What does Dead, The mean in the Bible?


Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Dead, the
DEAD, THE (οἱ νεκροί)
1. The reverence and regard due from the living to the dead, according to the ideas which the Jews shared with other nations, are clearly illustrated in the Gospels. All honour is paid to the corpse in preparation for burial: it is anointed with spices and unguents (Mark 16:1, Luke 23:56, John 19:39; cf. what Jesus says in Mark 14:8), and wrapped in fitting cerements (Mark 15:46 etc.). Reverent burial is given, the funeral train following the body borne uncoffined upon a bier (Luke 7:11-13). The omission of any mention of burial in the case of Lazarus in the parable (Luke 16:22), as contrasted with the case of the rich man, who ‘had a funeral,’ bespeaks a poor abject. The dead are bewailed by kinsfolk (John 11:31; John 11:33), by sympathetic neighbours, and by hired mourners (Mark 5:38, Matthew 9:23). Jesus in the noteworthy saying in Luke 9:60 (= Matthew 8:22), ‘Let the dead bury their dead,’ overrides a chief charge on filial affection, the burial of a father, as He emphasizes the paramount claims of discipleship. Such observances are not only the expression of natural grief; they involve belief in the continued existence of the dead, as is also the case with other forms of duty to the dead such as are insisted on in the Talmud. e.g. their wishes are to be respected and fulfilled (Git. 14b), they are free from all obligation (Shab. 30a), it is unlawful to speak evil of them (Berakh. 19a)—cf. the familiar proverb, De mortuis nil nisi bonum.
2. The teaching of Jesus concerning the dead.—Whatever may be gathered from the words of Jesus touching the state of the dead is to be regarded in the light of the current Jewish beliefs of His day, to see how far He sanctions such beliefs, and in what respects He corrects and modifies them. The tenets of the Sadducees, denying the resurrection, future retribution, and indeed any continuance of personal being after death, constituted a sectarian opinion from the standpoint of later Judaism. The Sadducees, it is true, seemed to adhere to the older teaching of the OT, wherein for the most part nothing is allowed concerning the dead (rěphâ’ìm) but a thin, shadowy existence in Sheol. They were, however, influenced in this respect by Hellenism and their affectation of culture rather than by zeal for the earlier Jewish faith (Schürer, HJP [1] ii. ii. 38 f.). The common belief, illustrated in the later literature of Judaism, was virtually that of the Pharisees, who held that the soul is imperishable, that rewards and punishments follow this life under the earth (cf. Lat. inferi), that for the wicked there is an eternal imprisonment, but for the righteous a resurrection to eternal life (Josephus BJ ii. 8; Ant. xviii. 1). This resurrection is connected with the glory of the Messianic kingdom.
Jesus definitely repudiates the Sadducean view (Mark 12:24; Mark 12:18-275), and endorses, as to its substance, that of the Pharisees. (For a different view, cf. E. White, Life in Christ, ch. 16). In His dealing with the Sadducees and their catch-question on this subject (1618397736_79 and parallels), He teaches that the dead are really alive and in a state of consciousness. So also in the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19 ff.), with a sharp distinction between experiences of misery and bliss as entered upon by souls after death. This parable also favours the belief in the soul’s direct and immediate entrance upon this new conscious state, as do our Lord’s words in Luke 23:43 ‘To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise.’ We are not, however, to allow a literal interpretation of His language in this connexion to dominate our appreciation of what the Gospels afford as regards belief concerning the state of the dead. The expression ‘Abraham’s bosom,’ e.g., is of no dogmatic value to us, though suitable and significant to the men of our Lord’s day. Similarly with the other pictorial elements; they are only of the same order as the imagery with which other faiths have invested ideas concerning the hereafter. The matter of abiding importance here is the teaching that at death a judgment already takes effect, the portion of the soul in the after life being determined with direct reference to the life lived in the present world, with results that may be in startling contrast to the estimates of a man and his condition formed by his fellow-men here. This conception seems to find expression in a symbol found on early Christian tombs in Phrygia, viz. an open book or set of tabellae, which Ramsay explains as ‘indicating death and the judgment of God after death; the tablets are open to indicate that the process of judgment has begun’ (see art. in Expositor, March 1905, p. 223).
Such a representation of the condition of the dead in Hades is not, however, to be understood as excluding a remoter crisis in the soul’s history, such as is suggested by the prominent NT conception of ‘the judgment’ and ‘the day of judgment.’ As Weiss says, the retribution thus set forth as befalling a soul in Hades ‘does not exclude an ultimate decision as to its final fate’ (Theol. of NT, i. p. 156 note, English translation). ‘Abraham’s bosom’ or ‘Paradise,’ moreover, does not denote a final and ‘perfect consummation and bliss,’ in the eschatological views of the Jews in the time of Christ. The resurrection lies beyond. Jesus in His encounter with the Sadducees uses the language of His time, and speaks of the resurrection as a transition and crisis awaiting the dead (Mark 12:25, Matthew 22:30). The wording of the Lukan account (20:35) is particularly noticeable—οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν κ. τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν. There is an ‘age to come’ (rather than ‘world,’ see Dalman, Worte Jesu, English translation p. 153), which is to be attained by those that shall have been deemed worthy of it, an age evidently to be thought of as ushered in by the resurrection from among the dead. That age (= ‘the kingdom’ elsewhere), embodying the highest hopes of the Jews for the hereafter, answers to all the highest conceptions as to human destiny found amongst people of other faiths. And evideutly it is not immediately attained at death, according to the language of Jesus. If, then, an accumulation of weighty considerations seems to some to support the doctrine of an intermediate state for those who have passed from this life—a doctrine already familiar to the Jews in our Lord’s time (see Salmond, Chr. Doet. of Immortality, p. 345 f.)—the teaching of the Gospels offers no definite opposition. A state, i.e., not simply of vague gloom or attenuated being, but of vivid consciousness; for the blessed dead ‘a condition in fellowship with God, containing in itself the germ of an everlasting heavenly life towards which it tends’ (Wendt, Lehre Jesu, English translation i. p. 223), with progress and growth from more to more; and in the case of others, a state affording room for the hope that there a solution is to be found for a multitude of otherwise inscrutable life problems in regard to man’s salvation. Such comfortable words as John 14:2-3; John 17:24 do not conflict with this conception as regards the state of the blessed dead, and they are to be thought of as being ‘with Christ’ in a manner which is ‘very far better’ (Philippians 1:23) than what may be known in the present life.
Salmond (op. cit. ch. 5), arguing on the whole against the doctrine of an intermediate state, relies mainly on the fact that no positive doctrine of this kind is found in Christ’s words, and observes that towards this subject ‘His attitude is one of significant reserve’; but this argumentum e silentio of itself tells just as much one way as the other. Those who maintain that death brings irrevocable doom to all and admits immediately to full and final destiny, are hard pressed by manifold difficulties. What expedients they are driven to in order to mitigate these are illustrated, e.g., in Randles’ After Death. The author eagerly urges how much is possible in the way of repentance and pardon even in articulo mortis. ‘After all intercourse between the dying and their friends has ceased, a saving work of God proceeds’; ‘repentance and faith, pardon and sanctification, may proceed with speed and power such as were never evinced in previous years’ (p. 250 f.). Greatly to the credit of his heart, in anxiously maintaining his position he also advances considerations which lead, he thinks, to the conclusion that ‘the proportion of the finally lost to the saved will be about as the proportion of the criminal part of England’s population to all the rest’ (p. 244 f.)! The consideration of the solemn subject of final destiny lies beyond the scope of this article.
3. Christ’s figurative use of the term ‘dead.’—The use of the term as descriptive of a certain spiritual condition, unperceiving, unresponsive, is illustrated in the saying of Luke 9:60, quoted above. In Luke 15:24 it occurs as tantamount to ‘lost.’ The dead spoken of in John 5:21-26, to whom the Son gives eternal life, are so described in virtue of their condition prior to their believing on Him.
Literature.—Artt. ‘Eschatology’ and ‘Resurrection’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible; ‘Eschatology’ and ‘Dead’ in Encyc. Bibl.; ‘Duty to the Dead’ in Jewish Encyc.; Schürer, HJP [1] (as quoted); Weiss, Bib. Theol. of NT, English translation in the relative §§; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus, English translation in the relative §§; Stevens, Theol. of NT, p. 166; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; Drummond, The Jewish Messiah; Stanton, The Jewish and the Christian Messiah; Luckock, After Death; Randles, After Death; Beet, Last Things; White, Life in Christ.
J. S. Clemens.

Sentence search

Hell - It is the place of the Dead, the location of the person between death and resurrection
Omri - When Tebni was Dead, the people united in Acknowledging Omri as king of all Israel, who reigned twelve years, six years at Tirzah, and six at Samaria, 1 Kings 16:8-28
Hell - It really means the place of the Dead, the unseen world, without deciding whether it be the place of misery or of happiness
Baptism For the Dead - Chrysostom says, this was practiced among the Marcionites with a great deal of ridiculous ceremony, which he thus describes:...
After any catechumen was Dead, they hid a living man under the bed of the deceased; then, coming to the dead man, they asked him whether he would receive baptism; and he making no answer, the other answered for him, and said he would be baptized in his stead; and so they baptized the living for the dead
Day of Christ - This work was to be inaugurated with the resurrection of the Dead, the establishing of judgment, and the conquest of His enemies
Hell - The English word hell is used to designate the place of the Dead, the grave, and also the place of punishment after death and the abode of evil spirits
Assassins - 3):...
‘There sprang up another sort of robbers in Jerusalem who were called Sicarii, who slew men in the daytime in the midst of the city, especially at the festivals, when they mixed with the multitude, and concealed little daggers under their garments, with which they stabbed those that were their enemies; and when any fell down Dead, the murderers joined the bystanders in expressing their indignation, so that from their plausibility they could by no means he discovered
Miracle - It is true indeed, in the instance of the resurrection of Lazarus from the Dead, the Lord Jesus first addressed his Father: but then he assigned the special reason for so doing; because"of them, said Jesus, that stood by, that they might know and believe that the Father had sent me
Dead, the - DEAD, THE (οἱ νεκροί)...
Hell - Thus, as Stuart observes, in his "Essay on Future Punishment," while the Old Testament employs sheol, in most cases to designate the grave, the region of the Dead, the place of departed spirits, it employs it also, in some cases, to designate along with this idea the adjunct one of the place of misery, place of punishment, region of wo
Sadducees - Also, they did not believe in the continued existence of the soul after death, the bodily resurrection of the Dead, the directing will of God in the events of life, or the existence of angelic beings
First-Fruits - ...
The word rendered first-fruits (ἀπαρχή) occurs 8 times in the NT, and only in 1 Corinthians 15:20; 1 Corinthians 15:23 is it applied directly to our Lord: ‘Now hath Christ been raised from the Dead, the first-fruits of them that are asleep’; ‘Christ the first-fruits; then they that are Christ’s
Pillar - With this desire to do honour to the Dead, the idea of keeping alive his memory by a conspicuous or upright stone was sooner or later associated
Raise - 34, where stress is laid upon His being "raised" from the Dead, the same verb being used: (d) of "raising" up seed, Matthew 22:24 ; (e) of being "raised" from natural sleep, Matthew 1:24 , AV, "being raised" (RV, "arose"); here some mss
Child - The poor woman, whose oil Elisha increased so much as enabled her to pay her husband's debts, complained to the prophet, that, her husband being Dead, the creditor was come to take away her two sons to be bondmen, 2 Kings 4:1
Sabbath - " (Hebrews 4:10)...
Since the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ from the Dead, the name of Sabbath hath been less used, and that of the Lord's day substituted more generally in its place; and the authority for so doing is derived from the apostles
Mourning Customs - In addition to the successive outbursts of grief by members of the family, who have to be comforted and pleaded with and led away from the prostrate figure of the Dead, the sustained ceremony of mourning is attended to by the neighbours
Sadducees - had two disciples, who in turn taught disciples his saying "be not like servants who serve their master for the sake of reward, but serve without view of reward"; and that the disciples reasoned, "if our fathers had known that there is another world, and a resurrection of the Dead, they would not have spoken thus"; so they separated themselves from the law (and denied there is another world and a resurrection); "so there arose two sects, the Zadokites from Zadok, and Baithusians from Baithos
Samaria - Within is a Turkish tomb under which by steps you descend to a vault with tessellated floor, and five niches for the Dead, the central one being alleged to have been that of John (?)
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - ]'>[1] ...
Acacias being now Dead, the dispute concerned only the retention of his name in the diptychs of the Eastern church
Ephesus - Having tried eclecticism and syncretism in vain, it was ‘standing between two worlds, one Dead, the other powerless to be born
Eschatology - It includes the two ages, the non-physical resurrection of the Dead, the Judgment with its sentences, and the establishment of eternal states
Apocalyptic Literature - ( b ) Assuming the name of some worthy long since Dead, the apocalyptist re-wrote the past in terms of prophecy in the name of some hero or seer of Hebrew history
John the Apostle - ...
Still, in spite of the record, the legend lingered long in the Church, and is mentioned by Augustine, that though apparently Dead, the beloved Apostle was only asleep, and that the dust upon his tomb rose and fell with his breathing
Redemption (2) - Salvation from bodily ills, indeed, appears as an important part of Christ’s ministry, as in the healing of disease, the casting out of demons, the raising of the Dead, the feeding of the multitudes (Matthew 4:23-24; Luke 3:3 etc
Metaphor - -1 Corinthians 15:20 : ‘But now hath Christ been raised from the Dead, the firstfruits of them that slept
Miracles - Three He restored to life in an ascending gradation: Jairus' daughter just Dead, the Nain widow's son being carried to burial, Lazarus four days dead and decomposing (Matthew 9:18; Luke 7:11-12; John 11)
Christ in the Middle Ages - He is the life of the living, the resurrection of the Dead, the restorer of the deformed and disordered who have corrupted and spoiled themselves by sin, the beginning of all light, the illumination of all those who are illuminated, the revealer of obscurity according to what it is proper for us to know, and the beginning of all beginning