What does Ear mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
οὖς the ear. 13
אָזְנָ֔ם ear 4
הַאֲזִ֥ינָה to hear 3
אֹ֭זֶן ear 3
אָזְנֶ֑ךָ ear 3
אֹ֤זֶן ear 3
אֹ֥זֶן ear 3
הַאֲזִ֣ינָה to hear 3
הַאֲזִ֥ינוּ to hear 3
אָזְנֶֽךָ ear 3
אֹ֣זֶן ear 3
אָ֝זְנִ֗י ear 2
אָזְנְךָ֮ ear 2
אָזְנְךָ֙ ear 2
אָזְנְךָֽ־ ear 2
אָזְנְכֶ֖ם ear 2
אָזְנָ֑ם ear 2
אֹֽזֶן־ ear 2
אֹ֔זֶן ear 2
וְהַֽאֲזִ֔ינוּ to hear 2
אָ֝זְנְךָ֗ ear 2
ὠτάριον the ear. 2
ὠτίον the ear. 2
אֹ֗זֶן ear 1
אָזְנָֽם ear 1
אָזְנְךָ֣ ear 1
אָזְנֽוֹ ear 1
אָזְנִ֑י ear 1
אָזְנֵ֑ךְ ear 1
אָזְנ֣וֹ ear 1
אָזְנְךָ֥ ear 1
אָזְנ֖וֹ ear 1
אָזְנְכֶ֔ם ear 1
אָזְנִֽי ear 1
אָ֭זְנוֹ ear 1
אָזְנְךָ֗ ear 1
אָ֭זְנָם ear 1
וְאֹ֥זֶן ear 1
אָזְנְךָ֛ ear 1
ἀκοήν the sense of hearing. / the organ of hearing 1
אֹ֖זֶן ear 1
אָזְנְכֶם֙ ear 1
הֶאֱזִ֑ינוּ to hear 1
στάχυν an ear of corn or of growing grain. 1
στάχυϊ an ear of corn or of growing grain. 1
ὠτίου the ear. 1
הֶאֱזִ֖ין to hear 1
וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ֙ to hear 1
הַאֲזִ֔ינוּ to hear 1
וְהַאֲזִ֣ינִי to hear 1
הַאֲזִ֛ינוּ to hear 1
הַאְזֵ֖נָּה to hear 1
יַאֲזִ֣ין to hear 1
הַאֲזִ֑ינוּ to hear 1
וְהַאֲזִ֖ינוּ to hear 1
אֹ֨זֶן ear 1
הַאֲזִ֖ינוּ to hear 1
הַאֲזִינָה֮ to hear 1
הַ֝אֲזִ֗ינוּ to hear 1
הַאֲזִ֥ינָה ׀ to hear 1
הַ֝אֲזִ֗ינָה to hear 1
וְהַאֲזִ֥ין to hear 1
הַאֲזִ֗ינָה to hear 1
הַאֲזִ֨ינָה to hear 1
אֹ֑זֶן ear 1
בְאָזְנוֹ֙ ear 1
אָזְנוֹ֙ ear 1
הַקְשֵׁ֖ב to hear 1

Definitions Related to Ear

G3775


   1 the Ear.
   2 metaph.
   the faculty of perceiving with the mind, the faculty of understanding and knowing.
   

H241


   1 Ear, as part of the body.
   2 Ear, as organ of hearing.
   3 (subjective) to uncover the Ear to reveal; the receiver of divine revelation.
   

H238


   1 to hear, listen.
      1a (Hiphil).
         1a1 to hear, listen, give Ear.
         1a2 to be obedient, harken.
         1a3 to hear or listen to prayers (of God).
         

G4719


   1 an Ear of corn or of growing grain.
   

G5621


   1 the Ear.
   

G189


   1 the sense of hearing.
   2 the organ of hearing, the Ear.
   3 the thing heard.
      3a instruction, namely oral.
         3a1 of preaching the gospel.
      3b hearsay, report or rumour.
      

H7181


   1 to hear, be attentive, heed, incline (of ears), attend (of ears), hearken, pay attention, listen.
      1a (Qal) incline, attend (of ears), hearken, pay attention, listen.
      1b (Hiphil) to pay attention, give attention.
      

Frequency of Ear (original languages)

Frequency of Ear (English)

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - BEar's-Ear
(n.) A kind of primrose (Primula auricula), so called from the shape of the leaf.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Ear
Used frequently in a figurative sense (Psalm 34:15 ). To "uncover the ear" is to show respect to a person (1 Samuel 20:2 marg.). To have the "ear heavy", or to have "uncircumcised ears" ( Isaiah 6:10 ), is to be inattentive and disobedient. To have the ear "bored" through with an awl was a sign of perpetual servitude (Exodus 21:6 ).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Ear
1: στάχυς (Strong's #4719 — Noun Masculine — stachus — stakh'-oos ) is found in Matthew 12:1 ; Mark 2:23 ; 4:28 ("ear," twice); Luke 6:1 . The first part of the word is derived from the root sta---, found in parts of the verb histemi, "to cause to stand." It is used as a proper name in Romans 16:9 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - o Kind Creator, Bow Thine Ear
(O Kind Creator, Bow Thine Ear) Hymn for Vespers on Sundays and week-days in Lent. Pope Saint Gregory the Great (540-604) was its author. There are 22 translations. The one given in Britt is by T. Lacey; the fourth verse reads:
Give us the self-control that springs
From discipline of outward things,
That fasting inward secretly
The soul may purely dwell with Thee.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Ear
The physical organ of hearing. In the Old Testament the ears are involved in several rites. The right ear of priests were consecrated with blood (Exodus 29:20 ; Leviticus 8:24 ). The right ears of lepers were also sprinkled with blood and oil as part of their cleansing (Leviticus 14:14 ,Leviticus 14:14,14:17 ). If a slave volunteered to serve a master for life, the slave's ear was pierced with an awl into the master's doorpost (Exodus 21:6 ; Deuteronomy 15:17 ).
The ears appear in a variety of expressions in both Testaments. To speak to someone's ears was to speak to them or speak in their hearing (Genesis 44:18 ; Genesis 50:4 ). To incline the ear was to listen (2 Kings 19:16 ) or even to obey (Jeremiah 11:8 ). To give ear was to pay careful attention (Job 32:11 ). To turn the ears toward wisdom (Proverbs 2:2 ) was to desire understanding. Dull, heavy, closed, or uncircumcised ears expressed inattentiveness and disobedience (Isaiah 6:10 ; Jeremiah 6:10 ; Acts 7:51 ). To stop the ears was to refuse to listen (Acts 7:57 ). Open ears were obedient, hearing ears. Open ears are a gift of God (Psalm 40:6 ) who sometimes uses adversity to open deaf ears (Job 36:15 ). To awake the ears was to make someone teachable (Isaiah 50:4 ). To uncover or open the ear was to reveal something (Isaiah 50:5 ). To let words sink into ones ears was to thoroughly understand (Luke 9:44 ). Sometimes the functions of the mind were attributed to the ear. Thus the ear exercised judgment (Job 12:11 ) and understanding (Job 13:1 ).
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Ear
See Hear, Hearing
Webster's Dictionary - Hart's-Ear
(n.) An Asiatic species of Cacalia (C. Kleinia), used medicinally in India.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Ear (2)
EAR.—Of the Greek words translated ‘ear’ in Authorized and Revised Versions, two (ὠτάριον, ὠτίον) refer exclusively to the bodily organ, and occur only in connexion with the case of Malchus (Mark 14:47, John 18:10; John 18:26, Matthew 26:51, Luke 22:51). In Matthew 28:14 the rendering is simply a paraphrase. In Mark 7:35 (ἀκοαί) ‘his hearing’ would be more exact. In all other instances the word οὗς occurs, and is used: (1) literally, to denote ‘the ear’ (Matthew 10:27, Mark 7:33; Mark 8:18, Luke 1:44; Luke 12:3; Luke 22:50), or (by transference) ‘the range of hearing’ (Luke 4:21); but more frequently (2) figuratively, to denote a spiritual faculty symbolized by the natural ear (Matthew 11:15; Matthew 13:9; Matthew 13:15 (bis), Matthew 13:16; Matthew 13:43, Mark 4:9; Mark 4:23, Luke 8:8; Luke 9:44; Luke 14:35). The definitive passages for this use are Matthew 13:3-23, Mark 4:2-20, Luke 8:5-15, where it forms the underlying subject of Christ’s first parable, ‘the Sower,’ a parable concluded in each account by the phrase, ‘He that hath ears (to hear) let him hear.’ Indeed, the general principle of speaking in parables is in these passages connected with ‘ears dull of hearing’ (Matthew 13:13-15). Christ is speaking in reference to ‘mysteries’ (Matthew 13:11, Mark 4:11, Luke 8:10), that is, Divine truths not necessarily puzzling in themselves, but undiscoverable by man apart from a revelation of them (see Moule on Ephesians 1:9; Ephesians 3:3-6, cf. also 1 Corinthians 2:7-10). When these have been revealed to him, man has the power to recognize their truth, fitness, and necessity (see Westcott on Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 7:26), in proportion as he is determined to do the Divine will (John 7:17; John 8:43-47). This faculty of recognizing the voice of truth and (as it were) vibrating to its utterance is fitly referred to by Christ as a spiritual ‘ear.’Literature.—Grimm-Thayer, s.v. οὖς; Expositor, i. ii. 472 ff.F. S. Ranken.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Ear
The finer shades of biblical statement are discerned only as we succeed in placing ourselves at the contemporary point of view. This is particularly the case with references to personality and its elements or manifestations, since primitive or ancient psychology differs so greatly from the psychology of the present time. For example, primitive psychology, in its ignorance of the nervous system, distributes psychical and ethical attributes to the various physical organs. There are tribes that give the cars of a dead enemy to their youths to be eaten, because they regard the physical ear as the seat of intelligence, which thus becomes an attribute of the consumer (J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough2, 1900, ii. 357f.). Though the Bible contains nothing so crude as this, yet the same idea of localized psychical function underlies its references to the ear. The high priest’s ear is consecrated by the application of ram’s blood, that he may the better hear God (Leviticus 8:23); the slave’s ear, on his renunciation of liberty, is pierced by his master, as a guarantee of his permanent obedience (Exodus 21:6, Deuteronomy 15:17). Such practices help to give the true line of approach to many biblical references to the ear, the full force of which might otherwise be missed. The ‘peripheral consciousness’ of the ear (cf. 1 Samuel 3:11, Job 12:11, Ecclesiastes 1:8, etc.) must be remembered in regard to phrases which have become to us simply conventional, such as the repeated refrain of the Apocalypse, ‘He that hath an ear, let him hear’ (Revelation 2:7, etc.; οὖς). This greater intensity of local meaning gives new point to the Pauline analogy between the human body and the Church. Since ‘the body is not one member, but many’ (1 Corinthians 12:14), in a psychical and moral, as well as in a physical, sense, it is more readily conceivable that the ear might resent its inferiority to the eye (1 Corinthians 12:16). Its actual co-operation with the eye is therefore a more effective rebuke to the envy springing from Corinthian individualism.
Moral or spiritual qualities are assigned to the ear in several passages, according to the frequent OT usage (Proverbs 15:31, Isaiah 59:1 etc.); one example is quoted from the OT and applied by St. Paul to the Jews of Rome; ‘their ears are dull of hearing’ (Acts 28:27; cf. Romans 11:8), The same charge is brought by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews against those to whom he writes (Romans 5:11; ἀκοαί, not οὖς). This attribution of quality to the organ does not, of course, imply naturalistic determinism; the ear is part of the responsible personality. If men ‘having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts,’ it is because ‘they will turn away their ears from the truth’ (2 Timothy 4:3 f.; ἀκοή). The OT reference to the ‘uncircumcised’ ear (Jeremiah 6:10) is several times repeated (Acts 7:51; Ep. Barn. ix. 4, x. 12).
The only significant act named in this literature in reference to the ear is that of those who hear Stephen declare his vision of Jesus at the right hand of God: they stop their ears, that the blasphemy may not enter (Acts 7:57). Ignatius writes to the Ephesians (ix. 1), with reference to false teachers, ‘ye stopped your ears, so that ye might not receive the seed sown by them.’ Irenaeus (ap. Eus. HE [1] v. 20) says of Polycarp that ‘if that blessed and apostolic presbyter had heard any such thing [2], he would have cried out, and stopped his ears.’ The baptismal practice of a later age protected the ear of the candidate by the Effeta (Ephphatha), a rite based on the miracle recorded in Mark 7:33. The priest touched the ear with his finger moistened with saliva (Duchesne, Origines du Culte Chrétien4, 1908, p. 311). The positive side of the baptismal anointing of the ear seems to be implied in the Odes of Solomon, ix. 1: ‘Open your ears, and I will speak to you’ (cf. J. H. Bernard, Texts and Studies viii. 3 [3] ad loc.). For the apostles, therefore, the ear forms the correlate to ‘the word of faith which we preach’ (Romans 10:8-15), which is conceived with equal pregnancy of meaning as the vehicle of the Spirit (E. Sokolowski, Die Begriffe Geist und Leben bei Paulus, 1903, pp. 263-267). Through the response of the conscious ear to the spoken word, an experience is begun which eventually passes into the realm of those ‘things which ear heard not’ (1 Corinthians 2:9; 1 Corinthians cf.1 Clem, xxxiv. 8, 2 Clem. xi. 7), and of those ‘unspeakable words which it is not lawful for a man to utter’ (2 Corinthians 12:4).
H. Wheeler Robinson.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Ear
Exodus 21:6 (c) This describes the binding of the Christian to his Lord for permanent obedience wherein his ears are open only to the call of GOD. (See also Deuteronomy 15:17).
Exodus 29:20 (b) In this and other passages we find a type concerning the consecrated hearing of the believer. As in the case of the piercing of the ear, which is described in Exodus 21:6, the anointing of the ear carries the same truth. The ear that has been touched by the oil is now to be devoted only to listening to GOD's messages, and is to refuse the call of all other leaders. (See also Leviticus 8:23, Leviticus 14:14).
Deuteronomy 32:1 (a) The people of the earth are evidently indicated by this passage, and the Lord wants all people of every kind, everywhere, to listen to His voice, and hear His message. (See also Isaiah 1:2; Joel 1:2).
2 Kings 19:16 (a) This is a request from the man of GOD for GOD to listen closely to his petition. It reveals a very close and intimate fellowship with GOD. In many places in the Scripture this same truth is mentioned, and men who knew GOD intimately wanted to be sure that His ear was open to their cry. GOD also asks us for our ears, meaning that He desires to have us listen closely to His Word, and understand fully the meaning of His message. It will not be necessary to enumerate the various Scriptures, for there are many which reveal these two truths. The reader will find them quite obvious as he studies the various passages. (See also Deuteronomy 1:45).
Psalm 40:6 (b) This is one of the prophetic Psalm in which it is indicated that the Lord JESUS CHRIST was a permanent servant of GOD the Father, and that His ears were only open to GOD's call. It is a fulfillment of Deuteronomy 15:17.
Psalm 45:10 (a) The Lord hereby expresses a deep desire for Israel to listen to His message sent from Heaven. (See also Revelation 2:11, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:29; Revelation 3:6, Revelation 3:13, Revelation 3:22).
Isaiah 48:8 (a) It is quite evident that GOD knew before Israel became a nation that their ears would be closed many times to His call and they would refuse to listen.
Isaiah 50:4 (a) This passage is spoken prophetically of our Lord JESUS CHRIST is saying that He was constantly listening for His Father's voice, and the messages from His GOD.
Isaiah 59:1 (a) We are assured that GOD does not close His ears to the cry of His children, but is always listening for any message that truly comes to Him from our hearts.
Jeremiah 6:10 (b) These hearers had not been turned away from the things of the world and therefore were not wholly devoted to GOD. GOD expects His people to cut off the hearing for voices other than His.
Jeremiah 7:24 (a) Animals are able to turn their ears one way while their faces are in an opposite direction. People cannot do so. Our ears are stiff. GOD has so made us that when our ears are turned toward any sound, the face also must be turned in the same direction. When GOD speaks to us He wants us to be looking at Him. In this passage, the rebellious people of GOD refused to turn their faces toward the Lord. Therefore, their ears were not turned toward Him. They were listening to other voices. (See also Jeremiah 25:4; Jeremiah 34:14; Jeremiah 35:15; Jeremiah 44:5; 2 Chronicles 24:19; Nehemiah 9:30).
Amos 3:12 (a) This prophecy is to tell us that one day Israel will walk with GOD again (the two legs), and will also again listen to GOD's voice (the ear). This will occur when Israel is again restored to their national position at Jerusalem.
Webster's Dictionary - Ear-Splitting
(a.) Deafening; disagreeably loud or shrill; as, ear-splitting strains.
Webster's Dictionary - Ear-Bored
(a.) Having the ear perforated.
Webster's Dictionary - Ear-Minded
(a.) Thinking chiefly or most readily through, or in terms related to, the sense of hearing; specif., thinking words as spoken, as a result of familiarity with speech or of mental peculiarity; - opposed to eye-minded.
Webster's Dictionary - Ear-Shell
(n.) A flattened marine univalve shell of the genus Haliotis; - called also sea-ear. See Abalone.
Webster's Dictionary - Crop-Ear
(n.) A person or animal whose ears are cropped.
Webster's Dictionary - Dog's-Ear
(n.) The corner of a leaf, in a book, turned down like the ear of a dog.
Webster's Dictionary - Ear-Piercer
(n.) The earwig.
Webster's Dictionary - Ear
(1):
(v. t.) To take in with the ears; to hear.
(2):
(n.) The spike or head of any cereal (as, wheat, rye, barley, Indian corn, etc.), containing the kernels.
(3):
(v. i.) To put forth ears in growing; to form ears, as grain; as, this corn ears well.
(4):
(n.) Privilege of being kindly heard; favor; attention.
(5):
(v. t.) To plow or till; to cultivate.
(6):
(n.) Same as Acroterium.
(7):
(n.) That which resembles in shape or position the ear of an animal; any prominence or projection on an object, - usually one for support or attachment; a lug; a handle; as, the ears of a tub, a skillet, or dish. The ears of a boat are outside kneepieces near the bow. See Illust. of Bell.
(8):
(n.) The sense of hearing; the perception of sounds; the power of discriminating between different tones; as, a nice ear for music; - in the singular only.
(9):
(n.) The organ of hearing; the external ear.
(10):
(n.) Same as Crossette.
King James Dictionary - Ear
E'AR, n. L. auris, whence auricula audio.
1. The organ of hearing the organ by which sound is perceived and in general, both the external and internal part is understood by the term. The external ear is a cartilaginous funnel, attached, by ligaments and muscles, to the temporal bone. 2. The sense of hearing, or rather the power of distinguishing sounds and judging of harmony the power of nice perception of the differences of sound, or of consonances and dissonances. She has a delicate ear for music, or a good ear. 3. In the plural, the head or person. It is better to pass over an affront from one scoundrel,than to draw a herd about one's ears.
4. The top, or highest part. The cavalier was up to the ears in love.
5. A favorable hearing attention heed regard. Give no ear to flattery. I cried to God--and he gave ear to me. Psalms 77
He could not gain the prince's ear.
6. Disposition to like or dislike what is heard opinion judgment taste. He laid his sense closer--according to the style and ear of those times.
7. Any part of a thing resembling an ear a projecting part from the side of any thing as the ears of a vessel used as handles. 8. The spike of corn that part of certain plants which contains the flowers and seeds as an ear of wheat or maiz. To be by the ears,------------------
To fall together by the ears,------- to fight or scuffle to
To go together by the ears,--------- quarrel.
To set by the ears, to make strife to cause to quarrel.
Webster's Dictionary - Hare's-Ear
(n.) An umbelliferous plant (Bupleurum rotundifolium ); - so named from the shape of its leaves.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Ear
(n.) Any species of ear-shaped shells of the genus Haliotis. See Abalone.
Webster's Dictionary - Violet-Ear
(n.) Any tropical humming bird of the genus Petasophora, having violet or purplish ear tufts.
Webster's Dictionary - White-Ear
(n.) The wheatear.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Ear
EAR, EARS
In Scripture, such frequent mention is made of the hearing ear, and the uncircumcised in heart and ears, that it ought to be noticed in a work of this kind. In Scripture language, to uncover the ear, (1 Samuel 20:2; 1Sa 20:13) as it is rendered in the margin of the Bibles, is to reveal somewhat particularly to a certain person, or persons, which, in general, to others, is not made known. And hence the Lord Jesus himself saith by the spirit of prophecy, (Psalms 11:6) Mine ears hast thou opened. So again, Isaiah 1:5 "The Lord God hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious," In the Jewish church, it was the custom, and among the appointments of the Lord himself, when a servant, after six years' service, being freed by the law, so loved his master, that he would not leave him, he was to have his ear bored with an awl unto the door post, as a token of a free and voluntary service; and then to serve for ever. (Exodus 21:2; Exo 21:5) And in allusion to this, (for this was a beautiful type of the Lord Jesus Christ), the Lord Jesus saith, Mine ears hast thou opened, or as the margin of the Bible hath, it, mine ears hast thou digged. (See Psalms 40:6) The apostle Paul commenting upon this passage, in quoting it, gives a free and full translation, and renders it, A body hast thou given me, or prepared me. (Hebrews 10:5) And certain it is, that the lesser, of boring the ear, implies the greater, of preparing the whole body. But how delightful is it to make interpretation, of what the Jewish servant said respecting the house of his servitude, in allusion to the Lord Jesus in the house of his! who, as the servant of JEHOVAH (for such he fully became, when he became our Surety), might be said thus to express himself, I love my master, I love my wife, my children; I will not go out free. Surely, it is blessed to eye Christ as our Surety, constantly represented by types in the Old Testament Scripture. As the uncovering the ear is a Scripture expression, to denote divine teaching, and the opening the heart and understanding, so the word of God abounds with figures and similitudes to represent the reverse. They are said to be uncircumcised in heart and ears, to whom the word of the Lord is unprofitable. Their ears are said to be heavy; to be waxed gross, and dull in hearing, and the like. (Isaiah 6:10) Hence! no less than seven times in the Scripture; (as, if to denote the awfulness of such a state) the dreadful condition of the ungodly is described under those characters. (See Isaiah 6:9-10; Matthew 13:14-15; Mark 4:12; Luke 8:10; John 12:40; Acts 28:26-27; Romans 11:8)
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Ear
Ôzen (אֹזֶן, Strong's #241), “ear.” The noun 'ôzen is common to Semitic languages. It appears 187 times in the Old Testament, mainly to designate a part of the body. The first occurrence is in Gen. 20:8: “Abimelech rose early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their ears: and the men were sore afraid.”The “ear” was the place for earrings (Gen. 35:4); thus it might be pierced as a token of perpetual servitude (Exod. 21:6).Several verbs are found in relation to “ear”: “to inform” (Ezek. 24:26), “to pay attention” (Ps. 10:17), “to listen” (Ps. 78:1), “to stop up” (Isa. 33:15), “to make deaf” (Isa. 6:10), and “to tingle” (1 Sam. 3:11).
Animals are also said to have “ears” (Prov. 26:17). God is idiomatically said to have “ears”: “Hide not thy face from me in the day when I am in trouble; incline thine ear unto me; … when I call answer me speedily” (Ps. 102:2). In this particular passage, the NEB prefers a more idiomatic rendering: “Hide not thy face from me when I am in distress. Listen to my prayer and, when I call, answer me soon.” Elsewhere, the KJV reads: “And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and he rehearsed them in the ears of the Lord” (1 Sam. 8:21); here the NIV renders “in the ears of” idiomatically as “before.” The Lord “pierces” (i.e., opens up) ears (Ps. 40:6), implants ears (Ps. 94:9), and fashions ears (Prov. 20:12) in order to allow man to receive direction from his Creator. As the Creator, He also is able to hear and respond to the needs of His people (Ps. 94:9). The Lord reveals His words to the “ears” of his prophets: “Now the Lord had told Samuel in his ear a day before Saul came, saying …” (1 Sam. 9:15). Since the Israelites had not responded to the prophetic message, they had made themselves spiritually deaf: “Hear now this, O foolish people, and without understanding; which have eyes, and see not; which have ears, and hear not” (Jer. 5:21). After the Exile, the people of God were to experience a spiritual awakening and new sensitivity to God’s Word which, in the words of Isaiah, is to be compared to the opening of the “ears” (Isa. 50:5).
The KJV gives these renderings: “ear; audience; hearing.”
Webster's Dictionary - Jew's-Ear
(n.) A species of fungus (Hirneola Auricula-Judae, / Auricula), bearing some resemblance to the human ear.
Webster's Dictionary - Mouse-Ear
(1):
(n.) A European species of hawkweed (Hieracium Pilosella).
(2):
(n.) The forget-me-not (Myosotis palustris) and other species of the same genus.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ear-Rings
and nose-jewels were favourite ornaments among the eastern females. Both are frequently mentioned in Scripture. Thus the Prophet Ezekiel: "And I put a jewel on thy forehead," or, as it should have been rendered, on thy nose. This ornament was one of the presents which the servant of Abraham gave to Rebecca, in the name of his master: "I put," said he, "the ear-ring upon her face;" more literally, I put the ring on her nose. They wore ear-rings beside; for the household of Jacob, at his request, when they were preparing to go up to Bethel, gave him all the ear- rings which were in their ears, and he hid them under the oak which was by Shechem. Sir John Chardin says, "It is the custom in almost all the east for the women to wear rings in their noses, in the left nostril, which is bored low down in the middle. These rings are of gold, and have commonly two pearls and one ruby between them, placed in the ring; I never saw a girl, or young woman in Arabia, or in all Persia, who did not wear a ring after this manner in her nostril." Some writers contend, that by the nose-jewel, we are to understand rings, which women attached to their forehead, and let them fall down upon their nose; but Chardin, who certainly was a diligent observer of eastern customs, no where saw this frontal ring in the east, but every where the ring in the nose. His testimony in supported by Dr. Russel, who describes the women in some of the villages about Aleppo, and all the Arabs and Chinganas, (a sort of gipsies,) as wearing a large ring of silver or gold, through the external cartilage of their right nostril. It is worn, by the testimony of Egmont, in the same manner by the women of Egypt. Two words are used in the Scriptures to denote these ornamental rings, נזם and עגיל . Mr. Harmer seems to think they properly signified ear-rings; but this is a mistake; the sacred writers use them promiscuously for the rings both of the nose and of the ears. That writer, however, is probably right in supposing that nezem is the name of a much smaller ring than agil. Chardin observed two sorts of rings in the east; one so small and close to the ear, that there is no vacuity between them; the other so large, as to admit the fore finger between it and the ear; these last are adorned with a ruby and a pearl on each side, strung on the ring. Some of these ear-rings had figures upon them, and strange characters, which he believed were talismans or charms; but which were probably the names and symbols of their false gods. We know from the testimony of Pliny, that rings with the images of their gods were worn by the Romans. The Indians say, they are preservatives against enchantment; upon which Chardin hazards a very probable conjecture, that the ear-rings of Jacob's family were perhaps of this kind, which might be the reason of his demanding them, that he might bury them under the oak before they went up to Bethel.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ear
the organ of hearing. The Scripture uses the term figuratively. Uncircumcised ears are ears inattentive to the word of God. To signify God's regard to the prayers of his people, the Psalmist says, His cars are open to their cry," Psalms 34:15 . Among the Jews, the slave, who renounced the privilege of being made free from servitude in the sabbatical year, submitted to have his ear bored through with an awl; which was done in the presence of some judge, or magistrate, that it might appear a voluntary act. The ceremony took place at his master's door, and was the mark of servitude and bondage. The Psalmist says, in the person of the Messiah, "Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened." Hebrews "Thou hast digged my ears." This either means, Thou hast opened them, removed impediments, and made them attentive; or, thou hast pierced them, as those of such servants were pierced, who chose to remain with their masters; and therefore imports the absolute and voluntary submission of Messiah to the will of the Father. "Make the ears of this people heavy," Isaiah 6:10 ; that is, render their minds inattentive and disobedient; the prophets being said often to do that of which they were the innocent occasion.
Webster's Dictionary - Lion's Ear
A name given in Western South America to certain plants with shaggy tomentose leaves, as species of Culcitium, and Espeletia.
Webster's Dictionary - Midas's Ear
A pulmonate mollusk (Auricula, / Ellobium, aurismidae); - so called from resemblance to a human ear.
Webster's Dictionary - Ear
(1):
(v. t.) To take in with the ears; to hear.
(2):
(n.) The spike or head of any cereal (as, wheat, rye, barley, Indian corn, etc.), containing the kernels.
(3):
(v. i.) To put forth ears in growing; to form ears, as grain; as, this corn ears well.
(4):
(n.) Privilege of being kindly heard; favor; attention.
(5):
(v. t.) To plow or till; to cultivate.
(6):
(n.) Same as Acroterium.
(7):
(n.) That which resembles in shape or position the ear of an animal; any prominence or projection on an object, - usually one for support or attachment; a lug; a handle; as, the ears of a tub, a skillet, or dish. The ears of a boat are outside kneepieces near the bow. See Illust. of Bell.
(8):
(n.) The sense of hearing; the perception of sounds; the power of discriminating between different tones; as, a nice ear for music; - in the singular only.
(9):
(n.) The organ of hearing; the external ear.
(10):
(n.) Same as Crossette.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ear
EAR . Both in OT and NT the spiritual disposition to attend, which issues in obedience, is thus designated ( e.g. Isaiah 6:10 , Matthew 11:15 , Revelation 2:7 ). Hence ‘to uncover the ear’ (RVm [1] , 1 Samuel 9:15 etc.) = to reveal; the ‘uncircumcised ear’ ( Jeremiah 6:10 ) = the ear which remains unpurified and clogged and therefore unable to perceive: hence ‘mine ears hast thou opened’ ( Psalms 40:6 ) = Thou hast enabled me to understand. The perforated ear was a sign of slavery or dependence, indicating the obligation to attend ( Exodus 21:6 , Deuteronomy 15:16 f.). The tip of the priest’s right ear was touched with blood in token that the sense of hearing was consecrated to God’s service ( Exodus 29:20 , Leviticus 8:23 ).
J. Taylor.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ear-Ring
EAR-RING . See Amulets, 2; Ornament, 2.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ear
The organ of hearing is often used symbolically in scripture. When a servant, whose time of service had expired, preferred to stop with his master, saying, "I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free," his ear was bored with an awl to the door post, and his ear belonged to his master perpetually, he was to hear only that one as master: type of Christ and His love to the church. Exodus 21:5,6 ; Deuteronomy 15:17 . Of Christ also it is said, "mine ears hast thou opened." Psalm 40:6 ; quoted in Hebrews 10:5 from the LXX, "a body hast thou prepared me," both signifying that He was the obedient one. "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" was said by the Lord to His hearers, and to each of the seven churches in Asia, and also said when the beast, representing the future Roman power, is worshipped, signifying that a spiritual discernment was needed to catch the meaning of what was uttered. Matthew 13:9,43 ; Revelation 2:7,11,17,29 ; Revelation 3:6,13,22 ; Revelation 13:9 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ear-Ring
The well-known ornament worn by women and men in the East. Genesis 24:22,30,47 ; Job 42:11 ; Hosea 2:13 ; etc. In Isaiah 3:20 the allusion is not to a ring for the ear, but to an amulet on which a charm could be written.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Ear
1: στάχυς (Strong's #4719 — Noun Masculine — stachus — stakh'-oos ) is found in Matthew 12:1 ; Mark 2:23 ; 4:28 ("ear," twice); Luke 6:1 . The first part of the word is derived from the root sta---, found in parts of the verb histemi, "to cause to stand." It is used as a proper name in Romans 16:9 .

Sentence search

Auriform - ) Having the form of the human Ear; Ear-shaped
Auricle - ) The external Ear, or that part of the Ear which is prominent from the head. ) The chamber, or one of the two chambers, of the heart, by which the blood is received and transmitted to the ventricle or ventricles; - so called from its resemblance to the auricle or external Ear of some quadrupeds. See Heart. ) An angular or Ear-shaped lobe. ) An instrument applied to the Ears to give aid in hearing; a kind of Ear trumpet
Auricular - ) Received by the Ear; known by report. ) Of or pertaining to the Ear, or to the sense of hearing; as, auricular nerves. ) Told in the Ear, i. ) Recognized by the Ear; known by the sense of hearing; as, auricular evidence. ) Pertaining to the auricles of the heart
Otolite - ) One of the small bones or particles of calcareous or other hard substance in the internal Ear of vertebrates, and in the auditory organs of many invertebrates; an Ear stone. Collectively, the otoliths are called Ear sand and otoconite
Tragus - ) The prominence in front of the external opening of the Ear. under Ear
Antihelix - ) The curved elevation of the cartilage of the Ear, within or in front of the helix. See Ear
Ear - Ear . Hence ‘to uncover the Ear’ (RVm Antitragus - ) A prominence on the lower posterior portion of the concha of the external Ear, opposite the tragus. See Ear
Cochlea - ) An appendage of the labyrinth of the internal Ear, which is elongated and coiled into a spiral in mammals. See Ear
Utriculus - ) A little sac, or bag; a utricle; especially, a part of the membranous labyrinth of the Ear. See the Note under Ear
Ear - To "uncover the Ear" is to show respect to a person (1 Samuel 20:2 marg. To have the "ear heavy", or to have "uncircumcised Ears" ( Isaiah 6:10 ), is to be inattentive and disobedient. To have the Ear "bored" through with an awl was a sign of perpetual servitude (Exodus 21:6 )
Whereret - ) To box (one) on the Ear; to strike or box. (the Ear); as, to wherret a child
Ear - The organ of hearing the organ by which sound is perceived and in general, both the external and internal part is understood by the term. The external Ear is a cartilaginous funnel, attached, by ligaments and muscles, to the temporal bone. The sense of hearing, or rather the power of distinguishing sounds and judging of harmony the power of nice perception of the differences of sound, or of consonances and dissonances. She has a delicate Ear for music, or a good Ear. It is better to pass over an affront from one scoundrel,than to draw a herd about one's Ears. The cavalier was up to the Ears in love. A favorable hearing attention heed regard. Give no Ear to flattery. I cried to God--and he gave Ear to me. Psalms 77 ...
He could not gain the prince's Ear. Disposition to like or dislike what is heard opinion judgment taste. He laid his sense closer--according to the style and Ear of those times. Any part of a thing resembling an Ear a projecting part from the side of any thing as the Ears of a vessel used as handles. The spike of corn that part of certain plants which contains the flowers and seeds as an Ear of wheat or maiz. To be by the Ears,------------------ ...
To fall together by the Ears,------- to fight or scuffle to ...
To go together by the Ears,--------- quarrel. ...
To set by the Ears, to make strife to cause to quarrel
Parotid - ) Situated near the Ear; - applied especially to the salivary gland near the Ear
Concha - ) The external Ear; esp. the largest and deepest concavity of the external Ear, surrounding the entrance to the auditory canal
Ears - See Ear...
Earmark - ) To mark, as sheep, by cropping or slitting the Ear. ) A mark on the Ear of sheep, oxen, dogs, etc
Uzzen-Sherah - Ear of the flesh
Shobal - Path; Ear of corn
Auriculated - ) Having Ears or appendages like Ears; Eared. ) Having lobes or appendages like the Ear; shaped like the Ear; auricled
Earrings - Rings properly for the Ear (Genesis 35:4 ; Numbers 31:50 ; Ezekiel 16:12 ). In Isaiah 3:20 the Authorized Version has "ear-rings," and the Revised Version "amulets," which more correctly represents the original word (lehashim), which means incantations; charms, thus remedies against enchantment, worn either suspended from the neck or in the Ears of females. Ear-rings were ornaments used by both sexes ( Exodus 32:2 )
Ear-Bored - ) Having the Ear perforated
Earal - ) Receiving by the Ear
Otitis - ) Inflammation of the Ear
Stachys - Spike or Ear of corn
Zillah - Shadow; the tingling of the Ear
Earsore - ) An annoyance to the Ear
Earlap - ) The lobe of the Ear
Wherret - ) A box on the Ear
Otography - ) A description of the Ear
Otalgia - ) Pain in the Ear; Earache
Otalgy - ) Pain in the Ear; otalgia
Aurited - ) Having lobes like the Ear; auriculate
Atheroid - ) Shaped like an Ear of grain
Earache - ) Ache or pain in the Ear
Eardrum - of Ear
Otopathy - ) A diseased condition of the Ear
Ear-Ring - Ear-RING
Ear - The physical organ of hearing. In the Old Testament the Ears are involved in several rites. The right Ear of priests were consecrated with blood (Exodus 29:20 ; Leviticus 8:24 ). The right Ears of lepers were also sprinkled with blood and oil as part of their cleansing (Leviticus 14:14 ,Leviticus 14:14,14:17 ). If a slave volunteered to serve a master for life, the slave's Ear was pierced with an awl into the master's doorpost (Exodus 21:6 ; Deuteronomy 15:17 ). ...
The Ears appear in a variety of expressions in both Testaments. To speak to someone's Ears was to speak to them or speak in their hearing (Genesis 44:18 ; Genesis 50:4 ). To incline the Ear was to listen (2 Kings 19:16 ) or even to obey (Jeremiah 11:8 ). To give Ear was to pay careful attention (Job 32:11 ). To turn the Ears toward wisdom (Proverbs 2:2 ) was to desire understanding. Dull, heavy, closed, or uncircumcised Ears expressed inattentiveness and disobedience (Isaiah 6:10 ; Jeremiah 6:10 ; Acts 7:51 ). To stop the Ears was to refuse to listen (Acts 7:57 ). Open Ears were obedient, hearing Ears. Open Ears are a gift of God (Psalm 40:6 ) who sometimes uses adversity to open deaf Ears (Job 36:15 ). To awake the Ears was to make someone teachable (Isaiah 50:4 ). To uncover or open the Ear was to reveal something (Isaiah 50:5 ). To let words sink into ones Ears was to thoroughly understand (Luke 9:44 ). Sometimes the functions of the mind were attributed to the Ear. Thus the Ear exercised judgment (Job 12:11 ) and understanding (Job 13:1 )
Entotic - ) Pertaining to the interior of the Ear
Myosotis - See Mouse-ear
Awl - The boring of a slave's Ear with it was the token of his volunteering perpetual service, when he might be free at the year of release (Exodus 21:6; Deuteronomy 15:17). So Messiah, volunteering to become God's servant by taking man's nature; "Mine Ears hast Thou opened" (Psalms 40:6); Isaiah 1:5, "the Lord God hath opened Mine Ear," i. The Ear symbolizes obedience
Cornshuck - ) The husk covering an Ear of Indian corn
Earpick - ) An instrument for removing wax from the Ear
Cysticule - ) An appendage of the vestibular Ear sac of fishes
Auriscope - ) An instrument for examining the condition of the Ear
Ear-Splitting - ) Deafening; disagreeably loud or shrill; as, Ear-splitting strains
Sacculo-Utricular - ) Pertaining to the sacculus and utriculus of the Ear
Otoscope - ) An instrument for examining the condition of the Ear
Otacousticon - ) An instrument to facilitate hearing, as an Ear trumpet
Haliotoid - ) Like or pertaining to the genus Haliotis; Ear-shaped
Sacculo-Cochlear - ) Pertaining to the sacculus and cochlea of the Ear
Saccule - ) A little sac; specifically, the sacculus of the Ear
Auricled - ) Having Ear-shaped appendages or lobes; auriculate; as, auricled leaves
Auriscopy - ) Examination of the Ear by the aid of the auriscope
Aurist - ) One skilled in treating and curing disorders of the Ear
Plumicorn - ) An Ear tuft of feathers, as in the horned owls
Earcap - ) A cap or cover to protect the Ear from cold
Abib - ABIB (the ‘green Ear’ month, Exodus 13:4 etc
Modiolus - ) The central column in the osseous cochlea of the Ear
Haliotis - ) A genus of marine shells; the Ear-shells
Ear - There are tribes that give the cars of a dead enemy to their youths to be eaten, because they regard the physical Ear as the seat of intelligence, which thus becomes an attribute of the consumer (J. Though the Bible contains nothing so crude as this, yet the same idea of localized psychical function underlies its references to the Ear. The high priest’s Ear is consecrated by the application of ram’s blood, that he may the better hear God (Leviticus 8:23); the slave’s Ear, on his renunciation of liberty, is pierced by his master, as a guarantee of his permanent obedience (Exodus 21:6, Deuteronomy 15:17). Such practices help to give the true line of approach to many biblical references to the Ear, the full force of which might otherwise be missed. The ‘peripheral consciousness’ of the Ear (cf. ) must be remembered in regard to phrases which have become to us simply conventional, such as the repeated refrain of the Apocalypse, ‘He that hath an Ear, let him hear’ (Revelation 2:7, etc. Since ‘the body is not one member, but many’ (1 Corinthians 12:14), in a psychical and moral, as well as in a physical, sense, it is more readily conceivable that the Ear might resent its inferiority to the eye (1 Corinthians 12:16). ...
Moral or spiritual qualities are assigned to the Ear in several passages, according to the frequent OT usage (Proverbs 15:31, Isaiah 59:1 etc. Paul to the Jews of Rome; ‘their Ears are dull of hearing’ (Acts 28:27; cf. This attribution of quality to the organ does not, of course, imply naturalistic determinism; the Ear is part of the responsible personality. If men ‘having itching Ears, will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts,’ it is because ‘they will turn away their Ears from the truth’ (2 Timothy 4:3 f. The OT reference to the ‘uncircumcised’ Ear (Jeremiah 6:10) is several times repeated (Acts 7:51; Ep. ...
The only significant act named in this literature in reference to the Ear is that of those who hear Stephen declare his vision of Jesus at the right hand of God: they stop their Ears, that the blasphemy may not enter (Acts 7:57). 1), with reference to false teachers, ‘ye stopped your Ears, so that ye might not receive the seed sown by them. 20) says of Polycarp that ‘if that blessed and apostolic presbyter had heard any such thing [2], he would have cried out, and stopped his Ears. ’ The baptismal practice of a later age protected the Ear of the candidate by the Effeta (Ephphatha), a rite based on the miracle recorded in Mark 7:33. The priest touched the Ear with his finger moistened with saliva (Duchesne, Origines du Culte Chrétien4, 1908, p. The positive side of the baptismal anointing of the Ear seems to be implied in the Odes of Solomon, ix. 1: ‘Open your Ears, and I will speak to you’ (cf. For the apostles, therefore, the Ear forms the correlate to ‘the word of faith which we preach’ (Romans 10:8-15), which is conceived with equal pregnancy of meaning as the vehicle of the Spirit (E. Through the response of the conscious Ear to the spoken word, an experience is begun which eventually passes into the realm of those ‘things which Ear heard not’ (1 Corinthians 2:9; 1 Corinthians cf
Parotic - ) On the side of the auditory capsule; near the external Ear
Earshot - ) Reach of the Ear; distance at which words may be heard
Conchal - ) Pertaining to the concha, or external Ear; as, the conchal cartilage
Otorrh/a - ) A flow or running from the Ear, esp
Otoscopy - ) The examination of the Ear; the art of using the otoscope
Endolymph - ) The watery fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the internal Ear
Oto - A combining form denoting relation to, or situation near or in, the Ear
Otic - ) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the Ear; auricular; auditory
Sea-Ear - ) Any species of Ear-shaped shells of the genus Haliotis
Otology - ) The branch of science which treats of the Ear and its diseases
Cerumen - ) The yellow, waxlike secretion from the glands of the external Ear; the Earwax
Auriculars - ) A circle of feathers surrounding the opening of the Ear of birds
Post-Tragus - ) A ridge within and behind the tragus in the Ear of some animals
Earlock - ) A lock or curl of hair near the Ear; a lovelock
Midas's Ear - A pulmonate mollusk (Auricula, / Ellobium, aurismidae); - so called from resemblance to a human Ear
Sacculus - , a part of the membranous labyrinth of the Ear
Stachys - Spike; an Ear of corn, a convert at Rome whom Paul salutes (Romans 16:9 )
Asteriscus - ) The smaller of the two otoliths found in the inner Ear of many fishes
Dulcet - ) Sweet to the Ear; melodious; harmonious
Violet-Ear - ) Any tropical humming bird of the genus Petasophora, having violet or purplish Ear tufts
Lugmark - ) A mark cut into the Ear of an animal to identify it; an Earmark
Lug - ) The Ear, or its lobe. ) A projecting piece to which anything, as a rod, is attached, or against which anything, as a wedge or key, bears, or through which a bolt passes, etc. ) The leather loop or Ear by which a shaft is held up. ) That which projects like an Ear, esp. that by which anything is supported, carried, or grasped, or to which a support is fastened; an Ear; as, the lugs of a kettle; the lugs of a founder's flask; the lug (handle) of a jug
Temporo-Auricular - ) Of or pertaining to both the temple and the Ear; as, the temporo-auricular nerve
Ear-Shell - ) A flattened marine univalve shell of the genus Haliotis; - called also sea-ear
Otocrane - ) The cavity in the skull in which the parts of the internal Ear are lodged
Jew's-Ear - ) A species of fungus (Hirneola Auricula-Judae, / Auricula), bearing some resemblance to the human Ear
Alveary - ) The hollow of the external Ear
Dog's-Ear - ) The corner of a leaf, in a book, turned down like the Ear of a dog
Meatus - of Ear
Fenestra - , one of the apertures, closed by membranes, between the tympanum and internal Ear
Helicotrema - ) The opening by which the two scalae communicate at the top of the cochlea of the Ear
Auricula - ) A species of Primula, or primrose, called also, from the shape of its leaves, bear's-ear. auricula), a membranaceous fungus, called also auricula Judae, or Jew's-ear. ) A genus of air-breathing mollusks mostly found near the sea, where the water is brackish...
Earing - ) A line used to fasten the upper corners of a sail to the yard or gaff; - also called head Earing. ) Coming into Ear, as corn. ) A line for hauling the reef cringle to the yard; - also called reef Earing. ) of Ear...
(6):...
(n
Earing - ) A line used to fasten the upper corners of a sail to the yard or gaff; - also called head Earing. ) Coming into Ear, as corn. ) A line for hauling the reef cringle to the yard; - also called reef Earing. ) of Ear...
(6):...
(n
Ere - ]'>[1] See Ear, v
Sea Corn - A yellow cylindrical mass of egg capsule of certain species of whelks (Buccinum), which resembles an Ear of maize
Earcockle - ) A disease in wheat, in which the blackened and contracted grain, or Ear, is filled with minute worms
Earring - ) An ornament consisting of a ring passed through the lobe of the Ear, with or without a pendant
Topophone - ) A double Ear trumpet for estimating the direction from which sounds proceed, esp
Malchus - The high priest's servant whose Ear Peter cut off, but who was healed by the Lord
Ere - ]'>[1] See Ear, v
Tympanum - ) The Ear drum, or middle Ear. See Ear
Malchus - The name of the high priest’s servant whose Ear Peter cut off in the Garden of Gethsemane at the arrest of our Lord. The blow, missing its main object, almost severed the Ear, but not quite, as Jesus touched it and healed it. ...
Luke, the physician, is the only Evangelist who mentions the hearing of the Ear
Euphonical - ) Pertaining to, or exhibiting, euphony; agreeable in sound; pleasing to the Ear; euphonious; as, a euphonic expression; euphonical orthography
Saw-Whet - ) A small North American owl (Nyctale Acadica), destitute of Ear tufts and having feathered toes; - called also Acadian owl
Aurilave - ) An instrument for cleansing the Ear, consisting of a small piece of sponge on an ivory or bone handle
Tectorial - ) Of or pertaining to covering; - applied to a membrane immediately over the organ of Corti in the internal Ear
Melodious - ) Containing, or producing, melody; musical; agreeable to the Ear by a sweet succession of sounds; as, a melodious voice
Periotic - ) Surrounding, or pertaining to the region surrounding, the internal Ear; as, the periotic capsule
Fastidious - ) Difficult to please; delicate to a fault; suited with difficulty; squeamish; as, a fastidious mind or Ear; a fastidious appetite
Eardrop - ) A pendant for the Ear; an Earring; as, a pair of Eardrops
Hearing - Perceiving by the Ear, as sound. Audience attention to what is delivered opportunity to be heard. I waited on the minister, but could not obtain a hearing. I have heard of thee by the hearing of the Ear. Job 42 ...
And to the others he said in my hearing. Reach of the Ear extent within which sound may be heard. He was not within hearing
Slit - ) To cut or make a long fissure in or upon; as, to slit the Ear or the nose. ) A long cut; a narrow opening; as, a slit in the Ear
Awl - A piercing instrument, only spoken of as being thrust through the Ear: its form is not known
Euphony - ) A pleasing or sweet sound; an easy, smooth enunciation of sounds; a pronunciation of letters and syllables which is pleasing to the Ear
Helix - ) The incurved margin or rim of the external Ear. of Ear
Pinna - ) The auricle of the Ear. See Ear
Aural - ) Of or pertaining to the Ear; as, aural medicine and surgery
Parotoid - ) Resembling the parotid gland; - applied especially to cutaneous glandular elevations above the Ear in many toads and frogs
Merathaim - Ear either ‘double rebellion’ or ‘double bitterness
Perilymph - ) The fluid which surrounds the membranous labyrinth of the internal Ear, and separates it from the walls of the chambers in which the labyrinth lies
Vives - ) A disease of brute animals, especially of horses, seated in the glands under the Ear, where a tumor is formed which sometimes ends in suppuration
Rowed - ) Formed into a row, or rows; having a row, or rows; as, a twelve-rowed Ear of corn
Earring - A pendant an ornament, sometimes set with diamonds, pearls or other jewels, worn at the Ear, by means of a ring passing through the lobe
Extrastapedial - ) Pertaining to a part of the columella of the Ear, which, in many animals, projects beyond the connection with the stapes
Politzerization - ) The act of inflating the middle Ear by blowing air up the nose during the act of swallowing; - so called from Prof
Crossette - ) A return in one of the corners of the architrave of a door or window; - called also ancon, Ear, elbow
Ossicle - ) A little bone; as, the auditory ossicles in the tympanum of the Ear
Megaphone - ) A device to magnify sound, or direct it in a given direction in a greater volume, as a very large funnel used as an Ear trumpet or as a speaking trumpet
Hear - ) To perceive by the Ear; to apprehend or take cognizance of by the Ear; as, to hear sounds; to hear a voice; to hear one call. ) To give audience or attention to; to listen to; to heed; to accept the doctrines or advice of; to obey; to examine; to try in a judicial court; as, to hear a recitation; to hear a class; the case will be heard to-morrow. ) To use the power of perceiving sound; to perceive or apprehend by the Ear; to attend; to listen. ) To attend, or be present at, as hearer or worshiper; as, to hear a concert; to hear Mass
Ear - ) To take in with the Ears; to hear. ) To put forth Ears in growing; to form Ears, as grain; as, this corn Ears well. ) Privilege of being kindly heard; favor; attention. ) That which resembles in shape or position the Ear of an animal; any prominence or projection on an object, - usually one for support or attachment; a lug; a handle; as, the Ears of a tub, a skillet, or dish. The Ears of a boat are outside kneepieces near the bow. ) The sense of hearing; the perception of sounds; the power of discriminating between different tones; as, a nice Ear for music; - in the singular only. ) The organ of hearing; the external Ear
Ear - ) To take in with the Ears; to hear. ) To put forth Ears in growing; to form Ears, as grain; as, this corn Ears well. ) Privilege of being kindly heard; favor; attention. ) That which resembles in shape or position the Ear of an animal; any prominence or projection on an object, - usually one for support or attachment; a lug; a handle; as, the Ears of a tub, a skillet, or dish. The Ears of a boat are outside kneepieces near the bow. ) The sense of hearing; the perception of sounds; the power of discriminating between different tones; as, a nice Ear for music; - in the singular only. ) The organ of hearing; the external Ear
Musical - Melodious harmonious pleasing to the Ear as musical sounds or numbers
Auditory - ) An assembly of hearers; an audience. ) Of or pertaining to hearing, or to the sense or organs of hearing; as, the auditory nerve. See Ear
Dismal - ) Gloomy to the eye or Ear; sorrowful and depressing to the feelings; foreboding; cheerless; dull; dreary; as, a dismal outlook; dismal stories; a dismal place
Pectoriloquy - ) The distinct articulation of the sounds of a patient's voice, heard on applying the Ear to the chest in auscultation
Ungrateful - ) Unpleasing; unacceptable; disagreeable; as, harsh sounds are ungrateful to the Ear
Mastoid - ) Resembling the nipple or the breast; - applied specifically to a process of the temporal bone behind the Ear
Mediostapedial - ) Pertaining to that part of the columella of the Ear which, in some animals, connects the stapes with the other parts of the columella
Awl, - The only notice of it is in connection with the custom of boring the Ear of the slave
Columella - ) A term applied to various columnlike parts; as, the columella, or epipterygoid bone, in the skull of many lizards; the columella of the Ear, the bony or cartilaginous rod connecting the tympanic membrane with the internal Ear
Malchus - High priest's servant whose Ear Peter cut off (John 18:10 ). Only Luke recorded the healing of the Ear (Luke 22:51 )
Scops Owl - Any one of numerous species of small owls of the genus Scops having Ear tufts like those of the horned owls, especially the European scops owl (Scops giu), and the American screech owl (S
Coenesthesis - ) Common sensation or general sensibility, as distinguished from the special sensations which are located in, or ascribed to, separate organs, as the eye and Ear
Meniere's Disease - It is supposed to depend upon a morbid condition of the semicircular canals of the internal Ear
Listen - To hearken to give Ear to attend closely with a view to hear
Malchus - Saint Peter struck off his Ear when he and his comrades were about to seize Jesus, who immediately healed the wound
Egophony - ) The sound of a patient's voice so modified as to resemble the bleating of a goat, heard on applying the Ear to the chest in certain diseases within its cavity, as in pleurisy with effusion
Otocyst - ) An auditory cyst or vesicle; one of the simple auditory organs of many invertebrates, containing a fluid and otoliths; also, the embryonic vesicle from which the parts of the internal Ear of vertebrates are developed
Ear-Rings - This ornament was one of the presents which the servant of Abraham gave to Rebecca, in the name of his master: "I put," said he, "the Ear-ring upon her face;" more literally, I put the ring on her nose. They wore Ear-rings beside; for the household of Jacob, at his request, when they were preparing to go up to Bethel, gave him all the Ear- rings which were in their Ears, and he hid them under the oak which was by Shechem. Sir John Chardin says, "It is the custom in almost all the east for the women to wear rings in their noses, in the left nostril, which is bored low down in the middle. These rings are of gold, and have commonly two pearls and one ruby between them, placed in the ring; I never saw a girl, or young woman in Arabia, or in all Persia, who did not wear a ring after this manner in her nostril. Russel, who describes the women in some of the villages about Aleppo, and all the Arabs and Chinganas, (a sort of gipsies,) as wearing a large ring of silver or gold, through the external cartilage of their right nostril. Harmer seems to think they properly signified Ear-rings; but this is a mistake; the sacred writers use them promiscuously for the rings both of the nose and of the Ears. Chardin observed two sorts of rings in the east; one so small and close to the Ear, that there is no vacuity between them; the other so large, as to admit the fore finger between it and the Ear; these last are adorned with a ruby and a pearl on each side, strung on the ring. Some of these Ear-rings had figures upon them, and strange characters, which he believed were talismans or charms; but which were probably the names and symbols of their false gods. The Indians say, they are preservatives against enchantment; upon which Chardin hazards a very probable conjecture, that the Ear-rings of Jacob's family were perhaps of this kind, which might be the reason of his demanding them, that he might bury them under the oak before they went up to Bethel
Ear - Ear, EarS...
In Scripture, such frequent mention is made of the hearing Ear, and the uncircumcised in heart and Ears, that it ought to be noticed in a work of this kind. In Scripture language, to uncover the Ear, (1 Samuel 20:2; 1Sa 20:13) as it is rendered in the margin of the Bibles, is to reveal somewhat particularly to a certain person, or persons, which, in general, to others, is not made known. And hence the Lord Jesus himself saith by the spirit of prophecy, (Psalms 11:6) Mine Ears hast thou opened. So again, Isaiah 1:5 "The Lord God hath opened mine Ear, and I was not rebellious," In the Jewish church, it was the custom, and among the appointments of the Lord himself, when a servant, after six years' service, being freed by the law, so loved his master, that he would not leave him, he was to have his Ear bored with an awl unto the door post, as a token of a free and voluntary service; and then to serve for ever. (Exodus 21:2; Exo 21:5) And in allusion to this, (for this was a beautiful type of the Lord Jesus Christ), the Lord Jesus saith, Mine Ears hast thou opened, or as the margin of the Bible hath, it, mine Ears hast thou digged. (Hebrews 10:5) And certain it is, that the lesser, of boring the Ear, implies the greater, of preparing the whole body. As the uncovering the Ear is a Scripture expression, to denote divine teaching, and the opening the heart and understanding, so the word of God abounds with figures and similitudes to represent the reverse. They are said to be uncircumcised in heart and Ears, to whom the word of the Lord is unprofitable. Their Ears are said to be heavy; to be waxed gross, and dull in hearing, and the like
Hideous - ) Distressing or offensive to the Ear; exciting terror or dismay; as, a hideous noise
Curette - ) A scoop or ring with either a blunt or a cutting edge, for removing substances from the walls of a cavity, as from the eye, Ear, or womb
Eared - ) Having external Ears; having tufts of feathers resembling Ears. ) Having (such or so many) Ears; - used in composition; as, long-eared-eared; sharp-eared; full-eared; ten-eared. ) of Ear...
Eared - ) Having external Ears; having tufts of feathers resembling Ears. ) Having (such or so many) Ears; - used in composition; as, long-eared-eared; sharp-eared; full-eared; ten-eared. ) of Ear...
Chalkstone - ) A chalklike concretion, consisting mainly of urate of sodium, found in and about the small joints, in the external Ear, and in other situations, in those affected with gout; a tophus
Enchant - ) To delight in a high degree; to charm; to enrapture; as, music enchants the Ear
Cauls - Others explain it as meaning "wreaths worn round the forehead, reaching from one Ear to the other
Abalone - The shell is lined with mother-of-pearl, and used for ornamental purposes; the sea-ear
Ear - Ôzen (אֹזֶן, Strong's #241), “ear. It appears 187 times in the Old Testament, mainly to designate a part of the body. 20:8: “Abimelech rose Early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their Ears: and the men were sore afraid. ”The “ear” was the place for Earrings (
Animals are also said to have “ears” ( Ear unto me; … when I call answer me speedily” ( Ears of the Lord” ( Ears of” idiomatically as “before. , opens up) Ears ( Ears ( Ears ( Ear a day before Saul came, saying …” ( Ears, and hear not” (
The KJV gives these renderings: “ear; audience; hearing
uz'Zen-She'Rah - (ear (or point) of Sherah ) a town founded or rebuilt by Sherah, an Ephraimite woman the daughter either of Ephraim himself or of Beriah
Fives - ) A disease of the glands under the Ear in horses; the vives
Shibboleth - ("a stream" or "ear of grain"
Earing - EarING . Genesis 45:6 , ‘There shall be neither Earing nor harvest. ’ ‘Earing’ is the old expression for ‘ploughing. ’ The verb ‘to Ear’ (connected with Lat. arare ) also occurs, as Deuteronomy 21:4 ‘a rough valley, which is neither Eared nor sown
Mal'Chus - (king or kingdom ), the name of the servant of the high priest whose right Ear Peter cut off at the time of the Saviour's apprehension in the garden
Ear (2) - EAR. —Of the Greek words translated ‘ear’ in Authorized and Revised Versions, two (ὠτάριον, ὠτίον) refer exclusively to the bodily organ, and occur only in connexion with the case of Malchus (Mark 14:47, John 18:10; John 18:26, Matthew 26:51, Luke 22:51). In Mark 7:35 (ἀκοαί) ‘his hearing’ would be more exact. In all other instances the word οὗς occurs, and is used: (1) literally, to denote ‘the Ear’ (Matthew 10:27, Mark 7:33; Mark 8:18, Luke 1:44; Luke 12:3; Luke 22:50), or (by transference) ‘the range of hearing’ (Luke 4:21); but more frequently (2) figuratively, to denote a spiritual faculty symbolized by the natural Ear (Matthew 11:15; Matthew 13:9; Matthew 13:15 (bis), Matthew 13:16; Matthew 13:43, Mark 4:9; Mark 4:23, Luke 8:8; Luke 9:44; Luke 14:35). The definitive passages for this use are Matthew 13:3-23, Mark 4:2-20, Luke 8:5-15, where it forms the underlying subject of Christ’s first parable, ‘the Sower,’ a parable concluded in each account by the phrase, ‘He that hath Ears (to hear) let him hear. ’ Indeed, the general principle of speaking in parables is in these passages connected with ‘ears dull of hearing’ (Matthew 13:13-15). This faculty of recognizing the voice of truth and (as it were) vibrating to its utterance is fitly referred to by Christ as a spiritual ‘ear
Awl - An instrument only referred to in connection with the custom of boring the Ear of a slave (Exodus 21:6 ; Deuteronomy 15:17 ), in token of his volunteering perpetual service when he might be free
Malchus - The servants, of the high priest, rendered memorable by the apostle Peter cutting off his Ear in his zeal for Christ, and Jesus with his unequalled tenderness healing it; (see John 18:10 with Luke 22:50-51) The name is derived from Melek...
Earing - Thus, in Isaiah 30:24 , it is said, "The oxen also, and the young asses which Ear," that is, "plough, the ground
Cart - a machine used in Palestine to force the corn out of the Ear, and bruise the straw, Isaiah 28:27-28
Malchus - The servant whose right Ear was cut off by Peter and miraculously restored by Christ, in Gethsemane, Matthew 26:51
Ear-Ring - In Isaiah 3:20 the allusion is not to a ring for the Ear, but to an amulet on which a charm could be written
Labyrinth - ) The internal Ear. See Note under Ear
Asperity - ) Roughness or harshness of sound; that quality which grates upon the Ear; raucity
Auscultation - ) The act of listening or hearkening to. ) An examination by listening either directly with the Ear (immediate auscultation) applied to parts of the body, as the abdomen; or with the stethoscope (mediate auscultation), in order to distinguish sounds recognized as a sign of health or of disease
Aerophone - ) A form of combined speaking and Ear trumpet
Hearken - ) To hear by listening. ) To give heed to; to hear attentively. ) To listen; to lend the Ear; to attend to what is uttered; to give heed; to hear, in order to obey or comply
Wattlebird - These birds usually have a large and conspicuous wattle of naked skin hanging down below each Ear
Bartolomeo Eustachius - Among his most notable contributions are descriptions of the stirrup bone in the Ear and the canal connecting Ear and mouth, since called by his name, and the discovery of the circulatory function of what is known as the Eustachian valve near the opening of the inferior vena cava
Eustachius, Bartolomeo - Among his most notable contributions are descriptions of the stirrup bone in the Ear and the canal connecting Ear and mouth, since called by his name, and the discovery of the circulatory function of what is known as the Eustachian valve near the opening of the inferior vena cava
Bridegroom - The passage of Shakespeare cited by Johnson proves that the last definition is just. ...
As are those dulcet sounds in break of day, ...
That creep into the dreaming bridegroom's Ear, ...
And summon him to marriage
Gladden - The news of peace gladdens our hearts. ...
Churches will every where gladden his eye, ...
and hymns of praise vibrate upon his Ear
Harsh - ) disagreeable to the Ear
Jewel - An ornament worn by ladies,usually consisting of a precious stone, or set with one or more a pendant worn in the Ear
Tares - The bearded darnel, mentioned only in Matthew 13:25-30 . It bears the closest resemblance to wheat till the Ear appears, and only then the difference is discovered
Uzzen Sherah - Ozen meaning "ear," the name may come from all Earlike projection of the ground
Regale - ) To enerta/n in a regal or sumptuous manner; to enrtertain with something that delights; to gratify; to refresh; as, to regale the taste, the eye, or the Ear
Attention - The act of attending or heeding the due application of the Ear to sounds, or of the mind to objects presented to its contemplation
Earrings - Ornaments worn in the Ear by both men and women. In describing His loving relationship with Israel, God said He had put a ring in her nose and Earrings on her Ears (Ezekiel 16:12 ). Before returning to Bethel, Jacob got his family to put away their foreign gods and Earrings (Genesis 35:2-4 ). Compare Isaiah 3:20 in KJV (“earrings”) and NAS, NRSV (“amulets”), and NIV (“charms”). More ornamental than the finest gold Earring, however, “is the wise reprover on an obedient Ear” ( Proverbs 25:12 )
Canal - ) A tube or duct; as, the alimentary canal; the semicircular canals of the Ear
Bolled - It is the fact that in Egypt when barley is in Ear (about February) flax is blossoming
Collar - netiphoth) among the spoils of the Midianites (Judges 8:26 ; RSV, "pendants") were Ear-drops
Ear - 1: στάχυς (Strong's #4719 — Noun Masculine — stachus — stakh'-oos ) is found in Matthew 12:1 ; Mark 2:23 ; 4:28 ("ear," twice); Luke 6:1
Beauty - ) An assemblage or graces or properties pleasing to the eye, the Ear, the intellect, the aesthetic faculty, or the moral sense
Unheard - ) Not granted an audience or a hearing; not allowed to speak; not having made a defense, or stated one's side of a question; disregarded; unheeded; as, to condem/ a man unheard. ) Not heard; not perceived by the Ear; as, words unheard by those present
Obey - ) To give Ear to; to execute the commands of; to yield submission to; to comply with the orders of
Ear - 1: στάχυς (Strong's #4719 — Noun Masculine — stachus — stakh'-oos ) is found in Matthew 12:1 ; Mark 2:23 ; 4:28 ("ear," twice); Luke 6:1
Cave - A hollow place in the Earth a subterraneous cavern a den. The primitive inhabitants of the Earth, in many countries, lived in caves and the present inhabitants of some parts of the Earth, especially in the high northern latitudes, occupy caves, particularly in winter. ...
Bacon applies the word to the Ear, the cave of the Ear but this application is unusual. ...
To cave in, to fall in and leave a hollow, as Earth on the side of a well or pit. When in digging into the Earth, the side is excavated by a falling of a quantity of Earth, it is said to cave in
Whisper - He whispers the man in the Ear. He whispered a word in my Ear
Promontory - (b) A prominence on the inner wall of the tympanum of the Ear
Straw - The Egyptians reaped grain close to the Ear, afterward they cut the straw close to the ground and laid the straw by Pharaoh refused this straw to Israel, who therefore had to gather the short stubble left; translated Exodus 5:12, "gather (qash ) stubble for the straw," i
Confessional - ) The recess, seat, or inclosed place, where a priest sits to hear confessions; often a small structure furnished with a seat for the priest and with a window or aperture so that the penitent who is outside may whisper into the priest's Ear without being seen by him or heard by others
Telharmonium - The music is produced by a receiving instrument similar or analogous to the telephone, but not held to the Ear
Wheatworm - ) A small nematode worm (Anguillula tritici) which attacks the grains of wheat in the Ear
Defect - ) Failing; fault; imperfection, whether physical or moral; blemish; as, a defect in the Ear or eye; a defect in timber or iron; a defect of memory or judgment
Loud - ) Having, making, or being a strong or great sound; noisy; striking the Ear with great force; as, a loud cry; loud thunder
Shibboleth - (Hebrew: Ear of corn) ...
A word used by Jephte as a password by which to distinguish the fleeing Ephraimites from his own men, the Galaadites
Scibboleth - (Hebrew: Ear of corn) ...
A word used by Jephte as a password by which to distinguish the fleeing Ephraimites from his own men, the Galaadites
Malchus - Peter cut off his right Ear in the garden of Gethsemane (John 18:10 )
o Kind Creator, Bow Thine Ear - (O Kind Creator, Bow Thine Ear) Hymn for Vespers on Sundays and week-days in Lent
Attentive - It is applied to the senses of hearing and seeing, as an attentive Ear or eye to the application of the mind, as in contemplation or to the application of the mind, together with the senses abovementioned, as when a person is attentive to the words, the manner and matter of a speaker at the same time
Flail - ) An instrument for threshing or beating grain from the Ear by hand, consisting of a wooden staff or handle, at the end of which a stouter and shorter pole or club, called a swipe, is so hung as to swing freely
Audi Benigne Conditor - (O Kind Creator, Bow Thine Ear) Hymn for Vespers on Sundays and week-days in Lent
Ragged - ) Wearing tattered clothes; as, a ragged fellow. ) Hence, harsh and disagreeable to the Ear; dissonant
Melody - ) A rhythmical succession of single tones, ranging for the most part within a given key, and so related together as to form a musical whole, having the unity of what is technically called a musical thought, at once pleasing to the Ear and characteristic in expression
God: His Benevolence in Creation - The benevolence of our great Creator is chanted even by things unpleasant to the Ear. 'The nuptial song of reptiles,' says Kirby, 'is not, like that of birds, the delight of every heart; but it is rather calculated to disturb and horrify than to still the soul. They are, therefore, framed beautiful to the eye, and pleasing to the Ear; but of the reptile tribes, some are his formidable enemies, and none were ever intended to be his associates
Abib - To produce the first or Early fruit a full grown Ear of corn. ...
The first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, called also Nisan
Ampulla - ) Any membranous bag shaped like a leathern bottle, as the dilated end of a vessel or duct; especially the dilations of the semicircular canals of the Ear
Loud - Having a great sound high sounding noisy striking the Ear with great force as a loud voice a loud cry loud thunder
Tares - " Not our vetch, but darnel; at first impossible to distinguish from wheat or barley, until the wheat's Ear is developed, when the thin fruitless Ear of the darnel is detected. " The seed is like wheat, but smaller and black, and when mixed with wheat flour causes dizziness, intoxication, and paralysis; Lolium temulentum , "bearded darnel", the only deleterious grain among all the numerous grasses
Ear - The organ of hearing is often used symbolically in scripture. When a servant, whose time of service had expired, preferred to stop with his master, saying, "I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free," his Ear was bored with an awl to the door post, and his Ear belonged to his master perpetually, he was to hear only that one as master: type of Christ and His love to the church. Of Christ also it is said, "mine Ears hast thou opened. "He that hath Ears to hear, let him hear" was said by the Lord to His hearers, and to each of the seven churches in Asia, and also said when the beast, representing the future Roman power, is worshipped, signifying that a spiritual discernment was needed to catch the meaning of what was uttered
Antenna - They are used as organs of touch, and in some species of Crustacea the cavity of the Ear is situated near the basal joint
Pitcher - ) A wide-mouthed, deep vessel for holding liquids, with a spout or protruding lip and a handle; a water jug or jar with a large Ear or handle
Auricular Confession - (Latin: auris, Ear) ...
The manifestation of one's sins to the priest alone, to obtain their sacramental pardon; in contradistinction to public confession
Abib - An Ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain (Exodus 13:4 ; 23:15 ); the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the seventh of the civil year
Hearken - 1: ἀκούω (Strong's #191 — Verb — akouo — ak-oo'-o ) "to hear," is rendered "hearken" in the AV and RV, in Mark 4:3 ; Acts 4:19 ; 7:2 ; 15:13 ; James 2:5 ; in the RV only, in Acts 3:22,23 ; 13:16 (AV, "give audience"); Acts 15:12 , "hearkened" (AV "gave audience"). See HEAR , No. , "to hearken," with the idea of stillness, or attention (hupo, "under," akouo, "to hear"), signifies "to answer a knock at a door," RV, "to answer" (AV, "to hearken"). ...
2: ἐπακούω (Strong's #1873 — Verb — epakouo — ep-ak-oo'-o ) denotes "to hearken to," 2 Corinthians 6:2 , RV (see HEAR , A, No. ...
3: ἐνωτίζομαι (Strong's #1801 — Verb — enotizomai — en-o-tid'-zom-ahee ) "to give Ear to, to hearken" (from en, "in" and ous, "an Ear"), is used in Acts 2:14 , in Peter's address to the men of Israel. ...
4: πειθαρχέω (Strong's #3980 — Verb — peitharcheo — pi-tharkh-eh'-o ) "to obey one in authority, be obedient" (peithomai, "to be persuaded," arche, "rule"), is translated "to hearken unto" in Acts 27:21 , in Paul's reminder to the shipwrecked mariners that they should have given heed to his counsel
Cupola - ) A roof having a rounded form, hemispherical or nearly so; also, a ceiling having the same form. ) The top of the spire of the cochlea of the Ear
Ass - an Ear. This animal has long slouching Ears, a short mane, and a tail covered with long hairs at the end
Discord - ) Union of musical sounds which strikes the Ear harshly or disagreeably, owing to the incommensurability of the vibrations which they produce; want of musical concord or harmony; a chord demanding resolution into a concord
Tares, - It closely resembles wheat until it is in Ear
Jezaniah - (jeh zuh ni' uh) Personal name meaning, “Yahweh gave Ear
Bulla - ) The ovoid prominence below the opening of the Ear in the skulls of many animals; as, the tympanic or auditory bulla
Hearken - To listen to lend the Ear to attend to what is uttered, with eagerness or curiosity. The furies hearken, and their snakes uncurl. Hearken, O Israel, to the statutes and the judgments which I teach you. Hearken thou to the supplication of thy servant. To hear by listening
Sagitta - ) The larger of the two otoliths, or Ear bones, found in most fishes
Delight - ) To give delight to; to affect with great pleasure; to please highly; as, a beautiful landscape delights the eye; harmony delights the Ear
Shibboleth - "an Ear of corn," was a word which the Gileadites used as the test of an Ephraimite. I was struck with this circumstance, in learning Turkish from a Greek tutor; pasha, he pronounced pasa; shimdi, he called simdi; Dervish, Dervis, &c
Corn - ’...
(2) σῖτος, in Mark 4:28, where a contrast is drawn between the different stages in the growth of the cornstalk—‘first the blade, then the Ear, after that the full corn in the Ear. ...
(3) στάχυς = ‘an Ear of corn’ (Matthew 12:1 || Mark 4:28). ’...
‘Corn’ is thus used in Authorized Version in four distinguishable senses—as applying to a cornfield, to a ripe cornstalk, to an Ear of wheat, and to a single grain. The parable of the Blade, the Ear, and the Full Corn was used to unfold the law of growth in the Kingdom of God. The incident of the plucking of the Ears of corn in the cornfields on the Sabbath day served as the occasion for a notable declaration regarding both the dignity of the Son of Man and the graciousness of Him who loves mercy more than sacrifice
Abib - The first month of the ecclesiastical year of the Hebrews; afterwards called Nisan. It answered nearly to our April. Abib signifies green Ears of grain, or fresh fruits. It was so named, because grain, particularly barley, was in Ear at the time
Hearing - I have an Ear for other preachers,' Sir John Cheke used to say, 'but I have a heart for Latimer. ' Here is a very clear and main distinction. Too often men hear the Word sounding its drums and trumpets outside their walls, and they are filled with admiration of the martial music, but their city gates are fast closed and vigilantly guarded, so that the truth has no admittance, but only the sound of it. Would to God we knew how to reach men's affections, for the heart is the target we aim at, and unless we hit it we miss altogether
Percussion - ) The act of tapping or striking the surface of the body in order to learn the condition of the parts beneath by the sound emitted or the sensation imparted to the fingers. ) Hence: The effect of violent collision; vibratory shock; impression of sound on the Ear
Enharmonical - ) Pertaining to a change of notes to the eye, while, as the same keys are used, the instrument can mark no difference to the Ear, as the substitution of A/ for G/
Vibration - ) A limited reciprocating motion of a particle of an elastic body or medium in alternately opposite directions from its position of equilibrium, when that equilibrium has been disturbed, as when a stretched cord or other body produces musical notes, or particles of air transmit sounds to the Ear
Daughter - "Daughters of music," (Ecclesiastes 12:4): songs and instrumental performances sound low to the old (2 Samuel 19:35); otherwise the voice and Ear, the organs which produce and enjoy music
Sabbath: Need to be Awakened For - At Harzburg, in the Hartz Mountains, we were awakened Early in the morning, according to an ancient custom, by the sound of a trumpet, which made us pray that when the last trumpet sounds it may awaken us to an endless Sabbath. It were well if all hearts and minds heard at the dawn of the Lord's-day, 'The sound as of a trumpet,' so that every faculty might be aroused to the highest activity of holy service. Sleepy hearing, praying, and singing are terrible; sleepy preaching and teaching are worse, yet how common they are, and how needful is the trumpet at the Ear of many! ...
...
Conch - ) The external Ear
Drop - A diamond hanging from the Ear an Earring something hanging in the form of a drop
Shibboleth - A word chosen by the Gileadites — apparently without any reference to its signification, which some take to be 'an Ear of corn,' and others 'a stream' — by which to ascertain those that were Ephraimites, who pronounced the SH as S, making the word SIBBOLETH
Rugged - ) Rough to the Ear; harsh; grating; - said of sound, style, and the like
Carts - The roads are generally impassable by any wheeled vehicle; and the chief use of the cart was on a limited scale for agricultural purposes, such as forcing the ripe grain out of the Ear, bruising the straw, removing the produce of the fields, etc
Kin - And the Ear-deafening voice of th' oracle, ...
Kin to Jove's thunder
Ear - Exodus 21:6 (c) This describes the binding of the Christian to his Lord for permanent obedience wherein his Ears are open only to the call of GOD. ...
Exodus 29:20 (b) In this and other passages we find a type concerning the consecrated hearing of the believer. As in the case of the piercing of the Ear, which is described in Exodus 21:6, the anointing of the Ear carries the same truth. The Ear that has been touched by the oil is now to be devoted only to listening to GOD's messages, and is to refuse the call of all other leaders. ...
Deuteronomy 32:1 (a) The people of the Earth are evidently indicated by this passage, and the Lord wants all people of every kind, everywhere, to listen to His voice, and hear His message. In many places in the Scripture this same truth is mentioned, and men who knew GOD intimately wanted to be sure that His Ear was open to their cry. GOD also asks us for our Ears, meaning that He desires to have us listen closely to His Word, and understand fully the meaning of His message. ...
Psalm 40:6 (b) This is one of the prophetic Psalm in which it is indicated that the Lord JESUS CHRIST was a permanent servant of GOD the Father, and that His Ears were only open to GOD's call. ...
Isaiah 48:8 (a) It is quite evident that GOD knew before Israel became a nation that their Ears would be closed many times to His call and they would refuse to listen. ...
Isaiah 59:1 (a) We are assured that GOD does not close His Ears to the cry of His children, but is always listening for any message that truly comes to Him from our hearts. ...
Jeremiah 6:10 (b) These hearers had not been turned away from the things of the world and therefore were not wholly devoted to GOD. GOD expects His people to cut off the hearing for voices other than His. ...
Jeremiah 7:24 (a) Animals are able to turn their Ears one way while their faces are in an opposite direction. Our Ears are stiff. GOD has so made us that when our Ears are turned toward any sound, the face also must be turned in the same direction. Therefore, their Ears were not turned toward Him. ...
Amos 3:12 (a) This prophecy is to tell us that one day Israel will walk with GOD again (the two legs), and will also again listen to GOD's voice (the Ear)
Bunt - ) A fungus (Ustilago foetida) which affects the Ear of cereals, filling the grains with a fetid dust; - also called pepperbrand
Melody - ...
An agreeable succession of sounds a succession of sounds so regulated and modulated as to please the Ear. ...
To make melody in the heart, to praise God with a joyful and thankful disposition, ascribing to him the honor due to his name
Saint Patrick's Breastplate - It was written in preparation for the saint's appearance at Tara before the assembled chieftains of Ireland on Easter Sunday, 433, when the final blow was given to Druidism, and the triumph of Christianity completed. ...
Christ shield me this day:...
Christ with me,...
Christ before me,...
Christ behind me,...
Christ in me,...
Christ beneath me,...
Christ above me,...
Christ on my right,...
Christ on my left,...
Christ when I lie down,...
Christ when I arise,...
Christ in the heart of every person who thinks of me,...
Christ in every eye that sees me,...
Christ in the Ear that hears me
the Man Who Cast Seed Into the Round And it Grew up he Knew Not How - And therefore the parable to be studied has been to him for many years a favourite subject of thought, and a fruitful source of comfort. Well, learn this little parable by heart, and say it to yourselves, till you feel the full taste of it in your mouth, and till you instinctively spue out of your mouth everything of a written kind that is not natural, and fresh, and forceful: everything that is not noble, and beautiful, and full of grace and truth, like this parable. "For the Earth bringeth fruit of herself: first the blade, then the Ear, after that the full corn in the Ear. The seed of the kingdom was cast into the good ground of His own mind and heart also, and that from a child. For did He not grow up before them as a tender plant? And was He not subject to them as a little Child in the Lord? And was it not so that the Spirit of the Lord rested upon Him, they knew not how, till He began to be about thirty years of age? Matthew Henry sees our Lord Himself in this parable, and I am glad to have that great commentator's countenance in dwelling, as I so much love to dwell, on this delightful side of this delightful scripture. With ourselves also it was first the blade, then the Ear, and only a long time after that, the full corn in the Ear. Enough, if, say thirty or forty years after this, they are come to their full intellectual and spiritual manhood. It was only after He was more than thirty years of age that we come on the Son of God Himself giving up whole nights at a time to secret prayer. Behold the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the Earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the Early and the latter rain. Be ye also patient, stablish your hearts: for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh. For, in your house also, there will be first the blade, then the Ear, and after that the full corn in the Ear. And you will see no sweeter sight that sweet morning than the seed you sowed on Earth at last come to its full Ear in heaven. ...
And, then, what a heart-upholding parable this is for all over-anxious ministers. At all hazards, our Lord will, once for all, pluck up all over-anxiety, and all impatience with their people, out of the hearts of His ministers. We cast the seed of God's word into the Earth, and the Earth takes it, that is to say, God takes it, and it springs up, no man knoweth how, and the sowers of the seed least of all. Speak ye comfortably to My ministers, and say to them that the Earth bringeth forth her fruit of herself, first the blade, then the Ear, after that the full corn in the Ear. In the kingdom of heaven, and in the sanctification of its subjects, it is first the blade here also, then the Ear, after that the full corn in the Ear. And sometimes, indeed, it threatens as if it were to be all blade in this field and no Ear at all. Why is it that I am so slow in growing any better? Why is my heart as wicked as ever it was, and sometimes much more so? You pray, in a way. You study all the great authorities on sanctification that you can hear about, or can lay your hands on. In our Lord's experimental words about it, the sanctification of the soul is first in the blade, then in the Ear, and it is never, in this world, any more: it is never in this world the full corn in the Ear. Whereas, poor soul, you thought that it was going to be the full Ear with you all at once. There is nothing in heaven or Earth so slow. That is your case, is it not? It is dying by inches, is it not? It is having the two-edged sword driven daily into your heart, and never in this life healed out of your heart. Till, you may depend upon it, our Lord had His eye and His heart on His saints who are undergoing a great spiritual sanctification when He spake this many-sided and most comforting parable. There is first the blade of true holiness, He said, after that the Ear, and then the full corn in the Ear
Earring - Earring. Earrings were usually worn by the Hebrew women, and by the children of both sexes, Exodus 32:2; more rarely by the men. Asiatic males have, in both ancient and modern times, worn Earrings; and the presumption is that the male Hebrews would observe the same custom. The original word generally translated "earring" is ambiguous, and may signify an ornament for the Ear or for the nose. In Genesis 35:4; Exodus 32:2, it is so qualified as to mean clearly an Earring. In Genesis 24:47; Proverbs 11:22; Isaiah 3:21; Ezekiel 16:12, it is as clearly a nose-jewel; while in Judges 8:24-25; Job 42:11; Proverbs 25:12; Hosea 2:13, it is uncertain
Bushel - , contains eight gallons of wheat, each gallon eight pounds of wheat, troy weight, the pound, twelve ounces troy, the ounce, twenty sterlings, and the sterling,thirty two grains of wheat growing in the middle of the Ear
Tin - It is soft, non-elastic, very malleable, and when a bar of it is bent near the Ear, distinguished by a crackling sound called the cry of tin
Burr - ) The lobe of the Ear. ) A ring of iron on a lance or spear. Also, any weed which bears burs. ) The lobe or lap of the Ear
Box - ) An axle box, journal box, journal bearing, or bushing. ) A blow on the head or Ear with the hand. ) To strike with the hand or fist, especially to strike on the Ear, or on the side of the head
Barrel - A cavity behind the tympanum of the Ear is called the barrel of the Ear
Box - A blow on the head with the hand, or on the Ear with the open hand. To strike with the hand or fist, especially the Ear or side of the head. To rehearse the several points of the compass in their proper order
Malchus - Naturally so, for John was "known to the high-priest" and his household, so that he procured admission from her that kept the door, for his close colleague Peter, and was able to state, what the other evangelists omit, that another servant who charged Peter with being Jesus' disciple "was his kinsman whose Ear Peter cut off. " Another incidental propriety confirming genuineness is, Jesus says to Pilate, "if My kingdom were of this world then would My servants fight"; yet none charged Him, not even Malchus's kinsman who was near, with the violence which Peter had used to Malchus. ...
Seeing the coming stroke Malchus threw his head to the left, so as to expose the right Ear more than the other. The healing by a "touch" implies that the Ear hung to its place by a small portion of flesh
God: Vague Conceptions of - One day, in conversation with the Jungo-kritu, head pundit of the College of Fort William, on the subject of God this man, who is truly learned in his own shastrus, gave me from one of their books, this parable;: 'In a certain country there existed a village of blind men. These men had heard that there was an amazing animal called the elephant, but they knew not how to form an idea of his shape. One of them got hold of his trunk, another seized his Ear, another his tail, another one of his legs, etc. After thus trying to gratify their curiosity they returned into the village, and sitting down together they began to give their ideas on what the elephant was like: the man who had seized his trunk said he thought the elephant was like the body of the plantain tree; the man who had felt his Ear said he thought he was like the fan with which the Hindoos clean the rice; the man who had felt his tail said he thought he must be like a snake, and the man who had seized his leg, thought he must be like a pillar. An old blind man of some judgment was present, who was greatly perplexed how to reconcile these jarring notions, respecting the form of the elephant; but he at length said, 'You have all been to examine this animal, it is true, and what you report cannot be false: I suppose, therefore, that that which was like the plaintain tree must be his trunk; that which was like a fan must be his Ear; that which was like a snake must be his tail, and that which was like a pillar must be his body
Shibboleth - SHIBBOLETH (means both ‘ear of corn’ and ‘stream’)
Straw - [1] The ancient Egyptians reaped their corn close to the Ear, and afterward cut the straw close to the ground and laid it by. This was the straw that Pharaoh refused to give to the Israelites who were therefore compelled to gather "stubble" instead --a matter of considerable difficulty, seeing that the straw itself had been cut off near to the ground
Twitch - ) A stick with a hole in one end through which passes a loop, which can be drawn tightly over the upper lip or an Ear of a horse
Pavilion - ) The auricle of the Ear; also, the fimbriated extremity of the Fallopian tube
Music - , sounds of higher or lower pitch, begotten of uniform and synchronous vibrations, as of a string at various degrees of tension; the science of harmonical tones which treats of the principles of harmony, or the properties, dependences, and relations of tones to each other; the art of combining tones in a manner to please the Ear
Hear, Hearing - Most Old Testament words for hear(ing ) come from the root sm [1], "hear, " or zn [2], "(give) Ear, " although qsb [3], "pay attention, " sometimes appears. The New Testament words are akouo [4], "hear, " along with its several compounds and cognates, and ous [5], "ear" with its diminutives otion [6] and otarion. ...
Scripture often refers to the physical Ear (Genesis 35:4 ; Exodus 29:20 ; Deuteronomy 15:17 ; Mark 7:33 ; Luke 22:50 ; 1 Corinthians 12:16 ) or the physical faculty of hearing (Deuteronomy 31:11 ; 1 Samuel 15:14 ; Mark 7:35 ), but relies more heavily on the figurative meanings of the words. In Scripture God hears; he pays attention to his people. Hearing is the mode by which the Son of God and his followers receive God's word. ...
In the Old Testament God hears both his people's groaning in trouble (Genesis 16:11 ; Exodus 2:24 ; 3:7 ; 6:5 ; Psalm 69:33 ; 102:20 ) and their grumbling against him (Exodus 16:7-9 ; Numbers 14:27 ). Throughout Scripture God hears his people's prayers (1 Kings 8:31-53 ; Psalm 34:15 , ; quoted in 1 Peter 3:12 ; more than fifty times in the Psalms Isaiah 59:1 ; Matthew 6:7-8 ; Luke 1:13 ; 1 John 5:14 ). In contrast, idols have physical Ears but cannot hear their worshipers (Psalm 115:6 ; 135:17 ). ...
Since God hears his people, his people should also hear him. The prophets frequently call Israel to "hear the word of the Lord. " Even pagans may hear about God's wonderful actions and be impressed (Joshua 2:10-11 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1-8 ). Often in Deuteronomy, Moses calls on Israel to hear, especially in the Shema (literally the 6:4-5; Ear (42:5), more often hearing refers to a deeper understanding. God's people are to "hear" (take heed of) the Prophet like Moses who will appear (Deuteronomy 18:15-20 ; cf. In the "third heaven" Paul hears "inexpressible things" (2 Corinthians 12:2-4 ), revealing matters that may not be passed on to others. The recovery of hearing by deaf people serves as a sign of the messianic kingdom (Isaiah 29:18 ; 35:5-6 ; cf. Hearing the voice of God's Son will cause the dead to rise (John 5:25-29 ). ...
Some among God's people have "ears to hear" his voice, while others do not. God accuses his people when they refuse to use their Ears and listen to him (Isaiah 6:9-10 , ; quoted in Matthew 13:14-15 ; and parallels, also in Acts 28:26-27 ). Both before (Matthew 11:15 ; 13:9,43 ; and parallels ) and after (Revelation 2:7,11 , 17,29 ; 3:6,13 , 22 ) his resurrection, Jesus calls on those who have spiritual Ears to use them. ...
The Old Testament image of an "inclined" Ear suggests a person leaning over to listen closely. Those whose Ears and hearts are inclined toward God (Isaiah 55:3 ; cf. Proverbs 5:1 ) want God's Ears to be inclined toward them (Psalm 31:2 ; 71:2 ; Daniel 9:18 ). ...
Because of his unique identity, the Son of God hears the Father's word and passes it on (John 3:32 ; 8:40 ; 15:15 ), and the Father in turn hears the Son's prayers (John 11:41-42 ; Hebrews 5:7 ). Jesus' immediate followers testify to what they have seen and heard both during his ministry and after his resurrection (Acts 4:20 ; 22:15 ; 1 John 1:3,5 ). ...
As hearing is the mode by which the Son receives the Father's word, and the Son's immediate followers receive it from him, so hearing is the means by which each believer receives the word. "Faith, " says Paul, "comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word of Christ" (Romans 10:17 ; cf. The Holy Spirit comes through the "hearing of faith" (Galatians 3:2,5 ; cf. Those who become believers should go on to maturity, not being "dull in hearing" (Hebrews 5:11 ) or remaining only hearers of the truth (James 1:22-25 ; cf. Believers should especially avoid turning from hearing the truth, listening to false teachers who will scratch their "itching Ears" (lit. "itching hearing" 2 Timothy 4:3-4 ). " In their interpersonal relations, they should be "quick to listen" (James 1:19 ), always ready to hear what the other person has to say
Shell - ) To separate the kernels of (an Ear of Indian corn, wheat, oats, etc. ) from the cob, Ear, or husk. ) To be disengaged from the Ear or husk; as, wheat or rye shells in reaping
Confession - Not auricular: Matthew 3:6; Acts 19:18, "many confessed and shewed (openly, not in the Ear of a priest under the seal of secrecy) their deeds
Discord - In music, disagreement of sounds dissonance a union of sounds which is inharmonious, grating and disagreeable to the Ear or an interval whose extremes do not coalesce
Rash - ) So dry as to fall out of the Ear with handling, as corn
Busk - On the first day the new fire is lighted, by friction of wood, and distributed to the various households, an offering of green corn, including an Ear brought from each of the four quarters or directions, is consumed, and medicine is brewed from snakeroot
Wave Offering - On the second day of the Passover a sheaf of green grain was waved, with the sacrifice of a first year lamb; from this began the reckoning to Pentecost. Abib, the Passover month, means the month of the green Ear; the birth of Israel into national life, and the birth of the Earth's fruits on which man depends into natural life, are appropriately combined in the Passover. The firstborn of men and the first produce of the Earth were at once consecrated to the Lord in acknowledgment of His ownership of all
Member - A limb of animal bodies, as a leg, an arm, an Ear, a finger, that is, a subordinate part of the main body
Naked - ) Not having the full complement of tones; - said of a chord of only two tones, which requires a third tone to be sounded with them to make the combination pleasing to the Ear; as, a naked fourth or fifth
Buffet - A blow with the fist a box on the Ear or face a slap
Vibrate - ) To produce an oscillating or quivering effect of sound; as, a whisper vibrates on the Ear
Maximus of Constantinople, Saint - Later he was tried and condemned to have a hand and Ear cut off
Tabret - It might have been well to drop both ‘timbrel’ and ‘tabret,’ neither of which conveys any clear sense to a modern Ear, and adopt some such rendering as ‘tambourine’ or ‘hand-drum’
Shibboleth - River, or an Ear of corn
Delight - To affect with great pleasure to please highly to give or afford high satisfaction or joy as, a beautiful landscape delights the eye harmony delights the Ear the good conduct of children, and especially their piety, delights their parents
Shiggaion - Psalm 7 refers to David's being accused by Saul (the Benjamite, Cush the Ethiopian unchangeably black at heart toward David: Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7; Cush similar to Kish, Saul's father) of plotting evil against him, whereas he returned good for evil in sparing Saul his deadly foe, when in his power (1 Samuel 24:7); "concerning the words" i. on account of the calumnies which men uttered against David to ingratiate themselves with the king, and which Saul gave Ear to (1 Samuel 24:9; 1 Samuel 26:19)
Tip - The end the point or extremity of any thing small as the tip of the finger the tip of a spear the tip of the tongue the tip of the Ear
Amulets And Charms - The custom of wearing amulets ( amuletum from Arab. ]'>[1] root = ‘to carry’) as charms to protect the wearer against the malign influence of evil spirits, and in particular against ‘the evil eye,’ is almost as wide-spread as the human race itself. ]'>[2]8 ‘ear-rings’ in Isaiah 3:20 , the Heb. Our knowledge of Early Palestinian amulets has been greatly increased by the recent excavations at Gezer, Taanach, and Megiddo. Exodus 28:33 ; Exodus 39:25 ), a tiny ebony fish from the Maccabæan period, a yellow glass pendant with ‘good luck to the wearer’ in reversed Greek letters ( PEFSt [2] may both be right in their renderings ‘ear-rings,’ ‘amulets’ of Isaiah 3:20
Thumb - In the ritual of the consecration of Aaron and his sons ( Exodus 29:20 , Leviticus 8:23-24 ) blood was sprinkled on ‘the tip of the right Ear, upon the thumb of the right hand and the great toe of the right foot
Ephphatha - ); or the Ear , as in Targ
Preparation - ) The holding over of a note from one chord into the next chord, where it forms a temporary discord, until resolved in the chord that follows; the anticipation of a discordant note in the preceding concord, so that the Ear is prepared for the shock
Echo - ) A sound reflected from an opposing surface and repeated to the Ear of a listener; repercussion of sound; repetition of a sound. ) A nymph, the daughter of Air and Earth, who, for love of Narcissus, pined away until nothing was left of her but her voice
Temple - ) The space, on either side of the head, back of the eye and forehead, above the zygomatic arch and in front of the Ear
Seed Growing Secretly, Parable of the - When a man has sown his seed whether he is asleep or awake, night or day, germination will go on without his knowing how, and the Earth will put forth first the blade, then the Ear, and last of all the full corn in the Ear. It is one of a trinity of parables which describe the Kingdom of God on Earth, the others being the "Sower" and the "Mustard Seed. The parable is explained thus: the seed is the teaching of the Gospel; the sower is primarily Christ who first promulgated this teaching and left it to the Church, and secondarily the Apostles and their successors; by Earth is meant the hearts and souls of men. There is no liturgical assignment of this parable to any Sunday of the year
Fame - A — 1: φήμη (Strong's #5345 — Noun Feminine — pheme — fay'-may ) originally denoted "a Divine voice, an oracle;" hence, "a saying or report" (akin to phemi, "to say," from a root meaning "to shine, to be clear;" hence, Lat. (2) Akoe, "a hearing," is translated "report" in the RV of Matthew 4:24 ; 14:1 ; Mark 1:28 , for AV, "fame. " See Ear , No. HEARING
Corn - "Seven Ears on one stalk" (Genesis 41:22) is common still in Egypt. The wheat root will send up many stalks, but never more than one Ear upon one stalk. But seven full Ears upon one maize grain stalk have often been found
Mortal - The voice of God ...
To mortal Ear is dreadful
Quick - ) Sensitive; perceptive in a high degree; ready; as, a quick Ear
Earring - ...
Proverbs 25:12 (a) This is a type of an Ear that accepts reproof and instructions from another, and is glad to have constructive criticisms about his ways. ...
Ezekiel 16:12 (a) We learn from this that the Lord gave His people Ears that love to hear His voice, and desire to know His Word and to obey His will. This is described as ornaments of the Ears
Left - ) Of or pertaining to that side of the body in man on which the muscular action of the limbs is usually weaker than on the other side; - opposed to right, when used in reference to a part of the body; as, the left hand, or arm; the left Ear
Relation of Soul And Body - , as to seeing, it is only in the eye, and as to hearing, it is only in the Ear
Hair - Thus, to uncover the Ear is a common phrase for communicating a secret, 1 Samuel 9:15, marg. , as if it were necessary to put aside the locks in order to whisper in the Ear. There was, however, a clear distinction made between the sexes in this respect, 1 Corinthians 11:14-15; so that the women wore their hair very long
Accord - Concert harmony of sounds the union of different sounds, which is agreeable to the Ear agreement in pitch and tone as the accord of notes but in this sense, it is more usual to employ concord or chord
Concord - , the heart. In music, consent of sounds harmony the relation between tow or more sounds which are agreeable to the Ear
Ear - the organ of hearing. Uncircumcised Ears are Ears inattentive to the word of God. Among the Jews, the slave, who renounced the privilege of being made free from servitude in the sabbatical year, submitted to have his Ear bored through with an awl; which was done in the presence of some judge, or magistrate, that it might appear a voluntary act. The Psalmist says, in the person of the Messiah, "Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine Ears hast thou opened. " Hebrews "Thou hast digged my Ears. "Make the Ears of this people heavy," Isaiah 6:10 ; that is, render their minds inattentive and disobedient; the prophets being said often to do that of which they were the innocent occasion
Wax - A thick tenacious substance excreted in the Ear. WAX, To smear or rub with wax as, to wax, a thread or a table
Corn, Cornfield - ...
4: στάχυς (Strong's #4719 — Noun Masculine — stachus — stakh'-oos ) means "an Ear of grain," Matthew 12:1 ; Mark 2:23 ; 4:28 ; Luke 6:1
Dove - ...
Since Early medieval times the Holy Eucharist was reserved for the sick in a dove-shaped vessel suspended to the baldachino over the altar; later the dove was enclosed in a tower upon the altar. A vessel of like form was hung over the Early baptisteries. ...
In art it is the emblem of the following saints, ...
Saint Agnes of Rome - woman with a dove holding a ring in its beak
Saint Ambrose of Milan
Blessed Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena - Dominican with a dove (the Holy Spirit) whispering in his Ear as he preaches
Saint Augustine of Hippo
Saint Basil the Great - the dove is near the supernational fire that indicates descent of the Holy Spirit on Basil
Saint Colman of Lindisfarne - the name Colman means dove
Saint Colomba of Rieti - Dominican tertiary with a dove indicating the Holy Spirit
Saint Dathus - chosen as bishop when a dove descended on him and those present took it as a sign
Saint David of Wales - as proof of the truth of his preaching, a dove settled on his shoulder as he spoke
Saint Devota - as her martyred body was being taken home, a storm threatened to wreck the boat; a dove emerged from her mouth, and the storm stopped
Saint Dunstan of Canterbury - man writing with a dove (the Holy Spirit) nearby
Saint Eulalia of Merida
Pope Saint Fabian - chosen pope when a dove settled on his head and the people took it as a sign
Pope Saint Gregory the Great
Saint Ida of Herzfield - woman with a dove hovering over her head
Saint Ivo of Kermartin - lawyer surrounded by doves (the Holy Spirit)
Saint Joachim - elderly man carrying a basket of doves
Saint John Chrysostom
Saint Oliva
Saint Oswald
Saint Remigius
Saint Scholastica - at her death, her brother, Saint Benedict of Nursia, saw her soul ascend to heaven as a dove
Saint Teresa of Avila - Carmelite nun with a dove (the Holy Spirit) nearby while she writes
Saint Thomas Aquinas - Dominican with a dove (the Holy Spirit) speaking in his Ear as he writes
Pope Saint Zachary - with a dove and olive branch to indicate his work as a peace maker
Offering - First fruits of the new corn, either in the simple state or prepared by parching or roasting in the Ear, or out of the Ear
Tares - The darnel before it comes into Ear is very similar in appearance to wheat; hence the command that the zizania should be left to the harvest, lest while men plucked up the tares "they should root up also the wheat with them
Canon - ) The part of a bell by which it is suspended; - called also Ear and shank
Vision - the act of seeing; but, in Scripture, it generally signifies a supernatural appearance, either by dream or in reality, by which God made known his will and pleasure to those to whom it was vouchsafed, Acts 9:10 ; Acts 9:12 ; Acts 16:9 ; Acts 26:13 ; 2 Corinthians 12:1 . Thus, in the Earliest times, to patriarchs, prophets, and holy men God sent angels, he appeared to them himself by night in dreams, he illuminated their minds, he made his voice to be heard by them, he sent them ecstasies, and transported them beyond themselves, and made them hear things that eye had not seen, Ear had not heard, and which had not entered into the heart of man. God appeared to Abraham under the form of three travellers; he showed himself to Isaiah and Ezekiel, in the splendour of his glory
Lend - To afford to grant to furnish, in general as, to lend assistance to lend an Ear to a discourse
Owl - Most common of all is the little bömeh ( Athene glaux ), whose melancholy cry can be heard anywhere in the open country when twilight begins. The great Egyptian eagle-owl, the next most common species, is a large bird, nearly two feet long, with long Ear tufts (see No
Consecration - One bullock was offered for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering; another ram was offered, and this ram is called 'the ram of consecration:' its blood was put upon the right Ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot
Temperament - This scale, although in so far artificial, is yet closely suggestive of its origin in nature, and this system of tuning, although not mathematically true, yet satisfies the Ear, while it has the convenience that the same twelve fixed tones answer for every key or scale, C/ becoming identical with D/, and so on
Delicate - ) Nicely discriminating or perceptive; refinedly critical; sensitive; exquisite; as, a delicate taste; a delicate Ear for music
Diet - ) To eat according to prescribed rules; to Ear sparingly; as, the doctor says he must diet
Laban - Of this man, the first thing we hear is his entertainment of Abraham's servant when he came on his errand to Rebekah. In his case, however, it seems to have been no little stimulated by the sight of "the Ear ring and the bracelets on his sister's hands," which the servant had already given her, Genesis 24:30 ; so he speedily made room for the camels. He next is presented to us as beguiling that sister's son, who had sought a shelter in his house, and whose circumstances placed him at his mercy, of fourteen years' service, when he had covenanted with him for seven only; endeavouring to retain his labour when he would not pay him his labour's worth, himself devouring the portion which he should have given to his daughters, counting them but as strangers, Genesis 31:15
Request - I will both hear and grant you your requests. ...
Request expresses less Earnestness than entreaty and supplication, and supposes a right in the person requested to deny or refuse to grant. The weight of the golden Ear-rings which he requested, was a thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold
Ornaments - The custom of wearing ornaments, either as personal adornment or as amulets, or for both purposes combined, is almost coeval with the appearance of man himself. Ear-rings , always of gold or silver where the material is stated, are frequently named, from Genesis 35:4 onwards. In this passage their character as amulets is clearly implied. Among the Hebrews Ear-rings were apparently confined to women, and to children of both sexes ( Exodus 32:2 ), for the ‘ rings ,’ of Job 42:11 RV [1] are not necessarily Ear-rings as AV [2] rightly appear in RV [2] ‘ chains ’), to judge from the etymology of the original term, had the form of drops or beads, although it is unknown whether they were worn in the Ears or as a necklace. ...
The custom still observed by the Bedouin women of wearing a ring through the right nostril (Doughty, Arab. ]'>[2] as an Earring ( Genesis 24:22 , note Genesis 24:47 ), as also the ‘ nose-jewels ’ worn by the ladies of Jerusalem ( Isaiah 3:21 ). ]'>[1] , cannot be cited in support of wearing ornaments on the forehead as AV [22] ‘chains’), ‘and her bracelets, and her rings, and her Ear-rings, and all her ornaments’ ( Jdt 10:4 ). The jewelry of the Early Egyptian goldsmiths ( Exodus 3:22 ), as is well known, has never been surpassed in variety and delicacy of workmanship. Beneath the débris of a Canaanite house were found a mother and her five children, and beside the former the following ornaments: a gold band for the forehead, 8 gold rings, of which 7 were simple bands of gold wire, while the eighth was of several strands of wire, 2 silver rings, 2 larger bronze rings, perhaps bracelets, 2 small cylinders of crystal, 5 pearls, a scarab of amethyst and another of crystal, and finally a silver fastener (all illustrated op
Imagination - This faculty takes the impressions by external objects made on eye, Ear, and other senses at one time or other, and presents them in the form of an image to the intellect. Unfortunately most people live more by imagination than by intellect; hence the misconceptions, misjudgments, prejudices, and even fears, or phobias, particularly in matters of religion
Fence - So much of adder's wisdom I have learnt, to fence my Ear against thy sorceries. To practice the art of fencing to use a sword or foil, for the purpose of learning the art of attack and defense
Fitches - Spelt has a smooth slender Ear (as it were shorn, kussemeth being from kaasam "to shear"), the grains of which are so firm in the husk that they need special devices to disengage them
Cattle - Hence it would appear that the word properly signifies possessions, goods. But whether from a word originally signifying a beast, for in Early ages beasts constituted the chief part of a mans property, or from a root signifying to get or possess. Thus the law in Connecticut, requiring that all the owners of any cattle, sheep or swine, shall Ear-mark or brand all their cattle, sheep and swine, does not extend to horses
Hear - HEARING. In its obvious and literal acceptation, it denotes the exercise of that bodily sense of which the Ear is the organ; and as hearing is a sense by which instruction is conveyed to the mind, and the mind is excited to attention and to obedience, so the ideas of attention and obedience are also grafted on the expression or sense of hearing. God is said, speaking after the manner of men, to hear prayer, that is, to attend to it, and comply with the requests it contains: "I love the Lord, because he hath heard," hath attended to, hath complied with, "the voice of my supplication," Psalms 116:1 . On the contrary, God is said not to hear, that is, not to comply with, the requests of sinners, John 9:31 . Men are said to hear, when they attend to, or comply with, the request of each other, or when they obey the commands of God: "He who is of God heareth," obeyeth, practiseth, "God's words,"...
John 8:47 . "My sheep hear my voice," and show their attention to it, by following me, John 10:27 . "This is my beloved Son: hear ye him,"...
Matthew 17:5 . This seems to be an allusion to Deuteronomy 18:15 ; Deuteronomy 18:18-19 : "The Lord shall raise up unto you a prophet; him shall ye hear;"...
which is also expressly applied in Acts 3:22 . The other senses which may be attached to the word "hear," seem to rise from the preceding, and may be referred to the same ideas
Abib - Abib signifies green Ears of corn, or fresh fruits, according to Jerom's translation, Exodus 13:4 , and to the LXX. It was so named because corn, particularly barley, was in Ear at that time. It was an Early custom to give names to months, from the appearances of nature; and the custom is still in force among many nations. The year among the Jews commenced in September, and consequently their jubilees and other civil matters were regulated in this way, Leviticus 25:8-10 ; but their sacred year began in Abib. " Ravanelli observes, that as this deliverance from Egypt was a figure of the redemption of the church of Jesus Christ, who died and rose again in this month, it was made the "beginning of months," to lead the church to expect the acceptable year of the Lord
Thorn in the Flesh - ...
...
Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the Ear or head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical infirmity, which was a hindrance to the apostle in his work (Compare 1 Corinthians 2:3 ; 2 co 10:10 ; 11:30 ; Galatians 4:13,14 ; 6:17 ). If we consider the fact, "which the experience of God's saints in all ages has conclusively established, of the difficulty of subduing an infirmity of temper, as well as the pain, remorse, and humiliation such an infirmity is wont to cause to those who groan under it, we may be inclined to believe that not the least probable hypothesis concerning the 'thorn' or 'stake' in the flesh is that the loving heart of the apostle bewailed as his sorest trial the misfortune that, by impatience in word, he had often wounded those for whom he would willingly have given his life" (Lias's Second Cor
Wheat, - the well-known valuable cereal, cultivated from the Earliest times, is first mentioned in ((Genesis 30:14 ) in the account of Jacob's sojourn with Laban in Mesopotamia. Egypt in ancient times was celebrated for the growth of its wheat; the best quality was all bearded; and the same varieties existed in ancient as in modern times, among which may be mentioned the seven-eared quality described in Pharaoh's dream. There appear to be two or three kinds of wheat at present grown in Palestine, the Triticum vulgare , the T. spelta , and another variety of bearded wheat which appears to be the same as the Egyptian kind, the T. ( Matthew 13:8 ) The common Triticum vulgare will sometimes produce one hundred grains in the Ear. Wheat is reaped to ward the end of April, in May, and in June, according to the differences of soil and position; it was sown either broadcast and then ploughed in or trampled in by cattle, ( Isaiah 32:20 ) or in rows, if we rightly understand (Isaiah 28:25 ) which seems to imply that the seeds were planted apart in order to insure larger and fuller Ears. The wheat was put into the ground in the winter, and some time after the barley; in the Egyptian plague of hail, consequently, the barley suffered, but the wheat had not appeared, and so escaped injury
Goat - The atuwd , "he goat", the leader of the flock; hence the chief ones of the Earth, leaders in mighty wickedness; the ram represents headstrong wantonness and offensive lust (Isaiah 14:9; Zechariah 10:3; compare Matthew 25:32-33; Ezekiel 34:17). In Song of Solomon 4:1 the hair of the bride is said to be "as a flock of goats that appear from mount Gilead," alluding to the fine silky hair of some breeds of goat, the angora and others. Amos (Amos 3:12) speaks of a shepherd "taking out of the mouth of the lion a piece of an Ear," alluding to the long pendulous Ears of the Syrian breed
Flow - ) To move with a continual change of place among the particles or parts, as a fluid; to change place or circulate, as a liquid; as, rivers flow from springs and lakes; tears flow from the eyes. ) To glide along smoothly, without harshness or asperties; as, a flowing period; flowing numbers; to sound smoothly to the Ear; to be uttered easily
Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia - Glycerius turned a deaf Ear, and having swelled his fanatical band by a number of young men, he one night hastily left the city with his whole troop against the will of many of the girls
Bell - Its constituent parts are a barrel or hollow body, enlarged or expanded at one end, an Ear or cannon by which it is hung to a beam, and a clapper on the inside. To bear the bell, is to be the first or leader, in allusion to the bell-wether of a flock, or the leading horse of a team or drove, that wears bells on his collar. ...
To shake the bells, a phrase of Shakespeare, signifies to move, give notice or alarm
Hear - HEAR, pret. heard, but more correctly heared. To perceive by the Ear to feel an impression of sound by the proper organs as, to hear sound to hear a voice to hear words. He sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ. Today, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your heart. They think they shall be heard for their much speaking. I love the Lord, because he hath heard my voice. The cause was heard and determined at the last term or, it was heard at the last term, and will be determined at the next. Hear'st thou submissive, but a lowly birth. To be a hearer of to sit under the preaching of as, what minister do you hear? A colloquial use of the word. To learn. I speak to the world those things which I have heard of him. They speak of the world, and the world heareth them. ...
To hear a bird sing, to receive private communication. ...
HEAR, To enjoy the sense or faculty of perceiving sound. He is deaf, he cannot hear. To listen to hearken to attend. He hears with solicitude. I hear there are divisions among you, and I partly believe it
Thunder - The sound which follows an explosion of electricity or lightning the report of a discharge of electrical fluid, that is, of its passage from one cloud to another, or from a cloud to the Earth, or from the Earth to a cloud. When this explosion is near to a person, the thunder is a rattling or clattering sound, and when distant, the sound is heavy and rumbling. This sharpness or acuteness of the sound when near, and the rumbling murmur when distant, are the principal distinctions in thunder. His dreadful voice no more ...
Would thunder in my Ears. ...
Oracles severe ...
Were daily thunder'd in our gen'ral's Ear
Nicolaus, Bishop of Myra - He is said to have been present at the council of Nice, where he waxed so indignant with Arius that he inflicted a box on the heretic's Ear
Malchus - —The name of the man whom Peter wounded in the right Ear at the arrest of Jesus (John 18:10). 272); and מלבו, pronounced מָלִבוּ, appears in three inscriptions (CIS
The bearer of the name in the Gospel narrative held a position of trust in the household of the high priest, probably Caiaphas (John 18:13). The healing of the Ear of Malchus is recorded by Lk
Mark, Gospel of - 63-70 becomes our limit, but nearer than this we cannot go. --Mark was not one of the twelve; and there is no reason to believe that he was an eye and Ear witness of the events which he has recorded but an almost unanimous testimony of the Early fathers indicates Peter as the source of his information. For he was neither a hearer nor a follower of the Lord, but, as I said, afterward followed Peter, who made his discourses to suit what was required, without the view of giving a connected digest of the discourses of our Lord. Mark, therefore, made no mistakes when he wrote down circumstances as he recollected them; for he was very careful of one thing, to omit nothing of what he heard, and to say nothing false in what he related. It is the shortest of the four Gospels, and contains almost no incident or teaching which is not contained in one of the other two synoptists; but (2) it is by far the most vivid and dramatic in its narratives, and their pictorial character indicates not only that they were derived from an eye and Ear witness, but also from one who possessed the observation and the graphic artistic power of a natural orator such as Peter emphatically was
Full - A — 1: πλήρης (Strong's #4134 — Adjective — pleres — play'-race ) denotes "full," (a) in the sense of "being filled," materially, Matthew 14:20 ; 15:37 ; Mark 8:19 (said of baskets "full" of bread crumbs); of leprosy, Luke 5:12 ; spiritually, of the Holy Spirit, Luke 4:1 ; Acts 6:3 ; 7:55 ; 11:24 ; grace and truth, John 1:14 ; faith, Acts 6:5 ; grace and power, Acts 6:8 ; of the effects of spiritual life and qualities, seen in good works, Acts 9:36 ; in an evil sense, of guile and villany, Acts 13:10 ; wrath, Acts 19:28 ; (b) in the sense of "being complete," "full corn in the Ear," Mark 4:28 ; of a reward hereafter, 2 John 1:8
Ivory - The African elephant exceeds the Indian in the size of the Ear and of the tusks, the latter of which are often eight or ten feet long and weigh from 100 to 120 lbs. " On the Assyrian obelisk in the British Museum tribute bearers are seen carrying tusks; specimens of carvings in ivory were found in Nimrud, and tablets inlaid with blue and opaque glass
Meet - ) To come into the presence of without contact; to come close to; to intercept; to come within the perception, influence, or recognition of; as, to meet a train at a junction; to meet carriages or persons in the street; to meet friends at a party; sweet sounds met the Ear
Accord - It occurs in Mark 4:28 , of the power of the Earth to produce plants and fruits of itself; Acts 12:10 , of the door which opened of its own accord. , Leviticus 25:5 , "spontaneous produce;" Leviticus 25:11 , "produce that comes of itself;" Joshua 6:5 ; 2 Kings 19:29 , "(that which groweth) of itself;" Job 24:24 , of an Ear of corn "(falling off) of itself (from the stalk)
Letter - As sounds are audible and communicate ideas to others by the Ear, so letters are visible representatives of sounds, and communicate the thoughts of others by means of the eye. Letters, in the plural, learning erudition as a man of letters
Adder - ' The wicked are compared to the deaf adder that stoppeth her Ears. There is an old tradition that the adder sometimes laid one Ear in the dust and covered the other with its tail; but they have no external Ears: that all known adders can hear is well attested by those called serpent charmers, though some species are more easily attracted than others
Wisdom: to Win Souls - When a Cheap-Jack has a little knot of people round his van, he eyes them all, and feels sure that the man who is standing over there is a butcher, and that yonder young lad has more money than brains, and that the girl near him is out with her sweetheart and is soon to be married; now, mark, he will hold up the exact articles which afe likely to attract these customers, and in his harangue, he will have jokes and telling sentences which will turn butcher, and lad, and lass into purchasers. He knows that his trade will be better pushed by homely remarks and cutting sentences than by the prosiest prettinesses which were ever delivered; and he gains his end, which is more than those of you will do who talk to people about their souls with as much richness of diction as: ...
'The girl who at each pretty phrase let drop A ruby comma, or pearl full-stop, Or an emerald semicolon. Would to God that preachers and other workers for God had a tithe as much common- sense as Cheap-Jack, and were half as Earnest to bring men to Jesus Christ as Cheap-Jack is to bring them to buy that tea-tray and set of real china! 0 that we were as wise to win the Ear and heart of the particular case with which we have to deal, as he is in extorting a laugh and compelling the
Raphael - he appears as ‘brother Azarias ’ to accompany Tobias on his journey to Media. he directs Tobias to take the heart, liver, and gall of a fish, manages the marriage, binds the demon, fetches money from Rages, and heals Tob 12:12-20 gives his description of himself, a passage which probably became the groundwork of later speculations. The doctrine of the Divine aloofness made it hard to conceive that man could have direct access to the Ear of God, any more than a subject could enter into the presence of an Oriental monarch, or that He could interfere directly in the petty affairs of men. 7, where he is ordered to bind Azazel (so 54), and heal the Earth which the angels have defiled; and 40
Beard - In consonance with this Egyptian usage, Scripture, with the undesigned propriety of truth, represents Joseph as having "shaved his beard," which he had allowed to grow in prison, before entering Pharaoh's presence (Genesis 41:14). Many Egyptians wore a false beard of plaited hair, private individuals small ones, kings long ones square below, the gods one turning at the end. Their enemies are represented bearded on the monuments. shave off) the corners of their beards" (Leviticus 19:27; Leviticus 21:5). Baal worshippers rounded the beard and hair to make their faces round, like the sun. The Arabs trimmed their beard round in sign of dedication to some idol. Possibly the Israelites retained the hair between the Ear and eye, which the Arabs shaved away (Jeremiah 9:26 margin; Jeremiah 25:23; Jeremiah 49:32; compare Herodotus, 3:8). ...
The beard is sworn by in the E. An insult to it was resented as a gross outrage, as David did when Hanun shaved off half the beards of his ambassadors (2 Samuel 10:4). Only the nearest friends were permitted to touch the beard, which marks the foul treachery of Joab in taking his cousin Amasa's beard to kiss him, or rather it (2 Samuel 20:9). The precious ointment flowed from Aaron's head at his consecration, upon his beard (Psalms 133:2). The leper, at purification, had to shave his head and beard and eyebrows (Leviticus 14:9)
Angel - The angels were created at or near the time when the material world came into existence, and were placed by God in a state of probation or trial. ...
Devotion to the angels can be traced to the Earliest ages of the Church. ...
As an emblem in art, an angel is associated with ...
Gabriel the Archangel Michael the Archangel Raphel the Archangel Saint Angelus of Jerusalem Carmelite with an angel bringing him three crowns...
Saint Matthew the Evangelist man with an angel whispering in his Ear as he writes...
Saint Roch...
man being healed by an angel...
Ever - Psalms 111 ...
Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. ...
His master shall bore his Ear through with an awl, and he shall serve him forever. Let no man fear that creature ever the less, because he sees the apostle safe from his poison
Gross - Tell her of things that no gross Ear can hear
Theodosius, a Monophysite Monk - His protestations were credited by a large number of the monks and people, and having gained the Ear of the empress dowager Eudocia, the former patroness of Eutyches, who had settled at Jerusalem, he so thoroughly poisoned the minds of the people of Jerusalem against JUVENAL as a traitor to the truth that they refused to receive him as their bishop on his return from Chalcedon, unless he would anathematize the doctrines he had so recently joined in declaring
Hebrew Language - "...
Symbolical phrases are frequent: "incline the Ear"; "stiffen the neck," i. to be perverse; "to uncover the Ear," i. There may be a Hamitic element in Hebrew, considering that the Canaanites who spoke it when Abram entered Canaan were Hamites; even though they probably acquired it from Earlier Semitic occupants of Canaan, they would infuse a Hamitic element themselves. The Hamites and Nimrod took the lead in building Babel, which entailed the confusion of tongues; their tongue accordingly is found more confounded into endless varieties of dialect than the Semitic and Japhetic, whose dialects bear a nearer resemblance among themselves than the Turanian and other Hamitic dialects. As Hebrew sprang from the confusion of Babel, it cannot have been the language of Adam and the whole Earth when there was but one speech; still, though an offshoot like the rest, it may retain most of the primitive type, a view which the Hebrew Bible names favor, though these be modified from the original form
Roll - ) To beat a drum with strokes so rapid that they can scarcely be distinguished by the Ear. ) The uniform beating of a drum with strokes so rapid as scarcely to be distinguished by the Ear. ) To move, as a curved object may, along a surface by rotation without sliding; to revolve upon an axis; to turn over and over; as, a ball or wheel rolls on the Earth; a body rolls on an inclined plane. ) To perform a periodical revolution; to move onward as with a revolution; as, the rolling year; ages roll away
Drum - ) To throb, as the heart. ) One of the cylindrical, or nearly cylindrical, blocks, of which the shaft of a column is composed; also, a vertical wall, whether circular or polygonal in plan, carrying a cupola or dome. ) The tympanum of the Ear; - often, but incorrectly, applied to the tympanic membrane
Fret - To fret or gnaw gives the sense of unevenness, roughness, in substances the like appearance is given to fluids by agitation. To rub to wear away a substance by friction as, to fret cloth to fret a piece of gold or other metal. To corrode to gnaw to Ear away as, a worm frets the planks of a ship. To impair to wear away. By starts, his fretted fortunes give him hope and fear. To wear away to chafe to gall. To eat or wear in to make way of attrition or corrosion. In heraldry, a bearing composed of bars crossed and interlaced
Plow - The imagery of cutting up or tearing up a field with a plow easily lent itself to the figurative use of the word to mean mistreatment by others: “The plowers plowed upon my back: they made long their furrows” ( where chârâsh is translated by the old English term, “to Ear the ground”!...
B
Barley - It derives its Hebrew name from the long hairy beard which grows upon the Ear. In Egypt the barley harvest was later; for when the hail fell there, Exodus 9:31 , a few days before the passover, the flax and barley were bruised and destroyed: for the flax was at its full growth, and the barley began to form its green Ears; but the wheat, and more backward grain, were not damaged, because they were only in the blade, and the hail bruised the young shoots which produce the Ears. 1 Kings 4:28 ; and from Homer and other ancient writers we learn, that barley was given to horses
Earrings - Judges 8:24 seems to imply that the Israelite men did not wear them, as did the Ishmaelites; but Exodus 32:2 proves that young "sons" wore them. There were besides netiphot (Judges 8:26), not "collars" but pearlshaped "ear drops," or jewels attached to the rings, or else pendent scent bottles, or pendants from the neck on the breast, "Chains" KJV (Isaiah 3:19; Isaiah 3:21), "earrings" (leehashim , from laachash "to whisper"), AMULETS with magic inscriptions, and so surrendered along with the idols by Jacob's household (Genesis 35:4). The "phylacteries," headbands, totapkot (Matthew 23:5) in the Talmudists' opinion were the sanctioned antidote to the idolatrous amulets and "earrings" (Deuteronomy 6:7-8; Deuteronomy 11:18-19; contrast Hosea 2:13; Isaiah 3:21, lechashim . But the language in Deuteronomy and in Exodus 13:9; Exodus 13:16 is rightly taken by the Karaite Jews as proverbial, not literal; as is apparent from the reason added, "that the law of Jehovah may be in thy mouth"; for it is by receiving the law into the heart, and by keeping it, that it would be naturally on the tongue continually
Requirement - God's general requirement for his people is to fear and love him, to walk in all his ways, to serve him wholeheartedly, and to keep his instructions (Deuteronomy 10:12-13 ). It is not "burnt offering and sin offering" that God "requires" so much as an Ear open to hear and obey God's instructions from his Book (Psalm 40:6-8 )
Adder - ...
(1) Αkshub, ("one that lies in ambush"), swells its skin, and rears its head back for a strike. Serpents are without tympanic cavity and external openings to the Ear. The deaf adder is not some particular species; but whereas a serpent's comparative deafness made it more amenable to those sounds it could hear, in some instances it was deaf because it would not hear (Jeremiah 8:17; Ecclesiastes 10:11). So David's unrighteous adversaries, though having some little moral sense yet left to which he appeals, yet stifled it, and were unwilling to hearken to the voice of God. Shrill sounds, as the flute, are what serpents can best discern, for their hearing is imperfect. That the naja haie was the "fiery serpent," or serpent inflicting a burning bite, appears from the name Ras-om-Haye (Cape of the haje serpents) in the locality where the Israelites were bitten (Numbers 21:6)
Legion - One is in the scene at Gethsemane, when Peter cut off the Ear of the high priest’s slave (Matthew 26:53); the other occurs in the narrative about the man with the unclean spirit in the country of the Gerasenes (Mark 5:9; Mark 5:15, Luke 8:30; but not in Matthew’s account, which gives two men)
Calf, Golden - The Ear-rings of the women, of the sons and daughters, and probably of the men, were given up for the object
Seasons - When God created the lights in the firmament He said, "Let them be for signs and for seasons," and it is well known that the different seasons on the Earth are in great measure caused by the days being longer or shorter, and thus having more or less of the heat of the sun. After the flood, God declared that while the Earth remained the seasons should continue, Genesis 8:22 these fall approximately thus:...
1. Seed-time follows what was called 'the Early rain,' in October and November, and continues till January. Harvest commences in sheltered places as Early as the beginning of April: in the hill country it is a month later; and in the north it extends to the end of July. In February and March, apple, pear, plum, and apricot trees are in blossom. In August the great heat begins to dry up the vegetation, and it gradually changes the whole scene into what appears to be a dry and barren land; but the Early rains soon show that it is only the surface that is parched. "Twenty thousand measures of wheat" year by year were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber. Some of the names of the months apparently point to the time of the year in which they fell. Thus Abib signifies 'budding' or 'ear of corn'; Zif, 'blossom'; and Bul , 'rain
Grow - Until within a few years, we never heard grow used as a transitive verb in New England, and the Ear revolts at the practice
Ring - ) To repeat often, loudly, or Earnestly. ) Specifically, a circular ornament of gold or other precious material worn on the finger, or attached to the Ear, the nose, or some other part of the person; as, a wedding ring
Mount Olivet - And here my contemplating soul would listen to the angel's words who graced the Lord Jesus's triumph, and still hear, in the Ear of faith, their blessed tidings vibrating in the sweetest sound on my ravished senses--"Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come, in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven
Slave - Exodus 21:2 provided that no Israelite bound to service could be forced to continue in it more than six years. ...
Leviticus supplements this by giving every Hebrew the right to claim freedom for himself and family in the Jubilee year, without respect to period of service, and to recover his land. If a married man became a bondman, his rights to his wife were respected, she going out with him after six years' service. If as single he accepted a wife from his master, and she bore him children, she and they remained the master's, and he alone went out, unless from love to his master and his wife and children he preferred staying (Exodus 21:6); then the master bored his Ear (the member symbolizing willing obedience, as the phrase "give Ear" implies) with an awl, and he served for ever, i. until Jubilee year (Leviticus 25:10; Deuteronomy 15:17); type of the Father's willing Servant for man's sake (compare Isaiah 50:5; Psalms 40:6-8; Hebrews 10:5; Philippians 2:7). ...
A Hebrew sold to a stranger sojourning in Israel did not go out after six years, but did at the year of Jubilee; meantime he might be freed by himself or a kinsman paying a ransom, the object of the law being to stir up friends to help the distressed relative. His brethren should see that he suffered no undue rigour, but was treated as a yearly hired servant (Leviticus 25:47-55). (Exodus 12:43; Deuteronomy 16:10; Deuteronomy 29:10-13; Deuteronomy 31:12), the hearing of the law, the Sabbath and Jubilee rests
Oil - ...
...
it was to be applied to the Ear so that the hearing would be entirely Godward, and for the Word of GOD. ...
Isaiah 61:3 (b) The joy of heart, the freedom of soul, and the radiance of spirit are compared to oil because of its sweetness, smoothness and value. ...
Luke 10:34 (c) It may be that the oil represents the kind, sweet comforting words that were spoken, and the wine represents the courage and the new hope brought to the heart of this wounded man
Earth - EarTH, n. Earth, in its primary sense, signifies the particles which compose the mass of the globe, but more particularly the particles which form the fine mold on the surface of the globe or it denotes any indefinite mass or portion of that matter. We throw up Earth with a spade or plow we fill a pit or ditch with Earth we form a rampart with Earth. This substance being considered, by ancient philosophers, as simple, was called an element and in popular language, we still hear of the four elements, fire, air,earth, and water. In chimistry, the term Earth was, till lately, employed to denote a simple elementary body or substance, tasteless, inodorous, uninflammable and infusible. The primitive Earths are reckoned ten in number, viz, silex, alumin, lime, magnesia, baryte, strontian, zircon, glucin, yttria and thorina. Recent experiments prove that most or all of them are compounds of oxygen with bases, some of which appear to possess the properties of metals. In this case the Earths are to be considered as metallic oxyds. The Earth is nearly spherical, but a little flatted at the poles, and hence its figure is called an oblate spheroid. It is nearly eight thousand miles in diameter, and twenty five thousand miles in circumference. Its distance from the sun is about ninety five millions of miles,and its annual revolution constitutes the year of 365 days, 5 hours, and nearly 49 minutes. The whole Earth was of one language. God called the dry land Earth. ...
In scripture, Earth is used for a part of the world. The ground the surface of the Earth. He fell to the Earth. The ark was lifted above the Earth. In the second month--was the Earth dried. In scripture, things on the Earth, are carnal, sensual, temporary things opposed to heavenly, spiritual or divine things. from Ear, L. EarTH, To hide in the Earth. ...
The fox is Earthed. To cover with Earth or mold. EarTH, To retire under ground to burrow. Here foxes Earthed
Bow - Bow down thine Ear to the poor
Woman - It appears about 781 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods of the language. Therefore, it appears in correlation to “man” (ish): “… She shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man” () it appears to connote “bride” or “betrothed one”: “And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in unto her. 7:26 uses the word generically of “woman” conceived in general, or womanhood: “And I find more bitter than death the woman, whose heart is snares and nets …” (cf. ...
This word can also be used figuratively describing foreign warriors and/or heroes as “women,” in other words as weak, unmanly, and cowardly: “In that day shall Egypt be like unto women: and it shall be afraid and fear because of the shaking of the hand of the Lord of hosts …” ( Ear receive the word of his mouth, and teach your daughters wailing, and every one her neighbor lamentation
Deaf And Dumb - —(a) It appears impossible to separate these two maladies of deafness and dumbness, whether one approaches them from the standpoint either of the scientist or of the student. The consequence of the former disease is that the sense of hearing is diminished or abolished; the consequence of the latter is that the power of articulating sounds is defective or impossible. There is, indeed, no physiological connexion between the maladies; but the acute stage of either leaves the patient now with a correspondent incapacity of hearing, now with a correspondent incapacity for speaking. ]'>[1] of the dumb Earth† [3]8 It is thus only by a slight metaphorical turn that the adjective stands to describe the impairment or loss of powers of the mind or body; and so of vision, of hearing, and articulating. ’ This free transference of the adjective by the same writer, as descriptive now of the one malady and now of the other, is clearly not due to any scientific knowledge of the Second Evangelist; it was enough for him that it connoted the crushing, maiming character of both diseases. The sufferer’s Ears were opened, his tongue was no longer a prisoner, speech came back orderly and intelligible to those around. Blindness does not interrupt personal relationship as deafness and dumbness do, and, the moment hearing and speech are recovered, the results and consequences are communicable to others. The open eye, clear, candid, trustful, is a figure it faith throughout both Testaments (Psalms 119:18; Psalms 121:1, Proverbs 20:12, Mark 8:18, John 12:40, Romans 11:8). With equal force the open Ear is significant of obedience. Students of the Psalter and of the Prophets will bear in mind the denunciations poured, both for spiritual deafness and dumbness, upon a people which refused to listen to the voice of Jehovah, and which was silent when the Divine Name and His praise were concerned (Psalms 81:11 etc. On the other hand, again, through both Testaments, from Samuel to St John the Divine, a commendation and blessing has ever attended the Ear willing to receive, the lips open to prayer and to praise. And so of all the spiritual gifts, most dear to Apostolic men was παρρησία
Anthropomorphitae - The one takes the Scripture passages which speak of God's arm hand eye Ear mouth etc. But within the Christian church anthropomorphism appeared from time to time as an isolated opinion or as the tenet of a party
Metals - The Hebrews, in common with other ancient nations, were acquainted with nearly all the metals known to modern metallurgy, whether as the products of their own soil or the results of intercourse with foreigners. One of the Earliest geographical definitions is that which describes the country of Havilah as the land which abounded in gold , and the gold of which was good. The "northern iron" of ( Jeremiah 15:12 ) is believed more nearly to correspond to what we call steel [1] It is supposed that the Hebrews used the mixture of copper and tin known as bronze. ( Joshua 7:21 ) The great abundance of gold in Early times is indicated by its entering into the composition of all articles of ornament and almost all of domestic use. Among the spoils of the Midianites taken by the Israelites in their bloodless victory when Balaam was slain were Earrings and jewels to the amount of 16,750 shekels of gold, (Numbers 31:48-54 ) equal in value to more than ,000. Seventeen hundred shekels of gold (worth more than ,000) in nose jewels (Authorized Version "ear-rings") alone were taken by Gideon's army from the slaughtered Midianites. Though gold was thus common, silver appears to have been the ordinary medium of commerce
Declamation - The preacher should not roar like a common crier, and rend the Ear with a voice like thunder; for such kind of declamation is not only without meaning and without persuasion, but highly incongruous with the meek and gentle spirit of the Gospel. An air of complacency and benevolence, as well as devotion, should be constantly visible in the countenance of the preacher; but every appearance of affectation must be carefully avoided; for nothing is so disgustful to an audience as even the semblance of dissimulation. Eyes constantly rolling, turned towards heaven, and streaming with tears, rather denote a hypocrite than a man possessed of the real spirit of religion, and who feels the true import of what he preaches. On the other hand, he must avoid every appearance of mirth or raillery, or of that cold unfeeling manner which is so apt to freeze the heart of his hearers
Ephphatha - ]'>[1] equivalent אחפתח, presents several interesting peculiarities bearing on the dialect spoken by our Lord. (1) We note the disappearance of the guttural ח. The daghesh forte is also singularly treated in Ματθαῖος from מַחִּי,א and Ζακχαῖος from וַכָי (4) The appearance of ε in ἐφφαθα may possibly indicate that the dialect spoken by our Lord used the Syriac prefix אָח eth with passive forms, and not אח ith, as is found in Palestinian Aramaic; in other words, used Ethpaal for Ithpaal. It may be the mouth, as in Luke 1:64 (so Weiss, Morison), or the Ear, as in Targ
I - It is this short sound of the French and Italian 1which we hear in the pronunciation of been, which we pronounce bin. The sound, if continued,closes with one that nearly approaches to that of e long. This sound can be learned only by the Ear. We often hear in popular language the phrase it is me, which is now considered to be ungrammatical, for it is I. ...
In the plural, we use we, and us, which appear to be words radically distinct from I. ...
Johnson observes that Shakespeare uses I for ay or yes
Feet - The whole body enters much more into biblical ideas of personality than the modern reader usually recognizes (see articles Ear, Head). The Oriental habit of prostration before the feet of a superior, in fear or reverence, is illustrated by Sapphira (Acts 5:10), Cornelius (Acts 10:25), John (Revelation 1:17; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:8; cf
Can, May - ” This word is used about 200 times in the Old Testament, from the Earliest to the latest writings. 13:6: “And the land was not able to bear them, that they might dwell together. …” God promised Abraham: “And I will make thy seed as the dust of the Earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the Earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered” ( Ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken. The word yâkôl appears when God limits His patience with the insincere: “When the Lord could no longer endure your wicked actions … , your land became an object of cursing …” ( Circumcision - ...
Ancient Near Eastern background Several Semitic and non-Semitic peoples practiced circumcision according to biblical and other sources. Circumcision of the heart implies total devotion to God (Deuteronomy 10:16 ; Jeremiah 4:4 ); however, the uncircumcised Ear cannot hear so as to respond to the Lord (Jeremiah 6:10 ); and the uncircumcised of lips cannot speak (Exodus 6:12 ). ...
Circumcision and Christianity Controversy arose in the Early church (Acts 10-15 ) as to whether Gentile converts need be circumcised. Circumcision of the heart via repentance and faith were the only requirements (Romans 4:9-12 ; Galatians 2:15-21 )
Grief And Mourning - Tears are repeatedly mentioned, “My tears have been my meat day and night” (Psalm 42:3 ). “Thou tellest my wanderings: put thou my tears into thy bottle” (Psalm 56:8 ). We have already noted Mary's tears and even those of Jesus. From this and other statements we can learn ways in which we can minister to grief-stricken people:...
1) Realize the gift of presence. Provide the awesome power of the listening Ear. It sometimes takes as much as two years to work through a grief experience
Number - In poetry, measure the order and quantity of syllables constituting feet, which render verse musical to the Ear. ...
Golden number, the cycle of the moon, or revolution of 19 years, in which time the conjunctions, oppositions and other aspects of the moon are nearly the same as they were on the same days of the month 19 years before. If a man can number the dust of the Earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered
Hear - ...
Shâma‛ (שָׁמַע, Strong's #8085), “to hear, hearken, listen, obey, publish. ...
Basically, this verb means to “hear” something with one’s Ears, but there are several other nuances. 37:17, a man told Joseph that he “heard” Joseph’s brothers say, “Let us go to Dothan”; in other words, he unintentionally “overheard” them say it. Shâma‛ can also be used of “eavesdropping, or intentionally listening in on a conversation; so Sarah “overheard” what the three men said to Abram ([1] …” (1 Kings 15:22). ...
“Hearing” can be both intellectual and spiritual. Spiritually, one may “hear” God’s Word (
To have a “hearing heart” is to have “discernment” or “understanding” (1 Kings 3:9). Certainly when Moses told Israel’s judges to “hear” cases, he meant more than listening with one’s Ear. ...
Shôma‛ (שֹׁמַע, Strong's #8089), means “things heard by accident; hearsay. ” This word appears infrequently in the Old Testament, as in
Circumcision, Uncircumcision, Circumcise - ...
The rite had a moral significance, Exodus 6:12,30 , where it is metaphorically applied to the lips; so to the Ear, Jeremiah 6:10 , and the heart, Deuteronomy 30:6 ; Jeremiah 4:4 . ...
B — 1: ἀπερίτμητος (Strong's #564 — Adjective — aperitmetos — ap-er-eet'-may-tos ) "uncircumcised" (a, negative, peri, "around," temno, "to cut"), is used in Acts 7:51 , metaphorically, of "heart and Ears. , "to draw over, to become uncircumcised," as if to efface Judaism, appears in 1 Corinthians 7:18
Corn - Wheat was often eaten in the field, the ripe Ear being simply rubbed in the hands to separate the kernels, Deuteronomy 23:25 Matthew 12:1 . As the grinding was usually performed in the morning at daybreak, the noise of the females at the hand-mill was heard all over the city, and often awoke their more indolent masters
Canticle - (Latin: canticum, song) ...
In the Divine Office, a sacred chant or prayer from Scripture apart from the Psalms, to which it bears a resemblance, however, in structure and poetic form. Scriptural canticles have found a place in the Office from the Earliest times. ...
Give Ear, O ye heavens. ...
Hear the word of the Lord, O ye nations. ...
O Lord, I have heard Thy speech. ...
My heart rejoiceth in the Lord. At Lauds, daily throughout the year. At Vespers daily throughout the year. At Compline daily throughout the year
Amos, Book of - " Three witnesses were adequate testimony; four is the cup running over, of which the four quarters of the Earth can testify. Though judgements would come there would be a remnant left, as when a shepherd recovers from a lion "two legs or a piece of an Ear " — a small remnant indeed! Amos 3:12 . He would destroy them from off the face of the Earth, but not utterly : a remnant should be saved, Amos 9:9
Go Away, Leave - If this division is accepted, gâlâh (1) appears about 112 times and gâlâh (2) about 75 times. ” This meaning is seen clearly in Isaiah 24:11 could be translated: “The gaiety of the Earth departs. ...
Although gâlâh is not used in this sense in the law of Moses, the idea is clearly present. If Israel does not “observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name, The Lord Thy God; … ye shall be plucked from off the land whither thou goest to possess it. “To uncover someone’s Ears” is to tell him something: “Now the day before Saul came, the Lord had revealed [3] to Samuel …” (
Jeremi'ah - 626) to the prophetic office, and prophesied forty-two years; but we have hardly any mention of him during the eighteen years between his call and Josiah's death, or during the short reign of Jehoahaz. The danger which Jeremiah had so long foretold at last came near. Timid in resolve, he was unflinching in execution; as fearless when he had to face the whole world as he was dispirited and prone to murmuring when alone with God. He saw the nation going straight to irremediable ruin, and turning a deaf Ear to all warnings
Nail - The nail of Jael's tent with which she killed Sisera, is called יתד ; it was formed for penetrating Earth, or other hard substances, when driven by sufficient force, as with a hammer, &c; it includes the idea of strength. These nails, therefore, were of necessary and common use, and of no small importance in all their apartments; and if they seem to us mean and insignificant, it is because they are unknown to us, and inconsistent with our notions of propriety, and because we have no name for them but what conveys to our Ear a low and contemptible idea. The dignity and propriety of the metaphor appear from the use which the Prophet Zechariah makes of it: "Out of him cometh forth the corner, out of him the nail, out of him the battle bow, out of him every oppressor together," Zechariah 10:4
Jeremi'ah - 626) to the prophetic office, and prophesied forty-two years; but we have hardly any mention of him during the eighteen years between his call and Josiah's death, or during the short reign of Jehoahaz. The danger which Jeremiah had so long foretold at last came near. Timid in resolve, he was unflinching in execution; as fearless when he had to face the whole world as he was dispirited and prone to murmuring when alone with God. He saw the nation going straight to irremediable ruin, and turning a deaf Ear to all warnings
Leper - Tuberculated patients live (on the average) for only ten years more; anesthetic for 20. Sometimes one limb alone is affected with a dead pearl-like whiteness (compare Exodus 4:6, "Moses' hand was leprous as snow;" Numbers 12:10; Numbers 12:12, "as one dead, of whom the flesh is half consumed when he cometh out of his mother's womb;" 2 Kings 5:27). " Hence he had to wear the badges of mourning, a covering upon his upper lip, and was regarded "as one dead" (Leviticus 13:45; Numbers 12:12). Its application to the Ear, hand, and foot marked that every organ was now consecrated to God, the Ear to hear and obey, the hand to perform God's will, and the foot to run upon God's errands. Man's body and man's Earthly home must be dissolved, that a heavenly body and a new Earth untainted with sin may succeed. ...
When the leprosy was spread over the whole person from head to foot (Leviticus 13:12-13) with none of the proper symptoms of elephantiasis the man was clean, his disease was the common white leprosy or dry tetter, red pimples with scaly surface spreading until it covers the body, not much affecting the health and disappearing of itself. Sin is least fatal and nearest removal when brought to the surface by hearty confession to God, then our Highpriest Jesus completely cleanses us (1 John 1:8-9). The death spots soon after death appearing on a corpse, and spreading until the whole is decomposed, answer to the leprosy spots
Heart - "Heart" (Hebrew lebab/leb [1], Gk. ...
The Heart as Center of Physical Activity . "Heart" denotes to both ancient and modern peoples the beating chest organ protected by the rib cage. Ancient people, however, understood the heart's physical function differently than moderns. From their viewpoint the heart was the central organ that moved the rest of the body. Ancients ate to strengthen the heart and so revive the body. Abraham offers his weary guests food so that they might "sustain their hearts" and then go on their way (Genesis 18:5 ). The hiddenness and inaccessibility of the physical heart give rise to its figurative sense for anything that is remote and inaccessible. The "heart of the seas" (Jonah 2:3 ) refers to the sea's fathomless, unapproachable depths and the "heart of the heavens" is its most unreachable height. ...
The Heart as Center of Hidden Emotional-Intellectual-Moral Activity . "Man looks at the outward appearance, " says Samuel, "but the lord looks at the heart" (1 Samuel 16:7 ). The king's heart is unsearchable to humankind (Proverbs 25:3 ), but the Lord searches all hearts to reward all according to their conduct (Jeremiah 17:10 ). In the time of judgment God will expose the hidden counsels of the heart (1 Corinthians 4:5 ). ...
Jesus says that the heart's secrets are betrayed by the mouth, even as a tree's fruit discloses its nature (Matthew 12:33-34 ). "A wise man's heart guides his mouth, " says Solomon (Proverbs 16:23 ). Most important, the mouth confesses what the heart trusts (Romans 10:9 ; cf. ...
Moderns connect some of the heart's emotional-intellectual-moral functions with the brain and glands, but its functions are not precisely equivalent for three reasons. ...
Second, the heart's reasoning, as well as its feeling, depends on its moral condition. Jesus said that "from within, out of men's hearts, come evil thoughts" (Mark 7:21 ). Because the human heart is deceitful above all things (Jeremiah 17:9 ) and folly is found up in the heart of a child (Proverbs 22:15 ), the Spirit of God must give humans a new heart (Jeremiah 31:33 ; Ezekiel 36:26 ) through faith that purifies it (Acts 15:9 ; cf. ...
Third, moderns distinguish between the brain's thoughts and a person's actions, but the distinction between thought and action is inappropriate for heart. "The word is very near you, " says Moses to a regenerated Israel, "in your mouth and in your heart" (Deuteronomy 30:14 ). ...
The Heart's Emotional Functions . The Lord, who knows our hearts (Luke 16:15 ), experiences its full range of emotions: for example, its joy (Deuteronomy 28:47 ; 1 Samuel 2:1 ; Proverbs 15:15 ) and its sorrow (1 Samuel 1:8 ); its raging (2 Kings 6:11 ) and its peace (Colossians 3:15 ); its feeling troubled (John 14:1 ) and its rejoicing (1 Samuel 2:1 ; Psalm 104:15 ); its love (Romans 5:5 ; 1 Peter 1:22 ) and its selfish ambition (James 3:14 ); its modes of doubts (Mark 11:23 ) and of fear (Genesis 42:28 ) and its mode of trusting (Proverbs 3:5 ); when it rises up in repulsive pride (Deuteronomy 8:14 ) or, as in the case of Jesus, is lowly and humble (Matthew 11:29 ); and when one loses heart (Hebrews 12:3 ) or takes heart (John 16:33 ). ...
The emotional state of the heart affects the rest of a person: "A happy heart makes the face cheerful, but heartache crushes the spirit" (Proverbs 15:13 ); "a cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones" (17:22). ...
The heart also wishes, desires. The father warns his son against coveting the adulteress's beauty (Proverbs 6:25 ) and against envying sinners in his heart (Proverbs 23:17 ). Above all else the heart of a saint seeks God (Psalm 119:2,10 ). This is effected, says Jesus, by putting your treasures in heaven, for "where your treasure is, there your heart will be also" (Matthew 6:21 ). If we look for God with all our heart, Moses promises we will find him (Deuteronomy 4:28-29 ). ...
The Heart's Intellectual-Spiritual Functions . The heart thinks (Matthew 9:4 ; Mark 2:8 ), remembers, reflects, and meditates (1618420706_42 ; Luke 2:19 ). Solomon's comprehensive knowledge of flora and fauna is described as his breadth of heart (1 Kings 4:29 ). ...
More specifically, as the eyes were meant to see and the Ears to hear, the heart is meant to understand, to discern, to give insight. the Hebrew text of Proverbs 2:10 , "wisdom will enter your heart" by "wisdom will come into your understanding (dianoian [3])" because to them it meant the same thing. When a person lacks insight the Hebrew speaks of a "lack of heart. Isaiah was commissioned: "Make the heart of this people calloused; otherwise they might understand with their hearts" (Isaiah 6:10 ). Pharaoh hardened his heart lest he hear Moses and gain insight about the Lord (Exodus 8:15 ), and the Lord hardened it irrevocably (7:13; 9:12). Paul says of the perverse, their foolish hearts were darkened (Romans 1:21 ); they could not see the light of moral truth. The hearts of saints, however, are enlightened (2Col 4:6; Ephesians 1:18 ). ...
Moderns speak of learning by heart, by which they mean rote memory. In the Bible, however, learning by heart is not like memorizing the multiplication tables; it must be mixed with spiritual affections. The Lord complains of apostate Israel that their worship "is made up only of rules taught by men" but "their hearts are far from me" (Isaiah 29:13 ). ...
As the mouth reveals what is the heart, the Ear determines what goes into it. The father tells his son to "store up my commands within you"; he then adds: by "turning your Ear to wisdom, and you will incline your heart to understanding" (Proverbs 2:2 ). When Moses says, "these commandments are to be upon your hearts" (Deuteronomy 6:6 ), he commands his hearers to remain conscious of them. This idea is expressed by the metaphor of writing on the tablet of the heart (Proverbs 3:3 ; Jeremiah 17:1 ). In short, the heart needs to be educated by filling it with God's word (Proverbs 22:17-18 ). ...
The heart functions as the conscience. After David showed insubordination against the anointed king by cutting off the corner of his robe, his heart smote him (1 Samuel 24:5 ), and after Peter's sermon the audience was "cut to the heart" (Acts 2:37 ). The heart may condemn us, but God is greater than our hearts (1 John 3:20 ). David prays that God would create for him a pure heart to replace his defiled conscience (Psalm 51:10 ). ...
Finally, the heart plans, makes commitments, and decides. "In his heart a man plans his course, but the Lord determines his steps" (Psalm 20:4 ). Because of this critical function, the father instructs the son: "Above all else, guard your heart, for it is the wellspring of life (4:23). The Lord detests "a heart that devises wicked schemes" (6:18). ...
The greatest commandment according to Jesus is "Love the Lord your God with all your heart" (Matthew 22:37 ). ...
One speaks to the heart of another to move that person to a decision (Isaiah 40:2 ; Hosea 2:14 ). The father asks the son for his heart (Proverbs 23:26 ), by which he means that the son make a conscious decision to follow his instructions. The impenitent, however, have hearts that are insensitive, obstinate (Mark 3:5 ; 6:52 ), and hard (Matthew 19:8 ); they cannot be moved in a new direction. Waltke...
See also Hardening, Hardness of Heart ...
Bibliography
Hegesippus, Father of Church History - Nothing positive is known of his birth or Early circumstances. It thus appears that he was at Rome in the days of Anicetus and made his inquiries then, but did not publish them till considerably later. 167, and published it in the time of Eleutherus, perhaps Early in his episcopate. 120 or Earlier, he may well be described as having lived near the times of St. Further, Eusebius, who has preserved the narrative of Hegesippus, and the Early Fathers who allude to it, appear to have placed in it implicit confidence; and there is nothing improbable in most, if not even in all, of the particulars mentioned. Such confidence appears to have been deserved. Hegesippus had an inquiring mind, and had travelled much; he endeavoured to learn all he could of the past and present state of the churches that he visited: at Corinth the first epistle of Clement excited his curiosity; at Rome the history of its Early bishops. 219) where Hegesippus comments on the words "Eye hath not seen nor Ear heard neither have entered into the heart of man the things which God hath prepared for the just," "Such words are spoken in vain and those who use them lie against the Holy Scriptures and the Lord Who says 'Blessed are your eyes for they see and your Ears for they hear. he who is about to be initiated]'>[1] has sworn this oath he goes on to the Good One and beholds 'whatever things eye hath not seen and Ear hath not heard and which have not entered into the heart of man'" (Hippolytus Ref. ...
In the light of these considerations, Hegesippus appears to have been not a Judaizing but a Catholic Christian; and, if so, he becomes a witness not only for the catholicity in the main of the Christian church of the 2nd cent
Christ, Miracles of - ...
Healing of the nobleman's son (John 4)
Cure of the mother-in-law of Peter (Matthew 8; Mark 1; Luke 4)
Cleansing of the leper (Matthew 8; Mark 1; Luke 5)
Healing of the paralytic (Matthew 9; Mark 2; Luke 5)
Healing of the impotent man at Bethesda (John 5)
Restoring of the man with the withered hand (Matthew 12; Mark 3; Luke 6)
Healing of the centurion's servant (Matthew 8; Luke 7)
Healing of one blind and dumb (Matthew 12; Luke 11)
Healing of the woman with an issue of blood (Matthew 9; Mark 5; Luke 8)
Opening of the eyes of two blind men (Matthew 9)
Cure of the dumb man (Matthew 9)
Healing of the deaf and dumb man (Mark 7)
Opening the eyes of one blind at Bethsaida (Mark 8)
Healing the lunatic child (Matthew 17; Mark 9; Luke 9)
Opening of the eyes of one born blind (John 9)
Restoring the woman with a spirit of infirmity (Luke 13)
Healing of the man with the dropsy (Luke 14)
Cleansing of the ten lepers (Luke 17)
Opening the eyes of the blind man near Jericho (Matthew 20; Mark 11; Luke 18)
Healing of Malchus's Ear (Luke 22)
DELIVERANCE OF DEMONIACS ...
General formulas regarding the driving out of devils (Mark 1) indicate that such acts of deliverance were very numerous during Our Lord's public life.
VICTORIES OVER HOSTILE WILLS ...
Under this heading Catholic scholars admit a greater or smaller number of miracles; it is not clear in certain cases whether the incidents in which Our Lord wielded extraordinary power over His enemies were cases of supernatural intervention of Divine power, or the natural effects of the ascendancy of His human will over that of other men. There are two cases which appear to most Catholic commentators to involve a supernatural display of power over wills: (1) the casting out of the vendors (John 2; Matthew 21; Mark 11; Luke 19); (2) the episode of the escape from the hostile crowd at Nazareth (Luke 4)
Miracles of Christ - ...
Healing of the nobleman's son (John 4)
Cure of the mother-in-law of Peter (Matthew 8; Mark 1; Luke 4)
Cleansing of the leper (Matthew 8; Mark 1; Luke 5)
Healing of the paralytic (Matthew 9; Mark 2; Luke 5)
Healing of the impotent man at Bethesda (John 5)
Restoring of the man with the withered hand (Matthew 12; Mark 3; Luke 6)
Healing of the centurion's servant (Matthew 8; Luke 7)
Healing of one blind and dumb (Matthew 12; Luke 11)
Healing of the woman with an issue of blood (Matthew 9; Mark 5; Luke 8)
Opening of the eyes of two blind men (Matthew 9)
Cure of the dumb man (Matthew 9)
Healing of the deaf and dumb man (Mark 7)
Opening the eyes of one blind at Bethsaida (Mark 8)
Healing the lunatic child (Matthew 17; Mark 9; Luke 9)
Opening of the eyes of one born blind (John 9)
Restoring the woman with a spirit of infirmity (Luke 13)
Healing of the man with the dropsy (Luke 14)
Cleansing of the ten lepers (Luke 17)
Opening the eyes of the blind man near Jericho (Matthew 20; Mark 11; Luke 18)
Healing of Malchus's Ear (Luke 22)
DELIVERANCE OF DEMONIACS ...
General formulas regarding the driving out of devils (Mark 1) indicate that such acts of deliverance were very numerous during Our Lord's public life.
VICTORIES OVER HOSTILE WILLS ...
Under this heading Catholic scholars admit a greater or smaller number of miracles; it is not clear in certain cases whether the incidents in which Our Lord wielded extraordinary power over His enemies were cases of supernatural intervention of Divine power, or the natural effects of the ascendancy of His human will over that of other men. There are two cases which appear to most Catholic commentators to involve a supernatural display of power over wills: (1) the casting out of the vendors (John 2; Matthew 21; Mark 11; Luke 19); (2) the episode of the escape from the hostile crowd at Nazareth (Luke 4)
Spiritual Gifts - He was the unique bearer of the Spirit (Mark 1:10 ). Peter made it quite clear that the Spirit would continue to be given to all who accepted the Christian gospel (Acts 2:38 ). The church, he said, is the body of Christ; each Christian is a member (eye, Ear, leg); and each member has its appropriate ability (to see, or hear, or walk). ...
Which specific gift is the most valuable one? Paul's answer to this is clear and emphatic: the one gift all Christians should have, love (1 Corinthians 12:31-13:1 )
Caiaphas (2) - When, after the raising of Lazarus, the ‘high priests and Pharisees’ held a meeting of the Sanhedrin (informal, as Caiaphas does not appear to have presided), it was Caiaphas who gave the ironically prophetic advice that it was expedient that one man should die for the people (John 11:50). John, contemplating that sentence years after, could not but feel that there was something in those words deeper than met the Ear, a truth almost inspired, which he did not hesitate to call prophetic’ (F. In saying that ‘being high priest that same year he prophesied,’ the Evangelist does no more than claim for the theocratic head of the nation the function which might be supposed to be latent in his office (cf. John of the statement that Caiaphas was high priest ‘that same year’ (Authorized Version; Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘that year’) has been made the ground of charging the Fourth Evangelist with ignorance of the fact that the high priest might hold office for more than one year. But this criticism rests on a misapprehension of the phrase (τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου), which emphasizes not the date, but the character of the year = ‘that fateful year’ (cf. Whether this took place in the ‘palace’ of Caiaphas, where Annas was living, or elsewhere, is not clear. ...
Caiaphas appears again in Acts 4:6 in company with Annas and others, as initiating the persecution of the Apostles, and in the later proceedings is probably the ‘high priest’ referred to in Acts 5:17; Acts 5:21; Acts 5:27; Acts 7:1; Acts 9:1. Maclaren, Christ in the Heart, 255; E
Chaff - ...
In reaping it was often the practice to leave all the straw, except an inch or two cut off with the Ear. The chaff well represented (1) the insincerity and hypocrisy of the national religious leaders, profession without substance, looking at a distance like grain, but proving on near inspection to be chaff; and (2) the light irresponsibility, the absence of true principle, in the people who accepted this formalism and pretence as genuine grain of godliness. The Christ would come as Malachi (Malachi 3:1-5) predicted, with searching and striking condemnation of all that was worthless and injurious; and the comparative slowness and indirectness of our Lord’s method was the moving cause of his perplexed question, when he heard in the prison the works of Christ, and sent his disciples to ask, ‘Art thou he that should come, or look we for another?’ (Matthew 11:3, Luke 7:19)
Head - ) An Ear of wheat, barley, or of one of the other small cereals. ) The uppermost, foremost, or most important part of an inanimate object; such a part as may be considered to resemble the head of an animal; often, also, the larger, thicker, or heavier part or extremity, in distinction from the smaller or thinner part, or from the point or edge; as, the head of a cane, a nail, a spear, an ax, a mast, a sail, a ship; that which covers and closes the top or the end of a hollow vessel; as, the head of a cask or a steam boiler. ) To form a head; as, this kind of cabbage heads Early
Salvation - "Eye hath not seen, nor Ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. It is to have a new principle of life infused into our souls; to have the Holy Spirit resident in our hearts, whose comfortable influence must ever cheer and refresh us, and by whose counsels, we may be always advised, directed, and governed. ...
Finally, to be saved as Christ came to save mankind, is to be translated, after this life is ended, into a state of eternal felicity, never more to die or suffer, never more to know pain and sickness, grief and sorrow, labour and weariness, disquiet, or vexation, but to live in perfect peace, freedom, and liberty, and to enjoy the greatest good after the most perfect manner for ever. It is to have our bodies raised again, and reunited to our souls; so that they shall be no longer gross, Earthly, corruptible bodies, but spiritual, heavenly, immortal ones, fashioned like unto Christ's glorious body, in which he now sits at the right hand of God
Peter - He received his second call, and began to accompany Christ, at the Sea of Galilee near his residence, and thenceforth learned to be a "fisher of men," Matthew 4:18-20 Luke 5:1-11 . Among these are, his attempt to walk on the water to meet Christ, Matthew 14:29 ; his avowal of the Messiahship and divinity of the Savior, Matthew 16:16 ; his errors as to the design of Christ's incarnation, Matthew 16:22-23 ; his warm attachment to the divine Teacher, John 6:67-69 ; his cutting off the Ear of Malchus, John 18:10 ; his boastful determination to adhere to his Master under all circumstances, and his subsequent denial of Him with oaths, Matthew 26:74 Mark 14:29 John 13:37-38 ; his poignant repentance, Matthew 26:75 , and our Lord's forgiveness, after receiving an assurance of his love, which was thrice uttered as his denial of Christ had been, John 21:15-18 . On the day of Pentecost, he was one of the principal witnesses for the Savior; in company with John he soon after healed a lame man at the temple gate, addressed the assembled crowd, was imprisoned, and fearlessly vindicated himself before the Sanhedrin, Acts 4:8-21 . ...
The Bible gives us little information as to his subsequent labors; but it is probable that the three apostles who were most distinguished by the Savior while upon Earth continues to be favored as chief instruments in advancing his cause
Servant - The households of some of the Early patriarchs contained many servants, who were apparently treated with kindness and justice; the highest trusts were sometimes confided to them, and they might inherit their master's estate, Genesis 14:11-16 15:2-4 24:1-10 . He might become bound to this service in various ways, chiefly through poverty, Exodus 21:7 Leviticus 25:39-47 ; to acquit himself of a debt he could not otherwise pay, 2 Kings 4:1 ; to make restitution for a theft, Exodus 22:3 ; or to Earn the price of his ransom for captivity among heathen. This form of service could not continue more than six or seven years; unless, when the Sabbatical year came round, the servant chose to remain permanently or until the Jubilee with his master, in token of which he suffered his Ear to be bored before witnesses, Exodus 21:2,6 25:40
Fruit - Paul) with the ‘two olive trees’ of Zechariah 4; and Revelation 6:13 in its mention of a fig-tree casting her unripe figs in the spring tempests recalls Isaiah 34:4, Revelation 14:14-20 is a vision of the harvest and vintage of the Earth when the grain and the grapes are fully ripe. ...
(1) The way is now clear for a brief survey of the main topic-the fruits of the new life in Christ Jesus. It was the Apostle’s greatest joy when he could congratulate a church like that at Colossae on its share in the fruit-bearing which the gospel was accomplishing wherever it was proclaimed and accepted (Colossians 1:6), when it bore fruit in every good work (Colossians 1:10). the seed which bears the fruit) of righteousness is sown in peace for them that make peace. The list may be supplemented, for example, by Hebrews 13:15, where ‘praise’ is the fruit of a thankful heart expressed by the lips, and Romans 15:28, where the generosity of the Gentile Christians towards the Judaea n poor is the fruit of the spiritual blessing which St. ...
(3) The time of fruit-bearing. -It is the will of Jesus that His disciples should bear ‘much fruit’; in His words on this theme (John 15) He does not seem to contemplate the possibility of bearing a little. There is a time for the blade and a time for the full corn in the Ear, but before we get this harvest there is the period of the green and unsatisfying Ear. He will learn amongst other things how vital is the process of pruning, and how no stroke is made at random. He will learn how to guard the nascent life against frosts and chills, its need of nutriment from soil and sun and rain. And as palm trees are said to bear their heaviest clusters in old age, the life that abides in Christ may be confident of escaping the reproach or crabbed and withered senility-it shall bring forth fruit in old age. But it need not wait for old age-it shall be like the tree of life that bears its fruit every month-fruit that is for the delectation and the healing of the world
Calf, Golden - From the golden Ear-rings of their wives and children he fashioned an image of a young bull; this, rather than ‘calf,’ is the rendering of the Heb. Evidence, both literary and monumental, has accumulated in recent years, showing that among their Semitic kin the bull was associated with various deities as the symbol of vital energy and strength
Floor - Thus Gideon's floor appears to have been in the open air, Judges 6:37 ; and also that of Araunah the Jebusite, 2 Samuel 24, otherwise it would not have been a proper place for erecting an altar, and offering sacrifices. It appears, therefore, that a threshing floor, which is rendered in our textual translation, "a void place," might well be near the entrance of the gate of Samaria, and a proper situation in which the kings of Israel and Judah might hear the prophets, 1 Kings 22:10 ; 2 Chronicles 18:9 . An instrument sometimes used in Palestine and the east, to force the corn out of the Ear, and bruise the straw, was a heavy kind of sledge made of thick boards, and furnished beneath with teeth of stone or iron, Isaiah 41:15 . The wain was nearly similar to this instrument, but had wheels with iron teeth, or edges like a saw. After this, with the fork just described, they cast the whole some yards from thence, and against the wind; which driving back the straw, the corn and the Ears not threshed out fall apart from it, and make another heap. They afterward place in a ring the heaps, in which a good many entire Ears are still found, and drive over them for four or five hours together ten couple of oxen joined two and two, till by absolute trampling they have separated the grains, which they throw into the air with a shovel to cleanse them
Obedience, Obedient, Obey - A — 1: ὑπακοή (Strong's #5218 — Noun Feminine — hupakoe — hoop-ak-o-ay' ) "obedience" (hupo, "under," akouo, "to hear"), is used (a) in general, Romans 6:16 (1st part), RV, "(unto) obedience," AV, "(to) obey;" here "obedience" is not personified, as in the next part of the verse, "servants . Philippians 2:8 ); Hebrews 5:8 , which refers to His delighted experience in constant "obedience" to the Father's will (not to be understood in the sense that He learned to obey). Faith is of the heart, invisible to men; obedience is of the conduct and may be observed. When a man obeys God he gives the only possible evidence that in his heart he believes God. 2, and arche, "rule"), is translated "obey" in Acts 5:29,32 ; "to be obedient," Titus 3:1 , RV (AV, "to obey magistrates"); in Acts 27:21 , "hearkened. " See HEARKEN. 1), "giving Ear, subject," occurs in Acts 7:39 , RV, "(would not be) obedient," AV, "(would not) obey;" 2 Corinthians 2:9 ; Philippians 2:8 , where the RV "even" is useful as making clear that the "obedience" was not to death but to the Father
Hear, Hearing - A — 1: ἀκούω (Strong's #191 — Verb — akouo — ak-oo'-o ) the usual word denoting "to hear," is used (a) intransitively, e. Thus in Acts 9:7 , "hearing the voice," the noun "voice" is in the partitive genitive case [1], whereas in Acts 22:9 , "they heard not the voice," the construction is with the accusative. The former indicates a "hearing" of the sound, the latter indicates the meaning or message of the voice (this they did not hear). In John 5:25,28 , the genitive case is used, indicating a "sensational perception" that the Lord's voice is sounding; in John 3:8 , of "hearing" the wind, the accusative is used, stressing "the thing perceived. " ...
That God "hears" prayer signifies that He answers prayer, e. , John 1:40 , "one of the two which heard John speak," lit. , "heard from beside John," suggesting that he stood beside him; in John 8:26,40 , indicating the intimate fellowship of the Son with the Father; the same construction is used in Acts 10:22 ; 2 Timothy 2:2 , in the latter case, of the intimacy between Paul and Timothy. See HEARKEN. 1), has two meanings, (a) "to hear and obey," 1 Corinthians 14:21 , "they will not hear;" (b) "to hear so as to answer," of God's answer to prayer, Matthew 6:7 ; Luke 1:13 ; Acts 10:31 ; Hebrews 5:7 . ...
A — 3: διακούω (Strong's #1251 — Verb — diakouo — dee-ak-oo'-om-ahee ) "to hear through, hear fully" (dia, "through," and No. 1), is used technically, of "hearing" judicially, in Acts 23:35 , of Felix in regard to the charges against Paul. ...
A — 4: ἐπακούω (Strong's #1873 — Verb — epakouo — ep-ak-oo'-o ) "to listen to, hear with favor, at or upon an occasion" (epi, "upon," and No. 1), is used in 2 Corinthians 6:2 (RV, "hearken"). ...
A — 6: προακούω (Strong's #4257 — Verb — proakouo — pro-ak-oo'-o ) signifies "to hear before" (pro), Colossians 1:5 , where Lightfoot suggests that the preposition contrasts what they heard before, the true Gospel, with the false gospel of their recent teachers. ...
A — 7: παρακούω (Strong's #3878 — Verb — parakouo — par-ak-oo'-o ) primarily signifies "to overhear, hear amiss or imperfectly" (para, "beside, amiss," and No. 1); then (in the NT) "to hear without taking heed, to neglect to hear," Matthew 18:17 (twice); in Mark 5:36 the best mss. , "overhearing"); some mss. 1, AV, "hearing. 1, denotes (a) "the sense of hearing," 1 Corinthians 12:17 ; 2 Peter 2:8 ; a combination of verb and noun is used in phrases which have been termed Hebraic as they express somewhat literally an OT phraseology, e. , "By hearing ye shall hear," Matthew 13:14 ; Acts 28:26 , RV, a mode of expression conveying emphasis; (b) "the organ of hearing," Mark 7:35 , "ears;" Luke 7:1 , RV, "ears," for AV, "audience;" Acts 17:20 ; 2 Timothy 4:3,4 ; Hebrews 5:11 , "dull of hearing," lit. , "dull as to Ears;" (c) "a thing heard, a message or teaching," John 12:38 , "report;" Romans 10:16 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:13 , "the word of the message," lit. "the word of hearing" (AV, "which ye heard"); Hebrews 4:2 , "the word of hearing," RV, for AV, "the word preached;" in a somewhat similar sense, "a rumor, report," Matthew 4:24 ; 14:1 ; Mark 1:28 , AV, "fame," RV, "report;" Matthew 24:6 ; Mark 13:7 , "rumors (of wars);" (d) "the receiving of a message," Romans 10:17 , something more than the mere sense of "hearing" [2]; so with the phrase "the hearing of faith," Galatians 3:2,5 , which it seems better to understand so than under (c). See Ear , FAME , PREACH , REPORT , RUMOR. ...
Notes: (1) For diagnosis (investigation, followed by decision), rendered "hearing" in Acts 25:21 , AV, see DECISION. (2) For the phrase to be dull of hearing, lit. , "to hear heavily," Matthew 13:15 ; Acts 28:27 , see DULL. (3) For akroaterion, "a place of hearing," Acts 25:23 , see PLACE
Symbol - Various actions and relationships are symbolically indicated, such as the giving of the hand (compact), foot on the neck (conquest), bored Ear (perpetual servitude), washing of the hands (innocence), bared or outstretched arm (energy), gnashing of teeth (disappointment and remorse), shaking the head (contempt and disapproval), averted face (angry repudiation), bread (hospitality), cross (suffering of Christ, and suffering for Him). Of this class were the sculptured emblems of the Early Christians in the catacombs of Rome, such as the palm, dove, anchor, ship, fish, Alpha and Omega
Tradition - Whately likened tradition to the Russian game a number sit in a circle, the first reads a short story in the Ear of his next neighbour, he repeats it orally to the next, and so on; the last writes it as it, reaches him; the amusement is, when read and compared with the original story it is found wholly metamorphosed, and hardly recognizable as the same story
Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea - The adroit Acacius soon gained the Ear of the weak Constantius, and finding that the favour he had shown to the bold blasphemies of Aetius had to some degree compromised him with his royal patron, he had no scruple in throwing over his former friend
Ever, Everlasting - It appears about 440 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods. , to remember yesterday, plan for tomorrow, and consider abstract principles); yet He has not given him divine knowledge: “He hath made every thing beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end. The same construction can signify “as long as one lives”: “I will not go up until the child be weaned, and then I will bring him, that he may appear before the Lord, and there abide for everw ( Ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever. 61:8, where it appears by itself: “So will I sing praise unto thy name for ever, that I may daily perform my vows
Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus - Hilary, more nearly orthodox than most of his associates (Hilar. ]'>[1] The wily Acacians, however, speedily gained the Ear of Constantius, and secured the deposition of their semi-Arian rivals, including Eleusius, a
Maximus the Cynic, Bishop of Constantinople - More than once he Earned a flogging for his misdeeds and was finally banished to the Oasis. We hear of him next at Corinth, with a high reputation for religion, leading about a band of females—"the swan of the flock"—under colour of devotion (Carm. Gregory devotes a considerable number of the biting iambics of his poem, de Vita Sua , to this man, who, however, before long completely gained his Ear and heart. The simple-hearted Gregory was completely duped by Maximus, even delivering a panegyrical oration, in the man's own presence in full church, before the celebration of the Eucharist, inviting him to stand by his side and receive the crown of victory. They had set the Cynic on the archiepiscopal throne and had just begun shearing away his long curls when the day dawned. The magistrates appeared with their officers; Maximus and his consecrators were driven from the cathedral, and in the tenement of a flute-player the tonsure was completed. He appears also to have written against Gregory, the latter replying in a set of caustic iambics (Carm
Petrus, Surnamed Fullo - Tillemont shews considerable skill in harmonizing various statements of his Earlier life (Empereurs , t. 463, Peter's unbridled ambition soared to the patriarchal throne, then filled by Martyrius, and having gained the Ear of the rabble, be adroitly availed himself of the powerful Apollinarian element among the citizens and the considerable number who favoured Eutychian doctrines, to excite suspicions against Martyrius as a concealed Nestorian, and thus caused his tumultuous expulsion and his own Election to the throne. But notwithstanding the imperial authority, Peter's personal influence, supported by the favour of Zeno, was so great in Antioch that Martyrius's position was rendered intolerable and, wearied by violence and contumely, he soon left Antioch, abandoning his throne again to the intruder
Arrest - The soldiers would march in order, but the temple-servants, armed with cudgels and carrying lamps and torches, gave it the appearance of a mere rabble (cf. ‘I am he,’ He answered, making perhaps to advance towards them and surrender Himself; and, overawed by His tone and bearing, they retreated and fell on the ground. ‘The chamber in which he happened to be lying having no very bright light but being gloomy, it is said that the eyes of Marius appeared to dart a great flame on the soldier, and a loud voice came from the old man: “Darest thou, fellow, to slay C. ‘I am he,’ said Wesley, confronting them fearlessly; and they fell back and let him go unmolested. ]'>[8] and, assailing a slave of the high priest named Malchus, cut off his right Ear. Working His hands free from the cords and craving a brief release: ‘Let me go—just thus far,’ He touched the wounded Ear and healed it. ’ What had kept them from arresting Him in the temple-court? It was fear of the multitude (cf. A solitary figure (εἷς τις) strangely attired had been hovering near during the rencontre—‘a young man arrayed in a linen sheet‡ Darius - ...
Cyrus, having taken such a prince 20 years before Babylon's capture, advanced him to be deputy king of Babylon. Daniel's statement that Darius was 62 years old accords with Xenophon that when Cyaxares gave Cyrus his daughter he gave him along with her the Median kingdom, himself having no male heir, and being so old as not to be likely to have a son. ) As he restored the Magian faith, effecting a religious as well as political revolution, he readily gave Ear to the enemies of the Jews whose restorer Cyrus had been (Ezra 4:7-24). Their enemies, hoping that Smerdis had destroyed Cyrus' decree, informed the king of the Jews' proceeding and proposed that the archives at Babylon should be searched to see whether Cyrus had ever really given such a decree. In his second year Haggai (Haggai 1:1; Haggai 2:1; Haggai 2:10) and Zechariah (Zechariah 3-4; Zechariah 7:1-3) the prophets encouraged Zerubbabel and Jeshua to resume the building of the temple that had been discontinued (Ezra 5). in four years it was completed, i. in the sixth year of Darius (Ezra 6:15), in 516 B. In this same year he suppressed with severity a Babylonian revolt
Priest; Priesthood - 16:5-7: “And he spake unto Korah and unto all his company, saying, Even tomorrow the Lord will show who are his, and who is holy; and will cause him to come near unto him: even him whom he hath chosen will he cause to come near unto him. Then Aaron the high priest dressed in holy garments with a breastplate over his heart, and there was placed on his head a holy crown— the mitre or turban ( Ear, on the thumb of the right hand, and on the great toe of the right foot. ...
The duties of the priesthood were very clearly defined by the Mosaic law. ” This verb, which appears 23 times in biblical Hebrew, is derived from the noun kohen. The verb appears only in the intensive stem
Vanity - Even here the primary negative force of the word is clearly discernible; the man’s conceit is ‘vain,’ that is to say, his conception of himself is devoid of real content. Paul describes the creation as ‘subject to vanity’ ( Romans 8:20 ), he has in mind the marring of its perfection and the frustration of its Creator’s purpose by sin; nevertheless, the groanings of creation are, to his Ear, the utterance of its hope of redemption
Bone - ...
Psalm 51:8 (a) By this figure David describes the misery of his heart because of his sin. The good news brings new life and strength into the heart and soul. ...
...
Proverbs 17:22 (a) Diseased bones are a type of the bad news that causes the heart to faint, the strength to fail, and joy to cease. ...
Proverbs 25:15 (b) Here is indicated that a kind answer will soften the hard heart of an enemy and will break down his resistance. All the bones were there, even the tiny Ear bones. These bones represent the fact that there was a former life which had disappeared
Understanding - , for critical comparison, ‘to bring the outward object into connexion with the inward sense’ (Liddell and Scott), ‘to put the perception with the thing perceived’ (Grimm-Thayer), to ‘apprehend the bearings of things’ (Lightfoot, Col. The hearer ‘by the wayside’ differs from ‘him that was sown upon good ground’ in this, that the former ‘understandeth not’ while the latter ‘understandeth’—the former does not apprehend the bearing of what he hears on practical conduct, the latter sees the bearing and acts accordingly. The former ‘does not recognize himself as standing in any relation to the word which he hears or to the kingdom of grace which that word proclaims’ (Trench, Parables, in loc. and other words—ἀκούειν, Matthew 13:13-15; Matthew 13:23, Mark 7:14, Luke 8:10, the sound of the word spoken falling on the Ear contrasted with the exercise of such criticism as leads to the apprehending of its personal bearing: νοεῖν, Mark 8:17, perceiving contrasted with Earnest reflexion. In Luke 2:50; Luke 18:34; Luke 24:45, where it occurs in the narrative, the meaning of apprehending the significance of the word spoken, recognizing its tearing on the circumstances (the mission of Jesus, the crucifixion, and the sufferings), is apparent. The process of digestion, the multiplication of the loaves, the passage read, the word heard, are objects first of sensation, then of attention, and lastly of reflexion, in order that their true bearing may be apprehended
Liberality - These were collected at different centres abroad, and then sent by certain specially appointed ‘ambassadors’ to Jerusalem, where they were placed in three large chests within the Temple, which were opened with great solemnity at certain seasons of the year. His injunctions to love enemies (Matthew 5:44-46, Luke 6:27-28), to refrain from passing judgment on others (Matthew 7:1-5, Luke 6:37), and indirectly, the parable of the Good Samaritan, afford instances in which He condemns the spirit of prejudice and inculcates an open mind and generous bearing towards others. The claim to which no follower of Christ is to turn a deaf Ear is that of need. The complete bestowal of Earthly possessions on the poor, accompanied by ‘taking up the cross’ and following Christ, which is required of the rich young ruler in addition to the observance of the commandments (Matthew 19:21, Mark 10:21, Luke 18:22), is not necessarily a rule of universal obligation, but evidently intended to meet this special case; underlying it is the idea, never absent from our Lord’s teaching as to the use of wealth, that wealth is a trust from God, and to be renounced when it becomes a hindrance to spiritual life. The gift is to be brought to the altar only after reconciliation to an offended brother (Matthew 5:23-24); outward liberality being thus shown to be unacceptable to God unless the heart be filled with the spirit of love. ’ The answer of John the Baptist (Luke 3:11) may be quoted as in accordance with the teaching of our Lord: liberality is here shown to be an evidence of repentance, and a practical testimony to a change of heart
Popularity - True popularity is that love and admiration which unselfish devotion to the welfare of others, springing from the whole-hearted love of God, cannot fail to arouse in the breasts of all who have eyes to see and hearts to understand the good and pure. The hypocrites who sound a trumpet before them when they do their alms, who pray at the corners of the streets for all to see, who disfigure their faces that they may appear to men to fast, are examples of those who seek and obtain the reward of false popularity. His aim was to change the world from within outward—not to attach good fruit to a worthless tree, but to make the tree good, and to await the fruit which in due time it was bound to bear. Even to employ His miraculous power to gain the Ear of His own countrymen He put from Him as a temptation (Matthew 4:1-10 || Luke 4:1-13); and when, aroused to enthusiasm by their miraculous feeding, the multitude would fain have taken Him by force to make Him their king, He fled from them (John 6:15). He would have nought to do with any enthusiasm, however sincere, that was based upon a false conception of the nature of His Messiahship, that sprang from admiration of His power and the hope of sharing its blessings, and not from the clear perception of His holiness and the longing to share it (John 2:23-25). The kind of impression which He wished to make was that which expressed itself in such phrases as—‘Never man so spake’ (John 7:46); ‘He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes’ (Matthew 7:29); ‘The common people heard him gladly’ (Mark 12:37). It was neither to nor by flesh and blood that He desired to reveal Himself and to win a place in the hearts of men, but to the Divine germ within each soul, and by the revelation of the Heavenly Father (Matthew 16:17). He had come to send not peace on the Earth, but a sword and fire (Matthew 10:34 || Luke 12:51), the sword which would part brother from brother and father from son—the fire which should try and reveal the essential nature of each heart. But the more the world persecutes them, the more must they bear testimony to the cause of Christ by their loving fellowship one with another. The truest popularity, the truest greatness, is to belong to the humble heart that ever preferreth other to itself, that rejoiceth to minister and to serve, to give itself freely to all even as Christ did (Matthew 20:28 || Mark 10:45)
Fox - Parkhurst observes that this is the name of an animal, probably so called from its burrowing, or making holes in the Earth to hide himself or dwell in. The reason, indeed, assigned by Ovid, is too frivolous an origin for so solemn a rite; and the time of its celebration, the seventeenth of April, it seems, was not harvest time, when the fields were covered with corn, vestilos messibus agros; for the middle of April was seed time in Italy, as appears from Virgil's Georgics. For instance from the book of Exodus we learn, that before the passover, that is, before the fourteenth day of the month Abib, or March, barley in Egypt was in the Ear, Exodus 12:18 ; Exodus 13:4 . Scaliger and Olearius, quoted by Bochart, expressly call the jackal a fox; and Mr. In illustration of the pertinency of this allusion, we may quote a remark of Busbequius: "I heard a mighty noise, as if it had been of men who jeered and mocked us
Popularity - True popularity is that love and admiration which unselfish devotion to the welfare of others, springing from the whole-hearted love of God, cannot fail to arouse in the breasts of all who have eyes to see and hearts to understand the good and pure. The hypocrites who sound a trumpet before them when they do their alms, who pray at the corners of the streets for all to see, who disfigure their faces that they may appear to men to fast, are examples of those who seek and obtain the reward of false popularity. His aim was to change the world from within outward—not to attach good fruit to a worthless tree, but to make the tree good, and to await the fruit which in due time it was bound to bear. Even to employ His miraculous power to gain the Ear of His own countrymen He put from Him as a temptation (Matthew 4:1-10 || Luke 4:1-13); and when, aroused to enthusiasm by their miraculous feeding, the multitude would fain have taken Him by force to make Him their king, He fled from them (John 6:15). He would have nought to do with any enthusiasm, however sincere, that was based upon a false conception of the nature of His Messiahship, that sprang from admiration of His power and the hope of sharing its blessings, and not from the clear perception of His holiness and the longing to share it (John 2:23-25). The kind of impression which He wished to make was that which expressed itself in such phrases as—‘Never man so spake’ (John 7:46); ‘He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes’ (Matthew 7:29); ‘The common people heard him gladly’ (Mark 12:37). It was neither to nor by flesh and blood that He desired to reveal Himself and to win a place in the hearts of men, but to the Divine germ within each soul, and by the revelation of the Heavenly Father (Matthew 16:17). He had come to send not peace on the Earth, but a sword and fire (Matthew 10:34 || Luke 12:51), the sword which would part brother from brother and father from son—the fire which should try and reveal the essential nature of each heart. But the more the world persecutes them, the more must they bear testimony to the cause of Christ by their loving fellowship one with another. The truest popularity, the truest greatness, is to belong to the humble heart that ever preferreth other to itself, that rejoiceth to minister and to serve, to give itself freely to all even as Christ did (Matthew 20:28 || Mark 10:45)
Illustrations - ...
Stories and similes, concrete facts and instances, catch the Ear of the people. He who would win their attention must trick out his message in pictorial garb; he must weave in his truth with Earthly fact and incident on the loom of fancy. Truth pictured makes vivid appeal to the eye, and what the eye sees the memory retains, store for mind and heart to brood over. A tale may enter in at lowly doors, bearing its load of truth and suggestion, when a truth stated abstractly would remain without. When Jesus said (Matthew 7:9-11), ‘What man is there of you, who, if his son ask a loaf, will give him a stone? If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him?’, He was aiming at something more than a clear and striking presentation of His truth. He was speaking from the heart to the heart, appealing to their feeling for what is highest and best, for what is reasonable to faith in goodness. His illustration was an argument addressed to the heart. The better nature is enlisted against the man forgiven who was not made thereby tender-hearted and pitiful. When the lawyer put the searching question, ‘But who is my neighbour?’ (Luke 10:29), Jesus told the story of the Good Samaritan. It rather sets before the heart the beauty of kindness, and its power to break down barriers between men which the neighbourhoods of race and religion may leave standing. An idea, such as that all men are potentially brothers, is apt to be barren, without conviction, without power of intellectual or spiritual inspiration; a story such as this appeals to the human heart by which we live, that tenderness in us which leaps up in admiration of a good man’s deed. ...
The aim of our Lord’s teaching was not enlightenment, the bringing of clear ideas to the mind: it was to create faith and sustain it. ’ It is by the heart that man believes unto salvation. The heart has its own reasons: visions of what is noble and fair, spells mighty there. And Jesus’ illustrations are mostly pictures painted for that inward eye, music played that the Ear of faith there may hear. Jesus is speaking of hopes and fears they comprehend not; and, looking on them in their ignorance, it was natural that the words of old prophecy, with their kindred pathos and irony, should come to His lips, and He should speak about those who hearing understood not and whose hearts were darkened. Clearness and directness of speech are not the only sources of enlightenment. ’ A truth stated objectively, indirectly, in the form of a story, may not compel the understanding; careless ones may hear it as though they heard it not; but it has greater effectiveness with those who receive it. When Stephen stood before the Sanhedrin, he said: ‘Ye stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and Ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers did, so do ye’ … (Acts 7:51 ff. Jesus says to His enemies, ‘Hear another parable’; and after the parable of the Two Sons, He tells the parable of the Householder and his Vineyard. That is a way of persuasion; sympathy and love, which are the sources of persuasiveness, have woven a vesture for the truth that, through the imagination, it may reach the heart. their witness to the man He was, their revealing of His mind and heart. ’ The thought there is of a stress put upon His mind through a sympathetic accommodation to His simple unlearned hearers, as though He first had a thought, and then searched for some simple familiar picture to express it. ‘The learned eye is still the loving one. His heart was amid the pell-mell of ordinary life, ordinary men, and ordinary duties; His thoughts of religion found their sphere there
Ephesians, Epistle to - That to the Ephesians does not seem to have originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter springing from Paul's love to the church there, and indicative of his Earnest desire that they should be fully instructed in the profound doctrines of the gospel. It contains (1) the salutation (1:1,2); (2) a general description of the blessings the gospel reveals, as to their source, means by which they are attained, purpose for which they are bestowed, and their final result, with a fervent prayer for the further spiritual enrichment of the (Ephesians (1:3-2:10);); (3) "a record of that marked change in spiritual position which the Gentile believers now possessed, ending with an account of the writer's selection to and qualification for the apostolate of heathendom, a fact so considered as to keep them from being dispirited, and to lead him to pray for enlarged spiritual benefactions on his absent sympathizers" ((2:12-3:21);); (4) a chapter on unity as undisturbed by diversity of gifts (4:1-16); (5) special injunctions bearing on ordinary life ((4:17-6:10);); (6) the imagery of a spiritual warfare, mission of Tychicus, and valedictory blessing (6:11-24). On his second visit, Early in the following year, he remained at Ephesus "three years," for he found it was the key to the western provinces of Asia Minor. It was evidently written from Rome during Paul's first imprisonment (3:1; 4:1; 6:20), and probably soon after his arrival there, about the year 62, four years after he had parted with the Ephesian elders at Miletus. "The letters of the apostle are the fervent outburst of pastoral zeal and attachment, written without reserve and in unaffected simplicity; sentiments come warm from the heart, without the shaping out, pruning, and punctilious arrangement of a formal discourse. There is such a fresh and familiar transcription of feeling, so frequent an introduction of coloquial idiom, and so much of conversational frankness and vivacity, that the reader associates the image of the writer with every paragraph, and the Ear seems to catch and recognize the very tones of living address. The great probability is that the epistle to Colosse was first written; the parallel passages in Ephesians, which amount to about forty-two in number, having the appearance of being expansions from the epistle to Colosse. Overjoyed with the account which their messenger had brought him of their faith and holiness ( Ephesians 1:15 ), and transported with the consideration of the unsearchable wisdom of God displayed in the work of man's redemption, and of his astonishing love towards the Gentiles in making them partakers through faith of all the benefits of Christ's death, he soars high in his sentiments on those grand subjects, and gives his thoughts utterance in sublime and copious expression
Give - To yield to lend in the phrase to give Ear, which signifies to listen to hear. To show to exhibit in false appearance. Let us give ourselves wholly up to Christ in heart and desire. The Earth gives under the feet. ...
To give off, to cease to forbear
Nahum (2) - Nahum in Elkosh of Galilee was probably among those of northern Israel, after the deportation of the ten tribes, who accepted Hezekiah's Earnest invitation to keep the Passover at Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 30). His graphic description of Sennacherib and his army (2 Chronicles 1:9-12) makes it likely he was near or in Jerusalem at the time. Nisroch) thy grave," foretells Sennacherib's murder 20 years after his return from Palestine, "as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god" (Isaiah 37:38). The correspondence of sentiments in Nahum with those of Isaiah and Hezekiah implies he wrote when Sennacherib was still besieging and demanding the surrender of Jerusalem (Nahum 1:2 ff, with 2 Kings 19:14-15; Nahum 1:7 with 2 Kings 18:22; 2 Kings 19:19; 2 Kings 19:31; 2 Chronicles 32:7-8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with 2 Kings 19:22; 2 Kings 19:27-28; Nahum 1:14 with 2 Kings 19:6-7; Nahum 1:15 and Nahum 2:1-2 with 2 Kings 19:32-33; Nahum 2:13, "the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard," namely, Rabshakeh the bearer of Sennacherib's haughty message, with 2 Kings 19:22-23). ...
The historical facts presupposed in Nahum are Judah's and Israel's humiliation by Assyria (Nahum 2:2); the invasion of Judah (Nahum 1:9-11); the conquest of No-Amon or Thebes in Upper Egypt, probably by Sargon (Isaiah 20) who, fearing lest Egypt should join Palestine against him, undertook an expedition against it, 717-715 B. , 100 years before the event foretold, namely, the overthrow of Nineveh by the joint forces of Cyaxares and Nabopolassar in the reign of Chyniladanus, 625 or else 603 B. Clear and forcible. Melting softness and delicacy alternate with rhythmical, sonorous, and majestic diction, according as the subject requires; the very sound of the words conveys to the Ear the sense (Nahum 2:4; Nahum 3:3)
Manasseh (1) - Their name should be a formula of blessing, "God make thee as Ephraim and Manasseh," and they should "grow as fish do increase" (a natural image near the fish abounding Nile): Genesis 48:16; Genesis 48:20. Ephraim and Manasseh) the "precious things of the Earth" by "the good will of Him that dwelt in the bush, "in contrast to Joseph's past "separation from his brethren," his horns like the two of the wild bull (not "unicorn"), namely, "the ten thousands of Ephraim and the thousands of Manasseh shall push," etc. But 40 years later, at Jordan, Manasseh 52,700, Ephraim 32,590 (Numbers 26:34-37). "...
After the fall of the ten tribes, Psalm 80 expresses Judah's prayer of sympathy for her sister: "give Ear, O Shepherd of Israel, Thou that leadest Joseph like a flock
Cry - Luke 8:28 ἀνακράξας); Mark 9:26 || Luke 9:39; of the disciples, Matthew 14:28 (‘and they cried out for fear’); with ref. ...
In this connexion the passage in James 5:4 deserves notice: ‘Behold the hire of your lahourers … crieth out (κράζει); and the cries (βοαί) of them that reaped have entered into the Ears of the Lord of Sabaoth. —This passage, which has direct reference to our Lord, calls for special notice here: ‘Who, in his days of flesh, having offered up, with strong crying (μετὰ κραυγῆς ἰσχυρᾶς) and tears, prayers and supplications unto him that was able to save him out of death,’ etc. ]'>[8] quotes a Jewish saying which strikingly illustrates the phrase: ‘There are three kinds of prayers, each loftier than the preceding: prayer, crying, and tears. Prayer is made in silence; crying, with raised voice: but tears overcome all things. Psalms 39:13 :...
‘Hear my prayer, O Lord,...
And give Ear unto my cry (שועתי);...
Hold not thy peace at my tears. According to Jewish tradition, in the solemn prayer for forgiveness uttered by the high priest on the Day of Atonement in the Holy of Holies, the words אנא השם כפר ‘O Lord, forgive,’ were spoken with heightened voice, so that they could be heard at a distance
Husbandry - To these communities just mentioned, which excelled in this particular all the others of antiquity, may be added that of the Hebrews, who learned the value of the art while remaining in Egypt, and ever after that time were famous for their industry in the cultivation of the Earth. The person who had thus come into possession could not alienate the property for any longer period than the year of the coming jubilee: a regulation which prevented the rich from coming into possession of large tracts of land, and then leasing them out in small parcels to the poor: a practice which anciently prevailed, and does to this day, in the east. It was another law of Moses, that the vender of a piece of land, or his nearest relative, had a right to redeem the land sold, whenever they chose, by paying the amount of profits up to the year of jubilee, Ruth 4:4 ; Jeremiah 32:7 . Springs, therefore, fountains, and rivulets, were held in as much honour and worth by husbandmen as by shepherds, Joshua 15:9 ; Judges 1:15 ; and we accordingly find that the land of Canaan was extolled for those fountains of water of which Egypt was destitute The soil was enriched, also, in addition to the method just mentioned, by means of ashes; to which the straw, the stubble, the husks, the brambles, and grass, that overspread the land during the sabbatical year, were reduced by fire. Wheat, הטה , which, by way of eminence, is called דגן , grew in Egypt in the time of Joseph, as it now does in Africa, on several branches from one stalk, each one of which produced an Ear, Genesis 41:47
Harvest - Barley is in full Ear all over the Holy Land, in the beginning of April; and about the middle of the same month, it begins to turn yellow, particularly in the southern districts; being as forward near Jericho in the latter end of March, as it is in the plains of Acre a fortnight afterward. The reapers go to the field very Early in the morning, and return home betimes in the afternoon. When Boaz inquired who she was, his overseer, after informing him, observes, that she came out to the field in the morning; and that the reapers left the field Early in the afternoon, as Dr. It appears from the beautiful history of Ruth, that, in Palestine, the women lent their assistance in cutting down and gathering in the harvest; for Boaz commands her to keep fast by his maidens
Ravels - Here are great authorities on both sides, but the latter reading, though so contrary in sense to the other, yet in the Hebrew is not very different in the form of the letters, and appears to be the better reading of the two. For if the raven had returned, what occasion had Noah to send forth a dove? Or why did he not take the raven in unto him into the ark, as he did afterward the dove? Or why did he not send forth the same raven again, as he did afterward the same dove again? It is not improperly expressed in our translation, that "the raven went forth to and fro," flying hither and thither, "until the waters were dried up from off the face of the Earth. " And in Job 38:41 , "Who provideth for the raven his food, when his young ones cry unto God, wandering for want of meat?" Job and the psalmist may allude to what is said by some naturalists, that the ravens drive out their young ones Early from their nests, and oblige them to seek food for their own sustenance. The meaning is, that in those splendid palaces, where the voice of joy and gladness was heard, and every sound which could ravish the Ear and subdue the heart, silence was, for the wickedness of their inhabitants, to hold her reign for ever, interrupted only by the scream of the cormorant and the croaking of the raven
Chief Parables And Miracles in the Bible - ...
Pearl of great price. ...
Malchus' Ear healed
Joseph And Mary - The sharp sword that the aged Simeon afterwards spoke of with such passion was already whetted, and was fast approaching her devoted and exposed heart. But why has no spiritual artist stained the whiteness of the lily with the red blood of a broken heart? For no sooner had the transfiguring light of the angel's presence faded from her sight than a deep and awful darkness began to fall upon Joseph's espoused wife. Blessed among women as all the time she was; unblemished in soul and in body like the paschal lamb as she was; like the paschal lamb also she was set apart to be a divine sacrifice, and to have a sword thrust through her heart. And, so fearfully and wonderfully are we made, and so fearful and wonderful was the way in which the Word was made flesh, that who can tell how all this may have borne on Him who was bone of her bone, and flesh of her flesh; to whom Mary was in all things a mother, as He was in all things to her a son. His heart was broken with this terrible trial, but there was only one course left open to him. Joseph's heart must have been torn in two. Oh, why is it that whosoever comes at all near Jesus Christ has always to drink such a cup of sorrow? Truly they who are brother or sister or mother to Him must take up their cross daily. What a heavy heart she must have carried through all these scenes as she went into the hill country with haste. Only two, out of God, knew the truth about Mary; an angel in heaven, and her own heart on Earth. ...
She is a happy maiden who has a mother or a motherly friend much experienced in the ways of the human heart to whom she can tell all her anxieties; a wise, tender, much-experienced counsellor, such as Naomi was to Ruth, and Elizabeth to Mary. Was the Virgin an orphan, or was Mary's mother such a woman that Mary could have opened her heart to any stranger rather than to her? Be that as it may, Mary found a true mother in Elizabeth of Hebron. ...
Sweet as it is to linger in Hebron beside Mary and Elizabeth, our hearts are always drawn back to Joseph in his unspeakable agony. The absent are dear, just as the dead are perfect. And Mary's dear image became to Joseph dearer still when he could no longer see her face or hear her voice. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. " Joseph's heart was absolutely overwhelmed within him as he listened to that astounding Scripture. Never had Ear or heart of man heard these amazing words as Joseph heard them that day. So speaking to himself till he was terrified at his own thoughts, weary with another week's lonely labour, and aged with many weeks' agony and despair, Joseph fell asleep. Then a thing was secretly brought to him, and his Ear received a little thereof. There was silence, and he heard a voice saying to him, "Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. " Gabriel was sent to reassure Joseph's despairing heart, to demand the consummation of the broken-off marriage, and to announce the Incarnation of the Son of God. The divine congruity compels me to believe that all that could be received or attained or exercised by any woman would be granted beforehand, and all but without measure, to her who was so miraculously to bear, and so intimately and influentially to nurture and instruct, the Holy Child. There is no fear of our thinking too much either of Mary's maidenly virtues, or of her motherly duties and experiences. The Holy Ghost in guiding the researches of Luke, and in superintending the composition of the Third Gospel, especially signalises the depth and the piety and the peace of Mary's mind. And later on, when all who heard it were wondering at the testimony of the shepherds, it is instructively added that Mary kept all these things and pondered them in her heart. And yet again, when another twelve years have passed by, we find the same Evangelist still pointing out the same distinguishing feature of Mary's saintly character, "They understood not the saying which Jesus spake unto them; but His mother kept all these sayings in her heart. "...
And, again, if we are to apply this sure principle to Mary's case, "according to your faith so be it unto you," then Mary must surely wear the crown as the mother of all them who believe on her Son. " But our Lord answered her, and said, "Yea, rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep it
Resurrection - At the time when our Saviour appeared in Judea, the resurrection from the dead was received as one of the principal articles of the Jewish religion by the whole body of the nation, the Sadducees excepted, Matthew 22:23 ; Luke 20:28 ; Mark 12:18 ; John 11:23-24 ; Acts 23:6 ; Acts 23:8 . " The only passage of Scripture which appears to favour the notion of the rising of the immortal body from some indestructible germ, is 1 Corinthians 15:35 , &c: "But some men will say, How are the dead raised up, and with what body do they come? Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened except it die; and that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain," &c. If, however, it had been the intention of the Apostle, holding this view of the case, to meet objections to the doctrine of the resurrection, grounded upon the difficulties of conceiving how the same body, in the popular sense, could be raised up in substance, we might have expected him to correct this misapprehension by declaring, that this was not the Christian doctrine; but that some small parts of the body only, bearing as little proportion to the whole as the germ of a seed to the plant, would be preserved, and be unfolded into the perfected body at the resurrection. Farther: the question put by the objector,—"How are the dead raised up?" does not refer to the modus agendi of the resurrection, or the process or manner in which the thing is to be effected, as the advocates of the germ hypothesis appear to assume. It is, however, clear, that when he speaks of the body, as the subject of this wondrous "change," he speaks of it popularly, as the same body in substance, whatever changes in its qualities or figure may be impressed upon it. The notion of an incorruptible germ, or that of an original and unchangeable stamen, out of which a new and glorious body, at the resurrection, is to spring, appears to have been borrowed from the speculations of some of the Jewish rabbins. It was by the same self which reflects on an action done many years ago, that the action was performed. ...
Our Lord has assured us, that "the hour is coming in which all that are in their graves shall hear his voice, and come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. " It is probable that the bodies of the righteous and the wicked, though each shall in some respects be the same as before, will each be in other respects not the same, but undergo some change conformable to the character of the individual, and suited to his future state of existence; yet both, as the passage just quoted clearly teaches, are then rendered indestructible. Respecting the good it is said, "When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, we shall appear with him in glory," "we shall be like him; our body shall be fashioned like his glorious body;" yet, notwithstanding this, "it doth not yet fully appear what we shall be," Colossians 3:4 ; 1 John 3:2 ; Php_3:21 . In the present state the organs and senses appointed to transmit the impressions of objects to the mind, have a manifest relation to the respective objects: the eye and seeing, for example, to light; the Ear and hearing, to sound. In the refined and glorious state of existence to which good men are tending, where the objects which solicit attention will be infinitely more numerous, interesting, and delightful, may not the new organs, faculties, and senses, be proportionably refined, acute, susceptible, or penetrating? Human industry and invention have placed us, in a manner, in new worlds; what, then, may not a spiritual body, with sharpened faculties, and the grandest possible objects of contemplation, effect in the celestial regions to which Christians are invited? There the senses will no longer degrade the affections, the imagination no longer corrupt the heart; the magnificent scenery thrown open to view will animate the attention, give a glow and vigour to the sentiments; that roused attention will never tire; those glowing sentiments will never cloy; but the man, now constituted of an indestructible body, as well as of an immortal soul, may visit in eternal succession the streets of the celestial city, may "drink of the pure river of the water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God, and of the Lamb;" and dwell for ever in those abodes of harmony and peace, which, though "eye hath not seen, nor Ear heard, nor has it entered into the imagination of man to conceive," we are assured "God hath prepared for them that love him,"...
1 Corinthians 2:9
Touch - Although God created all things by his spoken word (Genesis 1 ), Genesis 2:7,21-22 pictures him as personally shaping man and woman from the dust of the Earth. Expressions such as God touches "the Earth and it melts" ( Amos 9:5 ) and "the mountains, and they smoke" (Psalm 104:32 ; 144:5 ) describe his supreme power over the created order. Israel is also urged to lay hold of God by learning his ways (Proverbs 4:4 ; Isaiah 64:7 ). Luke 7:14 ), blind men (Matthew 9:29 ; Mark 9:22-25 ; John 9:6 ), a deaf/mute man (Mark 7:33 ), a boy with an evil spirit (Mark 9:27 ), a crippled woman (Luke 13:13 ), and a servant with a severed Ear (Luke 22:51 ). Through Jesus' name the Early church communicated similar miraculous healing powers over sickness and death through touch (Acts 2:43 ; 3:1-16 ; 9:17 ; 19:12 ). The doubt of the disciples that Jesus had risen from the dead and his subsequent appearances to them gave rise to Early Christian apology concerning the historicity of Jesus' bodily resurrection
Galatians, the Epistle to the - ...
They received Paul at first with all affection, but soon wavered in their allegiance to the gospel, and hearkened as eagerly to Judaizing teachers as they had before to him (Galatians 4:14-16). ...
They even gave Ear to the insinuation that Paul himself observed the law among the Jews though he persuaded the Gentiles to renounce it, and that he wished to keep his converts in a lower state of privileges, excluded from the high Christian standing enjoyed by the circumcised (Galatians 4:16; Galatians 5:11; compare Galatians 2:17), and that in "becoming all things to all men" he was but a men-pleaser, seeking to form a party for himself; moreover that he was not, as he represented, an apostle divinely commissioned by Christ, but a mere messenger of the twelve and the Jerusalem church, and that his teaching now did not accord with that of Peter and James, the acknowledged "pillars" of the church, and ought therefore to be rejected. ...
(3) To strengthen Galatian believers in faith toward Christ and in the fruit of the Spirit (Galatians 5-6); already he had testified against the Judaizers to their face (Galatians 1:9; Galatians 4:16; Acts 18:28), and now that he has heard of the increase of the evil he writes to cheek it, "with his own hand" (Galatians 6:11), a labor which he usually committed to an amanuensis. A tone of sadness too appears, such as is natural in an affectionate teacher who has just learned that his loved disciples are abandoning his teachings for those of others who pervert the truth and calumniate himself. However, the resemblance of this epistle to the epistle to the Romans favors the view (Conybeare and Howson) that it was not written until his stay at Corinth (Acts 20:2-3, during the winter of A. Even three years would be "soon" for their apostasy, they having betrayed no symptoms at his second visit (Acts 18:23)
Blindness (2) - ’ Jesus seems unwilling at first to grant their request, as we are told that it was not till they had entered the house with Him that He turned a favourable Ear to their entreaty. ’ To the clear moral vision of Jesus the attitude implied in this objection showed a radical depravity of nature, an inability to discriminate between fundamental ethical distinctions. But the principle is as clearly enunciated in the Synoptics. It is the pure in heart who see God (Matthew 5:8), because the pure heart is the organ of the God-consciousness. Peter the real point of our Lord’s commendation lies not in the clear enunciation of the Messiahship and the Divine Sonship of Jesus, but in the manner in which the profoundest of all spiritual truths has been reached. Where the faculty of sight is impaired, or destroyed, however clearly the light may shine, there is no vision
Psalmody - The other was, the regarding more the sweetness of the composition than the sense and meaning; thereby pleasing the Ear, without raising the affections of the soul. ...
Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, metrical psalmody was introduced into this country. Whether singing in public worship had been partially discontinued during the times of persecution to avoid informers, or whether the miserable manner in which it was performed gave persons a distaste to it, so it appears, that in 1691, Mr. " To us it may appear strange that such a point should be disputed; but Mr. Keach was obliged to labour Earnestly, and with a great deal of prudence and caution, to obtain the consent of his people to sing a hymn at the conclusion of the Lord's Supper. After six years more, they agreed to sing on the thanksgiving days; but it required still fourteen years more before he could persuade them to sing every Lord's day; and then it was only after the last prayer, that those who chose it might withdraw without joining in it! Nor did even this satisfy these scrupulous consciences; for, after all, a separation took place, and the inharmonious seceders formed a new church in May's Pond, where it was above twenty years longer before singing the praises of God could be endured
Miracle - The deceptions of the magicians in Egypt, and of false prophets in ancient and in modern times, Deuteronomy 13:1 Matthew 24:24 2 Thessalonians 2:9 Revelation 13:13,14 , would not bear the above tests. ...
Malchus' Ear restored, Luke 22:50-51
Shimei - You count up how old he is, and you promise yourself to have so many years of relief and enjoyment after he is in his grave. And who, then, shall say to the Lord, Why hast Thou done this? Shall the thing formed say to Him that formed it, Why hast Thou made me thus? O the depth both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out! For who hath known the mind of the Lord. And thus it is that He sets every man's circumstances to him, good and bad, as much and as well as if He had no other man on His hand in Earth or in heaven. O Lord, Thou hast searched me, and known me. But if you fear God, and come, I will tell you how He environs my soul, and how He adapts you and all you say and do, to the good of my soul. Especially not my trying, and tempting, and searching, and sifting, and sanctifying circumstances. Every hour of every day; every man I meet; every word that enters my Ear; every sight that enters my eye; all my thoughts within me that like a case of knives wounds my heart-it is all the Lord! If this life were all, then, I admit, it might be different. He is set upon my humility, my submissiveness, my meekness, my gentleness, my resignation, my contentment, my detachment, my self-denial, my cross, my death to sin, my death to myself, my unearthliness, my heavenly-mindedness, my conformity to Christ, and my acceptance of Him-and what a splendid use is all that to which to put all the things that otherwise would be so much against me! And David said to Abishai, and to all his servants, Let this Benjamite alone, and let him curse; for the Lord hath bidden him. And what do you say to Shakespeare himself?...
O benefit of ill! now I find trueThat better is by evil still made better!And ruined love, when it is built anew,Grows fairer than at first, more strong, far greater. For Shimei with all his good and all his bad uses comes back again to David's deathbed to tempt and to try David, and to discover what is in David's dying heart. ' You will blame me for my too open Ear to such bold scholarship; and you will think it very wrong in me to listen to such bad men. But the heart has its reasons, as Pascal says, and my heart would stretch a considerable point in textual criticism to get Shimei's blood wiped off David's deathbed. Another interpretation is to take the text as it stands, and to hear David judicially charging Solomon about a case of too long delayed justice against a blasphemer of God and the king. And then the last explanation is the most painful one of all, and it is this, that David had never really and truly, and at the bottom of his heart, forgiven Shimei for his brutality and malignity at Bahurim. And that all David's long-suppressed revenge rushed out of his heart against his old enemy when he lay on his bed and went back on the day on which he had fled from Jerusalem. But, in any case, it is Bahurim that we shall all carry home, and carry for ever henceforth, in our hearts
Slave - (Exodus 21:7 ) ...
The servitude of a Hebrew might be terminated in three ways: (1) by the satisfaction or the remission of all claims against him; (2) by the recurrence of the year of jubilee, (Leviticus 25:40 ) and (3) the expiration of six years from the time that his servitude commenced. If a servant did not desire to avail himself of the opportunity of leaving his service, he was to signify his intention in a formal manner before the judges (or more exactly at the place of judgment ), and then the master was to take him to the door-post, and to bore his Ear through with an awl, ( Exodus 21:6 ) driving the awl into or "unto the door," as stated in (15:17) and thus fixing the servant to it. " (Exodus 21:6 ) These words are however, interpreted by Josephus and by the rabbinsts as meaning until the year of jubilee. by the arrival of the year of jubilee, or by the repayment to the master of the purchase money paid for the servant, after deducting a sum for the value of his services proportioned to the length of his servitude. (Leviticus 25:47-55 ) A Hebrew woman might enter into voluntary servitude on the score of poverty, and in this case she was entitled to her freedom after six years service, together with her usual gratuity at leaving, just as in the case of a man. she could not leave at the termination of six years, or in the year of jubilee, if her master was willing to fulfill the object for which he had purchased her. (Exodus 21:7-11 ) The custom of reducing Hebrews to servitude appears to have fallen into disuse subsequent to the Babylonish captivity. The average value of a slave appears to have been thirty shekels. (Exodus 21:32 ) ...
That the slave might be manumitted appears from (Exodus 21:26,27 ; Leviticus 19:20 ) ...
The slave is described as the "possession" of his master, apparently with a special reference to the power which the latter had of disposing of him to his heirs, as he would any other article of personal property. It will be seen that the whole tendency of the Bible legislation was to mitigate slavery, making it little than hired service, and to abolish it, as indeed it was practically abolished among the Jews six hundred years before Christ
Gestures - Gestures often may involve external objects such as the tearing of one's clothing (Joel 2:13 ) or the casting down of one's crown before God (Revelation 4:10 ). ...
Cultural-Corporal Gestures These are the most common to the everyday life and customs of the Ancient Near East. Tearing of one's clothes and heaping of ashes upon one's head signify deep grief (2 Samuel 1:11 ; 2 Samuel 13:19 ), shocking horror (Numbers 14:6 ; Joshua 7:6 ), and sudden alarm (Matthew 26:65 ; Acts 14:14 ). Kissing is an act that expresses the warmth of a friendly greeting (Romans 16:16 ; 1 Corinthians 16:20 ), the affection of one for another (Song of Song of Solomon 8:1 ), the sorrow of one who dearly cares for another (Ruth 1:14 ; Acts 20:37 ), the deceit of one who hides true intentions (Proverbs 27:6 ; Matthew 26:48 ), the submission of the weak to the strong (Psalm 2:12 ), and the seduction of a foolish man by a loose woman (Proverbs 7:5-23 ). To incline one's Ear is to give attention to another (Psalm 45:10 ; Jeremiah 7:26 )
Minister - The sharp shrill cry of 'Acqua! Acqua!' constantly pierces the Ear of the wanderer in Venice and other towns of sultry Italy. On his back he bears a burden of water, and in his hand a rack of bottles containing essences to flavour the draught if needed, and glasses to hold the cooling liquid. In the streets of London he would find but little patronage, but where fountains are few and the days are hot as an oven, he Earns a livelihood and supplies a public need. He washes out a glass for us, fills it with sparkling water, offers us the tincture which we abhor, puts it back into the rack again when we shake our head, receives half-a-dozen soldi with manifest gratitude, and trudges away across the square, crying still, 'Acqua! Acqua!' That cry, shrill as it is, has sounded sweetly in the Ears of many a thirsty soul, and will for ages yet to come, if throats and thirst survive so long. How forcibly it calls to our mind the Saviour's favourite imagery, in which he compares the grace which he bestows on all who diligently seek it, to 'living water;' and how much that old man is like the faithful preacher of the word, who, having filled his vessel at the well, wears himself out by continually bearing the burden of the Lord, and crying, 'Water! water!' amid crowds of sinners, who must drink or die. Instead of the poor Italian water-bearer, we see before us the man of God, whose voice is heard in the chief places of concourse, proclaiming the divine invitation, 'Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters!' until he grows grey in the service, ançl men say, 'Surely those aged limbs have need of rest ;' yet rest he courts not, but pursues his task of mercy; never laying down his charge till he lays down his body, and never ceasing to work until he ceases to live. One of the wells is filled artificially and is not much used for drinking, since the coldness and freshness of water springing naturally from Earth's deep fountains is lacking. It is to be feared that many preachers depend for their matter upon theological systems, books, and mere learning, and hence their teaching is devoid of the living power and refreshing influence which is found in communion with 'the spring of all our joys. If there be grace anywhere, contrite hearts will get it. Sundry divines in our age have become weary of the old-fashioned well of which our fathers drank, and would fain have us go to their Abana and Pharpar, but we are still firm in the belief that the water from the rock has no rival, and we shall not, we hope, forsake it for any other
Job, Book of - All that is known of the history of Job is found in the book bearing his name. He is described as "perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil;" yet he suffered the loss of all his property; his children were killed; and his body was grievously afflicted. The key to this part of the book is that Job was being tested: his heart was being searched that his true state might be brought out, and that he might learn to know God in His wisdom and power, and that His ways are in view of blessing to man. ...
Then come Job's three friends, and though thus far he had not sinned with his lips , yet his friends bring out what was in his heart. He said, "Enquire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the search of their fathers. " "Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard: I cry aloud, but there is no judgement. But the unsolved question in Job's mind was, Why should God set his heart upon man? He so great, and man so fleeting and wretched: why would not God let him alone to fill out his day? For Job had the sense that it was God who was dealing with him, and that he was not suffering from ordinary providential causes. He said, "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the Ear: but now mine eye seeth thee: wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes. "...
Job had now learned the lesson God intended to teach him: he is in his proper place of nothingness before God. He lived after his restoration 140 years
Ecclesiastes, Book of - It describes life 'in Adam,' and seeks an answer to the questions, What is best for man? how should he spend his life to be happy on Earth? The writer speaks as a human philosopher in his wanderings. Sometimes he gets near the truth, but at other times he is far removed from it. The last two verses answer the searchings of Ecclesiastes 1:13 ; Ecclesiastes 2:3 . ...
Solomon, who is the writer, goes through his experience both of wisdom and of riches, of labour, and of all that his heart as a man could desire (and who can come after the king?); and records it by inspiration, so that when he proves it all to be but vanity and vexation of spirit it is not the mere utterance of a disappointed man, but divinely recorded conviction. "The eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the Ear filled with hearing," therefore Solomon searched his heart (Ecclesiastes 1:13,16 ; Ecclesiastes 2:1,3 ) as to mirth, wine, wisdom, folly, and great works. His heart was in despair, and he concluded that there was nothing better than for a man to enjoy good in his labour and in the gifts of God. ' God made everything beautiful in its time: He hath set 'the age' in man's heart. ' Some translate 'he hath set eternity in their heart,' but the sense doubtless is that man's heart can only naturally embrace the age characterised by time. Piety is brought in, and conduct in the house of God; caution as to vows, and a call to fear God. He is above every oppression on the Earth, and takes knowledge of it all. The strange sight in Ecclesiastes 7:15 makes the writer try a middle course between righteousness and wickedness, still retaining a certain fear of God. He learned that there is not a just man upon the Earth that sinneth not: God made man upright, but they sought out many inventions. The sinner and the righteous are contrasted, and it is well with them that fear God; but the work of God, in His providential dealing, is mysterious and past finding out. Hence the writer wrongly advises a life of self-indulgence, for God appears indifferent to all that is done. "The whole of man " (not his duty, but the one thing for man, the one principle of life), is to "fear God and keep his commandments. ...
The Book of Ecclesiastes has been a great puzzle to many of the learned
Witness (2) - ...
Among the NT writers none appears to have so definitely and fondly reflected upon the idea of witness as St. The tone and manner of spiritual authority permeated all that He said and did from His Earliest teaching to His sublime declaration before Pilate, and even to His words upon the cross (cf. And when the revelation from the Father produced in the disciples a believing confession of His Son, Jesus clearly accepted and sanctioned that confession (e. Consciousness), and all the works of God preparatory to and accompanying the life of Jesus Christ on Earth designed to lead men to the certainty of faith in Him as Redeemer and Lord. , John 5:36) is manifestly closely related to that of the Scriptures; but John is, of course, more specific than the Earlier prophets could be. ’ It would, doubtless, be a grave mistake to regard Christ’s word, ‘The works which the Father hath given me to accomplish, the very works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me,’ as meaning only His miracles. ‘It is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is the truth’ (1 John 5:7; cf. The Paraclete, the Spirit of truth (Christ says), ‘shall bear witness of me’ (John 15:26). —Nothing could be clearer than that the primitive Christian preaching was not only the most direct and specific witness to Jesus the crucified and risen Lord, but also a witness irrepressibly spontaneous and full of the unconquerable assurance of an over-powering certainty (Acts 4:20, 1 Corinthians 9:16, 2 Corinthians 4:13). Early in His public ministry Jesus chose from out the larger number of His disciples ‘twelve that they might be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach’ (Mark 3:14). Apostles; and Bruce, The Training of the Twelve), and declared that, when the Paraclete should have come to them, they should bear witness of Him (John 15:26-27). The original disciples, it is true, were the only eye-and Ear-witnesses. Yet what they literally saw and heard was not the revelation itself, but only the means thereto. ’ Nevertheless multitudes ‘saw and heard’ Jesus and understood not. The original heralds of Christ did indeed lay a certain stress upon their being eye- and Ear-witnesses. It is clear from the NT that after Pentecost the original disciples were immovable in their persuasion that they possessed and had fellowship with their exalted Lord. ...
From all this it is clear that the visible manifestation of the Lord was designed to be superseded by a manifestation through the word of His witnesses. As the men of Sychar believed at last not for the woman’s speaking, but because they had heard for themselves (John 4:42), so through the word of the Apostles others are brought into actual saving relation with the same Lord Christ. Faith does come by hearing (Romans 10:17)—the fact of the vital union with Christ is proof of the adequacy of the word of testimony. Those who through their association with Christ in the flesh had apprehended the life manifested, bear witness to others, that these also may enter into the same fellowship with them—the glorious fellowship with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ. To bear witness to Christ is their one aim as heralds (1 John 4:14). Wherever the word of Christ is preached with the certainty of faith, it can bring the hearer into ‘the like precious faith’ (2 Peter 1:1). And unless the hearer is aided by the Spirit to apprehend and to prove the testimony, the word concerning peace, fellowship, freedom, and the power of an endless life would be but empty sound. They had been chosen beforehand and specially trained for the work of bearing witness. Either our Lord succeeded in giving to His chosen Apostles such an understanding of His mission and work as to enable them to bear competent witness, or else He failed. , see Dale, Living Christ and Four Gospels; Hare, Mission of the Comforter; Stearns, Evid
Michal, Saul's Daughter - SHE DESPISED HIM IN HER HEART...
NEVER, surely, were man and wife more unequally yoked together than was David, the man after God's own heart, with Michal, Saul's daughter. The things that had become dearer and dearer to David's heart every day, those were the very things that drove Michal absolutely mad; furiously and ungovernably mad that day on which the ark of God was brought up to the city of David. It would take me till midnight to tell you all that was in David's heart as he sacrificed oxen and fatlings at six paces, and leaped and danced before the ark of God all the way up to the city of David. With all his might, then-and you know something of what all David's might in such matters was-with all his might David leaped and danced before the Lord till Michal despised him in her heart. The deaf do not hear the music. And, on the other hand, those who do hear the music, they cannot understand those who can sit still. But Michal's Ear had never been opened to the music of the ark. Had Michal been married in the Lord; had Michal reverenced her husband; had she cared to please her husband; had she played on the psaltery and harp sometimes, if only for his sake-what a happy wife Michal would have been, and David what a happy husband! Had her heart been right with her husband's heart when he blessed his household every night; had she been wont with all her heart to unite with her husband when he blessed them every night and sang psalms with them; had she sung with him and said, We will not go up into our bed till we have found out a place for the Lord, an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob: how well it would have been. Lo! sang David alone with the handmaids of his servants, Lo! we heard of it at Ephratah; we found it in the fields of the wood. And thus it was that she despised David in her heart when the very gates of brass and iron were lifting up their heads at David's psalm to let the King of Glory come in. No ambitious woman, and least of all Saul's royal-hearted daughter, could have seen assembled Israel that day without being swept into sympathy with the scene. And as the day went on, Michal was left alone with a heart the most miserable in all Israel that day. And Michal's heart became harder and darker and fiercer as the day went on. At the despicable sight she spat at him, and sank back in her seat with all hell in her heart. You have had Michal's heart in yourselves, in your measure, on some Sabbath-day when you remained at home for some wrong reason, and when your husband came home with his face shining. And on other days, when you should have been at his side, but some distaste, some dislike, some pique, some catishness kept you at home to eat your heart all the time. Paul would have needed to have got Michal's Ear Early that morning when she tarried at home in the palace. Nay, he would have needed to have got her heart while she was yet Saul's daughter in Saul's palace. Reverence has its roots in the heart and in the character; and the heart and the character only come and bring forth reverence as life goes on. He speaks it to all wives, and he expects that all wives who hear it shall lay it to heart, and shall do it. All our wives have dreary, lonely, sorely disappointed days at home-partly our fault and partly theirs, but mostly ours-that we know nothing about. ...
And let them take this to heart also, that though we fall ever so far below ourselves, that is all the more reason why they should rise all the more above themselves. It does not divorce a wife from her affection and respect for her husband that he causes her much pain and shame: many a blush in public, and many a tear in private. His sins against good taste, his clownish or churlish habits, his tempers, his prejudices, his ignorance, his rude, insolent, overbearing ways, not to speak of still grosser vices-all that will not absolve a wife from a wife's solicitude and goodwill to her husband. But she must all the more learn to say her own grace to herself before she sits down to her temptation, till she is able to return thanks as she rises to go upstairs. All the time they are talking and eating and drinking at the other end of the table, she must set a watch on her Ears and on her eyes and on the blood in her cheeks. But if Almighty God bears with us, and does not despise us and spurn us and refuse us His love, neither will you. She could not command her proud heart when she saw David dancing, but by the time he came home she should have had her tongue tamed and under a bridle. It takes a night and a day and more than that till the agitation and the emotion of a communion day subsides and settles in a minister's heart. There is no fear of any minister's wife speaking on that day as Michal spoke. Times when their two hearts do not beat as one heart. Times of distaste, and disapproval, and difference of opinion, and positive dislike; when Michal, who is written for our learning, must be called to every wife's mind. Michal with her heart full of war, and her mouth full of wicked words, and her whole after-life full of remorse and misery for that evil day in her house in Jerusalem-Michal is a divine looking-glass for all angry and outspoken wives. And, as he says, he would have danced all the same, and still more, had Earth and hell both been all let loose to scoff and scout at him. ...
And then, the truly noble, the truly humble, and the terribly lonely man that he was, David took up the taunt of his godless and heartless wife, and wore it as a badge of honour before the Lord that day. And who can tell how many husbands here are in David's desolate case? Who can tell how many have to go out of their own homes to find the finest sympathy, and the fullest utterance, and the completest rest for their hearts? The wife see that her husband has not to go abroad to find his best friend, his most sympathetic and fellow-feeling friend, and, above all, in his religion
Poetry - As it is the form of composition which is easiest to memorize, whether in the Earlier stages of a literature, or later in the expression of common religious experience, it is natural that poetry should be preserved, and should be the preserver of Hebrew thought. Though the Psalms have not been written in poetical form for two thousand years, yet their poetry cannot be obscured. As compared with the OT, the NT contains very little poetry, for the obvious reason that Christianity, Early and late, has largely found the Hebrew Psalter sufficient for its devotional purposes. A certain part of the Scriptures is clearly poetry; a certain other part is clearly prose. (1) The line is so constructed that when it is read aloud it sounds agreeable to the Ear by virtue of a distinct rhythm; this rhythm is repeated with little or no variation from line to line; the end of the line coincides with a break in the sense. The history of the search for a satisfactory system of metre cannot be given here. ...
It should be remembered that we are dealing with an Early form of an ancient literature, and that this literature is an Oriental one. The mind more easily grasps the thought of a second clause, if fashioned like an Earlier one. It is also, and doubtless for that very reason, more agreeable to the Ear. What would otherwise appear to be a careful choice of synonyms, for example, perhaps to secure climacteric effect, may be simply the operation of this principle
Red Heifer - A most unlikely thing to obtain, as if to prefigure the singularity of the person of Jesus; for none but the Lord Christ could be suited for our salvation: and the personal fitness of Jesus, in the singularity of his person and character, is that which endears him so highly to his people. Perhaps the reader may not know, or if he doth, he may not immediately re collect, that Adam was called Adam, or Adamah, on account of the red Earth or dust from whence he was taken. Pure virgin Earth is naturally red. " (Hebrews 2:14) And hence the church sings of him in the joy of her heart, "My beloved (said she) is white and ruddy, the chiefest among, ten thousand. " And Jesus, that he "might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate," The apostle makes a most beautiful persuasive and unanswerable appeal to the church, in this view of Jesus, when he saith, "Let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach;" (Hebrews 13:12-13)...
Fifthly, when the heifer had been slain, the blood was to be sprinkled directly before the tabernacle seven times. The seven days of creation, the seventh day for the Sabbath, the seven times seven for the Sabbatical or Jubilee year, and the seventh day becoming an emblem of the everlasting Sabbath of heaven; all these are very high evidences of the peculiar honour conferred on the number. " (Hebrews 10:14)...
The Jews have a tradition, that this one heifer, with the ashes of the water of purification, lasted for near a thousand years, until the time of the captivity. It is sufficient for Christians to behold Christ both preached to the Ear, and set forth to the eye, in type and figure, under the law
John - I have heard of him by the hearing of the Ear, said Philo. ...
How did John sink so deep into the unsearchable things of his Master, while all the other disciples stood all their discipleship days on the surface? What was it in John that lifted him so high above Peter, and Thomas, and Philip, and made him first such a disciple, and then such an apostle, of wisdom and of love? For one thing it was his gift and grace of meditation. John thought and thought continually on what he saw and heard. We read our New Testament, on occasion, and we hear it read, but we do not take time to meditate. We pray sometimes, or we pretend to pray; but do we ever set ourselves to prepare our hearts for the mercy-seat by strenuous meditation on who and what we are; on who and what He is to whom we pretend to pray; and on what it is we are to say, and do, and ask, and receive? We may never have heard of Philo, but we all belong to his barren school. The thought of Jesus Christ seldom or never quickens, or overawes, or gladdens our heart. Whereas, when we once become men of meditation, Jesus Christ, and the whole New Testament concerning Him, and the whole New Jerusalem where He is preparing a place for us, will become more to us than our nearest friend: more to us than this city with all its most pressing affairs. Nor is this the peculiar opportunity and privilege of men of learning only. John was not a man of learning. John was described as an ignorant and an unlearned man, though all the time he was carrying about in his mind the whole of the Fourth Gospel. You may be the most unlearned man in this learned city tonight, and yet such is John's Gospel, and such is the power and the blessedness of meditation on it, that John will look down on you after your house is asleep tonight, and will say over you, as you now sit, and now stand, and now kneel with his Gospel in your hands-"That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that you may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ. " Eleven thoughtful and loving hearts heard that new commandment and the comfort that accompanied it. But in no other heart did that Divine seed fall into such good ground as in his heart who at that moment lay on Jesus bosom
Adder - That they might be rendered tame and harmless by certain charms, or soft and sweet sounds, and trained to delight in music, was an opinion which prevailed very Early and universally. They, hearing his music, came all crawling to his feet, and began to climb up him, till he gave over playing, then away they ran. The rattlesnake acknowledges the power of music as much as any of his family; of which the following instance is a decisive proof: When Chateaubriand was in Canada, a snake of that species entered their encampment; a young Canadian, one of the party, who could play on the flute, to divert his associates, advanced against the serpent with his new species of weapon: on the approach of his enemy, the haughty reptile curled himself into a spiral line, flattened his head, inflated his cheeks, contracted his lips, displayed his envenomed fangs, and his bloody throat; his double tongue glowed like two flames of fire; his eyes were burning coals; his body, swollen with rage, rose and fell like the bellows of a forge; his dilated skin assumed a dull and scaly appearance; and his tail, which sounded the denunciation of death, vibrated with so great rapidity as to resemble a light vapour. ...
But on some serpents, these charms seem to have no power; and it appears from Scripture, that the adder sometimes takes precautions to prevent the fascination which he sees preparing for him: "for the deaf adder shutteth her Ear, and will not hear the voice of the most skilful charmer. The learned Bochart thinks it extremely probable that the holy Psalmist in this verse treats of serpents only; and, by consequence, that both the terms שחל , and בפיר mean some kind of snakes, as well as פתן and תנין ; because the coherence of the verse is by this view better preserved, than by mingling lions and serpents together, as our translators and other interpreters have commonly done; nor is it easy to imagine what can be meant by treading upon the lion, and trampling the young lion under foot; for it is not possible in walking to tread upon the lion, as upon the adder, the basilisk, and other serpents. ...
To ADJURE ...
to bind by oath, as under the penalty of a fearful curse, Joshua 6:26 ; Mark 5:7
Matthew - Papias, the companion of Polycarp, is the Earliest author on record who has expressly named St. It was, indeed, universally received by the Christian church; and we do not find that its genuineness was controverted by any Early profane writer. Townson, understand it in very different senses; and Eusebius, who lived a hundred and fifty years after Irenaeus, barely says, that Matthew wrote his Gospel just before he left Judea to preach the religion of Christ in other countries; but when that was, neither he nor any other ancient author informs us with certainty. Of the several dates assigned to this Gospel, which deserve any attention, the Earliest is A. ...
It appears very improbable that the Christians should be left any considerable number of years without a written history of our Saviour's ministry. We must own that these arguments are so strong in favour of an Early publication of some history of our Saviour's ministry, that we cannot but accede to the opinion of Jones, Wetstein, and Dr. Campbell says, that this point was not controverted by any author for fourteen hundred years. Erasmus was one of the first who contended that the present Greek is the original; and he has been followed by Le Clerc, Wetstein, Basnage, Whitby, Jortin, Hug, and many other learned men. It is, however, universally allowed, that the Greek translation was made very Early, and that it was more used than the original. After the destruction of Jerusalem, the language of the Jews, and every thing which belonged to them, fell into great contempt; and the Early fathers, writing in Greek, would naturally quote and refer to the Greek copy of St. This Early and exclusive use of the Greek translation is a strong proof of its correctness, and leaves us but little reason to lament the loss of the original. Being Early called to the apostleship, he was an eye-witness and an Ear- witness of most of the things which he relates; and though I do not think it was the scope of any of these historians to adjust their narratives to the precise order of time wherein the events happened, there are some circumstances which incline me to think, that St. Matthew has approached at least as near that order as any of them
Judah, Kingdom of - Their independence of the northern tribes, and the jealousy of Ephraim, Early prepared the way for the severance of the northern and southern kingdoms under Rehoboam. Hence, Judah survived her more populous northern sister by 135 years, and lasted 975-586 B. Rehoboam, Abijah, and Asa for 60 years warred with Israel, in the hope of recovering the northern kingdom. ) Abijah, or Abijam, though his speech breathes the theocratic spirit (2 Chronicles 13:4), in conduct showed a "heart not perfect with the Lord God," for "he walked in all the sins of his father" (1 Kings 15:3). A new policy began with Jehoshaphat, and lasted for 80 years down to Amaziah, that of alliance with Israel against Syria. In spite of his pious efforts for the instruction of his people through the princes, Levites, and priests, in God's law (2 Chronicles 17), and for the administration of justice in the fear of Jehovah (2 Chronicles 19), his affinity with Ahab and Ahaziah nearly cost him his life at Ramoth Gilead (2 Chronicles 18), and again in the wilderness of Edom (2 Kings 3:8-11), and caused the loss of his ships in Ezion Geber (2 Chronicles 20:36-37). ) Jehoiada deposed her, and restored Joash to the throne, who governed well until Jehoiada's death; then gave Ear to the princes, and restored idolatry, slew Zechariah his faithful reprover, and failing to withstand a Syrian invasion was killed by his own servants. , prepared Judah for the 70 years' captivity; Ezekiel and Daniel witnessed for God to them, and to the pagan world power in it
Poverty of Spirit - It may be gathered, indeed, from quotations in the Early Fathers (cf. Though formally an addition to the actual saying of Jesus, they were felt to be necessary for the right translation of an Aramaic term which had come to bear a peculiar shade of meaning. The ‘poor’ are also the contrite of heart (Isaiah 66:2); they are the ‘meek ones’ who lend a willing Ear to the Divine message (Psalms 37:11, Isaiah 61:1). Much in His teaching that has been supposed to bear on present-day economic questions, belongs properly to quite a different sphere. ’ The truth of the saying may be best illustrated by the historical fact that our Lord’s Earliest disciples were drawn, almost wholly, from the poorer class. Before the new teaching could make any appeal to them, they had everything to unlearn, freeing their minds entirely of the prejudices and conventional ideas which had encrusted them. From those who would enter into His Kingdom our Lord demands this receptivity, which in His own time He found, almost exclusively, among the poor,—the common people who heard Him gladly (Mark 12:37). Discipleship is impossible without a renunciation of Earthly possessions. He will not be retarded in any Christian service by the fear of losing them. Whatever be his outward condition, he will have laid aside every weight, detached himself from all Earthly considerations, and will act in the poor man’s spirit of instant readiness at the Divine call. The Beatitude as a whole is clearly reminiscent of OT passages which comfort the ‘poor in the land’ with the promise of Messianic blessedness (cf. It represents a condition of mind and heart without which a man is wholly irresponsive to the Divine influences
Inspiration - Two of them, Matthew and John, accompanied our Saviour during the space of three years and a half. At the close of this period, or rather several years after it, when they wrote their Gospels, we may be certain that they had forgotten many of his discourses and miracles; that they recollected others indistinctly; and that they would have been in danger or producing an inaccurate and unfair account, by confounding one thing with another. "Farther; it must be allowed that in several passages of Scripture there is found such elevation of thought and of style, as clearly shows that the powers of the writers were raised above their ordinary pitch. ...
If a person of moderate talents should give as elevated a description of the majesty and attributes of God, or reason as profoundly on the mysterious doctrines of religion, as a man of the most exalted genius and extensive learning, we could not fail to be convinced that he was supernaturally assisted; and the conviction would be still stronger, if his composition should far transcend the highest efforts of the human mind. Some of the sacred writers were taken from the lowest ranks of life; and yet sentiments so dignified, and representations of divine things so grand and majestic, occur in their writings, that the noblest flights of human genius, when compared with them, appear cold and insipid. This degree of inspiration we attribute to those who were empowered to reveal heavenly mysteries, 'which eye had not seen, and Ear had not heard, ' to those who were sent with particular messages from God to his people, and to those who were employed to predict future events. Paul says, that he received the Gospel by revelation; that 'by revelation the mystery was made known to him, which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it was then revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit' and in another place, having observed that 'eye had not seen, nor Ear heard, neither had entered into the heart of man the things which God had prepared for them that love him, ' he adds, "But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit, " Rev. It is the last opinion which appears to be most conformable to truth, and it may be supported by the following reasoning. No man could write an intelligible discourse on a subject which he does not understand, unless he were furnished with the words as well as the sentiments; and that the penmen of the Scriptures did not always understand what they wrote, might be safely inferred from the comparative darkness of the dispensation under which some of them lived; and is intimated by Peter, when he says, that the prophets 'enquired and searched diligently what, and what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. a promise which cannot be reasonably understood to signify less than that both words and sentiments should be dictated to them, it is fully as credible that they should be assisted in the same manner when they wrote, especially as the record was to last through all ages, and to be a rule of faith to all the nations of the Earth
David - in His Services - It will help on your salvation to lay it to heart that hell is paved with good intentions; and it will, at the same time, comfort every good and honest heart to be told that good intentions form some of the surest of stepping-stones to heaven. After which Bengel acutely annotates that it is by our hearts that we both mete out to others and have it meted out to ourselves. But her Lord looked on her heart. And thus it is that she sits in heaven today among the queens who sit there on their thrones of gold, because she had such a queenly heart that day in the temple porch. Both from David's intended temple; from the poor widow's actual collection at the door of David's temple; and from Bengel's spiritual annotation let us learn this spiritual lesson, that our hearts are the measure both of our work and of our wages in the sight of God. You cannot endow all the chairs of sacred learning you would like. You cannot make the reading, or the religion, or the devotional life of your people what your heart is full of. But it stands in God's true and faithful word that it was all in David's heart. And He who looks not so much on the action as on the intention, He saw in this also a man after His own heart. For the heart is the measure. And as we measure out good words, and good wishes, and good purposes, and good preparations, and good performances in our heart, so will it be measured back to us by Him who sees and weighs and measures the heart and nothing but the heart. ...
'Thou hast shed blood abundantly, and hast made great wars; thou shalt not build an house to My name, because thou hast shed much blood upon the Earth in My sight. ' When I first read that sentence of such terrible disappointment to David, I looked to see David all that night on his face on the Earth. But I did not know David; I had not yet got into all the depths of David's deep heart. David not only said, 'It is the Lord,' but his heart broke forth in a psalm such that there is nothing nobler in his whole book of Psalms. David not only consented that it was both good, and right, and seemly, that hands like his should not touch a stone of the house of God; but, that his son should be chosen of God to build Him an house-that set David's heart on fire as never Old Testament heart was set on fire like David's heart. As we read the psalm that poured out of David's heart that chastised and disappointed day, David is a man after our own heart. And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? Would God we all had a heart like that! I have found David, my servant. This, no doubt, greatly helped David to resign his great hope of being spared to build the temple, that Solomon, his greatly-gifted, wise-hearted, pure, and noble-minded son was standing ready to take up and to carry out his father's long-intended task. The temple was built, and built again, and built again; but for two thousand years now not one stone of that so sacred and so stately structure has stood upon another. And long after the foundations of this whole Earth shall have been ploughed up and removed out of their place, David's Psalms will be sounding out for ever beside the song of Moses and the Lamb. 'I have reared a monument of myself more lasting than brass. Think, people of God, of the honour to David, higher far than all the thrones on Earth and in heaven,-the unparalleled and immortal honour of being able to teach Jesus Christ to sing and to pray. For, when the Holy Child said to Mary, Mother, teach Me to sing and to pray, what did Mary do, hiding all that in her heart, but put into her Child's hands David's golden Psalm beginning thus: The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want. Think of the sweet start, the overpowering surprise, the solemnity, the rejoicing with trembling, the resignation, the triumph with which the growing Saviour was led of the Spirit from Psalm to Psalm till He had searched out all David's Psalms in which David had prophesied and sung concerning his Messiah Son. See Jesus of Nazareth on His knees in the Sabbath synagogue with this place open before Him for the first time,-Lo, I come; in the volume of the book it is written of Me, I delight to do Thy will, O My God; yea, Thy law is within my heart. And, having once begun to read and to think in that way you will go on till you come to the cross, where you will see and hear your dying Redeemer with one of David's Psalms on His lips when He can no longer hold it in His hands. And they said one to another, did not our heart burn within us while He talked with us by the way, and while He opened to us the Scriptures?...
O two disciples, on your way that same day to Emmaus, how I envy you your travelling Companion that day! My heart burns to think of your Divine Companion opening up to you David's Messianic Psalms that memorable day. And when I think also of the multitudes that no man can number to whom David's Psalms have been their constant song in the house of their pilgrimage; in the tabernacle as they fell for the first time hot from David's heart and harp; in the temple of Solomon his son with all the companies of singers and all their instruments of music; in the synagogues of the captivity; in the wilderness as the captives returned to the New Jerusalem; in the New Jerusalem every Sabbath-day and every feast-day; in the upper room, both before and after supper; in Paul's prison at Philippi; in the catacombs; in Christian churches past number; in religious houses all over Christendom at all hours of the day and the night; in deserts, in mountains, in dens and caves of the Earth; in our churches; in our Sabbath-schools; in our families morning and evening; in our sickrooms; on our death-beds; and in the night-watches when the disciples of Christ watch and pray lest they enter into temptation. And I have never, with all my search, seen an intelligent attempt made to face that mystery. Early will I seek Thee. ' That would not have stumbled me had I come on it in the heart of the seventeenth of John itself. To David in the sixty-second, and in its sister Psalms, there is only I AM and David himself, in all heaven and Earth. 'That Thou mayest be feared. He that hath Ears to hear, let him give Ear to this. ' Does Feeble-mind hear that? Then let him receive and rest on that. Let him wake up psaltery and harp at the hearing of that. Let him sing and play, and that with the mind and the heart and the spirit like David. Sing a heart-strengthening Psalm every morning, and a heart-cleansing and a heart-quieting Psalm every night. Seven times every remaining day of your Earthly pilgrimage sing a Psalm. Let no place, and no conversation, and no occupation delude you out of your heart-refreshing Psalm. Let the prisoners hear you. Let the angels hear you. Let God hear you. Let Him bow down His Ear and hear you. And let Him say to His Son, and to His angels, and to His saints, over you and over your house, I have found a man after Mine own heart; with My holy oil have I anointed him
Pronunciation of Proper Names - One hears in church and elsewhere, not only what are obvious and demonstrable mispronunciations, but such variety in the mode of pronouncing many names as causes irritation and bewilderment. If after hearing a name pronounced in a way widely different from that to which we have been accustomed, we refer to some accessible authority, it is by no means improbable that it will be found to support the accentuation or enunciation of which we should previously have been inclined to disapprove. Besides, that quickness of Ear which is necessary for reproducing foreign sounds is conspicuously wanting to most natives of England. But the weakness of such an authority is specially clear in the case of Scripture names. The weak point of the position is that the analogies founded on by one scholar will not be equally familiar, or commend themselves to the same extent, to another; and it may well appear to many that Professor Stevenson in his list of proper names concedes too much to popular usage, and would in some cases attain a more desirable result by approximating more closely to the form of the original. In the middle of words, especially in words containing the Divine name Jah, the matter has already been settled for us, as it in most cases appears as iah , Ahaziah, Isaiah, Shemaiah. We do not say philosoph′y, biolog′y, Deuteronom′y (though this is heard occasionally), but the stress is laid on the connecting syllable. He will then be able to follow the method which most commends itself to his Ear and judgment
Obsolete or Obscure Words in the English av Bible - ...
Away with, Isaiah 1:13—bear or endure. ...
Ear, to, Isaiah 30:24—to plow. ...
Earing, Genesis 45:6—plowing. ...
Earnest, 2 Corinthians 1:22—a pledge or token of what is to come. ...
Instantly, Acts 26:7—earnestly; at once. ...
Rereward, Isaiah 52:12; Isaiah 58:8—rear-guard
Old - Golden - ...
Psalm 19:10 (a) This figure indicates that the precious truths of the Bible are more valuable, more useful and more to be desired than the finest metal that Earth can produce. ...
Proverbs 11:22 (a) By this type we learn the lesson that ungodly actions in the life of a beautiful woman are as inconsistent as to see a jeweled ornament placed in the snout of a pig. ...
Proverbs 25:11 (b) By this figure we learn of the great value of words that are well spoken and timely. ...
Gold buys one's way into Earthly places but CHRIST brings one into the throne room of Heaven. He is better than gold which is used as a standard far purity on the Earth. Afterward, because of the evils which crept in, and the idolatry which abounded, the glory, position power and wealth gradually disappeared. " The gold has not entirely disappeared, it has not been completely abolished. ...
Ezekiel 16:13 (a) We learn from this that Israel was made wealthy, beautiful, great and powerful by the hand of GOD who gave to them liberally of the blessings of Heaven and Earth. He was the supreme ruler of the Earth. These blessings from Heaven enrich the life on Earth, and will enrich the soul for eternity. ...
Revelation 17:4 (b) The false woman represents and is a type of the great world-wide religious system, that denies the truths of the Gospel, and substitutes for GOD's Word the traditions of men, the teachings of religious leaders, and gaudy presentations that appeal to the eye and the Ear. She appears to be the genuine church of GOD by her protestations, but actually she is "the habitation of demons, the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. This entices the merchants of the Earth to seek her favor because of the remuneration to be gained. " No one should be deceived by this golden appearance. We should ascertain what lies beneath and composes the real body of that which appears to be golden
Agriculture - But there they unlearned the exclusively pastoral life and learned husbandry (Deuteronomy 11:10), while the deserts beyond supplied pasture for their cattle (1 Chronicles 7:21). ...
On the other hand, when they became a nation, occupying Canaan, their agriculture learned in Egypt made them a self subsisting nation, independent of external supplies, and so less open to external corrupting influences. God claimed the lordship of the soil (Amos 4:7-8), so that each held by a divine tenure; subject to the tithe, a quit rent to the theocratic head landlord, also subject to the sabbatical year. Every seventh, sabbatic year, or the year of Jubilee, every 50th year, lands alienated for a time reverted to the original owner. ...
Compare Isaiah's "woe" to them who "add field to field," clearing away families (1 Kings 21) to absorb all, as Ahab did to Naboth. Houses in towns, if not redeemed in a year, were alienated for ever; thus land property had an advantage over city property, an inducement to cultivate and reside on one's own land. These regulations, and that of attendance thrice a year at Jerusalem for the great feasts, discouraged the appetite for war. The Israelites cleared away most of the wood which they found in Canaan (Joshua 17:18), and seem to have had a scanty supply, as they imported but little; compare such extreme expedients for getting wood for sacrifice as in 1 Samuel 6:14; 2 Samuel 24:22; 1 Kings 19:21; dung and hay fuel heated their ovens (Ezekiel 4:12; Ezekiel 4:15; Matthew 6:30). A drought Earlier or later is not so bad, but just three months before harvest is fatal (Leviticus 25:23). The "early" rain (Proverbs 16:15; James 5:7) fell from about the September equinox to sowing time in November or December, to revive the parched soil that the seed might germinate. ...
A typical pledge that, as there has been the Early outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost, so there shall be a latter outpouring previous to the great harvest of Israel and the Gentile nations (Zechariah 12:10; Joel 2:23; Joel 2:28-32). The barley harvest was Earlier than the wheat. With the undesigned propriety that marks truth, Exodus 9:31-32 records that by the plague of hail "the flax and the barley were smitten, for the barley was in the Ear, and the flax was bolled i. The season of rains from Tisri equinox to Nisan is pretty continuous, but is more decidedly marked at the beginning (the Early rain) and the end (the latter rain). Fallows were cleared of stones and thorns Early in the year (Jeremiah 4:3; Hosea 10:12; Isaiah 5:2). Oxen were urged on with a spearlike goad (Judges 3:31). The poor man's claim was remembered, the self sown produce of the seventh year being his perquisite (Leviticus 25:1-7): hereby the Israelites' faith was tested; national apostasy produced gradual neglect of this compassionate law, and was punished by retribution in kind (Leviticus 26:34-35); after the captivity it was revived. The gleanings, the grainers of the field, and the forgotten sheaf and remaining grapes and olives, were also the poor man's right; and perhaps a second tithe every third year (Leviticus 19:9-10; Deuteronomy 14:28; Deuteronomy 26:12; Amos 4:4). The fruit of newly planted trees was not to be eaten for the first three years, in the fourth it was holy as firstfruits, and on the fifth eaten commonly
Isaiah, Book of - From the closing years of Uzziah to the death of Hezekiah would be from about B. 765 to 700, embracing a period of 65 years. Moab, Damascus, "the land shadowing with wings which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia," Egypt, "the desert of the sea," Dumah, Arabia, "the valley of vision" (Jerusalem), Tyre, "the Earth [1] made empty and waste, and turned upside down;" and finally the hosts on high and kings on the Earth punished. There is comfort for those who have an opened Ear. (nearly forty in number) show that his words applied to the times that then were; such as the condition of the people; the unprofitableness of the rites and ceremonies; and that grace to the Gentiles had been foretold. Christ coming in humiliation is revealed in the prophet as well as His glory; indeed, all the ways of God in dealing with His people Israel, on to the end — though some subjects are expanded elsewhere — are to be found in this comprehensive prophecy: clearly it could only have been written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit
Holiness - For all the Ancient East, Phœnicians and Babylonians as well as Hebrews, a god was a holy being, and anything specially appropriated to one, for example an Ear-ring or nose-ring regarded as an amulet, was also holy. , Leviticus 19:26 ), from mixtures of animals, seeds, and stuffs ( Leviticus 19:19 ), and from the fruit of newly planted trees for the first four years ( Leviticus 19:23 ff. But there is another element clearly brought out in this vision the majesty of the Divine holiness: ‘Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole Earth is full of his glory’ ( Isaiah 6:3 ). This aspect also comes out very distinctly in the great psalm of the Divine holiness, perhaps from the Early Greek period, where the holy Jehovah is declared to have ‘a great and terrible name’ ( Psalms 99:3 ) and to be’ high above all peoples’ ( Psalms 99:2 ), and in one of the later portions of the Book of Isaiah, where He is described as ‘the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy’ ( Isaiah 57:15 )
Commentary - ...
There are some people so wise in their own conceit, and think human helps of so little worth, that they despise commentaries on the Scriptures altogether: but every student or preacher whose business is to explain the sacred oracles, to make known the mind of God to others, to settle cases of conscience, to oppose the sophistry of sceptics, and to confound the arguments of infidels, would do well to avail himself of the most judicious, clear, copious, critical, and sound commentaries on the Bible. There are some expressions, however, that grate upon the Ear of the evangelical Christian. It must be owned that the doctor laboured to come as near as possible to the true sense of the text
Image - Paul is reviewing the corruption of the pagan world and the perversity with which men neglected the living God for ‘the likeness of an image’ of men, birds, quadrupeds, and reptiles, all our references are found in the Apocalypse and concern the particular form of idolatry that acutely distressed the Early Church, viz. The cult was enforced with all the resources that could be devised, and to counteract it an angel utters fearful judgment on all who worship the monster and his statue (Revelation 14:9-11). The first is in a context which clearly points back to the Apostle’s conversion experiences. And beyond the reference to the Earthly life and ministry of Christ, even primarily perhaps, there is the implication that in the timeless heavenly life He is the εἰκών θεοῦ, God’s representative acting in the sphere of the visible (cf. We recall at once the Johannine doctrine of the Logos; the one is a manifestation to the mind of man through Ear-gate, the other (‘Image’) through Eye-gate. The Son is thus the exact counterpart of the Father, the exact facsimile, the clear-cut impression which possesses all the ‘characteristics’ of the original. ) distinguishes χαρακτήρ from εἰκών by saying that the former ‘conveys representative traits only,’ while the latter ‘gives a complete representation under the condition of Earth of that which it figures’; and from μορφή, ‘which marks the essential form. The new man in Christ Jesus bears once more the image of his Creator (Colossians 3:10); he becomes akin to God, is able to know Him (εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν) and His will in all the affairs of life. Thus it matters little whether we speak of bearing Christ’s image or God’s, and it is fruitless to debate which is prior in time. To be conformed to the image of Christ is to share not only His holiness but His glory-a thought brought before us in 2 Corinthians 3:18 (‘We all mirror the glory of the Lord with face unveiled, and so we are being transformed into the same image as himself, passing from one glory to another’) and in 1 Corinthians 15:49 (‘as we have borne the image of material man so we are to bear the image of the heavenly Man’)
Claim - It tells how He knew all things in the heart of man (John 2:23-25), and occasionally drew the attention of His disciples to the real importance of certain personalities and actions (Matthew 16:6; Matthew 11:11, Luke 21:1-4), where a wrong impression might have been produced; but, as a rule, He does not take the initiative in criticising and condemning in detail the standards, methods, and institutions then prevailing in society. Lazarus, even in Abraham’s bosom, must be willing to serve one who had been an Earthly neighbour (Luke 16:24). The action of the woman who anointed Christ and bathed His feet with tears is shown to be right, inasmuch as the claim of a passing guest was greater than that of those who were always present (Mark 14:3, Luke 7:37-38, John 12:7-8). Afterwards, to one who understood it all, it was evident that attention to their own claims had blinded the religious leaders of Israel to the presence of the Lord of Glory (1 Corinthians 2:8), just as the worship of nature, degraded and degrading, had darkened and alienated from God the heart of the Gentile world (Romans 1:21). ’ The message of religious teaching had dropt its preface, ‘Thus saith the Lord,’ and had come to express the contention of a sect, the presentation of a view, the quotation of hearer from hearer. On this account the teaching of Christ arrested the Ear as sounding a note that had become unfamiliar, the voice of original authority. It must have been indescribably wonderful in such an age to learn that ‘God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself’ (2 Corinthians 5:19). It was a great task that was soon to confront the gospel, for the Jew had to be convinced that the alien had been divinely provided for in the promises (Ephesians 2:19), and the Gentile had to learn that there was no place for pride where a wild branch had been grafted contrary to custom into a cultivated stem, and owed not only its sustenance but the higher quality of its new fruit to that incorporation (1618420706_71)
Scribes - ...
Ezra's glory, even above his priesthood, was that "he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses which the Lord God of Israel had given," and "had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments" (Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:10; Ezra 7:12), "a scribe of the law of the God of heaven. The Old Testament too was "searched" (midrashim ) for "recondite meanings", the very search in their view entitling them to eternal life. Jesus warns them to "search" them very differently, namely, to find Him in them, if they would have life (John 5:39). 15:10, section 5) was at first his colleague, But with many followers renounced his calling as scribe and joined Herod and appeared in public arrayed gorgeously. His grandson and successor, Gamaliel, was over his school during Christ's ministry and the Early part of the Acts. The interpreter or crier proclaimed, loud enough for all to hear, what the rabbi whispered cf6 "in the Ear" (Matthew 10:27). The saying of a scribe illustrates the pleasant relations between master and scholars, "I have learned much from my teachers, more from my colleagues, most from my disciples. He was then a chaber , or "of the fraternity", no longer of "the ignorant and unlearned" (Acts 4:13), but, separated from the common herd, "people of the Earth," "cursed" as not knowing the law (John 7:15; John 7:49)
Athens - Her Lyceum by the Ilissus, her Academy by the groves of Cephissus, her Porch in the Agora, and her Garden near at hand, were still frequented by Platonists, Peripatetics, Stoics, and Epicureans. Plutarch, who wrote half a century later, says in regard to Pericles’ public edifices: ‘In beauty each of them at once appeared venerable as soon as it was built; but even at the present day the work looks as fresh as ever, for they bloom with an eternal freshness which defies time, and seems to make the work instinct with an unfading spirit of youth’ (Pericles, xiii. The Philhellenism of the Empire surpassed that of the Republic, and of all the Roman benefactors of Athens the greatest was Hadrian, who not only completed the temple of Zeus Olympius, which had remained unfinished for 700 years, but embellished the city with many other public buildings, and gave the name of Hadrianopolis to a new quarter. … In a word, you are overpowered by the pleasures of the Ear, and are like men sitting to be amused by rhetoricians rather than deliberating upon State affairs. Paul’s time the penchant for news took the form of an eagerness to hear the latest novelty in speculation or religion which any σπερμολόγος (picker-up of scraps of information) might have to publish (Acts 17:21), in order that they might exercise their nimble wits upon it, and most probably hold it up to ridicule. ]'>[2] ) is a noble attempt to find common ground with the Athenian philosophers, an appreciation of what was highest in their religion, an expression of sympathy with their sincere agnosticism, an appeal to that groping, innate sense of spiritual realities, that universal instinct of monotheism, which lead to the true God who is near to all men, and who, though unseen, is no longer unknown. Not driven from the city by hostile feeling, but quitting it of his own accord, too unimportant to be noticed, too harmless to be molested, he departed with a crushing sense of failure, and, apparently as a consequence, began his mission in Corinth ‘in weakness and fear and much trembling’ (1 Corinthians 2:3). Conybeare and J
Omniscience - "Lord, thou hast searched me and known me; thou knowest my down-sitting and mine uprising, thou understandest my thought afar off. The ways of man are before the eyes of the Lord, and he pondereth all his goings; he searcheth their hearts, and understandeth every imagination of their thoughts. "...
In Psalms 94, the knowledge of God is argued from the communication of it to men: "Understand, ye brutish among the people; and, ye fools, when will ye be wise? He that planteth the Ear, shall he not hear? He that formed the eye, shall he not see? He that chastiseth the Heathen, shall not he correct? He that teacheth man knowledge, shall not he know?" This argument is as easy as it is conclusive, obliging all who acknowledge a First Cause, to admit his perfect intelligence, or to take refuge in atheism itself. If God gives wisdom to the wise, and knowledge to men of understanding; if he communicates this perfection to his creatures, the inference must be that he himself is possessed of it in a much more eminent degree than they; that his knowledge is deep and intimate, reaching to the very essence of things, theirs but slight and superficial; his clear and distinct, theirs confused and dark; his certain and infallible, theirs doubtful and liable to mistake; his easy and permanent, theirs obtained with much pains, and soon lost again by the defects of memory or age; his universal and extending to all objects, theirs short and narrow, reaching only to some few things, while that which is wanting cannot be numbered; and therefore, as the heavens are higher than the Earth, so, as the prophet has told us, are his ways above our ways, and his thoughts above our thoughts. The wicked are thus reminded, that their hearts are searched, and their sins noted; that the eyes of the Lord are upon their ways; and that their most secret works will be brought to light in the day when God the witness shall become God the judge. But as to the righteous, the eyes of the Lord are said to be over them; that they are kept by him who never slumbers or sleeps; that he is never far from them; that his eyes run to and fro throughout the whole Earth, to show himself strong in their behalf; that foes, to them invisible, are seen by his eye, and controlled by his arm; and that this great attribute, so appalling to wicked men, affords to them, not only the most influential reason for a perfectly holy temper and conduct, but the strongest motive to trust, and joy, and hope, amidst the changes and afflictions of the present life. Does the mind inhabiting your body dispose and govern it with ease? Ought you not then to conclude, that the universal Mind with equal ease actuates and governs universal nature; and that, when you can at once consider the interest of the Athenians at home, in Egypt, and in Sicily, it is not too much for the divine wisdom to take care of the universe?...
These reflections will soon convince you, that the greatness of the divine mind is such, as at once to see all things, hear all things, be present every where, and direct all the affairs of the world
Passover And Feast of Unleavened Bread - After the meal the worshippers were to go to their homes; the seventh day was to be a solemn assembly, and this period ( Deuteronomy 16:9 ) was treated as opening the 7 weeks’ ‘joy of harvest,’ commencing from Abib, when the corn would be coming into Ear. The Feast of Unleavened Bread is treated separately; it lasts 7 days, a holy convocation is to be held on the 1st and 7th days; and ‘on the morrow after the sabbath’ a sheaf of new corn is to be waved before the Lord, a he-lamb is to be offered as a burnt-offering with other offerings; and till this is done, no bread or parched corn or green Ears may be eaten. ...
According to Exodus 12:1-13 , the current month of the Exodus is to be regarded as the 1st month of the year. The Passover appears to date from very Early times, and may have amalgamated features from an entire series of festivals. But the Jews learned in time to disregard some of the details, as applicable only to the first or Egyptian Passover. Large numbers assembled at Jerusalem for this feast, and such occasions were always carefully supervised by the Romans for fear of insurrection
Pilate - ...
Pilate would therefore be to us only one of a series of unsuccessful procurators, but for the fact that his years of office covered the period of Christ’s ministry. From the accounts of our Lord’s trial we learn more of him than from any other source. (1) Hearing that He came from Galilee, he sends Him to Herod Antipas , who was at Jerusalem for the feast. To such as Pilate, Greek mythology would make it not incredible that ‘the son of a god’ should be on Earth, and in the decadence of their own religion the Romans were lending a ready Ear to the mysterious religions of the East. Moreover, Pilate’s superstitions fear had already been aroused by the report of his wife’s dream ( Matthew 27:19 ). He had probably not taken the trouble to understand the fierce passions of the people whom he was sent to govern, and when worsted by them in Early encounters, the scorn which Romans felt for Jews became in him something like hatred, and a strong desire to be avenged on their leaders at all costs save one, namely, disgrace at Rome. ...
But it is very unlikely that Tiberius, who was jealous for good provincial government, would have allowed Pilate to remain procurator for ten years if his administration had been as had as our knowledge of him would imply. The governor usually went up to Jerusalem for the Passover time, but he must have felt that in face of a sudden national movement he would be powerless; and it is no small testimony to Roman powers of administration that for 60 years the series of procurators in Judæa managed to postpone more serious conflicts. The fault would seem to rest with the central authority, which did not realize that in administering the small province of Judæa it had to deal not with the province alone, but with all the millions of Jews scattered throughout the Empire, profoundly Earnest in religious convictions, regarding Judæa as the holy centre of all they held dearest, and maintaining direct communication with the Sanhedrin, to which the Romans themselves had allowed a certain authority over all Jews throughout the Empire
Sanctify, Sanctification - ἅγιος is the nearest Greek equivalent of the Hebrew קָדוֹשׁ. When we turn to the Epistles, we discover that, though the familiar terms reappear, they reappear in a new form. It must forgive freely and unweariedly (Matthew 18:21-22). He must be pure in heart (Matthew 5:8). Such a recognition of other lives will keep men meek (Matthew 5:5, Matthew 11:29), and will fill their hearts with humility (Matthew 18:1-6 ||). This necessity is further hinted at in the teaching about defilement proceeding from the heart (Matthew 15:11). The tree must be made good; the heart must be cleansed; the river of life must be purified at its source. This is suggested in the parable of the Sower (Matthew 13:3, Mark 4:3); the parable of the Seed as growing up—‘first the blade, then the Ear, then the full corn in the Ear’ (Mark 4:28); and in all the figures of fruit-bearing, because fruit-bearing is the late result of a long process (cf. Such likeness can be secured only through long conformity of the heart and mind and will to God. A pure heart is the organ of such a vision of God (Matthew 5:8). But it is clear also that He was accustomed to pray on all occasions (cf. He declared that true prayer ‘justified’ a man (Luke 18:14) All these references seem to make it clear that prayer ministers to our sanctification. Matthew 25:10; Matthew 25:14-30, Luke 19:12-27, Mark 10:29-30 ||); and if heavenly rewards are granted to those morally fit, as is taught clearly by the parable of the Pounds (Luke 19), these passages imply that sanctification is advanced by a life of obedience to God’s will. Learning of Jesus, we may become meek and lowly in heart; yoked with Him under the yoke which He wears and which He graciously invites us to share, we may hear our burden easily. This sanctified man is ‘he that heareth my word and believeth him that sent me. The Son willeth to reveal the Father to all, for the very next word is, ‘Come unto me all ye that labour’: but there is no relaxing of the claim that men must come to Him and learn of Him if they would know the Father; cf
Oracles - The Early church did have prophets like Agabus (Acts 21:10-11 ), who expressed God's word regarding what was to come. People were to hear and to change their ways. These foreign nations had little chance to hear and heed the word of an Israelite prophet. At times, Israel or Judah heard their name included among foreign nations (for example, Amos 2:4-16 ). At least, these words reminded the hearers of God's international, even universal, power and expectations. In the Earlier period, priests were more often sought out to receive a word from God. However, the exact way music was used is unclear to us. Audition—the actual hearing of a voice—and visions undoubtedly played a part in the receiving of God's words. We cannot know how much of God's revelation came through the actual Ear or eye or how much came through the mind. He described himself as one whose eye was opened, one who heard God's word and saw His vision. However, Solomon Earlier had received God's pronouncement in a dream (1 Kings 3:5 . They may have been written by disciples of the prophet or by others who heard. Those who were seeking God's help or counsel in a decision-making process undoubtedly acted on what they learned. Others, who heard oracles they had neither sought nor welcomed, may not have been as quick to accept the pronouncement (consider Elijah's words to Ahab, 1 Kings 21:20-24 ). Most often the response of those who heard or read the oracles of God can be guessed at. Second, though we do not know the response of the original hearers, God's pronouncements are still being read and are producing change in people in our day
Peter - , "hearing"), a very common Jewish name in the New Testament. There the four youths, Simon, Andrew, James, and John, spent their boyhood and Early manhood in constant fellowship. Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all the advantages of a religious training, and were Early instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah. When Peter appeared before the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" (Acts 4:13 ). ...
He appears to have been settled at Capernaum when Christ entered on his public ministry, and may have reached beyond the age of thirty. Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus, and abode with him where he was. Jesus appeared suddenly, and entering into Simon's boat, bade him launch forth and let down the nets. Jesus addressed him with the assuring words, "Fear not," and announced to him his life's work. ...
On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of twenty years old and upwards had to pay (Exodus 30:15 ), came to Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matthew 17:24-27 ). There he was forewarned of the fearful sin into which he afterwards fell (22:31-34). Under a sudden impulse he cut off the Ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth to take Jesus. ...
He is found in John's company Early on the morning of the resurrection. ) ...
After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he again appears with the others at the ascension ( Acts 1:15-26 ). And now that he is become Cephas indeed, we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5,32 ; 15:14 ), and he is known to us finally as Peter. Next we hear of his being cast into prison by Herod Agrippa (12:1-19); but in the night an angel of the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found refuge in the house of Mary. " ...
After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east, and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates (1 Peter 5:13 )
Head - ‘The psychical importance of the head would be an Early result of observation of the phenomena and source of the senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smell, and of such facts as the pulsation of the fontanel in infants and the fatal effect of wounds in this complex centre of the organism’ (A. xxvi); but, to Aristotle, ‘the brain is merely a regulator for the temperature of the heart’ (ib. ) merely refer to the position of the organ of sight, and the phrase is actually contrasted with ‘the thoughts of the heart’ (Daniel 4:5; cf. 54), ‘the impulse for concealment before on object of fear. The head smitten to death, but healed (13:3), appears to be Nero, who was widely believed not to have died in a. In the OT the body is regarded as a co-operative group of quasi-independent sense-organs, each possessed of psychical and ethical, as well as physical, life (see articles Eye, Ear, Hand, and cf. Paul located in the heart), the head dominates the body, the separate organs of which each contribute to the whole personality ‘according to the working in due measure of each several part’ (Ephesians 4:16; cf. The same analogy re-appears in several of the Odes of Solomon. Thus Christ says, ‘I sowed my fruit in hearts, and transformed them into myself; and they received my blessing and lived; and they were gathered to me, and were saved; because they were to me as my own members, and I was their Head’ (17:13, 14; cf. These passages continue the mystic realism of Pauline and Johannine thought, and throw an interesting light on the Earlier ideas of the relation of the believer to Christ, even though they belong to the 2nd century
Money - If gold or silver be offered, they take it and pay it by weight, as other goods: so that they are obliged to cut it into pieces with shears for that purpose, and they carry a steel yard at their girdles to weigh it. The bracelets that Eliezer gave Rebekah weighed ten shekels, and the Ear rings two shekels, Genesis 24:22 . It is true that in the Hebrew we find Jacob bought a field for a hundred kesitahs, Genesis 33:19 ; and that the friends of Job, after his recovery, gave to that model of patience each a kesitah, and a golden pendant for the Ears, Job 42:11
Shepherds - Refusing to confine themselves to any particular spot, (for the pastures were not yet appropriated,) they lived in tents, and removed from one place to another in search of pastures for their cattle. They were conscious of their strength, and jealous of their independence; and although patient and forbearing, their conduct proved, on several occasions, that they wanted neither skill nor courage to vindicate their rights and avenge their wrongs. So he fed them according to the integrity of his heart, and guided them by the skilfulness of his hands. " "Give Ear; O shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth. So great was the stock of Abraham and Lot, that they were obliged to separate, because "the land was not able to bear them. Russel, in his "History of Aleppo," speaks of vast flocks which pass that city every year, of which many sheep are sold to supply the inhabitants. The office of chief shepherd, therefore, being in pastoral countries one of great trust, of high responsibility, and of distinguished honour, is with great propriety applied to our Lord by the Apostle Peter:...
"And when the chief shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory which fadeth not away," 1 Peter 5:4
Head - ‘The psychical importance of the head would be an Early result of observation of the phenomena and source of the senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smell, and of such facts as the pulsation of the fontanel in infants and the fatal effect of wounds in this complex centre of the organism’ (A. xxvi); but, to Aristotle, ‘the brain is merely a regulator for the temperature of the heart’ (ib. ) merely refer to the position of the organ of sight, and the phrase is actually contrasted with ‘the thoughts of the heart’ (Daniel 4:5; cf. 54), ‘the impulse for concealment before on object of fear. The head smitten to death, but healed (13:3), appears to be Nero, who was widely believed not to have died in a. In the OT the body is regarded as a co-operative group of quasi-independent sense-organs, each possessed of psychical and ethical, as well as physical, life (see articles Eye, Ear, Hand, and cf. Paul located in the heart), the head dominates the body, the separate organs of which each contribute to the whole personality ‘according to the working in due measure of each several part’ (Ephesians 4:16; cf. The same analogy re-appears in several of the Odes of Solomon. Thus Christ says, ‘I sowed my fruit in hearts, and transformed them into myself; and they received my blessing and lived; and they were gathered to me, and were saved; because they were to me as my own members, and I was their Head’ (17:13, 14; cf. These passages continue the mystic realism of Pauline and Johannine thought, and throw an interesting light on the Earlier ideas of the relation of the believer to Christ, even though they belong to the 2nd century
Apocalyptic - Type of biblical literature that emphasizes the lifting of the veil between heaven and Earth and the revelation of God and his plan for the world. Later apocalypses often build upon and elaborate the symbolism employed by Earlier ones. This is particularly the case in the Book of Revelation, in which not only Earlier apocalypses but the whole Old Testament is plundered for ideas and symbols. It is not clear, for instance, that Revelation is a response to suffering, although suffering is predicted in it (2:10; 13:10). Sociologically, it seems better to say that apocalyptic is the product of a prophetic movement, which claims to reveal the way things really are, both in heaven and on Earth (the term "apocalypse, " the Greek name of the Book of Revelation, means "unveiling"). These concern particularly the relation between heaven and Earth, the rule of God over both, and his ultimate victory over evil. The mere appearance of these themes, therefore, cannot provide us with an adequate definition of apocalyptic. It is their appearance in this distinctive literary form, arising from this distinctive prophetic movement, which makes apocalyptic what it is. But just as the distinctive themes of apocalyptic appear throughout the Scriptures, so we find that its literary forms have walk-on parts in many other books (Ezekiel 1-3 ; Zechariah 1-6 ; Matthew 24 ; Ephesians 1:15-23 ; Hebrews 12:22-24 ). Both Daniel and Revelation are full of speech, but in both books the only occasion on which the voice of God is unequivocally heard is Revelation 21:5-8 , a passage all the more climactic because of this rarity. It is not by accident that each of the letters to the churches ends with the appeal associated with the parables: "He who has an Ear, let him hear. ...
The Interconnectedness of Heaven and Earth This follows as much from the mode of revelation as from the fact of it. John's entry into heaven is a token of the closeness of heaven to Earth. Having entered it, he is able from that vantage-point to survey both heaven and Earth and to see how, really, Earth can only be understood when it is seen as one-half of a much greater reality. The same is true, though less clearly, in Daniel. There are heavenly counterparts of Earthly realities, like the "angels of the seven churches" (Revelation 1:20 ), and the four living creatures by the throne (Revelation 4:6 ), and the "son of man" of Daniel 7:13 , who to some extent represents God's people in heaven (Daniel 7:18 ). Similarly there are Earthly counterparts of heavenly realities, seen for instance in the ghastly pairing of the two women who are also cities in Revelation 17-21 : on the one hand the Great Whore, who enslaves the world by war and commerce, and on the other the Bride of Christ, who brings healing to the nations. ...
There is mutual penetration, expressed both by the presence of the risen Christ in and with his church (Revelation 1-3 ), and also by the way in which Earthly powers are seen as nurtured by the power of the beast (Revelation 17 ). Life on Earth is determined from heaven: Decrees are issued from the throne that affect the Earth (Revelation 16:1 ; cf. Daniel 7:26 ), and events in heaven have a radical effect on Earth (such as the ejection of the defeated dragon from heaven, Revelation 12:9,12 ). ...
Although Earth is the sphere of the dragon and the beast, yet heaven and Earth are seen as a single organism. This appears vividly in the compelling vision of uNIVersal worship in Revelation 5 , where John sees (and hears) the worship spreading from the throne in concentric circles outward, from the living creatures to the twenty-four elders, then to the myriads of angels (v. 11), and finally to "every created thing in heaven and on Earth and under the Earth" (v. At the end heaven and Earth will be recreated together (Revelation 21:1 ). ...
The message of the book is that, even though we cannot avoid bearing the mark of the beast as inhabitants of this world-order (13:16), yet, viewed from heaven, we also bear the name of God and of the Lamb on our foreheads, and are secure with him (14:1-5). Minear, New Testament Apocalyptic ; F. Rowland, The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity ; H
the Angel of the Church in Thyatira - The Son of God who has His eyes like unto a flame of fire wherewith to search to the bottom all the depths of Satan that are in Thyatira. That is to say, to search to the bottom the reins and the heart of the minister of Thyatira, and the reins and the hearts of all his household, and of all his people. We would never have heard so much as Hosea's name had it not been for his wife and her children. At any rate, his name would not have been worked down into our hearts as it is but for his awful heart-break at home. We might have heard that there was a certain minister in that ancient city in the days of the Revelation, but this so terrible Epistle would never have been written to him or transmitted to us but for his household catastrophe-a catastrophe so awful that it cannot be so much as once named among us. " Hosea learned at home, and all the week, that new sensibility to sin, that incomparable tenderness to sinners, and that holy passion as a preacher, with all of which he carried all Israel captive Sabbath after Sabbath, and so did his antitype in Thyatira. As many as had Ears to hear in Thyatira they could measure quite well by the increasing depth of his preaching and his prayers the increasing depths of Satan through which their minister was wading all the week. But you are hearers, and good hearing is almost as scarce, and almost as costly to the hearer, as good preaching is to the preacher. To hear a really good sermon, as it ought to be heard, needs almost as much head and heart, and almost as much blood and tears, as it needs to preach a really good sermon. ...
A jest's prosperity lies in the EarOf him that hears it, never in the tongueOf him who makes it. Yes; but a sermon's prosperity lies in both the tongue of the preacher and the Ear of the hearer. And a sermon's true prosperity is purchased by both preacher and hearer at more or less of the same price. "He that overcometh" is just that minister who meets all the temptations and trials of life, at home and abroad, with more and more charity, and with more and more faith, and with more and more patience, as long as there is a hard heart in his house at home or in his congregation abroad. It is just to the minister who so overcomes his own passions in his own heart first, that his Master will give power to break in shivers the same passions in all other men's hearts, as with a rod of iron. All the iron rods in the world would not have broken men's hard hearts as that reed broke them, that our Lord took so meekly into His hand when the soldiers were mocking and maltreating Him. And if you just strike with all your might, and with that same rod, all the hard hearts that come near you, you will soon see how they will all go to shivers under it. That is to say, when many other ministers that sleep in the dust of the Earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt, they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever
Carpocrates, Philospher - Carpocrates ( Καρποκράτης , Irenaeus; Καρποκρᾱς , Epiphanius and Philaster, both probably deriving this form from the shorter treatise against heresies by Hippolytus), a Platonic philosopher who taught at Alexandria Early in the 2nd cent. , and who, incorporating Christian elements into his system, became the founder of a heretical sect mentioned in one of our Earliest catalogues of heresies, the list of Hegesippus, preserved by Eusebius (H. According to Hippolytus, Carpocrates taught that Jesus surpassed other men in justice and integrity ( σωφροσύνῃ καὶ ἀρετῇ καὶ βίῳ δικαιοσύνης , Epiphanius), and no doubt our Lord's example might have been cited only in reference to freedom from Jewish ceremonial obligations; yet the version of Irenaeus seems more trustworthy, which does not suggest that the superiority of Jesus consisted in anything but the clearer apprehension of eternal truths which His intellect retained. 9 31); for the Carpocratians marked their disciples by cauterizing them in the back of the lobe of the right Ear. It appears from Heracleon (Clem. In this way they escape the dominion of the finite mundane spirits; their souls are freed from imprisonment in matter, and they obtain a state of perfect repose (corresponding to the Buddhist Nirwana) when they have completely ascended above the world of appearance. 2); Tertullian ( de Anima, 23, 35), who appears to have drawn his information from Irenaeus; Philaster (35) and Pseudo-Tertullian (9), who represent the Earlier treatise of Hippolytus; Epiphanius (27), who weaves together the accounts of Hippolytus and of Irenaeus; and Hippolytus, who in his later treatise (vii. 20) merely copies Irenaeus, with some omissions, thereby suggesting that he was not acquainted with the work of Irenaeus when he wrote the Earlier treatise
Miracles - Though laws in nature hitherto unknown are being discovered from time to time, they in no way account for such things as dead persons being raised to life, the blind seeing, the deaf hearing, the lame walking, and demons being cast out of those who were possessed by them. ...
Curing the waters of Marah Exodus 15:23-25 ...
Manna from heaven Exodus 16:14-35 ...
Water from the rock at Rephidim Exodus 17:5-7 ...
Death of Nadab and Abihu Leviticus 10:1 - 2 ...
The Earth swallows the murmurers, and...
the death of Korah, Dathan and Abiram Numbers 16:31-40 ...
Budding of Aaron's rod at Kadesh Numbers 17:8 ...
Water from the rock at Meribah Numbers 20:7-11 ...
The brazen serpent: Israel healed Numbers 21:8 - 9 ...
Balaam's ass speaking Numbers 22:21-35 ...
Parting the Jordan Joshua 3:14-17 ...
In the Land. ...
The miracles by the Lord and His apostles were nearly all wrought for the welfare of men, curing them from the diseases of mind and body, and dispossessing them of demons, thus spoiling the kingdom of Satan. From the wording of several passages it is conclusive that not nearly all the miracles of the Lord are recorded. ...
It is stated in Mark 16:16-18 that those who should believe on the Lord Jesus, by the testimony of the apostles, would be able to work miracles; and there is ample testimony in Early church history that this was the case, especially in casting out demons. By the time the emperors professed Christianity, followed by the masses (the 4th century), Christ had been well accredited on the Earth: hence there was no further need of such signs. Indeed the scriptures are themselves as clear a manifestation of the power and wisdom of God as are any of the miracles. ...
Malchus' Ear healed - Luke 22:50,51
Proselyte - These are ‘fearers of God ’ ( phoboumenoi ton Theon , Acts 10:2 ; Acts 10:22 ; Acts 13:16 ; Acts 13:26 ; Acts 13:50 etc. They lived on the fringe of Judaism, and were, it seems ( Luke 7:5 , Acts 10:2 ), often generous henefactors to the cause that had lifted them nearer to God and truth. There appear to have been three reasons for this change. (3) The Hebrews themselves seem to have responded to their opportunity with a quickened enthusiasm for humanity and a higher ideal of their national existence, in the providence of God, among the nations of the Earth. It does not appear that the Hebrews have ever been so powerfully moved towards the peoples lying in darkness as in this time subsequent to the Exile (Harnack, op. The needs of the world moved them powerfully, and the thoughts that found expression in such passages as Psalms 33:8 (‘Let all the Earth fear the Lord, let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him’) Psalms 36:7-9 , Psalms 64:10 , Psalms 65:8 etc. But now bloodshed and persecution produced the twofold result of closing and steeling the heart of Judaism to the outside world, so that proselytes were no longer sought by the Jews, and the tenets and the practices of Judaism became crystallized and less amenable to Hellenistic influences, and so less fitted to win the Gentile spirit. These three conditions seem of Early origin, though we may not have specific reference to them till the 2nd cent. ...
Among individual Jewish teachers there was difference of opinion as to the necessity of circumcision and baptism, but all Early usage seems to confirm their actual observance. It does not appear that conversion enhanced the reputation of the proselytes; for although they could not but win the esteem of the finer minds of their nation by their higher moral life, yet they seemed to the people to display a type of daily life lacking in domestic reverence and civic and national patriotism (Tac. ...
But the proselytes must always have formed a very small minority of those amongst the Gentiles who had lent an Ear to Jewish teaching
Peter - ]'>[1] ) with ‘those eyes of far perception’; and the look mastered him and won his heart. ’ He was not yet Peter, but only Simon, impulsive and vacillating; and Jesus gave him the new name ere he had Earned it, that it might be an incentive to him, reminding him of his destiny and inciting him to achieve it. ’ It was the beginning of the second year of Jesus’ ministry ere He had chosen all the Twelve; and then He ordained them to their mission, arranging them in pairs for mutual assistance ( Mark 6:7 ), and coupling Simon Peter and Andrew ( Matthew 10:2 ). ...
The distinction of Peter lies less in the qualities of his mind than in those of his heart. This quality appeared on several remarkable occasions. (2) During the season of retirement at Cæsarea Philippi in the last year of His ministry, Jesus, anxious to ascertain whether their faith in His Messiahship had stood the strain of disillusionment, whether they still regarded Him as the Messiah, though He was not the sort of Messiah they had expected, put to the Twelve the question: ‘Who do ye say that I am?’ Again it was Peter who answered promptly and firmly:’ Thou art the Christ,’ filling the Lord’s heart with exultant rapture, and proving that he had indeed Earned his new name Peter, the rock on which Jesus would build His Church, the first stone of that living temple. (3) A week later Jesus went up to the Mount with Peter, James, and John, and ‘was transfigured before them,’ communing with Moses and Elijah, who ‘appeared in glory’ ( Matthew 17:1-8 = Mark 9:2-8 = Luke 9:28-36 ). He could not bear that the blessed Lord should perform that menial office on him. (5) At the arrest in Gethsemane, it was Peter who, seeing Jesus in the grasp of the soldiers, drew his sword and cut off the Ear of Malchus ( John 18:10-11 ). A look of that dear face sufficed to break his heart ( Luke 22:51 ). On the day of the Resurrection Jesus appeared to him ( Luke 24:34 , 1 Corinthians 15:5 ). ...
At the subsequent appearance by the Lake of Galilee (John 21:1-25 ) Peter played a prominent part. ‘Be it the office of love to feed the Lord’s flock, if it was an evidence of fear to deny the Shepherd’ (Augustine). It was on his motion that a successor was appointed to Judas between the Ascension and Pentecost (Acts 1:15-26 ), his impetuosity appearing in this precipitate action (see Matthias); and it was he who acted as spokesman on the day of Pentecost ( John 21:18-19 ff. He wrought miracles in the name of Jesus ( Acts 5:15 , Acts 9:32-42 ); he fearlessly confessed Jesus, setting the rulers at naught ( Acts 4:1-18 ); as head of the Church, he exposed and punished sin ( Acts 5:1-11 , Acts 8:14-24 ); he suffered imprisonment and scourging ( Acts 5:17-42 , Acts 12:1-19 ). Suffice it to mention that he is said to have gone to Rome [6] and laboured there for 25 years [7], and to have been crucified (cf. Acts 2:14 ) in the last year of Nero’s reign (a. According to the ancient and credible testimony of Papias of Hierapolis, a hearer of St. Mark had been Peter’s companion, and heard his teaching and took notes of it. He wrote it, Jerome says, at the request of the brethren at Rome when he was there with Peter; and on hearing it Peter approved it and authorized its use by the Church
Plagues, the Ten, - (Exodus 7:3-12 ) This passage, taken alone would appear to indicate that the magicians succeeded in working wonders, but, if it is compared with the others which relate their opposition on the occasions of the first three plagues, a contrary inference seems more reasonable for the very first time that Moses wrought his miracle without giving previous notice, the magicians "did so with their enchantments," but failed. (Exodus 7:16-25 ) Those who have endeavored to explain this plague by natural causes have referred to the changes of color to which the Nile is subject, the appearance of the Red Sea, and the so called rain and dew of blood of the middle ages; the last two occasioned by small fungi of very rapid growth. But such theories do not explain why the wonder happened at a time of year when the Nile is most clear nor why it killed the fish and made the water unfit to he drunk. The plague seems to have been the leprosy, a fearful kind of elephantiasis which was long remembered as "the botch of Egypt. The ruin caused by the hail was evidently far greater than that effected by any of the Earlier plagues. The hot wind of the Khamaseen usually blows for three days and nights, and carries so much sand with it that it produces the appearance of a yellow fog. " ( Exodus 11:4,5 ) The clearly miraculous nature of this plague, its falling upon man and in its beast; and the singling out of the firstborn, puts it wholly beyond comparison with any natural pestilence, even the severest recorded in history, whether of the peculiar Egyptian plague or of other like epidemics. They are divided first into nine and one the last one standing clearly apart from all the others. The seventh (hail) came when the barley was in Ear, and before the wheat was grown, and hence in February; and the tenth came in the following March or April. The locusts appeared and departed at his word
Inspiration And Revelation - Paul shared to the full his countrymen’s horror of idolatry-both as inherently wrong in itself and because of its corrupting influences-he nevertheless clearly recognized the elements of good in heathen religions, and regarded them as having a place in the wider order of Divine Providence. He took care that they should not be left without witness to His goodness, in that He gave them from heaven rains and fruitful seasons, filling their hearts with food and gladness (Acts 14:17). The most urgent of human needs was that the Earth should bring forth fruits in their seasons. What there was of evil mixed up with such worship was a product of the root of evil in the human heart, and was capable of being eliminated without loss to the fundamental idea. There was a certain reflexion of God in the heart of man: His will was made known through the conscience. Paul appeals to the revelation of God in Nature, he singles out in particular those attributes of God as revealed which the impression derived from Nature is best calculated to convey: ‘the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity’ (Romans 1:20; cf. Nature has its destructive aspect as well as its aspect of beneficence; and even Nature, as we see it, appears to be infected with the taint which is seen most conspicuously in man. There is what may be called a classical passage in the First Epistle to the Corinthians, in which the two conceptions meet in a way that throws clear light upon both. -We cannot do better than begin our discussion of inspiration with this passage, which must be given in full: ‘We speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, even the wisdom that hath been hidden, which God foreordained before the worlds unto our glory: which none of the rulers of this world knoweth: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory: but as it is written, Things which eye saw not, and Ear heard not, And which entered not into the heart of man, Whatsoever things God prepared for them that love him. But unto us God revealed them through the Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. intelligently know, grasp, and understand-the things that were freely given to them by God, the whole bountiful purpose of God in Christ, the Incarnation with all that led up to it and that followed from it-its consequences nearer and more remote. It is as if the critics were devoid of a natural sense-like the varied hues of Nature to the colour-blind, or the world of musical sound to those who have no Ear. For ye received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear; but ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. ’...
When it is said that the Spirit searches the deep things of God and then bestows a knowledge of these deep things on men, it is not meant that there is a mechanical transference of information. The self-consciousness of God must needs be in itself altogether transcendent and incommunicable; the reflexion of it in the heart of man is not absolute, but relative; it is expressed in human measures; it is still a reaching forth of the human soul towards God, feeling after Him if haply it may find Him. ’ In the Earlier documents stress is frequently laid on the giving of ‘signs’ as proofs that a prophet’s mission is from God (Exodus 4:1 ff
Offering - It appears in other Semitic languages such as Arabic and Phoenician, and seems to be used in ancient Ugaritic in the sense of “tribute/gift. For example, when Jacob was on his way back home after twenty years, his long-standing guilt and fear of Esau prompted him to send a rather large “present” (bribe) of goats, camels, and other animals (1 Kings 10:25), doing so on a yearly basis. Years later when David conquered the Moabites, they “became servants to David and brought gifts [2]” ( Ears of corn, dried by the fire. 25:2: “Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with the heart ye shall take my offering. This is clearly illustrated in Early period to refer to “contributions” or “gifts” which consisted of the produce of the ground, reflecting the agricultural character of Early Israel. They, like the widow, the orphan, and the resident alien, were to be given the tithe of all farm produce every third year (
The terûmâh sometimes was an “offering” which had the meaning of a tax, an obligatory assessment which was made against every Israelite male who was twenty years old or older, to be paid for the support of the tabernacle and later, the temple ( Ear, right thumb, and right big toe ( Early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (); and one’s Ear lobe, thumb, and toe as a ritual cleansing (
A related noun mishman appears 4 times. ...
The verb saman which appears 5 times, has cognates in Aramaic, Syriac, and Arabic
Revelation, the - In them the last times are in view, and evil is pointed out in connection with the church: then follows this prophecy, the first part of which concerns the church viewed as a lightbearer on Earth: rejection awaits it as judgement awaits the world. It was signified to John, and he wrote what he saw and heard. It is evident that "after these" refers to the removal of the entire church from Earth, and not simply to the disappearance of the seven particular churches named. After the introduction, Christ is seen in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks, which represent the seven churches as lightbearers. John, who, when Christ was on Earth had leaned on His bosom, seeing Him now in so different an aspect, fell at His feet as dead. ...
In the varied conditions of the churches those who have Ears are specially addressed, and overcomers are encouraged. Persecution may be used to make manifest what is real, and to draw the soul nearer to the Lord. The 'ten days' of Revelation 2:10 may represent ten different persecutions, or refer to ten years' duration of persecution under Diocletian. " A 'rest,' or remnant, in this church is recognised and addressed: and the formula "he that hath an Ear to hear" occurs henceforth after the promise to the overcomer, indicating that from this point only those who overcome are expected to havean Ear to hear what the Spirit says unto the churches. " The Lord Himself has with them the prominent place, and the church is kept out of the hour of tribulation which is coming on the whole Earth. The historical development of the church may be said to close with Thyatira; and Philadelphia represents in the latter times of the church's history on Earth faithfulness to the Lord Himself, on the part of those who are seeking to stand morally in the truth of the church. It represents the arrogance of rationalism and higher criticism in the latter days of the church on Earth: Christ is outside but still appealing, knocking for admission to the individual heart. A different section of the book commences here: namely, "the things that shall be after these," events that will occur after the church has ceased to occupy a place on Earth as in Revelation 2 and Revelation 3 . John saw a throne that is in relation to the Earth; and One sitting on the throne like a jasper and a sardine stone: it is God, but so presented as that He could be looked upon. John, in answer to his weeping, is told that the Lion of the tribe of Judah has overcome to open the book of the counsels of God as to the Earth. The horses may represent powers or forces on Earth, and the riders, those who control or turn them to account. A red horse and its rider, who takes peace from the Earth, and they shall kill one another — the scourge of civil war. A pale horse and its rider, who kills with God's sore plagues those on a fourth part of the Earth: this may be a continent. In the first four seals we have seen forces at work, but controlled; now there is a great Earthquake, and the sun, moon, and stars are affected, indicating probably the apostasy, and the break up of the civil governments ordained of God. There is general dismay, and the call for death, in the fear that the great day of the wrath of the Lamb has come; but these are but preliminary judgements. The prayers of the saints, presented by an angel distinct from those having the seven trumpets, while fragrant before God, bring, as their consequence, judgements on the Earth. A great mountain burning with fire is cast into the sea — some great Earthly power influences the masses with direful effect, and commercial intercourse is affected: cf. A great eagle (as is now read by the editors, instead of 'angel'), cries, "Woe, woe, woe" on those who make the Earth their home. A mighty angel, probably Christ from the description, plants his feet upon (that is, claims) the sea and Earth, and cries with a great voice to which the thunders respond. It is now a question of Christ's rights to the Earth. The witnesses manifest His power, and smite the Earth with plagues. The beast (the Roman power of Revelation 17:8 ) kills the witnesses, and they lie unburied, but they are called up to heaven, and there is in the same hour a great upheaval on Earth. The temple of God was opened in heaven, the ark of His covenant was seen there, and there were judgements on Earth. The devil casts a flood (people) after the woman, but it is swallowed up by the Earthly organisations of men. It blasphemes God, and the dwellers on Earth worship it. In Revelation 13:11 another beast is seen to arise out of the Earth (formed organisation): it appears as a lamb, but speaks as a dragon. It deceives all the Earth and assists the Roman power, working miracles in order that the image of the revived beast may be worshipped: cf. The Lamb is seen on mount Zion, and with Him a hundred and forty-four thousand, who learn the heavenly song. There is then a succession of angels, one of whom flies in mid heaven, having the everlasting gospel for all nations, crying, "Fear God, and give glory to him:" for the hour of judgement has come. One then, like the Son of man, on a cloud, reaps the Earth, the harvest of which is ripe. The vintage of the Earth is gathered by another angel, and the winepress trodden, blood coming from it reaching to sixteen hundred furlongs, the extent of Palestine. A trinity of evil spirits goes forth to gather the kings of the Earth to the battle of the great day of Almighty God at Harmagedon — mount of Megiddo: cf. In Revelation 17:8 the beast is described, after its period of non-existence, as reappearing in Satanic power. Satan is cast into the abyss (not into the lake of fire yet) for a thousand years. Such are raised to life, and reign with Christ a thousand years. ) This is the first resurrection; but the rest of the dead — the wicked — are not raised until the thousand years are expired. Revelation 1-8 speak of the eternal state, when there will be a new heaven and a new Earth. The title 'the Lamb,' and all dispensational names have disappeared: God is all in all. The Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple: the glory of God lightens the city, and the Lamb is the light-bearer. " The sayings were not to be sealed, for the time was near: cf. The Spirit and the bride on their part say, "Come;" and he that heareth is invited also to say, Come; and there is then an appeal to him that is athirst and to whosoever will to take the water of life freely
Receive, Receiving - ...
A — 7: ὑπολαμβάνω (Strong's #5274 — Verb — hupolambano — hoop-ol-am-ban'-o ) "to take or bear up" (hupo, "under"), "to receive," is rendered "received" in Acts 1:9 , of the cloud at the Ascension; in 3 John 1:8 , RV, "welcome" (AV, "receive"). 2) is used in the 1st part, "ye received," dechomai in the 2nd part, "ye accepted," RV (AV, "received"), the former refers to the Ear, the latter, adding the idea of appropriation, to the heart; James 1:21 ; in 2 Thessalonians 2:10 , "the love of the truth," i. Matthew 11:14 , "if ye are willing to receive it," an elliptical construction frequent in Greek writings; of "receiving," by way of bearing with, enduring, 2 Corinthians 11:16 ; of "receiving" by way of getting, Acts 22:5 ; 28:21 ; of becoming partaker of benefits, Mark 10:15 ; Luke 18:17 ; Acts 7:38 ; 2 Corinthians 6:1 ; 11:4 (last clause "did accept:" cp. ...
Note: There is a certain distinction between lambano and dechomai (more pronounced in the Earlier, classical use), in that in many instances lambano suggests a self-prompted taking, whereas dechomai more frequently indicates "a welcoming or an appropriating reception" (Grimm-Thayer). ...
A — 16: κομίζω (Strong's #2865 — Verb — komizo — kom-id'-zo ) denotes "to bear, carry," e. , Luke 7:37 ; in the Middle Voice, "to bear for oneself," hence (a) "to receive," Hebrews 10:36 ; 11:13 (in the best texts; some have lambano, No. ...
A — 18: χωρέω (Strong's #5562 — Verb — choreo — kho-reh'-o ) "to give space, make room for" (chora, "a place"), is used metaphorically, of "receiving" with the mind, Matthew 19:11,12 ; into the heart, 2 Corinthians 7:2 , RV, "open your hearts," marg
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - The word ‘stranger’ (from extraneus) has been so long in possession as the rendering of several distinct words in the Hebrew and Greek texts that it is difficult to introduce changes in translation that appear desirable in order to distinguish those words from each other, and doubtful in some instances whether an exact rendering would be tolerable to the Ear of English readers. We regret the disappearance of the in-spiriting words ‘no more strangers and foreigners,’ but must admit the consistency of Revised Version in translating ‘no more strangers and sojourners. ‘From the Earliest times of Semitic life the lawlessness of the desert … has been tempered by the principle that the guest is inviolable’ (W. His authoritative and affecting words ξένος ἤμην καὶ συνηγάγετέ με (Matthew 25:35) impressed it for ever on the heart of the Church that in receiving the stranger she fed and sheltered her Lord. When Christians are described as ξένοι in Early Christian literature, the word is used in a typical or metaphorical sense-as in the Epistle to Diognetus, Philippians 3:5 : πάνθʼ ὑπομένουσιν ὡς ξένοι· πᾶσα ξένη πατρίς ἐστιν αὐτῶν, καὶ πᾶσα πατρὶς ξἑνη. They are thus reminded that they are sojourners on Earth, dependent on the protection of God, whose property the Earth is, and to whom it belongs to determine the length of their sojourn and what mercies they shall receive
Ishmael - (See HAGAR; ISAAC; ABRAHAM) ("God hears"); the name of God is Εl , "the God of might", in relation to the world at large; not Jehovah , His name in relation to His covenant people. "Jehovah," in covenant with Abraham her husband, "heard her affliction" in the wilderness whither she had fled from Sarah. Job 11:12; Job 24:5; "behold, as wild donkeys in the desert, go they forth to their work, rising betimes for a prey (for traveling in the East is at an Early hour, to be before the heat): the wilderness yieldeth food for them and for their children"; i. "And he shall dwell in the presence of (in front of) his brethren," in close proximity to their kindred races, hovering round, but never mingling with them, never disappearing by withdrawal to some remote region, but remaining in that high table land S. ...
Abraham's love for him appears in his exclaiming, upon God's giving the promise of seed by Sarah, then 90, Abraham himself being 100, "Oh that Ishamel might live before Thee!" whether the words mean that he desires that Ishmael (instead of the seed promised to Sarah) might be heir of the promises, or, as is more consonant with Abraham's faith, that Ishmael might be accepted before God so as to share in blessings. In all the northern tribes which are of Ishmaelite descent, the characteristics foretold appear, they are "wild . Ishmael's royal descent fired his envy and ambition; hence, he lent a ready Ear to the plot proposed by the ancient foe of Judah. ...
So on the second day fourscore devotees with shaven beards, rent clothes, having cut themselves with pagan mutilations (see Leviticus 19:27-28; Deuteronomy 14:1), were seen by Ishmael from the higher ground on which he was, advancing from the N. ...
The coming judgment will vindicate God's ways, glorify the saints with Christ their King, deliver the Earth from the ungodly and Satan their prince, who shall be cast out for ever. The only fruit Ishmael derived from his crimes was being forced to flee as an outlaw, bearing about, Cain like, the murderer's brand, and a self torturing conscience, the Earnest of the worm that never dieth
Touch - Matthew 9:29), the Ear of Malchus (Luke 22:51). Revelation 1:17 ‘He laid his right hand [1] upon me, saying, Fear not’); the touch of blessing vouchsafed to the children brought by their mothers (Matthew 19:15 ἐπιθεὶς αὐτοῖς τὰς χεῖρας). He lays His hand upon the bier; takes children in His arms; holds up a sinking disciple; encourages by touch as well as by word those who otherwise are overwhelmed by fear. In Christ, ‘God put on the garment of humanity, and drew near in person, that we might clasp Him as a kinsman in our arms’ (Ker, Sermons, 1st ser. Instead of the spoken ‘word’ of the OT prophets, addressed only to the hearing, there is now the living ‘Word,’ meeting the lives of men in warm and friendly contact. With these may be associated the act of the woman in Simon’s house, who washed Christ’s feet with tears, and anointed them with ointment, and of whom the Pharisee said later, ‘This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what manner of woman this is which toucheth him’ (Luke 7:39). ‘And when his friends heard it, they went out to lay hold on him’ (κρατῆσαι αὐτόν, the word often used of Christ’s more kindly activity) (Mark 3:21). ...
When God and man were brought near in the Incarnation, it was natural that the Divine hand should be seen stretched out manwards in healing and help (see above); but natural also that human hands should be seen groping Godwards, seeking closer contact. There were those who sought with all their hearts for closer contact, impelled by the sense of need, or by the impulse of adoring love; ‘the history of all God’s dealings with man is the record of an approach nearer still, and nearer … until faith puts its fingers into the print of the nails, its hand into the wounded side, and constrains us to cry, My Lord, and my God’ (Ker, l. This is the record of our Lord’s saying to Mary Magdalene: ‘Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended unto the Father,’—a passage of which the interpretations are nearly as numerous as the commentators
Gideon - Fifth of the judges of Israel, called by the angel of the Lord to deliver Israel from the seven years' yoke of the Midianite hosts, which like swarming locusts consumed all their produce except what they could hide in caves and holes (Judges 6:2; Judges 6:5-6; Judges 6:11). ...
But now after 200 years, in renewed strength, with the Amalekite and other plundering children of the E. Former judges, Othniel, Ehud, Barak, had been moved by the Spirit of God to their work; but to Gideon alone under a terebinth in Ophrah, a town belonging to Joash, Jehovah appeared in person to show that the God who had made theophanies to the patriarchs was the same Jehovah, ready to save their descendants if they would return to the covenants. ...
The "second" in age of Joash's bullocks, "seven years old," was appointed in the dream for an offering to Jehovah, to correspond to Midian's seven years' oppression because of Israel's apostasy. Gideon with ten servants overthrew Baal's altar and Asherah in the night, for he durst not do it in the day through fear of his family and townsmen. At his prayer the sign followed, the woolen fleece becoming saturated with dew while the Earth around was dry, then the ground around being wet while the fleece was dry. In Judges 7:3, "whosoever is fearful let him return from mount Gilead," as they were then W. Then followed Gideon's going with Phurah his servant into the Midianite host, and hearing the Midianite's dream of a barley cake overturning the tent, that being poor men's food, so symbolizing despised Israel, the "tent" symbolizing Midian's nomadic life of freedom and power. The Moabite stone shows how similar to Hebrew was the language of Moab, and the same similarity to the Midianite tongue appears from Gideon understanding them. the pitchers (a type of the gospel light in Earthen vessels, 2 Corinthians 4:6-7), suddenly flash on the foe, and to cry "the sword of Jehovah and of Gideon," and to stand without moving round about the Midianite camp. The well Harod, where occurred the trial which separated 300 men of endurance from the worthless rabble, was the Ain Jalud, a fine spring at the foot of mount Gilboa, issuing blue and clear from a cavern, and forming a pool with rushy banks and a pebbly bottom, 100 yards long. The Midianite host fled to Bethshittah (the modern village Shatta), in Zererath (a district connected with Zerthan or Zeretan, a name still appearing in Ain Zahrah, three miles W. Meantime Gideon, having cleared the Bethshan valley of Midianites, crossed at the southern end of Succoth (now Makhathet Abu Sus), and continued the pursuit along the eastern bank. toward Midian, intending to cross near Jericho. Then followed the churlish unpatriotic cowardice of Succoth and Penuel, in answer to his request for provisions, through fear of Midian and disbelief of God's power to make victorious so small and so "faint" a force as Gideon's 300. Declining the proffered kingdom because Jehovah was their king, Gideon yet made a gorgeous jeweled ephod with the golden rings the Israelites had got as booty, besides the ornaments (verse 21, golden crescents or little moons), and collars (ear pendants), and purple raiment, and collars about their camels' necks. Gideon "kept" it in his city Ophrah; wearing the breast-plate, he made it and the holy 'lot his means of obtaining revelations from Jehovah whom he worshipped at the altar. ...
But his unambitious spirit is praiseworthy; he, the great Baal fighter, "Jerubbaal," instead of ambitiously accepting the crown, "went and dwelt in his own house" quietly, and died "in a good old age," having secured for his country "quietness" for 40 years, leaving, besides 70 sons by wives, a son by a concubine, Abimelech, doomed to be by ambition as great a curse to his country as his father was in the main a blessing
Imagination - If the form of His teaching can be relied on as an indication of His mental endowments, it is clear that truth naturally clothed itself for Him in the form of concrete pictures and symbolic events. The temptations of His public life became visualized in these typical scenes, and in fighting them thus prophetically, He rehearsed the long drama of His future spiritual conflicts, and overcame them beforehand. drawn from the impersonal action of physical or vital forces: there is nearly always some human agent or sufferer in view whose action or suffering invests the simile with it sympathetic as well as an intellectual aspect. Thus He was fond of drawing His word-pictures from the occupations of such familiar folk as shepherds, husbandmen, fishermen; from social customs in the home,—marriage ceremonies, feasts, salutations, journeyings; and even from bodily life and sensations,—the eye, Ear, bones, feet, hunger and thirst, laughing, mourning, sickness, sleep, etc. Nature with Him is the vehicle of truth as applied to conduct: she is a bundle of analogies in the sense of the poet:...
“Two worlds are ours; ’tis sin alone...
Forbids us to descry...
The mystic Earth and heaven within...
Plain as the Earth and sky. And it must be brief and portable, for it was meant not merely for those who listened to Him at the time, but also for those who should afterwards ‘believe in his name’ through the ‘preaching and teaching’ of the eye-witnesses and auditors of His Earthly ministry. It was probably many years before any large portion of His discourses and life-story was committed to writing. But there are clear indications that great care was taken to give the general outlines of the teaching accurately and without admixture, and that the utmost reverence was felt for the ipsissima verba of their Lord’s utterances by the Apostles and their first pupils. Converts were carefully taught from the Earliest times in catechumen classes in the ‘doctrine of Christ’ (cf
Laughter - Francis, who became known as joculatores Domini, appear to have shown a vivacity and cheerfulness in complete contrast to the rigid and frigid demeanour engendered by Pharisaism; and this attitude was encouraged by their Master, who did not expect ‘the sons of the bride-chamber’ to mourn so long as the ‘bridegroom’ was with them (Matthew 9:15; cf. Nearly all the world’s greatest teachers have employed laughter, in one or other of its subtler forms, as a means of gaining a hearing for the truth they had to deliver. Indeed, the writer just quoted admits that Jesus ‘deigned to make use of the quaint and often humorous maxims so dear to the common folk. ‘gentle’ Shakspeare and Charles Lamb). ’ It is probable that the reluctance, which has existed from Early times, to admit any tone of raillery or playfulness in Christ’s teaching, has been responsible for the loss of the original force of some of His sayings. The pictures of a man endeavouring to serve two masters at once (Matthew 6:24), of another who feeds swine with pearls (Matthew 7:6), of a camel trying to get through a needle’s eye (Matthew 19:24), of a light being put under a bushel (Matthew 5:15), of him who sees a splinter in his brother’s eye, but fails to notice the beam in his own (Matthew 7:8), of Beelzebub at variance with Beelzebub (Matthew 12:24 ff. § the Man Who Went Out to Borrow Three Loaves at Midnight - FOR thirty years and more our Lord had been laying up materials for His future sermons. And He had started to collect His materials with something like this as one of His guiding principles:-...
What surmounts the reachOf human sense, I shall delineate so,By likening spiritual to corporal forms,As may express them best; though what if EarthBe but the shadow of Heaven, and things thereinEach to other like, more than on Earth is thought?Our Lord knowing that to be the case, and taking that for one of His guiding principles in His preaching, it came about that what we call His parables, were, in reality, not so much parables of His at all, as they were His observations of human life, and His experiences of human life, with His divine intuitions of grace and truth irradiating and illuminating them all. For, not seldom His parables were His own personal experiences, and His own immediate observations, collected and laid up in His mind and in His memory and in His heart, and to be afterwards worked up into His sermons. The evangelist here gives his readers this report of that day just as he had received it from an eye and Ear witness of the occurrences of that day, and he introduces this most important narrative with a certain studied circumstantiality of style. And not Joseph only, but He who here tells this touching story was found under Joseph's roof as one of his sons, and all His days on Earth He was one of the poorest of men. Take four, at any rate, says the half-naked and generous-hearted householder. " Think shame, man! the passers-by exclaimed as they heard him making that so disgraceful noise in the midnight street. "The devil never so nearly had my soul for ever, as just after another fall of mine, and when he cried, For shame, O woman, for shame. The Psalms, when we begin to attend to what we read and sing, are full of night, and midnight, and Early morning, prayer. I find that reading a single verse sometimes will impress our hearts at home more than a whole Psalm. With these, and with such a wealth of other experiences and testimonies and examples of praying men as we possess, and of praying men at night, we should surely learn to pray. Often during the day I myself have been a great sinner, and at night, after importunate prayer, I have gone to rest washed and restored, and with the deepest joy and the most perfect peace filling my heart
the Angel of the Church in Pergamos - For the most of our expositors spend both their time and our time in little else but in telling and hearing about the antiquities of Pergamos. ...
It was to bring home the discovery of this fearful fact to the minister of Pergamos that was the sole object of this startling Epistle to him; just as his receiving of this Epistle was the supreme epoch and the decisive crisis of his whole ministerial life. London appears to me like a sea, wherein most are tossed by storms, and many suffer shipwreck. The favoured few who are kept alive to God, simplehearted and spiritually-minded, in the midst of such deep snares and temptations, appear to me to be the first-rate Christians of the land. The evil of our own hearts and the devices of Satan cut us out work enough. And what so greatly interests those three commentators in Pergamos is this, that they see from this Epistle to the minister of Pergamos that Satan really had his seat in that minister's own heart, just as that same seat is in their own heart. No other antiquity in Pergamos has any interest to James Durham at any rate, but that antique minister's heart in Pergamos. O poor and much-to-be-pitied ministers! With Satan concentrating all his fiery darts upon you, with the deep-sunken pillars of his seat not yet dug out of your hearts, with all his thirty-two captains fighting day and night for the remnants of their master's power within you, and all the time, a far greater than Satan running you through and through with that terrible sword of His till there is not a sound spot in you-O most forlorn and afflicted of all men! O most bruised in your mind, and most broken in your heart, of all men! Pity your ministers, my brethren, and put up with much that you cannot as yet understand or sympathise with in them. Only, the silence and the ignorance and the indifference of Earth does not extend to heaven. The silence and the ignorance and the indifference of Earth will only make the surprise, both of those ministers and of their persecutors, all the greater when the day of their recognition and reward comes. When they see it they shall be troubled with terrible fear, and shall be amazed at the strangeness of his salvation, so far beyond all they had looked for. That is to say, for the very innermost heart and soul of any person or any thing. And so will it be beyond Scripture when that day comes to which every scripture points and promises, and for which every holy heart yearns and pants and breaks. And just as no man knoweth the misery of that heart in which Satan still has his seat but the miserable owner of that heart, so only God Himself will know with them the new name that He will give to His holy ones on that day. As every sin-possessed heart here knows its own bitterness, so will every such heart alone know its own unshared sweetness in heaven, and no neighbour saint nor serving angel will intermeddle with things that are beyond their depth. When we are under our so specially severe sanctification here-...
Not even the tenderest heart, and next our own,Knows half the reasons why we smile or sigh,and much more will it be so in the uninvaded inwardness and uniqueness of our glorification. No man knows the hardness and the blackness of a sinful heart but the unspeakably miserable owner of it, and no man knows the names he calls himself continually before God, but God who seeth and heareth in secret. And, as a consequence and for a recompense, no man shall see the whiteness of the stone, or hear the newness of the name written in that stone, saving he that receiveth it. He that hath an Ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, and unto the ministers of the churches
Music - is probably nearly coeval with our race, or, at least, with the first attempts to preserve the memory of transactions. Rhythm and song were probably soon found important helps to the memory; and thus the muses became the Early instructers of mankind. The first instruments of music were probably of the pulsatile kind; and rhythm, it is likely, preceded the observation of those intervals of sound which are so pleasing to the Ear. " About five hundred and fifty years after the deluge, or B. ...
Egypt has been called the cradle of the arts and sciences, and there can be no doubt of the very Early civilization of that country. " The same learned writer has given a drawing, made under his own eye, of an Egyptian musical instrument, represented on a very ancient obelisk at Rome, brought from Egypt by Augustus. This obelisk is supposed to have been erected at Heliopolis, by Sesostris, near four hundred years before the Trojan war. "I have never been able," says the doctor, "to discover in any remains of Greek sculpture, an instrument furnished with a neck; and Father Montfaucon says that in examining the representations of near five hundred ancient lyres, harps, and citharas, he never met with one in which there was any contrivance for shortening the strings during the time of performance, as by a neck and finger board. That the instruments were loud and sonorous, will appear from what follows; but as the public singing was performed in alternate responses, or the chorus of all succeeded to those parts of the psalm which were sung only by the appointed leaders, instruments of this kind were necessary to command and control the voices of so great a number as was usually assembled on high occasions. It may be styled the ancient shepherd's pipe, corresponding most nearly to the συριγξ , or the pipe of Pan among the Greeks
Peter - the great Apostle of the circumcision, was the son of Jona, and born at Bethsaida, a town situated on the western shore of the lake of Gennesareth, but in what particular year we are not informed, John 1:42-43 . This appears to have taken place in the thirtieth year of the Christian era. Toward the end of the same year, as Jesus was one morning standing on the shore of the lake of Gennesareth, he saw Andrew and Peter engaged about their employment. Having received this answer, Jesus declared Peter blessed on account of his faith; and in allusion to the signification of his name, added, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on Earth," &c. He was the person who in the fervour of his zeal for his Master cut off the Ear of the high priest's slave, when the armed band came to apprehend him. After the third denial "Jesus turned and looked upon Peter;" that look pierced him to the heart; and, stung with deep remorse, "he went out, and wept bitterly. Three thousand of his audience were pricked to the heart, and cried out, "Men and brethren, what shall we do?" St. He was raised superior to all considerations of personal danger and the fear of man. And though all the Apostles could now say, "God hath not given us the spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind;" yet an attentive reader of the Acts of the Apostles cannot fail to perceive that upon almost every occasion of difficulty St. Peter's fame was now become so great, that the brethren of Joppa, hearing of his being in Lydda, and of his having cured Eneas miraculously of a palsy, sent, desiring him to come and restore a disciple to life, named Tabitha, which he did. But an angel brought him out; after which he concealed himself in the city, or in some neighbouring town, till Herod's death, which happened about the end of the year. Some learned men think St. But from Galatians 2:11 , it appears that after that council he was with St. Peter was for some time disputed, as we learn from Origen, Eusebius, and Jerom; but since the fourth century it has been universally received, except by the Syriac Christians
Aaron - Aaron was three years older than his brother Moses; and when God appeared in the burning bush, Moses having excused himself from the undertaking committed to him, by urging that he was slow of speech, Aaron, who was an eloquent man, was made his interpreter, and spokesman; and in effecting the deliverance of the Hebrews we therefore find them constantly associated. ...
Moses having ascended the mountain to receive the law from God, Aaron, his sons, and seventy elders, followed him, Exodus 24:1-2 ; Exodus 24:9-11 ; not indeed to the summit, but "afar off," "and they saw the God of Israel," that is, the glory in which he appeared, "as it were the paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven for clearness;"—a clear and dazzling, azure, a pure, unmingled splendour like that of the heavens. "And upon the nobles of Israel," Aaron, his sons, and the seventy elders, "he laid not his hand,"—they were not destroyed by a sight which must have overwhelmed the weakness of mortal men had they not been strengthened to bear it; "and they did eat and drink,"—they joyfully and devoutly feasted before the Lord, as a religious act, upon the sacrifices they offered. " Aaron sinfully yielded to the importunities of the people; and having ordered them to bring the pendants and the Earrings of their wives and children, he melted them down, and then made a golden calf, probably in imitation of the Egyptian Apis, an ox or calf dedicated to Osiris. What the motive of Miriam might be does not appear; but she being struck with leprosy, this punishment, as being immediately from God, opened Aaron's eyes; he acknowledged his fault, and asked forgiveness of Moses both for himself and his sister. In their consecration they differed thus: the high priest had the chrism, or sacred ointment, poured upon his head, so as to run down to his beard, and the skirts of his garment, Exodus 30:23 ; Leviticus 8:12 ; Psalms 133:2 . on the day of expiation, when he went into the holy of holies, which was once a year. ...
In the following particulars the high priest and inferior priests agreed in their consecration; both were to be void of bodily blemish—both were to be presented to the Lord at the door of the tabernacle—both were to be washed with water—both were to be consecrated by offering up certain sacrifices—both were to have the blood of a ram put upon the tip of the right Ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot, Exodus 29:20 . ...
In the discharge of their offices, the high priest differed from the other priests in these particulars: the high priest only, and that but once a year, might enter into the holy of holies—the high priest might not mourn for his nearest relations by uncovering his head, or tearing any part of his garments, except the skirt; whereas the priest was allowed to mourn for these six,—father, mother, son, daughter, brother, and sister if she had no husband, Leviticus 21:2 ; Leviticus 21:10-11 ; but they agreed in these respects; they both burnt incense and offered sacrifices—they both sounded the trumpet, either as an alarm in war, or to assemble the people and their rulers—they both slew the sacrifices—both instructed the people—and both judged of leprosy. In bearing the names of all the tribes of Israel upon his breast and upon his shoulders, thus presenting them always before God, and representing them to him
Plagues of Egypt - The hostility which used to exist between religion and natural science is rapidly passing away, as it is becoming more clearly recognized that science is concerned solely with the observation of physical sequences, while religion embraces science as the greater includes the less. The Earliest stage at which they emerge into writing is in J [3] comes the nearest to the natural fact; a fetid exhalation killed the fish, or in Hebrew language J″ [14] is a God who hates sin; that if a man hardens his heart, the result will be as inevitable as results in the natural world so inevitable that it may truly be said that J″ [14] hardens his heart; that the sin of Pharaoh, and so of any other man, may entail sufferings upon many innocent men and animals; and finally, that J″ Scripture - ...
They were so disinterested, that they secured nothing on Earth but hunger and nakedness, stocks and prisons, racks and tortures; which, indeed, was all that they could or did expect, in consequence of Christ's express declarations. And, as they neither would nor could deceive the world, so they either could nor would be deceived themselves; for they were days, months, and years, eye and Ear-witnesses of the things which they relate; and, when they had not the fullest evidence of important facts, they insisted upon new proofs, and even upon sensible demonstrations; as, for instance, Thomas, in the matter of our Lord's resurrection, John 20:25 ; and to leave us no room to question their sincerity, most of them joyfully sealed the truth of their doctrines with their own blood. But even while they lived, they confirmed their testimony by a variety of miracles wrought in divers places, and for a number of years, sometimes before thousands of their enemies, as the miracles of Christ and his disciples; sometimes before hundreds of thousands, as those of Moses. Nothing but the clearest evidence arising from undoubted truth could make multitudes of lawless, luxurious heathens receive, follow, and transmit to posterity, the doctrine and writings of the apostles; expecially at a time when the vanity of their pretensions to miracles and the gift of tongues, could be so easily discovered, had they been impostors; and when the profession of Christianity exposed persons of all ranks to the greatest contempt and most imminent danger. ...
There we discover a vein of ecclesiastical history and theological truth consistently running through a collection of sixty-six different books, wtitten by various authors, in different languages, during the space of above 1500 years. ...
There the workings of the human heart are described in a manner that demonstrate the inspiration of the Searcher of hearts. "As for the objections which are raised against their perspicuity and consistency, those who are both pious and learned, know that they are generally founded on prepossession, and the want of understanding in spiritual things; or on our ignorance of several customs, idioms, and circumstances, which were perfectly known when those books were written. Above all, let the reader unite prayer with his endeavours, that his understanding may be illuminated, and his heart impressed with the great truths which the sacred Scriptures contain. "One circumstance, " as a writer observes, "why this should be attended to in congregations is, that numbers of the hearers, in many places, cannot read them themselves, and not a few of them never hear them read in the families where they reside. "Remember that God no sooner caused any part of his will, or word, to be written, than he also commanded the same to be read, not only in the family, but also in the congregation, and that even when all Israel were assembled together (the men, women, and children, and even the strangers that were within their gates;) and the end was, that they might hear, and that they might learn, and fear the Lord their God, and observe to do all the words of his law, Deuteronomy 31:12 . Even the prayers and songs used on those occasions appear to have been all subservient to that particular and principal employment or service, the reading of the law
Music And Musical Instruments - Probable character of Early Hebrew music . Synagogue ritual thus affords us no clue to the music of Early times, and we must accordingly fall back on Scripture and tradition. We may suppose, however, that they would hardly fail to discover that certain combinations were pleasing to the Ear, and would thus learn to strike them either simultaneously or successively ( arpeggio ). It seems clear at any rate that an antiphonal setting was in use for many of the Psalms ( e. of the elaborate arrangements for conducting the musical services of the Temple, appears to indicate a somewhat complicated system, and to suggest that there entered a considerable element of flexibility into the composition. We may for clearness’ sake divide under three heads, viz. ]'>[2] in nearly all cases is careful to distinguish them ( kithara or kinyra , and psaltçrion, nablç , or nabla respectively). It was originally an Asiatic instrument, and the Earliest known representation is pre-historic, in the form of a rude model found at Telloh in southern Babylonia. We may add that several Early Church writers (Augustine on Psalms 42:1-11 : Jerome on Psalms 149:3 ; Isidore, Etym . ...
Gittîth , the heading of Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 81:1-16 ; Psalms 84:1-12 , has also, but somewhat doubtfully, been referred to instruments named after Gath: so the Early Jewish paraphrase (Targum), ‘the harp which David brought from Gath
Priest, Priesthood - "Although the whole Earth is mine, you will be for me a kingdom of priests" (in Hebrew the "you" is emphatic, contrasting Israel with the other nations). There is a striking similarity between this ritual in Exodus 24 and the consecration of the Aaronic priests by putting some of the blood of the ordination peace offering on the right Ear, thumb, and big toe of Aaron and his sons, and afterwards splashing some of it around on the altar ( Exodus 29:20 ; Leviticus 8:23-24 ). , the Levites]'>[2] are to bear the responsibility for offenses against the sanctuary" note the clarification regarding the Levites in Numbers 18:2-6 ; and cf. This may have been particularly important in situations where there was a need to clear the nation of guilt, in this case bloodguiltiness for an unsolved homicide (Deuteronomy 21:1-9 )
Wages - During Earlier periods payments would be made as a result of barter arrangements, where goods (cattle, food, etc. The time allotted for work could be as short as a day (Revelation 20:11-1504 ) or as long as a year (Isaiah 16:14 ). After humanity's rebellion against God and the consequent catastrophic judgments of the fall, the deluge, and Babel, God calls Abram to be the bearer of salvation for the world. The text is introduced by a formal announcement declaring that there is no need for doubt or fear since God himself will be Abram's shield of protection and his "very large wage" ( sakar [ Genesis 23 ). In Israelite society the wage-earning class was small, placed on the social scale somewhere between land owners and slaves. Samuel's birth means the dawn of a new era in which God will intervene to bring justice, one consequence being that the wealthy will be humbled to the status of hired servants in order to Earn a few scraps of food (1 Samuel 2:5 ). Judah suffers the same fate as her sister, the northern kingdom of Israel, had experienced a few centuries Earlier. The Assyrians laid Israel waste as the prophets predicted, and the Babylonians destroyed Judah, demonstrating clearly the principle that the wages for serving a false god are quite different than those obtained from serving Yahweh. ...
It is during the exile that Israel hears a new word of hope. Job eventually learns this in his vision of God (38-42). They were more concerned with their own work than the temple and Earned wages only to put them in torn purses (Haggai 1:6 ). On the judgment day all will appear before the throne of Christ to receive "final payment" (Romans 2:6-8 ; cf. All previous experience of the Lord will be regarded as so much hearsay. Until then, believers are encouraged with the promise that "no eye has seen, no Ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love him" (1 Corinthians 2:9 )
Paul as Sold Under Sin - That is not the man for my hard-earned money. Just as Paul himself would have scornfully sent back the same book with this message to its author-If I have told you Earthly things, and you have so misunderstood me, how shall I trust you to interpret my heavenly things? No, thank you, I say, as I send back the soon-sampled book. But send me for my students as many Luthers on the Galatians as you can lay your hands on, and as many Marshalls on Sanctification, in order that they may one day be preachers after Paul's own heart. Set beside the seventh of the Romans all your so-called great tragedies-your Macbeths, your Hamlets, your Lears, your Othellos, are all but so many stage-plays: so much sound and fury, signifying next to nothing when set alongside this awful tragedy of sin in a soul under a supreme sanctification. " And did I hear or read of a man of refined mind, and of great nobility of nature that nothing could obliterate, and, withal, a truly Christian man; did I read or hear of such a man held in captivity by some vile, cruel, cannibal tribe in South America, or Central Africa, I would feel sure that he had a tale to tell that would harrow my heart. I would not need to be told by pen and ink the inconsolable agony of that man's heart. ...
And no wonder, for the most complete and cruel captivity, the most utter and hopeless slavery you ever heard of, falls far short of being sold under sin. The gnashing agony of his heart all his days will be because he so sold himself. And then to be sold under sin! The vilest and cruellest savage chief who makes God's Earth the devil's hell to himself and others, is not sin. And the true saint of God feels that in his heart of hearts, till he scarce feels anything else. Tragedies! Tragedies of hatred and of revenge! If you would see hatred and revenge red-hot, and poured, not on the head of a hated enemy, but, what I have never read in any of your stage-tragedies, poured in all its redhotness in upon a man's own heart; if you would see the true hatred and the true revenge, come to this New Testament theatre. Or far better, come to holiness and heavenly-mindedness yourself, and then you will have this whole agony enacted in your own heart; and that with more and more passion in your heart, all the days of your life on this hateful Earth. My brethren, if you will believe me, there is nothing in heaven or on Earth, there is nothing in God or in man, that from my youth up I have read more about, or thought more about, than just this text and its two contexts. Unless Paul contradicts me himself, not all his commentators on the face of the Earth will ever convince me that this seventh of the Romans is not to be taken seriously, but is to be taken as filled with the spiritual experiences of a man of straw. ...
Now this is another sure rule of interpretation that whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope. If even Paul was sold under sin: if even Paul when writing the Romans was still carnal: if he that very day had said and done and thought and felt what he would not if he could have helped it: if he hated himself for what came up upon him out of his heart even with his inspired pen in his hand: if sin still dwelt in him, till in his flesh there dwelt no good thing: and, then, if we delight in the law of God after the inward man, as he did: even if we find another law, as we every moment do find it, warring against the law of our mind, and bringing us into captivity to the law of sin, till we cry without ceasing, O wretched man that I am! and if all the time we thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord, and walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit till there is therefore no condemnation to us-if all that is so, I would like you to tell me where I can find another chapter so full of the profoundest, surest, most spiritual, and most experimental, comfort. And for my part, I will not let any commentator of any school; no, not even of my own school, steal from me this most noble, and most divinely suited, cordial for my broken heart. "It was the saying of a good man, lately gone to his rest, whose extended pilgrimage was ninety-three years, that he must often have been swallowed up by despair, had it not been for the seventh chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Romans. A born slave, with a slave's heart, and a slave's habits, never complains that he is a slave. He wishes nothing more than that his Ear be bored for ever to his master's door. Only a free-born, and a nobly-born, man, and a man who has been carried away captive, ever cries continually, O wretched man that I am! The Talmud-men denied the sinfulness of their sinful hearts as indignantly as any of you can deny yours. "If I regard iniquity in my heart only, then the Lord will pass it by, and will not regard it," so they taught their scholars. There is no shame and no pain in all this world of shame and pain for one moment to compare with the shame and the pain of the seventh of the Romans, as you do not need me to tell you, if you have that pain and shame in your own heart. You will soon hear His voice speaking in anger to your jailors at your prison door and saying how displeased He is over all your affliction. And He will bring you forth with His own hand like Gaius; and for all your shame and pain He will bestow upon you double, with a chain of salvation round your neck that will make you forget all the sad years of your sold captivity
the Angel of the Church in Smyrna - All John Bunyan's readers have heard about Polycarp. And it must have been a matter of constant regret to Polycarp that he had not been born just a little Earlier in that century so as to have seen his Lord with his own eyes and so as to have heard Him with his own Ears. But as it was, Polycarp was happy enough to have been born, and born again, quite in time to enjoy the next best thing to seeing and hearing his Saviour for himself. For Polycarp was a disciple of the Apostle John, and he must have often heard the Fourth Gospel from John's lips long before it had as yet come from John's pen. And that was surely a high compensation to Polycarp for not having seen and heard the Divine Word Himself. Swear but once by the fortunes of Cæsar. "Eighty-and-six years," answered Polycarp, "I have served Jesus Christ, and He has never once wronged or deceived me, how then can I reproach Him!" And then as some of the executioners were binding the aged saint, and others were lighting the fire, certain who stood by took down this prayer from his lips: "O Father of Thy well-beloved Son Jesus Christ. '...
Apostolical, evangelical, and most illustrious, martyr, as Polycarp proved himself to be at the last, yet, when he began his ministry in Smyrna he was a man of like fears and flinchings of heart as we are ourselves. You may depend upon it, Polycarp was for a long time in as great bondage through fear of death as any of yourselves. His Master dictated every syllable of this Epistle with the most direct and the most pointed bearing on Polycarp and on his ministry in Smyrna. Every iota of this Epistle shows us that it was addressed to a minister who was at that time of a timid heart and one whose continual temptation it was to flinch and flee. The very name that Polycarp's Master here selects for Himself in writing to Polycarp spoke straight home to Polycarp's trembling heart. " Polycarp was in constant danger of death and in constant fear of death. And just as the ever-present image of his Divine Master's death and resurrection nerved Polycarp to overcome all fear of his own death, so in like manner his poverty is here put to silence for ever by this parenthesis, ("but thou art rich"). Now you may have your shoes put on and taken off for money, but you cannot have them tied with heart-strings, as Polycarp's shoes were tied that day. But if you will hear it I will tell you what Santa Teresa did. Indeed, I never heard of any one speaking evil of me, but I immediately saw how far short he came of the full truth. Had Polycarp feared death more than he feared Him who was now alive; had he feared the fires in the market-place of Smyrna more than the fires that are not quenched; had he deserted his post in Smyrna because of its difficulties; had his soul soured at God and man because of his poverty; when he was reviled, had he reviled back again; when he suffered, had he threatened; and had he reproached Christ when he was bribed with his life so to do,-Polycarp is here told plainly that he would have died the second death with all that it involves. Have we not seen that in the second death the soul is forsaken of God? And was He not forsaken till Golgotha for the time was like Gehenna itself to Him? He that hath an Ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith to the Churches: He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death. I will redeem them from the fear of death
the Importunate Widow - His boast within himself was that he neither feared God nor regarded man, but there was a widow in that city who made him both fear her and regard her. She had spent all her living on daysmen and mediators, but the unjust judge was a companion of thieves and he would not hear her advocates. And, had it not been for her fatherless and fast-starving children, she would soon have been laid out of sight and out of hearing in her dead husband's forgotten grave. It was her orphaned and starving children that made their mother to be like a she-bear robbed of her whelps. But after that day when this wild woman suddenly sprang in upon him with a knife hidden away among her rags-after that day he said, Because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me. And the Lord said, Hear what the unjust judge saith. And shall not God avenge His own elect which cry day and night to Him, though He bear long with them? I tell you that He will avenge them speedily. You never hear from their lips a demand for vengeance against any adversary of theirs but one. Her heart is full of her great wrongs. Her heart is full of a great rage. Her heart is full of fire. No sooner have we said, Amen! than we must say with our very next breath, O Thou that hearest prayer; to Thee shall all flesh come. What is your occupation? Whatever it is say as you again enter on it, The kingdom of heaven is like this, and that, more than on Earth is thought. Are you a laundress? say His raiment was shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on Earth can white them. Are you an aurist? say He that planted the Ear, shall He not hear? Are you an oculist? say He that formed the eye, shall He not see? Do you own horses, or ride or drive, horses? say Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding; whose mouth must be held in with bit and bridle. And shall not God avenge His own elect, which cry day and night unto Him, though He bear long with them? I tell you that He will avenge them speedily. The very thing that has caused your whole head to be sick, and your whole heart to be faint,-hitherto unanswered prayer, answered or unanswered, pray you on. And if you hear the hours striking all night, betake yourself to your sure febrifuge and sleeping draught. In plain words, when you faint in prayer for a holy heart continue all the more instant in that prayer. Pray always for a holy heart, with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watch thereunto with all perseverance. The next time you feel your heart ready to faint in that kind of prayer, call to mind Who says this to you, and where He says it. ...
Nevertheless, when the Son of Man cometh, shall He find such prayer on the Earth? I do not know. The Earth is too large for me to speak for it, and too far away from me. My matter is, shall He find such prayer in me? Shall He find me in my bed, or on my knees? Shall I be reading this parable of His for the ten thousandth time to keep my heart from fainting? Shall, Avenge me of mine adversary, be on my lips at the moment when the judgment-angel puts the last trump to his lips? And shall I be found of him on my knees, and with my finger on this scripture, when the trumpet shall sound, and I shall be changed?...
the Angel of the Church of Ephesus - I cannot give you this man's name, but you may safely take it that he was simply one of the oldest of the office-bearers of Ephesus. At the same time, it looked to him but like yesterday when he had heard the prince of the apostles saying to him those never-to-be-forgotten words-"Take heed to thyself, and to all the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath made thee an overseer, to feed the flock of God, which He hath purchased with His own blood. And that because he knows quite well that there is nothing for him to do in the whole of heaven for one moment to be compared with the daily round on this Earth of a minister, or an elder, or a deacon, or a collector, or a Sabbath-school teacher. To be appreciated and praised is the wine that maketh glad the heart of God and man. And the heart of the old minister of Ephesus was made so glad when he began to read this Epistle that he almost died with delight. All thy tears also are in my bottle. "Labour," as our bloodless version has it is a far too dry, a far too wooden, and a far too tearless, word, for our Lord to employ toward such servants of His. And to this day and among all our so altered circumstances, patience continues to take a foremost place in the heart and in all the ministry of every successor of the true apostleship. That is I fear a far too mystical and equivocal interpretation for the most of us as yet. To call the Nicolaitans of Ephesus our own wicked hearts, is far too Port-Royal and puritan for such literalists as we are. And it would need all the sharpness of that sword and all its edges to divide asunder the deeds of the Nicolaitans from the Nicolaitans themselves in their minister's heart. What could be a more condemning charge against any minister of Christ than to tell him in plain words that he had left his first love to his Master and to his Master's work? And yet, just by the peculiar way in which that charge is here worded, a far more sudden blow is dealt to this minister's heart than if the charge had been made in the plainest and sternest terms. To say "nevertheless I have somewhat against thee" to say "somewhat," as if it were some very small matter, and scarcely worth mentioning, and then suddenly to say what it is, that, you may depend upon it, gave a shock of horror to that minister's heart that he did not soon get over. Had you heard his praise so generously spread abroad at first both by God and man you would have felt absolutely sure of that minister's spiritual prosperity and praise to the very end. You would have felt as sure as sure could be that behind all that so immense activity and popularity there must lie hidden a heart as full as it could hold of the deepest and solidest peace with God; a peace, you would have felt sure, without a speck upon it, and with no controversy on Christ's part within a thousand miles of it. But the ministerial heart is deceitful above all other men's hearts. It was from that declension and decay that his ministry became so undermined and had come now so near a great catastrophe. But thou hast wearied of me. And thou hast given me an Ear to hear Thy merciful words toward me. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise
Jeroboam - GOD may have that in his heart for you, which you must not once let enter your heart for yourself. Your name may be written in the divine decree for something, the bare thought of which you must cast out of your heart like poison. Solomon's beautiful dream at Gibeon, his splendid prayer at the dedication of the temple, his wisdom, and his understanding, and his largeness of heart-it is all clean forgotten now. It is all become now like the morning cloud and the Early dew. Can this be the same Solomon? Can this be that Solomon to whom the Lord appeared twice? For Solomon went after Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Molech, the abomination of the Ammonites. For had not Samuel told it thus to their face? 'He will take your sons and appoint them for himself, for his chariots, and for his horsemen; and he will set them to Ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war. And ye shall cry out in that day, and the Lord will not hear you in that day,' Well, that day was now fully come. And then, to crown it all, as time went on Satan more and more entered into Jeroboam's heart. And Jeroboam allowed Satan in his heart, and listened to Satan speaking in his heart, 'You are a greatly talented man. Play the man, then, but a little longer, and your mother will live to hear the cry of the people before she dies, this so sweet cry to her Ears, Long live King Jeroboam!' And Jeroboam kept all these things and pondered them in his heart. Ahijah's eyes, like a flame of fire, saw, naked and open, all that was hidden so deep in Jeroboam's heart; and he heard, as with God's own Ears, all that Satan said to Jeroboam in his heart. Ahijah watched Jeroboam at his work, and he saw, till he could not be silent, that Jeroboam was fast undermining the walls of Jerusalem in his heart, all the time that he was receiving praise and promotion for building those walls up with his hands. ' And Jeroboam laid down his building and came out after Ahijah, Then Ahijah suddenly turned and stripped off his new garment that was upon Jeroboam, and tore it up into twelve pieces, and said, 'Thus and thus hast thou torn up the kingdom of Solomon in thine heart. Take thee ten of these torn-up pieces and hide them with thee till all that is in thine heart shall come true. ' And then the prophet, softening somewhat, went on to tell the trembling builder that if he would but cast Satan and all his counsels and all his hopes out of his heart from that day, then the God of Israel would make him a sure house, so that he and his seed should sit on the throne of Israel for ever. And Jeroboam returned to his work on the wall of Jerusalem with his heart all in a flame. And it came to pass that when Solomon heard of all that, Solomon turned to be against Jeroboam. Jeroboam was a born king and statesman; and both Israel and Egypt, both heaven and Earth, confessed it to be so. And if only Jeroboam had tarried the Lord's leisure, and had kept his heart clean and humble, Jeroboam would soon have been king over all Israel, he and his sons, till the Messiah came Himself to sit down on David's undivided throne. And, whatever may have been in Jeroboam's heart, no fault at all can be found with the words of his ultimatum to Rehoboam. He both feared and hated Ahijah. He was never happy when he was alone with Ahijah, His heart, neither on the wall nor on the throne, was ever single enough for Ahijah's all-searching eyes. And thus it was that Satan still kept his place in Jeroboam's heart, and was still Jeroboam's counsellor in all the affairs of the state, and in all the affairs of the family, till Jeroboam's great fall, from which he and his people never recovered, came about in this way. And as they did so Jeroboam began to fear lest, in their worship together, Judah and Israel should both so return to the Lord together, that the breach in the kingdom would be healed, and he and his son cast out of his rebellious throne. The fact is, we have here before us in black and white, to this day, the very identical words that Jeroboam at that time spake in his heart. He said this in his heart: 'If my people go up to do service in this way in the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, then shall the hearts of this people turn back to Rehoboam, and they will kill me and my son with me. ...
But, happily for us all, there is nothing in God's name to usward that is more sure and more true than is His long suffering, and His immense patience, and the many calls to repentance that He sends us before He finally casts us off, And? lest Jeroboam should lose himself through his fear and hate at Ahijah, God actually condescended to set the old and faithful prophet aside and to send a new prophet to Jeroboam: a prophet whose eyes had not yet read Jeroboam's heart, and against whom Jeroboam could have taken up no umbrage. Unless we both know ourselves and hate ourselves, we shall be certain both to hate and put away from us the preacher who tells us to our faces what is in our heart, as Jeroboam hated and put away Ahijah; which hatred of Jeroboam at him was all the time one of Ahijah's surest seals, both to himself and to Jeroboam, that he was a true prophet of the heart-searching God. All who inflame and perpetuate such divisions lest they should lose their stake of money, or of influence, or of occupation, or of pure ill-will; all able men who prostitute their talents to write or speak about men on the other side, as they would not like themselves to be spoken or written about-let them lay it to heart in whose lot they shall surely stand when every man shall give an account of himself to God
Job - But, far worse than all his Early poverty, and far more difficult to escape and to surmount, were the long-lived sins of his youth. Perfect and upright, and one that feared God and eschewed evil, as Job had now for such a long time been, at the same time he tells us that the heels of his feet still left an accusing and an arresting mark behind him, whatever he did, and wherever he dwelt. But Job is not without much sin in his past life, and much sinfulness in his present heart. And it is this-with his unparalleled sufferings, and with the incessant insinuations and insults of his three friends-it is all this that so racks and tortures Job's tender conscience, and so darkens and crushes his pious heart, and so embitters and exasperates, sometimes almost to rank blasphemy, his far too many defences of himself. 'I am this day fourscore years old. Can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? Can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women?' And in like manner, when Job's sons and daughters said to their old father, 'Come to our feasts with us!' Job answered them thus: 'No, my children. ' Only, all the time, Job had not forgotten his own Early days. He knew to his lasting cost that folly is bound up in a young man's heart, and that eating and drinking and dancing, more than anything else, lets all that folly out. And we shall reflect that the games, and sports, and talks of the playground will bring things out of our children's hearts that we never see nor hear at home. We shall not go with them, but we shall not sleep till they have all come home and shut the door to our hearing behind them. We shall spread out our fears and our hopes before God. ...
The curse that always waits in this world on controversy and contradiction has never been clearer seen than it is seen in Job's case. For never was so much shrewd truth, and so many truly pious positions, and so much divine and human eloquence heard on both sides, and from any other five debating men, as was heard all round Job's ash-heap. The authorities on these things tell us that the debating in the Book of Job is the most wonderful piece of genius that has ever been heard or read since debating genius was. If Job could have but endured to the end the near neighbourhood, and the suspicious looks, and the significant gestures, and the open broadsides of his four friends, 'that daily furnace of men's tongues,' as Augustine has it, Job would have been far too patient and far too perfect for an Old Testament saint. Like the Captain of Salvation Himself, Job, His forerunner, took up successful arms against a whole sea of sorrows, and he would have won every battle of them all had he only been able to bear up under the suspicious looks and the reproving speeches of his four friends. Oh, the unmitigable curse of controversy! Oh, the detestable passions that corrections and contradictions kindle up to fury in the proud heart of man! Eschew controversy, my brethren, as you would eschew the entrance to hell itself. He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth; He is brought as a Iamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so He opened not His mouth. But the fatal loss and the absolute despair of ever attaining to any true holiness of heart; to any true and spiritual love either to God or man; that is a trial of faith and patience to some men in our day that Job with all his battalions of trials knew nothing about. The Lord chastens some men among us with a heart so full of the blains, and boils, and elephantiasis of spiritual sin that a single day of it would have driven Job downright mad. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy. I have heard of Thee by the hearing of the Ear; but now mine eye seeth Thee. And it will just be when you both see and feel all that; and that a thousand times clearer and a thousand times keener than Job could either see it or feel it; it will just be then that the Lord will turn your captivity also till you will be like men that dream. For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall stand at the latter day upon the Earth. Be ye also patient, and stablish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh
Priest - The Lord ordained, Numbers 16:40 , that no stranger, which was not of the seed of Aaron, should come near to offer incense unto the Lord, that he might not be as Korah and his company. He touched with the blood the tip of the right Ear of the priests, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot. ...
It was not customary for the priests to wear the sacerdotal dress except when performing their official duties, Exodus 28:4 ; Exodus 28:43 ; Ezekiel 42:14 ; Ezekiel 44:19 . According to Josephus it was a hand's breadth in width, woven in such a manner as to exhibit the appearance of scales, and ornamented with embroidered flowers in purple, dark blue, scarlet, and white. The extremities of the girdle hung down nearly to the ankle. The first fruits of trees, Leviticus 19:23-24 , that is, those that came on the fourth year, belonged also to the priest
Almighty - From the annunciation by Moses of a divine existence who was "in the beginning," before all things, the very first step is to the display of his almighty power in the creation out of nothing, and the immediate arrangement in order and perfection, of the "heaven and the Earth;" by which is meant, not this globe only with its atmosphere, or even with its own celestial system, but the universe itself; for "he made the stars also. His solemn worship and fear were to be enjoined upon them; and, by the manifestation of his works, the veil was withdrawn from his glory and majesty. He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the Earth upon nothing. " "He looketh to the end of the Earth, and seeth under the whole heaven, to make the weight for the winds, to weigh the waters by measure, to make a decree for the rain, and a way for the lightning of the thunder. " "Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, meted out heaven with a span, comprehended the dust of the Earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance. " "He removeth the mountains, and they know it not; he overturneth them in his anger; he shaketh the Earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble; he commandeth the sun and it riseth not, and sealeth up the stars. " They veil their faces before his throne, and acknowledge themselves his servants: "It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the Earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers," "as the dust of the balance, less than nothing and vanity. Before his face heaven and Earth fly away; the stars fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven are shaken. " The tides reach their height; if they flowed on for a few hours, the Earth would change places with the bed of the sea; but, under an invisible control, they become refluent. The expression, "He toucheth the mountains and they smoke," is not mere imagery:—every volcano is a testimony of its truth; and Earthquakes proclaim, that, before him, "the pillars of the world tremble. To excite and keep alive in man the fear and worship of God, and to bring him to a felicitous confidence in that almighty power which pervades and controls all things, are the noble ends of those ample displays of the omnipotence of God, which roll through the sacred volume with a sublimity that inspiration only could supply. —The Lord is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear?—The Lord is the strength of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? If God be for us, who then can be against us? Our help standeth in the name of the Lord, who made heaven and Earth. —What time I am afraid, I will trust in thee,"—Thus, as one observes, "our natural fears, of which we must have many, remit us to God, and remind us, since we know what God is, to lay hold on his almighty power. As, when the Scriptures speak of the eternity of God, they declare it so as to give us a mere glimpse of that fearful peculiarity of the divine nature, that God is the fountain of being to himself, and that he is eternal, because he is the "I AM;" so we are taught not to measure God's omnipotence by the actual displays of it which we see around us. These are the manifestations of the fact, but not the measure of the attribute; and should we resort to the discoveries of modern philosophy, which, by the help of instruments, has so greatly enlarged the known boundaries of the visible universe, and add to the stars which are visible to the naked eye, those new exhibitions of the divine power in the nebulous appearances of the heavens which are resolvable into myriads of distinct celestial luminaries, whose immense distances commingle their light before it reaches our eyes; we thus almost infinitely expand the circle of created existence, and enter upon a formerly unknown and overwhelming range of divine operation. Nor is it any derogation from the divine power to say, they cannot be done; for as the object of the understanding, of the eye, and the Ear, is that which is intelligible, visible, and audible; so the object of power must be that which is possible; and as it is no prejudice to the most perfect understanding, or sight, or hearing, that it does not understand what is not intelligible, or see what is not visible, or hear what is not audible; so neither is it any diminution to the most perfect power, that it does not do what is not possible. Nothing certainly in the finest writings of antiquity, were all their best thoughts collected as to the majesty and power of God, can bear any comparison with the views thus presented to us by divine revelation. Were we to forget, for a moment, what is the fact, that their noblest notions stand connected with fancies and vain speculations which deprive them of their force, still their thoughts never rise so high; the current is broken, the round of lofty conception is not completed, and, unconnected as their views of divine power were with the eternal destiny of man, and the very reason of creation, we never hear in them, as in the Scriptures, "the THUNDER of his power
Egypt - The prospect, however, is extremely different, according to the season of the year. In this season, the freshness and power of the new vegetation, the variety and abundance of vegetable productions, exceed every thing that is known in the most celebrated parts of the European continent; and Egypt is then, from one end of the country to the other, like a beautiful garden, a verdant meadow, a field sown with flowers, or a waving ocean of grain in the Ear. ...
The sky is not less uniform and monotonous than the Earth; it is constantly a pure unclouded arch, of a color and light more white than azure. The atmosphere has a splendor which the eye can scarcely bear, and a burning sun, whose glow is tempered by no shade, scorches through the whole day these vast and unprotected plains. The only tree is the date-tree, which is frequent; but with its tall, slender stem, and bunch of foliage on the top, this tree does very little to keep off the light, and casts upon the Earth only a pale an uncertain shade. The burning wind of the desert, Simoom, or Camsin, is also experienced, usually about the time of the Early equinox. ...
In the very Earliest times, Egypt appears to have been regarded under three principal divisions; and writers spoke of Upper Egypt or Thebais; Middle Egypt, Heptanomis or Heptapolis; and Lower Egypt or the Delta, including the districts lying east and west of the river. UPPER EGYPT The southern part of Egypt, the Hebrews appear to have called Pathros, Jeremiah 44:1,15 . The papyrus is still found in small quantity, chiefly near Damietta; it is a reed about nine feet high, as thick as a man's thumb, with a tuft of down on the top. But the tenor of ancient history in general, as well as the results of modern researches, is against this supposition. It is generally believed that they were erected more than two thousand years before Christ, as the sepulchres of kings. ...
But besides these imperishable monuments of kings long forgotten, Egypt abounds in other structures hardly less wonderful; on the beautiful islands above the cataracts, near Syene, and at other places in Upper Egypt; and especially in the whole valley of the Nile near Thebes, including Carnac, Luxor, etc. There is, however, great ambiguity in the interpretation of these records; and in many cases the words, when apparently made out, are as yet unintelligible, and seem to be part of a priestly dialect understood only by the learned. ...
The Early history of ancient Egypt is involved in great obscurity. All accounts, however, and the results of all modern researches, seem to concur in representing culture and civilization as having been introduced and spread in Egypt from the south, and especially from Meroe; and that the country in the Earliest times was possessed by several contemporary kings or states, which at length were all united into one great kingdom. Another famine, in the days of Isaac, nearly drove him to Egypt, Genesis 26:2 ; and Jacob and all his household ended their days there, Genesis 39:1-50:26 . After the escape of Israel from their weary bondage in Egypt, we read of little intercourse between the two nations for many years. But in the fifth year of his son Rehoboam, Judah was humbled at the feet of Shishak, king of Egypt, 2 Chronicles 12:1-16 ; and for many generations afterwards the Jews were alternately in alliance and at war with that nation, until both were subjugated to the Assyrian empire, 2 Kings 17:1-41 18:21 23:29 24:1-20 Jeremiah 25:1-38 37:5 44:1-30 46:1-28 . It was probably this wisdom, in which Moses also was learned, Acts 7:22
Jonah - e Early in Joash's reign, when Jehovah (probably by Jonah) promised deliverance from Syria, which was actually given first under Joash, in answer to Jehoahaz' prayer, then completely under Jeroboam II. ) Thus, Jonah was among the Earliest of the prophets who wrote, and close upon Elisha who died in Joash's reign, having just before death foretold Syria's defeat thrice (2 Kings 13:14-21). ...
Hosea and Amos prophesied in the latter part of the 41 years' reign of Jeroboam II. Jerome says, near Joppa lay rocks represented as those to which Andromeda was bound when exposed to the sea monster. "The sign of the prophet Jonah, for as Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights (both eases count the day from, and that to, which the reckoning is) in the heart of the Earth" (Isaiah 26:19). God's pity and patience form a wonderful contrast to man's self will and hard hearted pettiness. truth) appears in his so faithfully recording his own perversity and punishment. The storm, the strange sleep (of self hardening, weariness, and God forgetfulness; contrast Mark 4:37-39, spiritually with Ephesians 5:14), the lot casting, and detection of Jonah and casting into and consequent calming of the sea, followed. Jonah reflected' Israel's backsliding and consequent punishment; type of Messiah who bears our imputed guilt and its punishment; compare Psalms 42:7; Psalms 69:1-2; John 11:50. The prophet's experiences adapted him, by sympathy, for fulfilling his office to his hearers. God's infinite resources in mercy, as well as judgment, appear in Jonah's devourer becoming his preserver. Forty is the number indicative of judgment for sin, as Israel's 40 years in the wilderness. ...
Their deep reverence for their gods (as appears from their inscriptions), as well as Jonah's deliverance (which was known to them, Luke 11:30), and probably his previous prophecy which had been fulfilled, of Israel's deliverance under Jeroboam II from Syria with which Nineveh had been long warring, all made them ready to heed his message. Jonah still stayed near the city, possibly expecting some judgment still to fall. " A small worm at the root was enough to destroy the large gourd, so with our greatest Earthly joys (Psalms 30:7). ...
God's pathetic and condescendingly touching appeal winds up the book; God's tender accents are the last that reach the Ear, the abruptness of the close making them the more impressive "thou hast had pity on the gourd for the which thou hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which came up in a night and perished in a night; and should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than six score thousand persons (120,000 children under four, Deuteronomy 1:39) that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand (giving a total, if the children be a fifth, of 600,000 population), and also much cattle?" God saw the root of faith in Jonah, therefore corrected his perverse self will by an appropriate discipline
John, the Epistles of - 39) says of Papias, John's hearer, "he used testimonies from the first epistle of John. Docetism existed in germ already, though the Docete by name appear first in the second century (Colossians 1:15-18; 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 1:1-3). Presciently the Spirit through John forearms the church against the coming heresy. In the opening he rested this truth on his apostolic witness of the eye, the Ear, and the touch; so at the close on God's witness, which the believer accepts, and by rejecting which the unbeliever makes God a liar. Burning zeal, all absorbing love, appear in John combined with contemplative repose. The Old Testament puts prominent the fear of God; John, the last New Testament writer, the love of God
God - No person, for example that knows the principles of optics, and the structure of the eye, can believe that it was formed without skill in that science; or that the Ear was formed without the knowledge of sounds; or that the male and female in animals were not formed for each other, and for continuing the species. The great motions in the system performed with the same facility as the least, suggest his almighty power, which gave motion to the Earth and the celestial bodies with equal ease as to the minutest particles. These are arguments which are sufficiently open to the views and capacities of the unlearned, while at the same time they acquire new strength and lustre from the discoveries of the learned. He is not the object of sense; his essence, and, indeed, that of all other substances, are beyond the reach of all our discoveries; but his attributes clearly appear in his admirable works. Locke, yet, having furnished us with those faculties our minds are endowed with, he hath not left himself without a witness; since we have sense, perception, and reason, and cannot want a clear proof of him as long as we carry ourselves about us, To show, therefore, that we are capable of knowing, that is, of being certain that there is a God, and how we may come by this certainty, I think we need go no farther than ourselves, and that undoubted knowledge we have of our own existence. I think it is beyond question, that man has a clear perception of his own being; he knows certainly that he exists, and that he is something. The proof rests on facts recorded in the history of the Jews, from which it appears that they were always victorious and prosperous so long as they served the only living and true God, Jehovah, the name by which the Almighty made himself known to them, and uniformly unsuccessful when they revolted from him to serve other gods. What argument could be so effectual to convince them that there was no god in all the Earth but the God of Israel? The sovereignty and universal providence of the Lord Jehovah are proved by predictions delivered by the Jewish prophets, pointing out the fate of nations and of empires, specifying distinctly their rise, the duration of their power, and the causes of their decline; thus demonstrating that one God ruled among the nations, and made them the unconscious instruments of promoting the purposes of his will. In the same manner, none of the attributes of God are demonstrated in Scripture by reasoning: they are simply affirmed and illustrated by facts; and instead of a regular deduction of doctrines and conclusions from a few admitted principles, we are left to gather them from the recorded feelings and devotional expressions of persons whose hearts were influenced by the fear of God. "And the Lord passed by and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and fourth generation," Exodus 34. ארכּ? פים , EREC APAYIM long- suffering, the Being who, because of his tenderness, is not easily irritated, but suffers long and is kind; רב , RAB, the great or mighty One: חסד , CHESED, the bountiful Being, he who is exuberant in his beneficence; אמת , EMETH, the Truth, or True One, he alone who can neither deceive nor be deceived; נצר חסד , NOTSER CHESED, the Preserver of bountifulness, he whose beneficence never ends, keeping mercy, for thousands of generations, showing compassion and mercy while the world endures; נשא עון ופשע וחטאה , NOSE AVON VAPESHA VECHATAAH, he who bears away iniquity, transgression, and sin; properly the Redeemer, the Pardoner, the Forgiver, the Being whose prerogative it is to forgive sin, and save the soul; נקה לא ינקה NAKEH LO YINNAKEH, the righteous Judge, who distributes justice with an impartial hand; and עין פקד , PAKED AVON, &c, he who visits iniquity, he who punishes transgressors, and from whose justice no sinner can escape; the God of retributive and vindictive justice. The first act ascribed to God is that of creating the heavens and the Earth out of nothing; and by his fiat alone arranging their parts, and peopling them with living creatures. Exemplifications of the divine mercy are traced from age to age, in his establishing his own worship among men, and remitting the punishment of individual and national offences in answer to prayer offered from penitent hearts, and in dependence upon the typified or actually offered universal sacrifice:—of his condescension, in stooping to the cases of individuals; in his dispensations both of providence and grace, by showing respect to the poor and humble; and, principally, by the incarnation of God in the form of a servant, admitting men into familiar and friendly intercourse with himself, and then entering into heaven to be their patron and advocate, until they should be received into the same glory, "and so be for ever with the Lord:"—of his strictly righteous government, in the destruction of the old world, the cities of the plain, the nations of Canaan, and all ancient states, upon their "filling up the measure of their iniquities;" and, to show that "he will by no means clear the guilty;" in the numerous and severe punishments inflicted even upon the chosen seed of Abraham, because of their transgressions:—of his long-suffering, in frequent warnings, delays, and corrective judgments inflicted upon individuals and nations, before sentence of utter excision and destruction:—of faithfulness and truth, in the fulfilment of promises, often many ages after they were given, as in the promises to Abraham respecting the possession of the land of Canaan by his seed, and in all the "promises made to the fathers" respecting the advent, vicarious death, and illustrious offices of the "Christ," the Saviour of the world:—of his immutability, in the constant and unchanging laws and principles of his government, which remain to this day precisely the same, in every thing universal, as when first promulgated, and have been the rule of his conduct in all places as well as through all time:—of his prescience of future events, manifested by the predictions of Scripture:— and of the depth and stability of his counsel, as illustrated in that plan and purpose of bringing back a revolted world to obedience and felicity, which we find steadily kept in view in the Scriptural history of the acts of God in former ages; which is still the end toward which all his dispensations bend, however wide and mysterious their sweep; and which they will finally accomplish, as we learn from the prophetic history of the future, contained in the Old and New Testaments. More at large do we learn what God is, from the declarations of the inspired writings. " That, after all the manifestations he has made of himself, he is, from the infinite perfection and glory of his nature, incomprehensible: "Lo, these are but parts of his ways, and how little a portion is heard of him!" "Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out. " That every other being, however exalted, has its existence from him: "For by him were all things created, which are in heaven and in Earth, whether they are visible or invisible. " That he is omnipresent: "Do not I fill heaven and Earth with my presence, saith the Lord?" That he is omniscient. " That he is the absolute Lord and Owner of all things: "The heavens, even the heaven of heavens, are thine, and all the parts of them:" "The Earth is thine, and the fulness thereof, the world and them that dwell therein:" "He doeth according to his will in the armies of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the Earth. " That he is just in the administration of his government: "Shall not the Judge of the whole Earth do right?" "Clouds and darkness are round about him; judgment and justice are the habitation of his throne. " That his wisdom is unsearchable: "O the depth of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!" And, finally, that he is good and merciful: "Thou art good, and thy mercy endureth for ever:" "His tender mercy is over all his works:" "God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ:" "God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them:" "God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. It is thus that Christian philosophers, even when they do not use the language of the Scriptures, are able to speak on this great and mysterious doctrine, in language so clear, and with conceptions so noble; in a manner too so equable, so different from the sages of antiquity, who, if at any time they approach the truth when speaking of the divine nature, never fail to mingle with it some essentially erroneous or grovelling conception. " "Our notion of Deity," says Bishop Pearson, "doth expressly signify a Being or Nature of infinite perfection; and the infinite perfection of a being or nature consists in this, that it be absolutely and essentially necessary; an actual Being of itself; and potential, or causative of all beings beside itself, independent from any other, upon which all things else depend, and by which all things else are governed. Hence also he must be perfectly similar, all eye, all Ear, all arm, all the power of perceiving, understanding, and acting; but after a manner not at all corporeal, after a manner not like that of men, after a manner wholly to us unknown. He is destitute of all body, and all bodily shape; and therefore cannot be seen, heard, or touched; nor ought he to be worshipped under the representation of any thing corporeal. We have ideas of the attributes of God, but do not know the substance of even any thing; we see only the figures and colours of bodies, hear only sounds, touch only the outward surfaces, smell only odours, and taste tastes; and do not, cannot, by any sense, or reflex act, know their inwa
Nehemiah - Probably he was of David's lineage, as his name varied appears in it, "Naum" (Luke 3:25), and his kinsman's name too, Hananiah, son of Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 6:10-140); his "fathers' sepulchres" would be those of David's royal line. Cupbearer of Artaxerxes (Longimanus) according to his own autobiography, at Susa or Shushan, the principal Persian palace; Ecbatana was the royal summer residence, Babylon the spring, Persepolis the autumn, and Susa the winter. In Artaxerxes' 20th year Hanani with other Jews came from Jerusalem, reporting that the remnant there were in great affliction, the wall broken down, and the gates burned. ...
His prayer (Nehemiah 1:4-11) was marked by importunate continuity, "day and night" (compare Isaiah 62:6-7; Luke 18:7), intercession for Israel, confession of individual and national sin, pleading that God should remember His promises of mercy upon their turning to Him, however far cast out for transgression; also that He should remember they are His people redeemed by His strong hand, therefore His honour is at stake in their persons; and that Nehemiah and they who pray with him desire to fear God's name (Isaiah 26:8; contrast Psalms 66:18; compare Daniel 9, Leviticus 26:33-39; Deuteronomy 4:25-31); lastly he asks God to dispose Artaxerxes' heart to "mercy" (Proverbs 21:1). "Let Thine Ear . hear the prayer," is an allusion to Solomon's prayer (1 Kings 8:28-29). After four months (Nehemiah 1:1; Nehemiah 2:1), from Chisleu to Nisan, of praying and waiting, in Artaxerxes' 20th year Nehemiah with sad countenance ministered as his cupbearer. request?" Nehemiah ejaculated his request to God first, then to the Earthly king. There seemed no interval between the king's question and Nehemiah's answer, yet a momentous transaction had passed between Earth and heaven that decided the issue in behalf of Nehemiah (Isaiah 65:24). ...
Notwithstanding Ezra's commission in Artaxerxes' seventh year (457 B. ), after the dead period from the sixth of Darius to that year, a period in which there is no history of the returned Jews (Ezra 6:15-7;Ezra 6:1, etc. ) and only the history of the foreign Jews in Esther, and notwithstanding the additional numbers and resources which Ezra had brought, Nehemiah now, in Artaxerxes' 20th year, in his secret ride of observation by night found Jerusalem in deplorable plight (Nehemiah 2:12-16; compare Isaiah 64:9-12). " Psalm 123 was eventually written at this time in reference to their "scorn" while "at ease themselves"; Nehemiah's "hear, O our God, for we are despised" (Nehemiah 4:3-4) answers to Israel's "unto Thee lift I up mine eyes, our soul is filled with the contempt," etc. Even Eliashib the half hearted high priest repaired. He had not only to contend with adversaries plotting to attack when the Jews should "not know nor see," but with his own men complaining "the strength of the bearers is decayed, and there is much rubbish, so that we are not able to build" (Nehemiah 4:8-11). ...
But Nehemiah, by setting the people by families with weapons in the lower as well as the higher places of the wall, and encouraging them to "remember the Lord," baffled the enemy; thenceforward half wrought and half held the weapons, the builders and the bearers of burdens wrought with one hand and with the other held a weapon. Nehemiah also remedied the state of debt and bondage of many Jews by forbidding usury and bond service, and set an example by not being chargeable all the twelve years that he was governor, as former governors had been, on the Jews; "so did not I," says he, "because of the fear of God" (Nehemiah 5). Then Shemaiah, suborned by Sanballat, tried to frighten him to flee into the temple, where he was detained by a vow (1 Samuel 21:7), in order to delay the work and give an appearance of conscious guilt on the part of Nehemiah; but neither he nor the prophetess Noadiah could put him in fear, "should such a man as I (the governor who ought to animate others) flee!" Fearing God (Nehemiah 6:9; Nehemiah 6:14; Nehemiah 5:15) I have none else to fear (Isaiah 28:16). of Canaan return, filling the wadies and gladdening the parched country); they that sow in tears shall reap in joy. The wall having been built and the doors set up (Nehemiah 7), Nehemiah gave charge of Jerusalem to Hanani and Hananiah, "a faithful man who feared God above many," and set "every one in his watch over against his house. Nehemiah took the register in a later form than that given by Ezra, for the number of those who could not prove their pedigree is reduced by subsequent searches from 652 in Ezra 2:60 to 642 in Nehemiah 7:62. The tirshatha in Ezra 2:63 is Zerubbabel 90 years before, in Nehemiah Nehemiah himself. Nehemiah comforted them when weeping at the words of the law: "weep not, for the joy of the Lord is your strength" (Isaiah 61:3; Matthew 5:4; Psalms 51:12-13); "send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared" (Luke 14:13); and the keeping of the feast of tabernacles more formally according to the law than the Earlier one in Ezra 3:4 at the setting up of the altar, indeed with greater enthusiasm of all as one man (not excepting 1 Kings 8:2; 1 Kings 8:65) than had been since Joshua's days, reading the law not merely the first and eighth days (as enjoined in Leviticus 23:35-36), but every day of the feast (Nehemiah 8:18). , now appears, namely, to arrange for so disposing the people who were "few" in the "large" but scantily built city as to secure its safety and future growth in houses (Nehemiah 11). ...
Finally, in Artaxerxes' 32nd year (434 B
Unpardonable Sin - It is only with the saying in the Gospels that we are directly concerned, but the passages in the Epistles must be glanced at as bearing upon our interpretation of Christ’s words, and something must be said also as to the place of the subject in Christian experience. (Matthew 12:23), began to ask, ‘Is this the Son of David?’ But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, ‘This man doth not cast out devils but by Beelzebub, the prince of the devils’ (Matthew 12:24, Mark 3:22; cf. 177), it is clear from the Gospels that Jesus Himself habitually employed them to indicate the age before and the age after His own Parousia (see Matthew 13:39-40; Matthew 13:49; Matthew 24:3; Matthew 28:20, Mark 10:30, Luke 18:30; Luke 20:35), thereby throwing ‘the age to come’ into that future world which lies beyond His Second Advent and the resurrection of the dead (see Salmond, Chr. ’s language left us in any doubt as to the absoluteness of His meaning, the doubt would disappear when we turn to Mk. And if we give to αἰώνιος the meaning it regularly has on the lips of Jesus, ‘an eternal sin’ appears to mean a sin that eternally persists, a sin that has so engrained itself in the character as to become fixed in the form of destiny. —There are two passages in Hebrews that bear upon the subject. Once they were enlightened, but they too loved the darkness rather than the light, and so shut the light out of their hearts, and trampled under foot the Son of God, and did despite unto the Spirit of grace. *
(2) But if anxious and fearful souls need to be reminded that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is not some mysterious sin into which a man may fall against all the promptings of his better nature, the case of the Pharisees and Jesus conveys to all a message of serious warning. Selfishness and pride, and not least religious selfishness and pride, may slowly harden the heart and sear the conscience and seal the eyes, until men come to call good evil and light darkness, and are ready at last to say, even of one who manifests the Spirit of God and of Christ, ‘He hath a devil
Paul as the Chief of Sinners - He has done nothing in heaven or on Earth like my salvation. Come and hear, all ye that fear God, and I will declare what He hath done for my soul. " But what she most dwelt on as she died was that half verse, "Cor contritum-a broken and a contrite heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise. " "Do not mistake me," said Jacob Behmen, "for my heart is as full as it can hold of all malice at you and all ill-will. My heart is the very dung-hill of the devil, and it is no easy work to wrestle with him on his own chosen ground. " "When a man like me," says Luther, "comes to know the plague of his own heart, he is not miserable only-he is absolute misery itself; he is not sinful only-he is absolute sin itself. " "I am made of sin," sobbed Bishop Andrewes, till his private prayer-book was all but unreadable to his heirs because of its author's sweat and tears. "It has often appeared to me," says Jonathan Edwards, "that if God were to mark my heart-iniquity my bed would be in hell. But all the time my own heart was far worse Earth to me, and filthier far than the filthy Earth I sat upon. ...
Fool! said my muse to me,Look in thy heart and write. Yes; look well into your own heart and you will find there the true explanation of your perplexity about Paul, and Luther, and Rutherford, and Bunyan, and all the rest. For your own heart holds the secret to you of this whole matter. If you have any real knowledge of your own heart at all, this cannot possibly have escaped you, that there are things in your own heart that are most shocking and prostrating for you to find there. There are thoughts in your heart, and feelings, and wishes, and likes and dislikes; things you have to hide, and things you cannot hide; things that if you have any religion at all you must take on your knees to Jesus Christ every day, and things you cannot take to anything even in Him short of His sin-atoning blood. Well, you have in all that the true key to Paul's heart, and to the hearts of all the rest. So much so that if you advance as you have begun you will soon be staggering new beginners yourself with the Scriptures you read, and with the psalms and hymns you select, and with the petitions you offer ere ever you are aware; and, it may yet be, with the autobiography you will yet write to tell to all that fear God what He hath done for your soul. That is to say, the holiest men are the most full of holy fear, holy penitence, holy humility, and holy love. Even when God is on the point of translating them to Himself because they so please Him, at that very moment they feel that they were never so near being absolute castaways. When all other men are worshipping them for their saintliness, and rightly so, those right saints of God are gnashing their teeth at the devilries that are still rampant in their own heart. The more you exalt and enthrone them the more they lie with their faces on the Earth. When you load them with honours, and banquet them with praises, they make ashes their bread and tears their drink. Their whole head will be waters, and their eyes one fountain of tears just at that moment when God is rising up in compassion, and in recompense, to wipe all tears from their eyes for ever. It is God's holy law of love entering our hearts ever deeper and deeper that does it. It is when I take my own heart, with all its wickedness-working self-love, and with all its self-seeking in everything, and self-serving out of everything and every one: with all its deceitfulness, and disingenuousness, and envy, and jealousy, and grudging, and malevolence, and lay it alongside of the holy heart of my Lord,-it is that that does it. It is then that I search the Book of Job, say, not any more for its incomparable dialectic and its noble literature. "I have heard of Thee by the hearing of the Ear: but now mine eye seeth Thee. And thus it comes about that the authors who are classical to me now are not the ephemerids in religion or in literature that I used to waste my time and my money upon when I was a neophyte: my true classics now are those masterly men who look into their own hearts and then write for my heart. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise. Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me. "...
It was their own sin; or to speak much more exactly, it was their own sinfulness, that so humbled Rutherford and Bunyan and Christiana and Teresa, and broke their hearts. Nothing at all humiliates; nothing really touches the hearts of people like them; but the inward sinfulness of their own hearts. We shallow-hearted fools would think and would say that it was some great crime or open scandal that those saintly men and women had fallen into. One of themselves used to say that it was not "so humiliating and heart-breaking to be sometimes like a beast, as to be always like a devil. Just go over the things that humiliate and shame you in your Earthly life and its circumstances; and then pass over into the ranks of God's saints, and you will there enter on a career of humiliation that wilt quite drink up the things that make you so ashamed now, till you will completely forget their very existence. And when the enraged crowd were about to fall upon the soothsayer and tear him to pieces for saying such things about their greatest saint, Socrates himself came forward and restrained their anger and confessed openly and said, "Ye men of Athens, let this truth-speaking man alone, and do him no harm. That our hearts by nature are all equally evil. As also that he who knows his own heart will measure his own worth by his own heart and not by the valuation of the street and the market-place. As also that the noblest and best men in all lands, and in all dispensations, are those who know themselves, and who out of that knowledge keep themselves under, and wait upon God, till they attain in His good time to both a blameless heart, a blameless conscience, and a for ever blameless life. For myself, when I hear Paul saying this that is in the text, and Luther, and Rutherford, and Bunyan, and Andrewes, and Edwards, and Brodie, it is with me as it was with John Bunyan's pilgrim in the valley of the shadow of death. This put Christian to it more than anything he had met with before, yet could he have helped it, he would not have done it, but he had not the discretion, neither to stop his Ears, nor to know from whence these blasphemies came. "When Christian had travelled in this disconsolate condition some considerable time, he thought he heard the voice of a man, as going before him, saying, Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear none ill, for Thou art with me. First, because he gathered from them that some one who feared God was in the valley as well as himself
Henoticon, the - " Like every endeavour, however well meant, to cover radical differences by a vague comprehensiveness, it not only failed to secure union but aggravated the divisions it was intended to cure, and created a schism which divided the East and West for nearly 40 years, lasting down to the reign of Justinian and the popedom of Hormisdas. Those addressed to Simplicius of Rome and Calandion of Antioch were duly received; but the letters for Acacius and Zeno were delayed, and Acacius heard of John's appointment from another quarter. 14) and in a not very clear Latin translation by Liberatus ( Breviar. It closes with an Earnest appeal to all to return to the church which, "as a loving mother, opens her longing arms to receive them. " A fourth party was that of the centre or moderates, who were weary of strife, or too loyal or too cowardly to resist the imperial power. As soon as he felt himself safe in his seat, his overbearing temper knew no bounds. This anathema included nearly all the bishops of the East. This anathema severed the whole of the Eastern church from the West for nearly 40 years. Thus the three chief sees of the East were in constrained communion and nearly all the suffragan bishops had been silenced or deposed. The conflict only ended with the life of Anastasius, who died worn out by strife at the age of nearly 90 years, a. Fresh disturbances were created when it was found that Hormisdas demanded the condemnation of all who had communicated with Acacius, and turned a deaf Ear to the repeated applications of both emperor and patriarch for some relaxation of these terms (Evagr
Paul's Great Heaviness And Continual Sorrow of Heart - Bernard because he rode a whole day along the shores of the lake of Geneva with his monk's cowl so drawn down over his eyes that he had to ask his host at sunset where that famous water was which he had heard so many people talking so much about. The very most I shall attempt to do is to offer you some possible explanation of that great heaviness of mind, and that great sorrow of heart, which has lost Paul the full approval of so many of his best friends. How was it possible for Paul to travel through those so famous scenes, how was it possible for him to live in those so classic cities, and never to give us a single sentence about persons and places, the very names of which make our modern hearts to beat fast in our bosoms to this day?...
In vain to me the smiling mornings shine,And reddening Phœbus lifts his golden fire;The birds in vain their amorous descant join,Or cheerful fields resume their green attire. These Ears, alas! for other notes repine;A different object do these eyes require;My lonely anguish meets no heart but mine,And in my breast the imperfect joys expire. Right or wrong; praise Paul or blame him; try to understand him, and to feel with him and for him, or no; the thing is as clear as day, that some iron or other has so entered Paul's soul, and an iron such, that it will never depart from his soul in this world. And, till that rankling spear-head, so to call it, is removed for ever out of Paul's mind and heart in another world than this, say what you will to blame Paul, he has no Ear left for the singing of your amorous birds, and no eye left but for that holy whiteness that so stains to his eyes both Mount Salmon and Mont Blanc. All the true lovers of nature: that is to say, all the true worshippers, not of nature, but of Jesus Christ; have by heart, and have deep down in their heart, the famous but wholly unfathomable tribute. "For the Earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. To all of which profound pathos on the one hand, and to all of which magnificent hope on the other hand, your nature-worshipper's unbroken heart is utterly stupid and dead. And yet babes at the breast will wail out against the insensibility of that mighty mind and mighty heart; will wail out at his insensibility and indifference to those toys and trifles that so sanctify and satisfy them, as they so often assure us. Whatever may be the true explanation of your entire satisfaction with nature, and with art, and with travel, and with yourself, this is undoubtedly the true explanation of Paul's great heaviness and continual sorrow of heart. The tremendous catastrophe of the fall of man, and the fall of all nature around man,-that, to Paul, was so ever-present and so all-possessing, that there is no alleviation of his awful pain of heart on account of all that. Miserable comforters are all these things to Paul's broken heart; but, most miserable of all, your mountebank comforters among men, who would thrust things like these upon Paul's profound and inappeasable sorrow. Paul is so intensely religious in his whole mind, and heart, and imagination, and temperament, and taste: he is so utterly and absolutely godly; he is such an out-and-out Christian man and Christian apostle: he is so consumed continually with his hunger and his thirst after righteousness: he is so captivated, enthralled, and enraptured with the beauty of holiness, that nothing will ever satisfy Paul, either for nature, or for art, or for travel, or for man, or for himself, short of the new heavens and the new Earth. And until that day dawns, and that day-star arises in Paul's heart, whatever you and I may do, he will continue to look, not at the things that are seen, but at the things that are not seen; for the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal. "...
But not amidst nature and art and travel only, but amidst far better things than these, men like Paul are often made men of sorrow and of a heavy heart. At the same time, it would have been an additional relief, and a real and a peculiar support to us, to have had a passage immediately from Paul's own pen on the heaviness of heart that cannot but accompany family life, when a man of Paul's sensibility, and of John Bunyan's sensibility, is at the head of that family. For Paul's most noble lamentation over the out-of-door creation is cold and remote, and is wholly without those bowels and mercies, that would have been stirred in Paul had he walked with a perfect heart before his house at home. To Charity, who, though like the Apostle she has no children of her own body, yet like him, her love, and her imagination, and her genius for the things of the heart, all make her speak to us like a mother in Israel, and all make John Bunyan to speak in reply to her like a father in the same. As Thomas Boston also has it in one of his Shakespearian passages: "Man is born crying, lives complaining, and dies disappointed from that quarter. Grace has for ever spoiled their joy in the creature, but they are not yet grown so spiritual as to live upon God, and hence it is that they are found so often hovering in sadness and dissatisfaction between Earth and heaven. Lord Brodie also will give us his testimony on this same subject out of his heavy-hearted diary. Brodie was not Paul, nor Pascal, nor Bunyan, nor even Thomas Shepard, but he had sufficient heaviness of mind and sorrow of heart to purchase him a right and a title to be listened to on this matter now in hand. " And a far better man, our own dear Halyburton, has much the same thing to tell us. "The strong power of sin that I found still remaining in me, and the disturbances thence arising, made life not desirable; and a prospect of final and complete riddance by death, made death appear much more eligible. "Immediately after my conversion, God's excellency began to appear to me in everything-in the sun, in the moon, in the stars, in the waters, and in all nature. For our Lord's great words, "they began to be merry"; and the elder's great words that "God would wipe away all tears from their eyes"; those two Holy Scriptures, rightly understood, rightly imagined, and rightly taken to heart, would, of themselves, alone, have saved both you and me this long and superfluous discourse tonight
Job - "Behold," says the Apostle James, "we count them happy which endure: ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord, that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy," James 5:11 . Bishop Warburton, in like manner, admits them to bear the marks of high antiquity; and Michaelis confesses the manners to be perfectly Abrahamic, that is, such as were common to all the seed of Abraham, Israelites, Ishmaelites, and Idumeans. The Usserian or Bible chronology dates the trial of Job about the year 1520 before the Christian era, twenty-nine years before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt; and that the book was composed before that event, is evident from its total silence respecting the miracles which accompanied the exode; such as the passage of the Red Sea, the destruction of the Egyptians, the manna in the desert, &c; all of which happened in the vicinity of Job's country, and were so apposite in the debate concerning the ways of Providence that some notice could not but have been taken of them, if they had been coeval with the poem of Job. That it was composed before Abraham's migration to Canaan, may also be inferred from its silence respecting the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the other cities of the plain, which were still nearer to Idumea, where the scene is laid. He survived his trial one hundred and forty years, Job 42:16 , and was probably not younger at that time; for we read that his seven sons were all grown up, and had been settled in their own houses for a considerable time, Job 1:4-5 . That he did not live at an Earlier period, may be collected from an incidental observation of Bildad, who refers Job to their forefathers for instruction in wisdom:—...
"Inquire, I pray thee, of the former age, ...
And prepare thyself to the search of their fathers:" ...
assigning as a reason the comparative shortness of human life, and consequent ignorance of the present generation:—...
"For we are but of yesterday, and know nothing; Because our days upon Earth are a shadow. ...
But the fathers of the former age, or grandfathers of the present, were the contemporaries of Peleg and Joktan, in the fifth generation after the deluge; and they might easily have learned wisdom from the fountain head by conversing with Shem, or perhaps with Noah himself; whereas, in the seventh generation, the standard of human life was reduced to about two hundred years, which was a shadow compared with the longevity of Noah and his sons. The manners and customs, indeed, critically correspond with that Early period. Farther: Job acted as high priest in his family, according to the patriarchal usage, Genesis 8:20 ; for the institution of an established priesthood does not appear to have taken place any where until the time of Abraham. This carries us up to an age so Early as that in which all the posterity of Abraham, Israelites, Idumeans, and Arabians, yet continued to speak one common language, and had not branched into different dialects. In effect, nothing is clearer than that the history of an inhabitant of Idumea is the subject of the poem which bears the name of Job, and that all the persons introduced into it were Idumeans, dwelling in Idumea, in other words, Edomite Arabs. These characters are, Job himself, of the land of Uz; Eliphaz, of Teman, a district of as much repute as Uz, and which, it appears from the joint testimony of Jeremiah. Hence it is evident, that the poem is the composition of a single author; but who that was, is a question concerning which the learned are very much divided in their sentiments. Upon the whole, then, we have sufficient ground to conclude that this book was not the production of Moses, but of some Earlier age. It appears, indeed, highly probable that Job was the writer of his own story, of whose inspiration we have the clearest evidence in the forty-second chapter of this book, in which he thus addresses the Almighty: "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the Ear, but now mine eye seeth thee. How long the sufferings of Job continued, we are not informed; but it is said, that after God turned his captivity, and blessed him a second time, he lived one hundred and forty years, Job 42:16 . Its style is in many parts peculiarly sublime; and it is not only adorned with poetical embellishments, but most learned men consider it as written in metre
Exodus, the Book of - ...
The Egyptians recognized his greatness (Exodus 11:3); but the writer, while recognizing the greatness of Moses' mission, dwells especially on his want of natural gifts, his deficiencies of character and the hindrances thereby caused to his mission, and the penalties he incurred; his hasty intervention between the Israelite and Egyptian, the manslaughter, and the Israelites' rejection of him as a ruler, and his exile for the prime 40 years of his manhood. The same feature appears in subsequent books of the Pentateuch, his shrinking from self-vindication when assailed by Miriam and Aaron (Numbers 12); his impetuous temper at the water of Meribah Kadesh, smiting the rock irreverently and hence excluded by God from the promised land. "Jehovah hardened Pharaoh's heart so that he would not let Israel go. ...
Two months elapsed between Moses' first and second interviews with Pharaoh; the former in April, when the Israelites were scattered throughout all Egypt gathering the stubble of the harvest just reaped (the reapers leaving the stalks standing and cut close to the Ears), the latter in June at the time of the Nile's yearly overflow when "the king went out unto the water" to offer his devotions to Apis, whose embodiment the river was (Exodus 5:12; Exodus 7:15). The lice or mosquitoes (kinnim ) penetrating into the nostrils and Ears, or rather the tick (the size of a grain of sand, which when filled with blood swells to the size of a hazel nut), came soon after the frogs, Early in October. ...
Many of the Egyptians feared Jehovah's word and obeyed, while the rest suffered for their disregard. in blossom, marks the time as the middle of February, when also the "barley" is "in the Ear. " Pharaoh consented, but on hearing Moses' demand that young and old, sons and daughters, flocks and herds, should go, refused peremptorily, saying "evil is before you," i. On Pharaoh's confession of sin and entreaty Moses besought the Lord and they disappeared as quickly as they came, before a wind from the sea (Hebrew), i. The divine aim was to vindicate Jehovah's lordship, not merely over the enslaved Hebrew but over Egypt and its king, the representative of the pagan world powers with whom God's controversy is, "to the end that thou mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the Earth" (Exodus 8:22). None could be omitted without breaking the moral and natural order which is so clearly indicated though not formally expressed. Inscriptions both in Egypt and in the peninsula, as Early as Snefru of the third dynasty and of the three following dynasties, and of Hatasu, widow of Thothmes II (drowned in the Red Sea), describe victories over the Mentu, the mountaineers of the peninsula, and other native tribes. The inscription as to the gold mines near Dakkeh mentions a well 180 ft. ...
Exodus describes water as wanting where none now is found, abundance where springs still exist and traces of a far greater supply anciently, tracts at the same distances where food would not be found, a natural manna in the rainy season especially, but not adequate in quantity and nutriment without supernatural modification; nomadic hordes attack Israel just where and when the attack, judging from present appearances of the locality, might well be expected. Two distinct accounts are given of the rearing of the tabernacle; in the first Moses recites his instructions, in the second the execution of them
Agriculture - —From the first the Hebrews were a pastoral, and from very Early times an agricultural people; and these twin employments have lent their colour and tone to their literature, and shaped their profoundest thoughts and utterances regarding God and man. ), the lord of the vineyard going out Early in the morning to hire labourers (Matthew 20:1 ff. The world appears to Him as a great field ‘white unto harvest’ (Micah 4:3-47), and awaiting the labour of the reapers (Matthew 9:37 f. To Noah the promise is given that ‘while the Earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest … shall not cease’ (Genesis 8:22). The Golden Age will be a time when men ‘shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks,’ and ‘they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree’ (Isaiah 2:4, 1618420706_44). But, on the other hand, we learn that Isaac, who had gone to Gerar, ‘sowed in that land, and found in the same year an hundredfold’ (Genesis 26:12); while the first dream of Joseph shows that if he did not actually follow, he was at least familiar with, agricultural pursuits (Genesis 37:5-7). Once learned, it became the staple industry of the country. That is sufficiently attested by the laws anent the three annual festivals (Exodus 23:14-16), the septennial fallow (Exodus 23:11), the gleanings of the harvest field (Leviticus 19:9), Leviticus 19:10 the year of Jubilee (Leviticus 25:10 ff. In some districts they were so numerous that they had to be removed every year after ploughing had taken place. Where virgin soil had to be reclaimed, a beginning was made by clearing it of timber, brushwood, or stones (Joshua 17:18, Isaiah 5:2). ...
(a) Ploughing began immediately after the ‘early rain’ had softened the ground, i. That is the common practice in modern times where there is a rocky bottom and only a sparse covering of Earth. The same implement was employed for breaking up large clods of Earth (Isaiah 28:24, Hosea 10:11), but whether the reference includes the clods upturned by the plough, or merely those occurring in ‘stony ground,’ is not quite certain. From Joshua 2:6 we learn that flax was grown. ...
(d) The sowing season began in the Early days of October. The ‘early rain’ (מורָה) of the Bible is that of October, which precedes ploughing and sowing: the ‘latter rain’ (מַלִקוֹשׁ) denotes the refreshing showers that fall in March and April, and give much-needed moisture to the growing crops. —Barley harvest (2 Samuel 21:9) began in April or May, according as the district was Early or late; wheat and spelt were ripe a few weeks after (Exodus 9:31-32). The latter method was followed both in Palestine and in Egypt, and is so still; but the use of the sickle goes back to very Early times, as the excavations at Tell el-Hesy have shown. Ordinarily the stalks were cut about a foot beneath the Ear, but in some instances even higher (Job 24:24). —The winnowed grain still contained an admixture of small stones and particles of clay, stubble, and unbruised Ears, and also of smaller poisonous seeds such as tares, and so stood in need of yet further cleansing. The mesh was wide enough to allow the separated grains to pass through, but retained the unthreshed Ears, which were cast again on the threshing-floor. The grain stored in these magazines will remain good for years
Isaiah - His call to the full exercise of the prophetic office (Isaiah 6:1) was in the same year that king Uzziah died, probably before his death, 754 B. ...
(1) Isaiah 1-6, are all that were written for the church universal of the prophecies of the first 20 years of his ministry. God had given Judah abundant prosperity during Uzziah's reign of 52 years, that His goodness might lead the people to loving obedience, just as in northern Israel He had restored prosperity daring the brilliant reign of Jeroboam II with the same gracious design. ...
(3) Isaiah 10:5 - Isaiah 12 to the first 15 years of Hezekiah's reign probably. ...
(6) Isaiah 28-33 concern Ephraim's overthrow, Judah's impious folly, the danger of the league with Egypt, their straits and deliverance from Assyria; Isaiah 28 before the sixth year of Hezekiah, when Israel fell; the rest before his 14th year of reign. Thus, the historical section, midway between the Earlier and later parts of Isaiah's book, forms the connecting link spiritually and historically between the two; it closes the one epoch, and introduces the other, so combining all Isaiah's prophecies in one unity. The mellowness of tone in the second part implies that it was the ripe fruit of his old age, some time after the beginning of Hezekiah's last 15 years. The third, the coming glory of God's kingdom on Earth, along with judgments on the ungodly. ...
Messiah appears as Prophet (Isaiah 42:4), as Priest (Isaiah 53), as King (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 52:15). ) Shearjashub, "the remnant shall return," and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, "speeding to the spoil he hasteth to the prey," intimate the two chief points of his prophecies, Jehovah's judgments on the world yet His mercy to the elect. " That Isaiah served Hezekiah appears implied in 2 Chronicles 32:32. "...
The "Shiloh " ("tranquilizer") of Genesis 49:10 appears in Isaiah as "the Prince of peace" (Isaiah 9:6). His royal priesthood, Isaiah His suffering priesthood; this last, especially in the latter portion, addressed to the faithful elect, whereas in the former part, addressed to the whole people, he dwells on Messiah's glory, the antidote to the fears of the people and the pledge to assure them that the kingdom of God, represented by Judah, would not be overwhelmed by Syria, Israel, and Assyria; so that they should trust wholly in Him and not in Egypt. The frequent alliteration of like sounds in Isaiah 25-27, effectively realizes to the Ear, as well as the eye and the understanding, the deeply moving finale. His elegiac power appears in Isaiah 15-16, concerning Moab
Collection - At a very Early stage in the history of the Christian Church the consciousness of its members expressed itself in voluntary efforts to ameliorate the condition of the poor and destitute (Acts 4:32; Acts 6:1). Its apparently Early abandonment leads to the conclusion that its promoters soon realized that a permanent settlement of social evils could never be arrived at by practical communism. As we shall see, other and more powerful causes were at work; but, even if we minimize the historical value of the Early chapters of Acts, enough remains to prove that this Earliest and most self-sacrificing attempt of Christian men to realize their obligation to their poor brethren contributed to, rather than allayed, the evil it sought to destroy. Another cause for a poverty so acute and wide-spread may well have been the general belief in the nearness of the Parousia which threatened the ordinary daily business of Christian men (2 Corinthians 9:1-5,; cf. It also appears in a compound form in Jewish literature (κατʼ ἀνδρολογεῖον, 2 Maccabees 12:43) where the question of the collection of money-supplies is alluded to. The instructions sent by letter to the Corinthians are no doubt a brief epitome of those delivered to the Galatian Christians (οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιήσατε), and include details as to the careful and systematic Ear-marking by each Christian believer of his personal subscription ‘on every first day of the week’ (κατὰ μίαν σαββάτον). ...
The relief-fund, the Earliest attempt to organize and perpetuate Christian fellowship, was not only a failure in itself, but must soon have disappeared in these social upheavals. It was probably Early in a. Their response to the appeal of Titus, who was the original deputed organizer of the Corinthian collection, was prompt and willing (τὸ θέλειν); and yet, in spite of the fact that they had so Early (προενήρξασθε ἀπὸ πέρυσι, 2 Corinthians 8:10) given their assent to his wishes, they seem to have repented soon of their promised support and to have accused St. The disingenuous nature of their charges appears again and again in his vigorous self-defence (see his words, ἠδικήσαμεν, ἐφθείραμεν, ἐπλεονεκτήσαμεν, 2 Corinthians 7:2). If we are to judge by his silence and the solemn warning in his Epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 6:7), the scheme would appear to have been only a partial success or even to have fallen through. As Early as the latter part of a. Again, as the time of his journey to Jerusalem drew near, confidence in a not unworthy response by the Corinthian Church seems to have been restored (see his παρρησία, καύχησις, 2 Corinthians 7:4; περισσεύετε, 2 Corinthians 8:7; προθυμία, 2 Corinthians 8:11; τὴν οὖν ἔνδειξιν τῆς ἀγάπης ὑμῶν, 2 Corinthians 8:24; cf. It is pleasant to learn that the unsavoury bickerings in Corinth were forgotten when, during that winter’s sojourn there, St. -In addition to the works mentioned throughout the article , see Conybeare-Howson, The Life and Epistles of St
Achan - The looms of Babylonia were already famous over all the eastern world, and their rich and beautiful textures went far and near, and were warmly welcomed wherever the commercial caravans of that day carried them. Every single soldier in all Israel Had heard Joshua's proclamation ahout Jericho; both what his men were to do till the walls fell, and how they were to demean themselves after the city had been given of God into their hands. But war is war; and the best of commanders cannot make war a silken work, nor can he hold down the devil in the hearts of all his men. In the hearts of many of them he may, if he first does that in his own heart; but scarcely in the hearts of them all. Has he lost his way? Has he been half dead, and has he not heard the rally of the trumpet? He hides, he listens, he looks through the darkness, he disappears into the darkness. For, what is the fall of Jericho to them in that tent when it has cost them the life of their husband, their father, and their master? When the door of that tent is suddenly lifted, and the face of a corpse comes in, takes a spade, and buries a strange burden in the Earth in the midst of the astounded tent. But-...
Methought I heard a voice cry, Sleep co more!Macbeth doth murder sleep, the innocent sleep!And still it cried, Macbeth doth murder sleep!So the Lord was with Joshua; and his fame was noised throughout the whole country. But the men of Israel fled before the men of Ai, wherefore the hearts of the people melted and became as water. And Joshua rose up Early in the morning, and brought Israel by their tribes, and the tribe of Judah was taken; and he brought the family of Judah, and he took the family of Zarhites; and he brought the family of the Zarhites, man by man, and Zabdi was taken; and he brought his household, man by man, and Achan of the tribe of Judah was taken. And Achan answered Joshua, and said, Indeed, I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done: When I saw among the spoil a goodly Babylonish garment, and two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight, then I coveted them, and took them; and, behold, they are hid in the Earth in the midst of my tent, and the silver under it And all Israel raised over him a great heap of stones to this day. ...
Everybody who reads the best books will have long had by heart Thomas a Kempis's famous description of the successive steps of a successful temptation. A strange sweetness from that picture is then let down drop by drop into the heart; and then that secret sweetness soon secures the consent of the whole soul, and the thing is done. He stood in between it and the searchers. It was at Adam and Eve's eyes that the devil came into man's heart at first. In his despair to get the devil out of his heart Job swore a solemn oath and made a holy covenant with his eyes. Miss Rossetti is writing to young ladies, it is true; but what she says to them it will do us all good to hear. 'True,' says that fine writer, 'all our lives long we shall be bound to refrain our soul, and to keep it low; but what then? For the books we now forbear to read, we shall one day be endued with wisdom and knowledge. But these things are not spoken for you, but for those who have sold and cut off both eye and Ear and hand and foot and life itself, if all that will only carry them one single step nearer to their salvation. ...
So Joshua rose Early in the morning,-Joshua, like every good soldier, was an Early riser,-and he brought all Israel by their tribes, and their families, and their households, that the Lord Himself might make inquisition, and might put His finger upon the marked man. Look how the hearts of those fathers and mothers who have sons in the army beat as if it were the last trump! Did you ever spend a night like that in Achan's tent? A friend of mine once slept in a room in a hotel in Glasgow through the wall from a man who made him think sometimes that a madman had got into the house. Groanings that cannot be uttered to you were heard by all Achan's neighbours all that night. Every son has his father's grey hairs and his mother's anxious heart in his hands, and no possible power can alter that
Esau - Jacob, his brother, had many faults, but Jacob inherited the blessing because after all is said he had eyes and a heart for the unseen and the spiritual. His Ear never slept. He was the pride of all the encampment as he came home at night with his traps, and his snares, and his bows, and his arrows, and laden to the Earth with venison for his father's supper. And Esau said, Behold, I am at the point to die; and what profit shall this birthright do to me? And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and he sware unto him; and he sold his birthright unto Jacob. He who sells his birthright, sells it many times in his heart before he takes it so openly as that to the market. No man, and no woman, falls in that fatal way without having prepared their fall for themselves in their hearts. It had for a long time back been marrow to Jacob's bones to hear Esau jesting so openly about his birthright over his venison and his wine; jesting and being jested about the covenant blessing. Take it, and let me hear no more about it. Esau, alas! was all the time himself a true Canaanite at heart. A man's choice in his marriage, more than anything else in this life, makes it manifest what that man is, and where his heart is. Esau had hunted for years with the brothers of Judith and Bashemath. A child is born and baptized in a God-fearing house; and yet, by some fatality, or what shall we call it, he grows up as much outside the best life of his father's house as Esau all his days was outside the best life of Isaac's house. Years pass on till Esau sets up an openly heathen household in defiance of father and mother and all, which is ever after a grief of mind to Isaac and Rebekah. ...
What with the purpose of God according to election, and that purpose communicated to Rebekah when she went to inquire of the Lord; what with Isaac's love for Esau because he did eat of his venison; what with Rebekah's retaliatory love for Jacob; what with Esau's increasing levity and profanity, and Jacob's increasing subtlety; what with Esau's defiant Canaanite marriage; and now, to crown all, Isaac's old age, blindness, and fast-approaching end-what with all that, that was as unhappy a house as was at that moment on the face of this unhappy Earth. So full is that house, covenant promises and all, of guilty secrets, guilty memories, guilty wrongs, guilty remorses, guilty intentions, and guilty hopes and fears. It has often been pointed out what a mercy it is that God keeps our own future, and the future of our families, to Himself; and does not burden, and entangle, and tempt us with a knowledge that we are not able to bear. It would take a Shakespeare, as deep in grace as in nature, to put upon the stage that hell upon Earth that opened its mouth day and night in Isaac's covenant tent. But we have all Esau's profane mind and hard heart in us also. And, if any one would but teach us; if any great writer or great preacher, if any wise father or loving mother could and would but take us Early in hand, and tell us, and let us see, that all this life is not to make what is called money, or to attain what is called success, or to fill our belly with what is called pleasure, but that God Himself has set us here so to live, and so to choose, and so to act as to put off every day this profane mind, and to put on a sacred, a spiritual, a divine, a heavenly mind-if any one with authority and with influence would but tell and teach us that! For, like Esau, to begin with, we have no imagination. Before we are out of our boyhood we are become vain in our imaginations, and our foolish hearts are darkened, and we worship and serve the creature more than the Creator. That was Esau's Early history; and that is the Early and life-long history of multitudes among ourselves. They have neither time nor taste for anything that pertains to the mind or the heart. Put off the wood and the Earth, put off the insensibility and the profanity that are still in you all, my brethren. And put on mind, and heart, and understanding, and consideration, and imagination. Only, lay this to heart with all holy fear, that there is insensibility, and stupidity, and profanity enough in you by nature, and up to this day, to make you, amid all your covenant surroundings, a reprobate of a far worse kind than ever Esau was, unless, with tears, you seek a place of repentance. And it will take all your tears, and all your time, and all the repentance, and all the remission of sins, that Christ can give you out of His place of exaltation, to enable you to escape his end at last who ate and drank, and despised his birthright. I have not lived to grey hairs in a city, and been a minister of city families, and city young men, without learning things about birthrights and their sale and their redemption too-things that cannot be told on the housetop
Letters - The Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Phenicians, the Persians, the Indians, have all laid claim to the honour of it; and each has named its inventor among the remote, and probably fabulous, personages that figure in the Earlier ages of their history. It is a curious fact, that in our day a Cherokee chief has actually invented an alphabet, and that in the process he commenced with a pictorial representation of animals which uttered sounds somewhat like those of his own tongue; which thought seems not to have entered into the picture writing of the ancients, whose delineations spoke wholly to the eye, and not at all to the Ear. Certain it is that we can prove from the Scriptures that literal writing was in use at an Earlier period than can be assigned to any picture writing whatever. Writing and reading were familiar to Moses and the Israelites when the law was given, and must have long previously existed among them, and, probably, among the Egyptians of the same age too; which is much Earlier than any of those monuments bearing hieroglyphical characters reach. We have given sufficient reason to conclude that Job lived at an Earlier period still, and as he expresses a wish that his words should be written in a book, and engraven on the rock, the knowledge of reading as well as writing must have been pretty general in his country, or the book and the inscription could not have been a testimony of his faith and hope to his countrymen, as he passionately desired it to be. Here, too, it is to be observed, that in the Early Mosaic history we have not the least intimation of writing by pictures or symbols, nor any that the art of writing had been revealed from heaven in the days of Moses, preparatory to the giving of a written law and the introduction of inspired books for the religious instruction of the people. ...
It may, indeed, be asked, How then is it that in other nations we can so accurately trace the progress from the picture to the symbol, and thence on to the alphabet; as for instance in Egypt? We answer, that if this were allowed, and it might be, and probably was, a part of the divine procedure with reference to the preservation of the true religion, that the knowledge of letters should be Early given to the Abrahamic family, or, at least, preserved among them, while many others of the more dispersed branches of the human race becoming barbarous, as stated under the article Language, might lose it; because picture writing was easily convertible to idolatrous purposes, and in reality was greatly encouraged from that source. The opinion of this learned prelate was, that the primitive mode of writing among the Egyptians was by figurative delineations or hieroglyphics; that this becoming too tedious and voluminous, by degrees they perfected another character, which he calls the running-hand of hieroglyphics, resembling the Chinese characters; which being at first formed only by the outlines of figures, became at length a kind of marks; and at last led to the compendious use of letters by an alphabet. Whether the Early Egyptians wrote hieroglyphics at all, no monuments yet discovered are so ancient as to prove; since all such characters now known must have been written subsequently to the advancement of the kingdom into great power, and after considerable progress had been made in architecture and other arts. In these Early ages, "the position of mankind after the flood," he observes, "was such as to preclude the possibility of supposing that they had many ideas and many wants; therefore we may reasonably conclude, that their language consisted of words only which were intended to express the things most necessary to life, and consequently contained a small number of words. As a language it is indeed peculiar, as being wholly monosyllabic; and we must be better acquainted with the Early circumstances of that people before we can account for either
Poetry of the Hebrews - From the Earliest times music and poetry were cultivated among the Hebrews. In the first member of the period a sentiment is expressed; and in the second member the same sentiment is amplified, or is repeated in different terms, or sometimes contrasted with its opposite; but in such a manner, that the same structure, and nearly the same number of words, is preserved. Sing unto the Lord, all the Earth. ...
He is to be feared above all the gods. " ...
It is owing in a great measure to this form of composition, that our version, though in prose, retains so much of a poetical cast: for, the version being strictly word for word after the original, the form and order of the original sentence are preserved; which, by this artificial structure, this regular alternation and correspondence of parts, makes the Ear sensible of a departure from the common style and tone of prose. The origin of this form of poetical composition among the Hebrews is clearly to be deduced from the manner in which their sacred hymns were wont to be sung. When, for instance, one band began the hymn thus: "The Lord reigneth, let the Earth rejoice;" the chorus, or semi-chorus, took up the corresponding versicle, "Let the multitude of the isles be glad thereof. After the introduction to the Psalm, in the two first verses, when the procession begins to ascend the sacred mount, the question is put, as by a semi-chorus, "Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord, and who shall stand in his holy place?" The response is made by the full chorus with the greatest dignity: "He that hath clean hands and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul to vanity, nor sworn deceitfully. But the mode became familiar to their Ears, and carried with it a certain solemn majesty of style, particularly suited to sacred subjects. "His countenance is as Lebanon," says Solomon, speaking of the dignity of a man's appearance; but when he describes female beauty, "Thine head is like Mount Carmel,"...
Song of Solomon 5:15 ; Song of Solomon 7:5 . Earthquakes were not unfrequent; and the tempests of hail, thunder, and lightning, in Judea and Arabia, accompanied with whirlwinds and darkness, far exceed any thing of that sort which happens in more temperate regions. Isaiah 24:20 , describes with great majesty, the Earth, "reeling to and fro like a drunkard, and removed like a cottage. " And those circumstances of terror, with which an appearance of the Almighty is described, in Psalms 18, when his pavilion round about him was darkness: when hail stones and coals of fire were his voice; and when, at his rebuke, the channels of the waters are said to be seen, and the foundations of the hills discovered; though there may be some reference, as Dr. In this respect they have an advantage over the Greek and Roman authors; whose comparisons, by the length to which they are extended, sometimes interrupt the narration too much, and carry too visible marks of study and labour; whereas, in the Hebrew poets, they appear more like the glowings of a lively fancy, just glancing aside to some resembling object, and presently returning to its track. Such is the following fine comparison, introduced to describe the happy influence of good government upon a people, in what are called the last words of David: "He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God; and he shall be as the light of the morning when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the Earth, by clear shining after rain," 2 Samuel 23:3 . On great occasions they animate every part of nature, especially when any appearance or operation of the Almighty is concerned. Destruction and death say, We have heard the fame thereof with our Ears. It is extremely different from that regular correct expression to which our Ears are accustomed in modern poetry. From these instances it clearly appears, that there are contained in the Holy Scriptures full exemplifications of several of the chief kinds of poetical writing
Thessalonians Epistles to the - Subsequently the Jews, aided by the rabble*
(4) Finally, they must remember their duty of obedience to those in authority and of mutual help and forbearance to each other. Peculiar spiritual gifts are to be neither discouraged nor over-estimated: that which is good must be held fast; all that bears the image of evil must be rejected (1 Thessalonians 5:12-22). God gave the apostles their message (1 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Thessalonians 2:13), and His inward power moved their hearers to accept it (1 Thessalonians 2:13, 2 Thessalonians 2:13), so that their life is now lived in His very presence (ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θεοῦ, 1 Thessalonians 1:3). -On Earth Christ died and rose again (1 Thessalonians 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 4:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:10). They select only those points which bear directly on the practical question before them at the moment
Food - The most primitive method of using corn was to pluck the ‘fresh Ears’ ( Leviticus 23:14 RV [2] ) were prepared in Early times by means of the primitive rubbing-stones, which the excavations show to have long survived the introduction of the quern or hand-mill (for references to illustrations of both, see Mill). From Isaiah 28:4 , Jeremiah 24:2 it appears that the ‘first ripe fig,’ i. the Early fig which appears on last year’s wood, was regarded as a special delicacy. The bulk of the year’s fruit was dried for use out of the season, as was the case also among the Greeks and Romans, by whom dried figs were the most extensively used of all fruits. ]'>[9] , and that without any justification, as the marginal alternative of ‘honey,’ 2 Chronicles 31:5 ; yet Joel includes ‘the palm tree’ in his list of fruit-trees ( 2 Chronicles 1:12 ), and from the Mishna we learn that dates, like the fruits already discussed, were not only eaten as they came from the palm, but were dried in clusters and also pressed into cakes for convenience of transport. ’...
The flesh of the goat , and especially of the’ kid of the goats,’ was more relished by the Hebrews than by the present inhabitants of Palestine, by whom the goat is reared chiefly for its milk. where a market must have been held at or near the Fish-gate ( Nehemiah 3:3 etc. The Early domestication of these birds is shown by the reference to the ‘windows’ of the dovecots in Isaiah 60:8 , while the Mishna has much to say regarding various breeds of domestic pigeons, their ‘towers,’ feeding, etc. birds) which appeared on Nehemiah’s table ( Nehemiah 5:18 ). Ostrich eggs have recently been found in an Early grave at Gezer ( PEFSt
The intimate association in Early times between flesh-food and sacrifice explains the abhorrence of the Hebrew for all food prepared by the heathen, as illustrated by Daniel (Daniel 1:8 ), Judas Maccabæus ( 2Ma 5:27 ), Josephus ( Vita 3), and their associates (cf. Under the simpler conditions of Early times the exclusive source of supply was the householder’s own herd ( Genesis 18:7 ) or flock ( Genesis 27:9 ), his vineyard and oliveyard or his ‘garden of herbs’ ( 1 Kings 21:2 ). ), when we hear of the ‘fish-gate’ ( Nehemiah 3:3 ) and the ‘sheep gate’ ( Nehemiah 3:1 ), so named, doubtless, from their respective markets. In the Early morning especially, the streets near the city gates on the north and west, which led to the country, were doubtless then, as now, transformed into market-places, lined with men and women offering for sale the produce of their farms and gardens
Metaphor - ’ ‘According to my view,’ says König, ‘there is still an essential difference in method of expression when the sphere of existence of both ideas that appear in the subject and predicate is the same, and when it is different. the comparison of a man to a lion, bear, panther, dog or swine, serpent, eagle, raven, etc. inanimate objects are bidden hearken to the word of God, as in Isaiah 1:2, ‘Hear, O heavens, and give Ear, O Earth. Early Christian literature to a. Acts 2:37 : ‘they were pricked in their heart’ (κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν; cf. Acts 5:33, Acts 7:54 : ‘were cut to the heart’ (the Gr. Acts 7:51 : ‘Ye stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and Ears’ (cf. The same idea appears again in κατευθύναι τὴν ὁδὸν ἡμῶν, ‘direct our way’ (1 Thessalonians 3:11; cf. Philippians 1:30 : ‘having the same conflict which ye saw in me and now hear to be in me. 1 Thessalonians 2:2, Hebrews 10:32): the words ἄθλησις, ἀθλεῖν, ‘contest,’ ‘to take part in a contest,’ are obviously borrowed from the athletic ground; likewise ἀγών, ‘conflict,’ has not our sense of ‘agony’ at all but was simply used of the games, though the word appears metaphorically in Thuc. 30: ἐλθέ ἤδη ἐπὶ τὸν ἀγῶνα, δεῖξον ἡμῖν τί ἔμαθες, πῶς ἤθλησας; ‘Come now to the conflict, show us what thou hast learned, how thou hast contested’). According to Jewish tradition, Moses saw in a clear mirror but all the prophets in a dark one. Paul and the Early Church, 1913, p. … But when anybody heard the Greek word λύτρον, “ransom,” in the first century, it was natural for him to think of the purchase-money for manumitting slaves’ (p. We must now pass to some less clear aspects of his figurative language, and this will take us rather deeper into his theology. ‘The reader who passes from the Early traditions of the life of Jesus to the letters of the apostle Paul feels himself at once in another atmosphere. This view of the Apostle’s theology, though not always expressed so well or so clearly, is at the back of the minds of many modern critics of St. Paul merely drew on contemporary philosophy and speculation when searching for metaphorical expressions wherein to convey the spiritual truths he so Earnestly desired to emphasize?...
A crucial passage is Romans 8:38 : ‘For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us …’ ‘St. (The close connexion between Sin and Death had appeared before St. But (1) it seems clear from elsewhere that St. Lake, Earlier Epp
Passover - In Numbers 9:1-14 God repeats the command for the Passover, in the second year after the Exodus; those disqualified in the first month were to keep it in the second month. This was needed as the Passover had only once been kept in the wilderness (Numbers 9), and for 38 years had been intermitted. the head of each family selected a lamb or a kid, a male of the first year without blemish, if his family were too small to consume it, he joined his neighbor. Subsequently (Leviticus 23:10-14) God directed an omer or sheaf of firstfruits (barley, first ripe, Acts 12:3-43), a lamb of the first year as a burnt offering, with meat offerings, on the morrow after the sabbath (i. (But (See SABBATICAL YEAR. Again these typify further "Christ the firstfruits of them that slept"; also the Spirit, the firstfruits in the believer and Earnest of the coming full redemption, namely, of the body (Romans 8:23); also Israel, the firstfruit of the church (Romans 11:16; Revelation 14:4), and elect believers (James 1:18). "The barley was smitten, for the barley was in the Ear . By "grain" the barley harvest is meant: had Moses written "wheat" it would have been impossible to reconcile him with himself; but as "corn" means here barley, all is clear, seven weeks still remaining until wheat harvest, when at Pentecost or the feast of weeks the firstfruit loaves were offered (Blunt, Undesigned Coincidences, 1). The subsequent command to burn the fat on the altar, and that the pure alone should eat (Numbers 9:5-10; Numbers 18:11), and that the males alone should appear (Exodus 23:17; Deuteronomy 16:16), was unknown at the first celebration; nor was the Hallel sung as afterward (Isaiah 30:29); nor were there days of holy convocation; nor were the lambs slain at a consecrated place (Deuteronomy 16:2-7). Hezekiah prayed for the unpurified partakers: "the good Jehovah pardon every one that prepareth his heart to seek God . The Pesachim (7:1) say a wooden (pomegranate) spit was thrust lengthwise through the lamb; Justin Martyr says (Trypho, 40) another spit was put crosswise, to which the front feet were attached; so do the modern Samaritans in roasting the Passover lamb; type of the cross, it was roasted thoroughly in an Earthen beehive-shaped oven, but not touching the sides, that the roasting might be wholly by fire (Exodus 12:9; 2 Chronicles 35:6-13). ...
The rabbis say that every corner was searched for leaven in the evening before the 14th Nisan. The Hallel consisted of Psalm 113; 114, sung in the Early part of the Passover, before the lamb was carved and eaten; Psalm 115-118, after the fourth cup (the greater Hallel sung at times was Psalm 120-138). in the Early part of the Passover meal) Jesus gave a proof of His love for His own to the end. Had the Passover supper not been until that evening (John 18:28) they might have been purified in good time for it by ablution; but as the feast had begun, and they were about to eat the chagigah (or the Passover lamb itself, which they ought to have eaten in the Early part of the night), they could not. They themselves stated as their reason for not seizing Him during the Passover, not its sanctity, but the fear of an uproar among the assembled multitudes (Matthew 26:5). The Passover was the yearly thank offering of the family for the nation's constitution by God through the deliverance from Egypt, the type of the church's constitution by a coming greater deliverance
Peter - " Simon his original name means "hearer"; by it he is designated in Christ's Early ministry and between Christ's death and resurrection. In Acts 4:13, where Luke writes the Jewish council regarded him and John as "unlearned and ignorant," the meaning is not absolutely so, but in respect to professional rabbinical training "lairs," "ignorant" of the deeper sense which the scribes imagined they found in Scripture. As "Simon" he was but an hearer; as Peter or Cephas he became an apostle and so a foundation stone of the church, by union to the one only Foundation Rock (Mark 14:68-692; 1 Corinthians 3:11). "Fear not, henceforth thou shalt catch to save alive (zoogroon ) men," was Jesus' explanation of the typical meaning of the miracle. " Peter by his believing confession identified himself with Christ the true Rock (1 Corinthians 3:11; Isaiah 28:16; Ephesians 2:20), and so received the name; just as Joshua bears the name meaning "Jehovah Saviour", because typifying His person and offices. ...
Peter, Andrew, James, and John heard the solemn discourse (on the second advent (Matthew 24). Animal courage Peter showed no small amount of, in cutting off Malthus' Ear in the face of a Reman band; moral courage he was deficient in. Transpose the first and second denials in John; then the first took place at the fire (Matthew 26:69; 1618420706_97; Luke 22:56; John 18:25), caused by the fixed recognition of the maid who admitted Peter (Luke 22:56); the second took place at the door leading out of the court, where he had withdrawn in fear (Matthew 26:71; 1618420706_28; Luke 22:58; John 18:17); the third took place in the court an hour after (Luke 22:59), before several witnesses who argued from his Galilean accent and speech, near enough for Jesus to cast that look on Peter which pierced his heart so that he went out and wept bitterly. )...
On the resurrection morning Peter and John ran to the tomb; John outran Peter (being the younger man; John 21:18 implies Peter was then past his prime, also the many years by which John outlived Peter imply the same), but Peter was first to enter. John did not venture to enter until Peter set the example; fear and reverence held him back, as in Matthew 14:26, but Peter was especially bold and fearless. To Peter first of the apostles Jesus appeared (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:5). His words before the high priest and council (Acts 4:19-20), "whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye, for we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard," and again Acts 5:29, evince him as the rock-man; and after having been beaten in spite of Gamaliel's warning, Peter's rejoicing with the other apostles at being counted worthy to suffer for Christ (Acts 5:41) accords with his precept (1 Peter 4:12-16; compare 1 Peter 2:24 with Acts 5:30 end). Three years later Paul visited Jerusalem in order to see Peter (Galatians 1:17-18; historeesai means "to become personally acquainted with as one important to know"; Acts 9:26). At the council of Jerusalem (Acts 15) Peter led the discussion, citing the case of Cornelius' party as deciding the question, for" God which knoweth the hearts bore them witness, giving them the Holy Spirit even as He did unto us, and put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith," "but we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they"; compare his epistles in undesigned coincidence (1 Peter 1:22; 2 Peter 1:9). ) The Jerusalem decree only recognized Gentiles as fellow Christians on light conditions, it did not admit them necessarily to social intercourse Though Peter and Paul rightly inferred the latter, yet their recognition of the ceremonial law (Acts 18:18-21; Acts 20:16; Acts 15:19) palliates Peter's conduct, if it were not for its inconsistency (through fear of the Judaizers) which is the point of Paul's reproof. Silvanus, also Paul's companion, was the bearer of Peter's epistle (1 Peter 5:12). All the authority of Acts and epistle to the Romans and 1 and 2 Peter is against Peter having been at Rome previous to Paul's first imprisonment, or during its two years' duration (otherwise he would have mentioned Peter in the epistles written from Rome, Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and Philippians), or during his second imprisonment when he wrote to Timothy. 42 and stayed twenty years is impossible, as those Scriptures never mention him. Ecclesiastes, 1) makes Peter bishop of Antioch, then to have preached in Pontus (from 1 Peter 1:1), then to have gone to Rome to refute Simon Magus (from Justin's story of a statue found at Rome to Semosanctus, the Sabine Hercules, which was confounded with Simon Magus), and to have been bishop there for 25 years (!) and to have been crucified with head downward, declaring himself unworthy to be crucified as his Lord, and buried in the Vatican near the triumphal way. 33) says that at his fellow Christians' solicitation he was fleeing from Rome at Early dawn, when he met the Lord, and at His feet asked "Lord, where goest Thou?" His reply "I go to be crucified afresh" turned Peter back to a joyful martyrdom. says Peter encouraged his wife to martyrdom, saying "remember, dear, our Lord
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - 430, which unanimously condemned the tenets of Nestorius, and the name of John of Antioch appears in the controversy. of Laodicea, Macarius, entreating him not to plunge the church into discord on account of a word to which the Christian Ear had become accustomed, and which was capable of being interpreted in his own sense. He made them known far and wide, in Cappadocia, Galatia, and through the East generally, accompanying them with Earnest appeals to the bishops and the orthodox everywhere to openly repudiate the grave errors they contained ( ib. John, who had already heard from count Irenaeus of the hasty decision of the council, refused to admit the deputation, and they complained that they were rudely treated by the guard whom Irenaeus had sent to do honour to and protect the Eastern bishops. of Milan, Aquileia, and Ravenna, and Rufus of Thessalonica, laying before them in Earnest terms the heretical character of Cyril's doctrines (Theod. After six audiences the emperor, weary of the fruitless strife, declared his final resolve. The old man was deeply grieved to hear the untoward result of their proceedings. For three years a bitter strife was maintained. John might not unreasonably fear a demand for his own deposition. It was time he should make it clear that he had no real sympathy with the errors of the heresiarch. to weary of so much indecision, and, to bring matters to a point, a document drawn up by Cyril and Paul was sent for John to sign (Cyril, Epp. Cyril testified his joy in the celebrated letter to John, commencing "Let the heavens rejoice, and let the Earth be glad" (Labbe, iii. Isidore of Pelusium and other adherents of Cyril expressed a fear that he had made too large concessions; while John had given great offence to many of his warmest supporters, who accused him of truckling to powerful advocates of a hollow peace to secure his position as bishop. During the next two years John sought to force the bishops of his patriarchate to accept the terms of peace. of Constantinople of the saintly Proclus, who, in the Early part of the Nestorian controversy, had preached the great sermon on the Theotokos (Socr. Cyril, suspecting that the union was more apparent than real and that some of the bishops who had verbally condemned Nestorius still in their hearts cherished his teaching, procured orders from the Imperial government that the bishops should severally and explicitly repudiate Nestorianism
Miracles - ...
Similarly, Abraham, David, and other Old Testament heroes never appear as miracle workers. Early Christian writers, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Origen, occasionally appeal to miracles in proof of Christianity; but state that their pagan opponents, admitting the facts, attributed them to magic; which accounts for the fewness of their references to miracles. The Early Christian apologists allege in support of Christianity:...
(1) the greatness, number, completeness, and publicity of the miracles;...
(2) the beneficial tendency of the doctrine;...
(3) the connection of the miracles with prophecy and the whole scheme of redemption from Adam to Christ. Many are childish, and palpably framed for superstitious believers, rather than as evidences capable of bearing critical scrutiny. The redemption of mankind from sin was typified, and its Earnest given, in the redemption of individuals from the ailments which are sin's consequences. Christ's "bearing our griefs and carrying our sorrows" in His own assumed manhood guaranteed His healing human sicknesses and infirmities. )...
Thus the first plague turning the Nile to blood answers to the natural phenomenon of the water becoming, before the rise, first green, then clear yellow about the 25th of June, and gradually ochre red through microscopic cryptogams and infusoria, at times smelling offensively (Exodus 7:17-21). They were such as men's senses can clearly judge of. Publicly wrought; two nations, Israel and Egypt, were affected by them, and above two million Israelites for 40 years witnessed them. ...
Another class is: His overawing men; twice turning out of the temple the sellers and moneychangers (Matthew 21:12; John 2:13); alone dud unarmed striking fear into the officers sent to take Him twice (John 7:45-46; John 18:6). " Love to man, unweariedly active, is as conspicuous in His miracles as power. His gestures, laying hands on the patient, anointing the blind eyes with clay, putting His finger into the deaf Ear and touching the dumb tongue, creating much bread out of little not out of nothing, condescending to use means though in themselves wholly inadequate, all are tokens of His identifying Himself with us men, signs of His person at once human and divine and of His redeeming and sympathizing work for us. The prophecies, the morality, the structure of the Bible, and Christianity's conquest of the Roman world and its public establishment about 300 years after the execution of its Founder as a malefactor, similarly confirm the miracles which attest to its divinity. The improbability of the Christian religion being established WITH miracles is not nearly so great as the improbability of its being established WITHOUT miracles. No miracles of Jesus' youth are mentioned; there is no description of His personal appearance, nor of His doings in the world of spirits; no miracles of the Virgin Mary: omissions sure to be supplied in a legendary story
Esther - He counted them at break of day,But when the sun set, where were they?'That Ahasuerus,' says an old Hebrew treatise called the Second Targum on Esther, 'whose counsels were perverse, and whose orders were not right: who commanded Queen Vashti to appear unveiled before him, but she would not appear. You may be sure that the devout old man had many thoughts in his heart that he could not get to the bottom of, as he stood by and watched his sister's child lifted up in a moment from her exile and poverty, and actually made the queen of the greatest empire then standing on the face of the Earth; and, what was to him still more full of faith, and hope, and love, the favourite queen of the absolute Earthly master of all Mordecai's brethren of the house of Israel both at home in Jerusalem, and still scattered abroad over the whole of the Persian empire. Diabolically wicked as our own hearts often are with jealousy and with revenge, at the same time, our hearts are so held down and covered over by religion and civilisation that we do not know ourselves. But what, exactly, was her opportunity? What was Esther's great opportunity that put her watchful uncle Mordecai into such sleepless anxiety lest she should either miss it, or betray it? Esther's splendid opportunity rose out of that extraordinary combination and concentration of circumstances in the very heart of which she had been so providentially placed. Till, between them, the children of Israel of that day were on the very point of being exterminated all over the land by a universal and prearranged assassination. What a long, and complex, and shining chain, link after link, till Mordecai fashioned its last link and bound it with his strong but tender hands upon both the imagination, and the conscience, and the heart of Esther in these noble words: 'Think not with thyself that thou shalt escape in the king's house, more than all the Jews. ...
The Book of Esther is surely a very clear prophecy and a very impressive parable of the plots, and the persecutions, and the politics of our own day. It is three hundred years of God's long-suffering since Bacon wrote his Holy War. Spurgeon, in the very spirit and power of Mordecai, has warned England that the God of all the Earth has raised her up to her supreme position among the nations of the Earth, not for her own aggrandisement, and power, and glory-but for the glory of God, and for the good of mankind. And, that there is no respect or immunity of nations, any more than of men, with the Judge of all the Earth. And that if England, for fear, or for favour, or for ease, or for herself only, flinches and fails God and man in the hour of her opportunity, deliverance will come somehow to the cause of God and man; and,-one holds back his tongue from saying it, and his pen from writing it-'Thou and thy father's house shall be destroyed. Your maid, and her sister, and her widowed mother, and her ill-doing brother, and her lover, all are your circle at present, and your opportunity is fast flitting by; and, because it is so near you every day, you do not discover it. Oh, Eugenia, full to the eyes of so many vain imaginations!...
You never heard of Eugenia, and Fervidus, and Clemens before, and do not know where to find them. What a magnificent and unparalleled opportunity-you dare not deny it-is yours, for your self-control, for the reducing of your pride, for the extermination of your temper, for your humility and your patience, for the forgiving of your injuries, and for hiding your hungry, broken, bleeding heart with God I And what more would you have? Yours is a circle with opportunities in it that an elect angel might well envy. What a genius has that fourth man for finding out for you the most corrupt places in your so corrupt and so deceitful heart. And so on, till there is nobody on Earth, or in hell, like you. There is no tongue to tell it in, and no Ear on Earth to hear it with. Have it on thy head, all shining with pearls out of thy seas of sorrow, to cast at thy Saviour's feet on that day. Even we who will never now fill it-unless it is with tears and prayers night and day-we see, when it is too late, the incomparable life it at one time held out to us, and now holds out to you. There is no circle anywhere under heaven for individual interest; for all kinds of influence, the most immediate and the most lasting; and for the ever-deepening discipline of your own mind, and heart, and life, like the evangelical pulpit
Egypt - Nor have we any clear information from Heathen writers, until the time of Cyrus, and his son Cambyses, when the line of Egyptian princes ceased in agreement with prophecies to that effect. Manetho, the Egyptian historian, has given a list of thirty dynasties, which, if successive, make a period of five thousand three hundred years to the time of Alexander, or three thousand two hundred and eighty-two years more than the real time, according to the Mosaic chronology. In the time of Moses we find Egypt renowned for learning; for he was instructed "in all its wisdom;" and it is one of the commendations of Solomon, at a later period, that he excelled in knowledge "all the wisdom of the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt. Of all this knowledge, good and evil, and of a monstrous system of idolatry, Egypt was the polluted fountain to the surrounding nations; but in that country itself it appears to have degenerated into the most absurd and debased forms. But the Earliest times had a purer faith. " This theology differs little from that of Moses, who says, "The Earth was without form, and void; darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Jowett has given a striking example of the extraordinary fertility of the soil of Egypt, which is alluded to in Genesis 41:47 : "The Earth brought forth by handfuls. Each stalk would have been an Ear. The architecture of the Early Egyptians, at least that of their cities and dwellings, was rude and simple: they could indeed boast of little in either external elegance or internal comfort, since Herodotus informs us that men and beasts lived together. Jowett, speaking of Tentyra, "built of unburnt brick, crumbling into ruins, and giving place to new habitations, have raised the Earth, in some parts, nearly to the level of the summit of the temple. It appears to be an unfounded notion, that the pyramids were built by the Israelites: they were, probably, Mr. Faber thinks, the work of the "Shepherds," or Cushite invaders, who, at an Early period, held possession of Egypt for two hundred and sixty years, and reduced the Egyptians to bondage, so that "a shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time. Jowett's "Researches," before referred to, will throw light upon this part of their history. It was he who discerned the local advantages of the spot on which the city bearing his name afterward stood, who projected the plan of the town, superintended its erection, endowed it with many privileges, and peopled it with colonies drawn from other places for the purpose, chiefly Greeks. Egypt, indeed, was about to see better days; and, during the reigns of the Ptolemies, enjoyed again, for nearly three hundred years, something of its former renown for learning and power. It formed, during this period, and before the rapid extension of the Roman empire toward the termination of these years, one of the only two ancient kingdoms which had survived the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Macedonian empires: the other was the Syrian, where the Seleucidae, another family of one of the successors of Alexander, reigned; who, having subdued Macedonia and Thrace, annexed them to the kingdom of Syria, and there remained out of the four kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander was divided these two only; distinguished, in the prophetic writings of Daniel, by the titles of the kings or kingdoms of the north and the south. " And the literal fulfilment of every prophecy affords as clear a demonstration as can possibly be given, that each and all of them are the dictates of inspiration. Egypt was the theme of many prophecies, which were fulfilled in ancient times; and it bears to the present day, as it has borne throughout many ages, every mark with which prophecy had stamped its destiny: "They shall be a base kingdom. Egypt became entirely subject to the Persians about three hundred and fifty years previous to the Christian aera. It was afterward subdued by the Macedonians, and was governed by the Ptolemies for the space of two hundred and ninety-four years; until, about B. A mode of government, the most singular and surprising that ever existed on Earth, was established and maintained. Every thing the traveller sees or hears reminds him he is in the country of slavery and tyranny. Yet such has been the state of Egypt above five hundred years. " After the lapse of two thousand and four hundred years from the date of this prophecy, a scoffer at religion, but an eye witness of the facts, thus describes the self-same spot: "In Egypt," says Volney, "there is no middle class, neither nobility, clergy, merchants, landholders
Physician - Our sources of knowledge of Greek medicine and physicians are (1) works of ancient physicians; (2) notices of Early writers concerning Greek medicine and physicians, as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Pausanias, and Galen; (3) various medical instruments in the great museums of Athens, Berlin, Paris, and London, such as knives, probes, needles, balsam cups; (4) inscriptions and papyri; (5) altars, temples, and caves; (6) images of gods and votive offerings. ...
Our Earliest account of Greek medicine and physicians is in the Homeric pcems. According to Homer and Hesiod, Asklepios was a Thessalian prince who had learned from Cheiron about drugs. Of these there were more than 300 at Athens, Cnidos, Cos (the ruins of which have been uncovered within the last few years), Delphi, Pergamos, Rhodes, and Trcezen. In an attitude of intense expectancy the sufferer slept in the abatons near the statue of Asklepios on a bed, or in the neighbourhood of the temple on a skin of the sacrificial victim, where, as he fell into a deep slumber, the divinity awaited him. ...
In addition to the priests and the gymnasts, there were Earlier Asklepiadae-hereditary physicians whose medical art was handed down from father to son. Anatomy was learned from oral and written tradition, from sacrifices and domestication of animals, injuries in the gymnasia, from bodies long exposed to the elements or to wild animals, and from dissection of wild animals. Women practised as midwives, when they were past the age of childbearing. ), founder of a gild at Crotona, appears to have studied the structure of the body and reproduction, but knew very little of surgery, advocated poultices and salves, inculcated dietetic and gymnastic practices, and advised a limited amount of meat but no fish or beans. He migrated from Crotona to aegina, where he was made medical officer with a salary of one talent (about £240) a year. He resolved all conditions into warm, cold, moist, and dry; held the doctrine of the four substances, fire, air, water, and Earth, to which he assigned a soul-hylozoism. He discovered the labyrinth of the Ear. ’ Of the writings attributed to him in the Corpus Hippocraticum, it seems impossible to decide which portions are genuine, and which belong to an Earlier or later period. They form, however, a tolerably compact body of writings, and for 2,000 years have turned attention away from speculation to observation, and thus have profoundly influenced the medical ideal. In his hands it was freed from theurgy and speculation, and placed on a secure empirical basis, not that of casual observation, but of taking account of all facts which have bearing on the case. He left forty-two histories of clinical cases, twenty-five of which cases issued fatally-a practice almost wholly neglected for 2,000 years until the 17th century. ...
The Hippokratic Oath is herewith given:...
‘I swear by Apollo, the physician, by Asklepios, by Hygeia, by Panakeia, and by all gods and goddesses, that I will fulfil religiously, according to the best of my power and judgment, the solemn vow which I now make. If during my attendance I happen to hear of anything that should not be revealed, I will keep it a profound secret. ), for seventeen years a prisoner at the Persian court of Artaxerxes Mnemon, showed a general interest in poisons, and wrote a book on hellebore. ...
Greek physicians and midwives made their appearance in Rome in the 3rd. , said that for 600 years Rome had been without physicians. Dioskurides of Anazarba near Tarsus in Cilicia, perhaps a contemporary of Pliny, simplified pharmacology, relieving it of all superstitious remedies, and wrote the first book on this subject, Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, in a. One learns from him what were the most approved methods of practice in this department of medicine
Persecution - The unlawfulness of persecution for conscience sake must appear plain to every one that possesses the least degree of thought or of feeling. " We know the origin of it to be from the prince of darkness, who began the dreadful practice in the first family on Earth, and who, more or less, has been carrying on the same work ever since, and that almost among all parties. Historians usually reckon ten general persecutions, the first of which was under the emperor Nero, thirty-one years after our Lord's ascension, when that emperor, having set fire to the city of Rome, threw the odium of that execrable action on the Christians. For this tragical spectacle Nero lent his own gardens; and exhibited at the same time the public diversions of the circus; sometimes driving a chariot in person, and sometimes standing as a spectator, while the shrieks of women burning to ashes supplied music for his Ears. The second general persecution was under Domitian, in the year 95, when 40, 000 were supposed to have suffered martyrdom. The third began in the third year of Trajan, in the year 100, and was carried on with great violence for several years. The fifth began in the year 127, under Severus, when great cruelties were committed. The tenth began in the nineteenth year of Dioclesian, 303. In this dreadful persecution, which lasted ten years, houses filled with Christians were set on fire, and whole droves were tied together with ropes, and thrown into the sea. A general council of the clergy was called: this was the famous council of Trent, which was held for near eighteen successive years, for the purpose of establishing popery in greater splendour, and preventing the reformation. Terrible persecutions were carried on in various parts of Germany, and even in Bohemia, which continued about thirty years, and the blood of the saints was said to flow like rivers of water. In HOLLAND, and in the other Low Countries, for many years the most amazing cruelties were exercised under the merciless and unrelenting hands of the Spaniards, to whom the inhabitants of that part of the world were then in subjection. After many cruelties had been exercised against the Protestants, there was a most violent persecution of them in the year 1572, in the reign of Charles IX. ...
A horrible scene of things, says Thuanus, when the very streets and passengers resounded with the noise of those that met together for murder and plunder; and groans of those who were dying, and the shrieks of such as were just going to be butchered, were everywhere heard; the bodies of the slain thrown out of the windows; the courts and chambers of the houses filled with them; the dead bodies of others dragged through the streets; their blood running through the channels in such plenty, that torrents seemed to empty themselves in the neighbouring river, in a word, an innumerable multitude of men, women with child, maidens, and children, were all involved in one common destruction; and the gates and entrances of the king's palace all besmeared with their blood. At Negreplisse, a town near Montaubon, they hung up Isaac Favin, a Protestant citizen of that place, by his arm-pits, and tormented him a whole night by pinching and tearing off his flesh with pincers. ...
They made a great fire round about a boy, twelve years old, who, with hands and eyes lifted up to heaven, cried out, "My God, help me!" and when they found the youth resolved to die rather than renounce his religion, they snatched him from the fire just as he was on the point of being burnt. The remains of this excellent man were accordingly dug out of the grave, where they had lain undisturbed four-and-forty years. Sixty-seven persons were this year, A. ...
In the following year, 1556, eighty-five persons were burnt. Women suffered; and one, in the flames, which burst her womb, being near her time of delivery, a child fell from her into the fire, which being snatched out by some of the observers more humane that the rest, the magistrate ordered the babe to be again thrown into the fire, and burnt. Thus even the unborn child was burnt for heresy! O God, what is human nature when left to itself! Alas! dispositions ferocious as infernal then reign, and usurp the heart of man! The queen erected a commission court, which was followed by the destruction of near eighty more. He was whipped, and then placed in the pillory; one of his Ears cut off, one side of his nose slit; branded on the cheek with a red hot iron, with the letters S. ...
A fortnight afterwards, his sores being yet uncured, he had the other Ear cut off, the other side of his nose slit, and the other cheek branded. About four years afterwards, William Prynn, a barrister, for a book he wrote against the sports on the Lord's day, was deprived from practising at Lincoln's Inn, degraded from his degree at Oxford, set in the pillory, had his Ears cut off, imprisoned for life, and fined five thousand pounds. In 1645 an ordinance was published, subjecting all who preached or wrote against the Presbyterian directory for public worship to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds; and imprisonment for a year, for the third offence, in using the episcopal book of common prayer, even in a private family. In the following year the Presbyterians applied to Parliament, pressing them to enforce uniformity in religion, and to extirpate popery, prelacy, heresy, schism, &c. With some the execrable villians made themselves sport, trying who could hack the deepest into an Englishman's flesh: wives and young virgins abused in the presence of their nearest relations; nay, they taught their children to strip and kill the children of the English, and dash out their brains against the stones. Scotland for many years together has been the scene of cruelty and blood-shed, till it was delivered by the monarch at the revolution. ...
A worst slaughter, if possible, was made among the natives of Spanish America, where fifteen millions are said to have been sacrificed to the genius of popery in about forty years. Well, therefore, might the inspired penman say, that at mystic Babylon's destruction, 'was found in her the blood of prophets, of saints, and of all that was slain upon the Earth, ' Revelation 18:24 . To conclude this article, Who can peruse the account here given without feeling the most painful emotions, and dropping a tear over the madness and depravity of mankind? Does it not show us what human beings are capable of when influenced by superstition, bigotry, and prejudice? ...
Have not these baneful principles metamorphosed men into infernals; and entirely extinguished all the feelings of humanity, the dictates of conscience, and the voice of reason? Alas! what has sin done to make mankind such curses to one another? Merciful God! by they great power suppress this worst of all evils, and let truth and love, meekness and forbearance universally prevail! Limborch's Introduction to his History of the Inquisition; Memoirs of the Persecutions of the Protestants in France by Lewis De Enarolles; Comber's History of the Parisian Massacre of St
Galatia - , and four years later his dominions were bestowed by Mark Antony on Amyntas, the Roman client-king of Pisidia, who had formerly been the secretary of Deiotarus. of Early Christian Lit. ‘In spite of their sojourn of several hundred years in Asia Minor, a deep gulf still separated these Occidentals from the Asiatics’ (Mommsen, op. the far-travelled Jerome found at Ancyra, alongside of Greek, a Celtic dialect differing little from what he had heard in Trèves (Preface to Commentary on Galatians). For nearly a century Galatia was the eastern frontier province, and every fresh annexation to it marked the progress of the Empire in that direction. 1 Corinthians 16:1) to be sought in the comparatively small district occupied by the Gauls, about Ancyra, Pessinus, and Tavium, or in the great Roman province of Galatia, which included Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe? In the absence of definite information, we have to make probability our guide, and to the present writer the balance of evidence appears to favour the South Galatian hypothesis. It is difficult, however, to believe that the mission in which the Apostle was welcomed ‘as an angel from heaven, as Christ Jesus’ (Galatians 4:14), and the thrilling experiences which must have filled his mind and heart at the moment when he joined St. ); but the more the sphere of operations is thus limited, the more difficult does it become to believe that ‘the churches of Galatia’ are to be sought exclusively in this small and hypothetical mission-field, while the great and flourishing churches of South Galatia are heard of no more. ‘Ancyra and the Bithynian city Juliopolis (which was attached to Galatia about 297) are the only Galatian bishoprics mentioned Earlier than 325: they alone appear at the Ancyran Council held about 314’ (Ramsay, Hist. 11), and Theodoret (in loco) certainly understand that Gaul is meant; and the Early Christian inhabitants of that country naturally liked to believe that their Church had been founded by an apostolic emissary, if not by an apostle. ) ‘heard of the fame of the Romans, that they are valiant men. A reference to Spain in the next verse might suggest European Gauls, but on the whole it is much more likely that reports of Manlius’s victories over the Celtic invaders of Asia Minor had come to the Ear of the Jewish leader
Hebrews Epistle to the - -Of all the NT writings which bear the name ‘Epistle,’ that which is commonly called the Epistle to the Hebrews presents the nearest approximation to the form of an ordered treatise. His well-balanced periods appeal to the Ear as well as to the intellect, and his argument is arranged with extreme care. ...
The readers for whom the Epistle was intended were Christians (Hebrews 2:3-4), who at the first had shown whole-hearted devotion to the faith (Hebrews 10:32-34). The Earthly humiliation of Jesus, His sufferings and temptations, seemed to them unworthy of Messiah. The writer tries to explain their difficulties and to make them realize the meaning of the Earthly life and death of Christ. Perfect kingship is manifested in the royal condescension of His Earthly humiliation, and righteousness in His sinless life as man; abiding peace is the result of His cleansing of man’s sin. He must therefore have something to offer; but what and where? Not in the Earthly ‘Holy of Holies’-that is already occupied. Besides, the Bible warns us that the Earthly sanctuary is only a shadow of the heavenly reality. One man alone could ever enter there, and for him the way was beset with danger and open only once in the year. All these things-the inaccessible sanctuary, the sin-stained high priest, the annual ineffective sacrifices-clearly indicated that the true atonement was not yet found (Hebrews 9:1-10). By such offerings the Earthly sanctuary was cleansed. When Christ next appears it will be as Deliverer of those who are expecting Him (Hebrews 9:15-28). We must urge each other on and not isolate ourselves, for the crisis is very near (Hebrews 10:19-25). Sion too has its Earthquake and its fire which shatter and consume all that is unreal (Hebrews 12:18-29). We must be content to bear the same reproach and take our place by His side. It gives Him the right, now that His Earthly task is completed, to sit enthroned at the right hand of the Majesty on high (Hebrews 1:3). -Having once clearly stated at the outset the eternal Divinity of the Son, the Epistle dwells almost entirely on His life, work, and exaltation as man. His readers’ perplexities centred round Christ’s Earthly life of suffering and temptation, which they regarded as unworthy of one who occupied His nigh position. He partook of flesh and blood as they do (Hebrews 2:14); He could sympathize with their sufferings and temptations, for He too, as man, suffered and was tempted (Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 4:15); like them He had to conquer human weakness before He could learn the hard lesson of obedience to God’s will (Hebrews 5:7-8). For the members of that order held office by virtue of mere physical descent (Hebrews 7:16); their ministry could call sins to mind but could not cleanse them (Hebrews 10:1-3); they could not unite the people to God-even into the Earthly symbol of His presence the high priest himself could enter only once a year alone (Hebrews 9:7); lastly, the Aaronic priests were mortal-their work was confined to one generation (Hebrews 7:23). Christ’s perfect spiritual Sacrifice-the entire devotion of a perfect will-although its manifestation took place on Earth, belongs in all its stages to the world of eternal realities (cf
Job - Job is referred to in the OT in the book bearing his name, and in Ezekiel 14:12-20 , where he is mentioned as a conspicuous example of righteousness; in the Apocr
Some Earlier scholars (Luther, Franz Delitzsch, Cox, and Stanley) recommended the age of Solomon, others (Nöldeke, Hitzig, and Reuss) the age of Isaiah, and others (Ewald, Riehm, and apparently Bleek) the period between Isaiah and Jeremiah. Marshall thinks that the dialogue may have been written as Early as the time of Tiglath-pileser iii (b. 745 726), but not Earlier. ]'>[7] ) puts the Earliest part after b. A definite date is evidently unattainable either for the whole or for parts, but it seems to be tolerably certain that even the Earlier portions are much later than used to be assumed
Peter - ‘Symeon’ (Συμεών) appears frequently in the LXX_ as the rendering of the Heb. According to Mark 3:16, Luke 6:14, Early in his Galilaean ministry Jesus set apart the Twelve to be His helpers and gave Simon the surname Peter (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πἐτρον) In referring to the same incident, Matthew (Matthew 10:2) speaks of ‘the so-called Peter’ (ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος), but seemingly intends to make the Apostle’s famous confession at Caesarea Philippi the occasion for the Messiah to bestow upon him the name ‘Peter’ and to designate him formal head of the Church (Matthew 16:17-19). Finally, there are intimations, though these are very vague, that the special recognition of Simon’s supremacy may at one time have rested upon his Early belief in Jesus’ resurrection. The usage undoubtedly originated Early, probably in the lifetime of Jesus; and the significance of the appellation was at the outset, or soon became, intimately associated with Peter’s prominent position within the company of Early disciples. -The Earliest literature preserved from apostolic times, the letters of St. Paul’s statements clearly represent items of general knowledge current at that Early date regarding ‘Cephas. Paul’s testimony to the significance of Peter’s position in the Early history of Christianity. Paul’s controversy with the legalists really meant any conscious effort on his part to oppose or to supplant Peter, whose unique position in the Early community and whose leadership in the work of evangelizing the Jews are clearly attested and highly esteemed by St. Paul, had he so chosen, might have visited immediately after his conversion (Galatians 1:17), is not clear; but three years later he was there and entertained St. He was also in Jerusalem fourteen years later, when the legalistic controversy was going on (Galatians 2:1-10). These scanty particulars do not permit of any very extended interpretation, yet they do make it clear that Peter was prominent in the counsels of the mother Church, that he continued to prosecute his work as an evangelist, and that his fame had reached even to Asia Minor and Greece Early in the fifties. In the first part of Acts, Peter is the leader of the apostolic company, and in the Gospels he occupies a position of prominence, commensurate with the dominant part he subsequently played in the life of the Early Christian community. His name does not appear in any of the non-Marcan sections common to Matthew and Luke (i. These statements are manifestly Matthaean insertions, for they do not stand in Mark, which Matthew is copying in both the preceding and the following contexts, nor do they appear in Luke, where the Marcan narrative at this point is also followed. However this may be, it is perfectly clear from Matthew’s language that Peter had lost none of the prestige which was his in St. Mark 16:7), because Luke records only Judaea n appearances; but he does note that the first appearance was made to Peter (Luke 24:34). ...
It is in the Early chapters of Acts that Peter’s portrait is drawn most distinctly. Later we learn of his arrest and imprisonment by Herod Agrippa I. He is in Jerusalem again at the time of the Council, where he affirms, and James reiterates, that ‘a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe’ (Acts 15:7; Acts 15:14). At this point Peter disappears completely from the history of the Apostolic Age as recorded in Acts. ...
In the Fourth Gospel, likewise, Peter is a conspicuous figure, though he does not always occupy so unquestionably pre-eminent a position as in the Synoptists and Early chapters of Acts. , 1618420706_76), and his impetuosity is displayed in cutting off the Ear of the high priest’s servant (John 18:10 f. Paul’s statements are exceedingly fragmentary; the Gospels do not, of course, pretend to give information about apostolic history, yet indirectly they furnish some indications of how Peter was regarded at the time the documents were being produced; and Acts, while tolerably full in its description of Peter’s Earlier activities, consigns him to absolute oblivion after the Jerusalem Council. It is not at all probable that so important an individual would thus suddenly drop completely out of sight in the actual history of the Christian movement, nor can we assume that the information supplied by our extant NT sources is at all exhaustive-to say nothing of the difficulty of harmonizing what sometimes appear to be striking discrepancies. Peter’s Earlier activities. -A résumé of such facts as are apparently beyond dispute yields a very definite picture of Peter’s Earlier activities, notwithstanding some uncertainty in details. How Jesus, who had left His carpenter’s bench, and Peter and others, who had similarly forsaken their ordinary daily pursuits to engage in this new enterprise, now supported themselves and their families is not clear from our present sources of information; but this uncertainty can hardly reflect any serious doubt upon the fact of their procedure. At first his view seems to have been largely of the political nationalistic type-the Earthly Jesus would some day don Messianic robes and set up the new Kingdom. Then came the experience which constituted the real turning-point in his life: he saw his Master alive again-no longer an Earthly but now a heavenly Being. It necessitated, however, considerable readjustment in his thinking, for the Messiah in whom he now believed was not an Earthly figure who would demonstrate the validity of His claims by leading a revolt against the Romans; He was a heavenly apocalyptic Being who would come on the clouds in glory when the day arrived for the final establishment of God’s rule upon Earth
Psalms (2) - ‘the meek shall inherit the Earth’ (Matthew 5:5, cf. Psalms 37:11); but, with the single exception—if it be an exception—of Psalms 110, to be afterwards discussed, He does not seem directly to countenance, by His own example, that Messianic interpretation of the Psalter upon which the Church has, from her Earliest days, uniformly insisted. He claimed to fulfil the Law and the Prophets; but, judging by His general practice, this appears to imply the large fulfilment of their spirit and tendency, rather than any minute and literal fulfilment of particular words. (Luke 10:19,), finds, in the great words of Psalms 16:11 (Psalms 102:25; Psalms 102:27)—‘Thou, Lord, in the beginning, didst lay the foundation of the Earth, and the heavens are the works of thy hands’—an allusion to Christ. ‘his Messiah,’ LXX Septuagint ‘Christ’), in Psalms 20:7 (6) is almost necessarily some historical king, and the psalm appears to have been composed on the eve of a battle. ...
The tendency to find in the Psalter predictive references to Jesus must have set in very Early. ...
This application of the passage shows that, even in very Early times, the Messianic interpretation of such psalms was felt to be not the only possible one. to the combination of Herod, Pilate, the Romans, and the Jews, against ‘thy holy servant Jesus,’ who is clearly therefore regarded as the king celebrated in the psalm. ’ This verse, or the first part of it, underlies Nathanael’s confession (John 1:49), Peter’s confession (Psalms 8:5-6), the high priest’s question (Matthew 26:63), and the voice which is said to have been heard on the occasion of the Baptism (Matthew 3:17 = Mark 1:11 = Luke 3:22) and the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:5 = Mark 9:7 = Luke 9:35). According to the Codex Bezae in Matthew 3:17, the words heard on the occasion of the baptism were, ‘Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee. Paul regards the Psalmist’s utterance as fulfilled not in the baptism, but in the resurrection of Jesus; and this view appears to underlie the Apostle’s statement in Romans 1:4 that it was by the resurrection that Jesus was declared to be the Son of God with power. But its solemn and emphatic predication of the Divine sonship of the king, possibly also its outlook upon a world-wide dominion, made it natural, and almost inevitable, under the conditions of Early Christian interpretation, that it should he regarded as, in some sense, a prediction of Jesus. , is quoted by Him against the chief priests (Matthew 21:16), who murmur when they hear the children cry ‘Hosanna. Nothing is more natural than that the Early Christians should have interpreted this psalm Messianically, or that that interpretation should have persisted throughout the whole history of the Christian Church. It is not only that echoes of it are heard in the Passion story of the Gospels,—in the parting of His garments and the casting of the lot for His raiment (Matthew 27:35 = Mark 15:24 = Luke 23:34, Psalms 22:19 (18)), the shaking of the heads of the passers-by (Matthew 27:39 = Mark 15:29 = Luke 23:35, Psalms 22:8 (7)), the mocking cry, ‘He trusted in God, let him deliver him’ (Matthew 27:43, Psalms 22:9 (8)),—but Jesus Himself upon the cross used at least the opening words of the psalm (Matthew 27:46 = Mark 15:34), and the parting of His garments is expressly said in John 19:24 to have taken place that the scripture might be fulfilled. In that case the quotation would convey to a Jewish Ear the subtle reminder that Jesus was the true Paschal lamb. of Psalms 40:7 (6), which reads, ‘ears hast thou digged for me. The word for ‘ears’ is ΩΤΙΑ, and for ‘body’ ΣΩΜΑ
Prayer - To which some add invocation, a making mention of one or more of the names of God; pleading, arguing our case with God in an humble and fervent manner; dedication, or surrendering ourselves to God; deprecation, by which we desire that evils may be averted; blessing, in which we express our joy in God, and gratitude for his mercies: but, as all these appear to me to be included in the first five parts of prayer, I think they need not be insisted on. It is true there is no absolute command for this in God's word; yet from hints, allusions, and examples, we may learn that it was the practice of our forefathers: Abraham, Genesis 18:19 . Others are deterred through shame, or the fear of man; in answer to such we shall refer them to the declarations of our Lord, Matthew 10:37-38 . We should observe the working of our heart towards God, or towards the creature, and often examine our temper and our life, both in our natural, our civil, and religious actions. We should express our sins, our wants, and our sorrows, with a particular sense of the mournful circumstances that attend them: it will enlarge our hearts with prayer and humiliation if we confess the aggravations that increase the guilt of our sins, viz. If we find our hearts, after all very barren, and hardly know how to frame a prayer before God of ourselves, it has been oftentimes useful to take a book in our hand, wherein are contained some spiritual meditations in a petitionary form, some devout reflections, or excellent patterns of prayer; and, above all, the Psalms of David, some of the prophecies of Isaiah, some chapters in the Gospels, or any of the Epistles. Thus we may lift up our hearts to God in secret, according as the verses or paragraphs we read are suited to the case of our own souls. But let us be sure to insist most upon those things which are warmest in our hearts, especially in secret. I am persuaded, however, that if young Christians did not give themselves up to a loose and negligent habit of speaking every thing that comes uppermost, but attempted to learn this holy skill by a recollection of the several parts of prayer, and properly disposing their thoughts, there would be great numbers in our churches that would arrive at a good degree of the gift of prayer, and that to the great edification of our churches, as well as of their own families. " ...
As to expression in prayer, it may be observed, that though prayer be the proper work of the heart, yet in this present state, in secret as well as in social prayer, the language of the lips is an excellent aid in this part of worship. We should treasure up such expressions, especially, as we read in Scripture, and such as we have found in other books of devotion, or such as we have heard fellow Christians make use of, whereby our own hearts have been sensibly moved and warmed. It should be our practice to recollect and talk over with one another the sermons we have heard, the books of divinity we have been conversant with, those parts of the word of God we have lately read, and especially our own experiences of divine things. We should pray for the gift of utterance, and seek the blessing of the Spirit of God upon the use of proper means to obtain a treasure of expressions for prayer; for the wise man tells us, that "the preparation of the heart in man, and the answer of the tongue, is from the Lord, " Proverbs 16:1 . An excessive fondness of elegance and finery of style in prayer discovers the same pride and vanity of mind, as an affection to many jewels and fine apparel in the house of God: it betrays us into a neglect of our hearts, and of experimental religion, by an affection to make the nicest speech, and say the finest things we can, instead of sincere devotion, and praying in the spirit. We should seek after those ways of expression that are pathetical; such as denote the fervency of affection, and carry life and spirit with them; such as may awaken and exercise our love, our hope, our holy joy, our sorrow, our fear, and our faith, as well as express the activity of those graces. We should, therefore, avoid such a sort of style as looks more like preaching, which some persons that affect long prayers have been guilty of to a great degree: they have been speaking to the people rather than speaking to God; they have wandered away from god to speak to men; but this is quite contrary to the nature of prayer, for prayer is our own address to God, and pouring out our hearts before him with warm and proper affections. Every sentence should be spoken loud enough to be heard, yet none so loud as to affright or offend the Ear. If we are too swift, our words will be hurried on, and be mingled in confusion; if we are too slow, this will be tiresome to the hearers, and will make the worship appear heavy and dull. If we use ourselves to various motions, or noise made by the hands or feet, or any other parts, it will tempt others to think that our minds are not very intensely engaged; or, at least, it will appear so familiar and irreverent, as we would not willingly be guilty of in the presence of our superiors here on Earth
Revelation (2) - And, within the last half-century, a yet more searching question has been suggested by the scientific view of man’s gradual development in mental and moral, as in physical, stature, which dominates at this moment all scientific investigation. But it may help to prepare the way for an answer if we examine the aspects under which the idea of revelation is set forth in the NT, and the presuppositions which it is necessary to make before the questions that have been rehearsed can be clearly apprehended. —There is a sense in which all religion must presuppose a revelation—that is, the unveiling of His purposes by the Supreme, and the response with which He meets the aspirations and the yearnings of human souls. , can live which does not encourage and justify the habit of prayer, which does not claim that prayer is heard and answered. Some of the most saintly lives that the world has seen have been lived in the strength of the conviction that the changes and chances, as others call them, of the years are but the unveiling of a Divine face; and that the vision of God becomes brighter when seen through the mists of pain. This is the belief of those men and women among us who have the best right to be heard; their spiritual emotions are not altogether born of their own patient hopes; they are due to the stirring of the Divine Spirit, and the stimulation of the Divine Life; they are a revelation of the unseen. Revelation 4:2), he heard the Heavenly voice pronouncing judgment on the Churches, and saw in a vision the Heavenly figure which is always standing unseen in their midst. Such were the revelations of which he wrote, while there were yet others which he counted too intimate, too sacred, to commit to words, as when he says that he ‘was caught up into Paradise, and heard unspeakable words which it is not lawful for a man to utter’ (2 Corinthians 12:4). Human wisdom is not identical with Divine wisdom; so he warns the Corinthians, as he quotes the ancient words, ‘Things which eye saw not, and Ear heard not, and which entered not into the heart of man, whatsoever things God hath prepared for them that love him’; and declares, ‘Unto us God revealed these things’—not the secrets of the future, but the secrets of the present—‘these things God revealed through the Spirit’ (1 Corinthians 2:9-10). Paul in particular, were quite convinced that God at times reveals His secrets—His mysteries—to a devout and Earnest spirit; and that this revelation is consciously recognized by the soul as distinct from the discovery of a Divine purpose in life, or the assurance of Divine guidance, which are reached by patient striving after the highest things. But this it is essential to bear in mind. And forty years ago Dr. ...
This is a view which presents many difficulties, clear-cut and definite as it seems. ’ In all religion there must be a reciprocal communication between man and God; there must be not only man’s aspiration heavenward, but heaven’s benediction Earthward. They unveil the Divine love, and power, and holiness; and they are accepted as true revelations, in part because of the existing testimony to them as historical facts, but in part also because they find a response and a welcome in men’s hearts. Despite these abnormal cases, the men of spiritual insight who see ‘visions,’ who live near to the boundary of the spiritual order, are the truly ‘practical’ men, and achieve most of enduring benefit for the race. We have all learnt the truth of this in regard to the history of the race, and it is unnecessary to dwell upon it. If the minute and careful study of the OT history and literature, which has occupied the best thoughts of so many of our best Christian scholars for 40 years, had taught us nothing but this, we should still have learnt a lesson of the most far-reaching significance—a lesson which is full of hope and inspiration. Not all at once can we expect to experience the Beatific Vision, but only in proportion as we grow more and more into the Divine likeness, and learn, through the slow and often disappointing discipline of life, to read the Divine purposes. —So far, we have been considering the idea of revelation in general—the idea of God revealing His will to man—which appears again and again in Scripture, and which has been abundantly justified by the experience of the saints in every age. the fault lies with the hearers, not with the giver, of the message. Paul had urged that the Jews had never recognized the transitory character of the Law which was their discipline; ‘a veil was upon their heart’ (Acts 3:15), which prevented them from seeing that the Law was only a stage in the Divine education of Israel
Law - That the ‘law was given by Moses’ ( Leviticus 19:1-37 ) represents the unanimous belief both of the Early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. ...
Here, then, we can trace the character of Hebrew legislation in its Earliest stages. In this connexion the words of Jeremiah cannot be quoted too often: ‘I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices; but this thing I commanded them, saying Hear my voice, … and walk ye in the way that I command you’ ( Jeremiah 7:21-22 ). It is wholly unwarrantable to say that the prophets condemned the sacrificial system, or denied its worth and Divine sanction; but, on the other hand, we are justified in asserting that the tôrah of Jehovah, ‘the law of the Lord,’ meant to the prophets something wholly different from the punctilious observance of traditional ceremonies; and what is more, they appeal without fear of contradiction to the contents of the Mosaic legislation as completely establishing their conviction that it was in the sphere of morality, rather than in the organizing of worship, that the essence of Jehovah’s law was to be found. But the weight of their evidence against the Early elaboration of the ceremonial law is exactly proportioned to the weight attached to their evidence for the existence and authenticity of the moral code. It is possible that the original code may have been promulgated at Sinai; but if so, it has received considerable expansions to suit the agricultural requirements, which first became part of Israel’s daily life in the Early years of the occupation of Canaan. Life is more complex; and religious problems unknown to an Earlier generation demand and receive full treatment. In the year b. All the evidence points to this book being practically identical with Deuteronomy; all the reforms which Josiah inaugurated were based upon laws practically indistinguishable from those we now possess in the Deuteronomic Code; in fact, no conclusion of historical or literary criticism has been reached more nearly approaching to absolute certainty than that the Book of the Law brought to light in 621 was none other than the fifth book of the Pentateuch. ) Some of its chief provisions appear to have been entirely unknown before 600; even the most fervid champions of prophetism before that date seem to have systematically violated the central law of the one sanctuary, (vi. ) While subsequent writers show abundant traces of Deuteronomic influence, we search in vain for any such traces in Earlier literature. ...
The laws of Deuteronomy are, however, in many instances much Earlier than the 7th century. the rite of sacrifice, to Jerusalem, this law certainly had put an end to the syncretistic tendencies which constituted a perpetual danger to Israelitish religion; but while establishing monotheism, it also somewhat impoverished the free religious life of the common people, who had aforetime learned at all times and in all places to do sacrifice and hold communion with their God. He is a living, loving God, who cannot be satisfied with anything less than the undivided heart-service of His children. ...
It is not surprising that Deuteronomy should have been especially dear to our Lord (cf. It is argued that such a policy is in direct contradiction to the universalistic teaching of the Earlier prophets. ’ The impossibility of ever fulfilling its multitudinous requirements had filled the more Earnest with despair. The Jews lived under the law : they were the unwilling subjects of an inexorable despotism; the law was excellent in itself, but to them it remained something external; obedience was not far removed from bondage and fear. The prophets realized the inadequacy of this legal system: it was no real appeal to man’s highest nature; it did not spring from the man’s own heart; and so they prophesied of the New Covenant when Jehovah’s laws should be written in the heart, and His sin-forgiving grace should remove all elements of servile fear (cf. It is, in a manner, far more miraculous that God should at that Early age, among those half-civilized tribes, have written these laws by His spirit on man’s conscience and understanding, than that amid thunder and flame He should have inscribed them with His own fingers upon two tables of stone. The Old Testament itself teaches us that we may look in vain for God among the most orthodox manifestations of a thenphany, and yet hear Him speaking in the still, small voice. It was not the fulfilment of one who rehearses a prescribed lesson or tracks out a path marked for him by predecessors, but the crowning of an edifice already founded, the carrying forward to their issue of the lines projected in Israelite revelation, the fulfilment of the blade and Ear in ‘the full corn. It is a severer not a laxer ethics that Jesus introduces, a searching in place of a superficial discipline; ‘Your righteousness,’ He says, ‘must exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees. ...
(c) A large part of the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:21-48 ) is devoted to clearing the law from erroneous glosses and false applications : on each point Jesus sets His ‘I say unto you’ against what ‘was said to the ancients’ mere antiquity goes for nothing; nor is He careful to distinguish here between the text of the written law and its traditional modifications. With each correction the law in His hands grows morestringent; its observance is made a matter of inoer disposition, of intrinsic loyalty, not of formal conduct; the criterion applied to all law-keeping is that it shall ‘proceed out of the heart. In such instances the letter of the old precept stood only till it should be translated into a worthier form and raised to a higher potency ( Matthew 5:18 ), by the sweeping away of limiting exceptions (as with the compromise in the matter of wedlock allowed to ‘the hard-heartedness’ of Israelites, Matthew 19:3-9 ), or by the translation of the symbolic into the spiritual, as when cleansing of hands and vessels is displaced by inner purification ( Mark 7:14-23 , Luke 11:37-41 ; cf. He could not consistently vindicate heart-religion without combating Judaism in the matter of its ablutions and food-regulations and Sabbath-keeping
Education - -The Jews from Early times prized education in a measure beyond the nations around them. ’ Among the Jews every child had to learn to read; scarcely any Jewish children were to be found to whom reading of a written document was strange, and therefore were there so many poor Jewish parents ready to deny themselves the necessaries of life in order to let their children have instruction (c. The result of instruction from the Earliest years in the home, and of teaching received on the Sabbath, and on the frequent occasions of national festivals, is, according to the Jewish historian, ‘that if anybody do but ask any one of our people about our laws, he could more easily tell them all than he could tell his own name. For because of Ear having learned them as soon as ever we became sensible of anything, we have them as it were engraven on our souls’ (c. ...
Education began, as Josephus says, ‘with the Earliest infancy. Paul to Timothy (2 Timothy 3:15), recalling his disciple’s Early acquaintance with the OT Scriptures. At the age of six the Jewish boy would go to the elementary school (Bêth ha-Sçpher), but before this he would have received lessons in Scripture from his parents and have learned the Shʿma‘ and the Hallçl, From the sixth to the tenth year he would make a study of the Law, along with writing and arithmetic. The love of sacred learning and the study of the Law in synagogue and school saved the Jewish people from extinction. Jamnia, between Joppa and Ashdod, then became the headquarters of Jewish learning, and retained the position till the unhappy close of Bar Cochba’s rebellion. The learned circle then moved northwards to Galilee, and Tiberias and Sepphoris became seats of Rabbinical training. The simple rules of arithmetic would be wanted to calculate the weeks, months, and festivals of the Jewish year. Origen lefts of the scruples of the Jewish teachers in regard to the reading of the Song of Solomon by the young (Harnack, Bible Reading in the Early Church, 1912, p. In the schools attached to the synagogues of Eastern Judaism to this day, committing to memory and learning by rote are the chief methods of instruction, and the clamour of infant and youthful voices is heard repeating verses and passages of Scripture the whole school day. This kind of oral repetition and committing to memory undoubtedly occupied a large place in the Earliest Christian teaching, and had an important influence in the composition of the gospel narratives. We hear of Rabbis who were needle-makers, tanners, and followed other occupations, and who, like St. One of the most notable features in what is known as the Reform movement in modern Judaism is the Earnestness with which its adherents insist upon the mere general and the higher education of women. Down to the Roman period at least, this educational exclusiveness was maintained, and only the sons of those who were full citizens were the subjects of education, although there were cases in which daughters rose to distinction in letters, and even examples of slaves, like the philosopher Epictetus, who burst the restraints of their position and showed themselves capable of rising to eminence in learning and virtue. ) We hear of an Ephebarch at the head of a college of ἔφηβοι, or youths who have entered the higher school, and of a Gymnasiarch who superintends the exercises of the παλαίστρα and pays the training-masters. First, there was the stage of home education, extending from birth to the end of the seventh year, when the children were under parental supervision; second, the stage of school education, beginning with the eighth year and lasting to the sixteenth or eighteenth year; thirdly, there was the stage from the sixteenth or eighteenth to the twenty-first year, when the youths were ἔφηβοι, and were subjected to strict discipline and training. Exercises in writing and in grammar have been preserved to us in the soil of Egypt written on ostraca, on wooden tablets, on tablets smeared over with wax, and have now been recovered to let us see the performances of the school children of twenty centuries ago. Among them are school copies giving the letters of the alphabet, Syllables, common words and proper names, conjugation of verbs, pithy or proverbial sayings as headlines, and there are even exercises having the appearance of being school punishments (E. Roman Emperors like Claudius and Nero had done much to encourage Greek culture and to introduce it into Rome itself, where the Athenaeum was a great centre of learning. At this epoch Athens and Rome had famous schools, but even they had to yield to Rhodes, Alexandria, and Tarsus; and Marseilles, which had been from the very Early days of Greek history a centre of Greek influence, was in the time of Strabo more frequented than Athens. The idea that Barnabas of Cyprus and Saul of Tarsus had met in Early life at the university of Tarsus is by no means fanciful, and it was to his education at Tarsus that St. Justin Martyr, a little Earlier, in the account he gives of his conversion to Christianity (Dial. ), shows how the representatives of the Stoic, the Peripatetic, the Pythagorean, and the Academic (Platonic) Schools in turn failed to satisfy his yearning after truth, and satisfaction came to him when he found Christianity to be the only philosophy sure and suited to the needs of man. ‘Among the Jewish Christians,’ as Harnack points out, ‘the private use of the Holy Scriptures simply continued; for the fact that they had become believers in the Messiahship of Jesus had absolutely no other effect than to increase this use, in so far as it was now necessary to study not only the Law but also the Prophets and the Kethubim, seeing that these afforded prophetic proofs of the Messiah-ship of Jesus, and in so far as the religious independence of the individual Christian was still greater than that of the ordinary Jew’ (Bible Reading in the Early Church, p. Paul had a wide circulation at an Early period, in all the provinces of the Early Church, and were perused and applied to their spiritual needs by multitudes of Christians, not clerical only, but lay; not men only, but women. ...
All this intellectual activity devoted to the study of the Scriptures implies throughout the Early Church a considerable level of educational attainment
Josephus - He studied the principles of the three main sects of Judaism under professional teachers of each, and lived for three years in the society of an ascetic hermit named Banus-a discipline then regarded as a desideratum of good breeding (we find something of the same kind in the Early life of Seneca). 64 he visited Rome, where, through the influence of a Jewish actor named Alityrus, he succeeded in gaining the Ear of the Empress Poppaea-first the mistress, and from a. Even his vanity serves to bring him into clearer light. Although he had doubtless learned Greek in his youth, he felt that he could not yet write as a Greek author. This Greek edition was published in the closing years of Vespasian’s reign, between a. As against the many unreliable and merely hearsay reports of the war, and the mischievous distortions of fact emanating from anti-Jewish feeling, Josephus proposed, as an eye-witness, to give an unbiased and veracious chronicle, which, by means of a just estimate of the Jewish people, of their good qualities and their military achievements, should not only exhibit in a clearer light the tragic element in the catastrophe they had brought upon themselves, but should also make manifest the real greatness of the Roman triumph. He has no regular method of dating-neither consulates nor reigns-and it is only occasionally that we find such chronological references as ‘the third year of the 177th Olympiad, when Quintus Hortensius and Quintus Metellus were consuls’ (Ant. 2-4 [26]) Josephus refers to Pilate only in connexion with the two tumults which he caused by introducing into Jerusalem standards bearing the figure of the Emperor and by using the Temple funds for the construction of an aqueduct, he apparently gives a much fuller record in Ant. Here, after referring to Valerius Gratus as the first procurator of Judaea under Tiberius (14-37)-the four successive changes in the high-priesthood being all that he thinks worthy of mention in the eleven years of that procuratorship-Josephus records (in xviii. 2 [28]) Pilate’s accession to the office, an event that cannot be dated Earlier than a. ]'>[33]), and that, after his ten years of office, he was sent to Rome to defend his actions before Tiberius, arriving there, however, only after the Emperor’s death (16 March, a. ]'>[19]4):...
‘Now about this time appeared Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one may call Him a man; for He was a doer of marvellous works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with gladness, and He drew to Himself many of the Jews, as also many of the Greeks. He was the Christ; and when, on the indictment of the leading men amongst us, Pilate had sentenced Him to the Cross, those who loved Him at the first did not cease to do so; for on the third day He again appeared to them alive, as the divine prophets had affirmed these and innumerable other things concerning Him. executed at the instance of Cassiodorus, a very free translation of the Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) , the de Excidio Hierusalem of Hegesippus (the so-called Iosippus), bearing a thoroughly Christian character, was current-often under the name of Ambrose-in the West, so there was found among the Slavonic Manuscripts a very peculiar form of the Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) , giving a detailed account of the trial of Jesus. in the chapter dealing with the Essenes, appears to have been used by Hippolytus, so that, in spite of the legendary air of many of its features, it is hardly reasonable, with Schürer and others, to assign it to a late date. Hence, if we reject the hypothesis of Berendts, the only theory that we have to fall back upon is that of an Early Jewish redaction, as proposed by R. Here Josephus writes as follows:...
‘Now when [17]5 had reigned three years over all Judaea he came to the city of Caesarea, which was formerly called Strato’s Tower, and there he provided games in honour of Caesar, thus instituting a festival for the emperor’s health. The silver, illuminated by the first beams of the sun, shone forth in a strangely awe-inspiring manner and gleamed fearfully in the eyes of those who looked on. Presently his flatterers, one here, another there, called out words which were not to turn out to his good, addressing him as a god, and adding: “Be thou propitious; if till now we feared thee as a man, henceforth we confess that thou art exalted above mortal nature. 7 [195-200]'>[42] it is related that the owl had appeared to Agrippa at Rome] sitting on a rope over his head, and he perceived at once that it was a messenger of misfortune, as it had formerly been a messenger of good fortune, and he experienced an anguish that struck through his heart
John Epistles of - If we cut off the first four verses, which are clearly an introduction, and also 1 John 5:13-21, which form a final summary, the main body of the Epistle gives us a triple presentation of two leading ideas. In the first presentation (1 John 1:5 to 1 John 2:27) the two theses are stated without any indication of their mutual connexion; in the second (1 John 2:26 to 1 John 4:6) they are again presented in the same order, but the verses (1 John 3:23-24) which form the transition from the one to the other are so worded as to bring out clearly the intimate connexion which the author finds between them (‘his command is that we should believe, and love as he commanded’); in the third (1 John 4:7 to 1 John 5:12) they are inseparably intertwined. It received new force and meaning in the light of Christ’s life, and the new life which Christians have learned to live. This is more clearly realized as in the new society the darkness passes away. The saying ‘Antichrist cometh’ is being fulfilled in the many false teachers who have appeared. Let them abide, and confidence will be theirs when ‘He’ appears (1 John 2:28). Who can have this confidence? Those who know that God is just, and who therefore learn in the experience of Christian life that the doing of righteousness is the true test of the birth from God (1 John 2:29). This is further explained in 1 John 3:7-18, introduced by an Earnest warning against deceivers. So, if we realize that for us righteousness finds its clearest expression in love of the brethren, we gain a clear contrast: God’s children, always striving to realize the ideal of sinless love, and the children of the Devil, striving after, or drifting towards, their own ideal of sinful hate and selfish greed Sinlessness, i. The spirits of truth and error are clearly discerned by the kinds of people who listen to them. The true nature of love has been made clear, in terms intelligible to men, in the sending of His Son, as faith conceives it. True confidence is established when men know that prayer is heard because what is asked is in accordance with God’s will. The true answer to prayer is the immediate consciousness that what is taken to God has reached His Ear, and may be safely left in His care. Sin can be conquered; we belong to God, whom, we have learned to know in the revelation of Him which His Son has brought down to men. ...
At the same time it is clear that in all he writes he has in view definite forms of false teaching which have proved dangerous, errors both doctrinal and ethical, the fascination of which is a serious menace to their Christian life. But Jewish opposition is clearly a serious danger. -There is no clear evidence in the Epistles of the fully developed Gnostic systems of the 2nd century. 5 contains clearer reference to one definite form of error-the denial that Jesus, the Son of God, came by ‘blood’ as well as by ‘water,’ i. descent from Abraham, or possession of the ‘pneumatic’ seed, is clearly part of their ethical creed. The priority of the Epistle has been maintained on the following grounds:...
(1) The introductory verses are said to present an Earlier stage of the Logos doctrine than the Prologue of the Gospel. And if we take the whole Epistle into account, it is clear that the ‘personal differentiation’ of Father and Son is stated in the Epistle as definitely as in the Logos doctrine of the Gospel
Koran - But the occasion of this appears to have been, that the verse or passage wherein such word occurs, was, in point of time, revealed and committed to writing before the other verses of the same chapter which precede it in order, the verse from whence such title was taken did not always happen to begin the chapter. ...
The general design of the Koran was to unite the professors of the three different religions, than followed in the populous country of Arabia, (who, for the most part, wandered without guides, the far greater number being idolaters, and the rest Jews and Christians, mostly of erroneous opinion, ) in the knowledge and worship of one God, under the sanction of certain laws and ceremonies, partly of ancient, and partly of novel institution, enforced by the consideration of rewards and punishments both temporal and eternal; and to bring them all to the obedience of Mahomet, as the prophet and ambassador of God; who, after the repeated admonitions, promises, and threats of former ages, was sent at last to establish and propagate God's religion on Earth; and to be acknowledged chief pontiff in spiritual matters, as well as supreme prince in temporal. The great doctrine, then, of the Koran is the unity of God, to restore which, Mahomet pretended, was the chief end of his mission; it being laid down by him as a fundamental truth, That there never was, nor ever can be, more than one true orthodox religion: that, though the particular laws or ceremonies are only temporary and subject to alteration, according to the divine direction; yet the substance of it, being eternal truth, is not liable to change, but continues immutably the same; and that, whenever this religion became neglected or corrupted in essentials, God had the goodness to re-inform and re-admonish mankind thereof by several prophets, of whom Moses and Jesus were the most distinguished, till the appearance of Mahomet, who is their seal, and no other to be expected after him. ...
The more effectually to engage people to hearken to him, great part of the Koran is employed in relating examples of dreadful punishments formerly inflicted by God on those who rejected and abused his messengers; several of which stories, or some circumstances of them, are taken from the Old and New Testaments, but many more from the apocryphal books and traditions of the Jews and Christians of those ages, set up in the Koran as truths, in opposition to the Scriptures, which the Jews and Christians are charged with having altered; and, indeed, few or none of the relations of circumstances in the Koran were invented by Mahomet, as is generally supposed; it being easy to trace the greatest part of them much higher, as the rest might be, were more of these books extant, and were it worth while to make the inquiry. One of their most learned commentators distinguishes the contents of the Alcoran into allegorical and literal: under the former are comprehended all the obscure, parabolical, and enigmatical passages, with such laws as are repealed or abrogated; the latter, such as are clear, and in full force. The slave fell on his knees, rehearsing these words of the Alcoran; "Paradise is for those who restrain their anger. It was an admirable contrivance to bring down the whole Alcoran only to the lowest heaven, not to Earth; since, had the whole been published at once, innumerable objections would have been made, which it would have been impossible for him to have solved; but as he received it by parcels, as God saw fit they should be published for the conversion and instruction of the people, he had a sure way to answer all emergencies, and to extricate himself with honour from any difficulty which might occur. It is the common opinion, that Mahomet, assisted by one Sergius, a monk, composed this book; but the Mussulmans believe it as an article of their faith, that the prophet, who, they say, was an illiterate man, had no concern in inditing it; but that it was given him by God, who, to that end, made use of the ministry of the angel Gabriel; that, however, it was communicated to him by little and little, a verse at a time, and in different places, during the course of 23 years. These 23 years which the angel employed in conveying the Alcoran to Mahomet, are of wonderful service to his followers; inasmuch as they furnish them with an answer to such as tax them with those glaring contradictions of which the book is full, and which they piously father upon God himself; alleging that, in the course of so long a time, he repealed and altered several doctrines and precepts which the prophet had before received of him. It is the general belief among the Mahometans that the Koran is of divine original; nay, that it is eternal and uncreated; remaining, as some express it, in the very essence of God: and the first transcript has been from everlasting, by God's throne, written on a table of vast bigness, called the preserved table, in which are also recorded the divine decrees, past and future; that a copy from this table, in one volume upon paper, was by the ministry of the angel Gabriel sent down to the lowest heaven, in the month of Ramadan, on the night of power, from whence Gabriel revealed it to Mahomet in parcels, some at Mecca, and some at Medina, at different times, during the space of twenty-three years, as the exigency of affairs required; giving him, however, the consolation to show him the whole (which they tell us was bound in silk, and adorned with gold and precious stones of paradise) once a year; but in the last year of his life he had the favour to see it twice. They swear by it; take omens from it on all weighty occasions; carry it with them to war; write sentences of it on their banners; adorn it with gold and precious stones; and knowingly not suffer it to be in the possession of any of a different religion. ...
The shepherd and the soldier, though awake to the charms of those wild but beautiful compositions in which were celebrated their favourite occupations of love or war, were yet little able to criticise any other works than those which were addressed to their imagination or their heart. In such a situation, the appearance of a work which possessed something like wisdom and consistence; which prescribed the rules and illustrated the duties of life; and which contained the principles of a new and comparatively sublime theology, independently of its real and permanent merit, was likely to excite their astonishment, and to become the standard of future composition. They were not confined, therefore, to that admiration which is so liberally bestowed on the Earliest productions of genius, or to that fond attachment with which men every where regard the original compositions of their country; but with their admiration they blended their piety. But the Koran bears little impression of this transcendant character. When a great part of the life of Mahomet had been spent in preparatory meditation on the system he was about to establish, its chapters were dealt out slowly and separately during the long period of twenty-three years. ...
'Eye hath not seen, nor Ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man the things which God hath prepared for them that love him, ' 1 Corinthians 2:9 . What a reverence and astonishment does this passage excite in every hearer of taste and piety! What energy, and at the same time what simplicity in the expression! How sublime, and at the same time how obscure, is the imagery! Different was the conduct of Mahomet in his descriptions of heaven and paradise. That we may not appear to exalt our Scriptures thus far above the Koran by an unreasonable preference, we shall produce a part of the second chapter of the latter, which is deservedly admired by the Mahometans, who wear it engraved on their ornaments, and recite it in their prayers. "God! there is no God but he; the living, the self-subsisting; neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him: to him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven, and on Earth. His throne is extended over heaven and Earth, and the preservation of both is to him no burden. ) all its boasted grandeur is at once obscured, and lost in the blaze of a greater light! 'O, my god, take me not away in the midst of my days; thy years are throughout all generations. Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the Earth; and the heavens are the work of thy hands. But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end
Law - That such a law was connate with, and, as it were, implanted in, man, appears from its traces, which, like the ruins of some noble building, are still extant in every man. It is from those common notions, handed down by tradition, though often imperfect and perverted, that the Heathens themselves distinguished right from wrong, by which "they were a law unto themselves, showing the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness," Romans 2:12-15 , although they had no express revelation. If we examine the Jewish law, to discover the principle on which the whole system depends, the primary truth, to inculcate and illustrate which is its leading object, we find it to be that great basis of all religion, both natural and revealed, the self-existence, essential unity, perfections, and providence of the supreme Jehovah, the Creator of heaven and Earth. The first line of the Mosaic writings inculcates this great truth: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the Earth. " When the lawgiver begins to recapitulate the statutes and judgments he had enjoined to his nation, it is with this declaration: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord,"...
Deuteronomy 6:4 ; or, as it might be more closely expressed, Jehovah our Elohim, or God, is one Jehovah. And at the commencement of that sublime hymn, delivered by Moses immediately before his death, in which this illustrious prophet sums up the doctrines he had taught, the wonders by which they had been confirmed, and the denunciations by which they were enforced, he declares this great tenet with the sublimity of eastern poetry, but at the same time with the precision of philosophic truth: "Give Ear," says he, "O ye heavens, and I will speak: and hear, O Earth, the words of my mouth. What, is that doctrine so awful, that the whole universe is thus invoked to attend to it? so salutary as to be compared with the principle whose operation diffuses beauty and fertility over the vegetable world? Hear the answer: "Because I will publish the name of Jehovah; ascribe ye greatness unto our God. That character by which the supreme Being is most clearly distinguished from every other, however exalted; that character from which the acutest reasoners have endeavoured demonstratively to deduce, as from their source, all the divine attributes, is self-existence. Hence the unity of God is inculcated with perpetual solicitude; it stands at the head of the system of moral law promulgated to the Jews from Sinai by the divine voice, heard by the assembled nation, and issuing from the divine glory, with every circumstance which could impress the deepest awe upon even the dullest minds: "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; thou shalt have no others gods beside me," Exodus 20:2-3 . And in the recapitulation of the divine laws in Deuteronomy, It is repeatedly enforced with the most solemn Earnestness: "Hear, O Israel, The Lord our God is one Lord,"...
Deuteronomy 6:4 . Know, therefore, this day, and consider it in thine heart, that the Lord he is God in heaven above, and in the Earth beneath: there is none else,"...
Deuteronomy 4:35 ; Deuteronomy 4:39 . And in the hymn of thanksgiving on the miraculous escape of the Israelites at the Red Sea, this is its burden: "Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? who is like unto thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?" Exodus 15:11 . And when the Lord delivered to Moses the two tables of the moral law, he is described as descending in the cloud, and proclaiming the name of the Lord: "And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty," Exodus 34:6-7 . ...
But to teach the self-existence, the unity, the wisdom, and the power of the Deity, nay, even his moral perfections of mercy, justice, and truth, would have been insufficient to arrest the attention, and command the obedience of a nation, the majority of which looked no farther than mere present objects, and at that Early period cherished scarcely any hopes higher than those of a temporal kind,—if, in addition to all this, care had not been taken to represent the providence of God as not only directing the government of the universe by general laws, but also perpetually superintending the conduct and determining the fortune of every nation, of every family, nay, of every individual. However exalted and perfect such a Being might appear to abstract speculation, he was to the generality of mankind as if he did not exist; as their happiness or misery were not supposed to be influenced by his power, they referred not their conduct to his direction. If he delegated to inferior beings the regulation of this inferior world; if all its concerns were conducted by their immediate agency, and all its blessings or calamities distributed by their immediate determination; it seemed rational, and even necessary, to supplicate their favour and submit to their authority; and neither unwise nor unsafe to neglect that Being, who, though all-perfect and supreme, would, on this supposition appear, with respect to mankind, altogether inoperative. This had been manifested in the appointment of the land of Canaan for the future settlement of the chosen people on the first covenant which God entered into with the Patriarch Abraham; in the prophecy, that for four hundred years they should be afflicted in Egypt, and afterward be thence delivered; in the increase of their nation, under circumstances of extreme oppression, and their supernatural deliverance from that oppression. On this only could they be commanded to keep the sabbatic year without tilling their land, or even gathering its spontaneous produce; confiding in the promise, that God would send his blessing on the sixth year, so that it should bring forth fruit for three years, Leviticus 25:21 . The same faith in Divine Providence alone could prevail on them to leave their properties and families exposed to the attack of their surrounding enemies; while all the males of the nation assembled at Jerusalem to celebrate the three great festivals, enjoined by divine command, with the assurance that no man should desire their land when they went up to appear before the Lord their God thrice in the year, Exodus 34:24 . ...
Such was the theology of the Jewish religion, at a period when the whole world was deeply infected with idolatry; when all knowledge of the one true God, all reverence for his sacred name, all reliance on his providence, all obedience to his laws, were nearly banished from the Earth; when the severest chastisements had been tried in vain; when no hope of reformation appeared from the refinements of civilization or the researches of philosophy; for the most civilized and enlightened nations adopted with the greatest eagerness, and disseminated with the greatest activity, the absurdities, impieties, and pollutions of idolatry. Then was the Jewish law promulgated to a nation, who, to mere human judgment, might have appeared incapable of inventing or receiving such a high degree of intellectual and moral improvement; for they had been long enslaved to the Egyptians, the authors and supporters of the grossest idolatry; they had been weighed down by the severest bondage, perpetually harassed by the most incessant manual labours; for the Egyptians "made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field," Exodus 1:14 . For the addition of the last, "Thou shalt not covet," proves clearly that in all, the dispositions of the heart, as much as the immediate outward act, is the object of the divine Legislator; and thus it forms a comment on the meaning, as well as a guard for the observance, of all the preceding commands. Interpreted in this natural and rational latitude, how comprehensive and important is this summary of moral duty! It inculcates the adoration of the one true God, who "made heaven and Earth, the sea, and all that in them is;" who must, therefore, be infinite in power, and wisdom, and goodness; the object of exclusive adoration; of gratitude for every blessing we enjoy; of fear, for he is a jealous God; of hope, for he is merciful. ...
When we proceed to the second table, comprehending more expressly our social duties, we find all the most important principles on which they depend clearly enforced. The commandment which enjoins, "Honour thy father and mother," sanctions the principles, not merely of filial obedience, but of all those duties which arise from our domestic relations; and, while it requires not so much any one specific act, as the general disposition which should regulate our whole course of conduct in this instance, it impresses the important conviction, that the entire law proceeds from a Legislator able to search and judge the heart of man. The subsequent commands coincide with the clear dictates of reason, and prohibit crimes which human laws in general have prohibited as plainly destructive of social happiness. But it was of infinite importance to rest the prohibitions, "Thou shalt not kill," "Thou shalt not commit adultery," "Thou shalt not steal," "Thou shalt not bear false witness," not merely on the deductions of reason, but also on the weight of a divine authority. Such variation and inconstancy in the rule and practice of moral duty, as established by the feeble or fluctuating authority of human opinion, demonstrates the utility of a clear divine interposition, to impress these important prohibitions; and it is difficult for any sagacity to calculate how far such an interposition was necessary, and what effect it may have produced by influencing human opinions and regulating human conduct, when we recollect that the Mosaic code was probably the first written law ever delivered to any nation; and that it must have been generally known in those eastern countries, from which the most ancient and celebrated legislators and sages derived the models of their laws and the principles of their philosophy. ...
But the Jewish religion promoted the interests of moral virtue, not merely by the positive injunctions of the decalogue; it also inculcated clearly and authoritatively the two great principles on which all piety and virtue depend, and which our blessed Lord recognised as the commandments on which hang the law and the prophets,—the principles of love to God and love to our neighbour. The love of God is every where enjoined in the Mosaic law, as the ruling disposition of the heart, from which all obedience should spring, and in which it ought to terminate. With what solemnity does the Jewish lawgiver impress it at the commencement of his recapitulation of the divine law: "Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord; and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might," Deuteronomy 6:4-5 . And again: "And now, Israel, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul?" Deuteronomy 10:12 . Nor is the love of our neighbour less explicitly enforced: "Thou shalt not," says the law, "avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the Lord,"...
Leviticus 19:18 . ...
Thus, on a review of the topics we have discussed, it appears that the Jewish law promulgated the great principles of moral duty in the decalogue, with a solemnity suited to their high preeminence; that it enjoined love to God with the most unceasing solicitude, and love to our neighbour, as extensively and forcibly, as the peculiar design of the Jewish economy, and the peculiar character of the Jewish people, would permit; that it impressed the deepest conviction of God's requiring, not mere external observances, but heart-felt piety, well regulated desires, and active benevolence; that it taught sacrifice could not obtain pardon without repentance, or repentance without reformation and restitution; that it described circumcision itself, and, by consequence, every other legal rite, as designed to typify and inculcate internal holiness, which alone could render men acceptable to God; that it represented the love of God as designed to act as a practical principle, stimulating to the constant and sincere cultivation of purity, mercy, and truth; and that it enforced all these principles and precepts by sanctions the most likely to operate powerfully on minds unaccustomed to abstract speculations and remote views, even by temporal rewards and punishments; the assurance of which was confirmed from the immediate experience of similar rewards and punishments, dispensed to their enemies and to themselves by that supernatural Power which had delivered the Hebrew nation out of Egypt, conducted them through the wilderness, planted them in the land of Canaan, regulated their government, distributed their possessions, and to which alone they could look to obtain new blessings, or secure those already enjoyed. From all this we derive another presumptive argument for the divine authority of the Mosaic code; and it may be contended, that a moral system thus perfect, promulgated at so Early a period, to such a people, and enforced by such sanctions as no human power could undertake to execute, strongly bespeaks a divine original. As the obligation of the moral law upon Christians has, however, been disputed by some perverters of the Christian faith, or held by others on loose and fallacious grounds, this subject ought to be clearly understood
Materialism - Much has been written of late years against this doctrine, and the different modifications which it has assumed: but in substance nothing new has been said on either side; and the able and condensed argument of Wollaston in his "Religion of Nature Delineated," if well considered, will furnish every one with a most clear and satisfactory refutation of this antiscriptural and irrational error:—The soul cannot be mere matter: for if it is, then either all matter must think; or the difference must arise from the different modification, magnitude, figure, or motion of some parcels of matter in respect of others; or a faculty of thinking must be superadded to some systems of it, which is not superadded to others. And since, for this reason, it cannot be necessary for matter to think, (because it may be matter without this property,) it cannot think as matter only; if it did, we should not only continue to think always, till the matter of which we consist is annihilated, and so the asserter of this doctrine would stumble upon immortality unawares; but we must also have thought always in time past, ever since that matter was in being; nor could there be any the least intermission of actual thinking; which does not appear to be our case. Who can imagine matter to be moved by arguments, or ever placed syllogisms and demonstrations among levers and pullies? We not only move ourselves upon reasons which we find in ourselves, but upon reasons imparted by words or writings from others, or perhaps merely at their desire or bare suggestion: in which case, again, nobody surely can imagine that the words spoken or written, the sound in the air, or the strokes on the paper, can, by any natural or mechanical efficience, cause the reader or hearer to move in any determinate manner, or at all. So then, in conclusion, if there is any such thing as matter that thinks, &c, this must be a particular privilege granted to it; that is, a faculty of thinking must be superadded to certain parts or parcels of it; which, by the way, must infer the existence of some being able to confer this faculty; who, when the ineptness of matter has been well considered, cannot appear to be less than omnipotent, or God. I can within myself correct the external appearances and impressions of objects, and advance, upon the reports and hints received by my senses, to form ideas of things that are not extant in matter. By seeing a material circle I may learn to form the idea of a circle, or figure generated by the revolution of a ray about its centre; but then, recollecting what I know of matter upon other occasions, I can conclude there is no exact material circle. If I see a tower at a great distance, which, according to the impressions made upon my material organs, seems little and round, I do not therefore conclude it to be either; there is something within that reasons upon the circumstances of the appearance, and as it were commands my sense, and corrects the impression; and this must be something superior to matter, since a material soul is no otherwise impressible itself but as material organs are: instances of this kind are endless. If men would but seriously look into themselves, the soul would not appear to them as a faculty of the body, or a kind of appurtenance to it, but rather as some substance, properly placed in it, not only to use it as an instrument, and act by it, but also to govern it, or the parts of it, as the tongue, hands, feet, &c, according to its own reason. And if there be a circumstance, which to any philosophic mind will clearly intimate the independency of thought upon matter, it is the phenomenon of dreaming. There appears to be an activity in the motions, and a perfection in the faculties, of the mind, when disengaged from the body, and disencumbered of its material organs. Ideas rise in rapid succession, and are varied in endless combination; so that the judgment, which, next to the perception, depends most upon external objects, is unable to follow the imagination in all its wild and unwearied flights. When a man is deeply immersed in meditation, or eagerly engaged in a discussion, he often neither hears a third person when he speaks, nor observes what he does, nor even when gently touched does he feel the pressure. Yet there is no defect either in the Ear, the eye, or the nervous system; the brain is not disordered, for if his mind were not so fully occupied, he would perceive every one of those impressions which he now neglects. In this case, therefore, as in sleep, the independence of mind upon the external organ is clearly shown. From this circumstance alone we discover the amazing influence of thought upon the external organ; of that thought which we can neither hear, nor see, nor touch, which yet produces an affection of the brain fully equal to a blow, a pressure, or any other sensible injury. Now this very action of thought upon the brain clearly shows that the brain does not produce it, while the mutual influence which they possess over each other, as clearly shows that there is a strong connection between them. A man will fall down in a fit of apoplexy, and be recovered; in a few years he will be attacked by another, which will prove fatal. The consequence of which would be, that personal identity must be destroyed, and that no man could be the same individual being that he was ten years ago. The body may be gradually changed, and yet by the deposition of new particles, similar to those which absorption has removed, it may preserve the appearance of identity. ...
So inconsistent with reason is every attempt which has been made to reduce our thoughts to a material origin, and to identify our understanding with any part of our corporeal frame! The more carefully we observe the operation, both of the mind and of the brain, the more clearly we shall distinguish, and the more forcibly shall we feel, the independence of the one upon the other
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - 296; not Earlier, because he had no personal remembrance of the persecution under Maximian in 303 ( Hist. 56), and the first two of his treatises appear to have been written before 319. , for convenience' sake, archbishops or patriarchs, although the former name was then very rarely applied to them, and the latter not at all, and they were frequently designated, though not in contradistinction to all other prelates, by the title of Papas (pope), or "dear father. He tells us, in his Life of Anthony , that he often saw him; and although that reading of the conclusion of the preface, which makes him say that "he himself for some time attended on him, and poured water on his hands," may be considered doubtful, yet we know that he was afterwards spoken of as "the ascetic," and that when, years later, he took shelter in the cells of the monks of Egypt, he found himself perfectly at home. By the sure tact of his noble and Christian nature, everything is referred to the Person of the Redeemer: everything rests upon Him: He appears throughout. ...
More work was near at hand, and suffering was not far off. One of those present, also bearing that name, answered, but was not noticed by the archbishop, who again repeated the name, and added, "You think to escape—but it cannot be. " Some time appears to have elapsed between his death and the assembling of the Egyptian bishops to consecrate a successor. An encyclical letter of these same Egyptian prelates proclaimed to all Christendom, some years later, that a majority of them had elected Athanasius in the presence, and amid the applause, of the whole Alexandrian laity, who for nights and days persevered in demanding him as "the good, pious, ascetic Christian," who would prove a "genuine bishop," and prayed aloud to Christ for the fulfilment of their desire ( Apol. ]'>[2] Another event of these comparatively quiet times was Athanasius's visitation of the Thebaid, a region where much trouble was being caused by the Arians, and by the Meletians, who resisted his Earnest efforts to repress their separatist tendency. " Not long afterwards, in compliance with instructions from Eusebius, three Meletians, Ision, Eudaemon, and Callinicus, appeared before the emperor at Nicomedia with a charge against Athanasius that he had assumed the powers of the government by taxing Egypt to provide linen vestments for the church of Alexandria. But Athanasius was able to prove before Constantine at Nicomedia, Early in 332, that, point by point, it was a falsehood. Athanasius received a summons to appear at Antioch and stand his trial. At first he disdained to take any steps, but afterwards sent a deacon to search for the missing Arsenius. Constantine stopped the proceedings at Antioch on hearing of this exposure, and sent Athanasius a letter, to be read frequently in public, in which the Meletians were warned that any fresh offences would be dealt with by the emperor in person, and according to the civil law ( Apol. It appeared in evidence that no books had been burned, and that Ischyras had been too ill to officiate on the day of the alleged sacrilege. An inquiry of such an ex parte character called forth indignant protests from the Alexandrian and Mareotic clergy, one of the documents bearing the date Sept. Constantine, on learning who he was, and what was his errand, tried to pass him by in silence; but Athanasius firmly stood his ground. The bishops of the council, after receiving their commissioners' report, had by a majority condemned Athanasius, and then pronounced Arius orthodox on the ground of a doctrinal statement made five years Earlier, when they were startled by an imperial letter expressing suspicion of their motives, and summoning them to Constantinople. —His life at Trèves, including nearly two years and a half, was an interval of rest, much needed and doubtless invigorating, between the storms of the past and those of the future. ...
For more than a year Constantine's death produced no change in Athanasius's position; but at length, on June 17, 338, Constantine II. In this he appears to have presumed his brother's consent, and to have then taken Athanasius with him to Viminacium, an important town of Moesia Superior, on the high-road to Constantinople. Three clergy appeared as their envoys before Julius, bp. of Rome; on the other hand, Athanasius sent to Rome presbyters to state his case, and an encyclic—the invaluable document which has furnished us with so much information—from "the holy synod assembled at Alexandria out of Egypt, Thebais, Libya, and Pentapolis," composed, says Athanasius, of nearly 100 prelates. ...
Early in 340 a new announcement disquieted the Alexandrian church. This, says Athanasius, was considered an unheard-of wrong. —After Julius had welcomed Athanasius, he sent two presbyters, Elpidius and Philoxenus, in the Early summer of 340, to repeat his invitation to the Eusebian prelates, to fix definitely the next December as the time of the proposed council, and Rome as the place. In fact, Athanasius's three years (340–343) at Rome had two great historic results. The letters of Alexandrians to Athanasius, consolatory as proofs of their affection, gave mournful accounts of torture and robbery, of hatred towards himself shewn in persecution of his aunt, of countenance shewn to Gregory by the "duke" Balacius; and some of these troubles were in his mind when, Early in 341, he wrote "from Rome" his Festal Letter for the year. That year had begun without any such settlement of his case as had been hoped for at Rome. January came, and at last the legates returned, the unwilling bearers of a letter so offensive that Julius "resolved to keep it to himself, in the hope that some Eusebians" would even yet arrive ( Apol. The year 342 is not eventful in his history. Narcissus, Maris, and two other prelates appeared before Constans at Trèves, spoke in support of the decisions against Athanasius, and presented a creed which might, at first sight, appear all but to confess the "Homoousion. ...
Athanasius remained at Rome until the summer of 343, when, "in the fourth year" from his arrival, he received a letter from Constans, by which he was ordered to meet him at Milan (Ap. Surprised at the summons, he inquired as to its probable cause, and learned that some bishops had been urging Constans to propose to Constantius the assembling of a new council, at which East and West might be represented. ...
It soon appeared that united action was impossible. of Rome," in "honour of Peter's memory," so that he might make arrangements for the rehearing of a prelate's cause. They wrote letters of sympathy to the suffragans of Athanasius and the churchmen of Alexandria, urging the faithful "to contend Earnestly for the sound faith and the innocence of Athanasius. "...
The bold line taken at Sardica provoked the advisers of Constantius to fresh severities; and the Alexandrian magistrates received orders to behead Athanasius, or certain of his clergy expressly named, if they should come near the city. 22), and employed six "counts" to write encouragingly to the exile; and Athanasius, after receiving these letters at Aquileia, made up his mind, at last, to act on those assurances; but not until Constantius could tell Constans that he had been "expecting Athanasius for a year. " Invited by Constans to Trèves, Athanasius made a diversion on his journey in order to see Rome again; it was some six years since he had been cordially welcomed by Julius, who now poured forth his generous heart in a letter of congratulation for the Alexandrian church, one of the most beautiful documents in the whole Athanasian series. Julius dwelt on the well-tried worth of Athanasius, on his own happiness in gaining such a friend, on the steady faith which the Alexandrians had exhibited, on the rapture with which they would celebrate his return; and concluded by invoking for his "beloved brethren" the blessings "which eye had not seen, nor Ear heard
Babylon - It was under Nebuchadnezzar that Babylon, then become the seat of universal empire, is supposed to have acquired that extent and magnificence, and that those stupendous works were completed which rendered it the wonder of the world and of posterity: and accordingly, this prince, then the most potent on the Earth, arrogated to himself the whole glory of its erection; and in the pride of his heart exclaimed, "Is not this great Babylon that I have built?" The city at this period stood on both sides of the river, which intersected it in the middle. Over the river was a bridge, connecting the two halves of the city, which stood, the one on its eastern, and the other on its western, bank; the river running nearly north and south. Here the principal devotions were performed; and over this, on the highest platform of all, was the observatory, by the help of which the Babylonians arrived to such perfection in astronomy, that Calisthenes the philosopher, who accompanied, Alexander to Babylon, found astronomical observations for 1903 years backwards from that time; which reach as high as the 115th year after the flood. These gardens were raised on terraces, supported by arches, or rather by piers, laid over with broad flat stones; the arch appearing to be unknown to the Babylonians: which courses of piers rose above one another, till they reached the level of the top of the city walls. ...
Yet, while in the plenitude of its power, and, according to the most accurate chronologers, 160 years before the foot of an enemy had entered it, the voice of an enemy had entered it, the voice of prophecy pronounced the doom of the mighty and unconquered Babylon. Herodotus states, that he knew not how to speak of its wonderful fertility, which none but eye witnesses would credit; and, though writing in the language of Greece, itself a fertile country, he expresses his own consciousness that his description of what he actually saw would appear to be improbable, and to exceed belief. For, though for many centuries the site of Babylon was unknown, or the ruins of other Chaldean cities mistaken for its remains, its true situation and present condition have been, within a few years, satisfactorily ascertained, and accurately described, by several most intelligent and enterprising travellers. ...
When in the plenitude of its greatness, splendour and strength, Babylon first yielded to the arms of Cyrus, whose name, and the manoeuvre by which the city was taken, were mentioned by Isaiah nearly two hundred years before the event; which was also predicted by Jeremiah: "Go up, O Elam, (or Persia,) besiege, O Media. But, possessed of provisions for twenty years which in their timid caution they had plentifully stored, they derided Cyrus from their impregnable walls, within which they remained. How is the praise of the whole Earth surprised!"—...
"In their heat I will make their feasts, and I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not awake, saith the Lord. A louder and altered clamour, no longer joyous, caught the Ear of the inmates of the palace, and the bright light showed them the work of destruction, without revealing its cause. "The king of Babylon heard the report of them; anguish took hold of him;" he and all who were about him perished; God had "numbered" his kingdom and finished it; it was "divided," and given to the Medes and Persians; the lives of the Babylonian princes, and lords, and rulers, and captains, closed with that night's festival; the drunken slept "a perpetual sleep, and did not wake. These advanced as Cyrus approached; two thousand spearmen followed them. And at a later period, or about 130 years before the birth of Christ, Humerus, a Parthian governor, who was noted as excelling all tyrants in cruelty, exercised great severities on the Babylonians; and having burned the forum and some of the temples, and destroyed the fairest parts of the city, reduced many of the inhabitants to slavery on the slightest pretexts, and caused them, together with all their households, to be sent into Media. "They come from a far country, from the end of the Earth, to destroy the whole land. And though the names of some of these nations were unknown to the Babylonians, and unheard of in the world at the time of the prophecy, most of these "many nations and great kings" need now but to be named, to show that, in local relation to Chaldea, "they came from the utmost border, from the coasts of the Earth. Ravaged and spoiled for ages, the Chaldees' excellency finally disappeared, and the land became desolate, as still it remains. On the one side, near to the site of Opis, "the country all around," says Mr. Buckingham, "appears to be one wide desert, of sandy, and barren sod, thinly scattered over with brushwood and tufts of reedy grass. That it was at some former period in a far different state, is evident from the number of canals by which it is traversed, now dry and neglected; and the quantity of heaps of Earth covered with fragments of brick and broken tiles, which are seen in every direction, the indisputable traces of former population. "Extensive ridges and mountains, (near to Houmania,) varying in height and extent, are seen branching in every direction. " On the opposite bank of the Tigris, where Ctesiphon its rival stood, beside fragments of walls and broken masses of brick work, and remains of vast structures encumbered with heaps of Earth, there is one magnificent monument of antiquity "in a remarkably perfect state of preservation," "a large and noble pile of building, the front of which presents to view a wall three hundred feet in length, adorned with four rows of arched recesses, with a central arch, in span eighty-six feet, and above a hundred feet high, supported by walls sixteen feet thick, and leading to a hall which extends to the depth of a hundred and fifty-six feet," the width of the building. A great part of the back wall, and of the roof, is broken down; but that which remains "still appears much larger than Westminster Abbey. " In the rear of the palace, and attached to it, are mounds two miles in circumference, indicating the utter desolation of buildings, formed to minister to luxury. All its grandeur is departed; all its treasures have been spoiled; all its excellence has utterly vanished; the very heaps are searched for bricks, when nothing else can be found; even these are not left, wherever they can be taken away; and Babylon has for ages been "a quarry above ground," ready to the hand of every successive despoiler. "The ground is extremely soft, and tiresome to walk over, and appears completely exhausted of all its building materials; nothing now is left, save one towering hill, the Earth of which is mixed with fragments of broken brick, red varnished pottery, tile, bitumen, mortar, glass, shells, and pieces of mother of pearl,"—worthless fragments, of no value to the poorest. " While the workmen "cast her up as heaps" while excavating for bricks, that they may "take" them "from thence," and that "nothing may be left;" they labour more than trebly in the fulfilment of prophecy: for the numerous and deep excavations form pools of water, on the overflowing of the Euphrates, and, annually filled, they are not dried up throughout the year. " "Our path," says Captain Mignan, "lay through the great mass of ruined heaps on the site of ‘shrunken Babylon;' and I am perfectly incapable of conveying an adequate idea of the dreary, lonely nakedness that appeared before me. " From Rauwolff's testimony it appears that, in the sixteenth century, "there was not a house to be seen. " And now "the eye wanders over a barren desert, in which the ruins are nearly the only indication that it had ever been inhabited. " "It is impossible," adds Major Keppel, "to behold this scene and not to be reminded how exactly the predictions of Isaiah and Jeremiah have been fulfilled, even in the appearance Babylon was doomed to present, that ‘she should never be inhabited;' that ‘the Arabian should not pitch his tent there;' that she should ‘become heaps;' that her cities should be ‘a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness. Instead of taking the bricks from thence, the shepherd might very readily erect a defence from wild beasts, and make a fold for his flock amidst the heaps of Babylon; and the Arab who fearlessly traverses it by day, might pitch his tent by night
Jerusalem - But these days were not to last long: intestine divisions and foreign wars, wicked and tyrannical princes, and, last of all, the crime most offensive to Heaven, and the one least to be expected among so favoured a people, led to a series of calamities, through the long period of nine hundred years, with which no other city or nation can furnish a parallel. Four years after this, the city and temple were taken and plundered by Shishak, king of Egypt, 1 Kings 14:26-27 ; 2 Chronicles 12:2-9 . One hundred and forty-five years after, under Amaziah, they sustained the same fate from Joash, king of Israel, 2 Kings 14; 2 Chronicles 25. One hundred and sixty years from this period, the city was again taken, by Esar-haddon, king of Assyria; and Manasseh, the king, carried a prisoner to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33. Within the space of sixty-six years more it was taken by Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, whom Josiah, king of Judah, had opposed in his expedition to Carchemish; and who, in consequence, was killed at the battle of Megiddo, and his son Eliakim placed on the throne in his stead by Necho, who changed his name to Jehoiakim, and imposed a heavy tribute upon him, having sent his elder brother, Jehoahaz, who had been proclaimed king at Jerusalem, a prisoner to Egypt, where he died, 2 Kings 23; 2 Chronicles 35. Jerusalem was three times besieged and taken by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon within a very few years. And the third, in the reign of Zedekiah, the successor of Jehoiachin; in whose ninth year the most formidable siege which this ill fated city ever sustained, except that of Titus, was commenced. It continued two years; during a great part of which the inhabitants suffered all the horrors of famine: when, on the ninth day of the fourth month, in the eleventh year of Zedekiah, which answers to July in the year B. ...
During seventy years, the city and temple lay in ruins: when those Jews who chose to take immediate advantage of the proclamation of Cyrus, under the conduct of Zerubbabel, returned to Jerusalem, and began to build the temple; all the vessels of gold and silver belonging to which, that had been taken away by Nebuchadnezzar, being restored by Cyrus. Cambyses appears to have been too busily engaged in his Egyptian expedition to pay any attention to this malicious request. ...
His successor, Smerdis, the Magian, however, who in Scripture is called Artaxerxes, to whom a similar petition was sent, representing the Jews as a factious and dangerous people, listened to it, and, in the true spirit of a usurper, issued a decree putting a stop to the farther building of the temple, Ezra 4:7 , &c; which, in consequence, remained in an unfinished state till the second year, according to the Jewish, and third, according to the Babylonian and Persian account, of Darius Hystaspes, who is called simply Darius in Scripture. To him also a representation hostile to the Jews was made by their inveterate enemies, the Samaritans; but this noble prince refused to listen to it, and having searched the rolls of the kingdom, and found in the palace at Acmetha the decree of Cyrus, issued a similar one, which reached Jerusalem in the subsequent year, and even ordered these very Samaritans to assist the Jews in their work; so that it was completed in the sixth year of the same reign, Ezra 4:24 ; Ezra 5; Ezra 6:1-15 . But the city and walls remained in a ruinous condition until the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, the Artaxerxes Longimanus of profane history; by whom Nehemiah was sent to Jerusalem, with a power granted to him to rebuild them. But the building, notwithstanding, went steadily on; the men working with an implement of work in one hand, and a weapon of war in the other; and the wall, with incredible labour, was finished in fifty-two days, in the year B. From this time Jerusalem remained attached to the Persian empire, but under the local jurisdiction of the high priests, until the subversion of that empire by Alexander, fourteen years after. At length, in the year B. 170, Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, enraged at hearing that the Jews had rejoiced at a false report of his death, plundered Jerusalem, and killed eighty thousand men. Not more than two years afterward, this cruel tyrant, who had seized every opportunity to exercise his barbarity on the Jews, sent Apollonius with an army to Jerusalem; who pulled down the walls, grievously oppressed the people, and built a citadel on a rock adjoining the temple, which commanded that building, and had the effect of completely overawing the seditious. But this extremity of ignominy and oppression led, as might have been expected, to rebellion; and those Jews who still held their insulted religion in reverence, fled to the mountains, with Mattathias and Judas Maccabeus; the latter of whom, after the death of Mattathias, who with his followers and successors, are known by the name of Maccabees, waged successful war with the Syrians; defeated Apollonius, Nicanor, and Lysias, generals of Antiochus; obtained possession of Jerusalem, purified the temple, and restored the service, after three years' defilement by the Gentile idolatries. It was, however, twice besieged, first by Antiochus Eupator, in the year 163, and afterward by Antiochus Sidetes, in the year B. But the Jews had caused themselves to be sufficiently respected to obtain conditions of peace on both occasions, and to save their city; till, at length, Hyrcanus, in the year 130 B. , shook off the Syrian yoke, and reigned, after this event, twenty-one years in independence and prosperity. His successor, Judas, made an important change in the Jewish government, by taking the title of king which dignity was enjoyed by his successors forty-seven years, when a dispute having arisen between Hyrcanus II, and his brother Aristobulus, and the latter having overcome the former, and made himself king, was, in his turn, conquered by the Romans under Pompey, by whom the city and temple were taken, Aristobulus made prisoner, and Hyrcanus created high priest and prince of the Jews, but without the title of king. By this event Judea was reduced to the condition of a Roman province, in the year 63...
B. ...
Jerusalem lay in ruins about forty-seven years, when the Emperor AElius Adrian began to build it anew, and erected a Heathen temple, which he dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus. The city was finished in the twentieth year of his reign, and called, after its founder, AElia, or AElia Capitolina, from the Heathen deity who presided over it. In this state Jerusalem continued, under the name of AElia, and inhabited more by Christians and Pagans than by Jews, till the time of the Emperor Constantine, styled the Great; who, about the year 323, having made Christianity the religion of the empire, began to improve it, adorned it with many new edifices and churches, and restored its ancient name. About thirty-five years afterward, Julian, named the Apostate, not from any love he bore the Jews, but out of hatred to the Christians, whose faith he had abjured, and with the avowed design of defeating the prophecies, which had declared that the temple should not be rebuilt, wrote to the Jews, inviting them to their city, and promising to restore their temple and nation. He accordingly employed great numbers of workmen to clear the foundations; but balls of fire bursting from the Earth, soon put a stop to their proceeding. This miraculous interposition of Providence is attested by many credible witnesses and historians; and, in particular, by Ammianus Marcellinus, a Heathen, and friend of Julian; Zemuch David, a Jew; Nazianzen, Chrysostom, Ambrose Ruffinus, Theodoret, Sozomen, and Socrates, who wrote his account within fifty years after the transaction, and while many eye-witnesses of it were still living. ...
Jerusalem continued in nearly the same condition till the beginning of the seventh century, when it was taken and plundered by the celebrated Chosroes, king of Persia, by whom many thousands of the Christian inhabitants were killed, or sold for slaves. The Caliph Omar, the third from Mohammed, invested the city, which, after once more suffering the horrors of a protracted siege, surrendered on terms of capitulation in the year 637; and has ever since, with the exception of the short period that it was occupied by the crusaders, been trodden under foot by the followers of the false prophet. In the celebrated prospect from the Mount of Olives, the city lies too low, is too near the eye, and has too much the character of a bird's eye view, with the formality of a topographical plan. As we drew nearer, our whole attention was engrossed by its noble and interesting appearance. The lofty hills surrounding it give the city itself an appearance of elevation less than it really has. Buckingham says, "The appearance of this celebrated city, independent of the feelings and recollections which the approach to it cannot fail to awaken, was greatly inferior to my expectations, and had certainly nothing of grandeur or beauty, of stateliness or magnificence, about it. It appeared like a walled town of the third or fourth class, having neither towers, nor domes, nor minarets within it, in sufficient numbers to give even a character to its impressions on the beholder; but showing chiefly large flat-roofed buildings of the most unornamented kind, seated amid rugged hills, on a stony and forbidding soil, with scarcely a picturesque object in the whole compass of the surrounding view. In the western quarter, and in the centre of the city, the houses stand very close; but, in the eastern part, along the brook Kedron, you perceive vacant spaces; among the rest, that which surrounds the mosque erected on the ruins of the temple, and the nearly deserted spot where once stood the castle of Antonia and the second palace of Herod. The whole would appear to the eye one uninterrupted level, did not the steeples of the churches, the minarets of the mosques, the summits of a few cypresses, and the clumps of nopals, break the uniformity of the plan. Not a creature is to be seen in the streets, not a creature at the gates extent now and then a peasant gliding through the gloom, concealing under his garments the fruits of his labour, lest he should be robbed of his hard Earnings by the rapacious soldier. The only noise heard from time to time in the city is the galloping of the steed of the desert: it is the janissary who brings the head of the Bedouin, or who returns from plundering the unhappy Fellah. What they did five thousand years ago, these people still continue to do. Crushed by the cross that condemns them, skulking near the temple, of which not one stone is left upon another, they continue in their deplorable infatuation. The Persians the Greeks, the Romans, are swept from the Earth; and a petty tribe, whose origin preceded that of those great nations, still exists unmixed among the ruins of its native land. Richardson: "In passing up to the synagogue, I was particularly struck with the mean and wretched appearance of the houses on both sides of the streets, as well as with the poverty of their inhabitants. The heart of this wonderful people, in whatever clime they roam, still turns to it as the city of their promised rest. In whatever part of the world he may live, the heart's desire of a Jew is to be buried in Jerusalem. Thither they return from Spain and Portugal, from Egypt and Barbary, and other countries among which they have been scattered: and when, after all their longings, and all their struggles up the steeps of life, we see them poor, and blind, and naked, in the streets of their once happy Zion, he must have a cold heart that can remain untouched by their sufferings. without uttering a prayer that God would have mercy on the darkness of Judah; and that the Day Star of Bethlehem might arise in their hearts. The best view of it is from the Mount of Olives: it commands the exact shape and nearly every particular; namely, the church of the holy sepulchre, the Armenian convent, the mosque of Omar, St. Without the walls are a Turkish burial ground, the tomb of David, a small grove near the tombs of the kings, and all the rest is a surface of rock, on which are a few numbered trees. The building itself has a light pagoda appearance; the garden in which it stands occupies a considerable part of the city, and, contrasted with the surrounding desert, is beautiful. The burial place of the Turks is under the walls, near St. The grave is strown with red Earth, supposed to be of the Ager Damascenes of which Adam was made; by the side of the corpse is placed a stick, and the priest tells him that the devil will tempt him to become a Christian, but that he must make good use of his stick; that his trial will last three days, and that he will then find himself in a mansion of glory," &c. "To men interested in tracing, within its walls, antiquities referred to by the documents of sacred history, no spectacle," remarks the learned traveller, "can be more mortifying than the city in its present state. The mistaken piety of the Early Christians, in attempting to preserve, has either confused or annihilated the memorials it was anxious to render conspicuous. The foundations are not only broken up, but every fragment of which they were composed is swept away, and the spectator looks upon the bare rock with hardly a sprinkling of Earth to point out her gardens of pleasure, or groves of idolatrous devotion. A few gardens still remain on the sloping base of Mount Zion, watered from the pool of Siloam; the gardens of Gethsemane are still in a sort of ruined cultivation; the fences are broken down, and the olive trees decaying, as if the hand that pressed and fed them were withdrawn; the Mount of Olives still retains a languishing verdure, and nourishes a few of those trees from which it derives its name; but all round about Jerusalem the general aspect is blighted and barren; the grass is withered; the bare rock looks through the scanty sward; and the grain itself, like the staring progeny of famine, seems in doubt whether to come to maturity, or die in the Ear
Perfection (of Jesus) - Can that be proved or made clear? Certain difficulties suggest themselves. Before His story begins, Jesus had lived for thirty years in this world, which is full to overflowing of all manner of sin. How can we be sure that no stain ever touched the purity of His soul during all those buried years, silent for ever now in quiet Nazareth? (2) There is also the whole story of a man’s inward life; the dreams of the secret heart, the fancies cherished in the recesses of fond imagination, the converse which the soul holds with itself. His eye rested on the beauty of the Earth with the poet’s joy and understanding. The face of this goodly universe spake joy within His heart. With what irony He sketches the indecision of the Pharisees, in the story of the children who will play neither at funerals nor at weddings! What deeper criticism of a prudential morality is there than in the words ‘he that saveth his life shall lose it’? what clearer perception of the hopelessness of a man’s attempt at self-deliverance than the parable of the house swept and garnished but empty? There is His indictment of the Pharisees (Matthew 23). But the marvel of it, the inner justification of it, is that there with utter clearness and precision He lays bare the essential evil of Pharisaism. The words of Jesus are a stream of lava seven times heated from a burning heart; but they are full of light; they track the hidden ways of pride and self-seeking in the religious heart. It was felt at Nazareth when they took up stone to stone Him and He passed through their midst (Luke 4:30), and at Gethsemane when the soldiers fell back before the majesty of His bearing (John 18:6). He was no less than thirty years of age when He was baptized in Jordan. He had been content to live with His thoughts and simple duties, perfecting there, in patient obedience, mind and heart and will for the great work. And even after the baptism, when the call had come, He went first to the wilderness, there in prayer and meditation to understand His work and His own heart. Will sits untroubled on its throne, whatever dissonances of Earth be round Him, though world and friend and foe conspire to turn Him aside. There He looked into the Father’s purpose, till the glory that lay beyond and the love that shone through it kindled their reflexion on His face, till He saw His way so clearly that He could never miss it, never be in any hesitation about it,—the way, amid the conflicting passions of men, to His throne on Calvary. Men of thought or action grow great oftentimes at the expense of their heart; but in Jesus the heart has equal sway with the mind or the will. And the woman who bathed His feet in Simon’s house, and Zacchaeus who lodged Him for the night, and Peter who listened to Him in the boat, all bear witness how, in His gracious presence, the sincere soul felt the evil of sin and the inflexible order of righteousness as it had never felt them before. Such a Kingdom is the finer breath and inspiration, the inner meaning and end, of all the imperfect, transient societies of Earth. His spirit will bear fruit within the Kingdom beyond what it could bear during the days He lived on Earth, revealing its infinite riches. ...
Jesus is the Lord of the new society, not only because He enunciated with perfect clearness its ultimate law, but because He Himself followed this law unerringly in His own life ‘without being let or hindered, as we are, by the motions of private passion and by self-will’ (M. And the trial served only to make clear the perfect identification of His mind with the heart and will of the Father. To the heart of Jesus His countrymen’s need of bread and of help to a better social state would always be present. They are a measure of a man’s moral sagacity, his clearness of vision both of his duty and of the means of realizing it, his simplicity of spirit and freedom from vanity or self-will. It was His to found a Kingdom not of this world, the Kingdom of God: and to provide, by His teaching and by the manifestation of His own loving heart in suffering and in death, what would quicken faith, and hope, and love in men throughout all lands and all times. There was the Rabbinic expectation of a kingdom of right obedience set up miraculously by God through the sudden appearance of the Messiah—a more refined, seemingly pious expectation, full of trust in God only and of zeal for His glory. In the wilderness Jesus had to face them: He had to come to a clear understanding of the nature of the Messianic Kingdom and of the means He had to use to establish it. The Earthly kingdom became spiritual; the glory of Israel became universal; the way of its establishment was to be through an appeal to the honest heart’s faith in God as the highest good and the convincing vision of goodness; and for Himself not any success and glory, but suffering, and shame, and death. He made it the occasion of showing clearly the spiritual nature of His mission, and reaped for His faithfulness their disbelief. Peter, in love, took Him aside and rebuked Him when He sought to prepare the disciples’ hearts for the shame and death before Him. Temptation thus entrenched itself against Him among the sanctities of the heart. He had no Ear for any of the suggestions of policy or worldly prudence, whose hour is alway ready; He was a man under authority, waiting for the call of the Father; and clear and sweet above the discordant voices of the world that call ever came, and He followed it to Calvary. He discerned clearly their worth. Jesus discerned the spiritual soundness which might underlie sins of passion, the capacity of generosity with its healing power, the quick and deep response to a gospel of forgiveness in the humility of self-accusing hearts, the sacred soil where love grows (Luke 7:47; Luke 18:13, Matthew 21:28-32). The simplicity of Jesus’ feeling of brotherhood for them is witnessed by the fact that they drew near to Him gladly (Luke 15:1, Matthew 9:10). His help in sickness was for rich and poor, in all circumstances and conditions—the solitary leper, and the mourning widow in the streets of Nain; the paralytic of thirty-eight years, friendless and helpless, and the bond-servant of the household of the Roman centurion, whose name was held in honour throughout all Capernaum; the daughter of Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue, and the daughter of a nameless Gentile woman of Syro-Phœnicia. Illumination rises from the heart. That is an ideal which thought may win; but it has been fully realized only in Him who suffered the contradiction of sinners with unfailing patience and serenity of heart, and who prayed on the cross for those who placed Him there, and who reviled Him in His agony, ‘Father, forgive them: for they know not what they do’ (Luke 23:34). It looks through the sad irony of His answer to the Pharisees when they complained of the religious light-heartedness of His followers and He said, ‘The days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days’ (Mark 2:20). And as soon as the disciples had come to clear faith in Him as the Messiah, He began to prepare them for disappointment and tribulation and His death. This was the inevitable end of the method He had chosen in the wilderness, when He renounced all powers of persuasion but that of an appeal to the heart. (1) There was in Him the union of the loftiest self-consciousness and the utmost sobriety of mind and lowliness of heart. The Son did nothing but what He learned from the Father (John 5:19). His aim was to create in men’s hearts faith in God as their Father, and He was content to let that faith come to its own appreciation of Him and His claims. Jesus Himself says to the complaining Pharisees, ‘Can the children of the bridechamber fast while the bridegroom is with them?’ The joy of the bridegroom was in His heart. They could love much: the authentic Divine seal was still on their hearts. He met the world’s sin; He had to endure the disbelief of His brethren and the forsaking of His followers; He was led to see the very throne of Satan in the hypocrisy of religious men, and in the cruelty and inhuman pride of Earth’s saints. It was the inward rapture of a heart that saw, beyond the darkness, light; beyond the hatreds and crimes of men, the love of the Father turning sin to blessed account. But peace, ‘subsisting at the heart of endless agitation,’ was His. Peace breathes through it, peace ‘whose other names are rapture, power, clear sight, and love
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - ...
The parents of Theodoret were both dead when he was 23 years old. ...
After some 7 years in the Apamean monastery, he was drawn to assume the cares of the episcopate. He was unwearied in preaching, and his acquaintance with the Syrian vernacular enabled him to reach the poorest and most ignorant. At that gathering Theodoret, accompanying his metropolitan, Alexander of Hierapolis, was among the Earlier comers, anticipating the Oriental brethren, whose arrival he, with 68 bishops, vainly urged should be waited for before the council opened (Baluz. Theodoret's name appears in the letters and other documents passing between the Oriental party at Ephesus and their representatives in Chalcedon, in which much was said and written in a bitter spirit (Labbe, vol. 104–109), and a letter of his to Alexander of Hierapolis, whom he was representing, informing him how matters were going on at Chalcedon, telling him of the popularity of the deputies with the people, who, in spite of the hostility of the clergy and monks by whom they had been repeatedly stoned, flocked to hear them, assembling in a large court surrounded with porticos, the churches being closed against them; but Theodoret laments their ill-success with the emperor. Finding his growing isolation more and more intolerable, Theodoret invited the chiefs of the fast-lessening band of his sympathizers, Alexander, Andrew, and others, to take counsel at Zeugma, in reference to the union with Cyril, which had been accepted by John and Earnestly pressed upon them by the combined weight of the ecclesiastical and civil power. Dioscorus was resolved to bring about Theodoret's overthrow, as Theodoret was one of the first to discern the nascent heresy of Eutyches, and directed the powers of a well-trained intellect and great theological learning to exposing it. The Ear of the emperor was gained, and Theodoret was represented as a turbulent busybody, constantly at Antioch and other cities, taking part in councils and assemblies instead of attending to his diocese; a troublesome agitator, stirring up strife wherever he moved (Ep. He had not long to wait for the confirmation of his worst fears. " The council exclaimed that they had heard enough to warrant the immediate deposition of Theodoret, as the emperor had already ordered. He was allowed to retire to his monastery near Apamea (Ep. Theodoret appears to have been mentioned by name in the edict of recall. Although his orthodoxy had been acknowledged by Leo and his restoration required by the emperor, the anti-Nestorian section would not hear of his recognition as a bishop until he had in express terms anathematized Nestorius. Wearied out, at last he yielded to their clamour and pronounced the test words, "Anathema to Nestorius, and to every one who denies that the Holy Virgin Mary is the mother of God, and who divides the one Son, the Only-begotten, into two Sons. ...
But few years remained to Theodoret, and of these very little is known. The commentary on the Canticles was his Earliest exegetical work. He controverts the opinion that this book contains the story of the Earthly loves of Solomon either with Pharaoh's daughter or with Abishag, or that it is a political allegory, in which the bridegroom represents the monarch and the bride the people, and adopts the spiritual interpretation by which the bridegroom stands for Jesus Christ and the bride for the church. From one passage in the very interesting prologue we learn that Theodoret held the then current opinion, that the whole of the O. He denounces the iniquity of the Jews, who had excluded Daniel from the prophets and placed his book among the Hagiographa, because no prophet had so clearly predicted the advent of Jesus Christ, and the very time of His appearance. Photius finds fault with his too great fondness for metaphor, while he praises his style as "clear, lofty, and free from redundancy" ( Cod. The history is learned and generally impartial, "though it is occasionally one-sided and runs off into a theological treatise. Newman calls the "easy credence, or as moderns would say large credulousness," which appears more astonishing as he had been brought up in the most matter-of-fact, prosaic, and critical school of ancient Christendom