What does Ed mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Ed
Witness, a word not found in the original Hebrew, nor in the LXX. and Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized Version, also in the Revised Version, of Joshua 22:34 . The words are literally rendered: "And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad named the altar. It is a witness between us that Jehovah is God." This great altar stood probably on the east side of the Jordan, in the land of Gilead, "over against the land of Canaan." After the division of the Promised Land, the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh, on returning to their own settlements on the east of Jordan (Joshua 22:1-6 ), erected a great altar, which they affirmed, in answer to the challenge of the other tribes, was not for sacrifice, but only as a witness ('Ed) or testimony to future generations that they still retained the same interest in the nation as the other tribes.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Ed
(ehd) Place name meaning, “witness.” Altar that the tribes assigned territory east of the Jordan built as a witness that Yahweh is God of both the eastern and western tribes. The building resulted in a dispute between the two groups of tribes, but Phinehas, the priest, helped settle the dispute, ensuring the altar was a symbol and would not be used for burnt offering (Joshua 22:34 ). NAS, NIV, NRSV read, “witness.”
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Ed
(Joshua 22:34), i.e. witness (compare Joshua 24:27). It is remarkable that not one of the famous towns of Palestine owes its originate Israel. The rock cut cemeteries, and ancient cultivation, are almost the only Israelite remains in the country. The great altar of Ed also was an Israelite work, founded by Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh, to be a witness of their having a share in the national covenant and sanctuary of Jehovah. In Joshua 22:11 the Hebrew expresses, "Reuben, ... Gad, and ... half Manasseh built an altar at the boundary of (literally, in the fore part of, not as KJV over against) Canaan, by the gelilot (circles, i.e. the portion of the Ghor on the W. side of Jordan) of Jordan, at the passage of ... Israel," namely, where Reuben, etc., crossed Jordan to return to their eastern possessions; not the ford near Jericho, but the Damieh ford the highway from the eastern uplands to central Palestine (identified with the "city Adam"), opposite to the opening of the broad wady Far'ah, the route from Shiloh the national sanctuary to Gilead and Bashan.
The altar was erected on the W. side of and above (so Hebrew for "by," Joshua 22:10) Jordan, the pledge that the two and a half tribes held possession still with the remaining tribes on the W. The altar was "a great altar to see to," i.e. visible from afar. Gelilot is transled in the Vulgate as "mounds," probably the round islands with flat tops, formed by broad water channels and salt springs on the level of the Ghor or upper plain. The high cone of Kurn Surtabeh realizes the description of the altar of witness; it crowns an almost isolated block of hill, closing in the broader part of the Jordan valley on the N. The ancient road, cut in steps, arrives at the summit on the S., but on every side the valleys are deep, and the only natural ascent is from the N., by which the watershed is reached and followed along its winding course to the summit. The cone has sides sloping at 35 degrees, and 270 ft. high on the W. where it joins a narrow plateau.
On the other sides the slope is sheer to the mountain's base. Human skill evidently has in part given the cone its peculiar shape. On it is an oblong area, 30 yards by 100 yards, enclosed by a ruined wall of fine hewn blocks; within this is a platform, 18 ft. high, consisting of ten courses of beautifully cut stones, each three or four feet long, with a broad marginal draft. The stones were brought probably from caves in the S.E. side of the hill. An aqueduct runs round the whole mountain block. The cone stands above the Damieh ford, on the W. side of Jordan, and beside the direct route to the ford from Seilun, or Shiloh. It is conspicuous from afar. The gelilot or insulated mounds of the upper plain lie at the foot of the hill.
The monument on the top is such as the Bible describes the altar to have been. On the N. side lies a valley, Tal'at abu 'Ayd, "the ascent of the father of 'Ayd," i.e. the going up which leads to Ayd equates to Ed (Conder, Palestine Exploration). The altar of Ed was 11 miles from the national sanctuary at Shiloh, and separated from it by a range of mountains. It was not in sight of Phinehas when addressing the leaders of the two and a half tribes on mount Gilead. In the phrase, "in the fore part," or "front of Canaan," the Ghor or sunken land along the Jordan on its W. side may be meant by "Canaan," as the Arabs there still call themselves Ghawarni (Conder). Or else "Canaan" may be used of the whole country of the nine and a half tribes, the Jordan valley being excepted; the altar Ed being in front of the country of the nine and a half tribes (Keil and Delitzsch).
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Hang(Ed)
Psalm 137:2 (a) This figure is used to describe the discouragement of Israel and the disheartening experience which they went through while slaves in Babylon. No song was left in their hearts. They laid aside their harps.
Isaiah 22:24 (a) This figure is used to describe the work of GOD in placing on the Lord JESUS all the majesty, glory and honor which is due to Him. GOD ascribes power and beauty to His Son, and so do all of those who know and love JESUS CHRIST.
Matthew 22:40 (a) By this type the Lord is telling us that all of GOD's plans for men and His purposes depend upon the two great commandments which He mentions.
Hebrews 12:12 (a) Here we see a picture of the discouraged and defeated Christian who is called upon to look up to His Lord, and to take fresh courage.
Webster's Dictionary - Ed
(n.) Alt. of Gedd
King James Dictionary - Ed
EAD,ED, in names, is a Saxon word signifying happy, fortunate as in Edward, happy preserver Edgar, happy power Edwin,happy conqueror Eadulph, happy assistance like Macarius and Eupolemus in Greek and Fausta, Fortunatus, Felicianus, in Latin.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Gal'e-Ed
(the heap of witness ), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the masses, but sometimes found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ed
ED . In the Hebrew (and also in the Greek) text of Joshua 22:34 the name given by the two and a half tribes to the altar erected by them on the east bank of the Jordan has dropped out. Our English translators have filled the gap by inserting Ed as the name of the altar in question. For this they have the authority of a few MSS.
The location of this altar on the east bank of the Jordan is required by the whole tenor of the narrative. The west bank is suggested by Joshua 22:10 in its present form, and maintained also by RV [1] in Joshua 22:11 , by a translation of doubtful admissibility, ‘in the forefront of the land of Canaan, on the side that pertaineth to the children of Israel .’
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Ed
Witness
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Gal'e-Ed
(the heap of witness ), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the masses, but sometimes found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Ed
(witness ), a word inserted in the Authorized Version of ( Joshua 22:34 ) apparently on the authority of a few MSS., and also of the Syriac and Arabic versions, but not existing in the generally-received Hebrew text.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ed
This word, signifying 'witness,' is added in the A.V. in Joshua 22:34 . Instead of 'called the altar Ed,' it has been translated 'gave a name to the altar.' The word 'Ed' is in some Hebrew MSS, and in the Syriac and Arabic versions, but not in the LXX.

Sentence search

ed - This word, signifying 'witness,' is added in the A. Instead of 'called the altar Ed,' it has been translated 'gave a name to the altar. ' The word 'Ed' is in some Hebrew MSS, and in the Syriac and Arabic versions, but not in the LXX
Dabbasheth - Identified with ruinsat Ed Dabsheh, 33 N, 35 16' E
Sym'Eon - (The Jewish form of the name Simon, used in the Revised Version of (Acts 15:14 ) and referring to Simon Peter. -ED
Strain at - (So translated in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version "strain out," (Matthew 23:24 ) which is undoubtedly the true reading. --ED
Lasaes - See Smith's Voyage and Shipwreck of Paul, 2nd Ed
Geshan - Editions of AV [1] have Gesham , although the correct form of the name appears in Ed
Adam (2) - Near the present ford Damieh, which possibly is derived from the ancient name Adam; the northern extremity of Israel's passage (Joshua 22:11). Probably Reuben' s altar of Ed, or witness, was near, on the Kurn Surtabeh. See Ed
Caul, - The name is derived from the caul, the membranous bag which encloses the heart--the pericardium. --ED
Adami-Nekeb - Smith identify it with Ed-Damieh , 5 miles S
Eltekon - Its location is unknown, though some have suggested khirbet Ed-Deir west of Bethlehem
Amplia'Tus - (Revised Version,) (Romans 16:8 ) (the full name of which AMPLIAS , above, is the contraction. The name in this form is "common in the sepulchral inscriptions of persons connected with Caesar's household. )--ED
Adamah - A fortified city of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:36 ); identified by Conder with ’Admah on the plateau north of Bethshean; placed by the Palestine explorers at Ed-Damieh , 5 miles S
Ed - EAD,ED, in names, is a Saxon word signifying happy, fortunate as in Edward, happy preserver Edgar, happy power Edwin,happy conqueror Eadulph, happy assistance like Macarius and Eupolemus in Greek and Fausta, Fortunatus, Felicianus, in Latin
Cau'da - (Acts 27:16 ) The form given in the Revised Version to Clauda , an island south of Crete. --ED
o'Both - ( Numbers 21:10 ; 33:43 ) Its exact site is unknown but it was probably south of the Dead Sea, on the boundary between Moab and Edom. --ED)
Seat - A — 1: καθέδρα (Strong's #2515 — Noun Feminine — kathedra — kath-ed'-rah ) from kata, "down," and hedra, "a seat," denotes "a seat" (Eng. , "cathedral"), "a chair," Matthew 21:12 ; Mark 11:15 ; of teachers, Matthew 23:2 . ...
A — 2: πρωτοκαθεδρία (Strong's #4410 — Noun Feminine — protokathedria — pro-tok-ath-ed-ree'-ah ) "the first seat," Matthew 23:6 ; Mark 12:39 ; Luke 11:43 ; 20:46 ; see CHIEF , No. ...
Note: For thronos, sometimes translated "seat" in the AV, see THRONE. ...
B — 1: κάθημαι (Strong's #2521 — Verb — kathemai — kath'-ay-mahee ) "to sit, be seated," is translated "shall . be seated" in Luke 22:69 , RV; "is seated," Colossians 3:1 , RV (AV, "shall
Bank, Bankers - 1: τράπεζα (Strong's #5132 — Noun Feminine — trapeza — trap'-ed-zah ) primarily "a table," denotes (a) an eating-table, e. placed on "a table," Acts 6:2 ; 16:34 ; (c) "a feast, a banquet," 1 Corinthians 10:21 ; (d) "the table or stand" of a money-changer, where he exchanged money for a fee, or dealt with loans and deposits, Matthew 21:12 ; Mark 11:15 ; Luke 19:23 ; John 2:15 . ...
2: τραπεζίτης (Strong's #5133 — Noun Masculine — trapezites — trap-ed-zee'-tace ) a "money-changer, broker, banker;" translated "bankers" in Matthew 25:27 , RV (AV, "exchangers")
Dumah - A town in Judah, near Hebron, Joshua 15:52; now Ed-Dômeh, ten miles southwest of Hebron
zo'Heleth - (serpent ), The stone, This was "by En-rogel," ( 1 Kings 1:9 ) and therefore, if En-rogel be the modern Um-ed-Deraj , this stone, "where Adonijah slew sheep and oxen," was in all likelihood not far from the well of the Virgin
Lie in Wait - A — 1: ἐνεδρεύω (Strong's #1748 — Verb — enedreuo — en-ed-ryoo'-o ) "to lie in wait for, to lay wait for" (from en, "in," and hedra, "a seat," cp. ...
B — 1: ἐνέδρα (Strong's #1747 | 1749 — Noun Feminine — enedra | enedron — en-ed'-rah ) akin to A, "a lying in wait, an ambush," occurs in Acts 23:16 (where some mss. have the form enedron); Acts 25:3 , "laying wait," lit
Liberatus Diaconus - Liberatus (7) Diaconus, archdeacon of Carthage, a Latin writer on the Nestorian and Eutychian heresies, an account of which he wrote entitled, Breviarium Causae Nestorianorum et Eutychianorum , in which he records some circumstances of his life. He visited Rome in the pontificate of John II. In 535 he was deputed to Rome, with the bps. as to how conforming Arian bishops should be received. They arrived about the time of the pope's death (he was buried May 27, 535), and his successor Agapetus (consecrated June 3, 535) replied to the synod by the three envoys (Mansi, viii. On his return home he composed his Breviarum , so named as being an abridgment in 24 chapters of a history which, beginning with the ordination of Nestorius in 428, reached to the meeting of the fifth synod in 553. Liberatus intimates in his preface that he collected his materials from the Ecclesiastical History which had been recently translated from the Greek into Latin (as Garnier thinks, the Historia Tripartitia of Cassiodorus), from the Acts of the councils, and from episcopal letters. The Breviarum was Ed. with copious notes and dissertations by Garnier in 1675 (8vo, Paris), and this Ed. is reprinted by Migne ( Patr. 558, Ed. 272, Ed
Mag'Adan - (The name given in the Revised Version of ( Matthew 15:39 ) for Magdala. It is probably another name for the same place, or it was a village so near it that the shore where Christ landed may have belonged to either village. --ED
Dimonah - (di moh' nah) Place name related to Hebrew word for blood. Some have suggested its location at tell Ed-Dheib near Aroer. It may be the same as Dibon mentioned in Nehemiah 11:25
Gangrene - γάγγραινα, ‘an eating, spreading sore,’ from γραίνειν, ‘to gnaw,’ Authorized Version ‘canker. ’ Two very early translations of 2 Timothy 2:17 may be cited: ‘Ase holi writ seiò, “hore speche spret ase cauncre” ’ [1] ]; ‘The word of hem crepith as a kankir’ Hermias (5), a Christian Philosopher - Hermias (5), a Christian philosopher, author of the Irrisio Gentilium Philosophorum, annexed in all Bibliothecae Patrum to the works of Athenagoras (Migne, Patr. It was published in Greek and Latin at Basle in 1553. It consists of satirical reflections on the opinions of the philosophers, shewing how Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Pythagoras, Epicurus, etc. Who the author was seems to have baffled all inquiries. Even the martyr of May 31 has been suggested (Ceillier, vi. 429, Ed. Bohn) regards Hermias as "one of those bitter enemies of the Greek philosophy whom Clement of Alexandria thought it necessary to censure, and who, following the idle Jewish legend, pretended that the Greek philosophy had been derived from fallen angels. In the title of his book he is called the philosopher; perhaps he wore the philosopher's mantle before his conversion, and after it passed at once from an enthusiastic admiration of the Greek pilosophy to extreme abhorrence of it" (Du Pin H. 69, Ed. The latest Ed
Ed - Ed . In the Hebrew (and also in the Greek) text of Joshua 22:34 the name given by the two and a half tribes to the altar erected by them on the east bank of the Jordan has dropped out. Our English translators have filled the gap by inserting Ed as the name of the altar in question. ...
The location of this altar on the east bank of the Jordan is required by the whole tenor of the narrative. The west bank is suggested by Joshua 22:10 in its present form, and maintained also by RV Moreh, the Hill of - Probably identical with "little Hermon," the modern Jebel Ed-Duhy, or perhaps one of the lower spurs of this mountain
Adam (1) - A city in the Jordan valley, ‘beside Zarethan’ ( Joshua 3:16 ); usually identified with Jisr Ed-Damieh , near the confluence of the Jabbok and the Jordan, where there was once a bridge
en-ro'Gel - (fount of the fuller ), a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the boundary line between Judah, ( Joshua 15:7 ) and Benjamin. (Joshua 18:16 ) It may be identified with the present "Fountain of the Virgin," 'Ain Umm Ed-Daraj , the perennial source from which the pool of Siloam is supplied
sy'ro-Phoeni'Cian - occurs only in (Mark 7:26 ) The word denoted perhaps a mixed race, half Phoenicians and half Syrians; (or the Phoenicians in this region may have been called Syro-phoenicians because they belonged to the Roman province of Syria, and were thus distinguished from the Phoenicians who lived in Africa, or the Carthaginians. --ED
Rite - 6th Ed; Godwyn's Moses and Aaron; Edwards's Survey of all Religions, vol
Neesing - ‘sneeze’) occurs in the 1611 Ed. of AV [1] at 2 Kings 4:35 ,’ the child neesed seven times
Gaudentius (7), Donatist Bishop of Thamugada - 288, 408, Ed. Dulcitius had informed him what was the course intended by the imperial government towards the Donatists. Gaudentius replied in two letters, which Dulcitius sent to Augustine, whose reply to them in two books entitled contra Gaudentium (Aug. 707–751, Ed. Migne) may be regarded as representing the close of the Donatist controversy (vol. Augustine materially contributed
Hazar-Enan - Some have identified it with Ayan Ed-Dara in the heart of the central chain of Anti-Libanus. More probably, however, it has been identified with Kuryetein, about 60 miles east-north-east of Damascus
Shihor-Libnath - ” Border of tribal territory of Asher (Joshua 19:26 ), variously identified as the Nahr ez-Zerqa on the southern border of Asher; the swampy territory between the rivers Nahr Ed-Difleh and Nahr ez-Zerqa, and tell Abu Hawam at the mouth of the Kishon
Laying on of Hands - This "formed at an early period a part of the ceremony observed on the appointment and consecration of persons to high and holy undertakings;" (and in the Christian Church was especially used in setting apart men to the ministry and to other holy offices. --ED
Dumah - city or district prophesied against; probably in Edom, and perhaps connected with No. Identified with Ed Domeh, 31 26' N, 34 59' E
Anto'Nia - It was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and named by him from Marc Antony. From the stairs of this castle Paul addressed the multitude who had assaulted him ( Acts 21:31-40 ) --ED
Acre - In these languages, the word retains its primitive sense, an open, plowed, or sowed field. it retained its original signification, that of any open field, until it was limited to a definite quantity by statutes 31. Ed. 35 Ed 1. ...
Acre-tax, a tax on land in England, at a certain sum for each acre, called also acre-shot
Silvanus, Bishop of Cirta - " These facts were elicited at the inquiry under Zenophilus, a. 320, at which it was proved, by ample evidence, that Silvanus was guilty of this charge, and also that with others he had appropriated plate and ornaments from the heathen temple of Serapis; and after he became a bishop received as a bribe for ordaining Victor, a fuller, to be a presbyter, money which ought to have been given to the poor. After the inquiry he was banished for refusing to communicate with Ursacius and Zenophilus, at the time of the mission of Macarius, a. 178, 180, 182, Ed. 167–171 Ed
Horonaim - A city of Moab, whose site has not been recovered with certainty. It is mentioned in Isaiah 15:5 , Jeremiah 48:3 ; Jeremiah 48:5 ; Jeremiah 48:34 , and also on the Moabite Stone (11. It may have lain to the south of the Arnon, in the neighbourhood of the Wady Ed-Derâ‘a
Evidently - ’ The meaning is clearly , or openly as in RV h'Eron, - Canon Cook and others think the bird intended is the plover ( Charadrius aedicnemus ), a greedy, thick kneed, high-flying migratory bird, very common in the East, on the banks of rivers and shores of lakes. --ED
Dictionaries - 1862); Fairhairn, Imperial Bible Dictionary (1864 66; new Ed. , 1860 63), 2nd Ed. Eadie, Biblical Cyclopœdia (new Ed. , based on Herzog’s PRE
Of the Dictionaries named above, the foli
Sabachtha'ni, - ( Matthew 27:46 ; Mark 15:34 ) This, with the other words uttered with it, as given in Mark, is Aramaic (Syro-Chaldaic), the common dialect of the people of palestine in Christ's time and the whole is a translation of the Hebrew (given in Matthew) of the first words of the 22d Psalm. --ED
Draught - 1: ἄγρα (Strong's #61 — Noun Feminine — agra — ag'-rah ) "a hunting, catching" (from ago, "to lead"), is used only in connection with fishing. ...
2: ἀφεδρών (Strong's #856 — Noun Masculine — aphedron — af-ed-rone' ) "a latrine, a sink, drain," is found in Matthew 15:17 ; Mark 7:19
Shi'Hor-Lib'Nath - (black of whiteness ), named only in ( Joshua 19:26 ) as one of the landmarks of the boundary of Asher. (probably the little stream called on the map of Pal. Survey Wady en Nebra , "which enters the Mediterranean a little south of Athlit. " The name would come from the turgid character of the stream contrasted with the white and glistening sands of its shore. --ED
Adummim - (uh dum' mihm) Place name meaning, “red ones. ” A rocky pass on the road descending from Jerusalem to Jericho located at modern Talcat Ed-damm. It formed the border of Judah and Benjamin in the tribal allotments Joshua made (Joshua 15:7 ; Joshua 18:17 )
Epistolary - In the Middle Ages the book was called Apostolus (Ordo Romanus, I, iii,ed. In France as early as the 9th century the Epistles and Gospels appeared in one book
Motorcycle - ) A bicycle having a motor attached so as to be self-propelled. In Great Britain the term motor cycle is treated by statute (3 Ed VII. 36) as limited to motor cars (self-propelled vehicles) designed to travel on not more than three wheels, and weighing unladen (that is, without water, fuel, or accumulators necessary for propulsion) not more than three hundred weight (336 lbs
je'Thro - Moses married his daughter Zipporah. ) On account if his local knowledge he was entreated to remain with the Israelites throughout their journey to Canaan. ( Numbers 10:31,33 ) (He is called Exodus 2:18 ) And Numbers 10:29 ), The same word int he original for both). --ED
Market-Places - (Matthew 20:3 ; Mark 12:38 ; Luke 7:35 ; Acts 16:19 ) (any open place of public resort in cities or towns where public trials and assemblies were held and goods were exposed for sale. "The market-places or bazaars of the East were, and are at this day, the constant resort of unoccupied people, the idle, the news-mongers. --ED
du'Mah -
A son of Ishmael, most probably the founder of the Ishmaelite tribe of Arabia, and thence the name of the principal place of district inhabited by that tribe. (Genesis 25:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ; Isaiah 21:11 ) ...
A city in the mountainous district of Judah, near Hebron, (Joshua 15:52 ) represented by the ruins of a village called Ed-Daumeh , six miles southwest of Hebron
Heliodorus, Bishop of Altinum - 400, had served originally as a soldier, but had been ordained before we first hear of him. He belonged to a band of friends drawn together at Aquileia, c. 372, for the study of Scripture and the practice of asceticism, which included St. Heliodorus went on to Jerusalem, where he enjoyed the hospitality of Florentius, who, having devoted himself to the ascetic life, employed his wealth in the entertainment of pilgrims (Hieron. Ed. Returning to Antioch, he found Jerome resolved to go into the solitude of the desert of Chalcis. 9, Ed. He therefore returned to his native Aquileia, holding out to his friend some hopes that he might rejoin him one day in the desert ( ib. Jerome wrote to him on his return to Italy a letter, reproaching him for turning back from the more perfect service, which afterwards had a great effect in furthering asceticism and became so celebrated that a Roman lady, Fabiola, knew it by heart (Hieron. 9, Ed. Heliodorus continued in the pastoral office, and not long afterwards became bp. In after-years he was closely allied with Chromatius, bp. They took a warm interest in Jerome's translation of the Scriptures, and frequently wrote to him, exhorting him to complete the long-delayed work. They supported amanuenses to assist him; and by the grateful mention of their aid in the prefaces to the books last translated, their names are for ever associated with the great work of the Vulgate ("Preface to the Books of Solomon and to Tobit," Jerome's Works , vol. 26; Migne's Ed
Tah'Tim-Hod'Shi - (lowlands of Hodshi? ) , The land of, one of the places visited by Joab during his census of the land of Israel. ( 2 Samuel 24:6 ) The name has puzzled all the interpreters, (Kitto says it was probably a section of the upper valley of the Jordan, now called Ard el-Huleh , lying deep down at the western base of Hermon. --ED
Adummim - Its modern name, Tal‘at Ed-Dumm , ‘the ascent of blood’ or ‘red,’ is most probably due to the red marl which is so distinctive a feature of the pass
Poll - More, Utopia , Ed. 49, Their heades he not polled or shanen, but rounded a lytle about the eares
Paulina, Daughter of Paula - She married about the time when her mother and her sister Eustochium went with Jerome to Palestine in 385. Her children died at birth and she herself probably died in childbirth in 397. Her merits are described in consolatory letters to Pammachius from Jerome ( Ep. 66, Ed
Theodorus of Amasea - Theodorus (83) of Amasea, a young soldier who suffered in the persecution under Maximian and Galerius c. 306; surnamed "Tiro," a recruit. In winter quarters at Amasea the capital of Pontus, his refusal to join his comrades in sacrifice declared him a Christian. His trial was deferred some days to offer him time to recant. This interval he employed in firing the temple of the Mother of the Gods on the banks of the Iris in the midst of the city. The building and the statue of the deity were reduced to ashes. At the judgment-seat Theodore boldly acknowledged and gloried in the act. From prison, where he was visited at night by angels who filled the cell with light and song, he passed to death in a furnace. No fewer than three churches were dedicated in his honour at Constantinople (Du Cange, Constantinop. 213 (ed. 1687); Credenus, Hist. 681 (ed. 578–586 (ed
Bethzur - It stood near the modern Ed-Dirweh
Dumah - Silence, (Compare Psalm 94:17 ), the fourth son of Ishmael; also the tribe descended from him; and hence also the region in Arabia which they inhabited (Genesis 25:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ). There was also a town of this name in Judah (Joshua 15:52 ), which has been identified with Ed-Domeh, about 10 miles southwest of Hebron. The place mentioned in the "burden" of the prophet (Isaiah 21:11 ) is Edom or Idumea
Clout - ’ The word is still used in Scotland for cloths (as in ‘dish-clout’), but for clothes only contemptuously. Sir John Mandeville ( Travels , Macmillan’s Ed. 75) says, ‘And in that well she washed often-time the clouts of her son Jesu Christ. RV [1] ‘patched’)
Harvest - ) That which is reaped or ready to be reaped or gath//ed; a crop, as of grain (wheat, maize, etc
Lantern - (so called of its shining) occurs only in (John 18:3 ) (It there probably denotes any kind of covered light, in distinction from a simple taper or common house-light, as well as from a flambeau. Lanterns were much employed by the Romans in military operations. They are cylindrical, with translucent horn sides, the lamp within being furnished with an extinguisher. --ED
Dibon -
A city in Moab (Numbers 21:30 ); called also Dibon-gad (33:45), because it was built by Gad and Dimon (Isaiah 15:9 ). It has been identified with the modern Diban, about 3 miles north of the Arnon and 12 miles east of the Dead Sea. ) ...
...
A city of the tribe of Judah, inhabited after the Captivity (Nehemiah 11:25 ); called also Dimonah (Joshua 15:22 ). It is probably the modern Ed-Dheib
Nain - verge of jebel Ed Duhy (Little Hermon) where it slopes down to Esdraelon plain. Eighteen miles from Capernaum, where Jesus had been the preceding day
All to Break - The ‘all’ is used for altogether , as in 1 Kings 14:10 ‘till it be all gone’; and the ‘to’ is not the sign of the infin. The correct spelling (as in the original Ed. of AV Babism - ,through none other than which may man find salvation) ...
The name of a religious, political, and social sect or system founded at Shiraz, Persia, c. 1843,by Mirza Ali Mohammed, who assumed the name Bab-ed-Din (gate of faith). It is a pantheistic Mohammedanism which is a development of certain tenets of Islam, colored with Gnosticism, Buddhism, and Judaism
Der'be - (Acts 14:20,21 ; 16:1 ; 20:4 ) The exact position of this town has not yet been ascertained, but its general situation is undoubted. It was in the eastern part of the great upland plain of Lycaonia, which stretched from Iconium eastward along the north side of the chain of Taurus. --ED
Kir - (fortress ) is mentioned by Amos, ( Amos 9:7 ) as the land from which the Syrians (Aramaeans) were once "brought up;" i. (A difference of opinion exists in regard to the position of Kir, since some suppose it to be identical with Carma, a city of Media, in the south, on the river Mardus; others place it in Armenia, on the river Kar. --ED
Horonaim - ” Prominent town in Moab upon which Isaiah (Isaiah 15:5 ) and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 48:3 ,Jeremiah 48:3,48:5 ,Jeremiah 48:5,48:34 ) pronounced laments, warning of coming destruction. Suggestions include khirbet ad-Dubababout three miles west northwest of Majra; khirbet al-Maydan, west of modern Katrabba, and Ed-Dayr, about two miles northwest of Rakin
Aceldama - , in Aramaic, to the field which was purchased with the money which had been given to the betrayer of our Lord. " It was previously called "the potter's field" (Matthew 27:7,8 ; Acts 1:19 ), and was appropriated as the burial-place for strangers. Its modern name is Hak Ed-damm
Gihon - A spring near Jerusalem, evidently sacred and therefore selected as the scene of Solomon’s coronation ( 1 Kings 1:32 ). Hezekiah made an aqueduct from it ( 2 Chronicles 32:30 ). Undoubtedly the modern ‘Ain umm Ed-deraj or ‘Virgin’s Fount. See Eden [1]
Edrei - EdREI . A royal city of Og, king of Bashan ( Deuteronomy 1:4 ; Deuteronomy 3:10 , Joshua 12:4 ; Joshua 13:12 ), the scene of the battle at which Og was defeated ( Numbers 21:33 , Deuteronomy 3:1 ); assigned to the eastern division of Manasseh ( Joshua 13:31 ). It seems to be the modern Ed-Der’a , where are several important remains of antiquity, including a great subterranean catacomb. A town in Naphtali ( Joshua 19:37 ), not identified
Higga'Ion - (meditation ), a word which occurs three times in the book of Psalms -- ( Psalm 9:16 ; 19:14 ; 92:3 ) (margin). The word has two meanings, one of a general character, implying thought; reflection , and another, in ( Psalm 9:16 ) and Psal 92:3 Of a technical nature, the precise meaning of which cannot at this distance of time be determined. (Canon Cook says that it probably means an interlude giving musical expression to the feelings suggested by the preceding words. --ED
Adummim - The sides of a ravine that formed the border between the lots of Judah and Benjamin, and is called 'the going up to or ascent of Adummim. It lies in the road between Jerusalem and Jericho, and agrees with the parable of the good Samaritan in being a descent from Jerusalem, and was until lately a dangerous road, infested with robbers. It is identified with Talat Ed-Dumm, 31 49' N, 35 21' E
Nemesius, Bishop of Emesa - wrongly appear as a separate work, entitled περὶ ψυχῆς , de Anima , among the writings of Gregory Nyssen. , who attended the council of Seleucia, a. He could hardly have avoided mentioning Pelagius if his teaching had been known to him, in the part of his treatise relating to free will. of Emesa is stated in the title of his treatise in the various MS. 153, Ed. He is also quoted, though without his name, by Joannes Damascenus, Elias Cretensis, Meletius, Joannes Grammaticus, and others. The treatise is an interesting work which will well reward perusal, and has received much praise from able judges of style and matter. 242, 260, Ed. The best Ed. Matthaei (Halae, 1802), reprinted by Migne in Patr. The treatise has been translated into most modern European languages, into Italian by Pizzimenti (no date), English, G
Hedibia, a Lady in Gaul - Hedibia (EDIBIA), a lady in Gaul, who corresponded with St. She was descended from the Druids, and held the hereditary office of priests of Belen (= Apollo) at Bayeux. Her grandfather and father (if majores is to be taken strictly) Patera and Delphidius (the names being in each case derived from their office) were remarkable men. " Delphidius was a writer in prose and verse and a celebrated advocate. The wife and daughter of Delphidius became entangled in the Zoroastrian teaching of Priscillian, and suffered death in the persecution of his followers (Sulp. Hedibia was a diligent student of Scripture, and, finding no one to assist her, sent, by her friend Apodemius, a list of questions to Jerome. He answered them in a long letter (Ep. 120, Ed. 122, Ed
Pontianus, Bishop of Rome - The same record states that he was, with Hippolytus a presbyter, banished to Sardinia, which it describes as "nociva insula," implying possibly that he was sent to the mines there. His banishment doubtless took place under Maximinus, who succeeded Alexander after the assassination of the latter in May 235. ...
His only episcopal act of which anything needs to be said is his probable assent to the condemnation of Origen by Demetrius of Alexandria. in Benedict. Ed. in Ed. ) says of Origen: "For this toil what reward did he get? He is condemned by the bp. " The condemnation of Origen by Demetrius being supposed (though not with certainty) to have been c. 231, the Roman bishop who assembled the synod was most probably Pontianus. Two spurious epistles are assigned to him
Throughly - Editions of AV [1] we find both forms used, ‘thoroughly’ in Exodus 21:18 , 2 Kings 11:18 , and ‘throughly’ elsewhere; but in the original Edition of 1611 the spelling is ‘throughly’ everywhere. ’ In the first Ed. of AV Zarethan - Three readings of this name appear, the other two being Zeredah ( 1 Kings 11:26 , 2 Chronicles 4:17 ) and Zererah ( Judges 7:22 ). The most probable spot is near the Jisr Ed-Damieh at the junction of the Jabbok and the Jordan
Hazar-Enan - ) Here the northern boundary terminated (Numbers 34:9-10), and the eastern boundary began. Identified with Ayun Ed Dara, a fountain in the midst of the central chain of Antilibanus; in Van de Velde's map, latitude 33 degrees 49', longitude 36 degrees 12'. declivities of the northern part of the Antilibanus range, excluding the Damascus plain and its contiguous valleys, were included in the borders of the promised land (Speaker's Commentary, Numbers 34:9)
Babiism - ) The doctrine of a modern religious pantheistical sect in Persia, which was founded, about 1844, by Mirza Ali Mohammed ibn Rabhik (1820 - 1850), who assumed the title of Bab-ed-Din (Per. Babism is a mixture of Mohammedan, Christian, Jewish, and Parsi elements. This doctrine forbids concubinage and polygamy, and frees women from many of the degradations imposed upon them among the orthodox Mohammedans. Mendicancy, the use of intoxicating liquors and drugs, and slave dealing, are forbidden; asceticism is discountenanced
na'in - ( Luke 7:12 ) The modern Nein is situated on the northwestern Edge of the "Little Hermon," or Jebel-ed-Duhy , where the ground falls into the plain of Esdraelon
Adummim - The red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking toward Gilgal, mentioned Joshua 15:7 ; 18:17 . It was nearly half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-37 ). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and carriages for the first time have come along this road from Jerusalem
Sal'Cah, - (migration ), a city named in the early records of Israel as the extreme limit of Bashan, (3:10; Joshua 13:11 ) and of the tribe of Gad. The place is nearly deserted, though it contains 800 stone houses, many of them in a good state of preservation. -ED
u'Zal - (separate ), the sixth son of Joktan, ( Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 ) whose settlements are clearly traced in the ancient name of San'a , the capital city of the Yemen (a district of Arabia), which was originally Awzal . (San'a is situated about 150 miles from Aden and 100 miles from the coast of the Red Sea. It is one of the most imposing cities of Arabia -ED
Pinnacle - (of the temple ), ( Matthew 4:5 ; Luke 4:9 ) The Greek word ought to be rendered not a pinnacle, but the pinnacle. The only part of the temple which answered to the modern sense of pinnacle was the golden spikes erected on the roof to prevent birds from settling there. Perhaps the word means the battlement ordered by law to be added to every roof. (According to Alford it was the roof of Herod's royal portico of the temple,"which overhung the ravine of Kedron from a dizzy height" --600 or 700 feet. -ED
Arch of Titus - A triumphal arch erected at Rome, and still remaining there, to commemorate the conquest of Judea and the destruction of Jerusalem by the emperor Titus. It was erected after his death, A. It was a magnificent structure, decorated with bas-reliefs and inscriptions, and is of especial interest because its historic bas-reliefs represent the captors carrying in triumph to Rome the golden candlestick and sacred utensils from the Jewish temple at Jerusalem. --ED
Hornet - It is exceedingly fierce and voracious, especially in hot climates and its sting is frequently dangerous. In Scripture the hornet is referred to only by the means which Jehovah employed for the extirpation of the Canaanites. --ED
Maximinus, Saint, Bishop of Treves - 332—349) known to us from the part he played in the history of Athanasius. 336 the latter was banished by the emperor Constantine to Trèves, then the seat of government of his eldest son Constantine II. Maximin received him with honour, became his zealous partisan and friend, and was thenceforth numbered among the champions of orthodoxy in the West (Hieron. § 3, Ed. Benedict. Ed. Athanasius left Trèves in June 338, and in 340 Maximin was called upon to entertain and assist Paul, the banished bp. His efforts resulted in Paul's restoration in 341. In 342 a deputation of four Arian bishops arrived at Trèves, hoping to win Constans to their views. They brought a creed of compromise, but Maximin was inflexibly hostile, refused them communion, and was mainly instrumental in securing the rejection of their proposals (Hilar. Ed. Whether he was also at the great council of Sardica, 343 or 344, is not quite certain, but he assented to its decisions (Athan. Arianos , § 50, Ed. Benedict. His prominent part in the conflict with Arianism is shewn by the special excommunication pronounced against him at the heretical council of Philippopolis ( Hist. ...
Maximin's cult was established from very early times. The legends that collected round his name are embodied in two biographies, one by an anonymous monk of St. Agricius, he was ordained by him and succeeded him in the see. Against the Arian heresy, then in the ascendant, he boldly contended and suffered much persecution. He summoned a council at Cologne, which condemned Euphratas, the bp. of that city, who denied the divinity of Christ. (This council is now admitted to be fictitious; see Baron. He died in Aquitaine after an episcopate of 17 years, and was buried there
Spain - 1 Maccabees 8:3 ; (Romans 15:24,28 ) The local designation, Tarshish, representing the Tartessus of the Greeks, probably prevailed until the fame of the Roman wars in that country reached the East, when it was superseded by its classical name. Paul to visit Spain (whether he really did visit it is a disputed question. --ED. The early introduction of Christianity into that country is attested by Irenaeus and Tertullian
Nain - nain, "green pastures," "lovely"), the name of a town near the gate of which Jesus raised to life a widow's son (Luke 7:11-17 ). It is identified with the village called Nein, standing on the north-western slope of Jebel Ed-Duhy (=the "hill Moreh" = "Little hermon"), about 4 miles from Tabor and 25 southwest of Capernaum. This was the first miracle of raising the dead our Lord had wrought, and it excited great awe and astonishment among the people
Adamah - The earth or cultivated ground from whose dust God formed mankind, forming the wordplay Adam from dust of adamah . A city in Naphtali's territory (Joshua 19:36 ) near where the Jordan River joins the sea of Tiberias, perhaps modern Hagar Ed-Damm
Armaged'Don - ( Revelation 16:16 ) The scene of the struggle of good and evil is suggested by that battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon, which was famous for two great victories, of Barak over the Canaanites and of Gideon over the Midianites; and for two great disasters, the deaths of Saul and Josiah. Hence it signifies in Revelation a place of great slaughter, the scene of a terrible retribution upon the wicked. The Revised Version gives the name as Har-Magedon , i. --ED
Laurentius, an Antipope - Laurentius (10) , antipope, elected on the same day as Symmachus, four days after the decease of Anastasius II. ), occurred on Nov. Fierce conflicts ensued. The members of the senate as well as the clergy were arrayed in two parties. At length it was agreed to refer the settlement to Theodoric the Ostrogoth, now reigning at Ravenna as king of Italy, and he pronounced Symmachus the lawful pope (Anastas. Laurentius at first acquiesced, and accepted the see of Nucerina, but his partisans at Rome recalled him, and for three years after his election Rome was divided into two parties, headed by Festus and Probinus on the side of Laurentius, and by Faustus on the side of Symmachus. Anastasius states that "those who communicated with Symmachus were slain with the sword; holy women and virgins were dragged from their houses or convents, denuded and scourged; there were daily fights against the church in the midst of the city; many priests were killed; there was no security for walking in the city by day or night. " His account implies that more influential laymen were on the side of Laurentius, but that the clergy generally adhered to Symmachus. The matter was finally settled in the "synodus palmaris," the proceedings of which are supposed to be given under Synod. Laurentius is said, in a fragment of a catalogue of the popes printed from a remarkably ancient MS. by Joseph Blanchinus in his Ed. of Anastasius, to have retired to a farm of the patrician Festus, and to have died there, "sub ingenti abstinentia. " This account evidently emanated from the party of Laurentius, if not from Festus himself (cf. Ed. 123, Ed
Zichri - A grandson of Kohath ( Exodus 6:21 , misspelt in modern Edd. of AV [1] Zithri , although Ed
Zeboim -
One of the "five cities of the plain" of Sodom, generally coupled with Admah (Genesis 10:19 ; 14:2 ; Deuteronomy 29:23 ; Hosea 11:8 ). It was destroyed along with the other cities of the plain. ...
...
A valley or rugged glen somewhere near Gibeah in Benjamin (1 Samuel 13:18 ). It was probably the ravine now bearing the name Wady Shakh-ed-Dub'a, or "ravine of the hyena," north of Jericho. ...
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A place mentioned only in Nehemiah 11:34 , inhabited by the Benjamites after the Captivity
Saffron - "It was used," says Rosenmuller, "for the same purposes as the modern pot-pourri. " The word saffron is derived from the Arabic zafran , "yellow. It is used its a medicine, as a flavoring and as a yellow dye. It abounds in Palestine name saffron is usually applied only to the stigmas and part of the style, which are plucked out and dried. --ED
Ataroth - border of the territory of the children of Joseph ( Joshua 16:2 ), called Ataroth-addar in v. 5, probably identical with Ed-Dârîyeh , 1 1 / 2 mile S. A town not identified, towards the E. The name of a family ( 1 Chronicles 2:54 , RV Zeboim, Valley of - of Michmash) toward which the border looked, by way of which one company of Philistine marauders went. Zeboim lay "toward the wilderness" (the uncultivated mountain sides between the central district of Benjamin and the Jordan valley). The path from Jericho to Mukhmas (Michmash) runs up a gorge called by an exactly equivalent name, Shuk Ed Dubba, "ravine of the hyena" (1 Samuel 13:18). Ζeboim (without the Hebrew 'Αyin ( ע ) means "gazelles"; one of the four cities of the plain; destroyed with Sodom, Gomorrha, and Admah (Genesis 10:19; Genesis 14:2; Deuteronomy 29:23; Hosea 11:8)
Indwelling Scheme - Ed. 1679; a Sermon entitled "The true Christ of God above the false Christ of Men, "Ipswich, 1799; Watts's Glory of Christ, p
l'Ish - In the Authorized Version Laish is again mentioned in the account of Sennacherib's march on Jerusalem. --ED
ma'ry, Mother of Mark, - (Acts 4:36 ; 12:15 ) She was among the earliest disciples, and lived at Jerusalem. She gave up her house to be used as one of the chief places of meeting. --ED
Makke'Dah - (place of shepherds ), a place memorable in the annals of the conquest of Canaan as the scene of the execution by Joshua of the five confederate kings, ( Joshua 10:10-50 ) who had hidden themselves in a cave at this place. Schaff says that "one cave has, curiously enough, five loculi rudely scooped in its side, and an enthusiast might contend that this was the very place of sepulchre of the five kings. "-ED
Highways - These are never cared for, no repairs are made or obstacles removed. On special occasions kings had roads prepared for the progress of their armies, or their own going from place to place. --ED
Maximinus, Arian Bishop of Hippo Regius - Augustine, later, replied in 2 books, which, with that which contains the discussion, exhibit the arguments for and against the Arian doctrine. The line of argument taken by Augustine resembles so strongly that expressed in our Athanasian creed that if this were lost it might almost be supplied from this treatise. 719–819, Ed
Juliana, Mother of the Virgin Demetrias - She was of noble birth, being connected through her mother Proba and her husband Olybrius with some of the greatest families of Rome, and was possessed of great wealth. When her daughter proposed to take vows of virginity, she refrained from influencing her; but when Demetrias appeared in the church clad in the dress of a virgin she shewed her great delight at this step. She supported the cause of Chrysostom at Rome and entertained his messengers. His thanks were conveyed in a letter from his place of exile (A. She fled with her daughter to Africa from Rome when it was sacked by Alaric, but fell into the rapacious hands of count Heraclion, who robbed her of half her property. She was commended to the African churches by pope Innocent in a laudatory letter ( Ep. 130, Ed. She became acquainted with Augustine while in Africa, and she and her daughter had relations with Pelagius, who wrote a long letter to Demetrias (given among the Supposititia of Jerome; Ed
Marcella, Friend of Jerome - Ed. She was descended from the illustrious Roman family of the Marcelli, and had great wealth. From Athanasius and his companions she heard of Anthony and the monasteries of the Thebaid, and received her first impulse towards the ascetic life. She married, but her husband died after seven months, and she refused a second marriage offered her by the wealthy Cerealis, a man of consular rank but advanced in years. Her ascetic tendency was confirmed by the coming to Rome of the Egyptian monk Peter in 374. She continued to live with her mother in their palatial residence on the Aventine, but with the utmost simplicity. She was not immoderate in her asceticism, and followed the counsels of her mother, from whose society she never departed. A circle of ladies gathered round her, and her house became a kind of convent dedicated to the study of the Scriptures, and to psalmody and prayer. 2, Ed. He wrote for her some 15 different treatises—on difficult passages of Scripture and church history; and on his departure in 385 hoped that she might have accompanied her intimate friends Paula and Eustochium to Palestine. Ed. ) invites her in glowing terms to come and enjoy with them the Holy Land; but she remained at Rome. After her mother's death in 387 she retired to a little house outside the city with her young friend Principia and devoted her whole time to good works. Having, in conjunction with Pammachius and Oceanus, ascertained Jerome's view of the matter, she urged the pope Anastasius (400–403) to condemn Origen and his defenders; and, when he hesitated, went to him and pointed out the passages which, she contended, though veiled in Rufinus's translation, demanded the pope's condemnation. Anastasius completely yielded, and like Theophilus of Alexandria condemned Origen and his upholders. "...
She lived till the sack of Rome by Alaric. The Goths, supposing her to be affecting poverty to conceal her wealth, used personal violence, but at her entreaty spared Principia, and at last allowed them to take sanctuary in St. Her faith made her seem hardly sensible of her sufferings, but she only survived a few days and died in the arms of Principia, leaving all she had to the poor. Jerome, Ed
Zarethan - ” The River Jordan backed up and Israel passed over into Canaan on dry ground near there (Joshua 3:16 ). Hiram of Tyre cast bronze Temple vessels near there (1 Kings 7:46 ; the parallel in 2 Chronicles 4:17 reads Zeredah). Zarethan is most often identified with the two mounds of tell es-Saidiyah on the east bank of the Jordan about fourteen miles north of Adam (tell Ed-Damiyeh). Archaeologists have uncovered numerous bronze artifacts from the vicinity of Succoth and Zarethan, confirming activity like that attributed to Hiram
Geliloth - This last was probably in the neighbourhood of Tal‘ at Ed-dum , a hill near the so-called ‘Inn of the Good Samaritan’ on the carriage road to Jericho. ]'>[1] in AV [2] either ‘borders’ or ‘coasts,’ RV Dibon - It was built by Gad, Numbers 32:34, and hence called Dibon-gad; was assigned to Reuben, Joshua 13:9; Joshua 13:17; was also called Dimon. It afterward returned to Moab, Isaiah 15:2; Jeremiah 48:18; Jeremiah 48:22; now called Dhîbân, about 12 miles east of the Dead Sea and 3 miles north of the Arnon. A town in the south of Judah, Nehemiah 11:25; the same as Dimonah, Joshua 15:22, and probably modern Ed-Dheib
ne-ap'Olis - (new city ) is the place in northern Greece where Paul and his associates first landed in Europe. ( Acts 16:11 ) where, no doubt, he landed also on his second visit to Macedonia, (Acts 20:1 ) and whence certainly he embarked on his last journey through that province to Troas and Jerusalem. (Acts 20:6 ) Philippi being an inland town, Neapolis was evidently the port, and is represented by the present Kavalla . Neapolis was situated within the bounds of Thrace, ten miles from Philippi, on a high rocky promontory jutting out into the AEgean Sea, while a temple of Diana crowned the hill-top. --ED
Dove's Dung - Various explanations have been given of the passage in (2 Kings 6:25 ) Bochart has labored to show that it denotes a species of cicer , "chick-pea," which he says the Arabs call usnan , and sometimes improperly "dove's" or "sparrow's dung. --ED. It can scarcely be believed that even in the worst horrors of a siege a substance so vile as is implied by the literal rendering should have been used for food
Galenus, Physician - 130 at Pergamus, flourished chiefly at Rome under the Antonines, and died in 200 or 201. 657, Ed. Kühn) he writes: "It is easier to convince the disciples of Moses and Christ than physicians and philosophers who are addicted to particular sects"; and (lib. 579) he condemns the method of Archigenes, who requires his dicta to be received absolutely and without demonstration, "as though we were come to the school of Moses and of Christ. An Arabic writer has preserved a fragment of Galen's lost work, de Republicâ Platonis , which reads: "We know that the people called Christians have founded a religion in parables and miracles. In the practice of virtue they surpass philosophers; in probity, in continence, in the genuine performance of miracles (verâ miraculorum patratione—does he mean the Scripture miracles, on which their religion was based?) they infinitely excel them" (Casiri, Biblioth. For apologetic remarks on Galen's testimony see Lardner's Credibility (Works, vol. 300, Ed
Naught - In the earliest Editions of AV [1] there is no difference between ‘naught’ and ‘nought’; but in the Ed. of 1638 a difference was introduced, ‘naught’ being used in 2 Kings 2:19 , Proverbs 20:14 , because there the meaning is ‘bad’; ‘nought’ everywhere else, but with the meaning ‘worthlessness. ’ This distinction was preserved by Scrivener, in his Cambr. ’ But ‘ naughtiness ’ always means ‘wickedness,’ as Proverbs 11:6 ‘transgressors shall be taken in their own naughtiness
Counsellor - This is the spelling in modern Editions of the AV [1] is hesitatingly translated by Driver ‘minister’; RV Jabesh, Jabeshgilead - When the tribe of Benjamin had been punished for its sin, and wives were wanted for the survivors, Jabesh-gilead was smitten because they came not when called, and only the young women were spared. The city was afterwards saved from the Ammonites by Saul; and when Saul and his sons were killed in battle, the valiant men of the city took up their bodies and buried them. Identified with Ed Deir (on the south of Wady Yabis, in which the name has probably been preserved), 32 23' N, 35 40' E
a'Mos - (burden ), native of Tekoa in Judah, about six miles south of Bethlehem, originally a shepherd and dresser of sycamore trees, who was called by God s Spirit to be a prophet, although not trained in any of the regular prophetic schools. ( Amos 1:1 ; 7:14,15 ) He travelled from Judah into the northern kingdom of Israel or Ephraim, and there exercised his ministry, apparently not for any long time. 808 for he lived in the reigns of Uzziah king of Judah and Jeroboam king of Israel; but his ministry probably took place at an earlier date, perhaps about the middle of Jeroboam's reign Nothing is known of the time or manner of his death. --ED
Oak - There is much difficulty in determining the exact meanings of the several varieties of the term mentioned above. Sometimes, evidently, the terebinth or elm is intended and at others the oak. Robinson contends that the oak is generally intended, and that it is a very common tree in the East. Oaks grow to a large size, reach an old age and are every way worthy the venerable associations connected with the tree. --ED
Eye - (The practice of painting the eyelids to make the eyes look large, lustrous and languishing is often alluded to in the Old Testament, and still extensively prevails among the women of the East, and especially among the Mohammedans. Jezebel, in (2 Kings 9:30 ) is said to have prepared for her meeting with Jehu by painting her face, or, as it reads in the margin, "put her eyes in paint. " See also (Ezekiel 23:40 ) A small probe of wood, ivory or silver is wet with rose-water and dipped in an impalpable black powder, and is then drawn between the lids of the eye nearly closed, and leaves a narrow black border, which is though a great ornament. --ED
Key - The key of a native Oriental lock is a piece of wood, from seven inches to two feet in length, fitted with the wires or short nails, which, being inserted laterally into the hollow bolt which serves as a lock, raises other pins within the staple so as to allow the bolt to be drawn back. They are used in Scripture as a symbol of authority and power. --ED
Macarius, a Roman Christian - Finding some difficulties, he dreamed of a ship bringing relief to his doubts. for him Origen's eulogy on the martyr Pamphilus (said by Jerome to be really by Eusebius) and also Origen's περί Ἀπχῶν , the publication of which led to violent controversy. Ed
Strangled - ‘Blood’ means murder, ‘fornication’ adultery, and for ‘things strangled’ is substituted harmfulness. idolatry and its accompaniment, fornication; blood; things strangled. Now blood-offerings and strangled offerings are mentioned in the OT as found among idolatrous Jews (Ezekiel 33:25, Isaiah 65:4; Isaiah 66:3; Isaiah 66:17). But strangled things are specially mentioned because they have a peculiar efficacy in heathen eyes. They do not shed the blood, and it does not therefore call for vengeance from the ground. Thus they have a magical influence, and have been so used in N. America and Japan and are still used in India. Lightfoot, Colossians and Philemon, new Ed. Paul, new Ed
Constans i - 320 and made Caesar in 333; he reigned as Augustus 337–350 when he was killed by the conspiracy of Magnentius. As regards the inheritance of his father's qualities, while Constantius seemed to have taken for his share his political knowledge, his military skill, and his eloquence (though reproducing a very faint image of them), Constans had only received great personal courage and a straightforwardness that did him honour. He was, besides, a lover of pleasure: he was suspected of the gravest moral irregularities. He had firm, though certainly unenlightened, faith, and frequently gave proofs of it by distributing largesses to the churches and favours to the Christians" (cf. Libanius in 348 delivered a panegyric on Constans and Constantius, called βασιλικὸς λόγος , vol. Ed. 363, Ed. Gaume, speaks of him as having children and as committing suicide, statements elsewhere unsupported. His conduct with respect to the Arian and Donatist controversies gained him the esteem of Catholics. He was a baptized Christian; his baptism is referred to in Ap
Laurentius (15) - Laurentius (15), surnamed Mellifluus, thought to have been bp. A Laurentius, surnamed Mellifluus, from the sweetness with which he delivered homilies, is mentioned by Sigebert ( Scr. That this Laurentius was the presbyter who instructed Gaudentius the first bp. of Novara was maintained by Cotta, an outline of whose arguments may be seen in the Acta Eruditorum (suppl. 525, 526, Ed. of Milan who is praised by Ennodius in his first Dictio. Other corroborative passages have been adduced by Mabillon ( ut inf. of Milan pacifying his haughty brethren by honeyed words of conciliation ("blandimentorum melle," ib. of Novara, but he is not admitted by the historians of the see, as Ughelli ( Ital. Three extant treatises are ascribed to Laurentius Mellifluus, viz. two homilies, de Poenitentia and de Eleemosyna, printed by La Bigne in his Bibliotheca and a treatise de Mulieye Cananaea, printed by Mabillon with a note on the author, supporting the view of La Bigne, in his Analecta (p. 55, Ed. The sin inherited from Adam is in baptism entirely put away through the merits of Christ. Christ the second Adam simply cancelled the sin derived from the first Adam. For actual transgression each person is himself alone responsible and is to be released from it by penitence, with which the treatise is mainly occupied, and so has received its present title. 540, Ed
Marcianus, Presbyter at Constantinople - He was appointed oeconomus by the patriarch Gennadius, therefore after 458; and made it a rule that the clergy of Constantinople should retain for their own churches the offerings made in them and no longer pay them over to the great church (Theod. Irene is mentioned in the Basilian Menology and by Codinus ( Aedif. 88, Ed. The church of Irene (transformed from an idol temple) was on the shore ( Vit. Gregory ministered, and Marcian bought the site (then occupied by dealers in materials for mosaic work) because there had been found St. Gregory's commentaries ( ὑπομνήματα ), wherein he had, 50 years before, predicted the restoration of the building in greater size and beauty. The adornment of Marcian's church was subsequently completed by Basil the Macedonian, who added the golden ceiling. How Marcian saved his new church in the conflagration of Sept. 2 by his prayers and tears, while mounted on the roof with the Holy Gospels in his hands, is related by Theodore Lector (i. 454), and Cedrenus (p. 348, Ed. The year as fixed by Clinton (F. He is stated to have placed the relics of St. 98, 102, Ed
Dumah - A son of Ishmael and the original ancestor of the Arabian tribe (Genesis 25:14 ) centered in the oases of Dumah, probably modern el-Gof, also called Dumat el-Gandel, meaning Dumah of the Rocks. Rulers in Dumah apparently led coalitions supported by Damascus and later by Babylon against Assyria between 740,700 B. Thus Assyria punished Dumah in 689 when they also defeated Babylon. Sennacherib conquered Dumah. The remainder of Assyrian history is filled with troubled relationships with Arabian vassals, particularly those around Dumah. Isaiah proclaimed an oracle against Dumah (Isaiah 21:11 ). It is probably modern khirbet Ed-Dome about nine miles southwest of Hebron. It may be mentioned in the Amarna letters
Jot And Tittle - In Matthew 5:18 Jesus says, ‘Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled’ (|| Luke 16:17 ). ]'>[1] kerea ) were translated by Tindale ‘iott’ and ‘tytle,’ and these forms were retained in all the versions. The 1611 Ed. of AV [2] has ‘iote’ (one syllable) and ‘title,’ but modern printers have turned iote into ‘jot,’ and ‘title’ into ‘tittle
Mercy-Seat - (Exodus 25:17 ; 37:6 ; Hebrews 9:5 ) This appears to have been merely the lid of the ark of the covenant, not another surface affixed thereto. --ED. ) It was that whereon the blood of the yearly atonement was sprinkled by the high priest; and in this relation it is doubtful whether the sense of the word in the Hebrew is based on the material fact of its "covering" the ark, or derived from this notion of its reference to the "covering" (i
Georgius (43), Patron Saint of England - ); traditionally the patron saint of England, a military tribune and martyr under Diocletian at Nicomedia, A. Some time before the outbreak of the great persecution he accompanied his mother to Lydda, in Palestine, where she possessed property. As soon, however, as he heard of the publication of the first Edict (Feb. 23, 303), he returned to Nicomedia where, as some think, he was the celebrated person who tore down the imperial proclamation, and then suffered death by roasting over a slow fire (Eus. George is an inscription in a church at Ezr᾿a or Edhr᾿a, in S. Syria, copied by Burckhardt and Porter, and discussed by Mr. This inscription states that the building had been a heathen temple, but was dedicated as a church in honour of the great martyr St. Ed. ) The council assembled at Rome by pope Gelasius, a. 219, Ed. Paris, 1869), condemned the Acts of St. George, together with those of Cyricus and Julitta, as corrupted by heretics, but expressly asserted that the saints themselves were real martyrs and worthy of all reverence (cf. mentions him as highly celebrated in France, while in the East his cultus became universally established (cf. 46) and churches were erected in all directions in his honour, one of the most celebrated being that built, probably by Justinian, over his tomb at Lydda, whither his relics had been transferred after his martyrdom. ) Another is at Thessalonica; described in Texier and Pullan, Byzantine Architecture , pp. Procopius, de Aedif. 4, Ed. ...
The Medieval Legends. seem to have corrupted his acts for their own purposes. Their story is that he was arrested by Datianus, emperor of Rome, or, according to others, of Persia, by whom he was in vain ordered to sacrifice to Apollo. After various attempts the magician was converted and baptized, as well as the queen Alexandra. George was beheaded. The addition of a horse and a dragon to the story arose out of the imaginations of medieval writers. The dragon represents the devil, suggested by St. When the race of the Bagratides ascended the throne of Georgia at the end of the 6th cent. , they adopted St. The horse was added during the Frankish occupation of Constantinople as suitable, according to medieval ideas, to his rank and character as a military martyr. George was depicted on a horse as early as 1227, according to Nicephorus Gregoras ( Hist. George mounted upon a horse, which neighed in the most violent style whenever an enemy was about to make a successful assault upon the city. George and the dragon, and the king's daughter Sabra, whom he delivered, is in the Historia Lombardica , popularly called the Golden Legend , of Jacobus de Voragine, archbp. George's Day, till revised by pope Clement VIII. George and the Dragon , reprinted in the third volume of Percy's Reliques , many features of which Spenser reproduces in his Faëry Queen . found in the heart of Asia Minor a legend of the Turkish hero Chederles, to whom were ascribed exploits similar to those of St. 93, 95, Ed. George on horseback, regarding him as having conquered the evil one (Ephesians 3 , p. Arculf, the early traveller, when returning to his bishopric in France, was carried northward to Iona, c. George, whence, through Adamnan and Bede, it became widely known in Britain. George has a place in the Anglo-Saxon ritual of Durham assigned to the early part of the 9th cent. 1020–1051, Ed. His special fame, however, in this country arose immediately out of the early Crusades. Ed. 559) tells us that, when the Crusaders were hard pressed by the Saracens at the battle of Antioch, June 28, 1089, the soldiers were encouraged by seeing "the martyrs George and Demetrius hastily approaching from the mountainous districts, hurling darts against the enemy, but assisting the Franks" (cf. 173, Ed. This timely apparition at the very crisis of the campaign led the Crusaders, among whom were a large contingent of Normans under Robert, son of William the Conqueror, to adopt St. George appeared to him and so became a special favourite with the Normans and English (Itin. of Crusades , Ed. In 1222 a national council at Oxford ordered his feast to be kept as a lesser holiday throughout England. He was not, however, formally adopted as patron saint of England till the time of Edward III. , who founded St. In 1349 Edward joined battle with the French near Calais, when, "moved by a sudden impulse," says Thomas of Walsingham, "he drew his sword with the exclamation, Ha! St. Edward, Ha! St. George, and routed the French" (cf. George replaced St. Edward the Confessor as patron of England. In 1350, according to some authorities, the order of the Garter was instituted under his patronage, and in 1415, according to the Constitutions of archbp. George's Day was made a major double feast, and ordered to be observed like Christmas Day. In the first Prayer Book of Edward VI. George's feast was a red-letter day, and had a special epistle and gospel. This was changed in the next revision (Ashmole, Order of the Garter ; Anstis, Register ; Pott, Antiquities of Windsor and History of Order of Garter , a. The influence of the Crusades also led to St. Syria his day is still observed as a great festival (Lyde, Secret Sects of N. —The consentient testimony of all Christendom till the Reformation attested the existence of St. Calvin first questioned it. 20, § 27, when arguing against invocation of saints, he ridiculed those who esteem Christ's intercession as of no value unless "accedant Georgius aut Hippolytus aut similes larvae," where, unfortunately for himself, he places Hippolytus in the class of ghosts or phantoms together with St. Heylin argued in an exhaustive treatise (Hist. 164–166) a very full list of all earlier authors who had referred to St. George, including a quotation from a reputed treatise by St. The controversy was continued during the 18th cent. George, provoked doubtless by Gibbon's well-known sneer in c. Ed. Ed. George of Cappadocia : the Coptic texts Ed
Asterius, Bishop of Amasea - Beyond this not a single incident in his life is recorded. His date, however, is fixed by allusions to contemporary events in his Homilies. He speaks of the apostasy of Julian as having happened within his memory (Aster. 56, Ed. 76) he mentions the consulate and fall of Eutropius as an event of the preceding year. This sermon therefore must have been delivered on New Year's Day, 400. Elsewhere he spoke of himself as a man of very advanced age (Phot. Of these we possess twenty-two perfect; twelve on various subjects included in the Edition of Combefis (Paris, 1648); eight on the Psalms, of which one is found among the works of St. Chrysostom, and the remaining seven were published by Cotelier, Mon. (Paris, 1688); and two again on other subjects, which are published among the works of Gregory Nyssen, but must be assigned to Asterius on the authority of Photius. In addition to these homilies, a Life of his predecessor, St. Basil of Amasea, printed in the Acta Sanctorum , April 26, is ascribed to him. Ed. His orthodoxy was unquestioned. His authority was quoted with great respect in later ages, more especially during the Iconoclastic controversy at the second council of Nicaea, when with a play on his name he was referred to as "a bright star (astrum ) illumining the minds of all" (Labbe, Conc. 1385, 1387, Ed
Dash - ...
2: ῥήσσω (Strong's #4486 — Verb — rhegnumi — hrayg'-noo-mee, hrace'-so ) "to tear, rend, break," is used of the action of a demon upon a human victim, Mark 9:18 , "dasheth . ; AV, text, "teareth"); Luke 9:42 , RV, "dashed . ...
3: ἐδαφίζω (Strong's #1474 — Verb — Edaphizo — Ed-af-id'-zo ) "to beat level with the earth," e. Edaphos, "the ground"), Luke 19:44 ; RV, "shall dash (thee) to the ground;" (AV, "shall lay (thee) even with the ground")
Mole - ( Leviticus 11:30 ) It is probable that the animals mentioned with the tinshemeth in the above passage denote different kinds of lizards; perhaps, therefore, the chameleon is the animal intended. ...
Chephor peroth is rendered "moles" in ( Isaiah 2:20 ) (The word means burrowers, hole-diggers, and may designate any of the small animals, as rats and weasels, which burrow among ruins. Many scholars, according to McClintock and Strong's "Cyclopedia," consider that the Greek aspalax is the animal intended by both the words translated mole. It is not the European mole, but is a kind of blind mole-rat, from 8 to 12 inches long, feeding on vegetables, and burrowing like a mole, but on a larger scale. --ED
Rame'Ses, - The city was one of the two store-cities built for the Pharaoh who first oppressed the children of Israel. (Exodus 1:11 ) (It was probably the capital of Goshen and situated in the valley of the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile. McClintock and Strong say that its location is indicated by the present Tell Ramsis , a quadrangular mound near Belbeis. Brugsch thinks that it was at Zoan-Tanis, the modern San, on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, and that it was built or enlarged by Rameses II and made his capital. --ED
Majorinus, Church Reader at Carthage - This Augustine and Optatus denounced as an act of rebellion, and it was undoubtedly one of the first steps towards definite schism, a. of Cirta, who was afterwards proved before Zenophilus to have been a "traditor. " Majorinus died c. Ed
Stephanus, Bishop of Ephesus - of Ephesus at the time of the "Robber Synod" and the 4th council of Chalcedon. 29, 451) was wholly occupied with investigating a complaint brought by Bassianus, formerly bp. of Ephesus, against Stephen, who was in advanced age, having been then 50 years one of the clergy of Ephesus. Bassianus had been expelled by violence from the see c. 448, and succeeded by Stephen. Both were deprived of the see by decree of the synod, but allowed a pension of 200 gold pieces (Mansi, t. The name of Stephen of Ephesus is attached to a MS. 183, Ed
Demetrius - Demetrius (2) succeeded Julianus A. He presided over the see for 43 years, and died a. After Clement had left Alexandria, he placed Origen at its head, c. 5), and strenuously encouraged him to continue his work, when his indiscreet zeal had exposed him to misrepresentation ( ib. Origen fulfilled his mission satisfactorily, but not long afterwards Demetrius's friendship for him was interrupted. ]'>[2] According to a late, and not very trustworthy, authority, Demetrius is reported to have written letters on the keeping of Easter, maintaining the view adopted at Nicaea (Eutychius, Ann. Ed 1685), and more briefly by Tillemont ( Mémoires , Origène, art. 225, Ed. ...
The statement that Demetrius first changed the singular ecclesiastical arrangement of Egypt, by appointing three bishops in addition to the bp. of Alexandria, who had formerly governed the whole province, is probably correct, though the only direct authority for it is that of Eutychius, patriarch of Alexandria, in the 10th cent. Possibly this change was due to special views on church government, which may have influenced Demetrius in his harsh judgment on the ordination of Origen beyond the limits of his jurisdiction
Marinus, a Military Martyr - Marinus (4), a military martyr in the reign of Gallienus, at Caesarea in Palestine, under a judge named Achaeus, A. He was distinguished by his birth, riches, and services. When Marinus was about to be made a centurion, another aspirant declared him to be a Christian and unable therefore to sacrifice to the emperors. The judge granted him three hours to choose between death and compliance. As Marinus came out of the praetorium, Theotecnus the bishop led him into the church. Placing him by the altar, be raised his cloak, and pointing to the sword by his side, and presenting him with the book of the gospels, told him to choose which he wished. Without hesitation he extended his hand and took the book. "Hold fast then—hold fast to God," said Theotecnus, "and strengthened by Him mayest thou obtain what thou hast chosen: go in peace. " He was immediately executed, and buried by a Christian senator named Astyrius. It is a moot question whether this martyrdom resulted from persecution or from military law. 620, on "Die Toleranzedicte des Kaisers Gallienus," suggests that Marinus could not legally have suffered under Gallienus, who had already issued his Edict of toleration, but that it must have taken place by command of Macrianus, who had revolted from Gallienus and taken possession of Egypt, Palestine, and the East, and was, as we learn from Eus. Pollio, Ed. When possessed of imperial authority, Macrianus vented his hate on the Christians whom Gallienus favoured. Ed
Ed - The great altar of Ed also was an Israelite work, founded by Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh, to be a witness of their having a share in the national covenant and sanctuary of Jehovah. , crossed Jordan to return to their eastern possessions; not the ford near Jericho, but the Damieh ford the highway from the eastern uplands to central Palestine (identified with the "city Adam"), opposite to the opening of the broad wady Far'ah, the route from Shiloh the national sanctuary to Gilead and Bashan. ...
The altar was erected on the W. side of and above (so Hebrew for "by," Joshua 22:10) Jordan, the pledge that the two and a half tribes held possession still with the remaining tribes on the W. Gelilot is transled in the Vulgate as "mounds," probably the round islands with flat tops, formed by broad water channels and salt springs on the level of the Ghor or upper plain. The high cone of Kurn Surtabeh realizes the description of the altar of witness; it crowns an almost isolated block of hill, closing in the broader part of the Jordan valley on the N. , by which the watershed is reached and followed along its winding course to the summit. On it is an oblong area, 30 yards by 100 yards, enclosed by a ruined wall of fine hewn blocks; within this is a platform, 18 ft. An aqueduct runs round the whole mountain block. The gelilot or insulated mounds of the upper plain lie at the foot of the hill. the going up which leads to Ayd equates to Ed (Conder, Palestine Exploration). The altar of Ed was 11 miles from the national sanctuary at Shiloh, and separated from it by a range of mountains. Or else "Canaan" may be used of the whole country of the nine and a half tribes, the Jordan valley being excepted; the altar Ed being in front of the country of the nine and a half tribes (Keil and Delitzsch)
Spikenard - nerd ) is mentioned twice in the Old Testament viz. in ( Song of Solomon 1:12 ; 4:13,14 ) The ointment with which our Lord was anointed as he sat at meat in Simon's house at Bethany consisted of this precious substance, the costliness of which may be inferred from the indignant surprise manifested by some of the witnesses of the transaction. It was imported from an early age from Arabia India and the Far East. -ED
Moreh - Abram's first halting place in Canaan, near Shechem and Ebal and Gerizim mountains (Genesis 12:6); here he erected his first altar. At its foot Midian and Amalek encamped before Gideon's attack (Judges 6:33; Judges 7:1). On the northern side of the valley of Jezreel, and of the height where Gideon's 300 were; jebel Ed Duhy, "little Hermon," answers to Moreh
Foliation - ) The manner in which the young leaves are dispo/ed within the bud. ) The enrichment of an opening by means of foils, arranged in trefoils, quatrefoils, etc. ) The property, possessed by some crystalline rocks, of dividing into plates or slabs, which is due to the cleavage structure of one of the constituents, as mica or hornblende. It may sometimes include slaty structure or cleavage, though the latter is usually independent of any mineral constituent, and transverse to the bedding, it having been produced by pressure
Dumah - Cited in Genesis 25:14 ( 1 Chronicles 1:30 ) as among the twelve tribes of Ishmael. The region thus indicated is supposed to be the oasis formerly called by the Arabs Dûmat el-Jendel and now known as el-Jôf , about three-fourths of the way from Damascus to Medina. The same place may be referred to in the obscure oracle Isaiah 21:11 , but the LXX [1] has ‘Idumæa,’ and it is possible that Edom is meant. ]'>[3] indicate Rumah , and not all Editions of the Hebrew agree. If the received text is correct, an identification may be plausibly made with Ed-Daumeh 10 miles S
Ed - and Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized Version, also in the Revised Version, of Joshua 22:34 . The words are literally rendered: "And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad named the altar. " After the division of the Promised Land, the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh, on returning to their own settlements on the east of Jordan (Joshua 22:1-6 ), erected a great altar, which they affirmed, in answer to the challenge of the other tribes, was not for sacrifice, but only as a witness ('Ed) or testimony to future generations that they still retained the same interest in the nation as the other tribes
Usury, - (The word usury has come in modern English to mean excessive interest upon money loaned, either formally illegal or at least oppressive. The Jews were forbidden by the law of Moses to take interest from their brethren, but were permitted to take it from foreigners. The prohibition grew out of the agricultural status of the people, in which ordinary business loans were not needed. and loans as were required should be made only as to friends and brothers in need. --ED
Jabesh - A city east of the Jordan; destroyed by the Israelites, Judges 21:8-14; delivered from Nahash by Saul, 1 Samuel 11:1-11, and in gratitude therefor, its people brought the bodies of Saul and his sons, which the Philistines hung upon the walls of Bethshan, to Jabesh, and caused them to be buried in a wood near by. David blessed them, 2 Samuel 2:4-6, but afterward removed the bones to Saul's ancestral burying-place. Robinson identifies it with Ed-Deir, 23 miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee on the south side of Wady Yabis
Christopher, a Martyr of Universal Fame - ( Χριστοφόρος ), a martyr of universal fame, baptized by St. of Antioch, who suffered (c. From early times the untrustworthy character of some of the popular stories of him has been acknowledged. 876) thus commemorated him (July 25) after St. After he had been scourged with iron rods, and then delivered from the broiling flames by the virtue of Christ, his head was at last severed from his body, which had fallen full of arrow-wounds, and the martyr's witness was complete. Ed
Debir - It was one of the cities of the Amorites that was destroyed and its king slain. Joshua as the leader of Israel is represented as taking it, but in Judges we find that it was actually taken by Othniel, to whom Caleb gave his daughter Achsah in marriage for its capture. Identified with Edh Dhaheriyeh, 31 25' N, 34 58' E . Identified by some with Thoghret Ed Debr, 31 49' N, 35 21' E . Place on the boundary of Gad, mentioned after Mahanaim
Partridge - (The Greek partridge somewhat resembles our red-legged partridge in plumage, but is much larger. The flesh of the partridge and the eggs are highly esteemed as food, and the search for the eggs at the proper time of the year is made a regular business. -ED
Philis'Tia - The word thus translated (in) ( Psalm 60:8 ; 87:4 ; 108:9 ) is in the original identical with that elsewhere rendered Palestine, which always means land of the Philistines. It was 40 miles long on the coast of the Mediterranean between Gerar and Joppa, and 10 miles wide at the northern end and 20 at the southern. --ED. It was also adapted to the growth of military power; for while the itself permitted. the use of war-chariots, which were the chief arm of offence, the occasional elevations which rise out of it offered secure sites for towns and strongholds
e'Bal, Mount, - a mount in the promised land, on which the Israelites were to "put" the curse which should fall upon them if they disobeyed the commandments of Jehovah. The blessing consequent on obedience was to be similarly localized on Mount Gerizim. (They are nearly in the centre of the country of Samaria, about eight hundred feet above Nablus in the valley; and they are so near that all the vast body of the people could hear the words read from either mountain. The experiment has repeatedly been tried in late years. --Ed. ) The modern name of Ebal is Sitti Salamiyah , from a Mohammedan female saint, whose tomb is standing on the eastern part of the ridge, a little before the highest point is reached
Joannes (504), Abbat of mt. Sinai - Joannes (504), surnamed Climacus, Scholasticus, or Sinaita. At the age of 16 he entered the monastery of Mount Sinai, subsequently became an anchoret, and at 75 abbat of Mount. At the entreaty of John abbat of Raïthu he now composed his works, the Scala Paradisi and the Liber ad Pastorem; from the title ( κλῖμαξ ) of the first of these he gained his name of Climacus (Climakos). It contains his experiences in the spiritual life, with instructions for the attainment of a higher degree of holiness, and is dedicated to the abbat of Raïthu who afterwards wrote a commentary upon it (Patr. Returning into solitude, John died at an advanced age early in the 7th cent. 631–1210; a new Ed
Bertha, Wife of Ethelbert, King of Kent - The date of her marriage is unknown, but it was probably after the death of her mother, although Bede speaks of the king receiving her "a parentibus. " Ethelbert was still a heathen, and on his marriage it was made a condition that his wife should be allowed to enjoy the exercise of her own religion, and should be attended by a bishop. Liudhard, or Letard, who is called by the Canterbury historians bp. of Senlis (Thorn, Ed. Martin, at Canterbury, were allotted for Christian worship (Bede, H. It was partly, no doubt, by her influence that Ethelbert was induced to receive the Roman mission and to be baptized. Pope Gregory, in 601, when sending Mellitus to reinforce Augustine's company, addressed a letter to Bertha, in which he compliments her highly on her faith and knowledge of letters, and urges her to make still greater efforts for the spread of Christianity. She was buried in the porch of St. Peter and Paul (Bede, H. Ethelbert seems to have married again after her death. She was the mother of Eadbald, who succeeded to the throne on Ethelbert's death, and of Ethelburga, who, in 625, was married to Edwin, King of Northumbria. As her son was unbaptized in 616, it is probable that she found considerable difficulty in promoting Christianity in her own family, or else that she died whilst her children were very young. Elmham (ed
Succoth - A place first mentioned in Genesis 33:17 , where it is said to have been so called because Jacob, on his return from Haran to Canaan, halting at it after his wrestling with the angel at Penuel, built there ‘booths’ (Heb. Gideon also, after crossing the Jordan in his pursuit of the Midianites, passed Succoth, and afterwards ‘went up’ to Penuel ( Judges 8:5 ; Judges 8:8 ). The name has not been preserved; and the site is thus matter of conjecture. From the passages quoted and other notices it is clear that it was E. of the Jordan; and it may further be inferred that, while Penuel was close to the Jabbok ( Genesis 32:22 ; Genesis 32:30 f. 11), Succoth was on the route between Penuel and Shechem, which would pass most naturally over the ford Ed-Dâmiyeh (a little S. of the Jebel ‘Ajlun; and any one journeying thence to the ford Ed-Dâmiyeh would naturally descend as soon as possible into the Ghôr (or Jordan valley), and join the track which passes along it from N. of the ford by which the track down the Ghôr crosses the Jabbok, Penuel near where the same track crosses the route from es-Salt to Ed-Dâmiyeh (see the map), and Succoth on one of the lower terraces of the Jordan valley (which here sinks from -500 ft. of the point just suggested for Penuel, S. Whether towns actually stood at or near the sites thus indicated can, of course, be determined only by excavation. ...
Succoth is said in the Talmud to have been called in later times Tar‘alah or Dar‘alah ; and hence it has often been identified with Deir ‘Allâ mentioned above. The name of the first encampment in the Exodus, which started from Rameses ( Exodus 12:37 ; Exodus 13:20 , Numbers 33:5-6 ). see), capital of the 8th nome, and situated in the Wady Tumilat
Fabiola, a Noble Roman Lady - Ed. Ed. 11) has worked up the intimations about her into an interesting and dramatic story. She was descended from Julius Maximus and extremely wealthy; a woman of a lively and passionate nature, married to a man whose vices compelled her to divorce him. She then accepted a second husband, the first being still alive. It is probable that this step separated her from Paula and the other friends of Jerome, and from church communion, and may account for the fact that we hear nothing of her during Jerome's stay at Rome. Having publicly renewed her communion with the church, she sold all her possessions, and determined to administer the vast sums thus acquired for the good of the poor. She supported monasteries in various parts of Italy and the adjacent islands, and joined Pammachius in the institution of a hospital (νοσοκομεῖον ), where she gathered in the sick and outcasts, and tended them with her own hands. In 395 she suddenly appeared at Bethlehem, making the journey with her kinsman Oceanus. Several causes prevented Bethlehem from becoming her home. The Origenistic strife divided Jerome and his friends from Rufinus and Melania, and the new-comers did not escape the discord. Oceanus warmly espoused the side of Jerome; Fabiola seems to have stood aloof. Letters in which Rufinus was praised, fraudulently taken from the cell of Jerome's friend Eusebius, were found in the rooms of Fabiola and Oceanus. But this proceeding failed to cause a breach between Fabiola and Jerome. Jerome bears witness to the earnestness with which she attached herself to his teaching. The two treatises above mentioned are the results of her importunity ( Ep. Ed. ...
Jerome was seeking a suitable dwelling-place for her, and engaged in writing his treatise on the mystical meaning of the high priest's garments, when the inroad of the Huns caused a panic in Palestine. Jerome and his friends hurried to the sea-coast at Joppa, and had hired vessels for flight, when the Huns abandoned their purpose and turned back. Jerome, with Paula and Eustochium, returned to Bethlehem; but Fabiola went on to Rome. ...
The last three years of her life were occupied with incessant activity in good works. In conjunction with Pammachius she instituted at Portus a hospice (xenodochium), perhaps taking her model from that established by Jerome at Bethlehem; and it was so successful that, as Jerome says, in one year it become known from Parthia to Britain. Her funeral was celebrated as a Christian triumph. The streets were crowded, the hallelujahs reached the golden roof of the temples. Jerome's book on the 42 stations (mansiones) of the Israelites in the desert was dedicated to her memory
Alaric - = Athalaric, noble ruler ), general and king (398) of the Goths, the most civilized and merciful of the barbarian chiefs who ravaged the Roman Empire. ...
Alaric first appears among the Gothic army who assisted Theodosius in opposing Eugenius, 394. He led the revolt of his nation against Arcadius, ravaged the provinces south of the Danube, and invaded Greece 395. Athens capitulated, and afterwards Corinth, Argos, and Sparta. Under the title of Master-General of Eastern Illyricum, 398, he became the ally of Arcadius and secretly planned the invasion of Italy. In the winter of 402 he crossed the Alps, was defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia on Easter Day 403, and driven from Italy. In 404 he exchanged the prefecture of Eastern for that of Western Illyricum, and the service of Arcadius for that of Honorius, and, after the incursion and annihilation of Radagaisus and his Sclavonian hordes in 405, he was subsidized for his supposed services to the empire by the payment of 4,000 pounds of gold. Stilicho's ruin and death in 408, the subsequent massacre of the Goths settled in Italy, and Honorius's impolitic refusal of Alaric's equitable terms, caused the second invasion of Italy, and the first siege of Rome, which ended in a capitulation. At the second siege in 409, preceded by the capture of Ostia, the city was surrendered unconditionally, and Alaric set up Attalus as emperor, in opposition to Honorius, who remained at Ravenna. 24), the city was in the hands of the Goths for six days, during three of which the sack was continued. Alaric died at Consentia late in 410. ...
The effect of Alaric's conquests on the cause of Christianity, and on the spiritual position of Rome in Western Christendom, is well traced by Dean Milman (Lat. Alaric and his Goths had embraced Christianity probably from the teaching of Ulfilas, the Arian bishop, who died in 388 (Mosheim, Ed. This age witnessed the last efforts of Paganism to assert itself as the ancient and national religion, and Rome was its last stronghold. Pagans and Christians had retorted upon each other the charge that the calamities of the empire were due to the desertion of the old or new system of faith respectively, and the truth of falsehood of either was generally staked upon the issue. The almost miraculous discomfiture of the heathen Radagaisus by Stilicho, in spite of his vow to sacrifice the noblest senators of Rome on the altars of the gods which delighted in human blood, was accepted as an ill omen by those at Rome who hoped for a public restoration of Paganism (Gibbon, iv. 47–49, Ed. Rome, impregnable while Stilicho, her Christian defender, lived, could submit only to the approach of Alaric, "a Christian and a soldier, the leader of a disciplined army, who understood the laws of war, and respected the sanctity of treaties. " In the first siege of Rome both pagan and Christian historians relate the strange proposal to relieve the city by the magical arts of some Etruscan diviners, who were believed to have power to call down lightning from heaven, and direct it against Alaric's camp. That pope Innocent assented to this public ceremony rests only on the authority of the heathen Zosimus (v. It is questioned whether this idolatrous rite actually took place. Alaric perhaps imagined that he was furthering the Divine purpose in besieging Rome. 7) mentions as a current story that a certain monk, on urging the king, then on his march through Italy, to spare the city, received the reply that he was not acting of his own accord, but that some one was persistently forcing him on and urging him to sack Rome. ...
The shock felt through the world at the news of the capture of Rome in Alaric's third siege, 410, was disproportioned to the real magnitude of the calamity: contrast the exaggerated language of St. 622–628, Ed. Bened. The book in which Zosimus related the fall of Rome has been lost, so that we have to gather information from Christian sources; but it is plain that the destruction and loss was chiefly on the side of Paganism, and that little escaped which did not shelter itself under the protection of Christianity. "The heathens fled to the churches, the only places of refuge. There alone rapacity and lust and cruelty were arrested and stood abashed" (Milman, p. The property of the churches and the persons of Christian virgins were generally respected. The pagan inhabitants of Rome were scattered over Africa, Egypt, Syria, and the East, and were encountered alike by St. On his return heathen temples were converted into Christian churches; "with Paganism expired the venerable titles of the religion, the great High Priests and Flamens, the Auspices and Augurs. 7) asserts that on his approach to Athens its walls were seen to be guarded by Minerva and Achilles. Gibbon says that "the invasion of the Goths, instead of vindicating the honour, contributed, at least accidentally, to extirpate the last remains of Paganism" (vol. ...
The conquests of Alaric, though achieved at an age when the Church boasted many eminent saints and writers, afford far fewer materials for the martyrologist and hagiologist than those of Attila. Alaric, though an Arian, is nowhere recorded to have persecuted the Catholics whom war had placed in his power. The following facts of personal history have been preserved. In the sack of Rome Marcella, an aged matron, was thrown on the ground and cruelly beaten (Hieron. ); a nameless lady, who persistently repelled her capturer, was conducted by him to the sanctuary of the Vatican; and an aged virgin, to whose charge some sacred vessels had been entrusted, through her bold constancy preserved them intact. Paulinus its bishop is said to have prayed, "Lord, let me not suffer torture either for gold or silver, since Thou knowest where are all my riches" (Fleury, Eccl. Ed. Proba, widow of the prefect Petronius, retired to Africa with her daughter Laeta and her granddaughter Demetrias (Hieron. 969, Ed. ) Valuable contributions to the history of Alaric not already mentioned are Sigonius, Opp. Ed
Stocks - --ED. ) The term "stocks" is applied in the Authorized Version to two different articles one of which answers rather to our pillory, inasmuch as the body was placed in a bent position, by the confinement of the neck and arms as well as the legs while the other answers to our "stocks," the feet alone being confined in it. The prophet Jeremiah was confined in the first sort, (Jeremiah 20:2 ) which appears to have been a common mode of punishment in his day, (Jeremiah 29:26 ) as the prisons contained a chamber for the special purpose, termed "the house of the pillory. " (2 Chronicles 16:10 ) (Authorized Version "prison-house"). The stocks, properly so called, are noticed in (Job 13:27 ; 33:11 ; Acts 16:24 ) The term used in (Proverbs 7:22 ) (Authorized Version "stocks") more properly means a fetter
Kenath - Geshur and Aram re-conquered it ( 1 Chronicles 2:23 ). It is usually identified with Kanawât , fully 16 miles N. slope of Jebet Ed-Druze . The modern village, lower down the slope, is now occupied by Druzes. Baedeker ( Pal
Akeldama - AKELDAMA (AV me'Rom - (high place ) , The waters of, a lake formed by the river Jordan, about ten miles north of the Sea of Galilee. Here Joshua completely routed the confederacy of the northern chiefs under Jabin. ( Joshua 11:5,7 ) It is a remarkable fact that though by common consent "the waters of Merom" are identified with the lake thorough which the Jordan runs between Banias and the Sea of Galilee --the Bahr el-Huleh of the modern Arabs-- Yet that identity cannot be proved by any ancient record. The water is clear and sweet; it is covered in parts by a broad-leaved plant, and abounds in water-fowl. (The northern part is a dense swamp of papyrus reeds, as large as the lake itself. " --ED
Reph'a-im, the Valley of, - (1 Samuel 5:18,22 ; 23:13 ; 1 Chronicles 11:15 ; 14:9 ; Isaiah 17:5 ) also in (Joshua 15:8 ) and Joshua 18:16 It is translated in the Authorized Version " the valley of the giants ," a spot which was the scene of some of David's most remarkable adventures. He twice encountered and defeated the Philistines there. Since the latter part of the sixteenth century the name has been attached to the upland plain which stretches south of Jerusalem and is crossed by the road to Bethlehem --the el Buk'ah of the modern Arabs. This agrees with Josephus and is the generally-accepted location of this valley. --ED
Phryg'ia - The word was rather ethnological than political, and denoted in a vague manner the western part of the central region of that peninsula. Accordingly, in two of the three places where it is used it is mentioned in a manner not intended to he precise. ( Acts 16:6 ; 18:23 ) By Phrygia we must understand an extensive district in Asia Minor which contributed portions to several Roman provinces, and varying portions at different times. The Phrygians were a very ancient people, and were supposed to be among the aborigines of Asia Minor. 381, showing the prevalence of Christianity at that time --ED
Zebo'im - It is mentioned in (Genesis 10:19 ; 14:2,8 ; 29:23; Hosea 11:8 ) in each, of which passages it is either coupled with Admah or placed next it in the lists --perhaps represented by Talaa Sebaan , a name attached to extensive ruins on the high ground between the Dead Sea and Kerak . In ( Genesis 14:2,8 ) the name is given more correctly in the Authorized Version ZEBOIIM. ...
The valley of Zeboim, a ravine or gorge, apparently east of Michmash, mentioned only in (1 Samuel 13:18 ) The road running from Michmash to the east is specified as "the road of the border that looketh to the ravine of Zeboim toward the wilderness. " The wilderness is no doubt the district of uncultivated mountain tops and sides which lies between the central district of Benjamin and the Jordan valley. In that very district there is a wild gorge bearing the name of Shuk Ed-Dubba' , ravine of the hyena, "the exact equivalent of Ge hat-tsebo'im
Mandrakes - dudraim ) are mentioned in ( Genesis 30:14,16 ) and in Song of Solomon 7:13 The mandrake, Atropa mandragora , is closely allied to the well-known deadly nightshade, A. The flowers are purple,and the root is usually forked. Richardson ("Lectures on Alcohol," 1881) tried some experiments with wine made of the root of mandrake, and found it narcotic, causing sleep, so that the ancients used it as an anaesthetic. Used in small quantities like opium, it excites the nerves, and is a stimulant. --ED
Pelican - kaath , sometimes translated "cormorant," as ( Isaiah 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 ) though in the margin correctly rendered "pelican"), a voracious waterbird, found most abundantly in tropical regions. The young are fed from this pouch, which is emptied of the food by pressing the pouch against the breast. The pelican's bill has a crimson tip, and the contrast of this red tip against the white breast probably gave rise to the tradition that the bird tore her own breast to feed her young with her blood. (Leviticus 11:18 ) --ED
Lycao'Nia - Whether the language was some Syrian dialect or a corrupt form of Greek has been much debated. --ED. ) After the provincial system of Rome had embraced the whole of Asia Minor, the boundaries of the provinces were variable; and Lycaonia was, politically, sometimes in Cappadocia, sometimes in Galatia. Paul visited it three times in his missionary tours
mo'Reh -
The plain or plains (or, as it should rather be rendered, the oak or oaks) of Moreh. The oak of Moreh was the first recorded halting-place of Abram after his entrance into the land of Canaan. (11:30) ...
The hill of Moreh, at the foot of which the Midianites and Amalekites were encamped before Gideon's attack upon them. (Judges 7:1 ) It lay in the valley of Jezreel, rather on the north side of the valley, and north also of the eminence on which Gideon's little band of heroes was clustered. These conditions are most accurately fulfilled if we assume Jebel Ed-Duhy , the "Little Hermon" of the modern travellers, 1815 feet above the Mediterranean, to be Moreh, the Ain-Jalood to be the spring of Harod, and Gideon's position to have been on the northeast slope of Jebel Fukua (Mount Gilboa), between the village of Nuris and the last-mentioned spring
Creation - (The creation of all things is ascribed in the Bible to God, and is the only reasonable account of the origin of the world. The method of creation is not stated in Genesis, and as far as the account there is concerned, each part of it may be, after the first acts of creation, by evolution, or by direct act of God's will. The word create (bara) is used but three times in the first chapter of Genesis-- (1) as to the origin of matter; (2) as to the origin of life; (3) as to the origin of man's soul; and science has always failed to do any of these acts thus ascribed to God. The order of creation as given in Genesis is in close harmony with the order as revealed by geology, and the account there given, so long before the records of the rocks were read or the truth discoverable by man, is one of the strongest proofs that the Bible was inspired by God. --Ed
Naph'Tali - His birth and the bestowal of his name are recorded in ( Genesis 30:8 ) When the census was taken at Mount Sinai the tribe of Naphtali numbered no less than 53,400 fighting men, (Numbers 1:43 ; 2:50 ) but when the borders of the promised land were reached, its numbers were reduced to, 45,400. (Numbers 26:48-50 ) During the march through the wilderness Naphtali occupied a position on the north of the sacred tent with Dan and Asher. (Numbers 2:25-31 ) In the apportionment of the land, the lot of Naphtali was enclosed on three sides by those of other tribes. (In the division of the kingdom Naphtali belonged to the kingdom of Israel, and later was a part of Galilee, bordering on the northwestern pert of the Sea of Galilee, and including Capernaum and Bethsaida. --Ed
Edrei - One of the chief towns of Bashan, where Og was defeated by the Israelites. It is identified with Ed Deraah, 32 38' N, 36 6' E . It is a place of great natural strength, being surrounded by a labyrinth of clefts and crevasses in the rock. Underneath the city are many large caves, forming a subterranean city, with streets and houses; but a recent traveller found the entrance blocked by a rock, and was told that the passage had been blown up to prevent the caves being used as a hiding place from justice. City of Naphtali in the north, near Kedesh. Identified by some with Yater, 33 9' N, 35 20' E
Macarius, an Egyptian Hermit or Monk - Two hermits or monks of this name both lived in Egypt in the 4th cent. ; their characters and deeds are almost indistinguishable. The elder is called the Egyptian, the younger the Alexandrine. 2, Ed. 374) as "being at Nitria, and having reached the abode of Macarius. " Yet Rufinus, who lived 6 years in Alexandria and the adjoining monasteries, describes the residence of Macarius ( Hist
Paphnutius, Surnamed Bubalus - Paphnutius (5) ( Pafnutius, Pynuphius , surnamed Bubalus , and Cephala ), an anchoret and priest in the Scetic desert in Egypt. When Cassian visited him in 395, he was 90 years old, but hale and active ( Coll. He seems to have fled twice from the Scetic into Syria for greater solitude and perfection ( Cass. 250, 251, Ed. 2) ; his attempt to convert the aged Serapion and his failure, till Photinus came, is very curious ( ib
Pascentius, Steward of of Imperial Property - Pascentius (1) , steward or controller of imperial property in Africa, comes domus regiae , severe in the execution of his office, an Arian and a bitter opponent of the Catholic faith, very troublesome to the simple-minded and perhaps not very highly Educated clergy of Carthage. ) He requested St. 406, but refused to allow written notes of the discussion to be made, and asserted that Augustine was afraid to declare his opinions. Augustine, compelled by his opponent's repeated evasions to declare his own belief, exhibits this in terms closely resembling the Athanasian Creed, its method of illustration, and sometimes its very words (Aug. 1153–1162, Ed
Paulinus of Pella - 460) he wrote a poem called "Eucharisticon Deo sub Ephemeridis meae textu," in which he returns thanks to God for his preservation and for many blessings throughout a long and rather eventful life. It has been erroneously attributed to St. Col 281, Paris, 1579), and was Ed. 363, where the events of his life are traced in some detail, from the account given in the poem itself; Alzog, Handb
Hecebolius, a Rhetor at Constantinople - Hecebolius or Hecebolus a rhetor at Constantinople in the reign of Constantius who professed himself a "fervent" Christian and was therefore selected by that emperor as one of the teachers of Julian (Socr. After the death of Constantius however Hecebolius followed the example of his former pupil and became a "fierce pagan" (γοργὸς Ἕλλην; Socr. 19 Ed. 23; Ἑκηβὸλῳ) and seems to have had some civil office at Edessa. The Arians of that city "in the insolence of wealth," had violently attacked the Valentinians. Julian wrote to Hecebolius to say that "since they had done what could not be allowed in any well-governed city," "in order to help the men the more easily to enter the kingdom of heaven as it was prescribed" by their "most wonderful law he had commanded all moneys to be taken away from the church of the Edessenes that they might be distributed among the soldiers and that its property should be confiscated to his private treasury; that being poor they might become wise and not lose the kingdom of heaven which they hoped for" (Julian Ep. 43 Ed. Such appropriation of church property was one of the crimes of which Julian was accused after his death (Greg. The emperor adds that he had charged the inhabitants of Edessa to abstain from "riot and strife," lest "they themselves" should suffer "the sword exile and fire. After the death of Julian and the reversal of the imperial policy Hecebolius ostentatiously professed extreme penitence for his apostasy and prostrated himself at the church door crying to all that entered "Trample upon me—the salt that has lost its savour" (Socr. Baronius assumes the identity of the magistrate of Edessa with the "rhetor" of Constantinople (s
Archelaus - ARCHELAUS (Ἀρχέλαος) is named once in the NT (Matthew 2:22), and probably is referred to in the parable of the Pounds (Luke 19:12 ff. Judaea, with the title of ‘king,’ was bequeathed to him by his father’s will; but he would not assume the royal dignity till he had obtained confirmation of that will from the emperor Augustus (Ant. Thus at the beginning of his reign an evil reputation was gained by Archelaus, and the alarm of Joseph may be understood (‘But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither’). ...
After the rebellion, Archelaus proceeded to Rome (Ant. Augustus, dealing with Herod’s will, received a deputation from the people of Judaea, who begged that neither Archelaus nor any of his brothers should be appointed king (cf. The emperor finally decided that Archelaus should receive Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title not of ‘king,’ but of ‘ethnarch’ (Ant. In the ninth or tenth year of his reign, after many acts of tyranny and violence, he was banished by the emperor to Vienne in Gaul (Ant. According to Jerome, the tomb of Archelaus was pointed out near Bethlehem (de Situ et Nomin. —Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Wars of the Jews [1], as cited above; references s. ‘Archelaus’ in Index to Schürer’s Geschichte des Judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 1898–1901 [4] was published in a 3rd Ed
Jeph'Thah - His history is contained in ( Judges 11:1 ; Judges 12:8 ) He was a Gileadite, the son of Gilead and a concubine. (2 Samuel 10:6 ) (This land was east of Jordan and southeast of Gilead, and bordered on the desert of Arabia. --ED. ) His fame as a bold and successful captain was carried back to his native Gilead; and when the time was ripe for throwing off the yoke of Ammon, Jephthah consented to become the captain of the Gileadite bands, on the condition, solemnly ratified before the Lord in Mizpeh, that int he event of his success against Ammon he should still remain as their acknowledged head. The Ammonites were routed with great slaughter; but as the conqueror returned to Mizpeh there came out to meet him his daughter, his only child, with timbrels and dancing. When that time was ended she returned to her father, who "did with her according to his vow. " The tribe of Ephraim challenged Jephthah's right to go to war as he had done, without their concurrence, against Ammon. He first defeated them, then intercepted the fugitives at the fords of Jordan, and there put forty-two thousand men to the sword. He judged Israel six years, and died. It is generally conjectured that his jurisdiction was limited to the transjordanic region. That the daughter of Jephthah was really offered up to God in sacrifice is a conclusion which it seems impossible to avoid. Josephus well says that "the sacrifice was neither sanctioned by the Mosaic ritual nor acceptable to God. --ED
Evagrius - 536 or 537, but accompanied his parents to Apamea for his Education, and from Apamea seems to have gone to Antioch, the capital of Syria, and entered the profession of the law. He received the surname of Scholasticus, a term then applied to lawyers (Du Cange, Glossarium , s. ), gained great favour with Gregory bp. He seems to have won general esteem and goodwill, for on his second marriage the city was filled with rejoicing, and great honours were paid him by the citizens. He accompanied Gregory to Constantinople, and successfully advocated his cause when he was summoned to answer there for heinous crimes. He also wrote for him a book containing "reports, epistles, decrees, orations, disputations, with sundry other matters," which led to his appointment as quaestor by Tiberius Constantinus and by Mauritius Tiberius as master of the rolls, "where the lieutenants and magistrates with their monuments are registered " (Evagr. ...
His death must have occurred after 594, in which year he wrote his history at the age of 58 (iv. His other works have perished. The history was intended as a continuation of those of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret. He sought all sources of information at his command—the writings of Eustathius the Syrian, Zosimus, Priscus, Joannes Rhetor, Procopius of Caesarea, Agathus, and other good authors—and resolved to bring their scattered information together "that the famous deeds which slumbered in the dust of forgetfulness might be revived; that they might be stirred with his pen, and presented for immortal memory" (Pref. ...
Despite his unnecessarily inflated style, he largely attained his end. Jortin indeed has condemned him as "in points of theological controversy an injudicious prejudiced zealot" (Remarks on Eccl. 120); but Evagrius was a lawyer, not a theologian, and we must look to him for the popular rather than the learned estimate of the theological controversies of his time. His credulous enthusiasm led him to accept too easily the legends of the saints, but in other respects he shews many of the best qualities of an historian. , are preserved in his pages, forming most important authorities for the events to which they relate. There is often great spirit in the narrative, an excellent specimen of which is his account of the council of Chalcedon (ii. The work is chiefly valuable in relation to the Nestorian and Eutychian heresies, and the councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. The first Ed. of the History is that of Valesius, with notes (Paris, 1673) reprinted at Camb. The latest and best Ed. 1849) in Byzantine Texts Edited by J. 2nd Ed. by Meredith Hanmer (Lond
Righteousness - The righteousness of Christ denotes not only his absolute perfections, but is taken for his perfect obedience to the law, and suffering the penalty thereof in our stead. The righteousness of the law is that obedience which the law requires. The righteousness of faith is the righteousness of Christ as received by faith. The righteousness of their persons, as in Christ, his merit being imputed to them, and they accepted on the account thereof, 2 Corinthians 5:21 . The righteousness of their principles being derived from, and formed according to the rule of right, Psalms 119:11 . The righteousness of their lives, produced by the sanctifying which no man shall see the Lord, Hebrews 13:14 . 12; Witherspoon's Essay on Imputed Righteousness; Hervey's Theron and Aspasio; Dr. Ed; Jenks on Submission to the Righteousness of God
Wolf - There can be little doubt that the wolf of Palestine is the common Canis lupus , and that this is the animal so frequently mentioned in the Bible. --ED. The following are the scriptural allusions to the wolf: Its ferocity is mentioned in ( Genesis 49:27 ; Ezekiel 22:27 ); Habb 1:8; Matthew 7:15 Its nocturnal habits, in ( Jeremiah 5:6 ; Zephaniah 3:3 ); Habb 1:8 Its attacking sheep and lambs, (Matthew 10:16 ; Luke 10:3 ; John 10:12 ) Isaiah (Isaiah 11:6 ; 65:25 ) foretells the peaceful reign of the Messiah under the metaphor of a wolf dwelling with a lamb: cruel persecutors are compared with wolves
Cosmas (1) And Damianus, Silverless Martyrs - physicians who took no fees, but went about curing people gratis, and claiming as their reward that those whom they benefited should believe in Christ. , and the legends of martyrs of that time, whose fame is known only by popular tradition, seem in many cases to succeed naturally to the place of those heathen myths that were slowest to die. The Greeks distinguished three pairs of these brothers. 27, Arabs, with their brothers, Anthimus, Leontius, and Euprepius, martyred under Diocletian; (3) Nov. ) For the legends connected with them see D. Ed. The names were early inserted in the Canon of the Mass
Ointment - (An oily or unctuous substance, usually compounded of oil with various spices and resins and aromatics, and preserved in small alabaster boxes or cruses, in which the delicious aroma was best preserved. Some of the ointments have been known to retain their: fragrance for several hundred years. They were a much-coveted luxury, and often very expensive. --ED. --The Greek and Roman practice of anointing the head and clothes on festive occasions prevailed also among the Egyptians, and appears to have had place among the Jews. --Ointments as well as oil were used to anoint dead bodies and the clothes in which they were wrapped. ( Matthew 26:12 ) ...
Medicinal . --Ointment formed an important feature in ancient medical treatment. --Besides the oil used in many ceremonial observances, a special ointment was appointed to be used in consecration. (Exodus 30:23,33 ; 29:7 ; 37:29 ; 40:9,15 ) A person whose business it was to compound ointments in general was called an "apothecary. " (Nehemiah 3:8 ) The work was sometimes carried on by woman "confectionaries
Paschasinus - 440, when that country was devastated by Vandal raids (Leonis Magni, Ep. Migne's Ed. LEO Great, sending him pecuniary assistance, consulted him about the Paschal cycle (a. He relates in confirmation of his view a miracle which used to occur in the baptistery of an outlying church on the property of his see on the true Paschal Eve every year, the water rising miraculously in the font (ib. In 451 he received another letter from Leo desiring him to make inquiries as to the Paschal cycle ( Ep. Immediately after he was sent as one of Leo's legates to the council of Chalcedon ( Ep. ) and presided on his behalf (Labbe, Conc
Paulinianus - 22) when he left Rome with his brother and their friend Vincentius, and he was under 30 when ordained in 394 (Hieron. He shared his brother's journeys in Palestine and settled with him in Bethlehem, where he probably remained to the end of his life. John of Jerusalem, took him to the monastery which he had founded at Ad, and there, against the protests and even resistance of Paulinian, ordained him priest. 1, Ed. ) Paulinian may perhaps have acted as presbyter in the monasteries for a time, but he felt it prudent during the vehement controversy which sprang up between Jerome and bp
Tarachus, Also Called Victor - Tarachus, also called Victor , martyr, an Isaurian from Claudiopolis, and a soldier, who left the army on the outbreak of Diocletian's persecution. Ruinart brought out the most complete Ed. The martyrs were arrested a. They were publicly examined and tortured at three principal cities—Tarsus, Mopsuestia, and Anazarbus, where they were put to death and their relics carefully preserved. The Acts are often quoted by Le Blant (Les Actes des martyrs ) to illustrate his argument. 9, he notes the sale of copies of the Proconsular Acts by one of the officials for two hundred denarii. They suffered under a president Numerianus Maximus (Ruinart, Acta Sinc
Thaddaeus - 13) gives a story, which he says he found in the archives of Edessa, that after the ascension of our Lord, the apostle Judas Thomas sent Thaddaeus, one of the seventy disciples, to Edessa, to king Abgarus the Black, and that he cured the king of a serious illness, converted him with all his people to Christianity, and died at Edessa after many years of successful labours. The name of this apostle of the Edessenes is given by the Syrians as Addaeus ( Doctrina Addai, Ed. Thaddaeus was at a later date confused with the apostle Judas Thaddaeus. Lipsius, Die Edessenische Abgarsage kritisch untersucht (Braunschweig, 1880), and in D. 105; also Texeront, Les Origines de l’Eglise d’Edesse et la légende d’Abgar (Paris, 1888)
Basilius, Bishop of Seleucia - of Seleucia, in Isauria, and metropolitan, succeeded Dexianus, who attended the council at Ephesus, and therefore after 431. He is erroneously identified by Photius with the early friend of Chrysostom, who must have been considerably his senior (Tillemont, xv. He is very unfavourably known from the vacillation he displayed with regard to the condemnation of Eutyches. He took a leading part in the council at Constantinople in 448, at which Eutyches was condemned; and the next year, when the fidelity of the acts of the council was called in question, was one of the commission appointed to verify them (Labbe, Concil. But at the "Robbers' Synod" held at Ephesus a few months later his courage gave way, and he acquiesced in the rehabilitation of Eutyches, and retracted his obnoxious language. Before long he returned to orthodoxy, and in 450 affixed his signature to the famous Tome of pope Leo, on the Incarnation. At the council of Chalcedon, 451, the imperial commissioners proposed his deposition, together with that of other prelates who had aided in restoring Eutyches. But Basil submitted, concurred in the condemnation of Eutyches, and his offence was condoned ( ib. Four on John 11 , published as his, prove to be the work of St. A Homily on the Transfiguration was added to the series in the Ed. Thecla has been attributed to him; but not only does the style differ, and savour of a later age, but we learn from Photius that Basilius wrote St. Another supposititious work is the Demonstratio contra Judaeos , which appears in the Heidelberg Ed. They were also printed at the end of the works of Gregory Thaumaturgus, Paris, 1672, fol
John, Gospel of - --ED. ) The Gospel was obviously addressed primarily to Christians, not to heathen. John, who wrote after the other evangelists, is to supplement their narratives, which were almost confined to our Lord's life in Galilee. It gives the inner life and teachings of Christ as revealed to his disciples. --ED. ( John 1:19 ; John 20:29 ) (a) Various events relating to our Lord's ministry, narrated in connection with seven journeys, ch. (John 7:1 ; John 10:21 ) ...
Sixth journey, about the feast of dedication, ch
Melania the Younger, Daughter of Publicola - She married Pinianus when exceedingly young, yielding to the wish of her father, though she was already imbued with the ascetic teachings of her grandmother, then living at Jerusalem. The young husband and wife were induced by Melania the elder in 397 to take a vow of continence, but refused to separate. They accompanied the grandmother from Rome (a. 408) to Sicily and Africa; but, when she returned to Jerusalem, they remained at Sagaste, attaching themselves to the bp. She gave away those in Gaul and Italy, but kept those in Sicily, Spain, and Africa; and this led to the attempt of the people of Hippo to induce PINIANUS to become a priest of their church. In the scene in which a promise was exacted from them to remain at Hippo, Melania shewed great courage. When through the rapacity of the rebel count Heraclian she was denuded of her property, and thus set free from the promise to remain at Hippo, she accompanied her husband to Egypt, and, after staying among the monastic establishments of the Thebaid and visiting Cyril at Alexandria, eventually went to Palestine, and, together with her mother Albina, settled at Bethlehem in 414. There they attached themselves to Jerome, and to the younger Paula, who then presided over the convent. Their ascetic convictions had so developed that they now accepted that separation which the elder Melania had vainly urged in her lifetime. Pinianus became the head of a monastery and Melania entered a convent. By the settlement of Melania at Bethlehem the feud was extinguished which had separated the followers of Rufinus from those of Jerome; and although in his letter to Ctesiphon (cxxiii. 3, Ed. 2, Ed. ) in 419, Albina, Pinianus, and Melania are joined with Paula in their reverential greetings. Their intercourse with Augustine continued, and in answer to their questions on the Pelagian controversy he wrote his treatise On Grace and Original Sin , a. Melania apparently lived on for many years. Photius says that she came to Constantinople in 437 and obtained his conversion and baptism at the hands of Proclus
Slime, - translated bitumen in the Vulgate. The three instances in which it is mentioned in the Old Testament are illustrated by travellers and historians. It is first spoken of as used for cement by the builders in the plain of Shinar or Babylonia. ( Genesis 11:3 ) The bitumen pits in the vale of Siddim are mentioned in the ancient fragment of Canaanitish history, (Genesis 14:10 ) and the ark of papyrus in which Moses was placed was made impervious to water by a coating of bitumen and pitch. In this last state it is called in the Bible slime, and is of the same nature as our petroleum, but thicker, and hardens into asphalt. It is obtained in various places in Europe, and even now occasionally from the Dead Sea. --ED
Shittah Tree, Shittim - shittah, the thorny ), is without doubt correctly referred to some species of Acacia , of which three or four kinds occur in the Bible lands. The woof of this tree --perhaps the Acacia seyal is more definitely signified --was extensively employed in the construction of the tabernacle. The wood is close-grained and hard, of a fine orange-brown color, and admirably adapted to cabinet work. --ED. It yields the well-known substance called gum arabic, which is obtained by incisions in the bark, but it is impossible to say whether the ancient Jews were acquainted with its use. From the tangled thicket into which the stem of this tree expands, Stanley well remarks that hence is to be traced the use of the plural form of the Heb. This acacia must not be confounded with the tree ( Robinia pseudo-acacia ) popularly known by this name in England, which is a North American plant, and belongs to a different genus and suborder
Benedictus i, Pope - Benedictus I. , pope, called by the Greeks Bonosus (Evagr. 16), son of Boniface, a Roman, was elected successor to John III. During his pontificate Italy was harassed by the invasion of the Lombards. Though they never actually penetrated into the city of Rome, they ravaged the suburbs, violated the cemeteries, and persecuted the Christians. Misery and famine ensued, and Rome was only relieved eventually by a corn fleet from Egypt, dispatched at the pope's request by the emperor Justin. Benedict died in July 578, and was buried on the last day of that month in St Peter's. He was succeeded by Pelagius II. ) his memory was eulogized by Gregory the Great. 950, Ed. Bened
Felicissimus, Deacon of Carthage - Felicissimus (1) , deacon of Carthage, whom Novatus associated with himself in the management of a district called Mons (Cyp. He was the chief agent ( signifer seditionis , Ep. 59) of the anti-Cyprianic party, which combined the five presbyters originally opposed to Cyprian's election with the later-formed party for the easy readmission of the lapsed ( Epp. 52) definitely states that Felicissimus had been, when the persecution arose, on the point of being tried before the presbytery on charges of homicidal cruelty to his father and wife. 324, Ed. Bohn), he acquired influence through his administration of church property and was able to threaten with excommunication any who accepted relief or office from Cyprian's commissioners. The latter excommunicated him ( Ep. The mild resolution of the council of 252, making easy the readmission of the lapsed on earnest repentance [1], destroyed his locus standi . The party then coalesced with that of Privatus (2), who consecrated Fortunatus anti-bishop; and Felicissimus sailed for Rome to conciliate or intimidate Cornelius into recognizing him (Ep. Failing here, the party melted quietly away
Argob - A district in the kingdom of Og, abounding in strong cities and unwalled towns. It was subdued by ‘Jair son of Manasseh,’ and became the possession of his tribe ( Deuteronomy 3:3 ; Deuteronomy 3:13 , 1 Kings 4:15 etc. It is called ‘the Argob’ ( Deuteronomy 3:13 ). This, together with the fact that chebel , ‘measured area,’ always precedes the name, seems to indicate a definitely marked district. Within this forbidding tract the present writer collected the names of 71 ruined sites. Had Gesenius rightly translated ‘a heap of stones,’ the identification would be almost certain. slopes of the mountain (now Jebel Ed-Druze ) would always form a clearly defined district. They abound in ruins of antiquity; while the rich soil, now turned to good account by the Druzes, would amply justify the name of Argob
Demetrias, Roman Virgin - 130, Ed. Her family was illustrious at Rome, her grandmother Proba (who is much praised by Jerome) having had three sons, all consuls. Demetrias had in early life wished to take the vow of virginity, but feared her parents' opposition. They, however, fully approved, and it gladdened all the churches of Italy. Her father having died just before the sack of Rome by Alaric, the family sold their property and set sail for Africa, witnessing the burning of Rome as they left Italy; and, arriving in Africa, fell into the hands of the rapacious count Heraclian, who took away a large part of their property. He warns her not to perplex herself with difficult questions introduced by the Origenists; and recommends the study of Scripture
Table - 1: τράπεζα (Strong's #5132 — Noun Feminine — trapeza — trap'-ed-zah ) is used of (a) "a dining table," Matthew 15:27 ; Mark 7:28 ; Luke 16:21 ; 22:21,30 ; (b) "the table of shewbread," Hebrews 9:2 ; (c) by metonymy, of "what is provided on the table" (the word being used of that with which it is associated), Acts 16:34 ; Romans 11:9 (figurative of the special privileges granted to Israel and centering in Christ); 1 Corinthians 10:21 (twice), "the Lord's table," denoting all that is provided for believers in Christ on the ground of His death (and thus expressing something more comprehensive than the Lord's Supper); "the table of demons," denoting all that is partaken of by idolaters as the result of the influence of demons in connection with their sacrifices; (d) "a moneychanger's table," Matthew 21:12 ; Mark 11:15 ; John 2:15 ; (e) "a bank," Luke 19:23 (cp
Proculus, Bishop of Marseilles - 381, where he joined in condemning the errors of Palladius and Secundinianus (Ambros. 916 (786), 935 (802), 939 (805), Ed. 399, or more probably 401, though Fleury places it as late as 404, Proculus claimed the primacy as metropolitan over the churches not only of his own province, but also of Nabonensis Secunda. The council, while ruling that the bishop of the civil metropolis of a province should be regarded as the metropolitan, sanctioned the claim of Proculus for his own life, in consideration of his age and high reputation (Bruns, Conc. His high character is acknowledged by St. 125, 20); but pope Zosimus seems to have had a strong feeling against him, and in 417 decreed that Patroclus, bp. of Arles from 412, was entitled to rank as metropolitan
Vitus - , a youthful martyr in Diocletian's persecution; the son of a pagan gentleman in Sicily, but secretly trained in Christianity by his nurse Crescentia and her husband Modestus. After the boy had encountered much cruel suffering, they succeeded in carrying him over to Italy, where all three fell victims, either in Lucania or at Rome (Boll. 491, Ed. He is invoked against sudden death and hydrophobia ( ib. 21 *), and against prolonged sleep and the complaint known as the chorea or dance of St. He is also, says Guérin, the patron of comedians and dancers. Two German medical writers, Gregory Horst and John Juncker, of the 17th and 18th cents. respectively, relate how the malady came to take his name (see Rees's Encyclopedia , s. Vitus, and dancing before it day and night on his festival, people ensured themselves good health through the year. The saint's two chapels at Ulm and Ravensberg became more especially noted for the annual resort of these dancing fanatics
Eusebius (99), Presbyter of Cremona - Eusebius, not knowing Greek, begged Jerome to translate it. 57, § 2, Ed. ), and the document was stolen from the cell of Eusebius by one whom Jerome believed to be in the service of Rufinus ( cont. Rufinus apparently sent the translated letter to Rome, accusing Jerome of having falsified the original. Eusebius remained at Bethlehem till Easter, 398, when he was obliged to return hastily to Italy. He lived at first on good terms with Rufinus, who, however, afterwards accused him of having come to Rome "to bark against him. " Rufinus was then engaged in translating the περί ἀρχῶν of Origen for the use of his friends, leaving out some of the most objectionable passages. Eusebius sent a copy of this to Bethlehem, where Jerome denounced it as a mistranslation. Rufinus replied that Eusebius had obtained an imperfect copy, either by bribing the copyist or by other wrong means, and had also tampered with the MS. 95, Ed. ), which so moved him that he at once condemned Origen and all his works. Eusebius being about to return to Cremona in 400, the pope charged him in the letter just quoted to Simplicianus, bp. He was confronted, however, by Rufinus, who declared these passages to be false; and Eusebius continued his journey without having induced Simplicianus to condemn Origen. He appears to have remained in Italy supporting Jerome's interests and corresponding with him
Dinooth, Dinothus, Abbat of Bangor Iscoed - Dinooth, Dinothus, abbat of Bangor Iscoed, a Welsh saint, placed by Rees between a. Like many other British chieftains who lost their lands in the Saxon conquest (Rees, Welsh Saints , 207), Dinooth embraced a life of religion, and, under Cyngen, founded, in conjunction with his sons, Deiniol, Cynwyl, and Gwarthan, the monastery of Bangor on the Dee, of which he was the first abbat. Bede mentions his name in his narrative of the second conference at Augustine's Oak (H. " Bede, who wrote a century and a quarter after Augustine's time, shews no special acquaintance with the internal affairs of the Britons, and we cannot help suspecting that the present uncertainty as to the chronology of Welsh hagiology existed when Bede wrote. 122), where the answer is quoted in the original Welsh with Spelman's Latin translation. It is accepted as genuine by Leland (Tanner, Biblioth. On the other hand, the document does not mention the name of Augustine, nor allude to one subject of the conference which is markedly noted by Bede, the evangelization of the Anglo-Saxons. For any internal evidence to the contrary, the "Answer" might have been penned in reply to some demand made upon the British church by the see of Canterbury centuries after Dinooth. The name of Bangor ys y coed (Bangor under the wood) distinguishes it from other Bangors, especially that of Carnarvonshire, where Deiniol, the son of Dinooth, founded another monastery, which was soon afterwards made the seat of a bishopric. So numerous were the monks of Bangor Iscoed that, as Bede puts it, on their being divided into seven parts with a ruler over each, none of those parts consisted of less than 300 men, who all lived by the labour of their hands. It thus rivalled the Irish Bangor [1], and, from the learned men mentioned by Bede as residing there, must have been as much a college as a monastery. Augustine's prediction was levelled, not against this institution in particular, but the British church and people at large; "if they would not preach the way of life to the English nation, they should at their hands undergo the vengeance of death. " The conjunction desired by Augustine ("una cum nobis," Bede) involved their ecclesiastical submission. "Dinooth's Answer," in recognizing this, may have appeared to some one in after-times a sufficient ground to assign the document to this occasion. 123), when Ethelfrid, the pagan king of Northumbria, invaded the Britons at Chester. Being about to give battle, he observed their "priests," who were there to pray for the soldiers, drawn up apart in a place of greater safety, and under the military protection of prince Brocmail. The invader, regarding them as a contingent of his enemy, attacked them first and slew about 1,200, only 50 escaping. Bede either here uses the term "sacerdotes" and "monachi" as synonymous, or the priests were in charge of the monks, leading their devotions. It was a disastrous blow to Bangor, and was naturally handed down as a fulfilment of Augustine's words; but we do not hear that the monastery itself was attacked. Ed. 66) describes the extensive ruins of the place in his day—"tot semiruti parietes ecclesiarum, tot anfractus porticuum, tanta turba ruderum, quantum vix alibi cernas"; the credibility of which description has been almost destroyed by sometimes translating the first clause, "the ruined walls of so many churches. " The remains had nearly disappeared in the time of Camden. Ed. Bed. Ed. Its modern state and surviving vestiges are described in Lewis ( Topog. 30, 2nd Ed
Hearing the Word of God - Under the former dispensation there was a public hearing of the law at stated seasons, Deuteronomy 31:10 ; Deuteronomy 31:13 . Ed
Water of Jealousy - (Numbers 5:11-31 ) The ritual prescribed consisted in the husband's bringing before the priest the woman suspected of infidelity, and the essential part of it is unquestionably the oath to which the "water" was subsidiary, symbolical and ministerial. As she stood holding the offering, so the priest stood holding till earthen vessel of holy water mixed with the dust from the floor of the sanctuary, and, declaring her free from all evil consequences if innocent, solemnly devoted her in the name of Jehovah to be "a curse and an oath among her people" if guilty. He then "wrote these curses in a book and blotted them out with the bitter water. " and having thrown the handful of meal on the altar, "caused the woman to drink" the potion thus drugged, she moreover answering to the words of his imprecation, "Amen, amen. " Josephus adds, if the suspicion was unfounded, she obtained conception; if true, she died infamously, (This was entirely different from most trials of this kind, for the bitter water the woman must drink was harmless in itself, and only by a direct act of God could it injure her it guilty while in most heathen trials the suspected party must take poison, or suffer that which only a miracle would save them from if they were innocent. --ED
Salmone - , was so named. The map of Crete in Encyclopaedia Britannica 11 gives the latter. It has been surmised that the ancient usage itself varied. Paul’s Alexandrian ship was beaten out of her course, which would have taken her straight to Cythera, north of Crete, and obliged to bear S. Paul, new Ed
Artemon, Artemonites - Artemon, Artemonites , belong to that class of ante-Nicene Monarchians, or Anti-trinitarians, who saw in Christ a mere man filled with divine power. , and was excommunicated by pope Zephyrinus (202–217), who, as we learn from the Philosophumena of Hippolytus, favoured the opposite error of Patripassianism. He declared the doctrine of the divinity of Christ to be an innovation dating from the time of Zephyrinus, the successor of Victor, and a relapse into heathen polytheism. He asserted that Christ was a mere man, but born of a virgin, and superior in virtue to the prophets. The Artemonites were charged with placing Euclid above Christ, and abandoning the Scriptures for dialectics and mathematics. The views of Artemon were afterwards more fully developed by Paul of Samosata, who is sometimes counted with the Artemonites. Person Christi , 2nd Ed
Zaanaim, Plain of - Heber the Kenite pitched his tent unto it when Sisera took refuge with his wife Jael. Near Kedesh Naphtali; "the plain of the swamp" (Targum). ) identifies it with Agniya (agne means "swamp") hak Κodesh , the marsh on the northern border of lake Huleh; still the Bedouins' favorite camping ground. the plain containing the remains of Kedesh. But as the Kedesh meant in Judges 4 is that on the shores of the sea of Galilee, only 16 miles from Tabor the scene of the battle, and within the bounds of Naphtali, the place called Bessum in the plain between this Kedesh and Tabor (identical with Bitzaanaim, and near Adami (Joshua 19:33), now Ed Dameh, and Nekeb now Nakib) doubtless corresponds to Zaanaim. Thus, Sisera's flight will be but for five or six miles from the scene of his defeat, not too far for one already fatigued, and in a line just opposite to that of the pursuit of his army toward Harosheth. (See KADESH; KEDESH)
Pearl - " Pearls, however are frequently mentioned in the New Testament, (Matthew 13:45 ; 1 Timothy 2:9 ; Revelation 17:4 ; 21:21 ) and were considered by the ancients among the most precious of gems, and were highly esteemed as ornaments. The kingdom of heaven is compared to a "pearl of great price. " In (Matthew 7:6 ) pearls are used metaphorically for anything of value, or perhaps more especially for "wise sayings. " (The finest specimens of the pearl are yielded by the pearl oyster (Avicula margaritifera ), still found in abundance in the Persian Gulf and near the coasts of Ceylon, Java and Sumatra. The oysters grow in clusters on rocks in deep water, and the pearl is found inside the shell, and is the result of a diseased secretion caused by the introduction of foreign bodies, as sand, etc. They are obtained by divers trained to the business. Pearls have been valued as high as ,000 or ,000 apiece. --ED
Ant - This insect is mentioned twice in the Old Testament: in ( Proverbs 6:6 ; 30:25 ) In the former of these passages the diligence of this insect is instanced by the wise man as an example worthy of imitation; in the second passage the ant's wisdom is especially alluded to; for these insects "though they be little on the earth, are exceeding wise. " (For a long time European commentators and naturalists denied that ants stored up grain for future use, as was asserted in Proverbs but while this is true of most of the 104European species, two of those species do lay up food, and are called harvesting ants . Some of them build wonderful houses; these are often several stories high, sometimes five hundred times the height of the builders, with rooms, corridors, and vaulted roofs supported by pillars. --ED
Bethsa'Ida - By comparing the narratives in ( Mark 6:31-53 ) and Luke 9:10-17 It appears certain that the Bethsaida at which the five thousand were fed must have been a second place of the same name on the east of the lake. This eastern portion was built up into a beautiful city by Herod Philip, and named by him Bethsaida Julias , after Julia the daughter of the Roman emperor Tiberius Caesar. On the plain of Butaiha, a mile or two to the east, the five thousand were fed. The western part of the town remained a small village. --ED
Arme'Nia - (land of Aram ) is nowhere mentioned under that name in the original Hebrew, though it occurs in the English version, ( 2 Kings 19:37 ) for Ararat. It may be termed the nucleus of the mountain system of western Asia. --Three districts are mentioned in the Bible. (1) ARARAT is mentioned as the place whither the sons of Sennacherib fled. (3) TOGARMAH is noticed in two passages of (Ezekiel 27:14 ; 38:6 ) both of which are in favor of its identity with Armenia. The country is divided, as to government, between Russia, Turkey and Persia. --ED
pa'Ran, el-pa'Ran - (peace of caverns ), a desert or wilderness, bounded on the north by Palestine, on the east by the valley of Arabah, on the south by the desert of Sinai, and on the west by the wilderness of Etham, which separated it from the Gulf of Suez and Egypt. The first notice of Paran is in connection with the invasion of the confederate kings. ( Genesis 14:6 ) The detailed itinerary of the children of Israel in (Numbers 33:1 ) . does not mention Paran because it was the name of a wide region; but the many stations in Paran are recorded, chs. and probably all the eighteen stations were mentioned between Hazeroth and Kadesh were in Paran. Through this very wide wilderness, from pasture to pasture as do modern Arab tribes, the Israelites wandered in irregular lines of march. This region through which the Israelites journeyed so long is now called by the name it has borne for ages --Bedu et-Tih , "the wilderness of wandering. --ED
no-a'Mon - (temple of Amon ) ( Nahum 3:8 ) No, (Jeremiah 46:25 ; Ezekiel 30:14,16 ) a city of Egypt, better known under the name of Thebes or Diospolis Magna, the ancient and splendid metropolis of upper Egypt The second part of the first form as the name of Amen , the chief divinity of Thebes, mentioned or alluded to in connection with this place in Jeremiah. It seems most reasonable to suppose that No is a Shemitic name and that Amen is added in Nahum (l. The description of No-amon as "situated among the rivers, the waters round about it" (Nah. (It lay on both sides of the Nile, and was celebrated for its hundred gates, for its temples, obelisks, statues. It was emphatically the city of temples, in the ruins of which many monuments of ancient Egypt are preserved, The plan of the city was a parallelogram, two miles from north to south and four from east to west, but none suppose that in its glory if really extended 33 miles along both aides of the Nile. Thebes was destroyed by Ptolemy, B. --ED
Ass - ...
Air , the name of a wild ass, which occurs ( Genesis 32:15 ; 49:11 ) ...
Pere , a species of wild ass mentioned ( Genesis 12:16 ) ...
Arod occurs only in ( Job 39:5 ) but in what respect it differs from the Pere is uncertain. The most noble and honorable amongst the Jews were wont to be mounted on asses. The color is usually a reddish brown, but there are white asses, which are much prized. --ED. Lavard remarks that in fleetness the wild ass ( Asinus hemippus ) equals the gazelle and to overtake it is a feat which only one or two of the most celebrated mares have been known to accomplish
Bottle - When the animal is killed they cut off its feet and its head, and draw it in this manner out of the skin without opening its belly. The effect of external heat upon a skin bottle is indicated in (Psalm 119:83 ) "a bottle in the smoke," and of expansion produced by fermentation in (Matthew 9:17 ) "new wine in old bottles. Tear-bottles were small urns of glass or pottery, made to contain the tears of mourners at funerals, and placed in the sepulchres at Rome and in Palestine. --ED
Attend, Attendance, Attendant - A — 1: προσέχω (Strong's #4337 — Verb — prosecho — pros-ekh'-o ) "to take heed, give heed," is said of the priests who "gave attendance at the altar," Hebrews 7:13 . In 1 Timothy 4:13 (in the exhortation regarding the public reading of the Scriptures), the RV translates it "give heed," for the AV, "give attendance. " In Acts 16:14 , "to give heed" (for AV, "attended"). ...
A — 2: προσκαρτερέω (Strong's #4342 — Verb — proskartereo — pros-kar-ter-eh'-o ) "to be steadfast," a strengthened form of kartereo (pros, "towards," intensive, karteros, "strong"), denotes to continue steadfastly in a thing and give unremitting care to it, e. ...
B — 1: εὐπρόσεδρος (Strong's #2145 — Adjective — euparedros — yoo-pros'-ed-ros ) lit. , "sitting well beside" (eu, "well," para, "beside," hedra, "a seat"), i. , sitting constantly by, and so applying oneself diligently to, anything, is used in 1 Corinthians 7:35 , with pros, "upon," "that ye may attend upon. have euprosedron. ,"an under-rower;" hence, "a servant," is rendered "attendant" in Luke 4:20 and Acts 13:5 , RV
Justinus i - , proclaimed emperor (July 9, 518) on the death of the emperor Anastasius by the troops under his command and by the people ( Chron. 858), the choice being approved by the senate (Marcell. He was a man of no Education, and the affairs of the state were managed chiefly by his prudent minister Proclus the quaestor and afterwards by his nephew and eventual successor Justinian. Ed. ...
In 523 Justin issued a constitution against the Manicheans and other heretics (Codex , i. The former were punished with exile or death; other heretics, pagans, Jews, and Samaritans, were declared incapable of holding a magistracy or entering military service. The allied Goths were exempted from these provisions. 527 Justin caused Justinian, who had long taken the chief part in government, to be proclaimed emperor and crowned, and on Aug. 1 died, in his 75th year
Severus Sanctus - Perhaps identical with the rhetorician mentioned in the subscription of the Cod. He is the author of a Christian idyll, in Asclepiad metre, upon the subject of a great cattle-plague; possibly that mentioned by St. This plague occurred c. 376, which fact, together with the date assigned for Endelechius's teaching, and the possibility that he was the correspondent of St. The poem is entitled "de Mortibus Boum," and written with some taste and a good deal of vigour. One of them asserts that his herds have been protected by the sign of the Cross and by his own belief in Christ. The poem has been often Edited: first by Pithoeus (Paris, 1586). 626, 2nd Ed
Scorpion - Scorpions are mentioned three times in the apocalyptic vision of the Fifth Trumpet or the First Wce (Revelation 9:3; Revelation 9:5; Revelation 9:10), and on each occasion they form part of the description of the locusts themselves or of their mission. These locusts have the power of scorpions while their tails also resemble that of a scorpion and are similarly armed with stings. More than eight species have been noted in Palestine. Others are yellow, white, black, or reddish, while others again are striped. The scorpion resembles a lobster in shape, only it has a jointed tail, which, when running, it holds over its back in a threatening attitude. It is carnivorous and feeds chiefly on beetles and locusts, and this fact adds to the hideousness and the formidability of the apocalyptic locusts, whose very tails are compared to the scorpions which normally feed on them. Thomson, The Land and the Book, new Ed. , Ed. 419; Encyclopaedia Biblica iv
Hierocles (1), Neoplatonic Philosopher - He was a Neoplatonic philosopher, to be distinguished from the 5th-cent. Lactantius supposed him to have been in early life a Christian, as he displayed in his writings such intimate knowledge of Scripture and Christian teaching. Here he probably came in contact with Galerius and impressed the Caesar with a respect for his abilities on his famous Persian expedition, when the first seeds of the persecution were sown, 297–302. The expression reiterated by Lactantius, that he was the "author and adviser of the persecution," lends support to this view. He was translated as prefect in 304 or 305 to Bithynia after the persecution broke out, and in 305 or 306 was promoted to the government of Alexandria, as is proved by the fact that Eusebius records the martyrdom of Aedesius at Alexandria as occurring by his orders a short time after that of Apphianus, which he dates Apr. Hierocles seems to have there displayed the same bloodthirsty cruelty as marked another philosophic persecutor, Theotecnus. He wrote a book against Christianity, entitled Λόγος φιλαλήθης πρὸς τοὺς Χριστιανούς , in which he brought forward various scriptural difficulties and alleged contradictions and instituted comparisons between the life and miracles of Jesus Christ and of Apollonius of Tyana. To this Eusebius replied in a treatise yet extant, Liber contra Hieroclem , wherein he shews that Apollonius was "so far from being comparable to Jesus Christ that he did not deserve to be ranked among the philosophers" (Du Pin, H. Duchesne, in an acute treatise on the then lately discovered works of Macarius Magnes (Paris, Klinksieck, 1877), suggests that the work of Hierocles embodied the objections drawn by Porphyry from Holy Scripture, and that the work of Macarius was a reply to them, and suggests that Hierocles wrote his book while ruling at Palmyra before the persecution. ii), and Eusebius, replied. 201, 240, Ed. Ed
Caesarius, of Nazianzus - His death occurred in a. The name is simply a derivative from Caesar, originally adopted in compliment to the reigning family. Gregory Nazianzen (the 7th, in some Ed. the 10th); two letters addressed by Gregory to Caesarius and one to the Praeses Sophronius (numbered 17, 18, 19, or, more commonly, 50, 51, 52), and a few lines in the Carmen de Vitâ Suâ of the same. 168 Ed. —According to the testimony of his brother, Caesarius owed much to the careful training received from his parents. He betook himself to Alexandria, "the workshop of every sort of Education," for better instruction in physical science than he could obtain in Palestine. There he behaved as a model student, being very careful in the matter of companionship, and earnest in pursuit of knowledge, more especially of geometry and astronomy. This last-named science he studied, says his panegyrist, in such wise as to gain the good without the evil—a remark readily intelligible to those who are aware how deeply a fatalistic astrology was at that period associated with the study of astronomy. ...
Refusing a post of honour and emolument at Byzantium, he came home for a time, but returned to the court and was much honoured by Julian. There is a slight, but not perhaps irreconcilable, discrepancy between the funeral oration delivered by Gregory and the letter (17 or 51) which Gregory addressed to his brother. Such a step is called a scandal in a bishop's son, and a great grief to his mother. Caesarius, however, finally avowed himself a Christian, and broke with Julian. His conduct, together with that of Gregory, caused Julian to exclaim, "Oh happy father! oh unhappy sons!" Under subsequent emperors, more especially under Valens, Caesarius more than regained his former honours, and became a quaestor of Bithynia. 367 or 368, to which many distinguished men fell victims, induced Caesarius, at his brother's suggestion, to arrange for retirement from worldly cares. He received Baptism, and soon after died. ...
The Πύστεις or Quaestiones ( sive Dialogi ) de Rebus Divinis, attributed to this physician, may be safely ascribed to some Caesarius. Photius treats the supposed authorship as merely a current unexamined tradition, and the book refers to Maximus, who lived subsequently
Salvianus, Priest of Marseilles - Honoratus, describes him as "the most blessed man Salvianus the presbyter. He, or at least some of his relations, resided at Cologne, occupying a respectable position in that city. When a young man he married Palladia, daughter of Hypatius, and had one daughter Auspiciola, after whose birth Salvianus and his wife adopted the monastic life. This greatly incensed Hypatius, who retired to a distant region, refusing any communication with them for 7 years. Salvianus was in extreme old age when Gennadius wrote, and was held in the highest honour, being expressly termed "Episcoporum Magister," and regarded as the very type of a monk and a scholar. 14 he refers to the crowds of Syrian merchants in all the cities of Gaul, a fact which the discovery of Syrian, Assyrian, and other Oriental inscriptions in France has amply confirmed (cf. The empire was gradually surrounded by a ring fence of hostile states, all barbarous, and several of them heretical, which served as a retreat from the power, and a barrier to the religion, of Rome. and a half the new kingdoms of the Franks and Burgundians afforded ample employment for Rome's missionary zeal without troubling with the regions beyond. 359) devotes a lengthened notice to Salvianus, with a full analysis of his writings. ...
The latest Ed. 1883), Ed
Caesarius, Bishop of Chrysostom - Among the works attributed to Chrysostom is a treatise entitled ad Caesarium Monachum Epistola contra Apollinaristas. This tract, the literary history of which is very curious, is of disputed authenticity. If it is genuine, Caesarius had embraced a religious life from his childhood and become a monk; his piety had secured Chrysostom's affection, and at one time he had lived with him. Meeting with some Apollinarists, he purchased a book by Apollinarius which led him eagerly to embrace those views. The intelligence caused great grief to Chrysostom, then in exile at Cucusus, who sent him this letter to refute the Apollinarian heresy. It contains a celebrated passage illlustrating the doctrine of the two distinct natures in the one person of Jesus Christ by reference to the holy Eucharist, in which he speaks of the nature of bread as remaining in that which by the sanctifying grace of God is freed from the appellation of bread and thought worthy to be called the body of the Lord. This passage was adduced in controversy about the year 1548 by Peter Martyr, who deposited a transcript of it in archbp. After Cranmer's death this document was lost, and Martyr was accused of having forged it (Perron, de l’Euchar. His reputation was cleared by the rediscovery by Emeric Bigot, in a Florentine library, of doubtless the very MS. which Martyr, himself a Florentine, had used. Bigot in 1680 printed the epistle with Palladius's Life of Chrysostom. ordered the leaves containing the letter to be cancelled. But Bigot having made known his discovery to literary friends, Allix (preface to Anastasius in Hexaemeron, 1682) protested against the suppression, and the cancelled leaves were printed by le Moyne, Varia Sacra, 1685, by Wake, 1686, and by Basnage, 1687. The Jesuit Harduin published the epistle in 1689, accepting it as Chrysostom's, and vindicating the consistency of its doctrine with that of his church. It is accepted as genuine by Tillemont and Du Pin. The genuineness was first assailed by Le Quien (1712) in the preface to his Edition of John of Damascus, and his arguments were adopted and enlarged by Montfaucon. Maffei found a Greek fragment also at Florence, professing to be from Chrysostom, the first sentence of which is identical with one in this letter, but proceeding to illustrate its doctrine by two similes not found in the Latin. The extract was printed by Basnage in Canisius's Lectiones Antiquae (Antwerp, 1725), pp. Against the genuineness it is urged that Caesarius is not mentioned elsewhere by Chrysostom, though the letter implies that they had been intimate from youth; that the style (if so little of the Greek allows us to judge) is rugged and abrupt, and the tone more scholastic than is common with Chrysostom; that the earliest Greek author who quotes it as Chrysostom's is of the 7th cent. , though we should expect it to have been used in the Eutychian disputes, and quoted in the Acts of the 4th, 5th, and 6th councils. Le Quien also urged that language is used which is not heard of until employed by Cyril of Alexandria in controversy with Nestorius. Montfaucon, however, has produced precedents for much of this language from Athanasius, and has clearly proved that the letter was directed not against Eutychianism, but against Apollinarianism; and with much probability he identifies the work assailed with a work of Apollinarius quoted by Eulogius (ap. This being so, we are more inclined to accept the letter as written while the Apollinarian disputes were raging than, as Montfaucon conjectures, forged a century or two afterwards for use in the Eutychian controversy, since one of the arguments against its genuineness is that there is no evidence that it ever was so used. On the controversy as to the genuineness, see the authorities referred to by Fabricius, Bibl. , Ed. 496, Ed. 736–746, Ed
Joannes Philoponus, Distinguished Philosopher - Joannes (564) Philoponus, a "grammaticus" of Alexandria; a distinguished philosopher, a voluminous writer (Suidas, s. From his great industry he acquired the surname of Philoponus. Ed. 652–654), and is said by Suidas to have been a complete refutation of the great neo-Platonist and to have convicted him of gross ignorance ( s. ...
Apparently about the same time Philoponus was engaged in a controversy with Severus, the deposed bp. To the same period maybe assigned a treatise de Universali et Particulari , described by Assemani in his catalogue of Syriac MSS. ...
At the request of Sergius (ordained patriarch of Antioch by the Monophysites c. The argument is admirably condensed by Prof. ...
At what period Philoponus distinctly avowed what is known as Tritheism (Eulog. Ed. Notwithstanding this, if not because of it, the emperor Justinian sent one of his officers named Stephanus to Alexandria to summon Philoponus to Constantinople "in causa fidei," but he wrote excusing himself because of age and infirmity. In his letter he urged Justinian to issue an Edict prohibiting the discussion of the "two natures. The Monophysites, finding that this publication brought them into great disrepute, appealed to the emperor Justin II. , who had married Sophia, a granddaughter of the empress Theodora, and was known to be favourable to their party. He complied with their request, and the matter was committed to Joannes Scholasticus, who had succeeded Eutychius on his refusal to subscribe the Julianist Edict of Justinian, A. ...
We hear no more of Philoponus until 568, when, John, patriarch of Constantinople, having delivered a catechetical discourse on the "Holy and consubstantial Trinity," he published a treatise in reply to it. Photius is unsparing in his criticism of this work, charging the author with having perverted the authorities whom he quotes (Bibl. Philoponus must now have been very old, but apparently lived some years longer. ...
During his lifetime the Tritheites appear to have been united under his leadership (Tim. 62), but after his decease they became divided because of the opinions he had maintained on the resurrection-body, both in his writings against the heathen and in a special work on this subject. ), though it found great favour with that section of the Monophysites which persevered in their adherence to Philoponus and with Eutychius the Catholic patriarch of Constantinople. ]'>[1] Those Tritheites who still followed him were distinguished as Philoponiaci, or Athanasiani because of Athanasius's prominence amongst them (Schonfelder, Die Tritheiten , app. of John of Ephesus, 269, 274, 297), while their opponents were called Cononitae, after Conon of Tarsus who wrote a reply to the Περὶ ἀναστάσεως . His work de Aeternitate Mundi has been Ed
Novatianus And Novatianism - Lardner (Credibility c. He attributes the origin of the latter name to Cyprian who called the Roman presbyter Novatianus as being a follower of his own rebellious priest Novatus of Carthage. Novatian the founder of Novatianism is said by Philostorgius to have been a Phrygian by birth a notion which may have originated in the popularity of his system in Phrygia and its neighbourhood (Lightfoot's Colossians p. with the Novatianist system itself we should be inclined to say the Stoic. The circumstances of his conversion and baptism are stated by pope Cornelius in his letter to Fabius of Antioch (Eus. His narration is evidently coloured by his feelings. He was converted after he had come to manhood and received clinical baptism but was never confirmed which furnishes Cornelius with one of his principal accusations. He was nevertheless admitted to the clerical order. to the Carthaginan church touching the treatment of the lapsed while the anonymous author of the treatise against Novatian written a. 155 and included by Erasmus among Cyprian's works describes him as "having been a precious vessel an house of the Lord who as long as he was in the church bewailed the faults of other men as his own bore the burdens of his brethren as the apostle directs and by his exhortations strengthened such as were weak in the faith. " This testimony sufficiently disposes of the accusation of Cornelius that Novatian denied the faith in time of persecution declaring himself "an admirer of a different philosophy. " In 250 he approved of a moderate policy towards the lapsed but later in the year changed his mind and took such extreme views that the martyr Moses who probably suffered on the last day of 250 condemned them. In Mar 251 Cornelius was consecrated bp. This roused the stricter party to action (Cyp. NOVATUS the Carthaginian agitator having meanwhile arrived at Rome joined them and urged them to set up an opposition bishop. He made a journey into distant parts of Italy and brought back 3 bishops who consecrated Novatian. After his consecration Novatian dispatched the usual epistles announcing it to the bishops of the chief sees to Cyprian Dionysius of Alexandria Fabius of Antioch. Cyprian rejected his communion at once. Fabius however so inclined to his side that Dionysius addressed him a letter on the subject; and two bishops Firmilianus of Cappadocia and Theoctistus of Palestine wrote to Dionysius requesting his presence at the council of Antioch to restrain tendencies in that direction (ib. In the latter part of 251 Novatian was formally excommunicated by a synod of 60 bishops at Rome. ]'>[1] His subsequent career is unknown save that Socrates informs us that he suffered martyrdom under Valerian (ib. (An Ed. Jerome describes his work on the Trinity as an epitome of Tertullian's and as attributed by some to Cyprian (Hieron. then discusses the anthropomorphic expressions of the Scriptures laying down that "such things were said about God indeed but they are not to be imputed to God but to the people. It is not God Who is limited but the perception of the people. 298) which had just then been developed. He was quoted by the Macedonians of the next cent. 565 and references noted there; Bull's Def. of Nicene Creed ii. Lardner (Credib. 242) shews that Novatian did not accept Hebrews as Scripture since he never quotes any texts out of it though there were several which favoured his cause notably Heb_6:4-8. Cyprian's writings (Edinb. Jackson's Ed. — The members of this sect called themselves Καθαροί (Eus. They were called by others Novatiani (Pacian. In Montanism questions of discipline were involved as side issues, but did not constitute its essential difference. All sects previous to Novatianism had erred on the doctrine of the Trinity. The church therefore baptized even Montanists, but admitted Novatianists by imposition of hands (Conc. ; Hefele, Councils , Ed. ...
The principles which Novatian formulated into a system, and to which he gave a name, existed and flourished long before him. Kirche , 2nd Ed. Every one of the distinctive principles of Novatianism will be found advocated by some or all of them (Baur, l. The Montanists rejected the lapsed, and in fact all guilty of mortal sins, Tertullian rejected second marriages, as also did the strict discipline of the 2nd cent. This identity in principle between Montanism and Novatianism has been noted by many, both ancients and moderns, e. 213–215, 284, Ed. With Donatism Novatianism is also allied, for the treatment of the lapsed underlay that schism too. Other points of similarity between the three may be noted. The two earliest, at least, proved their essential oneness, uniting their ranks in Phrygia in the 4th cent. Novatianism may be regarded as a conservative protest on behalf of the ancient discipline against the prevalent liberalism of the Roman church (Baur, l. The sterner treatment of the lapsed naturally found favour with the more enthusiastic party, who usually give the tone to any religious society. was inclined to take the Puritan view (Eus. ) has noted an interesting proof of the prevalence of this view in Rome. Archaeologists have often been puzzled by the symbol of a Good Shepherd carryings a kid, not a lamb, on his shoulders, found in the cemetery of St. Ozanam explains it as a reference by the excavators of the cemetery to the prevalent Montanist doctrine, which denied the possibility of a goat being brought back in this life. Novatianism thus fell upon ground prepared for it, and found in every quarter a body of ready adherents. But Novatian was the first to make the treatment of the lapsed the express ground of schism. In fact, many continued to hold the same view within the church during the next 150 years (cf. 134, Clark's Ed. In Africa they established themselves in many cities within the course of the two years subsequent to Novatian's consecration in the spring of 251. of Arles, joined them (Cyp. The controversies about Sabellianism and Paul of Samosata, together with the rising tide of Arianism, occupied the church during the concluding years of the 3rd cent. , while the peace it enjoyed prevented the question of the lapsed becoming a practical one. Obliged to vindicate their position, they drew the reins tighter than Novatian had done. With him idolatry was the one crying sin which excluded from communion. During the long peace there was no temptation to this sin, therefore his followers were obliged to add all other deadly sins to the list (Socr. 466, 467) At the council of Nice we find them established far and wide, with a regular succession of bishops at the principal cities of the empire and of the highest reputation for piety. The monk Eutychian, one of their number, was a celebrated miracle-worker, reverenced by Constantine himself, who also endeavoured to lead one of their bishops, ACESIUS, to unite with the Catholics (Socr. Under Constantine they were tolerated and even favoured ( Cod. Ed. Under Constantius they were violently persecuted, together with the rest of the Homoousian party, by the patriarch Macedonius. 38) mentions several martyrs for the Catholic faith whom they then furnished, especially one Alexander, a Paphlagonian, to whose memory they built a church at Constantinople existing in his own day. Several of their churches, too, were destroyed at Constantinople and Cyzicus, but were restored by Julian upon his accession, and Agelius their bishop was banished. "But Macedonius consummated his wickedness in the following manner. Hearing there was a great number of the Novatian sect in the province of Paphlagonia, and especially at Mantinium, and perceiving that such a numerous body could not be driven from their homes by ecclesiastics alone, he caused, by the emperor's permission, four companies of soldiers to be sent into Paphlagonia that, through dread of the military, they might receive the Arian opinion. But those who inhabited Mantinium, animated to desperation by zeal for their religion, armed themselves with long reaping-hooks, hatchets, and whatever weapons came to hand, and went forth to meet the troops, on which, a conflict ensuing, many indeed of the Paphlagonians were slain, but nearly all the soldiers were destroyed. " This persecution well-nigh brought about a union between the Catholics and the Novatianists, as the former frequented the churches of the latter party during the Arian supremacy. The Novatianists, however, as in Constantine's time, obstinately refused to unite with those whose church-theory was different from their own, though their faith was alike. 366, they suffered another persecution and Agelius was again exiled. at Constantinople, Agelius, appeared in conjunction with the orthodox patriarch Nectarius as joint defenders of the Homoousian doctrine at the synod of 383, on which account the emperor conferred on their churches equal privileges with those of the establishment (Socr. John Chrysostom's severe zeal for church discipline led him to persecute them. 401, he deprived them of their churches, an act to which many attributed John's subsequent misfortunes. An expression uttered by Chrysostom in reference to their peculiar views about sin after baptism, "Approach [3] though you may have repented a thousand times," led to a literary controversy between him and the learned and witty Sisinnius, Novatianist bp. About 374 a schism occurred in their ranks concerning the true time of Easter. Hitherto the Novatianists had strictly observed the Catholic rule. A few obscure Phrygian bishops, however, convened a synod at Pazum or Pazacoma, and agreed to celebrate the same day as that on which the Jews keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread. This canon was passed in the absence of Agelius of Constantinople, Maximus of Nice, and the bishops of Nicomedia and Cotyaeum, their leading men (iv. 18) tells us that a number of priests, converted by the Novatianists at Pazum during the reign of Valens, still retained their Jewish ideas about Easter. 1581, where severe penalties are denounced against them as worshippers of a different Christ because observing Easter otherwise than the orthodox). This question, when raised by a presbyter of Jewish birth named SABBATIUS, some 20 years later, caused a further schism among the Novatianists at Constantinople, under the episcopate of Marcian, a. These finally coalesced with the Montanists, though we can trace their distinct existence till the middle of the 5th cent. the Novatianists continued to flourish notwithstanding occasional troubles. They lived on amicable terms with the orthodox patriarch Atticus, who, remembering their fidelity under the Arian persecution, protected them from their enemies. Paul enjoyed the reputation of a miracle-worker, and died in the odour of universal sanctity, all sects and parties uniting in singing psalms at his funeral (Socr. In Alexandria, however, they were persecuted by Cyril, their bp. Theopemptus and their churches plundered; but they continued to exist in large numbers in that city till the 7th cent. Even in Scythia their churches existed, as we find Marcus, a bp. In Asia Minor they were as widely dispersed as the Catholics. In parts of it, indeed, the orthodox party seem for long to have been completely absorbed by those who took the Puritan view, e. They had established a regular parochial system. 9268) we find at Laodicea in Lycaonia an inscription on a tombstone erected by one Aurelia Domna to her husband Paul, deacon of the holy church of the Novatianists, while even towards the end of the preceding century St. Basil, though hesitating on grounds similar to those of Cyprian to recognize their baptism, concludes in its favour on the express ground that it was for the advantage and profit of the populace that it should be received (Basil, Ep. Their protest about the lapsed became obsolete and their adherents fell away to the church or to sects like the Montanists. Yet there is clear evidence of their widespread and long-continued influence. Already we have noted their extension into S. In Alexandria also we have noted its last historical manifestation. , when it arose, and the close of the 5th, we find repeated indications of its existence and power. 2, with Gothofred's comment), giving them a certain restricted liberty, was directed to Bassus, probably vicarius of Italy. we find a regular succession of Novatianist bishops existing—doubtless from Novatian's time—at Rome, and held in such high repute for piety that the emperor Theodosius granted his life to the celebrated orator Symmachus on the prayer of the Novatianist pope Leontius, a. , however, pope Celestine persecuted them, deprived them of their churches, and compelled Rusticula their bishop to hold his meetings in private, an act which Socrates considers another proof of the overweening and unchristian insolence of the Roman see ( H. In the Code several severe Edicts were directed about the same time against the Novatianists ( Cod. Ed. Whether the original religious teaching of the people whose Christianity may have been imported from Africa but a short time before by MARCELLINUS, or the physical features, e. the mountainous character of these countries, may not have inclined them towards its stern discipline is a fair question. The treatises which Pacian of Barcelona and Ambrose of Milan felt necessary to direct against them are couched in language which proves the sect to have been then an aggressive one and a real danger to the church by the assertion of its superior sanctity and purity. Ambrose evidently wrote in answer to some work lately produced by them ( de Poenit. The Separatist tendency begotten of Novatianism in this district and continued through Priscillianism, Adoptionism, and Claudius of Turin (Neander, H. 119–130, Ed. Their wide spread in Africa in Augustine's time is attested by him, cont. Ed. Bened. wrongly attributed to St. Ed. 2942–2958 assigned by the Editor to Hilary the deacon who lived under pope Damasus. From it we find they refused to the Catholics the name of a church calling them Apostaticum Capitolinum or Synedrium and on their own behalf rejected the name Novatianists and styled themselves simply Christians (Ep. The following were some of the texts relied on by them to the consideration of which the writers on the Catholic side applied themselves: 1Sa_2:25; Mat_10:33; Mat_12:31; Mat_13:47-49; 1Co_6:18; 2Ti_2:20; Heb_6:4-7; 1Jn_5:15. Novatianism in the tests which it used its efforts after a perfectly pure communion its crotchety interpretations of Scripture and many other features presents a striking parallel to many modern sects. In addition to authorities already quoted see Ceillier ii. Ed. 233 (ed. 284 (ed. (ed
Idatius (3), Author of Well-Known Chronicle - Idatius (3), ( Idacius ; surnamed Lemicensis ), bp. The existing material was elaborately sifted and put together by Florez (Esp. , Madrid, 1749), and less completely by Garzon, whose Ed. His return to Gallicia may be dated c. In 416, seven years after the irruption of the Suevi, Alani, and Vandals into the peninsula, Idatius entered the ministry, for so we must understand the entry in the Chron. He returned in 432, accompanied by the legate Censorius, after whose departure from Gallicia the bishops persuaded Hermeric, the Suevian king, to make peace with the provincials. For about 24 years GaIlicia enjoyed tranquillity compared with the rest of Spain, and the Gallician bishops found themselves to some extent free to deal with the prevalent Priscillianist and Manichean doctrines, which had even infected some of the episcopate ( Ep. Between 441 and 447 must be placed the letter of Turribius to Idatius and Ceponius (? bp. In 444–445 the confessions of certain Roman Manicheans having disclosed the names of their co-believers in the provinces, letters were sent to the provinces by pope Leo warning the bishops (Prosper ad ann. 444; see Garzon's note 6, Ed. Accordingly we find Idatius and Turribius in 445 holding a trial of certain Manicheans discovered at Astorga, no doubt by aid of the papal letters, and forwarding a report of the trial to the neighbouring metropolitan of Merida, evidently to put him on his guard. Turribius on the Gallician heresies, Leo sent a long decretal letter to Spain to be circulated by him, urging the assembly of a national council, or at least of a Gallician synod, in which, by the efforts of Turribius and of Idatius and Ceponius, "fratres vestri," a remedy might be devised for the prevailing disorder. ...
In the troubled times after the flight and execution of Rekiar, Idatius fell a victim to the disorders of the country. His capture at Aquae Flaviae by Frumari (July 26, 460) was owing mostly, no doubt, to his importance as a leader and representative of the Roman population, but partly, perhaps, as Florez suggests, to the hatred of certain Gallician Priscillianist informers (their names are Latin; cf. He was released in 3 months, and after his return to Chiaves lived at least 8 years under the Suevian kingdom which he had too hastily declared to be "destructum et finitum" in 456 (? " pene destructum," as Isidore, his copyist in Hist. His Chronicle ends with 469, and he must have died before 474, the year of the emperor Leo's death, under whom Isidore places that of Idatius ( Esp. 303, Ed. —The prologue to the Chronicle , composed apparently after its completion, at any rate in the extreme old age of its author, gives a full account of its intention, sources, and arrangement. It was intended to continue the Chronicle of Eusebius and Jerome, Idatius including his own works in one vol. with theirs (ed. from 427), he says, describing his second division, "I, undeservedly chosen to the office of the episcopate, and not ignorant of all the troubles of this miserable time, have added both the falling landmarks ('metas ruituras') of the oppressed Roman empire, and also what is more mournful still, the degenerate condition of the church order within Gallicia, which is the end of the world, the destruction of honest liberty by indiscriminate appointments (to bishoprics), and the almost universal decay of the divine discipline of religion, evils springing from the rule of furious men and the tumults of hostile nations. On the chronology of the last five years and on possible interpolations of certain chronological notes by the copyist, see Ed. ...
The Fasti Idatiani were first attributed to Idatius by Sirmond, partly because in the ancient MS. from which he printed the Chronicle the Fasti followed immediately, and partly because he believed that there was strong internal evidence for the Idatian authorship ( Op. This opinion has been generally adopted, notably by Dr. 457, and Garzon's answer, Ed. The history of the Fasti has now been cleared up with great learning and acuteness by Holder-Egger in the Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere Deutsche Geschichtskunde , ii. was itself compiled at Constantinople from older Roman Fasti, such as are still preserved in the Chronographus of 354 (Mommsen, op. branches off from the Fasti Idatiani , a copy of the Constantinople Fasti came westward, received certain additions in Italy and then reached Spain, where a Spanish reviser and continuator gave them the shape under which we now know them as the Fasti Idatiani . That Idatius the author of the Chronicle revised the Fasti Holder-Egger does not believe, but is inclined to hold that their agreement is best explained by the theory that Idatius used but did not compose the Fasti . His arguments on this point seem scarcely conclusive, and he is indeed prepared to admit that certain trifling additions to and alterations in the Fasti were probably made by Idatius. It must not be confused with the excerpta from Idatius made under Charles the Great
Suc'Coth - (Genesis 35:17 ) The name is derived from the fact of Jacob's having there put up "booths" (succoth ) for his cattle as well as a house for himself. (Judges 5:5-17 ) It would appear from this passage that it lay east of the Jordan, which is corroborated by the fact that it was allotted to the tribe of Gad. (Joshua 13:27 ) Succoth is named once again after this --in (1 Kings 7:46 ; 2 Chronicles 4:17 ) --as marking the spot at which the brass founderies were placed for casting the metal work of the temple. Merrill identifies it with a site called Tell Darala , one mile north of the Jabbok. --ED. (Exodus 12:37 ; 13:20 ; Numbers 33:5,6 ) This place was apparently reached at the close of the first days march. The distance traversed in each day's journey was about fifteen miles
Smyr'na - (myrrh ), a city of Asia Minor, situated on the AEgean Sea, 40 miles north of Ephesus. Allusion is made to it in ( Revelation 2:8-11 ) It was founded by Alexander the Great, and was situated twenty shades (2 1/2 miles) from the city of the same name, which after a long series of wars with the Lydians had been finally taken and sacked by Halyattes. It seems not impossible that the message to the church in Smyrna contains allusions to the ritual of the pagan mysteries which prevailed in that city. In the time of Strabo the ruins of the old Smyrna still existed, and were partially inhabited, but the new city was one of the most beautiful in all Asia. There was a large public library there, and also a handsome building surrounded with porticos which served as a museum. It was consecrated as a heroum to Homer, whom the Smyrnaeans claimed as a countryman. Olympian games were celebrated here, and excited great interest. --ED
Army - ...
2: στρατόπεδον (Strong's #4760 — Noun Neuter — stratopedon — strat-op'-ed-on ) from stratos, "a military host," pedon, "a plain," strictly denotes "an army encamped, a camp;" in Luke 21:20 , of the soldiers which were to be encamped about Jerusalem in fulfillment of the Lord's prophecy concerning the destruction of the city; the phrase might be translated "by camps" (or encampments). , "a casting in among, an insertion" (para, "among," ballo, "to throw"), in the Macedonian dialect, was a military term. It also denoted a castle or barracks, Acts 21:34,37 ; 22:24 ; 23:10,16,32
Her'Mon - At the present day it is called Jebel esh-Sheikh , "the chief mountain," and Jebel eth-Thelj , "snowy mountain. " When the whole country is parched with the summer sun, white lines of snow streak the head of Hermon. It was associated with their northern border almost as intimately as the sea was with the western. Hermon has three summits, situated like the angles of a triangle, and about a quarter of a mile from each other. In two passages of Scripture this mountain is called Baal-hermon , ( Judges 3:3 ; 1 Chronicles 5:23 ) possibly because Baal was there worshipped. (It is more than probable that some part of Hermon was the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands near Caesarea Philippi, where we know Christ was just before that event --ED. ) The height of Hermon has never been measured, though it has often been estimated. It may safely be reckoned at 10,000 feet
Apoc'Rypha - (concealed, hidden ). _The collection of books to which this term is popularly applied includes the following (the order given is that in which they stand in the English version); 1:1 Esdras; 2:2 Esdras; III. The primary meaning of apocrypha , "hidden, secret," seems, toward the close of the second century to have been associated with the signification "spurious," and ultimately to have settled down into the latter. The separate books of this collection are treated of in distinct articles. Their relation to the canonical books of the Old Testament is discussed under CANON . They are go entirely inferior to the genuine books, so full of nonsensical and unworthy stories of Christ and the apostles, that they have never been regarded as divine, or bound up in our Bibles. It is said that Mohammed obtained his ideas of Christ entirely from these spurious gospels. --ED
Mat'Thew - His original name was Levi, and his name Matthew was probably adopted as his new apostolic name was a Jew. Christ called him from this work to he his disciple. His business would tend to give him a knowledge of human nature, and accurate business habits, and of how to make a way to the hearts of many publicans and sinners not otherwise easily reached. He is mentioned by name, after the resurrection of Christ, only in ( Acts 1:15 ) but he must have lived many years as an apostle, since he was the author of the Gospel of Matthew which was written at least twenty years later. There is reason to believe that he remained for fifteen years at Jerusalem, after which he went as missionary to the Persians, Parthians and Medes. There is a legend that he died a martyr in Ethiopia. --ED
Lily - The plant must have been a conspicuous object on the shores of the Lake of Gennesaret, ( Matthew 6:28 ; Luke 12:27 ) it must have flourished in the deep broad valleys of Palestine, (Song of Solomon 2:1 ) among the thorny shrubs, ib. That its flowers were brilliant in color would seem to be indicated in (Matthew 6:28 ) where it is compared with the gorgeous robes of Solomon; and that this color was scarlet or purple is implied in (Song of Solomon 5:13 ) There appears to be no species of lily which so completely answers all these requirements as the Lilium chalcedonicum , or scarlet martagon, which grows in profusing in the Levant. But direct evidence on the point is still to be desired from the observation of travellers. --ED
Jehosh'Aphat, Valley of - (valley of the judgment of Jehovah ), a valley mentioned by Joel only, as the spot in which, after the return of Judah and Jerusalem from captivity, Jehovah would gather all the heathen, ( Joel 3:2 ) and would there sit to judge them for their misdeeds to Israel. (Joel 3:12 ) The scene of "Jehovah's judgment" as been localized, and the name has come down to us attached to that deep ravine which separates Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, through which at one time the Kedron forced its stream. At what period the name "valley of Jehoshaphat" was first applied to this spot is unknown. It is not mentioned in the Bible or Josephus, but is first encountered in the middle of the fourth century. The steep sides of the ravine, wherever a level strip affords the opportunity, are crowded --in places almost paved-- by the sepulchres of the Moslems, or the simpler slabs of the Jewish tombs, alike awaiting the assembly of the last judgment. The name is generally confined by travellers to the upper part of the glen. (Others suppose that the name is only an imaginary one, "the valley of the judgment of Jehovah" referring to some great victories of God's people in which judgment was executed upon the heathen; or perhaps, as Keil, etc. --ED
Ephraim - After the raising of Lazarus, Jesus departed, in consequence of the plots of the chief priests against Him, ‘unto a country ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘into the country’) near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples. TR spells Ἐφραΐα; Lachmann, Tischendorf, Westcott-Hort spell Ἑφραὶμ; Stephanus, 1550, had on the margin the reading Ἑφρὲμ, which is supported by א L and Latin witnesses, and the name Σαμφουρείμ as to be supplied after χώραν. 184) suggested that σαμ might be the Heb. ’...
Eusebius in his Onomasticon says (ad Ephron, Joshua 15:9) καἰ ἔστι νῦν κώμη Ἐφραὶμ μεγίστη περὶ τἀ βόρεια Αἰλίας ὠς ἀπὸ σημείων κ; in the Latin rendering of Jerome: ‘est et villa pergrandis Efrœa nomine contra septentrionem in vicesimo ab aelia miliario’ (ed. With this has been identified Afra [1]: ‘in tribu Beniamin; et est hodie vicus Efraim in quinto miliario Bethelis ad orientem respiciens’ (p. 127 Isdigerdes i, King of Persia - ( Jezdedscherd, Yazdejirdus, Yezdegerdes ; Ἰσδιγέρδης and Ἰσδεγέρδης by the Greeks; in Armenian Yazgerd ; on his coins, יזדכרתי , i. Izdikerti ), king of Persia, surnamed Al Aitham (the Wicked), known in history as Isdigerd I. , though an obscure and uncertain predecessor of the same name makes Mordtmann reckon him as Isdigerd II. , succeeding his brother Vararanes IV. , and succeeded by his son Vararanes V. He reigned at Ctesiphon. With the Romans he appears to have lived in peace; Agathias (Hist. 264, Ed. 69, Ed. Bonn, 1839) relate how the emperor Arcadius on his death-bed directed his son Theodosius to be put under Isdigerdes's tutelage. 8) says, gave every facility for the propagation of the gospel, yet probably closed his days in persecuting the church. of Martyropolis in Mesopotamia, who had been sent on an embassy from the Romans early in his reign, he was very favourably disposed towards Christianity and the church in Persia had peace with full liberty of worship and church-building. He overcame and exposed the impostures of the magi, with the assistance of Maruthas and other Christians, and miracles are said to have been wrought before him for the confirmation of the gospel. A second visit of Maruthas seems to have deepened the impression (Socr. Abdas burned one of the temples of fire (Theod. This offence Isdigerd was prepared to overlook, if Abdas would rebuild the burned pyreion; failing this, the king threatened to burn down and destroy all Christian churches in Persia. Abdas, esteeming it morally wrong to rebuild the temple, refused to comply, and the churches were burned. Abdas was among the first of the martyrs, and a persecution commenced in or towards the end of Isdigerd's reign, which his son and successor Vararanes or Bararanes carried on with most revolting cruelty and which was only ended by the presence of the Roman legions. From the odium of this persecution the memory of Isdigerd is specially shielded by Socrates ( H. 39) probably gives the truer account, though Isdigerd had probably neither the time nor inclination to carry out his Edicts with severity. His character is described as noble and generous, tarnished only by this one dark spot in the last year of his reign or in a brief period in the middle of it
Scythian - The Greek colonists who settled on the northern shores of the Black Sea in the 7th cent. ...
The Scythians proper were a purely nomadic race living on the South Russian steppe the usual life of nomads, moving from place to place as the needs of their flocks demanded. 46, 114, 121) tells us that the men rode on horseback while the women were conveyed in wagons drawn by oxen. They lived on boiled flesh, mares’ milk, and cheese. Like most barbarians, they existed in a condition of filth, never washing themselves, and the women daubed themselves with paste containing the dust of fragrant woods and removing it the second day (iv. Hippocrates (ed. When engaged in battle, the Scythian warrior drank the blood of the first of the foe he slew, using the skull as a drinking cup. No one was allowed to share in the booty who did not bring the head of a foeman to the king. The scalps of those slain in battle were tanned and hung on the bridle of the warrior (Herod. The kings were invested with absolute despotic powers. On their death a vast multitude of slaves and even free-born servants were slain and buried in great funeral mounds along with horses and vessels of gold and silver. ...
The Scythians first come into history in connexion with their invasion of Asia and particularly of Media in the 7th cent. At this time there took place one of those great movements among the uncivilized peoples of the north which the Germans call a Völkerwanderung. Pressed on by Asiatic tribes, the Scythians seem to have driven the Cimmerians into Asia Minor and invaded Media. 103-105) of a great victory of the Scythians over Cyaxares and the Medes which compelled the latter to raise the siege of Nineveh. , till the Medes again under Cyaxares destroyed most of them after making them drunk at a banquet (i. 105) of king Psammetichus, who died 611 b. The panic of these invading hordes reached Palestine, and several times the land seems to have been threatened and actually overrun with marauding bands. The reports of warriors fighting on horseback with bow and arrows, and drinking the blood of the slain, were fitted to appeal to the imagination of the Hebrew prophets, who thought of the messengers of God’s wrath on a sinful nation. , 6:1) and of the mighty nation of riders and bowmen, as well as Zephaniah’s picture of the Day of the Lord, was probably suggested by the Scythian invasion and the terror it inspired. The memory of this invasion was perpetuated in the name Scythopolis, which was given to the old town Beth-shean (Σκύθων πόλις, Judith 3:10; cf. Syncellus (Chronographia, Ed. 171) state, rebuilt by the remnant of the Scythians who remained after the main body was bought off by the king of Egypt. ’ Just as terrors which are only partially known assume gigantic proportions, so these Scythians, by their rapid descent on Palestine, their unwonted appearance, their savage cruelty, and their short sojourn, impressed the imagination. ]'>[1] ) became types of the evil world-powers opposed to the Kingdom of God. When the apostle Paul is speaking of the absolute way in which the gospel of Christ abolishes all racial distinctions, he mentions in the list ‘Greek and Jew … barbarian, Scythian’ (Colossians 3:11), where undoubtedly ‘Scythian’ is referred to as being universally regarded as the lowest in the scale of humanity, the most savage of barbarians-‘Scythae barbaris barbariores’ (Bengal) (cf. Even Scythians, the Apostle maintains, can be renewed unto the knowledge of Jesus Christ and become one in Him along with members of other races. The Apostle, on the other hand, gloried in a religion which could redeem and elevate the most degraded. , Ed. , new Ed. 216; articles ‘Scythian’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica , and article ‘Scythia’ in Encyclopaedia Britannica 9
God And Magog - In the Book of Revelation (Revelation 20:7-8) the seer tells that Satan, after being bound for one Thousand years, shall be loosed and go forth to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle. This is conceived in the Apocalypse as the last great battle between the powers of evil and the armies of God, and as the occasion of the final overthrow of the wicked, when fire comes forth from heaven to devour them. In this passage Gog and Magog are represented as nations dwelling in the four quarters of the earth and symbolic of the enemies of the Lord. 38 and 39), where Gog is represented as a person, ‘the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal,’ and Magog as the name of his land (Ezekiel 38:2). The prophet depicts this prince as leading a great host against the restored Israel, and being utterly defeated and overthrown. In the ethnological table in Genesis 10 Magog is represented as the son of Japheth and brother of Gomer. 173-5), when his country was invaded by the Gimirra (Cimerians), expelled them with Assyrian help. The name may have reached Palestine as that of a successful and distant king of barbarian tribes and may have been used by Ezekiel as symbolic of powers hostile to the Kingdom of God. (ed. He points out that Magog originally signified ‘dwelling-place,’ or ‘land of Gog,’ and that the name Gog itself means ‘mountain. ...
The Jews themselves regarded Gog and Magog as vague descriptions of northern barbaric nations, with whom they were very slightly acquainted. I) identifies them with the Seythians-a term which was generally used to describe vaguely any northern barbaric people. 319, 322; Mishna, Eduyoth, 2. This final and abortive attack on the part of the powers of evil is referred to in Revelation 19:17 ff. Probably Revelation 19, 20, like most of the book, is part of a Jewish apocalypse which has been transformed by the Christian writer. ...
Many and varied are the interpretations that have been given of Gog and Magog by those who, ignoring the poetical and pictorial nature of apocalyptic literature, regard the Apocalypse as a prophecy of actual historic events. Thus the names have been applied to nations beyond the bounds of the Roman Empire, to Bar Cochba, the Jewish Messianic pretender, and frequently to the Turks. Schrader, KAT [3] 3 Phinehas - While yet a youth he distinguished himself at Shittim by his zeal against the immorality into which the Moabites had tempted the people (Numbers 25:1-9 ), and thus "stayed the plague" that had broken out among the people, and by which twenty-four thousand of them perished. For his faithfulness on that occasion he received the divine approbation (10-13). He afterwards commanded the army that went out against the Midianites (31:6-8). When representatives of the people were sent to expostulate with the two and a half tribes who, just after crossing Jordan, built an altar and departed without giving any explanation, Phinehas was their leader, and addressed them in the words recorded in Joshua 22:16-20 . This great altar was intended to be all ages only a witness that they still formed a part of Israel. He is commemorated in Psalm 106:30,31 . (See Ed . He died in battle with the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:4,11 ); and his wife, on hearing of his death, gave birth to a son, whom she called "Ichabod," and then she died (19-22)
Bashan - It was the kingdom of Og, the Rephaite opponent of Israel, and with his name the country is almost invariably associated ( Numbers 21:33 , Deuteronomy 29:7 , Nehemiah 9:22 etc. It was noted for mountains ( Psalms 68:15 ), lions ( Deuteronomy 33:22 ), oak trees ( Isaiah 2:13 , Ezekiel 27:6 , Zechariah 11:2 ), and especially cattle, both rams ( Deuteronomy 32:14 ) and bullocks ( Ezekiel 39:18 ); the bulls and kine of Bashan are typical of cruelty and oppression ( Psalms 22:12 , Amos 4:1 ). The extent of the territory denoted by this name cannot be exactly defined till some important identifications can be established, such as the exact meaning of ‘the region of Argob’ (included in the kingdom of Og, Deuteronomy 3:4 etc. ), where were threescore great cities with walls and brazen bars, administered for Solomon by Ben-geber of Ramoth-gilead ( 1 Kings 4:13 ). It included Salecah ( Salkhat , on the borders of the desert), Edrei ( Ed-Der‘a ?), Ashtaroth (perhaps Tell Ashareh ), and Golan, one of the cities of refuge, the name of which may be preserved in the Jaulan , the region immediately east of the Sea of Tiberias
Felix (26) i, Bishop of Aptunga - The Donatist party, having failed in the Court of Inquiry at Rome, under Melchiades, Oct. 2, 313, to establish their case against Caecilian, turned their attack on Felix, whom they sought to convict of the infamous crime of "tradition" in the persecution of Maximus, a. In vain the prosecution relied on a chain of fraudulent evidence elaborately concocted. The proconsul pronounced the complete acquittal of Felix, which was confirmed by the emperor, and repeated in a letter to Verinus, or Valerius, the vicar of Africa, a. 411, when Augustine argued that there was no doubt of the completeness of the imperial decision. 160-167 and 341-343, Ed
Amphipolis - (Ἀμφίπολις)...
This Macedonian city played an important part in early Greek history. Occupying an eminence on the left bank of the Strymon, just below the egress of the river from Lake Cercinitis, 3 miles from the Strymonic Gulf, it commanded the entrance to a pass leading through the mountains into the great Macedonian plains. It was almost encircled by the river, whence its name ‘Amphi-polis. 100) says that the Athenians ‘sent 10,000 settlers of their own citizens and the allies to the Strymon, to colonize what was then called the “Nine Ways” (Ἐννέα ὁδοί), but now Amphipolis. , and never recovered it. It was under the Macedonian kings from 360 till the Roman conquest of the country in 167 b. The Romans made it a free city and the capital of the first of four districts into which they divided Macedonia. It lay on the Via Egnatia, which connected Dyrrachium with the Hellespont. From Philippi it was 32 miles to the south-west, and ‘this was one of the most beautiful day’s journeys Paul ever experienced’ (Renan, Saint Paul, Eng. The Apostle and his fellow-travellers evidently remained in Amphipolis over night, and next day went on to Apollonia (Acts 17:1). It is now represented by Neochori. of Greece, new Ed
me'Sha - (freedom ).
The name of one of the geographical limits of the Joktanites when they first settled in Arabia. (Genesis 10:30 ) ...
The king of Moab who was tributary to Ahab, (2 Kings 3:4 ) but when Ahab fell at Ramoth-gilead, Mesha refused to pay tribute to his successor, Jehoram. When Jehoram succeeded to the throne of Israel, one of his first acts was to secure the assistance of Jehoshaphat, his father's ally, in reducing the Moabites to their former condition of tributaries. The Moabites were defeated, and the king took refuge in his last stronghold, and defended himself with the energy of despair. With 700 fighting men he made a vigorous attempt to cut his way through the beleaguering army, and when beaten back, he withdrew to the wall of his city, and there, in sight of the allied host, offered his first-born son, his successor in the kingdom, as a burnt offering to Chemosh, the ruthless fire-god of Moab. His bloody sacrifice had so far the desired effect that the besiegers retired from him to their own land. (At Dibon in Moab has lately been discovered the famous Moabite Stone, which contains inscriptions concerning King Mesha and his wars, and which confirms the Bible account. --ED
Jabesh-Gilead - It is first mentioned in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants because they had refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with Israel against the tribe of Benjamin (Judges 21:8-14 ). After the battles at Gibeah, that tribe was almost extinguished, only six hundred men remaining. An expedition went against Jabesh-Gilead, the whole of whose inhabitants were put to the sword, except four hundred maidens, whom they brought as prisoners and sent to "proclaim peace" to the Benjamites who had fled to the crag Rimmon. These captives were given to them as wives, that the tribe might be saved from extinction (Judges 21 ). This city was afterwards taken by Nahash, king of the Ammonites, but was delivered by Saul, the newly-elected king of Israel. In gratitude for this deliverance, forty years after this, the men of Jabesh-Gilead took down the bodies of Saul and of his three sons from the walls of Beth-shan, and after burning them, buried the bones under a tree near the city (1 Samuel 31:11-13 ). David thanked them for this act of piety (2 Samuel 2:4-6 ), and afterwards transferred the remains to the royal sepulchre (21:14). It is identified with the ruins of Ed-Deir, about 6 miles south of Pella, on the north of the Wady Yabis
mo'Abite Stone, the - Klein, of the Church Missionary Society at Jerusalem, found at Dhiban (the biblical Dibon), in Moab, a remarkable stone, since called the Moabite Stone. An impression was made of the main block, and of certain recovered parts broken off by the Arabs. It was broken by the Arabs, but the fragments were purchased by the French government for 32,000 francs, and are in the Louvre in Paris. The engraved face is about the shape of an ordinary gravestone, rounded at the top. (2 Kings 3:4 ) It speaks of King Omri and other names of places and persons mentioned in the Bible, and belongs to this exact period of jewish and Moabite history. The names given on the Moabite Stone, engraved by one who knew them in daily life, are, in nearly every case, identical with those found in the Bible itself, and testify to the wonderful integrity with which the Scriptures have been preserved. " --(See Rawlinson's "Historical Illustrations;" American Cyclopedia ; and Bibliotheca Sacra , Oct. --ED
Petrus, Abbat of Saint Augustine's Monastery - Peter and Paul, commonly called St. He was probably one of the monks who accompanied Augustine on his first journey, and therefore probably a monk of the monastery of St. He is first mentioned by Bede ( H. 25) as joined with Laurentius in the mission which Augustine after his consecration sent to Rome to announce that the Gospel had been accepted by the English, and that he had been made bishop, and to put before the pope the questions which drew forth the famous "Responsiones Sancti Gregorii. " He must have returned some time before the death of Augustine and been appointed or designated by him and Ethelbert as the future head of the monastery, which at his request Ethelbert was building outside the walls of Canterbury. The building was not finished when Augustine died, but Laurentius, his successor, consecrated the new church and Peter became the first abbat. If the Canterbury computation be accepted, and on such a point it may not be baseless, Peter must have perished in the winter of 606 or of 607 at the latest. 760; Elmham, Ed
Serapion, Surnamed Scholasticus - Serapion (9), surnamed Scholasticus, bp. Anthony of the desert, and occupied a position of some importance in 4th-cent. Anthony bequeathed one of his sheepskin cloaks to Serapion and the other to Athanasius ( Vita S. His work against the Manicheans, described by Jerome as "Egregium librum," and noticed by Photius ( Cod. 85), was for the first time printed in its original form by Brinkmann in 1894. It had previously been mixed up with a similar work by Titus of Bostra. In its restored form it is a valuable argument against Manicheism. Eudoxius, who had been tortured; the other censuring some monks of Alexandria. 1898) Wobbermin published a dogmatic letter "on the Father and the Son," and 30 liturgical prayers, the 1st and 15th of which are the work of Serapion. They have been reprinted, with valuable notes and discussions, by F. , Ed
Anthropomorphism - They are also used to assign human characteristics to angels (Genesis 16:7 ; 18:1-19:1 ), Satan (1 Chronicles 21:1 ; Luke 13:16 ), and demons (Luke 8:32 ). Evil is also personified, depicted as slaying (Psalm 34:21 ) and pursuing (Proverbs 13:21 ). Infrequently, human qualities are attributed to animals (Numbers 22:28-30 ) or vegetation (Judges 9:7-15 ). ...
The use of human terminology to talk about God is necessary when we, in our limitations, wish to express truths about the Deity who by his very nature cannot be described or known. From biblical times to the present, people have felt compelled to explain what God is like, and no expressions other than human terms are able to convey any semblance of meaning to the indescribable. Later, this agreement is transformed into a new covenant through Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:26-29 ). Theologically, the legal compact initiated by God becomes the instrument through which he established an intimate and personal relationship with the people, both collectively and individually. God redeems Israel from Egyptian bondage with an outstretched arm (Exodus 6:6 ). The expression, "the Lord's anger burned" (Exodus 4:14 ) is interesting. A literal translation of the Hebrew is "the nose of the Lord burned. anthropos [ Exodus 20:5 ) who hates (Amos 5:21 ) and becomes angry (Jeremiah 7:20 ), but he also loves (Exodus 20:6 ) and is pleased (Deuteronomy 28:63 ). Only when taken literally are they misconstrued. Bullinger, Figures of Speech Used in the Bible ; M. Eliade, Ed. , The Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. Miles, Ed
Agnoetae - Agnoëtae (from ἀγνοέω , to be ignorant of ), a name applied to two sects who denied the omniscience either of God the Father, or of God the Son in His state of humiliation. The first were a sect of the Arians, and called from Eunomius and Theophronius "Eunomio-Theophronians " (Socr. Their leader, Theophronius, of Cappadocia, who flourished about 370, maintained that God knew things past by memory and things future only by uncertain prescience. 17) writes of him: "Having given some attention to the writings of Aristotle, he composed an appendix to them, entitled Exercises of the Mind . But he afterwards engaged in many unprofitable disputations, and soon ceased to confine himself to the doctrines of his master. ]'>[1] Under the assumption of being deeply versed in the terms of Scripture, he attempted to prove that though God is acquainted with the present, the past, and the future, his knowledge on these subjects is not the same in degree, and is subject to some kind of mutation. As this hypothesis appeared positively absurd to the Eunomians, they excommunicated him from their church; and he constituted himself the leader of a new sect, called after his own name, 'Theophronians. Themistius deacon of Alexandria representing a small branch of the Monophysite Severians taught after the death of Severus that the human soul (not the Divine nature) of Christ was like us in all things even in the limitation of knowledge and was ignorant of many things especially the day of judgment which the Father alone knew (Mar_13:32 cf. Most Monophysites rejected this view as inconsistent with their theory of one nature in Christ which implied also a unity of knowledge and they called the followers of Themistius Agnoëtae. The orthodox who might from the Chalcedonian dogma of the two natures in Christ have inferred two kinds of knowledge a perfect Divine and an imperfect human admitting of growth (Luk_2:52) nevertheless rejected the view of the Agnoëtae as making too wide a rupture between the two natures and generally understood the famous passage in Mark of the official ignorance only inasmuch as Christ did not choose to reveal to His disciples the day of judgment and thus appeared ignorant for a wise purpose (κατ᾿ οἰκονομίαν). His inquiry concerning Lazarus was explained from reference to the Jews and the intention to increase the effect of the miracle. Eulogius Patriarch of Alexandria wrote against the Agnoëtae a treatise on the absolute knowledge of Christ of which Photius has preserved large extracts. Sophronius patriarch of Jerusalem anathematized Themistius. Agnoëtism was revived by the Adoptionists in the 8th cent. Felix of Urgel maintained the limitation of the knowledge of Christ according to His human nature and appealed to Mar_13:32. 230 (ed. Ed
Eusebius Emesenus, Bishop of Emesa - He was born at Edessa, of a noble family, of Christian parents, and from his earliest years was taught the Holy Scriptures. His Education was continued in Palestine and subsequently at Alexandria. In Palestine he studied theology under Eusebius of Caesarea and Patrophilus of Scythopolis, from whom he contracted the Arian leanings which distinguished him to the end of his life. 257, Ed. 331 he visited Antioch. Eustathius had been recently banished, and the see was occupied by one of the short-lived Arian intruders, Euphronius, with whom Eusebius lived on terms of intimacy. Eusebius's high personal character and reputation for learning marked him out for the episcopate, and to avoid the office he repaired to Alexandria, where he devoted himself to philosophy. Returning to Antioch, Flaccillus (otherwise Placillus), the Arian bishop, received him into his episcopal residence and admitted him to his confidence. 340, under the predominant influence of Eusebius of Nicomedia, to nominate a successor to the newly deposed Athanasius, offered the vacant throne to Eusebius, who, well knowing how Athanasius was beloved by the Alexandrians, resolutely declined, and Gregory was chosen in his stead. Eusebius, however, allowed himself to be created bp. A report, based on Eusebius's astronomical studies, had reached the excitable inhabitants that their new bishop was a sorcerer, addicted to judicial astrology. His approach aroused a violent popular commotion, before which he fled to his friend and future panegyrist, George, bp. By George's exertions, and the influence of Flaccillus of Antioch and Narcissus of Neronias, the Emesenes were convinced of the groundlessness of their suspicions, and Eusebius obtained quiet possession. He was a great favourite with Constantius, who took him on several expeditions, especially those against Sapor II. It is singular that the charge, which Sozomen attributes to mere malevolence, of Sabellianism was brought against one whose Arian leanings were so pronounced. Eusebius died before the end of a. He was buried at Antioch (Hieron. 101), and his funeral oration by George of Laodicea ascribed to him miraculous powers. 258, Ed. Schulze) two passages on the impassibility of the Son of God, a truth for which he says Eusebius endured many and severe struggles. All the extant remains of Eusebius are printed by Migne, Patr
Pammachius, a Roman Senator - 6, Ed. 122) to have been related to Melania. 1), but apparently not specially connected with church affairs in early life. During Jerome's stay in Rome in 382–385 they probably met, since in 385 Pammachius married Paulina, the daughter of Paula who went with Jerome to Palestine. Pammachius was learned, able, and eloquent ( Ep. After his marriage, he seems to have occupied himself much with scriptural studies and church life. The controversy relating to Jovinian interested him, and he is thought to have been one of those who procured the condemnation of Jovinian from pope Siricius (Tillem. in 392) appeared to Pammachius to be too violent. Jerome refused, but thanked Pammachius for his interest, hailed him as a well-wisher and defender, and promised to keep him informed of his future writings ( Epp. 4) to have been designated for the sacerdotium at this time by the whole city of Rome and the pontiff. But he was never ordained. His growing convictions and those of his wife, the fact that all his children died at birth and that his wife died in childbirth (a. , addressed to him 2 years later), led him to take monastic vows. He, however, still appeared among the senators in their purple in the dark dress of a monk ( ib. He showed his change of life by munificent gifts and a great entertainment to the poor (Paulinus, Ep. With Fabiola he erected a hospital at Portus, which became world-famous (Hieron. Ed. On Rufinus coming to Rome Pammachius, with Oceanus and Marcella, watched his actions in Jerome's interest, and on his publication of a translation of Origen's Περὶ Ἀρχῶν wrote to Jerome to request a full translation of the work ( Epp. These friends also procured the condemnation of Origenism by pope Anastasius in 401, and to them Jerome's apology against Rufinus was addressed, and the book cont. After this we hear of Pammachius only in connexion with the Bible-work of Jerome, who dedicated to him his commentaries on the Minor Prophets (406) and Daniel (407), and at his request undertook the commentaries on Is. Before the latter was finished, Pammachius had died in the siege of Rome by Alaric, a
Heathen - The word ‘heathen’ still finds a measure of favour with the OT Revisers, and, in order to prevent it from being entirely excluded from the NT, it might well have been retained in at least one or two of the passages where it occurs in the Authorized Version (Matthew 6:7; Matthew 18:7, Acts 4:25, 2 Corinthians 11:26, Galatians 1:16; Galatians 2:9; Galatians 3:8). ‘Gentiles’ is substituted for it throughout in the text of the Revised Version . 318-388) in Mark 7:26, where Ἐλληνίς is rendered by haiþnô. It was long believed to have come from the Gothic haiþi, ‘heath,’ and to have denoted the ‘dwellers on the heath,’ who, on the introduction of Christianity, stood out longest in their adherence to the ancient deities (cf. OED [3] after Christianity had been generally accepted in the towns and cities of the Roman Empire’ (OED [4] those who had not abandoned heathenism and committed themselves to Christ as their leader. This derivation seems to have been first suggested by Gibbon (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Ed. ]'>[6] , 176), and has been adopted by Zahn (NKZ [9] τὰ ἔθνη) in the Sermon on the Mount were designed to illustrate His teaching respecting the righteousness of the Kingdom of God, as a righteousness which demanded, in loving one’s neighbour, much more than that reciprocity of courtesy which even heathens practised (Matthew 5:47); in prayer, a childlike trustfulness of asking, unlike the wordy clamour of heathen worship (Matthew 6:7); and in work, a loving dependence on God, which would exalt work, and make it quite a different thing from heathen drudgery (Matthew 6:32). Had they stood alone, we might have inferred that Jesus acquiesced in the judgment which put the heathen and the publican under the ban. Matthew has also recorded before this how Jesus had put forth His miraculous power in response to the ‘great faith’ of a heathen centurion and a distressed heathen mother (Matthew 8:10, Matthew 15:28). This saying is to be regarded as an obiter dictum of our Lord’s, spoken to His disciples from their present Jewish standpoint, and therefore of use to them at the moment in interpreting His meaning. Current Jewish opinion is made the medium of conveying moral and evangelical guidance. Here, however, the severity of the words, ‘It is not meet to take the children’s bread and cast it to the dogs’ (Mark 7:27), is intentionally mitigated by the use of the diminutive κυνάρια, which is just ‘doggies’ in our language-no word of scorn, but one of affection and tenderness. Nor should we forget that the saying which immediately precedes is, ‘Let the children first be filled. ’ The Syrophœnician, with the quick penetration of faith, perceived that the two sayings were to be taken together, and knew that she was not really repelled (cf. John is ‘a quite private note’ (Encyclopaedia Biblica ii. 1327), recommending to the kind attention of Gaius, a friend of his, some ‘travelling missionaries,’ described as men who ‘for the sake of the Name went forth, taking nothing of the heathen’ (3 John 1:7 : μηδὲν λαμβάνοντες ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνικῶν). Paul addressed to St. Peter in the presence of the congregation at Antioch (Galatians 2:14) was justly aimed against the moral inconsistency of his first eating with the Gentile converts (σύ … ἐθνικῶς ζῇς; cf. This vacillation, had it been allowed to go on without remonstrance, would have arrested the progress of the work of Christ among the heathen. Few occurrences in Church history are more full of warning than this memorable crisis, which might have divided more than the Christiana of Antioch into two opposing camps, and made the Lord’s Supper itself a table of discord (cf. Paul sets a very different presentment in 2:14f, where he depicts heathen human nature as bearing witness to a law written within, and being guided by it to well-doing. -Encyclopaedia Biblica ii. [10] 1327; Encyclopaedia Britannica 11 xiii Goodness of God - Relates to the absolute perfection of his own nature, and his kindness manifested to his creatures. With respect to the objects of it, it may be considered as general and special. Ed
Theatre - Around this central part the tiers of stone seats rose to the top, intersected at regular intervals by passages to enable the spectators to reach their places. Only in course of time did the theatre become a place of amusement entirely, divorced from all connexion with religion. The size of a theatre varied according to the size of the population of the city in which it was. As a general rule it was of necessity the largest building in the city, and, as on most days of the year it was not required for play-acting, it was available for public meetings. So at Ephesus (Acts 19), when the disturbance aroused by Demetrius took place, it was the most natural thing in the world that a rush should be made to the theatre (v. Haigh, The Attic Theatre2, Ed
Nain - The town where Jesus raised the widow’s son to life ( Luke 7:11 ). slope of the Hill of Moreh, the so-called ‘Little Hermon. ’ The summit of the hill is 1690 feet high, with a white-domed sanctuary, the tomb of the saint from whom the mountain takes its modern name, Jebel Ed-Duhy . Ramsay thinks ‘there can be little doubt that the ancient city was on the top’ of the hill ( The Education of Christ , Preface, ix), but the evidence is not stated. Tristram was misled by the shape of the ruins ( Land of Israel , 125)
Jews - —This term, originally perhaps applied only to men of the tribe of Judah, ‘men of Judaea,’ is employed in the Gospels (1) in opposition to Gentiles, proselytes, or Samaritans: Mark 7:3, John 2:6; John 2:13; John 4:9; John 4:22; John 5:1; John 6:4; John 7:2; John 19:40; John 19:42; (2) specially of Jews as antagonistic to our Lord, a usage which is characteristic of Jn. as distinguished from the Synoptics: Matthew 28:15, John 6:41; John 6:52; John 8:48-57; John 9:18; John 10:19; John 11:19; John 11:31; John 11:33; John 11:36; John 12:9; John 12:11. Scrupulous about all the practices sanctioned by the elders,—washing of hands, of cups and pots and brazen vessels, Sabbath observance, etc. ),—they had forsaken the ‘old paths’ trodden by their fathers, and the things commanded by God. ‘For fear of the Jews’ men hesitated to confess Christ (John 7:13; John 9:22). ; Andrews, Life of our Lord Hilarianus (1) Quintus Julius, Latin Chiliast Writer - The first, Expositum de Die Paschae et Mensis, after having disappeared for several centuries, was printed in 1712, with a dissertation by Pfaffius to prove that it was written A. ...
The second treatise, Chronologia sive Libellus de Mundi Duratione, is founded on a dispute about the date of the end of the world. ...
450 "...
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The Captivity lasted . ...
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He believes that after the close of the apocalyptic thousand years will come the loosing of Satan, the seducing of the nations Gog and Magog, the descent of fire from heaven upon their armies; then the second resurrection, the judgment, the passing away of the old things and the bringing in of the new heavens and new earth; "impii in ambustione aeterna; justi autem cum Deo in vita aeterna" (c. A new Ed
ne'bo - (prophet ), Mount, the mountain from which Moses took his first and last view of the promised land. (32:41; 34:1) It is described as in the land of Moab, facing Jericho; the head or summit of a mountain called Pisgah, which again seems to have formed a portion of the general range of Abarim. (Notwithstanding the minuteness of this description, it is only recently that any one has succeeded in pointing out any spot which answers to Nebo. It is not an isolated peak but one of a succession of bare turf-clad eminences, so linked together that the depressions between them were mere hollows rather than valleys. Probably the whole mountain or range was called sometimes by the name of one peak and sometimes by that of another as is frequently the case with mountains now. --ED
Leaven - Various substances were known to have fermenting qualities; but the ordinary leaven consisted of a lump of old dough in a high state of fermentation, which was mixed into the mass of dough prepared for baking. During the passover the Jews were commanded to put every particle of leaven from the house. The most prominent idea associated with leaven in connection with the corruption which it had undergone,a nd which it communicated to bread in the process of fermentation. " (1 Corinthians 5:7 ) (Another quality in leaven is noticed in the Bible, namely, its secretly penetrating and diffusive power. --ED
ne'bo - (prophet ), Mount, the mountain from which Moses took his first and last view of the promised land. (32:41; 34:1) It is described as in the land of Moab, facing Jericho; the head or summit of a mountain called Pisgah, which again seems to have formed a portion of the general range of Abarim. (Notwithstanding the minuteness of this description, it is only recently that any one has succeeded in pointing out any spot which answers to Nebo. It is not an isolated peak but one of a succession of bare turf-clad eminences, so linked together that the depressions between them were mere hollows rather than valleys. Probably the whole mountain or range was called sometimes by the name of one peak and sometimes by that of another as is frequently the case with mountains now. --ED
Esdra-e'Lon - "The great plain of Esdraelon" extends across central Palestine from the Mediterranean to the Jordan, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee. Its base on the east extends from Jenin (the ancient Engannim) to the foot of the hills below Nazareth, and is about 15 miles long; the north side, formed by the hills of Galilee, is about 12 miles long; and the south side, formed by the Samaria range, is about 18 miles. From the base of this triangular plain three branches stretch out eastward, like fingers from a hand, divided by two bleak, gray ridges --one bearing the familiar name of Mount Gilboa, the other called by Franks Little Hermon, but by natives Jebel Ed-Duhy . The central branch is the richest as well as the most celebrated. This is the "valley of Jezreel" proper --the battle-field on which Gideon triumphed, and Saul and Jonathan were overthrown. If we except the eastern branches, there is not a single inhabited village on its whole surface, and not more than one-sixth of its soil is cultivated. It is the home of the wild wandering Bedouin
Pollution - Edersheim, LT_4 i. James use a peculiarly biting word, ‘a loathed smearing. ’ Its use in the LXX_ suggests also that it referred to the ordinary food of Gentiles (Daniel 1:8, Sirach 40:29) as well as to idol offerings. The Council did not adopt it, and changed it to the more colourless εἰδωλόθυτον, ‘idol offering,’ wishing perhaps to avoid a racial word which might suggest a separation in the matter of ordinary food between Jew and Gentile, such as afterwards actually happened (Galatians 2:9) under the influence of those who ‘came from James. Paul, new Ed
Malchus, a Hermit in Syria - He was born at Nisibis near Edessa, and was the only son of a proprietor of that district. He fled from his parents when they importuned him to marry, and joined one of the monastic establishments in the desert of Chalcis. As life advanced he desired to revisit his home. The caravan was surprised by Arabs; he was made a slave, and set to feed flocks. He worked faithfully, and every thing prospered in his hands. His master required him to marry a woman who was his companion in slavery. Malchus pretended to comply, but secretly told the woman that he would rather die by his own hand than break his vow of continency. He found her of the same mind, and indeed she had a husband living. The pair agreed, though living separately, to pass as man and wife. After a time they escaped to the Roman settlements in Mesopotamia. Finding the abbat of his monastery dead Malchus took up his abode in the hamlet of Maronia, near Antioch, his reputed wife living with the virgins near. of Antioch, in whose company Jerome came from Italy in 374; and the story of the aged hermit confirmed Jerome in his desire for the life in the desert, on which he entered in 375 (Hieron. 41, Ed
Palladias, Bishop of Ireland - sent to Ireland and the immediate predecessor of St. His birthplace is placed by some in England, by others in Gaul or Italy; some even make him a Greek (see Ussher, Eccles. of Elrington's Ed. His ecclesiastical position has also been disputed. " Prosper's words under 431 are, "Ad Scotos in Christum credentes ordinatur a Papa Celestino Palladius et primus Episcopus mittitur. " This mission of Palladius is referred to in the Book of Armagh, where Tirechan (Analect. 1879), has discussed with vast resources of legendary lore the different localities in Wicklow and Kildare where Palladius is said to have preached and built churches, but his authorities have little historical value, being specially the Four Masters and Jocelyn. His work contains, however, much interesting matter for students of Irish ecclesiastical history and antiquities, its accuracy being guaranteed by his extensive knowledge of the localities
Muratorian Fragment - Med. books recognized by the church. It is generally agreed that it was written in Rome. Mark's Gospel; for it proceeds to speak of St. books preceded that notice. It is stated that St. At the date of this document therefore belief was fully established in the pre-eminence of the four Gospels and in their divine inspiration. Luke being credited with purposing to record only what fell under his own notice thus omitting the martyrdom of St. Paul are then mentioned. It is observed that St. Paul addressed (like St. John) only seven churches by name shewing that he addressed the universal church. (b) Epistles to individuals: Philemon Titus and two to Timothy written from personal affection but hallowed by the Catholic church for the ordering of ecclesiastical discipline. : "Moreover there is in circulation an epistle to the Laodiceans and another to the Alexandrians forged under the name of Paul bearing on ...
[1] the heresy of Marcion and several others which cannot be received into the Catholic church for gall ought not to be mingled with honey. The epistle of Jude however and two epistles bearing the name of John are received in the Catholic [2] (or are reckoned among the Catholic [3]). And the book of Wisdom written by the friends of Solomon in his honour [4]. " Marcion entitled his version of Eph. It has been generally conjectured that by the epistle "to the Alexandrians," Hebrews is meant; but it is nowhere else so described has no Marcionite tendency and is not "under the name of Paul. " The fragment may refer to some current writing which has not survived or the Ep. of Barnabas might possibly be intended. of John are mentioned the opening sentence of I. John had been quoted in the paragraph treating of the Gospel and our writer may have read that epistle as a kind of appendix to the Gospel and be here speaking of the other two. Perhaps we should read "ut" for "et"; and the Proverbs of Solomon and not the apocryphal book of Wisdom may be intended. The text of the last sentence of the document is very corrupt but evidently names writings which are rejected altogether including those of Arsinous Valentinus and Militiades mention being also made of the Cataphrygians of Asia. Peter held, at the earliest date claimed for the fragment, such a position in the Roman church that entire silence in respect to it seems incredible. Of disquisitions on our fragment we may name Credner, N. Kanon , Volkmar's Ed. 2nd Ed. Christianity and Mankind , attempted its re-translation into Greek; an Ed. The present writer expressed in 1874 (Hermathena i. The words "temporibus nostris" must not be too severely pressed. Ed. ); and if it be true that MONTANISM only became active in the Roman church in the episcopate of Zephyrinus, the date of the Muratorian document is settled, for it is clearly anti-Montanist. If we regard it as written in the episcopate of Zephyrinus, Muratori's conjecture that Caius wrote it becomes possible; and we know from Eusebius that the disputation of Caius with Proclus, written at that period, contained, in opposition to Montanist revelations, a list of the books reverenced by the Catholic church
Synagogue - כְּנָסֶת, ‘assembly,’ like ἐκκλησία, Septuagint for either עֵדִה or קָהָל, ‘congregation’) denotes primarily the religious community of Jews (Sirach 24:23, Luke 12:11, Acts 9:2; Acts 26:11; also used by the Judaeo-Christians
The earliest testimony for the existence of the synagogue in Palestine is found in Psalms 74:6 : ‘They have burned up all the synagogues of God in the land’ (so Symmachus and Aquila for מֹוֹעֲדַי־אַל). Most commentators refer the psalm to the Maccabaean time, though it seems strange that the destruction of the synagogues should not have been mentioned in the Maccabaean books. ) thinks that the synagogue took the place of the ancient bâmôth (‘high places’)-a view which seems to be confirmed by Targ. Beḥuḳḳothai, Ed. Ḥayç Sârâh, Ed. on Exodus 9:29; Philo, Ed. There being no special provision made for a synagogue within the Temple, the Hall of the Hewn Stones was used for the daily prayer (Tâmîd iv-v), but Rabbi Joshua of the 1st cent. The synagogue at Caesarea, where the revolt against Rome was started (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. 4-5), continued its existence under the name of the synagogue of the revolution to the 4th cent. About the interesting ruins discovered in recent times of many synagogues in Galilee from the 1st and 2nd centuries, possibly even that of Capernaum, see Schürer, GJV
It was principally on Sabbath and festival days, when the people were at leisure, that the service was well attended, and accordingly the weekly lesson from the Torah was read in full (cf. Philo, Ed. 282, 630, 458); wherefore the synagogue was called the ‘Sabbath place’ par excellence (Jos. On Monday and Thursday the villagers coming to the cities for the court or the market attended the synagogue in sufficient numbers to have a portion of the Torah read (Tôs. On week days only larger cities had the required ‘ten men of leisure’ (baṭlânîm || Meg. 17b; see Jewish Encyclopedia , article ‘Baṭlanim’) for the daily service; later it became a fixed custom to engage ‘ten men of leisure’ for the holding of the daily service where the attendance was too small. -The Divine service assumed at the very outset a two-fold character: it was to offer common devotion and public instruction. But the devotional part, again, consisted at the very beginning, as far as we can trace it, of two elements: (a) the confession of faith, (b) the real prayer (tefillâh). ...
(a) The confession of faith, termed in the Mishna ‘the acceptance of the yoke of sovereignty of God,’ Ḳabbâlath ‛ôl Malkût Shâmayim (Ber. 2), by the recital of the Shema‛ (
Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Deuteronomy 11:13; Deuteronomy 11:21, Numbers 15:37-41), was preceded by two benedictions, one containing the praise of the Lord as the Giver of light in view of the rising sun each morning, and of the Withdrawer of the light of day each evening, and another containing the praise of the Lord as Giver of the Law to Israel, His chosen people, and followed by one benediction beginning with a solemn attestation of the monotheistic truth proclaimed in the Shemâ‛, and ending with the praise of God as the Redeemer of Israel with reference to the deliverance from Egypt mentioned in the closing verse of the Shemâ‛ chapters (Numbers 15:41). 13), which ascribes to Moses the recital of the Shemâ’ and of the benediction for Israel’s redemption. But what Philo tells of the Therapeutes, that ‘they prayed each morning and evening for the light of heaven’ (ed. 475), and Josephus of the Essenes, that ‘they offer prayers handed down from their fathers towards the rising sun as if supplicating for its rising,’ that is to say, with hands outstretched towards the streaks of light coming forth (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. 3a) of the Vethîḳîm, ‘the enduring, conscientiously pious’ (another name for the Essenes), that ‘they recited the Shemâ‛ at the time of the radiance of the morning sun,’ points almost with certainty to Zoroastrian influence (see, besides Graetz, Schorr, and Kohler, also T
Debir - King of Eglon who joined in Jerusalem-led coalition against Joshua and lost (Joshua 10:3 ). Important city in hill country of tribe of Judah whose exact location is debated by archaeologists and geographers. Joshua annihilated its residents (Joshua 10:38 ; compare Joshua 11:21 ; Joshua 12:13 ). Joshua 15:15 describes Caleb's challenge to Othniel to capture Debir, formerly called Kiriath Sepher. This may be located at thoghret Ed Debr, the “pass of Debir,” ten miles east of Jerusalem. Some Bible students have suggested a location at tell el-Chamme or khirbet Chamid
Enrogel - ) So called because fullers trod their cloth with the feet here. At a lower level than Jerusalem, as "descended" implies. Here Jonathan and Ahimaaz remained to receive intelligence for David from within the walls (2 Samuel 17:17). The site is by many thought to be that now called "the well of Nehemiah," and by the natives" the well of Job," Bir-eyub. deep, and in winter usually full; it is walled up and arched above. ...
But Behar (Land of Promise) argues for Ain Umm Ed daraj, "spring of the mother of steps," namely, the steps by which the reservoir is reached; "the Fountain of the Virgin," the only real spring near Jerusalem (Bir-eyub is a well, not a spring); which if not meant will be (what is not likely) unmentioned in the Bible. Daraj and Rogelare related names
Devour - 1: ἐσθίω (Strong's #2068 — — esthio — es-thee'-o ) is a strengthened form of an old verb Edo, from the root Ed---, whence Lat. , Edo, Eng. " The form ephagon, used as the 2nd aorist tense of this verb, is from the root phag---, "to eat up. " It is translated "devour" in Hebrews 10:27 ; elsewhere, by the verb "to eat. ...
3: καταπίνω (Strong's #2666 — Verb — katapino — kat-ap-ee'-no ) from kata, "down," intensive, pino, "to drink," in 1 Peter 5:8 is translated "devour," of Satan's activities against believers. The meaning "to swallow" is found in Matthew 23:24 ; 1 Corinthians 15:54 ; 2 Corinthians 2:7 ; 5:4 ; Hebrews 11:29 , RV (for AV, "drowned"); Revelation 12:16
Apollonius of Ephesus - Apollonius of Ephesus, so called on the doubtful authority of the writer of Praedestinatus, Ed. 50, in which he calls him ἀνὴρ ἐλλογιμώτατος , the author of a μέγα καὶ ἐπίσημον τεῦχος , and quotes him as stating that Montanus and his prophetesses hanged themselves. John, that he relates the raising to life of a dead man at Ephesus by the same John, and that he makes mention of the tradition quoted also by Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. 5 sub finem ) from the Apocryphal "Preaching of Peter" that our Lord commanded His apostles not to leave Jerusalem for twelve years after His ascension. of his lost work, de Ecstasi, was devoted to a refutation of his assertions (Hieron
Bethshean - of and on the height over the Ghor or valley of the Jordan, connected with the great plain of Jezreel, Esdraelon (Joshua 17:11). One of Solomon's commissariat districts was named from it, extending thence to Abel-meholah (1 Kings 4:12). Hence the latter fastened Saul's body to the wall of Bethshean, and put his armor in the house of Ashtaroth (1 Samuel 31:10; 1 Samuel 31:12). ) In 1 Samuel 29:1 translate "the Israelites pitched (before the fatal battle at Gilboa), by THE fountain in Jezreel. " The abundant supply of water, and the level country favoring the use of chariots, were the secondary causes which enabled the Canaanites to keep hold of Bethshean against Israel. Robinson places Jabesh Gilead at Ed Deir; so the distance to Bethshean which "the valiant men of Jabesh Gilead" took "all night" to traverse was 20 miles
Vincentius - Vincentius (8) , presbyter of Constantinople, intimately attached to Jerome, through whose writings we hear of him throughout the last 20 years of 4th cent. Jerome became acquainted with him when he came to Constantinople in 380, from which time Vincentius shared his interests and pursuits. To him, with Gallienus, Jerome dedicated his translation of Eusebius's Chronicle in 382 (Hieron. We may therefore suppose he was ordained early in 382. But he never fulfilled the office of presbyter. That he knew Greek and Latin and was interested in general history is shewn by Jerome's preface to the Chronicle of Eusebius. He shared Jerome's admiration of Origen, then at its height, and asked Jerome to translate all his works into Latin. In 382 he accompanied Jerome to Rome, but without intending to stay there. We do not hear of him during Jerome's stay, but they left Rome together in 385 and settled at Bethlehem ( cont. He shared Jerome's studies and his asceticism and controversial antipathies. 396), and co-operated eagerly in the subsequent condemnation of Origenism. No doubt he took part in the proceedings against Origenism, in which Eusebius of Cremona and Jerome's Roman friends were actively engaged. All Rome and Italy, he reported, had been delivered; and his praise of Theophilus of Alexandria as having by his letter to the pope Anastasius procured this deliverance is communicated to that prelate in Jerome's letter ( Ep. 88, Ed
Shu'Shan, - (a lily ), is said to have received its name from the abundance of the lily ( shushan or shushanah ) in its neighborhood. It was originally the capital of the country called in Scripture Elam, and by the classical writers Susis or Susiana. In the time of Daniel Susa was in the possession of the Babylonians, to whom Elam had probably passed at the division of the Assyrian empire made by Cyaxares and Nabopolassar. ( Daniel 8:2 ) The conquest of Babylon by Cyrus transferred Susa to the Persian dominion; and it was not long before the Achaemenian princes determined to make it the capital of their whole empire and the chief place of their own residence. Nehemiah resided here. (Nehemiah 1:1 ) Shushan was situated on the Ulai or Choaspes. It is identified with the modern Sus or Shush , its ruins are about three miles in circumference. (Here have been found the remains of the great palace build by Darius, the father of Xerxes, in which and the surrounding buildings took place the scenes recorded in the life of Esther. Between these two was probably the inner court, where Esther appeared before the king. " --ED
Wilderness of the Wandering, - They went as far as Kadesh, on the southernmost border of Palestine, from which place spies were sent up into the promised land. These returned with such a report of the inhabitants and their walled cities that the people were discouraged, and began to murmur and rebel. For their sin they were compelled to remain 38 years longer in the wilderness, because it showed that they were not yet prepared and trained to conquer and to hold their promised possessions. It was bordered on the east by the valley of the Arabah, which runs from the Dead Sea to the head of the eastern branch of the Red Sea. On the south and south west were the granite mountains of Sinai and on the north the Mediterranean Sea and the mountainous region south of Judea. It is called the Desert of Paran , and Badiet et-Tih , which means "Desert of the Wandering. " The children of Israel were not probably marching as a nation from place to place in this wilder new during these 38 years, but they probably had a kind of headquarters at Kadesh, and were "compelled to linger on as do the Bedouin Arabs of the present day, in a half-savage, homeless state, moving about from place to place, and pitching their tents wherever they could find pasture for their flocks and herds. Toward the close of the forty years from Egypt they again assembled at Kadesh, and, once more under the leadership of the Shechinah, they marched down the Arabah on their way to the promised land. --ED
Thyati'ra, - a city on the Lycus, founded by Seleucus Nicator, lay to the left of the road from Pergamos to Sardis, 27 miles from the latter city, and on the very confines of Mysia and Ionia, so as to be sometimes reckoned within the one and sometimes within the other. Dyeing apparently formed an important part of the industrial activity of Thyatira, as it did of that of Colossae and Laodicea. It is first mentioned in connection with Lydia, "a seller of purple. " (Acts 16:14 ) One of the Seven Churches of Asia was established here. (Revelation 2:18-29 ) The principal deity of the city was Apollo; but there was another superstition, of an extremely curious nature which seems to have been brought thither by some of the corrupted Jews of the dispersed tribes. A fane stood outside the walls, dedicated to Sambatha --the name of the sibyl who is sometimes called Chaldean, sometimes Jewish, sometimes Persian-- in the midst of an enclosure designated "the Chaldaeans' court. If the sibyl Sambatha was in reality a Jewess, lending her aid to the amalgamation of different religions, and not discountenanced by the authorities of the Judeo-Christian Church at Thyatira, both the censure and its qualification become easy of explanation. --ED
Jabesh (1) - For not having come to Mizpeh at Israel's command, under an imprecatory oath against all defaulters, when the tribes began war with Benjamin (Judges 20:1-3; Judges 21:5), its males were all killed, and its virgins, 400 in number, were given in marriage to the 600 Benjamites who survived the war with Israel (Judges 21:1; Judges 21:8-14). The carrying into execution the oath at the close of the war was mainly influenced by the desire to provide wives for Benjamin, as their oath precluded themselves from giving their daughters. Subsequently it recovered itself, and being threatened by the Ammonite king, Nabash, with the excision of its citizens' right eyes as a reproach upon Israel, was rescued by Saul. ...
In gratitude the inhabitants, when he and his three sons were slain by the Philistines (1 Samuel 31:8; 1 Samuel 31:13), took down by night their corpses from the walls of Bethshan, where they had been exposed; then burnt the bodies and buried the bones under a tree, and kept a funeral fast seven days. David, in generous forgetfulness of his own wrongs from Saul, blessed them for their kindness to their master, praying the Lord to requite it, and promising to requite it as if it were a kindness to himself (2 Samuel 2:5-6); afterwards he removed the bones to the sepulchre of Saul's father Kish at Zelah (2 Samuel 21:13-14). into the Jordan below Bethshan; the ruin Ed Deir, S
Will (2) - —‘Every man,’ says Thomas Reid (Works, 1863 Ed. To this power we give the name of Will; and, as it is usual, in the operations of the mind, to give the same name to the power and to the act of that power, the term “Will” is often put to signify the act of determining, which more properly is called volition. ’ On the question of the freedom of the will see Free Will and Liberty; and on the human will of Jesus see Soul, 668b. Our Lord Jesus Christ has given us a perfect example of how our great possession of freedom should be used, has shown us by His own perfect subordination of His will to the will of His Father, that the goal at which we should aim is to have our wills in perfect accord with the will of God, whether it be His will as to our enduring or His will as to our doing
Lot (2) - —The suddenness of the Divine Parousia and the unpreparedness and want of expectation on the part of the world, find illustration from ‘the days of Lot’ (Luke 17:28), when the people of Sodom continued their social and commercial activity until ‘the day that Lot went out’ (Luke 17:29). ...
Lot’s Wife—to whom in Jewish tradition the name ערית Edith is given—is recorded in Genesis 19 to have been turned into a pillar of salt as a result of her looking back upon Sodom while escaping to the mountain. Her fate, as one failing to escape imminent and foretold destruction, is referred to in Luke 17:32, though without specific mention of the form in which destruction overtook her. It is with the spiritual fact and its lesson, not with the memorial, that He is concerned. Edwards, Works Aristo Pellaeus - Aristo Pellaeus , the supposed author of a lost dialogue between Papiscus and Jason, quoted, without his name, by Origen (cont. 52) and referred to by Eusebius (Hist. , ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite (c. 17, Ed. Corderii) in these words, "I have also read the expression 'seven heavens' in the dialogue of Papiscus and Jason, composed by Aristo of Pella, which Clemens of Alexandria in the 6th book of his Hypotyposes says was written by St. " This testimony is the only one connecting the name of Aristo with the dialogue, and though doubt has been thrown on its trustworthiness by its strange assertion that Clement attributed the work to St. Jason, a Jewish Christian, argues so conclusively that the Messianic prophecies are fulfilled in our Lord that his opponent, the Jew Papiscus, begs to be baptized. ) that he lived after the destruction of Jerusalem. It is referred to in a pseudo-Cyprianic Ep. Luke was the writer of the Dialogue shews at least that it must have been commonly assigned to a very early date (Routh, Rel
Heraclides Cyprius, Bishop of Ephesus - of Ephesus; a native of Cyprus, who had received a liberal Education, was versed in the Scriptures, and had passed some years in ascetic training in the desert of Scetis under Evagrius. He then became deacon to Chrysostom, and was in immediate attendance on him. 401, there being a deadlock in the election through the number of rival candidates and the violence of the opposing factions, Chrysostom brought Heraclides forward, and he was elected by the votes of seventy bishops to the vacant see. The election at first only increased the disturbance, and loud complaints were made of the unfitness of Heraclides for the office, which detained Chrysostom in Asia (Socr. 403, Heraclides was summoned to answer certain specified charges brought against him by Macarius, bp. of Magnesia, a bishop named Isaac, and a monk named John Among these charges was one of holding Origenizing views. The urgency with which the condemnation of Chrysostom was pressed forward retarded the suit against Heraclides which had come to no issue when his great master was deposed and banished. He was deposed by the party in power, and put in prison at Nicomedia, where, when Palladius wrote, he had been already languishing for years. A eunuch who, according to Palladius, was stained with the grossest vices, was consecrated bp. Ed
On - (abode or city of the sun ), a town of lower Egypt, called BETH-SHEMESH in ( Jeremiah 43:13 ) On is better known under its Greek name Heliopolis. It was situated on the east side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, just below the point of the Delta, and about twenty miles northeast of Memphis. The chief object of worship at Heliopolis was the sun, whose temple, described by Strabo, is now only represented by the single beautiful obelisk, of red granite so feet 2 inches high above the pedestal which has stood for more than 4000 years, having been erected by Usirtesen, the second king of the twelfth dynasty. Heliopolis was anciently famous for its learning, and Eudoxus and Plato studied under its priests. ver, Genesis41:60 and Genesis46:20 (On is to be remembered not only as the home of Joseph, but as the traditional place to which his far-off namesake took Mary and the babe Jesus in the flight to Egypt. The two famous obelisks, long called "Cleopatra's Needles," one of which now stands in London and the other in Central Park in New York city, once stood before this city, and were seen by the children of Israel before the exodus, having been quarried at Syene on the Nile, erected at On (Heliopolis) by Thothmes III. 1500, and inscriptions added by Rameses II. (Sesostris) two hundred years later. 23, from which they were removed to their present places. --ED
zo'an - (place of departure ), an ancient city of lower Egypt, called Tanis by the Greeks. Its name indicates a place of departure from a country, and hence it has been identified with Avaris (Tanis, the modern San ), the capital of the Shepherd dynasty in Egypt, built seven years after Hebron and existing before the time of Abraham. It was taken by the Shepherd kings in their invasion of Egypt, and by them rebuilt, and garrisoned, according to Manetho, with 240,000 men. This cite is mentioned in connection with the plagues in such a manner as to leave no doubt that it is the city spoken of in the narrative in Exodus as that where Pharaoh dwelt, ( Psalm 78:42,43 ) and where Moses wrought his wonders on the field of Zoan a rich plain extending thirty miles toward the east. (Isaiah 19:13 ; 30:4 ) (The present "field of Zoan" is a barren waste, very thinly inhabited. "One of the principal capitals of Pharaoh is now the habitation of fishermen the resort of wild beasts, and infested with reptiles and malignant fevers. " There have been discovered a great number of monuments here which throw light upon the Bible history. Brugsch refers to two statues of colossal size of Mermesha of the thirteenth dynasty, wonderfully perfect in the execution of the individual parts and says that memorials of Rameses the Great lie scattered broadcast like the mouldering bones of generations slain long ago. The area of the sacred enclosure of the temple Isaiah 1500 feet by 1250. -ED
Cherub, Cherubim - The symbolical figure so called was a composite creature-form which finds a parallel in the religious insignia of Assyria, Egypt and Persia, e. the sphinx, the winged bulls and lions of Nineveh, etc. A cherub guarded paradise. (Genesis 3:24 ) Figures of Cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat of the ark. (Exodus 25:18 ) A pair of colossal size overshadowed it in Solomon's temple with the canopy of their contiguously extended wings. (1 Kings 6:27 ) Those on the ark were to be placed with wings stretched forth, one at each end of the mercy-seat. " Their wings were to be stretched upwards, and their faces "towards each other and towards the mercy-seat. " It is remarkable that with such precise directions as to their position, attitude and material, nothing, save that they were winged, is said concerning their shape. (Some suppose that the cherubim represented God's providence among men, the four faces expressing the characters of that providence: its wisdom and intelligence (man), its strength (ox), its kingly authority (lion), its swiftness, far-sighted (eagle). Others, combining all the other references with the description of the living creatures in Revelation, make the cherubim to represent God's redeemed people. The wings show swiftness of obedience; and only the redeemed can sing the song put in their mouths in ( Revelation 5:8-14 ) --ED)
Dizahab - The proposed identification of Tophel with et-Tafile , S. The same is to be said of Burckhardt’s suggestion that Mina Ed-Dhahab , between the Ras Muhammad and ‘Akabah, is the place of which we are in search. At Numbers 21:14 we find Suphah ( Deuteronomy 1:1 Samuph) in conjunction with Vaheb (see RV [1] ); and Vaheb , in the original, is almost the same as Zahab , which, indeed, the LXX On - (abode or city of the sun ), a town of lower Egypt, called BETH-SHEMESH in ( Jeremiah 43:13 ) On is better known under its Greek name Heliopolis. It was situated on the east side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, just below the point of the Delta, and about twenty miles northeast of Memphis. The chief object of worship at Heliopolis was the sun, whose temple, described by Strabo, is now only represented by the single beautiful obelisk, of red granite so feet 2 inches high above the pedestal which has stood for more than 4000 years, having been erected by Usirtesen, the second king of the twelfth dynasty. Heliopolis was anciently famous for its learning, and Eudoxus and Plato studied under its priests. ver, Genesis41:60 and Genesis46:20 (On is to be remembered not only as the home of Joseph, but as the traditional place to which his far-off namesake took Mary and the babe Jesus in the flight to Egypt. The two famous obelisks, long called "Cleopatra's Needles," one of which now stands in London and the other in Central Park in New York city, once stood before this city, and were seen by the children of Israel before the exodus, having been quarried at Syene on the Nile, erected at On (Heliopolis) by Thothmes III. 1500, and inscriptions added by Rameses II. (Sesostris) two hundred years later. 23, from which they were removed to their present places. --ED
Raven - The Hebrew oreb is applied to the several species of the crow family, a number of which are found in Palestine. (It resembles the crow, but is larger weighing three pounds; its black color is more iridescent, and it is gifted with greater sagacity. "There is something weird and shrewd in the expression of the raven's countenance, a union of cunning and malignity which may have contributed to give it among widely-revered nations a reputation for preternatural knowledge. " One writer says that the smell of death is so grateful to them that when in passing over sheep a tainted smell is perceptible, they cry and croak vehemently. --ED. ( Genesis 8:7 ) This bird was not allowed as food by the Mosaic law. (Leviticus 11:15 ) Elijah was cared for by ravens. (1 Kings 17:4,6 ) They are expressly mentioned as instances of God's protecting love and goodness. (Job 38:41 ; Luke 12:24 ) The raven's carnivorous habits, and especially his readiness to attack the eye, are alluded to in (Proverbs 30:17 ) To the fact of the raven being a common bird in Palestine, and to its habit of flying restlessly about in constant search for food to satisfy its voracious appetite, may perhaps be traced the reason for its being selected by our Lord and the inspired writers as the especial object of God's providing care
Rhodes - (rosy ), a celebrated island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is noted now, as in ancient times, for its delightful climate and the fertility of its soil. The city of Rhodes, its capital, was famous for its huge brazen statue of Apollo called the Colossus of Rhodes. Ed. ) Rhodes is immediately opposite the high Carian and Lycian headlands at the southwest extremity of the peninsula of Asia Minor. After Alexander's death it entered on a glorious period, its material prosperity being largely developed, and its institutions deserving and obtaining general esteem. The Romans, after the defeat of Antiochus, assigned, during some time, to Rhodes certain districts on the mainland. (It is now reduced to abject poverty
Gadarenes', Girgesenes', Gerasenes' - (These three names are used indiscriminately to designate the place where Jesus healed two demoniacs. The first two are in the Authorized Version. The miracle referred to took place, without doubt, near the town of Gergesa, the modern Kersa , close by the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, and hence in the country of Gergesenes. But as Gergesa was a small village, and little known, the evangelists, who wrote for more distant readers, spoke of the event as taking place in the country of the Gadarenes, so named from its largest city, Gadara; and this country included the country of the Gergesenes as a state includes a county. This city was better known than Gadara or Gergesa; indeed in the Roman age no city of Palestine was better known. " It was situated some 30 miles southeast of Gadara, on the borders of Peraea and a little north of the river Jabbok. It is now called Jerash and is a deserted ruin. The district of the Gerasenes probably included that of the Gadarenes; so that the demoniac of Gergesa belonged to the country of the Gadarenes and also to that of the Gerasenes, as the same person may, with equal truth, be said to live in the city or the state, or in the United States. For those near by the local name would be used; but in writing to a distant people, as the Greeks and Romans, the more comprehensive and general name would be given. --ED
Neapolis - (Νέα Πόλις)...
Neapolis, ‘the Naples of Macedonia’ (Conybeare-Howson, The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, new Ed. Paul, sailing from Troas in answer to the call of the man of Macedonia, directed his course, and he reached it after a quick passage-a straight run (εὐθυδρομήσαμεν, Acts 16:11) before a southerly breeze. Neapolis originally belonged to Thrace (Pliny, Historia Naturalis (Pliny) iv. 18), but it was now in the province of Macedonia (Strabo, vii. Its name, ‘New Town,’ probably implies that it was an old town re-founded and supplied with a fresh colony. ” ’...
The growing importance of Neapolis kept pace with that of Philippi, ten miles inland, which it served as a seaport. During the last stand of the Republicans at Philippi, their galleys were moored off Neapolis (Appian, de Bell. The ancient city is generally identified with the small Turkish village of Kavallo, which stands on a promontory overlooking a bay of the same name, opposite the island of Thasos. Here many Latin inscriptions have been found, and there are the remains of a great aqueduct
Council, Councillor - 1: συμβούλιον (Strong's #4824 — Noun Neuter — sumboulion — soom-boo'-lee-on ) "a uniting in counsel" (sun, "together," boule, "counsel, advice"), denotes (a) "counsel" which is given, taken and acted upon, e. , Matthew 12:14 , RV, "took counsel," for AV, "held a council;" Matthew 22:15 ; hence (b) "a council," an assembly of counsellors or persons in consultation, Acts 25:12 , of the "council" with which Festus conferred concerning Paul. ...
2: συνέδριον (Strong's #4892 — Noun Neuter — sunedrion — soon-ed'-ree-on ) properly, "a settling together" (sun, "together," hedra, "a seat"), hence, (a) "any assembly or session of persons deliberating or adjusting," as in the Sept. , Matthew 10:17 ; Mark 13:9 ; John 11:47 , in particular, it denoted (b) "the Sanhedrin," the Great Council at Jerusalem, consisting of 71 members, namely, prominent members of the families of the high priest, elders and scribes. The Roman rulers of Judea permitted the Sanhedrin to try such cases, and even to pronounce sentence of death, with the condition that such a sentence should be valid only if confirmed by the Roman procurator. In John 11:47 , it is used of a meeting of the Sanhedrin; in Acts 4:15 , of the place of meeting. ...
3: βουλευτής (Strong's #1010 — Noun Masculine — bouleutes — bool-yoo-tace' ) Joseph of Arimathaea is described as "a councillor of honorable estate," Mark 15:43 , RV; cp
Paulinus of Perigueux - , to whom properly belong certain works sometimes attributed to St. Vita Martini in six books, a poem, "de Visitatione Nepotuli Sui," and a short poem composed as a dedicatory inscription for the basilica of St. 470, certainly during the episcopate of Perpetuus of Tours (who presided at the council of Tours in 461), since it is dedicated to that bishop, and is partly based on a document drawn up by him. of Tours of the miracles wrought at his predecessor's tomb. The short dedication poem for the new basilica was written later, at the request of Perpetuus. , and Ruinart's note in the Benedictine Ed
Primianus, Donatist Bishop of Carthage - Among many things charged against him by the Maximianists, they alleged that he admitted the Claudianists to communion and, when some of the seniors remonstrated with him, encouraged, if he did not even originate, a riotous attack upon them in a church in which some lost their lives. Further, that he was guilty of various acts of an arbitrary and violent kind, superseding bishops, excommunicating and condemning clergymen without sufficient cause, closing his church doors against the people and the imperial officers, and taking possession of buildings to which he had no right. Ed Oberthür. ) At the proceedings before the civil magistrate, arising out of the decision of the council of Bagaia, Primian is said to have taunted his opponents with relying on imperial Edicts, while his own party brought with them the Gospels only (Aug. When the conference was proposed, he resisted it, remarking with scornful arrogance that "it was not fit that the sons of martyrs should confer with the brood of traditors" ( Carth. 411, on the Donatist side, he helped to delay the opening of the proceedings and to obstruct them during their progress, but showed no facility in debate ( Brevic. He passed a just sentence of condemnation on Cyprian, Donatist bp
Place (His Own) - Peter states that Judas, into whose place he was being appointed, ‘fell away’ (παρέβη, Vulg. , Ed. In the present passage, nevertheless, the proper place of the apostate is evidently conceived to be that spoken of by our Lord Himself (Matthew 25:41; cf. Plummer has pointed out (HDB_ ii. 35) with his characteristic ingenuity and large-heartedness, have suggested that Judas’s motive for hurrying away from this world to the other was not remorse but contrition; having failed to obtain Christ’s pardon here, he hastened to meet Him and obtain it in the place of the departed
Theophylactus Simocatta - Theophylactus (1) Simocatta , an Egyptian by birth, related to Peter who was viceroy of Egypt at the death of the emperor Maurice in 602. 11 we have the story of a sorcerer named Paulinus, whom the patriarch of Constantinople brought before the emperor, pressing for his capital punishment. The emperor suggested that instruction, rather than punishment, was required. 15), and of a woman of noble birth among the Magi of Babylon, named Golinducha, her escape, pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and life at Nisibis (v. 12); the continued existence of the Marcionists (viii. 13); the incredulity of the emperor about the liquefaction of the blood of St. The History of Theophylact is included in the Bonn series of Byzantine historians, but the most complete and convenient Ed
Queen (2) - ’ The visit of the queen of Sheba to king Solomon is related in 1 Kings 10:1-13 and in 2 Chronicles 9:1-9, and the chief object of her journey was to satisfy herself as to his great wisdom, the report of which had reached her, although she was also attracted by the accounts which had been brought to her of his riches and magnificence. The Pharisees had demanded of Him a special sign, and He replied that no such sign should be given them, but that they should have a sign in Himself and in His burial and resurrection, as the Ninevites had had in Jonah. But the Ninevites, He added, would in the judgment condemn the men of that generation; for they had repented at the preaching of Jonah, who was a sign to them, while the men of that generation, He implied, would not repent at the preaching of one greater than Jonah. Then, referring to the celebrated queen, He added: ‘The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it; for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here. Some have supposed that our Lord refers to a woman as the correlative to the men of Nineveh previously spoken of. Without setting aside these suggestions, it is more to the point to observe that our Lord brings into juxtaposition the two characteristics—so strongly emphasized in the case of Jew and Gentile—of the desire for a sign, and the seeking after wisdom; and it has been suggested that St. ’ Solomon was ‘wiser than all men’ (1 Kings 4:31), and later Jewish literature delighted to magnify his wisdom (cf. ...
Abyssinian legend has many strange tales of the queen of Sheba, declaring that she came from Ethiopia, that her name was Maqueda, and that she had a son by Solomon. 3; Vitœ sanctorum indigenarum, Ed. Conti Rossini; Legend of the Queen of Sheba, Ed. Our Lord’s phrase, ‘the queen of the south,’ falls in with the most widely accepted opinion, i
Gennadius (11) Massiliensis, Presbyter of Marseilles - Gennadius (11) Massiliensis, presbyter of Marseilles, who died in 496. ...
If we accept his de Viris Illustribus as it is commonly published, we are warranted in classing Gennadius of Marseilles with the semi-Pelagians, as he censures Augustine and Prosper and praises Faustus. ...
The de Viyis Iliustribus in its most commonly accepted form was probably published c. Although lacking the lively touches of his great predecessor, Jerome, the catalogue of Gennadius exhibits a real sense of proportion. With due allowance for the bias referred to, it may be regarded as a trustworthy compilation. ...
His other treatise, entitled Epistola de Fide med, or de Ecclesiasticis Dogmatibus Liber, begins with a profession of faith in the three creeds, interwoven with the names of those who are considered by the writer (with occasionally questionable accuracy) to have impugned this or that article of belief. But this conviction, though derived from a widespread patristic tradition, is, he admits, rejected by equally catholic and learned Fathers. Heretical baptism is not to be repeated, unless it has been administered by heretics who would have declined to employ the invocation of the Holy Trinity (52). Daily reception of holy communion he will neither praise nor blame (53)· Evil was invented by Satan (57). Though celibacy is rated above matrimony, to condemn marriage is Manichean (67). A twice-married Christian should not be ordained (72). Churches should be called after martyrs, and the relics of martyrs honoured (73). None but the baptized attain eternal life; not even catechumens, unless they suffer martyrdom (74). The freedom of man's will is strongly asserted in this short treatise, but the commencement of all goodness is assigned to divine grace. The language of Gennadius is here not quite Augustinian; but neither is it Pelagian, and the work was long included among those of St. ...
The de Viris Illustribus is given in most good Edd. Jerome, and is Ed. of the Benedictine Ed
Carnal - ‘carnally,’ are used in Authorized Version to render the gen. of σάρξ ‘flesh’; in Romans 8:6-7 Revised Version substitutes ‘of the flesh. Paul’s frequent usage, human nature as fallen, sinfully conditioned, and hostile to the influences of the Holy Spirit; ‘carnal ordinances’ (Hebrews 9:10) are material ordinances as contrasted with those that are spiritual. ’ Belonging to the general class of proparoxytone adjectives in -ινος which are used to denote the material of which a thing is made (cf. ), σάρκινος properly describes that which is composed of flesh. , a difficulty arises owing to the way in which they are interchanged in different Manuscripts . In the view of some scholars, σάρκινος, which was much the more familiar word of the two, has been substituted in some cases for σαρκικός, an adjective almost wholly unknown outside of biblical Greek (Winer, Gram. , translation Moulton, Ed. Romans 7:14), where according to the best readings σάρκινος stands when σαρκικός might have been expected. Paul used the two adjectives indiscriminately. Meyer, on the other hand, who lays stress on the difference of meaning between the two words, thinks that the Apostle sometimes of set purpose employed σἀρκινος as the stronger expression in order to indicate more emphatically the presence of the unspiritual element. He calls the Corinthians σἀρκινοι (1 Corinthians 3:1) because the flesh appeared to constitute their very nature; he says of himself in Romans 7:14 ‘I am carnal’ (σἀρκινος), to show by this vivid expression the preponderance in his own case of that unspiritual nature which serves as the instrument of sin. Paul recognized in the body the source and principle of sin. The ‘carnal mind’ or ‘mind of the flesh’ is the mind which is not subject to the law of God (Romans 8:7) because it has not received the Spirit of God (1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 2:14). of NT Greek3, Edinburgh, 1880, and R. of Alford and Meyer on passages referred to; J. of Man, new Ed. , Edinburgh, 1895, ch
Caesarius, Bishop of Arles - , sometimes called of Châlons ( Cabillonensis seu Cabellinensis ) from his birthplace Châlons-sur-Saône; but more usually known as Caesarius of Arles (Arelatensis ) from his see, which he occupied for forty years. of Toulon (Tolonensis) with the aid of other ecclesiastics (ed. Benedicti, Venet. (2) His will, first published by Baronius ( Annal. 508) from archives preserved at Arles; also given by Surius, l. (3) Acts of various councils, over all of which Caesarius presided (Labbe, Concilia, tom. 995–1098, Ed. (4) The Regula ad Monachos and Regula ad Virgines, drawn up by him for a monastery and a convent of his own foundation (ed. Trithemius, fixing the date of Caesarius much too late, fell into the error of supposing him to be a Benedictine. at Basle in 1558; 46 in a Bibliotheca Patrum, Ed. 1339); and 102, formerly ascribed to St. Augustine, are by the Benedictine Editors assigned to Caesarius (Appendix to tom. His sister Caesaria afterwards presided over the convent which he founded, and to her he addressed his Regula ad Virgines. Having injured his health by austerities, he was sent to Arles (Arelate ) to recruit. Eonus, having made his acquaintance, ordained him deacon and then presbyter. For three years he presided over a monastery in Arles; but of this building no vestige is now left. ...
At the death of Eonus the clergy, citizens, and persons in authority proceeded, as Eonus himself had suggested, to elect Caesarius, sincerely against his own wish, to the vacant see. He was consecrated in a. In the fulfilment of his new duties he was courageous and unworldly, but yet exhibited great power of kindly adaptation. He took great pains to induce the laity to join in the sacred offices, and encouraged inquiry into points not made clear in his sermons. He was specially zealous in redeeming captives, even selling church ornaments for this purpose. ...
A notary named Licinianus accused Caesarius to Alaric as one who desired to subjugate the civitas of Arles to the Burgundian rule. Caesarius was exiled to Bordeaux, but was speedily, on the discovery of his innocence, allowed to return. He interceded for the life of his calumniator. Later, when Arles was besieged by Theodoric, apparently c. 512, he was again accused of treachery and imprisoned. 513 speedily dispelled these troubles, and the remainder of his episcopate was passed in peace. ...
The directions of Caesarius for the conduct of monks and nuns have been censured as pedantic and minute. They certainly yielded to the spread of the rising Benedictine rule, but must be judged by their age and in the light of the whole spirit of monasticism. ...
As the occupant of an important see, the bishop of Arles exercised considerable influence, official as well as personal. Augustine, displayed in this respect considerable independence of thought. His vigorous denial of anything like predestination to evil has caused a difference in the honour paid to his memory, according as writers incline respectively towards the Jesuit or Jansenist views concerning divine grace. ...
The most important local council over which Caesarius presided was that of Orange. Its statements on the subject of grace and free agency have been justly eulogized by modern historians (see, e. The following propositions are laid down in canon 25: "This also do we believe, in accordance with the Catholic faith, that after grace received through baptism, all the baptized are able and ought, with the aid and co-operation of Christ, to fulfil all duties needful for salvation, provided they are willing to labour faithfully. But that some men have been predestinated to evil by divine power, we not only do not believe, but if there be those who are willing to believe so evil a thing, we say to them with all abhorrence anathema. This also do we profess and believe to our soul's health, that in every good work, it is not we who begin, and are afterwards assisted by Divine mercy, but that God Himself, with no preceding merits on our part, first inspires within us faith and love. " On the express ground that these doctrines are as needful for the laity as for the clergy, certain distinguished laymen ( illustres ac magnifci viri ) were invited to sign these canons. They are accordingly subscribed by 8 laymen, and at least 12 bishops, including Caesarius. ]'>[1] ...
As a preacher, Caesarius displayed great knowledge of Holy Scripture, and was eminently practical in his exhortations. ...
Some rivalry appears to have existed in the 6th cent. between the sees of Arles and Vienne, but was adjusted by pope Leo, whose adjustment was confirmed by Symmachus. A book he wrote against the semi-Pelagians, entitled de Gratiâ et Libero Arbitrio , was sanctioned by pope Felix; and the canons passed at Orange were approved by Boniface II. The learned antiquary Thomassin believed him to have been the first Western bishop who received a pall from the pope. Guizot, in his Civilisation en France, cites part of one of his sermons as that of a representative man; while Neander has nothing but eulogy for his "unwearied, active, and pious zeal, ready for every sacrifice in the spirit of love," and his moderation on the controversy concerning semi-Pelagianism. This is indeed the great glory of Caesarius. He more than anticipates the famous picture drawn by Chaucer of a teacher, earnest, sincere, and humble, but never sparing reproof where needed
Martinus, Bishop of Dumium - of Braga, died c. 38; (3) some Acts of councils of Braga; (4) a letter and poem addressed to him by Venantius Fortunatus (Migne, Patr. He had travelled to the Holy Land, and had in the East acquired such a knowledge of letters that he was held second to no scholar of his day. , king of the Suevi, had shortly before petitioned the guardians of the saint's shrine. In 561, about eleven years after his arrival in the country, he attended the first council of Braga, presided over by Lucretius, metropolitan bp. The Acts of the council, which are in an unusual and highly artificial shape, were probably compiled by Martin, the person of the greatest literary pretensions then in Gallicia. Probably this indirect handling, and the penalties decreed generally against intercourse with heretics, were all that the bishops felt themselves strong enough to venture against a creed which had been shortly before the religious confession of the Suevian nation, and had no doubt still many friends in high places. Eleven years later another council was held at Braga, and Martin now occupied the metropolitan see as successor to Lucretius, the bishops addressing him in unusually submissive terms. In 580 Martin died, greatly mourned by the people of Gallicia. His memory is celebrated on Mar 30. ), or de Quatuor Virtutibus Cardinalibus — a little tract extremely popular in the middle ages, and frequently printed during the 15th and 16th cents. The best Ed. 468, where he describes the Formula as more frequently read and quoted in the middle ages than any of the genuine works of Seneca, to whom it was ascribed in early Editions. There is an Ed. Med. Latina , Ed. His theory is that the fallen angels or demons assumed the names and shapes of notoriously wicked men and women who had already existed, such as Jove, Venus, Mars; that the nymphs, Lamias, and Neptune are demons with power to harm all who are not fortified with the sign of the cross, and who shew their faithlessness by calling the days of the week after the heathen gods. 1 instead of on the March equinox, when in the beginning God "divided the light from the darkness" by an equal division, the burning of wax tapers at stones, trees, streams, and crossways, the adornment of tables, the pouring of corn over the log on the hearth, the placing of wine and bread in the wells, the invocation of Minerva by the women at their spinning, the worship of Venus, the incantation of medicinal herbs, divination by birds and by sneezing, are all denounced as pagan superstitions, offensive to God and dangerous to him who practises them. The sign of the cross is to be the remedy against auguries and all other diabolical signs. the Creed, is the Christian's defence against diabolical incantations and songs. and rightly considered genuine (Gams, ii. ...
(10) De Paupertate , a short tract, consisting of excerpts from Seneca, sometimes attributed to Martin, but not mentioned by Florez or by Nicolas Antonio (Bibl. Bayer's Ed. —Besides his adaptations of Latin Stoical literature, Martin produced or superintended many translations from the Greek. These "capitula sive canones orientalium antiquorum patrum synodis a venerabili Martino episcopo, vel ab omni Bracarensi synodo excerpti," were incorporated in the earliest form of the Spanish Codex Canonum . With it they passed into the pseudo-Isidorian collection, and so obtained widespread influence. The sources of the collection cannot be all ascertained, they are not exclusively from Greek sources. ...
Was Martin a Benedictine? —The great Benedictine writers unhesitatingly answer in the affirmative. ) But it is on the whole most probable that Martin adopted one of the various older rules still current in the contemporary monasteries of S. Fructuosus, drew up a monastic rule for his monastery of Compludo, which was mainly an abbreviation of the Benedictine rule, but contained also provisions not found in that rule. This is the only piece of historical evidence connecting the Benedictine rule with Visigothic Catholicism. for the ultra-Benedictine view. —That Martin played an important and commanding part in his generation all that remains of him suggests. His life appears to have been greatly influenced by the parallel so often drawn by his contemporaries between him and the greater Martin of Tours. If Martin the missionary, ex Orientis partibus , effected the Suevian conversion, his career is one element in a scheme of European politics which can be traced through the greater part of 6th cent. , and in which the destruction of the Suevian kingdom by Leovigild 5 years after Martin's death, and the West Gothic conversion to Catholicism under Reccared, are important incidents
Constantinus i - ; the second, who excerpted from the first, lived a generation later, and continued his compilation down to the death of Theodosius the Great. They seem to have used the same sources as Zosimus, whom they supplement. Augustae contain several contemporary references to Constantine; those in Julian's Caesars are, as might be expected, unfriendly and satirical. of the Bonn Ed. Indirectly it is supposed that we have more of the matter of these earlier writers in Zosimus's ἱστορία νέα , bk. This historian lived probably c. Some remarks on it occur in the part preserved, from which we gather his general agreement with his friend and contemporary Victor. by Gardthausen (Teubner, 1874), may be recommended. He has also given a revised text from the MSS. of the anonymous excerpts generally cited as Anonymus Valesii, Excerpta Valesiana . They received this name from being first printed by H. Valois, at the end of his Ed. Some of these extracts may be traced word for word in Eutropius and Orosius; hence their author did not live earlier than the 5th cent. Others are valuable as coming from sources elsewhere unrepresented. after the defeat of Maxentius and before Constantine had declared himself the enemy of Licinius—i. His bitterness is unpleasant, and his language exaggerated and somewhat obscure, but his facts are generally confirmed by other authors, where we can test them. Eusebius has great weight as a contemporary and as giving documents, which have not for the most part been seriously challenged; but he is discredited by fulsomeness and bad taste in his later works, and by inconsistencies of tone between them and his history. We must allow for the natural exultation of Christians over the emperor who had done so much for them and openly professed himself an instrument of Providence for the advancement of Christianity. The best Ed. and enlarged (Leipz. The laws issued by Constantine (after 312) in the Theodosian and Justinian Codes are very important contemporary documents. The first are in a purer state, and may be consulted in the excellent Ed. Both codes are arranged chronologically in Migne's Patrologia, Opera Constantini , which also contains the Panegyrists and documents relating to the early history of the Donatists. Athanasius, and occasional facts may be gleaned from other Fathers. As a hero of Byzantine history and ἐσαπόστολος , Constantine has become clothed in a mist of fiction. Something may be gathered from Joannes Lydus, de Magistrat. , and among the fables of Cedrenus and Zonaras may be found some facts from more trustworthy sources. Hamburg) gave a list of more than 150 authors, ancient and modern, and the number has since infinitely increased. ), but it is hard and one-sided, unchristian, if not antichristian. Some misstatements in it are noticed below. (Zürich, 2863) is in many points a good refutation of Burckhardt, as well as being a fair statement from one not disposed to be credulous. ), give the views of a learned Roman Catholic, generally based on original authorities, and this is perhaps the most useful book upon the subject. ) is as good a short account of Constantine as can be named. (1st Ed. 1833; 3rd Ed. 313–451, 2nd Ed. —Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, surnamed Magnus or the Great, was born Feb. 27, probably in 274, at Naissus ( Nissa), in Dardania or Upper Moesia, where his family had for some time been settled. A few years later we find him high in favour with Carus, who intended, it was said, to make him Caesar. Constantine's mother Helena, on the other hand, was of mean position, and apparently was married after her son's birth. de Aedif. His father, on becoming Caesar and taking another wife, sent him, when about 16 years old, as a sort of hostage to Diocletian at Nicomedia, who treated him with kindness. In 297 he took part in the successful war of Galerius against the Persians; and about this time married Minervina. Constantine continued in the East while his father was fighting in Gaul and Britain. In 303 he was present when the Edict of persecution against the Christians was promulgated at Nicomedia and the palace soon after struck by lightning. He also witnessed in 305 the abdication of the two Augusti, Diocletian and Maximian. ...
A higher destiny awaited him in another part of the empire. His father insisted upon his return, and Galerius at length was persuaded to give permission and the seal necessary for the public posts, ordering him not to start before receiving his last instructions on the morrow. He had probably good reasons for his mistrust, and to stop pursuit maimed the public horses at many stations on his road (Zos. He arrived at Gesoriacum (Boulogne) just in time to accompany his father to Britain on his last expedition against the Picts (Eumen. Constantius died at York, July 306, in the presence of his sons, after declaring Constantine his successor ( de M. He was almost immediately proclaimed Augustus by the soldiers ( Σεβαστὸς πρὸς τῶν στρατοπέδων ἀναγορευθείς , Eus. Almost at the same time another claimant of imperial power appeared at Rome in Maxentius, son of the retired Maximian, who now came forward again to assist his son. ), who had been exposed to little of the violence of persecution under the mild rule of Constantius. In 307 Maximian, who had quarrelled with his son, crossed the Alps and allied himself with the Caesar of the West. Constantine received as wife his daughter Fausta, and with her the title of Augustus (Pan. The seat of his court was Treves, which he embellished with many buildings, including several temples and basilicas, and the forum. Meanwhile Galerius was seized with a painful illness, and on April 30, 311, shortly before his death, issued his haughty Edict of toleration, the first of the series, to which the names of Constantine and Licinius were also affixed. Constantine remained in the West engaged in wars with the Alemanni and Cherusci, and in restoring the cities of Gaul (cf. He is said to have interfered by letter on behalf of the Eastern Christians whom Maximinus Daza now began to molest, and this is in itself probable (de M. The two latter had for some time acknowledged one another (see below, § VI. Coins ), and probably by tacit consent the four restricted themselves pretty nearly to the limits which afterwards bounded the four great prefectures. But there was little united action between them, and sole empire was perhaps the secret aim of each. Maxentius now felt himself strong enough to break with Constantine, and declared war against him. The latter determined to take the initative, and crossed the Cottian Alps, by the pass of Mont Genévre, with a force much smaller than that of his opponent. ; Cedrenus, § 270), and this is probable, for Maxentius, by folly, insolence, and brutality had greatly alienated his subjects. Constantine had allied himself with one of the Eastern Augusti, Licinius, whom he engaged in marriage with his sister Constantia, but had to proceed against the counsels and wishes of his generals and the advice of the augurs ( Pan. After taking Turin, he rested some days at Milan, where he was received in triumph, and gave audience to all who desired it ( ib. We may assume that at the same place and time, the spring or summer of 312, occurred also the betrothal of Constantia with Licinius, and the issue of a second Edict of toleration to the Christians, that somewhat hard Edict to which the emperors refer in the more celebrated announcement of 313 (see below § III. He had turned the advanced guard of the enemy at Saxa Rubra, close to the Cremera, and then pressed forward along the Flaminian road to the walls of the city itself. With great rashness Maxentius had determined to give battle exactly in front of the Tiber, with the Milvian bridge behind him, about a mile from the gates of Rome. 26, and during the night, according to our earliest authority, Constantine was warned in a dream to draw the monogram of Christ, the Moreh, - ), and so is applied to a prophet ( Isaiah 9:15 ). Sitting in the shelter of a sacred tree, the priest or seer delivered his direction or’ oracles. The terebinth (AV [1] , wrongly, ‘plain’) of Moreh ( Genesis 12:6 ) may have been so named from the theophany vouchsafed to Abraham there. The same spot may be indicated by the terebinths of Moreh ( Deuteronomy 11:30 ), mentioned as indicating the position of Ebal and Gerizim. From their conjunction with Gilgal it has been suggested that the gilgal (‘stone circle’) and the terebinths were parts of the same sanctuary. of the position occupied by Gideon, in the direction of the camp of the Midianites. Taking the narrative as it stands, the Midianites ‘pitched in the valley of Jezreel’ ( Judges 6:33 ), while Gideon held the lower spurs of Gilboa towards Jezreel. ‘The spring of Harod’ is with some probability identified with ‘Ain Jalûd . The conspicuous hill on the other side of the vale, Jebel Ed-Duhy , popularly now called Little Hermon, round the W. flanks of which, and northward in the plain, the Midianites would spread, may be almost certainly identified with the Hill of Moreh. This may be represented by the modern shrine of Neby Duhy . Questions have been raised by the condition of the Heb. text, but no more probable identification has been suggested
Sparrow - In all passages except two it is rendered by the Authorized Version indifferently "bird" or "fowl. In ( Psalm 84:3 ) and Psal 102:7 It is rendered "sparrow. " The Greek stauthion (Authorized Version "sparrow") occurs twice in the New Testament, ( Matthew 10:29 ; Luke 12:6,7 ) (The birds above mentioned are found in great numbers in Palestine and are of very little value, selling for the merest trifle and are thus strikingly used by our Saviour, (Matthew 10:20 ) as an illustration of our Father's care for his children. --ED. ) is also very common, and may be seen in numbers on Mount Olivet and also about the sacred enclosure of the mosque of Omar. This is perhaps the exact species referred to in ( Psalm 84:3 ) Dr
Schools - Their idea of the value of schools may be gained from such sayings from the Talmud as "The world is preserved by the breath of the children in the schools;" "A town in which there are no schools must perish;" "Jerusalem was destroyed because the Education of children was neglected. " Josephus says, "Our principal care is to Educate our children. Maimonides thus describes a school: "The teacher sat at the head, and the pupils surrounded him as the crown the head so that every one could see the teacher and hear his words. The number of school-hours was limited, and during the heat of the summer was only four hours. The punishment employed was beating with a strap, never with a rod. Besides these they studied mathematics, astronomy and the natural sciences. Beyond the schools for popular Education there were higher schools or colleges scattered throughout the cities where the Jews abounded. --ED
Unicorn, - the rendering of the Authorized Version of the Hebrew reem , a word which occurs seven times in the Old Testament as the name of some large wild animal. The reem of the Hebrew Bible, however, has nothing at all to do with the one-horned animal of the Greek and Roman writers, as is evident from (33:17) where in the blessing of Joseph it is said; "his glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of a unicorn ;" not, as the text of the Authorized Version renders it, "the horns of unicorns . " This text puts a one-horned animal entirely out of the question. Considering that the reem is spoken of as a two-horned animal of great strength and ferocity, that it was evidently well known and often seen by the Jews, that it is mentioned as an animal fit for sacrificial purposes, and that it is frequently associated with bulls and oxen we think there can be no doubt that, some species of wild ox is intended. But it is impossible to determine what particular species of wild ox is signified probably some gigantic urus is intended. Great is their strength and great their speed; they spare neither man nor beast when once; they have caught sight of them" --Bell. -ED
Mitylene - 17), and Cicero praises it as ‘urbs et natura de situ et descriptione aediflciorum et pulchritudine, in primis nobilis’ (Leg. Mitylene was the home of Alcaeus and of Sappho, ‘an extraordinary person (θαυμαστόν τι χρῆμα), for at no period within memory has any woman been known at all to be compared to her in poetry’ (Strabo, xiii. ...
Mitylene is mentioned only incidentally in Acts (20:14). Paul sailed from Assos to Patara in the month of April lay over-night either in the northern harbour of Mitylene (which Strabo mentions as μέγας καὶ βαθύς Bardaisan, Syrian Theologian - A Syrian theologian, commonly reckoned among Gnostics. Born at Edessa a. 155, and died there a. His reception of the Pentateuch, which he seemed to contradict, is expressly attested, and there is no reason to suppose that he rejected the ordinary faith of Christians as founded on the Gospels and the writings of the apostles, except on isolated points. The more startling peculiarities of which we hear belong for the most part to an outer region of speculation, which it may easily have seemed possible to combine with Christianity, more especially with the undeveloped Christianity of Syria in the 3rd cent. The 56 Hymns of Ephrem Syrus against Heresies are intended to refute the doctrines of Marcion, Bardaisan, and Mani, but Ephrem's criticism is harsh and unintelligent. It is on any supposition a singular fact that the remains of his theology disclose no traces of the deeper thoughts which moved the Gnostic leaders. That he held a doctrinal position intermediate between them and the church is consistent with the circumstances of his life, but is not supported by any internal evidence. Ed
Bush - Before the [2] division into chapters and verses it was not easy to cite Scripture with precision. ‘In or at the Bush’ (Authorized Version in Mark and Luke respectively) means not ‘beside that memorable bush,’ but ‘in the passage in Scripture describing the theophany in the bush’ ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, ‘in the place concerning the Bush’). ...
The derivation of סְנָה is not known, and all attempts to identify it have failed. ) that it is connected with the plant, nor for Stanley’s assumption (. of the Jewish Church
βάτος occurs once again in the Gospels: Luke 6:44; Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘bramble bush’ [4]. It was thought necessary to alter the translation; the word which in the other passage had such lofty associations is here used by Christ almost with contempt. Moreover, a vine might well enough be described as a ‘bush’ in the abstract; it does not grow high, and has no strength of wood (Ezekiel 15). Liddell and Scott give βάτος as = ‘blackberry bush’ or ‘wild raspberry,’ but the adjective βατόεις = ‘thorned
Phinehas - The only certain occurrence of the name in a pre-exilic writing is in Joshua 24:33 ; a hill ( Gibeath Pinhas ) in Ephraim was named after him, where his father and (LXX [1] ) he himself was buried. He succeeded Eleazar as chief priest ( Exodus 6:25 , 1 Chronicles 6:4 ; 1 Chronicles 6:50 , Ezra 7:5 , 1E Esther 8:2 , 2E Esther 1:2 ), and was the superintendent of the Korahite Levites ( 1 Chronicles 9:20 ). The succession of the priesthood in his line was assured to him when he showed his zeal at Shittim in Moab, when Israel ‘joined themselves unto Baal-peor. ’ An Israelite brought into the camp a woman from the Midianites who had beguiled the people into foreign worship. This is referred to in Psalms 106:30 f. As priest he accompanied the expedition to punish the Midianites ( Numbers 10:8 f. He was the spokesman of the western tribes concerning the altar which the eastern tribes had erected ( Joshua 22:13 ; Joshua 22:30-32 , See Ed. The war between Benjamin and the other tribes occurred in his high priesthood ( Judges 20:28 ). After the Exile a clan of priests, ‘the sons of Phinehas,’ claimed descent from him ( Ezra 8:2 [3]). Ezra 8:33 Ezra 8:33 father of a priest named Eleazar; = 1Es 8:62 Peter hinees
na'Hum - Nahum, called "the Elkoshite," is the seventh in order of the minor prophets. The site of Elkosh, his native place, is disputed, some placing it in Galilee, others in Assyria. Those who maintain the latter view assume that the prophet's parents were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser and that the prophet was born at the village of Alkush, on the east bank of the Tigris, two miles north of Mosul. The language employed in ch. (McClintock and Strong come to the conclusion that Nahum was a native of Galilee that at the captivity of the ten tribes he escaped into Judah, and prophesied in the reign of Hezekiah, 726-698. --ED. --The date of Nahum a prophecy can be determined with as little precision as his birthplace. It is, however, certain that the prophecy was written before the final downfall of Nineveh and its capture by the Medes and Chaldeans, cir. ( Nahum 1:12 ; 2:8,13 ; 3:16-17 ) It is most probable that Nahum flourished in the latter half of the return of Hezekiah, and wrote his prophecy either in Jerusalem or its neighborhood. The subject of the prophecy is, in accordance with the superscription, "the burden of Nineveh," the destruction of which he predicts. His style is clear and uninvolved, though pregnant and forcible; his diction sonorous and rhythmical, the words re-echoing to the sense
Canon of Scripture, the, - may be generally described as the "collection of books which form the original and authoritative written rule of the faith and practice of the Christian Church," i. ), where the word indicates the rule by which the contents of the Bible must be determined, and thus secondarily an index of the constituent books. The uncanonical books were described simply as "those without" or "those uncanonized. " The canonical books were also called "books of the testament," and Jerome styled the whole collection by the striking name of "the holy library," which happily expresses the unity and variety of the Bible. After the Maccabean persecution the history of the formation of the Canon is merged in the history of its contents. The complete Canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at present, was ratified at the third Council of Carthage (A. 397), and from that time was accepted throughout the Latin Church. Respecting the books of which the Canon is composed, see the article BIBLE . (The books of Scripture were not made canonical by act of any council, but the council gave its sanction to the results of long and careful investigations as to what books were really of divine authority and expressed the universally-accepted decisions of the church. The Old Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude. --ED
Quails - Pliny states that they sometimes alight on vessels in the Mediterranean and sink them. Colenel Sykes states that 160,000 quails have been netted in one season on the island of Capri. --ED. ) The expression "as it were two cubits (high) upon the face of the earth," ( Numbers 11:31 ) refers probably to the height at which the quails flew above the ground, in their exhausted condition from their long flight. " The Israelites would have had little difficulty in capturing large quantities of these birds as they are known to arrive at places sometimes so completely exhausted by their flight as to be readily taken, not in nets only, but by the hand. The Egyptians similarly prepared these birds. The expression "quails from the sea," (Numbers 11:31 ) must not be restricted to denote that the birds came from the sea, as their starting-point, but it must be taken to show the direction from which they were coming. The quails were at the time of the event narrated in the sacred writings, on their spring journey of migration northward, It is interesting to note the time specified: "it was at even" that they began to arrive; and they no doubt continued to come all night. Many observers have recorded that the quail migrates by night
Reed - Under this name may be noticed the following Hebrew words:
Agmon occurs in ( Job 40:12,16 ; Isaiah 9:14 ) (Authorized Version "rush"). There can be no doubt that it denotes some aquatic reed-like plant, probably the Phragmitis communis , which, if it does not occur in Palestine and Egypt, is represented by a very closely-allied species, viz. ( Isaiah 58:5 ) ...
Gnome , translated "rush" and "bulrush" by the Authorized Version, without doubt denotes the celebrated paper-reed of the ancients, Papyrus antiquorum , which formerly was common in some parts of Egypt. The papyrus reed is not now found in Egypt; it grows however, in Syria. The papyrus plant has an angular stem from 3 to 6 feet high, though occasionally it grows to the height of 14 feet it has no leaves; the flowers are in very small spikelets, which grow on the thread-like flowering branchlets which form a bushy crown to each stem; (It was used for making paper, shoes, sails, ropes, mattresses, etc. --ED. ) ...
Kaneh , a reed of any kind. Thus there are in general four kinds of reeds named in the Bible: (1) The water reed; No, 1 above. (2) A stronger reed, Arundo donax , the true reed of Egypt and Palestine, which grows 8 or 10 feet high, and is thicker than a man's thumb. It has a jointed stalk like the bamboo, and is very abundant on the Nile. (3) The writing reed, Arundo scriptoria , was used for making pens
Maternus, Julius Firmicus - Maternus (3), Julius Firmicus, an acute critic of pagan rites and doctrines and a vigorous apologist for the Christian faith, known from his treatise de Errore Profanarum Religionum , composed between 343 and 350, very valuable for its details of the secret rites of paganism. It discusses the idolatry of the Persians, Egyptians, Assyrians, the Greek mysteries, the ceremonies and formulae used in the Mithraic worship. Some of the details on this last are very curious, some liturgical fragments being inserted. The work illustrates the small amount of philological and etymological science possessed by the ancients. The work is valuable for Biblical criticism, as in it are found quotations from the versions used in N. There are probably embodied in it some fragments of the ancient Greek writer Evemerus, whose work upon paganism, now lost, was largely used by all the Christian apologists. is reprinted an Ed. A contemporary pagan Julius Firmicus Maternus, usually styled junior, wrote a work (between 330 and 360) on judicial astrology, mentioned by Sidon. There is some reason to suppose that he was converted to Christianity and was identical with the subject of our art
Theotimus, Bishop of Tomi - By birth a Goth, he was Educated in Greece, where he took the name by which he is known. Adopting strict asceticism for himself, he kept a liberal table for the savage Goths and Huns who visited Tomi as the great central market of the province, endeavouring by hospitality, gifts, and courteous treatment to prepare them to receive the Gospel. In some instances the seed was sown in good soil, and the Hunnish strangers returned to their distant homes as converts, eager to convert their fellow-barbarians. Theotimus is with much probability identified by Baronius ( sub ann. 402) with the successful missionary to the Huns mentioned by St. He was regarded by the Huns with superstitious reverence, and was styled by them "the God of the Romans. " The long hair of a philosopher flowed over his episcopal attire. He was a frequent and much revered visitor at Constantinople. In 403, during the visit of Epiphanius of Salamis, he refused to affix his signature to the decree of the council of Cyprus condemning the teaching of Origen, denouncing the attempt to cast insult on a justly honoured name and to question the decisions of wise and good men before them. He supported his refusal by publicly reading passages from Origen. 640, 675, 694, 785, Le Quien's Ed. The archimandrite Carosus at the council of Chalcedon boasted that he had been baptized by Theotimus and charged by him to keep the Nicene faith inviolate (Labbe, Concil
Fortunatus, Bishop of Poictiers - 530 at Ceneta, the modern Ceneda, near Tarvisium (Treviso) ( Vit. He seems to have resided at an early age at Aquileia, where he came under the influence of one Paulus, who was instrumental in his conversion. 23) relates that he studied grammar, rhetoric, and poetry at Ravenna. Crossing the Alps and passing into Austrasia, he visited king Siegbert, for whom he composed an epithalamium on his marriage with Brunehault, couched in terms of extravagant flattery. After completing his pilgrimage, he continued to travel in Gaul, because of the disturbed state of Italy, due to the incursions of the Lombards, but finding an additional inducement in the society of Rhadegund of Poictiers, for whom he conceived a Platonic attachment. She was the daughter of Bertharius, king of the Thuringians, and had been espoused against her will to Lothair I. , king of Neustria, but had separated from him, and retired in 550 to Poictiers, where she founded the convent of St. At what date Fortunatus visited Poictiers is uncertain, but he was induced to become chaplain and almoner to the convent. Rhadegund employed her poet-chaplain in correspondence with the prelates of Gaul, and despatched him from time to time on delicate missions. He thus became intimate with Gregory of Tours, Syagrius of Autun, Felix of Nantes, Germanus of Paris, Avitus of Clermont, and many others, to whom his poems are addressed. He also composed Lives of the saints, theological treatises, and hymns, including the famous Vexilla Regis , composed for a religious ceremony at Poictiers. The Pange Lingua , though generally ascribed to his pen, was more probably composed, as Sirmond has shown (in Notis ad Epist. Fortunatus was ordained priest, and, subsequently to the death of Rhadegund in 597, succeeded Plato in the bishopric of Poictiers; but died early in the 7th cent. Martin of Tours in four books, consisting of 2,245 hexameter lines, hastily composed, and little more than a metrical version of Severus Sulpicius's incomparably better prose. The first, de Excidio Thuringiae, is dedicated to her cousin Amalfred (or Hermanfred); the second is a panegyric of Justin II. and his empress Sophia, who had presented Rhadegund with a piece of the true cross. ...
(4) A collection of 150 elegiac verses addressed to Rhadegund and Agnes, and a short epigram ad Theuchildem. ...
(5) The Lives of eleven saints—Hilary of Poitiers, Germain of Paris, Aubin of Angers, Paternus of Avranches, Rhadegund of Poictiers, Amant of Rodez, Médard of Noyon, Remy of Rheims, Lubin of Chartres, Mauril of Angers, and Marcel of Paris—but the first book of the Life of Hilary and the Lives of the three last named saints ought probably to be attributed to another Fortunatus. To these must be added an account of the martyrdom at Paris of St. ...
His style is pedantic, his taste bad, his grammar and prosody seldom correct for many lines together, but two of his longer poems display a simplicity and pathos foreign to his usual style—viz. ...
The latest and best Ed. A good earlier Ed. by Luchi is reprinted in Migne's Patr
Destruction - Paul’s writings for ‘a detailed theory on this most awe-inspiring of all subjects,’ and it is proper for us to note ‘the “wise Agnosticism” (the phrase is Dr. Paul with the attempted theories of the Synagogue-theologians’ (H. Kennedy, St. also 4 Ezra 9:13, ‘Enquire not further how the ungodly are to be tormented, but rather investigate the manner in which the righteous are to be saved’). The analogy of Nature (see Butler’s Analogy, Ed. In Romans 3:16 destruction (σύντριμμα) and misery (ταλαιπωρἰα) are coupled together for the ways of the sinful. ’ This fact is used by the advocates of conditional immortality in favour of the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked, but it is by no means clear that the words connote extinction of consciousness. In 2 Peter 3:7 ἀπώλεια is used for the Day of Judgment and punishment of the wicked, which implies life after death. In Philippians 1:28 the word is in opposition to σωτηρία, in Hebrews 10:39 it is opposed to περιποίησις τῆς ψυχῆς (see also James 4:12, Judges 1:5, 1 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Corinthians 10:9; 1 Corinthians 15:18, 2 Corinthians 2:15 f. In 2 Thessalonians 1:9 we have τίσουσιν ὄλεθρον αἰώνιον, which is the only passage that makes a statement about the duration of the destruction of the wicked. Beet, The Last Things, Ed. Paul’s natural meaning is the ruin of the wicked, which goes on for ever
Fig, Fig-Tree - (συκῆ, σῦκου, ὄλυνθος)...
Apart from the three references in the Gospels (Matthew 7:16, Mark 11:13, Luke 6:44), figs are mentioned only twice in the NT (James 3:12, Revelation 6:13). In James the ordinary words συκῆ, ‘fig-tree,’ and σῦκον, ‘fig,’ are used, but in Rev. ὄλυνθος is the word employed to denote the fruit. The Seer beholds the stars of heaven falling to the earth ‘as a fig-tree casteth her unripe figs, when she is shaken of a great gale,’ In the ordinary way these winter figs (ὄλυνθοι) did not ripen, so here the judgment predicted is not about to cut off prematurely those who if spared would develop into matured and useful fruit, but those who are ‘without hope and without God in the world’-in short, the ‘cumberers of the ground. ’...
The fig-tree is native to Palestine and is found either cultivated or wild all over the country. Those which are wild are usually barren or at all events boar no Edible fruit, and they are known as ‘male’ fig-trees. There are many varieties of fig-trees cultivated, some of which yield a sharp, bitter fruit, and others a sweet, mellow one. It is noticeable that in the description of the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 8:8) fig-trees are mentioned as one of its leading natural characteristics. The fruit is an enlarged succulent hollow receptacle, containing the imperfect flowers in its interior; consequently the flowers are invisible till the receptacle has been opened. The figs are eaten both fresh and dried, and they are often compressed into a cake (cf. On the hills, the branches which have remained bare and naked all through the winter put forth their early leaf-buds about the end of March, and at the same time diminutive figs begin to appear where the young leaves join the branches. Thomson The Land and the Book 1910 Ed. Geikie, The Holy Land and the Bible, 1903 Ed. 5, 6; Encyclopaedia Biblica ii
Sozomen, Author of a History - His family belonged to Bethelia, a small town near Gaza in Palestine, where his grandfather had been one of the first to embrace Christianity. Thus Sozomen was nurtured amidst Christian influences. ) that his grandfather was endowed with great natural ability, which he consecrated especially to the study of the sacred Scriptures, that he was much beloved by the Christians of those parts, who looked to him for explanations of the word of God and the unloosing of its difficulties. He believed in Christianity, and even in the more ascetic forms of it, with a genuine faith, "for I would neither," he says, "be considered ungracious, and willing to consign their virtue [1] to oblivion, nor yet be thought ignorant of their history; but I would wish to leave behind me such a record of their manner of life that others, led by their example, might attain to a blessed and happy end" (i. ...
He was probably Educated at fast in Bethelia or Gaza, for some memories of his youth are connected with Gaza (vii. Thence he seems to have gone to Berytus, a city of Phoenicia, to be trained in civil law at its famous school. His Education finished, he proceeded to Constantinople, and there entered on his profession (ii. ...
While thus engaged he formed the plan of his Ecclesiastical History (ii. 3), being attracted to the subject both by his own taste and the example of Eusebius. It appeared in 9 books, extending over the years 323–439, and was dedicated to Theodosius the Younger. In his account of the council of Nicaea, which may be taken as a favourable specimen of his work as a whole, he seems to have drawn from the best sources, to have proceeded with care, and to have made a sufficiently good choice among the apocryphal traditions and innumerable legends which in the 5th cent. obscured the reports of this great council (cf. But he inserted in his history not a little that is trifling and superstitious. In style he is generally allowed to be superior, but in judgment inferior, to Socrates. ...
His History is especially valuable for its accounts of the monks, which, though by an admirer, are not therefore to be despised, or we should be equally entitled to set aside accounts by their detractors. It is impossible to read his repeated notices of the monastic institutions of his time or his long account of their manners and customs (i. He also gives not a few important particulars concerning both the events and men of the time covered by it, particularly of the council of Nicaea, the persecutions, the general progress of the gospel, the conversion of Constantine, the history of Julian, the illustrious Athanasius, and many bishops and martyrs of the age; and also a number of original documents. ...
The best Ed. , by Valesius, appeared at Paris in 1668, and was followed by one, with the notes of Valesius, at Cambridge, in 1720. The Ed
Tichonius, an African Donatist - He appears to have flourished between 380 and 420 but according to Tillemont his date may be as early as 370. He was apparently a layman with a strong turn for church matters including theology was well versed in Scripture and though a Donatist revolted from the exclusive views of the sect and occupied a position intermediate as Neander says between it and the church (Ch. 280 Ed. Early in his career perhaps 370–373 he published a work maintaining the universality of the church and that no misconduct of a portion can annul the promise of God or contaminate Christians elsewhere. He pointed out the arbitrary character of the Donatist test of holiness summing it up in the epigrammatic phrase "quod volumus sanctum est" (Aug. In support of his argument he quoted the decision of a council at Carthage of 270 bishops who having debated for 75 days concluded as the words of Augustine seem to imply that traditors ought to be invited to receive rebaptism but if they declined to do so ought to be admitted to communion. 348 communion was not refused to Catholics by Donatists (Aug. His book has perished but is probably the same either as the one in three books mentioned by Gennadius under the title Bellum Intestinum or the one entitled Expositiones Diversarum Causarum unless these two titles refer to one book only in which says Gennadius Tichonius mentions some ancient councils (de Scr. Though denounced strongly for his inconsistency by St. Augustine he appears to have continued his allegiance to the Donatists (Aug. ) and while still belonging to them wrote another book entitled The Seven Rules or Keys of Christian Life which was discussed by Augustine in his work de Doctr. Its main heads are: (1) The church is the Lord's body indivisible from Him so that in Scripture language applicable to Him is applied also to the church. in explaining Eze_36:23 which must be compared with N. and the promise of baptism there contained. The "new land" is the church to be gathered from all nations but not yet revealed. Tichonius also wrote a commentary on the Revelation which Gennadius tells us he interpreted entirely in a spiritual sense—that the human body is an abode of angels ("angelicam stationem corpus esse"); that the Millennium in a personal sense is doubtful that there is only one resurrection in which human bodies of every sort and age will rise and that of the two resurrections mentioned one is to be understood of the growth of grace in the soul of man and in the church. The Seven Rules are printed at length in the Bibl. a critical Ed
Ananias - Along with his wife, Ananias was carried into the early Church on the wave of enthusiasm which began on the day of Pentecost, but they were utterly devoid of any understanding or appreciation of the new religion they professed. In this period of early zeal many of the Christians sold their lands and handed the proceeds to the community of believers (cf. Ananias and his wife, wishing to share in the approbation accorded to such acts of generosity, sold their land and handed part of the price to the community, pretending that they had sacrificed all. Peter rebuked the male offender for his duplicity, Ananias fell down dead, and was carried out for burial; his wife also came in and was overtaken by the same fate. The narrative does not indicate that the two were punished because they had in any way violated a rule of communism which they had professed to accept. Peter, ‘Whiles it remained, did it not remain thine own, and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power?’ (Acts 5:4) at once dispose of any view of the incident which would regard communism as compulsory in the early Church. The sin for which Ananias and Sapphira were punished is described as ‘lying unto God’ (Acts 5:4). It was, says Knowling, ‘much more than mere hypocrisy, much more than fraud, pride or greed-hateful as these sins are-the power and presence of the Holy Spirit had been manifested in the Church, and Ananias had sinned not only against human brotherhood, but against the Divine light and leading which had made that brotherhood possible. Baur, Weizsäcker, Holtzmann, Spitta), while it is undoubted that in the narrative the cause of death is traced to the will and intention of St. Peter, and cannot be regarded as a chance occurrence or the effect of a sudden shock brought about by the discovery of their guilt. Much has been written on the need in the infant Church of such a solemn warning against a type of hypocrisy which, had it become prevalent, would have rendered the existence of the Christian community impossible. Neander, Planting of Christianity, Ed. A Christian disciple who dwelt in Damascus, and to whom Christ appeared in a vision telling him to go to Saul of Tarsus, who was praying and had Seen in a vision a man named Ananias coming in and laying his hands on him that he might receive his sight (Acts 9:10-17). On hearing this command, Ananias, Knowing the reputation of Saul as a persecutor, expressed reluctance, but was assured that the persecutor was a chosen messenger of Christ to bear His name to the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel. Thus encouraged, Ananias went and laid his hands on Saul, who received his sight and was baptized. He is represented as one of the ‘Seventy,’ and it is possible he may have been a personal disciple of Jesus. He is also described as bishop of Damascus, and reported to have met a violent death, slain by the sword of Pôl, the general of Aretas, according to one authority (Book of the Bee, by Solomon of Basra [3], ch. , Ed. 25 [4]), stoned to death after undergoing torture at the hand of Lucian, prefect of Damascus. His name stands in the Roman and Armenian Martyrologies, and he is commemorated in the Abyssinian Calendar. The high priest who accused St. ), and who afterwards appeared among the Apostle’s enemies before Felix at Caesarea (Acts 24:1 ff. He is not to be identified or confused with Annas (q. He was the son of Nedebaeus, and is regarded by Schürer (GJV Joannes ii, Bishop of Jerusalem - Imbued with that tendency of Eastern church teachers which formed their chief difference from those of the Western church, he with difficulty brought himself to acquiesce in the condemnation of Origenism or to take any steps against Pelagius, with whom he was brought in contact at the close of his episcopacy, and the presence of Jerome and other immigrants from Italy, and the anti-Origenistic vehemence of Epiphanius of Salamis and Theophilus of Alexandria, made it impossible for him to escape the reproach of laxity and even at times of heresy. 8, Ed. ), he passed as a young man some time among the monks of Nitria in Egypt. There he, no doubt, imbibed his affection for Origen's teaching, and probably became acquainted with two persons who had much to do with his own subsequent history and with that of the Origenistic controversy—the monk Isidore (one of the Long Monks) and Rufinus. During the troublous times before the accession of Theodosius, when Arianism was in the ascendant, he declined, teste Jerome ( cont. 4), to communicate with the orthodox bishops exiled by Valens. He was evidently esteemed very highly, and of great eloquence ( ib. His flatterers compared him with Chrysippus, Plato, and Demosthenes ( ib. 8, Ed. ) when chosen to succeed Cyril as bp. 14), and of great interest for its holy places, which were visited by pilgrims from all parts. It had also a special interest from the settlements of distinguished persons from the West, which made it during his episcopate a focus of Christian and literary activity, and with two of which, that of Rufinus and Melania on the Mount of Olives, and of Jerome and Paula at Bethlehem, he was destined to have close but similar relations. 12); but this may be only the common animus of monk against bishop, embittered by momentary resentment. The clergy of Jerusalem were certainly attached to him. Rufinus thought it a sufficient defence of his own faith to say that it was that preached at Jerusalem by the holy bp. But the most important testimony is given by the pope Anastasius, in a letter to him in 401, a time when the adversaries of John, Pammachius, and Marcella had access to the pope, and only two or three years after Jerome's Philippic was composed. He accounts it an honour to have received praise from one of so serene and heavenly a disposition, the splendour of whose episcopate shines throughout the world (see Vallarsi's Rufnus , pp. ...
When John became bishop, Rufinus had already been settled on the Mount of Olives some nine years, and Jerome and his friends were just entering on their work at Bethlehem. At first he lived in impartial friendship with them both, seeking out Jerome especially (";nos suo arbitrio diligebat," Hieron. 11, Ed. ), and making use of Rufinus, whom he ordained, as a learned man, in business which required his special talents. After some six years their peace was disturbed. 33), who by his officious insinuations and imputations of Origenistic heresy caused the first breach between Jerome and Rufinus, had, no doubt, some dealings with the bishop also; and, probably through him, the suspicions of Epiphanius, the venerable bp. of Salamis, were aroused. During the dispute between Jerome and Rufinus, John in no way intervened. 249) thinks him to have inclined rather to the side of Jerome. , Ed. John had accepted a person under the ban of Theophilus who had come from Jerusalem to Alexandria, and thus had incurred the wrath of that fierce prelate; but Jerome represented that Theophilus had sent no letters condemnatory of this person, and that it would be rash to condemn John for a supposed fault committed in ignorance. As regards Rufinus, John wrote a letter to pope Anastasius, the tenor of which can be only dimly inferred from the pope's extant reply. John was apparently less anxious to defend Rufinus than to secure his own freedom from implication in the charges made against Rufinus by Jerome's friends at Rome. He professes to know nothing about Origen, not even who he was, while yet he has condemned his opinions; and as to Rufinus, he only says that, if his translation of the works of Origen implies an acceptance of his opinions (a matter which he leaves to his own conscience), he must see where he can procure absolution. That John was not then in familiar communication with Rufinus, but was with Jerome, may be inferred from the fact that Jerome used this letter in his controversy with Rufinus ( cont. 14), while Rufinus did not know of its existence, and, when he heard of it, treated it as an invention of Jerome ( ib. The reconciliation of John with the monks of Bethlehem is further attested by Sulpicius Severus ( Dial. 8), who had stayed six months at Bethlehem, and says that John had entrusted to Jerome and his brother the charge of the parish of Bethlehem. Pelagius and Coelestius, having come in 415 to Jerusalem, were encountered by Orosius, the friend of Augustine, who had come to visit Jerome, and afterwards by the Gaulish bishops Heros and Lazarus. of his Liber de Arbitrii Libertate , addressed himself to John, as did also Pelagius; but John was not willing to accept without inquiry the decrees of the council of Carthage and resented their being pressed upon him by Orosius. The two parties were in secret conflict for some time, till John determined on holding a synod to end the strife, on July 28, 415. He shewed some consideration towards Pelagius, allowing him, though a layman, to sit among the presbyters; and when there was a clamour against Pelagius for shewing disrespect for the name and authority of Augustine, John, by saying, "I am Augustine," undertook both to ensure respect to that great teacher and not to allow his authority to be pressed too far against his antagonist. "If," cried Orosius, "you represent Augustine, follow Augustine's judgment. " John thereupon asked him if he was ready to become the accuser of Pelagius; but Orosius declined this duty, saying that Pelagius had been condemned by the African bishops, whose decisions John ought to accept. The proceedings were somewhat confused from the necessity of employing an interpreter. Finally, it was determined to send a letter to pope Innocentius and to abide by his judgment. Meanwhile, John imposed silence upon both parties. This satisfied neither. The opinions of Pelagius continued to be spread by private intercourse, and Augustine wrote to remonstrate with John against the toleration of heresy. Augustine, in his work against Julianus, records the decision of this council, which was favourable to Pelagius, but considers his acquittal due to uncertainties occasioned by difference of language, which enabled Pelagius to express himself in seemingly orthodox words; and both in this work and in his letter to John he treats John as a brother-bishop whom he holds in high esteem. Meanwhile, the more intemperate partisans of Pelagius resorted to open violence. The dialogue of Jerome against the Pelagians, though mild compared with his other controversial works, incensed them, and they proceeded to burn the monasteries of Bethlehem. The attitude of John at this time cannot be gathered with any certainty. That he was in any way an accomplice in such proceedings is incredible. Nothing of the sort appears from the letters of Jerome, though he speaks in a resigned manner of his losses. Complaints, however, of the ill-treatment of Jerome and the Roman ladies at Bethlehem reached pope Innocent, who wrote to John a letter (Hieron. , Ed. 310–316), is opposed by Thierry ( St. Possibly the letter of Innocentius never reached him, for it can hardly have been written, as Vallarsi shews (pref. ), before 417, and John died (see Ceillier, vii. After a troubled episcopate of 30 years and a life of from 60 to 65 years, failing health may have prevented his exercising full control in this last and most painful episode of his career. ...
Several works are attributed to him (see Ceillier, vii. He must, therefore, always be viewed through the medium of other, mostly hostile, writers, and through the mists of controversy
Felicitas, Martyr at Carthage - Felicitas (2) , Mark 7; martyr at Carthage with Perpetua, Revocatus, Saturninus, and Secundinus, all catechumens, and baptized after their arrest. Felicitas and her companions having been interrogated by Hilarianus, the proconsul, and remaining steadfast, were condemned to be thrown to the beasts on the anniversary of the young Geta's accession. Felicitas, being in the eighth month of her pregnancy, and the law not permitting women in her condition to be executed, was greatly distressed at the delay of her martyrdom. While the pangs of labour were upon her, the jailer, hearing some exclamations of pain, said, "If thy present sufferings are so great, what wilt thou do when thou art thrown to the wild beasts? This thou didst not consider when thou refusedst to sacrifice. " Whereupon she answered, "What I now suffer I suffer myself, but then there will be another Who will suffer for me because I also shall suffer for Him. 202 or 203, during the reign of Severus, whose latter years were marked by a very rigorous persecution (Ael. Few martyrdoms are better attested than this. Their martyrdom is mentioned by Tertullian in de Anima , lv. , and treated at length in three sermons (280, 281, 282) by St. Augustine, while their burial at Carthage, in the Basilica Major, is asserted by Victor Vitensis, lib. For all three texts see the Ed
Chios - (ἡ Χίος; now ‘Scio’)...
The name was given to a beautiful island in the aegean Sea, separated from the mainland of Asia Minor by a picturesque channel, 6 miles wide, which is studded with islets. Its capital was also called Chios. It produced ‘the best of the Grecian wines’ (Strabo, xiv. Under the Roman Empire it was a free city of the province of Asia, till the time of Vespasian, who included it in the Insularum Provincia. Paul passed Chios in his last recorded aegean voyage (Acts 20:15). Chios was one of the seven claimants to the honour of being the birth-place of Homer, and its pretensions received stronger support from tradition than those of any of its rivals. ‘The blind old bard of Chios’ rocky isle’ was familiar with the course pursued by St. ‘When he had sailed by Rhodes and Cos, he touched at Lesbos, as thinking he should have overtaken Agrippa there; but he was taken short here by a north wind, which hindered his ship from going to the shore, so he remained many days at Chios. … And when the high winds were laid he sailed to Mitylene, and thence to Byzantium’ (Ant. Paul, new Ed
Amphilochius, Bishop of Sida - He was urged, as one of the Pamphylian metropolitans, to take measures against them in encyclical letters written by two successive bps. 52), and seems to have prosecuted the matter with zeal. 431) in conjunction with Valerianus; and in consequence of their representations the council confirmed the decrees of former synods against these heretics (Labbe, Conc. , Ed. His conduct, later, was marked by great vacillation, if not insincerity. It is sometimes stated that he was present at the "Robbers' Synod" (A. 449), and there committed himself to the policy of Dioscorus and the heresy of Eutyches (Le Quien, Oriens Christ. 998); but his name does not appear in the list of bishops assembled there (Labbe, Conc. At the council of Chalcedon, however (A. 451), he shewed great tenderness for Dioscorus, and here his career of tergiversation began. He tried to defer the second citation of Dioscorus (iv. 1260); and when after three citations Dioscorus did not appear, he consented to his condemnation, though with evident reluctance (iv. At a later session, too, he subscribed his assent to the epistle of pope Leo (iv. 1358, 1366); and we find his name also appended to the canons of the council (iv. Thus he committed himself fully to the principles of this council, and to the reversal of the proceedings of Latrocinium. 458) when the emperor Leo wrote to the bishops to elicit their opinions, Amphilochius stated, in reply, that, while he disapproved the appointment of Timotheus Aelurus, he did not acknowledge the authority of the council of Chalcedon (Evagr. Yet, as if this were not enough, we are told that he shortly afterwards assented and subscribed to its decrees (Eulogius in Phot
Magic, Magicians - Magic is "the science or practice of evoking spirits, or Educing the occult powers of nature to produce effects apparently supernatural. " It formed an essential element in many ancient religions, especially among the Persians, Chaldeans and Egyptians. It was so strictly forbidden by the law that it could never afterward have had any: recognized existence, save in times of general heresy or apostasy and the same was doubtless the case in the patriarchal ages. The magical practices which obtained among the Hebrews were therefore borrowed from the nations around. From the first entrance into the land of promise until the destruction of Jerusalem we have constant glimpses of magic practiced in secret, or resorted to not alone by the common but also as the great. Laban attached great value to, and was in the habit of consulting, images. (Exodus 7:11 ; 8:18,19 ) Balaam also practiced magic. (Numbers 22:7 ) Saul consulted the witch of Endor. An examination of the various notices of magic in the Bible gives this general result: They do not, act far as can be understood, once state positively that any but illusive results were produced by magical rites. The time Moses sent the plague unannounced the magicians failed; they "did so with their enchantments," but in vain. Samuel appearance was apparently unexpected by her; he did not come through the enchantments. --Ed
Dan'Iel, the Book of, - Daniel is composed partly in the vernacular Aramaic (Chaldee) and partly in the sacred Hebrew. Aramaic) answer of the Chaldeans, the language changes to Aramaic, and this is retained till the close of the seventh chapter (2:4 b-7). The personal introduction of Daniel as the writer of the text, 8:1, is marked by the resumption of the Hebrew, which continues to the close of the book. The book may be divided into three parts. The cause of the difference of person is commonly supposed to lie int he nature of the case. It is, however, more probable that the peculiarity arose from the manner in which the book assumed its final shape. The book exercised a great influence upon the Christian Church. The New Testament incidentally acknowledges each of the characteristic elements of the book, its miracles, ( Hebrews 11:33,34 ) its predictions, (Matthew 24:15 ) and its doctrine of angels. (Luke 1:19,26 ) The authenticity of the book has been attacked in modern times. Rawlinson, in his "Historical Evidences," shows how some historical difficulties that had been brought against the book are solved by the inscription on a cylinder lately found among the ruins of Ur in Chaldea. --ED
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - This is given because it was important to prove that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies spoken of him. of Jesus Christ as the reputed and legal son of Joseph and Mary. The simple principle that one evangelist exhibits that genealogy which contained the successive heir to David's and Solomon's throne, while the other exhibits the paternal stem of him who was the heir, explains all the anomalies of the two pedigrees, their agreements as well as their discrepancies, and the circumstance of there being two at all. Thus: Matthan or Matthat Father of Jacob, Heli Jacob Father of Mary = Jacob'e heir was (Joseph) Heli Father of Joseph JESUS, called Christ. (Godet, Lange and many others take the ground that Luke gives the genealogy of Mary, rendering (Luke 3:23 ) thus: Jesus "being (as was suppposed ) the son of Joseph, (but in reality) the son of Heli. " In this case Mary, as declared in the Targums, was the daughter of Heli, and Heli was the grandfather of Jesus. Mary's name was omitted because "ancient sentiment did not comport with the mention of the mother as the genealogical link. " So we often find in the Old Testament the grandson called the son. --ED
Profane - (βέβηλος, ‘trodden under foot’; profanus, ‘outside the shrine’)...
The word denotes not simply what is common (see, Clean), but a temper which despises sacred things (1 Timothy 1:9); cf. ’ Esau was ‘profane’ (Hebrews 12:16) because he despised his spiritual birthright. Paul is accused of ‘profaning’ the Temple (Acts 24:6) by bringing Gentiles into it. In the early days of Christianity we do not find this sin remarked on, because Christianity was then novel and unrecognized, and hostility to it was passionate rather than profane. , when it became a tried institution with recognized doctrine (1 Timothy 4:6), and had a clientele amongst men, then there was room for this sin. The term ‘profane’ is applied especially to those who under cover of Christianity foist their own errors and deceits upon the Church. They simulated Christianity and brought their mischief into its very centre. ‘Profane babblings and oppositions of knowledge falsely so-called’ (1 Timothy 6:20, 2 Timothy 2:16), if they are not Gnostic, are leading to Gnosticism, its hair-splittings, cloud of words, pride of knowledge, unnatural asceticism, and moral looseness. Gnosticism, with all that led up to it, was peculiarly profane, because it brought into the meekness of Christianity the dialectical pride of the West and the ‘caste’ feeling of the East; it pretended to have special knowledge; it made purity into a formal distinction between matter and spirit (see Clean); it indulged in capricious philosophical views of Christian truth, and became a masquerade of sacred things. Edersheim, LT_4, 1887, i. Lightfoot, Colossians and Philemon, new Ed
Zoaras - Zoaras (2) , a turbulent Monophysite Syrian monk, a zealous adherent of Severus, associated with him and Peter of Apamea in the petitions of the orthodox clergy of Syria to the council of Constantinople under Mennas, a. 536, as leaders of the Monophysite heresy, and condemned with them by the synod. On being driven after several years from his pillar by the orthodox party (the "Synodites"), he started for Constantinople with ten of his monks to complain to Justinian, who hastily summoned a synod to give him audience. Zoaras uncompromisingly denounced "the accursed council of Chalcedon. " This greatly irritated Justinian, who rebuked him for his presumption. Zoaras in no measured terms denounced the emperor for his support of heresy. A monastery in the suburb of Sykas was assigned as a residence to him and his followers by the emperor, where he lived quietly, exercising great liberality. The embassage of Agapetus, patriarch of Rome, with whom Zoaras held a very stormy encounter which resulted in the deposition of the patriarch Anthimus as a concealed Monophysite and the appointment of Mennas, a. 536, caused an outbreak of orthodox fury against Zoaras and his followers. In the various "libelli" presented to the synod under Mennas he and his heresy are denounced in no measured terms. He is described as a leader of the Acephali (Labbe, v. He had been already condemned and excommunicated by Anthimus's predecessor Epiphanius (ib. Mennas and his synod repeated the condemnation, and Justinian banished Zoaras from Constantinople and its vicinity, and from all the chief cities of the empire, charging him to live in solitude. According to the biography in Land, however, Justinian assigned him a monastery in Thrace, named Dokos, 30 miles away. After a time he left Thrace, and after some years died, leaving as his successor his disciple the presbyter Ananias. Ed
Miracles - A miracle may be defined to be a plain and manifest exercise by a man, or by God at the call of a man, of those powers which belong only to the Creator and Lord of nature; and this for the declared object of attesting that a divine mission is given to that man. It is not, therefore, the wonder , the exception to common experience, that constitutes the miracle , as is assumed both in the popular use of the word and by most objectors against miracles. No phenomenon in nature, however unusual, no event in the course of God's providence, however unexpected, is a miracle unless it can be traced to the agency of man (including prayer under the term agency), and unless it be put forth as a proof of divine mission. --ED. ) Again, the term "nature" suggests to many persons the idea of a great system of things endowed with powers and forces of its own --a sort of machine, set a-going originally by a first cause, but continuing its motions of itself. But if the motions and operations of material things be produced really by the divine will, then his choosing to change, for a special purpose, the ordinary motion of one part does not necessarily or probably imply his choosing to change the ordinary motions of other parts in a way not at all requisite for the accomplishment of that special purpose. Thus, though the stoppage of the motion of the earth in the ordinary course of nature would be attended with terrible convulsions, the stoppage of the earth miraculously , for a special purpose to be served by that only , would not of itself be followed by any such consequences. (Indeed, by the action of gravitation it could be stopped, as a stone thrown up is stopped, in less than two minutes, and yet so gently as not to stir the smallest feather or mote on its surface. --ED. Again, when miracles are described as "interferences with the law of nature," this description makes them appear improbable to many minds, from their not sufficiently considering that the laws of nature interfere with one another, and that we cannot get rid of "interferences" upon any hypothesis consistent with experience. The circumstances of the Christian miracles are utterly unlike those of any pretended instances of magical wonders. (3) The natural beneficial tendency of the doctrine they attested
Nicopolis - (Νικόπολις, ‘City of victory’)...
In days of almost constant warfare, when many triumphs had to be commemorated, this was a favourite name for newly founded cities. Chrysostom and Theodoret took the last of these to be the place referred to in Titus 3:12. But by far the most famous Nicopolis was the city in Epirus which Augustus founded after the battle of Actium. He intended it to be ‘at once a permanent memorial of the great naval victory and the centre of a newly flourishing Hellenic life’ (T. Empire, new Ed. It was laid out where the victor’s headquarters had been stationed just before the battle, at the narrowest part of the promontory which separates the Ambracian Gulf from the Ionian Sea. Augustus peopled it, after the fashion set by Alexander’s successors, by uniting the inhabitants of a large number of minor townships in one great urban domain. He made it a free city like Athens or Sparta, and instituted so-called Actian Games, which he put on the same level as the four ancient Hellenic festivals. In an epistolary fragment which has been preserved, he bids Titus, who has been labouring in Crete, give diligence to join him at Nicopolis, as he has decided to winter there (Titus 3:12). Some Manuscripts of the epistle (A and P) have the subscription, ‘It was written from Nicopolis,’ and these are followed by the Greek commentators (Chrys. It has been generally assumed that St. Paul, after being acquitted by his Roman judges, resumed his labours in the East, and that his letter summoning Titus to Nicopolis belongs to this period. It has further been conjectured that the Apostle made his way, as he intended, to Nicopolis, and that his second arrest took place there (Conybeare-Howson, St. Paul, new Ed. But the evidence for a release is far from convincing, and the question arises whether the Nicopolis episode can be fitted into his biography without this doubtful ‘final phase. , for he was occupied with the settlement of difficulties in the Corinthian Church. Paul may have visited the island with his fellow-worker, and left him to labour there, shortly before his final visit to Corinth. As regards Acts 20:2, it has been suggested that the writer knew very little about the details of St. Titus probably hastened, as directed, to Nicopolis, but some new turn of events prevented St. After falling into decay, the city was restored by Julian; and Justinian repaired the havoc wrought by the Goths; but in the Middle Ages it was supplanted by Prevesa, three miles to the south
Amphilochius, Archbishop of Iconium - Of this great Catholic leader, who was regarded by his contemporaries as the foremost man in the Eastern church after his friends Basil of Caesarea and Gregory of Nazianzus, very scanty information remains. The works ascribed to him are mostly spurious; and the Life (Migne, Patr. 161) might imply that he was born and lived in Basil's own town Caesarea. Their intimate friendship commenced at a later date. Amphilochius, like many other eminent Christian fathers, was Educated for the bar. The letters of his cousin imply that he carried on his profession at Constantinople. ...
It is not improbable that trouble in regard to money matters about 369 weaned Amphilochius from his worldly pursuits and turned his thoughts inward. He had abandoned his profession, and was then living in retirement at Ozizala, devoting himself apparently to religious exercises and to the care of his aged father. Ozizala was situated not far from Nazianzus, for Gregory's correspondence implies that they were near neighbours. A letter of Basil, apparently belonging to this period, is in the name of one Heraclidas, who, like Amphilochius, had renounced the profession of the bar and devoted himself to a religious life. Heraclidas, lodged in a large hospital ( πτωχοτροφεῖον ) recently erected by Basil near Caesarea, and enjoying the constant instructions of the bishop, urges Amphilochius to obtain leave from his father to visit Caesarea and profit by the teaching and example of the same instructor (Ep. The invitation to Caesarea appears to have been promptly accepted, and was fraught with immediate consequences. It does not appear that at that time Amphilochius was even ordained; yet at the very beginning of the year 374 we find him occupying the important see of Iconium. of Iconium, had died, and the Iconians applied to the bp. The first took place soon after his consecration, about Easter 374, and was somewhat protracted, his ministrations on this occasion making a deep impression on the people of Caesarea (Ep. ) that Amphilochius urged Basil to clear up all doubt as to his doctrine of the Holy Spirit by writing a treatise on the subject. This was the occasion of Basil's extant work, de Spiritu Sancto (see § 1), which, when completed, was dedicated to the petitioner himself and sent to him engrossed on vellum ( Ep. of Iconium had propounded to him. He is also invited by Basil to assist in the administration of his own diocese of Caesarea, which has become too great a burden for him, prostrated as he now is by a succession of maladies ( Ep. He has been ill, and he speaks of Amphilochius as having helped to work his cure. He mentions the many letters which he has received from Amphilochius (μυριάκις γράφων ), and which have called forth harmonies from his soul, as the plectrum strikes music out of the lyre (Ep. 381) Amphilochius had been present with his friend at the council of Constantinople, and had subscribed to the creed there sanctioned, as chief pastor of the Lycaonian church, at the head of twelve other bishops (Labb. 1135, Ed. At this council a metropolitan authority was confirmed to, rather than conferred on, his see of Iconium; for we find it occupying this position even before his election to the episcopate. , Ed. ...
About two years later must be placed the well-known incident in which the zeal of Amphilochius against the Arians appears (Theod. Obtaining an audience of Theodosius, he saluted the emperor himself with the usual marks of respect, but paid no attention to his son Arcadius, who had recently ( νεωστί ) been created Augustus and was present at the interview. Theodosius, indignant at this slight, demanded an explanation. Be assured, therefore, that the Lord of the universe abhorreth those who are ungrateful towards His Son, their Saviour and Benefactor. " The emperor, adds Theodoret, immediately issued an Edict prohibiting the meetings of the heretics. As Arcadius was created Augustus in the beginning of the year 383 (Clinton, Fast. 504), and as Theodosius issued his Edict against the Eunomians, Arians, Macedonians, and Apollinarians in Sept. 507), the date is accurately ascertained (see Tillem. He presided over a synod of 25 bishops assembled at Sida in Pamphylia, in which the Messalians were condemned, and his energy seems to have instigated the religious crusade which led to the extirpation of this heresy (Photius, Bibl. 1209, Ed. When Jerome wrote the work quoted above, he was still living (A. Paul was dedicated (Labb. 1378, Ed. On the other hand, he is not mentioned in connexion with the troubles of St. Despite the martyrologies, he probably died in middle life. ...
The works ascribed to Amphilochius (Iambi ad Seleucum, Homilies , etc. 94), on the Macedonian heresy. It is entitled Ἀμφιγοχίῳ Βασίλειος in one MS. , but was certainly not written by Basil, who indeed is mentioned in it. His contemporary Jerome, an eminently competent judge, speaks of the Cappadocian triad, Basil, Gregory, and Amphilochius, as writers "who cram [1] their books with the lessons and sentences of the philosophers to such an extent that you cannot tell which you ought to admire most in them, their secular erudition or their Scriptural knowledge" ( Ep. The trust reposed in him by Basil and Gregory appears throughout their correspondence. The former more especially praises his love of learning and patient investigation, addressing him as his "brother Amphilochius, his dear friend most honoured of all" (de Spir. He seems to have united the genial sympathy which endears the friend, and the administrative energy which constitutes the ruler, with intellectual abilities and acquirements of no mean order
Columba (1) Columcille - The life, character, and work of this saint have been exhaustively treated by an Irish and a French author, Reeves and Montalembert. Columba was the son of Fedhlimidh, son of Fergus Cennfada, and thus descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ireland, his great-great-grandfather. 7, most probably in 521, he was baptized at Tulach-Dubhglaise (now Temple-Douglas, about halfway between Gartan and Letterkenny), under the name, first, of Crimthann (wolf), and then of Colum (dove), to which was afterwards added the suffix cille, as some say, from his close attendance at the church of his youthful sojourn, and as others, from the many communities founded and governed by him. Finnian of Moville (by whom he was ordained deacon). Finnian he was ordained to the priesthood by bp. Why he was never raised to the episcopate is a matter of speculation: in the Scholia on the Felire of St. Aengus the Culdee there is a legend relating how the order of the priesthood was conferred by mistake in place of that of the episcopate (Todd, St. Lloyd supposes a political reason, and Lanigan thinks he applied only for the office of chorepiscopus. 544 we have probably to place the many ecclesiastical and monastic foundations attributed to him in Ireland, his chief favourites being Durrow and Derry. But whatever they may have been, he is said to have used his influence to excite a quarrel between the families of the north and south Hy Neill, and the consequence was the battle fought in the barony of Carberry, between Drumcliff and Sligo, on the borders of Ulster and Connaught, a. 561, and gained by the Neills of the North, the party of St. Columba's participation in this quarrel, a synod was assembled at Teltown in Meath to excommunicate him for his share in shedding Christian blood, and if the sentence of excommunication was not actually pronounced, it was owing to the exertions of St. Whether by the charge of the synod of Teltown, that he must win as many souls to Christ by his preaching as lives were lost at Cul-Dreimhne, or through his own feeling of remorse, or his great desire for the conversion of the heathen he left Ireland in 563, being 42 years old, and, traversing the sea in a currach of wickerwork covered with hides, landed with his 12 companions on the small island of I, Hy, I-colmkille, Iova, or Iona, situated about 2 miles off the S. There, on the border land between the Picts and Scots, and favoured by both, St. Columba founded his monastery, the centre from which he and his followers evangelized the Picts and taught more carefully the Scots, who were already Christians at least in name. Hy was henceforth his chief abode, but he frequently left it for Scotland, where he founded many churches, penetrating N. His connexion with Ireland was not broken; and in 575 he attended the synod of Drumceatt, with his cousin king Aidan of Dalriada, whom he had crowned in Iona in 574. From Iona as a centre he established Christianity on a firm basis to the N. We gather, however, that in his monastery he was indefatigable in prayer, teaching, study, and transcription of the Scriptures; people came to him from all quarters, some for bodily aid, but most for spiritual needs; and soon smaller societies had to be formed, as at Hinba (one of the Garveloch Islands), Tyree, etc. He visited king Bruide at Craig-Phadrick, beside Inverness, and established the monastery of Deer in the N. Drostan, so that his churches are traced all over the N. He also frequently visited Ireland on matters connected with his monasteries, the superintendence of which he retained to the last. He manifested the greatest favour for the bards and national poetry of his country, being himself accounted one of the poets of Ireland, and poems attributed to him are preserved and quoted by Dr. 593 he seems to have been visited by sickness, and the angels sent for his soul were stayed but for a time. As the time approached, and the infirmities of age were weighing upon him, he made all preparations for his departure, blessing his monastery, visiting the old scenes, and taking his farewell of even the brute beasts about the monastery. " He then left his cell to attend vespers, and, returning at their close, lay down on his couch of stone, and gave his last injunctions to Baithen, till the bell at midnight called them to the nocturnal office. Columba was the first to enter the oratory, and when the brethren followed with lights they found the saint prostrate before the altar, and he soon passed away, with a sweet smile upon his face, as though he had merely fallen into a gentle sleep. Ireland justly mourned for one of the best of her sons; Scotland for one of her greatest benefactors. 1857); a more modern Ed. text Ed. Columba , Ed. (Edinb. , codices, authors, and Edd. ]'>[1]...
Columba occupies in missionary history the entire generation preceding the arrival of Augustine (a. The Celtic apostle of Caledonia died the very year in which the Roman mission set foot in the south of Britain. The first abbat of Iona laboured much longer, in a far wider sphere, and personally with more success, as well as prodigiously more romance, than the first archbp
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - In 511 he was active in conjunction with Severus and others in instigating the emperor Anastasius to depose Macedonius, patriarch of Constantinople (Theod. He went to Alexandria, followed quickly by Severus on his expulsion from Antioch (Liberatus, Brev. Timotheus the successor of Dioscorus the younger received both kindly, and they settled near the city. Shortly afterwards a monk appealed to Severus as to whether the body of our Lord should be called corruptible. He answered that the "fathers" had declared that it should. Some Alexandrians hearing this asked Julian, who said that the "fathers" had declared the contrary. In the fierce controversy thus evoked the Julianists charged the Severians with being Phthartolatrae or Corrupticolae, while the Severians charged the Julianists with being Phantasiastae and Manicheans (Liberatus, u. The only writings of Julian that remain are his Ten Anathemas , a Syriac version by Paulus, the deposed bp. of Callinicus, being published by Assemani (MSS. of this valuable document is given by Gieseler in his Commentatio qua Monophysitarum veterum variae de Christi persona, opiniones imprimis ex ipsorum effatis recens Editis illustrantur (P. Three letters from Julian to Severus, also translated by Paulus, and several fragments are among the Syrian MSS. ...
Leontius of Byzantium tells us that Julian earnestly contended for the "Incorruptibility," because he considered the view of Severus made a distinction (διαφοράν ) between the body of our Lord and the Word of God, to allow of which was to acknowledge two natures in Him (de Sect. 1498) and is fully sustained, especially by the eighth Anathema as pub. He was certainly no Phantasiast and far from being a Manichean; but, as Dorner justly observes, in asserting "the supernatural character of our Lord's body," Julian and his followers did not intend to deny its "reality," but only aimed at "giving greater prominence to His love by tracing not merely His sufferings themselves, but even the possibility of suffering" to His self-sacrifice ( Person. of Christ , Ed. ...
Julian by some means recovered his see of Halicarnassus, but in the council of Constantinople A. of Rome, he was again deposed (Theoph. After this he disappears, but his opinions continued to spread long afterwards, especially in the East; where his followers ultimately divided, one part holding "that the body of our Lord was absolutely ( κατὰ πάντα πρόπον ) incorruptible from the very 'Unio' itself" (ἐξ αὐτῆς τῆς ἑνώσεως ); another, that it was not absolutely incorruptible but potentially (δυνάμει ) the reverse, yet could not become corruptible because the Word prevented it; and a third that it was not only incorruptible from the very "Unio," but also increate (οὐ μόνον ἄφθαρτον ἐξ αὐτῆς ἑνώσεως, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἄκτιστον ). These last were distinguished as Actistitae. ...
Four scholastici from Alexandria visited Ephesus c. 549, and prevailed upon bp. In 560, immediately after his decease, seven of his presbyters, who were also Julianists, are said to have placed the hands of his corpse on the head of a monk named Eutropius, and then to have recited the consecration prayer over him. Eutropius afterwards ordained ten Julianist bishops, and sent them as missionaries east and west, among other places to Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, and into Syria, Persia, Mesopotamia, and the country of the Homerites (Asseman. He issued an Edict avowing his change of opinion and gave orders that "all bishops everywhere" should be compelled to accept Julianism (Evagr. 557; Cedrenus, Comp. Ed. This naturally encountered great opposition, especially, among others, from Anastasius patriarch of Antioch (A. But the Gaianites of Alexandria took courage from the Edict to erect churches in that city, and elected Helpidius, an archdeacon, as their bishop (Theoph. He almost immediately incurred the displeasure of the emperor and died on his way to Constantinople, whither he had been summoned. They then united with the Theodosians under Dorotheus, who, Theophanes says, was one of that party, but who both Sophronius of Jerusalem and John of Ephesus, the latter of whom especially was likely to be much better informed than the Chronographer, say was a Julianist (Sophron. Justinian died Nov. 227) and continued so still later. ...
Julian achieved a very high reputation as a commentator on the Scriptures. 1077, selected many of the most striking passages in his Catena Graecorum Patrum in Beatum Job from Julian's exegetical and other writings. This catena was first published by Patricius Junius, with a Latin trans. 37, 45, 66, 93, 170, 178, 228, 230, 273, 437, 465, 480, 505, 539, 547–613, of the former of these Editions. Ed
Rabbulas, Bishop of Edessa - of Edessa, 412–435. Chief authorities: (1) a panegyric in Syriac, compiled soon after his death by a contemporary cleric, himself a native of Edessa, extant in a MS. , of which Bickell has furnished a German trans. He received a liberal Education, and was well versed in pagan literature. From his father he inherited a considerable fortune, and was chosen prefect of his native city. He was still a heathen and for a long time resisted his mother's entreaties to become a Christian. Various instrumentalities contributed to his conversion. The panegyrist attributes it to his intercourse with Eusebius of Chalcis and Acacius of Beroea, and to two remarkable miracles witnessed by him. On his conversion he went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem and was baptized in the Jordan, having previously renounced his property and manumitted his slaves. His wife, daughters, and all the females of his household embraced the religious life, and Rabbûlas retired to the monastery of St. The see of Edessa being vacant in 412 by the death of Diogenes, Rabbûlas was appointed by a synod meeting at Antioch. Edessa was famous for its intellectual activity. Rabbûlas became the leading prelate of the Oriental church, regarded, according to the exaggerated language of the biographer of Alexander, as "the common master of Syria, Armenia, Persia, nay of the whole world. " The panegyrist describes him as having steadily opposed the doctrines of Nestorius from the very first. The church of Edessa, with the East generally, followed the teaching of Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, in which those doctrines were virtually contained, and IBAS, a presbyter of his church, who would have personal knowledge, says that Rabbûlas was no exception. By degrees, however, Rabbûlas veered round, and ended as the most uncompromising opponent of Theodore's teaching, using his utmost endeavours to bring about the suppression of his works. ) His separation from Theodore's school of doctrine was strongly exhibited in the winter preceding the council of Ephesus, 430–431, in a letter to Andrew of Samosata, upbraiding him for having attacked Cyril, a fragment of which is printed by Overbeck among the Syriac documents in his Ed. 565) we learn that Rabbûlas's fiery zeal for orthodoxy had led him to anathematize Andrew before his congregation at Edessa; and according to the panegyrist, Rabbûlas, when visiting Constantinople, preached in the presence of Nestorius and denounced his doctrine. 705) and to that addressed to the deputies of the Orientals to Constantinople ( ib. 725), in both of which the heretical nature of Cyril's teaching is asserted. From this vacillation Rabbûlas speedily recovered. A visit to Constantinople in the winter after the council, 431–432, enabled him to confer with Nestorius's successor, the wise and pious Maximian, and confirmed him in opposition to the Nestorian doctrine, which he returned to his diocese determined to eradicate. The defenders of Nestorius claimed to be disciples of Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, whose names were revered throughout the East. Rabbûlas saw clearly that the evil must be attacked at his source in the works of Diodore and Theodore. He called to his aid the strong will and unscrupulous pen of Cyril. 469), denouncing Theodore as the author of the heresy of Nestorius, which denied that Mary was truly the mother of God. Cyril, in his reply, of which a fragment is preserved ( ib. ), lauded Rabbûlas for his zeal in expelling the blasphemy of Nestorius, and indicated Theodore, though guarding himself from mentioning so revered a name, as "the Cilician," from whose root this impiety proceeded. An extension of the imperial decree was obtained which included "the sacrilegious books" of Diodore and Theodore under the condemnation previously passed on the writings of Nestorius (ib. Rabbûlas's violence is also described in a letter of Andrew of Samosata to his metropolitan, Alexander of Hierapolis, shortly after Easter, 432, complaining that Rabbûlas was dealing with a high hand in Edessa, openly anathematizing Theodore's teaching of one nature in Christ, and excommunicating all who refused to accept the Cyrillian dogmas or who read Theodore's books, which he was everywhere committing to the flames. A synod summoned at Antioch by the patriarch John despatched letters to the bishops of Osrhoene desiring them, if the reports were true, to suspend communion with Rabbûlas (Baluz. Meanwhile Rabbûlas was corresponding with Cyril on the terms of reconciliation between himself and the East; and the two prelates were agreed that nothing short of complete submission on the part of the Orientals and the withdrawal of the condemnation of Cyril's anathemas would satisfy them. The reconciliation was effected in the spring of 433. Andrew of Samosata, becoming convinced of Rabbûlas's orthodoxy by perusing his manifesto, at once left his diocese for Edessa to make reparation to his antagonist. Alexander's anger having been aroused, Andrew wrote to the oeconomi of Hierapolis to justify himself. He had not yet seen Rabbûlas, but he accepted communion with him and Cyril, and embraced the peace of the church ( ib. In their perplexity they summoned a synod, and dispatched two presbyters to Proclus (who in Apr. 434 had succeeded Maximian as patriarch of Constantinople), entreating him to indicate which was the orthodox teaching. Proclus replied in his celebrated "Tome" on the Incarnation, wherein he condemned Theodore's opinions without naming him, a precaution counteracted by the officiousness of the bearers of the document (Liberat. Ed. His death is placed Aug. ...
Nearly all his few surviving works were printed by Overbeck in the original Syriac text, in his Ed
Apollinaris, Saint And Mart - Apollinaris was a native of Antioch, well instructed in Gk. literature, who followed St. On his way he healed the son of Irenaeus who was blind, and did other miracles. At Ravenna he baptized in the river Bidens, and raised the daughter of the patrician Rufus to life; imprisoned by the heathen near the capitol, he was there fed by angels. Afterwards, being expelled from the city, he preached in Dalmatia, Pannonia, Thrace, and Corinth. After three years he returned, suffered new persecutions, and did new miracles, destroying a statue and temple of Apollo by his prayers. He was martyred under Vespasian, after an episcopate of over 28 years. The day of his death is agreed upon as July 23; the year may have been 78. Ed. of Ravenna who suffered martyrdom, and that he, strictly speaking, can only be called a confessor. He did not die, it would seem, a violent death, though it may have been hastened by the persecutions he underwent. Probably, like his successor Aderitus, he died in the port town Classis, where he was buried. Vitale, and into this his body was translated by St. ), "Ecce vivit, ecce ut bonus pastor suo medius assistit in grege. His body was taken to Ravenna in 1515 for safety, but restored in 1655 (see authorities in Acta Sanctor
Barley - —In the Gospels, barley is mentioned only in the account given by St. John (John 6:5-14) of the miraculous feeding of the five thousand with five barley loaves and two fishes. κριθαί), which is employed in the LXX Septuagint to render the Heb. It was cultivated by the Canaanites prior to the time of the Hebrew conquest (Deuteronomy 8:8), and by the ancient Egyptians, as appears from Exodus 9:31 and from the representations on the oldest Egyptian monuments. Among the Jews it was used for making bread (Ezekiel 4:9), and it seems to have been the principal food of the poorer classes (Ruth 2:17; Ruth 3:15, 1 Kings 4:22, John 6:9). This is confirmed by Judges 7:13, where a cake of barley-bread is the symbol of an army of peasants, and is also in accordance with modern usage. Nothing is more common than for these people, at this day, to complain that their oppressors have left them nothing but barley bread to eat’ (Land and Book Mercy of God - It is essential to his nature, Exodus 34:6-7 ; not, indeed, as a passion or affection, as it is in men, but the result of his sovereign will, and guided by his infinite wisdom. His mercy is infinite; it pardons offences committed against an infinitely holy Being, and bestows an infinite good on all who believe, even Jesus Christ, Luke 1:78 . Shall be for ever celebrated in a future state, Psa 89: 2. It is only displayed in and through Christ, Ephesians 2:1-22 :...
It has been farther distinguished into, ...
1. Finally, it is enjoyed in an especial manner by all who are true believers, of every nation, in every age, in every circumstance, in all places, and at all times. Ed
Daniel, the Stylite - , was a Mesopotamian by birth, and in his youth had visited Symeon the Stylite. After having lived a monastic life in convents for several years, at the age of 47 he received as a legacy the cowl of Symeon, and established his pillar 4 miles N. The patriarch Gennadius ordained him presbyter against his will, standing at the foot of his column. Then the patriarch, by means of a ladder, administered the Eucharist, and received it in turn from the Stylite. He lived on his pillar for 33 years, and died at the age of 80. He was visited with reverence by kings and emperors as an oracle; but discouraged all who brought complaints against their bishops. Towards the end of his life, solicited eagerly by both sides, he took part in the dispute between the emperor Basiliscus, a Monophysite, and Acacius patriarch of Constantinople. Descending from his pillar, he appeared in the city, denounced Basiliscus, and inflamed the people with such zeal that Basiliscus published an orthodox Edict. The following is his prayer before he began his life on the pillar: "I yield Thee glory, Jesus Christ my God, for all the blessings which Thou hast heaped upon me, and for the grace which Thou hast given me that I should embrace this manner of life. " In his last will to his disciples, after commending them to the common Father of all, and to the Saviour Who died for them, Daniel bade them "hold fast humility, practise obedience, exercise hospitality, keep the fasts, observe the vigils, love poverty, and above all maintain charity, which is the first and great commandment; avoid the tares of the heretics; separate never from the church your mother: if you do these things your righteousness shall be perfect. Baronius, Ed
Dimoeritae, Followers of Apollinarius - Dimoeritae, another name for the followers of Apollinarius, probably to be explained by a passage in a letter of Gregory of Nazianzum to Nectarius of Constantinople ( Ep. Gregory says that Apollinarius's book affirmed that He Who had come down from above had no νοῦς , but that τὴν θεότητα τοῦ Μονογενοῦς τὴν τοῦ νοῦ φύσιν ἀναπληρώσασαν . Hence, as the Apollinarians maintained that our Lord assumed only (διμοιρία ) two of the three parts (σῶμα , ψυχή , νοῦς ) of which perfect humanity consists, they were called Dimoeritae by Epiphanius, who says (Haer. ) that "some denied especially the perfect Incarnation of Christ; some asserted His body consubstantial with His divinity; some emphatically denied that He had ever taken a soul; others not less emphatically refused to Him a mind. " Epiphanius persisted: "In what sense then do you call Christ τέλειος?" The point was debated without results. Epiphanius urged that not only was nothing gained by excluding mind as we understand it from the nature of Christ; but also that by such exclusion much was lost which made His nature character and actions intelligible. Vitalius and his followers avoided Epiphanius's arguments by reverting to their favourite texts e. ...
The Dimoeritae probably existed, as a sect, for a few years only, either under that name or as Vitalians, Synusiasts, Polemians, Valentinians, after some favourite leader or opinion. Then they died out, or merged themselves into other bodies holding similar views, or were brought back to the church. The books, psalteries, and hymns composed and issued by Apollinarius and his principal followers were met, and their effects counteracted, by books and hymns such as have given to Gregory of Nazianzum a name among ecclesiastical song writers. (ed. Neander, Niedner, Hase, Robertson, s. "Apollinarianism," should be consulted
Eustochium, 3rd Daughter of Paula - Eustochium , 3rd daughter of PAULA, the friend of Jerome, from whose writings all that is known of her is gathered. 370, she had shared from her earliest days the ascetic views of her mother, and was confirmed in them by frequenting the house of Marcella (Hieron. 952, Ed. 161), endeavoured to wean her from these by inviting her to their house, changing her attire, and placing her among the mirrors and the flattery of a patrician reception-room (Hieron. 394, 683); but she resisted their seductions and took the vow of perpetual virginity, being the first Roman lady of noble birth to do so (i. Jerome addressed to her his celebrated treatise de Virginitate Servandâ (i. This treatise excited great animosity against Jerome, and was one cause of his leaving Rome and returning to Palestine. Paula and Eustochium resolving to go there also, embarked in 385 at Portus. At Bethlehem they built and managed the hospice and convent, and from her mother's death in 404 Eustochium was its head till her own death in 418, two years before that of Jerome. 394), and followed the ascetic teaching of Jerome and her mother with unwavering confidence and enthusiasm (i. Jerome praises her skill in the training of virgins, whom she led in all acts of devotion (i. She was eager to increase her knowledge of the Scriptures, and to her importunity Jerome ascribes the writing of many of his commentaries, which were dedicated to her and her mother, and afterwards to her and her niece the younger Paula, who, with the younger Melania, was her coadjutor in her convent work and her study of Scripture. She is reckoned a saint in the Roman church, her festival being Sept
ja'Cob - His history is related in the latter half of the book of Genesis. He bought the birthright from his brother Esau, and afterward acquired the blessing intended for Esau, by practicing a well-known deceit on Isaac. That which was promised he would have received in some good way; but Jacob and his mother, distrusting God's promise, sought the promised blessing in a wrong way, and received with it trouble and sorrow. --ED. ) Jacob, in his 78th year, was sent from the family home to avoid his brother, and to seek a wife among his kindred in Padan-aram. As he passed through Bethel, God appeared to him. After the lapse of twenty-one years he returned from Padan-aram with two wives, two concubines, eleven sons and a daughter, and large property. He escaped from the angry pursuit of Laban, from a meeting with Esau, and from the vengeance of the Canaanites provoked by the murder of Shechem; and in each of these three emergencies he was aided and strengthened by the interposition of God, and in sign of the grace won by a night of wrestling with God his name was changed at Jabbok into Israel. Deborah and Rachel died before he reached Hebron; Joseph, the favorite son of Jacob, was sold into Egypt eleven years before the death of Isaac; and Jacob had probably exceeded his 130th year when he went tither. He was presented to Pharaoh, and dwelt for seventeen years in Rameses and Goshen, and died in his 147th year. His body was embalmed, carried with great care and pomp into the land of Canaan, and deposited with his fathers, and his wife Leah, in the cave of Machpelah. The example of Jacob is quoted by the first and the last of the minor prophets
Naz'Areth - (the guarded one ) the ordinary residence of our Saviour, is not mentioned in the Old Testament, but occurs first in ( Matthew 2:23 ) It derives its celebrity from its connection with the history of Christ, and in that respect has a hold on the imagination and feelings of men which it shares only with Jerusalem and Bethlehem. It is situated among the hills which constitute the south ridges of Lebanon,just before they sink down into the plain of Esdraelon, (Mr. Merrill, in "Galilee in the Time of Christ" (1881), represents Nazareth in Christ's time as a city (so always called in the New Testament) of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, of some importance and considerable antiquity, and not so insignificant and mean as has been represented. --ED. The name of the present village is en-Nazirah the same, therefore, as of old it is formed on a hill or mountain, ( Luke 4:29 ) it is within the limits of the province of Galilee, (Mark 1:9 ) it is near Cana, according to the implication in (John 2:1,2,11 ) a precipice exists in the neighborhood. (Near this town Napoleon once encamped (1799), after the battle of Mount Tabor. All the inhabitants of Galilee were looked upon with contempt by the people of Judea because they spoke a ruder dialect, were less cultivated and were more exposed by their position to contact with the heathen. But Nazareth labored under a special opprobrium, for it was a Galilean and not a southern Jew who asked the reproachful question whether "any good thing" could come from that source. Above the town are several rocky ledges, over which a person could not be thrown without almost certain destruction. There is one very remarkable precipice, almost perpendicular and forty or fifty near the Maronite church, which may well be supposed to be the identical one over which his infuriated fellow townsmen attempted to hurl Jesus
Marcianus, a Solitary in Syria - ), a celebrated solitary in the desert of Chalcis in Syria (Theod. In course of time he admitted to his society, but in separate dwellings, two disciples—Eusebius, his successor in the cell, and Agapetus. At some distance he established an abode, under the care of Eusebius, for those who desired to pursue a monastic life under regulations framed by him. Agapetus retired and became bp. Towards the end of his life Marcian allowed himself to be visited by all who pleased, women excepted, but only after the festival of Easter. About 382 he was visited by Flavian, the new bp. They came to listen to his wisdom, but he persisted in humble silence, and only observed that such as he could not expect to profit men while the word and works of God were so continually appealing to men in vain. Living in the Arian reign of Valens, Marcian's great influence was steadily exerted on the side of orthodoxy and he was an uncompromising opponent of all the prevailing heresies. He zealously upheld the Nicaean rule of Easter and broke off communion with the venerable solitary Abraham in the same desert until he gave up the old Syrian custom and conformed to the new one. His disciple Agapetus founded two monasteries, one called after himself at Nicerta in the diocese of Apamea, and another called after Marcian's disciple Simeon. His disciple Basil erected one at Seleucobelus. 455, Ed
Peregrinus, Called Proteus - Peregrinus (1) , called Proteus , an apostate from Christianity and a Cynic philosopher of the 2nd cent. Ed. He was born at Parium on the Hellespont, where he committed various crimes, including parricide. He escaped justice by transferring his property to the municipality and then passed over to Palestine, where he became a Christian, and, according to Lucian's account, a bishop or at least a presbyter. He was imprisoned for the faith, and Lucian's words are a valuable and truthful description of the conduct of the Christians towards confessors generally. Crowds attended at the prison and ministered to Peregrinus, bribing the gaolers to obtain admission. The "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" takes elaborate precautions against wandering apostles and prophets, who desired only to make gain of the gospel. His real character was, however, discovered, and he was excommunicated. He then became a Cynic philosopher, a sect which Lucian specially abhorred, and resided at Rome. He made use of the licence permitted them to abuse the emperor himself, but was speedily expelled by the prefect Urbis. He next passed into Greece, and there, to obtain a greater notoriety, burned himself alive at the Olympic games at the 236th Olympiad a. Lightfoot has elaborately discussed the relations between the stories of Peregrinus and St
Pinianus, Husband of Melania the Younger - He and his wife entertained Palladius of Helenopolis when be came to Rome on Chrysostom's affairs ( Hist. Melania the elder having died at Bethlehem, they inherited her vast estates. They were intent on doing good and are said to have liberated 8,000 slaves ( ib. After the sack of Rome in 410 they settled in Africa at Tagaste with bp. Alypius and desired to meet Augustine. He immediately wrote to welcome them ( Ep. There the strange scene, so instructive as to the church life of the period, occurred, which is recounted by Augustine ( Ep. The clergy and people of Hippo, knowing their wealth, determined that they should, by the ordination of Pinianus, become attached to their church and city. A tumult was raised in the church, and though Augustine refused to ordain a man against his will, he was unable, or not firm enough, to resist the violence of the people, who extracted from Pinianus a promise that he would not leave Hippo nor be ordained in any other church. Next day, however, fearing further violence, he, with Melania and her mother Albina, returned to Tagaste. Some rather acrimonious correspondence ensued between them and Augustine ( Ep. Alypius considered that a promise extorted by violence was not valid, Augustine demanded that it should be fulfilled; and the controversy lasted until, by the rapacity of the rebel count Heraclian, Pinianus was robbed of his property, and the people of Hippo no longer cared to enforce the promise. On the appearance of the Pelagian controversy, their letters to Augustine induced him to write (a. 2, Ed
Passion Passions - The word ‘passion’ is used in the NT, both in the singular and in the plural, in senses which are now current only in biblical English. ‘Passion’ in the singular is used of the suffering or death of our Lord in Acts 1:3, representing τὸ παθεῖν, which here denotes the Crucifixion (‘after his passion’), and is exactly parallel with Hebrews 2:9, where πάθημα τοῦ θανάτου is rendered ‘the suffering of death. That in His Godhead He was impassible but in His humanity passible was insisted on by Ignatius against Docetic error (Eph. 33 (ed. We may compare the nickname ‘Patripassians’ for the Sabellians, the logical outcome of whose doctrine was that the Father suffered. In another sense, ‘passion’ in the NT is a neutral word unless qualified by the context; in Galatians 5:24 ‘passions’ (παθήματα, AV_ ‘affections’) is qualified by ‘lusts,’ and so the singular πάθος in 1 Thessalonians 4:5 (RV_ ‘passion of lust,’ AV_ ‘lust of concupiscence’); in Romans 7:5 ‘passions’ (παθήματα) is qualified by ‘of sins,’ and the phrase means ‘sinful passions’ (AV_ ‘motions of sins’). The adjective ὀμοιοπαθής, ‘of like passions,’ is entirely neutral; it is used in Acts 14:15 of Paul and Barnabas, and in James 5:17 of Elijah; in 4 Maccabees 12:11 of men; and rather curiously in Wisdom of Solomon 7:3 of the earth (AV_ ‘which is of like nature’ [1], RV_ ‘kindred,’ RVm_ ‘of like qualities’); the meaning seems to be that the earth is mother of all (cf
Eternal Punishment - Divinely instituted penalty of endless suffering, including banishment from God's blessed presence. ...
If the predominant evangelical view is correct, in the Old Testament sheol sometimes refers to a netherworld to which the wicked go at death. ...
Two passages paint a clearer picture of the final destiny of the wicked. Isaiah uses earthly images of corpses beset by an undying worm and inextinguishable fire to point to the final doom of the wicked—eternal punishment (66:24). Daniel teaches that whereas the godly will be raised to never-ending life, the wicked will be raised to never-ending disgrace (12:2). He uses images of darkness and separation to communicate God's rejection of unbelievers and their exclusion from his blessed presence (Matthew 7:23 ; 8:12 ; 22:13 ; 25:30 ; Luke 13:27-28 ). They will be punished with everlasting destruction and shut out from the presence of the Lord and from the majesty of his power. He employs the image of darkness when he likens false teachers to "wandering stars, for whom the blackest darkness has been reserved forever" (v. ...
Revelation combines the Old Testament picture of the wicked drinking the cup of God's wrath (e. , Psalm 75:7-8 ; Jeremiah 25:15-29 ) with hell-fire to depict the perpetual, conscious torment of the wicked (Revelation 14:10-11 ). They had not been annihilated; in fact, John says that all three "will be tormented day and night for ever and ever" (20:10). The wicked are not exterminated, but are outside the city, cut off from the blessings of God (Revelation 22:15 ). Why does God teach such a terrible doctrine in his Word? For two reasons: to provide believers with powerful motivation for evangelism, and to make us grateful to him who redeemed us by suffering the pains of hell for us, both negatively (poena damni, the deprivation of the Father's love, Matthew 27:45-46 ) and positively (poena sensus, the positive infliction of torments in body and soul, Matthew 26:38-39,42 , 44 ; John 18:11 , against the Old Testament background of the cup of God's wrath ). Cameron, Ed. Crockett, Ed. Sigountos, Eds. Edwards and J. Sanders, No Other Name: An Investigation into the Destiny of the Unevangelized
Salim - —Mentioned only John 3:23 ‘aenon near to Salim,’ to fix the place where John was baptizing, ‘because there was much water there. ’ Scrivener’s Edition of the Authorized Version gives as marginal references, ‘Genesis 33:18? or Joshua 15:23? or 1 Samuel 9:4?’; other Editions only the last passage (where the text has Shalim, or rather Shaalim, in Heb. שׁעלים), the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 only the first (margin). It is to be noticed that the former view is also that of Jerome, in his Liber interpret. And before Jerome, Origen also explained in a similar way (on John 10:39, p. 543 of the Berlin Ed. on John 3:23 the new Edition has in the text Σαλίμ but thinks in the apparatus that Σαλήμ would perhaps be better. 35), most of the topographical identifications proposed for these places are discussed. We may add that αινων η εγγυς του σαλι‹μ› is entered already on the mosaic map of Madeba on the left bank of the Jordan, and that the oldest and most explicit discussion of these sites is found in the pilgrimage of the so-called Silvia of Aquitania (or Etheria of Spain), about 385. A special monograph was published in 1903 by C. Mommert (aenon und Bethania die Taufstätten des Täufers, nebst einer Abhandlung über Salem die Königsstadt des Melchisedech, Leipzig), on which see G. ...
When Silvia had finished Jerusalem, she wished to go ‘ad regionem Ausitidem’ to see ‘memoriam sancti Job. Nam in ea valle vicus erat grandis qui appellatur nunc Sedima. In eo ergo vico, qui est in media planitie positus, in medio loco est monticulus non satis grandis, sed factus sicut solent esse tumbae, sed grandis: ibi ergo in summo ecclesia est. ’ She inquires after the place, and receives the answer: ‘haec est civitas regis Melchisedech, quae dicta est ante Salem, unde nunc corrupto sermone, Sedima appellatur ipse vicus. ’ For further details, amongst which is the statement that when people dig for foundations of new buildings, they find ‘aliquoties et de argento et aeramento modica frustella,’ the reader is referred to Silvia. She then remembered that in the Bible it was written: ‘Baptizasse sanctum Johannem in Enon juxta Salim. ’ Therefore she inquired also after aenon, and was shown the place ‘in ducentis passibus … hortum pomarium valde amœnum, ubi ostendit nobis in medio fontem aquae optimae satis et purae, qui a semel integrum fluvium dimittebat. Going on for some time ‘per vallem Jordanis super ripam fluminis ipsius,’ the traveller sees after a little the town of the holy prophet Elia, ‘id est Thesbe,’ where his cave is, and also ‘memoria sancti Gethae,’ of whom we read in the Books of the Judges (this is, of course, Jephthah, and not Gad, as has been suggested by Mommert). 35, and supply from the Berlin Ed. But instead of seeking the place west of the Jordan at Sheikh Salim, Mommert now seeks aenon east of it at ‘Ain Djirm (‘well of the leprosy’), at the foot of the hill ‘Scharabil,’ as he spells it, or ‘Scharhabît’ as it is spelt on the map of Fischer-Guthe, opposite to Tell Ridhgah, with which it has been identified hitherto. A definite result has not been reached as yet; the identity of aenon and Bethany (John 1:28 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ) is not improbable
Aristeas - —This interesting piece of fiction may find a place in this Dictionary, because it gives the first account of that work which more than any other paved the way of the gospel in early times, namely, the Greek translation of the OT, the so-called Septuagint. That it is a fiction is now generally admitted. When the work was finished, a solemn curse was denounced on any one who should change anything in it (cf. (but in 4th Ed. Cohn doubts whether it was known to Philo; Graetz placed it in the reign of Tiberius, and Willrich (Judaica, 1900, pp. ’ Lombroso was the first to show that the ‘author was well acquainted with the details of court life in the times of the Ptolemies’; and recent researches have confirmed this; on the other hand, there are interesting connexions with the Greek of the NT; compare καταβολή used absolutely for ‘creation’ (Matthew 13:35 and Aristeas, § 129
While Jerome had already called attention to the fact that Aristeas speaks only of the Law as having been translated by the 72 interpreters, in later times it became customary to consider the whole Greek OT as the work of the ‘Septuagint. ’ That Jesus Himself was acquainted with it would seem to follow from the quotation in Matthew 15:9 = Mark 7:7. For the words δὲ σέβονταί με ye are the Septuagint rendering of the Hebrew יִראָחָם וַחְּהי, which rendering rests on a confusing of the first word with וָחהוּ (noticed already by Grotius). But it is doubtful whether we are entitled to expect in our Greek Gospels such a verbatim report of the words of Jesus. ) Alfred Deissmann, ‘Die Hellenisierung des semitischen Monotheismus,’ Leipzig, 1903 (reprinted from Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum 1903). —The Letter of Aristeas was first published in Latin (Rome, 1471 fol. ) in the famous Latin Bible of Sueynheim and Pannartz; first Edition of the Greek text by Simon Schard, Basle, 1561; all subsequent Editions superseded by that of (Mendelssohn-) Wendland (Lipsiae, Teubner, 1900), and that of H. Swete’s Introduction to the OT in Greek (Cambridge, 1900, 2nd Ed. ); Friedlander, Geschichte der jüdishcen Apologetik (Zurich, 1903)
Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria - , that it would be hard to find a saint more generally reverenced, or one of whom so little was known on credible authority, and adds that no single fact about her is certain ( Mém. Papebrocius, as quoted in Baron. Ed. the monks on Mount Sinai disinterred the body, as they were eager to believe, of one of those Christian martyrs whose memory they cherished. Catharine's martyrdom, with horrible details of her tortures, an exact report of her dispute in public with the philosophers of the city and of the learned oration by which she converted them and the empress Faustina and many of the court, and how her corpse was transported to Mount Sinai by angels (Martin, Vies des Saints, tom. For in Eusebius the emperor's exasperation is provoked, not, as in the legend, by a refusal to abjure Christianity and to sacrifice to his gods, but by a refusal to gratify his guilty passion; and the punishment inflicted is merely exile, not torture and death. Catharine is commemorated in the Latin and Greek calendars on Nov. In England her festival was promoted from the 2nd class (on which field labour, though no other servile work, was permitted) to the 1st class of holy-days in 13th cent. 54), and retained as a black-letter day at the Reformation. It was left untouched in Germany at the retrenchment of holidays in a. In France it was gradually abolished as a holiday, although the office was retained in 17th cent. of France erected in Paris a costly church in her name; and the famous Maid of Orleans claimed her special favour and tutelage (Martin, u. Catharine was alleged to be preserved in her church in the Piazza of St. She was regarded generally as the patron saint of schools, probably from the tradition of her learned controversy with the philosophers at Alexandria. A semi-monastic order, the Knights of Mount Sinai or of Jerusalem, instituted in Europe a. Their dress was a white tunic, and embroidered on it a broken wheel, armed with spikes, in memory of the jagged wheel on which, according to the legend, the saint was racked, and which was miraculously shattered by divine interposition. the Basilian monks at Paris gave the badge of the order to any candidates who would take the vow of chastity and of obedience to the rule of St. , Ed
Olive - (ἐλαία, ἀγριέλαιος, καλλιέλαιος)...
The only passages in which the olive is referred to in the NT are Romans 11:17; Romans 11:24, James 3:12, Revelation 11:4. In the latter passage the λυχνία is Israel, and the two olive-trees which feed it are probably the monarchy and the priesthood as represented by Zerubbabel and Joshua. The writer of Revelation 11:4 has adapted the imagery of Zechariah 4:2 f. In Revelation 1:12; Revelation 1:20 he has likened the seven churches to seven golden λυχνίαι. These λυχνίαι are kept burning by the oil of the Spirit with which the true members of the Church are imbued (cf. ...
Of recent years olive-trees have been largely destroyed, chiefly with a view to avoiding taxation, but also in part for the supply of fire-wood. The extent to which the olive was cultivated in Palestine in ancient times may be gauged by the large number of olive-presses that are to be seen all over the country. They are often found in immediate association with Troglodyte caves, while a press was actually found inside one cave. In the earliest times the presses were of a simple character and generally consisted of a single circular or rectangular vat with one or two cup-holes in the floor. The olive-presses of a later time show greater elaboration, and in Roman times or after, the receiving-vats were sometimes lined with Mosaic tesserae. The fruit was apparently crushed on the surface of the press with stones, rollers, or pestles, the juice being subsequently expressed by boards placed over the fruit and weighed down with weights. The juice thus extracted was collected in a receiving-vat of greater depth than the press itself. The receiving-vat was sometimes sunk in the press, while sometimes it lay outside, and communicated with it by a channel. In the larger presses, the fruit was not crushed by the aid of movable hand-stones, but by a large, massive stone wheel rotated round a central staple by an ox or horse. One of these wheels that has been recovered has a diameter of 4 ft. The rock in the press-surface was usually left bare, but the receiving-vat was often cemented. They consisted of movable slabs or boulders of stone. The rim within which the fruit was crushed is raised, the juice being collected in a cup hollowed out within the rim. Apart from the natural use of the olive as a fruit, it supplies the place of butter and is used for cooking. The oil is used for lamps as well as for anointing the body, while the soap of the country is made exclusively from it. The wood is used for cabinet-work. , Ed. 1881-86, passim; Ed. 667; Encyclopaedia Biblica iii
Perpetua, Vibia - When 22 years old, married, and having lately borne a son, she was arrested. Her father repeatedly strove to induce her to recant. She and her fellow-martyrs were baptized after their arrest, possibly before their transference to the public prison (cf. They were attended in prison, according to the ancient discipline of the Carthaginian church, by the deacons Tertius and Pomponius (Cypr. She saw a ladder reaching to heaven guarded by a dragon. Saturus mounted first and then Perpetua followed. They came to a large garden, where was a shepherd clad in white, feeding sheep, while thousands in white robes stood around. The shepherd gave Perpetua a piece of cheese, which she received "junctis manibus" and consumed, the attendants saying "Amen. The procurator Hilarianus condemned the martyrs to the beasts. After her condemnation Perpetua saw a vision of her brother Dinocrates, who had died when 7 years old, in punishment, but after continuous prayer for him it was revealed to her that he was removed into a place of refreshment and peace. This vision is a clear proof that prayers for the dead were then used by that party in the church which claimed to adhere most closely to apostolic usages. Some, supposing Dinocrates unbaptized, have claimed it as sanctioning the view that the unbaptized dead are helped by prayer, a view which Augustine combated in de Orig. 9, where he maintains that Dinocrates was in punishment for sins committed after baptism. The day before her passion Perpetua saw another vision, wherein she triumphed over an Egyptian, representing the devil, and was rewarded with a golden branch. When the hour of execution arrived the tribune attempted to array the men as priests of Saturn, the women as priestesses of Ceres, but yielded to the indignant protest of Perpetua. She suffered by the sword, after being tossed by an infuriated cow, but, like Blandina at Lyons in a like trial, was unconscious of any pain (cf. We know that they suffered in the year when Minucius Timinianus was proconsul. There was as yet no general persecution of the Christians, such as soon after developed itself. The freedom enjoyed by the clergy and Christians in ministering to the martyrs is sufficient proof of this. 1, 202, Severus was at Antioch, where he appointed himself and Caracalla consuls for the ensuing year. During the month he proceeded by easy stages through Palestine to Egypt, exercising severities upon the Jews which, according to Renan, have left their mark on the Talmud (Mission de Phénicie , pp. He published an Edict forbidding any fresh conversions from Paganism to Judaism or Christianity, while imposing no penalties on original Jews or Christians. Now all our martyrs were fresh converts, and as such seem to have suffered under this Edict. ...
Some have maintained that Tertullian wrote the Acts of these martyrs. The documents themselves profess to have been written mainly by Perpetua and Saturus, and completed for publication by a third party, who cannot now be identified. The Acts were discovered and pub. The best Ed. of all three texts is Ed
Possidius, Bishop of Calama - Thenceforward he lived in intimate friendship with St. He seems to have established a monastery there, and, probably early in his episcopate, consulted Augustine on ( a ) the ornaments to be used by men and women, and especially earrings used as amulets; (b ) the ordination of some one who had received Donatist baptism (Aug. In 401 or 402 a council was held at Carthage, at which Possidius was present, and challenged in vain Crispinus, Donatist bp. After this Possidius, though he modestly conceals his own name, while going to a place in his diocese called Figulina, was attacked by CRISPINUS, a presbyter, and narrowly escaped alive (Aug. In 407 he was one of a committee of seven appointed by Xanthippus, primate of Numidia, at the request of Maurentius, bp. of Tubursica, to decide a question, of whose nature we are not informed, but which was at issue between himself and the seniors of Nova Germania (Morcelli, Afr. In 408 Possidius was again in trouble and personal danger, in consequence of the disturbances at Calama described above. In 409, on June 14, a council was held at Carthage, and a deputation of four bishops, Florentinus, Possidius, Praesidius, and Benantus, was appointed to request the protection of the emperor against the Donatists. On this occasion Possidius conveyed a letter from Augustine to Paulinus of Nola, but nothing more is known as to the journey of the deputation or their interview, if any, with the emperor, who was then at Ravenna. In 410, however, an Edict was issued by Honorius on or about the day on which Rome was taken by Alaric, viz. 29, 148, 168, Ed. 137, 20) and in 416 signed at the council of Mileum the letter sent to pope Innocent concerning the Pelagian heresy (Aug. He also joined with Augustine, Aurelius, Alypius, and Evodius in a letter to the same on the same subject ( ib. 425) brought to Calama and placed in a memorial building there some relics of St. When the Vandals invaded Africa, he took refuge in Hippo with other bishops, and there attended on St. He has left a biographical sketch of Augustine, whose unbroken friendship he enjoyed for 40 years, being his faithful ally and devoted admirer. Though few men's lives are written in their own works more fully than that of Augustine, yet history and the church would have greatly missed the simple, modest, and trustworthy narrative, gathered in great measure from Augustine himself, which Possidius has left us. It was apparent ly published, not immediately after the death of Augustine, but before 439, as he speaks of Carthage and Cirta as still exempt from capture by the barbarians, and in Oct. Possidius has also left a list of Augustine's works which, though very full and compiled with great care, does not pretend to be complete and of which some have not yet been discovered. of Migne's Ed. Prosper relates in his Chronicle that Possidius, together with Novatus, Severianus, and other bishops of less note, resisted the attempts of Genseric to establish Arian doctrine in Africa, and was driven with them from his see a
Prochorus, a Deacon - of Nicomedia in Bithynia (cf. the list of the 70 in the so-called Dorotheus). ...
Under his name has been preserved an apocryphal History of the Apostle John , first published in the Greek text by Michael Neander in the appendix to the 3rd Ed. In punishment for a first refusal to go by sea John suffers shipwreck, but arrives safely at Ephesus, accompanied by Prochoros his disciple. Here he takes service in a public bath; restores to life the owner's son, who has been slain by a demon, destroys the image of Diana (Artemis) and expels the demon which had harboured there; is banished himself, but soon returns to be again exiled to Patmos by command of the emperor. On the voyage thither he restores a drowned man to life, stills a tempest, and heals a sick guardsman. The greater part of the subsequent narrative is occupied with the wondrous deeds of the apostle in his banishment, his victorious encounters with demons and sorcerers, his refutation of a learned Jew in a public dispute, numerous miracles of healing and raising from the dead, and triumphant issues out of every conflict in which his persecuting enemies involve him. After a residence in Patmos of 15 years he has converted almost the whole island. Receiving permission to return to Ephesus, he first retires to a solitary place in the island (κατάπαυσις ) and there dictates his gospel to Prochoros, and when finished leaves it behind as a memorial of his work in Patmos. He then goes by ship to Ephesus, and dwells there in the house of Domnus, whom he had formerly in his youth raised to life. On the grave being subsequently reopened, the apostle has disappeared. ...
This writing of the alleged Prochoros is, in its main contents at least, in no way a recension of the old Gnostic Acts of John, but the independent work of some Catholic author. Its purpose seems to be to supplement the Ephesian histories of the apostle which already existed in a Catholic recession by a detailed account of his deeds and adventures in Patmos. By far the most of these narrations of the pretended Prochoros are free inventions of his own. The author shews no tendency to ascetic views except where he draws from older sources; and even in discourses attributed to the apostle the theological element is quite subordinate. The account given of this is certainly not derived from the Gnostic Περίοδοι . 761, 470, Ed. ), but also in the accounts of the apostles attributed to Dorotheus, Hippolytus, and others. He is better acquainted with the topography of those parts than with the neighbourhood of Ephesus. Of his personal circumstances we can only say that he certainly was not a monk; perhaps he was a married cleric, possibly a layman
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - For nearly 50 years he was the foremost bishop of his time, held in universal esteem and enjoying unbounded influence. Eusebius says, "He was approved for the sobriety and genuineness of his faith, had. distinguished himself by the boldness of his religious profession, and his fame was widely spread" (Vit. Socrates calls him "the, celebrated Hosius" ( H. Sozomen says: "He was honoured for his faith, virtuous life, and steadfast confession of truth" ( H. § 45) that when Hosius was more than 100 years old, and had been more than 60 years a bishop, he was summoned by Constantius from Spain to Sirmium, and there subscribed an Arian formula about the middle of a. Soon afterwards he returned to his native country and died. 302, 4to, Ed. ...
The common view that he suffered for the Christian faith in Diocletian's persecution between 303 and 305 is more than doubtful. We have his own testimony in his letter to Constantius (the son of Constantine) preserved by Athanasius (Hist. " These words can hardly refer to the general persecution enjoined by Diocletian. 328), and for six years the Roman empire was divided between these two rulers, Diocletian having the East and Maximian the West. When Constantius was made Caesar in 292, Maximian's half of the empire was subdivided. But Constantius, content with the dignity of Augustus, refused to administer Italy and Africa (Eutropius, x. Sed, vir tranquillissimus, Gallia tantum Hispaniaque contentus, Galerio caeteris patribus cessit" ( Hist. 6), was not willing that Christianity should be accounted unlawful in the countries beyond the confines of Italy, i. Probably it was in some special and local persecution carried out under the orders of Maximianus Herculius while he was sole ruler of the West, before Constantius was appointed Caesar in 292, and much before the general persecution authorized by the Edicts of Diocletian in 303. Hosius would have been then between 30 and 36 years old, and it is far more likely that he suffered persecution and witnessed a good confession then than later under the mild rule of Constantius. ...
As the bishops and officers of the church generally suffered first in the outbreaks of persecution, it is more than probable that Hosius was already bp. His earliest public act with which we are acquainted was his presence as bp. of Corduba at the synod of Elvira, but the date of this synod, like that of other events in his history, is involved in much obscurity. Mendoza, who has written more fully upon it than any other author, is of opinion that it should be placed in 300 or 301. Nineteen bishops from different parts of Spain were present, hence it may be regarded as representing the whole church of Spain. As a rule the order of signatures to the Acts of councils indicates the order of precedence among the bishops, either according to the date of their consecration or the importance of their episcopal sees (Hefele, Hist. Spain reached a very high development in the social system of Rome. Roman schools were opened in the coloniae and municipia, the most brilliant being at Corduba and Osca. For nearly two centuries Spain produced men remarkable in all kinds of culture. In the time of Hosius this intellectual activity had considerably declined, and pre-eminence in literary culture had passed to the province of Africa. But Corduba must still have retained a high place in the social development of the time. A man called to such an important see would most probably be one of some personal distinction. The very first canon, indeed, decrees that adults who have sacrificed to idols have committed a capital crime and can never again be received into communion. Such a denial of pardon to those who lapsed under persecution was the chief error of Novatian (Socr. The Novatianist discipline was very rigid in other respects also, especially with reference to carnal sins, and many of the canons of Elvira relate to such offences, and their stern and austere spirit shews how deeply the Fathers at Elvira were influenced by Novatianist principles. It would be interesting to know how Hosius acquired the great influence over Constantine which it is believed he exercised up to the time of the Nicene council. 1, 314, the most numerously attended council that had hitherto been held in Christendom, is remarkable. Bishops from Italy, Gaul, Spain, and Britain were assembled as representatives of the whole Western church. Constantine was absent, being engaged in his first war with Licinius in Pannonia. " Traces exist of the presence of Hosius at the imperial court in 316, when the Donatists, having been condemned at the council in Nov. 43, Ed. of Carthage, they had been condemned. ...
In the relations between Christianity and paganism there is ground for thinking that the position of Hosius at this time must have been somewhat of a representative one on the Christian side; otherwise it is difficult to understand why the emperor should have addressed to him a law declaring free such slaves as were emancipated in the presence of the bishops or clergy (a. 379, Hänel's Ed. of Alexandria, and to Arius, by a trustworthy person named Hosius, who was bp. of Corduba in Spain, whom the emperor greatly loved and held in the highest estimation," urging them not to contend about matters of small importance (Eus. That Hosius, a bishop of the Western church, and speaking only Latin, should be sent to a city in the East in which Greek civilization had reached its highest development is a striking proof of the high opinion that the emperor had of him. Moreover, his mission gave him precedence as an imperial commissioner over the bp. of Alexandria, whose see ranked next to that of Rome. It is not very clear what Hosius did at Alexandria, the accounts being very imperfect and confused. He apparently devoted himself with great earnestness to refuting the dogmas of Sabellius (Socr. We know, however, that he failed to extinguish the flame which the Arians had lighted. Finding it impossible to terminate these controversies, he had to return to Constantine and acknowledge that his mission had failed. 55, "Nicaena synodus auctore illo [1] confecta habebatur"), resolved to convoke an oecumenical council and to invite bishops from all quarters. The part of Hosius in it has been much discussed. Unfortunately no complete account of the acts of the synod is extant, if such ever existed. of Rome held the first place among all his brethren, partly because Rome was the principal city in the world, yet his ecclesiastical jurisdiction does not appear to have extended beyond the churches of the ten provinces of Italy, called in the versio prisca of the 6th Nicene canon "suburbicaria loca. The West was still imperfectly Christianized. It is difficult, therefore, to believe that Hosius presided at the council of Nicaea—an Eastern synod—as legate of the pope. ...
(2) But when we inquire why the usual order of precedence was departed from, we are a little at a loss for a satisfactory answer. 315) thought that Hosius presided because already acquainted with the question at issue and highly esteemed by the emperor. It would be difficult to understand how the bishop of a see in Spain took precedence over the great patriarchs of the East if he had not been appointed by the emperor. ), "as the world-renowned Spaniard, an object of deeper interest to Christendom than any bp. " The power of the popes of Rome was not yet sufficiently consolidated for their claim to preside to have been admitted. Eleven years before, at the great council of the West at Arles in 314; the emperor appointed Marinus, bp. of Arles, to preside, while pope Silvester was represented there, as at Nicaea, by two presbyters and two deacons (cf. The council of Nicaea was convoked by Constantine, and there is good reason to believe that Hosius held the foremost place by his appointment. He is believed to have been the emperor's adviser in ecclesiastical matters. The part that Constantine, then only a catechumen, took in the proceedings at Nicaea shews that he must have received some instruction as to the debated questions from an orthodox teacher. It is very unlikely that he could have of himself given such a philosophical explanation of the Homoousion as he did (see the letter addressed by Eusebius to the Christians at Caesarea and preserved by Socrates, H. 364, crown 8vo Ed. It is probable that the hand of Hosius is to be traced in its composition. His influence was uniformly exercised in this manner. Wherever the Edicts of the government were mild, conciliating, and humane, we find the bp. "...
At the conclusion of the council Hosius seems to have returned to Corduba. For nearly 20 years he lived in retirement in his own diocese. We must look to the history of the time for some explanation of the cause for these altered relations. Constantine left Asia Minor for Rome, which he reached c. His brief stay there was marked by deeds of cruelty. Not long afterwards the young Licinianus, his nephew, a boy of 12, was killed, at the suggestion, it is said, of the empress Fausta, whom retribution soon overtook. There followed a great number of public executions. The true causes of these events are involved in mystery, but Constantine is said to have become a prey to remorse. He was spoiled by prosperity (Eutropius, lib. This moral deterioration was accompanied with great vacillation in his religious opinions. Arius was recalled; and at the instigation of Eusebius of Nicomedia and his adherents, Athanasius was condemned upon a false charge and banished to Gaul a. Not long before his death, in 337, Constantine received baptism from Eusebius of Nicomedia, an Arian bishop. This change in the character and opinions of Constantine was the true cause of his altered relations with Hosius. As the influence of the Arians over his mind increased, that of his old counsellor would of necessity decline. In 345 the emperor Constans summoned Athanasius to Milan from Rome, and informed him that he had been urged by certain bishops (believed to have been pope Julius, Hosius, and Maximinus of Trèves; cf. 16) to use his influence with his brother Constantius, that a council might be called to settle the questions concerning him, the place of meeting to be Sardica. Athanasius while in Milan was directed by Constans to go to Gaul to meet Hosius and travel with him to Sardica (Athan. So long a journey implies considerable vigour of body, and that age had not changed his convictions nor impaired his zeal. Nor had his long retirement lessened his influence or the unbounded respect felt for him by his contemporaries. " His presidency in this case is affirmed in express terms by Athanasius ( Hist. " The Acts shew him as the life and soul of the synod, proposing most of the canons and taking the foremost part in the proceedings. The synod afforded a great opportunity for his wisdom and conciliatory spirit. 44): "on my own account I challenged the enemies of Athanasius, when they came to the church where I generally was, to declare what they had against him. Hosius, they said, had also always been a persecutor of a certain Marcus of blessed memory, a strenuous defender of evil men, and a companion of wicked and abandoned persons in the East (Hilar. 674, Ed. Liberius writes, full of grief, because Vincentius of Capua, one of his legates in whom he had placed great confidence, at a synod consisting chiefly of the Eusebian party, held at Arles in 353, had consented under constraint to give up communion with Athanasius (ib. ...
During his long life Hosius had preserved an unblemished name and been a consistent and uncompromising supporter of the Nicene faith. At length, when 100 years old, he gave way for a brief moment to the violence of his persecutors, and consented under torture to hold communion with Valens and Ursacius (Athan. 45), a concession which has been much magnified and misrepresented. ...
In 355 a synod was convoked by Constantius at Milan, which deserved, says Tillemont (Mém. At this synod the Eusebians first openly declared in favour of the dogmas of Arius, and endeavoured to secure their acceptance by the church. The emperor called upon the orthodox bishops, under penalty of banishment, to join in the condemnation of Athanasius. Most of them gave way, and consented to condemn Athanasius and to hold communion with the Arians (Rufinus, lib. The few who stood firm were banished, bound with chains, to distant provinces: Dionysius, exarch of Milan, to Cappadocia, or Armenia; Lucifer to Syria; Eusebius of Vercelli into Palestine (cf. of Rome, was summoned to Milan, where Constantius was residing, and allowed three days to choose between signing the condemnation of Athanasius or going into exile. He chose the latter, and was banished to Beroea in Thrace. "As long as he escaped their wicked machinations they thought they had accomplished nothing. We have banished the bishop of the Romans, and before him a very great number of other bishops, and have filled every place with alarm. Our heresy knows not to honour the hoary hairs of the aged" (Athan. At their solicitation the emperor had previously summoned Hosius to Milan, c. On his arrival he urged him to subscribe against Athanasius and hold communion with the Arians. Severely rebuking the emperor and endeavouring to convince him of his error, he withdrew from the court and returned to his own country. "Be persuaded," he said, "and subscribe against Athanasius, for whoever subscribes against him thereby embraces with us the Arian cause. " Hosius remained fearless and unmoved, and wrote a spirited answer to, Constantius, preserved by Athanasius, the only extant composition by Hosius ( ib. The emperor continued to threaten him severely, intending either to bring him over by force or to banish him, for, says Socrates ( H. 31) the Arians considered that this would give great authority to their opinions. Finding that Hosius would not subscribe, Constantius sent for him to Sirmium and detained him there a whole year. ), "of his father's love for Hosius, without reverence for his great age, for he was then 100 years old, this patron of impiety and emperor of heresy used such violence towards the old man that at last, broken down by suffering, he was brought, though with reluctance, to hold communion with Valens and Ursacius, but he would not subscribe against Athanasius" (a. § 7) that Hosius "yielded for a time to the Arians, as being old and infirm in body, and after repeated blows had been inflicted upon him above measure, and conspiracies formed against his kinsfolk. ...
It is difficult to determine which of the confessions of faith drawn up at Sirmium was actually signed by Hosius. Whether there was only one synod of Sirmium, or two or three at intervals of a few years, is also a question upon which opinions have differed widely. The predominant opinion is expressed by Valesius in a note to Socrates (H. that there were three synods there, each issuing a different creed. The first, in 351, at which Photinus was deposed, published a confession in Greek. At the second, in 357, Hosius was compelled to be present and his subscription was obtained by force to a creed written in Latin, called by Hilarius "blasphemia apud Sirmium per Osium et Potamium conscripta" ( Opp. Ed. The third Sirmian creed, called the "Dated Creed" from its naming the consuls, was agreed upon at a convention of bishops in May 359 This was the creed afterwards produced by Ursacius and Valens at the synod of Ariminum (cf. Socrates, indeed ( H. 30), says that three creeds were drawn up at the same synod of Sirmium as that which deposed Photinus (a. 351)—one in Greek and two in Latin—neither of which agreed together. 12) that "Hosius had certainly, with the view of arresting the contention excited by Valens, Ursacius, and Germinius, consented, though by compulsion, with some other bishops at Sirmium to refrain from the use of the terms Homoousion and Homoiousion, because such terms do not occur in the Holy Scriptures and are beyond the understanding of men. " These very expressions occur in the creed set forth at Sirmium in Latin, and afterwards translated into Greek, which Socrates gives ( l. ), and there is no room to doubt that this was the confession which Hosius signed. ...
It may be doubted, says Dean Stanley (East. Those who constantly slandered Athanasius would not have many scruples about calumniating Hosius. 73), about 20 years later, says that the Arians thought they could condemn the teaching of the church as to the Homoousion by producing letters fraudulently procured from the venerable Hosius, stating that the substance was dissimilar. 358, upheld the heresy of Aetius, that the Son is dissimilar to the Father, and rejected the terms Homoousion and Homoiousion. When he received the letter of Hosius he spread a report that Liberius had also made the same admission (iv. There is reason also to believe that the creed actually signed by Hosius was interpolated and sent into the East in his name. 580, Ed. ...
Exaggerated reports of the fall of Hosius were spread by the Arians far and wide. Ed. Si nonaginta fere annis male credidit, post nonaginta illum recte sentire non credam. " The Donatists also, whose views Hosius had opposed equally strongly, did not fail to calumniate him. 4, § 7, Ed. of Elvira, refused to hold communion with him, and as Hosius was in the act of pronouncing his deposition he was struck dumb and fell from his seat. 713, Ed. Among ancient writers, no one has referred to the lapse of Hosius so bitterly as Hilary of Poictiers. This is the more remarkable as he had never heard of the Nicene Creed until he went into exile (Hilar. 545 Ed. of Lisbon, with having drawn up the second creed of Sirmium, which he designates in one place ( Opp. Ed. These hard sayings occur in Hilary's treatise de Synodis, written probably in 358, a year after the second synod of Sirmium, at which Hosius was forced to be present. His means of information are not to be compared with those of Athanasius. He is, moreover, the only ancient writer who says that Hosius had any hand in the composition of the creed of the second council of Sirmium, and any combination between Hosius and Potamius, the reputed author with him of this confession, is for other reasons most improbable. The one had been all his life a consistent supporter of the Nicene Creed, the other a renegade. At such an age men do not willingly invent new creeds; they are far more likely to cling tenaciously to old ones. 404 or 405) speaks of the lapse of Hosius as resting on a popular rumour which seemed quite incredible unless extreme old age had enfeebled his powers and made him childish ( Hist. " So public a testimony to his high character is enough to silence all detraction, and the affectionate and reverential language in which the great Athanasius describes the passing frailty of his venerable friend, the father of the bishops, is very different from the furious and intemperate tone in which it is referred to by Hilary. " As he relates the violence used towards him, he expresses only the tenderest commiseration for his friend; but against Constantius, his persecutor, his indignation knows no bounds (Hist. ...
There is some doubt whether Hosius succumbed to the violence used against him at Sirmium and died there in 357, or whether, after subscribing the Arian formula, he was permitted to end his days in Spain. This involves the further question—whether before his death he recanted, and was readmitted into the Catholic church, or retained his Arian opinions to the last. The story told by the Luciferians and the charges brought against his memory by his old enemies the Donatists serve at least to shew that, according to ecclesiastical tradition, he died in Spain. The question is fully examined by Baronius (sub ann
Legion - In both cases the reference is to the large number of persons who compose a legion: in the one case the legions of angels are at the disposal of Jesus, if He asks for them; in the other the great number of evil spirits can be described only by the name ‘legion. The conclusion is that, if Aramaic is behind the passages where the word occurs, the expression was imported into that language from Greek, and reveals the great impression made on the minds of Orientals by the vast organized unity of the Roman army, with which they had become acquainted since the Roman occupation of Syria by Pompey (b. ) legions were quartered in that province during the whole of the 1st cent. , and the sight of these magnificent troops, as they marched in column along the great roads of the country, must have powerfully impressed the natives with the numbers and power of the Roman people. Instead of brigades, battalions, companies, and sections, there were 10 cohortes, each commanded by a tribunus militum, 3 manipuli in each cohors, and 2 centuriœ in each manipulus. The legion was commanded by a legatus legionis (lieutenant-general). Ramsay, A Manual of Roman Antiquities, revised and partly rewritten by R. Lanciani, 15th Ed
Beryllus, Bishop of Bostra - of Bostra, in Arabia, known in his day as one of the most learned teachers of the church. He conceived heretical views as to the person of our blessed Lord, to consider which a synod assembled at Bostra, a. The bishops unanimously condemned his teaching, and declared that Christ at His Incarnation was endowed with a human soul (Socr. Origen, however, who, having been recently degraded from Holy Orders and excommunicated at Alexandria, was then residing at Caesarea, had been invited to the synod, and by his intellectual superiority, dialectical skill, and friendly moderation succeeded in proving to Beryllus the unsoundness of his tenets, and in leading him back to the orthodox faith. For this, according to Jerome, he received the thanks of Beryllus in a letter extant in his time. 22, Ed. Bened. , which have led to very opposite conclusions. These may be seen in Dorner, where the whole question is discussed at length. His views were Monarchian, and are identified by Schleiermacher with those of the Patripassians, and by Baur with those of Artemon and the neo-Ebionites. The leading ideas of his teaching as developed by Dorner from Eusebius were as follows: (1) there existed a πατρικὴ θεότης in Christ, but not an ἰδία θεότης : (2) Christ had no independent existence in a circumscribed form of being of His own (κατ᾿ ἰδίαν οὑσίας περιγραφήν ), before His Incarnation (ἐπιδημία ). (3) Subsequently to His Incarnation, He Who had been identified with the πατρικὴ θεότης became a circumscribed Being possessed of an independent existence; the being of God in Christ being a circumscription of the θεότης of the Father, i
Eutherius, Bishop of Tyana - Before the council he was in active correspondence with John of Antioch, about the alleged Apollinarianism of Cyril of Alexandria and his adherents (Theod. His name occurs in the various documents addressed to, and issued by, the members of his party collectively at this council. On July 18 John and his adherents were deposed and excommunicated, and Eutherius among them ( Act. 654); his sentence being confirmed at Constantinople before the end of the year. Firmus was sent to Tyana to ordain a successor to Eutherius, and met with great opposition from the citizens, who were much attached to their bishop. Longras also, the imperial officer in command of the Isaurian troops there, interfered; and both Firmus and the person whom he had ordained were compelled to flee. The newly ordained bishop renounced his orders, and seems to have returned to lay life (Theod. After the reconciliation of Cyril and John of Antioch, Eutherius wrote to John to remonstrate with him on his inconsistency and want of loyalty to what he once contended for ( ib. 681); to Alexander of Hierapolis, who was opposed to the reconciliation, a long letter ably defending the position which they and others were still determined to maintain ( ib. Eutherius was ultimately banished to Scythopolis, and from thence to Tyre, where he died ( ib. ...
He is the author of a treatise in 17 chapters, with a prefatory letter addressed to Eustathius bp. of Parnassus, which Photius ascribed to Theodoret (Phot. 79), and which has since been attributed by some to Maximus the Martyr, and by others to Athanasius (Garner's notes on Marius Mercator in Patr. Ed
an'Tioch - --This metropolis was situated where the chain of Lebanon, running northward, and the chain of Taurus, running eastward. Here the Orontes breaks through the mountains; and Antioch was placed at a bend of the river, 16 1/2 miles from the Mediterranean, partly on an island, partly on the levee which forms the left bank, and partly on the steep and craggy ascent of Mount Silpius, which, rose abruptly on the south. In the immediate neighborhood was Daphne the celebrated sanctuary of Apollo 2 Maccabees 4:33 ; whence the city was sometimes called Antioch by Daphne , to distinguish it from other cities of the same name. --The city was founded in the year 300 B. One feature, which seems to have been characteristic of the great Syrian cities,--a vast street with colonnades, intersecting the whole from end to end,--was added by Antiochus Epiphanes. By Pompey it was made a free city, and such it continued till the time of Antoninus Pius. The early emperors raised there some large and important structures, such as aqueducts, amphitheatres and baths. (Antioch, in Paul's time, was the third city of the Roman empire, and contained over 200,000 inhabitants. --ED. --No city, after Jerusalem, is so intimately connected with the history of the apostolic church. Jews were settled there from the first in large numbers, were governed by their own ethnarch, and allowed to have the same political privileges with the Greeks. The chief interest of Antioch, however, is connected with the progress of Christianity among the heathen, Here the first Gentile church was founded, ( Acts 11:20,21 ) here the disciples of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ) It was from Antioch that St. Paul started on his three missionary journeys. This city, like the Syrian Antioch, was founded by Seleucus Nicator. Under the Romans it became a colonia , and was also called Caesarea
Marius Mercator, a Writer - his friend or pupil, and who addressed to him a letter, containing a long passage identical with one in that work ( Ep. ...
Probably a native of Africa, in Rome in 417 or 418, and thought by Baluze to have outlived the council of Chalcedon, a. When Julian of Eclana was lecturing at Rome in 418 in favour of Pelagianism, Mercator replied to him, and sent his reply to St. Augustine, to whom not long afterwards Mercator forwarded a second treatise. Whether these two works exist or not is doubtful, but a treatise called Hypognosticon , or Hypermesticon , in six books, included in vol. Augustine's works (ed. Five of the books treat of Pelagianism, and the sixth of Predestination. The letter of Augustine, forwarded by Albinus, a. 418, expresses admiration of the learning of Marius and discusses points submitted for consideration. —A memorial against the doctrines of Coelestius and Julian, disciples of Pelagius, written in Greek, and presented by Mercator to the emperor Theodosius II. 429, translated by himself into Latin. A treatise, to which the Commonitorium is a preface, against Julian, entitled Subnotationes in verba Juliani , written after the death of Augustine, a. Translations of various works relating to Pelagianism, including the creed of Theodore of Mopsuestia, with a preface and a refutation of the creed by Mercator
Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch - He succeeded Alexander, under whom the long-standing schism at Antioch had been healed, and followed his lead in replacing the honoured name of Chrysostom on the diptychs of the church. He is described by Theodoret, at one time one of his presbyters, as "the pearl of temperance," "adorned with a splendid life and a knowledge of the divine dogmas" (Theod. Joannes Moschus relates anecdotes illustrative of his meekness when treated rudely by his clergy, and his kindness on a journey in insisting on one of his presbyters exchanging his horse for the patriarch's litter (Mosch. On the real character of Pelagius's teaching becoming known in the East and the consequent withdrawal of the testimony previously given by the synods of Jerusalem and Caesarea to his orthodoxy, Theodotus presided at the final synod held at Antioch (mentioned only by Mercator and Photius, in whose text Theophilus of Alexandria has by an evident error taken the place of Theodotus of Antioch) at which Pelagius was condemned and expelled from Jerusalem and the other holy sites, and he joined with Praylius of Jerusalem in the synodical letters to Rome, stating what had been done. 424 (Marius Mercator, Ed. When in 424 Alexander, founder of the order of the Acoemetae, visited Antioch, Theodotus refused to receive him as being suspected of heretical views. His feeling was not shared by the Antiochenes, who, ever eager after novelty, deserted their own churches and crowded to listen to Alexander's fervid eloquence (Fleury, H. 426, and united in the synodical letter addressed by the bishops then assembled to the bishops of Pamphylia against the Massalian heresy (Socr. He died in 429 (cf
Veronica - Veronica (Haemorrhoissa ἡ αἱμοῤῥοοῦσα) the woman cured of a bloody issue (Mat_9:20). 18) relates that she was a native of Caesarea Philippi and adds that "at the gates of her house on an elevated stone stands a brazen image of a woman on a bended knee with her hands stretched out before her like one entreating. Before her feet and on the same pedestal there is a strange plant growing which rising as high as the hem of the brazen garment is a kind of antidote to all kinds of diseases. This statue they say is a statue of Jesus Christ and it has remained even until our times so that we ourselves saw it whilst tarrying in that city. Nor is it to be wondered at that those of the Gentiles who were anciently benefited by our Saviour should have done these things. Since we have also seen representations of the apostles Peter and Paul and of Christ Himself still preserved in paintings it is probable that according to a practice among the Gentiles the ancients were accustomed to pay this kind of honour indiscriminately to those who were as saviours or deliverers to them. Legendary tradition about Veronica flourished during and after 4th cent. Macarius Magnesius says she was princess of Edessa and that her name was Veronica or Berenice (Macarii Magnet. Ed. A late tradition represents her as a niece of king Herod and as offering her veil or a napkin as a sudarium to the suffering Christ on the Way of the Cross Whose pictured features were thus impressed upon the linen. ; the "veronicas" often shewn and accredited with miraculous powers of healing are face-cloths from the catacombs on which Christian reverence and affection have painted the features of the Saviour (see Wyke Bayliss Rex Regum 1905) and the legend has arisen from the finding of these; the name of the saint being clearly formed from the description of such a face-cloth as a vera icon
Sod'om - It is commonly mentioned in connection with Gomorrah, but also with Admah and Zeboim, and on one occasion -- ( Genesis 14:1 ) . The four are first named in the ethnological records of (Genesis 10:19 ) as belonging to the Canaanites. In the midst of the garden the four cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim appear to have been situated. It is necessary to notice how absolutely the cities are identified with the district. the topographical terms are employed with all the precision which is characteristic of such early times. The catastrophe by which they were destroyed is described in (Genesis 19:1 ) . From all these passages, though much is obscure, two things seem clear:
That Sodom and the rest of the cities of the plain of Jordan stood on the north of the Dead Sea; ...
That neither the cities nor the district were submerged by the lake, but that the cities were overthrown and the land spoiled, and that it may still be seen in its desolate condition. ...
The opinion long current that the five cities were submerged in the lake, and that their remains--walls, columns and capitals--might he still discerned below the water, hardly needs refutation after the distinct statement and the constant implication of Scripture. But, ...
A more serious departure from the terms of the ancient history is exhibited in the prevalent opinion that the cities stood at the south end of the lake. It seems to have been universally held by the medieval historians and pilgrims, and it is adopted by modern topographers probably without exception. (a) "Lot," says he, "fled to Zoar, which was near to Sodom; and Zoar lay almost at the southern end of the present sea, probably in the month of Wady Kerak . Robinson, Schaff, Baedeker, Lieutenant Lynch and others favor this view. --ED. ) It thus appears that on the situation of Sodom no satisfactory conclusion can at present be readied: On the one hand, the narrative of Genesis seems to state positively that it lay at the northern end of the Dead Sea. On the other hand, long-continued tradition and the names of the existing spots seem to pronounce with almost equal positiveness that it was at its southern end. Of the catastrophe which destroyed the city and the district of Sodom we can hardly hope ever to form a satisfactory conception. Some catastrophe there undoubtedly was but what secondary agencies, besides fire, were employed in the accomplishment of the punishment cannot be safely determined in the almost total absence of exact scientific description of the natural features of the ground round the lake. We may suppose, however, that the actual agent in the ignition and destruction of the cities had been of the nature of a tremendous thunder-storm accompanied by a discharge of meteoric stones, (and that these set on fire the bitumen with which the soil was saturated, and which was used in building the city. And it may be that this burning out of the soil caused the plain to sink below the level of the Dead Sea, and the waters to flow over it--if indeed Sodom and its sister cities are really under the water. --ED
Gildas, Monk of Bangor - Gildas ( Gildasius, Gildus, Gillas ), commemorated Jan. In medieval Lives Gildas appears in a well-defined individuality, but a more critical view detects so many anachronisms and historical defects that it has been questioned, first, whether he ever lived, and secondly, whether there were more Gildases than one. Though he is mentioned by name, and his writings quoted from by Bede, Alcuin, William of Newburgh, Geoffrey of Monmouth, and Giraldus Cambrensis, there is no memoir of him written within several centuries of his supposed date, and the two oldest, on which the others are based, are ordinary specimens of the unhistorical tone of mind of the 11th and 12th cents. To surmount the chronological and historical difficulties, Ussher, Ware, Bale, Pitseus, Golgan, and O'Conor have imagined at least two of the name, perhaps even four or six, about the 5th and 6th cents. These have received distinguishing designations, and thus have obtained a recognized position in history. But the more probable and more generally received opinion is that there is but one Gildas, who could not have lived earlier than about the end of the 5th cent. The oldest authority is Vita Gildae, auctore monacho Ruyensi anonymo , Ed. ), and attributed to the 11th cent. "Nor need this seem so very strange," says O'Hanlon ( Irish Saints , i. The diversities of chronological events, and of persons hardly contemporaneous, will only enable us to infer that the sources of information were occasionally doubtful, while the various coincidences of narrative seem to warrant a conclusion that both tracts were intended to chronicle the life of one and the same person. 32, 3rd Ed. ; a sorrowful spectator of the miseries and almost utter ruin of his countrymen by a people under whose banner they had hoped for peace. By those who suppose there were two or more bearing the same name, "Albanius" is placed in the 5th cent. ...
The writing ascribed to Gildas was long regarded as one treatise, de Excidio Britanniae ; but is now usually divided into the Historia Gildae and Epistola Gildae . The former is a bare recital of the events of British history under the Romans, and between their withdrawal and his own time; the latter a querulous, confused, and lengthy series of bitter invectives in the form of a declamatory epistle addressed to the Britons, and relating specially to five kings, "reges sed tyrannos," named Constantinus, Aurelius, Conan, Vortiporus, Cuneglasus and Maglocunus. Many, though probably without quite sufficient reason, regard the latter as the work of a later writer, and as intended in the ecclesiastical differences of the 7th and 8th cents
Only- Begotten - It is used of Christ absolutely, ‘the Only-begotten,’ in John 1:14; and with ‘Son of God’ or ‘his Son’ in John 3:16; John 3:18, 1 John 4:9. The reading in John 1:18 is disputed; the best-attested reading is μονογενὴς θεός (without the article), ‘God only begotten’ (אBCL Pesh. ) thinks that it had μονογενὴς θεός, and that the unrevised Syr-cu had ‘the Only-begotten’ as the Diatessaron. This is to some extent confirmed by the Ignatian interpolator (Philipp. The Fathers are divided; the old Roman Creed (as given by Swete, Apostles’ Creed, p. 16) has ‘unicum filium,’ which evidently presupposes the second reading (the derived ‘Apostles’ Creed’ has ‘filium eius unicum dominum nostrum’; see below). ...
Another Greek rendering of יָחִיד, is ἀγαπητός, and this is found in the Septuagint of Genesis 22:2, whence the same word has found its way into 2 Peter 1:17 and into Matthew 17:5, Mark 9:7 (‘my beloved Son’); in Luke 9:35 the best Manuscripts have ἐκλελεγμένος, ‘chosen. ’ But the Septuagint has μονογενής in Judges 11:34 (Jephthah’s daughter) and Tobit 3:15 (Sarah, daughter of Raguel), and Aquila seems to have used it in Genesis 22:2 (Hort, Two Dissertations, p. Meaning as applied to our Lord. ‘The Divine essence was so peculiarly communicated to the Word that there never was any other person naturally begotten of the Father, and in that respect Christ is the only begotten Son of God’ (Pearson; cf. 4: ‘He is called Son, not as advanced by adoption, but as naturally begotten’). The emphasis on the first part of the word is the same as that on ἑαυτοῦ and ἰδίου in Romans 8:3; Romans 8:32 (‘God sending his own Son … spared not his own Son’); in these phrases St. But was it the earliest interpretation? It is certainly the fact that μονογενής was not much used by the writers of the first three quarters of the 2nd cent. used it for their aeon Nous; they certainly treated the Only-begotten of Jn. 150) in the old Roman Creed-in the Greek form of the Creed as μονογενής, in the Latin form as unicus-perhaps as a protest against the misuse of it by the Valentinians. In some Western forms of the Creed, however, it is absent. μονογενής is constantly used by Irenaeus. Glaubensbekenntniss, Ed. 1892) that in the Roman Creed the title refers only to the Incarnate Life, not to the Pre-existent Sonship. This is certainly not the case with Justin (see above); and Aristides affirms the pre-existence of the Son of God (‘He is named the Son of God most High; and it is said that God came down from heaven, and … clad Himself with flesh, and in a daughter of man there dwelt the Son of God,’ Apol. 2, Ed. 7) that our Lord was ‘generate and ingenerate’ (γεννητὸς καὶ ἀγέννητος)-generate, that is, in His humanity, and ingenerate in His Divinity; ‘generation’ as used by Ignatius has an earthly sense, whereas by the time of Justin and Tatian it had acquired a heavenly one (cf. What Ignatius means is that our Lord’s humanity is created, His Divinity is uncreated; and, as Lightfoot shows (excursus in Apostolic Fathers: ‘Ignatius’2, ii. ...
Other interpretations of ‘Only-begotten’ make it equivalent to ‘begotten by one alone,’ as Eunomius asserted (Basil, c. 20: μόνος παρὰ μόνου … γεννηθείς), or to ἀγαπητός, ‘beloved,’ as is affirmed by the Racovian Catechism (Socinian). ...
The word μονογενής is found in the Nicene and ‘Constantinopolitan’ Creeds, in the early Creed of Jerusalem (gathered out of Cyril’s Catechetical Lectures), in the Creed of Marcellus (Epiphanius, Haer. 41, and apparently in all Greek forms of the Apostles’ Creed. Pearson, On the Creed, new Ed. Swete, The Apostles’ Creed3, 1899; F
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - Joannes (520), surnamed Moschus and Eucratas (also Everatas and Eviratus, corruptions of Eucratas as Fabricius remarks), a monk, author of Pratum Spirituale, c. The materials of his Life are to be collected from his book (which exhibits no historical arrangement), a brief notice by Photius (Cod. of which Migne has printed a Latin version entitled Elogium Auctoris. This document extends the chronological material, and purports to have been composed while the Laura of St. ...
Photius states that Moschus commenced the recluse life in the monastery of St. In the Pratum Moschus is found at two monasteries named after two Theodosii, near Antioch and Jerusalem respectively. The one intended by Photius is a Laura founded c. 92) shews Moschus at this spot, described as "in the desert of the holy city," Gregory being archimandrite. This circumstance, unnoticed by Photius, is assigned by the Elogium to the beginning of the reign of Tiberius ( i. The absence was perhaps temporary, and Moschus's more protracted wanderings in Egypt may be assigned to a much later day. His Palestine life lasted more than 25 years, and Sophronius Sophista is frequently mentioned as his companion, once with a remark that it was "before he renounced the world. Theodosius, he afterwards resided with the monks of the Jordan desert and in the new laura of St. The laura of Calamon where Moschus visited was near Jordan (157, 163). Another ten years (67) he resided at the laura of Aeliotae. 246); he records having ascended from "holy Gethsemane" to the "holy mount of Olives" (187). He resided at the laura of St. Sabas, called New Laura (3,128) near the Dead Sea (53), and a few miles E. He visited the μονή of the eunuchs near "holy Jordan" (135–137), the xenodochium of the fathers at Ascalon (189), and Scythopolis (50). >From the wilderness of Jordan and the New Laura, says Photius, John went to Antioch and its neighbourhood, the Elogium adding that this occurred when the Persians attacked the Romans because of the murder (Nov. In 603 Chosroes declared war against Phocas. He visited the μοναστήριον (also μονή ) of the elder St. This was his principal visit to Egypt, the only one noticed by Photius and the most prominent one in the Elogium , which states his reason for leaving Syria to have been the invasion of the empire by the Persians, i. Syria in and after 605 (as detailed by Rawlinson, Seventh Monarchy , 501, 502). At Alexandria Moschus remained eight years (as the Latin version renders νρόνους ὁκτώ , Prat. There are recorded also visits to the Thebaid cities of Antinous and Lycus (44, 143, 161), to the laura of Raythu (115, 116, 119) on the Red Sea shore (120, 121), and to Mount Sinai (122, 123). Photius states that from Egypt Moschus went to Rome, touching at some islands en route, and at Rome composed his book. This again assists the chronology; for as the Persians obtained possession of Jerusalem in 615 and in 616 advanced from Palestine and took Alexandria (Rawl. The Elogium relates how on his deathbed at Rome he delivered his book to Sophronius, requesting to be buried if possible at Mount Sinai or at the laura of St. Sophronius and 12 fellow-disciples sailed with the body to Palestine, but, hearing at Ascalon that Sinai was beset by Arabs, took it up to Jerusalem (in the beginning of the eighth indiction, e. 1, 620) and buried it in the cemetery of St. ...
The work of Moschus consists of anecdotes and sayings collected in the various monasteries he visited, usually of eminent anchorets of his own time, as he states in his dedicatory address to Sophronius; but some whose stories were related belonged to an earlier period, e. The work is now distributed in 219 chapters, but was originally comprised, says Photius, in 304 narrations ( διηγήματα ). 5, 55, 92, 95, 105) contain 2 or even 3 distinct narrations, introduced by the very word διήγημα . In the time of Photius some called it Νέον Παραδείσιον ( Hortulus Novus ), and it has since been named Viridarium , Νέοσ Παράδεισος ( Novus Paradisus ) and Λειμωναριον . The title Pratum Spirituale apparently originated with the first Latin translator, said by Possevinus to have been Ambrosias Camaldulensis ( ob. 1439) who translated numerous works of the Greek Fathers (Oudin. of Rosweyd's Vitae Patrum (1615), which Migne reprinted in 1850 ( Pat. ), prefixing to the Pratum the Elogium Auctoris already described. In 1624 an incomplete Greek text made its appearance, accompanying the Latin, furnished by Fronto Ducaeus in vol. of the Auctarium to the 4th Ed. In La Bigne's Ed. 341) supplied more of the Greek and gave an independent Latin translation of some parts. 2814) reprinted the thus augmented Greek, leaving a gap of only three chaps. 124, Ed. The authorship of the Pratum used sometimes to be attributed to Sophronius, in whose name it is cited by John of Damascus ( de Imagin. John Moschus and his book are treated by Cave (i
Lord's Prayer (i) - Not far from the traditional site of Gethsemane, on the slope of the Mount of Olives, stands to-day the Church of the Paternoster, showing in the quadrangle the Lord’s Prayer engraved in thirty-two languages. ...
The Lord’s Prayer has been frequently published in Polyglot Editions; the oldest at Rome, 1591, in 26 languages; then by II. Megiser, Frankfort, 1593, in 40
In the new and enlarged Edition of The Lord’s Prayer in Five Hundred Languages, comprising the Leading Languages and their Principal Dialects throughout the World, with the Places where Spoken; with a Preface by Reinhold Rost (London, Gilbert & Rivington, 1905), the Lord’s Prayer is given in English in sixteen forms, namely: Charles 11. Prayer-Book, 1662; Edward VI. ; from Wyclif, about 1380; Tindale, 1534; Cranmer, 1575; Rheims Version, 1582; Authorized Version , 1611; Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 , 1881; The Twentieth Century NT; further, in Anglo-Saxon. ...
A disciple—it is not said whether one of the Twelve—asked Jesus, as He was praying in a certain place, when He ceased, ‘Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples. On a form of prayer ascribed to John, see ‘Lord’s Prayer’ (by present writer) in EBi
[5] 6, and the Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (p. ’ Where fixed forms of prayer are in use, as was the case, it seems, with the Jews in the time of Christ, it is but natural that petitions on particular subjects should be added to them; such additions are mentioned as made, for example, by R. , which, according to the common view, was used by our Mt. Wright, Synopsis2 [7] , 1903, p. If the first Gospel was originally written in (Hebrew or) Aramaic, its author may have had the Lord’s Prayer before him, written or oral, in (Hebrew or) Aramaic, and given it in one of these dialects; then the translator may have formed the Greek under the influence of Lk. The opposite view, that ἐπιούσιος was first coined by Mt. or one of his fellow-workers, is maintained, for instance, by A. In the Received Text, it is true, they differ very little; in the Authorized Version , for instance, the variations are but four:...
Matthew. ...
sins, for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. the Authorized Version preserved the order of the Pr. has been assimilated to that of Mt. The modern critical Editions agree almost to the letter; see the Editions of Scrivener, Weymouth, Nestle. Weiss retained in Mt. ]'>[9] [10] may be supplemented by the following notes:...
(1) The Didache (8:2) has the singular τῷ οὐρανῷ; the Apost. ...
(4) On the article for ‘on earth,’ see EBi [4] 2818, Burkitt in his Ed. Gibson’s Ed. ...
(6) In some Oriental translations ‘deliver’ is rendered by different roots in Mt. , and then both are combined in liturgical use of the Lord’s Prayer. (7:24) one MS, on the contrary, omits ‘and the power and the glory’; and the same two clauses are omitted by another MS at 3:18, which with its ally ends ‘of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. ’ In this connexion it is worth while to remark, that Funk, in his new Edition of the Didascalia and Apost. the modern Editions differ even less than in Mt. With this unity contrast the judgment of Dean Burgon (The Revision Revised, pp. But so little do they agree among themselves, that they throw themselves into six different combinations in their departures from the Traditional Text; and yet they are never able to agree among themselves as to one single various reading: while only once are more than two of them observed to stand together, and their grand point of union is no less than an omission of the article. may compare the critical apparatus of the Latin Testament of Wordsworth-White, or of the pre-Lutheran German Bible as Edited by Kurrelmeyer. is, What about the petition ἐλθέτω τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμά σον ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς καὶ καθαρισάτω ἡμᾶς, which is witnessed for Marcion and found since in one MS (604, or Scrivener’s b, Gregory’s 700, von Soden’s ε 133, pub. Perhaps a trace of it is found in D [9] is not quite clear from its comma (in this case we should have expected a colon). ’...
On the fact that in mediaeval explanations the beginning was construed ‘Pater noster qui es. Aramaic אַבָּא, which is connected with ὁ πατήρ in Romans 8:15, Galatians 4:6, Mark 14:36. Among Jews it is customary to add שֶׁבַּשָׁמַיִם in Hebrew (דְּבַשְׁמַיָא in Aramaic) to אָב where it is used of God, but the isolated אַבָּא is not unusual. In the NT ὁ ἑν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς is almost exclusively used in Matthew. Paul and his churches with the Lord’s Prayer may be concluded, see Gerh. is almost exclusively used. SE* [19] 3, and the beginning of the Kaddish תְנַּדַּל וְיִתְקרַּשׁ שְׁמַיה רַבָּא; afterwards eight more such verbs are placed together about ‘the name of holiness (Blessed be it). ’ A benediction without mentioning הַשֵׁם (= יהוה) is no benediction at all (Ber. ...
(d) Likewise a benediction with no מַלְבוּת is no benediction at all (ib. 13, עשֵׁי̇ דְצוֹנָךָ; in the Kaddish: ‘May your prayers be accepted, and may your petition be done. Mareds. His most explicit statement has been published by Morin, Anecd-Mareds. ’ This lends a strong support to the view that ἐπιούσιος is formed from ἡ ἐπιοῦσα, ‘the coming day,’ even if this mâhâr were nothing but a retranslation of the Greek. But another view is that it is the original word used by Jesus and preserved by the Jewish-Christian communities. ]'>[11] cur sin and Acts of Thomas ‘the continual bread’ (לחמא אמינא); the same tradition seems to be followed by the cotidianus of the Latin, the sinteinan of the Gothic, especially by לחמנו חמירי of Shemtob ben Shafrut, with which cf. ’ [5] 1; but it is repeated by Wellhausen in his Com. and not recalled in that on Lk. How the Peshitta (Rabula?) came to translate ‘the bread of our need,’ לחמא דסונקנן, is not quite clear, while the translation ‘our bread of richness’ in the Syro-Palestinian version rests on confusion with περιούσιος. ...
The following is a conspectus of the different renderings that have been tried:...
(1) Shemtob: לחמנוּ חמירי. Jona, Rome, 1668: על הקיום להמנו, a literal rendering of the supersubstantialis of the Vulgate, as überstantlich in three Editions of the pre-Lutheran German Bible
Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata - All that is definitely known of Eusebius is gathered from the epistles of Basil and of Gregory, and from some incidents in the Ecclesiastical History of Theodoret. The fervent and laudatory phrases applied to him might suggest hyperbole if they were not so constant ( Epp. Ed. Basilii opera, Ed. Meletius soon proclaimed explicitly his Nicene Trinitarianism and was banished by Constantius on the charge of Sabellianism. Meanwhile Eusebius had returned to Samosata with the written record of the appointment of Meletius to Antioch. The Arians, anxious to destroy this proof of their complicity, persuaded Constantius to demand, by a public functionary, the reddition of the document. Eusebius replied, "I cannot consent to restore the public deposit, except at the command of the whole assembly of bishops by whom it was committed to my care. " This reply incensed the emperor, who wrote to Eusebius ordering him to deliver the decree on pain of amputation of his right hand. Theodoret says the threat was only meant to intimidate the bishop; if so, it failed, for Eusebius stretched out both hands, exclaiming, "I am willing to suffer the loss of both hands rather than resign a document which contains so manifest a demonstration of the impiety of the Arians. ), when suffering on the rack and finding one part of his body not as yet tortured, Eusebius complained to the executioners for not conferring equal honour on his entire frame. He is represented as travelling in the guise of a soldier (Theod. Paris Ed. The Paris Editors of Basil plausibly suggest that the letter thus numbered was written by Gregory to Eusebius concerning Basil, rather than by Basil concerning Eusebius. The bedridden had sprung from their couches, and all kinds of moral miracles had been wrought by his presence. The two ecclesiastics were passionately eager for one another's society, and appear to have formed numerous designs, all falling through, for an interchange of visits. ...
In 372 Eusebius signed, with Meletius, Basil, and 29 others, a letter to the Western bishops, in view of their common troubles from Arian opponents. Paris Ed. ), a melancholy Jeremiad, recounts disaster and disorder, uncanonical proceedings and Arian heresy. The Eastern bishops look to their brethren in Italy and Gaul for sympathy and advice, paying a tribute to the pristine purity which the Western churches had preserved intact while the Eastern churches had been lacerated, undermined, and divided by heretics and unconstitutional acts. Letters from Eusebius appear to have been received by Basil, who once more (c. ) begs a visit at the time of the festival of the martyr Eupsychius, since many things demanded mutual consideration. ) managed the laborious journey to Samosata, and secured from his friend the promise of a return visit. This promise, said he, had ravished the church with joy. In 373 Basil urged Eusebius to fulfil his promise, and (cxxvii. ) assured him that Jovinus had answered his expectations as bp. Jovinus was a worthy pupil of Eusebius, and gratified Basil by his canonical proprieties. ) record that Jovinus relapsed afterwards into Arianism. The good offices of Eusebius were solicited by Eustathius of Sebaste, who had quarrelled with Basil. Basil's principle of "purity before reconciliation" convinced Eusebius of his wisdom and moderation. At the council of Gangra, probably in 372 or 373, Eustathius of Sebaste was condemned for Arian tendencies and hyperascetic practices. There is a difficulty in deciding who was the Eusebius mentioned primo loco without a see in the synodal letter. of Samosata, and as Basil entreated his advice as to Eustathius, he may have joined him, Hypatius, Gregory, and other friends whose names occur in this pronunciamiento. The 20 canons of Gangra are detailed with interesting comment by Hefele, who thinks the chronology entirely uncertain. ) shews that Eusebius had successfully secured the election of a Catholic bishop at Tarsus. In consequence, he was eagerly entreated to visit Basil at Caesarea. He may have done so, and presided at the council of Gangra. An encyclical which Eusebius proposed to send to Italy was not prepared, but Dorotheus and Gregory of Nyssa were induced to visit Rome in 374. The Paris Editors assign to 368 or 369 Basil's letters (xxvii. ) descriptive of his illness, and the famine that arrested his movements, but whensoever written, they reveal the extraordinary confidence put by Basil in his brother bishop. He had been healed by the intercessions of Eusebius, and now, all medical aid having failed Hypatius his brother, he sends him to Samosata to be under the care and prayers of Eusebius and his brethren. It is remarkable that Eusebius was left undisturbed during the bitter persecutions of the orthodox by the emperor Valens. Valens promised the Arian bp. Eudoxius, who had baptized him, that he would banish all who held contrary opinions. Thus Eusebius was expelled from Samosata (Theod. The imperial sentence ordered his instant departure to Thrace ( ib. The officer who served the summons was bidden by Eusebius to conceal the cause of his journey. "For if the multitude (said Eusebius), who are all imbued with divine zeal, should learn your design, they would drown you, and I should have to answer for your death. " After conducting worship, he took one domestic servant, a "pillow, and a book," and departed in the dead of night. The effect of his departure upon his flock is graphically described by Theodoret. Eusebius had excited a persistent and intense antagonism to the views of the Arians which assumed very practical forms. Eunomius was avoided as if smitten with deadly and contagious pest. The very water he used in the public bath was wasted by the populace as contaminated. The repugnance being invincible, the poor man, inoffensive and gentle in spirit, retired from the unequal contest. His successor, Lucius, "a wolf and a deceiver of the flock," was received with scant courtesy. The children spontaneously burned a ball upon which the ass on which the Arian bishop rode had accidentally trodden. Lucius was not conquered by such manifestations, and took counsel with the Roman magistracy to banish all the Catholic clergy. Meanwhile Eusebius by slow stages reached the Danube when "the Goths were ravaging Thrace and besieging many cities. " The most vigorous eulogium is passed upon his power to console others. Basil congratulated Antiochus, a nephew of Eusebius, on the privilege of having seen and talked with such a man ( Ep. For Eusebius, concealed in exile, Basil contrived means of communication with his old flock. Numerous letters passed between the two, more in the tone of young lovers than of old bishops, and some interesting hints are given as to difficulty of communication. Eusebius was eagerly longing for letters, while Basil protested that he had written no fewer than four, which never reached their destination. ) Basil complains bitterly of the lack of fair dealing on the part of the Western church, and mysterious hints are not unfrequently dropped as to the sentiment entertained at Rome with reference to himself, Eusebius, and Meletius. In 377 Dorotheus found that the two latter were, to the horror of Basil, reckoned at Rome as Arians. Eusebius suffered less from the barbarian ravages of the Goths than from this momentary assault on his honour. In 378 the persecuting policy of Valens was closed by his death. Gratian recalled the banished prelates, and gave peace to the Eastern church. Notwithstanding the apparently non-canonical character of the proceeding, Eusebius ordained numerous bishops on his way from Thrace to the Euphrates, including Acacius at Beroea, Theodotus at Hierapolis, Isidore at Cyrus, and Eulogius at Edessa. All these names were appended to the creed of Constantinople. 4), a woman charged with Arian passion hurled at Eusebius a brick, which fell upon his head, and wounded him fatally. Theodoret records that the aged bishop, in the spirit of the protomartyr and his Divine Lord, extorted promises from his attendants that they would make no search for his murderess. On June 22 the Eastern churches commemorate his so-called martyrdom. His nephew Antiochus probably succeeded to the bishopric of Samosata
Lachish - ” An important Old Testament city located in the Shephelah (“lowlands”) southwest of Jerusalem. It has usually been identified in modern times with the archaeological site called tell Ed-Duweir. The same site has more recently come to be called tel Lachish. Lachish is also mentioned in ancient Egyptian, Assyrian and Babylonian records. The Hebrew army under Joshua's command defeated the king of Lachish, killed him and conquered his city (Joshua 10:5 , Joshua 10:23 ,Joshua 10:23,10:32-33 ). Later, Lachish was apportioned to the Tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:39 ). The next Biblical reference to Lachish comes in 2 Chronicles 11:9 , from the reign of Rehoboam who “fortified the city. ” Lachish was also the city of refuge for Amaziah who fled there from Jerusalem to escape a conspiracy against him (2 Kings 14:19 ; 2 Chronicles 25:27 ). The rich and varied finds represent almost all of the periods, but the chief interest for the student of the Bible centers on the periods beginning with the time of the Hebrew invasion of Canaan. Impressive archaeological evidence shows the city was destroyed during the period of the conquest related in the Book of Joshua, but the archaeological evidence does not indicate who the destroyers were. is supported and amplified by Assyrian records of King Sennacherib's campaign (2 Kings 18:1 ; 2 Chronicles 32:1 ; Isaiah 36:1 ). This was graphically recorded in a large and elaborate bas relief on the walls of the royal palace in Nineveh. Presently housed in the British museum in London, these carvings show Assyrian soldiers attacking the walled city, the city inhabitants defending their city, soldiers killing some of the defenders, families with possessions being led away captive, and the king on his throne reviewing the spoils taken from the city
Concordances - The Latin word concordantiœ , for an alphabetical list of the words of Scripture drawn up for purposes of reference to the places where they occur, was first used by Hugo de Sancto Caro, who compiled a Concordance to the Vulgate in 1244. This was revised by Arbottus (1290), and became the basis of a Hebrew Concordance by Isaac Nathan (1437 45). Nathan’s work was revised and enlarged by John Buxtorf, the elder, whose Concordantiœ Bibliorum Hebraicœ (1632) held the place of standard Concordance for two centuries, and served as the model for many others. John Taylor’s Hebrew Concordance adapted to the English Bible, disposed after the manner of Buxtorf (2 vols. The first Greek NT Concordance was published at Basle anonymously in 1546. In the use of the following lists it will be understood that, while the most recent works, other things being equal, are to be preferred, there is so much common material that many of the older works are by no means obsolete. Concordantiœ (folio, Leipzig, 1896), and a smaller Edition without quotations (Leipzig, 1897). Bagster’s Handy Concordance of the Septuagint ; Hatch-Redpath’s Concordance of the Septuagint and other Greek Versions of the OT , with two supplemental fasciculi (Clarendon Press, 1892 97). Hudson, Greek Concordance to NT , revised by Ezra Abbot (do. All these works are now superseded by Moulton-Geden’s Concordance to the Greek Testament (Edinburgh, T. Until recent times the standard work was Cruden’s Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures (1st Ed. Cruden’s is truly a marvellous work, and was frequently copied, without acknowledgment, in subsequent productions. It was even issued in abridgment the most useless and provoking of all literary products). More recent works are Eadie’s Analytical Concordance ; Young’s Analytical Bible Concordance (Edin. Stevenson; Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance (Hodder & Stoughton, 1894); Thoms’s Concordance to RV Staff - The word ῥάβδος is translated ‘sceptre’ in Hebrews 1:8 and ‘rod’ in Hebrews 9:4, 1 Corinthians 4:21, Revelation 2:27, etc. In Hebrews 11:21, ‘Jacob … worshipped [1] upon the top of his staff. ’ The reference is to the act of the patriarch when he received the solemn oath of Joseph, that he would bury him with his fathers (‘Israel bowed himself upon the bed’s head,’ Genesis 47:31). The Septuagint read it as מַטָּה, ‘staff,’ and the Massoretes as מִטָּה, ‘bed. The phrase ‘bed’s head’ is both curious and difficult. It suggests ideas which are associated with an early Victorian ‘four-poster,’ and are quite out of place in relation to a bed in the East (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , article ‘Bed’). Usually the bed was laid on the floor or on a low platform, but sometimes a slight portable frame was used (2 Samuel 3:31). There is a reference to the head of a bed in 1 Samuel 19:13, The bed’s head may simply mean the place where the pillow was laid. To get over the difficulty, Cheyne (Encyclopaedia Biblica , article ‘Staff’) suggests that ראש, ‘head,’ should be read as צָרָשׂ, ‘couch. ’ There is no difficulty of interpretation if the Septuagint is followed: Jacob may have stood up to receive the oath of Joseph. Equally it may be said that there is no difficulty if the bed or couch had an end which might be called its ‘head,’ and that Jacob leaned upon it. It is impossible to decide whether ‘staff’ or ‘bed’ is right, but the fact that the Septuagint is the oldest commentary on the Hebrew Bible makes its reading the more probable. on Hebrews, 1883; Encyclopaedia Biblica , article ‘Staff’; Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , articles ‘Bed,’ ‘Rod,’ ‘Sceptre’; Smith’s Dict. of the Bible , article ‘Staff’; C Geikie, Hours with tits Bible, new Ed
Aphthartodocetae, a Sect of the Monophysites - They were also called Phantasiastae , because they appeared to acknowledge only a seeming body of Christ, and to border on Docetism; and Julianists , from their leader Julian, bp. They argued, from the commingling (σύγχυσις ) of the two natures of Christ, that the body of our Lord, from the very beginning, became partaker of the incorruptibility of the Logos, and was subject to corruptibility merely κατ᾿ οἰκονομίαν . They appealed in proof especially to Christ's walking on the sea during His earthly life. Their opponents among the Monophysites, the Severians (from Severus, patriarch of Antioch), maintained that the body of Christ before the Resurrection was corruptible, and were hence called Phthartolatrae ( Φθαρτολάτραι , from φθαρτός and λάτρεία ), or Corrupticolae , i. Both parties admitted the incorruptibility of Christ's body after the Resurrection. This whole question is rather one of scholastic subtlety, though not wholly idle, and may be solved in this way: that the body of Christ, before the Resurrection, was similar in its constitution to the body of Adam before the Fall, containing the germ or possibility of immortality and incorruptibility, but subject to the influence of the elements, and was actually put to death by external violence, but through the indwelling power of the sinless Spirit was preserved from corruption and raised again to an imperishable life, when—to use an ingenious distinction of St. ...
The Aphthartodocetae were subdivided into Ktistolatrae , or, from their founder, Gajanitae , who taught that the body of Christ was created ( κτιστόν ), and Aktistetae , who asserted that the body of Christ, although in itself created, yet by its union with the eternal Logos became increate, and therefore incorruptible. The most consistent Monophysite in this direction was the rhetorician Stephanus Niobes (about 550), who declared that every attempt to distinguish between the divine and the human in Christ was improper and useless, since they had become absolutely one in him. An abbot of Edessa, Bar Sudaili, extended this principle even to the creation, which he thought would at last be wholly absorbed in God. (German Ed
Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, , Disciple And Companion of Ruspe - Ferrandus received the hospitality of St. 523, returned to Carthage, where he became a deacon. In all probability he was the author of the Vita prefixed to the works of Fulgentius of Ruspe, and dedicated to Felicianus. by Wagenmann; Petrus Pithaeus, in preface Lectori , prefixed to Breviatio Canonum Ferrandi , Cod. The second asked concerning:—1. Whether the Divinity of the Christ suffered on the cross, or the Divine Person suffered only in the flesh. The fifth question concerned the double gift of the cup to the apostles, as mentioned in St. Ferrandus was often appealed to for his own theological judgment. His collected writings ( Biblioth. Chiffletius, 1649) preserve one entitled de Duabus in Christo naturis , and an Epistola Anatolio de quaestione an aliquis ex Trinitate passus est . It is thought to have been compiled during the reign of Anastasius (d. Ferrandus appears to have had his knowledge of the Greek councils through a translation and digest of such canons as had been previously in use in Spain. The mention of later synods and writings has led others to believe that the Breviatio was compiled c. ]'>[1] Ferrandus took a not unimportant part in the violent discussions produced by the Edict of Justinian I. (the Capatula Tria ), which condemned certain passages from Theodoret, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Ibas of Edessa. Ferrandus was backed by the vehemently orthodox and dyophysite spirit of the N. African church, and in a letter (546) to Anatolius and Pelagius, two deacons of the Roman church, whom Vigilius instructed to communicate with him, declared against the reception of the Edict of Justinian. The most complete Ed. The two letters to Fulgentius of Ruspe are in Sirmond's and Migne's Edd
Germanus, Bishop of Paris - of Paris, born at Autun of parents of rank named Eleutherius and Eusebia (c. 496), and Educated at Avalon and Luzy (Lausia). In due time he was ordained deacon, and three years later priest. In 555, being present at Paris on some mission to Childebert, when that see was vacant by the death of Eusebius, he was raised to the archbishopric. His great object seems to have been to check the unbridled licence of the Frank kings, and to ameliorate the misery produced by constant civil war. In 557 he was present at the third council of Paris, and appears to have exercised considerable influence over Childebert, whose Edict against pagan revelry on holy days may have been due to St. 20, Ed. This church was said to have been consecrated by St. Germanus on the day Childebert died (Dec. Childebert's successor Clotaire was, according to Venantius Fortunatus, at first not equally amenable, but a sickness changed his disposition. Germanus's death is variously dated 575, 576, and 577. He was buried in an oratorium near the vestibule of the church of St. Vincent; and in 754 his body was removed with great ceremony into the church itself, in the presence of Pippin and his son Charles the Great, then a child. The church henceforth was called St. Among his writings is also generally counted the privilege which he granted to his monastery exempting it from all episcopal jurisdiction ( c. Its authenticity has been vehemently attacked and defended (see Migne, Patr. and the authorities there referred to). Bened
Constantius i, Flavius Valerius, Emperor - Flavius Valerius, surnamed Chlorus ( ὁ Χλωρός , "the pale"), Roman emperor, A. Distinguished by ability, valour, and virtue, Constantius became governor of Dalmatia under the emperor Carus, who was prevented by death from making him his successor. 284–305), to lighten the cares of empire, associated Maximian with himself; and arranged that each emperor should appoint a co-regent Caesar. Constantius was thus adopted by Maximian, and Galerius by Diocletian, (Mark 1, a. Each being obliged to repudiate his wife and marry the daughter of his adopted father, Constantius separated from Helena, the daughter of an innkeeper, who was not his legal wife but was mother of Constantine the Great, and married Theodore, stepdaughter of Maximian, by whom he had six children. As his share of the empire, Constantius received the provinces Gaul, Spain, and Britain. 296 he reunited Britain to the empire, after the rebellion of Carausius, and an independence of ten years. 305, after the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, Galerius and Constantius became Augusti, and ruled together. As the health of Constantius began to fail, he sent for his son Constantine, who was already exceedingly popular, and who was jealously kept by Galerius at his own court. Constantine escaped, and arrived at his father's camp at Gessoriacum (Boulogne-sur-Mer) before embarking on another expedition to Britain. 306 Constantius died in the imperial palace at Eboracum (York). He is described as one of the most excellent characters among the later Romans. He took the keenest interest in the welfare of his people, and limited his personal expenses to the verge of affectation, declaring that "his most valued treasure was in the hearts of his people. " The Gauls delighted to contrast his gentleness and moderation with the haughty sternness of Galerius. The Christians always praised his tolerance and impartiality. Although a pagan, he disapproved of the persecution of Diocletian, and contented himself by closing a few churches and overthrowing some dilapidated buildings, respecting (as the author of the de Morte Persecutorum says) the true temple of God. 4–8, Ed
Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix, Bishop of Pavia - 473; connected with Romans of distinction ( ib. The invasion of the Visigoths, and the consequent loss of his patrimony, caused him to migrate at an early age to Milan, where he was Educated in the house of an aunt. In 489, the year in which Theodoric invaded Italy, his aunt died, and he was saved from beggary by marriage ( Eucharist. 24) led him to serious thought and suggested the composition of his Eucharisticon, in which he reviews with penitence his past life. He was subsequently ordained deacon by Epiphanius bp. of Pavia, whose exhortations determined him to renounce his marriage, with the consent of his wife, who retired into a convent. In 494 he accompanied Epiphanius (Ennod. Upon the death of Epiphanius two years later he visited Rome, and gained reputation by composing an apology for pope Symmachus and the synod which acquitted him, as well as by a public panegyric in honour of Theodoric. The former of these was inserted in the Acta Conciliorum ; the latter is generally included in collections of the Panegyrici Veteres. Under the next pope, Hormisdas, he succeeded Maximus II. Anastasius, failing to corrupt or bend the bishop, had him placed on board an unseaworthy vessel. Ennodius, however, arrived safely in his diocese, which he continued to administer for four years. He died at the age of 48, and was buried in the church of St. His style is turgid, involved, and affected. His works are reprinted with notes in Migne's Patr. For his Life see Sirmond's Ed
Judah, Kingdom of - 975, only the tribe of Judah followed David, but almost immediately afterward the larger part of Benjamin joined Judah. Joshua 19:41,42 Was recognized as belonging to Judah; and in the reigns of Abijah and Asa the southern kingdom was enlarged by some additions taken out of the territory of Ephraim. ( 2 Chronicles 13:19 ; 15:8 ; 17:2 ) It is estimated that the territory of Judah contained about 3450 square miles. --The kingdom of Judah possessed many advantages which secured for it a longer continuance than that of Israel. A frontier less exposed to powerful enemies, a soil less fertile, a population hardier and more united, a fixed and venerated centre of administration and religion, a hereditary aristocracy in the sacerdotal caste, an army always subordinate, a succession of kings which no revolution interrupted; so that Judah survived her more populous and more powerful sister kingdom by 135 years, and lasted from B. History --The first three kings of Judah seem to have cherished the hope of re-establishing their authority over the ten tribes; for sixty years there was war between them and the kings of Israel. The victory achieved by the daring Abijah brought to Judah a temporary accession of territory. Asa appears to have enlarged it still further. Hanani's remonstrance, ( 2 Chronicles 16:7 ) prepares us for the reversal by Jehoshaphat of the policy which Asa pursued toward Israel and Damascus. Jehoshaphat, active and prosperous, commanded the respect of his neighbors; but under Amaziah Jerusalem was entered and plundered by the Israelites. Under Uzziah and Jotham, Judah long enjoyed prosperity, till Ahaz became the tributary and vassal of Tiglath-pileser. Already in the fatal grasp of Assyria, Judah was yet spared for a checkered existence of almost another century and a half after the termination of the kingdom of Israel. 1,200,000 -ED
Victor, Claudius Marius - He is probably the Victorius, or Victorinus, mentioned by Gennadius ( de Vir. 60) as a rhetorician of Marseilles, who died "Theodosio et Valentiano regnantibus" ( i. 425–450), and who addressed to his son Aetherius a commentary on Genesis. Gennadius says "a principio libri usque ad obitum patriarchae Abrahae tres diversos Edidit libros. In Erasmus's Ed. Jerome the passage stands " quatuor versuum Edidit libros. Victor, ending as they now do at a point which seems to call for some explanation, are the first three books of those mentioned by Gennadius, and that a fourth book, now lost, carried on the narrative to Abraham's death, where a natural halting-place for the work is presented. The most notable variation is the introduction of a prayer by Adam on his expulsion from Paradise, which is followed by a strange episode. The serpent is discerned by Eve, who urges Adam to take vengeance on him. In assailing him with stones, a spark is struck from a flint, which sets fire to the wood in which Adam and Eve had taken shelter, and they are threatened with destruction. This mishap is the means of revealing to them metals, forced from the ground by the heat, and of preparing the earth, by the action of the fire, for the production of corn
Nonnus of Panopolis - He has been identified, with some probability, with a Nonnus whose son is mentioned by Synesius ( Ep. 102); and, with very little probability, with the deacon Nonnus, secretary at the council of Chalcedon, a. of Edessa, elected at the synod of Ephesus, a. He is classed by Agathias among οἱ νέοι ποιηταί , and this, supported by a comparison of his poems with other late epic writers, makes it probable that he wrote at the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th cents. His Dionysiaca shews frequently a knowledge of astronomy (cf. 250 the discoveries of Cadmus are traced to Egypt, but otherwise there is no reference to his native country. Probably it was written early in life, and Nonnus converted to Christianity after it, and the paraphrase of St. John written after his conversion, possibly, as has been suggested, as a contrast to the Dionysiaca , portraying the life and apotheosis of one more worthy than Dionysus of the name of God. Possibly too, as has also been suggested, Nonnus may have been one of the Greek philosophers who accepted Christianity when the heathen temples were destroyed by decree of Theodosius (Socr. He was the centre, if not the founder, of the literary Egyptian school, which gave to Greek epic poetry a new though short-lived brilliancy, and to which belonged Quintus of Smyrna, John of Gaza, Coluthus, Tryphiodorus, and Musaeus. This school revived the historical and mythological epic, treating it in a peculiar style of which Nonnus is the best representative. While frequently proclaiming himself an imitator of Homer, and shewing traces of the influence of Callimachus and later writers, he yet created new metrical rules, which gave an entirely new effect to the general rhythm of the poem—that of an easy but rather monotonous flow, always pleasant, but never rising or falling with the tone of the narrative. The style is very florid, marked by a luxuriance of epithets and original compounds (often of very arbitrary formation), elaborate periphrasis, and metaphors often piled together in hopeless confusion; and many unusual forms are invented. ...
The Dionysiaca attributed to Nonnus by Agathias ( u. The poem has been regarded "as an allegory of the march of civilization across the ancient world"; but it would be simpler, and we hope truer, to describe it as "the gradual establishment of the cultivation of the vine and the power of the Wine-god. "...
The chief modern Editions of the Dionysiaca are Graefe (1819–1826); Passow (1834); Le Comte de Marcellus, with interesting introduction, French. John's Gospel , attributed to Nonnus by Eudocia (Viol. The text of the Gospel that lies behind the paraphrase has been reproduced by R. The text is faithfully treated. Homeric epithets form a strange medley with the Palestinian surroundings, and in many cases the illustrations are drawn out into insipid details (cf. At other times we have interpretations suggested, in most of which he agrees with the Alexandrine tradition as represented by Cyril and Origen cf. 44, σουδάριον explained as a Syrian word; while in ii. 4, τί μοι γύναι ἠὲ καὶ αὐτῇ looks like an attempt to avoid a slight to her who is constantly called Θεοτόκος . The chief modern Editions are Passow (1834); Le Comte de Marcellus, with French trans. (ed. (ed. Literaturzeitung , 1891, where the authorship is attributed to Apollinaris
Beda, Historian - Beda , more correctly Baeda, The Venerable. —Though not properly coming within the period of this condensed Ed. is retained as Bede is the classical historian of the English Church for so much of our proper period. —Ed. ]'>[1] Bede was born on the estate given by Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria, to Benedict Biscop for the foundation of his sister monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, probably, however, before the lands were so bestowed; for the Wearmouth estate was given in 674, and the Jarrow one in 682, whilst the birth of Bede seems satisfactorily fixed to 673. Nor are the names of his parents preserved. He himself, writing, as may be reasonably concluded, immediately on the completion of his History in 731, describes himself then as in his 59th year; this would fix his birth in 673; but as he lived until 735, and the passage may have been added at any time between 731 and 735, his birth has been sometimes put as late as 677. Mabillon, however, whose arguments are sound and whose conclusion has been generally received, accepts 673. At the age of 7 Bede was handed over by his relations to the care of Benedict Biscop, who had not, in 680, begun the buildings at Jarrow, but had just returned from Rome bringing the arch-chanter John. Bede was Educated in one or both of the sister monasteries, and after Benedict's death he passed under the rule of Ceolfrith. At the age of 19 he was ordained deacon by John of Beverley, then bp. of Hexham, and in his 30th year received the priesthood from the same prelate; as John ceased to be bp. of Hexham in 705, and the later date for Bede's birth would place his ordination as priest in 706 at the earliest, this conclusively favours the earlier date; in which case he was ordained deacon in 691 and priest in 702. From his admission to the joint monastery to his death he remained there employed in study and devotional exercises, and there is no evidence that he ever wandered further than to York, which he visited shortly before his death. , is preserved a letter of pope Sergius to Ceolfrith, desiring him to send to Rome "religiosum famulum Dei N. This letter was very early believed to refer to Bede; and by the time of William of Malmesbury had begun to be read, "religiosum Dei famulum Bedam , venerabilis monasterii tui presbyterum "; the name of Bede resting on the authority of William of Malmesbury only, and the word presbyterum on an interlineation in the Cotton MS. If presbyterum be authentic, it is a strong argument against the identification of Bede, for he was not ordained priest until 702, and Sergius died in 701; but it is not essential to the sense, rests apparently on an interpolation, and if genuine may be a mistake of the pope. Intercourse between Wearmouth and Rome was nearly continuous at this time, and there is no more likely monk under Ceolfrith's rule than Bede. Some monks of the monastery went to Rome in 701 (Bede, de Temporum Ratione , c. 12), but Bede was not among them. The invitation was probably meant for Bede, and perhaps the acceptance of it was prevented by the death of Sergius. Whether Bede's studies were mainly at Wearmouth or at Jarrow is not important; as he died and was buried at Jarrow, he probably lived there chiefly, but the two houses were in strict union, and he was equally at home in both. Under the liberal and enlightened ministration of Benedict Biscop and Ceolfrith, he enjoyed advantages perhaps not elsewhere available in Europe, and perfect access to all existing sources of learning in the West. Nowhere else could he acquire at once the Irish, Roman, Gallican, and Canterbury learning; that of the accumulated stores of books which Benedict had bought at Rome and at Vienna; or the disciplinary instruction drawn from the monasteries of the continent as well as from the Irish missionaries. Cuthbert under Boisil and Eata; from these he drew the Irish knowledge of Scripture and discipline. Wilfrid, furnished him with the special lore of the Roman school, martyrological and other; his monastic learning, strictly Benedictine, came through Benedict Biscop from Lerins and many other continental monasteries; and from Canterbury, with which he was in friendly correspondence, he probably obtained instruction in Greek, in the study of the Scriptures, and other refined learning. His own monastery offered rest and welcome to learned strangers like abbot Adamnan (Bede, H. 21), and Bede lost no opportunity of increasing his stores. ...
He describes the nature of his studies, the meditation on Scripture, the observance of regular discipline, the care of the daily singing in church, "semper aut discere, aut docere, aut scribere dulce habui. After his ordination he devoted himself to selecting from the Fathers passages suitable for illustration and Edification, and, as he says modestly, added contributions of his own after the pattern of their comments. ...
The list of his works given at the conclusion of his History, Bede seems to have arranged in order of relative importance, not of their composition; and most of them afford only very slight indications of the dates of writing. The Ars Metrica is dedicated to Cuthbert, a "conlevita," which seems to fix the date of writing before 700 ( Opp. Ed. The de Temporibus , the latest date of which is 702, may have followed almost immediately, and the de Natura Rerum has been referred to the same date. The whole of the commentaries are later; they are all dedicated to bp. Acca, who succeeded his master Wilfrid in 709. Luke; that on Samuel followed, 3 books of it being written before the death of Ceolfrith in 716; that on St. Before the History come the Life of Cuthbert and of the abbots of Wearmouth and Jarrow which are referred to in the greater work. The History was completed in 731, after which only the Ep. The work on which he was employed at the time of his death was the translation of St. ...
Bede's attainments were very great. The diversity and extent of his reading is remarkable: grammar, rhetoric, poetry, hagiography, arithmetic, chronology, the holy places, the Paschal controversy, epigrams, hymns, sermons, pastoral admonition and the conduct of penitents; even speculations on natural science, on which he specially quotes Pliny, employed his pen, besides his great works on history and the interpretation of Scripture. On all these points his knowledge was thoroughly up to the learning of the day; his judgment independent and his conclusions sound. These qualifications fitted him for the remarkable place he holds in literature. ...
By promoting the foundation of the school of York, he kindled the flame of learning in the West at the moment that it seemed to be expiring both in Ireland and in France. This school transmitted to Alcuin the learning of Bede, and opened the way for culture on the continent, when England was relapsing into barbarism under the terror of the Danes. It is impossible to read the more popular writings of Bede, especially the Ecclesiastical History , without seeing that his great knowledge was coupled with the humility and simplicity of the purest type of monasticism. Employed on a theme which, in the prevailing belief of miraculous stories, could scarcely be treated of without incurring the charge of superstition, he is eminently truthful. The wonders he relates on his own account are easily referred to natural causes; and scarcely ever is a reputed miracle recounted without an authority. His gentleness is hardly less marked. He is a monk and politician of the school of Benedict Biscop, not of that of Wilfrid. The soundness and farsightedness of his ecclesiastical views would be remarkable in any age, and especially in a monk. His letter to Egbert contains lessons of wisdom, clear perception of abuses, and distinct recommendation of remedies, which in the neglect of observance of them might serve as a key for the whole later history of the Anglo-Saxon church. There is scarcely any father whose personal history is so little known, and whose personal character comes out in his writings so clearly as does that of Bede in this letter, and in his wonderful History. ...
Loved and honoured by all alike, he lived in a period which, at least for Northumbria, was of very varied character. The wise Aldfrid reigned during his youth and early manhood, but many years of disquiet followed his death, and even the accession of his friend Ceolwulf in 731 did not assure him of the end of the evils, the growth of which, since king Aldfrid's death, he had watched with misgivings. His bishops, first John of Beverley, and after the few years of Wilfrid's final restoration, Acca his friend and correspondent, and his abbots, first Ceolfrith and then Huaetbert, were men to whom he could look up and who valued him. His fame, if we may judge from the demand for his works immediately after his death, extended wherever English missionaries or negotiators found their way, and must have been widespread during his life. Nearly every kingdom of England furnished him with materials for his history: a London priest searched the records at Rome for him; abbot Albanus transmitted him details of the history of the Kentish church; bp. Daniel, the patron of Boniface, supplied the West Saxon; the monks of Lastingham, the depositories of the traditions of Cedd and Chad, reported how Mercia was converted; Esi wrote from East Anglia, and Cynibert from Lindsey. But he laboured to the last, and, like Benedict Biscop, spent the time of unavoidable prostration in listening to the reading and singing of his companions. When he could, he continued the work of translation, and had reached the 9th verse of John 6 on the day he died. As the end approached, he distributed the few little treasures he had been allowed to keep in his chest, a little pepper, incense, and a few articles of linen; then, having completed the sentence he was dictating, he desired to be propped up with his face towards his church. He died repeating the Gloria Patri . The day is fixed by the letter of Cuthbert, who details the events of his deathbed to his friend Cuthwin, May 26, 735. He was buried at Jarrow where he died; his relics were in the 11th cent. removed to Durham, and in 1104 were found in the same coffin with those of St. The story of his epitaph and the tradition of the bestowal of the title of Venerable is too well known and too apocryphal to be repeated here. Alcuin has preserved one of his sayings: "I know that the angels visit the canonical hours and gatherings of the brethren; what if they find not me there among the brethren? Will they not say, Where is Bede: why does he not come with the brethren to the prescribed prayers?" (Alc. 16, Ed. ...
Of the legendary or fictitious statements about Bede, the following are the most important: his personal acquaintance with Alcuin which is impossible; his Education and sojourn at Cambridge, on which see Giles, PP. For a detailed investigation of these, and the alleged authorities for them, see Gehle's learned monograph, Disp. de Bed. 2-4, 17-21, and for the fallacies as to the date of Bede's death, ib. ...
Bede's own list of his works may be rearranged as follows:...
(1) Commentaries on O. Genesis 4 books, derived chiefly from Basil, Ambrose, and Augustine; the Tabernacle, 3 books; Sam. 3 books; the Building of the Temple, 2 books; on Kings, 30 questions dedicated to Nothelm; Proverbs 3 books; Song of Solomon , 7 books; on Isa. Felix, rendered from the poem of Paulinus; on Anastasius, a revised trans. ...
Besides these he wrote translations into English, none of which are extant, from the Scriptures; Retractationes on the Acts; the Letter to Egbert; and a book on penance is ascribed to him. ...
Bede's collected works, including many not his, were pub. ]'>[2]...
All study of Bede must henceforth begin with Mr. Plummer's monumental Edition of the historical writings Baedae Opera Historica (Clarendon Press, 1896). An excellent introduction presents a critical survey of Bede's works with large references in footnotes to modern authorities. 418 for the frequent allusions scattered throughout the two vols. to the various writings of Bede. A critical Edition of, at all events, the Biblical words of Bede is still a desideratum. Giles Edited some of the smaller treatises 50 years ago, and Mr. Edward Marshall published Bede's Explanation of the Apocalypse in 1878; but with these exceptions few, if any, of his writings have in recent years appeared separately. homilies and other works were frequently printed. Bede in the 4-vol. Ed. The last named is the most useful for the student. Giles, and his work is in turn based upon Mr. The notes in Mayor and Lumby's Ed. Press) are learned and important. Reference should also be made to Lives of Bede by Bp. Rawnsley (1904), and to the general treatment of Bede and his times in Dr. A monograph on "Place Names in the English Bede and the Localization of the MSS. ," by Thomas Miller, was contributed to Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach- und Culturgeschichte der germanischen Völker (Strassburg, 1896). The important question of the chronological order of Bede's works is discussed by Mr
Nestorian Church - writers called simply "Easterns"; by which they meant the church that existed to the east of them, outside the boundary of the Roman empire, in the kingdom that was at first Parthian, and later Sassanid Persian. The body is also called "east Syrian" (the term Syrian implying use of the Syriac language rather than residence in "Syria"), and sometimes also "Chaldean" or "Assyrian. Christianity spread from Antioch, not only to the west but also eastwards, and in particular it extended to Edessa, then the capital of the little "buffer state" of Osrhoene, situated between the Roman and Parthian empires. The political independence of the state ended in 216, but it had lasted long enough to give a definite character to the local church, which was marked off by its Syriac vernacular and Oriental ways of thought from the Greek Christianity to the west of it. Missionaries went out from Edessa to the east again, and founded two daughter-churches, one in Armenia and one in what was then Parthia, the latter of which is the subject of this article. Tradition identified the former with either the disciple of Christ—a statement hard to reconcile with the recorded fact that he was still able to travel in the year 100—or with one of "the Seventy. " He is known to have preached in Assyria and Adiabene before the close of the 1st cent. , and to have consecrated his disciple Paqida as first bishop of the latter province, in a. of Mshikha-zca ); while the statement of the "doctrine of Adai" that the apostle died in peace at Edessa has the ring of truth in it. ...
Of Mari, his companion, little is known certainly (his life is a mere piece of hagiography), but he appears to have penetrated into the southern provinces of the Parthian kingdom, to have preached without much success at the capital, Seleucia-Ctesiphon, and to have died in peace at Dor-Koni. There seems no reason to doubt the historic character of both these teachers; and later tradition added that St. Thus the church had more than 20 bishops, and these were distributed over the whole country when, in 225, the 2nd Persian replaced the Parthian kingdom, and the Arsacid dynasty gave way to the Sassanid. This revolution was to its authors a revival of the old kingdom destroyed by Alexander, and the Persian nation rose again with a national religion, that of Zoroaster. It made no effort to destroy the Christianity that it found existing, but, like Islam later, tolerated it as the religion of a subject race, and so put it into the position that it still occupies in those lands, though the dominant religion has changed. Christians became a melet (a subject race organized in a church), recognized by the government, but despised by it. For them to proselytize from the state faith was a crime, punishable with death, though they were allowed to convert pagans. Apostasy from Christianity to the established faith meant worldly prosperity, but there was no persecution, though there was often oppression, by the government, until the adoption of Christianity by the Roman emperor (the standing enemy of the shah-in-shah) made every Christian politically suspect. Thus Persia continued to be a refuge for many Christians from Roman territory during the "general" persecutions of the 3rd cent. —Though it extended rapidly elsewhere, the church made little progress in the capital, and there was no bishop there, and only a few Christians, till late in the 3rd cent. of Arbela, joined with others in consecrating Papa to that see, and this man became its first bishop since the days of Mari. In later days legend supplied the names of earlier holders of what had then become a patriarchal throne, and indeed made Akha d’Abuh’ himself one of the series, and told how in a. 170 he was recognized by the four "western patriarchs" as the fifth of the band. ...
Papa, as by of the capital, soon claimed to be the chief bishop of the church, its catholicos; the claim was favoured by the circumstances of the time, as in his days all the "greater thrones" were obtaining jurisdiction over the lesser sees within their sphere of attraction, and the patriarchates so formed were soon to be recognized at Nicaea. Papa, however, so claimed the honour as to produce irritation, and a council met in 315 to judge his claim. It was very adverse to Papa, who refused in anger to bow to its decision. "You fool, I know that," cried the catholicos. "Then be judged by the Gospel," retorted Miles, placing his own copy in the midst. After such a sacrilege and such a portent his condemnation naturally followed, and his archdeacon Shimun bar Saba’i was consecrated in his room. ...
Papa, on recovery, appealed for support to "the Westerns," i. not to Antioch or Rome (the "Nestorian" church never deemed herself subject to either of them), but to the nearest important sees to the west of him, Nisibis and Edessa. These supported him on the whole, but their advice did not, apparently, go beyond recommending a general reconciliation and submission to the see of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, on the ground that it would be for the good of the whole church that it should have a catholicos. This recommendation was carried out, all parties being a little ashamed of themselves. Papa was recognized as catholicos, with Shimun as colleague, cum jure successionis , and the right of the throne concerned to the primacy has never since been disputed. Papa survived these events for 12 years, and so was ruling during the council of Nicaea, though neither he nor any bishop of his jurisdiction (which did not then include Nisibis) was present at that gathering. Arianism passed by this church absolutely, and the fact is both a testimony to its isolation and a merciful dispensation. —Shimun succeeded Papa, and in his days the church had to face the terrible "forty years' persecution" of Sapor II. Given a state professing a certain variety of militant religion (Zoroastrianism or Islam), how can loyalty to it be compatible with profession of the religion of its rivals? Constantine, like some Czars, liked playing the general protector of Christians; and Christians looked to him as naturally as, in the same land, they have since looked to Russia. ...
Thus, when Sapor made war on Constantius in 338, persecution commenced almost as a matter of course. Shimun the catholicos was one of the first victims, 100 priests and clerics suffering with him; and the struggle thus inaugurated continued until the death of Sapor in 378, in which time 16,000 martyrs, whose names are recorded, died for their faith. ...
This greatest of persecutions was not, of course, uniformly severe at all times in all provinces, and both it and others after it were rather the releasing of the "race-hatred" of Zoroastrianism against Christianity than the ordered process of law against a religio illicita . Thus, it resembled both in outline and detail the "Armenian massacres" of a later age. Clergy, of course, and celibates of both sexes, who were numerous, were specially marked, and so were the Christian inhabitants of the five provinces about Nisibis, when their surrender by the emperor Jovian in 363 handed them over to a notorious persecutor. ...
Practically, though not absolutely, the trial ended with the death of Sapor; but the exhausted church could do little to reorganize herself until a formal firman of toleration had been obtained. secured this in 410 from the then shah-in-shah, Yezdegerd I. —The church was then formally put into the position that it had, previously to the persecution, occupied practically: it was made a melet in the Persian state, under its catholicos, Isaac; it was allowed to hold a council, under his presidency and that of the Roman ambassador, Marutha; and it now for the first time accepted the Nicene Creed. Canons were also passed for the proper organization of the body, and some of these are based on Nicene rules. The church shewed its independence, however, by dealing very freely with the canons even of that council. ...
Seemingly, the council of Constantinople was accepted also at this time, but it was not thought to deserve special mention. ...
A period of rapid growth followed the enfranchisement and organization of the church that had proved its power to endure, and 26 new sees were added in 15 years to the 40 existing in 410, these including Merv, Herat, Seistan, and other centres in central Asia. Internal troubles arose, however, caused by the quarrels of Christians, and by their habit of "using pagan patronage"—i. A council held in 420 to deal with this, under the catholicos Yahb-Alaha, and another Roman ambassador, Acacius of Amida, could only suggest the acceptance of the rules of several Western councils—Gangra, Antioch, Caesarea—without considering whether rules adapted for the West would for that reason suit the East. Persecution soon recommenced, Magian jealousy being stirred by Christian progress, and raged for four years (420–424, mainly under Bahrain V. As usual, a Perso-Roman war coincided with the persecution, and the end of the one marked the end of the other also. With the return of peace another council was allowed, the catholicos Dad-Ishu presiding. This man had suffered much, both in the persecution and from the accusations of Christian enemies, and was most anxious to resign his office. There was, however, a strong feeling among Christians that their church must be markedly independent of "Western" Christianity ( i. Thus they insisted that the catholicos should remain, and styled him also "patriarch," and specially forbade any appeal from him to "Western" bishops. —Another persecution fell on this much-tried church in 448, but otherwise we know little of its history till 480, when the Christological controversy reached it for the first time. ...
In the Roman empire at that period Chalcedon was past, and the Monophysite reaction that followed that council was at its height; the "Henoticon of Zeno" was the official confession, accepted by all the patriarchs of the empire with the exception of the Roman. The church in Persia, however, was emphatically "Dyophysite," and thus there was a theological force at work that hardened the independence already found necessary into actual separation. He was a favourite with the shah-in-shah, Piroz, who employed him as warden of the marches on the Romo-Persian frontier, and he was practically patriarch of the church. The real patriarch, Babowai, had just been put to death for supposedly treasonable correspondence with Rome, and Bar-soma had rather gone out of his way to secure that this prelate (his personal enemy) should not escape the consequences of his own imprudence. Bar-soma easily persuaded Piroz that it would be better that "his rayats" should have no connexion with the subjects of the Roman emperor, and under his influence a council was held at Bait Lapat, a "Dyophysite" (or perhaps Nestorian) confession published, and separation brought about. By another canon of this council marriage was expressly allowed to all ranks of the hierarchy. ...
Some say that the church was simply dragooned into heresy, but the mass of Christians seem to have at least acquiesced in the work of Bar-soma, and it must be remembered that they separated from a church that was Monophysite at the time. He was a lover of learning, and when the imperial order brought the theological school at Edessa to an end (this had hitherto been the sole means of Education open to sons of the "church of the East"), he took a statesman's advantage of the opportunity by founding at Nisibis a college that was a nursery of bishops to his church for 1,000 years. ...
Bar-soma's power ended with the death of Piroz (484), and Acacius became patriarch. His reign saw the breach with the "Westerns" healed more or less, as the council of Bait Lapat was repudiated (though the canon on episcopal marriage was allowed to stand) and another confession of faith was drawn up. This was not Nestorian, but was indefinite, designedly, and Acacius was received as orthodox during a visit to Constantinople, on condition of his anathematizing Bar-soma. As they were already at open feud on a minor matter, the patriarch readily agreed to this, but the memory of the schism was of evil omen for the future. —A period of confusion (490–540) followed. The whole country of Persia was disturbed by the communism preached by Mazdak, to which even the king, Kobad, was converted for a while. The strange movement was stamped out in blood, but it left indirect effects on the church, and Bar-soma also bequeathed them a bad tradition of quarrelsomeness. This culminated in an open schism in the patriarchate, lasting for 15 years, with open disorder in the whole church, a state of things that only terminated with the accession of Mar Aba to the patriarchate in 540. ...
Meantime, Monophysite supremacy in the Roman empire had ended with the accession of the emperor Justin in 518, and friendly relations between the church there and that in Persia had been resumed: the advantage had to be paid for by the latter, in that it implied a renewal of persecution. ...
Mar Aba, the greatest man in the series of patriarchs of the East, reformed the abuses in the church, going round from diocese to diocese with a "perambulatory synod," which judged every case on the spot with plenary authority—a precedent so excellent that it is surprising that it has never been followed. He was able to establish rules for the election of the patriarch which still hold good in theory, and founded schools and colleges (in particular, one at Seleucia), in addition to the one at Nisibis. His table of prohibited degrees in matrimony—a most necessary thing for Christians in a Zoroastrian land—is still the law of his church. ...
In his days the monastic life, which had wilted under Bar-soma and during the period of disorder, was revived, and was provided with a body of rules by Abraham of Kashkar, a pupil of Aba, while the friendship of the church in Persia with that in the empire led also (though dates are here rather uncertain) to the definite acceptance, by this "Nestorian" church, of the council of Chalcedon, which stands among the "Western synods" received by these "Easterns. He was a convert from Zoroastrianism, and as such was legally liable to be put to death, and therefore lived in daily peril from the Magians. , would never allow his execution, but feared also to protect him efficiently, and for 7 of the 9 years of his tenure of office he was in prison, ruling his flock thence. Though he was released at last, and passed his last days in honour at court, there is no doubt that his sufferings hastened his death. A series of patriarchs of the three stock eastern types (court favourite, respectable nonentity, and strict ascetic) ruled the church, and the services were arranged much in their present form. In particular the "Rogation of the Ninevites," still annually observed, was either instituted or remodelled by the patriarch Ezekiel, during an outbreak of plague. ...
The anomalous relation of the church in Persia with other parts of the Catholic church cannot be fitted into any defined theory. Several Christological confessions were issued by these so-called "Nestorians" which are certainly not unorthodox, and individual patriarchs were readily received to communion when they happened to visit Constantinople (e. Nevertheless, there was a growing estrangement, and a conviction on either side that the other was somehow wrong, which was strengthened as the church in Persia slowly realized that the man whom they called "the interpreter" par excellence , Theodore of Mopsuestia, had been condemned at Constantinople. In "the professions" doctors were generally Christian, and indeed are largely so to this day, while each faith had its own law and lawyers. ...
The clergy were usually married, but there was a growing feeling in favour of celibate bishops, though the law passed by Bar-soma was never repealed. —The bulk of Persian Christians were Dyophysite in creed, but there was a Monophysite minority, organized under bishops (or a bishop) of their own, and including many monks. This body was recruited by the enormous "captivities" brought from Syria in 540 and 570. The patriarchate was then vacant (Chosroes had been so annoyed by the substitution of another Gregory for the Gregory whom he had nominated to that office, that he had refused to allow any election when that man died in 608), and when petition was made for the granting of a patriarch, the Monophysites, whose interest at court was powerful, petitioned for the nomination of a man of their own. ...
A deputation of Dyophysites came to court to endeavour to secure a patriarch of their own colour, and a most unedifying wrangle over the theological point followed, Chosroes sitting as umpire. Of course, neither side converted the other, but the occasion was important, for from it dates the employment of the Christological formula now used by this church, viz. "two Natures, two 'Qnumi,' and one Person in Christ," the repudiation of the term "Mother of God" as applied to the B. Ultimately the Dyophysites saved themselves from the imposition of a Monophysite patriarch, at the cost of remaining without a leader till the death of Chosroes, and the Monophysites organized a hierarchy of their own. ...
During the long wars between Chosroes and Heraclius, and the anarchy that followed in Persia, the " Nestorian" church has naturally no recorded history, yet at their conclusion it was once more to have formal relations with the patriarchate and church of Constantinople. , was sent as ambassador to Constantinople, and he was there asked to explain its faith, and was admitted as orthodox. He was, however, attacked on his return home, on suspicion of having made unlawful concessions, and not all the efforts of men like Khenana and Sahdona could shake the general conviction on each side that "those others" were somehow wrong. The two men named laboured to shew the essential identity, under a verbal difference, of the doctrines of the two churches, but the only visible result was the excommunication of both peacemakers. ...
Then the flood of Moslem conquest drifted the two churches apart, and the bulk of organized Monophysitism between them hid each from the other. ...
The separation of "Nestorians" from "orthodox" was a gradual process, commenced before 424, and hardly complete before 640. In that period, however, it was completed, and the "church of the East" commenced her marvellous medieval career in avowed schism from her sister of Constantinople. Whether her doctrine, then or at any time, was what the word "Nestorian" means to us, and what is the theological status of a church which accepts Nicaea, Constantinople, and Chalcedon, but rejects Ephesus, are separate and difficult questions. (ed. (ed. Bedjan, 6 vols. de Jabalaha et de trois patriarches nestoriens (Bedjan); Synodicon Orientale (ed. (Cureton); Amr and Sliba, Liber Turris ; the Guidi Chronicle (ed. Noldeke); Zachariah of Mitylene (ed. Histories ; Book of Governors (Thomas of Marga, Ed. , Letters (ed. der Sassaniden (ed. Isaaci vita ; Duval, Histoire d’Edesse ; Goussen, Martyrius-Sahdona ; Hoffmann, Aussuge aus Syrische Martyrer ; Bethune Baker, Nestorius and his Teaching ; Wigram, Doctrinal Position of Assyrian Church ; Introd
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - 512–519, a native of Sozopolis in Pisidia, by birth and Education a heathen, baptized in the martyry of Leontius at Tripolis (Evagr. ...
He almost at once openly united himself with the Acephali, repudiating his own baptism and his baptizer, and even the Catholic church itself as infected with Nestorianism (Labbe, u. On embracing Monophysite doctrines he entered a monastery apparently belonging to that sect between Gaza and its port Majuma. Here he met Peter the Iberian, a zealous Eutychian, who had been ordained bp. About this time Severus apparently joined a Eutychian brotherhood near Eleutheropolis under the archimandrite Mamas, who further confirmed him in his extreme Monophysitism (Liberat. Severus rejected the Henoticon of Zeno, applying to it contumelious epithets, such as κενωτικόν , "the annulling Edict," and διαιρετικόν , "the disuniting Edict " (Labbe, v. 121), and anathematized Peter Mongus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, for accepting it. We next hear of him in an Egyptian monastery, of which one Nephalius was abbat, who, having been formerly a Monophysite, had embraced the faith of Chalcedon. Nephalius with his monks expelled Severus and his partizans (Evagr. Severus is charged with having stirred up a fierce religious war among the excitable population of Alexandria, resulting in bloodshed and conflagrations (Labbe, v. To escape the punishment of his turbulence he fled to Constantinople, supported by a band of 200 Monophysite monks (ib. Anastasius, who had succeeded the emperor Zeno, the author of the Henoticon, in 491, was a declared favourer of the Eutychians, and by him Severus was received with honour. His advent was an unhappy one for the peace of Constantinople, where a sanguinary tumult was stirred up by rival bands of monks, orthodox and Monophysite, chanting in their respective churches the opposing forms of the "Trisagion. " This tumult resulted, a. 511, in the humiliation of Anastasius the temporary triumph of the patriarch Macedonius, and the depression of the Monophysite cause (Theophan, p. Severus was eagerly dispatched by Anastasius to occupy the vacant throne of Antioch a. He was ordained, or, in the words of his adversaries, "received the shadow of ordination" (Labbe, v. 40), and enthroned on the same day in his patriarchal city ( ib. 134), and that very day solemnly pronounced in his church an anathema on Chalcedon, and accepted the Henoticon he had previously repudiated. He caused the name of Peter Mongus to be inscribed in the diptychs; declared himself in communion with the Eutychian prelates, Timotheus of Constantinople and John Niciota of Alexandria; and received into communion Peter of Iberia and other leading members of the Acephali (Evagr. Eutychianism seemed now triumphant throughout the Christian world. Proud of his patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperor's protection, Severus despatched letters to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation and demanding communion. In these he anathematized Chalcedon and all who maintained the two natures. They met with a very varied reception. Many rejected them altogether, nevertheless Monophysitism was everywhere in the ascendant in the East, and Severus was deservedly regarded as its chief champion (Severus of Ashmunain apud Neale, Patr. Synodal letters were interchanged between John Niciota and Severus; the earliest examples of that intercommunication between the Jacobite sees of Alexandria and Antioch, which has been kept up to the present day (Neale, l. Anastasius was succeeded in 518 by Justin, who at once declared for the orthodox faith. The Monophysite prelates were everywhere replaced by orthodox successors. Irenaeus, the count of the East, was commissioned to arrest him. Severus, however, escaped, and in Sept. 518 sailed by night for Alexandria (Liberat. Paul was ordained in his room. Severus and his doctrines were anathematized in various councils. He was gladly welcomed by the patriarch Timotheus, and generally hailed as the champion of the orthodox faith against the corruptions of Nestorianism. His learning and argumentative power established his authority as "os omnium doctorum," and the day of his entrance into Egypt was long celebrated as a Jacobite festival (Neale, u. Alexandria speedily became the resort of Monophysites of every shade of opinion, who formed too powerful a body for the emperor to molest. But fierce controversies sprang up among themselves on various subtle questions connected with Christ's nature and His human body. Julian and his followers were styled "Aphthartodocetae" and "Phantasiastae," Severus and his adherents "Phthartolatrae" or "Corrupticolae," and "Ktistolatrae. " The controversy was a warm and protracted one and no settlement was arrived at. After some years in Egypt spent in continual literary and polemical activity, Severus was unexpectedly summoned to Constantinople by Justin's successor Justinian, whose consort Theodora warmly favoured the Eutychian party. The emperor was utterly weary of the turmoil caused by the prolonged theological discussions. Unity could only be regained by his influence. Anthimus had been recently appointed to the see of Constantinople by Theodora's influence. He was a concealed Eutychian, who on his accession threw off the orthodox mask and joined heartily with Severus and his associates, Peter of Apamea and Zoaras, in their endeavours to get Monophysitism recognized as the orthodox faith. This introduction of turbulent Monophysites threw the city into great disorder, and large numbers embraced their pernicious heresy (Labbe, v. Eventually, at the instance of pope Agapetus, who happened to visit Constantinople on political business at this time, the Monophysites Anthimus and Timotheus were deposed, and Severus again subjected to an anathema. The orthodox Mennas, succeeding Anthimus (Liberat. 774), summoned a synod in May and June 536 to deal with the Monophysite question. Severus and his two companions were cast out "as wolves" from the true fold, and anathematized (Labbe, v. The sentence was ratified by Justinian ( ib. The writings of Severus were proscribed; any one possessing them who failed to commit them to the flames was to lose his right hand (Evagr. Severus returned to Egypt, which he seems never again to have left. The date of his death is fixed variously in 538, 539, and 542. According to John of Ephesus, he died in the Egyptian desert (ed. An account of them, so far as they can be identified, is given by Cave (Hist. , Ed. ...
Severus was successful in his great aim of uniting the Monophysites into one compact body with a definitely formulated creed. For notwithstanding the numerous subdivisions of the Monophysites, he was, in Dorner's words, "strictly speaking, the scientific leader of the most compact portion of the party," and regarded as such by the Monophysites and their opponents. He was the chief object of attack in the long and fierce contest with the orthodox, by whom he is always designated as the author and ringleader of the heresy. His opinions, however, were far from consistent, and his opponents apparently had much difficulty in arriving at a clear and definite view of them, and constantly asserted that he contradicted himself. This was partly forced upon him by the conciliatory position he aimed at. Hoping to embrace as many as possible of varying theological colour, he followed the traditional formulas of the church as closely as he could, while affixing his own sense upon them (Dorner, Pers. In 1904 the Sixth Book of the Select Letters of Severus, in the Syriac version of Athanasius of Nisibis, were Ed
Apocrypha - " "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not. ...
The Old Testament Apocrypha, often referred to simply as "the Apocrypha, " is a collection of Jewish books that are included in the Old Testament canons of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians, but not of Protestants. Most of the books were composed in Hebrew prior to the Christian era, but they apparently never were accepted by the Jews as part of the Hebrew canon. At an early date they were translated into Greek and in this form came to be used by Christians as early as the end of the first century a. They were eventually included in Christian copies of the Greek Old Testament and, later, the Latin Vulgate. The Protestant Reformers, while affirming the unique authority of the Hebrew canon, allowed that the books of the Apocrypha were useful for reading. ...
The Roman Catholic Apocrypha consists of Tobit, Judith, the Additions to Esther, the Additions to Daniel (the Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon), the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (also called Sirach), Baruch (also called 1Baruch), the Letter of Jeremiah, 1Maccabees, and 2Maccabees. ...
Several of these writings are tied closely to Old Testament books. Inserted at strategic points, these clearly secondary additions, which include among other things prayers by Mordecai and Esther, serve to give a distinctively religious slant to the Book of Esther, otherwise noted for its failure to mention God or even prayer. The Additions to Daniel have a less unified purpose. The Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, placed after Daniel 3:23 , is a prayer of trust in God offered up by Azariah (i. , Abednego — Daniel 1:7 ) and his companions (Shadrach and Meshach) in the fiery furnace. Another noteworthy (and secondary) prayer is the Prayer of Manasseh, apparently composed to give content to the prayer of repentance offered by Manasseh that is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 33:12-13 . Two books are associated with Jeremiah: the Letter of Jeremiah is an attack on idolatry, and Baruch, attributed to Jeremiah's secretary (cf. Jeremiah 36:4-8 ), extols the virtues of Wisdom, which is identified with the Law. ...
Two other Wisdom books are contained in the Apocrypha. The Wisdom of Solomon, ostensibly related to Solomon, deliberates on the future reward of the righteous and punishment of the ungodly, sings the praises of Wisdom, and, through a retelling of the exodus story, celebrates God's exaltation of Israel through the very things by which her enemies were punished. Jewish teacher named Jesus ben Sira. ...
Two of the most popular books in the Apocrypha tell the stories, undoubtedly legendary, of two otherwise unknown Jews. Tobit, purportedly from the time of the Assyrian exile, combines the themes of quest, romance, and overcoming the demonic in a story of God's healing of his faithful servant Tobit and deliverance of the unfortunate widow Sarah. It testifies to a developing demonology and angelology within Judaism, and emphasizes the importance of charitable deeds, containing some striking parallels to the ethical teaching in the New Testament, including a negative form of the Golden Rule (cf. ...
Four books are associated, in name at least, with the Maccabees, those Jewish heroes who, led by Judas Maccabeus, waged the Maccabean Revolt in the second century b. against the Greek tyrant Antiochus IV, who attempted to ban the practice of Judaism. First Maccabees, the longest and most detailed account, is an especially important historical source for the revolt. Apart from his obvious support of the revolt and opposition to the hellenization of Judaism that preceded it, the author's primary religious perspective seems to be that Godor, rather, heavenhelps those who take initiative and trust in him. Both books are of first importance for understanding the historical setting for Hanukkah, the Jewish festival of rededication of the temple, which originates from the Maccabean Revolt. Affirming the immortality of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked, the author seeks to demonstrate that inspired reason, guided by the Law, is supreme ruler over the passions. ...
Second Esdras, purportedly composed by Ezra, was written in response to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in a. Romans 5 ), the limitations of human understanding, the signs of the end, the final judgment, the intermediate state between death and the final judgment, the destruction of the Roman Empire, and the coming Messiah. ...
The Jews wrote numerous other works that are not included in any Christian canon. Many of them were attributed to major Old Testament figures; they are called the Pseudepigrapha. Although the literature is too vast and varied to summarize here, many Pseudepigrapha contain visionary journeys through heaven (or a series of heavens) and hell, an increased interest in angels and demons, speculations on the origins of sin and the nature of the final judgment, various expectations of a Messiah, predictions of the end of time, and ethical exhortations. ...
The New Testament Apocrypha is an amorphous collection of writings that are for the most part either about, or pseudonymously attributed to, New Testament figures. These books are generally modeled after the literary forms found in the New Testament: there are apocryphal gospels, acts, letters, and revelations. Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. Nonetheless, some of these books were widely used by Christians throughout the Middle Ages and have left their mark on the church. ...
Numerous apocryphal gospels were produced by early Christians. Many of them, such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary, and the Dialogue of the Savior, were composed by heretical groups like the Gnostics and purport to give "secret, " unorthodox teachings of Jesus. Others fill in gaps in the New Testament Gospels, usually with a heightened sense of the miraculous. The Protevangelium of James, for example, tells the story of Mary's birth, childhood, and eventual marriage to Joseph (a widower with children), culminating in a detailed account of the birth of Jesus (in a cave) and a strong affirmation of Mary's virginity. The Gospel of Nicodemus (also called the Acts of Pilate), provides a detailed account of Jesus' trial and descent into hell. The Gospel of Peter presents, after an otherwise straightforward account of the crucifixion, a vivid narration of the resurrection of Jesus: two angels come down from heaven, enter the tomb, and exit with Jesus, followed by a talking Cross. First, they are filled with supernatural deeds: miracles abound, especially the raising of the dead, and even a talking lion gets baptized. Third, they glorify martyrdom, especially among the apostles: Andrew is crucified, Paul is beheaded, Peter is crucified upside down, and Thomas is executed with spears; only John is spared a martyr's death. The latter present, in contrast to the relatively reserved statements in the New Testament, vivid descriptions of hell, where sinners are punished in accordance with their sins: blasphemers, for example, hang by their tongues over a blazing fire. In addition, the Apocalypse of Paul purports to give a detailed narration of Paul's rapture to the third heaven (cf. ...
Apart from the issue of canonicity, the Old Testament Apocrypha has had a pronounced and pervasive influence on Western culture. The stories, themes, and language of these books (especially Judith, Tobit, Susanna, the Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus, and the Wisdom of Solomon) have been utilized by literary figures such as Shakespeare, Milton, and Longfellow, composers such as Charles Wesley, Handel, and Rubinstein, and artists such as Michaelangelo, Rembrandt, and van Dyck. The New Testament Apocrypha, though less influential, has contributed to the traditions about Jesus and the travels and fate of the apostles, not to mention the development of the Christian concept of hell, most notably through the Inferno of Dante. Charlesworth, Ed. Elliott, Ed. Schneemelcher, Eds. Sparks, Ed. Stone, Ed
Bithynia - Bithynia (Βιθυνία) was a fertile and highly civilized country in the N. of Asia Minor, bounded en the W. One of the kings of Bithynia changed the history of Asia Minor by inviting the marauding Galatians to cross the Bosporus (278 b. Nicomedes iii. ), Pompey formed the dual province of Bithynia et Pontus, which was governed by a proconsul, residing at Nicomedeia. it remained senatorial. ...
The presence of Jews in Bithynia is indicated by Philo (Leg. Paul, always drawn to the great centres of Graeco-Roman civilization, attempted with Silas to enter Bithynia (ἐπείραζον εἰς τὴν Βιθυνίαν πορευθῆναι), intending probably to evangelize Nicaea and Nicomedeia, but the Spirit of Jesus, who was leading them on westward, did not permit them (Acts 16:7). ...
‘For Bithynia, like Cappadocia, we have no primitive Christian record: but it could hardly remain long unaffected by the neighbourhood at Christian communities to the South-West, the South, and probably the East; even if no friend or disciple took up before long the purpose which St. Paul had been constrained to abandon, when a Divine intimation drew him onward into Europe’ (F. 112 the younger Pliny was sent to govern the province of Bithynia, which had become disorganized under senatorial administration. His correspondence with Trajan bears striking testimony to the expansion of the Christian religion, which seemed to him a superstitio prava immodica (Epp. Not only in the cities but in the rural villages the temples were almost deserted and the sacrificial ritual interrupted. Paul, new Ed
Dan (2) - "Far from Zidon, in the valley that lieth by Beth Rebob," but belonging to Zidon, as their living "after the manner of the Zidonians" implies; they were too far off for Zidon to help them when attacked by the Danites (Judges 18:7; Judges 18:28). Already in Abraham's time, the spot was called by him Dan, the scene of God's "judgment" on Chedorlaomer and the invaders (Genesis 14:14; compare Isaiah 41:1-3). Le Clerc suggests that the fountain was called Dan, "judge," as Ainmishpat means "the fount of justice. ...
Now Tel-el-Kady (the Arabic equivalent to Dan), "the judge's mound," whose long level top is strewed with ruins, probably those of Daniel From its foot gushes out one of the largest fountains in the world, the main source of the Jordan, called el Led-dan, a corruption of Dan, and the stream from it Nahr Ed Dahn; all these names confirming Le Clerc's view. In 1 Kings 7:13-14, Hiram the worker in brass is said to be of Naphtali; but in 2 Chronicles 2:13-14, he is called "son of a woman of Dan. An undesigned mark of truth. The seeming discrepancy, thus cleared, powerfully disproves the possibility of collusion, and shows the witness of Kings and of Chronicles to be mutually independent and true. Arabia from whence the Phoenicians obtained wrought iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezekiel 27:19). " Since none of the other places begin with "also" (Hebrew w¦-), Fairbairn translates it as Vedan, the modern Aden, near the straits of Babelmandeb. But probably, as Judah is mentioned in Ezekiel 27:17, so Dan in Ezekiel 27:19 represents northern Israel. Sailors from ports of Dan, with descendants of Javan, traded in the fairs of Tyre, "going to and fro
Ethnarch - This comparatively rare term is derived from ἔθνος, ‘a race,’ and ἄρχειν, ‘to rule’; perhaps the nearest English equivalent is ‘chief. , and appears to indicate a ruler appointed by or over a people who were themselves part of a larger kingdom or empire, the appointment being made or recognized by its overlord or suzerain as valid. In 1 Maccabees 14:47 Simon accepts from the people the following offices-ἀρχιερατεῦσαι καὶ εἶναι στρατηγὸς καὶ ἐθνάρχης τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ ἰερέων καὶ τοῦ προστατῆσαι πάντων (‘to be high priest and to be general and ethnarch of the Jews and their priests and to rule over all’); and in 1 Maccabees 15:2 a letter of King Antiochus of Syria is addressed to him as ἱερεῖ μεγάλῳ καὶ ἐθνάρχῃ (‘great priest and ethnarch’). From 1 Maccabees 15:1-2 it is clear that the ἔθνος was the Jews themselves, and indeed almost everywhere where the term ‘ethnarch’ occurs, it refers to a ruler over Jews. 616) from a village, El-Mâlikîje in the Hauran, mentions by the names ‘ethnarch’ and ‘general (or praetor) of nomads’ a chief of nomad Arabs of the time of Hadrian or Antoninus Pius who must have submitted to the Emperor. The man there mentioned was doubtless ruler of the Jews in Damascus and its territory, who were ‘permitted to exercise their own religious law very freely and fully’ (Ramsay, Pictures of the Apostolic Church, London, 1910, p. of Arabia), and, indeed, as has been said, the ethnarch was always lower than a king. This fact is illustrated by interesting passages in Josephus (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) ii. 4), where Caesar Augustus makes Archelaus not βασιλεύς, but ἐθνάρχης, of half of the territory that had belonged to Herod, promising him the higher title later, if certain conditions were fulfilled; and in Pseudo-Lucian (Macrob. § 17, Ed. 198), where a man is ‘proclaimed βασιλεύς instead of ἐθνάρχης of the Bosporus
Aceldama - " So called because it was bought with the price of blood, according to Matthew 27:6-8; and because it was the scene of retribution in kind, the blood which Judas caused to be shed being avenged by his own blood, according to Acts 1:19; Revelation 16:6. The purchase of the field was begun by Judas, and was completed after Judas' death by the priests, who would not take the price of blood from Judas but used the pieces of silver to pay for the field. He did not pay the money (Matthew 27:5), but had agreed to pay it, with a view of securing "a habitation" to himself and his wife and children (Psalms 109:9; Psalms 69:25). Stung with remorse he brought again the 30 pieces of silver, went to the field, hanged himself, and, the cord breaking, his bowels gushed out. All he purchased with the reward of iniquity was the bloody field of his burial. The field originally belonged to a potter, and had become useless to him when its clay was exhausted. of mount Zion, where even now there is a bed of white clay. Matthew (Matthew 27:9) quotes Jeremiah's prophecy as herein fulfilled. Probably Jeremiah 18:1-2 and Jeremiah 32:6-12 are the ultimate basis on which Zechariah's more detailed prophecy rests, and Jeremiah is therefore referred to by Matthew. end; now Hak-ed-damm. A large square Edifice, half excavated in the rock, and half massive masonry, stands on the steep bank facing the pool of Siloam, as a charnel house 20 feet deep, the bottom covered with moldering bones. "The potter" represents God's absolute power over the clay framed by His own hand: so appropriate in the case of Judas, "the son of perdition," of whom Jesus says, "It had been good for that man if he had not been born"; given over to a reprobate mind and its awful doom. This is the point of Jeremiah 18:6, which is therefore referred to by Matthew (Isaiah 30:14; Isaiah 45:9; Romans 9:20-21)
Helvidius, a Western Writer - Helvidius, a Western writer who, like Novatian and Pelagius, Jovinian and Vigilantius, put forward opinions on anthropological subjects opposed to the generally received teaching of the church in their day. 203–230, Ed. It appeared, according to Vallarsius, a. § 17), this being what his opponent had denied in the first instance, though the outcome of his opinions had been to rank virginity below matrimony. Jerome shews (§ 17) he had misrepresented the latter; of Tertullian, whose writings may still speak for themselves, he merely says, "Ecclesiae hominem non fuisse. Jerome therefore refutes him only so far as to point out that there is no necessity for understanding any of the passages adduced by him otherwise than the church had understood them hitherto; but that, in any case, the interpretations of them offered by Helvidius were delusive. His followers constitute the 84th of the heresies enumerated by the latter
Alogians, or Alogi - Alogians or Alogi (from ἀ privative and Λόγος deniers of the Logos or at least of the strongest witness for the Logos; not from ἄλογοι unreasonable) a heretical sect of disputed existence in the latter half of 2nd cent. Epiphanius invented the term (Haeres. 3) to characterize their rejection of the Divine Word preached by John (ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸν Λόγον οὐ δέχονται τὸν παρὰ Ἰωάννου κεκηρυγμένον Ἄλογοι κληθήσονται). According to his representation they denied in ardent opposition to the Gnosticism of Cerinthus on the one hand and to the Montanists on the other that Jesus Christ was the eternal Logos as taught in Joh_1:1-14 ; and rejected the Fourth Gospel and the Apocalypse as productions of Cerinthus. Heinichen supposes that the Alogi rejected only the Apocalypse and not the Fourth Gospel; but this is directly contradicted by Epiphanius (l. That they attributed these books to Cerinthus the Docetist and enemy of St. They tried to refute the Gospel of St. In opposition to the Montanists they also denied the continuance of the spiritual gifts in the church. It is not clear from Epiphanius whether the Alogi rejected only St. 1) that it denied the Gospel of St. Yet he clearly distinguishes them from the Ebionites; and their opposition to Cerinthus implies that they believed in the real humanity of Christ. 503 German Ed. ) thinks it probable that they allowed no distinctions in the Godhead and thought that the divinity of the Father dwelt in the man Jesus. But the testimony of Epiphanius is essentially sustained by Irenaeus who mentions persons who rejected both the Gospel of St
Meat - 1: βρῶμα (Strong's #1033 — Noun Neuter — broma — bro'-mah ) "food" (akin to bibrosko, "to eat," John 6:13 ), solid food in contrast to milk, is translated "food" in Matthew 14:15 , RV (AV, "victuals"); "meats," Mark 7:19 ; 1 Corinthians 6:13 (twice); 1 Timothy 4:3 ; Hebrews 9:10 ; 13:9 ; "meat," John 4:34 ; Romans 14:15 (twice),20; 1 Corinthians 3:2 ; 8:8,13 ; 10:3 ; "food," RV, for AV, "meat," Luke 3:11 ; 9:13 . 1, denotes (a) "the act of eating," 1 Corinthians 8:4 (see EAT); (b) "food," translated "meat" in John 4:32 (for ver. ...
4: τροφή (Strong's #5160 — Noun Feminine — trophe — trof-ay' ) "nourishment, food," is translated "meat" in the AV (RV "food") except in two instances. ...
5: φάγω (Strong's #5315 — Verb — phago — fag'-o ) "to eat," is used as a noun, in the infinitive mood, and translated "meat" in Matthew 25:35,42 (lit. ...
6: τράπεζα (Strong's #5132 — Noun Feminine — trapeza — trap'-ed-zah ) "a table" (Eng. , "trapeze"), is used, by metonymy, of "the food on the table," in Acts 16:34 (RV, marg. , "a table") and translated "meat;" cp. (2) In Luke 12:42 , sitometrion denotes "a measured portion of food" (sitos, "food," metrios, "within measure"). (4) In John 12:2 , RV, anakeimai, "to recline at table," is translated "sat at meat" (AV, "sat at the table"); in Mark 6:26 , RV, according to the best mss. , "sat at meat," some have sunanakeimai (AV, "sat with him"); in Mark 6:22 , RV, sunanakeimai, "to recline at table together," is translated "that sat at meat with him. " (5) In Acts 15:29 , AV, the neuter plural of eidolothutos, "sacrificed to idols," is translated "meats offered to idols" (RV, "things . See IDOLS (offered to)
Maximianus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - A large proportion of the citizens held strongly to Nestorius; the clergy, with one voice, agreed in the anathema; and when the deposition became a fact no longer to be disputed, the excitement was continued about the election of a successor. After four months, agreement was arrived at in the election of Maximian. He had led a monastic life and had entered presbyteral orders; his action in building, at his own expense, tombs for the remains of holy men had obtained for him a reputation of sanctity. In principles he followed the former archbishops, Chrysostom, Atticus, and Sisinnius. Communion was refused by Helladius of Tarsus; and, we may conclude, by Eutherius of Tyana, Himerius of Nicomedia, and Dorotheus of Martianopolis, as Maximian deposed them. John of Antioch approved the refusal of the bp. of Tarsus, and praised him for having declined to insert the name of Maximian in the diptychs of his church. Maximian's earnest appeal for reunion continued. Maximian spared no effort, and although he was in closest harmony with St. Cyril, he pressed him strongly to give up his anathemas, which seemed an insurmountable obstacle to reunion. He even wrote to the emperor's secretary Aristolaus the tribune, who was greatly interested in the question of peace, almost complaining that he did not press Cyril enough on the point, and to his archdeacon Epiphanius. Harmony being restored, John of Antioch and the other Eastern bishops wrote Maximian a letter of communion indicating their consent to his election and to the deposition of Nestorius. Cyril wrote to him, attributing the blessed result to the force of his prayers. A letter to Maximian from Aristolaus, which Maximian caused to be read in his church to his people, was pronounced spurious by Dorotheus of Martianopolis, evidently because it took the side of Maximian so decidedly. Ed
Vigilius Thapsensis - Vigilius (4) Thapsensis, an African bishop mentioned in the Notitia published at the end of the Historia of Victor Vitensis, was present at the conference convened by the Vandal Hunneric in 484. He belonged to the Byzacene province, and was banished by the Vandal king. He seems to have fled to Constantinople, where he wrote against Eutychianism and Arianism. He published one work alone under his own name, viz. controversy, and shews the evolution of thought among the Eutychians who in his day had not completed or thought out their system. They had not fixed, e. or so later they determined upon the resurrection as the time when the human nature was swallowed up in the divine. Leo and the orthodoxy of the decrees of Chalcedon, and has some remarks, important for liturgiology, on the form of the creed used at Rome ("Creed," D. Ed. Leo on the ground that he quoted the creed used in the Romish church from apostolic times. Vigilius wrote several works under various distinguished names. Thus Chifflet, whose is the best Edition (Dijon, 1664) of his writings, attributes to him a dialogue in 12 books on the Trinity , printed among the works of St. Athanasius, a treatise against an Arian called Varimadus published under the name of Idacius Clarus, a book against Felicianus the Arian under that of St. Augustine; and two conferences, in which he represents Athanasius as disputing against Arius before a judge named Probus, who of course gives sentence against Arius. These conferences he published in two Editions, one in two books, where Athanasius and Arius alone appear; another in three books, in which Sabellius and Photinus are introduced. " Chifflet also ascribes to him a treatise against Palladius, an Arian bishop, printed among the works of St. The Athanasian Creed has also been attributed to him, chiefly because both in the creed and in his treatise against Eutyches the union of two natures in man is brought forward as an explanation of the union of two natures in the one person of Jesus Christ. Chifflet's Edition and elaborate commentary, which includes the works of Victor Vitensis, is reprinted by Migne, Patr
Akeldama - —The name given in Acts 1:19 to the field purchased with the price of Judas’ treachery. The salient features of the Matthaean tradition are—(a) Judas stricken with remorse returned the money paid to him as the price of his treachery; (b) he hanged himself in despair, nothing being said as to the scene of his suicide; (c) the priests bought with the money a field known as ‘the Potter’s Field,’ which (d) thenceforth was called ἀγρὸς αἳματος, the allusion being to the blood of Christ, shed through the treachery of Judas; (e) the field was devoted to the purpose of a cemetery for foreigners. In Acts, on the other hand, (a) nothing is said of a refunding of the money by Judas; (b) his death was not self-inflicted, nor was it caused by hanging; it is described as due to a fall and a consequent rupture of the abdomen; (c) the held was bought by Judas himself, and not by the priests; (d) nothing is said of its former use as a ‘potter’s field,’ nor (e) of the purpose for which it was used after the death of Judas; (f) the blood which gave its name to the field was that of Judas, by which it was defiled, for (g) the field Akeldama is identified with the place of his death, a fact of which there is no mention in Matthew. ...
The only point common to the two accounts is that the name by which the field was known in the next generation after Judas’ death was an Aramaic word which was variously rendered ἀγρὸς αἳματος and χωρίον αἳματος by Mt. ’ And ἁκελδαμάχ is, no doubt, a possible transliteration of these Hebrew words, for we have other instances of final א being represented by the Greek χ, as, . But we should not a final χ, although it might be defended, if the last part of the Aramaic title were דָּסָא; the presence of χ suggests rather that the Aramaic title ended with the letters דּמך. ) has suggested that this was really the name by which the field was known to the native Jews, and that we have here a corroboration of St. This conjecture is confirmed by the fact, which has been pointed out above, that the significance of the name ‘Field of Blood’ was differently understood by Mt. When we have two rival explanations offered of a place-name, it is probable that the name itself is a corruption of some other, akin in sound, but not in sense. The field which was purchased with the wages of Judas was originally a ‘potter’s field,’ or pit, in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. It may have been (as Christian tradition had it afterwards) the place in the Valley of Hinnom where the potter of Jeremiah’s day pursued his craft (Jeremiah 18:2; Jeremiah 19:2); but of this there is no hint in the NT, for the reference to Jeremiah in the text of Matthew 27:9 is an inadvertence, the passage quoted by the Evangelist being Zechariah 11:13. This ‘potter’s field’ was used as a burial-ground for strangers, and so was called דְּמַךְ חֲקִל = œmeterium. Within half a century the name became corrupted to חֲקִל דָּמָא ‘the Field of Blood,’ the allusion being variously interpreted of the blood of Christ and the blood of Judas. ...
There is no good reason to doubt the identity of the modern Hakk Ed-Dumm, on the south bank of the Valley of Hinnom, with the ‘Akeldamach’ of Lk. Antoninus (570) and Areulf (685), describe its site with sufficient accuracy, and so do the later mediaeval travellers. ...
Tradition has distinguished Akeldama, the field purchased with Judas’ thirty pieces of silver, from the scene of his death—a distinction of sites which though inconsistent with Acts 1, is compatible with Mt. , as has been pointed out above. hoc est, ager sanguinis, in quo omnes peregrine sepeliuntur’ (§ 26), near Siloam; but the fig-tree ‘on which Judas banged himself’ was shown him on the N. Arculf seems to place the latter upon the Hill of Evil Counsel (§ 18), where it is shown at the present day; but the tradition has not been constant, the ‘elder-tree’ of Judas having been pointed out to Sir J. ...
The best description of Hakk Ed-Dumm, and of the buildings which remain of the old charnel house, will be found in an article by Sehick (PEFSt Hierocles of Alexandria, a Philosopher - Hierocles (2) , a philosopher, generally classed among the neo-Platonists, who lived at Alexandria in the first half of 5th cent. , and delivered lectures of considerable merit. His character is spoken of by Damascius (quoted by Suidas) in high terms. He was then banished, and retired to Alexandria. His teacher in philosophy was Plutarch the neo-Platonist; Theosebius is mentioned as his disciple. ...
His principal extant work is a commentary on the Golden Verses attributed to Pythagoras. His entire remains have been Ed. Needham (Camb. in the following passages from his commentary on the Golden Verses : "No proper cause is assignable for God to have created the world but His essential goodness. 20, Ed. Needham). "What offering can you make to God, out of material things, that shall be likened unto or suitable to Him? . For, as the Pythagoreans say, God has no place in the world more fitted for Him than a pure soul" (p. ' Our author adds this to shew that we must not measure our ability to tolerate our friend by mere choice, but by our real strength, which is discovered only by actual necessity. We have all in time of need more strength than we commonly think" (p. "We must be gentle to those who speak falsely, knowing from what evils we ourselves have been cleansed. And gentleness is much aided by the confidence which comes from real knowledge" (p. We must pray for the end for which we work, and work for the end for which we pray; to teach us this our author says, 'Go to your work, having prayed the gods to accomplish it'" (p. ...
The reasons adduced by Hierocles for belief in a future state are strictly moral, and quite remote from subtlety: "Except some part of us subsists after death, capable of receiving the ornaments of truth and goodness (and the rational soul has beyond doubt this capability), there cannot exist in us the pure desire for honourable actions. Pain is the result of antecedent sin; those who know this know the remedy, for they will henceforward avoid wrongdoing and will not accuse God as if He were the essential cause of their suffering (pp. ...
The approximation of heathen philosophy to Christianity is the most interesting point to be noticed in connexion with Hierocles. He never, in his extant works, directly mentions Christianity; what degree of tacit opposition is implied in his philosophy is a difficult question. With Porphyry and Jamblichus, however, he denied that the souls of men could migrate into the bodies of animals. "Marriage is expedient, first, because it produces a truly divine fruit, namely children, our helpers alike when we are young and strong, and when we are old and worn. But even apart from this, wedded life is a happy lot. A wife by her tender offices refreshes those who are wearied with external toil; she makes her husband forget those troubles which are never so active and aggressive as in the midst of a solitary and unfriended life; sometimes questioning him on his business pursuits, or referring some domestic matter to his judgment, and taking counsel with him upon it: giving a savour and pleasure to life by her unstrained cheerfulness and alacrity. Then again in the united exercise of religious sacrifice, in her conduct as mistress of the house in the absence of her husband, when the family has to be held in order not without a certain ruling spirit, in her care for her servants, in her careful tending of the sick, in these and other things too many to be; recounted, her influence is notable. But the heaven-blessed union of a husband and wife, who have all, even their bodies and souls, in common, who rule their house and bring up their children well, is a more noble and excellent ornament; as indeed Homer said
Eustathius (3), Bishop of Berrhoea - 324-331 designated by Theodoret (H. 7) "the Great," one of the earliest and most vigorous opponents of Arianism venerated for his learning virtues and eloquence (Soz. 20) recognized by Athanasius as a worthy fellow-labourer for the orthodox faith (Athan. 702 812) indicates that he suffered in the persecution of Diocletian. His translation from Berrhoea is placed by Sozomen after the council of Nicaea (Soz. According to Theodoret he was the immediate successor of Philogonius; but according to the Chronicle of Jerome Theophanes and others a certain Paulinus not the Paulinus of Tyre intervened for a short time (Tillem. At the council of Nicaea Eustathius occupied one of the first if not the very first place among the assembled prelates (Facund. That he occupied the seat of honour at the emperor's right hand and pronounced the panegyrical address to Constantine is asserted by Theodoret (H. 7) but contradicted by Sozomen (H. Eusebius himself maintains a discreet silence but he evidently wishes it to be inferred that the place of honour was his own (Eus. On his return to Antioch Eustathius banished those of his clergy suspected of Arian tenets and resolutely rejected all ambiguous submissions. Among those whom he refused to receive were Stephen Leontius ὁ ἀπὸκοπος and Eudoxius (who successively occupied his episcopal seat after his deposition) George of Laodicea Theodosius of Tripolis and Eustathius of Sebaste (Athan. The troubled relations of Eustathius with the two Eusebii may be dated from the council of Nicaea. To one of Eustathius's uncompromising orthodoxy Eusebius appeared a foe to the truth the more dangerous on account of his ability and the subtlety which veiled his heretical proclivities. Eustathius denounced him as departing from the Nicene faith. Eusebius retorted with the charge of Sabellianism accusing Eustathius of holding one only personality in the Deity (Socr. Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nicaea in their progress of almost royal magnificence to Jerusalem passed through Antioch and had a fraternal reception from Eustathius and left with every appearance of friendship. Their inspection of the sacred buildings over Eusebius returned to Antioch with a large cortège of partisan bishops—Aetius of Lydda Patrophilus of Scythopolis Theodotus of Laodicea and Eusebius of Caesarea. The cabal entered Antioch with the air of masters. Witnesses were prepared with charges against the bishop of incontinency and other gross crimes. Eustathius was summoned before this self-constituted tribunal and despite the opposition of the better-minded bishops and the absence of trustworthy evidence was condemned for heresy profligacy and tyrannical conduct and deposed from his bishopric. This aroused the indignation of the people of Antioch who took up arms in defence of their beloved bishop. Some of the magistrates and other officials headed the movement. An artfully coloured account of these disturbances and Eustathius's complicity in them was transmitted to Constantine. A count was dispatched to quell the sedition and to put the sentence of the council into execution. Eustathius submitted to constituted authority. Accompanied by many of his clergy he left Antioch without resistance or manifesting any resentment (Socr. He appears to have spent the larger part of his exile at Philippi where he died c. The deposition of Eustathius led to a lamentable schism in the church of Antioch which lasted nearly a century not being completely healed till the episcopate of Alexander a. ...
Eustathius was a copious writer, and is much praised by early authorities (Soz. We possess only scattered fragments and one entire work, named by Jerome de Engastrimytho adv. In this he attacks Origen with great vehemence, ridicules him as a πολυΐστωρ , and controverts his idea that the prophet Samuel was actually called up by the witch of Endor (Gall. 4, a new Ed. of this treatise was Edited by A. Ed
Akeldama - —The name given in Acts 1:19 to the field purchased with the price of Judas’ treachery. The salient features of the Matthaean tradition are—(a) Judas stricken with remorse returned the money paid to him as the price of his treachery; (b) he hanged himself in despair, nothing being said as to the scene of his suicide; (c) the priests bought with the money a field known as ‘the Potter’s Field,’ which (d) thenceforth was called ἀγρὸς αἳματος, the allusion being to the blood of Christ, shed through the treachery of Judas; (e) the field was devoted to the purpose of a cemetery for foreigners. In Acts, on the other hand, (a) nothing is said of a refunding of the money by Judas; (b) his death was not self-inflicted, nor was it caused by hanging; it is described as due to a fall and a consequent rupture of the abdomen; (c) the held was bought by Judas himself, and not by the priests; (d) nothing is said of its former use as a ‘potter’s field,’ nor (e) of the purpose for which it was used after the death of Judas; (f) the blood which gave its name to the field was that of Judas, by which it was defiled, for (g) the field Akeldama is identified with the place of his death, a fact of which there is no mention in Matthew. ...
The only point common to the two accounts is that the name by which the field was known in the next generation after Judas’ death was an Aramaic word which was variously rendered ἀγρὸς αἳματος and χωρίον αἳματος by Mt. ’ And ἁκελδαμάχ is, no doubt, a possible transliteration of these Hebrew words, for we have other instances of final א being represented by the Greek χ, as, . But we should not a final χ, although it might be defended, if the last part of the Aramaic title were דָּסָא; the presence of χ suggests rather that the Aramaic title ended with the letters דּמך. ) has suggested that this was really the name by which the field was known to the native Jews, and that we have here a corroboration of St. This conjecture is confirmed by the fact, which has been pointed out above, that the significance of the name ‘Field of Blood’ was differently understood by Mt. When we have two rival explanations offered of a place-name, it is probable that the name itself is a corruption of some other, akin in sound, but not in sense. The field which was purchased with the wages of Judas was originally a ‘potter’s field,’ or pit, in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. It may have been (as Christian tradition had it afterwards) the place in the Valley of Hinnom where the potter of Jeremiah’s day pursued his craft (Jeremiah 18:2; Jeremiah 19:2); but of this there is no hint in the NT, for the reference to Jeremiah in the text of Matthew 27:9 is an inadvertence, the passage quoted by the Evangelist being Zechariah 11:13. This ‘potter’s field’ was used as a burial-ground for strangers, and so was called דְּמַךְ חֲקִל = œmeterium. Within half a century the name became corrupted to חֲקִל דָּמָא ‘the Field of Blood,’ the allusion being variously interpreted of the blood of Christ and the blood of Judas. ...
There is no good reason to doubt the identity of the modern Hakk Ed-Dumm, on the south bank of the Valley of Hinnom, with the ‘Akeldamach’ of Lk. Antoninus (570) and Areulf (685), describe its site with sufficient accuracy, and so do the later mediaeval travellers. ...
Tradition has distinguished Akeldama, the field purchased with Judas’ thirty pieces of silver, from the scene of his death—a distinction of sites which though inconsistent with Acts 1, is compatible with Mt. , as has been pointed out above. hoc est, ager sanguinis, in quo omnes peregrine sepeliuntur’ (§ 26), near Siloam; but the fig-tree ‘on which Judas banged himself’ was shown him on the N. Arculf seems to place the latter upon the Hill of Evil Counsel (§ 18), where it is shown at the present day; but the tradition has not been constant, the ‘elder-tree’ of Judas having been pointed out to Sir J. ...
The best description of Hakk Ed-Dumm, and of the buildings which remain of the old charnel house, will be found in an article by Sehick (PEFSt Adoption - -The custom of adopting children is explicitly alluded to by St. This Greek word is not found in classical writers (though θετὸς υἱός is used for ‘an adopted son’ by Pindar and Herodotus), and it was at one time supposed to have been coined by St. Paul; but it is common in Greek inscriptions of the Hellenistic period, and is formed in the same manner as νομοθεσία, ‘giving of the law,’ ‘legislation’ (Romans 9:4; also in Plato, etc. It is translated ‘adoption’ in Rom. , ‘adoption as sons’ (Revised Version ; Authorized Version ‘adoption of children’) in Ephesians, The classical Greek word for ‘to adopt’ is εἰσποιεῖσθαι, whence εἰσποίησις, ‘adoption. Its object, at any rate in its earliest stages, was to prevent the dying out of a family, by the adopting into it of one who did not by nature belong to it, so that he became in all respects its representative and carried on the race. But, though the preventing of the extinction of a family was thought important by the Israelites, and though adoption was a legal custom among the Babylonians (Box, in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i. Moses by Pharaoh’s daughter, Esther by Mordecai) exhibit a different reason for the act from that stated above, and are the result of foreign surroundings and influence. It was at first largely connected with the desire that the family worship of dead ancestors should not cease-a cultus which could be continued only through males (Wood-house, in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i. It was afterwards used as a form of will-making. If a man had a legitimate son, he could not make a will; but, if he had no legitimate son, he often adopted one that he might secure the inheritance to him rather than to relatives, who would otherwise be heirs. The adopted son at once left his own family and became a member of that of his adopter, losing all rights as his father’s son. If he was adopted while his adopter was still living, and sons were afterwards born to the latter, he ranked equally with them; he could not be disinherited against his will. Roman adoption was founded on the same general ideas; it was called arrogatio if the person adopted was sui juris, but adoptio if he was under his own father’s potestas (Wood-house, loc. Paul in the five passages named above is taking up an entirely non-Jewish position; so much so that some have doubted whether a Jew, even after he had become a Christian, could have written Epistles which contained such statements (cf. Ramsay has endeavoured to show that, in so far as these differed from one another in the matter under discussion, it is to Greek custom rather than to ‘the Roman law of adoption in its original and primitive form’ that the Apostle refers in dealing with Galatians 3:6 ff. But this has been disputed. The adoption, the glory [2], the covenants [3], the giving of the Law, the service [3]. the promises, the fathers, all belonged to the Israelites, ‘my kinsmen according to the flesh,’ of whom is Christ concerning the flesh-a passage showing the intense Jewish feeling of St. Paul, combined with the broader outlook due to his Graeco-Roman surroundings (see above, § 2). , is described as ‘adoption. ‘Sonship in the completest sense could not he proclaimed before the manifestation of the Divine Son in the flesh’ (Robinson, Eph. We Christians ‘received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father, for ‘we are children of God’ (Romans 8:15 f. In its highest sense adoption could not be received under the Law, but only under the Gospel. Paul, though addressing those who were not by any means all Jewish Christians, but many of whom, being Gentiles, had come directly into the Church, yet seems at first sight to speak as if Christ’s coming was only to give adoption to those whom, being under the Law, He redeemed. ), the phrase used is τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον, not ὑπὸ τὸν νόμον; the reference is not only to those who were under the Mosaic Law, but to all subject to any system of positive ordinances (so perhaps in 1 Corinthians 9:20). The phrase ‘redeem …’ is thought to reflect the Roman idea that the adopter purchased a son from the father by nature; adoption was effected before a praetor and five witnesses, by a simulated sale. ...
(c) Just as the adoption of Jews was inferior to that of Christians, so that of Christians is not yet fully realized. It is the redemption (ἀπολύτρωσις) of out body, and we are still waiting for it; it can be completely attained only at the general resurrection. The thought closely resembles that of 1 John 3:2; we are now the children of God, but ‘if he shall be manifested, we shall be like him’; the sonship will then be perfected. Paul uses the word ‘adoption,’ the idea is found elsewhere, even if expressed differently. A shadow of it existed in the relation of Israel to God. So in 1 John 3:1, it is a mark of the love bestowed upon us by the Father that we should be called children of God [7]; and (the Apostle adds) ‘such we are. And, indeed, our Lord’s teaching implies adoption, inasmuch as, while He revealed God as Father of all men, He yet uniformly (see next section) differentiates His own Sonship from that of all others. A Son by nature implied by the metaphor. If Christians become children of God (John 1:12; see § 4 above), Christ is the Only-begotten Son of God, who was sent into the world that we might be saved, or live, through Him (John 3:16-18, 1 John 4:9). He is emphatically ‘a Son over [8] house’ (Hebrews 3:6 Revised Version margin; cf. ]'>[1]
); had Jesus been only one out of many sons, sons in the same sense, this title would be meaningless (for endeavours to evacuate its significance see Pearson, On the Creed5, article ii. The distinction of John 20:17 is maintained throughout the NT. [11] § 30, Ed. -We may in conclusion consider at what period of our lives we are adopted by God as His sons. In one sense it was an act of God in eternity; we were foreordained unto adoption (Ephesians 1:5). Paul speaks of it as a definite act at some definite moment of our lives: ‘Ye received (ἐλάβετε: aorist, not perfect) the spirit of adoption’ (Romans 8:15). And so Sanday-Headlam paraphrase Romans 8:15 thus: ‘When you were first baptized, and the communication of the Holy Spirit sealed your admission into the Christian fold,’ etc. We may compare Acts 19:2 Revised Version ; ‘Did ye receive (ἐλάβετε) the Holy Ghost when ye believed (πιστεύσαντες)?’-a passage in which the tenses ‘describe neither a gradual process nor a reception at some interval after believing’ but a definite gift at a definite moment’ (Rackham, Com. In the case of the ‘potential’ adoption of the Jews (to borrow Lightfoot’s phrase), it is the expression of the covenant between God and His people, and therefore must be ascribed to the moment of entering into the covenant at circumcision, the analogue of baptism. Yet in neither case is the adoption fully realized till the future (above, § 3 (c)). that ordained by Him]'>[12] is of water and fire unto adoption. Pearson, On the Creed (ed. Box, in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , article ‘Adoption (Semitic)’; W. on Galatians (1st Ed. , 1865, many subsequent Edd. on Romans (1st Ed. on Ephesians (1st Ed
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch - 6), succeeded Eros c. 171, and was succeeded by Maximin c. His death may probably be placed c. We gather from his writings that he was born a heathen, not far from the Tigris and Euphrates, and was led to embrace Christianity by studying the Holy Scriptures, especially the prophetical books (ad Autol. He makes no reference to his office in his existing writings, nor is any other fact in his life recorded. Eusebius, however, speaks of the zeal which he and the other chief shepherds displayed in driving away the heretics who were attacking Christ's flock, with special mention of his work against Marcion ( H. They are (1) the existing Apology addressed to Autolycus; (2) a work against the heresy of Hermogenes; (3) against that of Marcion; (4) some catechetical writings; (5) Jerome also mentions having read some commentaries on the gospel and on Proverbs, which bore Theophilus's name, but which he regarded as inconsistent with the elegance and style of his other works. ...
The one undoubted extant work of Theophilus is his Apologia ad Autolycum in three books. were long anterior to the writings of the Greeks and were divinely inspired. Whatever of truth the heathen authors contain he regards as borrowed from Moses and the prophets who alone declare God's revelation to man. He contrasts the account of the creation of the universe and of man on which together with the history contained in the earlier chapters of Genesis he comments at great length but with singularly little intelligence with the statements of Plato "reputed the wisest of all the Greeks" (lib. He supplies a series of dates beginning with Adam and ending with Marcus Aurelius who had died shortly before he wrote i. He regards the Sibylline verses as authentic and inspired productions quoting them largely as declaring the same truths with the prophets. from which they draw all their wisdom is ascribed to a self-chosen blindness in refusing to recognize the only God and in persecuting the followers of Him Who is the only fountain of truth (iii. Almost the only point in which he will allow the heathen writers to be in harmony with revealed truth is in the doctrine of retribution and punishment after death for sins committed in life (ii. The style is characterized by dignity and refinement. Theophilus also displays wide and multifarious though superficial reading and a familiar acquaintance with the most celebrated Greek writers. His quotations are numerous and varied. 69) remarks that he has committed many blunders misquoting Plato several times (iii. 26) and speaking of Pausanias as having only run a risk of starvation instead of being actually starved to death in the temple of Minerva (ib. He asserts that Satan is called the dragon δράκων on account of his having revolted ἀποδεδρακέναι from God (ii. 32) and asserts that it is a flat surface covered by the heavens as by a domical vault (ii. His exegesis is based on allegories usually of the most arbitrary character. He makes no attempt to Educe the real meaning of a passage but seeks to find in it some recondite spiritual truth a method which often betrays him into great absurdities. 1–3) mentioning the evangelist by name as one of the inspired men (πνευματοφόροι) by whom the Holy Scriptures (αἱ ἅγιαι γραφαί) were written (ii. ) Theophilus quoted the Apocalypse in his work against Hermogenes; a very precarious allusion has been seen in ii. The sun is the image of God; the moon of man whose death and resurrection are prefigured by the monthly changes of that luminary. We find the work nowhere mentioned or quoted by Greek writers before the time of Eusebius. Several passages in the works of Irenaeus shew an undoubted relationship to passages in one small section of the Apology (Iren. 294) thinks it probable that the quotations, limited to two chapters, are not taken from the Apology , but from Theophilus's work against Marcion (cf. It is quoted by Lactantius (Div. There is a passage first cited by Maranus in Novatian (de Trin. the book is mentioned by Gennadius (c. " He found them attributed to Theophilus of Alexandria, but the disparity of style caused him to question the authorship. The notice of Theophilus by Jerome has been already referred to. Dodwell found internal evidence, in the reference to existing persecutions and a supposed reference to Origen and his followers, for assigning the work to a younger Theophilus who perished in the reign of Severus ( Dissert. Ed. His arguments have been carefully examined by Tillemont ( Mém. 287), and the received authorship fully established. ...
Editions. 1023–1168), and a small Ed. Otto's Ed
ad'am - (red earth ), the name given in Scripture to the first man. It apparently has reference to the ground from which he was formed, which is called in Hebrew Adamah . The idea of redness of color seems to be inherent in either word. Adam was created (not born) a perfect man in body and spirit, but as innocent and completely inexperienced as a child. The man Adam was placed in a garden which the Lord God had planted "eastward in Eden," for the purpose of dressing it and keeping it. [1] Adam was permitted to eat of the fruit of every tree in the garden but one, which was called ("the tree of the knowledge of good and evil," because it was the test of Adam's obedience. By it Adam could know good and evil int he divine way, through obedience; thus knowing good by experience in resisting temptation and forming a strong and holy character, while he knew evil only by observation and inference. -ED. ) The prohibition to taste the fruit of this tree was enforced by the menace of death. There was also another tree which was called "the tree of life. " While Adam was in the garden of Eden, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air were brought to him to be named. After this the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs from him, which he fashioned into a woman and brought her to the man. At this time they were both described as being naked without the consciousness of shame. By the subtlety of the serpent the woman who was given to be with Adam was beguiled into a violation of the one command which had been imposed upon them. The propriety of its name was immediately shown in the results which followed; self-consciousness was the first-fruits of sin their eyes were opened and they knew that they were naked. Though the curse of Adam's rebellion of necessity fell upon him, yet the very prohibition to eat of the tree of life after his transgression was probably a manifestation of divine mercy, because the greatest malediction of all would have been to have the gift of indestructible life super-added to a state of wretchedness and sin. The divine mercy was also shown in the promise of a deliverer given at the very promise of a deliverer given at the very time the curse was imposed, (Genesis 3:15 ) and opening a door of hope to Paradise, regained for him and his descendants. Adam is stated to have lived 930 years. His sons mentioned in Scripture are Cain, Abel and Seth; it is implied, however, that he had others
Pastor - Literally a shepherd; figuratively a stated minister appointed to watch over and instruct a congregation. "If a minister be faithful, he deceives not others; and if he be prudent, he is not apt to be deceived himself. ...
The use of prudence to a minister is unspeakably great: it not only gives clearness and perspicacity to the mind, by freeing it from passions and corporeal impressions, enabling it thereby to apprehend what is best to be done, but enables it in its deliberations about the means to make choice of the most apt and proper; and directs the application of them in the fittest season, without precipitation by too much haste, or hazard by too tedious delay. "Prudence will direct us to lay a good foundation of knowledge in our people's souls by catechising and instructing them in the principles of Christianity, without which we labour in vain. Ministerial prudence discovers itself in the choice of such subjects as the needs of our people's souls do most require and call for. It will show us of what great use our own affections are for the moving of others; and will therefore advise us, that, if ever we expect the truths we preach should operate upon the hearts of others, we must first have them impressed on our own hearts, Philippians 3:18 . Ed
Procession of the Holy Ghost - A term made use of in reference to the Holy Ghost, as proceeding from the Father, or from the Father and the Son. It seems to be founded on that passage in John 15:26 . This procession, it is alleged, is here evidently distinguished from his mission; from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth, which proceeds from the Father. " If his mission and proceeding were the same thing, there would be a tautology in the words, his mission, according to that interpretation, being mentioned twice in the same verse. Watts, however, observes, that the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father, respects not his nature or substance, but his mission only; and that no distinct and clear ideas can be formed of this procession; consequently it must be given up as popish, scholastic, inconceivable, and indefensible. But, it is answered, what clear idea can be given us of the originate, self-existent, eternal being of the Father? Shall we, therefore, deny him to be without beginning or end, and to be self-existent, because we know not how he is so? If not, why must we give up the procession of the Spirit, because we know not the mode of it. ...
We can no more explain the manner how the Spirit proceeds from the Father, than we can explain the eternal generation and hypostatical union of the two natures of the Son. We may say to the objector, as Gregory Nazianzen formerly did to his adversary, "Do you tell me how the Father is unbegotten, and I will attempt to tell you how the Son is begotten, and the Spirit proceeds. " The clearest and fullest account of this procession, next to that in the above-mentioned text, is that in 1 Corinthians 2:12 . About the eighth and ninth centuries there was a very warm dispute between the Greek and Latin churches, whether the Spirit proceeded from the Father only, or from the Father and the Son; and the controversy arose to such a height, that they charged one another with heresy and schism, when neither side well understood what they contended for. The Latin church, however, has not scrupled to say that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son; but the Greek church chooses to express it thus: the Spirit proceeds from the Father by or through the Son, or he receives of the Son, Galatians 4:6 . ...
See HOLY GHOST; Bishop Pearson on the Creed, p. Ed
Ischyras, Egyptian bp - His story, which begins under the predecessor of Athanasius, is made out from scattered passages in the Apol. He belonged to a hamlet in the Mareotis too small for a church of its own (§ 85, Ed. Migne) and there had a conventicle attended by seven persons at most (77, 83). He did not bear a good moral character (63) and was once charged with insulting the emperor's statues (vol. The Alexandrian synod of 324 disallowed his orders and pronounced him a layman (74, 75), disproving his pretensions to have been ordained by bp. He had given out that he was a presbyter of the pseudo-bishop COLLUTHUS (2), but no one out of his own family believed him, as he never had a church, and no one in the neighbourhood looked on him as a clergyman (74, 75). He never attended ecclesiastical assemblies as a presbyter (28). In spite of the synod, he continued to act as a presbyter, and was doing this in the cottage of Ision when Athanasius, being on a visitation in the Mareotis, sent his presbyter Macarius to bid him desist. When Macarius reached the house, Ischyras was reported ill in his cell or in a corner behind the door (28, 63, 83), certainly not officiating at the Eucharist (41). This occurrence may be assigned to c. Ischyras on his recovery went over to the Meletians, in conjunction with whom he framed his accusation against Macarius (63), and through Macarius against Athanasius. 13) the three Meletians accused Macarius at Nicomedia of having broken a chalice, overturned a holy table, and burnt service books on the occasion of his visit. As his friends became ashamed of him (63), Ischyras confessed the fabrication to the archbishop and implored forgiveness (16, 28, 63, 74). In the summer of 335 Ischyras, having meanwhile been gained over by the Eusebians, revived the accusation before the council of Tyre (13), and accompanied the synodal commission to the Mareotis to investigate its truth (17). For his reward his Eusebian patrons procured (85) an imperial order for the erection of a church for him at a place called Pax Secontaruri, and the document recognized him as a "presbyter. " They afterwards obtained for him the episcopal title (16, 41), and he figures as bp. of Mareotis among the bishops assembled at Sardica in 343 (Socr
Weak - ) Pertaining to, or designating, a verb which forms its preterit (imperfect) and past participle by adding to the present the suffix -ed, -d, or the variant form -t; as in the verbs abash, abashed; abate, abated; deny, denied; feel, felt. ) Not firmly united or adhesive; easily broken or separated into pieces; not compact; as, a weak ship. ) Not able to resist external force or onset; easily subdued or overcome; as, a weak barrier; as, a weak fortress. ) Deficient in strength of body; feeble; infirm; sickly; debilitated; enfeebled; exhausted. ) Not thoroughly or abundantly impregnated with the usual or required ingredients, or with stimulating and nourishing substances; of less than the usual strength; as, weak tea, broth, or liquor; a weak decoction or solution; a weak dose of medicine. ; easily impressed, moved, or overcome; accessible; vulnerable; as, weak resolutions; weak virtue. ) Not having full confidence or conviction; not decided or confirmed; vacillating; wavering. ) Not having power to convince; not supported by force of reason or truth; unsustained; as, a weak argument or case
ad'am - (red earth ), the name given in Scripture to the first man. It apparently has reference to the ground from which he was formed, which is called in Hebrew Adamah . The idea of redness of color seems to be inherent in either word. Adam was created (not born) a perfect man in body and spirit, but as innocent and completely inexperienced as a child. The man Adam was placed in a garden which the Lord God had planted "eastward in Eden," for the purpose of dressing it and keeping it. [1] Adam was permitted to eat of the fruit of every tree in the garden but one, which was called ("the tree of the knowledge of good and evil," because it was the test of Adam's obedience. By it Adam could know good and evil int he divine way, through obedience; thus knowing good by experience in resisting temptation and forming a strong and holy character, while he knew evil only by observation and inference. -ED. ) The prohibition to taste the fruit of this tree was enforced by the menace of death. There was also another tree which was called "the tree of life. " While Adam was in the garden of Eden, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air were brought to him to be named. After this the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs from him, which he fashioned into a woman and brought her to the man. At this time they were both described as being naked without the consciousness of shame. By the subtlety of the serpent the woman who was given to be with Adam was beguiled into a violation of the one command which had been imposed upon them. The propriety of its name was immediately shown in the results which followed; self-consciousness was the first-fruits of sin their eyes were opened and they knew that they were naked. Though the curse of Adam's rebellion of necessity fell upon him, yet the very prohibition to eat of the tree of life after his transgression was probably a manifestation of divine mercy, because the greatest malediction of all would have been to have the gift of indestructible life super-added to a state of wretchedness and sin. The divine mercy was also shown in the promise of a deliverer given at the very promise of a deliverer given at the very time the curse was imposed, (Genesis 3:15 ) and opening a door of hope to Paradise, regained for him and his descendants. Adam is stated to have lived 930 years. His sons mentioned in Scripture are Cain, Abel and Seth; it is implied, however, that he had others
ad'am - (red earth ), the name given in Scripture to the first man. It apparently has reference to the ground from which he was formed, which is called in Hebrew Adamah . The idea of redness of color seems to be inherent in either word. Adam was created (not born) a perfect man in body and spirit, but as innocent and completely inexperienced as a child. The man Adam was placed in a garden which the Lord God had planted "eastward in Eden," for the purpose of dressing it and keeping it. [1] Adam was permitted to eat of the fruit of every tree in the garden but one, which was called ("the tree of the knowledge of good and evil," because it was the test of Adam's obedience. By it Adam could know good and evil int he divine way, through obedience; thus knowing good by experience in resisting temptation and forming a strong and holy character, while he knew evil only by observation and inference. -ED. ) The prohibition to taste the fruit of this tree was enforced by the menace of death. There was also another tree which was called "the tree of life. " While Adam was in the garden of Eden, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air were brought to him to be named. After this the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs from him, which he fashioned into a woman and brought her to the man. At this time they were both described as being naked without the consciousness of shame. By the subtlety of the serpent the woman who was given to be with Adam was beguiled into a violation of the one command which had been imposed upon them. The propriety of its name was immediately shown in the results which followed; self-consciousness was the first-fruits of sin their eyes were opened and they knew that they were naked. Though the curse of Adam's rebellion of necessity fell upon him, yet the very prohibition to eat of the tree of life after his transgression was probably a manifestation of divine mercy, because the greatest malediction of all would have been to have the gift of indestructible life super-added to a state of wretchedness and sin. The divine mercy was also shown in the promise of a deliverer given at the very promise of a deliverer given at the very time the curse was imposed, (Genesis 3:15 ) and opening a door of hope to Paradise, regained for him and his descendants. Adam is stated to have lived 930 years. His sons mentioned in Scripture are Cain, Abel and Seth; it is implied, however, that he had others
Jer'Icho - (place of fragrance ), a city of high antiquity, situated in a plain traversed by the Jordan, and exactly over against where that river was crossed by the Israelites under Joshua. (Joshua 2:15 ) The spoil that was found in it betokened its affluence. Jericho is first mentioned as the city to which the two spies were sent by Joshua from Shittim. (Joshua 2:1-21 ) It was bestowed by him upon the tribe of Benjamin, ch. Its second foundation under Hiel the Bethelite is recorded in (1 Kings 16:34 ) Once rebuilt, Jericho rose again slowly into consequence. In its immediate vicinity the sons of the prophets sought retirement from the world; Elisha "healed the spring of the waters;" and over against it, beyond Jordan, Elijah "went up by a whirlwind into heaven. " (2 Kings 2:1-22 ) In its plains Zedekiah fell into the hands of the Chaldeans. (2 Kings 25:5 ; Jeremiah 39:5 ) In the return under Zerubbabel the "children of Jericho," 345 in number, are comprised. He fortified it and built a number of new palaces, which he named after his friends. If he did not make Jericho his habitual residence, he at last retired thither to die, and it was in the amphitheater of Jericho that the news of his death was announced to the assembled soldiers and people by Salome. Soon afterward the palace was burnt and the town plundered by one Simon, slave to Herod; but Archelaus rebuilt the former sumptuously, and founded a new town on the plain, that bore his own name; and, most important of all, diverted water from a village called Neaera to irrigate the plain which he had planted with palms. Thus Jericho was once more "a city of palms" when our Lord visited it. Here he restored sight to the blind. The city was destroyed by Vespasian. The site of ancient (the first) Jericho is placed by Dr. Robinson in the immediate neighborhood of the fountain of Elisha; and that of the second (the city of the New Testament and of Josephus) at the opening of the Wady Kelt (Cherith), half an hour from the fountain. (The village identified with jericho lies a mile and a half from the ancient site, and is called Riha . Olin says it is the "meanest and foulest village of Palestine;" yet the soil of the plain is of unsurpassed fertility. --ED
Pillow - —Mark 4:38 ἐπὶ τὸ προσκεφάλαιον καθεύδων, Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘the cushion. word occurs in LXX Septuagint , Ezekiel 13:18-20 (probably ‘fillets’ used as amulets, A. Originally it meant a pillow for the head, but it came to be used for any cushion (cf. 40) says that the poet Cratinus, in his Horœ, used it of the sailor’s cushion (τὸ ναυτικὸν ὑπηρέσιον); and Hesychius, s. ’...
‘To mitigate the roughness of the beams or other seats, every rower was provided with a cushion, which he carried about with him from ship to ship’ (Cecil Torr, Ancient Ships, 47). The fishermen’s belongings mentioned in the Gospels are the boat itself (Luke 5:3, John 21:3), with the accompanying small boat (John 21:8), the two kinds of nets (Matthew 4:18; Matthew 13:47), the hook (Luke 17:37), the baskets (Matthew 13:48), the fisher’s coat (John 21:7), and the cushion. It is clear that the condition of the fishermen of the Lake of Gennesaret was considerably removed from one of absolute poverty; we have other evidences of this in Mark 1:20 (‘the hired servants’), Luke 8:3, Mark 15:40 f. (Salome, one of those who ‘ministered of their substance’), John 19:27 (cf. It is, therefore, not probable that it had been placed there specially for our Lord’s accommodation. On starting to cross the lake, He seated Himself on ‘the cushion in the stern’; and there, being wearied with prolonged teaching, He soon fell into a sleep so profound that not even the tumult of the elements was sufficient to disturb it. ‘Sleep is attributed to our Lord in this context only; but it is probably implied in Mark 1:35, and in passages which describe His vigils as if they were exceptional’ (Swete, St. —Stephanus, Thesaurus Grœcœ Linguœ (ed
Graciousness - —The word ‘graciousness’ does not occur in the Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels. The adjective ‘gracious’ occurs only once (Luke 4:22) in the Authorized Version and not at all in the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885. The idea, however, covered by the noun is of very frequent occurrence, and may truly be said to be one of the leading characteristics of Jesus Himself, and of the gospel He came to proclaim. The passage Luke 4:22 is rendered in the Authorized Version, ‘And all bare him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. ’ The Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 keeps more closely to the form of the Gr. expression, and renders ‘wondered at the words of grace. ’ In so doing it departs from the general practice of the older English versions, which from Tindale onwards adopted the form of the Authorized Version. Wyclif and the Rhemish version support the rendering of the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, following in all probability the example of the Vulgate in verbis gratiae which they rendered literally. See preceding article. word χάρις occurs on several other occasions in the Gospels, and is variously rendered in the English versions. Of the youthful John we read in Luke 2:40 ‘the grace of God was upon him,’ and of the child Jesus (Luke 2:52) that He ‘advanced in favour ((Revised Version margin) ‘grace’) with God and men. The only other passage in the Gospels where the word occurs is in the prologue to the Fourth Gospel, where it is found three times (John 1:14; John 1:16-17), and is rendered in each case ‘grace. There remains for us to see how the quality of ‘graciousness’ is manifested in Jesus during His earthly ministry. Many who take the word ‘gracious’ of Luke 4:22 in the narrower sense noted above, look only for the ‘graciousness’ of our Lord to be revealed in His manner of dealing with men, in His outward conduct and speech. His readiness to take part in all the festivities and social functions of everyday life marked Him off clearly to His contemporaries from the ascetic attitude of John the Baptist. His brotherly attitude towards the diseased and stricken, His generous help, His readiness of sympathy, emboldened leprous, blind, and ashamed humanity to dare the publicity it shrank from, or the menace and rebuke of the crowd, to cast itself at His feet, and throw itself upon His gracious consideration. This same characteristic is revealed in His intimate association with the household at Bethany, and His special affection for John and Lazarus, as well as in such exquisitely human touches as His longing look of love given to the young questioner (Mark 10:21). ...
‘Men could approach near to Him, could eat and drink with Him, could listen to His talk, and ask Him questions, and they found Him not accessible only, but warm-hearted, and not occupied so much with His own plans that He could not attend to a case of distress or mental perplexity’ (Ecce Homo, ch. ...
This peculiar graciousness was displayed in such acts as washing the feet of His disciples, and in His patient tolerance of the scepticism of Thomas. ...
But when we go deeper than form of speech or nature of deed, we find this quality still more clearly manifested. It should not be overlooked that, while St. Luke’s picture is no imaginary one, nor even his emphasis exaggerated. —The various Commentaries on the passages cited, in particular on Luke 4:22 : Plummer, B. Weiss (8th Ed. Weiss (9th Ed
Apollinaris the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea, flourished in the latter half of the 4th cent. , and was at first highly esteemed, even by Athanasius and Basil, for his classical culture, piety, and adhesion to the Nicene Creed during the Arian controversy, until he introduced a Christological heresy which is called after him, and which in some respects prepared the way for Monophysitism. He assisted his father in rewriting the Christian Scriptures in imitation of the style of Homer, Menander, etc. , mentioned in the preceding article. Jerome enjoyed his instruction, A. He did not secede from the communion of the church and begin to form a sect of his own till 375. He died about 392. After his death his followers, who were not numerous, were divided into two parties, the Polemians and Valentinians. His doctrine was condemned by a synod of Alexandria (not naming him), by two synods at Rome under Damasus (377 and 378), and by the second oecumenical council (381). Imperial decrees prohibited the public worship of the Apollinarists (388, 397, 428), until during the 5th cent. they were absorbed partly by the orthodox, partly by the Monophysites. But the peculiar Christology of Apollinaris has reappeared from time to time, in a modified shape, as an isolated theological opinion. Adopting the psychological trichotomy of Plato (σῶμα ψυχή πνεῦμα) for which he quoted 1Th_5:23 and Gal_5:17 he attributed to Christ a human body (σῶμα) and a human soul (the ψυχὴ ἄλογος the anima animans which man has in common with the animal) but not a rational spirit (νοῦς πνεῦμα ψυχὴ λογική anima rationalis) and put in the place of the latter the divine Logos. In opposition to the idea of a mere connexion of the Logos with the man Jesus he wished to secure an organic unity of the two and so a true incarnation; but he sought this at the expense of the most important constituent of man. He reached only a θεός σαρκοφόρος as Nestorianism only an ἄνθρωπος θεοφόρος instead of the proper θεάνθρωπος. He appealed to the fact that the Scripture says "the Word was made flesh"—not spirit; "God was manifest in the flesh," etc. To which Gregory Nazianzen justly replied that in these passages the term σάρξ was used by synecdoche for the whole human nature. In this way Apollinaris established so close a connexion of the Logos with human flesh that all the divine attributes were transferred to the human nature and all the human attributes to the divine and the two merged in one nature in Christ. He made Christ a middle being between God and man in Whom as it were one part divine and two parts human were fused in the unity of a new nature. He even ventured to adduce created analogies of mixtures in nature. On the other hand he regarded the orthodox view of a union of full humanity with a full divinity in one person—of two wholes in one whole—as an absurdity in a similar category with the mythological figure of the Minotaur. But the Apollinarian idea of the union of the Logos with a truncated human nature might be itself more justly compared with this monster. But he strongly asserted Christ's unchangeableness while Arians taught His changeableness (τρεπτότης). ...
The faith of the church revolted against such a mutilated and stunted humanity of Christ, which necessarily involved also a merely partial redemption. The incarnation is an assumption of the entire human nature, sin only excluded. To be a full and complete Redeemer, Christ must be a perfect man (τέλειος ἄνθρωπος ). The spirit or rational soul is the most important element in man, the seat of intelligence and freedom, and needs redemption as well as the soul and the body; for sin has corrupted all the faculties. ...
Athanasius, the two Gregories, Basil, and Epiphanius combated the Apollinarian error, but were unprepared to answer duly its main point, that two integral persons cannot form one person. The later orthodox doctrine surmounted this difficulty by teaching the impersonality of the human nature of Christ, and by making the personality of Christ to reside wholly in the Logos. ...
Apollinarianism opened the long line of Christological controversies, which resulted in the Chalcedonian symbol. Against Apollinaris are directed Athanasius's Contra Apollinarium, or rather περὶ σαρκώσεως τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. ( Opera , Ed. Bened. 921–955), written about 372 without naming Apollinaris; Gregory of Nyssa, Λόγος, ἀντιῤῥητικὸς πρὸς τὰ Ἀπολλιναρίου , first Edited by Zaccagni, Rom 1698, and then by Gallandi, Bibl. 265 ( Opera, Ed
Attila, King And General of the Huns - The rapid series of events between the Hunnish attack on the Eastern empire in 441 and the battle of Châlons in 451 has been compared to a deluge of rain which sweeps a district and leaves no further trace than the débris which the torrent has washed down. But in Eastern Europe, though Attila's kingdom was dismembered at his death, the great body of the Huns, who had followed him from the wilds of Central Asia, settled permanently in the wide plains of the Lower Danube; while, viewed as a special instrument of Providence, "a Messiah of grief and ruin," whose mission it was to chastise the sins of Christians, the "scourge (or rather flail ) of God " had an abiding influence over Western Christendom, and the virtues and merits of the saints who thwarted him by bold resistance or prudent submission shone forth the brighter, the darker became the picture of the oppressor. ...
Portents in sky and earth announced to the inhabitants of Gaul that the year 450 was the opening of a terrible epoch (Idat. Paul was informed that Gaul would be entirely devastated by the Huns but that he himself would die in peace before the devastation came (Paul. Attila strengthened by an alliance with Genseric king of the Vandals (Jorn. Theodoric king of the Goths whose alliance was sought by both Attila and Valentinian inclined to the side of order and the Hun who now took the rôle of chastising his rebellious subjects the Visigoths marched with five or perhaps seven hundred thousand warriors including many Franks Burgundians and Thuringians (Sid. 324) to the banks of the Rhine which he crossed near Coblenz. He installed himself at Trèves the Roman metropolis of Gaul which was pillaged. After one fruitless attempt he entered Metz on Easter Eve April 8 slaughtered indiscriminately priests and people except the bishop and reduced the city to ashes all the churches perishing except the oratory of St. Rheims deserted by its inhabitants was easily reduced and a Hun struck off the head of its bishop Nicacius while he was precenting the words "Quicken me according to Thy word" (Psa_119:25) (Frodoard. The inhabitants of Paris had resolved on flight but the city was saved by the resolution and devotion of St. Geneviève (Genovefa) the maiden of Nanterre who was warned in a vision that Paris would be spared (Act. Attila did not wish to wage war against Christianity though doubtless some of his followers were stimulated by polemical rancour; he fought against Rome not its church. Nor did he intend to give up Gaul to indiscriminate pillage; he hoped to crush the Visigoths first and then to cope separately with Aetius and the Roman forces. of Orleans hastened to Arles to apprise Aetius of their danger but Orleans was only relieved by the influence of the senator Avitus of Clermont who secured the help of Theodoric when the gates had actually been opened to the Huns and pillage was beginning (Vita S. Attila retreated precipitately towards Châlons-sur-Marne in the Campi Catalaunici. Loup) at whose intercession Attila spared the defenceless inhabitants of Champagne carrying Lupus with him as a hostage to the banks of the Rhine. In the spring of 452 Attila penetrated into Italy by the passes of the Julian Alps (Prosp. Attila received his first check at the walls of Aquileia; but after three months' resistance he observed some storks preparing to leave their nests with their young (Jorn. 42) and taking this as a favourable omen redoubled the vigour of his siege and a century afterwards Jornandes (ib. Milan and Pavia were sacked and probably also Verona Mantua Brescia Bergamo and Cremona. His appearance in pontifical robes awoke in Attila some feeling akin to awe and he retired as before a power superior to his own. Soon after he died from the bursting of a blood-vessel though not without suspicion of foul play. ...
Undoubtedly the great and distinguishing feature of the war in the eyes of 5th-cent. It was the final and conclusive answer to the few heathen who still referred all the misfortunes of the empire to the desertion of the ancient polytheism. For a discussion of the various national legends that have clustered around Attila, "the hammer of the world," see D. Ed. The leading authorities for his life are in Gibbon's Roman Empire (ed
Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria - This date is confirmed by the fact that his works are dedicated to Athanasius the Younger, who was bp. Euthalius appears to have been then a deacon, devoted to the study of the N. The first steps towards such a convenient division seem to have proceeded from the wish for easy reference to parallel passages. is generally credited with dividing the gospels into sections but the principle had not been applied to other books of N. Euthalius introduced a system of division into all those not yet divided except the Apocalypse which spread rapidly over the whole Greek church and has become by its presence or absence a valuable test of the antiquity of a MS. Paul Euthalius tells us he adopted the scheme of a certain "father," whose name is nowhere given. But by his other labours and the further critical apparatus which he supplied Euthalius procured for it the acceptance it soon obtained. ...
Three points in connexion with the text especially occupied Euthalius. Fixed lessons for public worship no doubt passed from the synagogue into the Christian church, at least as soon as the canon was settled. The scheme proposed by Euthalius, however, speedily became general in all Greek-speaking churches. , except the Gospels and Apocalypse, was divided into 57 portions of very varying length (in Acts there were 16; in the Pauline Epp. ) Of these, 53 were for Sundays, which seem alone to have been provided for in the Alexandrian Synaxes, and Mill supposes that the other 4 were for Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, and Epiphany (Proleg. Like that of the capitula formerly spoken of the plan of these "verses" was not introduced by Euthalius. It had already been adopted in some of the poetical books and in poetical parts of the prose books of the O. The LXX had occasionally employed it. It had been sanctioned by Origen. The Vulgate had used it and it is found in the psalms of the Vatican and Sinaitic MSS. It had been partially applied to N. What was before partially and imperfectly done Euthalius extended upon better principles and with greater care. of which he treated. These he numbered in one catalogue; assigned to the various books whence they were taken in a second; and quoted at length in a third. 60), as the production of a later hand, he went also into the substance and meaning of the books Edited by him, as the Argumenta contain short and excellent summaries of them. Paul, prefixed to his work on the 14 epistles of that apostle, but it is bald and meagre. Zacagnius thinks that Sulca may represent Psilca, a city of the Thebaid near Syene; but Galland throws doubt on this, and the point must be left unsolved. ...
His works remained long unknown, but in 1698 they were Ed. of his Collectanea Monumentorum Veterum Ecclesiae Graecae ac Latinae, in the long preface of which different questions relating to Euthalius are discussed with much care. This Ed. has been printed in Galland ( Biblioth. the recent work on the subject by Von Soden and Zahn is noticed
Idolatry, - --The first undoubted allusion to idolatry or idolatrous customs in the Bible is in the account of Rachel's stealing her father's teraphim. ( Genesis 31:19 ) During their long residence in Egypt the Israelites defiled themselves with the idols of the land, and it was long before the taint was removed. (Joshua 24:14 ; Ezekiel 20:7 ) In the wilderness they clamored for some visible shape in which they might worship the God who had brought them out of Egypt. During the lives of Joshua and the elders who outlived him they kept true to their allegiance; but the generation following who knew not Jehovah nor the works he had done for Israel, swerved from the plain path of their fathers and were caught in the toils of the foreigner. In later times the practice of secret idolatry was carried to greater lengths. Images were set up on the corn-floors, in the wine-vats, and behind the doors of private houses, (Isaiah 57:8 ; Hosea 9:1,2 ) and to check this tendency the statute in (27:15) was originally promulgated. Under Samuel's administration idolatry was publicly renounced, (1 Samuel 7:3-6 ) but in the reign of Solomon all this was forgotten, even Solomon's own heart being turned after other gods. (1 Kings 11:14 ) Rehoboam perpetuated the worst features of Solomon's idolatry. (1 Kings 14:22-24 ) erected golden calves at Beth-el and at Dan, and by this crafty state' policy severed forever the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. (1 Kings 12:26-33 ) The successors of Jeroboam followed in his steps, till Ahab. The conquest of the ten tribes by Shalmaneser was for them the last scene Of the drama of abominations which had been enacted uninterruptedly for upwards of 250 years. Under Hezekiah a great reform was inaugurated, that was not confined to Judah and Benjamin, but spread throughout Ephraim and Manasseh. (2 Chronicles 31:1 ) and to all external appearances idolatry was extirpated. But the reform extended little below the surface. (Isaiah 29:13 ) With the death of Josiah ended the last effort to revive among the people a purer ritual. The lamp of David, which had long shed but a struggling ray, flickered for a while and then went out in the darkness of Babylonian Captivity. Though the conquests of Alexander caused Greek influence to be felt, yet after the captivity better condition of things prevailed, and the Jews never again fell into idolatry. The erection of synagogues had been assigned as a reason for the comparative purity of the Jewish worship after the captivity, while another cause has been discovered in the hatred for images acquired by the Jews in their intercourse with the Persians. --The sun and moon were early selected as outward symbols of all-pervading power, and the worship of the heavenly bodies was not only the most ancient but the most prevalent system of idolatry. (4:19; 17:3; Job 31:20-28 ) In the later times of the monarchy, the planets or the zodiacal signs received, next to the sun and moon, their share of popular adoration. (2 Kings 23:5 ) Beast-worship, as exemplified in the calves of Jeroboam, has already been alluded to of pure hero-worship among the Semitic races we find no trace. The singular reverence with which trees have been honored is not without example in the history of the Hebrew. The terebinth (oak) at Mamre, beneath which Abraham built an altar, (Genesis 12:7 ; 13:18 ) and the memorial grove planted by him at Beersheba, (Genesis 21:33 ) were intimately connected with patriarchal worship. Mountains and high places were chosen spots for offering sacrifice and incense to idols, (1 Kings 11:7 ; 14:23 ) and the retirement of gardens and the thick shade of woods offered great attractions to their worshippers. (2 Kings 16:4 ; Isaiah 1:29 ; Hosea 4:13 ) The host of heaven was worshipped on the house-top. Whatever of wealth or honor or pleasure is loved and sought before God and righteousness becomes an object of idolatry. --ED. The first and second commandments are directed against idolatry of every form. The individual offender was devoted to destruction, (Exodus 22:20 ) his nearest relatives were not only bound to denounce him and deliver him up to punishment, (13:2-10) but their hands were to strike the first blow, when, on the evidence of two witnesses at least, he was stoned. (17:2-5) To attempt to seduce others to false worship was a crime of equal enormity. --Many have wondered why the Israelites were so easily led away from the true God, into the worship of idols. (2) But the greatest attraction seems to have been in licentious revelries and obscene orgies with which the worship of the Oriental idols was observed. This worship, appealing to every sensual passion, joined with the attractions of wealth and fashion and luxury, naturally was a great temptation to a simple, restrained, agricultural people, whose worship and law demands the greatest purity of heart and of life. --ED
Ulfilas - His career is involved in much obscurity. church historians were our only source until Waitz, in 1840, discovered a MS. gives details which shed light on the obscurity. He was consecrated bishop when 30 years of age, possibly by Eusebius of Nicomedia, at the council of the Dedication, held at Antioch 341. In 380 he went to Constantinople, and died there the same year or early in 381. of the Danube invaded the Roman territory, laid waste the province of Moesia as far as the Black Sea, crossed into Asia and ravaged Cappadocia and Galatia, whence they took a vast number of captives, including many Christian ecclesiastics. "These pious captives, by their intercourse with the barbarians, brought over large numbers to the true faith, and persuaded them to embrace the Christian religion in place of heathen superstitions. Of the number of these captives were the ancestors of Urphilas himself, who were of Cappadocian descent, deriving their origin from a village called Sadagolthina, near the city of Parnassus" (Philost. The Goths carried back these Christian captives into Dacia, where they were settled, and where considerable numbers embraced Christianity through their instrumentality. Ulfilas, the child of one of these Christian captives, was trained in Christian principles. Socrates asserts that he was a disciple of a bishop, Theophilus, who was present at Nicaea and subscribed its creed. 340, when he was consecrated bishop. He returned to Dacia, laboured there for 7 years, and then migrated into Moesia, driven from his original home by a persecution, probably between 347 and 350. About that period he produced his great literary work, inventing the Gothic character and translating "all the books of Scripture with the exception of the Books of Kings, which he omitted because they are a mere narrative of military exploits, and the Gothic tribes, being especially fond of war, were in more need of restraints to check their military passions than of spurs to urge them on to deeds of war" (Philost. 360, when the Acacian party triumphed and issued a creed taking a middle view between those of the orthodox and Arian parties. This was the creed of the Homoean sect, headed by Acacius in the East and Ursacius and Valens in the West. The material part runs thus: "We do not despise the Antiochian formula of the synod in Encoeniis , but because the terms Ὁμοούσιος and Ὁμοιουύιος occasion much confusion, and because some have recently set up the ἀνόμοιος , we therefore reject ὁμοούσιος and ὁμοιούσιος as contrary to the Holy Scriptures; the ἀνόμοιος , however, we anathematize, and acknowledge that the Son is similar to the Father in accordance with the words of the apostle, who calls Him the image of the invisible God. 265, Clark's Ed. The subsequent history of Ulfilas is involved in much obscurity. 37) intimates that Ulfilas and his converts suffered much at the hands of Athanaric, a lively picture of whose persecution, a. Scott, of Cambridge, published an interesting and full monograph on Ulfilas, in which he discusses his history and that of Gothic Christianity during this period. Arianism seems to have specially flourished during the first half of cent. Valens and Ursacius, who lived there, were the leaders of Western Arianism, and Sulpicius Severus expressly asserts ( Chron. The literary fame of Ulfilas is connected with his Gothic translation of the Bible, the one great monument of that language now extant. The fragments extant are contained in (1) the Codex Argenteus , now at Upsala; (2) the Codex Carolinus ; and (3) the Ambrosian fragments published by Mai. 346), and a complete Ed. Scott ( Ulfilas, the Apostle of the Goths , 1885) gathered together the literature after 1840, and gave a long account of the MS. He also discussed (p. 137) some fragments attributed to Ulfilas
Victor, Bishop of Capua - of Capua, apart from his writings is known only by his epitaph, which states that he died in Apr. of the Vulgate transcribed by his direction and afterwards corrected by him. without a title had come into his hands containing a single Gospel composed of the four. So little was known till 1876 of the Diatessaron that it was generally supposed that Victor was mistaken. But Mösinger's Ed. of the Armenian version of EPHRAIM Syrus's Commentary on the Diatessaron (E) followed by Zahn's Forschungen zur Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen Kanons i. (Z) made known the contents and arrangements of the Diatessaron sufficiently to show that the archetype of F was formed by taking T and substituting for each Syriac fragment in Tatian's mosaic the corresponding fragment from the Vulgate the adapter occasionally altering the order and inserting passages missing in T. The discrepancies between the index and text in F shew that it underwent further changes after assuming a Latin shape but it is impossible to say how far the differences between it and T proceed from such subsequent alterations or are due to the original adapter. The discrepancies between index and text demand a date considerably before the latter limit but it must have been made after the Vulgate had become well known and popular which was not till long after it appeared. who wrote during this period collected by Zahn (312 313) shew that either the author was a Syriac scholar or was acquainted with one; pilgrimages from the West to Egypt and Palestine were then frequent. To substitute in Tatian's mosaic the proper fragments of the Vulgate would require a much less thorough knowledge of Syriac than an independent translation would imply. being followed by I. To each book except the Laodiceans is prefixed a brevis or table of headings and to each Pauline Epistle except Hebrews and to the Acts and the Apocalypse a short preface. To the Pauline Epistles are also prefixed a table of lessons from them a general preface or argument of them a long special argument of the Romans and a concordance of the Epistles giving references to the various passages treating of each particular doctrine. To the Acts is prefixed an account of the burial-places of the Apostles. Jerome's which contains the accusation referred to by Westcott and Hort (G. Besides this there are other places where as in the Gospel the text and supplementary matter no longer correspond exactly shewing that changes have occurred since the former was composed. Again the preface to the Colossians "Colossenses et hii sicut Laodicienses sunt Asiani," must have been written when the Laodiceans preceded the Colossians but the transposition may be due to Victor himself. was carefully revised and corrected by Victor, in whose hand are three notes, one at the end of the Acts and two at the end of the Apocalypse, respectively recording that he had finished reading the MS. was Ed. ) has Edited fragments of some on O. , contained in an Expositio in Heptateuchum by Joannes Diaconus. Victor wrote a commentary, 11 fragments of which, preserved in the Collections of Smaragdus, are collected by Pitra ( Patr. Matthew marks numerous passages as derived from Victor. Victor's most celebrated work was that on the Paschal Cycle mentioned by several chroniclers and praised by Bede ( de Rat. The rest was supposed to be lost till considerable extracts from it contained in the Catena of Joannes Diaconus were pub. 17, while Victor considered Apr
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - All things tend to shew that his parents died when he was very young. of Seville for nearly 40 years, and died in 636. Leander received the pall from Gregory the Great in 599. His early manhood was probably passed in a monastery, where he could pursue the studies which afterwards made him famous. Most probably he never belonged to a coenobite order. ...
We meet his name in connexion with the so-called decree of Gunthimar, the Gothic king, and a supposed synod of Toledo in 610 assigning metropolitan rank to the see of Toledo. In the list of subscriptions appended to the Decretum in the conciliar collections ( e. The decrees set forth fully the doctrine of the Person of Christ against the Acephali, supporting it with appeals to Scripture, the Apostles' Creed, and the Fathers. This document was signed by 8 bishops, of whom Isidore subscribed first as metropolitan of Baetica. Some uncertainty hangs over Isidore's presence at a council held at Toledo c. ...
The fourth council of Toledo was held in 633, in the extreme old age of Isidore and shortly before his death, soon after Sisenand came to the throne. Leocadia, and was composed of prelates from Gaul and Narbonne, and from all the provinces of Spain. The king, with his court magnates, was present, and threw himself on the earth before the bishops, and with tears and sighs entreated their intercession with God, and exhorted them to observe the ancient decrees of the church and to reform abuses. The council issued 75 decrees, for a summary of which see D. They were signed by the six metropolitan archbishops of Spain. This council was the only one in which they were all present, and was the most numerously attended of all Spanish synods. Isidore signed first as the oldest metropolitan and oldest bishop present (Mansi, x. The council probably expressed with tolerable accuracy the mind and influence of Isidore. The position and deference granted to the king is remarkable, and nothing is said of allegiance to Rome. The church is free and independent, yet bound in solemn allegiance to the acknowledged king. The relations of the church to the Jews are striking, and the canons shew that there were many Jews in the Spanish community and that the Christian church had not yet emancipated itself from the intolerance of Judaism. He died three years afterwards. As he felt his end approaching he distributed his goods lavishly among the poor, and is said to have spent the whole day for six months in almsgiving. In his last illness he performed public penance in the church of St. Vincentius the martyr, gathered around him the bishops, the religious orders, the clergy, and the poor, then, as one bishop invested him with the penitential girdle, and another strewed ashes on his head, he made a pious and eloquent prayer, translated in full by Gams, received the Body and Blood of Christ in the sacrament, took affectionate leave of all present, retired to his cell, and in four days died. ...
Isidore was undoubtedly the greatest man of his time in the church of Spain. He was versed in all the learning of the age, and well acquainted with Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. His works shew him as a man of varied accomplishments and great versatility of mind; and the prominent place he long filled in his own country sufficiently indicates his general ability and character. His eloquence struck all who heard him with astonishment, and he represented in himself all the science of his time. He is quoted as holding predestinarian views, but his language seems hardly to go so far. At the 8th council of Toledo in 653, the epithet Egregius was applied to him, and confirmed at the 15th council of Toledo, 688. Popes and councils vied in doing him honour, till Benedict XIV. permitted the office of St. Isidore to be recited with the antiphon "O doctor optime," and the gospel, "Vos estis sal terrae. It is for the period a really wonderful work, and the authors quoted in it shew his wide classical reading. arithmetic, 9 chapters; geometry, 5 chapters; music, 9 chapters; and astronomy, 48 chapters; algebra not being yet invented. Medicine, in 13 chapters. A vast amount of erroneous ingenuity is displayed in deriving all the words of the Latin language from itself: e. Niger , quasi nubiger , quia non serenus, sed fusco opertus est. The treatise, which in the Roman Edition occupies two quarto vols. , is a singular medley of information and ignorance, and presents a remarkable picture of the condition of life and knowledge at the time. , under the head of "De discretione temporum," is a chronological summary of sacred and secular history from Adam to Heraclius, concluding in these striking words: "Eraclius xvii nunc agit imperii annum: Judaei in Hispania Christiani efficiuntur. " The whole period (after an idea common in Augustine) is divided into six ages, ending with Noah, Abraham, Samuel, Zedekiah, Julius Caesar, Heraclius. It is probably not possible to overrate the value and the usefulness of this treatise to the age in which Isidore lived, and indeed for many ages it was the best available handbook. ...
(3) Allegoriae quaedam Sacrae Scripturae. , as the ten virgins, the woman with the lost piece of money, the man who planted a vineyard, and the like. The angered king who sent his armies and destroyed those murderers and burnt up their city is interpreted of God the Father, who sent Vespasian Caesar to destroy Jerusalem. He shews an intimate acquaintance with Scripture and with the wonderful way it had then permeated the teaching and life of the church. The genuineness of this treatise has been much doubted. —A mystical interpretation of the principal events recorded in the books of Moses, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Ezra, Maccabees. The preface states that he has gathered the opinions of ancient ecclesiastical writers, viz. is treated of in 31 chapters, Ex. The mystical method of interpretation is pursued to an excessive degree. —Addressed to his sister Florentina and apparently written at her request. It discourses also upon the world, the origin of evil, angels, man, the soul, and senses of the flesh, Christ and the Holy Spirit, the church and heresies, the heathen nations, the law, seven rules or principles for the understanding of Scripture, the difference between the two Testaments, symbol and prayer, baptism and communion, martyrdom, the miracles wrought by the saints, Antichrist and his works, the resurrection and judgment, hell, the punishment of the wicked, and the glory of the just. ...
(11) De Ecclesiasticis Officiis treats of the services of the church, and of clerics, their rules and orders, the tonsure, the episcopal office, vicars episcopal, presbyters, deacons, sacristans and subdeacons, readers, psalmists, exorcists, acolytes, porters, monks, penitents, virgins, widows, the married, catechumens, exorcism, salt, candidates for baptism, the creed, the rule of faith, baptism, chrism, imposition of hands, and confirmation. —This treatise led some to suppose Isidore a Benedictine monk, the only order then established in the West; but Gams thinks the proof not sufficient. Leudefred of Cordova; to Braulio, to whom he speaks of giving a ring and a pall; to Helladius of Toledo on the fall of a certain bp. of Merida; and to archdeacon Redemptus. —This book has been doubted by some, and, though Arevalo maintains it to be genuine, he prints it in smaller type. —One of the most celebrated of Isidore's treatises, dedicated to king Sisebut (acc. 612), one of the best kings of Spain, whose death was universally lamented by the Goths. For a full analysis of the sources of this book see Gustavus Bekker's Ed. —The Goths, according to Isidore, were descended from Gog and Magog, and of the same race as the Getae. They first appeared in Thessaly in the time of Pompey, and in that of Valerian devastated Macedonia, Greece, Pontus, Asia, and Illyricum. Isidore praises the Goths highly; and Spaniards of his time esteemed it an honour to be reckoned Goths. The Vandals entered Spain under Gunderic and were destroyed on the fall of Gelimer; the Suevi entered under Hermeric in 409 and became incorporated with the Gothic nation in 585. —Many Greeks and Latins had treated of the Christian writers before Isidore, but he determined to give a brief outline of those whom he had read himself. The list embraces 46 names, and Braulio has added that of Isidore himself in the celebrated "Praenotatio librorum S. Isidori a Braulione Edita. This is a valuable summary of important facts in ecclesiastical history, but too often disfigured by the fierce and illiberal polemical spirit of the day—vide, e. ...
Other minor works assigned, some doubtfully, to Isidore need not be enumerated. He uses many Spanish words, and Arevalo has collected no fewer than 1,640 words which would not be understood by the ordinary reader or would strike him as strange. The style is feeble and inflated, having all the marks of an age of decadence. He was a voluminous writer of great learning, well versed in Holy Scripture, of which he manifests a remarkable knowledge, had a trained and cultivated mind, but was rather a receptive and reproductive writer than one of strong masculine and original mind. He was a very conspicuous ornament of the Spanish church and shed great glory on the age he adorned. 327; Arevalo in his Ed. 173 (ed. 1 (ed. Arevalo's Ed. of Isidore's works has been reprinted by the Abbé Migne in his Patr. , containing the Collectio Canonum ascribed to Isidore; vols. There is an excellent Ed. Mayor has given a list of Editions and authorities in his Bibliographical Clue to Latin Literature , p. Upon the histories in general was based all the later medieval history-writing of Spain. A most valuable contribution was made to our knowledge of the exact place of the histories in historical work by Dr. Hertzberg's great merit lies in the clearness with which he shews exactly how Isidore worked, what were the kind and amount of his material, and the method employed in working it up. Hertzberg's general conclusions are, that Isidore neither possessed large material nor used what he had well. In no case did he take all that earlier chronicles offered him, but only extracts; his choice and arrangement of statements are often bad, and the proper chronological order frequently disregarded. He alone preserves the memory of Euric's legislation, while our knowledge of Visigothic history under Gesalic, Theudis, Theudigisel, Agila, and Athanagild rests essentially on his testimony. In the prominent reigns of Leovigild and Recared, Joh. From Recared to Suinthila he is again our best and sometimes our only source. Just where Isidore might have drawn most from oral testimony and thus supplied a real gap in our historical knowledge, viz. is dismissed in one vague sentence which tells us nothing. of the shorter, as well as of the Editions of both texts, see Dr. Med. The longer text of the histories is printed in Esp
Glycerius, Emperor of the West - In Mar 473, being then comes domesticorum , he assumed the imperial title at Ravenna in succession to Olybrius; but the emperor of the East, Leo I. the Thracian, set up Julius Nepos, who was proclaimed at Ravenna late in 473 or early in 474, and marched against Glycerius and took him prisoner at Portus. ) Glycerius has been reckoned bp. 931); on the strength of which he has been named bp. 16) that Nepos appointed Glycerius bp. He must mean (writing as a Greek) that Glycerius was ordained bp. for Salona by the Roman ecclesiastical authorities, and that his see belonged to the Roman or western part of the empire and to that patriarchate rather than the Byzantine. 2546) that the deposition of Glycerius took place at Portus, where at the same time he was appointed to Salona. The principality of Dalmatia belonged to Nepos independently of the imperial title. Thither he retired before his successful competitor Orestes, and was brought into contact once more with Glycerius. 78) mentions the now lost Byzantine History of Malchus the Sophist as stating that Nepos, having divested Glycerius of his Caesarian authority and invaded "the empire of the Romans," ordained him, made him a bishop, and finally perished by his machinations ( insidiis petitus ), not "was assassinated," as stated by Gibbon. of Pavia, who dedicates short poems to several successive bishops of Milan, inscribes one to Glycerius, whom he places between Martinianus and Lazarus (carm. of Pavia, mentions the emperor Glycerius as shewing so much veneration for that saint as to accept his intercession for some people in the diocese of Pavia, who had incurred the imperial displeasure (Ennod. 295, Ed. Smith) that Glycerius was promoted by Orestes from Salona to the archbishopric of Milan in reward for his assassination of Nepos
Gilgal - Such a circle of stones could be found almost anywhere in Palestine and led easily to naming towns “Gilgal. ” The many references to Gilgal in the Old Testament cannot thus be definitely connected to the same town, since several different Gilgals may well have existed. Gilgal is most closely associated with Joshua, but the number of Gilgals involved continues an unsolved question. After crossing the Jordan, Joshua established the first camp at Gilgal (Joshua 4:19 ). There Joshua took twelve stones from the bed of the river to set up a memorial for the miraculous crossing. Gilgal, the first foothold on Palestinian soil, became Israel's first worship place, where they were circumcised and observed the Passover. There God appeared to Joshua and affirmed his mission (Joshua 5:1 ). Ehud, the judge, passed Gilgal in his mission to slay the king of Moab (Judges 3:19 ,Judges 3:19,3:26 ). David passed through Gilgal as he fled from Absalom (2Samuel 19:15,2 Samuel 19:40 ). This Gilgal is often located at modern khirbet Mefjir, a little more than a mile east of Jericho. Still others remain baffled at finding a location. The boundary town is often seen as khan el-Ahmar or Araq Ed-Deir. The military camp is at times located at tell Jiljulieh east of Shechem but without archaeological support. Saul was both crowned and rejected as king at Gilgal (1 Samuel 11:14-15 ; 1 Samuel 13:14-15 ). Gilgal established itself as a major place of worship for Israel with ancient traditions. However, it also permitted worship associated with other gods and became the object of prophetic judgment (Hosea 4:15 ; Amos 4:4 ; Amos 5:5 ). Elijah and Elisha were associated closely with Gilgal. Gilgal of the nations is mentioned as a royal city near Dor (Joshua 12:23 )
Tithe - the proportion of property devoted to religious uses from very early times. In biblical history the two prominent instances are--
Abram presenting the tenth of all his property, or rather of the spoils of his victory, to Melchizedek. (Genesis 14:20 ; Hebrews 7:2,6 ) ...
Jacob, after his vision at Luz, devoting a tenth of all his property to God in case he should return home in safety (Genesis 28:22 ) The first enactment of the law in respect of tithe is the declaration that the tenth of all produce, as well as of flocks and cattle belongs to Jehovah and must be offered to him that the tithe was to be paid in kind, or, if redeemed, with an addition of one fifth to its value. (Leviticus 27:30-33 ) This tenth is ordered to be assigned to the Levites as the reward of their service, and it is ordered further that they are themselves to dedicate to the Lord a tenth of these receipts, which is to be devoted to the maintenance of the high priest. (Numbers 18:21-28 ) This legislation is modified or extended in the book of Deuteronomy, i. (12:5-18) ...
All the produce of the soil was to be tithed every and these tithes with the firstlings of the flock and herd, were to be eaten in the metropolis. ...
But in case of distance, permission is given to convert the produce into money, which is to be taken to the appointed place, and there laid out in the purchase of food for a festal celebration, in which the Levite is, by special command, to be included. (14:22-27) ...
Then follows the direction that at the end of three years all the tithe of that year is to be gathered and laid up "within the gates" and that a festival is to be held of which the stranger, the fatherless and the widow together with the Levite, are to partake. (5:28,29) ...
Lastly it is ordered that after taking the tithe in each third year, "which is the year of tithing," an exculpatory declaration is to be made by every Israelite that he has done his best to fulfill the divine command, (26:12-14) From all this we gather-- (1) That one tenth of the whole produce of the soil was to be assigned for the maintenance of the Levites. (2) That out of this the Levites were to dedicate a tenth to God for the use of the high priest. (3) That a tithe, in all probability a second tithe, was to be applied to festival purposes. --ED
Salamis - (Σαλαμίς)...
Salamis, the most important city of ancient Cyprus, was the first place visited by St. Situated at the eastern extremity of the island, about equidistant from Cilicia in the north and Syria in the east, it was the emporium of the wide and fertile plain of Salaminia, which stretched inward between two mountain ranges as far as Nicosia, the present capital of Cyprus. Once a centre of Mycenaean civilization, and afterwards colonized by the Greeks, Salamis became the arena of a long conflict between an Eastern and a Western culture, Phcenicia and Hellas here contending with and profoundly influencing one another. ...
The city possessed a fine harbour, near which the Athenians defeated the Phcenicians, the allies of Persia, in 449 b. The same waters witnessed the greatest sea-fight of ancient times, in which Demetrius the son of Antigonus achieved in 306 b. a brilliant victory over Ptolemy Soter and thus wrested the island from him. Their numbers were doubtless greatly increased in the time of Herod the Great, when ‘Caesar made him a present of half the copper mines in Cyprus, and committed the care of the other half to him’ (Jos. Paul found synagogues, in which they ‘proclaimed the word of God’ (Acts 13:5). The historian has recorded no incidents or results of this visit. 117), the Jews of Salamis, grown numerous and wealthy, rose and massacred their fellow-citizens, and the once populous city became almost a desert. ‘Hadrian, afterwards Emperor, landed on the island, and marched to the assistance of the few inhabitants who had been able to act on the defensive. He defeated the Jews, expelled them from the island, to whose beautiful coasts no Jew was ever after permitted to approach. If one were accidentally wrecked on the inhospitable shore, he was instantly put to death’ (H. Devastated by earthquakes in the time of Constantius and Constantine, Salamis was restored by Constantius II and named Constantia. The story that Barnabas suffered martyrdom there is a late legend. His relics, with a copy of the First Gospel, were ‘discovered’ in a. The site of the ancient city is now covered by sandhills, its place being taken by Famagusta, 2½ miles S. Paul, new Ed
Tower - —‘Tower’ (πύργος) is mentioned three times in the Lord’s teaching: in the parable of the Wicked Husbandmen (Matthew 21:33, Mark 12:1), in the allusion to an accident in Siloam which led to the loss of eighteen lives (Luke 13:4), and in the illustration of the builder who was unable to complete his undertaking (Luke 14:28). Two, if not three, kinds of tower may be referred to in these passages:—(1) The builder who exposed himself to ridicule by beginning what he could not finish (Luke 14:28) may be thought of as building a house. The larger houses in the Holy Land are sometimes provided at one end with a tower-like annex. The ‘alîyyâh or upper storey, seen from a little distance, must suggest a tower rather than a dwelling-house (see also Land and Book, Ed. (2) The tower in Siloam (ἐν τῷ Σιλωάμ, Luke 13:4) may have been connected with some fortifications. The walls of ancient Oriental cities were generally provided with towers at frequent intervals. 3), two of which, Hippicus and Phasaelus, are probably represented to some extent by two of the towers of the modern citadel, the latter being partly preserved in the so-called David’s Tower (Picturesque Palestine, i. Edersheim (Life of Jesus the Messiah, ii. 222) suggests that the tower may have been connected with the building of the aqueduct constructed by Pilate with money taken from the temple treasury (Josephus Ant. 4); but that is unsupported conjecture. If the Tower was situated literally in Siloam, the nature of the ground may help to explain the accident. (3) The vineyard tower referred to in the two other passages (Matthew 21:33, Mark 12:1; cf. Is 5:2) can be illustrated from ancient ruins and modern practice. ) that ‘in many cases we still find the remains of the solidly-built tower which commanded a view of the whole enclosure, and was probably the permanent residence of the keeper through the summer and autumn. 279) of a stone tower in the Hauran constructed of black basalt, with a stone loft at the height of 14 feet, reached by a spiral staircase (see also Porter, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Bethany, p. —Besides the authorities cited above, see Heber-Percy, Bashan and Argob, p
Sinai - ) The peninsula of Sinai is a triangular tract, bounded on the W. Palmer (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January, 1871) discovered Erweis el Ebeirig, which he believed to be the remains of an Israelite camp. The tombs outside he identified as the Κibroth Ηattaavah , "graves of lust" (Numbers 11:31); the extensive remains betoken a large assemblage of people. Farther on the stone huts scattered over the hills and country, Arabic Νawamis ("mosquitos"), were probably Amalekite dwellings. Proceeding N. the explorers reached 'Ain Gadis or Kadesh, with a wady of the same name running from it beside a large plain. Eshcol, where the spies went, lay not far off from Kadesh in the vine abounding district on the way to Hebron; the hill sides are covered with small stone heaps, on which the vines were trained. ...
To the north stand el Μeshrifeh or Ζephath "the watchtower," and Sbaita, all built of stone, without timber, "the city of the Zephath," afterward called Hormah (Judges 1:17). Sinai stands in the center of the peninsula which lies between the two horns of the Red Sea. It is a wedge shaped mass of granite and porphyry platonic rocks, rising almost 9,000 ft. cluster, including five-peaked Serbal, 6,342 ft. , might not see the camp, though hearing the noise, until he emerged from the wady Ed Deir or the wady Leja on the plain (Exodus 32:15-19)
Claudia - The name suggests that she belonged to the Imperial household, and various conjectures have been made as to her identity, though there is very little in the nature of certain data. 46) she is regarded as the mother of Linus (Λίνος ὁ Κλαυδίας). This Claudia of Martial has again been identified with an imaginary Claudia suggested by a fragmentary inscription found at Chichester in 1722 which seems to record the erection of a temple by a certain Pudens with the approval of Claudius Cogidubnus, who is supposed to be a British king mentioned in Tacitus (Agricola, xiv. ) and the father of the Claudia who had adopted the name (cognomen) Rufina from Pomponia the wife of Aulus Plautins, the Roman governor of Britain (a. 76-79) discusses the whole question of identification, and decides that, apart from the want of evidence, the position of the names of Pudens and Claudia in the text 2 Timothy 4:21 disposes of the possibility of their being husband and wife-a difficulty which Plumptre evades by the supposition that they were married after the Epistle was written. The low moral character of Martial’s friend Pudens can hardly be explained away sufficiently to make him a likely companion of St. 397; articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica ; Conybeare-Howson, Life and Epistles of St. Paul, new Ed
Habibus, Deacon, Martyr at Edessa - Habibus (2) ( Abibus ), deacon, martyr at Edessa in the reign of Licinius; mentioned in the Basilian Menologium , Nov. Simeon Metaphrastes in his lengthened account of those two martyrs (the Lat. The original Syriac account of Habib which Metaphrastes abridged has been discovered, and was Ed. ) in the year 620 of the kingdom of Alexander of Macedon, in the consulate of Licinius and Constantine, in the days of Conon, bp. of Edessa, the emperor commanded the altars of the gods to be everywhere repaired, sacrifices and libations offered and incense burnt to Jupiter. The Christians were more numerous than their persecutors, and word reached Edessa that even Constantine "in Gaul and Spain" had become Christian and did not sacrifice. Habib's proceedings were reported to Licinius, who sentenced him to die by fire. When this news reached Edessa, Habib was some 50 miles off at Zeugma, secretly encouraging the Christians there, and his family and friends at Telzeha were arrested. Hereupon, Habib went to Edessa and presented himself privately to Theotecnus, the head of the governor's household. This official desired to save Habib and pressed him to depart secretly, assuring him that his friends would soon be released. Habib, believing that cowardice would endanger his eternal salvation, persisted in surrender, and was led before the governor. On refusing to sacrifice, he was imprisoned, tortured, and then burned, after he had at great length uncompromisingly exposed the sin and folly of idolatry. ) he suffered. Let therefore this fire in which I am to be burned be for a recompense before Thee, so that I may be delivered from that fire which is not quenched; and receive Thou my spirit into Thy presence through the Spirit of Thy Godhead, O glorious Son of the adorable Father
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - Isaacus (31) Antiochenus, born at Amid (Diarbekir) in Mesopotamia, called "the Great" and "the Elder," a priest of Antioch in Syria, said to have visited Rome. The Chronicle of Edessa speaks of him as an archimandrite, without specifying his monastery, which was at Gabala in Phoenicia. He died c. He is sometimes confused with Isaacus of Nineveh. Jacobus of Edessa reckons him among the best writers of Syriac. Many of them are wrongly ascribed to St. Ephraim, and included amongst his works in the Roman Edition. Besides Sunday, many Christians observed Friday, the day of the Passion. Assemani thinks his words have been tampered with by Jacobite copyists. 24, Christ suffered as man, not as God. " This aims at those Syrian monks who had adopted the opinion of Origen on this subject. Bickell printed both, so far as he found them extant ( S. Bickell, in the preface to his Edition of the works of Isaac, gives a list of 178 entire poems, and of 13 others imperfect at the beginning or end (179–191); three prose writings dealing with the ascetic life (192–194); five sermons in Arabic, on the Incarnation, etc. (195–199); and a sermon in Greek, on the Transfiguration, usually assigned to St. primus Ed
Mischna - The Mischna consists of various traditions of the Jews, and of explanations of several passages of Scripture: these traditions serving as an explication of the written law, and supplement to it, are said to have been delivered to Moses during the time of his abode on the Mount; which he afterwards communicated to Aaron, Eleazar, and his servant Joshua. By these they were transmitted to the seventy elders; by them to the prophets, who communicated them to the men of the great sanhedrim, from whom the wise men of Jerusalem and Babylon received them. According to Prideaux's account, they passed from Jeremiah to Baruch, from him to Ezra, and from Ezra to the men of the great synagogue, the last of whom was Simon the Just, who delivered them to Antigonus of Cocho: and from him they came down in regular succession to Simeon, who took our Saviour in his arms; to Gamaliel, at whose feet Paul was Educated; and last of all, to Rabbi Judah the Holy, who committed them to writing in the Mischina. Prideaux, rejecting the Jewish fiction, observes, that after the death of Simon the Just, about 299 years before Christ, the Mischnical doctors arose, who by their comments and conclusions added to the number of those traditions which had been received and allowed by Ezra and the men of the great synagogue; so that towards the middle of the second century after Christ, under the empire of Antoninus Pius, it was found necessary to commit these traditions to writing; more especially as their country had considerably suffered under Adria, and many of their schools had been dissolved, and their learned men cut off; and therefore the usual method of preserving their traditions had failed. Rabbi Judah on this occasion being rector of the school of Tiberias, and president of the sanhedrim in that place, undertook the work, and compiled it in six books, each consisting of several tracts, which altogether make up the number of sixty-three. Ed. This learned author computes, that the Mischna was composed about the 150th year of our Lord; but Dr. Lightfoot says that the Rabbi Judah compiled the Mischna about the year of Christ 190, in the latter end of the reign of commodus; or, as some compute, in the year of Christ 220. Lardner is of opinion that this work could not have been finished before the year 190, or later. Thus the book called the Mischna was formed; a book which the Jews have generally received with the greatest veneration. The original has been published with a Latin translation by Surenhusius, with notes of his own and others from the learned Maimonides, &c
Coelicolae - 363) was followed by a reaction in favour of the Christians and against the Jews. The fierce bitterness of the Edicts of Constantine and Constantius was never perhaps renewed, but the decrees of Theodosius the Great (379–395) and his son Honorius (395–423) were sufficiently strong and cruel to make it evident how the Roman emperors were influenced, both theologically and politically. The Christians convinced themselves that a stand must be made more earnestly than ever against any heresy which would seduce their members in the direction of either Judaism or paganism. The possible confusion of Christianity with either was by all means to be avoided. Most especially should this be the case as regarded Judaism. The scandal at Antioch which roused the holy indignation of St. Hence the effort became more and more strenuous to suppress not only such open approximation of the two religious bodies, but also such sects as indicated, by their forms and doctrines, the intention of presenting a compromise with the truth. § 13, Ed. Edicts of Theodosius and Honorius denounced the "new doctrine" of the sect, which was said to be marked by "new and unwonted audacity," and to be nothing else than a "new crime of superstition" ( Cod. Happily there is reason to believe that kinder counsels moderated the severity of such intolerance (Grätz, p. In one Edict they are classed with the Jews and the Samaritans, in a second with the Jews only. The Romans, it is well known, called the Jews worshippers of idols through a mistaken notion that the Jewish use of the word "Heaven" for "God" (Buxtorf, Lex. 303) indicated the worship of some created embodiment of heaven (Vitringa, de Synag. The Coelicolae proper would therefore be easily included by the Romans under the one general title " Jews. Augustine's letter it would seem that the Coelicolae used a baptism which he counted sacrilege— i. they probably combined a Christian form of baptism with the Jewish rite of circumcision. If, moreover, as their name may indicate, the Coelicolae openly professed their adhesion to the Jewish worship of the One God and rejected the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, this would be an error for which their abhorrence of pagan forms of idolatry would not compensate. The Coelicolae of Africa, like their congeners the Θεοσεβεῖς of Phoenicia and Palestine, and the Hypsistarii of Cappadocia, were soon stamped or died out. 271; Niedner, K
zi'Don, - (Genesis 10:15,19 ; Joshua 11:8 ; 19:28 ; Judges 1:31 ; 18:28 ; Isaiah 23:2,4,12 ; Jeremiah 25:22 ; 27:3 ; Ezekiel 28:21,22 ; Joel 3:4 ) ( Joel 4:4 ); Zechariah 9:2 ; Matthew 11:21,22 ; 15:21 ; Mark 3:8 ; 1:24,31 ; Luke 6:17 ; 10:13,14 An ancient and wealthy city of Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, less than twenty English miles to the north of Tyre. It is situated in the narrow plain between the Lebanon and the sea. This view is confirmed by Zidonians being used as the generic name of Phoenicians or Canaanites. ( Joshua 13:6 ; Judges 18:7 ) From the time of Solomon to the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar Zidon is not often directly mentioned in the Bible, and it appears to have been subordinate to Tyre. When the people called "Zidonians" are mentioned, it sometimes seems that the Phoenicians of the plain of Zidon are meant. (1 Kings 5:6 ; 11:1,5,33 ; 16:31 ; 2 Kings 23:13 ) All that is known are respecting the city is very scanty, amounting to scarcely more than that one of its sources of gain was trade in slaves, in which the inhabitants did not shrink from selling inhabitants of Palestine and that it was governed by kings. (Jeremiah 25:22 ; 27:3 ) During the Persian domination Zidon seems to have attained its highest point of prosperity; and it is recorded that, toward the close of that period, it far excelled all other Phoenician cities in wealth and importance. Its prosperity was suddenly cut short by an unsuccessful revolt against Persia, which ended in the destruction of the town, B. Its king, Tennes had proved a traitor and betrayed the city to Ochus, king of the Persians; the Persian troops were admitted within the gates, and occupied the city walls. The Zidonians, before the arrival of Ochus, had burnt their vessels to prevent any one's leaving the town; and when they saw themselves surrounded by the Persian troops, they adopted the desperate resolution of shutting themselves up with their families, and setting fire each man to his own house. Forty thousand persons are said to have perished in the flames. Zidon however, gradually recovered from the blow, and became again a flourishing town. It is about fifty miles distant from Nazareth, and is the most northern city which is mentioned in connection with Christ's journeys. (The town Saida still shows signs of its former wealth, and its houses are better constructed and more solid than those of Tyre, many of them being built of stone; but it is a poor, miserable place, without trade or manufactures worthy of the name. The city that once divided with Tyre the empire of the seas is now almost without a vessel. Its population is estimated at 10,000,7000 of whom are Moslems, and the rest Catholics, Maronites and Protestants. --McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia. --ED
Money -
Uncointed money. --It is well known that ancient nations that were without a coinage weighed the precious metals, a practice represented on the Egyptian monuments, on which gold and silver are shown to have been kept in the form of rings. We have no evidence of the use of coined money before the return from the Babylonian captivity; but silver was used for money, in quantities determined by weight, at least as early as the time of Abraham; and its earliest mention is in the generic sense of the price paid for a slave. ( Genesis 17:13 ) The 1000 pieces of silver paid by Abimelech to Abraham, ( Genesis 20:16 ) and the 20 pieces of silver for which Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites, ( Genesis 37:28 ) were probably rings such as we see on the Egyptian monuments in the act of being weighed. In the first recorded transaction of commerce, the cave of Machpelah is purchased by Abraham for 400 shekels of silver. ...
Coined money. --After the captivity we have the earliest mention of coined money , in allusion, as might have been expected, to the Persian coinage, the gold daric (Authorized version dram ). ( Ezra 2:69 ; 8:27 ; Nehemiah 7:70,71,72 ) [1] No native Jewish coinage appears to have existed till Antiochus VII. Sidetes granted Simon Maccabaeus the license to coin money, B. 140; and it is now generally agreed that the oldest Jewish silver coins belong to this period. With this silver there was associated a copper coinage. (The first coined money mentioned in the Bible refers to the Persian coinage, ( 1 Chronicles 29:7 ; Ezra 2:69 ) and translated dram . The coins mentioned by the evangelists, and first those of silver, are the following: The stater , ( Matthew 17:24-27 ) called piece of money , was a Roman coin equal to four drachmas. It was worth 55 to 60 cents, and is of about the same value as the Jewish stater , or coined shekel. Of copper coins the farthing and its half, the mite , are spoken of, and these probably formed the chief native currency. --ED
Palm Tree - Under this generic term many species are botanically included; but we have here only to do with the date palm, the Phoenix dactylifera of Linnaeus. While this tree was abundant generally in the Levant, it was regarded by the ancients as peculiarly characteristic of Palestine and the neighboring regions, though now it is rare. It begins to bear fruit after it has been planted six or eight years, and continues to be productive for a century. Its fruit is the daily food of millions; its sap furnishes an agreeable wine; the fibres of the base of its leaves are woven into ropes and rigging; its tall stem supplies a valuable timber; its leaves are manufactured into brushes, mats, bags, couches and baskets. ) Many places are mentioned in the Bible as having connection with palm trees; Elim, where grew three score and ten palm trees, ( Exodus 15:27 ) and Elath. " The word Phoenicia, which occurs twice in the New Testament -- (Acts 11:19 ; 15:3 ) --is in all probability derived from the Greek word for a palm. Perhaps no point is more worthy of mention, we wish to pursue the comparison, than the elasticity of the fibre of the palm and its determined growth upward even when loaded with weights. The passage in (Revelation 7:9 ) where the glorified of all nations are described as "clothed with white robes and palms in their hands," might seem to us a purely classical image; but palm branches were used by the Jews in token of victory and peace. (To these points of comparison may be added, its principle of growth: it is an endogen, and grows from within; its usefulness; the Syrians enumerating 360 different uses to which it may be put; and the statement that it bears its best fruit in old age. --ED
ka'Desh, ka'Desh-Bar'ne-a - ) This place, the scene of Miriam's death, was the farthest point which the Israelites reached in their direct road to Canaan; it was also that whence the spies were sent, and where, on their return, the people broke out into murmuring, upon which their strictly penal term of wandering began. ( Numbers 13:3,26 ; 14:29-33 ; 20:1 ; 2:14) It is probable that the term "Kadesh," though applied to signify a "city," yet had also a wider application to a region in which Kadesh-meribah certainly, and Kadesh-barnea probably, indicates a precise spot. In (Genesis 14:7 ) Kadesh is identified with En-mishpat, the "fountain of judgment. " It has been supposed, from (Numbers 13:21,26 ) and Numb 20:1 . Clay Trumbull of Philadelphia, visiting the spot in 1881, succeeded in rendering almost certain that the site of Kadesh is Ain Kadis (spelled also Gadis and Quadis ); "the very same name, letter for letter in Arabic and Hebrew, with the scriptural fountain of Kadesh --the 'holy fountain,' as the name means-- which gushed forth when Moses smote the rock. " It lies 40 miles south of Beersheba and 165 northeast of Horeb, immediately below the southern border of Palestine. It was discovered in 1842 by the Rev. Rowlands of Queen's College, Cambridge, England, whose discovery was endorsed by the great German geographer Ritter, by E. Trumbull thus describes it: --"It is an extensive oasis, a series of wells, the water of which flows out from under such an overhanging cliff as is mentioned in the Bible story; and it opens into a vast plain or wadi large enough to have furnished a camping-ground for the whole host of Israel. The plain or wadi, also called Quadis, is shut in by surrounding hills so as to make it a most desirable position for such a people as the Israelites on the borders of hostile territory --such a position as leaders like Moses and Joshua would have been likely to select. " "It was carpeted with grass and flowers. Fig treed laden with fruit were against its limestone hillsides. Shrubs in richness and variety abounded. Standing out from the mountain range at the northward of the beautiful oasis amphitheater was the 'large single mass or small hill of solid rock' which Rowlands looked at as the cliff (sela) smitten by Moses to cause it to 'give forth its water' when its flowing had ceased. A well, walled up with timeworn limestone blocks, was the first receptacle of the water. Not far from this was a second well similarly walled, supplied from the same source. Several pools, not walled up, where also supplied from the stream. " --ED
Mark, - His mother would seem to have been intimately acquainted with St. Peter, and it was to her house, as to a familiar home, that the apostle repaired, A. Mark's intimate acquaintance with that apostle, to whom also he probably owed his conversion, for St. 48, when he joined them as their "minister. " ( Acts 13:8 ) With them he visited Cyprus; but at Perga in Pamphylia, (Acts 13:13 ) when they were about to enter upon the more arduous part of their mission, he left them, and, for some unexplained reason, returned to Jerusalem to his mother and his home. 61-63, and he Is acknowledged by him as one of his few fellow laborers who had been a "comfort" to him during the weary hours of his imprisonment. " From this we infer that he joined his spiritual father, the great friend of his mother, at Babylon, then and for same hundred years afterward one of the chief seats of Jewish culture. From Babylon he would seem to have returned to Asia Minor; for during his second imprisonment A. Peter would seem to have proceeded, and suffered martyrdom with St. Mark visited Egypt, founded the church of Alexandria, and died by martyrdom. --Condensed from Cambridge Bible for Schools. --ED
Luke, Gospel of, - The third Gospel is ascribed, by the general consent of ancient Christendom, to "the beloved physician," Luke, the friend and companion of the apostle Paul. --From ( Acts 1:1 ) it is clear that the Gospel described "the former treatise" was written before the Acts of the Apostles; but how much earlier is uncertain. --If the time has been rightly indicated, the place would be Caesarea. --The preface, contained in the first four verses of the Gospel, describes the object of its writer. Here are several facts to be observed. Luke places in his having carefully followed out the whole course of events from the beginning. The four verses could not have been put at the head of a history composed under the exclusive guidance of Paul or of any one apostle and as little could they have introduced a gospel simply communicated by another. Luke, seeking information from every quarter, sought it from the preaching of his be loved master St. Paul; and the apostle in his turn employed the knowledge acquired from other sources by his disciple. --The evangelist professes to write that Theophilus "might know the certainty of those things wherein he had been instructed. Paul's journey to Rome, places which an Italian might be supposed not to know are described minutely, (Acts 27:8,12,16 ) but when he comes to Sicily and Italy this is neglected. --It has never been doubted that the Gospel was written in Greek, whilst Hebraisms are frequent, classical idioms and Greek compound words abound, for which there is classical authority. Gregory, in "Why Four Gospels" says that Luke wrote for Greek readers, and therefore the character and needs of the Greeks furnish the key to this Gospel. He looked upon himself as having the mission of perfecting man. He was intellectual, cultured, not without hope of a higher world. Luke's Gospel therefore represented the character and career of Christ as answering the conception of a perfect and divine humanity. Reason, beauty righteousness and truth are exhibited as they meet in Jesus in their full splendor. Jesus was the Saviour of all men, redeeming them to a perfect and cultured manhood. --ED
Ptolemais - (Πτολεμαΐς)...
Ptolemais is the ancient Canaanite town of Acco (mentioned in Judges 1:31 and in the corrected text of Joshua 19:30), still known in Arab. Standing on the rocky promontory which forms the northern boundary of the sandy Bay of Acre, protected by the sea on the W. , and strongly fortified on the landward side, it came to be regarded as the key of Palestine, and its chequered history is chiefly a record of sieges, of which it has probably had to endure more in ancient and modern times than any other Syrian town. Between it and the hills of Galilee lies the fertile Plain of Acre, six miles in width, watered by the Nahr Namein, the ancient Belus, a river famous for the manufacture-Pliny (HN_ xxxvi. 26) says the invention-of glass at its mouth, as well as for the murex shells from which purple dye was extracted by the Phcenicians. ...
The town rose to considerable importance under the Macedonian kings of Egypt, who converted it into a Greek city, and its new name-given probably by Ptolemy Soter, and retained when the rival kings of Syria gained the mastery-continued to be used till the end of the Roman period, after which the old native name was revived. The city played a prominent part in the Maccabaean wars. There Simon routed the Syrian Greeks (1 Maccabees 5:15), and there Jonathan was treacherously captured by Trypho (1 Maccabees 12:45-48). Augustus was entertained in it by Herod the Great (Jos. 7), and Claudius established it as a colonia (Pliny, HN_ v. The Romans used it as a base of operations in the Jewish war, at the outbreak of which its inhabitants proved their loyalty to Rome by massacring 2,000 Jews resident in the city and putting others in bonds (Jos. ...
Ptolemais is mentioned only once in the NT. Paul touched it in sailing from Tyre to Caesarea (Acts 21:7). The Apostle saluted the Christians whom he found in the town, and remained a day in their company. Philip the Evangelist, who laboured in Caesarea, has been suggested. The destruction of the city ‘produced terror all over Europe; for, with its fall in 1291, the power of the Christian nations of the West lost its last hold upon the East’ (C. Reconstructed in the 18th cent. , besieged in vain by Napoleon (1799), captured by Ibrahim Pasha (1831), and bombarded by the fleets of Britain, Austria, and Turkey (1840), it still has some commercial importance, though the recent growth of Haifa has told heavily against it. Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, new Ed. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria4, 1906; E
Puteoli - Originally a Greek settlement, it retained the name of Dicaearchia till the Romans established a colony there, when the Latin element swamped the Greek. Eastward the town was separated from Neapolis by a headland (Posilipo) which Augustus pierced with a tunnel, while westward it joined hands with Baiae, the gay resort of fashionable Rome. By the short Via Campania (or Consularis) it was connected with the Via Appia at Capua, which was 125 miles from Rome. Paul, new Ed. 77) gives a life-like picture of the Puteolan crowd gathering on the pier in spring to watch the fleet of Alexandrian corn-ships heaving in sight, easily distinguished ‘in magna turba navium’ because they alone were allowed to enter the bay carrying their top-sails. The mercantile supremacy of Puteoli is explained by Strabo (c. All this was changed by the construction at Ostia of the Portus Augusti, begun in the reign of Claudius and finished in that of Nero, close to the time (a. The Apostle’s ship, however, sailed for the old port, so that he and his companions had to make the usual overland journey. In Puteoli they ‘found brethren’ of whom they had no previous knowledge (as the absence of the article proves), and ‘were cheered among them (παρεκλήθημεν παρʼ αὐτοῖς), remaining seven days’ (Acts 28:14). This reading is preferred by W. 287) to ‘were entreated by them’ (ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς), which would convey the idea that St. Paul, though a prisoner, was able to make his own arrangements; whereas the truth probably was that when Julius decided that a halt must be made for a week, the Apostle used the measure of liberty given him, and passed the time in happy fellowship with the little Christian Church. 1), so that the soil had been partly prepared for the seed of the gospel; and as ships plied between Puteoli and every port in Syria and Egypt, it was nothing wonderful that St. Paul found Christianity already planted in that great commercial city. Other Eastern cults took root there sooner than in Rome, as a temple of Serapis, frequented in the 2nd cent. , proved. Its cathedral is built into a temple of Augustus. Baedeker, Southern Italy and Sicily12, 1896
Mamertus, Claudianus Ecdicius - Mamertus (2), Claudianus Ecdicius, a learned writer of the last half of the 5th cent. Trained from his earliest years for the monastic life, he was Educated in all the stores of Greek, Roman, and Christian literature. During his brother's archbishopric he worked as a presbyter in Vienne, and served so effectually as his right hand that some writers have represented him as a "bishop" under his brother. As presbyter he was specially useful in training the clergy, organizing the services of the church, and arranging the order of Psalms and Lessons for the year, and perhaps we may attribute to his influence the regular use of litanies upon Rogation Days established by his brother. of Riez, published anonymously a treatise asserting the corporeality of the soul, Sidonius and other friends applied to Mamertus as best qualified to answer it, and the de Statu Animae was the result. Sidonius also mentions with warm praise a hymn he had written, and represents him as a great centre of intellectual discussion, "hominum aevi, loci, populi sui ingeniosissimus," full of learning, eager for argument, patient with those who could not understand, and, in his work as a priest, thoughtful for all, open-handed, humble, not letting his benevolence be known, the adviser and helper of his brother in all diocesan matters. He died c. 474, and his epitaph, composed by Sidonius, is the chief source of information about his life. )...
Besides two letters of his, we have (1) the book mentioned above, de Statu Animae , and (2) some poems of doubtful authorship. It is, however, ordinarily found ascribed to Fortunatus (v. ...
Fabricius has also attributed to him an hexameter poem of 165 lines, "contra vanos poetas ad collegam," found in a Paris MS. ...
Possibly there should be assigned to him also a few smaller poems found among the works of the heathen poet Claudian, viz. two short hexameter poems entitled "Laus Christi" and "Carmen Paschale," some short epigrammatic praises of the paradox of the Incarnation, an elegiac account of Christ's miracles, an elegiac appeal to a friend not to criticize his verses too severely, and two short Greek hexameter addresses to Christ, Εἰς τὸν σωτῆρα and Εἰς τὸν δεσπότην Χριστόν . 1050; Ed. The de Statu Animae has been separately Edited, notably by Peter Mosellanus (Basil, 1504), Barth (Cycneae, 1655), Schulze (Dresden, 1883)
Olive - The olive tree grows freely almost everywhere on the shores of the Mediterranean, but it was peculiarly abundant in Palestine. Certain districts may be specified where at various times this tree been very luxuriant. The wind was dreaded by the cultivator of the olive for the least ruffling of a breeze is apt to cause the flowers to fall. (Job 15:33 ) It is needless to add that the locust was a formidable enemy of the olive. It happened not unfrequently that hopes were disappointed, and that "the labor of the olive failed. It is of moderate height, with knotty gnarled trunk and a smooth ash-colored bark. Those who see olives for the first time are occasionally disappointed by the dusty color of their foilage; but those who are familiar with them find an inexpressible charm in the rippling changes of their slender gray-green leaves. (Romans 11:16-25 ) The Gentiles are the "wild olive" grafted in upon the "good olive," to which once the Jews belonged, and with which they may again be incorporated, (The olive grows from 20 to 40 feet high. The flowers are white and appear in June, The fruit is like a plum in shape and size, and at first is green, but gradually becomes purple, and even black, with a hard stony kernel, and is remarkable from the outer fleshy part being that in which much oil is lodged, and not, as is usual, in the almond of the seed. The wood is hard, fine beautifully veined, and is open used for cabinet work. Olive trees were so abundant in Galilee that at the siege of Jotapata by Vespasian the Roman army were driven from the ascent of the walls by hot olive oil poured upon them and scalding them underneath their armor. --ED
Benedictus of Nursia, Abbott of Monte Cassino - Benedictus of Nursia. Benedict, abbot of Monte Cassino ("Abbas Casinensis"), called "patriarch of the monks of the West," lived during the troubled and tumultuous period after the deposition of Augustulus, when most of the countries of Europe were either overrun by Arians or still heathen. There were many monks in southern Europe, but without much organization till Benedict reformed and remodelled the monastic life of Europe (Mab. Benedict are the Dialogues of Gregory the Great. The genuineness of these has been questioned, but without sufficient cause. ...
Benedict was born about a. The ruins of the ancestral palace are shewn at Norcia, with a crypt, the reputed birthplace of Benedict (Mab. He was sent as a boy to be Educated at Rome; but soon, shocked by the immorality of his companions, fled, followed by his nurse (Cyrilla; Petr. Thence he retired to a cave at Sublaqueum (Subiaco), where he lived as a hermit in almost utter isolation for some years, visited only from time to time by a priest of the neighbourhood, Romanus ( Dial. The cave, the well-known "il Sagro Speco," is shewn about three miles of very steep ascent above the town of Subiaco, and the traditionary spot marked by a monastery, once famous for its library and for the first printing press in Italy, where the youthful anchoret rolled naked in the thorn-bushes to overcome sensual temptations (Mab. The fame of his sanctity spreading abroad, Benedict was invited, his youth notwithstanding, by the monks of a neighbouring monastery (at Vicovarro) to preside over them, and very reluctantly consented. Soon, however, their laxity rebelled against his attempts at reformation (he seems thus early to have shewn the organizing faculty for which he became afterwards so remarkable), and he abdicated, after miraculously escaping being poisoned by them ( Dial. He retired to his cave; and undertook the superintendence of youths, among whom were two who became foremost among his followers, Maurus and Placidus, sons of Roman patricians ( Dial. Here he founded, it is said, twelve monasteries, each of twelve monks with a "father" at the head of them (Dial. Scholastica," so named after Benedict's sister, enjoys special privileges, and takes precedence among the Benedictine foundations even of Monte Cassino, as of older date (Alb. Several of the miracles ascribed to Benedict are connected with Subiaco. But, after some time, finding his work continually hindered by the machinations of a dissolute priest, Florentius, he removed, probably c. 8), destined to become illustrious as the headquarters of the great Benedictine order, and as a stronghold of learning and liberal arts even in the darkest ages. The summit of the mountain three miles above the town, and even at the present time inaccessible to carriages, was crowned, before the arrival of Benedict, by a temple of Apollo; frequented even then by the rustics ( Dial. of Cassino is indicated by the list of bishops present at the Roman Council, a. On this precipitous eminence, looking down on the plains washed by the peaceful Liris ("taciturnus amnis," Hor. ), and backed by the wild crags of the Abruzzi Benedict set himself with new vigour to carry out his plans of a revival of monasticism. 9, 10) is not necessary to explain how the missionary spirit of Benedict and his monks overthrew the image and altar of Apollo, and reared shrines of St. Martin, the founder of monasticism in France, within the very walls of the Sun-god's temple—it was customary to reconsecrate, not to destroy, pagan Edifices (Greg. Here Benedict commenced the monastery destined to a world-wide reputation. Here for 12 years or more he presided over his followers; here he is believed to have composed the Benedictine Rule, in the same year, it is said, in which the schools of Athens were suppressed, and his famous Code was promulgated by Justinian; and from this sequestered spot he sent forth his emissaries not only to Anxur (Terracina, Dial. Not many years elapsed before this and other similar foundations were richly endowed with lands and other offerings (Greg. ...
It was in the vicinity of Monte Cassino that Benedict confronted and rebuked the ferocious Totila (a. 14, 15), and that he was wont to cheer his solitude by brief and rare interviews with his beloved sister, Scholastica, herself a recluse at no great distance ( ib. He is said to have been summoned to a synod at Rome (a. His death is variously computed from 539 ( Schol. Bened. 14) shortly predeceased him. She is called abbess by Bertharius, Abb. ); but probably lived alone (cf. Benedict may be best estimated from his Regula Monastica , if, as indeed is reasonable to suppose, it was his composition. In contrast to monastic rules already in existence, chiefly of Eastern origin, it breathes a spirit of mildness and consideration, while by the sanction for the first time given to study it opened the way for those literary pursuits which afterwards developed themselves so largely within convent walls. The account of the great Reformer's tender affection for his sister, and of his withdrawal before opposition at Subiaco, seems to give verisimilitude to the traditionary portraits of him, as of gentle though dignified aspect. ), and his severity in repressing the slightest disobedience (24, 28, etc. 161 he is said (like Anthony) to have reproved a hermit who had chained himself to a rock, in these words, "Brother, be bound only by the chain of Christ!" The character of the Benedictine Order, by the specialities which have always distinguished it from other religious orders, attest the sagacious and liberal character of its founder. Fleury thinks he was not ordained, although he preached ( Eccl. Benedict were transferred from his shrine at M. Cassino to the Benedictine abbey at Floriacum (Fleury), on the Loire, in the 7th cent. The question is discussed at length in AA. Benedicti (in verse), by Marcus Poeta, said to be a disciple of St. Benedict, in Mab. ), 21 Mark 3 Bened. Bened. Benedict see Potthast s. In a new Ed. A convenient Ed. and Edin. Ed
Christ in Reformation Theology - —It is commonly said that the whole Christian Church has taken its doctrine of the Person of Christ from the Eastern Church, and simply adopted the definitions formulated at the Councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, and Chalcedon; and further, that at the Reformation the Reformers contented themselves with brushing away the meaningless refinements of the Scholastic divines of the Middle Ages, and accepted without change the conclusions come to in the Councils of the undivided Church. They have this basis of truth that both East and West accepted the same forms of sound words, and professed the Creeds and verbal definitions sanctioned by the Œcumenical Councils down to that of Chalcedon, but they do not take into account the fact that verbal statements may cover a great deal of divergence in intellectual views—a divergence which in the present case was not merely in intellectual conception, but represented fundamentally distinct types of Christian piety. ...
The Western Church owed very little to the Eastern, and had a Christology of its own with a clearly marked history, from Tertullian to Augustine; and its intellectual definitions corresponded to a definite type of Christian piety. ‘My Saviour,’ says Athanasius, ‘must be the great God who made heaven and earth; and He must unite the human and Divine natures which He possesses, in a union which for me is a mystery to be believed, but which my intelligence can never explain or penetrate. ’ The Greek type of piety fed itself on the mysterious union of natures; the Incarnation was the central thought in Christianity, and salvation appeared to the Eastern Church as a species of diffusion of the Incarnation: men were saved when they were absorbed in the Divine. Augustine felt as strongly the need for a Saviour who was both God and man; and, inheriting the theology tradition of the West, first established by Tertullian and confirmed by Ambrose of Milan, he found a clue to a statement of the Person of Christ in the NT phrases, ‘the form of God,’ and ‘the form of a servant,’ and held that these two forms coexisted in the unity of the Person (see above, p. They did not coalesce or blend or unite so far as the natures themselves were concerned. ’...
It is evident that the piety which dwells on the mystery of the Person as opposed to the mystery of the union of the natures has its attention directed to the personal saving acts rather than to the passive condition of incarnation, and sees its salvation worked out for it in the life, death, and rising again of the Divine Person, rather than in the diffusion of the Incarnation. For Luther and for Calvin the most venerated creed was the Western symbol which is called the Apostles’ Creed, which in its old Roman form can be traced back to the first half of the 2nd century. Luther and Calvin both placed it in their catechisms for children. Calvin declares that the whole of his Institutio is its exposition, and Luther always understood the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds to be explanations of the Apostles’ Creed. ...
Luther always declared that he accepted the doctrine, and nothing but the doctrine, of the ancient Church on the Person of Christ. ‘No one can deny,’ he says, ‘that we hold, believe, sing, and confess all things in correspondence with the Apostles’ Creed, that we make nothing new therein, nor add anything thereto, and in this way we belong to the old Church, and are one with it. ’ The Schmalkald Articles and the Augsburg Confession begin with stating over again the doctrines of the Old Catholic Church, founding on the Nicene Creed, and quoting Ambrose and Augustine; and Luther’s contention always was that, if the sophistry of the Schoolmen could be cleared away, the old doctrines of the ancient Church would stand forth in their original purity. When he spoke of the Scholastic Theology as sophistry, he attached a definite meaning to the word. He meant not merely that the Schoolmen played with the outsides of doctrines, and asked and solved innumerable trivial questions, but also that the imposing Edifice they erected was hollow within, and had nothing to do with the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. He maintained that in the heart of the system there was, instead of the God whom Jesus had revealed, the abstract entity of pagan philosophy, an unknown deity—for God could never be revealed by metaphysics. All this sophistry he swept away, and then declared that he stood on the ground occupied by the theologians of the ancient Church, whose faith was rooted in the triune God, and in belief in Jesus Christ the Revealer of God. The old theology had nothing to do with Mariolatry or with saint-worship; it revered the triune God and Jesus Christ, His Son, the Saviour of mankind. Moreover, Luther believed, and rightly believed, that for the Fathers of the ancient Church, the theological doctrines in which they expressed their conceptions about God and the Person of Christ were no dead formulas, but were the expression of a living Christian experience. Luther took the old dogmas, and made them live again in an age in which it seemed as if they had lost all their vitality and had degenerated into mere dead doctrines on which the intellect could sharpen itself, but which were out of all relation to the practical religious life of men. Mediaeval theology had little sense of religion. The efforts of the Schoolmen were directed solely to the exposition of the philosophical implications of traditional doctrines; they ignored the relation to actual religious life in the Church, apart from which theology becomes unreal. No one realized that a supreme utterance of faith like St. Bernard’s hymn—...
‘Jesus, our only joy be Thou,...
As Thou our prize wilt be;...
Jesus, be Thou our glory now,...
And through eternity’—...
and such experience as finds expression there, formed any part of the material of theology. And so theology missed its opportunities of serving the Church. Had theology undertaken the task of understanding and interpreting words like these, it would have cleared the path to new truth, and set pious souls free. As it was, for want of its proper food, theology languished, and simple saints, though at times soaring on the wings of faith, still carried their crutches lovingly about with them. ‘They still believed in an exclusive priesthood, in magical sacramental grace, in prayers to saints, and works of merit and Papal dispensations. Even the ‘Brethren’ who, all through the Middle Ages, pointedly ignored the ecclesiastical system and obstinately put to all who tried to force doctrines upon them the question, ‘Where did Christ teach that?’ were strangely without any impulse to state a theology of their own. For centuries the breath of pure devotion to Christ never fertilized the learning of the schools, and no genius arose—no great churchman in whom personal religion was the inspiration of a mind at once critical and constructive. Not till Staupitz, on his visit to Luther’s convent, recommended the old German theology of Tauler to the youthful scholar-monk, did the secret of Christian piety once more find lodgment in the soul of a religious genius, who saw how to make the thoughts of faith supreme throughout the whole sphere of religion—in church life, in ritual and theology, as well as in the lonely heart. Through Luther came the rediscovery that there was theological material in the living experience of Christian souls. And since in the Christian soul Christ is always enthroned, this amounted to a rediscovery of the place of Christ in theology. Directing itself thus to experience, theology realized that its important task is not to give the metaphysical assurances about Christ’s. Person with which the Schoolmen laboriously occupied themselves, but to explain the nature of His saving work which makes believers hail Him as Lord. ...
But if Luther accepted the old formulas describing the nature of God and the Person of Christ, he did so in a thoroughly characteristic way. He desired to state them in plain German, so that they could appeal to the ‘common man. ’ Neither he nor any of the Reformers believed that theology, which for them was, or ought to be, the most practical of all disciplines, was a secret science for experts, described in a language which must be unintelligible to the multitude. He confessed with some impatience that technical theological terms were sometimes necessary, but he did not like them, and he used them as little as possible. ...
‘Quodsi odit anima mea vocem homoousion, et nolim ea uti, non haereticus ero, quis enim me coget uti, modo rem teneam, quae in concilio per scripturas definita est’ (Erlangen Ed. Like Athanasius, he preferred the word oneness to express the relation between the Persons in the Trinity. He even disliked the term Trinity or its German equivalents Dreifaltigkeit, Dreiheit. Etliche nennen es Dreiheit; aber das lautet allzuspöttisch … darum lautet es auch kalt, und viel besser sprach man Gott denn die Dreifaltigkeit’ (Erlangen2 [1] , xii. He called the technical terms used in the old creeds vocabula mathematica, and did not use any of them in his Small or Large Catechisms. ...
In framing his conception of what was meant by the Person of Christ, Luther, like all the Reformers, started from the saving work of the Redeemer. He approached the Person of Christ from our Lord’s mediatorial work, and not from any metaphysical way of thinking what Godhead must be, and what manhood must be, and how Godhead and manhood can be united. ...
‘Christ is not called Christ because He has two natures. ...
It is a true appreciation of His work that leads to a real knowledge of His Person. Therefore must this seed of Abraham be true, everlasting, Almighty God, equal to the Father from all eternity’ (ib. He who accomplished an effectual redemption for fallen and enslaved humanity must needs be Divine. The idea of a redeemer of man, Himself no more than man, or rather, Himself less than the one eternal God, was to Luther an absurdity. Redemption and Godhead were inseparably bound together. Beneath all the reasonings of the great Alexandrian there lay his fundamental Christian experience that the Saviour who redeemed him must be the great God who made heaven and earth. ...
In the second article on the Creed in his Catechism, he says, ‘This means that I believe that Jesus Christ, true God … is my Lord who has redeemed me,’ and again: ‘We must have a Saviour who is more than a saint or an angel; for if He were no better and greater than these, there were no helping us. This is our Christian faith, and therefore we rightly confess: “I believe in Jesus Christ His only Son, our Lord, who was born of Mary, suffered and died. ” By this faith hold fast, and though heathen and heretic are ever so wise, thou shalt be blessed’ (Erlangen Ed. ...
Jesus Christ was for Luther the mirror of the fatherly heart of God, and therefore was God; God Himself was the only Comforter who could bring rest to the human soul burdened by sin and grief; and the Holy Spirit was God. The old creeds confessed One God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and the confession contented him, whatever words were used. Besides, he rejoiced to place himself side by side with the Christians of the ancient days, who were free from the sophistries of the Schoolmen, and to feel that he also belonged to the ancient Church, the communion of the saints. ...
But although Luther and the other Reformers accepted the theology of the ancient Church and introduced its creeds into the reformed services of public worship, they put a richer meaning into the doctrine of the Person of Christ than had ever been done before their day; and the thought of the Divinity of Christ meant more to them than it had done to their early predecessors. Jesus, the Saviour, seemed to be God in a more intimate way to them than to the earlier divines. The old theology had stated the doctrine of the Two Natures in the Person of Christ, in such a way as to suggest that the only function of the Divine nature was to give to the human work of the Saviour such an importance as to make it effective. This is seen in Augustine, in Anselm, and in the Reformed Scholastics of the 17th century. Luther and his fellow-Reformers always refused to take this limited way of regarding the Divinity of Christ. They did not refuse the expression ‘Two Natures in One Person,’ but Luther makes it plain that the words suggested an idea which he believed to be wrong, and which had to be guarded against. He declares frequently that we must beware of thinking that the Deity and the humanity of Christ are united in such an external fashion that we may look at the one apart from the other. When we see Jesus, we perceive God and man really and intimately united. ...
‘This is the first principle and most excellent article, how Christ is the Father: that we are not to doubt that whatsoever the man says and does is reckoned, and must be reckoned, as said and done in heaven for all angels; and in the world for all rulers; in hell for all devils; in the heart for every evil conscience and all secret thoughts. For here in Christ have I the Father’s heart and will’ (Erlangen Ed. On the contrary, he believed that the reason why the Schoolmen had made so many mistakes was that they had practically omitted the humanity of Christ altogether. They had obscured His humanity by a multitude of conceptions and fancies which Luther could not abide. The legends of meaningless miracles and supernatural claims attributed to the infant Jesus, he characterizes as ‘pure foolishness. ’ For it widened the gulf between Him and us. Where a mediaeval preacher delighted in recounting marvels taken from apocryphal sources, emphasizing all that tended to put Christ in a different order of being from us, Luther dwelt continually on all His characteristically human traits, on all that made Him one with us. ...
‘The deeper we can bring Christ into our humanity, the better it is,’ he says in one of his sermons (Erlangen Ed. The boy Jesus lived just like other boys, was protected, like them, by the dear angels, was suckled at His mother’s breast, learned to walk, ate and drank like other children, was subject to His parents, ran errands for His mother, brought her water from the well, and firewood from the heap in the yard, and finally, when He grew up and became stronger, began to ply the axe to help His father (passim). And this, Luther asserted against those who had erected it into an article of faith that Christ from the first moment of His life was so full of wisdom that there was nothing left for Him to learn. He will have nothing to do with those who ascribe to Christ only a mutilated humanity. And this I wish to emphasize because some, like Photinus and Apollinaris, have taught that Christ was a man without a human soul, and that the Godhead dwelt in Him in place of the soul’ (Erlangen Ed. ...
As with every other article of his creed, Luther had a practical religious interest in holding so firmly to the humanity of Christ. The human life of Jesus glorified humanity, and was a pledge of the final glory of all redeemed humanity. We are thus made certain, too, that they belong to heaven and are heirs of the heavenly Kingdom’ (Erlangen Ed. It was no mere semblance of a man who was now exalted at the Father’s right hand, but one who was bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh, to whom no human experience, save sin, was foreign,—a boy who enjoyed his play and helped in little household duties, a man who shared the common lot of toil and weariness and temptation, a real man living a true human life under conditions not so far removed from our own. … Those who speculate about God and His will without Christ, lose God completely’ (Walch’s Ed. ...
With the Reformers, therefore, the historical life of Jesus is of the utmost importance, far exceeding all metaphysical dissertations upon the nature of a God-man. We can all have naturally a human sympathy with that marvellous life; but faith, the gift of God, is needed to see the Divine meaning in that life and death. It must be part of that blessed experience which is called Justification by Faith. It is inseparably connected with the recognition that we are not saved by the good deeds we are really able to do, but solely by the work of Christ. It is what makes us cease to trust all work-righteousness, and to confide ourselves to God alone, as He has revealed Himself in Jesus Christ. When we know and feel that it is God who is working on our behalf, then we instinctively cease trying to think that we can work out our own salvation (Erlangen Ed. ...
‘To know Jesus in the true way means to know that He died for us, that He piled our sins upon Himself, so that we hold all our own affairs as nothing, and let them all go and cling only to the faith that Christ has given Himself for us, and that His sufferings and piety and virtues are all mine. ...
Luther lets us see, over and over again, that he believed that the only thing worth considering in theology was the Divine work of Christ and the experience we have of it through faith. He did not believe that there was any real knowledge of God without these limits. This is the distinctive mark of the way in which the Reformers regarded Christ; all theology is Christology; they knew no other God than the God who had manifested Himself in the historical Christ, and made us see in the miracle of faith that He is our salvation. Into this article all the others flow, and without this they are nothing’ (Erlangen Ed. ...
The early Christians had said of Jesus that He must be conceived of as belonging to the sphere of God (2 Clement, i. The Reformers added: and that He fills the whole sphere of God, so that there is room for no other vision of God than that which Christ gives us. This master thought of Reformation theology simplified Christian doctrine in a wonderful way. It justified Luther’s rejection of the complicated discussions of the Schoolmen, and his accusation that what he called their ‘sophistry’ was partly pagan; and it also showed clearly that Christian worship ought to be simplified too. ...
The reader of the second part of the second book of the Summa Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas cannot help seeing that the really evangelical aspirations of the great Schoolmen are everywhere thwarted and finally slain outright because the theologian has to start with the thought that God has been first defined as either the Absolute, or the Primum Movens, or the Causa efficiens prima, or the Intelligens a quo omnes res naturales ordinantur in finem—conceptions which can never imprison, without destroying, the vision of the Father who has revealed Himself to us in Jesus Christ. What have Christians to do, the Reformers asked, with a great Eternal Something, which is not the world, when they have the Father? It would have been well had their followers in after generations realized this principle, and the Church might have been spared the 17th cent. ...
The older theology had never grasped the thought that Jesus Christ filled the whole sphere of God. It limited the work of Christ to the procuring of forgiveness of sins, and left room outside Christ for many operations of Divine grace which were supposed to begin when the work of forgiveness was ended. So there grew up the complex system of expiations and satisfactions, of magical sacraments and saints’ intercessions, which made the mediaeval Christian life so full of superstitions, and, to all seeming, so empty of Christ. To the mediaeval theologian all these could be justified, because they came from that portion of the sphere of God which was, as it were, beyond Christ. The influence of Christ was exhausted, they thought, when bare forgiveness had been won; and the grace needed for all holy living came from operations of the grace of God which did not necessarily come through Jesus Christ. This simplified the Christian life, and swept away at once the whole complex system which had bred so much superstition. ...
This characteristic of Reformation thought and of Reformation piety, that Christ fills the whole sphere of God, appears everywhere in the writings of the Reformers and in the rites and worship of the Reformed Churches, and may be illustrated, if not exhaustively described, in the following instances of its application. The Reformers swept away every contemplation of intercessors who were supposed to share with our Lord the procuring of pardon and salvation, and they declared against all attempts to distinguish between various kinds of worship, which could only lead pious souls astray from the one worship due to God in Christ. The Romish Church said that saints did not receive actual worship, and that images were reverenced only in the same sense as copies of the Scriptures. Calvin has no difficulty in showing that these distinctions were not popularly grasped. ...
‘Such subtle distinctions,’ he says, ‘as latria, doulia, hyperdoulia, are neither known nor present to the minds of those who prostrate themselves before images until the world has become full of idolatry as crude and plain as that of the ancient Egyptians, which all the prophets continuously denounced; they can only mislead, and ought to be discarded. They actually suggest to worshippers to pass by Jesus Christ the only Mediator, and betake themselves to some patron who has struck their fancy. They bring it about that the Divine offices are distributed among the saints as if they had been appointed colleagues to our Lord Jesus Christ; and they are made to do His work, while He Himself is kept in the background like some ordinary person in a crowd. They are responsible for the fact that hymns are sung in public worship in which the saints are lauded with every blessing just as if they were colleagues of God. ’ In this connexion he quotes the ‘impious stanza heard in many churches’: ‘Ask the Father, command the Son,’ addressed, of course, to the Virgin; and the invocation of St. The Augsburg Confession says:...
‘The Scripture teacheth not to invoke saints, nor to ask the help of saints, because it propoundeth to us one Christ: the Mediator, Propitiatory, High Priest, and Intercessor. This Christ is to be invocated, and He hath promised that He will hear our prayers, and liketh this worship, to wit, that He be invocated in all afflictions: “If any man sin, we have an advocate with God, Jesus Christ the righteous” ’ (1 John 2:1). The Second Helvetic Confession in its fifth chapter lays down the rule that prayer is to be through Christ alone, and saints and relics are not to be worshipped. And all prayer-books and liturgies in every branch of the Reformed Church, even when taking over, with little alteration, old forms of prayer, carefully exclude addresses to the Virgin or to any of the saints. ...
In any case, the theoretic distinctions between reverence and worship never applied to the adoration of the consecrated host. This even in theory was absolute worship, and was felt to be abhorrent and profane by the Reformers, who had experienced spiritual communion with the living Christ
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - Ludolphus, History of Ethiopia , Ed. 167; Lebeau, Histoire du Bas Empire , Ed. ) The importance of the crusades on which his fame rests is attested by Gibbon, who asserts that, had their purpose been attained, "Mahomet must have been crushed in his cradle, and Abyssinia would have prevented a revolution which has changed the civil and religious state of the world" (Decline and Fall , c. 428), is referred by the Jesuit author of the Acta Sanctorum to the 7th cent. ...
It was probably during the later years of Anastasius's reign that Elesbaan succeeded his father Tazena on the throne of Ethiopia. His kingdom was greatly dependent for its welfare upon the goodwill and good order of the people of Yemen, the Homeritae, from whom it was separated by the narrow strait of Bab-el-Mandeb: for through the territory of the Homeritae the merchants of Syria and of Rome came to the great port of Adulis (cf. When Elesbaan succeeded, the Homeritae had greatly obscured the Christianity which they had received in the reign of Constantius, but the language of Cosmas Indicopleustes (Migne, Patr. 490, by the people whom he had freed from their gross tyrant Laknia Dhu Sjenatir; and having shortly after his accession forsworn idolatry and embraced Judaism, determined to enforce his new creed with the sword (cf. In retaliation for the sufferings of the Jews throughout the Christian empire, he exacted heavy tolls from all Christian merchants who came through his territory to the port of Aden and the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, and, according to John of Asia (cf. Such action was injurious to the commerce of all the neighbouring peoples, but especially of Ethiopia; and Elesbaan soon after his accession sent a useless remonstrance, and then prepared for war. 519 he crossed the straits, utterly defeated the Arabian forces, and driving the Jew to refuge in the hills, left a viceroy to bear Christian rule over the Homeritae and returned to Ethiopia (ib. The time of this expedition is incidentally and approximately marked by Cosmas Indicopleustes, who tells us that he was at Adulis " ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ τῆς βασιλείας Ἰουστίνου τοῦ Ῥωμαίων βασίλεως " (a. 518-527), when the king of the people of Axum, being about to war against the Homeritae, sent to ask the governor of Adulis for a copy of a certain inscription; which copy Cosmas and another monk were charged to make (Migne, Patr. 522 or 523, whom Elesbaan had left in Yemen, encouraged Dhu Nowas to come down from his hiding-place in the hills ("tanquam daemon carne indutus," Acta Sanctorum , Oct. Choosing a season when the Arabian Gulf would be an impassable barrier to the intervention of Elesbaan, he gathered a force which presently numbered 120,000 men and, having put to death all Christians whom he could find and turned their church into a synagogue, pressed on to Negran, the head-quarters of the Ethiopian vice-royalty, then held by Arethas the phylarch. He found the garrison forewarned and the gates closed; nor were they opened at his threats, when coming to the wall and holding up a wooden cross he swore that all who would not blaspheme the Crucified and insult the sign of His suffering should die. At last by treachery Dhu Nowas won an entrance, promising to hurt none of the citizens and only demanding an exorbitant tribute; but having entered, he began at once the reckless massacre which has left its mark even in the Koran (cf. Arethas and Ruma his wife died with a defiant confession on their lips; more than 4,000 Christian men, women, and children were killed (commemorated in the Roman calendar on Oct. 24) ; and from the fiery dyke into which the victims were thrown, Dhu Nowas received the name Saheb-el-Okhdud ("Lord of the Trench"). As the ambassadors drew near the king (the story is told by Simeon in a letter to the abbat of Gabula), they were met by a crowd of Arabs crying that Christ was driven out of Rome and Persia and Homeritis; and they learnt that messengers were present from Dhu Nowas with letters to king Mundhir, in which they heard the long recital of the treachery by which Negran had been taken, of the insult to the bishop's tomb, of the slaughter of the Christians and the triumph of Judaism, the confession of the martyr Arethas, and the speech of Ruma urging the women of Negran to follow her to the abiding city of the divine Bridegroom, praying that the blood of the martyrs might be the wall of Negran while it continued in the faith, and that she might be forgiven for that Arethas had died first. Their own end must have seemed very near; but the courage of a soldier who stood forth as spokesman of the many Christians in Mundhir's army decided the hesitation of the king, and the ambassadors went away unhurt (but apparently unanswered) to Naaman, a port in the Arabian Gulf. Simeon of Beth-Arsam thus closes his letter, praying that the news may be spread throughout the church and the martyrs receive the honour of commemoration, and that the king of Ethiopia may be urged to help the Homeritae against the oppression of the Jew (cf. When this message reached Elesbaan, it was reinforced by a letter from Justin, elicited by the entreaties of Dous Ibn Dzi Thaleban, one of the few Christians who had escaped Dhu Nowas (cf. Arethae ; where also it is told how the patriarch of Alexandria, at the request of Justin, urged Elesbaan to invade Yemen, offering up a litany and appointing a vigil on his behalf, and sending to him the Eucharist in a silver vessel. Without delay Elesbaan collected a great army, which he divided into two parts; 15,000 men he sent southwards to cross at Bab-el-Mandeb and, marching through Yemen, divert the strength of Dhu Nowas's forces from the main body of the Ethiopians, which Elesbaan intended to send by sea to some place on the S. For the transport of these latter he appropriated 60 merchant vessels then anchored in his ports, adding ten more, built after the native fashion, the planks being held together by ropes. On the eve of the enterprise he went in procession to the great church of Axum, and there, laying aside his royalty, sued in formâ pauperis for the favour of Him Whose war he dared to wage; praying that his sins might be visited on himself, and not on his people. Pantaleon; and received from within the doorless and windowless tower, where the hermit had lived for 45 years, the answer: " Ἔστω σὺν σοι ὁ συμβασιλεύων σοι . ...
For the 15,000 Bab-el-Mandeb was indeed a gate of tears: they died of hunger, wandering in the desert. The main body was safely embarked, and sailed S. down the Gulf of Arabia towards the straits; which Dhu Nowas had barred by a huge chain, stretched across the space of two furlongs from side to side. Over this, however, first ten ships and then seven more, including that of the Ethiopian admiral, were lifted by the waves; the rest were driven back by stress of weather, but presently, the chain being, according to one account, broken, forced the passage, and passing the other seventeen, cast anchor farther along the coast. Meanwhile Dhu Nowas, having first encamped on the W. shore, where he thought his chain would force the Ethiopians to land, hurried from his position, and leaving but a few men to resist the smaller fleet, watched with his main army the movements of the rest. Those on the 17 ships under the Ethiopian admiral easily effected a landing near Aden, and defeating the troops opposed to them, pressed on to the chief city, Taphar, or Taphran, which surrendered immediately (cf. Discouraged by this disaster, the main body of the Arabians offered a feeble resistance; and Dhu Nowas saw that his downfall was very near. According to the Arabian historians, he threw himself from the cliff and died in the waves; according to the Acta S. Arethae , he bound his seven kinsmen in chains, and fastened them to his throne, lest they should fail to share his fate; and so awaited death at Elesbaan's own hand. The Arabic writers are unsupported in their story of the useless resistance of a successor Dhu Giadan; it was probably at the death of Dhu Nowas that the kingdom of the Homeritae ended, and Yemen became a province of Ethiopia. A bishop was sent from Alexandria and appointed to the see of Negran, but there are doubts as to both the orthodoxy and identity of this bishop. The king restored Negran, entrusting it to Arethas's son, rebuilding and endowing the great church, and granting perpetual right of asylum to the place where the bodies of the martyrs had lain, and then returned to Ethiopia (Boll. 322), leaving a Christian Arab named Esimiphaeus or Ariathus, to be his viceroy over the conquered people. A part of Elesbaan's army, however, refused to leave the luxury of Arabia Felix, and not long after set up as rival to Esimiphaeus one Abrahah or Abraham, the Christian slave of a Roman merchant, who was strong enough to shut up the viceroy in a fort and seize the throne of Yemen. 540) came down and confronted the representative of Elesbaan; and at the critical moment the Ethiopian troops deserted and murdered their general. To maintain his supremacy and avenge his kinsman, Elesbaan sent a second army; but this, loyally fighting with Abrahah, was utterly defeated, and only a handful of men returned to Ethiopia. The Arabic historians record that Elesbaan swore to yet lay hold of the land of the Homeritae, both mountain and plain, pluck the forelock from the rebel's head, and take his blood as the price of Aryates's death; and they tell of the mixed cunning and cowardice by which Abrahah satisfied the Ethiopian's oath, and evaded his anger, winning at last a recognition of his dignity. Procopius adds that Abrahah paid tribute to Elesbaan's successor; and the Homeritae remained in free subjection to Ethiopia almost to the end of the century. 20) calls Julian; Photius has preserved, in the third codex of his Bibliotheca , Nonnosus's story of his experience in the second mission. He was received by Elesbaan, according to his own account, with the silence of an intense joy; for the alliance of Rome had long been the great desire of the Ethiopians. The king was seated on a high chariot, drawn by four elephants caparisoned with gold; he wore a loose robe studded with pearls, and round his loins a covering of linen embroidered with gold. He received Justinian's letter with every sign of respect, and began to prepare his forces to take part in the Persian war even before Julian was dismissed from his court with the kiss of peace (Johannis Malalae, Chronographia , xviii. Ed. Malala records no sequel of these preparations; Procopius complains that none occurred. Nonnosus the envoy belonged to a family of diplomatists. But Photius does not state the purpose or result of this journey; only telling of the great herd of 5,000 elephants which Nonnosus saw between Adulis and Axum, and the pigmy negroes who met him on an island as he sailed away from Pharsan (Photii, Bibliotheca , Bekker's Ed. Having accepted the fealty and recognized the royalty of Abrahah, and having confirmed the faith of Christ in Homeritis, he laid aside his crown and assumed the garb of a solitary. His cell is still shewn to the traveller; it was visited in 1805 by Henry Salt, and has been elaborately described by Mendez and Lefevre. There the king remained in solitude and great asceticism; and the year of his death is unknown
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - He and his brother and their common friend Gregory Nazianzen were the chief champions of the orthodox Nicene faith in the struggle against Arianism and Apollinarianism, and by their discreet zeal, independency of spirit, and moderation of temper, contributed chiefly to its victory in the East. Ed. That no very special pains had been devoted to his Education we may gather from the words of his sister Macidora on her deathbed, in which she ascribed the high reputation he had gained to the prayers of his parents, since "he had little or no assistance towards it from home" ( ib. A feeble constitution and natural shyness disposed him to a literary retirement. His considerable intellectual powers had been improved by diligent private study; but he shrank from a public career, and appears after his father's death to have lived upon his inheritance, without any profession. " A terrifying dream, which seemed to reproach him with neglect, led him to become a "lector" and as such read the Bible lections in the congregation (Greg. He would seem, however, to have soon deserted this vocation for that of a professor of rhetoric. This backsliding caused great pain to his friends and gave occasion to the enemies of religion to suspect his motives and bring unfounded accusations against him. Gregory Nazianzen, whose affection for him was warm and sincere, strongly remonstrated with him, expressing the grief felt by himself and others at his falling away from his first love. The date of this temporary desertion must be placed either before 361 or after 363, about the same time as his marriage. His wife was named Theosebeia, and her character answered to her name. She died some time after Gregory had become a bishop, and, according to Tillemont, subsequently to the council of Constantinople, a. Expressions in Gregory Nazianzen's letter would lead us to believe that both himself and his friend were then somewhat advanced in life; and from Theosebeia being styled Gregory Nyssen's "sister" we may gather that they had ceased to cohabit, probably on his becoming a bishop (Greg. ...
Gregory soon abandoned his profession of a teacher of rhetoric. The urgent remonstrances of his friend Gregory Nazianzen would have an earnest supporter in his elder sister, the holy recluse Macrina, who doubtless used the same powerful arguments which had induced Basil to give up all prospect of worldly fame for the service of Christ. Probably also the profession he had undertaken proved increasingly distasteful to one of Gregory's sensitive and retiring disposition, and he may have been further discouraged by the small results of his exertions to inspire a literary taste among youths who, as he complains in letters to his brother Basil's tutor Libanius, written while practising as a rhetorician (Greg. He retired to a monastery in Pontus, almost certainly that on the river Iris presided over by his brother Basil, and in close vicinity to Annesi, where was the female convent of which his sister Macrina was the superior. In this congenial retreat he passed several years, devoting himself to the study of the Scriptures and the works of Christian commentators. 371, he composed his work de Virginitate , in which, while extolling virginity as the highest perfection of Christian life, he laments that he had separated himself from that state (de Virg. 371, circumstances occurred displaying Gregory's want of judgment in a striking manner. An estrangement had arisen between Basil and his aged uncle, the bp. Gregory, whom the family deservedly regarded as their second father. The younger Gregory took on himself the office of mediator. Straightforward methods having failed, he adopted crooked ones, and forged letters to his brother in their uncle's name desiring reconciliation. The letters were indignantly repudiated by the justly offended bishop, and reconciliation became increasingly hopeless. Basil addressed a letter to his brother, which is a model of dignified rebuke. He first ridicules him with his simplicity, unworthy of a Christian, reproaches him for endeavouring to serve the cause of truth by deception, and charges him with unbrotherly conduct in adding affliction to one already pressed out of measure (Basil. ...
In 372 (the year Gregory Nazianzen was consecrated to the see of Sasima) Gregory was forced by his brother Basil to accept reluctantly the see of Nyssa, an obscure town of Cappadocia Prima, about ten miles from the capital, Caesarea. Their common friend, Eusebius of Samosata, wrote to Basil to remonstrate on his burying so distinguished a man in so unworthy a see. Basil replied that his brother's merits made him worthy to govern the whole church gathered into one, but he desired that the see should be made famous by its bishop, not the bishop by his see (ib. These words have proved prophetic. The miserable Demosthenes [3] had been recently appointed vicar of Pontus to do all in his power to crush the adherents of the Nicene faith. After petty acts of persecution, in which the semi-Arian prelates joined with high satisfaction, as a means of retaliating on Basil, a synod was summoned at Ancyra at the close of 375, to examine some alleged canonical irregularities in Gregory's consecration, and to investigate a frivolous charge brought against him by a certain Philocharis of having made away with church funds left by his predecessor. A chill on his journey brought on a pleuritic seizure and aggravated a painful malady to which he was subject. His entreaties to be allowed to halt for medical treatment were disregarded, but he managed to elude the vigilance of the soldiers and to escape to some place of concealment where his maladies could be cared for. Basil collected a synod of orthodox Cappadocian bishops, in whose name he addressed a dignified but courteous letter to Demosthenes, apologizing for his brother's non-appearance at Ancyra, and stating that the charge of embezzlement could be shewn to be false by the books of the treasurers of the church; while, if any canonical defect in his ordination could be proved, the ordainers were those who should be called to account, an account which they were ready to render (ib. Basil wrote also to a man of distinction named Aburgius, begging him to use his influence to save Gregory from the misery of being dragged into court and implicated in judicial business from which his peaceful disposition shrank ( ib. Another synod was summoned at Nyssa by Demosthenes A. Still Gregory refused to appear. He was pronounced contumacious and deposed by the assembled bishops, of whom Anysius and Ecdicius of Parnasse were the leaders, and they consecrated a successor, whom Basil spoke of with scorn as a miserable slave who could be bought for a few oboli ( ib. Gregory's deposition was followed by his banishment by Valens (Greg. These accumulated troubles utterly crushed his gentle spirit. In his letters he bewails the cruel necessity which had compelled him to desert his spiritual children, and driven him from his home and friends to dwell among malicious enemies who scrutinized every look and gesture, nay his very dress, and made them grounds of accusation. He dwells with tender recollection on the home he had lost—his fireside, his table, his pantry, his bed, his bench, his sackcloth—and contrasts it with the stifling hole in which he was forced to dwell, of which the only furniture was straitness, darkness, and cold. His letters to Gregory Nazianzen have unfortunately perished, but his deep despondency is shewn by the replies. After his expulsion from his see his namesake wrote that, though denied his wish to accompany him in his banishment, he went with him in spirit, and trusted in God that the storm would soon blow over, and he get the better of all his enemies, as a recompense for his strict orthodoxy (Greg. Driven from place to place to avoid his enemies, he had compared himself to a stick carried aimlessly hither and thither on the surface of a stream; his friend replies that his movements were rather like those of the sun, which brings life to all things, or of the planets, whose apparent irregularities are subject to a fixed law ( ib. This trust in God proved well founded. On the death of Valens in 378 the youthful Gratian recalled the banished bishops, and, to the joy of the faithful, Gregory was restored to Nyssa. 1, 379, Basil, whom he loved as a brother and revered as a spiritual father, died. Gregory certainly attended his funeral, delivering his funeral oration, to which we are indebted for many particulars of Basil's life. Gregory Nazianzen, who was prevented from being present by illness, wrote a consolatory letter, praising his namesake very highly, and saying that his chief comfort now was to see all Basil's virtues reflected in him, as in a mirror (Greg. One sorrow followed close upon another in Gregory's life. The confusion in the churches after the long Arian supremacy entailed severe labours and anxieties upon him for the defence of the truth and the reformation of the erring ( de Vit. 379 he took part in the council held at Antioch for the double purpose of healing the Antiochene schism (which it failed to effect) and of taking measures for securing the church's victory over the lately dominant Arianism (Labbe, Concil. On his way back to his diocese, Gregory visited the monastery at Annesi, over which his sister Macrina presided. He found her dying, and she expired the next evening. A full account of her last hours, with a detailed biography, is given by hire in a letter to the monk Olympius ( de Vit. In his treatise de Anima et Resurrectione (entitled, in honour of his sister, τὰ Μακρίνια ) we have another account of her deathbed, in which he puts long speeches into her mouth, as part of a dialogue held with him on the proofs of the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body, the object of which was to mitigate his grief for Basil's death (t. ]'>[11] After celebrating his sister's funeral, Gregory continued his journey to his diocese, where an unbroken series of calamities awaited him. The people at Ibora on the borders of Pontus, having lost their bishop by death, elected Gregory to the vacant see. This, in some unexplained way, caused troubles calling for the intervention of the military. These difficulties being settled, he set out on a long and toilsome journey, in fulfilment of a commission from the council of Antioch "to visit and reform the church of Arabia" (t. He found the state of the church there even worse than had been represented. The people had grown hardened in heresy, and were as brutish and barbarous in their lives as in their tongue. At its termination, being near the Holy Land, he visited the spots consecrated by the life and death of Christ. The emperor put a public chariot at his disposal, which served him and his retinue "both for a monastery and a church," fasting, psalmody, and the hours of prayer being regularly observed all through the journey (t. He visited Bethlehem, Golgotha, the Mount of Olives, and the Anastasis. His faith received no confirmation, and his religious sense was scandalized by the gross immorality prevailing in the Holy City, which he describes as a sink of all iniquity. Cyril, after his repeated depositions by Arian influence, had finally returned, but had failed to heal the dissensions of the Christians or bring them back to unity of faith. Gregory's efforts were equally ineffectual, and he returned to Cappadocia depressed and saddened. ), the other the celebrated one de Euntibus Hierosolyma , he declares his conviction not of the uselessness only but of the evil of pilgrimages. 955), accompanied by his deacon Evagrius. There he held a principal place as a recognized theological leader, τῆς ἐκκλησιας τὸ κοινὸν ἔρεισμα , as his friend Gregory Nazianzen had at an earlier period termed him. That he was the author of the clauses then added to the Nicene symbol is an unverified assertion of Nicephorus Callistus (H. Gregory Nazianzen having been reluctantly compelled to ascend the episcopal throne of Constantinople, Gregory Nyssen delivered an inaugural oration now lost, and, soon after, a funeral oration on the venerable Meletius of Antioch, which has been preserved (Socr. Before the close of the council the emperor Theodosius issued a decree from Heraclea, July 30, 381, containing the names of the bishops who were to be regarded as centres of orthodox communion in their respective districts. His simplicity was easily imposed upon. His colleague Helladius was in every way his inferior, and if Gregory took as little pains to conceal his sense of this in his personal intercourse as in his correspondence with Flavian, we cannot be surprised at the metropolitan's dignity being severely wounded. Helladius revenged himself by gross rudeness to Gregory. Having turned out of his way to pay his respects to his metropolitan, Gregory was kept standing at the door under the midday sun, and when at last admitted to Helladius's presence, his complimentary speeches were received with chilling silence. When he mildly remonstrated, Helladius broke into cutting reproaches, and rudely drove him from his presence ( Ep. Gregory was present at the synod at Constantinople in 383, when he delivered his discourse on the Godhead of the Second and Third Persons of the Trinity ( de Abraham , t. 385, when he pronounced the funeral oration over the little princess Pulcheria, and shortly afterwards over her mother the empress Flaccilla. During these visits to Constantinople, Gregory obtained the friendship of Olympias, the celebrated deaconess and correspondent of Chrysostom, at whose instance he undertook an exposition of the Canticles, a portion of which, containing 15 homilies, he completed and sent her (in Cant. At the request of Nectarius Gregory delivered the homily bearing the erroneous title, de Ordinatione , which is evidently a production of his old age (t. ...
Gregory Nyssen was a very copious writer, and the greater part of his recorded works have been preserved. They may be divided into five classes: (1) Exegetical ; (2) Dogmatical ; (3) Ascetic ; (4) Funeral Orations and Panegyrical Discourses ; (5) Letters . These include (i) περὶ τῆς ἑξαημέρου dedicated to his youngest brother Peter bp. It is also called Apologeticus as it contains a defence of the actions of Moses and of some points in Basil's work. 26) the fundamental idea of which is the unity of the human race—that humanity before God is to be considered as one man. It is called by Suidas τεῦχος θαυμάσιον. (iii) Also two homilies on the same subject (Gen_1:26) frequently appended to Basil's Hexaemeron and erroneously assigned to him by Combefis and others. 22–34) on the meaning of the image and likeness of God in which man was created. (iv) A treatise on the Life of Moses as exhibiting a pattern of a perfect Christian life; dedicated to Caesarius. (v) Two books on the Superscriptions of the Psalms in which he endeavours to shew that the five books of the Psalter are intended to lead men upward as by five steps to moral perfection. 13 "less forced more useful and more natural" (Dupin). 9; dedicated to Olympias. (xi) A short treatise on the witch of Endor Ἐγγαστρίμυθος to prove that the apparition was a demon in the shape of Samuel; addressed to a bishop named Theodosius. —These are deservedly regarded as among the most important patristic contributions towards a true view of the mystery of the Trinity, hardly, if at all, inferior to the writings of Basil. The same subjects are treated with great accuracy of thought and spiritual insight in (iii) Sermo Catecheticus Magnus , a work in 40 chapters, containing a systematized course of theological teaching for catechists, proving, for the benefit of those who did not accept the authority of Holy Scripture, the harmony of the chief doctrines of the faith with the instincts of the human heart. This work contains passages asserting the annihilation of evil, the restitution of all things, and the final restoration of evil men and evil spirits to the blessedness of union with God, so that He may be "all in all," embracing all things endued with sense and reason—doctrines derived by Gregory from Origen. It has been asserted from the time of Germanus of Constantinople that these passages were foisted in by heretical writers (Phot. It must be acknowledged that in his desire to exalt the divine nature Gregory came dangerously near the doctrines afterwards developed by Eutyches and the Monothelites, if he did not actually enunciate them. While he rightly held that the infinite Logos was not imprisoned in Christ's human soul and body, he does not assign the proper independence to this human soul and will. ...
All previous Edd. of his collected works trans. into Latin were greatly surpassed in elegance and accuracy by that of Paris, 1603, under the superintendence of Front du Duc. The first Ed. appeared from Morel's press at Paris in 1615 in two vols. , also Ed. A good critical Ed. of his works is, however, much wanted. Such an Ed. was commenced by Forbes and Oehler in 1855, but very little has appeared. , and in 1903 the same writer Ed. Another useful Ed. The familiar letters published by Zacagni and Caraccioli are very helpful towards forming an estimate of Gregory's character. Of the latter art the detailed description given in his letter to Amphilochius (Ep. 25) of an octagonal "martyrium" surmounted by a conical spire, rising from a clerestory supported on eight columns, proves him to have possessed considerable technical knowledge. It is perhaps the clearest and most detailed description of an ecclesiastical building of the 4th cent
Raca - It had been spelt ‘Racha’ in the Authorized Version of 1611; so in Tindale and other earlier versions. It was replaced by ‘Raca’ in 1638, and explained ‘that is, Vain fellow, 2 Samuel 6:20,’ by one of the marginal notes added to the Authorized Version at various times, chiefly in 1762 (see the Introduction to Scrivener’s Paragraph Bible, p. The Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 confines itself to the marginal note, ‘an expression of contempt. ’ The spelling of the Greek Manuscripts is ῥαχα in א*D, adopted by Tischendorf; ῥακα in אcBE, etc. 32; racha in most Manuscripts of the Latin Versions; raccha in d; only f k Zc and the official Vulgate have raca; רקא in all Syriac Versions, vocalized רָקָא, רַקָא, רָקֵא, רַקָא (see the Edition of the Tetraeuangelium by Pusey-Gwilliam, and the Thesaurus Syriacus; it is explained as = שׁיטא, i. ‘despised,’ by Bar-hebraeus). , new Ed. 108) writes:...
‘Raca: A word used by one that despiseth another in the highest scorn: very usual in the Hebrew writers, and very common in the mouth of the nation. To whom he replied, “Swine’s flesh. ” ’ A king’s daughter was married to a certain dirty fellow. He commanded her to stand by him as a mean servant, and to be his butler. ” To whom he replied, “דיקה Raca, thou hadst not believed unless thou hadst seen. ” ‘A certain captain saluted a religious man praying in the way, but he saluted him not again: he waited till he had done his prayer, and saith to him, “ריקה Raca, it is written in your law,” ’ etc. ...
But in all these cases the Semitic word is spelt ריקה (with yod), which must be vocalized רֵיקְא, i. In the first Edition of his Gram. Aramaic (1896) Dalman assumed that in the form of the NT ai had been contracted to a, and that the spelling with χ in the Manuscripts אD was due to an aspirated pronunciation of the Hebrew qoph, by which it approached to the aspirated kaph. 174) he suggested at last a more probable solution, that the word in Greek assumed its form through assimilation to Greek ῥάκος, ‘lump’ = rag (a tattered piece of cloth, and then used of a shabby, beggarly fellow). But there is another strange and not yet corroborated statement about the use of the word, found in Chrysostom, who was acquainted with Syriac as spoken in the neighbourhood of Antioch. 214) that it was not a word ‘of the highest scorn,’ as Lightfoot styled it:...
Τὸ δὲ ῥακὰ τοῦτο οὐ μεγάλης ἐστὶν ὕβρεως ῥῆμα, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον καταφρονησεως καὶ ὁλιγωρὶας τινος τοῦ λὲγοντος. The same statement by a later hand is also found on the margin of codex B, τὸ ῥακᾶ ἁντὶ τοῦ σύ being one of the few marginal notes of this MS; and a similar statement is made in the so-called Opus imperfectum, p. Augustine speaks of having heard from a Jew, that Raca is vocum non significantem aliquid, sed indignantis animi motum exprimentem. This want of examples may, however, be due to the fact that a word was avoided, the use of which was denounced in the Gospel. The expression ἄνθρωπε κενέ in James 2:20 may be considered its Greek equivalent, as St. It may be added that the εἰκῇ in the first part of the verse has been believed by some to be the Greek explanation of this Raca, and to have crept into the text at the wrong place. The Onomastica sacra (ed. ...
RACHEL, the wife of Jacob and the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, is mentioned in Matthew 2:18, in a quotation from Jeremiah 31:15. The words of Jeremiah are understood in this passage as a prediction of the slaughter of the Innocents, but in their original connexion they refer to a historical incident in the prophet’s own life. He accompanied the exiles on their way to Babylon as far as Ramah, 5 miles north of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 40:1), and the impression produced by his last sight of them took the form of a poetic picture of Rachel, the ancestral mother of the Israelites (who according to one tradition—1 Samuel 10:2—was buried in the neighbourhood), bewailing the fate of her descendants (Jeremiah 31:15). The application of this passage to the massacre at Bethlehem seems to have been suggested by the fact that another tradition placed Rachel’s tomb in the vicinity of that town (Genesis 35:19-20; Genesis 48:7). The supposed site of this sepulchre has been shown, at least since the 4th cent
Philosophy - Therefore, philosophy can be an effective tool if properly used as a means of understanding pretheological questions, but not as a method of supplanting the revelation already made available by faith through God's Scriptures. There is rarely a philosophical concern, although in the psalms occasionally deeper questions concerning the afterlife are considered in the light of theodicy. It is not surprising that Paul, "the apostle to the Gentiles, " is more philosophical and deals with the problem of onerous philosophy more than any other writer in the New Testament because of the pragmatic issues of polytheism and atheism he confronted. The only time the world "philosophy" is used in the Bible is in Colossians 2:8 . The problem addressed by Paul is probably an incipient form of gnosticism. Paul is not anti-intellectual, as is evidenced by the fact that he quotes Greek poets in Acts 17:28 ; also, in Acts 17 he directs his teachings toward Epicurean and Stoic philosophers, which shows that he was knowledgeable of their philosophy. He even agreed with it where he could. The philosophy is more clearly spelled out in 2:16: "Therefore do not let anyone condemn you in matters of food and drink or of observing festivals, new moons, or sabbaths" (NRSV). Food laws and calendar observance were not required for the Gentiles' newfound faith. The observance of these nationalistic requirements was synonymous with being under the influence of "elemental spirits of the universe, " that is, the evil spirits that swarmed the cosmos. To be under this demonic influence was not necessary because Christ "disarmed the rulers and authorities and made a public example of them, triumphing over them in it" ( Colossians 2:15 ). In Colossians, Paul contrasts arrogant, earthly, speculative philosophy with humble, transcendental, and righteous philosophy derived from God. ...
The problem of exploitative philosophy in Colossians 2:8 is not simply an aversion toward a theory of analysis underlying deportment, thought, knowledge, and the constitution of the universe. Rather, it is unwarranted speculation that encroaches on the freedom of another. This predicament was precisely the quandary of gnosticism. The elitism that proliferated gnosticism was largely based on the philosophical premise that gnostics were superior and held a secret knowledge. It is clear that the first time Christianity was taught in Athens, an intellectual hub of the ancient world, the message of monotheism was equated with obtuseness. Ironically, much of their philosophy was derived from superstition. ...
Epicurean philosophy originated from its founder Epicurus, who died in 270 b. Unlike the Stoics, the Epicureans rejected fate because there were no governing principles or beings that controlled one's destiny. Eventually, against the concept envisaged by Epicurus, this philosophy became associated with hedonistic practices because there was no infinite reference point to dictate morality. ...
Stoic philosophy was founded by Zeno around 300 b. ...
Therefore, providence governed the affairs of humans. The form of Stoic philosophy found in the New Testament was amalgamated with Roman polytheism. Paul was "deeply distressed" because the city was "full of idols. " Undoubtedly, some of these idols were worshiped by the Stoics (not the Epicurean atheists). ...
Paul's sermon is directed toward Stoic and Epicurean philosophy. Addressing Stoic fatalism, he points out that God created the world and does not dwell in idols (17:24). 30) "because he has fixed a day on which he will have the world judged in righteousness" (v. The resurrection of Christ, with the subsequent philosophical and logical argument that Paul makes in 1 Corinthians 15 , stands in sharp contrast to hedonistic Epicureanism. Like Colossians 2 , Acts 17 demonstrates how philosophy, erroneously applied, can lead to "captivity" (e. , Epicurean hedonism) and the control of "elemental spirits of the universe" (e. Paul argued in the Hall of Tyrannus in Ephesus for two years. Tyrannus was probably a school named after a Greek philosopher. The Jewish apostle to the Gentiles was undoubtedly skilled in Greek rhetoric and philosophy. ...
In Romans 1:18-23Paul's philosophical logic is essential a "teleological" argument, that is, a testimony of the existence of God based on the order and purpose of the universe. Paul uses philosophical reasoning to discredit pagan superstition. Hick, Ed. Vesey, Ed
Lake of Fire - That particular conception of future punishment represented as ‘the Lake of Fire’ is found only in the Apocalypse of St. For a fuller account of the early history of the conception see ‘Introductory’ and ‘Christian’ sections of ‘Cosmology and Cosmogony’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , and ‘Hinnom, Valley of,’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ; and, for the fuller discussion of the general subject, articles Hell and Fire in the present work. SBE [2] 3
(1) The conception of the Valley of Hinnom (נֵּיהִנּוֹם) as a place of fiery torment for the wicked during the Messianic Age; cf. " translation="">Isaiah 66:23-24, where the proximity of the place of punishment to Jerusalem shows that the Valley of Hinnom is intended. " translation="">Isaiah 34:9, where the topographical setting is in Edom. This conception goes back to the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, which again is connected by Gunkel (Schöpfung und Chaos) and Jeremias with the Babylonian cosmology (cf. The whole valley of the Dead Sea is still called by the Arabs Wâdy en-Nâr, ‘Valley of Fire. ’...
The conception as it appears in the Apocalypse is related rather to the forms (2) and (3) than to the Gehenna conception. ...
(1) Hades (see articles Hades, Hell), an intermediate place or state whose existence ends at the close of the millennial kingdom. Hades is not connected distinctly with the idea of punishment in the Apocalypse. ...
(3) The Lake of Fire, mentioned as existing before the beginning of the millennial kingdom (" translation="">Revelation 19:20), the place into which the beast and the false prophet are cast after their defeat by the Lamb. 13; " translation="">2 Esdras 7:36 (‘the pit of torment’ and ‘the furnace of Gehenna,’ as the abode of the wicked after the 400 years’ Messianic kingdom); Ass. Fire is one of the accompanying features of the Parousia; it is the real or metaphorical agent of punishment for the wicked, and only in 2 Peter do we find the definite conception of a final conflagration which will destroy the old heavens and earth. ...
(1) The Lake of Fire may be regarded as a place of the final annihilation of evil. Those who are not raised to the life of the world to come cease to exist. The beast and the false prophet are said to be tormented there day and night, and the unrighteous have ‘their part’ in the Lake of Fire, an expression which is most naturally interpreted in a penal sense
Citizenship - The unity was generally based on blood-relationship. It could be conferred on foreigners by a decree of the people. Each community contained also those who were not full citizens, but had certain privileges, viz. In such a constitution each citizen had to be enrolled in a particular tribe (φυλή, tribus). As a citizen of Tarsus he must have belonged to a particular tribe, and it has been plausibly conjectured by W. Paul referred to in Romans 16 were his fellow-tribesmen of Tarsus. ...
One kind of citizenship in the Apostolic Age swamped every other, and that was citizenship of Rome. This fact is well illustrated by a much earlier document-Cicero’s speech, pro Balbo (56 b. In it the principle is affirmed that ‘no one could be a citizen of Rome and of other cities at the same time, while foreigners who were not Roman citizens could be on the burgess-rolls of any number of cities’ (ed. At first only inhabitants of Rome could be Roman citizens, but the citizenship was gradually extended as a result of Rome’s conquests. It could be conferred both on communities and on individuals. In addition to the full citizenship, a limited citizenship existed till about 200 b. -ciuitas sine suffragio, implying that the persons who possessed it had all the privileges of a Roman citizen except the power to vote in the assemblies and to hold office. The constant conferment of this limited ciuitas added greatly to the Roman army and territory, and was not intended for the subjects’ good. there were many country towns of Italy (municipia) which possessed citizen rights, and, as the result of the Social War and the Lex Iulia (90 b. ), a senatorial Edict of 86 b. ), all peoples in Italy south of the Alps obtained the Roman citizenship. Such communities were created also outside Italy by Julius Caesar, Claudius, Vespasian, and others, until in a. 212, under Caracalla, every free inhabitant of the Roman Empire obtained the full Roman franchise. ...
The inhabitants of coloniae required no grant of citizenship because they were of necessity Roman citizens from the first; a colonia was in origin simply a bit of Rome set down in a foreign country, to keep a subject people in check. The municipia, referred to above as incorporated bodily in the Roman State, had complete self-government, differing thus from the praefecturae, which were also communities of Roman citizens but without complete self-government. It conferred commercium (the right to trade with Rome, and to acquire property by Roman methods, etc. It was thus a kind of intermediate condition between citizenship and peregrinity, and such rights were not infrequently conferred on communities as a kind of step towards the full citizenship. The name is explained by the origin of the practice. was first extended beyond Latium. This assembly conferred the citizenship from time to time on individual strangers (peregrini) as well as on communities. Commissioners for carrying out colonization or divisions of ager publicus could confer it on a very limited number of persons, and C. Marius received such a power. About the time of the civil wars, Roman commanders conferred the citizenship on individual foreigners who had aided the Roman military operations. This must often have been done without the authority of any statute, but no one was ever disfranchised in consequence. Pompey, however, obtained the right, by the Lex Gellia Cornelia of 72 b. Paul obtained the Roman citizenship. Tarsus as a community had not received the Roman franchise, nor was it a colonia. Members of such provincial communities who possessed the Roman citizenship constituted the aristocracy of these communities. During the Empire the burgesses could be added to by the Emperor only, and every citizen had the right to a trial at Rome. Muirhead, Historical Introduction to the Private Law of Rome, Edinburgh, 1886 (new Ed. Henderson) and Literature cited there; Th
Galerius, Emperor - ( Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus on his coinage; called Maximus in some Acts of martyrs, that having apparently been his name until Diocletian changed it; see Lact. 18; nicknamed Armentarius from his original occupation. His mother Romula had fled thither for refuge from the predatory Carpi, who pillaged her own country on the N. As a youth he was a neatherd, but soon joined the army under Aurelian and Probus. Without Education or virtues, he raised himself by undoubted military gifts, until he was selected (together with Constantius) by Diocletian to fill the office of Caesar of the East in Diocletian's famous scheme for the reorganization of the empire, a. He married Valeria, the Christian daughter of Diocletian. There were no children of the marriage, which was anything but happy, but the gentle Valeria adopted her husband's bastard son Candidian. After an unsuccessful first campaign, he utterly routed Narses, and forced him to purchase peace at the cost of five provinces near the source of the Tigris. He had conceived a hatred for the Christians, originating (so far as we can see) almost wholly in his fanatical superstition and aversion to Christian morality. His mother was a noted votaress of the Phrygian orgies, and plied her son continually with entreaties to demolish Christianity. She was supported by the magician and so-called Platonist THEOTECNUS (Cedr. 47, Ed. Bonn), who had also acquired an ascendancy over Galerius. The winter of 302–303 was spent by Galerius at Nicomedia, where he used every effort to compel the reluctant Diocletian to annul the legislation of GALLIENUS, to break the forty years' amity between the empire and the church, and to crush Christianity. Step by step he gained his points, until Diocletian consented to proscribe the open profession of Christianity and to take all measures to suppress it, short of bloodshed (Lact. The first Edict of Diocletian, however, was not strong enough to content Galerius. The demolition of buildings which proclaimed the power of the church, the prohibition of synaxis, the burning of the books used in the Christian ritual, the civic, social, and military degradation of Christians, were too slow ways of abolishing it. His one desire was to remove Diocletian's expressive clause, that "no blood was to be shed in the transaction. " A fire broke out in the part of the palace where Diocletian lived. Lactantius, then resident at Nicomedia, asserts that it was set alight by Galerius, whose object was to persuade the Augustus that his trusty Christian chamberlains were conspiring against him; but on application of torture to the whole household, they were acquitted. A fortnight later another occurred, and Galerius (who, ostensibly to escape assassination, perhaps really to avoid discovery, immediately departed) convinced Diocletian of the existence of a Christian plot, and the emperor signed his second Edict, ordering the incarceration of the entire clergy , though even now there was to be no bloodshed. ...
In putting these Edicts into execution Galerius shews occasional signs of a reluctant intention to adhere to the principles of Diocletian's legislation. His return to his own province in 304 was marked by a sudden crowd of martyrdoms where the Edicts had before not even been published, but his conduct in the case of St. ROMANUS shews that, when directly appealed to, he felt bound to forbid the capital punishment of even obstreperous Christians (Eus. In 304, probably during a total collapse of Diocletian's health, the so-called Fourth Edict was issued by Maximian, no doubt in conjunction with Galerius, making death the penalty of Christianity. Diocletian began to recover in March 305, and abandoned his long-held intention of abdicating on May 1 in that year, not improbably because of the commotion which had been caused by the Fourth Edict. Galerius, who had long coveted the promised diadem, would brook no more delay, and with much violence compelled the enfeebled Augustus to retire, leaving himself nominally second to Constantius, whose death in July 306 left Galerius supreme. ...
Political troubles which followed did not divert Galerius from persecution. On Mar 31, 308, he issued, in conjunction with his nephew Maximin, a bloody Edict against the Manicheans (Cod. Ed. ix ), "The conflagration subsided, as if quenched with the streams of sacred blood. The autumn of 308 saw a new Edict issued, which began a perfect reign of terror for two full years, the most prolific in bloodshed of any in the history of Roman persecutions; and the vast majority of persons who in the East (for the persecution in the West had ceased with the accession of Constantine and usurpation of Maxentius) are celebrated as "martyrs under Diocletian" really suffered between 308 and 311. Towards the close of 310 Galerius was seized with an incurable malady, partially caused by his vicious life. This gradually developed into the frightful disease vulgarly known as being "eaten of worms. Galerius, face to face with so awful a death, thought (apparently) that a compromise might be effected with the God of the Christians, whom he undoubtedly recognized as an active and hostile power. From his dying-bed was issued his famous Edict of Toleration, bearing the signatures also of Constantine and of Licinius, which virtually put an end to the "Persecution of Diocletian. The origin of the persecution is ascribed to the fact that the Christians had wilfully departed from the "institutions of the ancients which had peradventure been first set on foot by their own forefathers," and had formed schismatical assemblies on their own private judgment. Primitive Christianity is here meant by the phrase instituta veterum, and the Edicts were asserted to have had no object but to bring the Christians back to it. But Galerius was now determined, under certain unspecified conditions, to allow Christianity once more and to permit the building of churches. The Edict was posted at Nicomedia on April 30; he died on May 5 or 13, 311
Marks Stigmata - The word stigma, in addition to its literal and moral use, is employed technically in botany, anatomy, pathology, zoology, and geometry. The only uses that fall to be considered are the literal, moral, and pathological. ‘stick,’ ‘sting’) is a mark upon the body produced by pricking, cutting, or branding. The wounds were prevented from healing quickly so that broad scars might be produced. Sometimes, with the same end in view, coloured matter was rubbed into the brand-mark. These signs of ownership were impressed upon certain classes of the community. ...
(1) Temple-slaves (ἰερόδουλοι) were branded with some token of the deity worshipped. Ptolemy Philopator commanded the Jews of Alexandria to be branded with an ivy-leaf, the symbol of Dionysius. Revelation 13:16-17 : ‘And he caused all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free and the bond, that there be given them a mark on their right hand, or upon their forehead (‘in fronte, propter professionem: in manu, propter operationem’
(3) Captives taken in war were occasionally marked with the stigma of the captor. So some Christians marked their hands and arms with the name of Christ or the sign of the cross (Deyling, Observationes sacrae, Leipzig, 1720-26, iii. ...
The word στίγμα is used by St. ]'>[3]
: ‘Ego enim stigmata Domini Jesu in corpore meo porto’; Revised Version ‘for I bear branded on my body the marks of Jesus. Paul had in mind the ἱεροδοῦλος, or Temple-slave, bearing the stigma of the deity worshipped. This custom would be well known in that part of Asia Minor, where the worship of Cybele was celebrated. A slave of this class is mentioned in a Galatian inscription (Texier, Asie Mineure, 1835, i. Two objections to this theory have been raised. Paul was not likely to refer to this custom because it was associated especially with the temple-women whose lives were notoriously immoral. ...
It is not likely that the Apostle had in mind the soldier, who deliberately marked himself with the name or token of his commander, as the context does not suggest any such idea, though elsewhere St. It is employed for the taking up of stones (John 10:31); for bearing the cross (Luke 14:27, John 19:17); for undertaking a matter with calmness and sufficient strength (John 16:12, Galatians 6:5); for bearing the sentence of a judge (Galatians 5:10); for bearing or enduring (φέρειν is the classical word generally used) (Matthew 20:12, Acts 15:10, Romans 15:1, Galatians 6:2, Revelation 2:2 f. ); for carrying (Matthew 3:11, Mark 14:13, Luke 7:14; Luke 22:10, Revelation 17, and passive in Acts 3:2; Acts 21:35); for carrying knowledge by preaching (Acts 9:15); for carrying on the person (Luke 10:4, Galatians 6:17); for carrying the fœtus in the womb (Luke 11:27); for sustaining (Romans 11:18); for bearing away or carrying off (Matthew 8:17, John 12:6; John 20:15). Galatians 5:10) the word is used in connexion with the bearing of burdens, and probably means ‘bear as a burden’ in Galatians 6:17. No doubt he referred to the marks left upon him by the scourgings, stonings, imprisonments, privations, and toils of his missionary career (cf. On the pages of his flesh his personal history was inscribed (see 2 Corinthians 11:24-28). These stigmata proved that Christ was his Master, Commander, Owner. In the dungeon everything suggested ownership-the marked walls, the marked chains, the marked slaves, the marked soldiers. , Jude, ‘showing that as the Apostolic Age progressed the assumption of the title became established on a broad basis’ (Sanday-Headlam, International Critical Commentary , ‘Romans’5, Edinburgh, 1902, p. Possibly the scars caused Lysias to conclude that St. ...
Not only did the Apostle bear the physical stigmata, but he displayed also the spiritual ‘marks of Jesus’-love, gentleness, humility, unselfishness (John 13:35, Philippians 2:5, 2 Timothy 2:24). ...
In the ‘Age of Faith,’ in reality the ‘Dark Age,’ many believed that the body of the Apostle bore marks resembling the wound-prints on the body of the Crucified Jesus. A similar belief prevailed with regard to St. Francis of Assisi, upon whose body the marks were impressed on 15th Sept. These words were paraphrased afterwards by Aquinas as follows: ‘portabat insignia passionis Christi,’ but what he says subsequently proves that he did not accept the view of Bonaventura. It is alleged that in some cases all the marks were present; in others some were visible and the rest caused pain but produced no outward sign; in others, again, there was no visible mark at all, but local pains were felt. There are fewer cases of stigmatization recorded amongst men than amongst women. ...
Investigation has proved that some instances were fraudulent, others the result of self-mutilation (cf. But all cannot be explained, or explained away, in these ways. Beaunis states that rubefaction and vesication have been produced by suggestion in the hypnotic state (Recherches expérimentales sur les conditions de l’activité cérébrale). In certain varieties of religious ecstasy a bloody sweat may leave a red mark upon the skin, and such marks are caused also by capillary congestion. It has been maintained that transudation of blood through an unbroken skin is an unknown and impossible phenomenon. Pathological facts probably gave rise to the belief that the stigmata of the crucified body of Jesus were seen upon some of His followers. Ramsay (1899); ‘Stigmatization’ in Encyclopaedia Britannica 11 and ‘Stigmatisation’ in PRE Hermon, Mount - (huhr' muhn) Place name meaning, “devoted mountain. The name Hermon was called Sarion (Sirion) by the Sidonians (Phoenicians) (Deuteronomy 3:9 ; Psalm 29:6 ) and Sanir (Senir) by the Amorites (Deuteronomy 3:9 ). Both appellations signify “breast plate,” evidently because of the mountain's rounded snow-covered tip, that gleaned and shone in the sunlight. It is also called Sion (Deuteronomy 4:48 ), probably on account of its height. Once it is called “Hermons. ...
The Talmud and ancient Arab scholars called it Jebel el-Sheikh (“gray-haired mountain”) or Jebel el-Thalj (“mountain of snow”). It is also called “mountain of the chief” in reference to the tenth century founder of the Druze religion, Sheikh Ed-Derazi, who coming from Egypt, retired to Mt. ...
The Hermon range is the southern spur of the Anti-Lebanon chain of mountains which runs parallel to the Lebanon range being separated from it by the valley of Beqaa. Its peak is covered with snow two-thirds of the year. Below it, the mountain slopes are covered with trees and vineyards. ...
From times immemorial Hermon has been a sacred mountain. The term Mount Baalhermon (Judges 3:3 )indicates that a local Baal was worshiped there. Hermon is alluded to as a sacred mountain in the treaty between the Hittites and the Amorites. The mount was used as a cultic place in later periods. Enoch 6:6 (a book of the apocrypha) mentions that Hermon is the place where wicked angels alighted in the days of Jared. Its name is explained as referring to the oath which they had to swear upon it. (2) It marked the northern limits of Joshua's victorious campaigns (Joshua 11:17 ; Joshua 12:1 ; Joshua 13:5 ). (3) It has always been regarded as a sacred mountain. (4) Some scholars believe the transfiguration of Jesus occurred on Hermon
Tadmor - ’ It has long been recognized that Tadmor is here a mistake for ‘ Tamar in the [2] desert’ of the corresponding passage in 1Kings ( 1 Kings 9:18 ). The Chronicler, or one of his predecessors, no doubt thought it necessary to emend in this fashion a name that was scarcely known to him. (That it is really the city of Tadmor so famous in after times that is meant, is confirmed by the equally unhistorical details given in 2 Chronicles 8:3-4 regarding the Syrian cities of Hamath and Zobah. But the correction supplies a very important evidence that at the time when Chronicles was composed ( c Vine - Wine is frequently alluded to, chiefly in apostolic exhortations against excess in this direction (see article Abstinence). ...
In the apocalyptic vision, as elsewhere in the NT, the work of judgment is compared to the vintage. In the OT both the vintage and the wheat-harvest are used as similes of the overthrow of the enemies of Jahweh, but here the wheat-harvest represents the ingathering of the faithful (see article Harvest). ...
In Palestine the vintage is the latest crop gathered in the autumn. There are few countries so well adapted for the cultivation of the vine, and the extensiveness of the industry in ancient times is attested by the numerous presses and vats found all over the country. 200, but with the coming of the Arabs it almost entirely disappeared. Within the last century, however, it has revived under European influence, and large numbers of imported vines have been planted by German and Jewish colonists. In very stony soils parallel ridges are made of the loose stones, and the vines are planted near the side of one or other of these ridges. The shoots are trained up these primitively constructed walls, carried over the top, and brought down to the other sides by stones attached to them. Where, however, the conditions permit, and the vineyards are extensive, the plants are arranged at a considerable distance apart, and are allowed to grow to a height of about 6 or 8 ft. ; the bearing shoots supported by poles are carried horizontally across to the adjoining row. In ancient times they were carefully fenced in to protect them from human spoliators, on the one hand, and from the trespasses of sheep and cattle, whose partiality for vine-leaves is well known, on the other (cf. Those which are deep and well adapted for treading were probably wine-presses. ...
No doubt many of the large quantities of grapes produced in olden days were used for dibs, a thick sweet juice which is still made in Syria, and which was probably used to a much greater extent in ancient times when cane-sugar was unknown. , Ed. Jude,’ Edinburgh, 1901, p
Torch - —In the six passages in which the word ‘torch’ occurs in the Gospels (Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), once in the text (John 18:3) and five times as an alternative rendering in the margin (Matthew 25:1; Matthew 25:3 f. Now the regular meaning of lappîd is ‘torch,’ by which it is mostly rendered in the OT either in the text or in the margin. This meaning fits in very well with the context in John 18:3, but seems unsuitable in the other passages, where a light fed with oil is required. Probably we are to think in them of a lamp borne on a pole, and therefore bearing some resemblance to a torch, or of a torch fed with oil in some way from time to time. The use of the former is attested for Arabs in the Middle Ages by a statement to which Lightfoot called attention (Works, Ed. 247), found in the mediaeval lexicon ‘Aruch, and, on the authority of Rabbi Solomon, in a gloss on the reference to lappîd in Kelim, ii. It has been often cited or referred to, but a literal translation from the gloss may be of interest:...
It is a custom in the land of Ishmael for the bride to be conducted from the house of her father to the house of her husband in the night before she goes into the ḫuppah, (cf. Psalms 19:4), and for ten poles to be borne before her, on the top of each of which is a sort of saucer of brass containing pieces of garments and oil and pitch—these are kindled, and give light before her. ...
The other custom, the use of torches fed with oil, is said by the German writer, Ludwig Schneller, who was born in Jerusalem, and was for a time a minister in Bethlehem, to be in force in the Holy Land at the present day. These torches consist of long poles, round the upper end of which are wrapped rags saturated with olive oil. Unless fed with fresh oil, they burn down in less than a quarter of an hour (Evangelienfahrten, p. On the other hand, Robinson Lees (Village Life in Palestine2 [1] , p. ) affirms that small earthenware lamps are still carried in villages by the virgins who go to meet the bridegroom, together with little jars containing an additional supply of oil. He admits, however, that torches are used in the cities. With our presen slender knowledge of the marriage customs of the Jews in the time of our Lord, it is impossible to determine exactly the nature of the torches or lamps of the parable, but the balance of probability seems to incline to some kind of lamp-torch lifted high into the air. —Besides the authorities cited above, see Wetstein and Zahn on Matthew 25:1; Edersheim, LT [2]
Gallio - Gallio governed Achaia as a proconsul of praetorian rank. His name was Marcus Annaeus Novatus; but he was adopted by L. He was the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, to whose influence at court he may have owed his governorship. There is no other direct evidence that Gallio governed Achaia than St. ]'>[1] Angered by the conversion of prominent members of the synagogue, the Jews took advantage of the new governor’s arrival to lay a charge against St. Paul which they tried to put in such a serious light as to merit a severe penalty. But Gallio was not so complaisant or inexperienced as they hoped. He elicited the true nature of their complaint, and, cutting short the trial, he abruptly dismissed the case as referring only to interpretations of Jewish law, not to any civil wrong or any moral outrage of which Roman law took cognizance. ...
Two effects of this decision are noted. This seems the true interpretation of a scene which has been supposed to describe Jews beating a Christian-or even their own leader-in revenge for their defeat. But such a savage and illegal protest against Gallio’s decision could not have passed unnoticed by him; on the other hand, a public demonstration against the unpopular and disputatious Jews whom he had just dismissed might appear to him a rough sort of justice which he could afford to overlook, especially as it put the seal of popular approval on his action (see Sosthenes). ...
(b) The decision seems to have influenced St. Gallio being governor of Achaia, his judgment would become a precedent and would have far-reaching influence. This amounted to a declaration of freedom in religion of immense value to Christians. ...
Gallio’s private character is eulogized by Seneca in glowing terms. The clause ‘Gallio cared for none of these things’ does not bear in the least the interpretation put upon it by proverbial Christian philosophy. He seems to have shared the fortunes of his more famous brother, and was put to death by Nero. Farrar, Seekers after God, Ed
Caesarea - (Καισάρεια or Καισάρεια Σεβαστή, named in honour of Augustus; known also as Caesarea Palaestinae, and in modern Arabic as el-Kaiṣârîyeh; to be distinguished clearly from Caesarea Philippi)...
Caesarea was situated on the Mediterranean coast, 32 miles N. The city is closely associated with the history of the Apostolic Church, being especially notable as the place where the Holy Spirit was poured out upon the Gentiles (Acts 10:45). Philip the deacon seems to have resided at Caesarea (Acts 8:40; Acts 21:8; Acts 21:16). Cornelius, a Roman centurion, influenced by a vision to send to Joppa for St. died (Acts 12:19). Paul landed on his way from Ephesus (Acts 18:22), being later escorted hither on his return from Jerusalem (Acts 23:23; Acts 23:33), and here he was imprisoned for two years, and tried before Festus (Acts 25:1; Acts 25:4; Acts 25:6; Acts 25:13). The city was elaborately beautified with temples, theatres, palaces, arches, and altars. Aqueducts supplied the inhabitants with water from Carmel and the Crocodile River. , it became the seat of a famous school of theology, in which Origen taught; also of the bishopric of Syria, Eusebius being the most celebrated of these occupying the office. Under the Arabs it unfortunately lost its former prestige and rapidly degenerated. In 1251 it was re-fortified by St. Finally, in 1265, it was completely destroyed by the Sultan Bibars, since whose time it has remained in ruins. ’ Since 1889, however, a few Bosnians have settled among the ruins and carried on a small trade in brick. Most of the stones of the ancient city were used by Ibrahim Pasha in constructing the new fortifications at Acre. , article ‘Caesarea’ in Encyclopaedia Biblica , i. 337, Tent Work in Palestine, new Ed. ; Baedeker, Palestine and Syria5, 1912, p
Chorazin - —Mentioned once only in the Gospels, Matthew 11:21 = Luke 10:13, along with Bethsaida, as one of the ‘cities’ (πόλεις) where most of Jesus’ mighty deeds were done. The name is not found in the OT nor in Josephus; and it is not certain whether it be the same place as ברנים or ברניים mentioned once in the Talmud (hoth, 85), where the superior quality of its wheat is praised. Why the Editions of the Peshitta, even Gwilliams’, spell ܟܴܘܪܰܐܻܝܢ Kôrăzîn, we fail to see. The place has been identified with Khersa on the eastern shore of the Lake of Galilee, but more probably with Khirbet Kerâzeh, 4 kilometres N. of Tell Hûm, first discovered by Thomson in 1857. Eusebius calls it a κώμη (oppidum), 12 Roman miles from Capernaum, in his time deserted; but 12 seems to be a misspelling of the MS for 2, as given by the Latin translation of Jerome (Eusebius, Onomasticon, Ed. 7) the name is spelt ‘Chorazin’, not ‘Chorozain,’ as stated in Encyc. ]'>[4] On the ruins of Kerâzeh, especially its synagogue, see the literature quoted by Schürer, GJV [5] 3 [6] § 27, n. Cheyne’s list of Proper Names (in the Queen’s Printers’ Aids to the Student of the Holy Bible) recommends the pronunciation Cho-ra’zin; this is supported by the modern form Kerâzeh, if it be the same name; the accentuation of the first syllable, common in German, has the support of Kurzin in the Peshitta; in Latin Choroza in. The mediaeval explanation of the name ‘hoc mysterium meum’ = הוא רִאוי, goes back to Jerome (OS 61. There was once a tradition that the Antichrist was to be born in Chorazin, and that its inhabitants were proud of this, and therefore the place was cursed by Jesus; see Expos. † Isaacus, Donatist Martyr - Isaacus (21) , a Donatist who, together with Maximianus, met his death at Carthage in consequence of the cruel punishment inflicted by order of the proconsul of Africa, a. The history is related by a fellow-Donatist named Macrobius; and though he does not mention the name of the proconsul, doubtless the tragedy took place in connexion with the mission into Africa of Paulus and Macarius. Maximianus suffered first, but Isaac provoked the anger of the judges by his taunting exclamations and was forthwith compelled to undergo a treatment no less brutal. Having been first scourged with "plumbata," a whip armed with leaden bullets, and then beaten with sticks, they were both cast into prison, but Isaac disappointed the further violence of his tormentors by death. Crowds immediately flocked to the prison, singing hymns as if it were the eve of Easter, and they watched beside the corpse to ensure it Christian burial. To execute this command, the soldiers were obliged to clear the way from the prison by force, and many persons were wounded in the struggle. The two victims were thrown into the sea at some distance from each other in baskets weighted with sand to ensure their sinking. But the action of the waves, caused, according to the writer's belief, by divine interposition, tore away the sand, and after six days brought the two bodies together to shore, where they were received with welcome by their fellow-Christians on their way to the churches and received Christian burial, the malice of those who had sought to deprive them of it being thus gloriously defeated. ...
Notwithstanding the inflated style of the narrative (very different, as Mabillon remarks truly, from that of the existing accounts of the deaths of true Catholic martyrs), and notwithstanding the very slight notice St. Augustine takes of the event, into which he acknowledges that he had made very little inquiry, and also despite his evident success in convicting some accounts of Donatist martyrdoms of inaccuracy, if not of direct falsehood, there seems no reason for doubting the substantial truth of this narrative, especially as Marculus, in Dec. of the same year, suffered death for a similar cause and with similar circumstances of cruelty. Neither can we doubt that the cause for which these men suffered was essentially one of religion. Augustine compares such cases to that of Hagar, and elsewhere argues in favour of the duty of the state as the guardian of truth to repress heresy and insinuates that those guilty of this offence are punished not so much on account of religion as of treason or disloyalty; but we must bear in mind that (1) the proceedings here related took place six years before St. Augustine's birth, and had not been repeated in his time, and that thus he was no witness either to the truth or falsehood of the narratives; (2) the behaviour and language of Isaac remind us more of an angry partisan than a Christian martyr; (3) the glaring faults of the narrative in style and temper do not extenuate the treatment which, after every allowance for exaggeration, the sufferers must have endured. 237, 248, Ed
Caius, Ecclesiastical Writer - ]'>[1] ...
This dialogue is mentioned by the following writers, who may, however, have only known it from the account given by Eusebius:—Hieron. ...
In the short fragments preserved, Proclus defends the prophesyings of his sect by appealing to the four daughters of Philip, who with their father were buried at Hierapolis; Caius, on the other hand, offers to shew his antagonist at the Vatican and on the Appian Way the tombs of the apostles "who founded this church. " That Caius should have conducted a disputation at Rome does not of itself prove that he, any more than Proclus, permanently resided there. Yet the expression cited conveys the impression that he did; and Eusebius was apparently of that opinion, for elsewhere (vi. 20), having mentioned that Caius only counted St. Muratori attributed to Caius the celebrated fragment on the canon published by him, which concludes with a rejection of Montanist documents. ]'>[2] But it is difficult to believe that if this were the list referred to by Eusebius, he would not have quoted it more fully. Among the heretical writings rejected by Caius was a book of Revelations (Eus. 25) purporting to be written by a great apostle and ascribed by Caius to Cerinthus, in which the author professes to have been shewn by angels that after the resurrection Christ's kingdom should be earthly, that men should inhabit Jerusalem, should be the slaves of lusts and pleasures, and should spend a thousand years in marriage festivities. The strongest reason for thinking that the book intended is the canonical book of the Revelation is that Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. 25) asserts that some of his predecessors had maintained that the Apocalypse is the work of Cerinthus, and describes their views in language strongly resembling that of Caius. Ed. Caium, written by Hippolytus, which he had discovered in Cod. These passages shew that he had attacked the Apocalypse of St. John, and treated the book as inconsistent with the Holy Scriptures. 3 ) thinks it not improbable that he had treated the Apocalypse as a work of Cerinthus; and as he would be at one in this opinion with the Alogi of Asia Minor, a connexion between him and them may be supposed
Bless, Blessed, Blessedness, Blessing - , "to speak well of" (eu, "well," logos, "a word"), signifies, (a) "to praise, to celebrate with praises," of that which is addressed to God, acknowledging His goodness, with desire for His glory, Luke 1:64 ; 2:28 ; 24:51,53 ; James 3:9 ; (b) "to invoke blessings upon a person," e. The present participle Passive, "blessed, praised," is especially used of Christ in Matthew 21:9 ; 23:39 , and the parallel passages; also in John 12:13 ; (c) "to consecrate a thing with solemn prayers, to ask God's blessing on a thing," e. ...
A — 2: ἐνευλογέω (Strong's #1757 — Verb — eneulogeomai — en-yoo-log-eh'-o ) "to bless," is used in the Passive Voice, Acts 3:25 ; Galatians 3:8 . The prefix en apparently indicates the person on whom the blessing is conferred. ...
A — 3: μακαρίζω (Strong's #3106 — Verb — makarizo — mak-ar-id'-zo ) from a root mak---, meaning "large, lengthy," found also in makros, "long," mekos, "length," hence denotes "to pronounce happy, blessed," Luke 1:48 ; James 5:11 . ...
B — 1: εὐλογητός (Strong's #2128 — Adjective — eulogetos — yoo-log-ay-tos' ) akin to A, 1, means "blessed, praised;" it is applied only to God, Mark 14:61 ; Luke 1:68 ; Romans 1:25 ; 9:5 ; 2 Corinthians 1:3 ; 11:31 ; Ephesians 1:3 ; 1 Peter 1:3 . it is also applied to man, e. 3, is used in the beatitudes in Matthew 5 and Luke 6 , is especially frequent in the Gospel of Luke, and is found seven times in Revelation, 1:3; 14:13; 16:15; 19:9; 20:6; 22:7,14. In the beatitudes the Lord indicates not only the characters that are "blessed," but the nature of that which is the highest good. , "good speaking, praise," is used of (a) God and Christ, Revelation 5:12,13 ; 7:12 ; (b) the invocation of blessings, benediction, Hebrews 12:17 ; James 3:10 ; (c) the giving of thanks, 1 Corinthians 10:16 ; (d) a blessing, a benefit bestowed, Romans 15:29 ; Galatians 3:14 ; Ephesians 1:3 ; Hebrews 6:7 ; of a monetary gift sent to needy believers, 2 Corinthians 9:5,6 ; (e) in a bad sense, of fair speech, Romans 16:18 , RV, where it is joined with chrestologia, "smooth speech," the latter relating to the substance, eulogia to the expression. ...
C — 2: Μακεδονία (Strong's #3109 — Noun Location — makarismos — mak-ed-on-ee'-ah ) akin to A, 3, "blessedness," indicates an ascription of blessing rather than a state; hence in Romans 4:6 , where the AV renders it as a noun, "(describeth) the blessedness;" the RV rightly puts "(pronounceth) blessing. In Galatians 4:15 the AV has "blessedness," RV, "gratulation. " The Galatian believers had counted themselves happy when they heard and received the Gospel. , "holy things," is translated "mercies" (AV), "blessings" (RV)
ma'gi - (Authorized Version wise men ). (Jeremiah 29:3,13 ) "Originally they were a class of priests among the Persians and Medes who formed the king's privy council, and cultivated as trology, medicine and occult natural science. They are frequently referred to by ancient authors. Afterward the term was applied to all eastern philosophers. 120; but as they appear in Jeremiah among the retinue of the Chaldean king, we must suppose Nebuchadnezzar's conquests led him to gather round him the wise men and religious teachers of the nations which he subdued, and that thus the sacred tribe of the Medes rose under his rule to favor and power. " It is with such men that, we have to think of Daniel and his fellow exiles as associated. The office which Daniel accepted (Daniel 5:11 ) was probably rab-mag --chief of the Magi. ...
The word presented itself to the Greeks as connected with a foreign system of divination and it soon became a byword for the worst form of imposture. This is the predominant meaning of the word as it appears in the New Testament. (Matthew 2:1-12 ) the Magi appear as "wise men"--properly Magians --who were guided by a star from "the east" to Jerusalem, where they suddenly appeared in the days of Herod the Great, inquiring for the new-born king of the Jews, whom they had come to worship. As to the country from which they came, opinions vary greatly; but their following the guidance of a star seems to point to the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, where astronomy was Cultivated by the Chaldeans. They believed in one God, they had no idols, they worshipped light as the best symbol of God. "The Magi," says) Ellicott, "express the feeling which the Roman historians Tacitus and Suetonius tell us sixty or seventy years later had been for a long time very widely diffused. It had fermented in the minds of men, heathen as well as Jews, and would have led them to welcome Jesus as the Christ had he come in accordance with their expectation. " Virgil, who lived a little before this, owns that a child from heaven was looked for, who should restore the golden age and take away sin. (3) This expectation arose largely from the dispersion of the Jews among all nations, carrying with them the hope and the promise of a divine Redeemer. His prophecies: were made known to them; and the calculations by which he pointed to the very time when Christ should be born became, through the book of Daniel, a part of their ancient literature. --ED. ) According to a late tradition, the Magi are represented as three kings, named Gaspar, Melchior and Belthazar, who take their place among the objects of Christian reverence, and are honored as the patron saints of travellers
Gal'Ilee - This name, which in the Roman age was applied to a large province, seems to have been originally confined to a little "circuit" of country round Kedesh-Naphtali, in which were situated the twenty towns given by Solomon to Hiram king of Tyre as payment for his work in conveying timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem. ( Joshua 20:7 ; 1 Kings 9:11 ) In the time of our Lord all Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria and Galilee. The latter included the whole northern section of the country, including the ancient territories of Issachar, Zebulun, Asher and Naphtali. On the west it was bounded by the territory of Ptolemais, which probably included the whole plain of Akka to the foot of Carmel. The southern border ran along the base of Carmel and of the hills of Samaria to Mount Gilboa, and then descended the valley of Jezreel by Scythopolis to the Jordan. The river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, and the upper Jordan to the fountain at Dan, formed the eastern border; and the northern ran from Dan westward across the mountain ridge till it touched the territory of the Phoenicians. Galilee was divided into two sections, "Lower" and "Upper. " Lower Galilee included the great plain of Esdraelon with its offshoots, which ran down to the Jordan and the Lake of Tiberias, and the whole of the hill country adjoining it on the north to the foot of the mountain range. Upper Galilee embraced the whole mountain range lying between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia. --It is estimated that of the 1000 square miles in Palestine west of the Jordan, nearly one-third, almost 2000 square miles, belongs to Galilee. Merrill argues for the general correctness of Josephus' estimates, who says there were 204 cities and villages in Galilee, the smallest of which numbered 15,000 inhabitants. The walnut, which delights above other trees in a wintry climate, grows here luxuriantly together with the palm tree, which is flourished by heat. Forests covered its mountains and hills, while its uplands, gentle slopes and broader valleys were rich in pasture, meadows, cultivated fields, vineyards, olive groves and fruit trees of every kind. If one should say the Jews were bigoted in religion, he should remember at the same time that in regard to social, commercial and political relations none were more cosmopolitan in either sentiment or practice than they. --ED
mo'ab - The Moabites first inhabited the rich highlands which crown the eastern side of the chasm of the Dead Sea, extending as far north as the mountain of Gilead, from which country they expelled the Emims, the original inhabitants, (2:11) but they themselves were afterward driven southward by the warlike Amorites, who had crossed the Jordan, and were confined to the country south of the river Arnon, which formed their northern boundary. ( Numbers 21:13 ; Judges 11:18 ) The territory occupied by Moab at the period of its greatest extent, before the invasion of the Amorites, divided itself naturally into three distinct and independent portions:-- (1) The enclosed corner or canton south of the Arnon was the "field of Moab. The Israelites, in entering the promised land, did not pass through the Moabites, (Judges 11:18 ) but conquered the Amorites, who occupied the country from which the Moabites had been so lately expelled. After the conquest of Canaan the relations of Moab with Israel were of a mixed character, sometimes warlike and sometimes peaceable. With the tribe of Benjamin they had at least one severe struggle, in union with their kindred the Ammonites. He committed his parents to the protection of the king of Moab, when hard pressed by Saul. The next time the name is mentioned is in the account of David's war, who made the Moabites tributary. At the death of Ahab the Moabites refused to pay tribute and asserted their independence, making war upon the kingdom of Judah. As a natural consequence of the late events, Israel, Judah and Edom united in an attack on Moab, resulting in the complete overthrow of the Moabites. Falling back into their own country, they were followed and their cities and farms destroyed. Finally, shut up within the walls of his own capital, the king, Mesha, in the sight of the thousands who covered the sides of that vast amphitheater, killed and burnt his child as a propitiatory sacrifice to the cruel gods of his country. (Isaiah 15,16,25:10-12 ) predicts the utter annihilation of the Moabites; and they are frequently denounced by the subsequent prophets. 200, at the time when the Yemen tribes Galib and Gassara entered the eastern districts of the Jordan. 536 the last trace of the name Moab, which lingered in the town of Kir-moab, has given place to Kerak , its modern name. Over the whole region are scattered many ruins of ancient cities; and while the country is almost bare of larger vegetation, it is still a rich pasture-ground, with occasional fields of grain. --ED
Jor'Dan - There were fords over against Jericho, to which point the men of Jericho pursued the spies. (Judges 12:6 ) These fords undoubtedly witnessed the first recorded passage of the Jordan in the Old Testament. (Genesis 32:10 ) Jordan was next crossed, over against Jericho, by Joshua. (Joshua 4:12,13 ) From their vicinity to Jerusalem the lower fords were much used. David, it is probable, passed over them in one instance to fight the Syrians. (2 Samuel 10:17 ; 17:22 ) Thus there were two customary places at which the Jordan was fordable; and it must have been at one of these, if not at both, that baptism was afterward administered by St. Where our Lord was baptized is not stated expressly, but it was probably at the upper ford. These fords were rendered so much more precious in those days from two circumstances. First, it does not appear that there were then any bridges thrown over or boats regularly established on the Jordan; and secondly, because "Jordan overflowed all his banks all the time of harvest. " (Joshua 3:15 ) The channel or bed of the river became brimful, so that the level of the water and of the banks was then the same. Selah Merrill, in his book "Galilee in the Time of Christ" (1881), says, "Near Tarichaea, just below the point where the Jordan leaves the lake (of Galilee), there was (in Christ's time) a splendid bridge across the river, supported by ten piers. " --ED. ) The last feature which remains to be noticed in the scriptural account of the Jordan is its frequent mention as a boundary: "over Jordan," "this" and "the other side," or "beyond Jordan," were expressions as familiar to the Israelites as "across the water," "this" and "the other side of the Channel" are to English ears. In one sense indeed, that is, in so far as it was the eastern boundary of the land of Canaan, it was the eastern boundary of the promised land. From its fountain heads to the Dead Sea it rushes down one continuous inclined plane, only broken by a series of rapids or precipitous falls. The depression of the Lake of Gennesaret below the level of the Mediterranean Isaiah 653 feet, and that of the Dead Sea 1316 feet. Not a single city ever crowned the banks of the Jordan. Still Bethshan and Jericho to the west, Gerasa, Pella and Gadara to the east of it were important cities, and caused a good deal of traffic between the two opposite banks. The physical features of the Ghor , through which the Jordan flows, are treated of under PALESTINE
Parable - As used in the New Testament it had a very wide application, being applied sometimes to the shortest proverbs, ( 1 Samuel 10:12 ; 24:13 ; 2 Chronicles 7:20 ) sometimes to dark prophetic utterances, (Numbers 23:7,18 ; 24:3 ; Ezekiel 20:49 ) sometimes to enigmatic maxims, (Psalm 78:2 ; Proverbs 1:6 ) or metaphors expanded into a narrative. (Ezekiel 12:22 ) In the New Testament itself the word is used with a like latitude in (Matthew 24:32 ; Luke 4:23 ; Hebrews 9:9 ) It was often used in a more restricted sense to denote a short narrative under which some important truth is veiled. --ED. The direct teaching was met with scorn unbelief hardness, and he seemed for a time to abandon it for that which took the form of parables. The worth of parables as instruments of teaching lies in their being at once a test of character and in their presenting each form of character with that which, as a penalty or blessing, is adapted to it. They leave something even with the careless which may be interpreted and understood afterward. These ask the meaning of the parable, and will not rest until the teacher has explained it. In this way the parable did work, found out the fit hearers and led them on. In interpreting parables note-- (1) The analogies must be real, not arbitrary; (2) The parables are to be considered as parts of a whole, and the interpretation of one is not to override or encroach upon the lessons taught by others; (3) The direct teaching of Christ presents the standard to which all our interpretations are to be referred, and by which they are to be measured
Musical Instruments of the Hebrews - STRINGED INSTRUMENTS. ...
A kind of lute or guitar ( mahalath ), in titles to ( Psalm 53:1 ) and Psal 88:1 With a long, flat neck, and a hollow body of wood whose surface was perforated with holes. ...
The gittith , in titles to ( Psalm 8:1 ; 81:1 ; 84:1 ) a stringed instrument, probably found by David st Gath, whence its name. ...
The timbrel , a form of tambourine, a narrow hoop covered with a tightened skin, and struck with the hand on the Egyptian monuments are three kinds --the circular, the square, and another formed by two squares separated by a bar. Another form was shaped like a cask with bulging centre, and was made of copper. Another drum was more like our kettledrum; and one of these, the rabbins say, was placed in the temple court to the priests to prayer, and could be heard from Jerusalem to Jericho. ...
Bells ( paanton ), attached to the high priest's dress, and rung by striking against the knobs, shaped like pomegranates, which were hung near them. The earliest cymbals were probably finger cymbals -small plates of metal fastened to the thumb and middle finger, and struck together. Afterward there were the large cymbals, played with both hands. ...
Systra ( menaanim ), ( 2 Samuel 6:5 ) there translated comets. The systrum was a carved bronze or copper frame, with a handle, in all from 8 to 18 inches long, with movable rings and bars. ...
The triangle (shalishim ), ( 1 Samuel 18:6 ) a musical instrument (machol ) used for accompanying the dance, and several times translated dancing. ( Psalm 150:3,45 ) It was a metallic rim or frame sometimes with a handle and had small bells attached to it, or bars across on which were strung metallic rings or plates. It was held in the hand, and was played by the women at weddings and merry-makings. -- ...
The syrinx, pandean pipe or bagpipe ( ugab ); translated "organ" in ( Genesis 4:21 ) Either like the bagpipe, or a series of pipes from 5 to 23 in number, though usually only 7. ...
The flute ( halil , meaning "bored through "), a pipe perforated with holes, originally made from reeds, but afterward of wood bone, horn or ivory. It was chiefly consecrated to joy or pleasure. ...
The flute , alluded to in ( Daniel 3:6 ) probably a kind of double flageolet. ...
The dulcimer , ( Daniel 3:5 ) a kind of bagpipe with two shrill reeds. The modern dulcimer is a triangular instrument strung with about 60 brass wires, and played upon with little sticks or metallic rods. It more resembles the ancient psaltery than the dulcimer of ( Daniel 3:5 ) --ED
Purification - The signification of ἁγνισμός is that we must approach God carefully, of καθαρισμός that we are unable to do so without the help of some mediator who cleanses. Outside the Bible these restrictions are called ‘tabus. ’ Aaron, for instance, washed both before and after the act of atonement (Leviticus 16:4; Leviticus 16:23-24; W. Man’s misery had taught him the need of being made fit, and so there lurked at the heart of tabu the idea of an act of moral cleansing. Whenever man sighted the Unseen Powers-when with the dead, e. One instinct was the community of blood between the god, man, and the animal world, so that, if the blood of a human or an animal victim was shed, it was an offering of their common life, and, if the flesh was eaten, they became one in a mysterious sacrament (W. So the sin-offering was eaten (Leviticus 6:26), embodying man’s guilty feelings towards God and God’s appeased feelings towards man. Aristotle made this one of the uses of tragedy, to purify the passions by pity and terror (cf. Robertson, new Ed. It is the absence of such identification which in 2 Peter 1:9 is deplored. Edersheim, The Temple; its Ministry and Service, 1874, ch
Maximus, an Ecclesiastical Writer - Maximus (24) , an ecclesiastical writer, placed by Eusebius (H. Eusebius says the subject of his work was the origin of evil and whether matter had been created, and elsewhere ( Praep. 87) is by far the best Ed. of the remains of Maximus, pointed out that the same fragment is in the dialogue on free will ascribed to Methodius, and that other things are common to the work on free will and the dialogue of Origen against the Marcionites, so that both authors probably drew from Maximus. That the work is rightly ascribed to Maximus the testimony of Eusebius is decisive; and St. Jerome says in his Catalogue, that Methodius wrote on free will, while Photius has preserved large extracts from what he knew as the work of Methodius on free will, which clearly prove that it incorporated much of Maximus. We leave, then, to Methodius the rhetorical introduction to his dialogue, but the context appears clearly to shew that the part which belongs to Maximus begins earlier than the portion quoted by Eusebius and printed by Routh. It must include the statement of the views of the speaker, who maintains matter to have existed from eternity, destitute of qualities, and also the announcement of the presence of the third speaker, who afterwards takes up the controversy, on the hypothesis that matter had been from the first possessed of qualities. In Methodius, the defender of the eternity of matter is apparently represented as a Valentinian, for his speeches are marked Val. He propounds the difficulty concerning the origin of evil; if evil was at any time created, then something came out of nothing, since evil did not exist before; and God Who created it must take pleasure in evil, which we cannot admit. He then offers the solution that, co-eternally with God, there existed matter, destitute of form or qualities, and borne about in a disorderly manner; that God took pity on it, separated the best parts from the worst, reduced the former to order, and left the latter behind as being of no use to Him for His work, and that from these lees of matter evil sprang. It does not absolutely disprove this, that Eusebius, though he twice speaks of the writings of Maximus, does not mention that he was a bishop; probably Eusebius found in the book he used no mention of the author's dignity, and knew no more than we do whether he was the bp. But there seems increasing reason to think that Eusebius erroneously attributed to Maximus the work of Methodius: see Zahn in Zeitschr
Melania, a Roman Lady - Her husband died when she was only 22 years old, leaving her with three children, of whom two died immediately after their father. Full of ascetic enthusiasm, she rejoiced to be now more free to serve Christ, left her son to the charge of the urban praetor, and, though winter was beginning, sailed for the East (Hieron. Ed. She seems to have been acquainted with Jerome and his friends, who at that time formed an ascetic society at Aquileia. Her slave Hylas accompanied Jerome to Syria (Hieron. 3), and Rufinus, from whom Jerome had then recently separated ( ib. Rufinus was imprisoned. Melania, who had only been in Egypt six months, went with a large body of exiled bishops, clergy, and anchorets to a place near Diocaesarea in Palestine, where she supported them at her own expense. Apparently she was joined by Rufinus after a time, and they went together to Jerusalem. There she established herself at the Mount of Olives, where, says Jerome ( Chron. 377, properly 375), she was such a wonderful example of virtues, and especially of humility, that she received the name of Thecla. She formed a community of 50 virgins and was the means of reconciling to the church a large body of heretics called Πνευματομάχοι . Amongst those who visited her was EVAGRIUS, whom she persuaded to embrace the monastic life (a. of Jerusalem intimately, and no doubt shared with Rufinus in the friendship of Jerome and Paula when they settled at Bethlehem in 386, and afterwards in his contention with them. In 397 she returned with Rufinus to Italy, to confirm her granddaughter Melania the Younger in the practice of asceticism. She was received by Paulinus at Nola with great honour, and brought him a piece of the true cross set in gold, sent by John bp. She took up her abode at Rome, where she no doubt assisted Rufinus through the controversy as to his translation of Origen's works. She lived probably with her son Publicola and his wife Albina and their two children, the younger Publicola, and the younger Melania, with her husband Pinianus. Palladius, when he came to Rome to plead the cause of Chrysostom, stayed with them. She desired to induce her granddaughter Melania and Pinianus to take vows of separation, and was much displeased that, though willing to vow continency, they would not separate from each other's society. In her vehement enthusiasm she spoke of her conflicts with those who resisted her asceticism as "fighting against wild beasts. " In 408, Italy being threatened with the invasion of Alaric, and her son Publicola having died, she determined to leave Rome. Rufinus, having quitted Aquileia on the death of his father, went with her and her daughter-in-law Albina, the younger Publicola, Melania and Pinianus. ), and it was now determined that she should go to Sicily and thence to Africa, in both which countries she had estates. In Sicily Rufinus died. She passed on to Africa with the others; and, after vainly attempting to induce Melania and Pinianus to embrace the monastic state, went on to her former habitation on the Mount of Olives, and 40 days after died, aged 60
Diognetus, Epistle to - The Greek writing known under this name was first printed in 1592 by Henricus Stephanus, along with a companion piece To Greeks , as hitherto unknown writings of Justin Martyr, taken by him from a single faded exemplar. ...
In his Edition, as in the transcript in his own handwriting extant at Leyden, the writing To Greeks was not prefixed, but appended to the writing To Diognetus ; but in the MS. from which he took the pieces (identified by Gebhardt with that collated by Cunitz at Strasburg, where it perished in 1870) three works, each ascribed by name to Justin, were followed by the two pieces Of the Same to Greeks and Of the Same to Diognetus . The correctness of the ascription of each of these two pieces to Justin was separately called in question by subsequent critics; but the connexion between the two pieces, the contrast in style presented by both alike to the spurious or dubious works of Justin to which in the MS. they were appended, and the fact that it was not directly to Justin Martyr, but to the author of the address To Greeks that the address To Diognetus was in the MS. ascribed, were forgotten. , is ignored by Stephanus in his division of the writing into chapters. Whether more or less be missing, the writing comprised in cc. is plainly the continuation of the writing commenced in cc. ), appended after the second break, the writer calls himself "disciple of apostles," and on this ground the writer To Diognetus has been included among the apostolic Fathers. is so great that critics have concluded the final appended fragment to be no part of the writing to Diognetus, but the peroration of another treatise by another writer. ...
No other ancient copy of the Greek of any of the writings published in 1592 has been found; but the writer To Greeks , with whom the writer To Diognetus was in the MS. immediately identified, has been plainly distinguished from Justin by the discovery and publication by Cureton in his Spicilegium Syriacum from a 6th or 7th cent. of a Syriac version of an almost identical discourse ascribed to one "Ambrosius, a chief man of Greece, who became a Christian, and all his fellow-councillors raised a clamour against him. " We may thus say that the true traditional writer To Greeks and To Diognetus is a certain otherwise unknown Ambrosius, convert like Justin from Hellenism to Christianity—the reply To Greeks , the assailants of the writer, being naturally followed by the response To Diognetus , the inquirer. ...
This conclusion is confirmed by internal evidence. In each there is the same Attic diction joined with the same Roman dignity. Nay, in each there is the same occurrence of two contrasted styles, the same passage from the scornful vigour of the satirist to the joyous sweetness of the evangelist. The writing addressed to him is not in form an epistle, it seems rather to be a discourse delivered in a Christian Assembly into which the eminent inquirer had found his way. His coming implied a triple question: (i) "On what God relying, Christians despise death and neither reckon those gods who are so accounted by the Greeks, nor observe any superstition of Jews"; (ii) "What the kindly affection is that they have one for another"; and (iii) "What, in short, this new race or practice might be that has invaded society now and no earlier. , first bidding the Greek look at his manufactured gods (c. ) passing from the earthly things to the heavenly to tell how it was God Who implanted the Word by the mission of the Maker of all, sent as an imperial Son, in love, to be sent again as Judge. So the inquirer is answered that the reasons for non-compliance with Hellenism and Judaism are obvious, but the Christians' God is the one God of the Jews, and their religion consists of purity and charity, and was founded by the mission of the Son, Whom God will send again. At this point something has dropped out. The argument may be surmised to have continued after this fashion: "An end of all things is the doctrine of your Greek sages; but the Jews looked for a perpetual earthly kingdom, and when Christ proclaimed a kingdom not of this world, they slew Him, and yet He is not dead, and Christian worship is not to deny Him. " For as resumed (c. " Then proceeding (c. ) how God waited to shew forth what He had prepared till unrighteousness had been made manifest, and then, when the time came, Himself took our sins and gave His own Son for us and would have us trust Him. ) he passes from expounding "on what God Christians rely" to expound "what the love is that they bear one to another," the outcome of their love to Him Who first loved them. ...
The first two questions of the inquirer are thus answered, and in answering them completely the third question, "What the new institution might be," would be answered along with them; but that answer seems not to be completed before the second break. It could not be complete till it had been carried further than merely saying that "it was God Who implanted the Word," and that He did so "when the time came. " "The Word that appeared new" must have been "found old"; and this is the answer that we find in the final fragment (cc. It does not follow that the final fragment does not belong to the preceding discourse. If Diognetus had shewn his desire for instruction by coming into a Christian assembly, the whole discourse may have been delivered before such an audience as is addressed in the peroration at the close. The satirist of superstition and evangelist of atoning, justifying mercy is succeeded by a mystical believer in a Christ born anew in hearts of saints. The new thing is portrayed as "that which was from the beginning," yet ever new. "This is He that is ever reckoned a Son today. " But what it is can be known only by taking up the cross and so coming to be with Christ in Paradise, "Whose tree if thou bearest fruit and if thou choosest thou shalt eat those things that with God are desired. "The Lord's Passover cometh forth, and, teaching saints, the Word is gladdened. The style is different only so far as is necessitated by the difference of subject. It exhibits the same anarthrous use of nouns, the same accumulation of clause on clause, not pursued too far; the same unexpected turns at the close of the sentences; the same union of dignity with sweetness, the same blending of Pauline with Johannine teaching; the same persistent subordination of doctrine to life. ...
It is worth noting that an Ambrose, of the consecration of Antioch, is said in a Syriac tradition to have been the third primate of Edessa and the East (Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity , p. The writer To Greeks and To Diognetus may have been this bringer of Greek Pauline Christianity to the regions beyond Euphrates conquered by Trajan and abandoned by Hadrian, and have been ancestor of the friend of Origen and of the great Milanese archbp. ...
Probably an old copy exhibited three works of Ambrosius—an avowal of Christianity, and answers To Greeks and To Diognetus , each a brave act as well as a solid work, the first now lost, the second a fine sample of a class of controversial works of which samples are numerous, the third, To Diognetus , preserved in fragments only, but unique, not apologetic merely, but catechetical, a portraiture of early Christianity not in its manifestation only, but in its springs, bringing us to the gates of the Paradise of God. ...
In free allied states like Antioch and Athens avowal of Christianity may have been tolerated when not suffered in Roman or subject regions. ...
The date of the writings may be determined with great probability, not with absolute certainty, except that, if genuine, they cannot be post-Nicene. The picture of the church presented to Diognetus pretty plainly belongs to a date earlier than the accession of Commodus. ...
Lost in the crowd of predecessors whom Irenaeus and Clement hardly ever name and merged in Justin's shadow, convinced that God alone can reveal Himself, and content to be hidden in his Saviour's righteousness, the old writer has gradually emerged by virtue of an inborn lustre, at once the obscurest and most brilliant of his contemporaries, and has cast a glory on the early church while remaining himself unknown. 420, 425 (Bohn); Westcott, Canon (ed. 1875, 2nd Ed. 412 (ed. to Diognetus is included in the Ante-Nicene Lib
no'ah - In consequence of the grievous and hopeless wickedness of the world at this time, God resolved to destroy it. among his contemporaries), and that he, like Enoch, walked with God. " ( 2 Peter 2:5 ) Besides this we are merely told that he had three: sons each of whom had married a wife; that he built the ark in accordance with divine direction; end that he was 600 years old when the flood came. cypress) wood, a kind of timber which both for its lightness and its durability was employed by the Phoenicians for building their vessels. The planks of the ark, after being put together were to be protected by a coating of pitch, or rather bitumen, both inside and outside, to make it water-tight, and perhaps also as a protection against the attacks of marine animals. These were to be arranged in three tiers, one above another; "with lower, second and third (stories) shalt thou make it. " Means were also to be provided for letting light into the ark. There was to be a door this was to be placed in the side of the ark. It should be remembered that this huge structure was only intended to float on the water, and was not in the proper sense of the word a ship. Noah was directed to take also animals of all kinds into the ark with him, that they might be preserved alive. (The method of speaking of the animals that were taken into the ark "clean" and "unclean," implies that only those which were useful to man were preserved, and that no wild animals were taken into the ark; so that there is no difficulty from the great number of different species of animal life existing in the word. --ED. --The ark was finished, and all its living freight was gathered into it as a place of safety. Jehovah shut him in, says the chronicler, speaking of Noah; and then there ensued a solemn pause of seven days before the threatened destruction was let loose. At last the before the threatened destruction was flood came; the waters were upon the earth. The waters of the flood increased for a period of 190 days (40+150, comparing) ( Genesis 7:12 ) and Genesis7:24 And then "God remembered Noah" and made a wind to pass over the earth, so that the waters were assuaged. The ark rested on the seventeenth day of the seventh month on the mountains of Ararat. After this the waters gradually decreased till the first day of the tenth month, when the tops of the mountains were seen but Noah and his family did not disembark till they had been in the ark a year and a month and twenty days. Whether the flood was universal or partial has given rise to much controversy; but there can be no doubt that it was universal, so far as man was concerned: we mean that it extended to all the then known world . The literal truth of the narrative obliges us to believe that the whole human race , except eight persons, perished by the flood. The language of the book of Genesis does not compel us to suppose that the whole surface of the globe was actually covered with water, if the evidence of geology requires us to adopt the hypothesis of a partial deluge. This sort of language is common enough in the Bible when only a small part of the globe is intended. Thus, for instance, it is said that " all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn and that" a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. " The truth of the biblical narrative is confirmed by the numerous traditions of other nations, which have preserved the memory of a great and destructive flood, from which but a small part of mankind escaped. They seem to point back to a common centre whence they were carried by the different families of man as they wandered east and west. There is a medal of Apamea in Phrygia, struck as late as the time of Septimius Severus, in which the Phrygian deluge is commemorated. This medal represents a kind of a square vessel floating in the water. Upon the top of this chest or ark is perched a bird, whilst another flies toward it carrying a branch between its feet. Before the vessel are represented the same pair as having just, quitted it and got upon the dry land. Singularly enough, too, on some specimens of this medal the letters NO or NOE have been found on the vessel, as in the cut on p. (Tayler Lewis deduces the partial extent of the flood from the very face of the Hebrew text. " "Earth," where if speaks of "all the earth," often is, and here should be, translated "land," the home of the race, from which there appears to have been little inclination to wander. If is probable also that the crimes and violence of the previous age had greatly diminished the population, and that they would have utterly exterminated the race had not God in this way saved out some good seed from their destruction. So that the flood, by appearing to destroy the race, really saved the world from destruction . --ED. ) ( The scene of the deluge --Hugh Miller, in his "Testimony of the Rocks," argues that there is a remarkable portion of the globe, chiefly on the Asiatic continent, though it extends into Europe, and which is nearly equal to all Europe in extent, whose rivers (some of them the Volga, Oural, Sihon, Kour and the Amoo, of great size) do not fall into the ocean, but, on the contrary are all turned inward, losing themselves in the eastern part of the tract, in the lakes of a rainless district in the western parts i