What does Edom mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
אֱד֔וֹם Edom. / Edomite 19
אֱדֽוֹם Edom. / Edomite 15
אֱד֖וֹם Edom. / Edomite 8
אֱדוֹם֙ Edom. / Edomite 7
אֱד֑וֹם Edom. / Edomite 6
אֱדֹ֖ם a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem. 6
אֱד֗וֹם Edom. / Edomite 6
אֱדֹ֛ם a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem. 5
אֱד֜וֹם Edom. / Edomite 5
אֱד֣וֹם Edom. / Edomite 5
אֱ֭דוֹם Edom. / Edomite 3
בֶּאֱדֽוֹם Edom. / Edomite 3
אֱדֹם֙ a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem. 2
؟ אֱדֽוֹם Edom. / Edomite 2
לֶאֱד֗וֹם Edom. / Edomite 2
וּבֶאֱד֜וֹם Edom. / Edomite 2
אֱד֤וֹם Edom. / Edomite 2
אֱדֹ֔ם a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem. 1
וֶאֱד֕וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱדֹ֗ם a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem. 1
מֵֽאֱד֔וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱד֨וֹם ׀ Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱד֧וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱדֹ֜ם a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem. 1
בֶאֱד֔וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱד֞וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱד֥וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
מֵאֱד֗וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
בֶּאֱד֔וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
בֶּאֱד֗וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱד֛וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
לֶאֱד֔וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
לֶאֱדֽוֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
בֶּאֱד֜וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
בֶּאֱד֖וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
בֶּֽאֱדוֹם֙ Edom. / Edomite 1
מֵֽאֱד֤וֹם Edom. / Edomite 1
אֱדֹֽם a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem. 1

Definitions Related to Edom

H123


   1 Edom.
   2 Edomite, Idumean—descendants of Esau.
   3 land of Edom, Idumea—land south and south east of Palestine.
   Additional Information: Edom = “red”.
   

H5654


   1 a Levite and a Gittite who kept the ark after Uzzah was slain by God for touching the ark while it was being taken to Jerusalem.
   2 a Merarite Levite and a singer and gatekeeper.
      2a the family descended from him.
      Additional Information: Obed-Edom = “servant of Edom”.
      

Frequency of Edom (original languages)

Frequency of Edom (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Edom
The name of Esau (q.v.), Genesis 25:30 , "Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage [1] ...Therefore was his name called Edom", i.e., Red.
Idumea (Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Ezekiel 35:15 ). "The field of Edom" (Genesis 32:3 ), "the land of Edom" (Genesis 36:16 ), was mountainous (Obadiah 1:8,9,19,21 ). It was called the land, or "the mountain of Seir," the rough hills on the east side of the Arabah. It extended from the head of the Gulf of Akabah, the Elanitic gulf, to the foot of the Dead Sea (1 Kings 9:26 ), and contained, among other cities, the rock-hewn Sela (q.v.), generally known by the Greek name Petra (2 Kings 14:7 ). It is a wild and rugged region, traversed by fruitful valleys. Its old capital was Bozrah (Isaiah 63:1 ). The early inhabitants of the land were Horites. They were destroyed by the Edomites (Deuteronomy 2:12 ), between whom and the kings of Israel and Judah there was frequent war (2 Kings 8:20 ; 2 Chronicles 28:17 ). At the time of the Exodus they churlishly refused permission to the Israelites to pass through their land (Numbers 20:14-21 ), and ever afterwards maintained an attitude of hostility toward them. They were conquered by David (2 Samuel 8:14 ; Compare 1 Kings 9:26 ), and afterwards by Amaziah (2 Chronicles 25:11,12 ). But they regained again their independence, and in later years, during the decline of the Jewish kingdom (2 Kings 16:6 ; RSV marg., "Edomites"), made war against Israel. They took part with the Chaldeans when Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and afterwards they invaded and held possession of the south of Palestine as far as Hebron. At length, however, Edom fell under the growing Chaldean power (Jeremiah 27:3,6 ).
There are many prophecies concerning Edom (Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Jeremiah 49:7-18 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ; 35:1-15 ; Joel 3:19 ; Amos 1:11 ; Obad.; Malachi 1:3,4 ) which have been remarkably fulfilled. The present desolate condition of that land is a standing testimony to the inspiration of these prophecies. After an existence as a people for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever. In Petra, "where kings kept their court, and where nobles assembled, there no man dwells; it is given by lot to birds, and beasts, and reptiles."
The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in language to the Israelites. They dispossessed the Horites of Mount Seir; though it is clear, from Genesis 36 , that they afterwards intermarried with the conquered population. Edomite tribes settled also in the south of Judah, like the Kenizzites (Genesis 36:11 ), to whom Caleb and Othniel belonged (Joshua 15:17 ). The southern part of Edom was known as Teman.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Obed-Edom
Obed-edom (ô'bed-ç'dom) servant of Edom. 1. A Gittite who lived in David's time, 1 Chronicles 13:13, and at whose house the ark was left, after the dreadful death of Uzzah. 2 Samuel 6:6-10. The blessing which came on the house of Obed-edom for the ark's sake encouraged David to remove it to Jerusalem. 2 Samuel 6:10 to 2 Samuel 12:2. The temple-treasurer in the reign of Amaziah. 2 Chronicles 25:24.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Edom
(a) (lit. red) Another name for Esau, called so because he sold his birthright in exchange for a red stew. (b) The nation which descended from Esau. In the rabbinic texts, Edom is often equated with Rome.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Obed-Edom
Servant of Edom.
"The Gittite" (probably so called because he was a native of Gath-rimmon), a Levite of the family of the Korhites (1 Chronicles 26:1,4-8 ), to whom was specially intrusted the custody of the ark (1 Chronicles 15:18 ). When David was bringing up the ark "from the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah" (probably some hill or eminence near Kirjath-jearim), and had reached Nachon's threshing-floor, he became afraid because of the "breach upon Uzzah," and carried it aside into the house of Obededom (2 Samuel 6:1-12 ). There it remained for six months, and was to him and his house the occasion of great blessing. David then removed it with great rejoicing to Jerusalem, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle he had pitched for it.
A Merarite Levite, a temple porter, who with his eight sons guarded the southern gate (1 Chronicles 15:18,21 ; 26:4,8,15 ).
One who had charge of the temple treasures (2 Chronicles 25:24 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Edom
(ee' duhm) The area southeast and southwest of the Dead Sea, on opposite sides of the Arabah, was known as Edom in biblical times and was the home of the Edomites. The name “Edom” derives from a Semitic root which means “red” or “ruddy” and characterizes the red sandstone terrain of much of the area in question. Moreover, the Edomite area was largely “wilderness”—semi-desert, not very conducive to agriculture—and many of the inhabitants were semi-nomads. Thus the boundaries of Edom would have been rather ill-defined. Yet not all of Edom was wilderness; the vicinity of present-day Tafileh and Buseireh, east of the Arabah, is fairly well watered, cultivable land, and would have boasted numerous villages during Old Testament times. This would have been the center of Edomite population. Buseireh is situated on the ruins of ancient Bozrah, the capital of Edom. Note that the modern name, “Buseireh,” preserves memory of the ancient one, “Bozrah.”
Most of the biblical passages pertaining to Edom refer to this Edomite center east of the Arabah. Isaiah 63:1 , for example, speaks of one that “cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength.” (See also Jeremiah 49:22 ; Amos 1:11-12 ). Yet there are other passages which presuppose that the territory west of the Arabah, south of the Judean hill country and separating Judah from the Gulf of Aqaba, was also part of Edom. See especially the description of Judah's boundary in Numbers 34:3-4 and Joshua 15:1-3 , where Judah's south side is described as extending “even to the border of Edom the wilderness of Zin.” Certain of the tribal groups which ranged this wilderness area south of Judah are listed in the Edomite genealogy of Genesis 36:1 . In New Testament times, even the southern end of the Judean hill country (south of approximately Hebron) was known officially as Idumea (Edom).
The “land of Seir” seems to be synonymous with Edom in some passages (Genesis 32:3 ; Genesis 36:8 ; Judges 5:4 ). Egyptian texts from about 1300 to 1100 B.C. know of Shasu (apparently semi-nomadic tribes) from Seir and Edom. “Teman” also is used in apposition to Edom in at least one biblical passage (Amos 1:12 ), but normally refers to a specific district of Edom and possibly to a town by that name. One of Job's visitors was Eliphaz the Temanite (Job 2:11 ; compare Ezekiel 25:13 ).
The Israelites regarded the Edomites as close relatives, even more closely related to them than the Ammonites or Moabites. Specifically, they identified the Ammonites and Moabites as descendants of Lot, Abraham's nephew, but the Edomites as descendants of Esau, Jacob's brother (Genesis 19:30-36 ; Genesis 36:1 ). Thus Edom occasionally is referred to as a “brother” to Israel (Amos 1:11-12 ). Edomites seem not to have been barred from worship in the Jerusalem Temple with the same strictness as the Ammonites and Moabites (Deuteronomy 23:3-8 ). Yet, as is often the case with personal relations, the closest relative can be a bitter enemy. According to the biblical writers, enmity between Israel and Edom began already with Jacob and Esau (when the former stole the latter's birthright) and was exacerbated at the time of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt (when the Edomites refused the Israelites passage through their land). Be that as it may, much of the conflict also had to do with the fact that Edom was a constant threat to Judah's frontier, and moreover blocked Judean access to the Gulf of Aqaba.
Both Saul and David conducted warfare with the Edomites—probably frontier wars fought in the “wilderness” area southwest of the Dead Sea (1 Samuel 14:47-48 ; 2 Samuel 8:13-14 ). David achieved a decisive victory in the valley of salt, probably just southwest of Beersheba where the ancient name still is preserved in modern Arabic wadi el-Milk. Apparently this secured Davidic control of the Edomite area west of the Arabah as well as access to the Gulf of Aqaba. Thus we read that Solomon built a fleet of ships at Ezion-geber and sent them to distant places for exotic goods. Later Hadad of the royal Edomite line returned from Egypt and became an active adversary to Solomon. This would have involved Edomite attacks on Solomon's caravans which passed through traditionally Edomite territory from Ezion-geber to Jerusalem (1 Kings 11:14-22 ).
Apparently Judah gained the upper hand against Edom again during the reign of Jehoshaphat. Once again we read of a Judean attempt (unsuccessful this time) to undertake a shipping venture from Ezion-geber (1 Kings 22:47-50 ). Edom regained independence from Judah under Joram, who succeeded Jehoshaphat to the throne (2 Kings 8:20-22 ). A later Judean king, Amaziah, is reported to have defeated the Edomites again in the valley of salt and then to have pursued ten thousand survivors to “the top of the rock” from which they were thrown down and dashed to pieces (2 Chronicles 25:11-12 ). Possibly the Hebrew term sela translated “rock” in this passage should be understood as a proper name, “Sela.” If so, then it seems reasonable to locate the incident with the craggy terrain just northwest of the Edomite capital Bosrah, where still today an Arab village bears a corresponding name (as-Sil`). An alternate candidate for biblical Sela favored by some scholars, Umm el-Biyara at Petra, seems too far south from either the valley of salt or the center of Edomite population.
Conflict between Judah and Edom and efforts on the part of Judean kings to exploit the commercial possibilities of the Gulf of Aqaba continued (2 Kings 14:22 ; 2 Kings 16:6 ; 2 Chronicles 26:1-2 ; 2 Chronicles 28:17 ) until eventually the Edomites, like the other peoples and petty kingdoms of Syria-Palestine, fell under the shadow of the major eastern empires—the Assyrians, then the Babylonians, finally the Persians and the Greeks. Some scholars hold that the Edomites aided the Babylonians in their attacks on Jerusalem in 597,586 B.C. and then took advantage of the Judeans in their helpless situation. This would explain, for example, the bitter verbal attacks on Edom in passages such as Jeremiah 49:7-22 and the Book of Obadiah. Yet there is no clear evidence to support this view.
By New Testament times a people of Arabic origin known as the Nabateans had established a commercial empire with its center in the formerly Edomite territory east of the Arabah. Their chief city was Petra, and the whole region southeast of the Dead Sea had come to be known as Nabatea. Only the formerly Edomite territory west of the Arabah was still known as Idumea (Edom). Herod the Great was of Idumean ancestry. See Transjordan ; Esau ; Bozrah ; Nabateans ; Petra ; Sela .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Obed-Edom
OBED-EDOM . 1. A Philistine, a native of Gath, who lived in or near Jerusalem. In his house David deposited the ark after the death of Uzzah, and here it remained three months, bringing a blessing by its presence ( 2 Samuel 6:10 f., 1 Chronicles 13:14 ). It is in all probability the same O. that appears as 2. The eponym of a family of door-keepers in the Temple ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 ; 1 Chronicles 15:24 ; 1 Chronicles 16:38 ; 1Ch 26:4 ; 1 Chronicles 26:8 ; 1 Chronicles 26:15 , 2 Chronicles 25:24 ). 3. The eponym of a post-exilic family of singers ( 1 Chronicles 15:21 ; 1 Chronicles 16:5 ).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Edom
Idumea. ("red".) Esau's surname, the firstborn of Isaac; Jacob's twin brother, who sold his birthright for the red pottage (of yellow brown lentils, dashim ; the cooking of which is still seen in Egyptian representations), from whence came his surname (Genesis 25:29-34). The name was appropriate to Edom's possession, "mount Seir," the mountainous territory having a reddish hue. Seir means rugged, applicable alike to Seir the hirsute (like Esau) progenitor of the Horites, Edom's predecessors, and to their rugged forest covered territory (Genesis 14:6; Genesis 32:3; Genesis 36:1-8; Genesis 36:20-22). It extended from the Dead Sea S. to the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea. Esau, with his 400 armed men (Genesis 32:6), commenced driving out the Horites, and permanently settled in mount Seir after his father's death, yielding Canaan to Jacob, in accordance with his father's blessing.
It is objected to Genesis 36:31 that the language supposes kings had already reigned over Israel. But in Genesis 35:11 "God Almighty" ('Εel Shaday ) had promised Jacob "kings shall come out of thy loins." Moses, too, foretold of the Israelites having a king over them. Naturally then he notices that eight kings had reigned of Esau's family up to his own time, "before the reigning of any king to the children of Israel." The prosperity of the worldly is often immediate and brilliant, but it is transitory; that of God's people is slower in coming, that they may believingly and patiently wait for it, but when it does come it will abide for ever. Of the kingdom of the Messiah, Israel's king, there shall be no end (Luke 1:33). The dukes did not precede the line of Edomite kings, and afterward succeed again (Genesis 36); but a single king (emir) reigned in all Edom contemporaneous with several dukes (skeikhs) or princes of local tribes. The king is mentioned (Judges 11:17), and the dukes a short while before (Exodus 15:15).
Moreover, the monarchy was not hereditary, but the kings apparently were elected by the dukes. The Edomites became "dwellers in the clefts of the rocks" (Jeremiah 49:16; compare 2 Chronicles 25:11-12), like their Horite predecessors who were troglodytes or "dwellers in caves" (Obadiah 1:3-4) Petra (Sela, Hebrew, rock), their chief city, was cut in the rocks. S. Idumea abounds in cave dwellings. Red baldheaded sandstone rocks are intersected by deep seams rather than valleys. In the heart of these, itself invisible, lies Petra (Stanley), Edom' s stronghold in Amaziah's days (2 Kings 14:7). Bozrah, now Buseireh, was its ancient capital, near the N. border. (See BOZRAH.) Elath and Ezion Geber were Edom's seaports; afterward taken by David and made by Solomon his ports for equipping his merchant fleet (2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 9:26).
Edom (100 miles long, 20 broad) stretched Edom of the Arabah valley, southward as far as Elath. Eastward of Elath lay the desert. Israel, when refused a passage through Moab N. of Edom, as also through Edom, went from Kadesh by the S. extremity of Edom past. Elath into the desert E. of Edom (Deuteronomy 2:8; Deuteronomy 2:13-14; Deuteronomy 2:18; Judges 11:17-18; 2 Kings 3:6-9). The Brook Zered (wady el Ahsy) was the boundary between Moab (Kerak) and Edom (now Jebal, Hebrew Gebal, mountainous, the N. district, along with Esh. Sherah, the S. district), Edom subsequently took also the territory once occupied by Amalek, S. of Palestine, the desert of Et Tih ("wandering") (Numbers 13:29; 1 Samuel 15:1-7; 1 Samuel 27:8). Low calcareous hills are on the W. base of the mountain range of igneous porphyry rock, surmounted by red sandstone.
On the E. is a limestone ridge, descending with an easy incline to the Arabian desert. The promised (Genesis 27:40) "fatness of the earth" is in the glens and terraces of Edom (Genesis 27:39), while from their rocky aeries they sallied forth "living by the sword." When navigation was difficult merchants' caravans took Edom as their route from the Persian gulf to Egypt, which became a source of wealth to Edom. At Kadesh Edom came out against Israel, on the latter marching eastward across the Arabah to reach the Jordan River through Edom, and offering to pay for provisions and water; for the rocky country there enabled them to oppose Israel. The wady Ghuweir (where probably was "the king's highway") would be the defile by which Israel tried to pass through Edom being the only practicable defile for an army, with pasture and springs (Numbers 20:14-21).
But Edom dared not resist Israel's passage along their eastern border, which is more defenseless than their frontier toward the Arabah. Edom then at last made a virtue of necessity and let Israel purchase provisions (Deuteronomy 2:2-8; Deuteronomy 2:28-29). In both accounts Israel offered to pay for provisions, and did so at last on Edom's eastern side, whereas they and Moab ought to have "met (Israel as their brother) with bread and water" (Deuteronomy 23:4). Edom was among the enemies on the frontier from whom Saul at the beginning of his reign delivered Israel (1 Samuel 14:47). Hadad the Edomite, who escaped from David's slaughter to Egypt, returned thence from Pharaoh Shishak to excite Edom to revolt against Solomon (1 Kings 11:14). Jehoshaphat of Judah reduced the Edomites 897 B.C., dethroning their king for a deputy from Jerusalem, and trying by a fleet at Ezion Geber to regain the trade; but his vessels were broken by the Edomites or the Egyptians.
Amaziah of Judah killed many thousands in the Valley of Salt near the Dead Sea, and took Selah, afterward Joktheel, the first mention of this extraordinary city (2 Kings 14:7), and adopted their gods of mount Seir. Uzziah built Elath on the opposite side of the bay from Ezion Geber, the Roman (Etana, now Akabah; but in Ahaz' reign the Edomites (as 2 Kings 16:6 should be read for "Syrians") recovered it (2 Kings 14:22). When Israel and Judah declined Edom "broke off Israel's yoke," as Isaac had foretold, in Jehoram's reign (2 Kings 8:20-22), re-conquered their lost cities and invaded southern Judah (2 Chronicles 28:17). Edom also joined the Chaldaeans against the Jews (Psalms 137:7). Hence, the denunciations against Edom in Obadiah 1:1, etc.; Jeremiah 49:7, etc.; Ezekiel 25:12, etc.; Ezekiel 35:3, etc. At the Babylonian captivity they seized on the Amalekite territory, and even Hebron in southern Judaea, so that Idumaea came to mean the region between the Arabah and the Mediterranean.
Meanwhile mount Stir or Edom proper, was occupied by the Nabathaeans (descended from Nebaioth, Ishmael's oldest son and Esau's brother in law), a powerful people of S. Arabia; they founded the kingdom of Arabia Petraea in ancient Edom, and their monarchs took the name Aretas. Aretas, the father-in-law of Herod Antipas (Matthew 14), took Damascus at the time of Paul's conversion (Acts 9:25; 2 Corinthians 11:32). Rome subdued this kingdom of Arabia A.D. 105. Idumea S. of Palestine was joined to Judaea under Judas Maccabaeus and John Hyrcanus. Antipater, one of the Jewish prefects, an Idumean by birth, by the Roman senate's decree (37 B.C.) became procurator of all Judaea. His son was Herod the Great. Just before the siege under Titus 20,000 Idumeans were admitted into Jerusalem and filled it bloodshed and rapine. Muslim misrule finally destroyed Edom's prosperity in fulfillment of prophecy (Ezekiel 35:3-14).
Psalm 44 was written by the sons of Korah in the midst of Edom's invasion of Israel, taking advantage of David's absence at the Euphrates. David was striving with Aram of the two rivers (Naharaim) and Aram-Zobah when Joab returned and smote of Edom in the Valley of Salt (the scene also of Amaziah's victory over Edom, the plain S. of the Dead Sea, where the Ghor or the Jordan Valley ends; the mount of rock salt, Khasm Usdum, is in its N.W. grainer) 12,000 men (2 Samuel 8:13; 2 Samuel 10:6; 2 Samuel 10:8; 2 Samuel 10:10-19; 1 Chronicles 18:12; 1 Kings 11:15-16). Israel's slain lay unburied until Joab returned from smiting Edom along with Abishai. The scattering of Israel among the pagan (Psalms 44:11) was but partial, enough to gratify Edom's desire to falsify the prophecy, "the elder shall serve the younger." Edom's spite is marked (Joel 3:19; Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9; Amos 1:11).
Israel pleads faithfulness to the covenant, which suits David's time; also they had no "armies" in Babylon (Psalms 44:9), which precludes the time of the captivity there. David wrote Psalm 60 when victory was in part gained, and he was sending forth the expedition against Edom. Translated in the title, "when David had beaten down Aram of the two floods," "when Joab returned," which he did not do all he had fully conquered the Syrians; Psalms 60:4, "Thou hast given a banner," etc., alludes to this victory and to that over Edom (in 2 Samuel 8:13 "Edom" should be read for "the Syrians," Aram) in the Valley of Salt, the token that the expedition (Psalms 60:9-12) for occupying Edom in revenge for invading Israel would succeed. "Over (rather, to) Edom I will cast out my shoe," as one about to wash his feet casts his shoe to his slave (Matthew 3:11; John 13:8; Acts 13:25); and the casting of the shoe marked transference of possession (Ruth 4:7; Joshua 10:24).
David as king, Joab as commander in chief and Abishai under Joab, smote Edom. Abishai first killed 6,000, Joab afterward 12,000 (as the title of Psalm 60 states); so in all 18,000 (in 2 Samuel 8:13). Edom was also linked with Ammon and Moab in the desperate effort made to root out Israel from his divinely given inheritance (their main guilt, 2 Chronicles 20:11; Psalms 83:12) under Jehoshaphat, as recorded in 2 Chronicles 20. They joined craft with force, marching S. round the Dead Sea instead of from the E. No news reached Jehoshaphat until the vast multitude was in his territory at Engedi; "they have taken crafty counsel," etc. Psalms 83:3-5; Psalms 83:12 probably was written by Jahaziel, of the sons of Asaph, upon whom'" came the Spirit of the Lord in the midst of the congregation."
Psalm 47 (compare Psalms 47:4-5; Psalms 47:8-9) was sung on the battle field of Berachah ("blessing") after the victory. Psalm 48 was sung "in the midst of God's temple" (Psalms 48:9); Psalms 48:7 alludes to Jehoshaphat's chastisement in the breaking of his Tarshish ships for his ungodly alliance. This danger from within and the foreign one alike God's grace averted. Psalm 83 is the earliest of the series, for it anticipates victory and is a thanksgiving beforehand, which was the very ground of the victory which actually followed (2 Chronicles 20:21-22). See "Studies in the CL. Psalms," by Fausset. N. Edom is now called El Jebal (Gebal), with the villages Tufileh, Buserah, and Shobek. Its S. part is Esh Sherah, inhabited by fellahin; of these the Ammarin are so degraded as not to have the Bedouin virtue of keeping their word. The Liyathoneh are a branch of the Kheibari Jews near wady Musa.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Obed-Edom
(oh' behd-ee' duhm) A Personal name meaning, “serving Edom .”
1. A Philistine from Gath who apparently was loyal to David and Israel. At Obed-edom's house David left the ark of the covenant following the death of Uzzah at the hand of God (2 Samuel 6:6-11 ). Obed-edom was unusually blessed of God (probably a reference to prosperity) during the three months the ark was at his house. 2. A Levite who served as both gatekeeper and musician in the tabernacle in Jerusalem during David's reign (1Chronicles 15:18,1 Chronicles 15:24 ; 1 Chronicles 16:5 ). His duties related especially to the ark of the covenant. A guild of Levites may have adopted the name “Obed-edom” as their title as keepers of the ark.
3. A member of the Korhites (1Chronicles 26:1,1 Chronicles 26:4-8 ) who kept the south of the Temple (1 Chronicles 26:15 ).
4. A keeper of the sacred vessels of the Temple. Joash of Israel took him with the sacred vessels to Samaria following his capture of Jerusalem and of Amaziah king of Judah (2 Chronicles 25:23-24 ).
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Obed-Edom
Servant of Edom
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Obed Edom
1. 2 Samuel 6:11. (On his title "the Gittite".) Gath-rimmon was a city of the Levite Kohathites in Dan (Joshua 21:24). He was a Kohathite and distinguished by his title "Gittite" from Obed Edom, son of Jeduthun, a Merarite (1 Chronicles 16:38). (See GITTITE.) Lived near Perez Uzzah, on the way from Kirjath Jearim to Jerusalem. After Uzzah's stroke David in fear took the ark aside to the house of Obed Edom. Instead of the Levites bearing the ark (as was commanded, Numbers 7:9), David had put it in a cart, in the Philistine fashion (1 Samuel 6:8). His turning aside from the direct way to go to Obed Edom's house is accounted for by his sudden fear owing to the punishment of Uzzah's presumption; he goes to a Kohathite Levite, one of the family especially appointed to bear the ark on their shoulders, and deposits the ark with him, conscious that he himself might have been punished for irregularity.
Accordingly, in 1 Chronicles 15 we find the ark was no longer taken in a cart, but borne on the Levites' shoulders, with Obed Edom "a doorkeeper for the ark," and it is emphatically said it was "as Moses commanded, according to the word of Jehovah" (1 Chronicles 15:15; 1 Chronicles 15:18; 1 Chronicles 15:24). The minute propriety of these details establishes the truthfulness of the narrative of the divine visitation on Uzzah. The Lord blessed Obed Edom and all his household in consequence during its three months' stay with him; so David brought it up front Obed Edom's house with joy. While the ark brought a plague every one was glad to be rid of it; but when it brought a blessing to Obed Edom, they wished for it. Many will own a blessing ark; he is an Obed Edom indeed that will own a persecuted, tossed, banished ark (Trapp). "God blessed him" with eight sons who were temple porters (1 Chronicles 26:1-5; 1 Chronicles 26:8).
Obed Edom and his sons guarded the S. temple gate and the house Αsuppim , i.e. "of gatherings", a store of the temple goods near the S. gate in the outer court (1 Chronicles 26:15). Obed Edom was doorkeeper for the ark (1 Chronicles 15:24). Those whom the Lord hath blessed, and who have received God's ark into their home and heart, are best fitted to serve in the sanctuary and to open the kingdom of heaven ministerially. The site of his house is still pointed out, a very green plateau, Κuryet es saideh "the abode of the blessed," on the way from Kirjath Jearim to Jerusalem, a little beyond Khirbet el Uz (Perez Uzzah). In 1 Chronicles 16:38 Obed Edom the singer appears distinct from Obed Edom the "porter" or gatekeeper (1 Chronicles 16:4-5; 1 Chronicles 16:38). Obed Edom and his colleagues could not possibly at the same time as porters precede, and as singers come after, the priests and the ark.
2. (See OBED EDOM (1).) A Merarite Levite of the second degree (1 Chronicles 16:38).
3. A Levite in Amaziah's time, having charge of the vessels of God's house, taken captive with the king by Joash king of Israel at Bethshemesh battle (2 Chronicles 25:23-24). Probably sprung from "Obed Edom the Gittite." The blessed of the Lord shall dwell in the Lord's house forever.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Edom
a province of Arabia, which derives its name from Edom, or Esau, who there settled in the mountains of Seir, in the land of the Horites, south-east of the Dead Sea. His descendants afterward extended themselves throughout Arabia Petrea, and south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean. During the Babylonish captivity, and when Judea was almost deserted, they seized the south of Judah, and advanced to Hebron. Hence that tract of Judea, which they inhabited, retained the name of Idumea in the time of our Saviour, Mark 3:8 . Under Moses and Joshua, and even under the kings of Judah, the Idumeans were confined to the east and south of the Dead Sea, in the land of Seir; but afterward they extended their territories more to the south of Judah. The capital of east Edom was Bozrah; and that of south Edom, Petra, or Jectael. The Edomites, or Idumeans, the posterity of Esau, had kings long before the Jews. They were first governed by dukes or princes, and afterward by kings, Genesis 36:31 . They continued independent till the time of David, who subdued them, in completion of Isaac's prophecy, that Jacob should rule Esau, Genesis 27:29-30 . The Idumeans bore this subjection with great impatience; and at the end of Solomon's reign, Hadad, the Edomite, who had been carried into Egypt during his childhood, returned into his own country, where he procured himself to be acknowledged king, 1 Kings 11:22 . It is probable, however, that he reigned only in east Edom; for Edom south of Judea continued subject to the kings of Judah, till the reign of Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, against whom it rebelled, 2 Chronicles 21:8 . Jehoram attacked Edom, but did not subdue it. Amaziah king of Judah, took Petra, killed a thousand men, and compelled ten thousand more to leap from the rock, upon which stood the city of Petra, 2 Chronicles 25:11-12 . But these conquests were not permanent. Uzziah took Elath on the Red Sea, 2 Kings 14:22 ; but Rezin, king of Syria, retook it. Some think that Esar-haddon, king of Syria, ravaged this country, Isaiah 21:11-17 ; Isaiah 34:6 . Holofernes subdued it, as well as other nations around Judea, Judith 3:14. When Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem, the Idumeans joined him, and encouraged him to rase the very foundations of that city. This cruelty did not long continue unpunished. Five years after the taking of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar humbled all the states around Judea, and in particular Idumea. John Hyrcanus entirely conquered the Idumeans, whom he obliged to receive circumcision and the law. They continued subject to the later kings of Judea till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. They even came to assist that city when besieged, and entered it in order to defend it. However, they did not continue there till it was taken, but returned into Idumea loaded with booty. The prophecies respecting Edom are numerous and striking; and the present state of the country as described by modern travellers has given so remarkable an attestation to the accuracy of their fulfilment, that a few extracts from Mr. Keith's work, in which this is pointed out, may be fitly introduced:—
2. There are numerous prophecies respecting Idumea, that bear a literal interpretation, however hyperbolical they may appear. "My sword shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment. From generation to generation it shall lie waste, none shall pass through it for ever and ever. But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out upon it the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness. They shall call the nobles thereof to the kingdom; but none shall be there, and all her princes shall be nothing. And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof; and it shall be a habitation of dragons, and a court for owls. Seek ye out of the book of the Lord and read; no one of these shall fail, none shall want her mate; for my mouth it hath commanded, and his Spirit it hath gathered them. And he hath cast the lot for them, and his hand hath divided it unto them by line; they shall possess it for ever, from generation to generation shall they dwell therein,"
Isaiah 34:5 ; Isaiah 34:10-17 . "I have sworn by myself, saith the Lord, that Bozrah" (the strong or fortified city) "shall become a desolation, a reproach, a waste, and a curse; and all the cities thereof shall be perpetual wastes. Lo, I will make thee small among the Heathen, and despised among men. Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the Lord. Also Edom shall be a desolation; every one that goeth by shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all the plagues thereof. As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the neighbour cities thereof, saith the Lord, no man shall abide there, neither shall a son of man dwell in it,"
Jeremiah 49:13-18 . "Thus saith the Lord God, I will stretch out mine hand upon Edom, and will cut off man and beast from it, and I will make it desolate from Teman." "I laid the mountains of Esau and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness. Whereas Edom saith, We are impoverished, but we will return and build the desolate places; thus saith the Lord of hosts, They shall build, but I will throw down; and they shall call them, The border of wickedness," Malachi 1:3-4 .
Is there any country once inhabited and opulent, so utterly desolate? There is, and that land is Idumea. The territory of the descendants of Esau affords as miraculous a demonstration of the inspiration of the Scriptures as the fate of the children of Israel. A single extract from the Travels of Volney will be found to be equally illustrative of the prophecy and of the fact: "This country has not been visited by any traveller, but it well merits such an attention; for, from the report of the Arabs of Bakir, and the inhabitants of Gaza, who frequently go to Maan and Karak; on the road of the pilgrims, there are, to the south-east of the lake Asphaltites, (Dead Sea,) within three days' journey, upward of thirty ruined towns absolutely deserted. Several of them have large edifices, with columns that may have belonged to the ancient temples, or at least to Greek churches. The Arabs sometimes make use of them to fold their cattle in; but in general avoid them on account of the enormous scorpions with which they swarm. We cannot be surprised at these traces of ancient population, when we recollect that this was the country of the Nabatheans, the most powerful of the Arabs, and of the Idumeans, who, at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, were almost as numerous as the Jews, as appears from Josephus, who informs us, that on the first rumour of the march of Titus against Jerusalem, thirty thousand Idumeans instantly assembled, and threw themselves into that city for its defence. It appears that, beside the advantages of being under a tolerably good government, these districts enjoyed a considerable share of the commerce of Arabia and India, which increased their industry and population. We know that as far back as the time of Solomon, the cities of Astioum Gaber (Ezion Geber) and Ailah (Eloth) were highly frequented marts. These towns were situated on the adjacent gulf of the Red Sea, where we still find the latter yet retaining its name, and perhaps the former in that of El Akaba, or ‘the end of the sea.' These two places are in the hands of the Bedouins, who, being destitute of a navy and commerce, do not inhabit them. But the pilgrims report that there is at El Akaba a wretched fort. The Idumeans, from whom the Jews only took their ports at intervals, must have found in them a great source of wealth and population. It even appears that the Idumeans rivalled the Tyrians, who also possessed a town, the name of which is unknown, on the coast of Hedjaz, in the desert of Tih, and the city of Faran, and, without doubt, El-Tor, which served it by way of port. From this place the caravans might reach Palestine and Judea, (through Idumea,) in eight or ten days. This route, which is longer than that from Suez to Cairo, is infinitely shorter than that from Aleppo to Bassorah." Evidence, which must have been undesigned, which cannot be suspected of partiality, and which no illustration can strengthen, and no ingenuity pervert, is thus borne to the truth of the most wonderful prophecies. That the Idumeans were a populous and powerful nation long posterior to the delivery of the prophecies; that they possessed a tolerably good government, even in the estimation of Volney; that Idumea contained many cities; and these cities are now absolutely deserted; and that their ruins swarm with enormous scorpions; that it was a commercial nation, and possessed highly frequented marts; that it forms a shorter route than the ordinary one to India; and yet that it had not been visited by any traveller; are facts all recorded, and proved by this able but unconscious commentator.
3. A greater contrast cannot be imagined than the ancient and present state of Idumea. It was a kingdom previous to Israel, having been governed first by dukes or princes, afterward by eight successive kings, and again by dukes, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel, Genesis 36:31 , &c. Its fertility and early cultivation are implied not only in the blessings of Esau, whose dwelling was to be the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above; but also in the condition proposed by Moses to the Edomites, when he solicited a passage for the Israelites through their borders, that "they would not pass through the fields nor through the vine-yards;" and also in the great wealth, especially in the multitudes of flocks and herds, recorded as possessed by an individual inhabitant of that country, at a period, in all probability even more remote, Genesis 27:39 ; Numbers 20:17 ; Job 42:12 . The Idumeans were, without doubt, both an opulent and a powerful people. They often contended with the Israelites, and entered into a league with their other enemies against them. In the reign of David they were indeed subdued and greatly oppressed, and many of them even dispersed throughout the neighbouring countries, particularly Phenicia and Egypt. But during the decline of the kingdom of Judah, and for many years previous to its extinction, they encroached upon the territories of the Jews, and extended their dominion over the south-western part of Judea.
4. There is a prediction which, being peculiarly remarkable as applicable to Idumea, and bearing reference to a circumstance explanatory of the difficulty of access to any knowledge respecting it, is entitled, in the first instance, to notice: "None shall pass through it for ever and ever. I will cut off from Mount Seir him that passeth out, and him that returneth,"
Isaiah 34:10 ; Ezekiel 35:7 . The ancient greatness of Idumea must, in no small degree, have resulted from its commerce. Bordering with Arabia on the east, and Egypt on the southwest, and forming from north to south the most direct and most commodious channel of communication between Jerusalem and her dependencies on the Red Sea, as well as between Syria and India, through the continuous valleys of El Ghor, and El Araba, which terminated on the one extremity at the borders of Judea, and on the other at Elath and Ezion Geber on the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, Idumea may be said to have formed the emporium of the commerce of the east. A Roman road passed directly through Idumea, from Jerusalem to Akaba, and another from Akaba to Moab; and when these roads were made, at a time long posterior to the date of the predictions, the conception could not have been formed, or held credible by man, that the period would ever arrive when none would pass through it. Above seven hundred years after the date of the prophecy, Strabo relates that many Romans and other foreigners were found at Petra by his friend Athenodorus, the philosopher, who visited it. The prediction is yet more surprising when viewed in conjunction with another, which implies that travellers would "pass by" Idumea: "Every one that goeth by shall be astonished." And the Hadj routes (routes of the pilgrims) from Damascus and from Cairo to Mecca, the one on the east and the other towards the south of Idumea, along the whole of its extent, go by it, or touch partially on its borders, without passing through it. The truth of the prophecy, though hemmed in thus by apparent impossibilities and contradictions, and with extreme probability of its fallacy in every view that could have been visible to man, may yet be tried.
5. "Edom shall be a desolation. From generation to generation it shall lie waste," &c. Judea, Ammon, and Moab, exhibit so abundantly the remains and the means of an exuberant fertility, that the wonder arises in the reflecting mind, how the barbarity of man could have so effectually counteracted for so many generations the prodigality of nature. But such is Edom's desolation, that the first sentiment of astonishment on the contemplation of it is, how a wide extended region, now diversified by the strongest features of desert wildness, could ever have been adorned with cities, or tenanted for ages by a powerful and opulent people. Its present aspect would belie its ancient history, were not that history corroborated by "the many vestiges of former cultivation," by the remains of walls and paved roads, and by the ruins of cities still existing in this ruined country. The total cessation of its commerce; the artificial irrigation of its valleys wholly neglected; the destruction of all the cities, and the continued spoliation of the country by the Arabs, while aught remained that they could destroy; the permanent exposure, for ages, of the soil unsheltered by its ancient groves, and unprotected by any covering from the scorching rays of the sun; the unobstructed encroachments of the desert, and of the drifted sands from the borders of the Red Sea; the consequent absorption of the water of the springs and streamlets during summer,—are causes which have all combined their baneful operation in rendering Edom "most desolate, the desolation of desolations." Volney's account is sufficiently descriptive of the desolation which now reigns over Idumea; and the information which Seetzen derived at Jerusalem respecting it is of similar import. He was told, that at the distance of two days' journey and a half from Hebron, he would find considerable ruins of the ancient city of Abde, and that for all the rest of the journey he would see no place of habitation; he would meet only with a few tribes of wandering Arabs. From the borders of Edom, Captains Irby and Mangles beheld a boundless extent of desert view, which they had hardly ever seen equalled for singularity and grandeur. And the following extract, descriptive of what Burckhardt actually witnessed in the different parts of Edom, cannot be more graphically abbreviated than in the words of the prophet. Of its eastern boundary, and of the adjoining part of Arabia Petrea, strictly so called, Burckhardt writes: "It might, with truth, be called Petrea, not only on account of its rocky mountains, but also of the elevated plain already described, which is so much covered with stones, especially flints, that it may with great propriety be called a stony desert, although susceptible of culture; in many places it is overgrown with wild herbs, and must once have been thickly inhabited; for the traces of many towns and villages are met with on both sides of the Hadj road between Maan and Akaba, as well as between Maan and the plains of the Hauran, in which direction are also many springs. At present all this country is a desert, and Maan (Teman) is the only inhabited place in it: ‘I will stretch out my hand against thee, O Mount Seir, and will make thee most desolate. I will stretch out my hand upon Edom, and will make it desolate from Teman.'" In the interior of Idumea, where the ruins of some of its ancient cities are still visible, and in the extensive valley which reaches from the Red to the Dead Sea, the appearance of which must now be totally and sadly changed from what it was, "the whole plain presented to the view an expanse of shifting sands, whose surface was broken by innumerable undulations and low hills. The sand appears to have been brought from the shores of the Red Sea, by the southern winds; and the Arabs told me that the valleys continue to present the same appearance beyond the latitude of Wady Mousa. In some parts of the valley the sand is very deep, and there is not the slightest appearance of a road, or of any work of human art. A few trees grow among the sand hills, but the depth of sand precludes all vegetation of herbage." "If grape gatherers come to thee, would not they leave some gleaning grapes? If thieves by night, they will destroy till they have enough; but I have made Esau bare. Edom shall be a desolate wilderness." "On ascending the western plain," continues Mr. Burckhardt, "on a higher level than that of Arabia, we had before us an immense expanse of dreary country, entirely covered with black flints, with here and there some hilly chain rising from the plain." "I will stretch out upon Idumea the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness." Such is the present desolate aspect of one of the most fertile countries of ancient times! So visibly even now does the withering curse of an offended God rest upon it!
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Obed-Edom
son of Jeduthun, a Levite, 1 Chronicles 16:38 , and the father of Shemaiah and others, 1 Chronicles 16:5 . We learn that the Lord blessed this man exceedingly, on account of the ark resting under his roof, 2 Samuel 6:10-11 . David having removed the ark to the place he had previously prepared for its reception, Obed-Edom and his sons were appointed to be keepers of the doors of the temple, 1 Chronicles 15:18 ; 1 Chronicles 15:21 . Obed-Edom is called the Gittite, probably because he was of Gathrimmon, a city of the Levites beyond Jordan, Joshua 21:24-25 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Edom
Edom (ç'dom), red. Called also Idumæa and Mount Seir. Genesis 32:3; Genesis 36:8; Genesis 19:21. The country extended from the Dead Sea southward to the Gulf of Akabah, and from the valley of the Arabah eastward to the desert of Arabia, being about 125 miles long and 30 miles wide. It was given to Esau, and called the field or land of Edom. Genesis 32:3; Genesis 36:16; Numbers 33:37. The country is well watered, rich in pasturage, abounding with trees and flowers, reminding us of Isaac's prophecy: "Thy dwellings shall be the fatness of the earth." Genesis 27:39. Its principal towns were Bozrah, Elath, Maon, Ezion-geber, Selah or Petra. Its destruction was proclaimed. Isaiah 34:5-8; Isaiah 63:1-4; Jeremiah 49:17; Ezekiel 25:12-14; Amos 1:10-11. See Esau and Idumæa.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Obed-Edom
A Levite, whose special prosperity while keeper of the ark after the dreadful death of Uzziah encouraged David to carry it up to Jerusalem. Obed-edom and his sons were made doorkeepers of the tabernacle at Jerusalem, 2 Samuel 6:10-12 ; 1 Chronicles 15:18-24 ; 16:38 ; 26:4 - 8,15 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Edom, Edomites
EDOM, EDOMITES . The Edomites were a tribe or group of tribes residing in early Biblical times in Mount Seir ( Genesis 32:3 , Judges 5:4 ), but covering territory on both sides of it. At times their territory seems to have included the region to the Red Sea and Sinai ( 1 Kings 9:26 , Judges 5:4 ). Edom or Esau was their reputed ancestor. The Israelites were conscious that the Edomites were their near kinsmen, hence the tradition that Esau and Jacob were twin brothers ( Genesis 25:24 ). That the Edomites were an older nation they showed by making Esau the firstborn twin. The tradition that Jacob tricked Esau out of his birthright ( Genesis 27:1-46 ), and that enmity arose between the brothers, is an actual reflexion of the hostile relations of the Edomites and Israelites for which the Israelites were to a considerable degree responsible.
Before the conquest of Canaan, Edom is said to have refused to let Israel pass through his territory (Numbers 20:18 ; Numbers 20:21 ). Probably during the period of the Judges, Edomites invaded southern Judah (cf. Paton, Syria and Palestine , 161 ff.). Possibly Edomites settled here and were incorporated in Judah, for Kenaz is said in Genesis 36:11 to be a son of Esau, while in Judges 3:9 he is counted a Judahite.
During the monarchy Saul is said to have fought the Edomites (1 Samuel 14:47 ); David conquered Edom and put garrisons in the country ( 2 Samuel 8:13-14 ); Edom regained its independence under Solomon ( 1 Kings 11:14-22 ); Jehoshaphat a century later reconquered Edom (cf. 1 Kings 22:47-48 ), and Edomites helped him in his war with Moab ( 2 Kings 3:1-27 ); in the reign of Joram, his successor, the Edomites regained their independence after a bloody revolution ( 2 Kings 8:20-21 ); at the beginning of the next century Amaziah reconquered them for a short time, capturing Sela, and slaughtering a large number of them ( 2 Kings 14:7 ). A little later Amos ( Amos 1:11 ff.) accuses Edom of pursuing his brother with the sword. During the next century Edom was independent of Israel, but paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser III., Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal, kings of Assyria (cf. KIB [1] ii. 21, 91, 149, 239).
In connexion with the wars of Nebuchadnezzar, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem in 586, many Jews migrated to Edom; but the Edomites rejoiced in the overthrow of the Jews. This deepened the old-time enmity, and called forth bitter denunciations and predictions of vengeance from Israel’s prophets (cf. Ezekiel 25:12-14 , Obadiah 1:1 ff., Isaiah 63:1-7 ). A little later great suffering was inflicted on the Edomites by the Nabatæans , who overran the country and crowded the Edomites up into southern Judah. This invasion of Nabatæans is probably referred to in Malachi 1:4 ff., for by 312 they were in this region, and Antigonus and Demetrius came in, contact with them (cf. Diodorus Siculus, x. 95, 96, 100).
The Edomites, because of this, occupied the territory of Judah as far as the town of Beth-zur, to the north of Hebron, which became the Idumæa (wh. see) of the NT period. Here Judas Maccabæus fought with the Edomites ( 1Ma 5:3 ; 1Ma 5:65 ), and John Hyrcanus shortly before the end of the 2nd cent. b.c. conquered them, and compelled them to be circumcised and to accept the Jewish religion (cf. Jos. [2] Ant . XIII. ix. 1, XIV. i. 3, and XV. vii. 9). This was the end of the Edomites as a nation, but they obtained a kind of revenge on the Jews by furnishing the Herodian dynasty to them.
George A. Barton.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Edom
Red
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Edom
Red, a name of Esau, Isaac's eldest son, appropriate on account of his natural complexion, but given, it would seem, from the current name of food for which he sold his birthright-"that same red," Genesis 25:25,30 . See ESAU and IDUMEA .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Edom
Name given to Esau because he craved the red pottage of Jacob, Edom signifying red, Genesis 25:30 ; Genesis 36:1,8,19 ; but the name is more usually given to his tribe and the territory they possessed. This extended from the land of Moab, southward to the Gulf of Akaba, in length about 100 miles, from about 29 30' to 31 N, and about 35 30' E. It is a remarkably mountainous district with lofty peaks and deep glens, but also with very productive plains. It had been called mount Seir. Genesis 36:8 . Some of the rocks were so precipitous that Amaziah killed 10,000 of the children of Seir (Edomites) by casting them down from the rocks, whereby they were dashed to pieces. 2 Chronicles 25:11 . Bozrah and Sela, or Selah, were its chief cities.
When Israel was approaching the land of Palestine, Moses appealed to Edom to let them pass through their country, but they refused. The Israelites therefore returned south by way of the Red Sea (Gulf of Akaba) in order to compass the land of Edom, and then kept to the east of Edom until they reached the land of Moab. Numbers 21:4 .
Edom is constantly referred to in the prophets as having had relations with Israel, and is judged because of its perpetual hatred against them. Ezekiel 35:5 . God at one time stirred up the king of Edom to punish Israel (1 Kings 11:14 ), and then again strengthened Israel to punish Edom. 2 Chronicles 25:10,11 . Some of the prophecies however extend to the future. Edomtook pleasure in the punishment of Judah when judgement was falling upon it. Of Jerusalem they said, "Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof," Psalm 137:7 , evincing, as also do other passages, the hatred and jealousy of the descendants of Esau.
Many prophecies speak of its punishment. When the king of the north in a future day invades Palestine and overthrows countries as far as Egypt, "Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon" will escape, being reserved to be subdued by Israel. Daniel 11:41 ; Isaiah 11:13,14 ; Obadiah 18,19 . It is from 'Edom' that the Lord Jesus is represented as coming 'with dyed garments' because of His having executed judgements. Isaiah 63:1 . Its destruction will be complete. Obadiah 10 .
During the captivity the Edomites extended their dominion in the West and possessed Hebron; and some 300 years B.C. the Nabatheans took Petra (which is supposed to be the same as Sela, q.v. ), and established themselves in the district. They settled down and engaged in commerce, and formed the kingdom called by Roman writers Arabia Petraea. Under the Maccabees the Edomites in the west were conquered, and Hebron was recovered. After possession by the Romans, under the withering influence of Islamic rule the district came to ruin.
The Greek form of Edom is IDUMEA,which occurs only in Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Ezekiel 35:15 ; Ezekiel 36:5 ; Mark 3:8 .
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Obed-Edom
We have the honourable testimony which God the Holy Ghost gave of this man, 2 Samuel 6:9-12; and again recorded, 1 Chronicles 13:13-14. And his numerous family, 1 Chronicles 26:4-5. His name is compounded of Obed, slave—and Edom, or the Idumean. But as Obed-jah, the prophet, was called the slave or labourer of the Lord, so Obed-edom, the slave of the Adam or Edom, the earth or earthy, was eminently the Lord's chosen for that peculiar service of receiving the ark, when David himself trembled on the occasion.
But I hope the reader, in beholding the blessing of the Lord upon Obed-edom and his house, for the ark of God's sake, will not overlook the cause. That ark was a type of the ever-blessed Jesus. In receiving the ark into his house, into his family, and among his people, he did, to all intents and purposes, receive Christ into his heart, and like the faithful descendant of the faithful Abraham, "saw the day of Christ afar off, rejoiced, and was glad."
Obed-edom was no stranger to the dreadful consequences which had fallen on the Philistines for their daring impiety, in taking the ark of God, and detaining it. He could be no stranger to the awful death of Uzzah, for touching it presumptuously; for, no doubt, it was in every one's mouth. Nay, he could not but know that the reason wherefore David wished Obed-edom to take the ark into his house was, because he was afraid to take it into his own. What was it then, that prompted the mind of this pious faithful Gittite to receive the ark of God under such alarming circumstances? What was it, but thy grace almighty Lord, that taught him to rejoice in thee and thy favour, while others were trembling under thy judgments? Oh! the blessedness of' distinguishing grace, which makes that to thy people "a savour of life unto life," whilst to others it becomes"a savour of death unto death." Three whole months was Obed-edom favoured with the abode of the ark. No doubt, the tokens of the divine presence were so visibly bestowed upon this man and his household, that the whole neighborhood, yea, the whole kingdom, could not but take notice of it; for it is said, "that it was told king David, saying, the Lord hath blessed the house of Obed-edom, and all that pertained to him, because of the ark of God," 2 Samuel 6:12.
Hear this ye parents, masters of families, and guardians of houses, interested in your own present and everlasting welfare, and that of your young ones of the rising generation. Behold the blessedness in Obed-edom, and all that pertained to him, for receiving the ark of God into his house. And observe the special time when this was done. It was when others trembled, he was made hold with an holy boldness. When none ventured to serve the interest of God, and to receive his ark, he was faithful.
And what is it now? If that ark was a type of Christ, who are they that may be said to be faithful in the midst of the present perverse and crooked generation, but they who receive Christ Jesus the Lord into their hearts, and houses, and families, whilst others despise him! Who are the Obed-edoms of the present day, but such as receive Christ Jesus the Lord, and walk in him, and live to him, and rejoice in him, as the Lord our Righteousness! And if there ever was a day of peculiar blessedness, for the manifesting this distinguishing love to Jesus and his cause, surely the present is the one. Oh! for grace, therefore, that while the ark of God, the Christ of God, is shut out of such numberless houses in this adulterous and sinful generation, many an Obed-edom may yet be found in our British Israel to welcome the Lord Jesus to their hearts, and he, and he alone, be formed there the hope of glory. Hail Obed-edom, thou faithful servant of thy Lord! Ever will thy memory be blessed in the church; and when the temple of God is opened again in heaven, as it was to the beloved apostle (Revelation 11:19.) and the ark of the Testament is beheld by the whole church, still will it be held in everlasting remembrance how the Lord blessed the house of Obed-edom upon earth, for the ark of God's sake.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Edom
The name Edom meant ‘red’ and was given to Esau, his descendants, and the land they later occupied (Genesis 36:1; Genesis 36:8-9). Esau was red haired, he exchanged his birthright for red bean soup, and Edom was a land of red soil (Genesis 25:25; Genesis 25:30; 2 Kings 3:20; 2 Kings 3:22).
Features of the land
Edom’s territory stretched from the southern tip of the Dead Sea down to the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqabah (the north-eastern arm of the Red Sea). It was a mountainous region, divided down the centre by a semi-desert valley known as the Arabah. Chief among Edom’s mountains was Mt Seir, after which the land was sometimes called (Genesis 14:6; Genesis 32:3; Genesis 36:21; Deuteronomy 2:1; Deuteronomy 2:4; Deuteronomy 2:12; Joshua 15:1; 1 Kings 9:26). (For details of the Arabah see PALESTINE.) The Edomites’ security depended largely on a strong defence system they had built throughout their mountains (2 Chronicles 25:11-12; Obadiah 1:1-4).
Chief of Edom’s mountain towns were Sela, Bozrah and Teman (2 Kings 14:7; Isaiah 34:6; Isaiah 63:1; Jeremiah 49:20; Jeremiah 49:22; Amos 1:11-12). Teman was famous for its wisdom teachers (Job 2:11; Jeremiah 49:7; Obadiah 1:8-9). The other important population centres of Edom were the twin towns of Ezion-geber and Elath on the Gulf of Aqabah (Deuteronomy 2:8; 2 Chronicles 8:17). Since much of Edom’s land was unsuitable for farming, and since Edom’s Red Sea ports gave it control over important trade routes, many of the Edomites were traders rather than farmers (Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9).
Old Testament history of Edom
An important road known as the King’s Highway ran through Edom. From Ezion-geber it went north over the mountainous plateau on the east of the Arabah to Moab, Ammon and Syria. The Israelites of Moses’ time wanted to use this road on their journey to Canaan, but Edom and Moab refused permission, forcing the Israelites to detour around the borders (Numbers 20:14-21; Numbers 21:10-13; Numbers 21:21-26; Numbers 33:35-37; Judges 11:15-24).
There was some conflict between Israel and Edom during the reign of Saul (1 Samuel 14:47), but in the reign of David Israel conquered Edom and took political control of the country (2 Samuel 8:13-14; 1 Kings 11:15-16). Solomon in turn established a fleet of ocean-going ships at Ezion-geber. These ships carried goods to and from India and other countries, thereby bringing him considerable profit (1 Kings 9:26-28; 1 Kings 10:22; 1 Kings 22:48).
The strategic and economic importance of Ezion-geber and Elath was one cause of later conflicts between Judah and Edom. When Judah weakened during the reign of Jehoram, Edom regained its independence (2 Kings 8:20-22). Under Amaziah, Judah conquered the mountain regions of Edom, and under Azariah it took control of Ezion-geber (2 Kings 14:7; 2 Kings 14:22). Judah lost Ezion-geber to Edom in the reign of Ahaz and never regained it (2 Kings 16:6).
When Judah finally fell and Jerusalem was destroyed by Babylon (587 BC), the Edomites took wicked delight in joining with the Babylonians to try to wipe out the last traces of the ancient Israelite nation. When the Jerusalemites tried to flee the city, the Edomites blocked their path, captured them and handed them over to the Babylonians. They also joined the Babylonians in plundering the city (Psalms 137:7; Obadiah 1:10-14). Because of this violent hatred of the Israelite people, God assured Edom of a fitting punishment (Jeremiah 49:7-22; Lamentations 4:21-22; Ezekiel 25:12-14; Ezekiel 35:15; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11-12).
Later history
Some time after the destruction of Jerusalem, Edom itself was destroyed, as the prophets had foretold (Malachi 1:2-4). In their search for refuge and security, many Edomites moved west across the Arabah and settled in Judean territory around Hebron. Various Arab groups mingled with them, and the region later became known as Idumea (Mark 3:8).
Years later, after the Romans had conquered Palestine (63 BC), an Idumean named Herod was appointed ‘king’ of Palestine under the governing authority of Rome. This man, known as Herod the Great, was the person who tried to kill the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:1-19; see HEROD). The modern nation of Israel includes this Idumean territory along with much of old Edom, and extends to the Red Sea port of Elath (or Elat).

Sentence search

Idumaea - The Greek form of Edom (Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Ezekiel 35:15 ; 36:5 , but in RSV "Edom"). (See Edom)
Seir - Mount Seir was the chief mountain of the land of Edom. In common usage its name sometimes referred to the nation of Edom in general (Deuteronomy 2:1; Deuteronomy 2:4; Deuteronomy 2:12). (For details see Edom
Lotan - Son of Seir the Horite and apparently the original ancestor of clan in Edom (Genesis 36:20-29 ). See Seir ; Edom
Salt, Valley of - This valley (the' Arabah) is between Judah and Edom on the south of the Dead Sea. Hence some interpreters would insert the words, "and he smote Edom," after the words, "Syrians" in the above text. It is conjectured that while David was leading his army against the Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the south of Judah, and that David sent Joab or Abishai against them, who drove them back and finally subdued Edom. ) Here also Amaziah "slew of Edom ten thousand men" (2 Kings 14:7 ; comp 8:: 2022-22 and 2 Chronicles 25:5-11 )
Seir - ” A mountain range which runs the length of biblical Edom, leading at times to an equation of Edom and Seir. Some documents found in Egypt seem to make Seir and Edom two different tribal habitats, and it is possible that at times in its history the area was ruled over simultaneously by several local clans. See Edom
Idumea - (See Edom
Edomites - See Edom
Idumaea - See Edom
Obed-Edom - Servant of Edom
Obed-Edom - Obed-edom (ô'bed-ç'dom) servant of Edom. The blessing which came on the house of Obed-edom for the ark's sake encouraged David to remove it to Jerusalem
Teman - A tribe (and district) of Edom, whose importance is indicated by its eponym being the eldest son of the eldest son (Eliphaz) of Esau ( Genesis 36:11 ; Genesis 36:15 ; cf. see) to represent the whole land of Edom ( Amos 1:12 ; cf. Ezekiel 25:13 implies that Edom stretches from Teman to Dedan, from which we infer that the former lay in the north-east of the territory claimed by Edom, that is, to the S
Pottage - See Edom and FOOD
Temanites - (tee' man itess) Descendants of Teman or residents of Teman, the southern area of Edom. The land of the Temanites designates (southern) Edom (Genesis 36:34 ; 1 Chronicles 1:45 )
Esau - (1653-1506 BCE) Also known as Edom. He eventually settled in Seir, and is the progenitor of Edom
Oboth - A stage in Israel's journey, on the border of Edom and Moab (Numbers 21:10; Numbers 33:43). of the northern part of Edom. into the Dead Sea, and is the boundary between the provinces Jebal and Kerak, as anciently between Edom and Moab
Hadad - A second prince of Edom, mentioned in 1 Chronicles 1:51 . Another Edomite of the royal family, who fled to Egypt while young, upon David's conquest of Edom, 2 Samuel 8:14 ; was well received, and married the queen's sister. After the death of David and Joab, he returned to Edom and made an ineffectual effort to throw off the yoke of Solomon, 1 Kings 11:14-22 2 Chronicles 8:17
Amalek - Son of Eliphaz, by his concubine Timnah, of the Horites; grandson of Esau; duke of Edom (Genesis 36:12; Genesis 36:16). The Edomites seized the Horite territory. In Hezekiah's reign, the last remnant of Amalek in Edom was dispersed by the Simeonites (1 Chronicles 4:42-43)
Zin, Wilderness of - ) The Arabah separated it from the mountains of Edom. On the declivity of a commanding hill within Edom's territory stands the village Dhana which may correspond to Zin. ...
Though the wilderness of Zin does not strictly belong to Edom, yet it was connected with Edom; hence Judah's cities are said to lie "toward the coast of Edom" (Joshua 15:21). Kadesh was "in the uttermost border of Edom," i. of the wilderness of Zin which borders Edom (Numbers 20:16)
Samlah - A king of Edom. From separate cities being assigned to most of the Edomite kings it is supposed Edom was a confederacy of tribes, and the chief city of the reigning tribe was capital of the whole
Esau - Esau (ç'saw), or Edom (ç'dom). His family settled on Mount Seir, east of Jordan, which was hence called Edom, and bis descendants were the Edomites, one of the most powerful and formidable nations of that age. The prophecies concerning Esau and Edom have been literally fulfilled. " See Edom
Obed Edom - He was a Kohathite and distinguished by his title "Gittite" from Obed Edom, son of Jeduthun, a Merarite (1 Chronicles 16:38). After Uzzah's stroke David in fear took the ark aside to the house of Obed Edom. His turning aside from the direct way to go to Obed Edom's house is accounted for by his sudden fear owing to the punishment of Uzzah's presumption; he goes to a Kohathite Levite, one of the family especially appointed to bear the ark on their shoulders, and deposits the ark with him, conscious that he himself might have been punished for irregularity. ...
Accordingly, in 1 Chronicles 15 we find the ark was no longer taken in a cart, but borne on the Levites' shoulders, with Obed Edom "a doorkeeper for the ark," and it is emphatically said it was "as Moses commanded, according to the word of Jehovah" (1 Chronicles 15:15; 1 Chronicles 15:18; 1 Chronicles 15:24). The Lord blessed Obed Edom and all his household in consequence during its three months' stay with him; so David brought it up front Obed Edom's house with joy. While the ark brought a plague every one was glad to be rid of it; but when it brought a blessing to Obed Edom, they wished for it. Many will own a blessing ark; he is an Obed Edom indeed that will own a persecuted, tossed, banished ark (Trapp). ...
Obed Edom and his sons guarded the S. Obed Edom was doorkeeper for the ark (1 Chronicles 15:24). In 1 Chronicles 16:38 Obed Edom the singer appears distinct from Obed Edom the "porter" or gatekeeper (1 Chronicles 16:4-5; 1 Chronicles 16:38). Obed Edom and his colleagues could not possibly at the same time as porters precede, and as singers come after, the priests and the ark. (See OBED Edom (1). Probably sprung from "Obed Edom the Gittite
Dishan - Apparently, these Horites controlled the land of Edom before the Edomites entered the land. See Edom ; Horites ; Seir
Masrekah - ” City in Edom whose king ruled the Edomites in the period before Israel had kings (Genesis 36:36 ; 1 Chronicles 1:47 ). 300) located Masrekah in Gabalene in northern Edom
Masrekah - A duke of Edom, Genesis 36:36 from Sharah, whistling
Iram - Duke of Edom
Peulthai - Son of Obed-edom, a Korhite
Peullethai - The eighth son of Obed-edom ( 1 Chronicles 26:5 )
Mehetabel - Wife of Hadad, one of the kings of Edom (Genesis 36:39 )
Jetheth - (jee' thehth) Clan name in Edom of unknown meaning (Genesis 36:40 )
Magdiel - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( Genesis 36:43 = 1 Chronicles 1:54 )
Iram - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( Genesis 36:43 = 1 Chronicles 1:54 )
Semachiah - Son of Shemaiah, a son of Obed-edom
Cheran - (chee' ran) Descendant of Seir (or Edom) listed in Genesis 36:26
Obadiah, Book of - The book of Obadiah is largely an announcement of judgment upon Edom for its part in helping Babylon in the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BC (Obadiah 1:10-14; cf. Edom, being descended from Esau, was a brother nation to Israel-Judah, and therefore should have helped Jerusalem in its final hour (cf. Instead the Edomites took the opportunity to plunder the helpless city (Obadiah 1:11; Obadiah 1:13). They even captured the fleeing Jerusalemites and sold them to the Babylonian conquerors (Obadiah 1:14; for map and other details see Edom). ...
Contents of the book...
Edom prided itself in the strength of its mountain defences and the cleverness of its political dealings. ...
But whereas God would destroy Edom totally, he would bring Judah out of captivity and back to its land, where it would rebuild its national life. It would even spread its power into former Edomite territory (Obadiah 1:17-21)
Zair - ), fought with Edom (2 Kings 8:20-21 ). Some place it south of the Dead Sea near Edom
Aliah, Alvah - One of the dukes of Edom
Samlah - ” Ruler of Edom (Genesis 36:36 )
Mibzar - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( Genesis 36:42 = 1 Chronicles 1:53 )
Bedad - Father of Hadad king of Edom
Iram - Tribal leader in Edom (Genesis 36:43 )
Nabat - See Arabia, Aretas, Edom, Nebaioth
Bedad - Father of Hadad, king of Edom ( Genesis 36:35 = 1 Chronicles 1:49 )
Jetheth - Duke of Edom, a descendant of Esau
Samlah - One of the ancient kings of Edom
Gatam - Son of Eliphaz, and duke of Edom
Mibzar - Descendant of Esau and duke of Edom
Mib'Zar - (fortress ), one of the "dukes" of Edom
ho'Sham - (haste ), one of the early kings of Edom
Hadad - Son of Bedad and king of Edom. An Edomite of the royal family. King of Edom who succeeded Baal-hanan. Apparently 'Hadad' was a title of the kings of Edom rather than a name
Edom - (ee' duhm) The area southeast and southwest of the Dead Sea, on opposite sides of the Arabah, was known as Edom in biblical times and was the home of the Edomites. The name “Edom” derives from a Semitic root which means “red” or “ruddy” and characterizes the red sandstone terrain of much of the area in question. Moreover, the Edomite area was largely “wilderness”—semi-desert, not very conducive to agriculture—and many of the inhabitants were semi-nomads. Thus the boundaries of Edom would have been rather ill-defined. Yet not all of Edom was wilderness; the vicinity of present-day Tafileh and Buseireh, east of the Arabah, is fairly well watered, cultivable land, and would have boasted numerous villages during Old Testament times. This would have been the center of Edomite population. Buseireh is situated on the ruins of ancient Bozrah, the capital of Edom. ”...
Most of the biblical passages pertaining to Edom refer to this Edomite center east of the Arabah. Isaiah 63:1 , for example, speaks of one that “cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength. Yet there are other passages which presuppose that the territory west of the Arabah, south of the Judean hill country and separating Judah from the Gulf of Aqaba, was also part of Edom. See especially the description of Judah's boundary in Numbers 34:3-4 and Joshua 15:1-3 , where Judah's south side is described as extending “even to the border of Edom the wilderness of Zin. ” Certain of the tribal groups which ranged this wilderness area south of Judah are listed in the Edomite genealogy of Genesis 36:1 . In New Testament times, even the southern end of the Judean hill country (south of approximately Hebron) was known officially as Idumea (Edom). ...
The “land of Seir” seems to be synonymous with Edom in some passages (Genesis 32:3 ; Genesis 36:8 ; Judges 5:4 ). know of Shasu (apparently semi-nomadic tribes) from Seir and Edom. “Teman” also is used in apposition to Edom in at least one biblical passage (Amos 1:12 ), but normally refers to a specific district of Edom and possibly to a town by that name. ...
The Israelites regarded the Edomites as close relatives, even more closely related to them than the Ammonites or Moabites. Specifically, they identified the Ammonites and Moabites as descendants of Lot, Abraham's nephew, but the Edomites as descendants of Esau, Jacob's brother (Genesis 19:30-36 ; Genesis 36:1 ). Thus Edom occasionally is referred to as a “brother” to Israel (Amos 1:11-12 ). Edomites seem not to have been barred from worship in the Jerusalem Temple with the same strictness as the Ammonites and Moabites (Deuteronomy 23:3-8 ). According to the biblical writers, enmity between Israel and Edom began already with Jacob and Esau (when the former stole the latter's birthright) and was exacerbated at the time of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt (when the Edomites refused the Israelites passage through their land). Be that as it may, much of the conflict also had to do with the fact that Edom was a constant threat to Judah's frontier, and moreover blocked Judean access to the Gulf of Aqaba. ...
Both Saul and David conducted warfare with the Edomites—probably frontier wars fought in the “wilderness” area southwest of the Dead Sea (1 Samuel 14:47-48 ; 2 Samuel 8:13-14 ). Apparently this secured Davidic control of the Edomite area west of the Arabah as well as access to the Gulf of Aqaba. Later Hadad of the royal Edomite line returned from Egypt and became an active adversary to Solomon. This would have involved Edomite attacks on Solomon's caravans which passed through traditionally Edomite territory from Ezion-geber to Jerusalem (1 Kings 11:14-22 ). ...
Apparently Judah gained the upper hand against Edom again during the reign of Jehoshaphat. Edom regained independence from Judah under Joram, who succeeded Jehoshaphat to the throne (2 Kings 8:20-22 ). A later Judean king, Amaziah, is reported to have defeated the Edomites again in the valley of salt and then to have pursued ten thousand survivors to “the top of the rock” from which they were thrown down and dashed to pieces (2 Chronicles 25:11-12 ). ” If so, then it seems reasonable to locate the incident with the craggy terrain just northwest of the Edomite capital Bosrah, where still today an Arab village bears a corresponding name (as-Sil`). An alternate candidate for biblical Sela favored by some scholars, Umm el-Biyara at Petra, seems too far south from either the valley of salt or the center of Edomite population. ...
Conflict between Judah and Edom and efforts on the part of Judean kings to exploit the commercial possibilities of the Gulf of Aqaba continued (2 Kings 14:22 ; 2 Kings 16:6 ; 2 Chronicles 26:1-2 ; 2 Chronicles 28:17 ) until eventually the Edomites, like the other peoples and petty kingdoms of Syria-Palestine, fell under the shadow of the major eastern empires—the Assyrians, then the Babylonians, finally the Persians and the Greeks. Some scholars hold that the Edomites aided the Babylonians in their attacks on Jerusalem in 597,586 B. This would explain, for example, the bitter verbal attacks on Edom in passages such as Jeremiah 49:7-22 and the Book of Obadiah. ...
By New Testament times a people of Arabic origin known as the Nabateans had established a commercial empire with its center in the formerly Edomite territory east of the Arabah. Only the formerly Edomite territory west of the Arabah was still known as Idumea (Edom)
Idumea - “Idumea” is the term used in the Greek version of the Old Testament and in the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus for Edom. See Edom
Mizzah - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( Genesis 36:13 ; Genesis 36:17 = 1 Chronicles 1:37 )
Edomite - ) One of the descendants of Esau or Edom, the brother of Jacob; an Idumean
Alvah - (al' vah) Personal name of leader of Edom
Pinon - Descendant of Esau and a duke of Edom
Mizzah - Son of Reuel and a duke of Edom
Aliah - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( 1 Chronicles 1:51 ); called in Genesis 36:40 Alvah
Mehetabel - Wife of Hadar, or Hadad, king of Edom
al'Vah - (evil ), a duke of Edom, ( Genesis 36:40 ) written ALIAH in (1 Chronicles 1:51 )
Edom - Name given to Esau because he craved the red pottage of Jacob, Edom signifying red, Genesis 25:30 ; Genesis 36:1,8,19 ; but the name is more usually given to his tribe and the territory they possessed. Some of the rocks were so precipitous that Amaziah killed 10,000 of the children of Seir (Edomites) by casting them down from the rocks, whereby they were dashed to pieces. ...
When Israel was approaching the land of Palestine, Moses appealed to Edom to let them pass through their country, but they refused. The Israelites therefore returned south by way of the Red Sea (Gulf of Akaba) in order to compass the land of Edom, and then kept to the east of Edom until they reached the land of Moab. ...
Edom is constantly referred to in the prophets as having had relations with Israel, and is judged because of its perpetual hatred against them. God at one time stirred up the king of Edom to punish Israel (1 Kings 11:14 ), and then again strengthened Israel to punish Edom. Edomtook pleasure in the punishment of Judah when judgement was falling upon it. When the king of the north in a future day invades Palestine and overthrows countries as far as Egypt, "Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon" will escape, being reserved to be subdued by Israel. It is from 'Edom' that the Lord Jesus is represented as coming 'with dyed garments' because of His having executed judgements. ...
During the captivity the Edomites extended their dominion in the West and possessed Hebron; and some 300 years B. Under the Maccabees the Edomites in the west were conquered, and Hebron was recovered. ...
The Greek form of Edom is IDUMEA,which occurs only in Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Ezekiel 35:15 ; Ezekiel 36:5 ; Mark 3:8
Magdiel - A descendant of Esau, and a duke of Edom
Pau - Capital of Hadar, king of Edom
Peultha'i - (my wages ) properly Peullethai, the eighth son of Obed-edom
Edom - The name Edom meant ‘red’ and was given to Esau, his descendants, and the land they later occupied (Genesis 36:1; Genesis 36:8-9). Esau was red haired, he exchanged his birthright for red bean soup, and Edom was a land of red soil (Genesis 25:25; Genesis 25:30; 2 Kings 3:20; 2 Kings 3:22). ...
Features of the land...
Edom’s territory stretched from the southern tip of the Dead Sea down to the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqabah (the north-eastern arm of the Red Sea). Chief among Edom’s mountains was Mt Seir, after which the land was sometimes called (Genesis 14:6; Genesis 32:3; Genesis 36:21; Deuteronomy 2:1; Deuteronomy 2:4; Deuteronomy 2:12; Joshua 15:1; 1 Kings 9:26). ) The Edomites’ security depended largely on a strong defence system they had built throughout their mountains (2 Chronicles 25:11-12; Obadiah 1:1-4). ...
Chief of Edom’s mountain towns were Sela, Bozrah and Teman (2 Kings 14:7; Isaiah 34:6; Isaiah 63:1; Jeremiah 49:20; Jeremiah 49:22; Amos 1:11-12). The other important population centres of Edom were the twin towns of Ezion-geber and Elath on the Gulf of Aqabah (Deuteronomy 2:8; 2 Chronicles 8:17). Since much of Edom’s land was unsuitable for farming, and since Edom’s Red Sea ports gave it control over important trade routes, many of the Edomites were traders rather than farmers (Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9). ...
Old Testament history of Edom...
An important road known as the King’s Highway ran through Edom. The Israelites of Moses’ time wanted to use this road on their journey to Canaan, but Edom and Moab refused permission, forcing the Israelites to detour around the borders (Numbers 20:14-21; Numbers 21:10-13; Numbers 21:21-26; Numbers 33:35-37; Judges 11:15-24). ...
There was some conflict between Israel and Edom during the reign of Saul (1 Samuel 14:47), but in the reign of David Israel conquered Edom and took political control of the country (2 Samuel 8:13-14; 1 Kings 11:15-16). ...
The strategic and economic importance of Ezion-geber and Elath was one cause of later conflicts between Judah and Edom. When Judah weakened during the reign of Jehoram, Edom regained its independence (2 Kings 8:20-22). Under Amaziah, Judah conquered the mountain regions of Edom, and under Azariah it took control of Ezion-geber (2 Kings 14:7; 2 Kings 14:22). Judah lost Ezion-geber to Edom in the reign of Ahaz and never regained it (2 Kings 16:6). ...
When Judah finally fell and Jerusalem was destroyed by Babylon (587 BC), the Edomites took wicked delight in joining with the Babylonians to try to wipe out the last traces of the ancient Israelite nation. When the Jerusalemites tried to flee the city, the Edomites blocked their path, captured them and handed them over to the Babylonians. Because of this violent hatred of the Israelite people, God assured Edom of a fitting punishment (Jeremiah 49:7-22; Lamentations 4:21-22; Ezekiel 25:12-14; Ezekiel 35:15; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11-12). ...
Later history...
Some time after the destruction of Jerusalem, Edom itself was destroyed, as the prophets had foretold (Malachi 1:2-4). In their search for refuge and security, many Edomites moved west across the Arabah and settled in Judean territory around Hebron. The modern nation of Israel includes this Idumean territory along with much of old Edom, and extends to the Red Sea port of Elath (or Elat)
Horites - It became part of the land of Edom, and the remaining Horites were absorbed into the Edomites (Genesis 14:6; Genesis 36:20-21; Deuteronomy 2:12; Deuteronomy 2:22; see Edom)
Edom - The name was appropriate to Edom's possession, "mount Seir," the mountainous territory having a reddish hue. Seir means rugged, applicable alike to Seir the hirsute (like Esau) progenitor of the Horites, Edom's predecessors, and to their rugged forest covered territory (Genesis 14:6; Genesis 32:3; Genesis 36:1-8; Genesis 36:20-22). The dukes did not precede the line of Edomite kings, and afterward succeed again (Genesis 36); but a single king (emir) reigned in all Edom contemporaneous with several dukes (skeikhs) or princes of local tribes. The Edomites became "dwellers in the clefts of the rocks" (Jeremiah 49:16; compare 2 Chronicles 25:11-12), like their Horite predecessors who were troglodytes or "dwellers in caves" (Obadiah 1:3-4) Petra (Sela, Hebrew, rock), their chief city, was cut in the rocks. In the heart of these, itself invisible, lies Petra (Stanley), Edom' s stronghold in Amaziah's days (2 Kings 14:7). ) Elath and Ezion Geber were Edom's seaports; afterward taken by David and made by Solomon his ports for equipping his merchant fleet (2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 9:26). ...
Edom (100 miles long, 20 broad) stretched Edom of the Arabah valley, southward as far as Elath. of Edom, as also through Edom, went from Kadesh by the S. extremity of Edom past. of Edom (Deuteronomy 2:8; Deuteronomy 2:13-14; Deuteronomy 2:18; Judges 11:17-18; 1618451028_8). The Brook Zered (wady el Ahsy) was the boundary between Moab (Kerak) and Edom (now Jebal, Hebrew Gebal, mountainous, the N. district), Edom subsequently took also the territory once occupied by Amalek, S. The promised (Genesis 27:40) "fatness of the earth" is in the glens and terraces of Edom (Genesis 27:39), while from their rocky aeries they sallied forth "living by the sword. " When navigation was difficult merchants' caravans took Edom as their route from the Persian gulf to Egypt, which became a source of wealth to Edom. At Kadesh Edom came out against Israel, on the latter marching eastward across the Arabah to reach the Jordan River through Edom, and offering to pay for provisions and water; for the rocky country there enabled them to oppose Israel. The wady Ghuweir (where probably was "the king's highway") would be the defile by which Israel tried to pass through Edom being the only practicable defile for an army, with pasture and springs (Numbers 20:14-21). ...
But Edom dared not resist Israel's passage along their eastern border, which is more defenseless than their frontier toward the Arabah. Edom then at last made a virtue of necessity and let Israel purchase provisions (Deuteronomy 2:2-8; Deuteronomy 2:28-29). In both accounts Israel offered to pay for provisions, and did so at last on Edom's eastern side, whereas they and Moab ought to have "met (Israel as their brother) with bread and water" (Deuteronomy 23:4). Edom was among the enemies on the frontier from whom Saul at the beginning of his reign delivered Israel (1 Samuel 14:47). Hadad the Edomite, who escaped from David's slaughter to Egypt, returned thence from Pharaoh Shishak to excite Edom to revolt against Solomon (1 Kings 11:14). Jehoshaphat of Judah reduced the Edomites 897 B. , dethroning their king for a deputy from Jerusalem, and trying by a fleet at Ezion Geber to regain the trade; but his vessels were broken by the Edomites or the Egyptians. Uzziah built Elath on the opposite side of the bay from Ezion Geber, the Roman (Etana, now Akabah; but in Ahaz' reign the Edomites (as 2 Kings 16:6 should be read for "Syrians") recovered it (2 Kings 14:22). When Israel and Judah declined Edom "broke off Israel's yoke," as Isaac had foretold, in Jehoram's reign (2 Kings 8:20-22), re-conquered their lost cities and invaded southern Judah (2 Chronicles 28:17). Edom also joined the Chaldaeans against the Jews (Psalms 137:7). Hence, the denunciations against Edom in Obadiah 1:1, etc. ...
Meanwhile mount Stir or Edom proper, was occupied by the Nabathaeans (descended from Nebaioth, Ishmael's oldest son and Esau's brother in law), a powerful people of S. Arabia; they founded the kingdom of Arabia Petraea in ancient Edom, and their monarchs took the name Aretas. Muslim misrule finally destroyed Edom's prosperity in fulfillment of prophecy (Ezekiel 35:3-14). ...
Psalm 44 was written by the sons of Korah in the midst of Edom's invasion of Israel, taking advantage of David's absence at the Euphrates. David was striving with Aram of the two rivers (Naharaim) and Aram-Zobah when Joab returned and smote of Edom in the Valley of Salt (the scene also of Amaziah's victory over Edom, the plain S. Israel's slain lay unburied until Joab returned from smiting Edom along with Abishai. The scattering of Israel among the pagan (Psalms 44:11) was but partial, enough to gratify Edom's desire to falsify the prophecy, "the elder shall serve the younger. " Edom's spite is marked (Joel 3:19; Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9; Amos 1:11). David wrote Psalm 60 when victory was in part gained, and he was sending forth the expedition against Edom. , alludes to this victory and to that over Edom (in 2 Samuel 8:13 "Edom" should be read for "the Syrians," Aram) in the Valley of Salt, the token that the expedition (Psalms 60:9-12) for occupying Edom in revenge for invading Israel would succeed. "Over (rather, to) Edom I will cast out my shoe," as one about to wash his feet casts his shoe to his slave (Matthew 3:11; John 13:8; Acts 13:25); and the casting of the shoe marked transference of possession (Ruth 4:7; Joshua 10:24). ...
David as king, Joab as commander in chief and Abishai under Joab, smote Edom. Edom was also linked with Ammon and Moab in the desperate effort made to root out Israel from his divinely given inheritance (their main guilt, 2 Chronicles 20:11; Psalms 83:12) under Jehoshaphat, as recorded in 2 Chronicles 20. Edom is now called El Jebal (Gebal), with the villages Tufileh, Buserah, and Shobek
Zaavan - Terror, one of the "dukes of Edom" (Genesis 36:27 ); called also Zavan (1 Chronicles 1:42 )
Mehet'Abel - (favored of God ), the daughter of Matred, and wife of Hadad king of Edom
Dinhabah - Capital city of Bela, son of Beor, king of Edom
Zalmo'Nah - (shady ), a desert station of the Israelites, ( Numbers 33:41 ) lies on the east side of Edom
Peulthai - Wages of the Lord, one of the sons of Obed-edom, a Levite porter (1 Chronicles 26:5 )
Bedad - ” Father of Hadad, king of Edom (Genesis 36:35 )
Oth'ni - (lion of Jehovah ), son of Shemaiah, the first-horn of Obed-edom
be'Dad - (solitary ), the father of Hadad king of Edom
Sam'Lah - (garment ), ( Genesis 36:36,37 ; 1 Chronicles 1:47,48 ) one of the kings of Edom, successor to Hadad or Hadar
Husham - One 'of the land of the Temanites' who became king of Edom
Zair - Place in Edom where Joram attacked the Edomites
Zephi, Zepho - Son of Eliphaz, a son of Esau, and a duke of Edom
Masrekah - City or place of Samlah, an ancient king of Edom
Matred - Mother of Mehetabel the wife of Hadad, or Hadar, king of Edom
re'Phael - (healed of God ), son of Shemaiah, the first-born of Obed-edom
ji'Nah - (lamentation ), a city of Judah, on the extreme south boundary of the tribe, next to Edom
Mag'di-el - (prince of God ), one of the "dukes" of Edom, descended from Esau
sa'Car - (1 Chronicles 11:35 ) ...
The fourth son of Obed-edom
ja'Gur - (lodging ),a town of Judah, one of those farthest to the south, on the frontier of Edom
Teman - They are especially mentioned in the prediction against Edom. Their country seems to have been the southeastern part of Edom
Pai - City in Edom in which Hadad or Hadar reigned
Avith - City of Edom in the east of Moab, seat of Hadad the fourth king
Beor - Father of Bela, king of Edom
Idumean - ) An inhabitant of Idumea, an Edomite. ) Of or pertaining to ancient Idumea, or Edom, in Western Asia
Avith - ” Capital city of Hadad, king of Edom, before Israel had a king
Aliah - ” A leader of Edom (1 Chronicles 1:51 ), known in Genesis 36:40 as Alvah
Pau - (bleating ) (but in ( 1 Chronicles 1:50 ) PAI ), the capital of Hadar king of Edom
Din'Habah, - (Genesis 36:32 ; 1 Chronicles 1:43 ) the capital city, and probably the birthplace, of Bela, son of Beor king of Edom
Seir - The name of a mountainous district east of the ‘Arabah, peopled by the Edomites. Seir is practically synonymous with Edom (cf. Genesis 32:3 ‘the land of Seir, the field of Edom’)
Gittites - Obed Edom, being a Levite, must have derived his title "the Gittite" from some incidental connection with Gath; others derive his name from the Levitical city of Gath-rimmon (2 Samuel 6:10); but it seems strange if "Gittite" be used in one sense of Ittai of Gath, and in a different sense of Obed Edom (1 Chronicles 26:4)
Husham - ” One of the early kings of Edom (Genesis 36:34 ) from Teman
Jaalam - A duke or tribal chief of Edom
Zephi - tribe chief, of Edom
Baal-Hanan - A king of Edom ( Gen 36:38 f
Hadad - son of the king of East Edom, was carried into Egypt by his father's servants, when Joab, general of David's troops, extirpated the males of Edom. Pharaoh wished to detain him, but at last permitted his return to Edom. Josephus says, that Hadad did not return to Edom till long after the death of David, when Solomon's affairs began to decline, by reason of his impieties. He also observes, that, not being able to engage the Edomites to revolt, because of the strong garrisons which Solomon had placed there, Hadad got together such people as were willing, and carried them to Razon, then in rebellion against Hadadezer, king of Syria
Zephi - A son of Eliphaz, and one of the ‘dukes’ of Edom
Akan - An official of Edom of Horite ancestors (Genesis 36:27 )
Jephunneh - ) Of the Kenezites (Numbers 32:12), seemingly an Edomite tribe, Kenaz being a "duke of Edom" (Genesis 36:11; Genesis 36:15; Genesis 36:20; Genesis 36:23). Edomite names occur in Caleb's genealogy, as Shobal (1 Chronicles 2:50; 1 Chronicles 2:52). If the similarity of some names among Israel and Edom be not due to their being kindred peoples, it shows that Caleb's family was an Edomite one incorporated into Judah
o'Bed-e'Dom - (servant of Edom ). ) After the death of Uzzah, the ark, which was being conducted from the house of Abinadab in Gibeah to the city of David, was carried aside into the house of Obed Edom, where it continued three months. (2 Samuel 6:12 ; 1 Chronicles 15:25 ) ...
"Obed-edom the son of Jeduthun" (1 Chronicles 16:38 ) a Merarite Levite, appears to be a different person from the last mentioned
Zair - Little, a place probably east of the Dead Sea, where Joram discomfited the host of Edom who had revolted from him (2 Kings 8:21 )
ja-a'Lam - 1 Chronicles 1:35 And a head of a tribe of Edom
pi'Non - (darkness ), one of the "dukes" of Edom, --that is, head or founder of a tribe of that nation
Mezahab - Water of gold, the father of Matred (Genesis 36:39 ; 1 Chronicles 1:50 ), and grandfather of Mehetabel, wife of Hadar, the last king of Edom
Mehetabel - The wife of Hadar or Hadad, king of Edom ( Genesis 36:30 , 1 Chronicles 1:50 )
a'Vith - (ruins ), the city of Hadad ben-Bedad, one of the kings of Edom before there were kings in Israel
Teman, Temani, Temanites - Son of Eliphaz, a son of Esau, and a duke of Edom; also his descendants and the district inhabited by them. It is four times connected with Edom, and twice with Dedan: this associates it with the south
Hadad - One of the kings who reigned in Edom; his capital city was Avith. Another later king of Edom, the last enumerated in the early genealogies. An Edomite of the royal family
Bilhan - Descendant of Seir or Edom (Genesis 36:27 )
Mibzar - Duke or tribe prince of Edom of Esau (Genesis 36:42) at Hadar's death, ("fortress")
Baalhanan - The seventh of the ancient kings of Edom
ma'Tred - (pushing forward ) daughter of Mezahab and mother of Mehetabel, who was wife of Hadar or Hadad of Pau, king of Edom
Hadad - The fourth of the eight ancient kings of Edom, Gen 36:35 ; cf. The eighth of the kings of Edom in the same list as the last-named, 1 Chronicles 1:50 (in Genesis 36:39 miswritten Hadar) . The son of a king of Edom in the 10th cent. He escaped the massacre of Edomites perpetrated by Joab, David’s general, and fled (according to the received reading) to Egypt, whose king befriended him, and gave him his sister-in-law as his wife. After the death of David he returned to Edom, and his efforts seem to have rescued Edom from the yoke of king Solomon. instead of Mitsraim (Egypt) Mitsri should be read in the Hebrew as the name of a region west of Edom, which in the old MSS was several times confounded with the word for Egypt
Obed-Edom - His name is compounded of Obed, slave—and Edom, or the Idumean. But as Obed-jah, the prophet, was called the slave or labourer of the Lord, so Obed-edom, the slave of the Adam or Edom, the earth or earthy, was eminently the Lord's chosen for that peculiar service of receiving the ark, when David himself trembled on the occasion. ...
But I hope the reader, in beholding the blessing of the Lord upon Obed-edom and his house, for the ark of God's sake, will not overlook the cause. "...
Obed-edom was no stranger to the dreadful consequences which had fallen on the Philistines for their daring impiety, in taking the ark of God, and detaining it. Nay, he could not but know that the reason wherefore David wished Obed-edom to take the ark into his house was, because he was afraid to take it into his own. " Three whole months was Obed-edom favoured with the abode of the ark. No doubt, the tokens of the divine presence were so visibly bestowed upon this man and his household, that the whole neighborhood, yea, the whole kingdom, could not but take notice of it; for it is said, "that it was told king David, saying, the Lord hath blessed the house of Obed-edom, and all that pertained to him, because of the ark of God," 2 Samuel 6:12. Behold the blessedness in Obed-edom, and all that pertained to him, for receiving the ark of God into his house. ...
And what is it now? If that ark was a type of Christ, who are they that may be said to be faithful in the midst of the present perverse and crooked generation, but they who receive Christ Jesus the Lord into their hearts, and houses, and families, whilst others despise him! Who are the Obed-edoms of the present day, but such as receive Christ Jesus the Lord, and walk in him, and live to him, and rejoice in him, as the Lord our Righteousness! And if there ever was a day of peculiar blessedness, for the manifesting this distinguishing love to Jesus and his cause, surely the present is the one. Oh! for grace, therefore, that while the ark of God, the Christ of God, is shut out of such numberless houses in this adulterous and sinful generation, many an Obed-edom may yet be found in our British Israel to welcome the Lord Jesus to their hearts, and he, and he alone, be formed there the hope of glory. Hail Obed-edom, thou faithful servant of thy Lord! Ever will thy memory be blessed in the church; and when the temple of God is opened again in heaven, as it was to the beloved apostle (Revelation 11:19. ) and the ark of the Testament is beheld by the whole church, still will it be held in everlasting remembrance how the Lord blessed the house of Obed-edom upon earth, for the ark of God's sake
Joktheel - Name given by Amaziah to Selah (the 'rock') in Edom when captured by him
Manahath - eponymous ancestor of a clan of Edom, or of the earlier population conquered and absorbed by Edom
Sachar - ...
...
A son of Obed-edom the Gittite, and a temple porter (1 Chronicles 26:4 )
Dinhabah - The capital city of king Bela in Edom ( Genesis 36:32 = 1 Chronicles 1:43 )
Mez'Ahab - (waters of gold ), the father of Matred and grandfather of Mehetabel, who was wife of Hadar or Hadad, the last-named king of Edom
Aziel - Levite in the choral service at the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obed-edom, 1 Chronicles 15:20 : a shortened form apparently of JAAZIELin 1 Chronicles 15:18
Alvan - Son of Shobal, a Horite ( Genesis 36:23 ); called in 1 Chronicles 1:40 Alian , in Genesis 36:40 Alvah , 1 Chronicles 1:51 Aliah , one of the ‘dukes’ of Edom
am'Alek - (dweller in a valley ), a son of Eliphaz by his concubine Timnah grandson of Esau, and chieftain ("duke," Authorized Version) of Edom
Hor - It was apparently a brief journey from Kadesh and lay near the coast of Edom (Numbers 20:22-23 ). The traditional location at Jebel Harun above Petra is too far inside Edom and too far from Kadesh, though high (4800 feet) and impressive. Recently Bible students have pointed to Jebel Madurah, northeast of Kadesh on Edom's border. Israel journeyed from Mount Hor to go around Edom ( Numbers 21:4 ; Numbers 33:41 )
Salt, Valley of - The battle field between Judah and Edom where David and Amaziah conquered Abishai. (See Edom Near the salt mountain (Usdum), the upper part of the Arabah or plain S. of the Salt Sea; the boundary between Judah and Edom. ...
(4) Amaziah brought 10,000 prisoners to Sela (Petra), Edom's stronghold, and cast them down; he would scarcely bring so many prisoners from near the Dead Sea, 50 miles through a hostile and difficult country; more likely the valley of Salt was nearer Petra
ha'Dad - (Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ) ...
A king of Edom who gained an important victory over the Midianites on the field of Moab. (Genesis 36:35 ; 1 Chronicles 1:46 ) ...
Also a king of Edom, with Pau for his capital. (1 Chronicles 1:50 ) ...
A member of the royal house Or Edom
Dinhabah - Residence of one of earliest kings of Edom in period prior to Saul in Israel (Genesis 36:32 )
Kabzeel - A town in the extreme south of Judah, on the border of Edom ( Joshua 15:21 , 2 Samuel 23:20 ); called in Nehemiah 11:25 Jekabzeel
Mibzar - ” Edomite clan chief and his tribe (Genesis 36:42 ; 1 Chronicles 1:53 ). Mibzar is possibly Mabsara in northern Edom or Bozrah (Genesis 36:33 ; Amos 1:12 )
Beor - Father of Bela, king of Edom centered in Dinhabah, before Israel had a king (Genesis 36:32 )
Gebal - Some identify the Gebal of Psalms 83:7 with northern Edom, called el-Jebal, but others regard it as Geba No
Obed-Edom - David having removed the ark to the place he had previously prepared for its reception, Obed-Edom and his sons were appointed to be keepers of the doors of the temple, 1 Chronicles 15:18 ; 1 Chronicles 15:21 . Obed-Edom is called the Gittite, probably because he was of Gathrimmon, a city of the Levites beyond Jordan, Joshua 21:24-25
Beor -
The father of Bela, one of the kings of Edom (Genesis 36:32 )
uz, the Land of - Where Job lived (1:1; Jeremiah 25:20 ; Lamentations 4:21 ), probably somewhere to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom
Edom, Edomites - Edom, EdomITES . The Edomites were a tribe or group of tribes residing in early Biblical times in Mount Seir ( Genesis 32:3 , Judges 5:4 ), but covering territory on both sides of it. Edom or Esau was their reputed ancestor. The Israelites were conscious that the Edomites were their near kinsmen, hence the tradition that Esau and Jacob were twin brothers ( Genesis 25:24 ). That the Edomites were an older nation they showed by making Esau the firstborn twin. The tradition that Jacob tricked Esau out of his birthright ( Genesis 27:1-46 ), and that enmity arose between the brothers, is an actual reflexion of the hostile relations of the Edomites and Israelites for which the Israelites were to a considerable degree responsible. ...
Before the conquest of Canaan, Edom is said to have refused to let Israel pass through his territory (Numbers 20:18 ; Numbers 20:21 ). Probably during the period of the Judges, Edomites invaded southern Judah (cf. Possibly Edomites settled here and were incorporated in Judah, for Kenaz is said in Genesis 36:11 to be a son of Esau, while in Judges 3:9 he is counted a Judahite. ...
During the monarchy Saul is said to have fought the Edomites (1 Samuel 14:47 ); David conquered Edom and put garrisons in the country ( 2 Samuel 8:13-14 ); Edom regained its independence under Solomon ( 1 Kings 11:14-22 ); Jehoshaphat a century later reconquered Edom (cf. 1 Kings 22:47-48 ), and Edomites helped him in his war with Moab ( 2 Kings 3:1-27 ); in the reign of Joram, his successor, the Edomites regained their independence after a bloody revolution ( 2 Kings 8:20-21 ); at the beginning of the next century Amaziah reconquered them for a short time, capturing Sela, and slaughtering a large number of them ( 2 Kings 14:7 ). ) accuses Edom of pursuing his brother with the sword. During the next century Edom was independent of Israel, but paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser III. ...
In connexion with the wars of Nebuchadnezzar, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem in 586, many Jews migrated to Edom; but the Edomites rejoiced in the overthrow of the Jews. A little later great suffering was inflicted on the Edomites by the Nabatæans , who overran the country and crowded the Edomites up into southern Judah. ...
The Edomites, because of this, occupied the territory of Judah as far as the town of Beth-zur, to the north of Hebron, which became the Idumæa (wh. Here Judas Maccabæus fought with the Edomites ( 1Ma 5:3 ; 1Ma 5:65 ), and John Hyrcanus shortly before the end of the 2nd cent. This was the end of the Edomites as a nation, but they obtained a kind of revenge on the Jews by furnishing the Herodian dynasty to them
Halak - It is identified with jebel Halak, about 40 miles southwest of the Dead Sea in Edom
Chenaniah - Chief of the Levites at the removal of the ark from the house of Obed-edom ( 1 Chronicles 15:22 ; 1 Chronicles 15:27 ), named among the officers and judges over Israel ( 1 Chronicles 26:29 )
Edom - In the rabbinic texts, Edom is often equated with Rome
Kinah - ” A city in the southeast of Judah near the boundary of Edom (Joshua 15:22 )
Zair - A place in Idumea where Joram defeated Edom after having been first shut in, then cutting his way through; 2 Chronicles 21:9, omit Zair and have instead im saraio , "with his captains
Baal-Hanan -
A king of Edom, son of Achbor (Genesis 36:38,39 ; 1 Chronicles 1:49,50 )
Nebaioth - A son if Ishmael, Genesis 25:13 , whose posterity, occupied the pasture grounds of Arabia Deserta, Isaiah 60:7 , and ultimately possessed themselves of Edom
o'Both - ( Numbers 21:10 ; 33:43 ) Its exact site is unknown but it was probably south of the Dead Sea, on the boundary between Moab and Edom
Elath - In Edom, on the Red Sea, near Ezion Geber (Deuteronomy 2:8). No doubt included in David's conquest of Edom (2 Samuel 8:14). Edom revolted in the Israelite king Joram's days; Azariah (Uzziah) of Judah "built Elath and restored it to Judah" (2 Kings 8:20; 2 Kings 14:22)
Obed-Edom - (oh' behd-ee' duhm) A Personal name meaning, “serving Edom . At Obed-edom's house David left the ark of the covenant following the death of Uzzah at the hand of God (2 Samuel 6:6-11 ). Obed-edom was unusually blessed of God (probably a reference to prosperity) during the three months the ark was at his house. A guild of Levites may have adopted the name “Obed-edom” as their title as keepers of the ark
Idumaea - is properly the Greek name for the land of Edom, which lay to the south of Judea, and extended from the Dead Sea to the Elanitic Gulf of the Red Sea, where were the ports of Elath and Ezion-Gaber. But the Idumaea of the New Testament applies only to a small part adjoining Judea on the south, and including even a portion of that country; which was taken possession of by the Edomites, or Idumaeans, while the land lay unoccupied during the Babylonish captivity. The proper Idumaeans, or those who remained in the ancient land of Edom, became in process of time mingled with the Ishmaelites; the two people thus blended, being, from Nabaioth, or Nabath, the son of Ishmael, termed Nabathaeans; under which names they are frequently mentioned in history. See Edom
Teman - Edomite clan descended from Esau (Genesis 36:11 , Genesis 36:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:36 ). Teman has often been identified with Tawilan, fifty miles south of the Dead Sea just east of Petra, though archaeological evidence does not confirm the site as the principal city of southern Edom. Others understand Teman to designate southern Edom in general
Jobab - ...
King of Edom, succeeded Bela (Genesis 36:33,34 )
Gittite - Obed-edom, in whose house the ark was placed, is so designated (2 Samuel 6:10 )
Mehetabel - ” Wife of King Hadar of Edom (Genesis 36:39 ; 1 Chronicles 1:50 )
Ach'Bor -
Father of Baalhanan king of Edom
Uz - ...
...
One of the Horite "dukes" in the land of Edom (Genesis 36:28 )
ke'Naz - He was one of the dukes of Edom
Obadiah - Abdias is the prophet of the God of Armies coming for judgment upon Edom. Edom shall be humbled and despoiled (2-7), no wisdom can save her (8-10), because she has rejoiced in the distress of Israel (11-14), God will punish all nations (15-16); while Israel shall be saved, Edom shall perish (17-18). Furthermore, the woes invoked upon Edom may well suit the historic situation which confronted King Amasias (797-789) on the eve of his war with Edom
Abdias, Book of - Abdias is the prophet of the God of Armies coming for judgment upon Edom. Edom shall be humbled and despoiled (2-7), no wisdom can save her (8-10), because she has rejoiced in the distress of Israel (11-14), God will punish all nations (15-16); while Israel shall be saved, Edom shall perish (17-18). Furthermore, the woes invoked upon Edom may well suit the historic situation which confronted King Amasias (797-789) on the eve of his war with Edom
Ithran - ” A Horite leader who lived in Edom (Genesis 36:26 )
Genubath - ” Son of Hadad, king of Edom, and the sister of Tahpenes, the wife of Egypt's pharaoh (1 Kings 11:19-20 )
Kenaz - Son of Eliphaz, and a duke of Edom
Lime - Isaiah 33:12 speaks of the 'burnings of lime;' and in Amos 2:1 judgement is pronounced upon Moab because of having "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime
Jehozabad -
The son of Obed-edom (1 Chronicles 26:4 ), one of the Levite porters
Hadad - A name often recurring in the Syrian and Edomite dynasties, meaning the sun; so applied as the official title to the king, as supreme on earth as the sun is in the sky. King of Edom; conquered Midian on the field of Moab (Genesis 36:35); Avith was his capital. King of Edom (Pan was his capital: Genesis 36:39); probably living when Moses wrote, for Moses does not record his death as he does that of his predecessors; last of the kings. Hadad's death does not therefore, as Smith's Bible Dictionary supposes, mark a change to the dukedom. (See Edom. Of the royal house of Edom (1 Kings 11:14, etc. In childhood escaped the massacre of every Edomite male by Joab, and fled into Egypt. The Septuagint read Edom for Aram (Syria), 1 Kings 11:25, thus making Hadad succeed in his attempt to regain rule over Edom, from whence he harassed Israel; but the Septuagint omits all as to Rezon, so that its authority is worth little here. 8:7, section 6) reads as KJV; Hadad thus having failed to recover Edom joined Rezon in assailing Israel and received from him a portion of Syria; "he reigned over Syria" refers to Rezon, and is a repetition of verse 24
Aholibamah - ) Through her Esau's descendants the Edomites became occupants of mount Seir. Aholibamah was her married name, taken from the district, in the heights of Edom, near mount Hor and Petra; Aholibamah is therefore the name given her in the genealogical table of Edom (Genesis 36:2; Genesis 36:18; Genesis 36:25; Genesis 36:41; Genesis 36:43; the names here are of places, not persons; 1 Chronicles 1:52)
Zerah - Son of Reuel, a son of Esau, and one of the dukes of Edom. Father of Jobab one of the early kings of Edom
Bezer - When Scripture mentions Bezer, it adds, "in the wilderness," because it lay in Arabia Deserta, and the eastern part of Edom, encompassed with deserts. This city is sometimes said to belong to Reuben, sometimes to Moab, and sometimes again to Edom; because, as it was a frontier town to these three provinces, it was occasionally in the hands of one party, and then was taken by another
Esau - He is also called Edom; and settled in the mountains south of the Dead Sea, extending to the gulf of Akaba, where he became very powerful. This country was called from him the land of Edom, and afterwards IDUMAEA, which see
Joktheel - The name given to Selah or Petra (the rock), Edom's capital, by Amaziah king of Judah. Its capture brought Edom again under Judah for 80 years (2 Kings 14:7, where "unto this day" limits the date of 2 Kings to not beyond 80 years after Amaziah, 2 Kings 16:6; 2 Chronicles 28:17). Having beaten Edom in "the Valley of Salt," S
Iyim - ]'>[2] incorrectly Iim ), a town in Judah, one of the ‘uttermost cities toward the border of Edom
Baalhanan - An early king of Edom (Genesis 36:38-39), son of Achbor
Unni -
A Levite whom David appointed to take part in bringing the ark up to Jerusalem from the house of Obed-edom by playing the psaltery on that occasion (1 Chronicles 15:18,20 )
Hemam - A Horite clan of Edom ( Genesis 36:22 )
Matred - ), one of the kings of Edom, Genesis 36:39 = 1 Chronicles 1:50
Baal-Hanan - King of Edom prior to any king ruling in Israel (Genesis 36:38 )
Gittith - Others connect it with Obed-edom the Gittite
Aholibamah - A duke of Edom
Shaul - An ancient king of Edom
na'Hath -
One of the "dukes" of Edom, eldest son of Reuel the son of Esau
te'Man - ) ...
A country, and probably a city, named after the Edomite phylarch, or from which the phylarch took his name. , see (Job 9:9 ; Isaiah 43:6 ) and it is probable that the land of Teman was a southern portion of the land of Edom, or, in a wider sense, that of the sons of the east. Teman is mentioned in five places by the prophets, in four of which it is connected with Edom and in two with Dedan
Paran - Wilderness area south of Judah, west of Edom, and north of Sinai. King Hadad of Edom eluded Joab by going through Padan to Egypt (1 Kings 11:17-18 )
e'Dom, Idumae'a - The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," ( Genesis 32:3 ) and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah ( Buseireh ). The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their land. ( Numbers 20:18-21 ) For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Israel, but failed. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes , or dwellers in caves; and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country
Nahath - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( Genesis 36:13 , 1 Chronicles 1:37 ) 2
Aiah - A son of Zibeon among the clans of Edom descended from Esau (Genesis 36:24 )
Duke - In Genesis 36:15-43 , is a long list of "dukes" of Edom; but the word duke, from the Latin dux, merely signifies a leader, and not an order of nobility; and the word chief or sheikh would have been preferable in our translation, 1 Chronicles 1:51
e'Der -
One of the towns of Judah, in the extreme south, and on the borders of Edom
Obadiah, Book of - Consists of one chapter, "concerning Edom," its impending doom (1:1-16), and the restoration of Israel (1:17-21). He sees the calamity as having already come on Jerusalem, and the Edomites as joining their forces with those of the Chaldeans in bringing about the degradation and ruin of Israel. We do not indeed read that the Edomites actually took part with the Chaldeans, but the probabilities are that they did so, and this explains the words of Obadiah in denouncing against Edom the judgments of God. ...
Edom is the type of Israel's and of God's last foe (Isaiah 63:1-4 )
Edom - Therefore was his name called Edom", i. "The field of Edom" (Genesis 32:3 ), "the land of Edom" (Genesis 36:16 ), was mountainous (Obadiah 1:8,9,19,21 ). They were destroyed by the Edomites (Deuteronomy 2:12 ), between whom and the kings of Israel and Judah there was frequent war (2 Kings 8:20 ; 2 Chronicles 28:17 ). , "Edomites"), made war against Israel. At length, however, Edom fell under the growing Chaldean power (Jeremiah 27:3,6 ). ...
There are many prophecies concerning Edom (Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Jeremiah 49:7-18 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ; 35:1-15 ; Joel 3:19 ; Amos 1:11 ; Obad. " ...
The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in language to the Israelites. Edomite tribes settled also in the south of Judah, like the Kenizzites (Genesis 36:11 ), to whom Caleb and Othniel belonged (Joshua 15:17 ). The southern part of Edom was known as Teman
Shaul - Early king of Edom from Rehoboth (Genesis 36:37 ; 1 Chronicles 1:48 )
Joktheel - King Amaziah captured Selah from Edom and renamed it Joktheel (2 Kings 14:7 )
Amasai - Priest who helped to bring up the ark from the house of Obed-edom
Bozrah - Ancestral home of Jobab, a king in Edom before Israel had a king (Genesis 36:33 ). A major city which at times served as capital of Edom, Bozrah lay about 25 miles southeast of the southern end of the Dead Sea at modern Buseirah
Teman - Son of Eliphaz, Esau's son (Genesis 36:11); a duke of Edom. the whole land of Edom
Obadiah, Book of - The whole of it relates to Edom or the Edomites. Edom (Esau) is characterised in scripture by his deadly hatred to his 'brother Jacob,' Obadiah 10 . In Psalm 137:7,8 , Edom is associated with Babylon as against Jerusalem. ...
The prophecy, however, probably looks onward to the last days, when Israel, restored to their land, will be attacked by Edom, and kindred nations
Hadad - An Edomite king (Genesis 36:35 ). The name Hadad was borne by several members of the royal household of Edom
Timna - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( 1 Chronicles 1:51 , Genesis 36:40 Elzabad - A Levite and grandson of Obed-Edom, identified as a valiant man (1 Chronicles 26:7 )
Azaziah - A Levite appointed to the musical service on the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obed-edom
Obed-Edom - Obed-edom and his sons were made doorkeepers of the tabernacle at Jerusalem, 2 Samuel 6:10-12 ; 1 Chronicles 15:18-24 ; 16:38 ; 26:4 - 8,15
Seirah - The name would seem to point to Mount Seir in Edom, but the context seems to make that location impossible
Edom - Edom (ç'dom), red. It was given to Esau, and called the field or land of Edom
Arad - The king of Arad "fought against Israel and took of them prisoners" when they were retreating from the confines of Edom (Numbers 21:1 ; 33:40 ; Judges 1:16 )
Mezahab - If a person, Mezahab was the grandfather of Mehetabel, the wife of King Hadar of Edom
Sha'ul - ) ...
One of the kings of Edom
Shobal - Son of Seir and ruler in Edom (Genesis 36:20 ,Genesis 36:20,36:23 ,Genesis 36:23,36:29 )
ze'Red - It lay between Moab and Edom and is the limit of the proper term of the Israelites' wandering
Dumah - city or district prophesied against; probably in Edom, and perhaps connected with No
Git'Tites - Obed-edom "the Gittite" may have been so named from the town of Gittaim in Benjamin, (2 Samuel 4:3 ; Nehemiah 11:33 ) or from Gath-rimmon
ho'Rim - The name Horite appears to have been derived from their habits as "cave-dwellers" Their excavated dwellings are still found in hundreds in the sandstone cliffs and mountains of Edom, and especially in Petra
Sela - =Se'lah, rock, the capital of Edom, situated in the great valley extending from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea (2 Kings 14:7 ). " (See Edom [1]
Shoes - Twice is it said, "Over Edom will I cast out my shoe:" signifying that Edom would be subdued and be taken possession of as a menial. We read that "all they of Edom became David's servants
me-Zahab - Father of Matred and grandfather of Mehetabel the wife of Hadar (Hadad), one of the kings of Edom ( Genesis 36:39 )
Obadiah - (8th century BCE) An Edomite by birth, later converted to Judaism and became a disciple of Elijah. His prophecies pertain to the destruction of his native nation, Edom. ...
Obadiah, the book of: The shortest book in Tanach, containing Obadiah's prophecy that foretells Edom's destruction
Ovadiah - (8th century BCE) An Edomite by birth, later converted to Judaism and became a disciple of Elijah. His prophecies pertain to the destruction of his native nation, Edom. ...
Ovadiah: The shortest book in Tanach, containing Obadiah's prophecy that foretells Edom's destruction
Ovadiah (2) - (8th century BCE) An Edomite by birth, later converted to Judaism and became a disciple of Elijah. His prophecies pertain to the destruction of his native nation, Edom. ...
Ovadiah: The shortest book in Tanach, containing Obadiah's prophecy that foretells Edom's destruction
Horims, Horites - The sandstone rocks of mount Seir are full of excavated dwellings, and there are traces of the same throughout the region of Edom
Shaul - Shaul of Rehoboth by the river was one of the kings of Edom (1 Chronicles 1:48-49); SAUL in Genesis 36:37
Adah - One of the wives of Esau, daughter of Elon the Hittite and thus 'a daughter of Canaan:' she bare to Esau his first-born son Eliphaz, who became the father of seven of the dukes of Edom
Jobab - Son of Zerah and king of Edom
Kadesh Barnea - Here wady el Ghuweir affords access northwestwards through mountainous Edom; from here accordingly Moses sent to ask a passage through Edom by "the king's highway. , 70 miles from Mount Hor and 60 from Mount Seir; but Kadesh was only one march from Mount Hor (Numbers 20:16; Numbers 20:22; Numbers 33:37), "on the edge of Edom," "on its uttermost border"; on low ground (whereas El Ain is on high ground) from whence the spies "go up" to Canaan. ; Petra or Selah was too far in the heart of Edom to be Judah's frontier, and "in the uttermost border of Edom. From hence Moses sent to the king of Edom (Numbers 20:14, etc. ...
On the messengers' return Israel turned from Edom, leaving Kadesh finally, and after Aaron's death at Mount Hor marched around Edom to Moab (Numbers 33:41-49)
Horites - Cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves which abounded in Edom
Ammiel - Levite, son of Obed-edom, a porter of the tabernacle
Moladah - A city in southern Judah, next Edom (Joshua 15:26), given to Simeon (Joshua 19:2; 1 Chronicles 4:28)
Kinah - border of Judah, next Edom (Joshua 15:22)
Aholibamah - A district among the mountains of Edom, probably near Mount Hor, was called after her name, or it may be that she received her name from the district. From her descended three tribes of Edomites, founded by her three sons
Kabzeel - Located in the southeast part of Judah near the border of Edom (Joshua 15:21 )
Beor - Father of Bela, king of Edom, Genesis 36:32 J jo'Bab - (Genesis 10:29 ; 1 Chronicles 1:23 ) ...
One of the "kings" of Edom
Joram - He led a coalition with Judah and Edom, advised by Elisha, to defeat Moab. Edom and Libnah gained independence from Judah in his reign
Cushan-Rishathaim - Some have tried to see Aram as an unintentional copying error for an original Edom, but no evidence exists for this conjecture
Coral - Coral was among the goods of trade between Israel and Edom (Ezekiel 27:16 )
Teman -
A grandson of Esau, one of the "dukes of Edom" (Genesis 36:11,15,42 )
Joah -
One of the sons of Obed-edom (1 Chronicles 26:4 ), a Korhite porter
Tema - South; desert, one of the sons of Ishmael, and father of a tribe so called (Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ; Job 6:19 ; Isaiah 21:14 ; Jeremiah 25:23 ) which settled at a place to which he gave his name, some 250 miles south-east of Edom, on the route between Damascus and Mecca, in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula, toward the Syrian desert; the modern Teyma'
Dedan - His descendants settled on the Syrian borders about the territory of Edom
Gittites - Obed-edom, though a Levite, was also called a Gittite, probably because of residing at Gath or Gath-rimmon
am'mi-el - (2 Samuel 9:4 ; 17:27 ) ...
Father of Bath-sheba, (1 Chronicles 3:5 ) called 2 Samuel 11:3 ) ...
The sixth son of Obed-edom, (1 Chronicles 26:5 ) and one of the doorkeepers of the temple
Jobab - King of Edom (Genesis 36:33-34); son of Zerah of Bozrah; successor of Bela, first king
Joah - Son of Obed-edom, a Korhite
Hadarezer - ) Edom invaded Israel during David's absence at the Euphrates; Psalm 44 by the sons of Korah alludes to this. Psalm 60 by David was composed after victory in part had been gained over Aram Naharaim (Syria of the two floods) and Aram (Syria) of Zobah the kingdom of Hadarezer, who had come to help his vassals of Mesopotamia, the region of the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates; after having conquered the two Syrias, Joab returned and smote Edom in the valley of Salt; Psalm 60 refers to the expedition subsequently undertaken to occupy Edom in revenge for Edom's invasion of Israel
Idumaea - ]'>[1] only in Mark 3:8 ) of the name Edom , originally the territory east of the Jordan-Arabah valley and south of the land of Moab. See Edom. ...
After the fall of Babylon the pressure of the desert Arabs forced the Edomites across the Jordan-Arabah valley, and the people and name were extended westward. the geographer Ptolemy restricts Idumæa to the cis-Jordanic area, and includes the original trans-Jordanic Edom in Arabia
Zair - ]'>[1] of 2 Kings 8:21 , Joram, in the course of his campaign against Edom, ‘passed over to Zair
Timnah - ...
...
A "duke" or sheik of Edom (Genesis 36:40 )
Lime - In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of Moab "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime
Dumah - The place mentioned in the "burden" of the prophet (Isaiah 21:11 ) is Edom or Idumea
Tim'na, - ) ...
A duke or phylarch of Edom in the last list in (Genesis 36:40-43 ; 1 Chronicles 1:51-54 ) Timnah was probably the name of a place or a district
Bela - King of Edom who ruled in city of Dinhabah before Israel had a king (Genesis 36:32 )
Akrabbim - The scene of Judas Maccabens' victory over Edom
Achbor - Father of king in Edom (Genesis 36:38 )
Uz - One of the Horites in the land of Edom ( Genesis 36:28 Esau - David put garrisons throughout all Edom (where the descendants of Esau dwelt, Genesis 36:8 ) and all they of Edom became his servants, 2 Samuel 8:14 ; but later on in the days of Joram, Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah; and though Joram wasable to punish them, yet Judah was growing weaker, and 'Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, unto this day. Obadiah announces Edom's final judgement: no remnant is restored. See Edom
Amaziah - Having established himself in his throne and slain the murderers of his father, he mustered a host of 300,000 men of Judah, and hired 100,000 men of Israel, for a war upon Edom. But this did not prevent him from carrying home with him the idols of Edom, and setting them up to be his gods
Shemaiah - ...
...
A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren took part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron (1 Chronicles 15:8 ). ...
...
The eldest son of Obed-edom (1 Chronicles 26:4-8 )
Uz - Unspecified territory, most likely in Hauran south of Damascus (Jeremiah 25:20 ) or else between Edom and northern Arabia (Job 1:1 ; Lamentations 4:21 ). Descendant of Esau (Genesis 36:28 ) and member of the Horite branch of Edomites
Hashmonah - Heshmon (Joshua 15:27), an "uttermost city of Judah toward the coast of Edom southward," like Kedesh outside the natural frontier of Palestine, in the extreme N
Lemuel - Exactly where his kingdom of Massa was is not known, although certain linguistic features in the text have led scholars to place it in north Arabia, possibly near Edom
Duke - A chief a prince as the dukes of Edom
Amminadab, Aminadab - Son of Uzziel, a Levite, who assisted to bring up the ark from the house of Oded-edom
Zin - A desert on the south border of Canaan, and the west of Edom, Numbers 34:1-4
Obadiah, Theology of - ...
Obadiah also provided the people concrete hope in that he declared the defeat of a perennial enemy, Edom. Edom troubled Israel during the exodus wanderings (Numbers 20:14-21 ; 24:18 ), and often during the monarchy (1 Samuel 14:47 ; 2 Samuel 8:13-14 ; 1 Kings 9:26-28 ; 11:15-16 ; 2 Chronicles 20:1-2 ; 25:11-12 ). While not confirmed by any other historical sources, Edom, which became a vassal first of Assyria and later of Babylonia, is credited with burning the temple in Jerusalem when Jerusalem fell to Babylon in 587 b. ...
Edom is the subject of the first part of Obadiah. God, who has a special place in his heart and his promises for his people Israel, looms even higher than Edomite strongholds. It seems from the prophecy itself that Edom had not only stood by while Judah was under attack, but had gloated over its plight, even entering the capital, possibly to plunder, and also had turned over refugees to the conquerors in cold-blooded disregard for kinship loyalty (vv. Within the century, Edom's fortunes started to slide, finally losing its land to the Arabs, though its ethnic presence is still evident in southern Transjordan and Palestine (see Nehemiah 2:19 ; 4:7 ; 6:1 ), even in the later name of the Negev region in southern Palestine as Idumaea (1 Maccabees 4:29 ). ...
This response of judgment shows that opposition to God, whether direct or indirect, as here with the Edomites acting against his chosen people, will not go unnoticed. 15) shifts from a focus on Edom to the whole world. Edom is an example of God ultimately calling all nations to account for their deeds. As a day of judgment comes for Edom (v
Gebal -
A tract in the land of Edom south of the Dead Sea (Psalm 83:7 ); now called Djebal
Bela - ...
...
The son of Beor, and a king of Edom (Genesis 36:32,33 ; 1 Chronicles 1:43 )
Bozrah - Royal city of Edom, on which the prophets pronounced judgements
Zalmonah - The stage in Israel's wilderness journey next after Mount Hor (Numbers 33:41) on the march from Kadesh round Edom
Man - It appears to be derived from adam , "he or it was red or ruddy," like Edom
Idumea - The name given by the Greeks to the land of Edom, or mount Seir, which extended originally from the Dead sea to the Elanitic gulf of the Red sea, including a territory about on hundred miles long, and fifteen or twenty wide. The capital of East Idumaea was Bozra; but the chief capital of Edom was Petra, or Sela, that is, the rock, because it was excavated in part from a mountain. The true Idumaeans, or Edomites, were, as their name implies, descendants of Edom, or Esau, elder brother of Jacob, Genesis 36:6-9 . On the approach of the Israelites from Egypt to the western border of Edom, they were refused a peaceful passage through that country to Moab. The Idumaeans bore their subjection with great impatience, and at the end of Solomon's reign, Hadad, an Edomite prince who had been carried into Egypt during his childhood, returned into his own country, where he pronounced himself to be acknowledged king, 1 Kings 11:14-22 . It is probable, however, that he reigned only in East Edom, 1 Kings 22:47 2 Chronicles 20:36 ; for Edom south of Judea continued subject to the kings of Judah till the reign of Jehoram, against who it rebelled, 2 Chronicles 21:8 , in fulfillment of the second part of Isaac's prophecy, Genesis 27:40 . Amaziah king of Judah also discomfited the Edomites, killed 1,000 men, and cast 10,000 more from a precipice, 2 Kings 14:7 2 Chronicles 25:11,12 . Many predictions of the prophets foreshadowed Edom's real doom, Obadiah 1:1-21 Jeremiah 49:7 Ezekiel 25:17 Malachi 1:3,4 . In the time of their prosperity, the Edomites were numerous and powerful, devoted to commerce by land and by sea, and also to agriculture and the raising of cattle, Numbers 20:17
Kenizzites - ]'>[3] in Genesis 36:42 enrols Kenaz among the ‘dukes’ of Edom, while a Priestly supplementer counts him both as a ‘duke’ and as a grandson of Esau ( Genesis 36:11 ; Genesis 36:16 ). The probable meaning of all these passages is that the Kenizzites overspread a part of Edom and southern Judah before the Israelitish conquest and continued to abide there, a part of them being absorbed by the Edomites, and a part by the tribe of Judah
Kadesh or Kadesh-Barnea - It is said, in Numbers 20:16 , to lie in the "uttermost border of Edom," and was probably situated very near the great valley El-Arabah, south of the Dead Sea. At their second visit occurred the death of Miriam, the murmuring of the people for water, the miraculous supply, the sin of Aaron and Moses in smiting the rock, and the fruitless request for a passage through Edom, Numbers 20:1-22
Jobab - Early king of Edom centered in Bozrah (Genesis 36:33 )
Azazi'ah - (whom the Lord strengthens )
A Levite musician in the reign of David, appointed to play the harp in the service which attended the procession by which the ark was brought up from the house of Obed-edom
Ezion-Geber - (For fuller details of Ezion-geber’s significance see Edom
Hadad -
An Edomite king who defeated the Midianites (Genesis 36:35 ; 1 Chronicles 1:46 ). ...
...
Another Edomite king (1 Chronicles 1:50,51 ), called also Hadar (Genesis 36:39 ; 1 Chronicles 1:51 ). ...
...
One of "the king's seed in Edom
Joktheel - ...
...
Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition against Edom (2 Chronicles 25:5-10 ), which was completely successful. He routed the Edomites and slew vast numbers of them
Amasai - ...
...
One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom (1 Chronicles 15:24 )
Ammiel - ...
...
One of the sons of Obed-edom the Levite (1 Chronicles 26:5 )
Shaul - A king of Edom, Genesis 36:37 f
Timna - A duke or phylarch of Edom (Genesis 36:40-43), so that Timna was probably the name of a district
Rehoboth by the River - The Edomite king Saul's or Shaul's city (Genesis 36:37). As Edom never extended to the Euphrates' "river," probably an Assyrian invasion put Shaul from Rehoboth on the Edomite throne
Beracah - ) and his people blessed God after He provided miraculous victory over Ammon, Moab, and Edom (2 Chronicles 20:26 )
Cushan-Rishathaim - ]'>[1] ’ is a mistake for Edom , ‘Rishathaim’ for Resh-hat-temani , ‘chief of the Temanites
Ammiel - The sixth son of Obed-edom, who with his family constituted one of the courses of doorkeepers in the time of David; to them was allotted charge of the S
Gebal - Apparently part of the mountainous range of Edom
Engaddi - In the desert of Engaddi David hid when sought by Saul (I Kings, 24) and it was the scene of the slaughter of the hordes of Ammon, Moab, and Edom, who had invaded the Kingdom of Judea in the reign of Josaphat (II Par
be'la -
One of the five cities of the plain which was spared at the intercession of Lot, and received the name of Zoar, (Genesis 14:2 ; 19:22 ) [1] ...
Son of Beor, who reigned over Edom in the city of Dinhabah, eight generations before Saul
Jehoz'Abad -
A Korhite Levite, second son of Obed-edom, and one of the porters of the south gate of the temple and of the storehouse there in the time of David
jo'ah - (1 Chronicles 6:21 ) ...
The third son of Obed-edom, (1 Chronicles 26:4 ) a Korhite, and one of the doorkeepers appointed by David
Bozrah - Jobab is styled "of Bozrah" (Genesis 36:33) among the kings of Edom (1 Chronicles 1:44). The Bozrah of Edom on the mountains (Jeremiah 49:13) and Edom's other cities are to be "perpetual wastes"; but the Bozrah of Moab "in the plain" is to be restored "in the latter days" (Jeremiah 48:47)
Edomites - In addition to the above remarks on Edom there remain a few things to notice which are said of the people themselves. This prediction was fulfilled, for though they were defeated again and again by the kings of Israel, they were at length able to declare their freedom. They must have greatly increased, as is shown by the numbers that were slain in some of the wars; and though in the time of David we read of every male in Edom being slain, 1 Kings 11:15,16 , they again became numerous and were again defeated. In the time of the Maccabees John Hyrcanus compelled the Edomites to be circumcised and to conform to the Jewish laws, or leave the country. They were circumcised, and one of them became procurator Of Judaea — Antipater, the father of HEROD THE GREAT, who was an Edomite, or Idumean, by birth, though nominally a Jew
Rehoboth - The name of a king of Edom in Genesis 36:37 , where he is called ‘Rehoboth of the River
Eder - A town in the southern limits of the tribal territory of Judah near Edom (Joshua 15:21 )
Timna - Son of Eliphaz (1 Chronicles 1:36 ; Genesis 36:16 , Teman) and Edomite clan chief (Genesis 36:40 ; 1 Chronicles 1:51 ). Timna is associated with either Timna in southern Arabia or, following Genesis 36:16 , Teman in southern Edom
King's Highway - It is mentioned in Numbers 20:17 and Numbers 21:22 as the route Moses and the Israelites would take through Edom and the land of Sihon
Punon - An Edomite ducal city; the Phoeno of Eusebius and Jerome, the penal abode of convicts sent to labour in the neighbouring copper mines. of, not within, Edom; as the Roman road is much to the right of the direct line of march
Zin - Kadesh lay in it, and here also Idumea was conterminous with Judah; since Kadesh was a city in the border of Edom
Bozrah - Genesis 36:33 , a city of Edom, Isaiah 34:6 63:1 , and the region around it, Jeremiah 49:13,22
Elah - A ‘duke’ of Edom ( Genesis 36:41 , 1 Chronicles 1:52 )
Duke - ]'>[1] to the chiefs of Edom, with the exception of Joshua 13:21 ‘dukes of Sihon,’ and 1Ma 10:65 (applied to Jonathan Maccabæus)
Elah - Duke of Edom
Dedan - Jeremiah warned merchants from Dedan working or staying in Edom to flee the country because God was bringing judgment on it (Jeremiah 49:8 ). Ezekiel warned Edom that their soldiers fleeing even to Dedan would be struck down (Ezekiel 25:13 )
Eliphaz - First of Job's three friends, the "Temanite," sprung from the former Eliphaz Teman answers to Edom (Jeremiah 49:20), part of Arabia Petraea
Eliphaz - Eliphaz became the ancestor of the chieftains of several Edomite clans (Genesis 36:15-16 ). He is identified as a Temanite, meaning he was from Teman in Edom
Eliel - a Levite mentioned in connexion with the removal of the ark from the house of Obed-edom ( 1 Chronicles 15:9 ; 1 Chronicles 15:11 )
Paran - The wilderness on the south of Canaan and west of Edom
Dedan - It is more than once in these prophecies associated with Edom, so that it was probably connected with the descendants of Abraham
Asai'ah - (1 Chronicles 6:30 ) With 120 of his brethren he took part in bringing the ark from the house of Obed-edom to the city of David
Arabah - The great limestone plateau, et-Tîh , the Wilderness of Paran, forms the western boundary, and the naked crags of Edom the eastern. Israel traversed the Arabah when they went to Kadesh-barnea, and again when they returned to the south to avoid passing through the land of Edom ( Numbers 20:21 ; Numbers 21:4 , Deuteronomy 2:6 )
Nest - ) So Edom, Obadiah 1:3-4; "thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock . Petra, in the wady Musa, Edom's capital cut in the rocks. Contrast the clefts in which the proud sinner like Edom hides (Jeremiah 49:16)
Obadiah, Book of - ...
The book contains two themes: (1) a prophetic Interpretation of an overwhelming disaster which has already befallen Edom ( Obadiah 1:1-7 ; Obadiah 1:10-14 ; Jeremiah 49:1-392 b); (2) a prediction of a universal judgment and specifically of judgment on Edom which is now imminent ( Obadiah 1:8-9 ; Obadiah 1:16 a, Obadiah 1:16-21 ). The prophetic interpretation of Edom’s fall . The prophet describes the complete conquest of the Edomites and their expulsion from their land ( Obadiah 1:7 ) by a number of nations ( Obadiah 1:1 ) once their friends and allies ( Obadiah 1:7 ). In this calamity the writer sees Jahweh’s judgment on Edom for gloating over the fall of the Jews described as Edom’s brother ( Obadiah 1:12 ) and participating with foreign and alien enemies ( Obadiah 1:11 ) in the infliction of injuries on them. This interpretation is stated in simple and direct terms in Obadiah 1:10-11 , and dramatically in Obadiah 1:12-14 , where the writer, throwing himself back to the time of the Edomites’ ill-treatment of the Jews, adjures them not to do the things they actually did. The section closes with the effective assertion of the retributive character of the disasters that had befallen Edom and still affect it ‘As thou hast done, is it done unto thee; thy dealing returns upon thine own head’ ( Obadiah 1:15 b). ...
The verses thus summarized have these points in common: ( a ) the tenses are historical except in Obadiah 1:10 (‘shame doth cover thee, and thou art cut off for ever’) and Obadiah 1:15 b, which may be rendered as presents, and interpreted as at the end of the preceding paragraph; and ( b ) after Obadiah 1:1 , where Edom, in the present text, is spoken of in the 3rd person, Edom is throughout addressed in the 2nd pers. Among these verses are now interspersed others, Obadiah 1:6 , which speaks of Esau (=Edom) in the 3rd person (pl. in clause a , sing, in b ) and which may be an aside in the midst of the address, but is more probably an Interpolation; and Obadiah 1:8-9 (together with the last clause of Obadiah 1:7 ), which speak of Edom in the 3rd person and unmistakably regard the disaster as still future: these verses are best regarded as an addition by an editor who wished the prophetic interpretation of past fact to be read as a prophetic description of the future. The prophecy also appears in Obadiah 1:5 ; Obadiah 1:7 to allude to the extrusion of the Edomites from ancient Edom owing to the northward movement of Arabs people who had often satisfied themselves with plundering expeditions (cf. 312, as we learn from Diodorus Siculus, Arabs had occupied Petra, the ancient capital of Edom. ) are Israelites, not Edomites, and Edom is referred to in the 3rd person. The prophecy predicts as imminent: ( a ) a universal judgment ( Obadiah 1:15 a, Obadiah 1:15 , in which the annihilation of Edom by the Jews (not [2] nations as in Obadiah 1:1 ; Obadiah 1:5 ; Obadiah 1:7 ) and Israelites forms an episode which is specially described ( Obadiah 1:18 ), and ( b ) the restoration of the exiles alike of the Northern and of the Southern Kingdom ( Obadiah 1:18 , cf
Iram - The "kings" of Edom there enumerated (Genesis 37:31; Genesis 37:39) did not precede the "dukes" (Genesis 37:40-43), but reigned contemporaneously with them, and were elected by them at every vacancy in the throne
Hazazon-Tamar - Edom (NIV; TEV; NRSV; REB following one Hebrew manuscript; most manuscripts and early translations read, “Aram,” meaning Syria, as read by NAS; KSV)
Elihu - ...
...
One of the family of Obed-edom, who were appointed porters of the temple under David (1 Chronicles 26:7 )
Lentiles - Small beans, common in Syria and Egypt, called 'adas , very palatable; the ingredient of the red pottage ('edom ), for which Esau sold his birthright
Obed-Edom - OBED-EDOM
Nabateans - They appear to have infiltrated ancient Edom and Moab from a homeland southeast of Petra
Brook of Zered - The wadi is about 35 miles long and forms the boundary between Moab and Edom
Adah - Daughter of Elon the Hittite; one of Esau's three wives; mother of his firstborn, Eliphaz; ancestress of six of the Edomite tribes (Genesis 36:2-4; (Genesis 36:15-16); called Βashemath (Genesis 26:34), ("the fragrant"). Eastern and especially Arabian custom gives surnames (founded on some memorable event in one's life), which gradually supersede the other name; for instance, Edom, Genesis 25:30
Palestina, Palestine - In Exodus 15:14,15 , Palestina, Edom, and Moab are mentioned, and then 'all the inhabitants of Canaan
Mesha - He was tributary to Ahab, but rebelled and suffered an entire defeat from Jehoram, Jehoshaphat, and the king of Edom
e'Lath, e'Loth - (a grove ), the name of a town of the land of Edom, commonly mentioned with Ezion-geber, and situated at the head of the Arabian Gulf, which was thence called the Elanitic Gulf
Rehoboth - City in the East, 'by the river,' from whence one named Saul, or Shaul, became an early king of Edom
Red Sea - Some suppose it was so named from the red color of the mountains on the western shores, some from the red coral, or the red appearance of the water occasioned by certain zoophytes; others think that, as the Edomitish territory reached down to this gulf, it might be the Sea of Edom, Edom meaning red. They journeyed by the way of the Red Sea (the eastern arm or Gulf of Akabah) to compass Edom
Ezer - ” Ezer was a leader in Edom and a descendant of Esau (Genesis 36:21 ,Genesis 36:21,36:27 ,Genesis 36:27,36:30 ). He was a Horite and lived in Seir or Edom
Gebal - An Idumean clan, on the right of Ammon, as Amalek was on the left; for in the psalm it is coupled with Moab, Ammon, Amalek, and Edom. A portion of the range of Edom
Idumaeans - Idumæans, or Edomites (ĭd'u-mç'anz, or ç'dom-îtes). The inhabitants of Idumæa or Edom, descendants of Esau, Genesis 36:1; Genesis 36:8, and dwellers in the clefts of the rocks in the Sinaitic peninsula. The Edomites were conquered by Saul in the early part of his reign, 1 Samuel 14:47, and by David likewise, 2 Samuel 8:14; but at the instigation of Hadad they revolted against Solomon. Edom was for a long time a vassal of the kingdom of Judah, but again revolted, and after a straggle got its independence in the reign of Jehoram. The later kings attacked and were attacked by the Edomites
Hor - It was on the" boundary line," or "at the edge" of the land of Edom. Mount Hor is on the western side of the great valley of the Arabah, the highest and most conspicuous of the whole range of the sandstone mountains of Edom, having close beneath it on its eastern side the strange city of Petra
Obadiah - His prophetic theme is Edom; and Edom's revolt under Joram, Jehoshaphat's son, is recorded 2 Chronicles 21:10. This is more likely than that he was a contemporary of Jeremiah, and that he refers to Edom's cruelty to the Jews at Jerusalem's capture by the Chaldees in 2 Chronicles 21:11-16; 2 Chronicles 21:20 (compare Lamentations 4:21-22; Ezekiel 25:12-14; Ezekiel 25:35; Psalms 137:7). The capture of Jerusalem alluded to by Obadiah is probably that by the Philistines and Arabs under Joram (2 Chronicles 21:8-10; 2 Chronicles 21:16-17), when Edom, who had just before revolted from under Judah and had been punished by Joram, in revenge gave an earnest of that unbrotherly cruelty which he in a still worse degree showed at Jerusalem's capture by Nebuchadnezzar. Amaziah slew of Edom in the valley of Salt ten thousand, and took Selah by war (2 Kings 16:7), an earnest of Edom's foretold doom (Obadiah 1:1, etc. ) The doom of Edom (Obadiah 1:1-9). ...
Expanding southward, westward, eastward, and northward, they shall acquire additionally Edom, Philistia, and northern Canaan to Zarephath (Sarepta near Sidon). (See Edom for the fulfillment. ...
The Maccabees (Judah's deliverers from Antiochus Epiphanes) who conquered Edom were types. Edom typifies Israel's and God's last foes (Isaiah 63:1-4)
Hiss - ...
Other nations and cities were also the objects of hissing: Edom (Jeremiah 49:17 ); Babylon (Jeremiah 50:13 ); Tyre (Ezekiel 27:36 ); and Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:15 )
Bela - A king of Edom ( Genesis 36:32-33 , cf. It is noteworthy that this Bela, like the Edomite king mentioned above, seems to have been traditionally connected with the Euphrates
Seir -
A Horite; one of the "dukes" of Edom (Genesis 36:20-30 ). ...
...
The name of a mountainous region occupied by the Edomites, extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the south-eastern extremity of the Dead Sea to near the Akabah, or the eastern branch of the Red Sea. It was originally occupied by the Horites (Genesis 14:6 ), who were afterwards driven out by the Edomites (Genesis 32:3 ; 33:14,16 ). ...
...
A mountain range (not the Edomite range, Genesis 32:3 ) lying between the Wady Aly and the Wady Ghurab (Joshua 15:10 )
Bashemath - Called Adah in the genealogy of Edom (Genesis 36:2-3). Ishmael's daughter; the last of Esau's three wives according to the Edomite genealogy inserted by Moses (Genesis 36:3-4; Genesis 36:13). From her son Reuel four Edomite tribes descended
Uzzah - David on this feared to proceed further, and placed the ark in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite (2 Samuel 6:2-11 ; 1 Chronicles 13:6-13 )
Bozrah - An Edomite city known only as the place of origin of Jobah, son of Zerah, one of the Edomite kings ( Genesis 36:33 , 1 Chronicles 1:44 ). It was, however, of such importance in the kingdom of Edom that it is coupled with the name of the latter in poetic parallelisms ( e
Asaiah - He is apparently the same as the chief of the sons of Merari, who led 220 of his clan in helping bring the ark of the covenant from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:1 )
Seir, Mount - ' It was occupied at first by the Horites, and afterwards by the descendants of Esau, and acquired the name of Edom, q
Jobab - A king of Edom ( Genesis 36:33 f
Mesha - Joram the son of Ahab, with the aid of Judah and Edom, made war upon him, and besieged him in his capital
Rimmon - A town of Palestine, near the frontier of Edom, Joshua 15:21,32 Zechariah 14:10 , in the region assigned to the tribe of Simeon, Joshua 19:7 1 Chronicles 4:32 Nehemiah 11:29
Hor - (Numbers 33:37 ) of the land of Edom. Mount Hor is situated on the eastern side of the great valley of the Arabah , the highest and most conspicuous of the whole range of the sandstone mountains of Edom, having close beneath it on its: eastern side the mysterious; city of Petra
Bela - Bela is also the name of an Edomite king (Genesis 36:32). A king of Edom, son of Beor, a Chaldean probably by birth (like Balaam also descended from Beor, and originally residing in Pethor of Aram by the Euphrates: Numbers 22:5; Numbers 23:7), and reigning in Edom by conquest (Genesis 36:31-39; 1 Chronicles 1:43-51). As Husham is like Bela a king of Edom, so with Bela son of Benjamin is connected a Benjamite family of Hushim, sprung from a foreign woman of Moab (1 Chronicles 7:12; 1 Chronicles 8:8-11)
Hyena - All the scriptural references concern judgment on foreign nations (Babylon or Edom) which are left desolate (Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:14 ; Jeremiah 50:39 )
Nethaneel - Son of Obed-edom
Rehoboth - Unidentified Edomite city (Genesis 36:37 ; 1 Chronicles 1:48 ). Edomite dominion reaching the Euphrates is improbable. Thus some suggest the Zered Brook, the principal stream in Edom, as the site of Rehoboth
Negeb - Edom took the area into its kingdom
Sela, Selah - The rock city of Edom
Lentil - This, we find, was the "red pottage" which Esau, from thence called Edom, exchanged for his birthright
Elihu - A native of Buz, Genesis 22:21 , which was probably a city of Edom, Jeremiah 25:23 , perhaps Bozrah, Jeremiah 49:7,8,13
Obadiah - ...
Prophecy of, contains a general accusation of Edom, and an account of the prosperity of Zion when Jacob should return from his captivity and Esau be discomfited
Kenaz - A duke of Edom (Genesis 36:15; Genesis 36:42)
Garrison - David, in turn, placed garrisons in Damascus (2 Samuel 8:6 ) and in Edom (2 Samuel 8:14 ) with the result that the natives became his servants, that is, they were subjugated and forced to pay tribute
Kenizzite - The tribe of Judah absorbed some of the Kenizzites while Edom absorbed others. They probably derived their name from Kenaz—a descendant of Esau (Genesis 36:11 ,Genesis 36:11,36:15 )—who is listed among the Edomite chieftains (Genesis 36:42 )
Esar-Haddon - He made war with the Philistines, and took Azoth, by Tartan, his general: he attacked Egypt, Cush, and Edom, Isaiah 20, 34; designing, probably, to avenge the affront Sennacherib his father had received from Tirhakah, king of Cush, and the king of Egypt, who had been Hezekiah's confederates
Shoe - ...
In the expression ‘upon [3] Edom will I cast my shoe’ (Psalms 60:8 ; Psalms 108:9 ) many authorities find a reference to an extension of this shoe symbolism, the actual taking possession of the property being symbolized by throwing a shoe over or upon it. ]'>[4] ‘unto Edom,’ see in the words an assertion of Edom’s servitude, it being the part of a slave to carry his master’s shoes
Kadesh - It lay in the "wilderness" or "desert of Zin" (Genesis 14:7 ; Numbers 13:3-26 ; 14:29-33 ; 20:1 ; 27:14 ), on the border of Edom (20:16). The king of Edom would not permit them to pass on through his territory, and therefore they commenced an eastward march, and "came unto Mount Hor" (20:22)
Kadesh - It lay in the "wilderness" or "desert of Zin" (Genesis 14:7 ; Numbers 13:3-26 ; 14:29-33 ; 20:1 ; 27:14 ), on the border of Edom (20:16). The king of Edom would not permit them to pass on through his territory, and therefore they commenced an eastward march, and "came unto Mount Hor" (20:22)
Hor - Now Jebel Harun" by the coast (or 'edge') of the land of Edom" (Numbers 33:37-38). " Moses' death was in solitude, but with Gilead's heights, and Benjamin's hills, and the rich Jordan valley in view; whereas Aaron's last looks rested on rugged Edom, and chalky mount Seir, and the red sandstone rocks round Petra, and the dreary Arabah
Esau - This was the nation Edom, which occupied the barren regions south and east of the Dead Sea (Genesis 27:39-40; see Edom)
Obadiah, Book of - , concentrating on the part the Edomites played in that tragic event. Edom was a state to the southeast of Judah. Despite treaty ties (“brother,” Obadiah 1:10 ) the Edomitea, along with others, had failed to come to Judah's aid and had even helped Babylon by looting Jerusalem and handing over refugees. Moreover, the Edomites filled the vacuum caused by Judah's Exile by moving west and annexing the Negeb to the south of Judah and even its southern territory (compare Obadiah 1:19 ). Addressing Edom, God promised to defeat those supermen and topple the mountain capital which reflected their lofty self-conceit. This seems to look fearfully ahead to the Nabateans' infiltration from the eastern desert and their eventual takeover of Edom's traditional territory. The end of Obadiah 1:1 appears to be a report from the prophet that already a coalition of neighboring groups was planning to attack Edom. ...
The catalog of Edom's crimes (Obadiah 1:10-14 ) functions as the accusation which warranted God's verdict of punishment. The fall of Edom was to trigger this eschatological event in which order would be restored to an unruly world
Serpent, Fiery - After setting out from their encampment at Ezion-gaber, the Israelites entered on a wide sandy desert, which stretches from the mountains of Edom as far as the Persian Gulf
Basemath - Reuel, Basemath's son, became father of four clans in Edom (Genesis 36:10 ,Genesis 36:10,36:13 ,Genesis 36:13,36:17 )
Lilith - The Lilith is mentioned in connexion with the desolation which would haunt Edom; it was a hairy monster, and specially dangerous to Infants (cf
Bozrah - Bozrah in Edom, Isaiah 34:6; Isaiah 63:1, which was to become a perpetual waste
Dumah - ]'>[1] has ‘Idumæa,’ and it is possible that Edom is meant
o'Bed - ) ...
One of the gate-keepers of the temple; son of Shemaiah the first-born of Obed-edom
Eli'el - (1 Chronicles 12:11 ) ...
A Kohathite Levite at the time of transportation of the ark from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem
Amaziah - His design was to employ these troops against Edom, which had revolted from Judah, in the reign of Joram about fifty-four years before, 2 Kings 8:20 . " Amaziah, hereupon, sent back those troops; and they returning, strongly irritated against Amaziah, dispersed themselves over the cities of Judah, from Bethoron to Samaria, killed three thousand men, and carried off a great booty, to make themselves amends for the loss of the plunder of Edom. Amaziah, with his own forces gave battle to the Edomites in the Valley of Salt, and defeated them; but having thus punished Edom, and taken their idols, he adored them as his own deities
Edom - a province of Arabia, which derives its name from Edom, or Esau, who there settled in the mountains of Seir, in the land of the Horites, south-east of the Dead Sea. The capital of east Edom was Bozrah; and that of south Edom, Petra, or Jectael. The Edomites, or Idumeans, the posterity of Esau, had kings long before the Jews. The Idumeans bore this subjection with great impatience; and at the end of Solomon's reign, Hadad, the Edomite, who had been carried into Egypt during his childhood, returned into his own country, where he procured himself to be acknowledged king, 1 Kings 11:22 . It is probable, however, that he reigned only in east Edom; for Edom south of Judea continued subject to the kings of Judah, till the reign of Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, against whom it rebelled, Malachi 1:3-45 . Jehoram attacked Edom, but did not subdue it. The prophecies respecting Edom are numerous and striking; and the present state of the country as described by modern travellers has given so remarkable an attestation to the accuracy of their fulfilment, that a few extracts from Mr. Also Edom shall be a desolation; every one that goeth by shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all the plagues thereof. "Thus saith the Lord God, I will stretch out mine hand upon Edom, and will cut off man and beast from it, and I will make it desolate from Teman. Whereas Edom saith, We are impoverished, but we will return and build the desolate places; thus saith the Lord of hosts, They shall build, but I will throw down; and they shall call them, The border of wickedness," 1618451028_26 . Its fertility and early cultivation are implied not only in the blessings of Esau, whose dwelling was to be the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above; but also in the condition proposed by Moses to the Edomites, when he solicited a passage for the Israelites through their borders, that "they would not pass through the fields nor through the vine-yards;" and also in the great wealth, especially in the multitudes of flocks and herds, recorded as possessed by an individual inhabitant of that country, at a period, in all probability even more remote, Genesis 27:39 ; Numbers 20:17 ; Job 42:12 . "Edom shall be a desolation. But such is Edom's desolation, that the first sentiment of astonishment on the contemplation of it is, how a wide extended region, now diversified by the strongest features of desert wildness, could ever have been adorned with cities, or tenanted for ages by a powerful and opulent people. The total cessation of its commerce; the artificial irrigation of its valleys wholly neglected; the destruction of all the cities, and the continued spoliation of the country by the Arabs, while aught remained that they could destroy; the permanent exposure, for ages, of the soil unsheltered by its ancient groves, and unprotected by any covering from the scorching rays of the sun; the unobstructed encroachments of the desert, and of the drifted sands from the borders of the Red Sea; the consequent absorption of the water of the springs and streamlets during summer,—are causes which have all combined their baneful operation in rendering Edom "most desolate, the desolation of desolations. From the borders of Edom, Captains Irby and Mangles beheld a boundless extent of desert view, which they had hardly ever seen equalled for singularity and grandeur. And the following extract, descriptive of what Burckhardt actually witnessed in the different parts of Edom, cannot be more graphically abbreviated than in the words of the prophet. I will stretch out my hand upon Edom, and will make it desolate from Teman. Edom shall be a desolate wilderness
Transjordan - Area immediately east of Jordan River settled by Reuben, Gad, half of Manasseh, Edom, Moab, and Amon. Three Transjordanian kingoms (Ammon, Moab, and Edom) were contemporary with the two Hebrew kingdoms (Israel and Judah) sometimes as allies, sometimes as enemies (1 Samuel 11:1 ; 1 Samuel 14:47 ; 2 Samuel 8:12 ; 2 Samuel 10:1 ; 2 Kings 3:1 ; Amos 1:11-2:3 ). (4) Wady Hesa—probably the ancient Zered but not absolutely certain—would have separated Moab from Edom and enters the Arabah at the southern end of the Dead Sea. Also, of course, one reads of occasional Moabite and Edomite military campaigns which threatened even Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 20:1 ). Several of the kings of Ammon, Moab, and Edom are mentioned in Assyrian records—usually listed among those paying tribute or providing other forms of involuntary support to the Assyrian monarch. The southern Transhyjordan (earlier Moab and Edom) was dominated, on the other hand, by the Nabateans, a people of Arab origin who established a commercial empire along the desert fringe with its capital at Petra. See Ammon; Arnon ; Bashan ; Decapolis ; Edom ; Gilead ; Jabbok ; Moab; Tribes of Israel
Child - in the plural; as, the children of Israel; the children of Edom
Ebal - Grandson of Seir and son of clan leader Shobal among the Horite descendants living in Edom (Genesis 36:23 )
Elah - Duke of Edom (Genesis 36:41); compare Elath on the Red Sea
Medeba - An alliance of Israel, Judah, and Edom recaptured the city but quickly withdrew (2Kings 3:25,2 Kings 3:27 )
Lime - In Amos 2:1 the prophet denounces Moab because they ‘burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime’ phosphate of lime being the chief ingredient of the ash of well-burned bones
Tear (Verb) - ...
Amos 1:11 (b) By this is described the wrath of Edom against Israel
is'Sachar -
A Korhite Levite, one of the door-keepers of the house of Jehovah, seventh son of Obed-edom
Refuse - Thus Edom refused to give Israel passage through his border
Kadesh-Barnea - Ein el-Qudeirat is located on the crossroads of two major roads of antiquity—the road from Edom to Egypt and the road from the Red Sea to the Negev and southern Canaan, later southern Judah. The location on the road from Egypt to Edom would fit well the biblical context of Kadesh-Barnea as the oasis home for the Hebrews during the wilderness wandering period
Korah - A son of Esau (Genesis 36:5 ,Genesis 36:5,36:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:35 ) who became chief of a clan of Edom (Genesis 36:18 ). A grandson of Esau, son of Eliphaz, and chief of a clan of Edom (Genesis 36:16 ; 1 Chronicles 1:36 )
Rimmon - A city in the south of Judah, towards the border of Edom, Joshua 15:32 ; in Joshua 19:7 counted to Simeon; In Zechariah 14:10 named as lying to the far south of Jerusalem
Hor -
One of the mountains of the chain of Seir or Edom, on the confines of Idumea (Numbers 20:22-29 ; 33:37 ). It was one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (33:37), which they reached in the circuitous route they were obliged to take because the Edomites refused them a passage through their territory
Obed-Edom - Servant of Edom. When David was bringing up the ark "from the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah" (probably some hill or eminence near Kirjath-jearim), and had reached Nachon's threshing-floor, he became afraid because of the "breach upon Uzzah," and carried it aside into the house of Obededom (2 Samuel 6:1-12 )
Havilah - It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom
Anakim - In the days of Abraham (Genesis 14:5,6 ) they inhabited the region afterwards known as Edom and Moab, east of the Jordan
Hor - A mountain ‘in the edge of the land of Edom’ ( Numbers 33:37 ), where Aaron died
Ezion Geber - The station of Solomon's navy "beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom
Libnah - ) just as Edom represented rebellion in the east (2 Kings 8:22 )
Ambassador - The earliest instances occur in the case of Edom, Moab, and the Amorites (Numbers 20:14; Numbers 21:21)
Perez-Uzza - the abode of Obed Edom whom God" blessed. The ark was taken to his father Abinadab's house, as subsequently to Obed Edom's, just because he was a Levite
Amaziah - Our sources know of a successful campaign of his against Edom, and an unsuccessful one against Israel
Elihu - Son of Shemaiah, a Korhite of the family of Obed-edom, a valiant man and one of the door-keepers
Deputy - ‘one set up or appointed’), used of the vassal-king of Edom
Elisha - Many miracles also were wrought at his word; some of these were, healing the waters of Jericho; supplying the widow's cruse with oil, and the allied armies of Judah, Israel, and Edom with water; gaining a son for the woman of Shunem, and restoring him to life; healing the leprosy of Naaman; detecting and punishing Ghazi
ko'Rah - (Genesis 36:5,14,18 ; 1 Chronicles 1:35 ) He was born in Canaan before Esau migrated to Mount Seir, (Genesis 36:5-9 ) and was one of the "dukes" of Edom. ) ...
Another Edomitish "duke" of this name, sprung from Eliphaz, Esau's son of Adah
e'Sau - Of Esau's subsequent history nothing is known; for that of his descendants see Edom
Kir'Jath-je'Arim - (1 Samuel 7:2 ) At the close of that time Kirjath-jearim lost its sacred treasure, on its removal by David to the house of Obed-edom the Gittite
Kadesh - Before moving from here, the embassy was despatched to the king of Edom ( Numbers 20:14 ff. ...
Kadesh-barnea lay on the south boundary of the Amorite highlands (Deuteronomy 1:18 ), ‘in the uttermost border’ of Edom ( Numbers 20:6 )
Anah - " Those descendants alone of Seir are enumerated who, being heads of tribes, were connected with Edom; so Anah is mentioned because he was head of a tribe, independently of his father
Zared - corner: the boundary between the districts of Jebal and Kerek: now wady el Ahsy, between Moab and Edom (Robinson Bib
Jehoshaphat - He seems to have had trouble with his own vassals in Edom, and his attempt to renew Solomon’s commercial ventures on the Red Sea was unsuccessful ( 1 Kings 22:48 )
Nethan'e-el - (1 Chronicles 2:14 ) ...
A priest in the reign of David who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was brought from the house of Obededom. (1 Chronicles 24:6 ) ...
A son of Obed-edom
Moab - "...
Israel's request for a passage through Edom and Moab, and liberty to purchase bread and water, was refused (Judges 11:17; Numbers 20:14-21). ...
The daughters of Moab, mentioned in Numbers 25:1, were those with whom Israel "began whoredom," but the main guilt was Midian's, and on Midian fell the vengeance (Numbers 25:16-18; Numbers 31:1-18). ) His first, step was, he secured the cooperation of Ammon and others enumerated in Psalms 83:8-7, in an invasion of Judah, which was before Jehoshaphat's alliance with Ahaziah (2 Chronicles 20:1-35), therefore still earlier than the invasion of Moab by the confederate kings of Edom, Israel (Jehoram, Ahaziah's son), and Judah (2 Kings 3). (See JEHOSHAPHAT; JEHORAM; ELISHA; Edom. Then followed the joint invasion of Moab by Jehoshaphat of Judah, Jehoram of Israel, and the king of Edom (2 Kings 3). Then too Moah, indignant at his former ally Edom having joined Israel against him, when Israel and Judah retired, burned the king of Edom alive, reducing his bones to lime; or, as Hebrew tradition represents, tore his body after death from the grave and burned it (Amos 2:1). Moab contrasts with Ammon, Edom, Philistia, Amalek, Midian, as wealthy, abounding in vineyards, fruitful fields, and gardens, and civilized to a degree next Israel. " So Porphyry says, in marching against Ptolemy, Antiochus turned out of his course to assail the Jews, but did not meddle with Moab, Edom, and Ammon
Horites - (hoh' ritess) The pre-Edomite inhabitants of Mount Seir in the southern Transjordan. Therefore, another suggestion holds that the biblical Horites were not Hurrians, but simply the original cave-dwelling (the Hebrew hor means “cave”) population of Edom (Mt
Kabzeel - to Petra; a spot likely to be occupied, though remote, as a stronghold, the key of Palestine toward Moat and Edom, guarding the pass Ez Zuweirah, by which the Moabites under Sanballat, the Ammonites under Tobiah, and the Arabians under Geshem, might attack the Jews (Nehemiah 4:12)
Horites - The pre-Edomitic inhabitants of Seir or Edom according to Genesis 14:6 (a late passage) and Deuteronomy 2:12 ; Deuteronomy 2:22 (D Ambassador - Jeremiah announced that God had prompted an ambassador to call the nations to punish Edom (Jeremiah 49:14 ; compare Obadiah 1:1 )
Lot - ...
Since the land of Palestine was allocated among the tribes by the casting of the “lot,” these allotments came to be known as their lots: “This then was the lot of the tribe of the children of Judah by their families; even to the border of Edom …” ( Kadesh-Barnea - But that it lay on the east side of Mount Hor, is evident; for why should Moses send messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, requesting permission to pass through his territories in the way to Canaan, if they were already at the verge of Palestine Numbers 20:14 ? This application, however, was necessary if his territories were situated between Canaan and the Israelites
Balaam - When Moses led his people across the wilderness, God commanded him not to attack Edom or Moab (Deuteronomy 2:4-9 ). When Edom attacked, “Israel turned away from him” (Numbers 20:21 )
Jehoram - With Judah (whose territory Moab had invaded, 2 Chronicles 20, and so provoked Jehoshaphat) and Edom as allies, Jehoram warred against Mesha, who had since Ahaziah's reign (2 Kings 1:1) withheld the yearly tribute due to Israel, "100,000 lambs and the wool of 100,000 rams" (Keil) (2 Kings 3; Isaiah 16:1). of the Dead Sea, then northwards through Edom and the rocky valley Ahsy which separates Edom from Moab, but for Elisha who had a regard for Jehoshaphat, and brought water to fill the wady Ahsy miraculously from God; the water was collected for use in (Jeremiah 14:3) the ditches made by his direction. )...
Rain fell probably in the eastern mountains of Edom far away from Israel, so that they perceived neither the wind which precedes the rain nor the rain itself; and this at the time of the morning "meat offering" to mark the return of God's favor in connection with sacrifice and prayer to Him. Edom's late attempt at rebellion (2 Chronicles 21:8) made the Moabites' supposition probable; and remembering how their own joint expedition against Judah with Ammon and Edom (20) had ended in mutual slaughter, they naturally imagined the same issue to the confederacy against themselves. ...
Failing to break through the besiegers to the king of Edom, from whom he expected least resistance, he offered his firstborn son a burnt offering to Chemosh. Edom, heretofore tributary to Jehoshaphat, made a king over themselves (1 Kings 22:47; 2 Kings 3:9; 2 Samuel 8:14) and revolted; and only by a night surprise did Jehoram extricate himself at Zair (2 Kings 8:20-22, for which the copyist in 2 Chronicles 21:9 has "with his princes"), in Edom, from "the Edomites who compassed him in
Tamar - If identical with 4, this Tamar likely served as a supply depot for Solomon's mines in the Arabah and as a frontier post to guard the border with Edom
Midian - In the region east of Edom and Moab are many ancient ruins, and portions of the territory are of great fertility, producing bountiful crops for the modern Arabs—the tribe of Beni Sakk'r which bears considerable resemblance in race, character, and habits to what is known of the ancient Midianites
Nethaneel - The fifth son of Obed-edom who was a gatekeeper in the Temple (1 Chronicles 26:4 )
Ambush - God set ambushes against Moab, Ammon, and Edom to defeat them for King Jehoshaphat (873-848 B
Kadesh - It was "eleven days," or about 165 miles, distant from Horeb, Deuteronomy 1:2 : on the border of Edom, Numbers 20:16; not far from Gerar, Genesis 20:1; to the east of Bered, Genesis 16:14; in the desert of Zin, Numbers 20:1; Numbers 27:14; Numbers 33:36; Deuteronomy 32:51; and the point to which Chedorlaomer returned, having driven the Horites over the Arabah into the Et Tih region, and then going northward
Amaziah - Determined to regain control of Edom (cf. Against the advice of a prophet, he took some of the idols he had captured from the Edomites and set them up as gods in his palace
Esau - ("hairy, rough"); for at birth he "came out red (from whence his name Edom), all over like an hairy garment" (Genesis 25:25). ...
The nickname Edom," red," was consequently given Esau as the reproach of his sensual folly, a name mostly confined to his land and his posterity. "Living by his sword" too, he felt Edom's rocky fastnesses better suited for his purpose than S. (See Edom, (See AHOLIBAMAH, (See BASHEMATH. At first Esau prospered more, dukes being in Edom before any king reigned in Israel (Genesis 36:31), and while Israel was in bondage in Egypt Edom was independent. But Saul and David conquered the Edomites (1 Samuel 14:47; 2 Samuel 8:14), and they were, excepting revolts, subject to Judah until Ahaz' reign; then they threw off the yoke (2 Kings 16:6; 2 Chronicles 28:7)
Hiram - finns, and Phoenicians in Gilead, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Ituraeans, and Nabathaeans; and made an expedition against Suron (Huram?) king of Tyre and Phoenicia, and compelled them all to pay tribute to the Jews. ...
Tyre is threatened with punishment for delivering the Jewish captives to Edom, and not remembering "the brotherly covenant," namely, between Hiram and David and Solomon
Sandal - A shoe was delivered in token of transferring property: "over Edom will I cast My shoe. Hengstenberg so explains Psalms 60:8, "Moab is My washing tub; to Edom will I cast My shoe," namely, to "bear" as My slave
Zerah - The name appears again as that of the father of Jobab, one of the early kings of Edom ( Genesis 36:33 , 1 Chronicles 1:44 )
Idumaea - The Edom of the OT lay between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akabah. In the early part of the Jewish exile many of the Edomites overran the south of Judaea, and when the Nabataeans, at some time during the Persian period, conquered their own land, many more joined the earlier settlers in South Judaea, and that district became known as Idumaea
Issachar - Son of Obed-Edom, a Korhite Levite
Beersheba - Among these were the main north-south route from Canaan to Egypt, and the main west-east route from the Philistine coast to Edom (Genesis 46:1-6; 2 Kings 3:8)
Midian, Mtdianites - The same source informs us ( Genesis 36:35 ) that a king of Edom smote Midian in the field of Moab. Possibly it is another version of the victory of the king of Edom
Esau - Whereas Edom saith,’ etc. The Jews so little understood the humbling principle of election, which ascribes all the merit of salvation to God, that they prided themselves on having been chosen, while their neighbours, Ishmael and Edom, had been rejected
Paran - by the northern part of the Elanitic gulf, and the Arabah dividing it from the Edom mountains. The Paran of Hadad the Edomite (1 Kings 11:18) lay to N. Seir (Edom and Teman), Sinai, and Paran are comparatively adjacent, and therefore are associated together in God's giving the law (Habakkuk 3:3), as in Deuteronomy 33:2
Prince - We read of the Dukes of Edom and other places in the first ages of the world
Commerce - Solomon's and the Phoenician united fleets brought on the Indian Ocean, from Ophir to Elath and Ezion Geber on the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea (ports gained by David from Edom), gold, silver, ivory, Algum (or Almug) trees, and precious stones, peacocks and apes (1 Kings 9:26; 1 Kings 10:11-22)
Hormah - ’ It was one of ‘the uttermost cities of Judah, towards the borders of Edom in the south,’ and is named between Chesll and Ziklag ( Joshua 15:30 ), also between Bethul (or Bethuel) and Ziklag ( Joshua 19:4 , 1 Chronicles 4:30 ), in the territory occupied by Simeon
Paran - A city may be intended in 1 Kings 11:13 , lying between Edom and Egypt, which cannot now be identified
Jehoram - All that the history tells us is that he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, and that Edom revolted successfully from Judah in his time
Midian, Midianites - The Old Testament mentions the Midianites in widely scattered geographical locations, but their main homeland seems to be east of the Jordan and south of Edom
Child - The descendants of a man, however remote, are called his children; as, "the children of Edom," "the children of Moab," "the children of Israel
Brimstone - In Isaiah 34:9 a similar threat is uttered against Edom
Eliezer - One of the priests appointed to blow with the trumpets before the ark of God when David brought it from the house of Obed-edom to Jerus
Amaziah - Amaziah led his army to Seir, where he easily defeated the Edomites, making them again subject to Judah. Yet, he took Edomite idols back to Jerusalem and worshiped them. ...
Encouraged by his victory in Edom, Amaziah challenged Joash; king of Israel; to battle
Jehoram - During his reign Edom and Philistia broke free from Judah’s rule (2 Chronicles 21:8), and Arab raiders plundered Judah with much success (2 Chronicles 21:16-17)
Joab - Joab, after David's defeat of Edom in the Valley of Salt (2 Samuel 8:13-14), was six months engaged in slaying the Edomite males, in revenge for their invasion of Israel in David's absence (1 Kings 11:15-16; Psalm 44); his first care was to bury the Israelites slain during the invasion by Edom. The victory over Edom is variously attributed to David as king, to Joab as commander in chief, who slew 12,000, and to Abishai, who slew 6,000, under Joab (1 Chronicles 18:12). Psalm 60 (title) was composed by David after he had beaten Aram of the two floods (Naharaim); this victory the psalmist takes as an earnest that the expedition setting out to occupy Edom would succeed; compare Psalms 60:8-9; Psalms 60:12, with 2 Samuel 8:14. ...
So terrible was Joab's name to Edom that their prince Hadad did not venture to return from Egypt until he knew "that Joab the captain of the host was dead" (1 Kings 11:21-22)
Sargon - Ashdod was captured, and Judah, Moab, and Edom submitted
Arabia - ), but in later times by the descendants of Esau, and known as the Land of Edom or Idumea, also as the Desert of Seir or Mount Seir. The whole land appears (Genesis 10 ) to have been inhabited by a variety of tribes of different lineage, Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at length becoming amalgamated, they came to be known by the general designation of Arabs. The modern nation of Arabs is predominantly Ishmaelite
Joab - His chief military achievements were, (1) against the allied forces of Syria and Ammon; (2) against Edom (1 Kings 11:15,16 ); and (3) against the Ammonites (2 Samuel 10:7-19 ; 11:1,11 )
Kir-Hareseth - The kings of Judah (Jehoshaphat) and Edom joined Israel in the resulting war
Brass - In Bible lands it was mined in the region of Lebanon, in Edom, in the Sinaitic peninsula, where the great Egyptian mines were located, and in the isle of Cyprus
Owl - " Irby and Mangles state as to Petra of Edom "the screaming of hawks, eagles, and owls, soaring above our heads, annoyed at anyone approaching their lonely habitation, added much to the singularity of the scene
Solomon - The prosperity of his reign was interrupted by disquiets in Edom and Syria; and he was foretold of the revolt of the ten tribes
Shemai'ah - ) ...
The eldest son of Obed-edom the Gittite
Judah the Kingdom of - Besides this, Edom, subdued by David, continued faithful to Judah for a time, and the Red Sea ports furnished an outlet for commerce
Wilderness - ...
Those of KEDEMOTH, of Edom, and of MOAB were east of the Dead Sea
Prince - 30:13), and Edom ( Burn - The Moabites’ “burning” of the bones of the king of Edom (Amos 2:1) was a terrible outrage to all ancient Semites
Rezin - ]'>[1] (‘Syria’) having been accidentally substituted for the d of Edom , and Rezin’s name being added still later for the sake of completeness (cf
Dibon - ...
Or if the revolt followed the tragic end of the confederacy of Judah, Israel, and Edom against Moab (2 Kings 3:26-27), the date of the stone is but little later, and the completeness of the alphabet on it shows it was then no recent invention. Hence, he was ready to ally himself to Ahaziah (2 Chronicles 20:85); then to Jehoram and Edom against Moab. ...
(2) Moab's successes caused the confederacy of Israel, Judah, and Edom
Kir - Here the Moabite king made his last stand against confederate Israel, Judah, and Edom, (See DIBON
Mesha - An alliance of Israel, Judah, and Edom, however, outflanked his defenses and attacked Mesha from the rear
Shemaiah - Son of Obed-edom, a Korhite
Boundary - 20:23, where it signifies the border or boundary of the entire land of Edom
Reign - 36:31: “And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel
Midian - It farther passed to the south of the land of Edom, into the peninsula of Mount Sinai, where Moses met with the daughter of Jethro, the priest of Midian, whom he married
Mesha - An alliance of Israel, Judah, and Edom, however, outflanked his defenses and attacked Mesha from the rear
Jehosh'Aphat - After this, perhaps, must be dated the war which Jehoshaphat, in conjunction with Jehoram king of Israel and the king of Edom, carried on against the rebellious king of Moab
Amalekites - This would accord with the mention of them (Genesis 14:7) long before Esau's grandson, the Edomite Amalek; also with Judges 3:13; Judges 5:14; Judges 12:15, where "Amalek" and "the mount of the Amalekites" appear in central Palestine, whither they would come in their passage westward. Scripture nowhere else mentions any relationship of them with the Edomites and Israelites. ...
The Amalek of Edom (Genesis 36:16) in this view afterward became blended with the older Amalekites. " The occasion of Amalek's attack was significant: at Rephidim, when there was no water for the people to drink, and God by miracle made it gush from the rock...
Contentions for possession of a well were of common occurrence (Genesis 21:25; Genesis 26:22; Exodus 2:17); in Moses' message asking Edom and Sihon the Amorite for leave of passage, water is a prominent topic (Numbers 20:17; Numbers 21:22; compare Judges 5:11)
Strength - 24:17-18, where Balaam prophesied the destruction of Moab and Edom at the hands of Israel: “And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a possession for his enemies; and lsrael shall do valiantly” (v
Ara'Bia - It was mostly peopled by descendants of Esau, and was generally known as the land of Edom or Idumea [2], as well as by its older appellation, the desert of Seir or Mount Seir. That they have spread over the whole of it (with the exception of one or two districts on the south coast), and that the modern nation is predominantly Ishmaelite, is asserted by the Arabs
Aaron - God, therefore did not permit him to enter the promised land; but he died on Mount Hor, in Edom, in the fortieth year after leaving Egypt, at the age of about 123 years, Numbers 20:22-29 33:39
Wilderness, Desert - Special waste tracts are distinguished: wilderness of Shur, Zin, Paran, Kadesh, Maon, Ziph, Tekoa, Moab, Edom, etc
Esau - Son of Isaac and Rebecca; elder twin brother of Jacob (Genesis 25:24-26 ; Genesis 27:1 ,Malachi 1:2-346:32 ,Genesis 27:32,27:42 ; 1 Chronicles 1:34 ); father of the Edomite nation (Genesis 26:1 ; Deuteronomy 2:4-29 ; 1618451028_1 ). The second born twin, Jacob, father of the nation Israel, held Esau's heel at birth (Genesis 25:22-26 ); thus depicting the struggle between the descendants of the two which ended when David lead Israel in the conquest of Edom (2 Samuel 8:12-14 ; 1 Chronicles 18:13 ; compare Numbers 24:18 )
Jeduthun - " His sons were six of them prophesiers with the harp, and two of them, Obed Edom and Hosah, gatekeepers
Uzzah - David's excitement changed into fear of Jehovah; not daring to bring the ark near him, since a touch proved so fatal, he removed it to the house of Obed Edom the Gathite
Ark of God - This frightened David and the ark was carried aside to the house of Obed-edom. David however, hearing that God had blessed the house of Obed-edom, again went for the ark, and now it was carried by the Levites according to divine order, and with sacrifices and rejoicing it was placed in the tabernacle or tent that David had pitched for it
Moab, Moabites - During Ahab's reign they were again tributary, but at his death they threw off their allegiance, but were completely subdued by the united forces of Israel, Judah and Edom. In the future the king of the north shall enter "into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon," Daniel 11:40,41 ; these will be left for Israel to punish: cf
Moab, Moabites - by the land of Edom, on the W. , Jehoram, Ahab’s successor, undertook, with the aid of Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom, to reduce Moab once more, and almost succeeded, The country was overrun, the capital besieged and reduced to great extremity, when the king of Moab sacrificed to Chemosh his firstborn son on the city wall in sight of both armies ( 2 Kings 3:27 ). ...
Amos (Amos 2:1-3 ) in the next century reproved Moab for barbarities to Edom, and Tiglath-pileser III
Sennacherib - Ashdod, Ammon, Moab, Edom sent tribute
Maon - But 2 Chronicles 20:10; 2 Chronicles 20:22, mentioning inhabitants of Mount Seir or Edom among the invaders, favor Hiller's alteration of Meeha'amonim into Meehame'unim, the Maonites of Mann near the Edomite Petra; E. The Maonites are mentioned instead of the Edomites, to imply that not only Edomites but tribes from other parts of Mount Seir joined the invasion. The Maonites probably were of non Edomitic origin
Much - Edom came out against him with much people
Esau - The name is best explained as meaning ‘tawny’ or ‘shaggy’ ( Genesis 25:25 ); Edom or ‘ruddy’ was sometimes substituted for it ( Genesis 25:30 ), and Esau is represented as the progenitor of the Edomites ( Genesis 36:9 ; Genesis 36:43 , Jeremiah 49:8 ff
Judah, Kingdom of - Edom was for some time subject. In spite of his pious efforts for the instruction of his people through the princes, Levites, and priests, in God's law (2 Chronicles 17), and for the administration of justice in the fear of Jehovah (2 Chronicles 19), his affinity with Ahab and Ahaziah nearly cost him his life at Ramoth Gilead (2 Chronicles 18), and again in the wilderness of Edom (2 Kings 3:8-11), and caused the loss of his ships in Ezion Geber (2 Chronicles 20:36-37). ) Amaziah, elated with the conquest of Edom and having lost God's favor through apostasy to Edom's idols, challenged Joash of Israel, the conqueror of Syria (2 Chronicles 25; 2 Kings 13:14-25)
Midianite - After the Exodus, the Midianites were friendly to the Israelites so long as they traversed only their outlying pasture-ground on the west of the Arabah; but when, having passed the southern end of Edom, they entered into the land of Midian proper, they joined with Balak, the king of Moab, in a conspiracy against them (Numbers 22:4-7 )
Nebaioth - Scripture takes no notice of the Nabathaeans unless "the rams of Nebaioth" (Isaiah 60:7) refer to them, though so often mentioning Edom
Ram - ...
Many passages use 'ayil as a figure of despots or mighty men: “Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them …” ( Jehoram - He was further helped by his ally the king of Edom. The Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the Philistines and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and carried away great spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his children, except Ahaziah
Joram, Jehoram - These two kings, with the king of Edom, assembled their armies, but there was no water to drink
Wanderings of the Israelites - ...
The King of Edom having refused to let the Israelites pass through his land necessitated their journeying again to the Red Sea in order to compass the land of Edom (perhaps passing Gudgodah and Jotbath, Deuteronomy 10:7 , in the route). From the Red Sea their route is plainly on the east of Edom and the Salt Sea until they arrived opposite Jericho, where their wanderings ended
Libnah - It revolted from Judah at the same time as Edom, in the reign of Jehoram, Jehoshaphat's son, "because he had forsaken the Lord God of his fathers" (2 Kings 8:22; 2 Chronicles 21:10-11)
Kenites - The Kenites did not as Edom dwell in the rocks (Obadiah 1:3-4), but by leaving their nomadic life near Horeb to join Israel wandering in quest of a home the Kenite really placed his rest upon a safe rock, and would only be carried away when Assyria and Babylon took Israel and Judah; with the difference however that Judah should be restored, but the Kenites not so because they forfeited God's blessing by maintaining independence of Israel though intimately joined and by never entering inwardly into God's covenant of grace with Israel
Goshen - describe how nomadic tribes moved from Edom past the Merneptah fortress in Teku to the wells of Pithom
Lamentations of Jeremiah - Jeremiah as in the presence of Jehovah spreads out all the humiliating reverses that had fallen upon them, mentioning separately the Nazarites, the prophets, the priests, and the people; and then he foretells that God's wrath should pass also unto Edom, who had doubtless rejoiced at the calamities of Jerusalem
Hebron - During the captivity of Babylon, the Edomites having invaded the southern parts of Judea, made themselves masters of Hebron; hence Josephus sometimes makes it a part of Edom
Seir - These people were driven out from their country by the Edomites, or the children of Esau, who dwelt there in their stead, and were in possession of this region when the Israelites passed by in their passage from Egypt to the land of Canaan. Mount Seir rises abruptly on its western side from the valleys of El Ghor and El Araba; presenting an impregnable front to the strong country of the Edomite mountaineers, which compelled the Israelites, who were unable (if permitted by their leader) to force a passage through this mountain barrier, to skirt its western base, along the great valley of the Ghor and Araba. and so to "compass the land of Edom by the way of the Red Sea," that is, to descend to its southern extremity at Ezion-Geber, as they could not penetrate it higher up. This passage brought them into the high plains on the east of Mount Seir, which are so much higher than the valley on the west, that the mountainous territory of the Edomites was every where more accessible: a circumstance which perhaps contributed to make them more afraid of the Israelites on this border, whom they had set at defiance on the opposite one
Kings - This remark reconciles the following observation: "These kings reigned in Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel," Genesis 36:31 ; for Moses, though he was king in an inferior sense, did not reign, in the stronger sense, over the children of Israel, their constitution not being monarchical under him
Ephod - And David, in the ceremony of removing the ark from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem, was girt with a linen ephod, 2 Samuel 6:14
Governor - Used of the "dukes" of Edom (Genesis 36 ), and of the Jewish chiefs (Zechariah 9:7 )
Shemaiah - A Korahite Levite, oldest son of Obed-edom ( 1 Chronicles 26:4 ; 1 Chronicles 26:6-7 )
Ark of the Covenant - David conveyed it from Kirjath-jearim to the house of Obed-Edom, and from thence to his palace on Zion, 2 Samuel 6:1-23 ; and lastly, Solomon brought it into the temple at Jerusalem, ...
2 Chronicles 5:2
Envy - ...
As an example from former days, the righteous judgment of Yahweh against Edom was measured out in accordance with the measure of Edom's jealousy toward the people of God (Ezekiel 35:11 )
Saul - It is usually rendered Shaul for a king of Edom ( Genesis 36:37-38 ), the last son of Simeon (Genesis 46:10 ), and a Levite of the Kohathites (1 Chronicles 6:24 )
Gedaliah - ...
Jeremiah, when given his choice by Nebuzaradan where he should dwell, attached himself to Gedaliah, who was joined also by a promiscuous multitude of "men, women, and children, and of the poor of the land"; also by Ishmael of the blood royal, Johanan and Jonathan, Seraiah, the sons of Ephai, Jezaniah, and their men; also by the Jews who had been driven to Moab, Ammon, and Edom, but who now with reassured confidence began to gather, as formerly, "wine and summer fruits
Amalek, Amalekites - there is a remarkable statement that a remnant of the Amalekites had escaped and dwelt in Edom, and that 500 Simeonites attacked and smote them. Perhaps this accounts for the priestly genealogies which make Amalek a descendant of Esau and a subordinate Edomite
Arabia - ...
In the northern portion of Arabia the mountains of the Anti-Lebanon, the Transjordanian Highlands, and the mountains of Edom flank the desert on the west
Ammon, Ammonites, Children of Ammon - ...
When the king of the north, in a future day, shall enter into 'the glorious land,' Edom, Moab, and Ammon shall escape his hand, Daniel 11:41 ; they are reserved to be subdued by Israel, whom they seduced and persecuted in by-gone ages
Lamentations - His appeal in both is to Jehovah for judgment (Lamentations 3:64-66; Jeremiah 11:20); Edom, exulting in Zion's fall, is warned that God's winecup of wrath shall pass away from Zion and be drunk by Edom (Lamentations 4:21; Jeremiah 25:15-21; Jeremiah 49:12). But Edom, now exulting in her fall, shall soon be visited in wrath, while Zion's captivity shall cease
Canaan - ...
Canaan was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, north by mount Lebanon and Syria, east by Arabia Deserta; and south by Edom and the desert of Zin and Paran. On the south it included Edom, and reached the Red sea at Ezion-geber. From this plain of the seacoast the ascent to the high land of the interior is by a succession of natural terraces; while the descent to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Edom, is abrupt and precipitous
Preaching - The following example of an old Rabbinic address, based on the words ‘He hath clothed me with garments of salvation,’ which come from the chapter in Isaiah (61) from which Jesus took His text in His address in the synagogue at Nazareth, will illustrate the character of contemporary Jewish sermons:...
Seven garments the Holy One blessed be He has put on, and will put on from the time the world was created until the hour when He will punish the whole of wicked Edom (= the Roman Empire). ” The seventh garment He will put on when He punishes Edom; then He will clothe Himself in Adom i
Jehoshaphat - Blew the trumpet before the ark in its passage from Obed Edom's house to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:24). Edom had a "deputy king," a vassal to Judah; "there was (then) no (real, independent) king" (1 Kings 22:47). long voyaging ships; 2 Chronicles 20:36 changes this into "to make ships to go to Tarshish," a copyist's misunderstanding) to go to Ophir from the maritime coast of Edom. This was subsequent to the Edomite, Ammonite, and Moabite invasion of Judah by way of Engedi. ) Edom joined with Ammon and other desert tribes enumerated in Psalms 83:3-7 ("other beside the Ammonites," KJV 2 Chronicles 20:1; Hiller proposes to read Maonites from Maan a city near Petra on mount Seir, tribes from all parts of mount Seir: Keil; 26:7, Mehunims), to not only throw off Judah's supremacy but root the Jews out of their divinely given inheritance; but in vain. This want betrayed him into the alliance with Israel which on three occasions brought its penalty:...
(1) at Ramoth Gilead,...
(2) in the joint invasion of Moab (2 Kings 3) through the Edomite wilderness, and...
(3) in respect to his naval enterprise for Ophir
Rebekah - No doubt this story is a late Jewish legend, arising from the desire to find the history of the two peoples Israel and Edom foreshadowed in the lives of their progenitors
Red Sea (Reed Sea) - The same location may be indicated in Jeremiah 49:21 where the cries of Edom could be heard
Blasphemy - Edom was guilty of blasphemy when it rejoiced over the fall of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 35:12 )
Hananiah - Judah already had designed a league with Edom, Ammon, Moab, Tyre, and Sidon against Babylon
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - The enemies Tyre, Sidon, the Philistines, Edom, and Egypt (Joel 3:4; Joel 3:19), are types of the last confederacy under antichrist (Revelation 16; Revelation 17; Revelation 19), which shall assail restored Israel and shall be judged by Jehovah
Solomon - Rebellions led by the king of Edom, Rezon of Damascus, and Jeroboam, one of Solomon's own officers, indicates that Solomon's long reign was not without its turmoil
Chaos - Through God's power, the line of desolation and the plumbline of emptiness are stretched over Edom (Isaiah 34:11 )
Ammon - Their unwillingness to help Israel, and their joining Moab in hiring Balaam (Deuteronomy 23:2; Deuteronomy 23:46; Nehemiah 13:2), caused their exclusion (like that of a bastard) from the Lord's congregation for ten generations; whereas Edom, who had not hired him, was only excluded for three
Adam - Edom , Genesis 25:30 ), men being of a ruddy colour in the district where the word originated
Sennacherib - punished Sidon, made Tyre, Arad, and other Phoenician cities, as also Edom and Ashdod, tributary
Esau - After their father's death, they lived in peace and amity; but, as their possessions enlarged, and there was not sufficient room for them in the land in which they were strangers, Esau returned to Mount Seir, where his posterity multiplied under the denomination of Edomites. ( See Edom
mo'ab - As a natural consequence of the late events, Israel, Judah and Edom united in an attack on Moab, resulting in the complete overthrow of the Moabites
Jeho'Ram - We first find him associated with Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom in a war against the Moabites. First the Edomites, who had been tributary to Jehoshaphat, revolted from his dominion and established their permanent independence
Caleb - Kenaz his ancestor was a duke of Edom (Genesis 36:11; Genesis 36:15). The names Shobal and Manahath are other Edomite (Genesis 36:20-23) names which appear among the sons of the Caleb in 1 Chronicles 2:50; 1 Chronicles 2:52
Gath - Gath was one of the locations to which the Philistines took the ark (1 Samuel 5:8-9 ) and was the hometown of Goliath (1 Samuel 17:4 ) and Obed-edom (1 Chronicles 13:13 )
Directions (Geographical) - ...
Teman or the south is a place in Edom
Gaza - they carried all away and left none; see 2 Chronicles 21:17; 2 Chronicles 28:18) to deliver them up to Edom (the Philistines of Gaza, instead of hospitably sheltering the Jewish refugees fleeing before Sennacherib and other Assyrian, invaders, sold them as captives to their bitter foes, the Edomites; compare Isaiah 16:4)
Amos, Book of - Edom
Balaam - The same name (omitting the last part, -am, of Balaam), Bela, (and he also "son of Beor," front baar , to "burn up,) occurs among the Edomites connected with Midian by a victory recorded in Genesis 36:32-37; also with the "river" Euphrates through Saul of Rehoboth which was on it, king of Edom. ...
A dynasty of Balaam's ancestors from near the great river probably reigned once over Edom. " But then follows (Numbers 25) Israel's whoredom, not only with Moabite women but also with Midianite women, of whom Cozbi, daughter of Zur (slain by Phinehas. Then Balaam, seeing God's determinate counsel, stopped seeking further enchantments, but looking at Israel in their beautiful order by tribes, he compares them to the rows of lign aloes and cedars by the waters, and foretells the advent of a Hebrew prince who should smite Moab and Edom (David, 2 Samuel 8, the type), and of the Messiah, the Star out of Jacob" (compare Revelation 22:16; Matthew 2, announced to the Gentile wise men from the E. ...
In Micah 6:5 ("O My people, remember now what Balak king of Moab consulted, and what Balaam the son of Beer answered him from Shittim)," the sense is, Remember the fatal effects at Shittim of Israel's joining Baal Peer and committing whoredom with the daughters of Moab, and how but for God's sparing mercy Israel would have been given to utter destruction
Eternal Fire (2) - A similar judgment is spoken against Edom (Ezekiel 20:47-48,1; Isaiah 34:10, where it is said that the fire is eternal and will not be quenched). Sodom, Gomorrah, and Edom are given as examples of places on which the doom of eternal fire fell, and they still bear its proof-marks. In Sodom, Gomorrah, Edom, etc
Malachi, Theology of - Esau, though Jacob's twin brother, was the founder of Edom, a nation that God turned into a wasteland as he poured his wrath upon it (1:3-4). According to Obadiah the Edomites rejoiced over the fall of Jerusalem and did not assist their "brother" Israel (Obadiah 1:10-12 ). God had brought destruction on Edom and earlier on Assyria and Babylon, showing that he was superior to the gods of these nations (1:5). If the priests and the people continued in their sin they would be under a curse (2:2; 3:9), including the threat of total destruction, the "ban" to which the Canaanites and Edomites were subjected (4:6; see Joshua 6:17 ; Isaiah 34:5 )
Desert - Three major deserts figure in biblical events: the plateau east of the mountains to the east of Jordan River; the area south of Edom, and the triangle bordered by Gaza, the Dead Sea, and the Red Sea
Red Sea - Solomon built a navy at "Ezion Geber (now dry land), beside Elath on the Red Sea in Edom " (1 Kings 9:26)
Wanderings in the Wilderness - Their request to pass through Edomite territory and to proceed along the King's Highway through Moab and into the Jordan Valley opposite Jericho was blocked by a show of military force by the king of Edom. Their attempt to enter Canaan from the south was stopped by the king of Arad, and so a very difficult detour southward to the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and northeastward around Edomite and Moabite lands (Numbers 20:14 ; Deuteronomy 2:1 ) brought them finally to Mount Nebo overlooking the Jordan Valley north of the Dead Sea. More important is the fact that Numbers 33:1 indicates that in fact the Israelite itinerary from Egypt to the Jordan Valley did include passage through Edomite and Moabite territory along the King's Highway. Many scholars therefore conclude that Numbers 33:1 is a combined compilation of place names that are related to pre-Mosaic infiltration from Egypt to Canaan by way of the King's Highway, the place along the second route around Edomite-Moabite territory followed by the Moses/Joshua-led contingent and all those places visited by the Israelites during those 38 punitive years of desert wanderings when like the nomads of every generation they sought water and pasturage for their flocks within that hostile arid environment of the Sinai
Transgress - Second, the final result of the rebellion is the state of independence: “In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves” (2 Kings 8:20, NASB)
Numbers, Book of - Edom refused passage through their territory. ]'>[3] ); circuit round Edom; and the bronze serpent (JE Numbers, the Book of - ...
The people mustering all together exhausted the natural water supply; the smiting of the rock, and the sentence on Moses and Aaron followed (Numbers 20:2 ff; Numbers 20:12; Numbers 20:13); from Kadesh Israel sent the message to Edom (Numbers 21:27-30, etc. On the messengers' return Israel left Kadesh for Mount Hor, where Aaron dies; then proceeded by the marches in Numbers 33:41-49 round Edom to Moab. ) Next, from Mount Hor Israel compassed Edom by way of the Red Sea (Numbers 21:4), a 220-mile journey, about four weeks, to the brook Zered (Numbers 21:12), the first westward flowing brook they met, marking therefore an epoch in their march
Remnant - Obadiah, whose book targets Edom, asserts, "There will be no survivors from the house of Esau" (v. In a pivotal text Amos speaks of a remnant of Edom, interpreted by James as referring to all humankind, which will come under the saving umbrella of David (Amos 9:12 )
Ark - It remained then at Kirjath-jearim (7:1,2) till the time of David (twenty years), who wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper mode of removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten with death for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in Gath-rimmon for three months (2 Samuel 6:1-11 ), at the end of which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem, where it was kept till a place was prepared for it (12-19)
Child - " The descendants of a man, how remote soever, are denominated his sons or children; as "the children of Edom," "the children of Moab," "the children of Israel
Zedeki'ah - Jerusalem seems to have taken the lead, since in the fourth year of Zedekiah's reign we find ambassadors from all the neighboring kingdoms --Tyre, Sidon, Edom and Moab --at his court to consult as to the steps to be taken
Land (of Israel) - The territory south of the Wilderness of Zin (called the Central Negev Highlands today) belonged to Edom. The Aravah and the mountains to the east of the Aravah were also Edomite territory. Eilat, the seaport on the Red Sea, belonged to Edom ( 1 Kings 9:26 )
Hasmonean - Hyrcanus substantially expanded his territorial claim to include regions east of the Jordan river, and Idumea (Edom) to the south
Firstborn - But Ishmael was allowed no share at all in the father’s property ( Genesis 21:10 ); and the superiority of Jacob over Esau (symbolizing the superiority of Israel over Edom) is described as having been foretold before their birth ( Genesis 25:23 ), and as brought about by Esau’s voluntary surrender of the birthright ( Genesis 25:29-34 )
Aaron - Nearby on the border of Edom after forty years of his priesthood, Moses took Aaron up mount Hor, transferred his garments to his son, Eleazar, and Aaron died there at the age of 123 years (Numbers 20:23-28 )
Geology of Palestine - ): the oldest rocks in this region, found only among the mountains of Sinai and Edom
Baal - The name of one of the early kings of Edom
Job - He lived in the land of Uz, lying, it is generally thought, in Eastern Edom, probably not far from Bozrah. It has all the freedom of an original composition, bearing no marks of its being a translation; and if so, it would appear that its author must have been a Hebrew, since it is written in the purest Hebrew
Genealogy - Sometimes the names might in form represent either individuals or nations (Asshur, Moab, Edom), but there can in most cases be little doubt that the ancestor has been invented to account for the nation. The Edomites, as most nearly related, are derived from Esau (36). In the earliest tradition ( Numbers 32:12 , Joshua 14:6 ; Joshua 14:14 ) he is descended from Kenaz, a tribe of Edom, and ‘grandson’ of Esau ( Genesis 36:11 ; Genesis 36:42 ); in 1 Samuel 25:3 ; 1 Samuel 30:14 the Calebite territory is still distinct from Judah
Rock - ...
Rocks, particularly the soft sandstone of Edom, were primitive dwelling places (Job 24:8 ; Job 30:6 ; cf
Amos - Amos 1:1 to Amos 2:13; the sins of Syria, Philistia, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab, the neighbors of Israel and Judah Amos 2:4 to Amos 6:14; Israel's own state and consequent punishment; the same coasts "from the entering in of Hamath," which Jeroboam has just recovered from Syria, shall be "afflicted," and the people carried into "captivity beyond Damascus" (Amos 5:27)
Ark - After its capture by the Philistines and subsequent restoration, it remained at Kiriathjearim ( 1 Samuel 4:1 to 1 Samuel 7:1 ), until removed by David, first to the house of Obed-edom, and thereafter to a specially erected tent in his new capital ( 2 Samuel 6:10 ff
Bezer - ) It lay in the country of the Reuhenites, but became somewhat like a frontier town, both to them, and to Edom and Moab; being near the borders of each. " (John 8:36) Moreover, the manslayer among the Jews had freedom only upon the death of the high priest, but our great High Priest giveth freedom both while we live on earth, and hereafter in heaven; and "he himself abideth a priest for ever
Remnant - ...
Jeremiah discussed the plight of the Jews who fled to Egypt after Jerusalem’s capture by Nebuchadnezzar: “Likewise when all the Jews that were in Moab, and among the Ammonites, and in Edom, and that were in all the countries, heard that the King of Babylon had left a remnant of Judah
Zechari'ah - ) ...
One of the priests who accompanied the ark from the house of Obed-edom
Sela - The name of a place mentioned in 2 Kings 14:7 , where it is said that Amaziah king of Judah slew ten thousand men of Edom, in the valley of Salt, and took Sela by war, and called the name of it Isaiah 16:1 , and may be intended by the word Sela, translated rock, in Judges 1:36 Isaiah 42:11
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - But from the time that David had conquered Edom, an opening for trade was afforded to the Israelites
Amos, Theology of - Furthermore, Edom (Genesis 25:21-26 ; 36:1,8 ), Ammon, and Moab (Genesis 19:36-38 ) have a common ancestry with Israel. 11,14), and possessing the remnant of Edom (v. While it is true that this promise concerning the subjugation of Edom and other nations is to be seen in the context of Israel's longstanding expectation of a restored Davidic kingdom (v. Isaiah 9:1-7 ; 11:10-16 ), the singling out of a presumably chastened remnant of Edom in Amos 9:12 calls to mind a number of biblical invectives against the descendants of Esau for their gleeful complicity with the Babylonian conquerors of Judah in 586 b
Name, Names - ‘Dawn’]'>[1] is brother’), Baal ( 1 Chronicles 5:5 ; 1 Chronicles 8:30 ), Bildad ( Job 2:11 ), Balaam, Obed-edom (‘servant of [2] Edom’), Reu and Reuel ( Genesis 11:18 , Exodus 2:18 )
Jephthah - But Israel, according to God's prohibition, had not meddled with Edom, Moab, or Ammon (Deuteronomy 2:5; Deuteronomy 2:9; Deuteronomy 2:19), i. Israel, as Jephthah rejoindered, went round Edom add Moab, along the eastern boundary by Ije Abarim (Numbers 21:11-13), on the upper Arnon, the boundary between Moab and the Amorites
Devote, Devoted - ...
Prophets applied the herem [ 1 Kings 20:41 ), Babylon (Jeremiah 50:21,26 ; 51:3 ), Egypt (Isaiah 11:15 , ; unless the word should be translated "split" here ), Edom (Isaiah 34:2,5 ), and other nations (Micah 4:13 )
Aaron - When the tribes arrived at Mount Hor, "in the edge of the land of Edom," at the command of God Moses led Aaron and his son Eleazar to the top of that mountain, in the sight of all the people
Ezekiel - ...
After recording a number of judgments against foreign nations – Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia (25:1-17), Tyre (26:1-28:19), Sidon (28:20-26), Egypt (29:1-32:32) – Ezekiel spoke of a new phase in his work, namely, the building up of the people in preparation for the return from exile (33:1-20)
Joel, Book of - ]), and then Jerusalem shall be a holy city, no longer haunted by unclean aliens ( Joel 3:17 ), and Judah, unlike Egypt and Edom, will be a happy nation dwelling in a happy because well-watered land, and Jahweh will ever abide in its midst ( Joel 3:18-21 ). ), Egypt and Edom ( Joel 3:19 )
Damascus - Elath on the shore of the Red Sea, in Edom, built by Azariah of Judah on territory alleged to be Syrian, was "recovered" by Rezin
Circumcision - In Jeremiah 9:25, "I will punish all them which are circumcised with the uncircumcised: Egypt, and Judah, and Edom," two classes seem distinguished: Israel circumcised in flesh, but uncircumcised in heart; and the Gentile nations uncircumcised both in flesh and heart. ...
Hyrcanus first compelled the Edomites to be circumcised (Josephus, Ark of the Covenant - In fear, David left the ark with Obed-edom the Gittite, whose household was blessed by its presence
Desert, Wilderness - , the Wilderness of Judah (Judges 1:16), of Moab (Deuteronomy 2:8), of Edom (2 Kings 3:8)
Ravels - In Isaiah 34:11 , it is accordingly foretold that the raven, with other birds of similar dispositions, should fix his abode in the desolate houses of Edom
Wells And Springs - In negotiating with the king of Edom for a passage through his territory, the Israelites said, "We will go by the highway; and if I and my cattle drink of thy water, then I will pay for it," Numbers 20:17-19
Jacob - Esau by this time had established a powerful clan (Edom) in neighbouring regions to the south-east
Red Sea - It is also a sublime prophecy, foretelling the powerful effect of this tremendous judgment on the neighbouring nations of Edom, Moab, Palestine, and Canaan, the future settlement of the Israelites in the promised land; and the erection of the temple and sanctuary on Mount Zion, and the perpetuity of the dominion and worship of God. ...
The Red Sea derived its name from Edom, signifying "red," a title of Esau, to whom the bordering country of Edom, or Idumaea, belonged, Genesis 25:30 ; Genesis 36:31-40
Korah - A duke of Edom, born in Canaan before Esau migrated to Mount Seir
Lake of Fire - " translation="">Isaiah 34:9, where the topographical setting is in Edom
Ammon, Ammonites - According to 2 Chronicles 20:1 , the Ammonites joined with Moab and Edom in invading Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat
Jerusalem - Amaziah, intoxicated with his success against Edom whose idols, in spite of a prophet's warning, he adopted, challenged Joust of Israel. corner), and took all the silver and gold and vessels in God's house under charge of the Obed Edom family, and the treasures of the palace, and hostages. ...
Rezin during it made an expedition to Elath, which he transferred from the Jews to Edom
Malachi - ...
(1) Charge against Israel for insensibility to God's love, which so distinguished Israel above Edom (Malachi 1:1-5)
Arabia - Its early inhabitants were the Rephaim, Emim, Zuzim, Zamzummim (Genesis 14:5); Ammon, Moab, Edom, the Hagarenes, the Nabathaeans, the people of Kedar, and many wandering tent-dwelling tribes, like the modern Bedouins, succeeded. "...
The image of a wild donkey untamable, roaming at its will in the desert (compare Job 39:5-8), portrays the Bedouin's boundless love of freedom as he rides in the desert spear in hand, despising town life
Elisha - The kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom, having taken the field against the king of Moab, who had revolted from Israel, were in danger of perishing for want of water
Judgement - He is represented as coming from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, when He will tread the people in His anger, and trample them in His fury, and their blood will stain all His raiment
Job - ]'>[4] , said to be taken from a Syriac book but standing in some relation to Aristeas, Job is to be identified with Jobab, king of Edom ( Genesis 36:33 ). Jobab , which is met with in several connexions ( Genesis 10:29 Joktanite; Genesis 36:33 Edomite; Joshua 11:1 Canaanite; Job 10:8-17 Benjamite), seems to be quite distinct, although Cheyne remarks (in EBi Solomon - ) was a legacy from David, but there is no evidence that he became king of Edom. , and, above all, access to the port of Ezion-geber on the Red Sea, made possible by his suzerainty over Edom
Isaiah - The petty states of Palestine—Syria, Philistia, Moab, Edom, Ammon, Arabia, Tyre, Israel, and Judah—were ultimately conquered or made tributary to Assyria. The conclusion of this segment includes the juxtaposition of a negative oracle against Edom, here symbolic of evil, with a paradisiacal contrast involving Israel ( Isaiah 34-35 )
Jacob - ...
Jacob was born in answer to prayer (Genesis 25:21 ), near Beersheba; and the later rivalry between Israel and Edom was thought of as prefigured in the strife of the twins in the womb ( Genesis 25:22 f. , which points to the restlessness of Edom)
Saul - An early king of Edom (Genesis 36:37-38). His warlike prowess appears in his securing his regal authority (1 Samuel 14:47, "took the kingdom over Israel") by fighting successfully against all his enemies on every side, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Zobah, the Philistines, and Amalek (summarily noticed 1 Samuel 14:48, in detail in 1 Samuel 15)
Moses - Israel marched by Edom to Moab, and conquered Heshbon and other cities ( Numbers 21:16-20 ; Numbers 21:24 b, Numbers 21:25 ; Numbers 21:31-32 )
Joel - Judah faced unparalleled prosperity, but Egypt and Edom (traditional enemies) could look for terrible punishment (1618451028_87 )
King, Kingship - Kings were of three basic kinds in the Ancient Near East: (1) kings of great nations often identified with a god (for example, in Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt); (2) kings from a military elite who had taken control of a local population by force (for example, Canaanite city kings); and (3) kings who arose from tribal or clan-oriented groups whose election to or inheritance of the kingship was determined in part by the people's will (for example, Israel, Edom, Moab, and Ammon)
Lamentations, Theology of - A dominant personality within the monologue is God; human agents such as Babylon (unnamed) and Edom also come into view
Zedekiah - of the reign of Zedekiah") The kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Sidon sent ambassadors in his fourth year to urge Zedekiah to conspire with them against Nebuchadnezzar
Wise, Skilled - 27:9), in Edom (Obad
Head - 11:41 exhibits the nuance of “some”: “… But these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief [5] of the children of Ammon” ( Herod - It was inhabited by a mixture of Arabs, Jews and the remains of the nation once known as Edom
Typology - He rehearsed the experiences of the people of Israel in the Exodus and in their forty years in the desert: the destruction of Pharaoh's army in the sea (Exodus 14-15 ); the eating of manna (Exodus 16:1 ); their conduct when thirsty—Rephidim—striking the rock (Exodus 17:1 ); Kadesh—speaking to the rock (Numbers 20:1 ); sin of the gold calf (Exodus 32:1 ); fornication with the daughters of Moab at Baal of Peor (Numbers 25:1 ); murmuring when going from Mount Hor around the land of Edom (Numbers 21:1 )
Issachar - Obed Edom's seventh son, doorkeeper of the sanctuary (1 Chronicles 26:5), one of the eight sons given Obed Edom, "for God blessed him
Ezekiel, Book of - The prophecies are against Ammon, Moab, Edom, and Philistia
Prophets, the - It may be premised that the burden of the prophets Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum has special reference to Edom and to Nineveh, that is, to peoples that were always hostile to Israel
Elisha - Jehoshaphat king of Judah joined with Jehoram king of Israel, and the king of Edom, to attack Moab; but they had no water
Philistia - They sold Israelites as slaves to Edom and Greece, for which God threatens retribution in kind, and destruction (Amos 1:6-8; Joel 3:3-8)
Eagle - The prophet Jeremiah pronounces the doom of Edom in similar terms: "O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill; though thou shouldest make thy nest high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the Lord," Jeremiah 49:16
David - ...
In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David, Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite. In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the ark, Numbers 4 ), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath. After three months David brought the ark from the house of Obed-edom up to Jerusalem
Ark of the Covenant - As the ark blessed the house of Obed Edom, so Christ is the true bestower of blessings (Acts 3:20)
Exodus - This was refused; and Israel, feeling too weak to penetrate into Palestine from the south, in face of the powerful tribes of Canaanites dwelling there, was compelled to take the southern passage around Edom, Numbers 21:4
Palestine - There is no ancient geographical term covering the whole region now known as Palestine: the different provinces Canaan, Judah, Israel, Moab, Edom, etc. ( d ) The fourth strip is the great plateau of Bashan, Moab, and Edom, with a lofty and precipitous face towards the west, and running eastward till it is lost in the desert
Isaac - ...
So the king of Moab sacrificed his son to Chemosh when sore pressed by Israel, Judah, and Edom (2 Kings 3:27)
Wilderness (2) - Besides those local denominations, others occur which apply to peripheric regions: wildernesses of Shur, of Sin, of Sinai, of Paran, of Ẓin, of Kadesh, of Ethan (or Yam-Suph), of Maon, of Ziph, of Beersheba, of Engedi, of Jeruel, of Beth-aven, of Edom, of Moab, of Kedemoth
Jeremiah, Book of - Judgements were to fall upon Egypt, the Philistines, Moab, the Ammonites, Edom, Damascus, Kedar, Elam, and Babylon
Commerce - Aram or Edom (NIV with footnote) traded “emeralds, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and rubies” (Ezekiel 27:16 NAS), and Judah sent honey, oil, and balm along with wheat as trade goods to Tyre ( Ezekiel 27:17 )
Tabernacle - In 2 Samuel 6:17 , and 1 Chronicles 15:1 , it is said that David had prepared and pitched a tabernacle in Jerusalem for the ark, which before had long been at Kirjath-jearim, and then in the house of Obed-edom, 1 Chronicles 13:6,14 2 Samuel 6:11,12
Jeremiah - Upon conquering the city, the victorious Babylonians released him and gave him full freedom to decide where he would like to live, Babylon or Judah. ...
Finally there is a collection of messages for foreign nations: Egypt (46:1-28), Philistia (47:1-7), Moab and Ammon (48:1-49:6), Edom (49:7-22), Damascus, Kedar, Hazor and Elam (49:23-39), and Babylon (50:1-51:64)
Jacob - He must serve Jacob and live in the less fertile land of Edom, but his day would come ( Genesis 27:40 ). Esau headed to Seir to become the father of the Edomites
Saul -
A king of Edom (Genesis 36:37,38 ); called Shaul in 1 Chronicles 1:48
Amos - Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Judah, and Israel are all passed under review
Red Sea - " Three centuries later, Solomon's navy was built "in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea (Yam Suph), in the land of Edom
Elisha - ...
At times he could be as fiery in indignation against the apostate kings of Israel as was his predecessor (2 Kings 3:13-14), but even then he yields himself to the soothing strains of a minstrel for the godly Jehoshaphat's sake, and foretells that the ditches which he directs to be made should be filled with water (the want of which was then being sorely felt), coming by the way of Edom; this took place at the S. Israel, and Edom, in order to invade the rebelling Moabite king Mesha from the eastern side, since he was (according to the Moabite stone) carrying all before him in the N
Canaan - On the east and south-east, the kingdom of Solomon was extended by the conquest of the country of Moab, that of the Ammonites, and Edom; and tracts which were either inhabited or pastured by the Israelites, lay still farther eastward. There are no volcanoes now existing in Judea or its vicinity: nor is mention made of any in history, although volcanic traces are found in many parts on its eastern side, as they are also in the mountains of Edom on the south, the Djebel Shera and Hesma, as noticed by Burckhardt
Family Life And Relations - Rahab's favorable treatment of the Israelite spies brought her family mercy from human agencies (Joshua 2:12-14,17-20 ; 6:22-25 ), and the house of Obed-Edom obtained blessing because he gave shelter to the ark (2 Samuel 6:11 )
Chronicles, the Books of - ...
The sources must have been very ancient from which the compiler drew the account of the kings of Edom before Saul's reign, the slaughter of the sons of Ephraim by the Gittites (1 Chronicles 7:21; 1 Chronicles 8:13), the notice of the sons of Shelah, and their dominion in Moab (1 Chronicles 4:21-22)
David - But the enemy was not inactive, Doeg the Edomite informed Saul of how Ahimelech the priest had helped David, which led Saul to employ even Doeg to slay the family of Ahimelech. All they of Edom became David's servants: cf
Daniel, Book of - The king of the North (elsewhere spoken of as 'the Assyrian,' antitype of Epiphanes) succeeds and passes into 'the glorious land,' and is generally victorious (but not against Edom and Moab, and the children of Ammon: these are judged later by the instrumentality of Israel
Sea - The Exodus 10:19 13:18 Psalm 106:7,9,22 , derived its name from Edom, which lay between it and Palestine; or from the hue of the mountains on its western coast, or of the animalcule which float in masses on its surface
Gods And Goddesses, Pagan - The Moabites are called the "people of Chemosh" in the passage of Scripture that details the travels of the Israelites through Edom, Moab, and Ammon, (Numbers 21:21-32 ). The name appears especially in the Edomite genealogy of Genesis 36 and in the history of the two Israelite kingdoms to the downfall of the northern kingdom in 722 b. Several rulers of the Edomites contemporary with David and Solomon had the name "Hadad
Numbers, Book of - From here they had to make a long detour to the Akaba Gulf of the Red Sea because the Edomites would not suffer them to pass through their land. After skirting the east of the land of Edom, the Israelites encountered the Amorites, who, refusing to let them pass, were smitten by Moses, and Heshbon was taken
Wilderness of the Wanderings - Thence proceeding, they were at Mount Hor refused a passage through Edom; then by the marches of Numbers 33:41-49 they went round Edom's borders to Moab's plains
Aaron - While Israel in going down the wady Arabah, to double the mountainous land of Edom, was encamped at Mosera, he ascended Mount Hor at God's command
Moab - He invited Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, who with the king of Edom, then his vassal, entered Moab, where they were near perishing with thirst, but were miraculously relieved, 2 Kings 3:16 , &c
Sin - Damascus, Philistia, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, and Moab, as well as Judah and Israel, all come under the displeasure of the prophet Amos
Job, the Book of - Because the three friends have Edomite backgrounds, some have speculated that Job may have been an Edomite and that the setting for the book may have been Edom. However, there is not enough Edomite material available at this point to make any conclusions
Michal, Saul's Daughter - ...
Not to speak of the past, had Michal done that day what any woman with any sense of decency left in her would have done-had she put on her royal garments and set out with David to the house of Obed-Edom, how differently for her and for David that day would have ended! For, once on the ground; once surrounded with the assembled people, the magnificent scene would have carried Michal away
Psalms - Do we pray for victory over Moab, Edom, and Philistia; or for deliverance from Babylon? There are no such nations, no such places in the world
Palestine - ...
(4) Still farther south is Edom, with the highest mountains of the region
Canaan - Ezion Geber and Elath, the Edomite ports of the Red Sea. , to Edom on the S
Isaiah - ...
(7) Isaiah 34-35, denounce God's judgments against His people's enemies of whom Edom is representative, and the blessed state that shall follow
Kings, Books of - He used his freedom according to his main purpose, taking out what suited that purpose and leaving the rest behind. History also told that he had suffered by the revolt of Edom and Damascus
War, Holy War - In faith he could proclaim, "Moab is my washbasin, upon Edom I toss my sandal" (vv
Division of the Earth - Then shall the dukes of Edom be amazed, Dismay shall possess the princes of Moab, ...
The inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away: Fear and terror shall fall upon them, ...
By the greatness of thine arm they shall be petrified, Till thy people pass over [3] O Lord, ...
Till the people pass over, whom thou hast redeemed
Israel, History of - Basically, life was not completely unacceptable, because the people enjoyed a degree of social and economic freedom. Obadiah's brief message was a hymn of hate against the Edomites, who had assumed Judah's lands and homes when the people were taken into Exile. Joel emphasized the day of—Yahweh as a day of Judah's preservation coupled with the destruction of Edom and Egypt. This literature borrowed heavily from Israel's neighbors, as Proverbs 22:17-23:11 , directed itself predominately to the youth (note the allegory on old age in Ecclesiastes 12:1-8 ), and basically sought to enhance one's ability to live a healthy and productive life, recognizing that the fear of God served as the basis for such a life
Solomon - frontier and Hadad the Edomite became his adversaries, Solomon otherwise had uninterrupted peace. ) For the first time Israel began to be a commercial nation, and Solomon's occupation of Edom enabled him to open to Hiram his ally a new field of commerce
Judea - The portion of the tribe of Judah comprised all the country between Edom, or Idumea, on the south, the Mediterranean on the west, the Salt Sea on the east, and an imaginary line on the north, from the northern extremity of the Salt Sea to the Mediterranean
Wisdom - ...
Wisdom was not regarded as the peculiar possession of Israel; indeed in certain portions of the OT, Edom is regarded as its home
Psalms - ) The occasion of Psalm 47 was his bloodless victory over Moab, Ammon, Edom, and the Arabians, who combined to drive Judah out of their "inheritance" (Psalms 47:4; 2 Chronicles 20:11). Psalm 42; Psalm 43; Psalm 84; Psalm 86 (according to Hengstenberg, as occurring in the midst of Korahitic psalms though superscribed with David's name), refer to Absaiom's rebellion; Psalm 44 on the invasion of the Edomites (2 Samuel 8:13; 1 Chronicles 18:12; 1 Kings 11:15-16); Psalm 49 of general import; Psalm 45 on King Messiah's marriage to Israel and the church, in Solomon's time; Psalm 47; Psalm 48; Psalm 83, in Jehoshaphat's time; Psalm 46; Psalm 87, refer to Sennacherib's host overthrown before Jerusalem, in Hezekiah's reign; Psalm 85; Psalm 88; Psalm 89, before the Babylonian captivity
Israel - These tribes, along with the other Abrahamidæ the Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites moved westward from the Euphrates along the eastern border of Palestine. The Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites gained a foothold in the territories afterwards occupied by them. According to the traditions, their detour extended around the territories of Edom and Moab, so that they came upon the territory north of the Arnon, where an Amorlte kingdom had previously been established, over which, in the city of Heshbon, Sihon ruled
Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy - ...
At other times, the prophets were available to answer direct questions, such as the time when the kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom came to Elisha as an embarrassed delegation to ask how they could extricate themselves out of the military mess that they had managed to get themselves into (2 Kings 3:11-19 )
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Nelson Glueck's claim that there was no evidence of settled habitation in the areas of Edom and Moab at a date that could be harmonized with an early Exodus is now called in question
Palestine - Kinglake has described the Jordan as the boundary-line between roofs and tents; and besides the tents of nomad tribes there were also those cities of Edom and the Hauran, where, in a rude kind of civilization, Arab kings ruled their kingdoms