What does Darius mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
דָּרְיָ֥וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 6
לְדָרְיָ֑וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 3
לְדָרְיָ֖וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 2
לְדָרְיָ֣וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 2
לְדָרְיָ֥וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 2
לְדָרְיָ֛וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1
וְדָרְיָ֙וֶשׁ֙ Darius the Mede 1
דָּרְיָ֔וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1
דָּֽרְיָ֔וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1
דָּרְיָ֣וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1
דָּרְיָ֑וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1
דָּרְיָ֖וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1
דָרְיָ֙וֶשׁ֙ Darius the Mede 1
דָּרְיָ֧וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1
וְדָרְיָ֔וֶשׁ Darius the Mede 1

Definitions Related to Darius

H1868


   1 Darius the Mede, the son of Ahasuerus, king of the Chaldeans, who succeeded to the Babylonian kingdom on the death of Belshazzar; probably the same as “Astyages” the last king of the Medes (538 BC) (same as 1867 (1)).
   2 Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the founder of the Perso-Arian dynasty (521 BC) (same as 1867 (2)).
   3 Darius II or Darius III.
      3a Darius II, Nothus (Ochus) was king of Persia during the time of Nehemiah (424/3–405/4 BC).
      Darius II is the most probable because he is mentioned by Nehemiah and ruled during the time of Nehemiah.
      3b Darius III, Codomannus was king of Persia during its last years at the time of Alexander the Great and was his opponent (336–330 BC).
      Additional Information: Darius = “lord”.
      

H1867


   1 Darius the Mede, the son of Ahasuerus, king of the Chaldeans, who succeeded to the Babylonian kingdom on the death of Belshazzar; probably the same as “Astyages” the last king of the Medes (538 BC).
   2 Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the founder of the Perso-Arian dynasty (521 BC).
   3 Darius II or Darius III.
      3a Darius II, Nothus (Ochus) was king of Persia during the time of Nehemiah (424/3–405/4 BC).
      Darius II is the most probable because he is mentioned by Nehemiah and ruled during the time of Nehemiah.
      3b Darius III, Codomannus was king of Persia during its last years at the time of Alexander the Great and was his opponent (336–330 BC).
      Additional Information: Darius = “lord”.
      

Frequency of Darius (original languages)

Frequency of Darius (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Darius
(duh ri' uhss) King of Persia (522-486 B.C.) Successor to Cambyses II in the Persian Empire, Darius spent his early years as king putting down revolts in Media, Persia, and Egypt. After solidifying his power in the Middle East, he set out to reconquer the Scythians and Greeks who had rebelled under his predecessor. He was successful in this venture until the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. From that time the kingdom began a gradual regression until finally conquered by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.
Darius brought a new sense of unity to his empire. He enlarged on the policies of Cyrus the Great in making restoration to those disenfranchised by the Assyrian and Babylonian dominations. The Jews received additional financial aid for finishing the Temple in Jerusalem (Ezra 6:8-9 ).
Unlike Cyrus, Darius organized a tightly-knit centralized state and vested himself with absolute power. Twenty satrapies (provinces) were established. Each had a system of checks and balances, with each official watching the actions of his colleagues.
A common code of laws was established in the empire, administered by royal judges. A system of weights and measures were standardized throughout the kingdom to help stimulate the economy and make transactions easier. Several major roads were built, making travel quicker and safer. What may have been the first gold currency was issued by Darius. Aramaic was decreed as the official language of the empire. The people were infused with a new sense of pride as the king made these many improvements. Unfortunately, Darius' successors were unable to maintain his policies after his death.
Mike Mitchell
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Darius
A common name of several Medo-Persian kings, from a Persian root darvesh , "restraint;" Sanskrit, dhari , "firmly holding."
1. Darius the Mede. (See DANIEL; BABYLON; BELSHAZZAR; CYRUS.) Daniel 5:31; Daniel 6:1; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 11:1. This Darius "received the kingdom" (Daniel 5:31) of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus, according to G. Rawlinson, which may be favored by Daniel 9:1; "Darius, the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldaeans." He in this view gave up the kingdom to his superior Cyrus, after holding it from 538 to 536 B.C. Abydenus makes Nebuchadnezzar prophesy that a Persian and a Mede," the pride of the Assyrians," should take Babylon, i.e. a prince who had ruled over the Medes and Assyrians.
Cyrus, having taken such a prince 20 years before Babylon's capture, advanced him to be deputy king of Babylon. Hence he retained the royal title and is called "king" by Daniel. Thus Astyages (the last king of the Medes, and having no issue, according to Herodotus, 1:73, 109,127) will be this Darius, and Ahasuerus (Achashverosh) = Cyaxares (Huwakshatra), father of Astyages. Aeschylus (Persae, 766, 767) represents Cyaxares as the first founder of the empire and a Mede, and Sir H. Rawlinson proves the same in opposition to Herodotus. Aeschylus describes Cyaxares' son as having "a mind guided by wisdom"; this is applicable both to Darius in Daniel 6:1-3, and to Astyages in Herodotus. The chronology however requires one junior to Astyages to correspond to Darius the Mede and Cyrus' viceroy, whether a son or one next in succession after Astyages, probably Cyaxares.
Harpocration makes him to have introduced the coin named from him the daric. Xenophon's account of Cyaxares agrees remarkably with Daniel's account of Darius. Xenophon says Cyrus conquered Babylon by Cyaxares' permission, and appointed for him a royal palace and rule and home there (see Daniel 6:1-28; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 5:31). Daniel's statement that Darius was 62 years old accords with Xenophon that when Cyaxares gave Cyrus his daughter he gave him along with her the Median kingdom, himself having no male heir, and being so old as not to be likely to have a son. Darius' weakness in yielding to his nobles (Daniel 6) accords with Xenophon's picture of Cyaxares' sensuality. The shortness of his reign and the eclipsing brilliancy of Cyrus' capture of Babylon caused Herodotus and Berosus to pass Darius unnoticed. Cyaxares is the Median uwakshatra , "autocrat," answering to Darius the Persian, Darjawusch "the ruler;" kschaja , "kingdom," is the root in the Persian Ahasuerus, Kschajarscha, and the Median Astyages.
2. Darius, son of Hystaspes, fifth from Achaemenes, who founded the Persian dynasty. The Magian Pseudo-Smerdis Aartxerxes; Ezra 4:7 usurped the throne, pretending to be Cyrus' younger son. (See ARTAXERXES.) As he restored the Magian faith, effecting a religious as well as political revolution, he readily gave ear to the enemies of the Jews whose restorer Cyrus had been (Ezra 4:7-24). Darius Hystaspes with six Persian chiefs overthrew the impostor and became king 521 B.C. As soon as Darius was on the throne the Jews treated Smerdis' edict as null and void. This bold step is accounted for by Darius's own inscription at Behistun stating that in his zeal for Zoroastrianism he reversed Smerdis' policy, "rebuilding the temples which the Magian had destroyed and restoring the religious chants and worship which he had abolished."
The Jews so counted on his sympathy as not to wait for his express edict. Their enemies, hoping that Smerdis had destroyed Cyrus' decree, informed the king of the Jews' proceeding and proposed that the archives at Babylon should be searched to see whether Cyrus had ever really given such a decree. It was found at Ecbatana. In his second year Haggai (Haggai 1:1; Haggai 2:1; Haggai 2:10) and Zechariah (Zechariah 3-4; Zechariah 7:1-3) the prophets encouraged Zerubbabel and Jeshua to resume the building of the temple that had been discontinued (Ezra 5). Tatnai and Shethar Boznai's effort to hinder it only occasioned the ratification of Cyrus' original decree by Darius.
Darius in his decree in Ezra (Ezra 6) writes as might have been expected from the Zoroastrian Darius of secular history; he calls the Jews' temple "the house of God," Jehovah "the God of heaven," and solicits their prayers "for the life of the king and of his sons." Herodotus (vii. 2) confirms the fact that he had sons when he ascended the throne. His curse (Ezra 6:12) on those who injure the temple answers to that on those who should injure the inscriptions at Behistun, and his threat of impaling such (Ezra 6:11) answers to the Behistun and Herodotus (iii. 159) record of the ordinary punishment he inflicted. The "tribute" (Ezra 6:8) too he was the first to impose on the provinces (Herodotus, 3:89). in four years it was completed, i.e. in the sixth year of Darius (Ezra 6:15), in 516 B.C. In this same year he suppressed with severity a Babylonian revolt. He reduced under his supremacy Thrace, Macedon, and the islands in the Aegean Sea, 513-505 B.C. Invading Greece, he was defeated at Marathon 590. Before he could renew the campaign, with preparations completed he died 455 B.C.
3. Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:11-22). As "Jaddua" was high priest at the invasion of Alexander the Great, Darius III, Codomanus, his enemy (336-330 B.C.), last king of Persia, is meant. Darius II, or Nothus, king from 424 to 405 B.C., would be meant if Nehemiah were the writer; but it is more likely he was not, and that the continuation of the register down to Alexander's contemporary, Jaddua, is inserted by a later hand.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Darius
The holder or supporter, the name of several Persian kings.
Darius the Mede (Daniel 11:1 ), "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes" (9:1). On the death of Belshazzar the Chaldean he "received the kingdom" of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus. During his brief reign (B.C. 538-536) Daniel was promoted to the highest dignity (Daniel 6:1,2 ); but on account of the malice of his enemies he was cast into the den of lions. After his miraculous escape, a decree was issued by Darius enjoining "reverence for the God of Daniel" (6:26). This king was probably the "Astyages" of the Greek historians. Nothing can, however, be with certainty affirmed regarding him. Some are of opinion that the name "Darius" is simply a name of office, equivalent to "governor," and that the "Gobryas" of the inscriptions was the person intended by the name.
Darius, king of Persia, was the son of Hystaspes, of the royal family of the Achaemenidae. He did not immediately succeed Cyrus on the throne. There were two intermediate kings, viz., Cambyses (the Ahasuerus of Ezra), the son of Cyrus, who reigned from B.C. 529-522, and was succeeded by a usurper named Smerdis, who occupied the throne only ten months, and was succeeded by this Darius (B.C. 521-486). Smerdis was a Margian, and therefore had no sympathy with Cyrus and Cambyses in the manner in which they had treated the Jews. He issued a decree prohibiting the restoration of the temple and of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:17-22 ). But soon after his death and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work, thinking that the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void, as Darius was in known harmony with the religious policy of Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost no time in bringing the matter under the notice of Darius, who caused search to be made for the decree of Cyrus (q.v.). It was not found at Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2 ); and Darius forthwith issued a new decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all needed help. It was with the army of this king that the Greeks fought the famous battle of Marathon (B.C. 490). During his reign the Jews enjoyed much peace and prosperity. He was succeeded by Ahasuerus, known to the Greeks as Xerxes, who reigned for twenty-one years.
Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:22 ) was probably the Darius II. (Ochus or Nothus) of profane history, the son of Artaxerxes Longimanus, who was the son and successor of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). There are some, however, who think that the king here meant was Darius III. (Codomannus), the antagonist of Alexander the Great (B.C. 336-331).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Darius
DARIUS . 1. Son of Hystaspes, king of Persia (b.c. 521 485), well known from the classical historian Herodotus, and, for the early part of his reign, from his own tri-lingual inscription on the rocks at Behistun. He allowed the Jews to rebuild the Temple. The prophets Haggai and Zechariah encouraged the people to go on with the work, and when Tattenai, the Persian governor of Syria, demanded their authority, they alleged a decree of Cyrus. On reference being made to Darius and the decree being found, the king confirmed it, and ordered facilities to be afforded for the building. It was completed in the 6th year of his reign ( Ezra 4:1-24 ; Ezra 5:1-17 ; Ezra 6:1-22 , Haggai 1:1 ; Haggai 2:10 , Zechariah 1:17 ). 2. Darius the Persian ( Nehemiah 12:22 ). Possibly Darius Codomannus, the last king of Persia (b.c. 336 330), Malachi 1:1 Malachi 1:1 . Malachi 1:3 . ‘Darius’ in 1Ma 12:7 (AV [1] ) is an error for the Spartan ‘Arius’ (wh. see). 4. ‘Darius the Mede’ ( Daniel 11:1 ), son of Ahasuerus of the seed of the Medes ( Daniel 9:1 ), is said ( Daniel 5:31 ) to have succeeded to the kingdom of Babylon after Belshazzar’s death, and to have been sixty-two years old when he received the kingdom. This account does not answer to what we know of any king called Darius. Gobryas was he who actually received the kingdom for Cyrus, entering Babylon on the 16th of Tammuz, four months before Cyrus made his triumphal entry. He too appointed governors in Babylon (cf. Daniel 6:1 ), and seems from the Babylonian Chronicle to have been in the attack which resulted in Belshazzar’s death. Whether Gobryas is intended, whether Darius was another name of his, or whether some mistake has crept into the text, cannot be decided without fresh evidence. It is certain that no king of Babylon called Darius succeeded Belshazzar or preceded Cyrus.
C. H. W. Johns.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Darius
He that informs himself
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Darius
was the name of several princes in history, some of whom are mentioned in Scripture.
1. DARIUS the Mede, spoken of in Daniel 5:31 ; Daniel 9:1 ; Daniel 11:1 , &c, was the son of Astyages, king of the Medes, and brother to Mandane, the mother of Cyrus, and to Amyit, the mother of Evil-merodach, and grandmother of Belshazzar. Darius the Mede, therefore, was uncle by the mother's side to Evil-merodach and Cyrus. The Septuagint, in Daniel vii, give him the name of Artaxerxes; the thirteenth, or apocryphal chapter of Daniel, calls him Astyages; and Xenophon designates him by the name of Cyaxares. He succeeded Belshazzar, king of Babylon, his nephew's son, or his sisters grandson, in the year of the world, 3448, according to Calmet, or in 3468, according to Usher. Daniel does not inform us of any previous war between them; but the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah supply this deficiency. Isaiah 13, 14, 45, 46, 47; Jeremiah 50, 51.
2. DARIUS, the son of Hystaspes, has been supposed by some, on the authority of Archbishop Usher and Calmet, to be the Ahasuerus of Scripture, and the husband of Esther. But Dr. Prideaux thinks, that Ahasuerus was Artaxerxes Longimanus. This prince recovered Babylon after a siege of twenty months. This city, which had been formerly the capital of the east, revolted from Persia, taking advantage of the revolution that happened, first at the death of Cambyses, and afterward on the massacre of the Magi. The Babylonians employed four years in preparations, and when they thought that their city was furnished with provisions for a long time, they raised the standard of rebellion. Darius levied an army in great haste, and besieged Babylon. The Babylonians shut themselves up within their walls, whose height and thickness secured them from assault; and as they had nothing to fear but famine, they assembled all their women and children, and strangled them, each reserving only his most beloved wife, and one servant. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 47:7-9 . Some believe that the Jews were either expelled by the Babylonians, as being too much in the interest of Darius; or that, in obedience to the frequent admonitions of the prophets, they quitted that city when they saw the people determined to rebel, Isaiah 48:20 ; Jeremiah 50:8 ; Jeremiah 51:6-9 ; Zechariah 11:6-7 . Darius lay twenty months before Babylon, without making any considerable progress; but at length, Zopyrus, one of his generals, obtained possession of the city by stratagem. Darius ordered the hundred gates of brass to be taken away, according to the prediction of Jeremiah 51:58 , "Thus saith the Lord, The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall be burnt with fire, and the people shall labour in vain." This is related in Herodotus.
3. DARIUS CODOMANUS was of the royal family of Persia, but very remote from the crown. He was in a low condition, when Bagoas, the eunuch, who had procured the destruction of two kings, Ochus and Arses, placed him on the throne. His true name was Codoman, and he did not take that of Darius till he was king. He was descended from Darius Nothus, whose son, Ostanes, was father to Arsames, that beget Codomanus. He was at first only a courier to the emperor Ochus. But one day when he was at this prince's army, one of their enemies challenged the bravest of the Persians. Codomanus offered himself for the combat, and overcame the challenger, and was made governor of Armenia. From this situation, Bagoas placed him on the throne of Persia. Alexander the Great invaded the Persian empire, and defeated Darius in three successive battles. After the third battle, Darius fled toward Media, in hopes of raising another army. At Ecbatana, the capital of Media, he gathered the remains of his forces, and some new levies. Alexander having wintered at Babylon and Persepolis, took the field in search of Darius, who quitted Ecbatana, with an intention of retreating into Bactria; but, changing his resolution, Darius stopped short, and determined to hazard a battle, though his army at this time consisted only of forty thousand men. While he was preparing for this conflict, Bessus, governor of Bactria, and Narbazanes, a grandee of Persia, seized him, loaded him with chains, forced him into a covered chariot, and fled, carrying him with them toward Bactria. If Alexander pursued them, they intended to purchase their peace by delivering Darius into his hands; but if not, to kill him, seize the crown, and renew the war. Eight days after their departure, Alexander arrived at Ecbatana, and set out in pursuit of them, which he continued for eleven days: at length he stopped at Rages, in Media, despairing to overtake Darius. Thence he went into Parthia, where he learned what had happened to that unfortunate prince. After a precipitate march of many days, he overtook the traitors, who, seeing themselves pressed, endeavoured to compel Darius to get upon horseback, and save himself with them; but he refusing, they stabbed him in several places, and left him expiring in his chariot. He was dead when Alexander arrived, who could not forbear weeping at so sad a spectacle. Alexander covered Darius with his own cloak, and sent him to Sisygambis his wife, that she might bury him in the tombs of the kings of Persia. Thus were verified the prophecies of Daniel, viii, who had foretold the destruction of the Persian monarchy, under the symbol of a ram, which butted with its horns westward, northward, and southward, and which nothing could resist; but a goat which had a very large horn between his eyes, and which denoted Alexander the Great, came from the west, and overran the world without touching the earth; springing forward with impetuosity, the goat ran against the ram with all his force, attacked him with fury, struck him, broke his two horns, trampled him under foot, and no one could rescue the ram. Nothing can be clearer than these prophecies.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Darius
Darius (da-rî'us), restrainer. The name of several kings of Media and Persia mentioned in the Bible. 1. Darius the Median, Daniel 5:31, was the son of Ahasuerus; he took Babylon from Belshazzar the Chaldæan, being at that time about 62 years old. He has been identified with Astyages, Hystaspis, Cyaxares II. and Gobryas. "Only one year of the reign of Darius is mentioned, Daniel 9:1; Daniel 11:1; and if, as seems probable, Darius (Astyages) occupied the throne of Babylon as supreme sovereign, with Nerigalsarasser as vassal-prince, after the murder of Evil-merodach (Bel-shazzar), b.c. 559, one year only remains for this Median supremacy before its overthrow by Cyrus, b.c. 558, in exact accordance with the notices in Daniel." Under him Daniel was advanced to the highest dignity, which exposed him to the malice of enemies and led to his being cast into the den of lions, but by a miracle he escaped injury. 2. Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the founder of the Perso-Aryan dynasty, and ruler, b.c. 521-486. Ezra 4:5; Ezra 4:24; Haggai 1:1; Haggai 1:15; Zechariah 1:1; Zechariah 1:7; Zechariah 7:1. He found in the palace at Achmetha or Ecbatana, the capital of Cyrus, a decree of that king concerning the temple in Jerusalem. This he confirmed, and the temple was finished in four years, b.c. 516. Ezra 6:15. It may, however, have been used before it was entirely completed, as is inferred from Zechariah 7:2; Zechariah 3:3. Darius the Persian, mentioned in Nehemiah 12:22, is generally identified with Darius Codomaunus, the antagonist of Alexander the Great, who ascended the throne b.c. 336, and reigned until b.c. 330. He was the last Persian monarch, and was killed by his own generals. Alexander defeated him, and thus the prophecy of Daniel, Daniel 8:1-27, was fulfilled.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Darius
1. DARIUS THE MEDE
Daniel 5:31 9:1 11:1 , was son of Astyages king of the Medes, and brother of Mandane mother of Cyrus, and of Amyit the mother of Evil-merodach and grandmother of Belshazzar: thus he was uncle, by the mother's side, to Evil-merodach and to Cyrus. The Hebrew generally calls him Darius; the Septuagint, Artaxerxes; and Xenophon, Cyaxares. Darius dethroned Belshazzar king of the Chaldeans, and occupied the throne till his death two years after, when it reverted to the illustrious Cyrus. In his reign Daniel was cast into the lion's den, Daniel 6:1-28 .
2. DARIUS HYSTASPIS
Spoken of in Ezra 4:1-7:28 , Haggai, and Zechariah, as the king who renewed the permission to rebuild the temple, given to the Jews by Cyrus and afterwards recalled. He succeeded Smerdis, the Magian usurper, B. C. 521, and reigned thirty-six years. He removed the seat of government to Susa, whereupon Babylon rebelled against him; but he subdued the rebellion and broke down the walls of Babylon, as was predicted, Jeremiah 51:58 .
3. DARIUS CODOMANUS
Nehemiah 12:22 , was one of the most brave and generous of the Persian kings. Alexander the Great defeated him several times, and at great length subverted the Persian monarchy, after it had been established two hundred and six years. Darius was killed by his own generals, after a short reign of six years. Thus were verified the prophecies of Daniel, Daniel 8:1-27 , who had foretold the enlargement of the Persian monarchy, under the symbol of a ram, butting with its horns westward, northward, and southward, which nothing could resist; and its destruction by a goat having a very large horn between his eyes, (Alexander the Great,) coming from the west, and overrunning the world without touching the earth. Nothing can be added to the clearness of these prophecies, so exactly describing what in due time took place and is matter of history.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Darius
The first of three people named Darius mentioned in the Bible is Darius the Mede, who took control of Babylon when the city fell to the Medo-Persian armies in 539 BC (Daniel 5:30-31). The name may be that of a Median leader whom the Persian Emperor Cyrus placed in charge of Babylon, or it may be another name for Cyrus himself (see also DANIEL; PERSIA).
Cyrus was succeeded in 530 BC by Cambyses, and Cambyses by Darius Hystaspes in 522 BC. During the reign of Darius Hystaspes the prophets Haggai and Zechariah aroused the Jews from their spiritual laziness, with the result that the temple in Jerusalem was rebuilt (Ezra 4:24; Ezra 5:6; Ezra 6:15; Haggai 1:1; Zechariah 1:1; see EZRA; PERSIA). A later Darius, called Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:22), ruled Persia from 423 to 408 BC.

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Darius - The first of three people named Darius mentioned in the Bible is Darius the Mede, who took control of Babylon when the city fell to the Medo-Persian armies in 539 BC (Daniel 5:30-31). ...
Cyrus was succeeded in 530 BC by Cambyses, and Cambyses by Darius Hystaspes in 522 BC. During the reign of Darius Hystaspes the prophets Haggai and Zechariah aroused the Jews from their spiritual laziness, with the result that the temple in Jerusalem was rebuilt (Ezra 4:24; Ezra 5:6; Ezra 6:15; Haggai 1:1; Zechariah 1:1; see EZRA; PERSIA). A later Darius, called Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:22), ruled Persia from 423 to 408 BC
Dari'us -
Darius THE MEDE, (Daniel 6:1 ; 11:1 ) "the son of Ahasuerus," (Daniel 9:1 ) who succeeded to the Babylonian kingdom ont he death of Belshazzar, being then sixty-two years old. This Darius is probably the same as "Astyages," the last king of the Medes. ...
DARIUS, the son of Hystaspes the founder of the Perso-Arian dynasty. With regard to the Jews, Darius Hystaspes pursued the same policy as Cyrus, and restored to them the privileges which they had lost. ...
Darius THE PERSIAN, (Nehemiah 12:22 ) may be identified with Darius II. 424-3 to 405-4; but it is not improbable that it points to Darius III
Darius - Darius . On reference being made to Darius and the decree being found, the king confirmed it, and ordered facilities to be afforded for the building. Darius the Persian ( Nehemiah 12:22 ). Possibly Darius Codomannus, the last king of Persia (b. ‘Darius’ in 1Ma 12:7 (AV Darius -
Darius the Mede (Daniel 11:1 ), "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes" (9:1). After his miraculous escape, a decree was issued by Darius enjoining "reverence for the God of Daniel" (6:26). Some are of opinion that the name "Darius" is simply a name of office, equivalent to "governor," and that the "Gobryas" of the inscriptions was the person intended by the name. ...
...
Darius, king of Persia, was the son of Hystaspes, of the royal family of the Achaemenidae. 529-522, and was succeeded by a usurper named Smerdis, who occupied the throne only ten months, and was succeeded by this Darius (B. But soon after his death and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work, thinking that the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void, as Darius was in known harmony with the religious policy of Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost no time in bringing the matter under the notice of Darius, who caused search to be made for the decree of Cyrus (q. It was not found at Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2 ); and Darius forthwith issued a new decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all needed help. ...
...
Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:22 ) was probably the Darius II. There are some, however, who think that the king here meant was Darius III
Darius - Darius the Mede. This Darius "received the kingdom" (Daniel 5:31) of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus, according to G. Rawlinson, which may be favored by Daniel 9:1; "Darius, the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldaeans. Thus Astyages (the last king of the Medes, and having no issue, according to Herodotus, 1:73, 109,127) will be this Darius, and Ahasuerus (Achashverosh) = Cyaxares (Huwakshatra), father of Astyages. Aeschylus describes Cyaxares' son as having "a mind guided by wisdom"; this is applicable both to Darius in Daniel 6:1-3, and to Astyages in Herodotus. The chronology however requires one junior to Astyages to correspond to Darius the Mede and Cyrus' viceroy, whether a son or one next in succession after Astyages, probably Cyaxares. Xenophon's account of Cyaxares agrees remarkably with Daniel's account of Darius. Daniel's statement that Darius was 62 years old accords with Xenophon that when Cyaxares gave Cyrus his daughter he gave him along with her the Median kingdom, himself having no male heir, and being so old as not to be likely to have a son. Darius' weakness in yielding to his nobles (Daniel 6) accords with Xenophon's picture of Cyaxares' sensuality. The shortness of his reign and the eclipsing brilliancy of Cyrus' capture of Babylon caused Herodotus and Berosus to pass Darius unnoticed. Cyaxares is the Median uwakshatra , "autocrat," answering to Darius the Persian, Darjawusch "the ruler;" kschaja , "kingdom," is the root in the Persian Ahasuerus, Kschajarscha, and the Median Astyages. Darius, son of Hystaspes, fifth from Achaemenes, who founded the Persian dynasty. Darius Hystaspes with six Persian chiefs overthrew the impostor and became king 521 B. As soon as Darius was on the throne the Jews treated Smerdis' edict as null and void. This bold step is accounted for by Darius's own inscription at Behistun stating that in his zeal for Zoroastrianism he reversed Smerdis' policy, "rebuilding the temples which the Magian had destroyed and restoring the religious chants and worship which he had abolished. Tatnai and Shethar Boznai's effort to hinder it only occasioned the ratification of Cyrus' original decree by Darius. ...
Darius in his decree in Ezra (Ezra 6) writes as might have been expected from the Zoroastrian Darius of secular history; he calls the Jews' temple "the house of God," Jehovah "the God of heaven," and solicits their prayers "for the life of the king and of his sons. in the sixth year of Darius (Ezra 6:15), in 516 B. Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:11-22). As "Jaddua" was high priest at the invasion of Alexander the Great, Darius III, Codomanus, his enemy (336-330 B. Darius II, or Nothus, king from 424 to 405 B
Dari'us - Darius THE MEDE, son of Ahasuerus. Some supposed 'Darius' to be a title and not a name, but the name has been found on the monuments. DariusHYSTASPIS, king of Persia: B. Darius THE PERSIAN. Darius Ochus (Nothus) of the historians, B
Apame - Daughter of Bartacus, and concubine of Darius I
Darius - Darius (da-rî'us), restrainer. Darius the Median, Daniel 5:31, was the son of Ahasuerus; he took Babylon from Belshazzar the Chaldæan, being at that time about 62 years old. "Only one year of the reign of Darius is mentioned, Daniel 9:1; Daniel 11:1; and if, as seems probable, Darius (Astyages) occupied the throne of Babylon as supreme sovereign, with Nerigalsarasser as vassal-prince, after the murder of Evil-merodach (Bel-shazzar), b. Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the founder of the Perso-Aryan dynasty, and ruler, b. Darius the Persian, mentioned in Nehemiah 12:22, is generally identified with Darius Codomaunus, the antagonist of Alexander the Great, who ascended the throne b
Ahasuerus - It is he who figures in the Book of Esther; Daniel 9:1 erroneously makes him father of Darius the Mede, confusing the latter with Darius Hystaspis, the father of Xerxes
Shethar Boznai - ) A Persian officer commanding "on this side the river" under Tatnai the satrap, in Darius Hystaspes' reign (Ezra 5:3; Ezra 5:6; Ezra 6:6; Ezra 6:13). Shethar Boznai with Tatnai and the Apharsachites tried to hinder the building of the temple under Zerubbabel, writing to Darius (Ezra 5) that search should be made whether the decree of Cyrus for its restoration, which the Jews alleged, was to be found in the house of the rolls at Babylon. On its being found at Achmetha, or Ecbatana, Darius ordered the work to proceed, and that Shethar Boznai, etc
Darius - Darius the Mede, spoken of in Daniel 5:31 ; Daniel 9:1 ; Daniel 11:1 , &c, was the son of Astyages, king of the Medes, and brother to Mandane, the mother of Cyrus, and to Amyit, the mother of Evil-merodach, and grandmother of Belshazzar. Darius the Mede, therefore, was uncle by the mother's side to Evil-merodach and Cyrus. Darius, the son of Hystaspes, has been supposed by some, on the authority of Archbishop Usher and Calmet, to be the Ahasuerus of Scripture, and the husband of Esther. Darius levied an army in great haste, and besieged Babylon. Some believe that the Jews were either expelled by the Babylonians, as being too much in the interest of Darius; or that, in obedience to the frequent admonitions of the prophets, they quitted that city when they saw the people determined to rebel, Isaiah 48:20 ; Jeremiah 50:8 ; Jeremiah 51:6-9 ; Zechariah 11:6-7 . Darius lay twenty months before Babylon, without making any considerable progress; but at length, Zopyrus, one of his generals, obtained possession of the city by stratagem. Darius ordered the hundred gates of brass to be taken away, according to the prediction of Jeremiah 51:58 , "Thus saith the Lord, The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall be burnt with fire, and the people shall labour in vain. Darius CODOMANUS was of the royal family of Persia, but very remote from the crown. His true name was Codoman, and he did not take that of Darius till he was king. He was descended from Darius Nothus, whose son, Ostanes, was father to Arsames, that beget Codomanus. Alexander the Great invaded the Persian empire, and defeated Darius in three successive battles. After the third battle, Darius fled toward Media, in hopes of raising another army. Alexander having wintered at Babylon and Persepolis, took the field in search of Darius, who quitted Ecbatana, with an intention of retreating into Bactria; but, changing his resolution, Darius stopped short, and determined to hazard a battle, though his army at this time consisted only of forty thousand men. If Alexander pursued them, they intended to purchase their peace by delivering Darius into his hands; but if not, to kill him, seize the crown, and renew the war. Eight days after their departure, Alexander arrived at Ecbatana, and set out in pursuit of them, which he continued for eleven days: at length he stopped at Rages, in Media, despairing to overtake Darius. After a precipitate march of many days, he overtook the traitors, who, seeing themselves pressed, endeavoured to compel Darius to get upon horseback, and save himself with them; but he refusing, they stabbed him in several places, and left him expiring in his chariot. Alexander covered Darius with his own cloak, and sent him to Sisygambis his wife, that she might bury him in the tombs of the kings of Persia
She'Thar-Boz'na-i - star of splendor ), a Persian officer of rank in the reign of Darius Hystaspes
Darius - Darius THE MEDE ...
Daniel 5:31 9:1 11:1 , was son of Astyages king of the Medes, and brother of Mandane mother of Cyrus, and of Amyit the mother of Evil-merodach and grandmother of Belshazzar: thus he was uncle, by the mother's side, to Evil-merodach and to Cyrus. The Hebrew generally calls him Darius; the Septuagint, Artaxerxes; and Xenophon, Cyaxares. Darius dethroned Belshazzar king of the Chaldeans, and occupied the throne till his death two years after, when it reverted to the illustrious Cyrus. Darius HYSTASPIS ...
Spoken of in Ezra 4:1-7:28 , Haggai, and Zechariah, as the king who renewed the permission to rebuild the temple, given to the Jews by Cyrus and afterwards recalled. Darius CODOMANUS ...
Nehemiah 12:22 , was one of the most brave and generous of the Persian kings. Darius was killed by his own generals, after a short reign of six years
Darius - ) Successor to Cambyses II in the Persian Empire, Darius spent his early years as king putting down revolts in Media, Persia, and Egypt. ...
Darius brought a new sense of unity to his empire. ...
Unlike Cyrus, Darius organized a tightly-knit centralized state and vested himself with absolute power. What may have been the first gold currency was issued by Darius. Unfortunately, Darius' successors were unable to maintain his policies after his death
Tatnai - A governor of Samaria under Darius, whose administration was characterized by great justice and moderation towards the Jews, Ezra 5:1-6:22 , B
me'Dian, the - Darius, "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes," (Daniel 9:1 ) or "the Mede," ch
Tat'na-i - (gift ), satrap of the province west of the Euphrates in the time of Darius Hystaspes
Regem-Melech - Friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zechariah 7:2 ) to make inquiries at the temple
Jaddua - In the reign of the last Persian king Darius and of Alexander; when he invaded Judea Jaddua is said to have gone out in priestly robes to meet Alexander, and to have implored his goodwill toward the Jews (Josephus,
Shetharboznai - An official of the king of Persia who, instead of hindering the Jews, was ordered by Darius to help them in the building of the temple
Haggai - He began to prophesy in the second year of Darius Hystaspis, B. In this he was successful, Darius having granted a decree for this purpose, Ezra 6:1-22
Sisinnes - The governor of Cœle-Syria and Phœnicia under Darius ( 1Es 6:3 ; Esther 6:7 Esther 6:7 ; 1Es 6:27 ; 1E Esther 7:1 )
Ahasuerus -
The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Daniel 9:1 . ...
The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of Esther. " This was in all probability the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius (B
Persep'Olis, - mentioned only in 2 Maccabees 9:2 , was the capital of Persia proper, and the occasional residence of the Persian court from the time of Darius Hystaspes, who seems to have been its founder, to the invasion of Alexander. Here, on a platform hewn out of the solid rock the sides of which face the four cardinal points, are the remains of two great palaces, built respectively by Darius Hytaspes and his son Xerxes, besides a number of other edifices, chiefly temples
Shethar-Bozenai - One of those who corresponded with Darius about the re-building of the Temple ( Ezra 5:3 ; Ezra 5:6 ; Ezra 6:5 ; Ezra 6:13 )
Shethar-Bozenai - ” Persian provincial official who questioned Zerubbabel's right to begin rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 5:3 ,Ezra 5:3,5:6 ) but responded to King Darius' answer by helping the Jews build (Ezra 6:13 )
Persepolis - The chief capital of the ancient kings of Persia, chosen as such by Darius Hystaspis (b
Pithom - This is probably the Pathumos mentioned by Herodotus, which he places near Pi-beseth and the Pelusiac arm of the Nile, not far from the canal made by the kings Necho and Darius to join the Red Sea with the Nile
Persia, Persians - ...
The history in Daniel 5 relates that it was Darius the Mede that 'took the kingdom. On the death of Darius, Cyrus succeeded and reigned in Babylon, and from thence the Persian element prevailed in the empire. Astyages, his son, last king of Media … … 593 Probably Darius the Mede. Darius Hystaspes … … … … 521 Darius: Ezra 5:5 ; Haggai 1:1 etc. Darius 2, Ochus or Nothus … … … 424 Darius: Nehemiah 12:22 . Darius 3
Prince, Princess - ...
The "princes" mentioned in (Daniel 6:1 ) (see Esther 1:1 ) wore the predecessors of the satraps of Darius Hystaspes
Tattenai - The name of the governor of Cœle-Syria and Phœnicia under Darius Hystaspis ( Ezra 5:3 ; Ezra 5:6 ; Ezra 6:6 ; Ezra 6:13 )
Haggai - A prophet after the captivity, in the second year of Darius Hystaspes, or b
Daric - Derived from Darius the Mede, or else dara , "a king", the regal coin (compare our "crown"
Ahasuerus - Father of Darius, incidentally named in Daniel 9:1 . He is held to have been Xerxes, son of Darius Hystaspis
Ahasuerus - Father of Darius the Mede or Astyages, last king of Media, 594 B. Darius the Mede. The Magi being overthrown, Darius Hystaspis succeeded, 521 B. Darius Hystaspis' son was Ahasuerus the third or Xerxes (See ESTHER), father of Artaxerxes Longimanus (Ezra 7:1). Darius Hystaspis was the first Persian king who reigned "from India (which he first subdued) to Ethiopia" (Esther 1:1); also the first who imposed a stated tribute on the provinces, voluntary presents having been customary before; also the first who admitted the seven princes to see the king's face; the seven conspirators who slew Pseudo-Smerdis having stipulated, before it was decided which of them was to have the crown, for special privileges, and this one in particular
Artaxerxes - 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem
Sherezer - One of the messengers sent to the house of God in the fourth year of king Darius, to pray and to enquire concerning the continuation of fasting in the fifth month (probably in commemoration of the destruction of the temple, etc
Artaxerxes - Certainly the Ahasuerus of Ezra 4:6 was Cambyses, and the Darius of Ezra 4:24 was Darius Hystaspes; so that the intermediate king must be Smerdis the pretender, who by usurpation reigned for eight months 522 B. 10, Justin 1:9, and Darius' great inscription at Behistun, account for his reversing the policy of his two predecessors on a point of religion. Like Cyrus and Darius he identified Jehovah with his own supreme god, Ormuzd (Ezra 7:12; Ezra 7:21-23), supported the Jewish worship by offerings and grants from the state and provincial treasuries, and threatened death, banishment, imprisonment, or confiscation against opponents
Daric - A Persian gold coin equivalent to four days' wages, probably introduced by Darius I (522-486 B
Ormuzd - He is represented as a crowned and bearded figure in a winged circle above the head of King Darius
Dram - , which was first struck by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, and was current in Western Asia long after the fall of the Persian empire
Tatnai - With others, Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:6 ); but at the command of Darius, he assisted the Jews (6:1-13)
Ahasuerus - Archbishop Usher is of opinion that this Ahasuerus was Darius Hystaspes; and that Atossa was the Vashti, and Artystona the Esther, of the Scriptures. But, according to Herodotus, the latter was the daughter of Cyrus, and therefore could not be Esther; and the former had four sons by Darius, besides daughters, born to him after he was king; and therefore she could not be the queen Vashti, divorced from her husband in the third year of his reign, nor he the Ahasuerus who divorced her. Besides, Atossa retained her influence over Darius to his death, and obtained the succession of the crown for his son, Xerxes; whereas Vashti was removed from the presence of Ahasuerus by an irrevocable decree, Esther 1:19
Arius - ]'>[2] Darius in v
Ahasue'Rus -
In (Daniel 9:1 ) Ahasuerus is said to be the father of Darius the Mede. [1] This first Ahasuerus is Cyaxares, the conqueror of Nineveh
Shushan - Darius Hystaspes and the Achaemenian princes made it the capital. Norris deciphered the first part: "says Artaxerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of the country, king of the earth, son of king Darius . Darius was the son of king Artaxerxes . Xerxes was son of king Darius . Darius was the son of Hystaspes the Achaemenian . Darius my ancestor anciently built the temple; afterward it was repaired by Artaxerxes my grandfather. ...
As Darius Hystaspes commenced the Susa palace, so Xerxes built that at Persepolis
Per'Sia - (Ezra 4:17-22 ) He reigned but seven months, and was succeeded by Darius. Appealed to, in his second year, by the Jews, who wished to resume the construction of their temple, Darius not only granted them this privilege, but assisted the work by grants from his own revenues, whereby the Jews were able to complete the temple as early as his sixth year. (Ezra 6:1-15 ) Darius was succeeded by Xerxes, probably the Ahasuerus of Esther. , Sogdianus Darius Nothus, Artaxerxes Mnemon, Artaxerxes Ochus, and Darius Codomannus, who is probably the "Darius the Persian" of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 12:22 ) These monarchs reigned from B
Daniel - He was thrown into a lions' den during Darius’ reign for praying to G-d; miraculously, he wasn’t harmed
Zerubbabel - Zerubbabel returned to Jerusalem long before the reign of Darius, son of Hystaspes. 3468, fifteen years before Darius
Parthians - However this may be, they came under Persian rule in the time of Darius Hystaspis, and remained loyal to the Persian kings till Alexander the Great overthrew Darius Codomannus (333 b
Hag'Gai, Prophecy of - They were delivered in the second year of Darius Hystaspes (B
Zerubbabel - ...
So by hired counselors, in the third year of Cyrus, and by a letter influencing Artaxerxes, they caused the work to cease until the second year of Darius, i. for 16 years (Zechariah 3:7-106), namely, the seven remaining years of Cyrus, eight years including Cambyses (Ahasuerus) and Smerdis (Artaxerxes) joint reigns, and one year of Darius. "Jehovah hereby stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel (Haggai 1:14-15) and of Joshua, so that they rose up, came, and did work in the house of Jehovah of hosts, their God, in the 24th day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king," "and with them were the prophets of God helping them" (Ezra 5:1-2). ...
They made this bold venture even before Darius had made any decree revoking Smerdis' prohibition. what are the names of the men that make this building?" and reported their answer to Darius, and requested that search should be made at Babylon for the alleged decree of Cyrus in their favor. The decree was found at Achmetha ((See ECBATANA), a delicate proof of Scripture accuracy, that being Cyrus' court residence; and Darius decreed anew the building of the temple with three rows of great stones and a row of new timber at the king's expense, and the restoration of the golden and silver vessels, and the supply of young bullocks, rams, and lambs for burnt offerings, and wheat, salt, wine, and oil, that they might offer sacrifices of sweet savours unto the God of heaven, and pray for the life of the king and of his sons. ...
So the house was completed four years after its recommencement, in the third day of the month Adar, the sixth year of Darius (Ezra 6:15)
Tiphsah - ' It was where Cyrus, Darius Codomannus, and Alexander crossed during their wars
Shu'Shan, - According to some writers the change was made by Cyrus; according to others it had at any rate taken place before the death of Cambyses; but, according to the evidence of the place itself and of the other Achaemenian monuments, it would seem most probable that the transfer was really the work of Darius Hystaspes. (Here have been found the remains of the great palace build by Darius, the father of Xerxes, in which and the surrounding buildings took place the scenes recorded in the life of Esther
Zerubbabel - Darius (Persian emperor from 522–486 B. He was a Davidic prince, so it is possible that the Jews tried to crown him king during the civil war surrounding the rise of Darius as emperor (522/21)
Medes, Media - Astyages succeeded Cyaxares, but Cyrus the Persian was rising in power and subdued Astyages, but allowed him to reign as king, and he was probably Darius the Mede of Daniel. Darius in Daniel 5:31 is called the MEDIAN
Persia - They completed the temple in 516 BC, in the reign of a later Emperor, Darius (Ezra 6:14-15). (This Darius is a different person from Darius the Mede, the man who led the Medo-Persian attack on Babylon over twenty years previously; cf
Belshazzar - Daniel was called in to explain the mystery, which, interpreted, proved to be a prophecy of the king's death and the kingdom's overthrow, which took place in the course of the succeeding night, when Darius the Median captured the city
Persia - A later king, called Artaxerxes in Scripture, forbade the rebuilding of the temple, but Darius Hystaspes authorized the work to go on. Only one of his successors is noticed in Scripture, Darius the Persian
Persia, Persians - Of the kings who succeeded Cyrus there are named in OT, Darius Hystaspis (b. To them is possibly to be added Cambyses, son of Cyrus the Great, made king of Babylon in 538, and thus corresponding to the misnomer’ Darius the Mede’ of Daniel 6:1 ff; Daniel 9:1 ; Daniel 11:1
Daniel the Prophet - ...
Darius in settling the government made three presidents over 120 princes or satraps, and Daniel was first of the three. On his being accused thereof Darius was grieved, but saw no way of keeping the law and saving Daniel, so he was cast into the lions' den. Darius spent the night in fasting, and in the morning he found that Daniel's God had been able to save him from the lions. ' "So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian
Ahasuerus - See below, and Darius I
Artaxerxes - He was murdered, after a reign of eight months, and was succeeded by Darius son of Hystaspes
Beyond the River - Darius I, the great organizer of the Persian empire, named his fifth satraphy “Beyond the River” (Ebir-nari)
Artaxerxes - The Temple had been completed under Darius II (522-486) and thus before Artaxerxes (Ezra 6:15 )
Sepharad - Also in Darius' epitaph at Nakshi Rustam, 1:28, before Ionia in the Behistun inscription (i
Astyages - He was father to Astyages, otherwise called Darius the Mede
ez'ra, Book of, - 7, continue the history after a gap of fifty-eight years --from the sixth of Darius to the seventh of Artaxerxes-- narrating his visit to Jerusalem, and giving an account of the reforms there accomplished, referred to under EZRA
Zerub'Babel - But in the second year of Darius, light dawned upon the darkness of the colony from Babylon. After much opposition [1] and many hindrances find delays, the temple was at length finished, in the sixth pear of Darius, and was dedicated with much pomp and rejoicing. [2] The only other works of Zerubbabel of which we learn from Scripture are the restoration of the courses of priests and Levites and of the provision for their maintenance, according to the institution of David (Ezra 6:18 ; Nehemiah 12:47 ) the registering the returned captives according to their genealogies, (Nehemiah 7:5 ) and the keeping of a Passover in the seventh year of Darius, with which last event ends all that we know of the life of Zerubbabel, His apocryphal history is told in 1Esdr
Haggai - (See CYRUS; EZRA; AHASUERUS; ARTAXERXES; Darius. ...
Hence, the Jews became so indifferent about it that when Darius came to the throne (521 B. Haggai first, and Zechariah two months later, were commissioned by Jehovah (Haggai 1:1) in Darius' (Hystaspes) second year, 520 B. On the first day of the 6th month of Darius' second year of reigning, 520 B. The temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius' reign, 515-516 B
Medes - Cyrus made Darius the Mede viceroy of Babylon until he assumed the government (Daniel 5; 6; Ezra 1). (See CYRUS; Darius; BABYLON. Achmetha (Ecbatana) "the palace in the province of the Medes" (Ezra 6:2-5) is where Cyrus' decree is found, an undesigned coincidence of Scripture with the fact that the Median capital was the seat of government under Cyrus, but a royal residence only under Darius Hystaspes. Darius Hystaspes crushed the rebellion with difficulty, and crucified and mutilated Phraortes. Again in vain the Medes rebelled under Darius Nothus. (See Darius HYSTASPES; ARTAXERXES
Persia - 522, Ezra 4:7 ; Darius Hystapis, B. 424; Sogdianus and Darius Nothus, B. 338; and Darius Codomanus, B
Persia - Cambyses' successor Darius I expanded the empire eastward to the Indus and attempted to conquer or control the Greeks. Darius lost to the Greeks at Marathon in 490 B. By the time of Darius I, 522-486 B. Then, under Darius I, Zerubabbel and the high priest, Joshua, led the restored community with the support and encouragement of the Persians. ) Despite some local opposition, Darius supported the rebuilding of the Temple which was rededicated in his sixth year ( Ezra 6:15 )
Ezra, Book of - 536), till the completion and dedication of the new temple, in the sixth year of Darius Hystapes (B
Sanballat - ” According to the Elephantine Papyri from the reign of Darius I, Sanballat was governor of Samaria around 407 BC
Signet - Examples of such rings in the Bible are: Pharaoh's ring given to Joseph (Genesis 41:42 ), Ahasuerus' ring given to Haman and then to Mordecai after Haman was hanged (Esther 3:10 ,Esther 3:10,3:12 ; Esther 8:2 ), King Darius' sealing the den of lions after Daniel was thrown into it (Daniel 6:17 )
Haggai - His prophecy consists of four distinct revelations, all which took place in the second year of Darius, king of Persia, B
Zerubbabel - "...
Darius was now on the throne, and on the rulers writing to Persia, he ordered them to let the work alone, and directed that the expenses of the Jews should be paid out of the royal revenue. The house was finished in the sixth year of Darius, and dedicated with joy
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - ...
424...
Darius II. ...
336...
Darius III
Haggai - The sphere of his activity was the post-exilic community, his ministry (so far as may be gathered from his writings) being confined to a few months of the second year of Darius Hystaspes (b. But in the second year of Darius (b. 520), Haggai, aided by Zechariah (who was probably his junior), exhorted his countrymen to proceed with the rebuilding; and as the result of his exertions, in the sixth year of Darius (b. Haggai’s anticipations were perhaps connected with the disturbances among the Persian subject States in the beginning of Darius’ reign
Alexander - The he-goat prefigured Alexander; the ram, Darius Codomannus, the last of the Persian kings. In one campaign, he subdued almost all Asia Minor; and afterward defeated, in the narrow passes which led from Syria to Cilicia, the army of Darius, which consisted of four hundred thousand foot, and one hundred thousand horse. Darius fled, and left in the hands of the conqueror, his camp, baggage, children, wife, and mother. Jaddus refusing to comply under the plea of having sworn fidelity to Darius, Alexander resolved to march against Jerusalem, when he had reduced Tyre. ...
This prince having conquered Egypt, and regulated it, gave orders for the building of the city of Alexandria, and departed thence, about spring, in pursuit of Darius. ...
Alexander, after defeating Darius in a pitched battle, and subduing all Asia and the Indies with incredible rapidity, gave himself up to intemperance
Side - represented by their King Darius
Zerubbabel or Zorobabel - They procured from the Persian court an order that the work should cease; and it was not resumed until the second year of Darius son of Hystapes, 521 BC
Ezra, the Book of - The first part of Ezra (Ezra 1-6) describes the return from the captivity under Joshua and Zerubbabel, and the building of the temple; the enemy's obstructions; its advance through the prophets Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 5:1-2; Ezra 6:14), and its completion in Darius Hystaspes' sixth year, 516 B. The succession of Persian monarchs in Ezra is Cyrus, Ahasuerus (the Cam byses of secular history), Artaxerxes (Pseudo-Smerdis, the Magian, an usurper), Darius (the Ahasuerus of Esther or Xerxes of secular history comes in here, in the interval between Ezra 6 and 7), Artaxerxes. , 10, Justin, 1:9, and Darius' inscription at Behistun, as to Smerdis' special portion), would naturally reverse the policy of Cyrus and Ahasuerus (Cambyses, who did not act on the accusation of the Jews' enemies: Ezra 4:6); accordingly, his harsh edict expresses no faith in the supreme God, whom Cyrus' edict honored (Ezra 4:17-22). Darius, a zealous Zoroastrian, succeeded; his Behistun inscription tells us he "rebuilt the temples the Magian had destroyed, and restored the chants and worship he had abolished. "...
This explains the strange boldness of the Jews (Ezra 5:1-2) in treating Smerdis' edict as void, and without waiting for Darius' warrant resuming the work under Zerubbabel and Jeshua, with Zechariah and Haggai. Their enemies, hoping Smerdis had destroyed Cyrus' edict, wrote to king Darius (Ezra 5:6) that they were building again on the plea of Cyrus' edict, and that search should be made at Babylon whether there were any such edict of Cyrus. The language of Darius' edict on finding it accords with his character and circumstances. 132, confirms Ezra that Darius had "sons" already, though he had but just ascended the throne), mentions the "tribute" (Ezra 6:8) which (Herodotus, 3:89) he was the first to impose on the provinces, and threatens the refractory with impaling, his usual mode of punishment (Ezra 6:11; Behistun inscription; Herodotus, 3:159). In Ezra 7:27 Ezra recognizes the oneness of Artaxerxes' policy in helping "to beautify the Lord's house" with that of Cyrus and Darius long before. ...
The order is chronological, though not continuous (the 31 closing years of Darius, the whole 21 of Xerxes, and the seven first of Artaxerxes, about 60 in all, being passed over between Ezra 6 and Ezra 7); the ministry of Ezra in restoring the theocracy being the main subject, the former work of Zerubbabel and Joshua being its precursory analogue. : possibly Haggai who supported him, for the title "the prophet" (Ezra 5:1; Ezra 6:14) is the one found also Haggai 1:1; Haggai 1:3; Haggai 1:12; Haggai 2:1; Haggai 2:10; so whereas Zechariah names Zerubbabel and Jeshua separately and without addition, the formula in Ezra 3:2; Ezra 3:8; Ezra 5:2, as in Haggai 1:1; Haggai 1:12; Haggai 1:14; Haggai 2:2; Haggai 2:4; Haggai 2:23, is "Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel and Jeshua the son of Jozadak"; compare also Ezra 5:1-2, with Haggai 1, also the older people's sorrowful regrets for the former temple in seeing the new one (Ezra 3:12; Haggai 2:3); both mark dates by the year of "Darius the king" (Ezra 4:24; Ezra 6:15; Haggai 1:1; Haggai 1:15; Haggai 2:10); also the phrase "Zerubbabel, Jeshua, and the remnant of their brethren" (Ezra 3:8; Haggai 1:12; Haggai 1:14); also Ezra 6:16 with Haggai 2:2; also "the work of the house of the Lord" (1618540948_71; Haggai 1:14); "the foundation of the temple was laid" (Ezra 3:6; Ezra 3:10-12; Haggai 2:18); "the house of the Lord" 25 times to six wherein Ezra uses "the temple of the Lord"; Haggai "the house" seven times to "the temple" twice
Daniel - His interpretation of the mystical handwriting on the wall caused his promotion again, a promotion which continued under Darius and Cyrus. Under Darius he was first of the three presidents of the empire. Envy often follows high office which men so covet; so, by a law cunningly extorted by his enemies from the weak Darius, that none should offer petition to man or god except to the king for 30 days, as though it were a test of loyalty, on pain of being cast into a lions' den, Daniel was cast in and was delivered by God, who thus rewarded his pious faithfulness (Daniel 6). His mention of Darius the Mede's reign, which profane history ignores (probably because it was eclipsed by Cyrus' glory), shows that he wrote as a contemporary historian of events which He knew, and did not borrow from others. (On Daniel's representation of the relation of the Medes to the Persians and Darius the Mede (possibly equating to Astyages, or his son, the former of whom Cyrus deposed and treated kindly) to Cyrus. )...
The objection to Daniel on the ground that Susa, or at least its palace, was not built when Daniel saw the vision there, rests on Pliny alone, who alleges it to have been built by Darius Hystaspis. Darius Hystaspes was only the first to build at Susa a palace in Persian fashion
Shushan - " The inscriptions on the ruins represent that the palace was founded by Darius and completed by Artaxerxes
Rings - ...
The ring was used chiefly as a signet to seal with, and Scripture generally assigns it to princes and great persons; as the king of Egypt, Joseph, Ahaz, Jezebel, king Ahasuerus, his favorite Haman, Mordecai, king Darius, etc
Daniel - " ...
After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q. His fidelity to God exposed him to persecution, and he was cast into a den of lions, but was miraculously delivered; after which Darius issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel" (6:26). He "prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian," whom he probably greatly influenced in the matter of the decree which put an end to the Captivity (B
Alexan'Der Iii - In the same year he finally defeated Darius at Gaugamela, who in B
Ahasuerus - In Daniel 9:1 Ahasuerus is said to be the father of Darius the Mede
Daniel - He served also during his old age into the reign of Darius I, the son of Hystaspes (522-486 B. Daniel would probably have celebrated his one hundredth birthday during the reign of Darius
Ram - The power of Darius, of the Median Empire, was greater than the power of the Persian empire. Therefore, the greater ram represents Darius
Artaxerxes - or AHASUERUS, a king of Persia, the husband of Esther, who, in the opinion of the learned Usher and Calmet, was the Darius of profane authors. He was the son of Xerxes, and grandson of Darius Hystaspes, and reigned in Persia from the year of the world 3531 to 3579
Zephaniah - ...
...
The father of Josiah, the priest who dwelt in Jerusalem when Darius issued the decree that the temple should be rebuilt (Zechariah 6:10 )
Ecbatana - Media," the seven walled town," with each wall of a different color, white, black, scarlet, blue, orange, silver, and gold (Herodotus, 1:98-99,153); the capital of Cyrus, therefore probably the town where the roll was found containing Cyrus' decree for rebuilding the Jerusalem temple, which induced Darius to issue a new decree sanctioning the recommencement of the suspended work; now the ruins of Takht-i-Suleiman
Elam - From Darius Hystaspes' time to Alexander the Great it was the Persian king's court residence. Nevertheless it was the scene of the Magian revolution, and twice revolted under Darius Hystaspes (Behistun Inscription)
Haggai - (See Darius [1]
Rings - The ring was used chiefly to seal with, and Scripture generally assigns it to princes and great persons; as the king of Egypt, Joseph, Ahaz, Jezebel, King Ahasuerus, his favourite Haman, Mordecai, King Darius, 1 Kings 21:8 ; Esther 3:10 , &c; Daniel 6:17
Pul (2) - The Jews called him "king of Assyria," that being the dominant empire at the time; so Nabopolassar of Babylon is called "king of Assyria," (2 Kings 23:29), and Darius Hystaspes Ezra 6:22
Esther - Archbishop Usher supposed, that by Ahasuerus was meant Darius Hystaspes, and Joseph Scaliger contended that Xerxes was meant; but Dean Prideaux has very satisfactorily shown, that by Ahasuerus we are to understand Artaxerxes Longimanus
Alexander the Great - 356; became king of Macedon on the assassination of his father in 336: subdued the Greeks in 335; defeated the Persians, 334; took Tyre; conquered Syria and Egypt, and founded Alexandria 332; defeated Darius in 331; conquered Parthia, Media, Bactria, and invaded India, 330-324, sought fresh conquests, but died at Babylon in 323. While besieging Tyre Alexander sent to demand the submission of the Jews; but was told they were faithful vassals of Darius
Persia - Persepolis (in the beautiful valley of the Bendamir), under Darius Hystaspes, took the place of Pasargadae the ancient capital; of its palace "Chehl Minar," "forty columns," still exist. Darius on the rock of Behistun inscribed: "from antiquity our race have been kings. Darius in the inscription on his tomb at Nakhsh-irustam enumerates thirty countries besides Persia subject to him, Media, Susiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Zarangia, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gaudaria, India, Scythia, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Saparda, Ionia, the Aegean isles, the country of the Scodrae (European), Ionia, the Tacabri, Budians, Cushites, Mardians, and Colchians. By destroying the Persian temples and abolishing the Oromasdian chants and ceremonies, and setting up fire altars, Pseudo Smerdis aliented the Persians, Darius, son of Hystaspes, of the blood royal, revolted, and slew him after his seven months' reign. ) "Darius the Persian" or Codomanus (Nehemiah 12:22) was conquered by Alexander the Great (Daniel 8:3-7)
Shushan - An inscription states that the palace there was founded by Darius and completed by Artaxerxes
Chaldean Language - Darius is thus represented on a Persian inscription at Behistun
Medes - It may be proper to add under this article, that Darius the Mede, who conquered the kingdom with Cyrus the Persian, governed the Chaldean empire, and at his death Cyrus, who was his nephew, united the kingdom of the Medes and Persians into one
Copper - It is even said that among the vessels of Darius there were some respecting which the sense of smelling might determine whether they were gold or brass
Haggai - After the death of Cyrus, and of his son Cambyses, Darius became ruler and continued the benevolent policies of Cyrus. Then Darius appointed Zerubbabel as governor with the specific responsibility of resuming work on the Temple, begun earlier by Shesh-bazzar. Haggai may have viewed the restoration of order by Darius and the appointment of Zerubbabel as a sign of the end of Gentile rule and preparation for the messianic kingdom
Media - Daniel gives an account of the reign of Darius the Mede, who was made viceroy by Cyrus (Daniel 6:1-28 )
Aera - The aera of Alexander the Great, or his last victory over Darius, in...
3674, and before Jesus Christ 330
Zechariah - He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, and began to prophesy while yet young, Zechariah 2:4 , in the second year of Darius son of Hystaspes, B
Dan'Iel - (Daniel 5:10-28 ) At the accession of Darius he was made first of the "three presidents" of the empire, (Daniel 6:2 ) and was delivered from the lion's den, into which he had been cast for his faithfulness to the rites of his faith
Samar'Itans - They then desire to be allowed to participate in the rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem; but on being refused, the Samaritans throw off the mask, and become open enemies, frustrate the operations of the Jews through the reigns of two Persian kings, and are only effectually silenced in the reign of Darius Hystaspes, B. 409, a certain Manasseh, a man of priestly lineage, on being expelled from Jerusalem by nehemiah for an unlawful marriage, obtained permission from the Persian king of his day, Darius Nothus, to build a temple on Mount Gerizim for the Samaritans, with whom he had found refuge
Medes, me'Dia - (Jeremiah 25:25 ) Daniel relates the fact of the Medo-Persia conquest, (Daniel 5:25,31 ) giving an account of the reign of Darius the Mede, who appears to have been made viceroy by Cyrus. (Daniel 6:1-58 ) In Ezra we have a mention of Achmetha (Ecbatana), "the palace in the province of the Medes," where the decree of Cyrus was found, ( Ezra 6:2-5 ) --a notice which accords with the known facts that the Median capital was the seat of government under Cyrus, but a royal residence only, and not the seat of government, under Darius Hystaspis
Alexander - on the face of the whole earth and not touching the ground (implying the incredible swiftness of his conquests); and the goat had A NOTABLE HORN (Alexander) between his eyes, and he came to the ram that had two horns (Media and Persia, the second great world kingdom, the successor of Babylon; under both Daniel prophesied long before the rise of the Macedon-Greek kingdom) standing before the river (at the river Granicus Alexander gained his first victory over Darius Codomanus, 334 B. Alexander finally defeated Darius, and in 330 burned Persepolis, the Persian capital. So Alexander, king of a small kingdom, overcame Darius at the head of an empire extending from the AEgean sea to the Indies, and in 12 years attained the rule from the Adriatic to the Ganges
Zerubbabel - Both Haggal and Zechariah point to Zerubbabel and the high priest Joshua as those who are to re-build the Temple ( Haggai 1:1-8 ; Haggai 2:9-18 , Zechariah 4:1-14 ); this was done, though after consideraable delay owing to enemies of the Jews; it was only after a special appeal had been made to Darius that the work was proceeded with unimpeded ( Ezra 6:1 ff
Jeshua - Later correspondence led King Darius to recover Cyrus' proclamation authorizing the rebuilding of the Temple
Daniel - At the accession of Darius he was made "first," according to the A
Captivities of Judah - In that year, Darius Hystaspes, by an edict, allowed them to rebuild the temple
Mordecai - The palace at Shushan, begun by Darius Hystaspes, Loftus (Chaldaea, 28) discovered remains of; the bases of the great colonnade remain, and accord with the description in Esther 1
Magi - The religion of the Magi fell into disgrace on the death of those ringleaders of that sect who had usurped the sovereignty after the death of Cambyses; and the slaughter that was made of the chief men among them sunk it so low, that Sabianism every where prevailed against it; Darius and most of his followers on that occasion going over to it. Zoroaster had the address to bring over Darius to his new-reformed religion, notwithstanding the strongest opposition of the Sabians; and from that time it became the national religion of all that country, and so continued for many ages after, till it was supplanted by that of Mahomet
Ethiopia - For the Persian period it is known that Ethiopia, or part of it, was included in one satrapy with Egypt under Darius
Decree - ...
The decree of God, however, is not to be conceived in the same way as that of Darius or Nebuchadrezzar, who could say, ‘I have made a decree: let it be done with speed’ (Ezra 6:12)
Babylon (2) - 625, Babylonia speedily extended its sway over most of western Asia and Egypt, and under Nebuchadnezzar became a vast empire, lasting, however, less than a century, and fell before the Medians under Cyrus and Darius, b
Decree - ...
The decree of God, however, is not to be conceived in the same way as that of Darius or Nebuchadrezzar, who could say, ‘I have made a decree: let it be done with speed’ (Ezra 6:12)
Ezra, Book of - In Ezra 5:6-12 we are informed that, as a consequence of the earnest exhortations of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, the building of the Temple was energetically resumed in the second year of Darius I. In Ezra 5:6 to Ezra 6:12 we have the correspondence between the satrap Tattenai and Darius
Daniel, Prophet - Under the ruler called Darius the Mede in our present text, he received the vision of "the seventy weeks," announcing the death of the Messias
Taxes - Under the Persian Darius Hystaspes each satrap had to pay a fixed sum which he levied from the people with extortion
Pillow - Davidson, Ezekiel, 89), 1 Esdras 3:8 (pillow of Darius)
Magi - The Zoroastrian religion Darius restored, and destroyed the Mugtans; as the Behistun inscription states, "the rites which Gomates (Pseudo Smerdis) the Magian introduced I prohibited, I restored the chants and worship," etc. Naturally then the Jews under Darius resumed the suspended work of building the temple (Ezra 4:24; Ezra 5:1-2; Ezra 6:7-8)
Nehemiah, Book of - Notice how the priestly genealogy is carried far down below Nehemiah’s time, as far, in fact, as the reign of Darius the Persian ( Nehemiah 12:22 ), i. Darius iii
Daniel, Book of - , had been formed in the reign of Darius, as is implied in Daniel 9:2 . Darius the Mede never ‘received the kingdom’ ( Daniel 5:31 )
Assyria - (b) To Persia, Ezra 6:22 , where Darius is also called king of Assyria
Sheshbazzar - This theory is made more probable by the fact that Zerubbabel succeeded to the governorship as early as the reign of Darius Hystaspis, b
Shushan - His excavations in the great mound disclosed the ruins of a vast palace, commenced apparently by Darius, carried on by Xerxes, and finished by Artaxerxes Mnemon
Pharaoh - 950), and ending in the reign of Darius ( c Assyria - ...
In later Persian times "the Ahashwerosh (Ahasuerus) of Ezra 4:6 and the book of Esther is Xerxes, the son of Darius, b. " Finally, in "Darius the Persian," Nehemiah 12:22, we have a reference to Darius Codomannus, b
Captivity - In the first year of Darius (Daniel 9:2-19) the 70 years were nearly run out. The restoration was 70 years afterward, in the sixth year of Darius, 515 or 516 B. Then, after along interruption of the building of the temple through Samaritan opposition, the work was completed in the second year of Darius, through Haggai and Zechariah (515 B
Money - Among the Persians it is said Darius, son of Hystaspes, first coined golden money. The darcmonim or darics are money of the kings of Persia; and it is agreed that Darius, son of Hystaspes, first coined golden money. A daric, dram, 1 Chronicles 29:7 ; Ezra 8:27 , was a gold coin struck by Darius the Mede
Zechariah - His prophetical career began in the second year of Darius (B
Daniel - The book of Daniel is a mixture of history and prophecy: in the first six chapters is recorded a variety of events which occurred in the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, and Darius; and, in particular, the second chapter contains Nebuchadnezzar's prophetic dream concerning the four great successive monarchies, and the everlasting kingdom of the Messiah, which dream God enabled Daniel to interpret
Temple, the Second - 529-522), on whose death the "false Smerdis," an imposter, occupied the throne for some seven or eight months, and then Darius Hystaspes became king (B
Arabia, Arabs - King Darius I. Xenophon appears to use the term ‘Arabia’ in essentially the same sense as King Darius
Samaria - Baffled in their wish to share in building the temple, they thwarted the building by false representations' before Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes until the reign of Darius (Ezra 5; 6). Manasseh, of priestly descent, having been expelled for an unlawful marriage by Nehemiah, built a temple on Mount Gerizim for the Samaritans by Darius Nothus' permission
Taxes - The financial system which gained for Darius Hystaspes the name of the "shopkeeper king" involved the payment by each satrap of a fixed sum as the tribute due from his province
Nehemiah, the Book of - Nehemiah 12:10-11-22-23 mentions Jaddua and Darius the Persian; it is probably the addition of those who closed the Old Testament canon, testifying the continuance to their time of the ordinances and word of God
Red Sea - An ancient canal, begun by Sesostris, continued by Darius Hystaspes and Ptolemy Philadelphus, joined the Nile to it
Captivity - This company laid the foundation of the second temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius
Captivity - This company laid the foundation of the second temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius, B
Jeshua - It was resumed in Darius Hystaspis' year by Jeshua and Zerubbabel, with Haggai's (Haggai 1:1; Haggai 1:12; Haggai 1:14; Haggai 2:1-9) and Zechariah's cooperation (Zechariah 1-8), and completed in his sixth year, on the 3rd of the month Adar
Babel - When the outer wall was destroyed by Darius Borsippa became independent of Babylon. (when the last Darius was dethroned by Alexander). Darius the Mede took the kingdom at the age of 62, upon Belshazzar's death. The phrase (Daniel 9:1), "Darius, son of Ahasuerus (Cyaxares), of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldaeans," implies that Darius owed the kingdom to another, i. 10:11, section 4), makes Darius = Cyaxares II, son of Astyages (Ahasuerus)
Chronology of the Old Testament - It is probable also that a similar term was counted from the building of the Temple to its rebuilding under Darius or to the end of the Exile, while it is not without significance that the duration of the Northern Kingdom was calculated to be 240 years. From the time of the rebuilding of the Temple under Darius we are also in uncertainty, though this period does not bulk largely in the received OT
Medicine - The reputation of Egypt's practitioners in historical times was such that both Cyrus and Darius sent to that country for physicians or surgeons
Babylon - Darius Hystaspis besieged, took it, and destroyed its walls
Nehemiah - ), after the dead period from the sixth of Darius to that year, a period in which there is no history of the returned Jews (Ezra 6:15-7;Ezra 6:1, etc. In Nehemiah 12 the high priests are given from the national archives down to Jaddua, and the Levites down to his contemporary Darius the Persian, Codomanus. (See JADDUA; Darius
Babylon - Cyrus took it; Darius afterwards rifled it; Xerxes stripped its temples; and Alexander died in attempting its restoration
Babylon - It revolted against Darius Hystapis, who again subdued it, broke down all its gates, and reduced its walls to the height of fifty cubits
Nebuchadnezzar - The helmeted profile is said (Schrader) to be genuine also, but it is more probable that it is the portrait of a usurper in the time of Darius (Hystaspes), called Nidinta-Bel, who took the name of "Nebuchadrezzar
Miletus - ’...
After the capture of Miletus by Darius, who massacred the inhabitants (494 b
Zechariah - In the eighth month, in Darius' second year (520 B
Zechari'ah - It was in the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, that he first publicly discharged his office
Magi - These people were held in such veneration among the Persians, that Darius, the son of Hystaspes, among other things, had it engraven on his monument, that he was the master of the magi. This celebrated philosopher, called by the Persians Zerdusht, or Zaratush, began about the thirty-sixth year of the reign of Darius to restore and reform the magian system of religion. That the effect did not terminate in Cyrus, we know; for, from the book of Ezra, it appears that both Darius and Artaxerxes made decrees in favour of the Jews, in which Jehovah has the emphatic appellation repeatedly given to him, "the God of heaven," the very terms used by Cyrus himself
Seal, Signet - Darius’ ‘den of lions’ ( Daniel 6:17 ) and the sepulchre of our Lord ( Matthew 27:66 ) were both in all probability sealed in this way by means of a cord which passed over the stone covering the entrance, and was sealed at either end by a lump of clay impressed with one or more seals (cf
Decrees - ...
God delivers Daniel and his friends from various human decrees—one by Nebuchadnezzar to kill the sages of Babylon (Daniel 2:13 ), another to cremate anyone not worshiping the image of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 3:10-11 ), a third "immutable" decree to cast to lions anyone praying to a god or person besides Darius the Mede (Daniel 6:7-9 )
Chronology - Cyrus, 7 years; Cambyses, 7; Pseudo-smerdis, 1; ...
Darius, 36; Xerxes, 11; Artaxerxes, 19
Belshazzar - " In that very night, in the midst of their mirth and revelling, the city was taken by surprise, Belshazzar himself put to death, and the kingdom transferred to Darius the Mede
ba'Bel - 539, as Jeremiah had prophesied, (Jeremiah 51:31 ) by Cyrus, under Darius, Daniel 5 , as intimated 170 years earlier by Isaiah, (Isaiah 21:1-9 ) and, as Jeremiah had also foreshown, (Jeremiah 51:39 ) during a festival
Daniel, Book of - ...
Daniel 6 : Darius the Mede had to learn the power of God, his own weakness, and the faithfulness of Daniel the servant of God. Typically, Darius represents the last Gentile emperor, who will be worshipped; Daniel, the godly Jews who will be saved from the very jaws of destruction; his opposers, the future infidel accusers of God's people
Haggai, Theology of - , the second year of Darius Hystaspes
Mouth - ...
Daniel 7:5 (b) The prophet is describing in an interesting way the King of the Media-Persian empire, Darius
Prophets - 536, and prophesied in the second year of Darius son of Hystaspes, B
Magi - When Cambyses, the son of the great Cyrus, died, the Magi seem to have made an attempt to regain civil power, of which Cyrus and his Aryans had deprived them; and a Magian pretender Gaumâta held the throne of Persia for some months, until dispossessed aod slain by Darius in b
Chronology of the Biblical Period - ...
SIGNIFICANT DATES IN OLD TESTAMENT BIBLE HISTORY...
Periods of History...
Critical...
Traditional...
Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob)...
1700-1500...
2000...
Exodus...
1290...
1450...
Conquest...
1250...
1400...
Judges...
1200-1025...
1360-1025...
Kings...
...
...
Kings of United Israel...
Critical...
Traditional...
Saul...
1025-1005...
1020-1004...
David...
1005-965...
1004-965...
Solomon...
965-925...
965-931...
Kings of the Divided Kingdom...
Judah...
Israel...
Critical...
Traditional...
Rehoboam...
...
924-907...
931-913...
...
Jeroboam...
924-903...
926-909...
Abijam (Abijah)...
...
907-906...
913-910...
Asa...
...
905-874...
910-869...
...
Nadab...
903-902...
909-908...
...
Baasha...
902-886...
908-886...
...
Elah...
886-885...
886-885...
...
Zimri...
885...
885...
...
(Tibni, 1 Kings 16:21 )...
885-881...
885-880...
...
Omri...
885-873...
885-874...
Jehoshaphat...
...
874-850...
873-848...
...
Ahab...
873-851...
874-853...
...
Ahaziah...
851-849...
853-852...
Jehoram (Joram)...
...
850-843...
853-841...
...
Jehoram...
849-843...
852-841...
Ahaziah...
...
843...
841...
Athaliah...
...
843-837...
841-835...
...
Jehu...
843-816...
841-814...
Joash (Jehoash)...
...
837-796...
835-796...
...
Jehoahaz...
816-800...
814-798...
Amaziah...
...
798-767...
796-767...
...
Joash (Jehoash)...
800-785...
798-782...
Uzziah (Azariah)...
...
791-740...
792-740...
...
Jeroboam II...
785-745...
793-753...
Jotham...
...
750-742...
750-732...
...
Zechariah...
745...
753-752...
...
Shallum...
745...
752...
...
Menahem...
745-736...
752-742...
Jehoahaz I (Ahaz)...
...
742-727...
735-715...
...
Pekahiah...
736-735...
742-740...
...
Pekah...
735-732...
752-732...
...
Hoshea...
732-723...
732-723...
Hezekiah...
...
727-698...
715-686...
...
Fall of Samaria ...
722 ...
723/722 ...
Manasseh...
...
697-642...
696-642...
Amon...
...
642-640...
642-640...
Josiah...
...
639-606...
640-609...
Jehoahaz II...
...
609...
609...
Jehoiakim...
...
608-598...
609-597...
Jehoiachin...
...
598-597...
597...
Zedekiah...
...
597-586...
597-586...
Fall of Jerusalem ...
...
586 ...
586 ...
BABYLONIAN EXILE AND RESTORATION UNDER PERSIAN RULE...
Jehoiachin and leaders exiled to Babylon including Ezekiel...
597...
Jerusalem destroyed, remaining leaders exiled to Babylon...
586...
Gedaliah set over Judea...
58...
Gedaliah assassinated...
581 (?)...
Jeremiah taken with other Judeans to Egypt...
581 (?)...
Judeans deported to Babylon...
581...
Cyrus, king of Persia...
559-530...
Babylon captured...
539...
Edict allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel...
538...
Temple restoration begun but quickly halted...
538...
Cambysses, king of Persia...
530-522...
Darius, king of Persia...
522-486...
Haggai and Zechariah lead rebuilding of Temple...
520-515...
Temple completed and rededicated...
515...
Xerxes, king of Persia...
486-465...
Artaxerxes I, king of Persia...
465-424...
Ezra returns to Jerusalem and teaches the law...
458...
Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem and rebuilds the walls...
445...
NOTE: Overlapping dates of kings such as between Uzziah and Jotham result from coregencies, that is, a father installing his son as king during the father's lifetime and allowing the son to exercise royal power
Zechariah, Book of - The empire was thrown into disarray as two men, Darius I and Gautama, fought for the crown
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - The Mede who assisted Cyrus was Cyaxares, or Darius the Mede
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - ...
This spirit of mutiny was the more dangerous as this reign witnessed the Persian revolt under Artaxerxes against the Parthians, which, after three great battles, in one of which the Parthian king Artabanus fell, completely broke the Parthian power, and by the most extraordinary revival in history reestablished the kingdom of Darius in 226
Temple of Jerusalem - Then in the second year of Darius, 520 B. ...
When local Persian officials tried to stop the rebuilding, Darius found a record of Cyrus' decree which included the overall dimensions (Ezra 6:1-6 )
Babylon - The walls, from the most moderate accounts, were 75 feet in height and 32 in breadth; while Herodotus makes them 300 in height and 75 in breadth: which last measurement, incredible as it may seem, is worthy of credit, as Herodotus is much the oldest author who describes them, and who gives their original height; whereas, those who follow him in their accounts of these stupendous walls, describe them as they were after they had been taken down to the less elevation by Darius Hystaspes. " After the Babylonians rebelled against Darius, the walls were reduced in height, and all the gates destroyed. The Persians, the Macedonians, the Parthians, the Romans, the Saracens, and the Turks, are the chief of the many nations who have unscrupulously and unsparingly "served themselves" of the land of the Chaldeans: and Cyrus and Darius, kings of Persia; Alexander the Great; and Seleucus, king of Assyria; Demetrius and Antiochus the Great; Trajan, Severus, Julian, and Heraclius, emperors of Rome; the victorious Omar, the successor of Mohammed; Holagou, and Tamerlane, are "great kings" who successively subdued or desolated Chaldea, or exacted from it tribute to such an extent, as scarcely any other country ever paid to a single conqueror
Jews - Darius, the successor of Cyrus, confirmed this decree, and favoured the reestablishment of the people. The temple, after a variety of obstructions and delays, was finished and dedicated, in the seventh year of King Darius, B. Ptolemy carried many thousands captive into Egypt, both Jews and Samaritans, and settled them there: he afterward treated them with kindness, on account of their acknowledged fidelity to their engagements, particularly in their conduct toward Darius, king of Persia; and he granted them equal privileges with the Macedonians themselves at Alexandria
Ezra, Book of - He believed in the sovereignty of God, who could use a Cyrus, an Artaxerxes, and a Darius to accomplish His purposes
Babylon - Daniel 5:31 says, "Darius the Median took the kingdom
Esther - Xerxes, or the Ahasuerus of Esther, intervenes between Darius and Artaxerxes
Temple - Then after the interruption of the work under Artaxerxes I or Pseudo Smerdis, the temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius (chapter 6). (See ARTAXERXES I; EZRA; HAGGA; JESHUA; JOSHUA; NEHEMIAH; Darius
Zechariah, Book of - The dates given in the book itself assign the prophecies to the second and fourth years of Darius (b
Daniel, the Book of - 7:11, section 8) records that Alexander the Great had designed to punish the Jews for their fidelity, to Darius; but Jaddua (332 B
God - , west of the river Euphrates) spoke to king Darius of the “house of the great God” (Ezra 5:8)
Nineveh - , as in Darius' inscription at Behistun
Chronology - , and ended with its restoration in the sixth year of Darius, 516 B
Jerusalem - ...
His successor, Smerdis, the Magian, however, who in Scripture is called Artaxerxes, to whom a similar petition was sent, representing the Jews as a factious and dangerous people, listened to it, and, in the true spirit of a usurper, issued a decree putting a stop to the farther building of the temple, Ezra 4:7 , &c; which, in consequence, remained in an unfinished state till the second year, according to the Jewish, and third, according to the Babylonian and Persian account, of Darius Hystaspes, who is called simply Darius in Scripture
Money - A variety of monetary systems are represented in the Bible, corresponding to the political powers that dominated the cultures represented there, from the darics named after the Persian monarch Darius (these are the first actual coins mentioned in the Bible see 1 Chronicles 29:7 ; Ezra 8:27 ; Nehemiah 7:70-72 ) to the coins of the Roman Empire that bore Caesar's image (Matthew 22:20-21 )
Zechariah, Prophecy of - The dates mentioned are the eighth and eleventh months of the second year, and the ninth month of the fourth year of Darius, answering to 519 and 517 B
Division of the Earth - And Herodotus represents Scythia as an uninhabited desert, until Targitorus planted the first colony there, about a thousand years, at most, before Darius Hystaspes invaded Scythia, or about B
Solomon - Before Darius Hystaspes' time, when the satrapial system was introduced of governing the provinces on a common plan by officers of the crown, the universal system of great empires was an empire consisting of separate kingdoms, each under its own king, but "paying tribute or presents to the one" suzerain , as Solomon
Money - The first actual coins to reach Jerusalem were more probably those of Darius Hystaspis (b
Magi - Darius Hystaspis made Mazdaism the religion of the Empire (Behistun inser
Bible - 12: 5: 22) Jaddua as high priest, and Darius Codomanus as king of Persia, who were at least a hundred years later than Ezra
Jews - About 3653, Darius Ochus, king of Persia, ravaged part of Judea, and carried off a great many prisoners
Eusebius of Caesarea - ...
After pleading that early Greek and even Hebrew chronology present many difficulties, Eusebius, in the first section, gives a sketch of Chaldee and Assyrian history, subjoining a table of Assyrian, Median, Lydian, and Persian kings, ending with the Darius conquered by Alexander
Egypt - Darius, on the other hand (521 486), was a good and considerate ruler, under whom Egypt prospered again; yet after the battle of Marathon it revolted