What does Deacon mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Deacon
(Greek: diakonos, minister)
The highest of those in major orders but the lowest in rank of the hierarchical orders instituted by Christ. The Roman Pontifical states his duties thus: to minister to the altar, to baptize, to preach. The diaconate is of divine institution (Trent, session 23, canon 6). In the Catholic Church it is a sacrament.
see also:
archdeacon - New Catholic Dictionary
deacon - Catholic Encyclopedia
deaconess - New Catholic Dictionary
patrons - Patron Saints Index
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Deacon, Philip the, Saint
Born Caesarea, Palestine; died there c58 Also known as Philip the Deacon. One of the seven deacons (Acts 6), he first preached in Samaria with great success, and confirmed his preaching with miracles (Acts 8). He converted many who "received the Holy Ghost" (Acts 8) and, commanded by an angel, travelled from Jerusalem to Gaza, on the way converting and baptizing the eunuch of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia (Acts 8). From there he was transported by Divine power to Azotus, and preached to all the cities until he came to Caesarea (Acts 8), where he lived with his four daughters, virgins with the gift of prophecy (Acts 21). Represented baptizing the eunuch of Ethiopia or with his four daughters. Feast, June 6,.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Deacon
, DEACONESS The term “deacon” is derived from the Greek word diakonos , which is usually translated “servant” or “minister.” Only a few times in the New Testament (Philippians 1:1 ; 1Timothy 3:8,1 Timothy 3:12 , and, in some translations, Romans 16:1 ) is it translated “deacon” and used to denote one holding a church office. The noun form comes from a verb which means “to serve,” probably originally in the sense of waiting on tables. It came to be used to signify a broad range of types of service. In the New Testament, the noun is used to refer to ministers of the gospel (Colossians 1:23 ), ministers of Christ (1 Timothy 4:6 ), servants of God (2 Corinthians 6:4 ), those who follow Jesus (John 12:26 ), and in many other similar ways.
Although Philippians 1:1 and 1 Timothy 3:1 clearly indicate that the office of deacon existed in New Testament times, no explicit Bible reference describes the duties of deacons or refers to the origin of the office. In Philippians 1:1 and in numerous references in early Christian literature outside the New Testament, bishops and/or elders and deacons are mentioned together, with deacons mentioned last. Because of this order, and because of the natural connotations of the word diakonos , most interpreters believe that deacons, from the beginning, served as assistants of the church leaders. Certainly, that was clearly the role of deacons by the second century. Deacons continued to fill an important role in the ministry of the early church, serving the needs of the poor, assisting in baptism and the Lord's Supper, and performing other practical ministerial tasks.
The nature of the qualifications of deacons outlined in 1 Timothy 3:8-13 perhaps indicates the function of deacons in the New Testament period. In most respects, the qualifications of deacons mirror those of the “bishops,” the leaders of the churches. The high standards of morality and character expected of both demonstrates the church's serious regard for the offices and the importance of their functions. The requirements that deacons must have a clear understanding of the faith ( 1 Timothy 3:9 ) and that their faithfulness already be proven (1 Timothy 3:10 ) indicate that their duties consisted of more than menial chores. The exclusion of those who are “doubletongued” (1 Timothy 3:8 ) may be evidence that the work of the deacons brought them into close contact with the everyday lives of the church members, as would occur in visiting the sick and ministering to the other physical needs of fellow Christians. Such service would both give them greater knowledge of items for gossip and allow them greater opportunity to spread such gossip, thus making it crucial that they should not be prone to talebearing. The requirement that deacons not be greedy may indicate that they were responsible for collecting and distributing church funds.
Whether the deacons' functions extended to leading in worship is not clear. Gifts for teaching, a requirement for “bishops,” are not mentioned in the qualifications for deacons. The connotations of table service in the word diakonos and the centrality of the Lord's Supper in the worship of the early church strongly imply that distributing the elements and, in the early years, serving the agape meal were important functions of deacons.
Many interpreters believe that the account of the choosing of the seven in Acts 6:1 describes the selection of the first deacons, although the term diakonos is not used in the passage and the term diakonia (“service” or “ministry”) is used only for the work of the twelve. The tasks that the seven performed, however, later seem to be principal functions of deacons. On the other hand, two of the seven, Stephen and Philip, are known to us as prominent preachers and evangelists, roles which may not have been common for deacons. The seven were set apart for their task in a ceremony in which the apostles “laid their hands on them” ( Acts 6:6 ). This ceremony may reflect the origin of later ordination practice. Other than this passage, which may or may not represent usual practice, the New Testament does not mention ordination of deacons.
The list of qualifications in 1 Timothy 3:11 requires that “women” must “likewise” (NAS) be similar in character to the men. Although this remark may refer to the wives of male deacons (KJV, NIV) it probably should be interpreted as a parenthetical reference to female deacons, or deaconesses (NIV footnote; NAS footnote; NRSV footnote). Romans 16:1 refers to Phebe as a diakonos of the church at Cenchrea. Williams New Testament translates this as deaconess. The NRSV uses “deacon.” Other translations use “servant.” In this verse, Phebe's role as “helper” and Paul's obvious regard for her work seem to support the conclusion that she functioned as a deacon in her church. Deaconesses are mentioned prominently in Christian writings of the first several centuries. They cared for needy fellow believers, visited the sick, and were especially charged with assisting in the baptism of women converts.
Fred A. Grissom
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Deacon, Deaconess
The word "deacon" essentially means servant. The word group consists of diakoneo [1] (occurring thirty-six times in the New Testament) meaning to serve or support; diakonia [2] (occurring thirty-three times in the New Testament) meaning service, support, or ministry; and diakonos [3] (occurring twenty-nine times in the New Testament), meaning server, servant, or deacon. The word group as a whole is scarce in the Septuagint, occurring approximately nine times. The word has both a general and technical sense in the New Testament. It may simply refer to any type of service or personal assistance performed for another. In the common usage of the day, the word meant to wait on tables or to assist or care for household needs. Eventually, the word came to mean "to serve" in any capacity.
The idea of serving others was not popular among the Greeks. Jews on the other hand found nothing inherently distasteful about service. Yet it was the Lord Jesus who raised service to a completely new level. He used the word as an expression of his humiliation in giving his life in suffering and death as a ransom (Matthew 20:28 ; Mark 10:45 ). Thus the word takes on the sense of loving action for others, especially in the community of faith, which is rooted in and founded upon divine love as seen in the atonement of Christ.
In this light, Paul could speak of being a servant of the new covenant (2 Corinthians 3:6 ), of righteousness (2 Corinthians 11:15 ), of Christ (2Col 11:23; Colossians 1:7 ; Titus 2:3-55 ), of God (2 Corinthians 6:4 ), of the gospel (Ephesians 3:7 ; Colossians 1:23 ), and of the church (Colossians 1:25 ).
The institution of the technical office seems to be found in Acts 6 . Although the noun "deacon" (diakonos [ Acts 1:8 ). That these men served in a manner transcending the traditional notion of deacon is clearly seen in the prophetic teaching activity of Stephen (Acts 6-7 ) and the evangelistic ministry of Philip (Acts 8 ).
First Timothy 3:8-13 is the most complete account in Scripture addressing the office of deacon. (In Philippians 1:1 ; it is only mentioned as being an office along with that of the bishops. ) As in Acts 6 , the emphasis is again on character qualifications rather than function. In fact, the qualities necessary for eligibility run in close parallel to those for bishops. Emphasis is placed upon the necessity of an exemplary life. Thus deacons must be worthy of respect, sincere (lit. "not double-tongued"), not indulging excessively in wine, not pursuing dishonest gain, holding the mystery (proved and approved), being found blameless, husband of one wife (a one-woman kind of man publicly and privately), and a good manager of children and household. The reward for such service found in verse 13 is having both an "excellent standing" and "great assurance" in the faith (before both God and people). Because teaching and leadership are not mentioned, the servant role of this office is made clear. These men are to be helpers in the practical areas of ministry, eligible to serve because of the unquestioned integrity of their lives.
It is possible, although not certain, that women served as deaconesses in the early church. In Romans 16:1 Phoebe of Cenchrea is commended as a sister of us, being also a diakonon . Whether the word is to be understood in a general or technical sense is open to debate. Of further significance for this issue is 1 Timothy 3:11 ; 5:3-16 , and Titus 2:3-5 . In 1 Timothy 3:11 , there appears the phrase gynaikas hosautos, translated "likewise the women." "The women" has been variously interpreted to mean the wives of the deacons, female assistants to the deacons, deaconesses, or women in general. In favor of view 1 is the fact that gunaikos [1]9 occurs also in verses 2,12, where it clearly means wife. Second, to return to qualifications for deacons in verses 12-13, and to address the children in verse 12, argues for wives being in view in verse 11.
In favor of views 2,3 is the use of the word "likewise." The same word also occurs in verse 8 and is used to introduce a distinct but related subject (deacons versus overseers). Second, the absence of the word "their" would seem to imply that the women in view are not the wives of deacons but rather women who serve in the same capacity as the men. Third, the list of qualifications for the women, although abbreviated (only one verse), is similar to those for the deacons. Fourth, the silence concerning any qualifications for the bishop's wife (3:1-7) argues against this being understood as referring to deacons' wives. When 1 Timothy 5:3-16 and 1618106574_67 are taken into consideration, it appears quite probably that there was a servant-oriented group of women in the early church. These women may have been wives of deacons. That such women would have ministered to other women, especially those in need of physical assistance and spiritual instruction, seems most likely. Practical considerations such as baptisms and intimate personal counseling and care would indeed have necessitated such a ministry of women to women.
Daniel L. Akin
See also Church, the ; Servant, Service ; Woman
Bibliography . H. W. Beyer, TDNT, 2:81-93; G. M. Burge, EDT, pp. 295-96; D. Guthrie, New Testament Theology ; K. Hess, NIDNTT, 3:544-49; L. Morris, BDT, pp. 156-57.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Deacon
1: διάκονος (Strong's #1249 — Noun — diakonos — dee-ak'-on-os ) (Eng., "deacon"), primarily denotes a "servant," whether as doing servile work, or as an attendant rendering free service, without particular reference to its character. The word is probably connected with the verb dioko, "to hasten after, pursue" (perhaps originally said of a runner). "It occurs in the NT of domestic servants, John 2:5,9 ; the civil ruler, Romans 13:4 ; Christ, Romans 15:8 ; Galatians 2:17 ; the followers of Christ in relation to their Lord, John 12:26 ; Ephesians 6:21 ; Colossians 1:7 ; 4:7 ; the followers of Christ in relation to one another, Matthew 20:26 ; 23:11 ; Mark 9:35 ; 10:43 ; the servants of Christ in the work of preaching and teaching, 1 Corinthians 3:5 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; 6:4 ; 11:23 ; Ephesians 3:7 ; Colossians 1:23,25 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:2 ; 1 Timothy 4:6 ; those who serve in the churches, Romans 16:1 (used of a woman here only in NT); Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:8,12 ; false apostles, servants of Satan, 2 Corinthians 11:15 . Once diakonos is used where, apparently, angels are intended, Matthew 22:13 ; in v. 3, where men are intended, doulos is used." * [1]
Diakonos is, generally speaking, to be distinguished from doulos, "a bondservant, slave;" diakonos views a servant in relationship to his work; doulos views him in relationship to his master. See, e.g., Matthew 22:2-14 ; those who bring in the guests (vv. 3,4,6,8,10) are douloi; those who carry out the king's sentence (v. 13) are diakonoi.
Note: As to synonymous terms, leitourgos denotes "one who performs public duties;" misthios and misthotos, "a hired servant;" oiketes, "a household servant;" huperetes, "a subordinate official waiting on his superior" (originally an under-rower in a war-galley); therapon, "one whose service is that of freedom and dignity." See MINISTER , SERVANT.
The so-called "seven deacons" in Acts 6 are not there mentioned by that name, though the kind of service in which they were engaged was of the character of that committed to such.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Deacon
Anglicized form of the Greek word diaconos, meaning a "runner," "messenger," "servant." For a long period a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew. This jealousy early appeared in the Christian community. It was alleged by the Hellenists that their widows were overlooked in the daily distribution of alms. This spirit must be checked. The apostles accordingly advised the disciples to look out for seven men of good report, full of the Holy Ghost, and men of practical wisdom, who should take entire charge of this distribution, leaving them free to devote themselves entirely to the spiritual functions of their office (Acts 6:1-6 ). This was accordingly done. Seven men were chosen, who appear from their names to have been Hellenists. The name "deacon" is nowhere applied to them in the New Testament; they are simply called "the seven" (21:8). Their office was at first secular, but it afterwards became also spiritual; for among other qualifications they must also be "apt to teach" (1 Timothy 3 :: 812-12 ). Both Philip and Stephen, who were of "the seven," preached; they did "the work of evangelists."
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Deacon
One who has been ordained to the lowest order of theMinistry. The account of the institution of the order of Deaconsis found in the Acts of the Apostles 6:1-7. We here learn thatthe first Deacons were ordained to attend especially to thebenevolent work of the Church in caring for the poor, but theywere also preachers of the Word. The Office of Deacon is stillretained in the Church as an order of the Ministry, for "it isevident unto all men reading Holy Scripture and ancient Authors,that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders ofMinisters in Christ's Church,—Bishops, Priests and Deacons." ADeacon may assist the Priest at the Altar and administer the cup.He may baptize, say all choir offices, and if he is learned and is licensed thereto by the Bishop, he may preach, but he cannotadminister the Holy Communion, or pronounce the Absolution andthe Benediction. He wears his stole over the left shoulder andfastened under his right arm. If a Candidate for Priest's Ordersand can pass the required examination, he may after a year'sservice as a Deacon be advanced to the Priesthood.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Deacon
The appointment of the seven was designed to remedy the "murmuring of the Grecians (Greek-speaking Jews) against the Hebrew, because their widows were neglected in the daily ministration." The apostles said, "It is not reason that we should leave the word of God and serve ("be deacons to"; diakonein ) tables," i.e. secular business. It is an undesigned coincidence confirming the narrative, that, while no mention is made of their country, their names are all Grecian. The church's design evidently was that, since the murmurers were Grecians, their cause should be advocated by Hellenists. There was a common fund to which most disciples contributed by the sale of their property, and out of which the widows were relieved; a proof of the strong conviction of the truth of Christianity, which could constrain men to such self sacrifice. It is doubtful whether these seven correspond fully to the modern deacons of either episcopal or congregational churches.
On the one hand, the distribution of alms was the immediate occasion of their appointment; on the other the qualifications involved higher functions, "men ... full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom." The result was, "the word of God increased, and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly, and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith; and Stephen (one of the seven), full of faith and power, did great wonders and miracles among the people." Philip, too, was an "evangelist." They were probably commissioners to superintend the deacons in distributing the alms, so that the Grecian (Hellenist, Greek-speaking Jewish) widows should not be neglected, and at the same time to minister in spiritual things, as their solemn ordination by laying on of hands implies. The "young men" (Acts 5:6; Acts 5:10, neoteroi ) imply a subordinate ministration answering to the "deacons" (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8, etc.).
As bishops and presbyters or elders are different aspects of the same upper ministry, so "young men" and "deacons" are different aspects of the same subordinate ministry. Clement of Rome (1 Corinthians 42) notices that the Septuagint (Isaiah 60:17) prophetically use the two together. The synagogue had its "pastors" (paruasim ) and its subordinate "deacons" (chazzanim ) or ministers (Luke 4:20). The church naturally copied from it. The deacons baptized new converts, distributed the bread and wine of the Lord's supper (Justin Martyr, Apol., 65-67), and distributed alms, at first without superintendence, afterward under the presbyters. The diaconate was not a probationary step (as now in episcopal churches) to the presbytery. What is meant by 1 Timothy 3:13 is, "they that have used the office of a deacon well are acquiring to themselves (not "a good degree" for promotion, but) a good standing place" against the day of judgment (1 Corinthians 3:13-14); not a step to promotion.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Deacon
A servant, a minister. 1. In ecclesiastical polity, a deacon is one of the lowest of the three orders of the clergy. He is rather a novitiate, or in a state of probation for one year, after which he is admitted into full orders, or ordained a priest. 2. In the New Testament the word is used for any one that ministers in the service of God: bishops and presbyters are also styled deacons; but more particularly and generally it is understood of the lowest order of ministering servants in the church, 1 Corinthians 3:5 . Colossians 1:23 ; Colossians 1:25 . Philippians 1:1 . 1 Timothy 3:1-16 : The office of deacon originally was to serve tables, the Lord's table, the minister's table, and the poor's table. They took care of the secular affairs of the church, received and disbursed monies, kept the church's accounts, and provided every thing necessary for its temporal good. Thus, while the bishop attended to the souls, the deacons attended to the bodies of the people: the pastor to the spiritual, and the deacons the temporal interests of the church, Acts 6:1-15 :
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Sub Deacon
An inferior minister, who anciently attended at the altar, prepared the sacred vessels, delivered them to the deacons in time of divine service, attended the doors of the church during communion service, went on the bishop's embassies with his letters, or messages, to foreign churches, and was invested with the first of the holy orders. They were so subordinate to the superior rules of the church, that, by a canon of the council of Laodicea, they were forbidden to sit in the presence of a deacon without his leave.
Webster's Dictionary - Deacon
(1):
(n.) The chairman of an incorporated company.
(2):
(n.) An officer in Christian churches appointed to perform certain subordinate duties varying in different communions. In the Roman Catholic and Episcopal churches, a person admitted to the lowest order in the ministry, subordinate to the bishops and priests. In Presbyterian churches, he is subordinate to the minister and elders, and has charge of certain duties connected with the communion service and the care of the poor. In Congregational churches, he is subordinate to the pastor, and has duties as in the Presbyterian church.
(3):
(v. t.) With humorous reference to hypocritical posing: To pack (fruit or vegetables) with the finest specimens on top; to alter slyly the boundaries of (land); to adulterate or doctor (an article to be sold), etc.
(4):
(v. t.) To read aloud each line of (a psalm or hymn) before singing it, - usually with off.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Deacon
DEACON . The Gr. word diakonos , as well as the corresponding verb and abstract noun, is of very frequent occurrence in the text of the NT, but in EV [1] is always translated ‘servant’ or ‘minister’ except in Philippians 1:1 , 1 Timothy 3:8-13 , where it is rendered ‘deacon,’ these being the only two passages where it is evidently used in a technical sense.
In the Gospels the word has the general meaning of ‘servant’ (cf. Matthew 20:26 || Matthew 23:11 , John 2:5 ; John 2:9 ). St. Paul employs it constantly of one who is engaged in Christian service, the service of God or Christ or the Church ( e.g. 1 Timothy 3:1-13 ; 2 Corinthians 11:23 , Colossians 1:23-25 ), but without any trace as yet of an official signification. Once in Romans we find him distinguishing diakonia (‘ministry’) from prophecy and teaching and exhortation ( Romans 12:6-8 ); but it seems evident that he is speaking here of differences in function, not in office, so that the passage does not do more than foreshadow the coming of the diaconate as a regular order.
In Acts the word diakonos is never once employed, but Acts 6:1-6 , where we read of the appointment of the Seven, sheds a ray of light on its history, and probably serves to explain how from the general sense of one who renders Christian service it came to be applied to a special officer of the Church. The Seven are nowhere called deacons, nor is there any real justification in the NT for the traditional description of them by that title. The qualifications demanded of them ( Acts 6:8 , cf. Acts 6:5 ) are higher than those laid down in 1 Timothy for the office of the deacon; and Stephen and Philip, the only two of their number of whom we know anything, exercise functions far above those of the later diaconate ( 1 Timothy 6:8 ff.). But the fact that the special duty to which they were appointed is called a diakonia or ministration ( 1 Timothy 6:1 ) and that this ministration was a definite part of the work of the Church in Jerusalem, so that ‘the diakonia ’ came to be used as a specific term in this reference (cf. 2 Corinthians 6:4 ; Acts 12:25 , Romans 15:25 ; Romans 15:31 , 2Co 8:4 ; 2 Corinthians 9:1 ; 2 Corinthians 9:12-13 ), makes it natural to find in their appointment the germ of the institution of the diaconate as it meets us at Philippi and Ephesus, in two Epp. that belong to the closing years of St. Paul’s life.
It is in these Greek cities, then, that we first find the deacon as a regular official, called to office after probation (1 Timothy 3:10 ), and standing alongside the bishop in the ministry of the Church ( Philippians 1:1 , Acts 11:29 ). As to his functions nothing is said precisely. We can only infer that the diakonia of the deacons in Philippi and Ephesus, like the diakonia of the Seven in Jerusalem, was in the first place a ministry to the poor. The forms of this ministry would of course be different in the two cases, as the social conditions were (see art. Communion), but in the Gentile as in the Jewish world it would naturally be a service of a responsible, delicate, and often private kind an inference that is borne out by what is said in 1 Tim. as to the deacon’s qualifications.
Comparing these qualifications with those of the bishop, we observe that the difference is just what would be suggested by the names bishop or ‘overseer’ and deacon or ‘servant’ respectively. Bishops were to rule and take charge of the Church ( 1 Timothy 3:5 ); deacons were to ‘serve well’ ( 1 Timothy 3:13 ). Bishops must be ‘apt to teach’ ( 1 Timothy 3:2 ); deacons were only called to ‘hold the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience’ ( 1 Timothy 3:9 ). That the work of the deacon and his fellow-servant the deaconess (wh. see) was of a house-to-house kind is suggested by the warnings given against talebearing ( 1 Timothy 3:8 ) and backbiting ( 1 Timothy 3:11 ). That it had to do with the distribution of Church moneys, and so brought temptations to pilfering, is further suggested by the demand that the deacon should not be greedy of filthy lucre ( 1 Timothy 3:8 ) and that his female counterpart should be ‘faithful ( i.e. trustworthy) in all things’ ( 1 Timothy 3:11 ).
J. C. Lambert.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Deacon, Deaconess
‘Deacon’ or ‘deaconess’ (διάκονος, masc. or fem.) means one who serves or ministers. In classical Greek the word commonly implies menial service. In the NT it implies the noble service of doing work for God (2 Corinthians 6:4; 2 Corinthians 11:23, Ephesians 6:21, 1 Thessalonians 3:2), or ministering to the needs of others (Romans 16:1; cf. 1 Corinthians 16:15, 2 Corinthians 8:4; 2 Corinthians 9:1); and the meaning of the term, with its cognates ‘service’ or ‘ministry’ and ‘to serve’ or ‘to minister’ (διακονία and διακονεῖν) is nearly everywhere quite general and does not indicate a special office. The only passage in which special officials are certainly mentioned is 1 Timothy 3:8-12, where 1 Timothy 3:11 refers to women deacons (Revised Version ) rather than to wives of deacons (Authorized Version ). But it is highly probable that ‘with [1] bishops and deacons’ (Philippians 1:1) also refers to special officials; although it is just possible that St. Paul is merely mentioning the two functions which must exist in every organized community, viz. government and service. A church consists of rulers and ruled. The case of Phœbe, ‘διάκονος of the church which is in Cenchreae’ (Romans 16:1), is doubtful. She may be a female deacon; but this is very unlikely, for there is no trace of deacons or other officials in the church of Corinth at this time. Phœbe was probably a lady, living at the port of Corinth, who rendered much service to St. Paul and other Christians. Milligan (on 1 Thessalonians 3:2) quotes inscriptions which show that διάκονος (masc. and fem.) was a religious title in pre-Christian times. The Seven (Acts 6) are probably not to be identified with the later deacons. The special function of deacons, whether men or women, was to distribute the alms of the congregation and to minister to the needs of the poor; they were the church’s relieving officers. They also probably helped to order the men and the women in public worship. The qualities required in them (1 Timothy 3:8-12) agree with this: ‘not greedy of sordid gain,’ and ‘faithful in all things,’ point to the care of money. See articles Church Government and Minister, Ministry.
Literature-F. J. A. Hort, The Christian Ecclesia, London, 1897, pp. 196-217; M. R. Vincent, Philippians (International Critical Commentary , Edinburgh, 1897), pp. 36-51; article ‘Deacon’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) .
Alfred Plummer.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Felicissimus, Deacon of Carthage
Felicissimus (1) , deacon of Carthage, whom Novatus associated with himself in the management of a district called Mons (Cyp. Ep. 41). He was the chief agent ( signifer seditionis , Ep. 59) of the anti-Cyprianic party, which combined the five presbyters originally opposed to Cyprian's election with the later-formed party for the easy readmission of the lapsed ( Epp. 43, 45). Cyprian ( Ep. 52) definitely states that Felicissimus had been, when the persecution arose, on the point of being tried before the presbytery on charges of homicidal cruelty to his father and wife. Like other African and Spanish deacons (Neander, vol. i. p. 324, ed. Bohn), he acquired influence through his administration of church property and was able to threaten with excommunication any who accepted relief or office from Cyprian's commissioners. The latter excommunicated him ( Ep. 42) with Cyprian's consent. The mild resolution of the council of 252, making easy the readmission of the lapsed on earnest repentance [1], destroyed his locus standi . The party then coalesced with that of Privatus (2), who consecrated Fortunatus anti-bishop; and Felicissimus sailed for Rome to conciliate or intimidate Cornelius into recognizing him (Ep. 59). Failing here, the party melted quietly away.
[2]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia
Glycerius (5) , a deacon in Cappadocia, who caused Basil much annoyance by his extravagant and disorderly proceedings c. 374. Being a vigorous young man, well fitted for the humbler offices of the church, and having adopted the ascetic life, he was ordained deacon by Basil, though to what church is doubtful. It is variously given as Venesa, Veësa, Venata, and Synnasa. His elevation turned the young man's head. He at once began to neglect the duties of his office, and gathered about him a number of young women, partly by persuasion, partly by force, of whom he took the direction, styling himself their patriarch, and adopting a dress in keeping with his pretensions. He was supported by the offerings of his female followers, and Basil charges him with adopting this spiritual directorship in order to get his living without work. The wild and disorderly proceedings of Glycerius and his deluded adherents created great scandal and caused him to be gravely admonished by his own presbyter, his chorepiscopus, and finally by Basil himself. Glycerius turned a deaf ear, and having swelled his fanatical band by a number of young men, he one night hastily left the city with his whole troop against the will of many of the girls. The scandal of such a band wandering about under pretence of religion, singing hymns, and leaping and dancing in a disorderly fashion, was increased by the fact that a fair was going on, and the young women were exposed to the rude jests of the rabble. Fathers who came to rescue their daughters from such disgrace were driven away by Glycerius with contumely, and he carried off his whole band to a neighbouring town, of which an unidentified Gregory was bishop. Several of Basil's letters turned on this matter, the further issue of which is not known.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Habibus, Deacon, Martyr at Edessa
Habibus (2) ( Abibus ), deacon, martyr at Edessa in the reign of Licinius; mentioned in the Basilian Menologium , Nov. 15, with the martyrs Gurias and Samonas, in whose tomb he was laid; at Dec. 2 he has a separate notice. Simeon Metaphrastes in his lengthened account of those two martyrs (the Lat. in Surius, de Prob. Hist. SS. Nov. 15, p. 342, the Lat. and Gk. in Patr. Gk. cxvi. 141) similarly embodies the history of Habib. Assemani notices him in his Bibl. Orient. (i. 330, 331) from Metaphrastes, but not in his Acta Martyrum . The original Syriac account of Habib which Metaphrastes abridged has been discovered, and was ed. in 1864 by Dr. Wright with a trans. by Dr. Cureton (Ancient Syriac Documents , p. 72, notes p. 187). The Syrian author, whose name was Theophilus, professes to have been an eyewitness of the martyrdom (which he places on Sept. 2) and a convert. The ancient Syrian Martyrology , another discovery trans. by Dr. Wright (Journ. Sac. Lit. 1866, p. 429), likewise commemorates Habib on Sept. 2. Theophilus says that in the month Ab ( i.e. Aug.) in the year 620 of the kingdom of Alexander of Macedon, in the consulate of Licinius and Constantine, in the days of Conon, bp. of Edessa, the emperor commanded the altars of the gods to be everywhere repaired, sacrifices and libations offered and incense burnt to Jupiter. Habib, a deacon of the village of Telzeha, went privately among the churches and villages encouraging the Christians not to comply. The Christians were more numerous than their persecutors, and word reached Edessa that even Constantine "in Gaul and Spain" had become Christian and did not sacrifice. Habib's proceedings were reported to Licinius, who sentenced him to die by fire. When this news reached Edessa, Habib was some 50 miles off at Zeugma, secretly encouraging the Christians there, and his family and friends at Telzeha were arrested. Hereupon, Habib went to Edessa and presented himself privately to Theotecnus, the head of the governor's household. This official desired to save Habib and pressed him to depart secretly, assuring him that his friends would soon be released. Habib, believing that cowardice would endanger his eternal salvation, persisted in surrender, and was led before the governor. On refusing to sacrifice, he was imprisoned, tortured, and then burned, after he had at great length uncompromisingly exposed the sin and folly of idolatry. The day of his imprisonment was the emperor's festival, and on the 2nd of Ilul (Sept.) he suffered. His dying prayer was, "O king Christ, for Thine is this world and Thine is the world to come, behold and see that while I might have been able to flee from these afflictions I did not flee, in order that I might not fall into the hands of Thy justice. Let therefore this fire in which I am to be burned be for a recompense before Thee, so that I may be delivered from that fire which is not quenched; and receive Thou my spirit into Thy presence through the Spirit of Thy Godhead, O glorious Son of the adorable Father."
The year is given by Baronius, who had only Metaphrastes to guide him, as a.d. 316 (A. E. ann. 316, xlviii.). Assemani ( Bibl. Or. i. 331) with the same materials decides for 323. The details of Theophilus might seem to settle the point; but if his era is that of the Seleucidae, Ilul 2, 620 was Sept. 2, 309, and Licinius only became master of the East in 313. The date therefore is still a difficulty.
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Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Philip: Deacon And Evangelist
THE more we are mown down by you, the more we multiply among you,' said Tertullian in his proud Apology. 'Every single drop of our blood springs up, in some thirty, in some sixty, and in some an hundred-fold.' And thus it was that the banishment of Philip from Jerusalem was the salvation of Samaria, and thus it was also that the martyrdom of Stephen was the conversion of Saul. Semen est sanguis Christianorum.
Stephen was the first martyr, and Philip was the first missionary. The deaconship adorned itself and did nobly in those early days. Stephen and Philip were not apostles to begin with; they were simply deacons. They were not ordained, like the apostles, to prayer and to the ministry of the Word. But you cannot limit, and narrow, and bind down to the serving of tables two powerful and original men like Stephen and Philip. Paul had Stephen and Philip in his mind when he said to Timothy long afterwards, that they who have used the office of a deacon well, purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. All of which both Stephen and Philip had emphatically done.
"And," writes Luke to Theophilus, "at that time there was a great persecution against the Church which was at Jerusalem; so that they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria. And Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and preached Christ unto them. And there was great joy in that city." Now, just suppose for a moment that you had been Philip. Suppose that you had been scattered abroad like Philip and his colleagues. And suppose that you had escaped with the Gospel in your hands, and were chased into some half-heathen city that had just been touched on the surface with the knowledge of Christ. You would be sure to seek out those who had been so touched, and you would throw yourself on their hospitality and protection. And thus it was that Philip would certainly seek out the woman of Samaria that all the world knows about now, and in whose heart, and in whose house, there was now a well of water springing up unto everlasting life. Peter and John would give Philip an introduction to her; and to reassure him about his reception, they would tell him, John especially, all about that oft-remembered day when their Master must needs go through Samaria, and when, being wearied with His journey, He sat thus on the well. And the woman would welcome Philip, and would say to him, Come in, thou blessed of the Lord, for when I was thirsty He gave me drink. And when Philip said to her, Sit down, woman, sit down and eat, she only served his table all the more hospitably, and said, I have meat to eat that thou knowest not of. Come to my house, she said also to all her neighbours, and see and hear a man who has come to my house from the very risen Christ Himself. And, taking his text from the woman's words, Philip preached the risen Christ in Sychar till there was great joy in that city. Luke is a scholar, and so is Theophilus. Luke is a student and an artist in his words, and Theophilus attends to what Luke writes. And thus it is that when Luke tells Theophilus that Philip preached 'Christ' to the Samaritans, and then that the same evangelist preached 'Jesus' to the Ethiopian eunuch, it is not for nothing; it is not of no consequence what Luke says, or how he says it. It is not without good reason that such a scrupulous composer as Luke is selects his names and his titles in this exact way for our Lord. Bengel is the very commentator for such a composer as Luke. And Bengel writes with his needle-pointed pen and says that "from the Old Testament point of view, progress is made from the knowledge of Christ to the knowledge of Jesus; while from the New Testament point of view, the progress is made from the knowledge of Jesus to the knowledge of Christ." "Not a single syllable," says Basil, "of all that is written concerning Jesus Christ should be left uninvestigated. The men who trace the hidden meaning of every word and even of every letter in the New Testament are those who understand best the end and nature of our Scriptural calling." Let our theological students, then, study out the fact of Philip's preaching 'Christ' in the city, and 'Jesus' in the desert, and make an Ellicott-like thesis for themselves and for their people on this subject taking in Romans 8:11.
Now, I must stop for a moment at this point to say how much I feel both impressed and rebuked by the noble conduct of Peter and John. Both Stephen and Philip were by far the subordinates or Peter and John. And there is no sin that so easily besets some of us ministers as just the sudden success of those who are by far our subordinates. There is nothing that more tries us and brings to the surface what we are made of at heart than just to be outstripped and extinguished by those who but yesterday were mere boys beside us. And it takes the strongest man among us and the holiest man all his might to behave himself with humility and with generosity to his late subordinates at such a time. But let us stop at this point and see how well both Peter and John came out of that furnace of theirs. They did not grudge, nor resent, nor suspect, nor despise the success of Stephen in Jerusalem, nor of Philip in Samaria. They did not say, The deacon has his proper place. They did not complain that he had so soon left the serving of tables. They did not say that Philip should attend to his proper work, and let preaching alone. They did not shake their heads and forecast that it would soon turn out to be all so much Samaritan excitement. They did not have it reported to them every word that Philip had at any time spoken that was out of joint. Far no. To their great honour be it told, they behaved themselves in all this temptation of theirs in a way altogether worthy of their apostolic office. They did not wait to see if the awakening was real and would last, as we would have done. But the twelve sent down Peter and John, their two best men, to assist Philip to gather in the results of his so suddenly successful mission. And Peter and John set to work with all their might to found a church out of Philip's converts, to be called the Church of the Evangelist, after the name of their deacon and subordinate. I, for one, must lay all that Samaria episode well to heart. I, for one, must not forget it.
Both Stephen and Philip have made this impression also upon me that they were born preachers, as we say. Born, not made. Born, not collegebred. Born, and not simply ordained. And if a man is a born preacher, you may set him to serve tables, or, for that matter, to make tables, but he will preach in spite of you. You may suborn men to bear him down. You may banish him away to Samaria, but I defy you to shut his mouth. Stephen and Philip were born with such a fire in their bones that no man could put it out. There is a divine tongue in their mouth that you cannot silence. The more you persecute them and cast them out, and the more tribulation you pass them through, they will only preach all that the better. Now, that there were two men of such rare genius among the first seven deacons is a remarkable proof of the insight of the congregation that elected them, as well as of the wealth of all kinds of talent in the Apostolic Church. I have often wished that I could have been one of the two Emmaus-men whose hearts burned within them as their risen Lord expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself. And, then, after that I would fain have been the servant of the Ethiopian eunuch, so as to have sat beside him and heard him reading the prophet Esaias till Philip came up and said to him, Understandest thou what thou readest? How can I, except some man should guide me? And he desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him. And Philip opened his mouth, and began at the 53 rd of Isaiah, and preached unto him Jesus. All this took place in the primitive, simple, unsophisticated east, and we must not measure any part of all this history by our western habits of intercourse. It would be resented as the height of intrusion and incivility among us if one man were to say to another over his book on the deck of a steamer or in a railway carriage, Are you understanding what you are reading? But look at it in this way. Suppose you sat beside a foreigner who was struggling with one of our English guide-books, and was evidently missing the sense, till he was starting off in a wrong direction; it would be no intrusion or impertinence if you made up to him and said to him something like this: 'I fear our barbarous tongue is not easily mastered by foreign scholars, but it is my native language, and I may be able to be of some use to you in it.' "How can I?" said the humble-minded eunuch, "except some man should guide me?" Now, we all think, because we know the letters of it, and are familiar with the sounds of it, that we understand the Bible: Isaiah, and John, and Paul. But we never made a more fatal mistake. There is no book in all the world that is so difficult to read, and to understand, and to love, as the Bible. Not having begun to understand it, some of you will turn upon me and will tell me that even a little child can understand it. And you are perfectly right. "A lamb can wade it," said a great Greek expositor of it. But he went on to add that "an elephant can swim in it." And thus it was that, over and above the apostles, all the deacons of intellect and experience were drawn on to expound the Scriptures, first to the learned Council of Jerusalem, then to the sceptical men of Samaria, and then to the Ethiopian neophyte in his royal chariot. And thus it is still that the Church collects into her colleges the very best minds she can lay hold of in all her families, and trains them up under her very best teachers, and then when they are ready says to them, Go join thyself to this and that vacant pulpit, and make the people to understand what they read. And you must often have both felt it and confessed it to be so. How different the most superficially familiar chapter looks to us ever after some great expounder, by tongue or by pen, has opened it up to us! A book of the Bible read in routine chapters in the pulpit or at family worship, how dull, and unmeaning, and immediately forgotten it is! Whereas, let an interpreter, one of a thousand, open it up to us, and we never forget either the chapter or him. "The Spirit of God maketh the reading, but especially the expounding of the Word, an effectual means of convincing and converting sinners, and of building them up in holiness and comfort, through faith, unto salvation." "It is mainly by the institution of expounding and preaching," says John Foster, "that religion is kept a conspicuous thing, a public acknowledged reality. If we are told that we should rather say that it is public worship that has this effect, we have to answer that public worship, apart from expounding and preaching, has a very small effect in favour of religion. It is quite certain that where the conductors of that worship have not knowledge and religion enough to expound and preach, that worship will be little more than a ceremonial routine of idle forms."
Years and years and years pass on. Philip has for long been a married man, and is now the father of four grown-up daughters. His wife is a good woman. She is a grave woman, as Paul exhorted her to be. And, between them, Philip and his grave and faithful wife both ruled themselves well, and thus their four extraordinarily-gifted daughters. And with such a father and such a mother, I do not wonder that when such things were abroad in those days as gifts of tongues, and gifts of healing, and gifts of prophecy, and many other operations of the Holy Ghost, a double portion of some of those miraculous things came to Philip's four daughters. Luke has a quick eye for everything of that kind, and thus it is that he interpolates this footnote in his history of Paul. "And the next day we came to Cæsarea, and we entered the house of Philip the evangelist, which was one of the seven; and abode with him. And the same man had four daughters, virgins, which did prophesy. And as we tarried there many days, there came down from Judea a certain prophet, named Agabus. And when he was come to us, he took Paul's girdle, and bound his own hands and feet, and said, Thus saith the Holy Ghost, so shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle," and so on. And thus it was that this strange Agabus was the last sanctification of Philip and his wife and his four prophetical daughters. To begin with, his own children had been gifted and employed and honoured far above Philip himself. And then Agabus arrived just at the moment to be gifted and employed and honoured far above them all. In the rich grace and manifold wisdom of God, outwardly and ostensibly and on the surface, Agabus's errand was to foretell Paul about his future arrest at Jerusalem. But, far deeper than that, Agabus had a finishing work of the Holy Ghost to perform on Philip, and on his four daughters, and on their mother, that grave woman. A work of humility. A work of resignation. An evangelical work. A work far above the best prophecy. A work of lowly-mindedness. A work of esteeming others better than themselves. A work of saying, Agabus must increase, and I must decrease. And a work that, no doubt, began by reproaches and rebukes and charging Gold foolishly, like this. 'Why were not my prophetical daughters employed to deliver this prophecy to Paul? Why was a stranger brought in over our heads in this way? We cannot ever again have the same standing and esteem in Cæsarea after this so open slight. What a strength it would have been to us in our pulpit and pastoral work had my daughters been honoured of the Holy Ghost to utter this prophecy concerning the Apostle. It would have established us and honoured us in our work in Cæsarea like nothing else.' Agabus was an evil enough messenger to Paul; but he was such a staggering blow to Philip and to his whole household that it took all Paul's insight, and skill in souls, and authority with Philip, and power with God, to guide and direct Philip so as that he should get all God's intended good to himself and to all his house out of it.
Now, Agabus does not come to your house and mine in such open and such dramatic ways as he came to Philip's house; but he comes. Agabus of Jerusalem came to Jonathan Edwards's grave and godly wife in Northampton in the shape of a young preacher. "On Monday night, Mr. Edwards being gone that day to Leicester, I heard that Mr. Buell was coming to this town. At that moment I felt the eye of God on my heart to see if I was perfectly resigned with respect to Mr. Buell's expected success among our people. I was sensible what great cause I had to bless God for the use He had made of my husband hitherto, and I thought that if He now employed other ministers more I could entirely acquiesce in His will. On Tuesday night there seemed to be great tokens of God's presence at Mr. Buell's meeting; and when I heard of it, I sat still in entire willingness that God should bless his labours among us as much as He pleased, even though it were to the refreshing of every saint and the conversion of every sinner in the whole town. These feelings continued afterwards when I saw his great success. I never felt the least rising of heart against him, but my submission to God was even and uniform and without interruption or disturbance. I rejoiced when I saw the honour God had put upon him, and the respect paid to him by the people, and the greater success attending his preaching than had now for some time past attended my husband's preaching. I found rest and rejoicing in it, and the sweet language of my soul continually was, Amen, Lord Jesus. Amen, Lord Jesus. I had an overwhelming sense of the glory of God, and of the happiness of having my own will entirely subdued to His will. I knew that the foretaste of glory I then had in my soul came from God, and that in His time I shall be with Him, and be, as it were, swallowed up in Him." Agabus, and Mr. Buell, and another. But who is that other? And what is his name?
King James Dictionary - Deacon
DE'ACON, n. Gr., a minister or servant.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Eraclius, Deacon of the Church of Hippo
Eraclius (1) ( Heraclius , in the older editions Eradius ), deacon of the church of Hippo a.d. 425, had inherited considerable property, part of which he spent in raising a "memoria" of the martyr [1]; the rest he offered as a gift to the church. St. Augustine, fearing that the absolute acceptance of such a gift from so young a man might be the subject of future reproval or regret, caused Eraclius first to invest the money in land, which might be given back to him should any unforeseen reason for restitution arise. On becoming one of Augustine's clergy, Eraclius made his poverty complete by setting free a few slaves whom he had retained (Aug. Serm. 356, vol. v. 1387). In 426 Augustine was summoned to Milevis, to obviate some threatened dissensions. Severus, the late bishop, had designated his successor in his lifetime, but had made his choice known to his clergy only. This caused discontent, and the interference of Augustine was judged necessary to secure the unanimous acceptance of the bishop so chosen. Augustine, then in his 72nd year, was thus reminded of the expedience of securing his own church from similar trouble at his death, and he made choice of Eraclius, then apparently the junior presbyter of the church, to be his coadjutor and designate successor ( D. C. A. i. 228). Only, though he had himself been ordained bishop in the lifetime of his predecessor, Valerius, he now held that this had been an unconscious violation of the Nicene canon against having two bishops in the same church, and therefore resolved that Eraclius, while discharging all the secular duties of the see, should remain a presbyter until his own death. To obviate future dispute, he assembled his people (Sept. 26, 426) to obtain their consent to the arrangement, having the notaries of the church in attendance to draw up regular "gesta" of the proceedings, which those present were asked to subscribe ( Ep. 213, vol. ii. p. 788).
The capture of Hippo by the Vandals prevented the arrangements from taking effect, and Augustine does not appear to have had any successor in his see. Eraclius, in 427, held a private discussion with Maximinus, the Arian bishop, which led to a public disputation between Maximinus and Augustine (Coll. cum Max. viii. 650). Two sermons by Eraclius are preserved, the first of which, preached in Augustine's presence, is almost all taken up with compliments and apologies (v. 1523 and 72, Append. p. 131).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria
Euthalius (5) , a deacon of Alexandria, afterwards bp. of Sulca; fl. a.d. 459. This date is confirmed by the fact that his works are dedicated to Athanasius the Younger, who was bp. of Alexandria about that time. Euthalius appears to have been then a deacon, devoted to the study of the N.T. text. He is now best known as the author of the Euthalian Sections.
The books of N.T. were written without any division into chapters verses or words. The first steps towards such a convenient division seem to have proceeded from the wish for easy reference to parallel passages. This was done by what are known as the Ammonian Sections together with the Eusebian Canons.
[1] Ammonius of Alexandria in the 3rd cent. is generally credited with dividing the gospels into sections but the principle had not been applied to other books of N.T. Euthalius introduced a system of division into all those not yet divided except the Apocalypse which spread rapidly over the whole Greek church and has become by its presence or absence a valuable test of the antiquity of a MS. In the Epp. of St. Paul Euthalius tells us he adopted the scheme of a certain "father," whose name is nowhere given. But by his other labours and the further critical apparatus which he supplied Euthalius procured for it the acceptance it soon obtained. In Romans there were 19 capitula; in Galatians 12; in Ephesians 10; in I. Thessalonians 7; in II. Thessalonians 6; in Hebrews 22; in Phm_1:2; and so on.
Three points in connexion with the text especially occupied Euthalius.
(1) The Larger Sections or Lessons. Fixed lessons for public worship no doubt passed from the synagogue into the Christian church, at least as soon as the canon was settled. But there seems to have been little or no uniformity in them. Individual churches had divisions of their own. The scheme proposed by Euthalius, however, speedily became general in all Greek-speaking churches. The whole N.T., except the Gospels and Apocalypse, was divided into 57 portions of very varying length (in Acts there were 16; in the Pauline Epp. 31; 5 in Romans 5 in I. Cor. ; 4 in II. Cor. ; in the Catholic Epp. 10; 2 in James 2 in I. Pe. ; 1 in II. Pe., etc.) Of these, 53 were for Sundays, which seem alone to have been provided for in the Alexandrian Synaxes, and Mill supposes that the other 4 were for Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, and Epiphany (Proleg. in N.T. p. 90).
(2) The smaller divisions were the well known στίχοι—i.e. "lines" (Lat. versus) each containing either a few words complete in themselves or as much as it was possible to read without effort at one breath. Like that of the capitula formerly spoken of the plan of these "verses" was not introduced by Euthalius. It had already been adopted in some of the poetical books and in poetical parts of the prose books of the O.T. The LXX had occasionally employed it. It had been sanctioned by Origen. The Vulgate had used it and it is found in the psalms of the Vatican and Sinaitic MSS. It had been partially applied to N.T. for Origen speaks of the 100 στίχοι of II. and III. John. of a few in St. Paul's Epistles and very few in I. John; while Eustathius of Antioch in the 4th cent. is said to reckon 135 from Joh_8:59 to Joh_10:31 (Scrivener Intro. to Codex D p. 17). But these figures shew that many of these divisions cannot have been στίχοι in the strict sense but of very unequal length and generally much larger. What was before partially and imperfectly done Euthalius extended upon better principles and with greater care. In Rom. he made 920 such στίχοι; in Gal. 293; in Eph. 312; in I. Thess. 193; in II. Thess. 106; in Heb. 703; in Philemon 37; and so on.
(3) The third part of his labour was an enumeration of all the quotations from O.T., and even from profane writers, found in those books of N.T. of which he treated. These he numbered in one catalogue; assigned to the various books whence they were taken in a second; and quoted at length in a third. If we may look upon the Argumenta as really the work of Euthalius, and not, as Zacagnius argues ( Praef. p. 60), as the production of a later hand, he went also into the substance and meaning of the books edited by him, as the Argumenta contain short and excellent summaries of them. Euthalius also wrote a short Life of St. Paul, prefixed to his work on the 14 epistles of that apostle, but it is bald and meagre. It has been said that he also wrote comments on Acts and Luke; and that in an ancient catena on Romans there were fragments of his writings; but these statements seem to be incorrect ( ib. p. 71).
In later life he became a bishop, and was known as Episcopus Sulcensis. Scrivener suggests Sulci in Sardinia as the only see of that name (Intr. p. 53, n. 1), but so distant a place is unlikely. Zacagnius thinks that Sulca may represent Psilca, a city of the Thebaid near Syene; but Galland throws doubt on this, and the point must be left unsolved.
His works remained long unknown, but in 1698 they were ed. and pub. at Rome by Laurentius Alexander Zacagnius, praefect of the Vatican Library, in vol. i. of his Collectanea Monumentorum Veterum Ecclesiae Graecae ac Latinae, in the long preface of which different questions relating to Euthalius are discussed with much care. This ed. has been printed in Galland ( Biblioth. Pat. x. 197) and in Migne ( Patr. Gk. lxxxv. 621). Notices of Euthalius may be found in the Prolegomena of N. T. of Wetstein and Mill, and in Scrivener's Intro. to the Criticism of N.T. But much light has recently been thrown on Euthalius by Dean Armitage Robinson in his "Euthaliana" ( Texts and Stud. iii. 3), and in an article "Recent Work on Euthalius" in the Journ. of Theol. Stud. vol. vi. p. 87, Oct. 1904. In the latter art. the recent work on the subject by Von Soden and Zahn is noticed.
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Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Deacon
from the Greek word διακονος , in its proper and primitive sense, denotes a servant who attends his master, waits on him at table, and is always near his person to obey his orders, which was accounted a more creditable kind of service than that which is imported by the word δουλος a slave; but this distinction as not usually observed in the New Testament. Our Lord makes use of both terms in Matthew 20:26-27 , though they are not distinctly marked in our translation: "Whosoever will be great among you, let him be your deacon; and whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant." The appointment of deacons in the first Christian church is distinctly recorded, Acts 6:1-15 . The number of disciples having greatly increased in Jerusalem, the Greeks, or Hellenistic Jews, began to murmur against the Hebrews, complaining that their widows were neglected in the daily distribution of the church's bounty.
The twelve Apostles, who hitherto had discharged the different offices of Apostle, presbyter, and deacon, upon the principle that the greater office always includes the less, now convened the church, and said unto them, "It is not reasonable that we should leave the ministration of the word of God, and serve tables: look ye out, therefore, among yourselves, seven men of good report, full of the Holy Ghost, and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business; but we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word." And the saying pleased the whole multitude; and they (the multitude) chose Stephen, and six others, whom they set before the Apostles, &c.
The qualifications of deacons are stated by the Apostle Paul, 1 Timothy 3:8-12 . There were also, in the primitive churches, females invested with this office, who were termed deaconesses. Of this number was Phoebe, a member of the church of Cenchrea, mentioned by St. Paul, Romans 16:1 . "They served the church," says Calmet, "in those offices which the deacons could not themselves exercise, visiting those of their own sex in sickness, or when imprisoned for the faith. They were persons of advanced age, when chosen; and appointed to the office by imposition of hands." It is probably of these deaconesses that the Apostle speaks, where he describes the ministering widows, 1 Timothy 5:5-10 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Deacon,
διάκονος. This name is generally applied to the seven who were chosen to superintend the distribution of the funds of the church in Acts 6:3 ; but they are not there called deacons, and though the name may be applicable to them, yet it cannot be restricted to such service. The term applies to any service not otherwise specified. The Greek word is more often translated 'minister' and 'servant' than 'deacon.' It twice refers to Christ, Romans 15:8 ; Galatians 2:17 ; also to Paul and others, Colossians 1 :7,23,25; to magistrates, Romans 13:4 ; and even to Satan's emissaries, 2 Corinthians 11:15 . The Epistle to the Philippians was addressed to the saints and to the 'bishops and deacons,' or overseers and servants. In 1 Timothy 3:8-13 the moral qualifications of the deacon or minister are given, but what his work was is not specified; it is evident that they carried out their service officially. The service of deacon must not be confounded with 'gift.' Phebe was DEACONESS of the assembly in Cenchrea. Romans 16:1 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Deacon
Deacon. The name of an office-bearer in the Christian church. It is generally connected with the appointment of the seven who were to relieve the apostles in the "daily ministration," the distribution of the funds, and of provision for the members of the early church. Acts 6:1-6. The special name of deacon is not, however, given to the seven; the order called deacons was subsequently established, and founded upon or in imitation of the office committed to the seven. See Alford, The Greek Test., note on Acts 6:5. It has indeed been suggested that there was already a class called "the young men," which was the prototype of the diaconate. Acts 5:6; Acts 5:10. Different Greek words are used, however, in the two verses just referred to, and the specific duties of the two classes do not closely resemble each other. The Greek word for deacon often is used to indicate any person ministering in God's service. Thus it designates our Lord himself, Romans 15:8; and Paul describes by it his own position, 2 Corinthians 6:4; Ephesians 3:7; Colossians 1:23; in all which places it is translated "minister." Then ft began to be used of a particular order in the church. Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8-10; 1 Timothy 3:12-13. The qualifications of deacons are described; from which in some measure their duties may be deduced. They were to hold a certain authority, and to show themselves patterns to believers. They were to be pure in faith; but it is not required, as it is of the bishop or overseer, that they should be "apt to teach." The inference undoubtedly is that, even if there were exceptions, teaching was not an ordinary part of the deacon's duties. Some of the seven, however, certainly joined teaching with the more secular "daily ministration." And though Paul does not affirm that it was part of a deacon's duty, his words constitute no proof that it was not. It has been questioned whether the diaconate was originally a step to a higher ecclesiastical office; and different interpretations have been given of 1 Timothy 3:13. It seems natural to understand that the honor there mentioned was gained in the position of deacon, and not in promotion to another office. Generally speaking, too, permanence in the diaconate seems to have been the rule in primitive times.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Deacon
The original meaning of this word is an attendant, assistant, helper. It is sometimes translated minister, that is, servant, as in Matthew 20:26 2 Corinthians 6:4 Ephesians 3:7 . Deacons are first mentioned as officers in the Christian church in Acts 6:1-15 , where it appears that their duty was to collect the alms of the church, and distribute them to such as had a claim upon them, visiting the poor and sick, widows, orphans, and sufferers under persecution, and administering all necessary and proper relief. Of the seven there named, Philip and Stephen are afterwards found laboring as evangelists. The qualifications of deacons are specified in 1 Timothy 3:8-12 .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Deacon
The office described by this title appears in the New Testament as the correlative of bishop. [1] The two are mentioned together in (Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:2,8 ) Its original meaning implied a helper, an assistant. The bishops were the "elders," the deacons the young active men, of the church. The narrative of Acts 6 is commonly referred to as giving an account of the institution of this office. The apostles, in order to meet the complaints of the Hellenistic Jews that their widows were neglected in the daily ministration, call on the body of believers to choose seven men "full of the Holy Ghost and of wisdom," whom they "may appoint over this business." It may be questioned, however, whether the seven were not appointed to higher functions than those of the deacons of the New Testament. Qualifications and duties. Special directions as to the qualifications for and the duties of deacons will be found in Acts 6 and ( 1 Timothy 3:8-12 ) From the analogy of the synagogue, and from the scanty notices in the New Testament, we may think of the deacons or "young men" at Jerusalem as preparing the rooms for meetings, distributing alms, maintaining order at the meetings, baptizing new converts, distributing the elements at the Lord's Supper.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Deacon
In the early days of the Jerusalem church, Christians shared their food and possessions so that all in the church had enough for their day-to-day needs. At first the apostles administered this daily welfare, but as the church numbers increased, new arrangements became necessary. To give the apostles more time for prayer and teaching, the church chose seven men whom the apostles appointed over the work. The words used to denote these men and their work were all related to diakonos, the common Greek word for servant or minister. It may be translated ‘deacon’ (Acts 6:1-6; cf. Romans 12:7; 2 Corinthians 11:8; Ephesians 6:21; Philippians 1:1; Colossians 4:17; 1 Timothy 3:8).
As the early churches grew in number and size, they saw an increasing need to organize their affairs properly. In time the common practice was for a church to have a group of people called deacons who had certain responsibilities in the church.
The word diakonos had such a broad meaning and usage that the Bible nowhere attempts to define the role and duties of deacons. The deacons were, however, distinct from the elders (GNB: leaders) (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 3:8; see ELDER). Deacons had responsibility for a variety of ministries, but not the ministry of pastoral care and church leadership (cf. Acts 6:3-4; Romans 12:6-8).
Nevertheless, the story of the early Jerusalem church shows that a deacon’s service is not limited to routine or welfare activities. Two of the seven administrators were also very useful preachers (Acts 6:5; Acts 6:8-10; Acts 8:5). Other examples show that the church needs women deacons as well as men (Romans 16:1-2; 1 Timothy 3:11; cf. Luke 8:1-3; 1 Timothy 5:10).
Deacons must be spiritual people, for right attitudes are necessary even in organizing practical affairs (Acts 6:3). It is therefore important to check the character, behaviour and ability of people before appointing them deacons (1 Timothy 3:10). Their lives must be blameless, whether in the sphere of family, church or society (1 Timothy 3:8-13).
The case of the early Jerusalem church suggests a procedure for the appointment of deacons. The church elders invite the church members to select those they think suitable, then the elders, after due consideration, make the appointment (Acts 6:3). All must realize, however, that people can do the work of deacons properly only if the Holy Spirit has so gifted them, and only if he works through them (Romans 12:7; 1 Corinthians 12:4-7; 1 Corinthians 12:11; 1 Peter 4:11).
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Paschasius, Deacon of Rome
Paschasius (3) , deacon of Rome, called by Gregory the Great in his Dialogues , bk. iv. c. 40, "a man of great sanctity." He was a firm supporter of the antipope Laurentius to his death, and his adhesion was a great source of strength to the opponents of Symmachus (cf. Baronius, ann. 498). There is extant a work of his in two books, de Sancto Spiritu ( Patr. Lat. lxii. 9–40), which Gregory ( u.s .) calls "libri rectissimi ac luculenti." The date of his death was c. 512.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Pontius, a Deacon of Carthage
Pontius (2), Mark 8, a deacon of Carthage. We know him only from his Vita Cypriani , prefixed to all editions of St. Cyprian's works. He was chosen by Cyprian to accompany him into exile to Curubis (cc. xi. and xii.; cf. Dodwell's Dissertationes Cyprianicae , iv. 21). The Vita is evidently an authentic record. Its style is rugged, and in places very obscure; yet presents all internal marks of truth and antiquity. It uses all the correct technical terms of Roman criminal law, and refers to all the usual forms observed in criminal trials. Jerome, in his Liber de Vir. Ill. c. 68, describes the Vita of Pontius as "egregium volumen vitae et passionis Cypriani."
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Prochorus, a Deacon
Prochorus (Πρόχορος) the name of one of the seven deacons in Act_6:5. Later tradition makes him one of the 70 disciples and afterwards bp. of Nicomedia in Bithynia (cf. the list of the 70 in the so-called Dorotheus).
Under his name has been preserved an apocryphal History of the Apostle John , first published in the Greek text by Michael Neander in the appendix to the 3rd ed. of his Graeco-Latin version of Luther's Short Catechism, along with a Latin trans. by Sebastian Castalio (Catechesis Martini Lutheri parva graeco-latina postremum recognita , Basileae, 1567, pp. 526–663).
The narrative begins with the parting of the apostles and St. John's mission into Asia. In punishment for a first refusal to go by sea John suffers shipwreck, but arrives safely at Ephesus, accompanied by Prochoros his disciple. Here he takes service in a public bath; restores to life the owner's son, who has been slain by a demon, destroys the image of Diana (Artemis) and expels the demon which had harboured there; is banished himself, but soon returns to be again exiled to Patmos by command of the emperor. On the voyage thither he restores a drowned man to life, stills a tempest, and heals a sick guardsman. The greater part of the subsequent narrative is occupied with the wondrous deeds of the apostle in his banishment, his victorious encounters with demons and sorcerers, his refutation of a learned Jew in a public dispute, numerous miracles of healing and raising from the dead, and triumphant issues out of every conflict in which his persecuting enemies involve him. After a residence in Patmos of 15 years he has converted almost the whole island. Receiving permission to return to Ephesus, he first retires to a solitary place in the island (κατάπαυσις ) and there dictates his gospel to Prochoros, and when finished leaves it behind as a memorial of his work in Patmos. He then goes by ship to Ephesus, and dwells there in the house of Domnus, whom he had formerly in his youth raised to life. After residing 26 years more at Ephesus he buries himself alive. Prochoros and six other disciples dig his grave, and when he has laid himself in it, cover him with earth. On the grave being subsequently reopened, the apostle has disappeared.
This writing of the alleged Prochoros is, in its main contents at least, in no way a recension of the old Gnostic Acts of John, but the independent work of some Catholic author. Though the writer makes some use of the Gnostic Acts, he can hardly have known them in their original text. Its purpose seems to be to supplement the Ephesian histories of the apostle which already existed in a Catholic recession by a detailed account of his deeds and adventures in Patmos. The author can have had no local interest in its composition. His notions of the situation, size, and general characteristics of the island, which he certainly never saw, are most extraordinary. In constructing his narrative he has made only partial use of older materials. By far the most of these narrations of the pretended Prochoros are free inventions of his own. None betray any leaning towards Gnosticism. The author shews no tendency to ascetic views except where he draws from older sources; and even in discourses attributed to the apostle the theological element is quite subordinate. He takes no notice of the Apocalypse, and, in opposition to the older tradition, places the composition of the gospel in Patmos. The account given of this is certainly not derived from the Gnostic Περίοδοι .
The date of composition cannot be later than the middle of 5th cent., since it is made use of, not only in the Chronicon Paschale (pp. 761, 470, ed. Bonn; cf. Zahn, pp. 162 sqq.), but also in the accounts of the apostles attributed to Dorotheus, Hippolytus, and others. The terminus a quo is the end of the 4th or beginning of the 5th cent., since, from that time onwards and not before, Catholic writers appear to have known the Gnostic histories of the apostles. With this, moreover; agrees the fact that the author can assume a universal diffusion of Christianity in Ephesus and the Aegean Archipelago. It is more difficult to determine the place of composition. The author is certainly not a native of Asia Minor, but rather perhaps of Antioch, or the coast region of Syria and Palestine. He is better acquainted with the topography of those parts than with the neighbourhood of Ephesus. Of his personal circumstances we can only say that he certainly was not a monk; perhaps he was a married cleric, possibly a layman. Cf. Zahn, Acta Joannis (Erlangen, 1880); Lipsius, Die Apocryphen Apostelgeschichten , i. 355–408.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theosebas, a Deacon
Theosebas , a deacon of the Thirian (? Tyrian) church, ordained priest by bp. John of Jerusalem. Jerome takes this ordination as a justification of the ordination of his brother Paulinian by Epiphanius, bp. of Salamis. He describes Theosebas as an eloquent man, and believes John to have ordained him in order to employ him to speak against himself and his friends (Hieron. Cont. Joan. Hierosol. 41).
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Sentence search

Deaconhood - ) The state of being a Deacon; office of a Deacon; Deaconship
Subdeacon - In former times the name given to him who assisted theCelebrant at the Holy Communion was Deacon, and the name Subdeaconto one who waited on the Deacon as the Deacon waited on theCelebrant, and he was permitted to read the Epistle
Phoebe - ” “Servant,” “minister” (REB), “deaconess” (NAS, NIV note), or “deacon” (NRSV) of church at Cenchrea whom Paul recommended to church at Rome (Romans 16:1-2 ). See Deacon
Lectionary - ...
Collection of scriptural readings chanted by Deacon, sub-deacon, or lector during Mass
Officers Church - See CHURCH, Deacon, ELDER
Flectamus Genua - (Latin: let us bend the knee) ...
Bidding-prayer chanted by the Deacon at solemn Mass on ember-days, certain days in Lent and Holy Week, and answered by Levate (Rise) prior to the collects chanted by the sub-deacon
Presbyter - See next article; and articles Deacon, ELDER
Diaconal - ) Of or pertaining to a Deacon
Diaconate - The office of a Deacon, or the order of Deaconscollectively
Deaconship - ) The office or ministry of a Deacon or Deaconess
Parmenas - (See Deacon
Mass, Solemn -
Mass at which the celebrant is aided by the Deacon and sub-deacon, observing the complete ritual of the Church for the Mass
Solemn Mass -
Mass at which the celebrant is aided by the Deacon and sub-deacon, observing the complete ritual of the Church for the Mass
Gridiron - Emblem in art associated with ...
Saint Faith
Saint Juliette
Saint Lawrence the Deacon, symbolizing his martyrdom
Music, Passion - Originated in the declamation of the Passion of Our Lord in front of the altar by the Deacon and later by different persons, as the words of Our Lord by the priest, of the Evangelist by the Deacon, and of the crowd (turba) and others by the sub-deacon
Gospeller - The Priest or Deacon appointed to read the Holy Gospelat a celebration of the Holy Eucharist, is so, called
Celebrant - A Deacon cannot celebrate oradminister the Holy Communion
Epistoler - The minister who reads the Epistle for the day and actsas sub-deacon at the Celebration of the Holy Eucharist
Diaconate - ) The office of a Deacon; Deaconship; also, a body or board of Deacons. ) Governed by Deacons
Ite Missa Est - Versicle recited by priest to the people at the close of Low Mass, or chanted by the Deacon at high Mass
go, it is the Dismissal - Versicle recited by priest to the people at the close of Low Mass, or chanted by the Deacon at high Mass
Januarius And Companions, Saint - Sosius, Deacon of Misenas, Proculus, Deacon of Pozzuoli, Eutyches and Acutius, prominent laymen, imprisoned for the Faith, were visited by Januarius who consoled and encouraged them. He in turn was arrested with his Deacon, Festus, and Desiderius, lector
Tunicle - A vestment worn by the Subdeacon or Epistoler at thecelebration of the Holy Communion; somewhat similar to the Dalmaticworn by the Deacon or Gospeler, but shorter, narrower and not soelaborately embroidered
Dalmatic - A robe of silk or other rich material with wide but shortsleeves, and richly embroidered, worn by the Deacon or Gospeller atthe Holy Eucharist
Assistant Minister - A Priest or Deacon appointed to assist or helpthe Rector of a Parish in his work is thus called
Deacon, - This name is generally applied to the seven who were chosen to superintend the distribution of the funds of the church in Acts 6:3 ; but they are not there called Deacons, and though the name may be applicable to them, yet it cannot be restricted to such service. The Greek word is more often translated 'minister' and 'servant' than 'deacon. The Epistle to the Philippians was addressed to the saints and to the 'bishops and Deacons,' or overseers and servants. In 1 Timothy 3:8-13 the moral qualifications of the Deacon or minister are given, but what his work was is not specified; it is evident that they carried out their service officially. The service of Deacon must not be confounded with 'gift. ' Phebe was DeaconESS of the assembly in Cenchrea
Davy, John, Blessed - He was a Deacon in the London Charterhouse
John Davy, Blessed - He was a Deacon in the London Charterhouse
Faustinus, Saint - They were brothers, Faustinus a priest, and Jovita a Deacon; and were beheaded for the Faith
Jovita, Saint - They were brothers, Faustinus a priest, and Jovita a Deacon; and were beheaded for the Faith
Diaconicum - ...
(2) A liturgical book specifying the Deacon's functions. ...
(3) Prayers for peace, said by the Deacon before the people
o More Than Blessed, Merit High Attained - It was written by Paul the Deacon (720-799)
o Nimis Felix, Meritique Celsi - It was written by Paul the Deacon (720-799)
Antra Deserti, Teneris Sub Annis - It was written by Paul the Deacon (720-799)
Thou, in Thy Childhood, to the Desert Caverns - It was written by Paul the Deacon (720-799)
Missionary - One who is sent, whether Bishop, Priest, Deacon orLayman, to do the work of the Church where it has not beenestablished, whether at home or abroad
Letter of Orders - The name given to the certificate of Ordinationto the Sacred Ministry, with the Bishop's seal, and given byhim to each Priest or Deacon whom he ordains
High Mass - The complete rite of the Mass, the priest assisted by the Deacon and subdeacon, and all the rubrics of the Order of Mass observed, such as chanting the Gospel, incensing altar, ministers, and people; also called solemn Mass
Ospeler - ) A priest or Deacon who reads the gospel at the altar during the communion service
Kiss, Liturgical Use of - At High Mass the celebrant kisses the altar, and presents his left cheek to the Deacon's, saying Pax tecum (peace be with you); the Deacon conveys the salute to the sub-deacon, thence to the other clergy
Liturgical Use of Kiss - At High Mass the celebrant kisses the altar, and presents his left cheek to the Deacon's, saying Pax tecum (peace be with you); the Deacon conveys the salute to the sub-deacon, thence to the other clergy
Dalmatic - Outer liturgical vestment of the Deacon, worn at Mass and solemn processions; it is a robe with open short sleeves, and an opening for the head; it reaches to the knees and is open on the sides as far as the shoulders
Eucharist - As to the manner of celebrating the eucharist among the ancient Christians, after the customary oblations were made, the Deacon brought water to the bishops and presbyters standing round the table to wash their hands; according to that passage of the Psalmist, "I will wash my hands in innocency, and so will I compass thy altar, O Lord. " Then the Deacon cried out aloud, "Mutually embrace and kiss each other, " which being done, the whole congregation prayed for the universal peace and welfare of the church, for the tranquility and repose of the world, for the prosperity of the age, for wholesome weather, and for all ranks and degrees of men. After this followed mutual salutations of the minister and people; and then the bishop or presbyter, having sanctified the elements by a solemn benediction, broke the bread, and delivered it to the Deacon, who distributed it to the communicants, and after that the cup
Deaconess - ) One of an order of women whose duties resembled those of Deacons. ) A female Deacon...
(4):...
(n
Archiparaphonista - His duties included: ...
choosing the chanters for a Pontifical Mass;
preceding the pope and placing a kneeling-stool before the altar for him; and
bringing the water to the sub-deacon during the celebration of Mass
Nicolaitans - Some suppose them to be followers of Nicolas the Deacon, but there is no good evidence that he ever became a heretic
Caius, Saint, Pope - Decreed that before a man could be bishop, he must first be porter, reader, exorcist, acolyte, subdeacon, Deacon, and priest. Divided the districts of Rome among Deacons
Benedict v, Pope - A cardinal-deacon, he was elected pope in opposition to Emperor Otto's candidate, the antipope, Leo
Altar, Stripping of the - The celebrant assisted by Deacon and subdeacon removes from the altars of the church the altar-cloths and all ornamentation, leaving but the crucifix and candlesticks
Grammaticus - A cardinal-deacon, he was elected pope in opposition to Emperor Otto's candidate, the antipope, Leo
John v, Pope - While a Deacon he represented the Apostolic See at the Sixth Æcumenical Council
John, Antipope - While a Deacon he had himself proclaimed pope by the rabble in Rome in opposition to Pope Sergius II
Stephen, Festival of Saint - Stephen before his selection for ordination as a Deacon, butin the 6th and 7th chapters of the Book of the Acts of the Apostlesis given a very full account of his being made a Deacon; of hisdoing "great wonders and miracles among the people," because hewas "full of faith and power"; of his accusation and eloquentdefense, and finally of his martyrdom by stoning, in the midst ofwhich, like his Divine Master, he prayed for his murderers. Stephen is represented as a Deacon holdingstones in a napkin or in his robe or in his hand
Lumen Christi - (Latin: Light of Christ) ...
Versicle chanted by the Deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle; sung three times, each time in a higher pitch, with the response "Deo Gratias
Christi, Lumen - (Latin: Light of Christ) ...
Versicle chanted by the Deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle; sung three times, each time in a higher pitch, with the response "Deo Gratias
Franco, Boniface - A cardinal-deacon, he was appointed by Crescentius, in opposition to Benedict VI, whom he murdered
Nicolaitans - Some suppose them to have been followers of Nicolas the Deacon, but there is no good evidence that he ever became a heretic
Nicolas - One of the seven Deacons. Our Lord saith, (Revelation 2:6) that he hated the deeds of the Nicolaitaines, but he doth not say that Nicolas the Deacon was the founder of that sect
Baptism, Private - If by a priest or Deacon, the prescribed ritual also must be employed and at least one sponsor if possible
Homiliarium - The most famous of these is the "Homiliarium" of Paul the Deacon, made by order of Charlemagne
Theosebas, a Deacon - Theosebas , a Deacon of the Thirian (? Tyrian) church, ordained priest by bp
Deacon - Deacon. The special name of Deacon is not, however, given to the seven; the order called Deacons was subsequently established, and founded upon or in imitation of the office committed to the seven. The Greek word for Deacon often is used to indicate any person ministering in God's service. The qualifications of Deacons are described; from which in some measure their duties may be deduced. " The inference undoubtedly is that, even if there were exceptions, teaching was not an ordinary part of the Deacon's duties. " And though Paul does not affirm that it was part of a Deacon's duty, his words constitute no proof that it was not. It seems natural to understand that the honor there mentioned was gained in the position of Deacon, and not in promotion to another office
Nicholas Iii, Pope - As cardinal-deacon he played an important part in papal affairs after 1244
Giovanni Orsini - As cardinal-deacon he played an important part in papal affairs after 1244
Euthalius - (Greek: euthaleia, bloom) ...
Deacon of Alexandria, later Bishop of Sulca (flourished 5th century), author of the Euthalian Sections or division of the New Testament (exclusive of the Gospels, already so divided by Ammonius of Alexandria, and the Apocalypse) into chapter and verse
Deacon - ...
see also: ...
archdeacon - New Catholic Dictionary
deacon - Catholic Encyclopedia
deaconess - New Catholic Dictionary
patrons - Patron Saints Index
Palladius, Saint - Of an ancient Gallo-Roman family, he was a Deacon in the church of Rome
Holy Orders - , Bishops, Priests and Deacons. (See BISHOP,EPISCOPACY, Deacon, MINISTER, PRIEST
Deacon - Deacon . ]'>[1] is always translated ‘servant’ or ‘minister’ except in Philippians 1:1 , 1 Timothy 3:8-13 , where it is rendered ‘deacon,’ these being the only two passages where it is evidently used in a technical sense. The Seven are nowhere called Deacons, nor is there any real justification in the NT for the traditional description of them by that title. Acts 6:5 ) are higher than those laid down in 1 Timothy for the office of the Deacon; and Stephen and Philip, the only two of their number of whom we know anything, exercise functions far above those of the later diaconate ( 1 Timothy 6:8 ff. ...
It is in these Greek cities, then, that we first find the Deacon as a regular official, called to office after probation (1 Timothy 3:10 ), and standing alongside the bishop in the ministry of the Church ( Philippians 1:1 , 1 Timothy 3:1-13 ). We can only infer that the diakonia of the Deacons in Philippi and Ephesus, like the diakonia of the Seven in Jerusalem, was in the first place a ministry to the poor. as to the Deacon’s qualifications. ...
Comparing these qualifications with those of the bishop, we observe that the difference is just what would be suggested by the names bishop or ‘overseer’ and Deacon or ‘servant’ respectively. Bishops were to rule and take charge of the Church ( 1 Timothy 3:5 ); Deacons were to ‘serve well’ ( 1 Timothy 3:13 ). Bishops must be ‘apt to teach’ ( 1 Timothy 3:2 ); Deacons were only called to ‘hold the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience’ ( 1 Timothy 3:9 ). That the work of the Deacon and his fellow-servant the Deaconess (wh. That it had to do with the distribution of Church moneys, and so brought temptations to pilfering, is further suggested by the demand that the Deacon should not be greedy of filthy lucre ( 1 Timothy 3:8 ) and that his female counterpart should be ‘faithful ( i
Deacon - The account of the institution of the order of Deaconsis found in the Acts of the Apostles 6:1-7. We here learn thatthe first Deacons were ordained to attend especially to thebenevolent work of the Church in caring for the poor, but theywere also preachers of the Word. The Office of Deacon is stillretained in the Church as an order of the Ministry, for "it isevident unto all men reading Holy Scripture and ancient Authors,that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders ofMinisters in Christ's Church,—Bishops, Priests and Deacons. " ADeacon may assist the Priest at the Altar and administer the cup. If a Candidate for Priest's Ordersand can pass the required examination, he may after a year'sservice as a Deacon be advanced to the Priesthood
Deacon - In ecclesiastical polity, a Deacon is one of the lowest of the three orders of the clergy. In the New Testament the word is used for any one that ministers in the service of God: bishops and presbyters are also styled Deacons; but more particularly and generally it is understood of the lowest order of ministering servants in the church, 1 Corinthians 3:5 . 1 Timothy 3:1-16 : The office of Deacon originally was to serve tables, the Lord's table, the minister's table, and the poor's table. Thus, while the bishop attended to the souls, the Deacons attended to the bodies of the people: the pastor to the spiritual, and the Deacons the temporal interests of the church, Acts 6:1-15 :...
Radual - ) An antiphon or responsory after the epistle, in the Mass, which was sung on the steps, or while the Deacon ascended the steps
Largus, Saint - Cyriacus, a Roman Deacon, ministered to the Christian slaves employed at the baths of Diocletian, suffered excoriation, and was beheaded; with him were martyred Largus, Smaragdus, and twenty others
Groote, Gerard - He taught theology at Cologne and after spending some years in solitude and prayer in Munnikhuizen monastery was ordained a Deacon and preached at Utrecht
Smaragdus, Saint - Cyriacus, a Roman Deacon, ministered to the Christian slaves employed at the baths of Diocletian, suffered excoriation, and was beheaded; with him were martyred Largus, Smaragdus, and twenty others
Gerard Groote - He taught theology at Cologne and after spending some years in solitude and prayer in Munnikhuizen monastery was ordained a Deacon and preached at Utrecht
Vessels, Sacred - The ...
chalice with its paten ...
ciborium ...
pyx, and ...
luna of the ostensorium ...
A sacred vessel, if it contains the Blessed Sacrament, must not be touched by anyone except a priest or a Deacon, unless in grave necessity
Sacred Vessels - The ...
chalice with its paten ...
ciborium ...
pyx, and ...
luna of the ostensorium ...
A sacred vessel, if it contains the Blessed Sacrament, must not be touched by anyone except a priest or a Deacon, unless in grave necessity
Minister - The same word, transliterated ‘deacon’, refers to a recognized class of church helpers (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8; see Deacon). The pastoral leaders of the church, who are distinct from the Deacons, are also ministers (Ephesians 4:11-12; Colossians 1:7; 1 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 4:5; see APOSTLE; ELDER; TEACHER; PREACHING)
Paschasius, Deacon of Rome - Paschasius (3) , Deacon of Rome, called by Gregory the Great in his Dialogues , bk
Dead, Clothing of the - Thus a bishop or priest has the amice, alb, girdle, maniple, stole, chasuble, and biretta; the Deacon has his dalmatic and stole; the subdeacon his tunicle; and the cleric his surplice
Dioscorus - Originally a Deacon of Alexandria, he became a member of the Roman clergy, and the leader of the Byzantine party in Rome, opposing the Gothic party which Pope Felix IV favored
Evangelist - Of this kind were Philip the Deacon, Mark, Silas, &c
Sub Deacon - An inferior minister, who anciently attended at the altar, prepared the sacred vessels, delivered them to the Deacons in time of divine service, attended the doors of the church during communion service, went on the bishop's embassies with his letters, or messages, to foreign churches, and was invested with the first of the holy orders. They were so subordinate to the superior rules of the church, that, by a canon of the council of Laodicea, they were forbidden to sit in the presence of a Deacon without his leave
Minister - A third term, diakonos (from which comes our word Deacon), is the one usually employed in relation to the ministry of the gospel: its application is twofold, --in a general sense to indicate ministers of any order, whether superior or inferior, and in a special sense to indicate an order of inferiors ministers. [1]
Liturgy, Peace in - In word and ceremony jt oocurs frequently, particularly at Holy Mass, in the Canon, in prayers six times, and twice in action as the priest drops the particle of the Host into the chalice, and as he gives the kiss of peace to the Deacon, who in turn passes it on to the assisting clergy
John x, Pope - He was a Deacon, then Archbishop of Ravenna
Priest - ) A presbyter; one who belongs to the intermediate order between bishop and Deacon
Apostle, Philip the - The legends concerning him are uncertain, confusing him with Philip the Deacon; however the general opinion is that he, with his two daughters, died at Hierapolis
Sedilia - The number of seats has since increased to four and five although the usual number is three, the center one for the celebrant, that on the right for the Deacon and on the left for the subdeacon
Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint - Emblems: crown, chalice, winged Deacon
Kunceyyc, Josaphat, Saint - Emblems: crown, chalice, winged Deacon
Orders - bishops, priests, and Deacons. Sacred, or major, are Deacon, priest, and bishop
Gregory ii, Pope Saint - As Deacon he accompanied Pope Constantine to Constantinople to discuss the canons of the Quinisext Council with Justinian II
Serapion, Solitary of Scete - Serapion, however, was converted by the efforts of Photinus, an Oriental Deacon
Eucharistic Vestments - They are as follows: the Amice, Alb, Girdle, Stole, Maniple andChasuble worn by the celebrant, and the Dalmatic and Tunicle,worn by the Deacon and sub-Deacon; each of which is described underthe heading, VESTMENTS (which see)
John Xxiii, Anti-Pope - He was appointed cardinal-deacon in 1402
Marinus i, Pope - While a Deacon he was sent by Adrian II as legate to the Council of Constantinople (869). Later he was made bishop of Crere (Cervetri) treasurer of the Holy See, and archdeacon
Stole - When worn by a Deacon, it is placed on the left shoulder andfastened under the right arm
Ordain - The word usually means ‘appoint’, as for example when Jesus appointed apostles (Mark 3:13-14; John 15:16; see APOSTLE), and the apostles appointed church leaders (Acts 6:3; Acts 6:6; Acts 14:23; see Deacon; ELDER)
Martin ii, Pope - While a Deacon he was sent by Adrian II as legate to the Council of Constantinople (869). Later he was made bishop of Crere (Cervetri) treasurer of the Holy See, and archdeacon
Beaufort, Pierre Roger de - Canonist, theologian, and cardinal-deacon, he was ordained a priest one day before his consecration as pope
Gregory xi, Pope - Canonist, theologian, and cardinal-deacon, he was ordained a priest one day before his consecration as pope
Abyssinia - According to legend, Christianity was introduced by the eunuch Candace baptized by Philip the Deacon, and was firmly established in the 4th century under Saint Frumentius, the first bishop
Baldassare Cossa - He was appointed cardinal-deacon in 1402
Pontius, a Deacon of Carthage - Pontius (2), Mark 8, a Deacon of Carthage
Deacon, Deaconess - ‘Deacon’ or ‘deaconess’ (διάκονος, masc. The only passage in which special officials are certainly mentioned is 1 Timothy 3:8-12, where 1 Timothy 3:11 refers to women Deacons (Revised Version ) rather than to wives of Deacons (Authorized Version ). But it is highly probable that ‘with [1] bishops and Deacons’ (Philippians 1:1) also refers to special officials; although it is just possible that St. She may be a female Deacon; but this is very unlikely, for there is no trace of Deacons or other officials in the church of Corinth at this time. The Seven (Acts 6) are probably not to be identified with the later Deacons. The special function of Deacons, whether men or women, was to distribute the alms of the congregation and to minister to the needs of the poor; they were the church’s relieving officers. 36-51; article ‘Deacon’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols)
Milanese Rite - Some notable peculiarities are: a procession with the oblations of bread and wine before the Offertory; the litany chanted by the Deacon; the Creed said after the Offertory
Deacon, Philip the, Saint - Born Caesarea, Palestine; died there c58 Also known as Philip the Deacon. One of the seven Deacons (Acts 6), he first preached in Samaria with great success, and confirmed his preaching with miracles (Acts 8)
Oddone Colonna - He was nuncio to various Italian courts, administrator of the diocese of Palestrina, and cardinal-deacon
Martin v, Pope - He was nuncio to various Italian courts, administrator of the diocese of Palestrina, and cardinal-deacon
Ambrosian Rite - Some notable peculiarities are: a procession with the oblations of bread and wine before the Offertory; the litany chanted by the Deacon; the Creed said after the Offertory
Ethiopia - A eunuch, minister of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia, was converted to Christianity by the Deacon Philip (Acts 8)
Evangelist, Philip the, Saint - Born Caesarea, Palestine; died there c58 Also known as Philip the Deacon. One of the seven Deacons (Acts 6), he first preached in Samaria with great success, and confirmed his preaching with miracles (Acts 8)
Rite, Ambrosian - Some notable peculiarities are: a procession with the oblations of bread and wine before the Offertory; the litany chanted by the Deacon; the Creed said after the Offertory
Rite, Milanese - Some notable peculiarities are: a procession with the oblations of bread and wine before the Offertory; the litany chanted by the Deacon; the Creed said after the Offertory
Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia - Glycerius (5) , a Deacon in Cappadocia, who caused Basil much annoyance by his extravagant and disorderly proceedings c. Being a vigorous young man, well fitted for the humbler offices of the church, and having adopted the ascetic life, he was ordained Deacon by Basil, though to what church is doubtful
Pelagia, Surnamed Margarita - The story of our Pelagia has been told by Jacobus, a Deacon and eyewitness of her conversion. Nonnus had been an ascetic of the severe order of Pachomius of Tabenna, and he addressed Pelagia with such plainness and sternness touching her sins and the future judgments of God, that she at once repented, and with many tears desired baptism, which, after some delay, was granted, the chief Deaconess of Antioch, Romana, acting as sponsor for her. Jacobus the Deacon, recounting a visit he paid to her there, gives a very interesting description of an anchorite's cell, such as can still be seen in many places in Ireland
Gordianus, Father of Pope Gregory the Great - John the Deacon says that Felix IV. John the Deacon ( op. Gordianus is designated "Regionarius," from which, as well as from his dress, Baronius supposes that he was one of the seven cardinal Deacons of Rome, it having been not uncommon, he says, for married men, with the consent of their wives, to embrace clerical or monastic life. 1) to shew that the dalmatic and caligae were then part of the costume of Roman Deacons. In two of these instances, those from Honorius and Aimoinus, the persons so designated are expressly said to be subdeacons. It seems to have denoted an office connected with the city of Rome and the apostolic see, but certainly not one confined to Deacons. Gregory himself, in his portrait in the same monastery described by John the Deacon, wears precisely the same dress, even to the colour of the planeta, only having the pallium over it, to mark his ecclesiastical rank
Ethiopian Eunuch - According to Acts 8:27 , an Ethiopian eunuch, minister of Candace , queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, was met shortly after the martyrdom of Stephen by the Deacon Philip when returning from a religious journey to Jerusalem, and converted to Christianity
Gaza - Mentioned in Acts 8, when the eunuch of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia, returning from Jerusalem where he had gone to worship, met Philip the Deacon and invited him into his chariot, that he might explain the writings of the prophet Isaias as they drove along; Philip "preached unto him Jesus," baptized him at his own request, "and the eunuch went on his way rejoicing
Candace - the name of an Ethiopian queen, whose eunuch coming to Jerusalem to worship the Lord, was baptized by Philip the Deacon, near Bethsura, in the way to Gaza, as he was returning to his own country, Acts 8:27
Deacon - , DeaconESS The term “deacon” is derived from the Greek word diakonos , which is usually translated “servant” or “minister. ” Only a few times in the New Testament (Philippians 1:1 ; 1Timothy 3:8,1 Timothy 3:12 , and, in some translations, Romans 16:1 ) is it translated “deacon” and used to denote one holding a church office. ...
Although Philippians 1:1 and 1 Timothy 3:1 clearly indicate that the office of Deacon existed in New Testament times, no explicit Bible reference describes the duties of Deacons or refers to the origin of the office. In Philippians 1:1 and in numerous references in early Christian literature outside the New Testament, bishops and/or elders and Deacons are mentioned together, with Deacons mentioned last. Because of this order, and because of the natural connotations of the word diakonos , most interpreters believe that Deacons, from the beginning, served as assistants of the church leaders. Certainly, that was clearly the role of Deacons by the second century. Deacons continued to fill an important role in the ministry of the early church, serving the needs of the poor, assisting in baptism and the Lord's Supper, and performing other practical ministerial tasks. ...
The nature of the qualifications of Deacons outlined in 1 Timothy 3:8-13 perhaps indicates the function of Deacons in the New Testament period. In most respects, the qualifications of Deacons mirror those of the “bishops,” the leaders of the churches. The requirements that Deacons must have a clear understanding of the faith ( 1 Timothy 3:9 ) and that their faithfulness already be proven (1 Timothy 3:10 ) indicate that their duties consisted of more than menial chores. The exclusion of those who are “doubletongued” (1 Timothy 3:8 ) may be evidence that the work of the Deacons brought them into close contact with the everyday lives of the church members, as would occur in visiting the sick and ministering to the other physical needs of fellow Christians. The requirement that Deacons not be greedy may indicate that they were responsible for collecting and distributing church funds. ...
Whether the Deacons' functions extended to leading in worship is not clear. Gifts for teaching, a requirement for “bishops,” are not mentioned in the qualifications for Deacons. The connotations of table service in the word diakonos and the centrality of the Lord's Supper in the worship of the early church strongly imply that distributing the elements and, in the early years, serving the agape meal were important functions of Deacons. ...
Many interpreters believe that the account of the choosing of the seven in Acts 6:1 describes the selection of the first Deacons, although the term diakonos is not used in the passage and the term diakonia (“service” or “ministry”) is used only for the work of the twelve. The tasks that the seven performed, however, later seem to be principal functions of Deacons. On the other hand, two of the seven, Stephen and Philip, are known to us as prominent preachers and evangelists, roles which may not have been common for Deacons. Other than this passage, which may or may not represent usual practice, the New Testament does not mention ordination of Deacons. Although this remark may refer to the wives of male Deacons (KJV, NIV) it probably should be interpreted as a parenthetical reference to female Deacons, or Deaconesses (NIV footnote; NAS footnote; NRSV footnote). Williams New Testament translates this as Deaconess. The NRSV uses “deacon. ” In this verse, Phebe's role as “helper” and Paul's obvious regard for her work seem to support the conclusion that she functioned as a Deacon in her church. Deaconesses are mentioned prominently in Christian writings of the first several centuries
Honorius iv, Pope - Cardinal-deacon, and papal prefect in Tuscany, he did not receive ordination until six weeks after his election
Anacletus ii - A Benedictine and a cardinal-deacon, he was employed on important missions by successive pontiffs
Minister - See Deacon
Savelli, Giacomo - Cardinal-deacon, and papal prefect in Tuscany, he did not receive ordination until six weeks after his election
Giacomo Savelli - Cardinal-deacon, and papal prefect in Tuscany, he did not receive ordination until six weeks after his election
Liberius, Pope - A Deacon, born in Rome; died there
Lawrence, Saint - Martyr (died 258), a Deacon, victim of the Valerian persecution, and one of the most honored of Roman martyrs. Probably a native of Spain, he became one of the seven Deacons of the Roman Church, and distributed alms from the monastery of Saint Cyriaca
Harmonies of the Gospels - Euthalius, a Deacon of Alexandria, besides adopting the division into sections, applied the method of numbered lines to the Acts and Epistles
Agnoet ae - There arose another sect of the same name in the sixth century, who followed Themistius, Deacon of Alexandria
Nicolaitanes, a Heretical Sect - In the later work of Hippolytus Nicolaus the Deacon is made the founder of the Gnostics; but the notice is short and goes little beyond what is told in Irenaeus bk. 232) says that Hippolytus and Epiphanius make Nicolas the Deacon of Act_6:5 answerable for the errors of the sect called after him; whereas Ignatius Clement of Alexandria Eusebius and Theodoret condemn the sect but impute none of the blame to Nicolas himself
Julius, Bishop of Puteoli - Certainly he, with Renatus the presbyter and HILARUS the Deacon, carried to Flavian of Constantinople the famous "tome" of St. We read that he made several efforts to resist DIOSCORUS, especially urging that Leo's letter should be read, but he does not seem to have been so prominent in opposition as Hilarus the Deacon (ib. He speaks to Theodosius, the emperor, of intelligence having been brought him of the acts of the synod by the bishop whom he had sent, as well as by the Deacon ( Ep
Deacon, Deaconess - The word "deacon" essentially means servant. The word group consists of diakoneo [1] (occurring thirty-six times in the New Testament) meaning to serve or support; diakonia [2] (occurring thirty-three times in the New Testament) meaning service, support, or ministry; and diakonos [3] (occurring twenty-nine times in the New Testament), meaning server, servant, or Deacon. Although the noun "deacon" (diakonos [ Acts 1:8 ). That these men served in a manner transcending the traditional notion of Deacon is clearly seen in the prophetic teaching activity of Stephen (Acts 6-7 ) and the evangelistic ministry of Philip (Acts 8 ). ...
First Timothy 3:8-13 is the most complete account in Scripture addressing the office of Deacon. Thus Deacons must be worthy of respect, sincere (lit. ...
It is possible, although not certain, that women served as Deaconesses in the early church. " "The women" has been variously interpreted to mean the wives of the Deacons, female assistants to the Deacons, Deaconesses, or women in general. Second, to return to qualifications for Deacons in verses 12-13, and to address the children in verse 12, argues for wives being in view in verse 11. " The same word also occurs in verse 8 and is used to introduce a distinct but related subject (deacons versus overseers). Second, the absence of the word "their" would seem to imply that the women in view are not the wives of Deacons but rather women who serve in the same capacity as the men. Third, the list of qualifications for the women, although abbreviated (only one verse), is similar to those for the Deacons. Fourth, the silence concerning any qualifications for the bishop's wife (3:1-7) argues against this being understood as referring to Deacons' wives. These women may have been wives of Deacons
Dionysius, Saint - With his intimate companions Rusticus, a priest, and Eleutherius, his Deacon, he settled on an island of the Seine in the vicinity of Paris; there he built a church and was untiring in his efforts to propagate the Faith
Denis, Saint - With his intimate companions Rusticus, a priest, and Eleutherius, his Deacon, he settled on an island of the Seine in the vicinity of Paris; there he built a church and was untiring in his efforts to propagate the Faith
Innocent ii, Pope - Before his election he was a cardinal-deacon and with Lambert, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, helped draw up the Concordat of Worms, 1122
Carthage, Cyprian of, Saint - Cyprian at first opposed the practise, but the sincerity of their contrition caused him to relent; this gave rise to the schism of the Deacon Felicissimus; returning to Carthage, 251, Cyprian excommunicated the leaders
Service: the Road to Honour - Thou gracious King of kings, if thou hast made me a minister or Deacon in thy church, enable me to be foremost in every good word and work, shunning no sacrifice, and shrinking from no suffering ...
...
Gregorio Papareschi - Before his election he was a cardinal-deacon and with Lambert, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, helped draw up the Concordat of Worms, 1122
Ascension - Early customs connected with the liturgy were the blessing of beans and grapes after the Commemoration of the Dead in the Canon of the Mass, blessing of first fruits, blessing of a candle, wearing of miters by Deacon and subdeacon
Administration - In 1 Corinthians 12:5 the aspect, alluded to is especially that of practical service rendered to a master [1], whereas in 2 Corinthians 9:12 it is particularly the concrete form of that service which is intended, in its God ward and man-ward aspects
Eleutherius, Saint - With his intimate companions Rusticus, a priest, and Eleutherius, his Deacon, he settled on an island of the Seine in the vicinity of Paris; there he built a church and was untiring in his efforts to propagate the Faith
Rusticus, Saint - With his intimate companions Rusticus, a priest, and Eleutherius, his Deacon, he settled on an island of the Seine in the vicinity of Paris; there he built a church and was untiring in his efforts to propagate the Faith
Philippus, Bishop of Heraclea - 304 with Severus, a presbyter, and Hermes, a Deacon
Deacon - Our Lord makes use of both terms in Matthew 20:26-27 , though they are not distinctly marked in our translation: "Whosoever will be great among you, let him be your Deacon; and whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant. " The appointment of Deacons in the first Christian church is distinctly recorded, Acts 6:1-15 . ...
The twelve Apostles, who hitherto had discharged the different offices of Apostle, presbyter, and Deacon, upon the principle that the greater office always includes the less, now convened the church, and said unto them, "It is not reasonable that we should leave the ministration of the word of God, and serve tables: look ye out, therefore, among yourselves, seven men of good report, full of the Holy Ghost, and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business; but we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word. ...
The qualifications of Deacons are stated by the Apostle Paul, 1 Timothy 3:8-12 . There were also, in the primitive churches, females invested with this office, who were termed Deaconesses. "They served the church," says Calmet, "in those offices which the Deacons could not themselves exercise, visiting those of their own sex in sickness, or when imprisoned for the faith. " It is probably of these Deaconesses that the Apostle speaks, where he describes the ministering widows, 1 Timothy 5:5-10
Leo the Great, Pope Saint - A Deacon, he was sent to Gaul as mediator by Emperor Valentinian III
Leo i, Pope Saint - A Deacon, he was sent to Gaul as mediator by Emperor Valentinian III
Leo ix, Pope Saint - A cousin of Emperor Conrad, canon of Saint Stephen's (Toul), Deacon, he was consecrated Bishop of Toul, 1021
Innocent xi, Pope - After fulfilling many important offices he became cardinal-deacon, cardinal-priest, and Bishop of Novara
Maundy Thursday - This was followed by the washing of the feet, called the Mandatum from the words of the first antiphon sung during the ceremony, which is not now universally performed, when the principal priest of the church assisted by the Deacon and subdeacon washed the feet of twelve poor men in imitation of Christ, who washed the feet of the twelve Apostles
Diptychs - For this purposethe Church possessed certain books, called diptychs, from theirbeing folded together, and in which the names of such persons"departed in the true faith," were written that the Deacon mightrehearse them at the time when the memorial of the departed wasmade at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist
Holy Thursday - This was followed by the washing of the feet, called the Mandatum from the words of the first antiphon sung during the ceremony, which is not now universally performed, when the principal priest of the church assisted by the Deacon and subdeacon washed the feet of twelve poor men in imitation of Christ, who washed the feet of the twelve Apostles
Ethiopians - Acts 8:27, where Candace, queen of (the) Ethiopians, and her εὐνοῦχος δυνάστης are mentioned in connexion with Philip the Deacon (see articles Candace, Ethiopian Eunuch, and Philip)
Thursday, Holy - This was followed by the washing of the feet, called the Mandatum from the words of the first antiphon sung during the ceremony, which is not now universally performed, when the principal priest of the church assisted by the Deacon and subdeacon washed the feet of twelve poor men in imitation of Christ, who washed the feet of the twelve Apostles
Thursday, Maundy - This was followed by the washing of the feet, called the Mandatum from the words of the first antiphon sung during the ceremony, which is not now universally performed, when the principal priest of the church assisted by the Deacon and subdeacon washed the feet of twelve poor men in imitation of Christ, who washed the feet of the twelve Apostles
Thursday, Sheer - This was followed by the washing of the feet, called the Mandatum from the words of the first antiphon sung during the ceremony, which is not now universally performed, when the principal priest of the church assisted by the Deacon and subdeacon washed the feet of twelve poor men in imitation of Christ, who washed the feet of the twelve Apostles
Shear Thursday - This was followed by the washing of the feet, called the Mandatum from the words of the first antiphon sung during the ceremony, which is not now universally performed, when the principal priest of the church assisted by the Deacon and subdeacon washed the feet of twelve poor men in imitation of Christ, who washed the feet of the twelve Apostles
Caesare'a - Here also lived Philip the Deacon and his four prophesying daughters
Evangelist - The evangelist might or might not be a bishop-elder or a Deacon
Majorianus, Julius Valerius - An outline of these laws is given by Gibbon; the seventh enacted that a curialis who had taken orders to avoid the duties of his position, if below the rank of a Deacon, should be at once reduced to his original status, while, if he had been ordained Deacon, priest, or bishop, he was declared incapable of alienating his property. At Arles, Mar 28, 460, he issued a law declaring ordinations against the will of the person ordained to be null; subjected an archdeacon who had taken part in such an ordination to a penalty of ten pounds of gold to be received by the informer, and referred a bishop guilty of the same offence to the judgment of the apostolic see
Felicissimus, Deacon of Carthage - Felicissimus (1) , Deacon of Carthage, whom Novatus associated with himself in the management of a district called Mons (Cyp. Like other African and Spanish Deacons (Neander, vol
Innocent Iii, Pope - He was a theologian, jurist, and cardinal-deacon
Semi-Pelagians - Cassian, who had been a Deacon of Constantinople, who was afterwards a priest at Marceilles, was the chief of these Semi-Pelagians, whose leading principles were, ...
1
Deacon - The name "deacon" is nowhere applied to them in the New Testament; they are simply called "the seven" (21:8)
Lotario de' Conti - He was a theologian, jurist, and cardinal-deacon
Gregory i, Pope Saint - He was appointed cardinal-deacon, and then sent to the Byzantine court to secure aid against the Lombards
Gregory the Great, Pope Saint - He was appointed cardinal-deacon, and then sent to the Byzantine court to secure aid against the Lombards
Ambrosius of Alexandria - Ambrosius (1) ( Ἀμβρόσιος ) of Alexandria, a Deacon according to Jerome (de Vir
Eusebius (48), Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea, in Syria Prima; a native and Deacon of Alexandria
Office - is "overseership;" so in 1 Timothy 3:10,13 , where the AV has "use (and 'used') the office of a Deacon," the RV rightly omits "office," and translates the verb diakoneo, "to serve," "let them serve as Deacons" and "(they that) have served (well) as Deacons
Senochus, Saint - of Tours, consecrated it afresh, and ordained Senoch a Deacon
Caius, Pope - He is probably the same as Caius the Deacon, imprisoned with pope Stephen, a. He is said by Anastasius to have established the 6 orders of usher, reader, exorcist, subdeacon, Deacon, and presbyter, as preliminary stages necessary before attaining the episcopate, and also to have divided Rome into regions assigned to the Deacons
Philip - A respected member of the church at Jerusalem who was chosen as one of the seven—first Deacons (Acts 6:5 ). See Acts ; Deacon ; Evangelism
Deaconess - A female Deacon. It is generally allowed, that in the primitive church there were Deaconesses, 1:e. who is expressly called a Deaconess or stated servant, as Dr. The apostolic constitutions, as they are called, mention the ordination of a Deaconess, and the form of prayer used on that occasion. who were called Deaconesses
Gregory ix, Pope - As cardinal-deacon, and later cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri, he was employed on many diplomatic missions throughout Europe
Acclamation - Now, after the Gloria and Collect of the Mass of the Coronation, the senior cardinal-deacon, standing before the pope enthroned, chants the words "Exaudi Christe" (Hear, O Christ), to which all present reply "Long Life to our Lord
Ugolino, Count of Segni - As cardinal-deacon, and later cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri, he was employed on many diplomatic missions throughout Europe
Philemon - He calls him his fellow-labourer; and from that expression some have thought that he was bishop or Deacon of the church at Colosse; but others have been of opinion, that he was only a private Christian, who had shown a zealous and active disposition in the cause of Christianity, without holding any ecclesiastical office
Samson, a Welsh Saint - Illtyd at Llantwit Major, ordained Deacon and priest by St
Servant - The title ‘deacon’, given to certain people who have various responsibilities in the church, means ‘servant’ (Philippians 1:1; Matthew 25:35-407; see Deacon)
Habibus, Deacon, Martyr at Edessa - Habibus (2) ( Abibus ), Deacon, martyr at Edessa in the reign of Licinius; mentioned in the Basilian Menologium , Nov. Habib, a Deacon of the village of Telzeha, went privately among the churches and villages encouraging the Christians not to comply
Mass - Nicod, after Baronius, observes that the word comes from the Hebrew missach, ( oblatum, ) or from the Latin missa missorum; because in former times the catechumens and excommunicated were sent out of the church, when the Deacons said, "Ite, missa est," after sermon and reading of the epistle, and Gospel; they not being allowed to assist at the consecration. The first is that sung by the choristers, and celebrated with the assistance of a Deacon and sub-deacon: low masses are those in which the prayers are barely rehearsed without singing
Alexander vi, Pope - He was adopted into the family of his uncle, Pope Callistus III, 1455, became cardinal-deacon, 1456, and cardinal-bishop, 1476, and dean of the Sacred College
Imposition of Hands - ...
This term also refers to the Laying on of Hands by the Bishop inOrdination to the Sacred Ministry, by which is conferred the graceof Holy Order, and one is admitted to the Office and work ofa Deacon, of Priest or Bishop, "which Offices were evermore had insuch reverend estimation, that no man might presume to execute anyof them except he were first called, tried, examined and known tohave such qualities as are requisite for the same; and also bypublic Prayer, with Imposition of Hands, were approved and admittedthereunto by lawful Authority
Palladias, Bishop of Ireland - Under 429 Prosper writes in his Chronicle : "By the instrumentality of the Deacon Palladius, pope Celestinus sends Germanus, bp
Montmartre - This second church was reconstructed in the 12th century and consecrated, 1147, by Pope Eugene III, with Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter the Venerable officiating as Deacon and subdeacon respectively
Benedict Xiii, Anti-Pope - A cardinal-deacon, he assisted at the election of Urban VI, but later joined the French cardinals when they elected the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII), falsely claiming that Urban's election had been secured under pressure from the Roman people
Luna, Pedro de - A cardinal-deacon, he assisted at the election of Urban VI, but later joined the French cardinals when they elected the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII), falsely claiming that Urban's election had been secured under pressure from the Roman people
Elder - (See SYNAGOGUE; BISHOP; Deacon; CHURCH
Holy Communion - The priest alone is the ordinary minister, the Deacon, the extraordinary
Heraclides Cyprius, Bishop of Ephesus - He then became Deacon to Chrysostom, and was in immediate attendance on him
Eastern Church - The Eastern Church accepts the first seven ecumenical councils (and is hence styled only schismatic, not heretical, by the Roman Catholic Church), has as its creed the Niceno-Constantinopolitan (without the later addition of the filioque, which, with the doctrine it represents, the church decisively rejects), baptizes infants with trine immersion, makes confirmation follow immediately upon baptism, administers the Communion in both kinds (using leavened bread) and to infants as well as adults, permits its secular clergy to marry before ordination and to keep their wives afterward, but not to marry a second time, selects its bishops from the monastic clergy only, recognizes the offices of bishop, priest, and Deacon as the three necessary degrees of orders, venerates relics and icons, and has an elaborate ritual
Chrysologus, Petrus, Archbishop of Ravenna - 165), ordained Deacon, and made oeconomus of the church
Philip - The Deacon and Evangelist, Acts 6:5 21:8 Ephesians 4:11 ; a resident of Caesarea, at least during one portion of his life, having four daughters who were endowed with the gift of prophecy, Acts 2:17 21:8-9
Serapion, Bishop of Heraclea - of Heraclea, an Egyptian by birth, ordained Deacon by Chrysostom (Socr. 4), and by him made archdeacon of the church of Constantinople (Soz. The grounds of this charge were the following: Serapion having ostentatiously refused to rise to pay Severian as he passed the accustomed homage of a Deacon to a bishop, with the express intention, declared to the clergy around, of shewing "how much he despised the man
Ambrosiaster, or Pseudo-Ambrosius - Of the persons of that name, Augustine elsewhere mentions only Hilarius the Sardinian, Deacon of the Roman church, sent by pope Liberius in 354 to the emperor Constantius after the synod of Arles. By many modern scholars Hilary the Deacon has been accepted as the author of the work. The note of time in the Quaestiones —300 years after the destruction of Jerusalem—and some references to contemporary events suit the period of Damasus, and have induced many to ascribe this work also to Hilary the Deacon
Deaconess - DeaconESS . ]'>[2] ‘deaconess. ’ Against the latter must be noted: (1) There is no evidence of the Deacon (wh. to the Philippians, and it is most unlikely that when Romans was written there would be an official Deaconess. ...
In 1 Timothy 3:11 , however, although the word ‘deaconess’ is not used, it is almost certain that female Deacons are referred to. ]'>[3] misleads us by making it appear that the wives of Deacons are spoken of; RV Anastasius ii, Bishop of Rome - This proposal, in the very spirit of the Henoticon, gave lasting offence to the Western church, and it excites no surprise that he was charged with communicating secretly with Photinus, a Deacon of Thessalonica who held with Acacius; and of wishing to heal the breach between the East and West—for so it seems best to interpret the words of Anastasius Bibliothecarius—"voluit revocare Acacium" (vol
Jannes - Ambrosiaster, or Hilary, the Deacon, says they were brothers
Photinus, a Galatian - Photinus , a Galatian, educated by Marcellus of Ancyra and afterwards Deacon and presbyter of his church, perhaps too (during the time when Marcellus, expelled from his own see, a
Philip the Evangelist - (See Deacon. Here Philip, who had preached to the schismatic Samaritans, the dark African, and the hostile Philistine, would hail the apostle of the Gentiles who was carrying out to its world wide consequences the work initiated by the evangelist Deacon
Mass - Nicod, after Baronius, observes, that the word comes from the Hebrew missach (oblatum;) or from the Latin missa missorum; because in the former times the catechumens and excommunicated were sent out of the church, when the Deacons said, Ite, missa, est, after sermon and reading of the epistle and Gospel; they not being allowed to assist at the consecration. The first is that sung by the choristers, and celebrated with the assistance of a Deacon and sub-deacon: low masses are those in which the prayers are barely rehearsed without singing
Evagrius Ponticus, Anchoret And Writer - He was ordained reader by Basil, and Deacon by Gregory Nyssen, who took him to the council of Constantinople, a. The imperial city proved a dangerous home for the young Deacon
Deacon - , "deacon"), primarily denotes a "servant," whether as doing servile work, or as an attendant rendering free service, without particular reference to its character. ...
The so-called "seven Deacons" in Acts 6 are not there mentioned by that name, though the kind of service in which they were engaged was of the character of that committed to such
Celibacy - The church of Rome imposes an universal celibacy on all her clergy, from the pope to the lowest Deacon and subdeacon
Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France - The corresponding legend shortly narrated in the Paris Martyrology, states that his companions were Rusticus, a presbyter and Eleutherus, a Deacon, and that all three were put to death by the sword under Sisinnius Fescenninus, prefect of Gaul
Copts - Their arch-priests, who are next in degree to bishops, and their Deacons, are said to be numerous; and they often confer the order of Deacon even on children
Tiberius ii., Emperor of Constantinople - Gregory, afterwards pope Gregory the Great, then a Deacon and Roman apocrisiarius at the imperial court, at once detected heresy in the patriarch's teaching
Orders, Holy - There are seven orders in the Latin Church: four minor, acolyte, exorcist, reader, and porter; and three major, or sacred orders, subdeacon, Deacon, and priest. Bishops are superior to priests and have greater power, while priests are in turn superior to Deacons. , the bishop to be the ordinary minister of Confirmation, to ordain, to consecrate, and the Deacon to chant the Gospel, etc
Holy Orders - There are seven orders in the Latin Church: four minor, acolyte, exorcist, reader, and porter; and three major, or sacred orders, subdeacon, Deacon, and priest. Bishops are superior to priests and have greater power, while priests are in turn superior to Deacons. , the bishop to be the ordinary minister of Confirmation, to ordain, to consecrate, and the Deacon to chant the Gospel, etc
Ministry - ( b ) Next there are the Deacon , and his companion the Deaconess ( Philippians 1:1 , 1 Timothy 3:8-13 ), whose duties are not clearly defined, but the description of whose qualifications suggests that their work lay largely in visitation from house to house and ministration to the poor ( 1 Timothy 5:8-11 ). , we find that when a wandering prophet visits a Church and is recognized as a true prophet, precedence is given him over the resident bishops and Deacons ( Did . See, further, Apostle, Bishop, Deacon, Evangelist, Laying on of Hands, Prophet in NT
Church Government - The Apostles were founders of churches, and therefore regulated and supervised the first arrangements; then were added sundry local and unlocal rulers; then the unlocal died out, and the local settled down into the three permanent classes of bishops, elders, and Deacons. A few years later ( Ephesians 4:11 ) he tells us how the ascended Lord ‘himself gave some as apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, some pastors and teachers, for the work of service’ ( diakonia ) they are all of them ‘deacons’ ( diakonoi ), whatever more they may be. We have (1) the appointment of the Seven at Jerusalem ( Acts 6:1-15 ); (2) elders at Jerusalem in the years 44, 50, 58 ( Acts 11:30 ; Acts 15:8 ; Acts 15:22 ; Acts 21:18 ), appointed by Paul and Barnabas in every church about 48 ( Acts 14:23 ), mentioned James 5:14 ; at Ephesus in 58 ( Acts 20:17 ), mentioned 1 Peter 5:1 ; (3) Phœhe a Deaconess at Cenchreæ in 58 ( Romans 16:1 ), bishops and Deacons at Philippi in 63 ( Philippians 1:1 ). Also in the Pastoral Epistles, Timothy at Ephesus about 66 is ( 1 Timothy 3:1-16 ; 1 Timothy 4:1-16 ) in charge of four orders: (1) bishops (or elders) ( 1 Timothy 5:1 ); (2) Deacons; (3) Deaconesses ( 1 Timothy 3:11 ) (‘women’ [1] cannot be wives of Deacons); (4) widows. The questions before us may be conveniently grouped round the three later offices of Bishop, Elder, and Deacon. But bishop and Deacon seem at first to have denoted functions of oversight and service rather than definite offices. ...
(1) Deacons . The traditional view, that the choice of the Seven in Acts 1:22 marks the institution of a permanent order of Deacons, is open to serious doubt. The vague word diakonia (used too in the context of the Apostles themselves) is balanced by the avoidance of the word ‘deacon’ in the Acts ( e. Since, however, Phœbe was a Deaconess at Cenchreæ in 58, there were probably Deacons there and at Corinth, though St. Paul does not mention any; and at Philippi we have bishops and Deacons in 63. Deacon. In the Pastoral Epistles, Timothy appoints ‘bishops and Deacons’; Titus, ‘elders and Deacons,’ though Timothy also ( 1 Timothy 5:17 ) has elders under him
Charles Borromeo, Saint - Upon the election of Pius IV, he was summoned to Rome; the administration of all the papal states was intrusted to him; and he was made cardinal-deacon and administrator of the archdiocese of Milan though only 22 years old
Imposition of Hands - A Deacon,...
by the election of an annual conference, and the laying on of the hands of a bishop
Maximianus, a Donatist - He is said to have been related to Donatus the Great, and was a Deacon at Carthage when, at the death of Parmenian, Primian was appointed bp. Primian found fault with four of his Deacons, especially Maximian, whom he appears to have disliked most
Sacrament - Deacon
Simon - He afterwards became a professed convert to the faith under the preaching of Philip the Deacon and evangelist (12,13)
Antioch - Nicolas the Deacon was a proselyte of Antioch
Eraclius, Deacon of the Church of Hippo - Eraclius (1) ( Heraclius , in the older editions Eradius ), Deacon of the church of Hippo a
Maximinus i., Roman Emperor - >From his retirement Origen addressed two treatises On Martyrdom and On Prayer to his disciple Ambrosius, a Deacon of the church of Alexandria (Eus
Bonifacius ii, Pope - Accordingly he nominated the Deacon Vigilius (subsequently pope, 537), and obtained the consent of the clergy thereto
Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, , Disciple And Companion of Ruspe - 523, returned to Carthage, where he became a Deacon. , chiefly appertaining to the election, ordination, and character of bishops, presbyters, and Deacons; the feasts of the church; the duties of virgins, catechumens, etc. African church, and in a letter (546) to Anatolius and Pelagius, two Deacons of the Roman church, whom Vigilius instructed to communicate with him, declared against the reception of the edict of Justinian
Gallus (11), Abbat, the Apostle of Switzerland - When the see of Constance became vacant in 616, the episcopate was urgently pressed upon him, and again in 625, but he declined, and was allowed to nominate his Deacon John, a native of the place
Germanus, Bishop of Paris - In due time he was ordained Deacon, and three years later priest
Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix, Bishop of Pavia - He was subsequently ordained Deacon by Epiphanius bp
Deacon - It may be translated ‘deacon’ (Acts 6:1-6; cf. In time the common practice was for a church to have a group of people called Deacons who had certain responsibilities in the church. ...
The word diakonos had such a broad meaning and usage that the Bible nowhere attempts to define the role and duties of Deacons. The Deacons were, however, distinct from the elders (GNB: leaders) (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 3:8; see ELDER). Deacons had responsibility for a variety of ministries, but not the ministry of pastoral care and church leadership (cf. ...
Nevertheless, the story of the early Jerusalem church shows that a Deacon’s service is not limited to routine or welfare activities. Other examples show that the church needs women Deacons as well as men (Romans 16:1-2; 1 Timothy 3:11; cf. ...
Deacons must be spiritual people, for right attitudes are necessary even in organizing practical affairs (Acts 6:3). It is therefore important to check the character, behaviour and ability of people before appointing them Deacons (1 Timothy 3:10). ...
The case of the early Jerusalem church suggests a procedure for the appointment of Deacons. All must realize, however, that people can do the work of Deacons properly only if the Holy Spirit has so gifted them, and only if he works through them (Romans 12:7; 1 Corinthians 12:4-7; 1 Corinthians 12:11; 1 Peter 4:11)
Joannes Iii, Bishop of Jerusalem - of Jerusalem, by the emperor Anastasius, John, Deacon of the Anastasis, was forcibly thrust into his episcopal seat by Olympius, prefect of Palestine, on his engaging to receive Severus of Antioch into communion and to anathematize the decrees of Chalcedon (Cyrill
Minister - At a later stage, when differences of function have begun to harden into distinctions of office, the name diakonos is specially appropriated to the Deacon (wh. But diakonos still continues to be used in its wider sense, for Timothy, who was much more than a Deacon, is exhorted to be ‘a good minister ( diakonos ) of Jesus Christ’ ( 1 Timothy 4:6 )
Homily - The practice of compiling homilies which were to be committed to memory, and recited by ignorant or indolent priests, commenced towards the close of the eighth century; when Charlemange ordered Paul, Deacon, and Alcuin, to form homilies or discourses upon the Gospels and Epistles from the ancient doctors of the church
Deacon - " The apostles said, "It is not reason that we should leave the word of God and serve ("be Deacons to"; diakonein ) tables," i. It is doubtful whether these seven correspond fully to the modern Deacons of either episcopal or congregational churches. " They were probably commissioners to superintend the Deacons in distributing the alms, so that the Grecian (Hellenist, Greek-speaking Jewish) widows should not be neglected, and at the same time to minister in spiritual things, as their solemn ordination by laying on of hands implies. The "young men" (Acts 5:6; Acts 5:10, neoteroi ) imply a subordinate ministration answering to the "deacons" (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8, etc. ...
As bishops and presbyters or elders are different aspects of the same upper ministry, so "young men" and "deacons" are different aspects of the same subordinate ministry. The synagogue had its "pastors" (paruasim ) and its subordinate "deacons" (chazzanim ) or ministers (Luke 4:20). The Deacons baptized new converts, distributed the bread and wine of the Lord's supper (Justin Martyr, Apol. What is meant by 1 Timothy 3:13 is, "they that have used the office of a Deacon well are acquiring to themselves (not "a good degree" for promotion, but) a good standing place" against the day of judgment (1 Corinthians 3:13-14); not a step to promotion
Helps - ‘Helps’ in this list of churchly gifts and services thus denotes such attentions to the poor and afflicted as were specially assigned at a later time to the office of the Deacon; while ‘ governments ’ (RVm
We are not to think, however, that there is any reference in this passage to Deacons and bishops as Church officials. ‘helps’ and ‘governments’ corresponded to Deacons and bishops
Servant - See Deacon,and SLAVE
Athanasius - At the Council of Nice, though then but a Deacon of Alexandria, his reputation for skill in controversy gained him an honourable place in the council, and with great dexterity he exposed the sophistry of those who pleaded on the side of Arius
Onesiphorus - διακονέω) has been supposed to indicate that Onesiphorus acted as a Deacon of the Church in Ephesus, but this is by no means certain
Augustinus, Archbaptist of Canterbury - Augustine's Abbey ; a few letters of Gregory the Great; the Lives of Gregory the Great by Paul the Deacon and John the Deacon. Then came the rest of the brethren and the choir, headed by Honorius and the Deacon Peter, chanting a solemn litany for the eternal welfare of themselves and the people amongst whom they had come
Evangelist - The evangelist was not necessarily an apostle, bishop-elder, or Deacon, but might be any of these
Proclus, Saint Patriarch of Constantinople - The friend and disciple of Chrysostom, he became secretary to Atticus the patriarch, who ordained him Deacon and priest
Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria - Euthalius (5) , a Deacon of Alexandria, afterwards bp. Euthalius appears to have been then a Deacon, devoted to the study of the N
Servant, Service - ...
The diakonos [ Matthew 8:15 ), distributes food (Acts 6:1 ), sets a table (John 12:2 ), does the work of a Deacon (1 Timothy 3:10 ), or exercises spiritual gifts (1 Peter 4:10-11 )
Archippus - ...
Archippus may have been a presbyter bishop, a leading Deacon, an evangelist, or a prominent teacher at the time when St
Agnoetae - Themistius Deacon of Alexandria representing a small branch of the Monophysite Severians taught after the death of Severus that the human soul (not the Divine nature) of Christ was like us in all things even in the limitation of knowledge and was ignorant of many things especially the day of judgment which the Father alone knew (Mar_13:32 cf
Order - ) An ecclesiastical grade or rank, as of Deacon, priest, or bishop; the office of the Christian ministry; - often used in the plural; as, to take orders, or to take holy orders, that is, to enter some grade of the ministry
Eusebius, Bishop of Pelusium - His confidants were Lucius the archdeacon, who was said to take money for ordinations (i. 210); and three Deacons, Eustathius, Anatolius, and Maron (i. 38); a pious Deacon, such as Eutonius, was oppressed by Zosimus (ii
Sarbelius, a Edessan Martyr - of the Christians, accompanied by a priest and Deacon, thereupon waited on Sarbelius and warned him of his responsibility in leading so many to worship gods made with hands
Urbanus, Bishop of Sicca Veneria - In a council which met May 1, 418, the African bishops decreed that no priest, Deacon, or inferior clerk should prosecute any appeal beyond sea. (3) About settling through neighbouring bishops matters relating to priests and Deacons excommunicated by their own bishops
Synagogue - The chazzan or "minister" of the synagogue, ( Luke 4:20 ) had duties of a lower kind, resembling those of the Christian Deacon or sub-deacon
Caesarea - The residence of Philip the Deacon and his four prophesying daughters (Acts 8:40; Acts 21:8; Acts 21:16)
Caesarea - Philip the Deacon seems to have resided at Caesarea (Acts 8:40; Acts 21:8; Acts 21:16)
Anger - To suppress this passion the following reflections of arch-deacon Paley, may not be unsuitable: "We should consider the possibility of mistaking the motives from which the conduct that offends us proceeded; how often our offences have been the effect of inadvertency, when they were construed into indications of malice; the inducement which prompted our adversary to act as he did, and how powerfully the same inducement has, at one time or other, operated upon ourselves; that he is suffering, perhaps, under a contrition, which he is ashamed or wants opportunity to confess; and how ungenerous it is to triumph by coldness or insult over a spirit already humbled in secret; that the returns of kindness are sweet, and that there is neither honor, nor virtue, nor use, in resisting them; for some persons think themselves bound to cherish and keep alive their indignation, when they find it dying away of itself
Domnus ii, Bishop of Antioch - He was ordained Deacon by Juvenal of Jerusalem on his visit to the Laura of Euthymus in a
Presbytery - in the Presbyterian and Congregational Churches the precedence of the minister over the elders and Deacons respectively, although, properly speaking, a ‘minister’ is simply a diakonos or Deacon)
Josephus, Catholicos of Armenia - The Armenian Christians nevertheless assembled in arms, 60,000 in number, among them Joseph, Leontius the priest, many other priests and a multitude of Deacons. of Reschdouni, the priests Arsenius, Leontius, Mousché, and the Deacon Kadchadch were executed in the province of Abar, near Révan, a village of the Moks
Offices in the New Testament - Positions of leadership in the New Testament church including Deacons , elders , pastors , apostles , bishops , and evangelists . ...
Two offices which apparently appeared in almost every church, at least by the end of the New Testament period, were elder and Deacon . ...
The word for Deacon is derived from diakonia , the basic term for Christian ministry in the New Testament. The qualifications for Deacons (1 Timothy 3:8-13 ) imply that they performed a wide variety of important services in their churches, including visiting the sick and administering relief funds. The name of the office also leads to the conclusion that Deacons assisted in serving the Lord's Supper. The account of the appointment of the seven, who are not called Deacons, may indicate the origin of the office (Acts 6:1 ), although some of the functions of the seven fit other offices equally well. The New Testament apparently refers to female Deacons (Romans 16:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:11 , Williams). Ample evidence shows that female Deacons were common in the second century. Similar in function to the female Deacons, perhaps identical in some cases, were the widows. Apparently the elders (bishops) and Deacons were charged with pastoral functions
Ordination - A person must be twenty-three years of age, or near it, before he can be ordained Deacon, or have any share in the ministry; and full twenty-four before he can be ordained priest, and by that means be permitted to administer the holy communion. A bishop, on the ordination of clergymen, is to examine them in the presence of the ministers, who in the ordination of priests, but not of Deacons, assist him at the imposition of hands; but this is only done as a mark of assent, not because it is thought necessary. In case any crime, as drunkenness, perjury, forgery, &c, is alleged against any one that is to be ordained, either priest or Deacon, the bishop ought to desist from ordaining him. The person to be ordained is to bring a testimonial of his life and doctrine to the bishop, and to give an account of his faith in Latin; and both priests and Deacons are obliged to subscribe to the thirty-nine articles
Minister - A — 1: διάκονος (Strong's #1249 — Noun — diakonos — dee-ak'-on-os ) "a servant, attendant, minister, Deacon," is translated "minister" in Mark 10:43 ; Romans 13:4 (twice); 15;8; 1 Corinthians 3:5 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; 6:4 ; 11:15 (twice); 15:8; 2:17; Ephesians 6:21 ; Colossians 1:7,23,25 ; 4:7 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:2 ; 1 Timothy 4:6 . See Deacon. , Mark 1:31 ; Luke 10:40 , "serve;" John 12:2 , "served;" (c) of relieving one's necessities, supplying the necessaries of life, Matthew 25:44 ; 27:55 ; Mark 15:41 ; Acts 6:2 , "serve;" Romans 15:25 ; Hebrews 6:10 ; more definitely in connection with such service in a local church, 1 Timothy 3:10,13 , [1]; (d) of attending, in a more general way, to anything that may serve another's interests, as of the work of an amanuensis, 2 Corinthians 3:3 (metaphorical): of the conveyance of materials gifts of assisting the needy, 2 Corinthians 8:19,20 , RV, "is ministered" (AV, "is administered"); of a variety of forms of service, 2 Timothy 1:18 ; of the testimony of the OTs prophets, 1 Peter 1:12 ; of the ministry of believers one to another in various ways, 1 Peter 4:10,11 (not here of discharging ecclesiastical functions)
Joannes Cappadox, Bishop of Constantinople - "...
The people were determined to have a more formal decision, and continued shouting for several hours, mingling with their former cries such as these: "Fix a day for a festival in honour of Chalcedon!" "Commemorate the holy synod this very morrow!" The people being thus firm, the Deacon Samuel was instructed to announce the desired festival. When the moment arrived for the recitation of the names of the defunct bishops from the diptychs, the multitude closed in silence about the holy table; and when the Deacon had read the new insertions, a mighty shout arose, "Glory be to Thee, O Lord!"...
To authenticate what had been done, John assembled on July 20 a council of 40 bishops, who happened to be at the capital
Servant - ...
A — 2: διάκονος (Strong's #1249 — Noun — diakonos — dee-ak'-on-os ) for which see Deacon and Note there on synonymous words, is translated "servant" or "servants" in Matthew 22:13 (RV marg
Euthymius (4), Abbat in Palestine - Euthymius died in 473; his obsequies were celebrated by the patriarch Anastatius and a large number of clergy, among whom are mentioned Chrysippus, guardian of the Cross, and a Deacon named Fidus
Mennonites - Their common method is this: The person to be baptized kneels, the minister holds his hands over him, into which the Deacon pours water, so that it runs on the head of the baptized; after which follow imposition of hands and prayer
Minister Ministry - In the Gospels it is rendered ‘servant,’ in the Epistles ‘minister,’ except Philippians 1:1 and 1 Timothy 3:8; 1 Timothy 3:12, where it is rendered ‘deacon. The Revised Version changes ‘administer’ to ‘minister’ (2 Corinthians 8:19-20), and ‘use the office of a Deacon’ to ‘serve as Deacons’ (1 Timothy 3:10; 1 Timothy 3:13). In the article Deacon, Deaconess it has been pointed out that διάκονος, which in classical Greek commonly implies ignoble service, such as waiting at table, in Christian language has high associations. ’ But the Seven are not called διάκονοι, and there is no evidence in the NT which can connect them with the ‘deacons’ at Philippi or Ephesus. To call the Seven the first Deacons is a conjecture which can be neither proved nor disproved
Greek Church - The next person to a bishop among the clergy, is an archimandrite, who is the director of one or more convents, which are called mandren; then comes the abbot, the arch-priest, the priest, the Deacon, the under-deacon, the chanter, and the lecturer
Ministry, Minister - Apart from the apostles, prophets, and evangelists, we read of elders/presbyters, bishops, and Deacons, who were settled in local congregations. In the New Testament period the real distinction was among the itinerant apostles, evangelists, and prophets and the settled presbyters and Deacons. Yet they are not called Deacons. However, Deacons are mentioned in Philippians 1:1 and in 1 Timothy 3:8-13 . Phoebe is called a Deacon in Romans 16:1 . The main tasks of Deacons, who were to be of sound character and with a firm hold on the faith, were administrative and financial. These are given only to a few and they include the callings of prophet, priest, and king in the Old Covenant and apostle, evangelist, presbyter, and Deacon in the New Covenant
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - By him Aetius was ordained Deacon, c. The see of Athanasius was then occupied by George of Cappadocia, under whom Aetius served as a Deacon, and when nominated to the episcopate by two Arian bishops, Serras and Secundus, he refused to be consecrated by them on the ground that they had held communion with the Homoousian party (Philost
Nicolaitans - Whether the Nicolaitans derived their name from Nicolas of Antioch, who was one of the seven Deacons:...
2. But the one point may be true without the other: and the evidence is so overwhelming, which states that Nicolas the Deacon was at least the person intended by the Nicolaitans, that it is difficult to come to any other conclusion upon the subject. The same may have been the case with Nicolas the Deacon; and though we allow, that if the Nicolaitans were distinguished as a sect some time before the end of the century, the probability is lessened that his name was thus abused; yet if his career was a short one, his history, like that of the other Deacons, would soon be forgotten: and the same fertile invention, which gave rise in the two first centuries to so many apocryphal Gospels, may also have led the Nicolaitans to give a false character to him whose name they had assumed
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - We can only understand the expression of Pontius (who lived similarly as a Deacon with Cyprian), "erat sane illi etiam de nobis contubernium . In this latter capacity he does nothing without the information and advice of presbyters, Deacon, and laity. 7–9) and unmarried Deacons shared their chambers with spiritual sisters who maintained their chastity to be unimpaired. The Cyprianic epistles of this period, passing between the Roman presbyters, the Carthaginian bishop and certain imprisoned presbyters (Moyses, Maximus), Deacons (Rufinus and Nicostratus), laymen, and particularly an imperfectly educated Carthaginian confessor Celerinus (whose ill-spelt letters Epp. ) so far as that persons in danger, who might hold a libellus , should be readmitted by any presbyter, or in extremis by a Deacon ( Epp. he seems only to conjecture their complicity with Felicissimus, whom Novatus had associated with himself as Deacon in managing a district called Mons (possibly the Bozra itself) ( Epp. Cyprian complains of not having been consulted in this appointment, which, owing to the then position of the Deacons, gave the party control of considerable funds. ), and he, with a fellow-deacon Augendus, a renegade bishop Repostus, and certain others, the five presbyters not among them, was presently excommunicated. There is no evidence, nor any contemporary instance, to warrant the belief that Novatus ordained Felicissimus Deacon (see the MSS. Felicissimus too must have been a Deacon already, or he could not have involved himself and Novatus in the charge of defrauding the church ( Epp
Hesychius (25), Presbyter of Jerusalem - Explanationum Allegoricarum sive Commentarius, dedicated to the Deacon Eutychianus, is the most extensive work extant under the name of Hesychius
Martyr - " A like answer was given at the martyrdom of Fructuosus in Spain; for when the judge asked Eulogius, his Deacon, whether he would not worship Fructuosus, as thinking, that, though he refused to worship the heathen idols, he might yet be inclined to worship a Christian martyr, Eulogius replied, "I do not worship Fructuosus, but him whom Fructuosus worships
Caesarea - Peter, resided here, Acts 10:1 , &c; and also Philip the Deacon, with his four maiden daughters
Pelagius i., Bishop of Rome - A native, and Deacon, of Rome, he had been appointed by pope AGAPETUS (a. After this he returned to Rome, where he was one of the two Deacons of Vigilius who applied to Ferrandus of Carthage for advice after the issue of the imperial edict "de Tribus Capitulis" (c. Vigilius being summoned by the emperor to Constantinople in the matter of the Three Chapters, Pelagius remained as the archdeacon and chief ecclesiastic at Rome; and occupied this position when the Gothic king Totila (Dec
Porphyrius, Bishop of Gaza - At the same time he despatched his Deacon Mark and his minister Borocas to Constantinople, who, through the powerful advocacy of Chrysostom, obtained the emperor's order to destroy the idols and close the temples
Polychronius, Bishop of Apamea - ascribed to "Polychronius the Deacon," and all these collections are characterized by a partiality for allegorical and mystical interpretations quite alien to the instincts of the Antiochenes
Stephen - The first of the seven appointed to minister as a Deacon in distributing alms, so that the Grecian widows should not be neglected while the Hebrew widows were served (Acts 6; 7). (See Deacon. Stephen was first of the earliest Christian ministry, "the archdeacon," as the Eastern church calls him
Maxentius, Joannes, Presbyter And Archimandrite - Joannes, Blandus a presbyter, Felix and Dioscorus Deacons, arrived at Constantinople from Hormisdas bp. Among the chief antagonists of the monks were a Deacon named Victor, Paternus bp. Meanwhile Fulgentius wrote his de Veritate Praedestinationis , addressed to Joannes presbyter and Venerius Deacon, two of the Scythian monks (ib
Fathers of the Church - Saint Jerome was a simple priest to the end of his days, Saint Ephraem a Deacon, Saint Justin a layman
Tradition - " Hilary the Deacon says, "a surfeit to carnal sense is human tradition
Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome - 22), states that when he himself arrived in Rome, Eleutherus was Deacon of Anicetus, who was then bishop, and became bishop on the death of Soter, the successor of Anicetus (cf
Ignatius - on his arrival in Troas-Ignatius seems to have given up all anxiety about the Church of Antioch: ‘Seeing that in answer to your prayer and to the tender sympathy which ye have in Christ Jesus, it hath been reported to me that the church which is in Antioch of Syria hath peace, it is becoming for you as a church of God, to appoint a Deacon to go thither as God’s ambassador, that he may congratulate them when they are assembled together, and may glorify the Name’ (Philad. 3), their Deacon, Burrhus (ii. The Magnesians sent their bishop, Damas, the presbyters Bassus and Apollonius, and their Deacon Zotion (ii. ‘As a church of God’ they ought to elect a Deacon and commission him to carry their congratulations to the devotees assembled together at Antioch and to glorify ‘the Name’ with them. If they do this, they will be following the example of several churches, some of whom have sent a bishop, and some presbyters or Deacons (x. authentic Epistles and also manufactured six additional letters-Mary of Cassobola (there is a Cilician town called Castabala, possibly the same as Cassobola) to Ignatius, Ignatius to Mary of Cassobola, to the Tarsians, to the Philippians, to the Antiochenes, and to Hero the Deacon
Germanus, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre - 429, says that pope Celestine, "at the suggestion of the Deacon Palladius, sent German as his representative" ( vice sua ) into Britain; and in his contra Collatorem , written c
Eusebius of Alexandria, a Writer of Sermons - " He refers to the different functions of priest, Deacon, reader, chanter, and subdeacon (ὐπηρέτης )
Nonnus of Panopolis - 102); and, with very little probability, with the Deacon Nonnus, secretary at the council of Chalcedon, a
Philip: Deacon And Evangelist - The Deaconship adorned itself and did nobly in those early days. Stephen and Philip were not apostles to begin with; they were simply Deacons. Paul had Stephen and Philip in his mind when he said to Timothy long afterwards, that they who have used the office of a Deacon well, purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. They did not say, The Deacon has his proper place. And Peter and John set to work with all their might to found a church out of Philip's converts, to be called the Church of the Evangelist, after the name of their Deacon and subordinate. Now, that there were two men of such rare genius among the first seven Deacons is a remarkable proof of the insight of the congregation that elected them, as well as of the wealth of all kinds of talent in the Apostolic Church. " And thus it was that, over and above the apostles, all the Deacons of intellect and experience were drawn on to expound the Scriptures, first to the learned Council of Jerusalem, then to the sceptical men of Samaria, and then to the Ethiopian neophyte in his royal chariot
Impostors - 744
Benedict Levita (Benedict the Deacon), author of a forged collection of documents (848-850)
Leotardus and Wilgardus, in the 11th century
the Anabaptist John of Leyden (John Bokelzoon), who flourished in 1533 and who was possibly insane
the Pseudo-Isidore (Isidore Mercator), author of a whole series of apocrypha, including the False Decretals
Paulua Tigrinus, pretended Patriarch of Constantinople, who deceived Pope Clement VII
the Franciscan friar, James of Jülich, who performed all the functions of a bishop without having received consecration
several individuals contemporary with and imitative of Saint Joan of Arc
Sir John Oldcastle, the Wycliffite, possibly deluded
those connected with the veneration of the ashes of Richard Wyche (burned 1440)
Johann Bohm, the Hussite, possibly a mere tool
Jack Cade, whose rebellion, however, was of no religious significance any more than that of Wat Tyler
Lambert Simnel (1487)
Perkin Warbeck (1497)
Numerous other secular pretenders to royal thrones include ...
Alexis Comnenus
the false Baldwin
the impersonator of Frederick II
after the death of Sebastian of Portugal, a whole series of pretenders to the throne
The "false Demetrius," however, was never proved to be an impostor; the six impersonators of Louis XVII were unquestionably such
Samaria, Samaritans - Philip, a Deacon, opened a mission in Samaria (Acts 8:5 )
Home - There is a striking difference in the NT between the qualifications of an ‘apostle’ in the widest sense, of a travelling missionary having oversight of the churches (such is also the meaning of ‘apostle’ in the Didache), and of the local ‘bishop’ or ‘presbyter’ and Deacon. Deacons must be husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well (1 Timothy 3:12)
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - He allowed the notorious adventurer Aetius, founder of the Anomoeans or ultra-Arians, to officiate as Deacon at Alexandria, after having been ordained, as Athanasius tells us (de Synod
Petrus, Surnamed Mongus - Petrus (6), surnamed Mongus (Stammerer), Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, ordained Deacon by Dioscorus, and said to have taken part in the outrages against Flavian at the Latrocinium (Mansi, vi
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - Not long after the council a priest named Timotheus and a Deacon named Peter (nicknamed Mongus) refused to communicate with him, because in his diptychs he ignored Dioscorus and commemorated the council of Chalcedon
Ordination - A person must be twenty-three years of age, or near it, before he can be ordained Deacon, or have any share in the ministry; and full twenty-four before he can be ordained priest, and by that means be permitted to administer the holy communion. A bishop, on the ordination of clergymen, is to examine them in the presence of the ministers, who in the ordination of priests, but not of Deacons, assist him at the imposition of hands; but this is only done as a mark of assent, not because it is thought necessary. is alleged against any one that is to be ordained either priest or Deacon, the bishop ought to desist from ordaining him. The person to be ordained is to bring a testimonial of his life and doctrine to the bishop, and to give account of his faith in Latin; and both priests and Deacons are obliged to subscribe to the thirty-nine articles
the Widow With the Two Mites - A well-to-do worshipper sent me the other day a hundred pounds as a special donation, over and above the hundred he gives in monthly instalments to his Deacon. There were special chests elsewhere in the temple for the poor, and for the education of the children of the poor, but the treasury chests over against which our Saviour sat that day were just the Deacons' Courts of our own Free Church and other churches. And if, under God's hand, you are such a widow that you have nothing to give to your Deacon but a willing mind, and a word of God-speed, that is quite enough. It is no irreverence, but only a becoming gratitude and love to say it, that as I sit at the head of the monthly table of our Deacons' Court I have something in my heart not unlike what was in His heart who sat that day in the treasury of the temple. As I see our Deacons coming in and laying down on the table, one a few shillings, and another hundreds of pounds, like Him I rejoice at the sight, and a little like Him I hope, I give myself again to the service of God and to the service of His people. If you could all see, as I every first Monday of every month see, our splendidly-equipped and splendidly-managed Deacons' Court, the sight would both move, and inflame, and sanctify your heart also. And, taken along with all that, its absolutely unique and unapproached Deacons' Court
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - Martini ; and two more, written respectively to a Deacon named Aurelius and to the author's mother-in-law Bassula, narrate the circumstances of Martin's death. Martin was his guest for a considerable time, and Hilary was anxious to ordain him Deacon
Faustus (11), Sometimes Called the Breton - The epistle of Faustus to a Deacon named Gratus (al
Philip the Evangelist - ‘Philip the Evangelist,’ or ‘Philip one of the Seven,’ or ‘Philip the Deacon’-these are the three names by which Philip is called, each of them intended to distinguish him from Philip the Apostle, with whom in both ancient and modern times he has often been confounded
Timothy, First And Second, Theology of - ...
The officers in the early church organization, according to Paul, were elders or bishops, Deacons, and possibly Deaconesses. The stipulations for Deacons are given in 1 Timothy 3:8-10,12-13 . There is some question as to whether the references to women in verse 11 refer to the wives of the Deacons, or to the Deaconesses. Since there does not appear to be a word for "deaconess, " and the word for "deacon" had to serve for both, there was no clear way here to distinguish Deaconesses. (See Romans 16:1 , where the masculine word for "deacon" is used of Phoebe. Consequently, why should he insert material relevant to Deacons' wives? It is possible, therefore, that he was referring to a third church office in 1 Timothy 3:11 , namely, Deaconess. Gerig...
See also Church, the ; Deacon, Deaconess ; Elder ; Laying on of Hands ; Leadership ; Overseer ; Paul the Apostle ; Titus, Theology of ...
Bibliography
the Angel of the Church of Ephesus - He was just a chosen and faithful elder who had begun by being a Deacon and who had purchased to himself a good degree, like any one of yourselves. And that because he knows quite well that there is nothing for him to do in the whole of heaven for one moment to be compared with the daily round on this earth of a minister, or an elder, or a Deacon, or a collector, or a Sabbath-school teacher
Hilarius, Bishop of Rome - He was a native of Sardinia and, when elected pope, archdeacon of Rome. He had been sent, when a Deacon, as one of the legates of pope Leo to the council at Ephesus called Latrocinium (449), and is especially mentioned in the Acts of the council as having protested against the deposition of Flavian. Rusticus, metropolitan of Narbonne, had nominated his archdeacon Hermes as his successor, but had failed to obtain Leo's approval
Columba (1) Columcille - Finnian of Moville (by whom he was ordained Deacon)
Elder - In this way they give the elders more time for the important pastoral ministries God has entrusted to them (Acts 6:2-4; James 5:14; see Deacon)
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - " The young author seems to have been ordained Deacon about this time, and placed in the position of chief among the Alexandrian Deacons. Among the clergy who joined the archbishop in calling on Arius to retract, and who afterwards assented to his deposition, was the young archdeacon of Alexandria (see the Benedictine Athanasius , i. At first he disdained to take any steps, but afterwards sent a Deacon to search for the missing Arsenius. The Deacon ascertained that Arsenius was concealed in a monastery at Ptemencyrcis, on the eastern side of the Nile. Before he could arrive there the superior sent off Arsenius, but was himself arrested by the Deacon, and obliged to confess "that Arsenius was alive
Woman - To the Roman church Paul said, “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a Deacon of the church at Cenchreae” (Romans 16:1 NRSV). See Deacon ; Offices; Phoebe ; Prisca
Bishop - ...
Bishops and Deacons are the two orders alone mentioned in Philippians 1:1. The plural shows there was more than one bishop and more than one Deacon there. But the presidents over the presbyters and Deacons, while still continuing of the same order as the presbyters, have succeeded virtually, by whatever name designated, angel, bishop, moderator, to a superintendency analogous to that exercised by the apostles, and evidently derived from the synagogue; see Vitringa, Synag. Timothy as vicar apostolic heard accusations against elders, and deposed the guilty, and ordained presbyters and Deacons (1 Timothy 5:19; Titus 3:10). ...
Various other orders and gifts are mentioned besides bishop-presbyters and Deacons, with superintending apostles and apostolic vicars (as Timothy and Titus)
Caesarius, Bishop of Arles - Eonus, having made his acquaintance, ordained him Deacon and then presbyter
Cassianus (11) Johannes, Founder of Western Monachism - By him Cassian was ordained Deacon, or, as some think, appointed archdeacon; and in his treatise de Incarnatione (vii. 429, at the suggestion of Leo, then archdeacon and afterwards pope
Decius, Emperor - of Rome, was among the foremost of the victims; Babylas of Antioch, Pionius of Smyrna (seized, it was said, while celebrating the anniversary of the martyrdom of Polycarp), Agatha of Sicily, Polyeuctes of Armenia, Carpus and his Deacon of Thyatira, Maximus (a layman) of Asia, Alexander, bp
Phoebe - In some such way as this Phoebe devoted herself and her means to the service of the Church, and earned thereby the title of διάκονος, which no more means ‘deaconess’ in the later sense than it means ‘deacon’ when used to describe Apollos, Tychicus, Epaphras, Timothy, or the Apostle himself
Martinus, Bishop of Dumium - from an unknown Greek source by a Deacon Paschasius in the monastery of Dumium, with a preface by Martin, at whose command the work had been undertaken (Rosweyd, Vitae Patrum , lib
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - ...
The question whether the Dialogue with Theodore the Deacon is correctly assigned to Palladius of Helenopolis has been much debated
Beda, Historian - At the age of 19 he was ordained Deacon by John of Beverley, then bp. of Hexham in 705, and the later date for Bede's birth would place his ordination as priest in 706 at the earliest, this conclusively favours the earlier date; in which case he was ordained Deacon in 691 and priest in 702
Persecution - Examples in the New Testament include John the Baptist, who spoke out against the adultery of Herod Antipas and was beheaded (Mark 6:21-29 ); Stephen, the Deacon, who, preaching the gospel before the Sanhedrin and proclaiming God's judgment because of the sins of the people, was rejected and stoned (Acts 6:5 ; 7:1-60 ); Paul, who was persecuted, beaten, and imprisoned as he preached from place to place, and was finally killed in Rome (2 Timothy 4:6-8 ); and climactically, Jesus himself who preached God's grace and judgment (Matthew 4:17 ; 11:28-29 ), was persecuted by his hearers (Luke 4:28-30 ), plotted against by his adversaries (Mark 3:6 ), rejected (Luke 13:34 ; John 6:66 ), tried (John 18:12-40 ), and finally crucified (John 19:16-37 ; Philippians 2:9 )
Samaria - The woman of Samaria and several of her townsmen (John 4) were the firstfruits gathered into Christ; the fuller harvest followed under Philip the evangelist Deacon (Acts 8, compare John 4:35)
Hegesippus, Father of Church History - 22), which is understood to mean that at Rome he compiled a succession of the bishops of the Roman see to the time of Anicetus, whose Deacon was Eleutherus
Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - Peter tells us that the pagans esteemed Lucius as the favourite of Serapis, because he denied the divinity of the Son; and dwells on the brave confessorship (1) of 19 priests and Deacons whom Magnus, after vain attempts to make them Arianize, transported to the pagan city of Heliopolis in Phoenicia, sending also into penal servitude 23 monks and others who expressed their sympathy; (2) of 7 Egyptian bishops exiled to Diocaesarea, a city inhabited by Jews, while some other prelates were "handed over to the curia," their official immunity from onerous curial obligations being annulled in requital of their steadfastness in the faith. Damasus of Rome, hearing of this new persecution, sent a Deacon with a letter of communion and consolation for Peter; the messenger was arrested, treated as a criminal, savagely beaten, and sent to the mines of Phenne
Synagogue - He desired to undertake the office of maptir or "reader of the lesson from the prophets", and was at once permitted owing to His fame) answered to our Deacon or subdeacon; besides getting the building ready for service he acted as schoolmaster during the week. Three were archisunagogai , "chiefs of the synagogue"; then also the "angel" or "bishop" who prayed publicly and caused the law to be read and sometimes preached; and three Deacons for alms; the interpreter of the old Hebrew Testament, who paraphrased it; also the theological schoolmaster and his interpreter (Lightfoot, Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople - With a proper feeling of respect for the fallen greatness and unconquerable dignity of his predecessor, Macedonius, on coming to find him in the baptistery, made the attendant Deacon take off the newly-given pallium and clothed himself in the dress of a simple presbyter, "not daring to wear" his insignia before their canonical owner
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - Under such influences his education is spoken of by his biographer, John the Deacon, as having been that of a saint among saints. , having ordained him one of the seven Deacons ( regionarii ) of Rome, sent him as his apocrisiarius to Constantinople, and he was similarly employed in 579 by Benedict's successor Pelagius II. ) Yet he had no objection to luring them into the fold by the prospect of advantage, for in a letter to a Deacon Cyprian, who was steward of the papal patrimony in Sicily, he directs him to offer the Jews a remission of one-third of the taxes due to the Roman church if they became Christians, saying, in justification, that though such conversions might be insincere, their children would be brought up in the bosom of the church ( Ep. His own nuncio at Constantinople, Laurentius the archdeacon, he recalled and deposed. In Sicily the obligation to celibacy had, in 588, been extended to subdeacons. This rule he upheld by directing the bishops to require a vow of celibacy from all who should in future be ordained subdeacons, but acknowledging its hardship on such as had made no such vow on their ordination, he contented himself with forbidding the advancement to the diaconate of existing subdeacons who had continued conjugal intercourse after the introduction of the rule ( Ep. of Salona in Dalmatia and metropolitan, under pain of excommunication, to reinstate his archdeacon Honoratus whom he had deposed ( Ep. ...
Immediately after his death a famine occurred, which the starving multitude attributed to his prodigal expenditure, and his library was only saved from destruction by the interposition of the archdeacon Peter. Of it, John the Deacon, after speaking of the cento of antiphons which Gregory ha
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - 370–381; (c ) his career as Deacon, presbyter, and preacher at Antioch, a. Among those suitable for the episcopate, Chrysostom and Basil were pointed out, though they were not yet even Deacons. He was ordained Deacon by Meletius a. While Deacon he composed the de Virginitate ; the Ep. He was also too much swayed by his archdeacon, Serapion, a proud, violent man, who is reported to have exclaimed at an assembly of the clergy, "You will never be able, bishop, to master these mutinous priests unless you drive them before you with a single rod" (Pallad. He ordained native readers, Deacons, and presbyters, and dispatched missionaries to the Gothic tribes who still remained on the banks of the Danube, and consecrated a bishop from among themselves named Unilas (Theod. ]'>[2] Serapion, Chrysostom's archdeacon, had kept his master informed of Severian's base proceedings, and had continually urged his speedy return. Some half-heard words of Severian, uttered in annoyance at Serapion's discourtesy, were distorted by the archdeacon into a blasphemous denial of Christ's Divinity (Socr
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - He had served as Cyril's archdeacon. According to a Deacon, Ischyrion, Dioscorus had laid waste property, inflicted fines and exile, bought up and sold at a high price the wheat sent by the government to Libya, appropriated and grossly misspent money left by a lady named Peristeria for religious and charitable purposes, received women of notorious character into his house, persecuted Ischyrion as a favourite of Cyril's, ruined the little estate which was his only support, sent a "phalanx of ecclesiastics, or rather of ruffians," to put him to death, and, after his escape, again sought to murder him in a hospital; in proof, Ischyrion appealed to six persons, one of whom was bath-keeper to Dioscorus ( ib. The episcopal deputy of Leo, with his companion the Deacon Hilarus, urged that "the pope's letter" (probably including the "Tome" in this proposal) should be read first, but this was overruled; Dioscorus moved that the "acts" should be first read, and then the letter of the bp. Hilarus, the Roman Deacon, testified that the apostolic see reverenced those decisions, and that its letter, if read, would prove this. Aetius, archdeacon of Constantinople, said it had not even been "received
Leo i, the Great - Under the pontificate of Celestine (422–432) he was a Deacon, or (according to Gennadius, de Vir. 61) archdeacon of Rome. It is a sign of the important civil position held by Leo the Deacon that he was chosen to endeavour to bring about a reconciliation (Prosper, Chron. "More than forty days," says Prosper, "the Roman church was without a bishop, awaiting with wonderful peace and patience the arrival of the Deacon Leo
Pope - Of these, six are cardinal bishops of the six suburbicarian churches; fifty are cardinal priests, who have all titles from parish churches in Rome; and fourteen are cardinal Deacons, who have their titles from churches in Rome of less note, called diaconias, or Deaconries. He, and the first cardinal bishop, the first cardinal priest, and the first cardinal Deacon, have, during that time, the government almost entirely in their hands
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - He draws a parallel between the Jewish priest and Levite and the Christian priest and Deacon, and bases an argument from analogy on the resemblance (Cor. Neither bishops, elders, nor Deacons appear in the lists of ministers and ministerial gifts in 1 Corinthians 12:28-30, Romans 12:6-8, Ephesians 4:11
Julianus Eclanensis, Bishop of Eclana - 410 Julian had become a Deacon, but whether Ia was then living does not appear
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - From the former authorities we learn that immediately after the exile of Liberius all the clergy, including the Deacon FELIX (archdeacon according to Marcellinus and Faustus), swore before the people to accept no other bishop while Liberius lived. The Deacon Felix was there chosen and consecrated, three of the emperor's eunuchs representing the people on the occasion, and three heretical bishops, Epictetus of Centumellae, Acacius of Caesarea, and Basilius of Ancyra being the consecrators
Novatianus And Novatianism - 9268) we find at Laodicea in Lycaonia an inscription on a tombstone erected by one Aurelia Domna to her husband Paul, Deacon of the holy church of the Novatianists, while even towards the end of the preceding century St. 2942–2958 assigned by the editor to Hilary the Deacon who lived under pope Damasus
Timothy, Epistles to - Hence we find the character of the men suitable for bishops and Deacons. The qualification of a bishop, or overseer, and of a Deacon, or minister, are shown to be, not so much those of specific gift as of piety and good moral character
John the Apostle - ...
In that undesigned coincidence which confirms historic truth, the Book of Acts (Acts 3:1; Acts 4:13; Acts 8:14) represents the two associated as in the Gospels; together they enter the temple and meet the impotent man at the Beautiful gate; together they witness before the council; together they confirm in the faith, and instrumentally impart the Holy Spirit by laying hands on, the Deacon Philip's converts in Samaria, the very place where John once would have called down fire to consume the Samaritans
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - (3) They had asked leave to raise to the episcopate one Photinus, who had been condemned by Innocent's predecessors, and to depose a Deacon called Eustatius. of Gaul, Exsuperius of Toulouse, whom he commends for referring doubtful questions to the apostolic see, and gives him the following directions: (1) Priests or Deacons who cohabit with their wives are to be deprived, as pope Siricius had directed. He desired Innocent to appoint five bishops, two priests, and one Deacon as a deputation from the Western church; and these he charged with this third letter, in which he requested his brother to summon the Oriental bishops
Timothy, Epistles to - But as his delegates, even though temporarily, they had full jurisdiction over the various officers of the Church, and full instructions are given to them to guide them as to the qualifications necessary to be found in those to be appointed to the offices of bishop (or elder) and Deacon. As the former are mentioned in the midst of regulations concerning Deacons, they probably are not the Deacons’ ‘ wives ’ (as AV [1] ), but official women or Deaconesses , holding such an office as Phœbe held ( Romans 16:1 RVm Cosmas (3), Indian Navigator - The connexion between Persia and India was at that time evidenced by the existence of a large number of Christian churches, both on the coast of India and the islands of Socotra and Ceylon, served by priests and Deacons ordained by the Persian archbp. ...
(2) A work on the motions of the universe and the heavenly bodies, dedicated to the Deacon Homologus (lib
Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra - Marcellus could have scarcely left Rome when the Eusebian deputies, Macarius and two Deacons, arrived (a. As no other name is given but his own and that of his Deacon Eugenius who was charged with its delivery, we may well doubt whether any third person had a hand in it
the Labourer With the Evil Eye - Why, then, do I do this and that work in the vineyard? Why do I study? Why do I preach? Why do I visit the sick and dying? Why am I an elder? Why am I a Deacon? Why do I subscribe to this fund and that? Why am I a Sabbath-school teacher? And why am I a member of this church rather than of that? It is our mean and self-seeking motives that lurk so unexamined in our hearts that make us all so many dogs in the manger, and so many envious and murmuring labourers in the vineyard
Church Government - ...
The first line of distinction is between the apostles and the other believers; and this line is continued as a distinction between rulers of any kind and those who are ruled-the Seven, elders, Deacons, etc. The common identification of the Seven with the Deacons is questionable. See Deacon
Ananias And Sapphira - The offices and services of the early Church had not as yet been divided up and specialised into the apostleship, and the eldership, and the Deaconship, and, till that was done, Peter had to be everything himself. Peter was premier apostle, ruling elder, leading Deacon, and all. And thus it was that the ministers and Deacons' courts of the Free Church were then, and are still, all of one mind and spirit, and have all things in common
Simon Maccabaeus - The only contemporary document which mentions him is the Acts of the Apostles; and we there read, that, when Philip the Deacon preached the Gospel in Samaria after the death of Stephen, "there was a certain man, called Simon, which beforetime in the same city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that himself was some great one; to whom they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying, This man is the great power of God
Church - ...
In the context of this strong belief that every member has a ministry, certain persons were designated to fulfill specific tasks in relation to the functioning of the church such as apostles, bishops, elders, and Deacons. ...
Deacons were required to be exemplary Christians like bishops (1 Timothy 3:8-13 ). Since their duties are not specified and they are usually listed with the bishops, it is usually assumed that Deacons devoted themselves to the larger work of the local church, assisting in whatever ways were most appropriate to the local congregation of Christians as the seven did in Acts (1 Timothy 6:1-7 ). See Apostle; Bishop ; Deacon ; Elders; Missions
Patricius, or Saint Patrick - Patrick tells us in the opening words of his Confession that his father was Calpurnius, a Deacon, his grandfather Potitus, a priest
Prosper, Saint, a Native of Aquitaine - Although Prosper had never seen Augustine, he had written to him by Leontius, a Deacon, and received a reply, but neither letter nor reply has survived
Eutyches And Eutychianism - Two deputies, a priest and a Deacon, were instructed to read to Eutyches the complaint, and to invite him to attend the synod, which met again on Nov. The statement was evidently an exaggeration, but was of sufficient importance for priests and Deacons to be at once sent to the neighbouring monasteries to make inquiries. " But at the desire of Flavian, two priests (Memnon and Epiphanius) and a Deacon (Germanus) were sent to make another effort. During the session, information was brought to Flavian that certain monks and Deacons, friends of Eutyches, and Abraham, archimandrite of a neighbouring monastery, requested an audience. Anatolius convened a synod of such bishops, archimandrites, priests, and Deacons as were at Constantinople, and in the presence of the Roman legates subscribed the tome, and, together with the whole assembly, anathematized Eutyches, Nestorius, and their followers. Aetius, archdeacon of Constantinople, reminded these petitioners that church discipline required monks to accept from the bishops instructions in matters of faith. The archdeacon Aetius recited in his presence the confession of faith approved at the previous session, and when the emperor asked if it expressed the opinion of all, shouts arose from all sides, "This is the belief of us all! We are unanimous, and have signed it unanimously! We are all orthodox! This is the belief of the Fathers; this is the belief of the Apostles; this is the belief of the orthodox; this belief hath saved the world! Long live Marcian, the new Constantine, the new Paul, the new David! Long live Pulcheria, the new Helena!" ...
Imperial edicts speedily followed the close of the council (Nov
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - These proceedings struck dismay into the Arian clique at Antioch, and Eunomius, now a Deacon, was sent to Constantinople as their advocate
the Sower Who Went Forth to Sow - "Understandest thou what thou readest?" said Philip the once Deacon, and now the evangelist, to the dark treasurer of Queen Candace
Judgments of God - Cyril, the Deacon, was murdered by some Pagans, at Heliopolis, for his opposition to their images
Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - While Deacon to Innocent, he had written a cordial letter to St
Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - ...
Armentaria, Gregory's mother, returned to Burgundy, her native country, and Gregory apparently lived with Avitus, at first archdeacon, afterwards bp. By Avitus he was ordained Deacon, probably c
Paul as an Evangelical Mystic - And yet, or I should rather say, and therefore, what truly Pauline vigour and efficacy in everything! And take Teresa and her mystical Deacon always at her side, John of the Cross
Nehemiah - Speaking of the preachers of Jerusalem and their support, just as we get our Presbytery, and our Kirk-Session, and our Expository Pulpit, and our Puritan Sabbath from the new Jerusalem of that day, so we get our Deacons' Court and our Sustentation Fund from Ezra and Nehemiah. If our pulpit of wood and its method of work on the Word of God is ancient and honourable, so also is our Deacons' Court. And neither in the new Jerusalem of Nehemiah's day, nor in the same Jerusalem in Peter's day, was the prophetic and apostolic and diaconate compact better observed, on the Deacons' side at any rate, than it is in our own congregations at the present moment. Let him be honoured, and trusted, and elected like Stephen to be a Deacon
Paul as a Pastor - But after I am like to drop with my work; and most of all with the arrears of it; Paul absolutely prostrates me, and tramples me to death, when he stands up among his elders and Deacons and says: "I take you to record this day that I am pure from the blood of all men!" I do not find his rapture into the third heavens hard to be understood, nor his revelations and inspirations, nor his thorn in the flesh, nor any of his doctrines of Adam, or of Christ, or of election, or of justification or of sanctification, or of the final perseverance of the saints. Did Paul make it a rule to read, and expound, and pray, in every house, and on every visit? Did he send word by the Deacon of the district that he was coming? Or did he just, in our disorderly way, start off and drop in here and there as this case and that came up into his overcrowded mine? Till the learned Professor comes upon Paul's private note-book, for myself I will continue to interpret Paul's farewell address to the kirk-session of Ephesus with some liberality
Persecution - Among many nameless sufferers, history has preserved from oblivion Pothinus, the respectable bishop of Lyons, who was then more than ninety years of age; Sanctus, a Deacon of Vienne; Attalus, a native of Pergamus; Maturus, and Alexander; some of whom were devoured by wild beasts, and some of them tortured in an iron chair made red hot. Laurence, archdeacon of Rome, and the great St
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - "Serving" in Romans 12:7 comes from the same root as "deacon" and may involve the kind of practical aid rendered in Acts 6:1-6
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - ...
(11) De Ecclesiasticis Officiis treats of the services of the church, and of clerics, their rules and orders, the tonsure, the episcopal office, vicars episcopal, presbyters, Deacons, sacristans and subdeacons, readers, psalmists, exorcists, acolytes, porters, monks, penitents, virgins, widows, the married, catechumens, exorcism, salt, candidates for baptism, the creed, the rule of faith, baptism, chrism, imposition of hands, and confirmation. of Merida; and to archdeacon Redemptus. " Among the 46 are Xystus the pope, Macrobius the Deacon, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Hosius of Cordova, Eusebius of Dorylaeum, Chrysostom, Hilary of Arles, Gregory the pope, Leander his own brother, and Maximus of Saragossa
John the Baptist - Peter were sent by the other Apostles to the Samaritans, whom Philip the Deacon had converted to the Gospel, that through them they might receive the Holy Ghost, Acts 8:14-15
Woman - Paul calls Phoebe a diakonos [4] (probably "deacon") and prostatis [5] (most likely "patron") of the church in Cenchreae. First Timothy 3:11 is best understood as containing injunctions for women Deacons rather than Deacons' wives (it would be incongruous for Paul to be concerned about Deacons' wives but not overseers' wives!). " In view of the distinction between (apparently) all male overseers and both male and female Deacons in 3:1-13, a plausible interpretation of 2:12 is that women may not hold the highest office in a given ecclesial context (perhaps roughly analogous to modern-day senior pastors in congregationally governed churches)
Athenagoras - Much more is told us by Philippus Sidetes, Deacon of Chrysostom (5th cent
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - His enemies pursued him into his retreat, but Gregory of Nyssa says that they found in place of the bishop and his Deacon two trees
Peter - Peter with John confirmed by laying on of hands the Samaritan converts of Philip the Deacon
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - Upon this Basil sent his archdeacon to invite him into his presence which offended at the saint's ragged attire he did reluctantly and only after he had been twice bidden to summon him. Basil Ephrem consented to be ordained Deacon. 225-359) to be used at the burial of bishops, presbyters, Deacons, monks, princes, rich men, strangers, matrons, women, youths, children, in time of plague, and for general use
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - Then after breaking of bread—there is no mention of wine—the apostle commands Byrrhus (the name occurs in the Ignatian epistles as that of an Ephesine Deacon) to follow him with two companions, bringing spades with them
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - So speaking to an ambitious Deacon about 1Ti_3:1 he corrects a misapprehension. 122); the Deacon's linen garment, and the bishop's woollen "omophorion" which he took off when the gospel was read (i
Rufinus of Aquileia - ) by Chromatius and his brother Eusebius (then respectively presbyter and Deacon), and Jovinus the archdeacon, all of them ascetic friends, and all subsequently bishops
Religion (2) - They appear in ‘deacon’ and ‘liturgy’ respectively: the third word is left embedded in idolatry
Bible - The chapters in the Acts and the Epistles are ascribed to Euthalius, a Deacon of Alexandria (subsequently bishop of Sulci, in Sardinia) in the 5th century
Hellenism - Again, it was the Hellenists who spread the gospel, not only among the Samaritans (Philip the Deacon, Acts 8:5-25) but also among the Greeks in Antioch (Acts 11:20)
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - 955), accompanied by his Deacon Evagrius. During these visits to Constantinople, Gregory obtained the friendship of Olympias, the celebrated Deaconess and correspondent of Chrysostom, at whose instance he undertook an exposition of the Canticles, a portion of which, containing 15 homilies, he completed and sent her (in Cant
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - Eusebius tells that Philip the apostle (some suppose that he ought to have said Philip the Deacon) came to reside at Hierapolis with his daughters; and that Papias, on the authority of these daughters, tells a story of Philip raising a man from the dead
Arius the Heresiarch - In the writings of two men of note who were present, Athanasius, then a young Deacon of about 28 years old, and the already celebrated and learned Eusebius of Caesarea, we have accounts of what happened
Christ in Art - fresco in the same catacomb has the figure of a female orans (representing a consecrated virgin) in the midst, while a bishop on one side sits in his cathedra, accompanied by his Deacon, and in the act of dedicating a virgin; he points to the figure on the other side of the picture, which is that of the Virgin Mary holding the Child Christ in her lap
Monophysitism - One of them, Hilary the Deacon, had made a formal protest against these proceedings
Gnosticism - " The common source of Epiphanius and Philaster had an article on the Nicolaitanes, tracing the origin of the Gnostics to Nicolas the Deacon (see also Hippolytus, vii
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - A fanatic Deacon, Glycerius, who had collected a band of professed virgins, whom he forcibly carried off by night and who wandered about the country dancing and singing to the scandal of the faithful, caused him much trouble ( Epp
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - He wrote also to Eusebius of Samosata by the hands of the Deacon Eustathius, urging him to go to Caesarea and promote Basil's election ( Ep
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - The common assumption that there was then no episcopal see but Lyons in all Gaul is hardly warranted by the fact that in the narrative of the persecution at Vienne a Deacon only and no bishop is mentioned
Donatus And Donatism - He saw that there were too many would-be martyrs whose character would not bear close scrutiny, and, together with his archdeacon Caecilian, did his best to discountenance the reverence of good but mistaken Christians for these undeserving men. Primian imposed a penance on one of his Deacons, Maximian; the Deacon protested, was excommunicated, and appealed to some neighbouring bishops, who took up his cause and respectfully solicited Primian to give them a hearing or to meet them. Twice in 401 a council met at Carthage to deal with the supply of Catholic clergy; Donatist enticement or persecution having so reduced their number that many churches had no Deacons and therefore no future means for supplying the higher offices. Augustine set the example of receiving Donatist-ordained Deacons, though apparently he declined to receive again—in an official capacity—those who had previously passed from the church to the sectarians
Confession - The subjoined are the first two paragraphs in it, and will be admired for the orthodoxy, artlessness, and Christian experience which they exhibit:— "I, PATRICK, a sinner, the rudest, the least, and the most insignificant of the faithful, had Calphurnius, a Deacon, for my father, who was the son of Potitus, heretofore a priest, the son of Odissus, who lived in the village of Banavem Taberniae. The following is an apology for those clauses, by the late venerable Archdeacon Dodwell, who seems to have felt none of those misgivings which troubled his doubting brethren;— "The form, as well as the substance, of this creed, and the very introduction to the main article, has been objected to:...
‘Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the catholic faith;' to which is added, ‘Which faith, except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly
Pelagianism And Pelagius - Augustine not being present, the accusation was conducted by Paulinus the Deacon and biographer of Ambrose. The subdeacon Marcellinus was the bearer of this letter