idolatrous
Theodosius ii., Emperor - His Education was conducted by Pulcheria, who acted as Augusta and his guardian, from July 4, 414, when she was herself little more than 15 years old
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - —Jewish boys were from their earliest years made familiar with the contents of the OT, particularly with the books of the Law (see Boyhood, and Education). While the primary steps in such Education were no doubt carried out in the home, there is pretty clear testimony that everywhere schools for at least elementary Education were established. But the alacrity thus attained in mental processes and in the rapid change, not only from the idiom of one speech to that of another, but also from the mental atmosphere of one to that of another, is a great Education, and helps the man with a natural gift as a teacher to develop his inborn genius in directions very valuable for those he has to teach
Libertines - Others came for their Education, like St
Manaen (2) - Manaen may well have shared both the home-life and the subsequent Education, under a private tutor at Rome, which Antipas and Archelaus enjoyed (Ant
Galerius, Emperor - Without Education or virtues, he raised himself by undoubted military gifts, until he was selected (together with Constantius) by Diocletian to fill the office of Caesar of the East in Diocletian's famous scheme for the reorganization of the empire, a
Luke - This superiority in style may perhaps be owing to his longer residence in Greece, and greater acquaintance with Gentiles of good Education, than fell to the lot of the writers of the other three Gospels
Sacrament - Ceremonies are in their nature arbitrary; and different means may be employed by different persons with success, according to their constitution, their Education, and their circumstances, to cherish the sentiments of devotion, and to confirm good purposes
Rabbulas, Bishop of Edessa - He received a liberal Education, and was well versed in pagan literature
Golden Rule - But when the crucial question is asked: How is the ideal perfection to be attained? the reply is that utility enjoins, ‘as the means of making the nearest approach to this ideal,’ that (1) ‘laws of social arrangements,’ and (2) ‘education and opinion’ should strive to ‘establish in the mind of every individual an indissoluble association between his own happiness and the good of the whole’ (op. But no external force, such as law or Education, can supply either the motive for doing as we would be done by, or the power to fulfil the precept we approve
Ireland - The Irish government controls the constabulary, army, Education, taxes, excise, post-office, telegraph, and telephone; the British government is permitted the use of certain Irish ports for naval purposes and sites for airplane stations
Tarsus - It cannot be proved that he received a liberal Education in his native city before he went to study in Jerusalem
Paul - The Greek influence in his Education gave him the ability to think clearly and systematically, and the Hebrew influence helped to create in him a character of moral uprightness (Acts 26:10-11)
Marriage - By promoting parental love and the sense of responsibility, marriage most effectually promotes the health and happiness of children, and their careful Education to virtue, industry, and honor, to right habits and ends, and to all that is included in the idea of home
Hellenism - Philosophy becomes a substitute for religion: it is moral Education. Born in the Diaspora, at Tarsus in Cilicia, he was nevertheless ‘a Hebrew of Hebrews’ (Philippians 3:5); he had Pharisaic surroundings, and was brought up in the spirit of the Palestinian Rabbis: he even went to Jerusalem to complete his Rabbinical Education. The facts are that Hellenism, as we have seen, was in itself a mixture, which, in addition to the Greek element, included much that was Oriental; the Rabbinical Education also comprehended a good many Greek notions; and the reasoning of the Jewish teachers was often very similar to the Stoic philosophy, as
Greece, Religion And Society of - Solon assigned to them the task of monitoring the Education, religion, and customs of the people with the privilege of reviewing judicial decisions, serving as a Supreme Court. Whatever lands he conquered were introduced to Greek dress, customs, literature, Education, love of learning, physical exercise—everything that made Greek culture
Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - His father appears to have died early, and Gregory received most of his Education from his uncle Gallus, bp. of Auvergne, who carried on his Education, directing his pupil rather to the study of ecclesiastical than of secular works
Jesuits - From their first institution, they considered the Education of youth as their peculiar province: they aimed at being spiritual guides and confessors; they preached frequently in order to instruct the people; they set out as missionaries to convert unbelieving nations. Before the expiration of the sixteenth century, they had obtained the chief direction of the Education of youth in every Catholic country in Europe
Solomon - Nathan, to whom his Education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i
Moses - From his mother he learnt about the true and living God who had chosen Israel as his people, and from the Egyptians he received the best secular Education available (Acts 7:22)
Worship - These occasions and places are also the contexts for religious Education and the development and enjoyment of fellowship among the worshipers
Home (2) - ...
The home as a factor in Education was of the greatest importance
Samuel - Samuel founded "the schools of the prophets," to which belonged "the sons of the prophets," whose Education, beside the law, was in sacred, vocal, and instrumental music and processions (1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Samuel 10:10; 1 Samuel 19:19-20; 1 Chronicles 25:1; 1 Chronicles 25:6)
Arnobius - ...
As a storehouse of old Latinity and of allusions to points of antiquity—to heathen mythology and ceremonial; to law, Education, and amusements—his work is of the greatest interest and importance
Moravians - The latter, as before observed, found a protector in Nicholas Count Zinzendorff, a pious, zealous man, and a Lutheran by Education
Parents (2) - For the subject in regard to modern life see Mason, Home Education; Turnbull, Hints on Child Training; Mrs
Poverty of Spirit - In the poor, the instinct for truth had never been perverted by mistaken habit and Education
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - 512–519, a native of Sozopolis in Pisidia, by birth and Education a heathen, baptized in the martyry of Leontius at Tripolis (Evagr
Paul - Here Saul was born, and here he spent his youth, doubtless enjoying the best Education his native city could afford. ...
His preliminary Education having been completed, Saul was sent, when about thirteen years of age probably, to the great Jewish school of sacred learning at Jerusalem as a student of the law
Influence - His supposed birthplace,—Nazareth,—His humble parentage, His lack of a really good Education, all these and many other objections were constantly urged (John 7:15), and must have caused some difficulty in the disciples’ minds. Our Lord never supposes they will be effective through Education or culture or the presence of gifts
Family - Metaphorically οἰκονόμος is used of Christian ministers (Ephesians 2:20-22; of ‘bishops, 1 Timothy 1:17), of Christians generally (1 Peter 4:10)-the idea is doubtless taken from our Lord’s words about the ‘wise slave whom his lord had set over his household to give them their food in due season’ (Matthew 24:45), (2) The guardian of a child, ἐπίτροπος, was concerned with his Education (Galatians 4:2); perhaps this is the same as the following. (3) The pedagogue or tutor (παιδαγωγός, Galatians 3:24 f, 1 Corinthians 4:15) was a slave deputed to take the child to school (not a teacher or schoolmaster as the Authorized Version ); this: was a Greek institution adopted by the Romans, for in Education Greece led the way, (4) The physician (ἰατπός, Colossians 4:14) was also regarded as an tipper slave
Family - Thus the mother would have the early care and Education of her children under her own control
Moses - The first of these deals with his birth in Egypt and his Education as a prince of the royal harem (cf
Herod - A Roman at heart, and devoted by Education and circumstances to the Roman influence, he endeavoured to bring the customs of his people into conformity with those of the Gentiles
Jesus Christ - His Education began at first under the mother's care
Monastery - "On the other hand, when we consider five hundred persons bred up in indolence and lost to the commonwealth; when we consider that these houses were the great nurseries of superstition, bigotry, and ignorance; the stews of sloth, stupidity, and perhaps intemperance; when we consider that the Education received in them had not the least tincture of useful learning, good manners, or true religion, but tended rather to vilify and disgrace the human mind; when we consider that the pilgrims and strangers who resorted thither were idle vagabonds, who got nothing abroad that was equivalent to the occupations they left at home; and when we consider, lastly, that indiscriminate alms-giving is not real charity, but an avocation from labour and industry, checking every idea of exertion, and filling the mind with abject notions, we are led to acquiesce in the fate of these foundations, and view their ruins, not only with a picturesque eye, but with moral and religious satisfaction
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - He received his Education in the Judaeo-Philonic school of Alexandria
Exodus - ) The youth, Education, patriotism, and flight of Moses, Exodus 2:1 - 6:30
Philosophy - The teaching of Persia seems to have been designed to supply important elements in the Education of the chosen people
Apostles - ...
What kind of men were the Apostles? What was their character, Education, social rank, ability, age? The Apostles were in an eminent sense religious men. None of the Apostles had received more than a common Education. The Education that springs from the truest knowledge of God and of man was theirs
Synagogue (2) - —The OT ideal makes parents responsible for the Education of their children, and draws an idyllic picture of the father and the son turning every opportunity to profit for instruction in religion and in duty (Deuteronomy 6:7). Boyhood (Jewish), and Education
Jehoshaphat - To remedy the people's ignorance of the book of the law, in the third year of his reign he sent a commission of five princes, nine Levites, and two priests to go through the cities of Judah, teaching them in it; a model for rulers as to national Education (Deuteronomy 11:19-21)
Genesis - Once the principle is admitted that every genuine and worthy mode of literary expression is a suitable medium of God’s word to men, it is impossible to suppose that the mythic faculty, which plays so important a part in the thinking of all early peoples, was alone ignored in the Divine Education of Israel
Paul - His main Education (probably after passing his first 12 years at Tarsus, Acts 26:4-5, "among his own nation. His Grecian Education adapted him for successfully, like Stephen, disputing against the Grecians
Anger (2) - ...
An instinct, however, when we come into the world of freedom and responsibility, always needs Education; and the radical character of the Education required by the instinct of anger is apparent from the fact that the first thought of almost all men is that anger is a vice
Disease - Paul, too, looked upon his "thorn" as a spiritual discipline and Education (1 Corinthians 11:30 )
Conscience - Education of conscience
Socinians - But, notwithstanding all this, and although he was visited with much suffering and affliction, his perseverance, his talents, and his zeal soon excited admiration; his views were adopted by many even in the highest stations of life; his principles were embodied in a catechism, which, though not imposed upon his followers, they read with very extensive acquiescence; and he had the satisfaction of beholding the sentiments which he had long cherished, embraced by various churches enjoying the protection of government, and permitted to establish seminaries of Education by which the impression made on the public mind might be preserved and deepened
Swedenborgians - He enjoyed early the advantages of a liberal Education, and being naturally endowed with uncommon talents for the acquirement of learning, his progress in the sciences was rapid and extensive; and he soon distinguished himself by several publications in the Latin language, which gave proof of equal genius and erudition
David - Such Education as the times afforded he doubtless had, and God's law was his study
John the Apostle - These hints all intimate that John belonged to the respectable classes, and though called by the council "unlearned and ignorant" he was not probably without Education, though untrained in their rabbinical lore (Acts 4:13)
Turning - They are due for the most part to diversities in natural temperament, in personal history, in religious Education, and especially in the prevailing atmosphere of religious thought and belief. In later times nurtural conversions become common; and under ideal conditions of Christian Education they may be regarded as the normal type
Terah - Migrating from one field of human life into another, and never leaving one field till we have reaped in its full harvest, and never entering upon a new field till we are prepared to plough it, and sow it, and reap it,-what a noble life we are called to lead on this earth, and all the time the pilgrims of God, and preparing ourselves for His city! What a noble Education did divine providence pass Terah's son through, and with what profit to his mind, and heart, and temper, and whole moral character. What a noble Education Terah's son was passed through of God
Paul the Apostle - Probably this period of Education was over before our Lord’s ministry began. ...
The result of this Education, in spite of Gamaliel’s liberality of thought, was to make St
Hospitality - Travel for purposes of pleasure and Education is practically unknown
Medicine - On the whole, the medical knowledge of the Bible peoples was very defective; nor are there any traces of medical Education in Palestine
Unbelief (2) - The long-continued Education in Divine things had been all in vain for those Jews who had studied ‘Moses’ and yet remained blind to the progressive teaching of the OT
Proverbs, Theology of - Solomon so ordered this book that covenantal parents could teach it within the home, the place of Education in ancient Israel
Greece - ...
Even in the period of greatest depression Hellas still maintained her old pre-eminence in Education, though for a time the universities of Rhodes, Alexandria, and Tarsus rivalled that of Athens
Imagination - It must be simple, as it was meant to become current not amongst scholars, disciplined in the use of complicated trains of thought, well used to abstract lines of reasoning, and capable of retaining these in their memory for a long time, but amongst the common crowd of listeners who had had only an elementary Education, and were incapable of giving a close and sustained attention to any train of thought
the Widow With the Two Mites - There were special chests elsewhere in the temple for the poor, and for the Education of the children of the poor, but the treasury chests over against which our Saviour sat that day were just the Deacons' Courts of our own Free Church and other churches
Marriage - The production of the greatest number of healthy children, their better Education, and the making of due provision for their settlement in life
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - Martin's infancy was passed at Pavia in Italy, where his father was for some time stationed, and there he received his Education, apparently a pagan one
Monnica - ...
Monnica joined cordially with Patricius in securing the highest Education for Augustine and in stimulating his studies; and even during her widowhood made every effort to maintain him in them
Synagogue - ‘Education’ in DB Discipline - This code deals almost exclusively with severe offenses that require the "cutting off" (normally, Education) of the offender and gives few details concerning lesser offenses and remedial disciplinary measures
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - Paul, from his Education in Hebrew at Jerusalem, and in Hellenistic at Tarsus, was familiar with Philo's modes of thought
Hilarius Arelatensis, Saint, Bishop of Arles - His Education was, according to the standard of the age, a thoroughly liberal one, including philosophy and rhetoric
the Slothful Servant Who Hid His Lord's Money - If they had as large a field as that five-talented fellow-servant of theirs; if they had a city pulpit; if they had a people or Education and intelligence, they would prepare for the Sabbath in a very different fashion from what they do
the Mother of Zebedee's Children - And still the Bible is by far our finest Education in morals, and in manners, and in love, and in letters, as well as in our everlasting salvation
Patricius, or Saint Patrick - Discoveries in Spain last century showed that decurions were established by the Romans in every little mining village, charged with the care of the games, the water supply, sanitary arrangements, Education, and the local fortifications; while Hübner in the Corp
Prudentius, Marcus (?) Aurelius Clemens Prudentius - His name, Education, and career imply that he was of good family; he was educated in rhetoric and law, and his poems shew an exact knowledge of the Latin classical poets, especially Virgil, Ovid, Horace, and Juvenal; he seems to have known little Greek and no Hebrew
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 30) and received a good Education. Certainly it was not much later than this that he was sent with his friend Bonosus to complete his Education at Rome, and they probably lived together there
Clement of Alexandria - Perhaps he was descended from a freedman of the consul; his wide and varied learning indicates that he had received a liberal Education, and so far suggests that his parents occupied a good social position. Clement shews that Greek philosophy was part of the Divine Education of men, subordinate to the training of the law and the prophets, but yet really from God (§§ 1–58; 91–100)
Hebrews, Epistle to - For these and similar reasons it is generally believed that our author was a scholar of Hellenistic training, and most probably an Alexandrian Jew of philosophic temperament and Education (see Bacon, Introd
James, Epistle of - ’ It has indeed been doubted whether a Jew of his position could have written such good Greek as we find in this Epistle, but we know really very little of the scope of Jewish Education; there was every opportunity for intercourse with Greeks in Galilee, and a priori arguments of this nature can at most be only subsidiary
Absalom - And it was in one of the worst of those wicked little rings that Absalom grew up and got his Education
Christianity (History Sketch) - Mohammedanism, however, arrested the progress of Christianity in some of these countries, and humbled it and oppressed it in others; but since the reformation, and especially within the last century, it has been extended, not so much by conquest, as by the legitimate means of colonization, and by missions and Education, to the most distant and important parts of the world, to China, India, Africa, the American Islands, and those of the Pacific Ocean
Minucius Felix, Marcus - In fine, if the Christians had any modesty, let them give up philosophy, of which their want of Education had made them incapable; or if they must philosophize, let them fallow that greatest of philosophers, Socrates, whose maxim was, "What is above us we have nothing to do with," otherwise the result will be either the destruction of all religion or the adoption of anile superstition
Unbelief - " Thus speaks Cotta, and thus also many Romans of Education in his time, either more or less explicitly
Isaiah - His Education is clearly evident in his superb writing that has gained him an eminence in Hebrew literature hardly surpassed by any other
Ibas, Bishop of Edessa - The famous theological school of Edessa, of which, according to some accounts, Ibas was head, and to which the Christian youth from Persia and adjacent lands resorted for Education, offered great facilities for this propagation of Theodore's tenets
Paul the Apostle - It is not clear whether his family moved to Jerusalem (where both Greek and Jewish schooling was offered) while he was young, or whether Paul was simply sent there for his Education
Ten Commandments - ...
The second command has no analogue in the ancient Near Eastern covenants, but its truth was just as vital as the first for God's Education of his people
Beda, Historian - ...
Of the legendary or fictitious statements about Bede, the following are the most important: his personal acquaintance with Alcuin which is impossible; his Education and sojourn at Cambridge, on which see Giles, PP
Sidonius Apollinaris, Saint - He was apparently educated at that then famous seat of Education, in the same school as his cousin Avitus
Gospel - Books and writing equipment were expensive and the Education needed to use them was usually reserved for the rich alone
Ethics - The Education of children is enjoined ( Exodus 12:26 f
Language of Christ - ’...
That a Palestinian Jew such as Josephus, who was of a distinguished priestly family, who received a careful rabbinic Education and studied in the various schools of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, should not only characterize Aramaic as ‘the language of our own country,’ but should write his first book in that language, is in itself conclusive proof that Aramaic had not then been materially driven from its position as the vernacular of Palestine
Children of God - Paul’s Conception of Christianity; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus; Beyschlag, NT Theology; Coe, Religion of a Mature Mind, 187–216, Education in Religion and Morals, 65 ff
Paul as a Student - Nor were the eminent men of Tarsus mere manufacturers and merchants; they were men of Education and refinement of manners also. The finest of minds, the best of Educations, sleepless industry, blameless life, and all: with all that, the aged apostle shudders to look back on his student-days of ignorance and unbelief
Nebuchadnezzar - Let every father, and mother, and nurse, and tutor, and school-master read and lay to heart, as they shall answer for it, William Law's eighteenth chapter, in which he shows 'How the Education which men receive in their youth makes the doctrine of humility so difficult to be practised all their after-days
Jonath - ' Ay, and far short of our captivity, let any Continental people, by the Education and the industry of their workmen, threaten to take away some of our foreign markets from us, and what an outburst of scorn and indignation will immediately sweep over our land
Egypt - Joseph was married at Heliopolis, Genesis 41:45, and there, according to Josephus, Jacob made his home; it was probably the place where Moses received his Education, where Herodotus acquired most of his skill in writing history, and where Plato, the Greek philosopher, studied
Pronunciation of Proper Names - ’ The difficulty in many cases is to determine what is prevalent usage, and how far the Education which is presumed to guide it has included the elements which would make it reliable in such a connexion
Cures - Medical theory among the Jews was almost entirely borrowed empirically, and no system of medical training and Education existed in Palestine in Bible times
Dependence - His Education was that of a Jewish child in a pious Jewish home, where the language spoken was the current ‘Hebrew’ or Palestinian Aramaie (see a very useful article, ‘The Dialeets of Palestine in the time of Christ,’ by Ad
Jesuits - Before the expiration of the sixteenth century they had obtained the chief direction of the Education of youth in every Catholic country in Europe, and had become the confessors of almost all its noblest monarchs
Philanthropy - In that age the manumission of the slave, the Education of the poor, the enforcement of laws of sanitation—such things as are the commonplaces of philanthropic measures in our time—were not within the power of the disciples of Christ
Philo - Philo had had the usual training of a Greek boy of good family: he had studied grammar, mathematics, music, and rhetoric; he had acquired a good knowledge of Greek literature and obtained a fairly profound philosophical Education
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - The mental processes by which Gregory was led to Christ throw considerable light on the mind of Origen and the methods of Christian Education in the 3rd cent
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - He had not had a learned Education, but nevertheless displays considerable knowledge, including some of physical science, and in his discourses on fate, freewill, etc
Acts of the Apostles - Paul in Tarsus ( Acts 9:30 ), probably as being years of Education in which no striking event occurred
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - The wide range of his reading, as shewn by his familiarity with Greek poets, historians, orators, and philosophers, witnesses to the best Alexandrian Education
Nestorian Church - He was a lover of learning, and when the imperial order brought the theological school at Edessa to an end (this had hitherto been the sole means of Education open to sons of the "church of the East"), he took a statesman's advantage of the opportunity by founding at Nisibis a college that was a nursery of bishops to his church for 1,000 years
Physician - Puschmann, History of Medical Education, Eng
Proverbs - ...
A missionary in Syria once counselled a youth to complete his Education by travelling in Europe
Moses - Nor could magical feats derived from Egyptian Education have enabled Moses to gain his point, for he was watched and opposed by the masters of this art, who had the king and the state on their side, while Moses had not a single associate save Aaron
Quakers - Its business is to provide for the subsistence of the poor, and for the Education of their offspring; to judge of the sincerity and fitness of persons appearing to be convinced of the religious principles of the society, and desiring to be admitted into membership; to excite due attention to the discharge of religious and moral duty; and to deal with disorderly members
Inspiration And Revelation - ’ The Divine Education of mankind has always worked in this way-by an infinite number of graduated steps, leading men onwards from one truth to another, from truths that are simple and partial and rude in expression to other truths that are more complex and more comprehensive, more nicely adjusted to the facts which they embrace
Ideas (Leading) - Commandments which classify actions, forbidding some and enjoining others, however necessary they may be for purposes of moral Education, have always this defect, that they are sure, sooner or later, to come into conflict, and so give rise to perplexity and to casuistry
Regeneration - ’ It is the case, familiar enough in some form to most of us, where all one’s ethical ideals reinforced by Education lead in one direction, while the strength of many habits and even of primitive instinct (if ἐπιθυμία in Romans 7:7 is to be understood as ‘lust’) impel one in another direction
God - The age of the Exodus was undoubtedly a great crisis in the theological Education of Israel
Boyhood of Jesus - —The preceding article expresses the present writer’s ideas as to religious training, Education, and recreation in the time of Christ
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - That no very special pains had been devoted to his Education we may gather from the words of his sister Macidora on her deathbed, in which she ascribed the high reputation he had gained to the prayers of his parents, since "he had little or no assistance towards it from home" ( ib
Beatitude - Henceforth blessedness is seen to be the privilege not only of those who are exalted above all earthly care and suffering, but also of those who still share the limitations of this mortal life; it depends not on outward conditions such as wealth or Education (cf
Miracle - The opposite series of miracles, if real, was performed to enable, and even to compel, a company of Jews, of the lowest rank and of the narrowest Education, to fabricate, with the view of inevitable destruction to themselves, a consistent scheme of falsehood, and by an appeal to forged miracles to impose it upon the world as a revelation from heaven
Mahometanism - Although he had been reduced to poverty, he was descended from ancestors who had long been conspicuous by rank and by influence; but having been shut out from the advantages of Education, which in his peculiar case might have rather cramped than invigorated the astonishing powers of his mind, he had been compelled to seek his subsistence by devoting himself to a menial occupation
Revelation (2) - Paul had urged that the Jews had never recognized the transitory character of the Law which was their discipline; ‘a veil was upon their heart’ (Acts 3:15), which prevented them from seeing that the Law was only a stage in the Divine Education of Israel
Science (2) - Acts 21:40; Acts 22:2), and, though Herod surrounded himself with Greek literati and many Jews received a Greek Education abroad, these facts indicate the limit of the penetration of Greek science into the life of the Jews
Josephus - He was a child of excellent parts, and received a superior Education
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - He enjoyed a good Education in the Latin classics, and evidently was specially fond of the writings of Quintilian
Freedom of the Will - On the other bond, set any two men among the same alternatives, and their attitude will be different; in each case it will be conditioned by Education, tastes, habits, range of perceptions-in fact, by the whole previous life, by all that goes to make up what we call character
Divinity of Christ - There are differences of mind, of Education, of disposition and degrees of sympathy, of ability to apprehend and explain: differences all of them, when given free scope, likely to lead to mixed results
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - For a while the Education of Julian was entrusted to Eusebius, who had unbounded influence over Constantius
Christianity - These are considerations which must have strengthened the opposition to it; augmented the hostility which it must encounter; and enhanced the difficulty of gaining proselytes: and more especially when we recollect, that among the converts to Christianity in the earliest age, a number of persons remarkable for their station, office, genius, Education, and fortune, and who were personally interested by their emoluments and honours in either Judaism or Heathenism, appeared among the Christian proselytes
Paul - In his youth he appears to have been taught the art of tent making, Acts 18:3 ; but we must remember that among the Jews of those days a liberal Education was often, accompanied by instruction in some mechanical trade
Paul - He must therefore, have been yet a boy when was removed, in all probability for the sake of his Education, to the holy city of his fathers
Monophysitism - Though the Coptic clergy are still ignorant and fanatical, and the aged patriarch refuses to take any steps towards their better Education, the laity have extorted a permission from him for the appointment of a certain number of laity authorized to give instruction to their co-religionists on the truths of the Christian religion
Vulgate - To this renown it was due that, when a king at last arose in France with a desire to improve the religious Education of his country, he turned to Northumbria for the necessary assistance to carry out the reform
Gnosticism - Thus Neander's division classifies sects as not unfriendly to Judaism or as hostile to it; the former class taking its origin in those Alexandrian schools where the authority of such teachers as Philo had weight the latter among Christian converts from Oriental philosophy whose early Education had given them no prejudices in favour of Judaism
Ambrosius of Milan - ...
After receiving a liberal Education at Rome, Ambrose devoted himself to the profession of the law, which was then the usual path to the highest civil offices (see Gibbon, c
Augustinus, Aurelius - But he remained faithful to his mistress until the very eve of his conversion, and watched over his son's Education and character
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - If the view of the doctrines of Basilides taken in this article is correct, they afford no good grounds for supposing him to have had a Syrian Education
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - For the completion of his Education, Basil was sent by his father first to his native city of Caesarea (Greg
Desire - Objects are not merely what is presented to the senses, but what is presented to man as constituted by the experience of the race, by the Education of the individual, by the results of art, science, poetry, philosophy, and theology,—in short, by all the wide interest with which man has invested the world of his experience
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - Under such influences his Education is spoken of by his biographer, John the deacon, as having been that of a saint among saints
Authority of Christ - He had not simply intelligence, but intelligence which had been moulded by a certain Education, and could only reveal itself through a certain language; and both of these are conditions which (while essential to historical reality) nevertheless involve limitation
Belief (2) - It means instruction, Education, training into a true and adequate apprehension of his own nature and calling
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - 3) Anthusa, while John was an infant, was left a widow at the age of twenty, refused all offers of marriage, and devoted herself to the Education of her boy and the care of his property ( de Sacerdot
Worship - Although, in order to meet the wants of human nature generally, consisting as it does of sense as well as soul, and those of a large body of Christians in particular, who were only in a state of Education, and were to be brought up to the ripeness of Christian manhood, men soon selected definite times [2] for religious admonitions, and to consecrate them to a fuller occupation with religious things, as well as to public devotion, with the intention, that the influence of these definite times should animate and sanctify the rest of their lives, and that Christians who withdrew themselves from the distractions of business on these days, and collected their hearts before God in the stillness of solitude, as well as in public devotion, might make these seasons of service to the other parts of their life; yet this was in itself, and of itself, nothing unevangelical
Neology - Andrea, he says, the want of practical religious instruction in the early schools, the perverted state of all Education, the extravagance and dissoluteness of the universities, the total unfitness of the teachers whom they sent forth and authorized, the degraded state of general as well as of theological science, the interested motives for entering into holy orders, the canvassing for benefices, the simony in obtaining them, the especial neglect of the poorer, the bad lives, the carelessness and bitter controversies of the preachers, and the general corruption of manners in all ranks, are again and again the subjects of his deep regrets or of his censure
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - The boy was taken charge of by his mother's family, and his Education conducted under the direction of the Arian Eusebius, bp
Leo i, the Great - There is no trace in his writings that his Education comprised any study of pagan authors, and he was throughout life ignorant of Greek ( Epp
Originality - Christ was a Jew by birth and Education
Pelagianism And Pelagius - About the same time he learnt that two young men of good birth and liberal Education, Timasius and James, had been induced by Pelagius to renounce the world and adopt the monastic life and had adopted many of the peculiar opinions of their master
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - Tertullian received a good Education ( Apol
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - We have the assurance of Sozomen that he enjoyed a philosophical Education ( l