What does Covenant mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
בְּרִית־ covenant 27
בְּרִ֣ית covenant 26
διαθήκης a disposition 15
בְּרִ֥ית covenant 15
הַבְּרִ֔ית covenant 13
בְּרִ֖ית covenant 9
הַבְּרִ֣ית covenant 8
הַבְּרִית֙ covenant 8
בְּרִיתִ֖י covenant 8
בְּרִ֔ית covenant 7
בְּרִ֑ית covenant 6
בְּרִ֛ית covenant 5
διαθήκη a disposition 5
διαθήκην a disposition 5
בְּרִֽית covenant 4
בְּרִיתִ֔י covenant 4
בְּרִיתִי֙ covenant 4
בְּרִית֑וֹ covenant 4
בְּרִית֔וֹ covenant 4
בְרִ֖ית covenant 4
בְרִית֙ covenant 4
בְּרִיתִ֣י covenant 4
לִבְרִ֥ית covenant 3
בְּרִית֙ covenant 3
בְּרִיתִֽי covenant 3
בְּרִיתֽוֹ covenant 3
בְרִֽית covenant 3
הַבְּרִ֖ית covenant 3
בְרִיתִ֖י covenant 3
בְרִֽיתְךָ֙ covenant 3
בִּבְרִיתִֽי covenant 2
בְּרִיתִ֤י covenant 2
לִבְרִ֣ית covenant 2
בְרִיתִ֣י covenant 2
הַבְּרִ֑ית covenant 2
διαθήκῃ a disposition 2
בְּרִיתִ֗י covenant 2
הַבְּרִ֜ית covenant 2
בְּרִיתִ֑י covenant 2
בְּרִיתִ֛י covenant 2
כָּרַ֤ת to cut 2
הַבְּרִ֗ית covenant 2
וּבְרִ֥ית covenant 2
הַבְּרִֽית covenant 2
בְּ֭רִית covenant 1
בְּרִתִ֔י covenant 1
בְרִיתֶ֑ךָ covenant 1
הַבְּרִ֡ית covenant 1
בַבְּרִ֗ית covenant 1
בְּרִ֗ית covenant 1
כַבְּרִ֗ית covenant 1
בְּרִֽיתְךָ֖ covenant 1
בְּרִיתִ֕י covenant 1
הַבְּרִית־ covenant 1
הַבְּרִ֥ית covenant 1
בְּרִ֨ית covenant 1
הַבְּרִ֣ית ׀ covenant 1
אֲשֶׁ֣ר (relative part. 1
וּ֝בְרִיתִ֗י covenant 1
בִּכְרָת־ to cut 1
וַיִּכְרֹ֥ת to cut 1
אֶכְרֹ֣ת to cut 1
בְּרִיתֶֽךָ covenant 1
בְּרִיתִ֣י ׀ covenant 1
בְּרִיתֵ֗ךְ covenant 1
בְ֭רִית covenant 1
בְּרִית֩ covenant 1
בִּבְרִיתֽוֹ covenant 1
לַבְּרִ֑ית covenant 1
בִּבְרִיתֶֽךָ covenant 1
וּ֝בְרִית֗וֹ covenant 1
בְ֝רִית֗וֹ covenant 1
בְרִית֑וֹ covenant 1
בְּרִיתִי֮ covenant 1
בְרִיתִ֔י covenant 1
וּבְרִ֤ית covenant 1
בַבְּרִֽית covenant 1
בַּבְּרִֽית covenant 1
בְּרִיתוֹ֙ covenant 1
בְרִ֨ית covenant 1
בְּרִֽית־ covenant 1
בְרִ֔ית covenant 1
בְּרִ֜ית covenant 1
בִּבְרִ֛ית covenant 1
כִּבְרִ֥ית covenant 1
הַבְּרִית֮ covenant 1
וּבְרִֽיתְךָ֖ covenant 1
בְּרִית֗וֹ covenant 1
בְּרִ֤ית covenant 1
בְּרִית֛וֹ covenant 1
בְּרִית֒ covenant 1
בִבְרִ֜ית covenant 1
בְּרִֽיתְכֶם֙ covenant 1
בְּרִיתִ֞י covenant 1
וְהַבְּרִ֛ית covenant 1
בְרִ֑ית covenant 1
וּבְרִית֙ covenant 1
בְּרִיתִ֥י covenant 1
אֲשֶׁ֤ר (relative part. 1
בְרִיתִ֛י covenant 1
בְּרִיתִ֜י covenant 1
מִבְּרִיתֵֽךְ covenant 1
בִּבְרִ֣ית covenant 1
בְרִית־ covenant 1
וּבְרִיתִ֖י covenant 1
אֲמָנָ֖ה faith 1
בְּרִית֖וֹ covenant 1
בַבְּרִ֔ית covenant 1
וַתִּכְרָת־ to cut 1

Definitions Related to Covenant

H1285


   1 Covenant, alliance, pledge.
      1a between men.
         1a1 treaty, alliance, league (man to man).
         1a2 constitution, ordinance (monarch to subjects).
         1a3 agreement, pledge (man to man).
         1a4 alliance (of friendship).
         1a5 alliance (of marriage).
      1b between God and man.
         1b1 alliance (of friendship).
         1b2 Covenant (divine ordinance with signs or pledges).
   2 (phrases).
      2a Covenant making.
      2b Covenant keeping.
      2c Covenant violation.
      

G1242


   1 a disposition, arrangement, of any sort, which one wishes to be valid, the last disposition which one makes of his earthly possessions after his death, a testament or will.
   2 a compact, a Covenant, a testament.
      2a God’s Covenant with Noah, etc.
      

H3772


   1 to cut, cut off, cut down, cut off a body part, cut out, eliminate, kill, cut a Covenant.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to cut off.
            1a1a to cut off a body part, behead.
         1a2 to cut down.
         1a3 to hew.
         1a4 to cut or make a Covenant.
      1b (Niphal).
         1b1 to be cut off.
         1b2 to be cut down.
         1b3 to be chewed.
         1b4 to be cut off, fail.
      1c (Pual).
         1c1 to be cut off.
         1c2 to be cut down.
      1d (Hiphil).
         1d1 to cut off.
         1d2 to cut off, destroy.
         1d3 to cut down, destroy.
         1d4 to take away.
         1d5 to permit to perish.
      1e (Hophal) cut off.
      

H548


   1 faith, support, sure, certain.
      1a of a Covenant.
      1b of financial support.
      

Frequency of Covenant (original languages)

Frequency of Covenant (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Covenant
A pact, treaty, alliance, or agreement between two parties of equal or of unequal authority. The convenant or testament is a central, unifying theme in Scripture, God's covenants with individuals and the nation Israel finding final fulfillment in the new covenant in Christ Jesus. God's covenants can be understood by humans because they are modeled on human covenants or treaties.
Near Eastern Covenants Biblical covenants do not represent something brand new in their world. They are built on normal patterns used in economics and politics of the day. Studies of political and economic agreements in the Ancient Near East have revealed the basic structure of a treaty, agreement, or covenant. Two types of treaties are available for study: those from the Hittite empire about 1400-1200 B.C. and those from the Assyrian Empire about 850-650 B.C. We have several Hittite examples but few Assyrian ones for study. Neither fits a rigid, unchangeable pattern, but the Hittite treaties between a king and vassal kings or between two kings of equal authority can be described with the following structure:
1. Royal Titles naming and identifying the Hittite king making the treaty;
2. Historical prologue reviewing in personal terms the past relationships between the two parties to the treaties, emphasizing the gracious acts of the Hittite king;
3. Treaty stipulations or agreements, often stating first the primary agreement or obligation agreed to by the two parties and then detailing the specific demands or agreements in a longer list;
4. A clause describing the way the treaty is to be stored and to be read regularly to the citizens affected by it; this does not always appear;
5. List of witnesses to the treaty including the gods and natural phenomena such as mountains, heaven, seas, the earth, etc.;
6. List of curses and blessings brought on by violating or observing the treaty demands.
The Assyrian treaties often do not have the historical prologue or the blessings.
The Book of Deuteronomy, Psalm 83:4-8 , and other Old Testament texts show that Israel was familiar with these treaty forms and used them in their literature. They may also show that Israel used these forms in their worship, renewing regularly the covenant relationship with God. No Old Testament text precisely follows the treaty forms without change, and no text states explicitly that covenant renewal ceremonies formed the center of Israel's worship.
Covenants among Humans In biblical language, people “cut” a covenant with another person or group of people. Abraham and Abimelech cut such a covenant as equal partners, agreeing that the well at Beersheba belonged to Abraham (Genesis 21:22-34 ). Sacrifices accompanied the covenant making. Apparently, Abraham gained the right to live among Abimelech's people, the Philistines (Genesis 21:34 ). Jonathan and David cut a covenant of friendship in which Jonathan acknowledged David's right to the throne (1 Samuel 18:3 ; 1 Samuel 23:18 ). Such an agreement was a “covenant of the Lord” (1 Samuel 20:1 8 ), that is the Lord was its witness and guarantee. At the time Jonathan possessed greater authority than David, but in the covenant he acknowledged David's coming authority over him. Abner led the tribes of northern Israel to cut a covenant with David, making David king over the north as well as over southern Judah (2 Samuel 3:1 ; Compare 2 Samuel 5:3 ; 1 Chronicles 11:3 ). David, who occupied the position of power and authority in the agreement, demanded that Abner also produce Saul's daughter who David had married earlier. Solomon and Hiram made a covenant of peace which apparently included certain trade agreements (1 Kings 5:12 ). Bible students differ as to whether Hiram or Solomon had authority over the other or whether the covenant was between equals. In any case, both sides entered into obligations with the other to provide certain commodities.
King Zedekiah made a covenant with the people of Jerusalem, releasing the Hebrews from slavery (Jeremiah 34:8 ). In so doing, he apparently implemented the laws concerning the year of Jubilee (Leviticus 25:10 ), but he also conducted good politics in providing additional soldiers to protect Jerusalem against Babylon and in freeing Jerusalem's slaveholders from responsibilities to feed so many people in an economically insecure time.
When the danger appeared over, the people tried to take back their slaves (Jeremiah 34:11 ). A ceremony accompanied this covenant ritual—the two sides of the covenant agreement cut a calf in two and solemnly paraded between its parts (Jeremiah 34:18 ). This covenant was made “before Yahweh” (Jeremiah 34:18 ). What modern business might call a secular transaction was a religious one involving God as witness and guarantor. Covenant violation brought condemnation in public worship (Psalm 55:20 ).
Ezra reformed the restored Jewish community by leading them to make a covenant together in God's presence. They would agree to divorce foreign wives and separate themselves from the children so strongly influenced by the foreign mothers (Ezra 10:3 ).
The Hebrew language used different prepositions to state that a covenant has been made between parties. That such change of prepositions indicated difference of meaning is a debated topic. The ability to use such expressions as synonyms probably indicates that the Hebrews did not hear any significant difference in meaning when they heard the varying expressions.
This is seen in comparing Isaac's covenant concerning the digging of wells (Genesis 26:28 ) with Abraham's (Genesis 21:22-24 ) discussed above. Isaac's covenant did involve an oath sworn before God that the parties would deal peaceably with one another. Feasting and drinking accompanied the covenant making.
Hosea denounced the northern kingdom's covenant or vassal treaty with Assyria (Hosea 12:1 ; compare Hosea 7:8-14 ; Hosea 8:9 ; Hosea 10:4 ; 2 Kings 17:3-4 ). Such treaties sought to gain military protection from foreign countries rather than relying upon Yahweh, the covenant God. (See Exodus 23:32 ; Exodus 34:12 ,Exodus 34:12,34:15 ; Deuteronomy 7:2 ). God used a sarcastic tone to ask Job if he could impose a vassal treaty on the leviathan monster, Leviathan agreeing to become Job's docile slave (Job 41:4 ).
When Athaliah tried to usurp the throne and kill off the royal family, the priest Jehoiada made a covenant agreement with the army (2 Chronicles 23:1 ) and with all the people (2 Chronicles 23:3 ) to support the king Joash against Athaliah (compare 2 Kings 11:1 ). They made the covenant in the Temple, thus in the presence of God, seeking His blessing on the covenant and making Him a witness to it.
Israel's enemies plotted against Israel and made military covenants or alliances to support an attack on Israel (Joshua 24:1 ). They entered into economic covenants or agreements with one another (Isaiah 33:8 ).
Israel had a long history of making covenant agreements with foreigners, despite God's warnings not to do so. The Gibeonites deceived Israel under Joshua into making a vassal treaty. Israel easily occupied the position of authority in the treaty and subjected the Gibeonites to temple service, but still this violated God's commandments (Joshua 9:1 ; compare Judges 2:2 ). The Israelites in Jabesh Gilead begged for a treaty from Nahash, the Ammonite, but he demanded severe conditions. Saul delivered them, leading to affirmation of Saul's kingship (1 Samuel 11:1 ).
Ben-Hadad, king of Damascus in Syria, promised to return captured cities to Israel and to provide Israel with markets for its products in Damascus if the king of Israel would make a peace treaty or political alliance with him (1 Kings 20:31-35 ). Earlier, Asa, king of Judah, had used the Temple treasury to pay tribute to Ben-Hadad of Damascus to entice Ben-Hadad to break his vassal treaty with Baasha, king of Israel, and enter into a similar treaty with Judah (1 Kings 15:19 ; 2 Chronicles 16:3 ). This is the typical example of a political covenant. One party desires privileges from the other party and pays for the privileges. Such payment may be enforced by a victorious king or may be offered by a weak king needing help against enemies. Members of such a covenant alliance were called “baals of the covenant” or lords, owners of the covenant (Genesis 14:13 ), a technical term for allies. They could also be called “men of the covenant” (Obadiah 1:7 ). Covenant treaties carried expectations of humane and moral treatment of other members of the covenant, the covenant being literally a covenant of brothers (Amos 1:9 ; compare 1 Kings 20:32-33 ).
Each covenant had special conditions effecting the power in authority and the one becoming a vassal or imposing demands on each partner of a covenant between equals. Breaking covenant conditions meant treason and extreme punishment (Ezekiel 17:12-18 ; compare Amos 1:9 ).
Marriage involved covenant obligations with God as the witness (Malachi 2:14 ). This could be used to describe the covenant relationship between God and His people (Ezekiel 16:8 ; Hosea 2:19-20 ).
Isaiah spoke menacingly of a covenant of death political leaders had made (Isaiah 28:15 ). They thought they had bought protection from their enemies. The prophet reminded them nothing made them secure against God's judgment. The action behind the covenant of death can be variously interpreted: a ritual with a foreign god of the underworld or of death, a mutual alliance to fight to the death, a treaty with a foreign power that brought God's judgment and thus death.
God's Covenants with His People God's grace in relating to His people by initiating covenants with them is a major theme of the Bible. The Old Testament story can be related as the story of God making covenants with His people and responding to them out of that covenant relationship. The New Testament can be described as the fulfillment of the Old Testament covenant hope in the establishment of God's new covenant in Jesus Christ.
Noah received God's first covenant (Genesis 9:9-17 ). This was a divine oath or promise not to repeat the flood. This covenant extended beyond Noah to all the animals who had experienced the massive destruction and death associated with the flood. The rainbow stands eternally as a sign of God's promise. This covenant called for no human response. It was solely a promise and oath from God. God's covenant with Noah was not a divine afterthought to the flood, a way of making up to His creation for all the destruction. God established the covenant relationship prior to the flood (Genesis 6:18 ). The Hebrew verb here means literally, “to cause to stand.” Some interpreters take this to mean that even in Genesis 6:1 God was confirming a covenant already established, though most see this as a formula for the establishment of the covenant. All agree that the formula underlines the lasting guarantee behind the covenant. The covenant is established and will stand. God's first covenant protected life—both human and animal—in the face of massive destruction. That priority on and protection of life remains the foundation of God's relationship with His creation. Neither “natural” catastrophe nor human sin (compare Genesis 6:5 ; Genesis 8:21 ) can prevent God from maintaining His priority on life.
God made His second covenant with Abraham (Exodus 24:3-8 ; Genesis 17:2 ). As the covenant with Noah involved a righteous man (Genesis 6:8-9 ), so the covenant with Abraham involved a man of faith (Genesis 15:6 ). God initiated His covenant with this type of person, but this does not mean that the person earned God's covenant with good works. Rather, this type of person was open to God's actions and could be directed by God for His purposes. The covenant with Abraham, like that with Noah, involved divine promises, not human obedience. God promised to give the land of Canaan to Abraham's descendants after a long sojourn to a foreign land. He symbolized this promise through an ancient covenant ceremony (compare Jeremiah 34:1 ), known from other cultures also, in which animals are cut and covenant participants pass through. Normally, the human covenant partners swear that they will abide by covenant conditions or will face the fate of the animals. For Abraham, the rite became a sacrifice to God and a sign of his devotion to the rite even when attacking birds threatened to spoil it. Abraham did not walk through the divided animals. Symbols of God's presence did. God made the oath to keep His promise. Genesis 17:1 shows the initiation of circumcision as the sign of the covenant. God's covenant promise was extended to include international-relations, many descendants, and to be God of the people descended from Abraham forever.
Redemption from Egyptian slavery found its climax in God's covenant with Israel. This covenant differed from those with Noah and Abraham. The situation was not an affirmation of human faithfulness or righteousness, but the confession of God's salvation (Exodus 19:4 ). The oath or promise came not from God but from the people. They were to “obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant.” Then they would be “a peculiar treasure unto me above all people a kingdom of priests an holy nation” (Exodus 6:5-6 ). Covenant law was then revealed to God's people. They had responsibilities within the covenant relationship. The people accepted this responsibility in a solemn ceremony in which covenant law was read from the “book of the covenant” and “the blood of the covenant” was sprinkled on the altar and on the people (Genesis 15:18 ). The covenant with Yahweh meant Israel could make covenants with no other gods (Exodus 23:32 ). Within the covenant agreement, God included the Sabbath covenant, Israel's perpetual promise to observe the seventh day as a day of rest, reflecting God's practice in creation (Exodus 31:16 ).
Israel refused to take covenant commitment seriously almost from the start. While Moses climbed the mountain and stayed in God's presence to receive the Ten Commandments, the people worshiped golden calves (Exodus 32:1 ). God renewed the covenant with His people, making explicit His covenant promise to conquer miraculously the land of Canaan promised to Abraham (Exodus 34:1 ; note Exodus 34:10 ). Again, covenant with Israel involved Israel's pledge to make no other covenants (Exodus 34:12 ,Exodus 34:12,34:15 ; Deuteronomy 7:2 ) and God's commandments as His expectations of a covenant people (Exodus 34:27-28 ; Deuteronomy 4:13 ). See Ten Commandments .
Israel's sacrificial worship included reminders of the covenant relationship. Salt added to offerings was the “salt of the covenant” (Leviticus 2:13 ). Salt symbolized covenant relationships among Arabs and Greeks and probably other peoples of Israel's day. The symbolic meaning is not precisely known. It may have reflected on understanding of salt as something eternal and thus as a sign of the everlasting effect of the agreements reached in a covenant relationship (compare Numbers 18:19 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5 ). The bread of the altar also symbolized Israel's everlasting covenant (Leviticus 24:8 ).
Israel apparently celebrated its covenant with ceremonies helping the people identify themselves as the covenant people as they heard, “The Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. The Lord made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day” (Deuteronomy 5:2-3 ; compare Deuteronomy 29:1 ,Deuteronomy 29:1,29:12 ,Deuteronomy 29:12,29:14-15 ; Joshua 8:30-35 ; Joshua 24:1-28 ). Israel's ceremonies had some of the same components that Near Eastern covenants or treaties had, particularly blessings for covenant obedience and cursings for disobedience (Exodus 23:25-30 ; Leviticus 26:1-46 ; Deuteronomy 27:11-26 ; Deuteronomy 28:1-68 ). A major element of blessing is that God will make His covenant stand for His people (Leviticus 26:9 ). Curses come when God's people break the covenant (Leviticus 26:15 ; Deuteronomy 29:25 ; Deuteronomy 31:16 ; Joshua 7:11 ,Covenant of Salt
Holman Bible Dictionary - Covenant Box
TEV name for the ark of the covenant. See Ark of the Covenant .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant
The sacred chest or coffer in which the tables of the law were deposited, written by the finger of God, and witnessing to his covenant with his people, Exodus 25:22 34:29 . It was of shittim-wood, covered within and without with plates of gold, nearly four feet in length, and two feet three inches in width and height. On the top of it, all around, ran a kind of gold crown. It had four rings of gold, two on each side, through which staves were put, by which it was carried. These also were overlaid with the finest gold, and were not to be removed from the rings, Exodus 25:10-22 . The lid of the ark, all of gold, was called the mercy-seat; and upon its opposite ends were two golden cherubim, fronting each other and the mercy-seat, which they covered with their outspread wings, Exodus 37:1-9 . Here God especially dwelt, 2 Kings 19:15 1 Chronicles 13:6 , and shone forth, perhaps by some sensible manifestations, Leviticus 16:2 Psalm 80:1 . Here he received the homage of his people, and dispensed his living oracles, Numbers 7:89 . The great yearly sacrifice of expiation was here offered by the high priest, Hebrews 9:7 , in the Holy of Holies. Hence there was no object held more sacred by the Jews than "the ark of God." During their journeys in the wilderness, it was borne by the priests under a purple canopy and with great reverence before the host of Israel, Numbers 4:5,6 . Before it the Jordan was divided, and behind it the waters flowed on again, Joshua 3:1-4:24 . The walls of Jericho fell down before it, Joshua 6:4-12 .
After this, the ark continued some time at Gilgal, whence it was removed to Shiloh, Joshua 4:19 10:43 18:1 . Hence the Israelites took it to their camp; but when they gave battle to the Philistines, it was taken by the enemy, 1 Samuel 4:1-22 . Th Philistines, oppressed by the hand of God, returned the ark, and it was lodged at Kirjath-jearim, 1 Samuel 7:1 . It was afterwards, in the reign of Saul, at Nob. David conveyed it from Kirjath-jearim to the house of Obed-Edom, and from thence to his palace on Zion, 2 Samuel 6:1-23 ; and lastly, Solomon brought it into the temple at Jerusalem,
2 Chronicles 5:2 . It remained in the temple, with all suitable respect, till the times of the later idolatrous kings of Judah, who profaned the Most Holy place by their idols, when the priests appear to have removed the ark from the temple. At least, Josiah commanded them to bring it back to the sanctuary, and forbade them to carry it about, as they had hitherto done, 2 Chronicles 35:3 . The ark appears to have been destroyed at the captivity, or perhaps concealed by pious Jews in some hiding-place afterwards undiscoverable, as we hear nothing more of it; and the want of it made the second temple less glorious than the first.
Besides the tables of the covenant, placed by Moses in this sacred coffer, God appointed the blossoming rod of Aaron to be lodged there, Numbers 17:10 Hebrews 9:4 ; a golden vase of manna gathered in the wilderness, Exodus 16:33,34 , and a copy of the book of the law, Deuteronomy 31:26 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Covenant
A contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word Berith Is always thus translated. Berith Is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant ( Genesis 15 ; Jeremiah 34:18,19 ). The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is Diatheke , Which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in the Authorized Version. It ought to be rendered, just as the word Berith of the Old Testament, "covenant."
This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and man ( Genesis 21:32 ), or between tribes or nations (1 Samuel 11:1 ; Joshua 9:6,15 ). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Genesis 31:50 ), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (1 Samuel 20:8 ). The marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Proverbs 2:17 ), because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isaiah 28:15,18 ).
The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Genesis 9 ; Jeremiah 33:20 , "my covenant"). We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham (Genesis 17 , Compare Leviticus 26:42 ), of the covenant of the priesthood (Numbers 25:12,13 ; Deuteronomy 33:9 ; Nehemiah 13:29 ), and of the covenant of Sinai (Exodus 34:27,28 ; Leviticus 26:15 ), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel (Deuteronomy 29 ; Joshua 1:24 ; 2 Chronicles 15 ; 23 ; 29 ; 34 ; Ezra 10 ; Nehemiah 9 ). In conformity with human custom, God's covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deuteronomy 4:31 ; Psalm 89:3 ), and to be accompanied by a sign (Genesis 9 ; 17 ). Hence the covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Psalm 89:3,4 ; 105:8-11 ; Hebrews 6:13-20 ; Luke 1:68-75 ). God's covenant consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isaiah 59:21 ; Jeremiah 31:33,34 ). The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night (Jeremiah 33:20 ), the Sabbath (Exodus 31:16 ), circumcision (Genesis 17:9,10 ), and in general any ordinance of God (Jeremiah 34:13,14 ).
A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used (Numbers 18:19 ; Leviticus 2:13 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5 ).
COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed at his creation. In this covenant,
The contracting parties were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity (Romans 5:12-19 ).
The promise was "life" (Matthew 19:16,17 ; Galatians 3:12 ).
The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the "tree of knowledge," etc.
The penalty was death (Genesis 2:16,17 ). This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the law.
The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal of that covenant.
This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted his righteousness.
CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its several parts. In it the Father represented the Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their surety (John 17:4,6,9 ; Isaiah 42:6 ; Psalm 89:3 ).
The conditions of this covenant were,
On the part of the Father (a) all needful preparation to the Son for the accomplishment of his work (Hebrews 10:5 ; Isaiah 42:1-7 ); (b) support in the work (Luke 22:43 ); and (c) a glorious reward in the exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Philippians 2:6-11 ), his investiture with universal dominion (John 5:22 ; Psalm 110:1 ), his having the administration of the covenant committed into his hands (Matthew 28:18 ; John 1:12 ; 17:2 ; Acts 2:33 ), and in the final salvation of all his people (Isaiah 35:10 ; 53:10,11 ; Jeremiah 31:33 ; Titus 1:2 ).
On the part of the Son the conditions were (a) his becoming incarnate (Galatians 4:4,5 ); and (b) as the second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated covenant of works; (c) obeying the law (Psalm 40:8 ; Isaiah 42:21 ; John 9:4,5 ), and (d) suffering its penalty (Isaiah 53 ; 2 co. 5:21 ; Galatians 3:13 ), in their stead. Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf of his people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Hebrews 8:6 ; 9:15 ; 12:24 , this title is given to Christ. (See DISPENSATION .)
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Covenant, the New
See New Covenant
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Covenant
The word "covenant, " infrequently heard in conversation, is quite commonly used in legal, social (marriage), and religious and theological contexts.
The Idea of Covenant . The term "covenant" is of Latin origin (con venire ), meaning a coming together. It presupposes two or more parties who come together to make a contract, agreeing on promises, stipulations, privileges, and responsibilities. In religious and theological circles there has not been agreement on precisely what is to be understood by the biblical term. It is used variously in biblical contexts. In political situations, it can be translated treaty; in a social setting, it means a lifelong friendship agreement; or it can refer to a marriage.
The biblical words most often translated "covenant" are berit [1]); still others have seen the ideas of perceiving or determining as root concepts. The preferred meaning of this Old Testament word is bond; a covenant refers to two or more parties bound together. This idea of bond will be explicated more fully.
The New Testament word for covenant has usually been translated as covenant, but testimony and testament have also been used. This Greek word basically means to order or dispose for oneself or another. The though of the inequality of the parties is latent.
The generally accepted idea of binding or establishing a bond between two parties is supported by the use of the term berit [ Genesis 26:26-31 ). Joshua and the Gibeonites bound themselves, by oath, to live in peace together (Joshua 9:15 ), although Yahweh commanded that Israel was not to bind themselves to the people living in the land of Canaan (Deuteronomy 7:2 ; Judges 2:2 ). Solomon and Hiram made a binding agreement to live and work in peace together (1 Kings 5:12 ). A friendship bond was sealed by oath between David and Jonathan (1 Samuel 20:3,16-17 ). Marriage is a bond (covenant) for life.
The covenants referred to above were between two equal parties; this means that the covenant relationship was bilateral. The bond was sealed by both parties vowing, often by oath, that each, having equal privileges and responsibilities, would carry out their assigned roles. Because a covenant confirmed between two human parties was bilateral, some scholars have concluded that the covenant Yahweh established with human beings is also bilateral. This is not the case. God initiated, determined the elements, and confirmed his covenant with humanity. It is unilateral. Persons are recipients, not contributors; they are not expected to offer elements to the bond; they are called to accept it as offered, to keep it as demanded, and to receive the results that God, by oath, assures will not be withheld.
Scholars have learned by studying tablets found by archaeologists that legal treaties between kings (suzerains) and subjects (vassals) existed during the time of the biblical patriarchs, Moses, Joshua, the judges, and the first kings of Israel. These treaties were written on tablets for the purpose of establishing a continuing relationship as determined and authorized by the suzerain. Once written, the covenants were not to be altered or annulled although parts could be explicated or elaborated. Did biblical writers borrow the idea of the covenant and its integral elements from pagan sources when the Old Testament was written—elements such as a self-presentation of the suzerain and his activities, including those done on behalf of the vassals, statements of intent, stipulations, and assurances of well-being if obedient and of curses if disobedient? The legal covenants included provisions for continuity, with emphasis on the suzerain's claim to vassals' children, and were confirmed by an oath or a special ratification ceremony, like the cutting in half of an ox or cow or the sharing of a meal as the conclusion of the act of covenanting.
These nonbiblical covenants were intended to serve a number of purposes, two of which are especially important to understand. The suzerain stated that as victor and lord over the vassals he had spared them in battle, delivered them from extenuating circumstances, and placed them in situations of life and well-being. This was an undeserved favor. The suzerain's covenant was also intended to serve an administrative function. It informed the vassals how the king would govern them and what they were to do in obedient response to him. These two purposes, the reminder of deliverance and the information on administration of affairs in daily life, appear in Yahweh God's covenanting with his people but in radically different ways.
Covenants, neither suzerain-vassal nor biblical, were not made (nor did they function) in a vacuum. Covenants presupposed a king, a domain, a way of life, people, and often mediating servants. The covenant was an important administrative means within a kingdom.
Did biblical writers borrow from pagan sources when they wrote about Yahweh God's covenantal activities on behalf of and his relationships with his people? There is no reference of any kind in the Bible that this was done. There are marked similarities between biblical and the nonbiblical covenants. The most satisfactory and acceptable position is that Yahweh God is the source and originator of the entire covenant concept and phenomenon. He included the covenant relationship in his creation activity and handiwork. Covenant is germane to human life; it is God-implanted and -unfolded. Pagan kings gave concrete expression, in their proud and self-sufficient attitudes, to what Yahweh God had implanted and maintained within his created cosmos. This explanation calls for an answer to three important questions. When did Yahweh God first establish his covenant? What was the nature of that initial covenant? According to biblical revelation, did Yahweh God, after the initial one, establish any more covenants?
The Old Testament . The Hebrew word for covenant does not appear in Genesis 1-5 . Some scholars say that this is evidence that there was no covenant in humankind's earliest history. Some say that the idea of covenant arose initially in the minds of the Israelites after they had been at Mount Sinai. To account for references to the covenant in the Noahic and patriarchal accounts, scholars have incorrectly said that later editors of Genesis inserted the idea of covenant to give historical evidence and credence to what Israel later believed. Other scholars, who accept Genesis as a record of Yahweh's revelation, also have difficulty accepting that God established his covenant when he created the cosmos mainly because of the lack of direct verbal reference to it.
Biblical testimony points to the fact that God covenanted when he created. Hosea (6:7) refers to Adam breaking the covenant. Jeremiah spoke of the covenant of the day and the night that no one can alter (33:19-20); this covenant is understood to have been initiated in creation when God separated light from darkness and gave the sun and moon their appointed place and role (Genesis 1:3-5,14 ). When Yahweh God first spoke to Noah, he said he was going to wipe humankind from the face of the earth (Genesis 6:7 ). But he assured Noah he would uphold and cause his covenant to continue. Hence Noah did not have to fear that God's plan for and method of administering his cosmic kingdom would be different after the flood. But why, if God covenanted when he created, is the word "covenant" not in Genesis 1-2 ? Those who wish to speak of only the covenant of grace, referred to briefly and indirectly in the Noahic account (Genesis 6-9 ), believe that some of the basic elements of the covenant of grace were enunciated when Yahweh God promised victory through the woman's seed (Genesis 3:14-16 ). When Yahweh God covenanted with David, according to 2 Samuel 7 , the term "covenant" does not appear but when David referred to what Yahweh had said and done, he said, "Has he not made with me an everlasting covenant?" (2 Samuel 23:5 ; cf. Psalm 89:3 ). As the elements included in covenant were present in the account of the covenanting with David (2 Samuel 7 ), so the elements constituting covenant are recorded in Genesis 1-2 .
The basic elements of a covenant are imbedded in the Genesis account. God, in his revelation of creation, presented himself as the Creator. The historical record of what he has done was outlined. He created his image-bearers by means of which he placed and kept man and woman in a close relationship with himself and had them mirror (reflect) and represent him within the created cosmos. Humanity was given stipulations or mandates. As image-bearers they were to maintain an intimate and obedient fellowship with their Creator; the Sabbath was to enhance this. Humanity was to be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth; this was to be done by establishing families; a man was to leave his parents and cleave to his wife (Genesis 2:24 ). Becoming one flesh, they would have children. As families increased, community would be formed. This social mandate thus was an integral aspect of covenant. So was the cultural mandate; man and woman were to cultivate (subdue NIV) and rule over the creation. When God saw all that he had done, he confirmed, not by expressing an oath or performing a ratifying ceremony, but by declaring all to be very good (Genesis 1:31 ). This he confirmed by ceasing from creating activity and establishing the seventh day as a day of rest, sanctity, and blessing (Genesis 2:1-3 ).
Yahweh God did more; he spoke of assured blessings. God blessed Adam and Eve; he thus gave them ability and authority to serve as his covenant agents. He provided for their sustenance (Genesis 1:28-30 ). He also spoke of the possibility of disobedience, if they ate of the forbidden tree of knowledge of good and evil (Genesis 2:17 ). The ideas of blessing (life) and curse (death) thus were also included. The forbidding of eating has been referred to as the probationary command but also as the integral aspect of "the covenant of works." An increasing number of biblical students and scholars have come to consider, on the basis of biblical testimony, that it is preferable to speak of the covenant of creation and that what was considered to constitute the "covenant of works" is but an integral part of the covenant of creation.
Yahweh's covenant agents were tempted by Satan. They doubted Yahweh's words; they accepted the lie. They fell. They broke the covenantal relationship between Yahweh and themselves. Creation was affected, for it too suffered the consequences of Adam and Eve's sin. It too began to groan (Romans 8:22 ). But Yahweh did not break his covenant with creation and his vicegerents. He came to the fallen, shamed, and humiliated image-bearers and set about restoring humanity to fellowship with and service for him. Yahweh, graciously maintaining his mandates, revealed that Adam and Eve could still work under them. Spiritual fellowship was restored by Yahweh's assurance that the woman's seed would be victorious over Satan and his seed. The social mandate was maintained; Adam and Eve as one flesh would have offspring, but pain would be suffered. The cultural mandate was still to be obeyed, but it would cause labor and sweat. All the elements of the creation covenant remained. Then Yahweh added another dimension to this covenantal relationship. He pronounced in germinal form his plan for the full redemption and restoration of his image-bearers and their royal, priestly, and prophetic roles with their attendant privileges and responsibilities. Yahweh revealed how this was to be done by adding to his creation covenant the redemptive and restorative promises and implied stipulations of faith and obedience. He established what has been widely known as the covenant of grace.
Misunderstanding must be avoided. God has established an all-embracing binding relationship (covenant) with his creation, of which humanity is the central establishment of a second covenant within the context and framework of the creation covenant. As Yahweh God continued revealing himself, and how the redemptive/restorative "second covenant" was to be administered, it was always done with the context and framework of the creation covenant. Because the covenant of grace received direct and fuller "divine attention" as Yahweh God revealed his kingdom plan, goal, and certain consummation, many biblical students and scholars have concentrated their attention on it, failing to see, understand, or believe its position and role within the context and framework of the creation covenant that Yahweh certainly maintained and continues to maintain as he carries out and fulfills his plan and goal for his ever enduring kingdom.
Genesis 6-9 presents Noah as a faithful covenant man. In the midst of a very sinful, corrupt society, which God determined to wipe out, Noah lived obediently. Socially, he had one wife and three sons; he was blameless, so that others could not accuse him of wrongdoing. Spiritually he was in constant fellowship with God. He walked with God and was righteous; he lived according to God's will (6:9-10; 7:1). When commanded to build the ark, he proved to be a capable servant in the cultural dimension of life (6:14-16; 7:5). Yahweh assured Noah that his covenant of creation and its correlate, the covenant of gracious redemption and restoration, would be maintained with him and his family (6:18). After the flood had removed corrupt society and then receded, Noah the covenant man worshiped; he built an altar and sacrificed. Yahweh responded to Noah's worship and determined to continue his relationship with the cosmos (8:20-9:17). Parts of the creation covenant mandates were repeated; some were explicated. In confirming his creation covenant with humanity, God said every living creature was included (9:9-10); God included the death penalty for murder (9:5-6), and meat as legitimate food for humanity (9:2-3). This assurance concerning the continuity of the creation covenant certainly includes the implication that Yahweh would continue his gracious redemptive/restorative covenant. This continuity would be worked out particularly with Shem, blessed by Yahweh to serve as the builder of the tent that even Ham's offspring, Canaan, would enter. Japheth's offspring would benefit from it and enlarge it. Thus, Yahweh God maintained and explicated his covenant with Noah and his offspring.
After Yahweh God had given absolute assurance to Noah and his sons that the creation covenant would continue, there are not many direct references to it again. But its presence and role are constantly and consistently present.
Yahweh, revealing himself as the Sovereign One to Abram, gave him covenantal promises: spiritual well-being, making a great nation of him, making him famous, and using him as a channel of blessing to all peoples. Yahweh added to the assurances of blessings the certainty of the curse on despisers and rejectors of Abram and his sovereign God.
The process of God's covenanting with Abram was unfolded throughout the course of Abram's life. When Abram was afraid after his separation from and rescue of Lot (Genesis 13-14 ), Yahweh assured Abram of his abiding presence and protection for him (shield) and of the blessed spiritual future Yahweh had for him (great reward, Genesis 15:1 ). Abram realized his great future included children; he inquired about this. Yahweh assured him he would have many (Genesis 15:5 ). In this way the continuity of the covenant was assured. An added promise was given: that he would possess the land (15:7). A covenant ratification ceremony was performed in a vision to Abram in which the blessing of peace for Abram and a curse (punishment) was pronounced on those enslaving covenantal seed (15:12-21). Genesis 15 includes covenantal elements: (1) Yahweh's sovereign presence; (2) Abram's assured rich future; (3) continuity through much seed; (4) a place to live and serve in the midst of the nations; (5) a curse on opponents of the blessed; and (6) the response of faith and blessing of justification.
The covenanting process continued after Abram sinfully followed Sarai's suggestion to take Hagar the Egyptian maid as a concubine (Genesis 16 ). Yahweh came to Abram and gave further explication of the redemptive/restorative covenant within the context of the creational covenant.
Yahweh presented himself as the invincible, powerful, and exalted God. Yahweh emphasized the stipulations of the covenant: "walk before me" (remain in constant, everyday spiritual fellowship with me); "be blameless" (live uprightly according to my will among your fellowmen). Implied in these stipulations was Yahweh's awareness of Abram's lack of faith and obedience in his sovereign, exalted God and of his sin of adultery with Hagar. Abram had sinned spiritually and socially but Yahweh graciously confirmed his covenant(s) with Abram. The verb used in Hebrew is "give." The continuity of the covenant with Abram was a gift of Yahweh's grace . Abram responded in humility and worship (17:3). Covenantal elements were then repeated. Abram was promised many offspring; they would form nations and give rise to kings. This emphasized repetition of seed was strongly affirmed by the change of his name to Abraham and the assurance that the covenant with his offspring was for all time. The life-love bond between Yahweh and Abraham and his seed was strongly affirmed by the promise "to be your God and the God of your descendants" (17:8). Yahweh, by these words, assured Abraham of his abiding presence, his availability, his sure help, and his unfailing love, support, and comfort in all circumstances of life. Abram was also assured that he would possess the land (17:7-8). To the stipulations to walk and be blameless, Yahweh added the command to circumcise the male offspring who in turn would generate offspring. In the context of assuring Abraham of much seed, Yahweh gave the covenantal sign of circumcision (17:11), which sons were always to carry and by which he demonstrated that he claimed the seed as people in covenant with him. Circumcision was given such an emphatically important role in Yahweh's covenanting with Abraham and his offspring, that it was referred to as the "covenant of circumcision" (17:13). This was not a separate covenant, but was such an integral part of the redemptive/restorative covenant that it was referred to as representing the entire covenant (a part representing the whole). Also in the context of Yahweh's claim to Abraham's seed as his, the concept of divine election is included. Abraham pled that his son Ishmael be considered a covenant progenitor, but Yahweh emphatically stated Isaac, to be born of Sarah, was to be that one (17:15-21).
After God had tested Abraham's obedience, by oath (22:1-6) he repeated and confirmed elements of his covenant (22:17-18a). Of fundamental importance is Yahweh's statement "because you have obeyed me" (22:18b). This stress on obedience is strong evidence that the covenant with Abraham should not be considered basically as a covenant of promise with the response of faith. Important as promise and faith are, they should not be used to minimize the emphasis on stipulations: leave, go, fear not, walk before me, be blameless, circumcise, offer your son. Abraham was never given options that he could choose to accept or reject. As a "vassal" he was given commandments, laws, orders, regulations, requirements, and decrees (26:4). Yahweh's covenant with Abraham was characterized by promise and law. As these were not to be separated, so faith and obedience were not to be either.
As Yahweh had promised that his redemptive/ restorative covenant in the broader context of the creation covenant was to be continued with Isaac (17:19-20), and because Abraham had obeyed Yahweh and kept his laws (26:5), Yahweh did accordingly confirm his covenant with Isaac (26:3-4,24).
The gracious character of Yahweh's covenant with the patriarchs was highlighted in Yahweh's interactions with Jacob, who was chosen in spite of his covetousness (25:29-34), deception (27:19), and clever manipulations (30:31-43). Election to covenantal privileges and responsibilities was not on the basis of merit, but according to Yahweh's sovereign will and mercy (Romans 9:10-18 ).
Yahweh God confirmed the covenant in all its aspects and ramifications with Jacob. When fleeing from Esau, Jacob was assured of these; the reassurance of Yahweh's presence was captured by the phrases "I am with you"; "I will watch over you"; "I will bring you back to the land"; "I will not leave you"; and "I will accomplish all I promise you." With these assurances Jacob could travel, live, work, and prosper anyplace in Yahweh's cosmic kingdom, for Yahweh had repeated his determination to uphold and carry out his creation covenant and its redemptive/restorative correlate. Jacob, having a home with his Uncle Laban, enjoyed the fulfillment of the covenant mandate to be fruitful and multiply, and the fulfillment of the covenant promise of seed (29:31-30:24). Jacob was blessed with prosperity (a creation covenantal cultural reality 30:25-43; 35:23-26). When returning to the land of his fathers as Yahweh directed him (31:3) Jacob was assured of Yahweh's covenantal promise to be with him. When the time came to confront Esau, Jacob depended on Yahweh's covenantal relationship with his forbears and the promises made to them and him (32:9-12). After Jacob's wrestling with the Lord, he was named "Israel" because he overcame in his struggles (32:28; 35:10) and was blessed (32:29). Upon his return to Bethel, Yahweh God again confirmed the covenant with him, assuring Jacob he was El Shaddai and commanding him to be fruitful (35:11), confirming that nations and kings would come from him (35:11) and that he would receive land for himself and his children (35:12). When Jacob had been in the land for some time and was advised to go to Egypt, Yahweh assured him that he was not breaking covenant if he did (46:3-4). Rather, it was Yahweh's plan to fulfill his covenant word to Abraham that Israel was to spend 400 years in a foreign land (15:13-14) in which a son, Joseph, proved to serve as a type of Christ, the mediator of the covenant, and Judah was prophesied to become the ancestor of David, the covenant servant, and of Christ (49:8-12).
The Book of Exodus commences with covenantal statements. Patriarchal progeny increased as it was promised it would (1:2-5). The Israelites were obedient to the command to be fruitful, multiply, and become numerous (1:7). But the Israelites were under severe strain, because of oppressive slavery, to obey the cultural and spiritual mandates. The reality was that the Israelites as a whole seemed oblivious to the covenantal responses of faith and obedience demanded of them. In their misery, they groaned and cried out, and Yahweh heard them (2:23-24a). It is stated categorically that Yahweh God remembered his covenant with the patriarchs (2:24b). That he did is demonstrated by his call of Moses to be the covenant mediator who was to serve in the Israelites' deliverance and gaining of freedom. Yahweh identified himself as the covenant Lord of the patriarchs (3:6), as the ever faithful One (3:14) who would be with Moses (3:12a) as he served in the fulfillment of Yahweh's promise to Abraham to bring his descendants from a strange land (3:8). Moses was commanded to perform wonders before the doubting Israelites so that they would believe that their covenantal Lord had called Moses to be the "Old Testament redeemer" (4:1-7).
After Yahweh had humbled and broken powerful Egypt, he instituted a second covenantal sacrament, the Passover, a feast to commemorate Israel's deliverance and at which fathers were to instruct their children about Yahweh's faithful words and deeds (12:24-28).
The actual process of confirming the covenant with Israel took place at Mount Sinai. The first stage of the process included the following. First, Yahweh presented himself as the covenant-keeping, delivering, guiding, and protecting God of Israel who brought Israel to himself. He confirmed the life-love bond (19:3-4).
Second, he made an all-inclusive stipulation: obey my covenant. The stipulation was explicated later. This stipulation was not presented as a condition that Israel could choose to obey or reject. Rather, Yahweh revealed in what manner a rich, full-orbed, covenantal relationship would function. Israel, responding obediently to Yahweh's covenant demands, would realize the promises.
Third, the promises were in the form of four assurances that included responsibilities. (1) Israel would realize the life, love, and blessedness of being Yahweh's precious possession, chosen from all the nations. (2) Israel was to be a kingdom, a royal people, children in the family of the sovereign Lord of the cosmic kingdom. Implied was that all kingdom privileges, blessings, and responsibilities were to be theirs. (3) Israel was, as a kingdom, to be priestly in character and service. They were to see themselves as standing and serving in the presence of Yahweh as they ministered to and on behalf of the nations of the world. Thus the covenantal task of being a channel of blessing would be realized. (4) Israel was to be a sanctified, dedicated, and consecrated nation. As an organized people ruled by Yahweh, they were to avoid and fight against sin and corruption and reflect the purity, majesty, and grandeur of their holy Lord among the nations (19:5-6).
Fourth, Israel responded covenantally: "We will do everything Yahweh has said." They did not say, "We choose to" (they were not given an option) or "We will try"; they made a full commitment.
Fifth, Moses was reconfirmed as the mediator between Yahweh and the people. He was to be spokesman for Yahweh to the people and on behalf of the people to Yahweh. He was the representative of Yahweh whom the people were to trust; their trust would be motivated by their hearing of Yahweh promulgating his will (19:9).
Sixth, the Israelites had to consecrate themselves to Yahweh while keeping a distance from Mount Sinai (19:10-15).
The second stage in the process of covenant renewal and confirmation was the speaking by Yahweh, and hearing by the people, of the law. First the ten commandments were spoken; these were inclusive principles governing all aspects of kingdom living. The first four concerned the character of King Yahweh, how and when he was to be honored and worshiped. These explicated how life and worship would meet requirements of the creational covenant's spiritual mandate. The next three elaborated on fulfilling the social mandate and the last three on the cultural mandate. The interrelatedness of the commandments demonstrated how integrated faithful, obedient, covenant people would find kingdom life to be. For example, to steal would hurt a neighbor (social) while acting disobediently against Yahweh (spiritually) in the cultural area.
The speaking of the ten commandments was followed by explication and application. Instruction was given on how to worship (20:22-26), keep Sabbath laws, and when, and why, and how to celebrate the three major feasts (23:10-19). Concern for working people, slaves, and injured and violated individuals was explained (21:1-36; 22:16-23:9). Instruction concerning ownership of property, rights involved, punishment, and ways of making restitution was added.
After the laws were promulgated, the people were given assurances of Yahweh's guidance, protection, and bringing them into the promised land, where they were to remain covenantally faithful to Yahweh and not make a covenant with the people living in the land or with their gods (23:20-33). This was a strong reminder to trust Yahweh, believe in him, and love only him.
Moses told the people all that Yahweh had given as instructions and laws for them. The people made a second solemn response, saying they would do all that Yahweh had said. This response of trust and obedience came spontaneously (24:3).
Moses then wrote all the explications, applications, assurances, and responses (24:4). This writing of a covenant gave it permanence and authority. Once written, it was not to be altered; it would be explicated and more fully applied.
The third stage in the process of Yahweh's renewing and confirming of the covenant he had made previously with Adam, Noah, and the patriarchs was the actual ratification ceremony (24:4b-18). The ceremony consisted of the building of an altar to serve as the actual intimate meeting place of Yahweh and the people. Sacrifices were then offered. Blood had been collected and half of it was sprinkled on the altar. Then Moses read all of the covenant material he had written, to which Israel made a third spontaneous response, saying "We will do, we will obey." The climactic point of the ceremony followed; the people were sprinkled by the blood of the covenant. Thus, by the blood, in which is life, but which also speaks of the death of what is sacrificed, the people as a whole were signified and sealed as Yahweh God's precious possession. The holy marriage had taken place. Yahweh, the Husband, had taken the patriarch's progeny as his bride. The ratification of the covenant was finalized by Yahweh writing the ten commandments on tablets of stone and giving them to Moses. The whole ceremony ended with Yahweh displaying himself in his majesty, splendor, grandeur, and awesomeness as a consuming fire (24:17).
The Israelites did not remain faithful to their covenantal vow for long. While Moses was receiving instructions concerning worship (building of the tabernacle, its furnishings, ordaining Aaron and sons as priests) the Israelites made an idol and worshiped it (32:1-6). This breaking of the covenant aroused Yahweh's anger; he spoke of carrying out the curse of the covenant on them (32:9-10). Moses, however, served as a covenant mediator; the people were largely spared (32:28,35).
The covenant was reconfirmed when Moses interceded further for the people and Yahweh declared that he was truly Yahweh, compassionate, gracious, patient, full of love, faithful, forgiving, righteous, and just (34:6-7). Promises of what he would do were repeated and stipulations, relevant to the immediate circumstances just experienced, were added. The
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant
(aron , not teebah ). An oblong chester shittim wood (acacia), two and a half cubits long, one and a half broad and deep. F. W. Kolland measured acacias nine feet in girth, in the region of Israel's wandering; he attributes their being usually stunted there to the Arabs cutting off the young shoots for the she goats. Thus Colenso's cavil that "not a single acacia" is to be seen where the ark is said to have been constructed is answered. It is a propriety characteristic of the truth of the Scripture narrative that it represents the ark as not made of oak or cedar, the best woods of the Holy Land, but of acacia, the wood of the wilderness. Cedar actually was the wood used for the Jerusalem temple. In the thorn of man's curse appeared the angel of the covenant to Moses, to bless man; and out of its wood was formed the ark of the covenant, the typical source of his blessing. Overlaid with gold within and without.
The mercy-seat supporting the cherubim, one at each end, was on the lid, with a crown or raised border, and was Jehovah's mystical throne. It had rings at the four grainers for the two staves to pass through, wherewith the Kohathite Levites or priests carried it. The staves were permanently in the rings. Within e veil was its proper place, the ends of the staves, however, being visible, in Solomon's temple, in the outer holy place. When carried about, the ark was wrapped in the veil, the badger's skin, and blue cloth. Its title, "the ark of the testimony," implies its purpose, namely, to keep intact God's "covenant" written by God on the two stone tables (Exodus 34:28), as the sacred deposit of the Israelite church (Exodus 25:22; Numbers 10:33).
The outward keeping taught symbolically the moral and spiritual keeping of God's commandments. In the wilderness "the ark of the covenant of the Lord went before them in the three days' journey to search out a resting place for them; and when the ark set forward, Moses said, Rise up, Lord, and let Thine enemies be scattered, and let them that hate Thee flee before Thee. And when it rested, he said, Return, O Lord, unto the many thousands of Israel" (Numbers 10:33-36; Psalms 68:1; Psalms 132:8). At the passage of the Jordan it was when the ark was borne by the priests and their feet had touched the water, that an open way was made for Israel. Only when the material ark, apart from obedience, was expected to give that favor of God which only obedience to the law contained within the ark could ensure, did God "deliver His strength" (the pledge of God's strengthening His people) "into captivity and His glory into the enemy's hands" (Psalms 78:61; 1 Samuel 4:11).
When the ark was taken the "glory" was departed (1 Samuel 4:21-22). The ark and the sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel" (Lamentations 2:1). The antitype, Messiah, goes before His redeemed, exploring their way through the wilderness, making clear passage through death's waters into the heavenly Canaan. Like the ark with the Philistines Messiah was the captive of the grave for a brief space, but with triumph He rose again; and as when the ark went up to the tabernacle reared for it by David on Zion, so on Christ's ascending the heavenly mount the glorious anthem arose: "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors, and the King of glory shall come in" (Psalm 24). Every Dagon must fall before Him now; for even in His temporary captivity in death the powers of darkness were crushed before Him (Colossians 2:14-15; Matthew 27:50-54). As the ark blessed the house of Obed Edom, so Christ is the true bestower of blessings (Acts 3:20).
The restriction of the ark's contents to the decalogue implies that this is the central core of all the various precepts, the moral end for which the positive precepts were given. They were in the innermost shrine, to mark their perpetually obligatory nature and the holiness of God; in the ark, the type of Christ, to mark that in Him alone, "the Lord our righteousness," they find their perfect realization. 1 Kings 8:9 states there was nothing in the ark of Solomon's temple save the two stone tables of the law; but Hebrews 9:4 states there were also the golden pot of manna (the memorial of God's providential care of Israel), and Aaron's rod that budded (the memorial of the lawful priesthood, Numbers 17:3-10). Probably by the time of Solomon the other two relics had been lost, perhaps when the ark was in the hands of the Philistines. "Before the Lord" and "before the testimony" was where they were directed to be laid up (Exodus 16:32-36).
The mercy-seat was not merely regarded as the lid of the ark, but as the most important feature in the holiest place (Exodus 25:17; Exodus 26:34; Leviticus 16:2), the only meeting place between God and man. It was the (caporeth ) or covering, not merely of the ark. but (when sprinkled with the sacrificial blood once a year on the great day of atonement) of Israel's sins against the law contained within the ark. Hence it is called in the Septuagint "the propitiatory" (hilasterion ); and Christ, the true mercy-seat (Psalms 85:10) and place of meeting between the holy God and guilty man, is called the very same (Romans 3:25), "propitiation," lit. propitiatory. In 1 Chronicles 28:11 the holiest is called" the place of the mercy-seat," so prominent was the latter in symbolical significance.
The ark was never seen save by the high priest; symbol of God whom no man can see, and whose likeness is only to be seen in Christ (John 1:18; Hebrews 1:3), the true Ark, and our High Priest with the Father. Thus every tendency to idolatry was excluded, an ark occupying the central place of holiness, and that seen only once a year by the one religious representative of the people. Even it is to be superseded in the coming temple at. Jerusalem, when "they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the Lord, neither shall it come to mind, neither shall they re. member it"; for Jehovah Jesus, the Antitype, will be there, "at that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord, and all the nations shall be gathered unto it" (Jeremiah 3:16). The absence of the ark after its capture by the Philistines possibly impaired the reverential awe felt toward it (1 Chronicles 13:3; 1 Chronicles 13:9). But the stroke on Uzza, and the rearing of the tabernacle for it in Zion by David, after its long abode of 20 years in Kirjath Jearim, in Abinadab's house, recovered for it all its sanctity.
The altar of burnt offering where the sacrifices were offered continued separate from it at Gibeon, the "great high place" (1 Kings 3:4) (in the tabernacle of the ark on Zion the service was song and praise alone) until the two were reunited in the temple of Solomon, a type of the gospel separation of the spiritual service of prayer and praise going on here below, from the priestly intercession being carried on above by our Lord Jesus. The spiritual and the literal priestly services will perhaps be reunited in Ezekiel's millennial temple at Jerusalem, one antitype to Solomon's temple. Compare Acts 15:16-17. Manasseh set up an idol, a carved image, instead of the ark which contained the testimony against him. Josiah restored it to its place in the house of God (2 Chronicles 33:7; 2 Chronicles 35:3).
The ark was wanting in the second temple, having been probably burnt with the temple (2 Chronicles 36:19); compare (apocryphal) 2 Esdras 10:22, "the ark of our covenant is spoiled." Its absence was one of the points wherein the second was inferior to the first temple. (See ALTAR.) There must have been some substitute for it, on which to sprinkle the blood, in the holiest, on the great day of atonement; the Jews mention an altar stone, slightly raised from the floor. Pagan nations too had their mystic arks (whence arcanum is the term for a mystery), but so distinct in use from the Mosaic that the differences are more prominent than the resemblances.
The Egyptian arks (on their monuments) were, like the Hebrew ark, carried by poles on men's shoulders. Some had too on the cover two winged figures like cherubim; but between these was the material symbol of a deity, and the arks were carried about in procession to make a show before the people. The ark of the covenant on the contrary was marked by the absence of any symbol of God. It was never carried in procession. When moved it was carefully covered up from the eyes even of the Levites who bore it (Numbers 4:5-6; Numbers 4:19-20): "they shall not go in to see when the holy things are covered, lest they die." Compare 1 Samuel 6:19. In the tabernacle the ark was withdrawn from view in the mysterious holy of holies.
It was not moved from its "rest" (Psalms 132:8; Psalms 132:14) when once Jerusalem became the fixed capital, and the hill of Zion God's chosen seat, until its forcible removal under Nebuchadnezzar; God giving up the apostate Jews to the pagan world power. Previously it had a few times accompanied the army (1 Samuel 4:3; 1 Samuel 14:18; 2 Samuel 11:11). But from the first rest was appointed as its final condition, and under David it obtained that "rest" (Deuteronomy 12:10-11; 1 Chronicles 6:31; 1 Chronicles 16:1). Its simple and grand purpose was to be the casket containing the precious tables of stone written with the moral law by God Himself. The originality of the tabernacle furniture and arrangements is more striking than the superficial resemblances which have been traced to pagan usages.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Covenant of Salt, a
(See COVENANT.)
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Works, Covenant of
Entered into by God with Adam as the representative of the human race (Compare Genesis 9:11,12 ; 17:1-21 ), so styled because perfect obedience was its condition, thus distinguishing it from the covenant of grace. (See COVENANT OF WORKS .)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Covenant
Hebrew berit , Greek diatheekee . From baarah "to divide" or" cut in two" a victim (Gesenius), between the parts of which the covenanting parties passed (Genesis 15:9, etc.; Jeremiah 34:18-19). Probably the covenanting parties eating together (which barah sometimes means) of the feast after the sacrifice entered into the idea; compare Genesis 31:46-47, Jacob and Laban.
"A COVENANT OF SALT," taken in connection with the eastern phrase for friendship, "to eat salt together," confirms this view. Salt, the antidote to corruption, was used in every sacrifice, to denote purity and perpetuity (Leviticus 2:13; Mark 9:49). So a perpetual covenant or appointment (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5). The covenant alluded to in Hosea 6:7 margin is not with Adam (KJV "men" is better, compare Psalms 82:7), for nowhere else is the expression "covenant" applied to Adam's relation to God, though the thing is implied in Romans 5:12-19; 1 Corinthians 15:22; but the Sinaitic covenant which Israel transgressed as lightly as "men" break their every day covenants with their fellow men, or else they have transgressed like other "men," though distinguished above all men by extraordinary spiritual privileges.
"Covenant" in the strict sense, as requiring two independent contracting parties, cannot apply to a covenant between God and man. His covenant must be essentially one of gratuitous promise, an act of pure grace on His part (Galatians 3:15, etc.). So in Psalms 89:28 "covenant" is explained by the parallel word "mercy." So God's covenant not to destroy the earth again by water (Genesis 9; Jeremiah 33:20). But the covenant, on God's part gratuitous, requires man's acceptance of and obedience to it, as the consequence of His grace experienced, and the end which He designs to His glory, not that it is the meritorious condition of it. The Septuagint renders berit by diatheekee (not suntheekee , "a mutual compact"), i.e. a gracious disposal by His own sovereign will. So Luke 22:29, "I appoint (diatithemai , cognate to diatheekee , by testamentary or gratuitous disposition) unto you a kingdom."
The legal covenant of Sinai came in as a parenthesis (pareiselthee ; Romans 5:20) between the promise to Abraham and its fulfillment in his promised seed, Christ. "It was added because of the (so Greek) transgressions" (Galatians 3:19), i.e. to bring them, and so man's great need, into clearer view (Romans 3:20; Romans 4:15; Romans 5:13; Romans 7:7-9). For this end its language was that, of a more stipulating kind as between two parties mutually covenanting, "the man that doeth these things shall live by them" (Romans 10:5). But the promise to David (2 Samuel 7; Psalm 89; 2; 72; Isaiah 11) took up again that to Abraham, defining the line, the Davidic, as that in which the promised seed should come.
As the promise found its fulfillment in Christ, so also the law, for He fulfilled it for us that He might be "the Lord our righteousness," "the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth" (Jeremiah 23:6; 1 Corinthians 1:30; Romans 10:4; Matthew 3:15; Matthew 5:17; Isaiah 42:21; Isaiah 45:24-25). In Hebrews 9:15-18 the gospel covenant is distinguished from the legal, as the New Testament contrasted with the Old Testament "Testament" is the better translation here, as bringing out the idea of diatheekee , God's gracious disposal or appointment of His blessings to His people, rather than suntheekee , mutual engagement between Him and them as though equals.
A human "testament" in this one respect illustrates the nature of the covenant; by death Christ chose to lose all the glory and blessings which are His, that we, who were under death's bondage, might inherit all. Thus the ideas of "mediator of the covenant," and "testator," meet in Him, who at once fulfills God's "covenant of promise," and graciously disposes to us all that is His. In most other passages "covenant" would on the whole be the better rendering. "Testament" for each of the two divisions of the Bible comes from the Latin Vulgate version. In Matthew 26:28, "this is My blood of the new testament" would perhaps better be translated "covenant," for a testament does not require blood shedding. Still, here and in the original (Exodus 24:8) quoted by Christ the idea of testamentary disposition enters.
For his blood was the seal of the testament. See below. Moses by "covenant" means one giving the heavenly inheritance (typified by Canaan) after the testator's death, which was represented by the sacrificial blood he sprinkled. Paul by testament means one with conditions, and so far a covenant, the conditions being fulfilled by Christ, not by us. We must indeed believe, but even this God works in His people (Ephesians 2:8). Hebrews 9:17, "a testament is in force after men are dead," just as the Old Testament covenant was in force only in connection with slain sacrificial victims which represent the death of Christ. The fact of the death must be "brought forward" (Hebrews 9:16) to give effect to the will. The word" death," not sacrifice or slaying, shows that "testament" is meant in Hebrews 9:15-20. These requisites of a "testament" here concur:
1. The Testator.
2. The heirs.
3. Goods.
4. The Testator's death.
5. The fact of His death brought forward. In Matthew 26:28 two additional requisites appear.
6. Witnesses, His disciples.
7. The seal, the sacrament of the Lord's supper, the sign of His blood, wherewith the testament is sealed. The heir is ordinarily the successor of him who dies, and who so ceases to have possession. But Christ comes to life again, and is Himself (including all that He had), in the power of tits now endless life, His people's inheritance; in His being heir (Hebrews 1:2; Psalms 2:8) they are heirs.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Covenant
A contract, or agreement between two or more parties on certain terms. The terms are made use of in the Scriptures for covenant in Hebrew and Greek. The former signifies choosing, or friendly parting; as in covenants each party, in a friendly manner, consented, and so bound himself to the chosen terms; the latter signifies testament, as all the blessings of the covenant are freely disposed to us. The word covenant is also used for an immutable ordinance, Jeremiah 33:20 . a promise, Exodus 34:10 . Is. 59: 21. and also for a precept, Jeremiah 34:13-14 . In Scripture we read of various convenants; such as those made with Noah, Abraham, and the Hebrews at large. Anciently covenants were made and ratified with great solemnity. The Scriptures allude to the cutting of animals asunder; denoting that, in the same manner, the perjured and covenant-breaker should be cut asunder by the vengeance of God, Jeremiah 34:18 . The covenants which more especially relate to the human race, are generally called the covenant of works and the covenant of grace.
The covenant of works is that whereby God requires perfect obedience from his creatures, in such a manner as to make no express provision for the pardon of offences, committed against the precepts of it on the repentance of such offenders, but pronounces a sentence of death upon them, Genesis 2:1-25 : Galatians 4:24 . Psalms 89:3-4 . The covenant of grace is generally defined to be that which was made with Christ, as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed, Isaiah 42:1-6 . 1 Peter 1:20 . Is. 52: 13.
I. the covenant of works was made with Adam; the condition of which was, his perseverance during the whole time of his probation; the reward annexed to this obedience was the continuance of him and his posterity in such perfect holiness and felicity he then had while upon earth, and everlasting life with God hereafter. The penalty threatened for the breach of the command was condemnation; terminating in death temporal, spiritual, and eternal. The seals of this covenant were, the tree of knowledge and the tree of life; and, perhaps, the Sabbath and Paradise, Genesis 2:3 : Gal 6: 24; Romans 5:12 ; Romans 5:19 . This covenant was broken by Adam's eating of the forbidden fruit, whereby he and his posterity were all subject to ruin, Genesis 3:1-24 : Romans 5:12 ; Romans 5:19 ; and without the intervention of the divine grace and mercy, would have been lost for ever, Romans 3:23 .
The Divine Being, foreseeing this, in infinite wisdom and unspeakable compassion planned the covenant of grace; by virtue of which his people are reinstated in the blessings of purity, knowledge, and felicity, and that without a possibility of any farther defalcation.
II. The covenant of grace. Some divines make a distinction between the covenant of redemption and that of grace; the former, they say, was made with Christ in eternity; the latter with believers in time. Others object to this, and suppose it a needless distinction; for there is but one covenant of grace, and not two, in which the head and members are concerned; and, besides, the covenant of grace, properly speaking, could not be made between God and man; for what can man restipulate with God, which is in his power to do or give him, and which God has not a prior right unto? Fallen man has neither inclination to yield obedience, nor power to perform it. The parties, therefore, in this covenant, are generally said to be the Father and the Son; but Dr. Gill supposes that the Holy Ghost should not be excluded, since he is promised in it, and in consequence of it, is sent down into the hearts of believers; and which must be by agreement, and with his consent.
If we believe, therefore, in a Trinity, it is more proper to suppose that they were all engaged in this plan of the covenant, than to suppose that the Father and Son were engaged exclusive of the Holy Spirit, 1 John 5:6-7 . As to the work of the Son, it was the will and appointment of the Father that he should take the charge and care of his people, John 6:39 . Hebrews 2:13 , redeem them by his blood, John 17:1-26 : Hebrews 10:1-39 : obey the law in their room, Romans 10:4 . justify them by his righteousness, Daniel 9:24 , &c., and finally, preserve them to glory, Is. 40: 11. Jesus Christ, according to the divine purpose, became the representative and covenant head of his people, Ephesians 1:1-23 ; Colossians 1:18 . They were all considered in him, and represented by him, Ephesians 1:4 . promises of grace and glory made to them in him, Titus 1:2 . 1 Corinthians 1:20 . he suffered in their stead. 2 Corinthians 5:21 . He is also to be considered as the mediator of the covenant by whom justice is satisfied, and man reconciled to God.
See art. MEDIATOR.
He is also the surety of this covenant, Hebrews 7:22 . as he took the whole debt upon him, freed his people from the charge, obeyed the law, and engaged to bring his people to glory, Hebrews 2:1-18 . Is. 49: 5, 6. He is called the testator of the covenant, which is denominated a Testament, Hebrews 7:1-28 . Hebrews 9:15 . He disposes of his blessings according to his will or testament, which is unalterable, signed by his hand, and sealed by his blood. In this covenant, as we before observed, the Holy Spirit also is engaged. His assent is given to every part thereof; he brings his people into the enjoyment of its blessings, 1 Peter 1:2 . 2 Thessalonians 2:13 . He was concerned in the incarnation of Christ, Matthew 1:18 . and assisted his human nature, Hebrews 9:14 . He takes of the things of Christ, and shows them unto us; cleanses, enlightens, sanctifies, establishes, and comforts his people, according to the plan of the covenant, Romans 8:15-16 .
See HOLY GHOST.
III. The properties of this covenant are such as these:
1. It is eternal, being made before time, Ephesians 1:1-23 ; 2 Timothy 1:9 .
2. Divine as to its origin, springing entirely from free grace, Romans 11:5-6 . Psalms 89:1-52
3. It is absolute and unconditional, Ephesians 2:8-9 .
4. It is perfect and complete, wanting nothing, 2 Sam. xxiii 5.
5. It is sure and immoveable, Isaiah 54:10 . Isaiah 55:3 .
6. Called new in opposition to the old, and as its blessings will be always new, Hebrews 8:6 ; Hebrews 8:8 .
IV. These two covenants above-mentioned agree in some things, in others they differ.
1. "In both, " says Witsius, "the parties concerned are God, and Prayer of Manasseh 1:1 :
2. In both, the same promise of eternal life.
3. The condition of both is the same, perfect obedience to the law prescribed; for it is not worthy of God to admit man to a blessed communion with him but in the way of holiness.
4. In Both is the same end, the glory of God.
But they differ in the following respects:
1. In the covenant of works, the character or relation of God is that of a supreme lawgiver, and the chief good rejoicing to communicate happiness to his creatures. In the covenant of grace he appears as infinitely merciful, adjudging life to the elect sinner, agreeably to his wisdom and justice.
2. In the covenant of works there was no mediator: the covenant of grace has a mediator, Christ.
3. In the covenant of works, the condition of perfect obedience was required to be performed by man himself in covenant. In the covenant of grace the same condition is proposed, but to be performed by a mediator.
4. In the covenant of works man is considered as working, and the reward as to be given of debt. In the covenant of grace the man in covenant is considered as believing; eternal life being given as the merit of the mediator, out of free grace, which excludes all boasting.
5. In the covenant of works something is required as a condition, which being performed entitles to reward. The covenant of grace consists not of conditions, but of promises: the life to be obtained; faith, by which we are made partakers of Christ; perseverance, and, in a word, the whole of salvation, are absolutely promised.
6. The special end of the covenant of works was the manifestation of the holiness, goodness, and justice of God; but the special end of the covenant of grace, is the praise of the glory of his grace, and the revelation of his unsearchable and manifold wisdom."
7. The covenant of works was only for a time, but the covenant of grace stands sure for ever.
V. The administration of the covenant of grace.
The covenant of grace, under the Old Testament, was exhibited by promises, sacrifices, types, ordinances, and prophecies. Under the New it is administered in the preaching of the Gospel, baptism, and the Lord's supper; in which grace and salvation are held forth in more fulness, evidence, and efficacy to all nations, 2 Corinthians 3:6-18 . Hebrews 8:1-13 : Matthew 28:19-20 . But in both periods, the mediator, the whole substance, blessings, and manner of obtaining an interest therein by faith, are the very same, without any difference, Hebrews 11:6 . Galatians 3:7 ; Galatians 3:14 . The reader, who may wish to have a more enlarged view of this subject, may peruse Witsius, Strong, or Boston on the Covenants, in the former of which especially he will find the subject masterly handled. CONVENANT, in ecclesiastical history, denotes a contract or convention agreed to by the Scotch, in the year 1638, for maintaining their religion free from innovation. In 1581, the general assembly of Scotland drew up a confession of faith, or national covenant, condemning episcopal government, under the name of hierarchy, which was signed by James I. and which he enjoined on all his subjects. It was again subscribed in 1590 and 1596. The subscription was renewed in 1638, and the subscribers engaged by oath to maintain religion in the same state as it was in 1580, and to reject all innovations introduced since that time.
This oath, annexed to the confession of faith, received the name of Covenant, as those who subscribed it were called Covenanters. Solemn league and covenant, was established in the year 1643, and formed a bond of union between Scotland and England. It was sworn to and subscribed by many in both nations; who hereby solemnly abjured popery and prelacy, and combined together for their mutual defence. It was approved by the parliament and assembly at Westminister, and ratified by the general assembly of Scotland in 1645. King Charles I. disapproved of it when he surrendered himself to the Scots army in 1646; but, in 1650, Charles Ii. declared his approbation both of this and the national covenant by a solemn oath; and, in August of the same year, made a farther declaration at Dunfermline to the same purpose, which was also renewed on occasion of his coronation at Scone, in 1651. The covenant was ratified by parliament in this year; and the subscription of it was required by every member, without which, the constitution of the parliament was declared null and void. It produced a series of distractions in the subsequent history of that country, and was voted illegal by parliament, and provision made against it. Stat. 14. Car. 2, 100:4.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Covenant
COVENANT . The term is of frequent occurrence in the Bible, and is used in the general sense of a compact or agreement between parties, and also in the more technical and legal sense of an arrangement entered into by God, and confirmed or sealed with the due formalities. The Hebrew word ( berîth ) has a similarly wide signification; whilst the Greek ( diathçkç ) is used alike in the classics and on the papyri in the further sense of ‘testament’ or ‘will,’ though Aristophanes ( Av . 439) is a good witness for the meaning of mutual agreement. The rendering ‘testament’ is retained by the RV [1] in two places only ( Hebrews 9:16-17 ; cf. margin of Galatians 3:15 ), and is perpetuated in the titles given to the two main parts of the Bible (see Testament).
As for the formalities in concluding a covenant, the primitive way seems to have been for the two parties to swallow each a drop of the other’s blood, thus becoming covenant-brothers. This actual mingling of blood soon became distasteful, and substitutes were found, such as the cutting of sacrificial animals into two parts, between which the contracting parties passed (Genesis 15:10 ; Genesis 15:17 , Jeremiah 34:18 f.), the meat probably being eaten afterwards in a joint meal. This ritual appears to have been inherited from the nomadic period, and it afterwards generally gave way to a solemn oath or invocation of God, combining a pledge to observe the covenant ( Genesis 26:31 , Hebrews 6:17 ) and the imprecation of a curse on non-observance ( Deuteronomy 27:15 ff.). Sometimes a handshake took the place of the oath ( Ezra 10:19 , Proverbs 6:1 ; Proverbs 17:18 ; Proverbs 22:26 , 1 Chronicles 29:24 marg., 1Ma 6:58 ), or was added to it ( Ezekiel 17:18 ). In very early times an agreement between two men was sometimes confirmed by setting up a pillar or a heap of stones ( Genesis 31:44-48 ), the religious sanction being added ( Genesis 31:49 f., Genesis 31:53 ). When God was Himself directly one of the parties, and an obligation was thought to be assumed by Him rather than by both, a token was substituted ( Genesis 9:12 ); but in these cases the transaction takes the form chiefly of a pledge or assurance, though the idea of some obligation upon the other party is often implicit. Compacts would often be made or confirmed at a shrine; and the god was invoked as a witness ( Genesis 31:49 ff., Joshua 24:27 , 2 Kings 11:4 ; 2 Kings 23:3 ), or a sacrificial meal accompanied the act ( Genesis 26:30 ; Genesis 31:54 , 2 Samuel 3:20 ). Sprinkling of sacrificial blood ( Exodus 24:8 , Zechariah 9:11 , Hebrews 9:20 ) was a specially solemn indication of God’s approving presence and of the obligations undertaken; and its significance survives and is deepened in the death of Christ ( Hebrews 10:29 ; Hebrews 13:20 ) and in the Eucharist ( Matthew 26:28 , Mark 14:24 , Luke 22:20 , 1 Corinthians 11:25 ).
Of the covenants referred to in Scripture, there are two classes.
1. Covenants between men . These, again, are of several kinds, the most frequent being international alliances ( e.g. Genesis 21:27 , Joshua 9:6 , Psalms 83:5 , Amos 1:9 ), judicial decisions and codes ( Sir 38:33 , possibly Exodus 24:7 ), agreements between a ruler and the people ( 2 Samuel 5:3 , Daniel 9:27 ), and civil and domestic compacts of every variety. The word was used for alliances of friendship ( 1 Samuel 18:3 , Psalms 55:20 ), and of marriage ( Proverbs 2:17 , Malachi 2:14 ). By an easy metaphor, a covenant in the sense of an imposed will may be made with the eyes ( Job 31:1 ); or, in the other sense of agreement, with the stones ( Job 5:23 ), but not with Leviathan ( Job 41:4 ), because of his greatness and intractability, nor wisely with death either in scorn of God ( Isaiah 28:15 ; Isaiah 28:18 ) or in yearning ( Wis 1:16 ). In Daniel 11:22 ‘the prince of the covenant’ is sometimes rendered ‘a prince in league with him’; but if the other translation stands, ‘covenant’ will represent the nation as a religious community (cf. Daniel 11:28 ; Daniel 11:30 , Psalms 74:20 ), and the prince will be the high priest, Onias III., who was deposed by Antiochus about b.c. 174. Similarly in Malachi 3:1 ‘the messenger of the covenant’ may be the attendant of God, His instrument in dealing with the nation (cf. RVm [2] ).
2. Covenants between God and men . The idea of a covenant with Adam, beyond the simple injunction of Genesis 2:16-17 , has been found by some writers in Sir 17:12 , which is more easily interpreted of the transactions on Horeb ( Deuteronomy 5:3 ). In Psalms 25:14 , as in Psalms 55:20 , the word has its fundamental meaning of an alliance of friendship, with a specific allusion in the former case to the Deuteronomic covenant of the tenth verse. In other cases the technical meaning of an agreement with signs and pledges is more conspicuous. The Noachian covenant ( Genesis 6:18 ; Genesis 9:8-17 , Isaiah 54:9 f., Jeremiah 33:20 ; Jeremiah 33:25 ) guarantees the stability of natural law. The covenant with Abraham ( Genesis 15:18 ; Genesis 17:2-21 ) was confirmed in its promise to Isaac and Jacob ( Exodus 2:24 , Leviticus 26:42 , Psalms 105:9 f.), and ensured a blessing through their seed to all nations, circumcision being adopted as the token (cf. Acts 7:8 , 1Ma 1:15 ). Of still greater significance was the covenant at Horeb or Sinai ( Exodus 19:5 ; Exodus 34:10 ; Exodus 34:27 f. et al. ), which was renewed in the plains of Moab ( Deuteronomy 29:1 ), and is frequently referred to in the OT. It was really a constitution given to Israel by God, with appointed promise and penalty, duly inscribed on the tables of the covenant ( Deuteronomy 9:9 ; Deuteronomy 9:11 ; Deuteronomy 9:15 ), which were deposited in the ark ( Deuteronomy 10:2 ; Deu 10:5 , 1 Kings 8:9 ; 1Ki 8:21 , 2 Chronicles 5:10 , Hebrews 9:4 ). Elsewhere the covenant is described as set forth in words ( Exodus 34:28 , Deuteronomy 29:9 ) and written in a book ( Exodus 24:7 , 2 Kings 23:2 ). Amongst other covenants of minor importance are that with Phinehas establishing an everlasting priesthood in his line ( Numbers 25:12 f.), and that with David establishing an everlasting kingdom ( Psalms 89:3 f., Jeremiah 33:21 ; cf. 2 Samuel 7:1-29 ). Joshua and the people covenant to serve Jehovah only ( Joshua 24:25 ); so Jehoiada and the people ( 2 Kings 11:17 ). Hezekiah and the people solemnly agree to reform the worship ( 2 Chronicles 29:10 ); Josiah ( 2 Kings 23:3 ) and Ezra ( Ezra 10:3 ) lead the people into a covenant to observe the Law.
Whilst the Sinaitic covenant is rightly regarded as the charter of the Jewish dispensation, the establishment by God of a new constitution was contemplated by a series of prophets (Jeremiah 31:31 ; Jeremiah 31:33 ; Jeremiah 32:40 ; Jeremiah 50:5 , Isaiah 55:3 ; Isaiah 59:21 ; Isaiah 61:8 , Ezekiel 16:60 ; Ezekiel 16:62 ; Ezekiel 20:37 ; Ezekiel 34:25 ). Some of the pledges were new, and not confined in their range to Israel, whilst the Messianic Servant becomes ‘for a covenant of the people’ ( Isaiah 42:6 f., Isaiah 49:8 ; cf. ‘messenger of the covenant,’ Malachi 3:1 ). The Sinaitic covenant is thus transformed, and, whilst continuing as a note of racial separation until the period for the Incarnation was come, gave way then to a new dispensation with increased emphasis on personal religion and the provision of means adequate to ensure it ( Hebrews 8:6-13 ). Yet the ancient covenant, even that with Abraham, was everlasting ( Genesis 17:7 ), and still stands in its supreme purpose ( Leviticus 26:44 f., Acts 3:25 , Romans 11:26 f.) of making men the people of God, the new elements consisting mainly in the adoption of more effective influences and inspiration. The Exile is sometimes thought of as marking the dissolution of the Old Covenant ( Jeremiah 31:31 ff.), though the new one was not fully introduced until some centuries later. The act of making the New Covenant is compared with the transactions in the wilderness ( Ezekiel 20:36 ff.). On God’s part there is forgiveness with the quickening of the inner life of man ( Ezekiel 36:24 ff.). And both the activity and the blessedness are associated with the Messianic expectations ( Jeremiah 33:15 f., Ezekiel 37:21-28 , Luke 1:20 ).
In the later OT writings the word ‘covenant,’ as appears from the previous citations, has lost much of its technical signification, and does not always denote even a formal act of agreement, but becomes almost a synonym, and that without much precision, for the conditions of religion (Psalms 103:18 ). St. Paul recognizes a series of covenants ( Romans 9:4 , Ephesians 2:12 ) on an ascending scale of adequacy ( 2 Corinthians 3:6 , Galatians 4:24 ff.; cf. Hebrews 7:22 ; Hebrews 8:6 ff.); and Sinai is but a stage ( Galatians 3:15 ff.) in the course from Abraham to Christ.
Of special phrases, two or three may present some difficulty. ‘A covenant of salt’ (Numbers 18:19 , 2 Chronicles 13:5 ) is a perpetual covenant, the eating of salt together being a token of friendship as sealed by sacred hospitality. ‘The salt of the covenant’ ( Leviticus 2:13 ) has probably the same primary suggestion, as at natural accompaniment of the sacrificial meal, and with it constituting an inviolable bond. Sometimes the two great divisions of Scripture are called the books of the Old and of the New Covenant respectively. The name ‘Book of the Covenant’ (see next article) is given to Exodus 20:22-23 ; that of ‘Little Book of the Covenant’ to Exodus 34:11-26 . A distinction is often drawn between the Covenant of Works, assumed to have been made by God with Adam ( Genesis 2:17 ), and that of Grace or Redemption ( 2 Timothy 1:9 ), whereby Christ becomes to man the medium of all spiritual blessings.
R. W. Moss.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Covenant, Book of the
COVENANT, BOOK OF THE . The oldest code of Hebrew law which has come down to us is contained in Exodus 20:22 to Exodus 23:33 . It receives its name from the expression in Exodus 24:7 , while its character as a covenant is demonstrated by the promises attached to the keeping of it ( Exodus 23:20-33 ). Owing to the confused form in which the Book of Exodus has been transmitted, doubt has been expressed as to the limits of the Book of the Covenant. Some maintain that the words in Exodus 24:7 refer only to ch. 23; others would make them include 21 23; Driver holds with the generally accepted opinion that the code begins with Exodus 20:22 . The close proximity of the Decalogue ( Exodus 20:1-17 ) might lead to the inference that both codes were given at the same time. But the Book of the Covenant is certainly not a law that was ‘delivered’; it is a series of decisions gradually gathered together. It has been incorporated by the compiler at this particular place in the Book of Exodus, with the intention of bringing the ancient codes together.
1. Contents . These fall into two broad divisions:
(1) mishpâtim , or ‘judicial decisions.’ In early Semitic life justice was administered according to a series of tôrôth , or judicial and priestly decisions, originally transmitted orally, but gradually written down for more exact use as precedents. The Book of the Covenant was such a series, and was probably committed to writing, in the first instance, to serve as a hand-book for those who had to administer the law. Hypothetical cases are put in the regular form, ‘If … then …’: e.g. Exodus 21:26 ‘If a man smite the eye of his servant or the eye of his maid that it perish; (then) he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake.’ Sometimes the form changes slightly; the crime and the punishment attached to it are stated in the briefest possible way: e.g. Exodus 21:12 ‘He that smiteth a man so that he die shall be surely put to death.’ This collection of mishpâtim reflects an extremely simple state of society. It deals with the rights of the male and female slave ( Exodus 21:1-11 ); murder and homicide ( Exodus 21:12-15 ); injuries to the body, not resulting in death ( Exodus 21:16-32 ); injuries to cattle ( Exodus 21:33-36 ); theft ( Exodus 22:1-5 ); arson ( Exodus 22:6 ); breach of trust ( Exodus 22:7-13 ); loans ( Exodus 22:14-15 ; Exodus 22:25-27 ); seduction ( Exodus 22:16-17 ). The injunctions put in the shorter form cover murder, abduction, the cursing of parents, bestiality ( Exodus 21:12 ; Exodus 21:15-17 , Exodus 22:19 ). The prominence given in this code to the ox, ass, and sheep ( Exodus 21:28 to Exodus 22:10 ) shows that it was originally drawn up for a society that was predominantly agricultural. In several respects, however, the code indicates a considerable measure of progress. A limitation is imposed on the lex talionis , in the drawing of a distinction between premeditated murder and accidental homicide. The service of a slave cannot last beyond six years unless with his own consent, and then his determination to remain in slavery is sealed by a solemn act. Apart from retaliation there is no punishment, except a pecuniary compensation. The thief who will not make restitution is the only wrong-doer who loses his liberty. The position of women is that the daughter is the property of her father, who receives money for her when he gives her in marriage, and also exacts from any who should dishonour her the price she would have brought as a bride; the injury is thought of as being done not to the daughter, who is only a chattel, but to the father.
(2) debârim , or ‘commands.’ In form, these are akin to the commands of the Decalogue, being introduced with ‘Thou shalt,’ or ‘Thou shalt not.’ In substance, they are concerned with religious observances to a much greater extent than the mishpâtim , and do not give the same prominence to agricultural life. Exodus 20:24-26 deals with the construction of an altar. (Stade, Bibl. Theol . § 57, thinks that this command is the product of a period of reaction in the time of the later monarchy, and that it was aimed at the brazen altar which Solomon had made, and at the centralization of worship in Jerusalem.) Other matters dealt with are witchcraft ( Exodus 23:10-12 ); the treatment of strangers ( Exodus 22:21 ); the reviling of God (or judges) and rulers ( Exodus 22:28-29 ); the offering of the first fruits and firstlings ( Exodus 22:29-30 ); the eating of animals found torn in the field ( Exodus 22:31 ); just judgment ( Exodus 23:1-3 ; Exodus 23:6-8 ); the year of rest, and the Sabbath ( Exodus 22:18 ); feasts ( Exodus 23:14-16 ). The three feasts mark points in the agricultural year, the beginning and the end of harvest and the end of the vintage. Leaven is not to be eaten in connexion with the blood of the sacrifice, and the fat of the sacrifice is to be burned the same night ( Exodus 23:16-19 ); but apart from these there are no matters of sacrificial ritual insisted on. Whoever sacrifices to any other god than Jehovah is to be placed under the ban ( Exodus 22:20 ). Exodus 23:20-33 seems to he the work of the compiler. The familiar style of Deut. appears in Exodus 23:23 ; but in this section there would appear to be vestiges of an older text ( Exodus 23:28-31 ).
2. Date . As to the date of the Book of the Covenant, there is no evidence save what the document itself affords us. But the state of society reflected in it is primitive. Agriculture is the industry of the people. The law of blood-revenge is just beginning to he modified; woman has as yet no property in herself; sacrifice is emerging from its primitive domestic character; there is as yet no clear conception of a State. The code would thus seem to date from the days of the desert wandering, and to he older than the Decalogue itself. See, further, artt. Exodus and Hexateuch.
R. Bruce Taylor.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Salt, Covenant of
See Covenant ; Covenant of Salt .
Holman Bible Dictionary - New Covenant
See Covenant .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Lily of the Covenant, Lily of the Testimony
Translation of the Hebrew shushan eduth in the title of Psalm 60:1 , taken as a reference to the hymn tune (NAS margin, NIV, NRSV, REB). KJV, RSV simply transliterate the Hebrew.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - New Covenant
Eschatological stage of salvation history in which God, through the work of the Messiah and the Spirit, would unconditionally bring about Israel's full salvation.
The Old Testament . The only explicit reference to the new covenant in the Old Testament is found in Jeremiah 31:31-34 . The prophet contrasts the existing covenant made with the fathers when he brought them out of Egypt (cf. Exodus 24:8 ) with a covenant that God will make with the house of Israel and Judah in the latter days. The new covenant is distinguished from the older covenant in four ways: (1) God will write the law in the minds and on the hearts of those in the new covenant; (2) God will be the God of those in the new covenant and they will be his people; (3) those in the new covenant will know God; (4) God will forgive the iniquities and the sins of those in the new covenant. The new covenant, therefore, has two basic characteristics: an internal spiritual transformation resulting in a new relationship with God and a new possibility of obedience and forgiveness of sins. Jeremiah 31:31-34 falls into the context of the promise of the future regathering of Israel and its restoration to the land, which Jeremiah 29:10 says will take place after seventy years of exile.
Synonyms for the new covenant appear in other Old Testament texts. In Jeremiah what is denoted as the new covenant in 31:31-33—with the exception of the explicit promise of the forgiveness of sinsis also called an everlasting covenant (32:37-41; 50:5). Ezekiel 16 contrasts Jerusalem's (a metonymy for all Israel) present state of unfaithfulness with its beginnings and its future. Like an exposed child Israel was helpless until Yahweh adopted her. But she grew up to be a prostitute, unfaithful to her original benefactor. Nonetheless, Yahweh will both remember the covenant made with Israel in her youth and establish an everlasting covenant with the nation, making expiation for all that it has done. God speaks through Isaiah, saying that he will make an everlasting covenant with his restored people (61:8).
In Ezekiel 34:25 , God promises that he will gather his sheep Israel and place his servant David over them as their shepherd; then he will make a covenant of peace with them, so that Israel will live in the land in safety and prosperity. In Ezekiel 37:24-28 , God promises that he will make a covenant of peace with a restored Israel under a Davidic king. The people will obey God; he will be their God and they will be his people. This covenant of peace is also called an everlasting covenant. In Isaiah 54:8-10 , Yahweh promises that when he restores Zion he will never again become angry, but will have compassion on his people. His covenant of peace will not be removed.
In the prophets the promises of restoration, the new possibility of obedience, and national forgiveness of sin occur frequently without being connected to the concepts of the new covenant, eternal covenant, or covenant of peace. It should be noted also that in Ezekiel 36:26-27 the new possibility of obedience given at the restoration is associated with the giving of the Spirit (cf. also Isaiah 32:15 ; 44:3 ; Ezekiel 37:12-13 ; 39:29 ; Joel 2:28 ).
Isaiah's Servant of the Lord plays a role in the realization of the (new ) covenant. Yahweh says of his Servant in 42:6 that he will make the Servant a covenant for the people and a light for the nations. Similarly in 49:6-8 the Servant is said to be appointed to restore the tribes of Jacob, be a light to the nations, and become a covenant for the people. The "people" likely denotes Israel as opposed to the nations, which denotes the rest of humanity. Gentiles will benefit from God's eschatological saving act.
The Second-Temple Period . Insofar as it denotes Israel's eschatological salvation, the concept of the new covenant permeates Jewish literature of the second temple period. The restoration under Ezra and Nehemiah was seen as only the precursor to the salvation promised by God through the prophets and did not exhaust these promises. There are, however, only a few instances where Jeremiah 31:31-34 and related passages have had direct influence on the conceptualities of the extant literature of the second temple period. Jubilees 1:22-25 speaks of the new possibility of obedience to be given at the restoration. Baruch 2:30-35 says that God will make an everlasting covenant with his people at the restoration, so that he will be their God and they will be his people. In the same work (3:5-7) it is implied that this new possibility of obedience was given to the exiles even before the restoration. In two places in the Damascus Document (text A) it is said explicitly that those who belong to the community have actually entered the new covenant (6:19; 8:21; cf. also 20:12 text B). Because of their disobedience, the members of the covenant of the forefathers came under the wrath of God, which culminated in the exile; in contrast God made a covenant forever with the remnant who held fast to the commandments, revealing to them the hidden things in which Israel went astray (3:10-14). It is not so much that there exists in God's purposes two different covenants, but rather one covenant with two different phases: a preliminary phase ending in failure and an eschatological phase ending in God's final victory over all wickedness, beginning at some point after the exile. In 1QH 4:10-12, the author speaks of the Torah engraved upon his heart, possibly implying that the promise of internal spiritual transformation in Jeremiah 31:31-34 and related passages has been realized; there is also a probable reference to the new covenant in 1QHab 2:3.
Although the Feast of Weeks was understood by some Jews of the second temple period as the time when God made covenants with human beings and became, therefore, the occasion of the annual renewal of the covenant (cf. Jub. 6:17; 1QS ), the new covenant by implication came to be associated with Passover, since Passover was seen as the day of eschatological salvation.
The New Testament . At his last Passover meal Jesus said of the cup of blessing that it was the blood of the covenant poured out for many (Mark 14:24 ); the blood of the covenant poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins (Matthew 26:28 ); the new covenant in my blood (1 Corinthians 11:25 ); the new covenant in my blood poured out for you (Luke 22:20 ). In so doing he was affirming that his death was the means by which the new covenantthe kingdom of Godwould come about. That Jesus did this on Passover is also significant, since Passover and eschatological salvation were salvation-historically related concepts. Jesus likely conceived himself as the eschatological Passover sacrifice bringing about the eschatological salvation of all Israel, typologically parallel to the original exodus. In addition, Jesus probably understood his death and its salvation-historical significance in light of the Servant of the Lord passages. As the servant, Jesus would be a covenant for the people and a light for the nations, but only by means of his vicarious and expiatory death.
Apart from its occurrence in the words of institution quoted by Paul in 1 Corinthians 11 , the concept of the new covenant is found only twice in Paul's writings. Paul understood the new covenant as having been realized through the death and resurrection of Christ and the giving of the Spirit, and contrasted this salvation-historical phase with that of the law. In Galatians 4:21-31 he contrasted two covenants represented by Hagar and Sarah and their sons Ishmael and Isaac. The former produced slavery to the law (represented by Mount Sinai/present Jerusalem), whereas the latter produced freedom from the law and correlatively life in the Spirit (represented by Jerusalem above). In 2 Corinthians 3:3-18 Paul similarly contrasted the old covenant that condemned (identified with the law or letter) with the new covenant that brought righteousness (identified with the Spirit). Paul's statement in 2 Corinthians 3:3 that the Corinthians were a letter of Christ written with the Spirit on the fleshy tablets of the heart evokes the Old Testament promise that God would write the law upon the hearts of his people.
The author of Hebrews explicitly asserted that Jeremiah 31:31-34 was fulfilled by means of the death of Jesus, who was both the greater high priest and better sacrifice. Jesus as mediator of the new covenant was superior to the Aaronic high priests, the mediators of the first covenant; likewise, as the better sacrifice, Jesus truly expiated guilt unlike the blood of animals. The focus of the letter is on the forgiveness of sins promised in the new covenant; the author's purpose is to prove that the levitical sacrificial system, the means of obtaining forgiveness in the first covenant, has been rendered obsolete and will soon disappear. Jesus' blood is said to be the blood of the covenant parallel to the blood of the first covenant in Exodus 24:8 .
Two questions arise from the New Testament's statements about the new covenant: How does the new possibility of obedience said to consist in conformity to the law relate to Paul's and other New Testament authors' claim that at least parts of the Torah are obsolete? Why when speaking about the realization of the new covenant is the New Testament silent about the promise of Israel's restoration to the land? Dispensational theology distinguishes two fulfillments of the promise of the new covenant, one relating to the church as a present reality and the other relating to a restored Israel as a still future reality. The benefits of the new covenant received by the church are forgiveness and the Spirit (the means of the internal spiritual transformation) whereas restored Israel will receive in addition the promised land under the Messiah's kingship and will be subject to the law (written on the heart) as the governing code of the messianic kingdom. (In the church age believers are not under the law.) Paul's citation of Isaiah 59:20-21 in reference to the future salvation and forgiveness of empirical Israel can be interpreted as meaning that Paul believed that the new covenant had yet another future fulfillment. Covenant theology, on the other hand, has been willing to spiritualize the new covenant promises and to see their nonliteral fulfillment in the church. The law written on the heart is the moral lawto which Christians are subjectand the promises of Israel's future restoration and prosperity relate symbolically to the church. The historical premillennial view offers something of a compromise between these two positions, allowing for the possibility of both the transmutation of the Old Testament promises and their literal fulfillment.
Barry D. Smith
See also Covenant ; Jeremiah, Theology of ; Lord's Supper, the
Bibliography . J. Fischer, Ev R Th (1989): 175-87; J. Hughes, NovT 21 (1979): 27-96; J. A. Huntjens, Revue de Qumran 8 (1972-75): 361-80; S. Lehne, The New Covenant in Hebrews ; W. E. Lemke, Int 37 (1983): 183-87.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant Person
A title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary to signify her Divine motherhood, that as the ark of old, made of incorruptible wood and adorned with pure gold, contained the precious treasures of the Divine law and the manna from heaven, so she, the true ark, bore within her not merely the law but the Lawgiver, not merely the Divine presence as manifested over the ark of the covenant, but the Divine One Himself, and the Living Bread from heaven.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant
names the original container for the Ten Commandments and the central symbol of God's presence with the people of Israel.
Old Testament The ark of ancient Israel is mysterious in its origins, its meanings, and its ultimate fate. Its many names convey the holy sense of God's presence. The Hebrew word for ark means simply “box, chest, coffin,” as is indicated by its use for the coffin of Joseph (Genesis 50:26 ) and for the Temple collection box of King Joash (2 Kings 12:9-10 ).
The names used for the ark define its meaning by the words which modify it. The word “covenant” in the name defines the ark from its original purpose as a container for the stone tablets upon which the Ten Commandments (sometimes called the “testimony”) were inscribed. Sometimes it is identified rather with the name of deity, “the ark of God,” or “the ark of the Lord” (Yahweh), or most ornately “the ark of the covenant of the Lord of hosts (Yahweh Sabaoth) who is enthroned on the cherubim” (1 Samuel 4:4 ).
The origin of the ark goes back to Moses at Sinai. The mysterious origin of the ark is seen by contrasting the two accounts of how it was made in the Pentateuch. The more elaborate account of the manufacture and ornamentation of the ark by the craftsman Bezalel appears in Exodus 25:10-22 ; Exodus 31:2 ,Exodus 31:2,31:7 ; Exodus 35:30-35 ; Exodus 37:1-9 . It was planned during Moses' first sojourn on Sinai and built after all the tabernacle specifications had been communicated and completed. The other account is found in Deuteronomy 10:1-5 . After the sin of the golden calf and the breaking of the original decalogue tablets, Moses made a plain box of acacia wood as a container to receive the new tables of the law.
A very ancient poem, the “Song of the Ark” in Numbers 10:35-36 , sheds some light on the function of the ark in the wanderings in the wilderness. The ark was the symbol of God's presence to guide the pilgrims and lead them in battle (Numbers 10:33 ,Numbers 10:33,10:35-36 ). If they acted in faithlessness, failing to follow this guidance, the consequences could be drastic (Numbers 14:39-45 ). Some passages suggest the ark was also regarded as the throne of the invisible deity, or his footstool (Jeremiah 3:16-17 ; Psalm 132:7-8 ). These various meanings of the ark should be interpreted as complementary rather than contradictory.
The ark was designed for mobility. Its size (about four feet long, two and a half feet wide, and two and a half feet deep) and rectangular shape were appropriate to this feature. Permanent poles were used to carry the ark, since no one was allowed to touch it, and only priestly (Levitical) personnel were allowed to carry it. The ark was the most important object within the tabernacle of the desert period, though its relationship to the tabernacle was discontinued sometime after the conquest of Canaan.
The ark played a prominent role in the “holy war” narratives of the crossing of the Jordan and the conquest, of Jericho (Joshua 3-6 ). After the conquest, it was variously located at Gilgal, Shechem (Joshua 8:30-35 ; see Deuteronomy 11:26-32 ; Deuteronomy 27:1-26 ) or Bethel (Judges 20:26 ), wherever the tribal confederacy was gathered for worship. Finally, it was permanently located at Shiloh, where a temple was built to house it (1 Samuel 1:9 ; 1 Samuel 3:3 ).
Because of the faithless superstition of the wicked sons of Eli, the Hebrew tribes were defeated in the battle of Ebenezer, and the ark was captured by the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:1 ). The adventures of the ark in the cities of Ashdod, Gath, and Ekron are told to magnify the strength and glory of the Lord of the ark. The Lord vanquished Dagon and spread bubonic plagues among the enemy until they propitiated the God of Israel by symbolic guilt offerings and a ritually correct sending away of the dread object (1 Samuel 5:1-6:12 ). The men of Bethshemesh welcomed the return of the ark, until they unwisely violated its holiness by looking into it (1Samuel 6:13-15,1 Samuel 6:19-20 ). Then it was carried to Kiriath-Jearim, where it remained in comparative neglect until David recovered the symbolism it had for the ancient tribal confederacy and moved it to his new capital and sanctuary in Jerusalem (1 Samuel 6:21-7:2 ; 2 Samuel 6:1 ). Abinadab and his sons (2 Samuel 6:3 ) seemed to have served the Lord of the ark faithfully until one son, Uzzah, was smitten for his rash touching of the holy object during David's first attempt to transport the ark from its “hill” at Kiriath-Jearim to his own city. In fear, David left the ark with Obed-edom the Gittite, whose household was blessed by its presence. More cautiously and with great religious fervor, David succeeded the second time in taking the ark into his capital city (2 Samuel 6:12-19 ).
Recent scholarship has suggested that on coronation occasions or annually at a festival of enthronement this ark ceremony was reenacted. Such an occasion would re-emphasize the promise to the Davidic dynasty, as well as the glory of the Lord of Hosts (Psalm 24:7-10 ;Psalms 24:7-10;132:1 ). Finally, Solomon built the Temple, planned by David, to house the ark, which he then transported into the holy of holies with elaborate festival ceremonies (1 Kings 8:1 ; 2 Chronicles 5:1 ).
The precise time of the theft or destruction of the ark is unknown. Some have suggested Shishak of Egypt plundered the Temple of this most holy object (1 Kings 14:25-28 ), but it seems more likely, from Jeremiah 3:16-17 , that the Babylonians captured or destroyed the ark in 587 B.C. with the fall of Jerusalem and the burning of the Temple. As Jeremiah predicted, the ark was never rebuilt for the second Temple, the holy of holies remaining empty.
Other mysteries of the ark are its relation to the cherubim, its ornate lid called the “mercy seat,” and its precise ritual usage during the time of the monarchy. Because the ark of the covenant was the central symbol of God's presence with His people Israel, its mysteries remain appropriately veiled within the inner sanctuary of the living God. See Holy of Holies ; Mercy Seat ; Tabernacle ; Temple.
New Testament Hebrews 9:1-10 shows the ark was a part of the old order with external regulations waiting for the new day of Christ to come with a perfect Sacrifice able to cleanse the human conscience. Revelation 11:19 shows the ark of the covenant will be part of the heavenly temple when it is revealed.
M. Pierce Matheney, Jr.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant Item
Sacred chest measuring about 45 x27 x27 inches (Exodus 37) and containing the Tables of the Law and perhaps also a golden vessel of manna and the rod of Aaron (Exodus 16; Numbers 17; 3Kings 8; Hebrews 9). It was constructed of setim-wood overlaid with gold within and without, and furnished with rings through which passed setim-wood bars for carrying it. Upon its cover, termed the "propitiatory," were two cherubim of beaten gold. The ark was the only piece of furniture placed in the inner room (holy of holies) of the Temple. The one time it was carried to battle by the Hebrews, it fell into the hands of the Philistines who, however, were soon compelled to restore it to Israel (1 Kings 4). From Cariathiarim David brought it solemnly to Jerusalem, and Solomon had it later on placed in the Temple. According to a tradition, the value of which is much discussed, the Ark, with the Tabernacle and the altar of incense, was hidden by Jeremias before the siege of Jerusalem by Nabuchodonosor (2Machabees 2); however, the view that it was carried to Babylon as a trophy (4Esdas 10) seems to enjoy greater probability.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Covenant, the New
This is an unconditional covenant that God has declared He will make with the houses of Judah and Israel: He will put His laws into their minds and write them upon their hearts; He will be their God, and will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and remember their sins no more. Jeremiah 31:31-34 , etc. The foundation for this was laid in the cross. This is obscured in the A.V. by the word (διαθήκη) not being uniformly translated. Sometimes it is rendered 'testament' and sometimes 'covenant.' At the institution of the Lord's supper the Lord spoke of His blood as 'the blood of the new covenant,' Matthew 26:28 ; 1 Corinthians 11:25 ; and 'He is the mediator of the new covenant.' Hebrews 9:15 ; Hebrews 12:24 . From which we gather that though the making of this covenant with Israel is still future, the principle of it, namely, that of sovereign grace, is that on which God is now acting as setting forth the terms on which He is with His people, the Lord Jesus being the Mediator, through whom allthe blessing is secured. See inter alia Romans 5:1-10 , and 2 Corinthians 3 where Paul speaks of himself and those with him as 'able ministers of the new covenant,' not of the letter which killeth, but of the spirit which giveth life. 2 Corinthians 3:6 . The word διαθήκη better always translated 'covenant,' except in Hebrews 9:16,17 , where the 'will or testament' of a man is referred to.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Covenant
To this subject as spoken of in scripture there are two branches:
1. man's covenant with his fellow, or nation with nation, in which the terms are mutually considered and agreed to: it is then ratified by an oath, or by some token, before witnesses. Such a covenant is alluded to in Galatians 3:15 ; if a man's covenant be confirmed it cannot be disannulled or added to. When Abraham bought the field of Ephron in Machpelah, he paid the money "in the audience of the sons of Heth" as witnesses, and it was thus made sure unto him. Genesis 23:16 . In the covenant Jacob made with Laban, they gathered a heap of stones to be witness between them, and "they did eat there upon the heap." Genesis 31:46 . When the Gibeonites deceived Joshua and the heads of Israel, "the men took of their victuals, and asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord, and . . . sware unto them." Joshua 9:14,15 . So to this day, if a stranger in the East can get the head of a tribe to eat with him, he knows he is safe, the eating is regarded as a covenant. In 2 Chronicles 13:5 we read of 'a covenant of salt;' and to eat salt together is also now regarded as a bond in the East.
2. The covenants made by God are of a different order. He makes His covenants from Himself, without consulting man. With Noah God made a covenant that he would not again destroy the world by a flood, and as a token of that covenant, He set the rainbow in the cloud. Genesis 9:8-17 . This kind of covenant takes the form of an unconditional promise. Such was God's covenant with Abraham, first as to his natural posterity, Genesis 15:4-6 ; and secondly, as to his seed, Christ. Genesis 22:15-18 . He gave him also the covenant of circumcision, Genesis 17:10-14 ; Acts 7:8 , — a seal of the righteousness of faith. Romans 4:11 .
The covenant with the children of Israel at Sinai, on the other hand, was conditional: if they were obedient and kept the law they would be blessed; but if disobedient they would be cursed. Deuteronomy 27,28 .
In the Epistle to the Galatians the apostle argues that the 'promise ' made by God — "the covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ" — could not be affected by the law which was given 430 years later. Galatians 3:16,17 . The promise being through Christ, the apostle could add respecting Gentile believers, "If ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to promise." Galatians 3:29 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Covenant
COVENANT.—In order to a correct apprehension of the term ‘covenant,’ as it is used by our Lord in the Gospels, a brief survey of the OT usage is necessary.
The covenant conception is of frequent occurrence in the OT. Used at first in connexion with single transactions and partial aspects of the religious intercourse between God and man, it later becomes the formula designating the entire structure and content of the religion of Israel in its most comprehensive sense. This latter representation occurs as early as Genesis 17:1-14, Exodus 19:5; Exodus 24:7-8, and often in Deuteronomy. The earlier covenants belonging to the time of Noah and Abraham (Genesis 6:18; Genesis 9:8-17; Genesis 15:18) do not yet possess this comprehensive character, but appear as solemn religious rites whereby some particular promise of God is made sure. Whether the word berith (בְּרִית) originally meant ‘enactment,’ ‘appointment,’ ‘law,’ a meaning which it undoubtedly has in several instances, or did from the beginning signify a two-sided agreement, cannot be determined with certainty, It seems easier to conceive of the former sense as developed out of the latter than the reverse. At any rate, the comprehensive signification in which it stands for the whole religious relationship between God and Israel, rests on the idea of the covenant as a two-sided agreement. It should be remembered, however, that the two-sidedness never extends so far that God and Israel appear on an equal footing in the determination of the covenant. The planning and proposing of the covenant belong exclusively to God. Still the fact that Israel voluntarily accepts the covenant is as strongly emphasized (Exodus 19:5; Exodus 24:3; Exodus 24:7, and elsewhere). Indeed, the covenant idea serves primarily to express the free, ethical, historically originated bond that exists between God and Israel. Its covenant character marks off the religion of Israel as a religion of real, conscious, spiritual fellowship between God and His people, in distinction from the religions of paganism, in which either the Deity and the creature are pantheistically fused, or the God-head after a deistic fashion is so far removed from the creature as to render true communion impossible, and where the relation between a national god and his worshippers is not a matter of choice but of necessity on both sides.
In the early Prophets the conception of the covenant is not particularly prominent. With Hosea, the figure of marriage, probably not viewed as yet by the prophet as a species of covenant, serves the same purpose. There is no reason, however, for denying that Hosea knew the covenant conception in its comprehensive religious sense, and on this ground to call in question the genuineness of 8:1. Greater prominence the covenant idea obtains from the age of Jeremiah onwards. Besides the emphasis thrown on the ethical-historical character of Israel’s religion, two other important principles attach themselves to the term, partly developing out of the principle just stated. On the one hand, the covenant idea begins to express the continuity of God’s dealings with His people; as it is a bond freely established, so it is the fruit of design and the fountain of further history, it has a prospective reference and makes Israel’s religion a growing thing; in a word, the covenant idea gathers around itself the thoughts we have in mind when speaking of a history of redemption and revelation. On the other hand, inasmuch as God is the originator of the covenant and has solemnly bound Himself not merely to fulfil His promises to Israel, but also to carry out His own purposes contemplated in the covenant, the same bond which originally expresses the freedom of the relation between God and Israel can also become the pledge of the absolute certainty, that God will not finally break with His people, Israel’s infidelity notwithstanding. In Isaiah 40-66, and especially in Jeremiah, the covenant thus stands to express the continuity and sureness of the accomplishment of the Divine purpose with reference to Israel. Out of the combination of these two ideas arises the Messianic or eschatological significance which the covenant idea obtains in both these prophets. In Isaiah 40-66 it is more than once introduced to emphasize the infallible character of the Divine promise given of old (Isaiah 54:9-10; Isaiah 55:3; Isaiah 59:21; Isaiah 61:8). In two passages (Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:8) the servant of Jehovah is designated as בּרִית עָם, a somewhat obscure phrase, of which the two most plausible interpretations are, either that the servant will be the instrument of realizing the future covenant between God and Israel, or, placing the emphasis on עָם, that he will be the means of establishing a people e, a e in which Israel, in contrast to its present scattered condition, will once more become a unified, organized nation. These two passages are of importance, because they bring the idea of the covenant into connexion with the “figure of the Servant of Jehovah, which, assuming that the latter was Messianically interpreted by our Lord and applied to Himself, would explain that He represents Himself as the inaugurator of a new covenant.
In Jeremiah the covenant idea appears as a Messianic idea in two forms. In so far as the promise given to the house of David was a promise pledged in solemn covenant, the Messianic blessings are a covenant gift (Jeremiah 33:20-21; cf. Psalms 89:28, Isaiah 55:3). This is an instance of the old application of the idea to a concrete promise, which, however, in the present case, owing to the wide scope of the promise involved, would easily become identified in the mind of later generations with the expectation of an eschatological covenant in the comprehensive sense. The latter is the other form in which Jeremiah uses the covenant with reference to the future (Jeremiah 31:31; Jeremiah 31:34). This is the only place where the notion of a new covenant occurs explicitly, although the thought itself is not foreign to the older prophets. Hosea has it in the form of the new marriage which Jehovah will contract with Israel. Jeremiah conceives of the new covenant as the outcome of the covenant character of the relation between God and Israel in general. To the prophet’s mind religion and the covenant have become so identified that the covenant idea becomes the stable, permanent element in the historical development; if in its old form the covenant disappears, then in a new form it must reappear. The newness will consist in the twofold feature, that the sin of the people will be forgiven, i.e. the former sin, and that the law of Jehovah, instead of being an outward, objective covenant obligation, will become an inward, subjective covenant reality, written on the heart in consequence of the universal and perfect knowledge of Jehovah which will prevail. This passage in Jeremiah lies at the basis of the NT use of the phrase ‘the new covenant.’
Two further passages in the prophets, to which a Messianic application of the covenant idea could easily attach itself, are Zechariah 9:11 and Malachi 3:1. In the former passage the original reads: ‘Because of the blood of thy covenant, I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water’; the LXX Septuagint has, in the second person of address to Jehovah, ‘Because of the blood of thy covenant, thou hast sent forth,’ etc. On the former rendering the covenant is the covenant made with Israel, or, since this interpretation of the suffix ‘thy’ is deemed impossible by some, we may refer the suffix to the compound phrase ‘covenant blood,’ and understand the phrase ‘thy covenant blood’ of the sacrificial blood by means of which Israel continually upholds and renews the covenant with Jehovah. On the rendering of the LXX Septuagint the covenant is represented as the covenant made and maintained by Jehovah. In the Malachi-passage the coming of the ‘angel’ or ‘messenger of the covenant’ is predicted. This ‘angel of the covenant’ is not identical with the Lord, but as a distinct person he accompanies the coming of the Lord to His temple. He is called ‘the angel of the covenant,’ either because he realizes the covenant, or because his coming is in virtue of the existing covenant. It is easy to see how on either view a significant connexion could be established between the Messiah and the covenant.
The LXX Septuagint regularly renders berith by διαθἡκη, the later Greek versions prefer συνθήκη. The latter term better expresses the idea of a two-sided agreement; but probably this was precisely the reason why the LXX Septuagint translators, desiring to emphasize the one-sided Divine origin and character of the covenant, avoided it. It should also be remembered that in not a few instances berith in the original meant not a covenant but an authoritative disposition, which, as stated above, is according to some scholars even the primary meaning of the word. On the side of the Greek, also, there were considerations which explain the choice of διαθήκη, in preference to συνθήκη. It is true, in classical Greek the former meant usually a testamentary disposition, and might in so tar have seemed unsuitable as a rendering for berith. But occasionally at least διαθήκη could stand for a two-sided agreement (Aristoph. Av. 432). The verb διατιθεσθαε was not bound to the notion of ‘testament,’ but signified authoritative arrangements generally. And above all things it should be noted that the testamentary διαθήκη among the Greeks before and at the time of the LXX Septuagint translation differed in many respects from our modern Roman-law ‘testament,’ and possessed features which brought it into closer contact with the Hebrew berith. The διαθὴκη was a solemn and public transaction of a religious character, by which an irrevocable disposition of rights and property was made, and which for its effect was not dependent on the death of the διαθέμενος, but immediately set in operation certain of the duties and relationships established. Thus conceived, the διαθἡκη could all the more easily become the equivalent of the berith between God and Israel, because already in the OT the idea of ‘the inheritance’ had significantly attached itself to that of the covenant.
In the NT the noun used is always διαθηκη, but the cognate forms of συνθήκη appear in the verb (Luke 22:5) and the adjective (Romans 1:31). διαθήκη occurs in the NT 33 times. The word retains the one-sided associations of the LXX Septuagint usage, yet in most cases the NT writers show themselves aware of the peculiar covenant-meaning descended with it from the OT. An additional possibility of interpreting it in the sense of testament was furnished by the fact that the blessings of the Messianic era were derived from the death of Christ. Hence in Hebrews 9:16-17 the new covenant is represented as a testament bestowing upon believers the eternal inheritance, because the death of Christ had to intervene to make the bestowal effectual. As Ramsay has pointed out (Expositor, Nov. 1898, pp. 321–330), this representation is based on Roman law, according to which a testament has no force until the death of the testator. On the other hand, the Pauline representation of Galatians 3:17-18 is based on the Graeco-Syrian law of the earlier period, under which the διαθήκη, once made, could not be subsequently modified, and took effect in certain directions immediately. No reflexion is here made on the death of the testator. Still, that διαθἡκη, does not here have the unmodified OT sense of ‘covenant,’ but means ‘testamentary disposition,’ is plain from the fact that ‘sonship’ and ‘heirship’ are connected with it in the course of the argument. These two passages in Hebrews and Galatiana are the only NT passages which explicitly refer to the testamentary character of the διαθἡκη. In how far in other instances the associations of the testament idea lay in the speaker’s or writer’s mind cannot be determined with certainty (cf. Acts 3:25 υἱαὶ τῆς διαθήκης; Galatians 4:24 διαθήκη γεννῶσα εἰς δουλείαν)
In the Authorized Version of the NT διαθήκη is in 14 instances rendered by ‘testament’ (Matthew 26:28, Mark 14:24, Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 3:14, Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 9:15 bis. Hebrews 9:16-18; Hebrews 9:20, Revelation 11:19). As a marginal alternative ‘testament’ is also offered in Romans 9:4, Galatians 3:15; Galatians 4:25, Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 12:24; Hebrews 13:20. In all these cases, except in Hebrews 9:16-17, the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 has replaced ‘testament’ by ‘covenant,’ offering, however, the former as a marginal alternative in Matthew 26:28, Mark 14:24, Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 3:14, Galatians 3:15; Galatians 3:17, Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 8:6-9 bis., Hebrews 8:10; Hebrews 8:13; Hebrews 9:15 bis., Hebrews 9:20, Revelation 11:19. In the American Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 the marginal reading ‘testament’ has in all these cases been dropped, except in Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 9:20. The principle by which the Revisers were guided is plain. The only question can be whether, in view of what was stated above, they were right in rendering ‘covenant’ and not ‘testament’ in Galatians 3:15; Galatians 3:17. The point to be determined in each case is not whether the associations of ‘testament’ were present to the speaker’s or writer’s mind, but whether those of ‘covenant’ were absent: only where the latter is the case ought ‘covenant’ to be abandoned, and Galatians 3:15; Galatians 3:17 seems to belong to this class. What motives in each case underlie the choice of ‘testament’ and ‘covenant’ in Authorized Version is not so plain. Possibly these motives were not always exegetical, but derived from the usage of earlier (English and other) versions. The following explanation is offered tentatively: wherever the contrast between the old and the new διαθηκη is expressed or implied, ‘testament’ was chosen, because ‘testament’ had long since, on the basis of the Latin Bible, become familiar as a designation of the two canons of Scripture, in the forms ‘the Old Testament,’ ‘the New Testament.’ This will explain Matthew 26:28, Mark 14:24, Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 3:14, Hebrews 7:22. In Hebrews 9:15-20, of course, the import of the passage itself required ‘testament.’ Hebrews 8:6. (‘a better covenant’) Hebrews 8:7. (‘that first covenant’) Hebrews 8:8. (‘a new covenant’) Hebrews 8:9-10; Heb_8:13 (‘a new covenant’), Hebrews 9:1 (‘the first covenant’), Hebrews 12:24 (‘the new covenant’), seem to run contrary to the explanation offered, but in each of these instances the context furnished a special reason for favouring ‘covenant’: in Hebrews 8:6-13 the discourse revolves around the quotation from Jeremiah, which had ‘covenant’; Hebrews 9:1 is still continuous with this section, and in Hebrews 12:24 the contrast between the mediatorship of Moses and that of Jesus, and the reference to the transaction of Exodus 24, suggested ‘covenant.’ In 2 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 3:14 ‘testament’ was especially suitable, because here the idea of διαθἡκη might seem to approach that of a body of writings (2 Corinthians 3:14 ‘the reading of the Old Testament’). Strange and unexplained is Revelation 11:19 (‘the ark of his testament’), cf. Hebrews 9:4 (‘the ark of the covenant’).
It seems strange at first sight that a conception so prominent in the OT is so little utilized in the NT. Perhaps the main reason for this was the intensity of the eschatological interest in that age, which made other terms appear more suitable to describe the new order of things felt to be approaching or to have already begun. On the whole, the covenant idea had not been intimately associated with eschatology in the OT. The consciousness that the work of Christ had ushered in a new state of things for the present life of the people of God, distinct and detached from the legal life of Judaism, for which latter the word ‘covenant ‘had become the characteristic expression, dawned only gradually upon the early Church. The phrase ‘Kingdom of God,’ while emphasizing the newness of the Messianic order of things, leaves unexpressed the superseding of the Mosaic institutions by the introduction of something else.
With this agrees the fact that the conception of Christianity as a covenant is most familiar to precisely those two NT writers who with greatest clearness and emphasis draw the contrast between the Mosaic forms of life and those of the Christian era, viz. St. Paul and the author of Hebrews. Even with St. Paul, however, the contrast referred to finds only occasional expression in terms of the covenant: as a rule, it is expressed in other ways, such as the antithesis between law and grace, works and faith. The Epistle to the Hebrews is the only NT writing which gives to the covenant idea the same central dominating place as it has in the greater part of the OT.
In the Gospels the word ‘covenant,’ in a religious sense, occurs but twice, in Luke 1:72, and in the words spoken by our Lord at the Supper. In the former passage the covenant with Abraham is referred to, and the Messianic salvation represented as a fulfilment of the promise of that covenant. The emergence of the idea here is in harmony with the best OT traditions: it expresses the consciousness of the sovereign grace and undeserved faithfulness of God which pervades the prophetic pieces preserved for us in the gospel of the incarnation according to St. Luke. Of course, in a broad sense the idea of the relation between God and Israel embodied in the word ‘covenant’ underlies and pervades all our Lord’s teaching. Notwithstanding the so-called ‘intensive universalism’ and the recognition of religion as a natural bond between God and man, antedating all positive forms of intercourse, our Lord was a thoroughgoing supernaturalist, who viewed both the past relationship of God to Israel and the future relationship to be established in the Kingdom not as the outcome of the natural religion of man, but as the product of a special, historic, supernatural approach of God to man, such as the OT calls ‘covenant.’ While probably the legalistic shade of meaning which the word had obtained was less congenial to Him, He must have been in full accord with the genuine OT principle expressed in it. Mark 8:38 and Matthew 12:39 speak of the Jews as an ‘adulterous generation,’ and probably the later prophetic representation of the covenant as a marriage-covenant lies at the basis of this mode of statement.
The words spoken at the Supper were, according to St. Matthew (Matthew 26:28) and St. Mark (Mark 14:24), τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης (AD in Matthew and A in Mark τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης); according to St. Luke (Luke 22:20) and St. Paul (1 Corinthians 11:25) τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου [1]. There is some doubt, however, about the genuineness of the context in St. Luke in which these words occur. In D [2] and some other MSS [3] , Luke 22:19 b (beginning with τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν) and Luke 22:20 are lacking. The textual-critical problem is a very complicated one (cf. Westcott and Hort, Notes on Select Readings in the Appendix, pp. 63–64; Haunt, Ueber die ursprüngliche Form und Bedeutung der Abendmahlsworte, pp. 6–10; Johannes Weiss, Das älteste Evangelium, pp. 294–299; Johannes Hoffmann, Das Abendmahl im Urchristenthum, pp. 7, 8 [4]; Schultzen, Das Abendmahl im Neuen Testament, pp. 5–19; R. A. Hoffmann, Die Abendmahlsgedanken Jesu Christi, pp. 7–21 [5] ]. It ought to be remembered, though it is sometimes overlooked, that the rejection of Luke 22:19 b, Luke 22:20 as not originally belonging to the Gospel is by no means equivalent to declaring these words unhistorical, i.e. not spoken by Jesus. Wendt, e.g. (Die Lehre Jesu 2 [6] , p. 496), assumes the originality of the shorter text in St. Luke, and yet believes, on the basis of the other records, that Jesus spoke the words which St. Luke, for reasons arising out of his ‘combination-method,’ omitted. (Similarly Haupt, p. 10). Still, as a matter of fact, with some writers the adoption of the shorter text is accompanied by the belief that it represents an older and more accurate tradition of what actually took place. On the other hand, it remains possible, even in retaining the TR [1]3 as originally Lukan, to believe that St. Luke’s source supplied him with a highly peculiar version of the occurrence preserved in Luke 22:15-19 a, and that he assimilated this to the other more current representation by borrowing Luke 22:19 b, 20 from St. Paul. On the whole, however, the acceptance of the genuineness of the longer text naturally tends to strengthen the presumption that a statement in regard to which all the records agree must be historical. Contextual considerations also seem to speak in favour of the genuineness of the disputed words. If Luke 22:19 b, Luke 22:20 do not belong to the text, St. Luke must have looked upon the cup of Luke 22:17 as the cup of the Sacrament, for it would have been impossible for him to relate an institution sub una specie. But this assumption, viz. that the cup of
Webster's Dictionary - Covenant
(1):
(v. i.) To agree (with); to enter into a formal agreement; to bind one's self by contract; to make a stipulation.
(2):
(v. t.) To grant or promise by covenant.
(3):
(n.) A mutual agreement of two or more persons or parties, or one of the stipulations in such an agreement.
(4):
(n.) A form of action for the violation of a promise or contract under seal.
(5):
(n.) An undertaking, on sufficient consideration, in writing and under seal, to do or to refrain from some act or thing; a contract; a stipulation; also, the document or writing containing the terms of agreement.
(6):
(n.) A solemn compact between members of a church to maintain its faith, discipline, etc.
(7):
(n.) The promises of God as revealed in the Scriptures, conditioned on certain terms on the part of man, as obedience, repentance, faith, etc.
(8):
(n.) An agreement made by the Scottish Parliament in 1638, and by the English Parliament in 1643, to preserve the reformed religion in Scotland, and to extirpate popery and prelacy; - usually called the "Solemn League and Covenant."
King James Dictionary - Covenant
COVENANT, n. L, to come a coming together a meeting or agreement of minds.
1. A mutual consent or agreement of two or more persons, to do or to forbear some act or thing a contract stipulation. A covenant is created by deed in writing, sealed and executed or it may be implied in the contract. 2. A writing containing the terms of agreement or contract between parties or the clause of agreement in a deed containing the covenant. 3. In theology, the covenant of works, is that implied in the commands, prohibitions, and promises of God the promise of God to man, that mans perfect obedience should entitle him to happiness. This do, and live that do, and die. The covenant of redemption, is the mutual agreement between the Father and Son, respecting the redemption of sinners by Christ.
The covenant of grace, is that by which God engages to bestow salvation on man, upon the condition that man shall believe in Christ and yield obedience to the terms of the gospel.
4. In church affairs, a solemn agreement between the members of a church, that they will walk together according to the precepts of the gospel, in brotherly affection. COVENANT, To enter into a formal agreement to stipulate to bind ones self by contract. A covenants with B to convey to him a certain estate. When the terms are expressed ti has for before the thing or price.
They covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver. Matthew 26 .
COVENANT, To grant or promise by covenant.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Covenant Theology
A system of theology that views God's dealings with man in respect of covenants rather than dispensations (periods of time). It represents the whole of scripture as covenantal in structure and theme. Some believe there is one Covenant and others believe two and still others believe in more. The two main covenants are covenant of works in the O.T. made between God and Adam, and the Covenant of Grace between the Father and the Son where the Father promised to give the Son the elect and the Son must redeem them. Some consider these to be one and the same. The covenants have been made since before the world was made (Hebrews 13:20).
CARM Theological Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant
Also called the "Ark of the Testimony" (Exodus 30:6), "Ark of God" (1 Samuel 3:3), and the "Ark of the covenant of the Lord" (Deuteronomy 10:8). The Ark of the Covenant was very sacred to the Ancient Jews. It was a rectangular box made of Acacia wood about 4 10:1.5 10:1.5 feet. It was covered with gold and was carried by poles that were inserted into rings located on the four corners. On top was a lid called "The Mercy Seat" which had two Cherubs with outstretched wings pointing towards each other. Inside of the Ark were the tablets of the Ten Commandments, a jar of manna, and Aaron's Rod that budded (Hebrews 9:4). It served as the symbol of the very presence of God. The Ark of the Covenant was place in the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle and later in the Temple. Once a year, the High Priest would enter the Holy of Holies and sprinkle blood on the Mercy Seat. This was symbolic of the forgiveness of the sins of the Jewish nation.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Covenant
An agreement between two parties. The agreement, according to Ancient Near East custom, consists of five parts: 1) Identification of parties, 2) Historical prologue where the deeds establishing the worthiness of the dominant party is established, 3) Conditions of the agreement, 4) Rewards and punishments in regard to keeping the conditions, and 5) Disposition of the documents where each party receives a copy of the agreement (e.g. the two tablets of stone of the 10 Commandments).
Ultimately, the covenants God has made with man result in our benefit. We receive eternal blessings from the covenant of grace. (For further study see Genesis 2:16-17; Gen 9:1-17; Gen 15:18; Genesis 26:3-5; Galatians 3:16-18; Luke 1:68-79; Hebrews 13:20).
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant
A small chest of coffer, three feet nine inches in length, two feet three inches in breadth, and two feet three inches in height, in which were contained the golden pot that had manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the covenant. The ark was reposited in the holiest place of the tabernacle. It was taken by the Philistines, and detained twenty (some say forty) years at Kirjath-jearim; but, the people being afflicted with emerods on account of it, returned it with divers presents. It was afterwards placed in the temple. The lid or covering of the ark was called the propitiatory or mercy-seat; over which two figures were placed, called cherubims, with expanded wings of a peculiar form. Here the Shechinah rested both in the tabernacle and temple in a visible cloud; hence were issued the Divine oracles by an audible voice; and the high priest appeared before the mercy-seat once every year on the great day of expiation; and the Jews, wherever they worshipped, turned their faces towards the place where the ark stood. In the second temple there was also an ark, made of the same shape and dimensions with the first, and put in the same place, but without any of its contents and peculiar honours. It was used as a representative of the former on the day of expiation, and a repository of the original copy of the holy Scriptures, collected by Ezra and the men of the great synagogue after the captivity; and, in imitation of this, the Jews, to this day, have a kind of ark in their synagogues, wherein their sacred books are kept.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Covenant
The Scripture sense of this word is the same as in the circumstances of common life; namely, an agreement between parties. Thus Abraham and Abimelech entered into covenant at Beersheba. (Genesis 21:32) And in like manner, David and Jonathan. (1 Samuel 20:42) To the same amount, in point of explanation, must we accept what is related in Scripture of God's covenant concerning redemption, made between the sacred persons of the GODHEAD, when the holy undivided Three in One engaged to, and with, each other, for the salvation of the church of God in Christ. This is that everlasting covenant which was entered into, and formed in the council of peace before the word began. For so the apostle was commissioned by the Holy Ghost, to inform the church concerning that eternal life which was given us, he saith, in Christ Jesus, "before the world began?" (Titus 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:9) So that this everlasting covenant becomes the bottom and foundation in JEHOVAH'S appointment, and security of all grace and mercy for the church here, and of all glory and happiness hereafter, through the alone person, work, blood-shedding, and obedience of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is on this account that his church is chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world. (Ephesians 1:4) And from this appointment, before all worlds, result all the after mercies in time, by which the happy partakers of such unspeakable grace and mercy are regenerated, called, adopted, made willing in the day of God's power, and are justified, sanctified, and, at length, fully glorified, to the praise of JEHOVAH'S grace, who hath made them accepted in the Beloved.
Such are the outlines of this blessed covenant. And which hath all properties contained in it to make it blessed. It is, therefore, very properly called in Scripture everlasting; for it is sure, unchangeable, and liable to no possibility of error or misapplication. Hence, the patriarch David, with his dying breath, amidst all the untoward circumstances which took place in himself and his family, took refuge and consolation in this: "Although (said he,) my house be not so with God, yet hath he made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure; for this is all my salvation and all my desire, although he make it not to grow." (2 Samuel 23:5)
In the gospel, it is called the New Testament, or covenant, not in respect to any thing new in it or from any change or alteration in its substance or design, but from the promises of the great things engaged for in the Old Testament dispensation being now newly confirmed and finished. And as the glorious person by whom the whole conditions of the covenant on the part of man was to be performed, had now, according to the original settlements made in eternity, been manifested, and agreeably to the very period proposed, "in [1] the fulness of time, appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself," it was, therefore, called Covenant, in his blood. But the whole purport, plan, design and grace, originating as it did in the purposes of JEHOVAH from all eternity, had all the properties in it of an everlasting covenant; and Christ always, and from all eternity, "was considered the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world." (Revelation 13:8)
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Make (Cut) a Covenant
A. Verb.
Kârath (כָּרַת, Strong's #3772), “to cut off, cut down, fell, cut or make (a covenant or agreement).” This verb also occurs in Akkadian, Moabite, and post-biblical Hebrew. In biblical Hebrew it is attested about 290 times and in all periods.
Basically kârath means “to sever” something from something else by cutting it with a blade. The nuance depends upon the thing being cut off. In the case of a branch, one “cuts it down” (Num. 13:23), and one "[1] the axe to cut down the tree” (Deut. 19:5). The word is also used of “chopping down” wooden idols (Exod. 34:13). Kârath can signify “chopping off” a man’s head and feet (1 Sam. 5:4). In Jer. 34:18 this verb means “to cut into two pieces.” “Cut off” may also imply cutting off in the sense of circumcision. In Exod. 4:25 Zipporah took a flint knife and “cut off” her son’s foreskin. In a related but different usage this word appears in Num. 11:33, where it means “to chew” meat.
“To cut off” can mean “to exterminate or destroy.” God told Noah that “all flesh [2] be cut off … by the waters of a flood …” (Gen. 9:11-the first occurrence of the word). Kârath can be used of spiritual and social extermination. A person “cut off” in this manner is not necessarily killed but may be driven out of the family and removed from the blessings of the covenant. God told Abraham that “the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant” (Gen. 17:14).
One of the best known uses of this verb is “to make” a covenant. The process by which God made a covenant with Abraham is called “cutting”: “In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram …” (Gen. 15:18). The word “covenant” appears nine times before this in Genesis, but it is not connected with kârath.
A synonym to this verb appears in this immediate context (Gen. 15:10) and is directly related to the process of making the covenant. Furthermore, hereafter in Genesis and throughout the Bible kârath is frequently associated with making a covenant. This verb, therefore, constitutes a rather technical term for making a covenant. In Genesis it often alludes to an act by which animals were cut in two and the party taking the oath passed between the pieces. This act was not created by God especially to deal with Abraham but was a well-known practice at that time among many men.
Later, “cutting” a covenant did not necessarily include this act but seems to be an allusion to the Abrahamic covenantal process (cf. Jer. 34:18). In such a covenant the one passing through the pieces pledged his faithfulness to the covenant. If that faithfulness was broken, he called death upon himself, or the same fate which befell the animals. In some cases it is quite clear that no literal cutting took place and that kârath is used in a technical sense of “making an agreement in writing” (Neh. 9:38).
B. Nouns.
Kerı̂ythûth (כְּרִיתוּת, Strong's #3748), refers to a “bill of divorcement.” This word implies the cutting off of a marriage by means of a “bill of divorcement”: “When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favor in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house” (Deut. 24:1). Kerı̂ythûth appears 4 times.
Kerı̂ythûth means “beams.” This noun, which occurs only 3 times, refers to “beams” in the sense of things “cut off” in 1 Kings 6:36: “And he built the inner court with three rows of hewed stone, and a row of cedar beams.”
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Covenant
Berı̂yth (בְּרִית, Strong's #1285), “covenant; league; confederacy.” This word is most probably derived from an Akkadian root meaning “to fetter”; it has parallels in Hittite, Egyptian, Assyrian, and Aramaic. Berı̂yth is used over 280 times and in all parts of the Old Testament. The first occurrence of the word is in Gen. 6:18: “But with thee [1] will I establish my covenant.”
The KJV translates berı̂yth fifteen times as “league”: “… Now therefore make ye a league with us” (Josh. 9:6). These are all cases of political agreement within Israel (2 Sam. 3:12- 13, 21; 5:3) or between nations (1 Kings 15:19). Later versions may use “covenant,” “treaty,” or “compact,” but not consistently. In Judg. 2:2, the KJV has: “And ye shall make no league with the inhabitants of this land.…” The command had been also given in Exod. 23:32; 34:12-16; and Deut. 7:2-6, where the KJV has “covenant.” The KJV translates berı̂yth as “covenant” 260 times. The word is used of “agreements between men,” as Abraham and Abimelech (Gen. 21:32): “Thus they made a covenant at Beer-sheba.…” David and Jonathan made a “covenant” of mutual protection that would be binding on David’s descendants forever (1 Sam. 18:3; 20:8, 16-18, 42). In these cases, there was “mutual agreement confirmed by oath in the name of the Lord.” Sometimes there were also material pledges (Gen. 21:28-31).
Ahab defeated the Syrians: “So he made a covenant with [2], and sent him away” (1 Kings 20:34). The king of Babylon “took of the king’s seed [3], and made a covenant with him, and hath taken an oath of him …” (Ezek. 17:13, NIV, “treaty”). In such “covenants,” the terms were imposed by the superior military power; they were not mutual agreements.
In Israel, the kingship was based on “covenant”: “… David made a covenant [4] with them [5] in Hebron before the Lord …” (2 Sam. 5:3). The “covenant” was based on their knowledge that God had appointed him (2 Sam. 5:2); thus they became David’s subjects (cf. 2 Kings 11:4, 17).
The great majority of occurrences of berı̂yth are of God’s “covenants” with men, as in Gen. 6:18 above. The verbs used are important: “I will establish my covenant” (Gen. 6:18)—literally, “cause to stand” or “confirm.” “I will make my covenant” (Gen. 17:2, RSV). “He declared to you his covenant” (Deut. 4:13). “My covenant which I commanded them …” (Josh. 7:11). “I have remembered my covenant. Wherefore … I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians” (Exod. 6:5-6). God will not reject Israel for their disobedience so as “to destroy them utterly, and to break my covenant with them …” (Lev. 26:44). “He will not … forget the covenant … which he sware unto them” (Deut. 4:31). The most common verb is “to cut [6] a covenant,” which is always translated as in Gen. 15:18: “The Lord made a covenant with Abram.” This use apparently comes from the ceremony described in Gen. 15:9-17 (cf. Jer. 34:18), in which God appeared as “a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp [7] that passed between those pieces” (Gen. 15:17). These verbs make it plain that God takes the sole initiative in covenant making and fulfillment.
“Covenant” is parallel or equivalent to the Hebrew words dabar (“word”), hoq (“statute”), piqqud (“precepts”—Ps. 103:18, NASB), ‘edah (“testimony”—Ps. 25:10), torah (“law”—Ps. 78:10), and checed (“lovingkindness”—Deut. 7:9, NASB). These words emphasize the authority and grace of God in making and keeping the “covenant,” and the specific responsibility of man under the covenant. The words of the “covenant” were written in a book (Exod. 24:4, 7; Deut. 31:24-26) and on stone tablets (Exod. 34:28).
Men “enter into” (Deut. 29:12) or “join” (Jer. 50:5) God’s “covenant.” They are to obey (Gen. 12:4) and “observe carefully” all the commandments of the “covenant” (Deut. 4:6). But above all, the “covenant” calls Israel to “love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might” (Deut. 6:5). God’s “covenant” is a relationship of love and loyalty between the Lord and His chosen people.
“… If ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people … and ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation” (Exod. 19:5-6). “All the commandments … shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers” (Deut. 8:1). In the “covenant,” man’s response contributes to covenant fulfillment; yet man’s action is not causative. God’s grace always goes before and produces man’s response.
Occasionally, Israel “made a covenant before the Lord, to walk after the Lord, and to keep his commandments … , to perform the words of this covenant that were written in this book” (2 Kings 23:3). This is like their original promise: “All that the Lord hath spoken we will do” (Exod. 19:8; 24:7). Israel did not propose terms or a basis of union with God. They responded to God’s “covenant.”
The wholly gracious and effective character of God’s “covenant” is confirmed in the Septuagint by the choice of diatheke to translate berı̂yth. A diatheke is a will that distributes one’s property after death according to the owner’s wishes. It is completely unilateral. In the New Testament, diatheke occurs 33 times and is translated in the KJV 20 times as “covenant” and 13 times as “testament.” In the RSV and the NASB, only “covenant” is used.
The use of “Old Testament” and “New Testament” as the names for the two sections of the Bible indicates that God’s “covenant” is central to the entire book. The Bible relates God’s “covenant” purpose, that man be joined to Him in loving service and know eternal fellowship with Him through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - New Covenant
See COVENANT, THE NEW
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Covenant
Covenant. An agreement or mutual contract made with great solemnity. The Hebrew word bireth, for covenant, means "a cutting," having reference to the custom of cutting or dividing animals in two and passing between the parts in ratifying a covenant. Genesis 15:1-21; Jeremiah 34:18-19. In the New Testament the corresponding word is diathékç, which is frequently translated testament in the Authorized version. In the Bible the word is used: 1. Of a covenant between God and man; as God's covenant with Noah, after the flood. The Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the Bible the Old Testament, is the covenant of works; the New Covenant, or New Testament, is that of grace. 2. Covenant between tribes, Joshua 9:6; Joshua 9:15; 1 Samuel 11:1, or between individuals, Genesis 31:44. In making such a covenant God was solemnly invoked as witness, Genesis 31:50, and an oath was taken. Genesis 21:31. A sign or witness of the covenant was sometimes framed, such as a gift, Genesis 21:30, or a pillar or heap of stones erected. Genesis 31:52. God's covenants, from the beginning, have been with his people and their seed—with Adam, Genesis 2:17; Romans 5:12; 1 Corinthians 15:22; with Noah, Genesis 9:9.; with Abraham, Genesis 17:7; Genesis 22:18; with the Jews, Exodus 6:4; Exodus 19:5; Exodus 20:6; Exodus 34:27; Leviticus 26:9; Leviticus 26:42; Leviticus 26:45; Deuteronomy 4:9; Deuteronomy 4:37; with Christians, Acts 2:39; Ephesians 6:2. A covenant of salt, Numbers 18:1-32; Numbers 19:1-22; 2 Chronicles 13:5, was a compact in which salt was used in its ratification.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant
a small chest or coffer, three feet nine inches in length, two feet three inches in breadth, and two feet three inches in height; in which were contained the golden pot that had manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the covenant, Numbers 17:10 ; Hebrews 9:4 . This coffer was made of shittim wood, and was covered with a lid, called the mercy seat, Exodus 25:17-22 , &c, which was of solid gold, at the two ends whereof were two figures, called cherubim, looking toward each other with expanded wings, which, embracing the whole circumference of the mercy seat, met in the middle. The whole, according to the rabbins, was made out of the same mass, without any of the parts being joined by solder. Over this it was that the Shechinah, or visible display of the divine presence in a luminous cloud rested, both in the tabernacle, and in the temple,
Leviticus 16:2 ; and from hence the divine oracles were given forth by an audible voice, as often as God was consulted in behalf of his people. Hence it is that God is said in Scripture to dwell between the cherubim, on the mercy seat, because there was the seat or throne of the visible appearance of his glory among them, 2 Kings 19:15 ; 1 Chronicles 13:6 ; Psalms 80:1 , &c; and for this reason the high priest appeared before the mercy seat once every year, on the great day of expiation, at which time he was to make his nearest approach to the divine presence, to mediate and make atonement for the whole people of Israel.
On the two sides of the ark there were four rings of gold, two on each side, through which staves, overlaid with gold, were put, by means whereof they carried it as they marched through the wilderness, &c, on the shoulders of the Levites, Exodus 25:13-14 ; Exodus 27:5 . After the passage of the Jordan, the ark continued for some time at Gilgal, from whence it was removed to Shiloh. From this place the Israelites carried it to their camp, where, in an engagement with the Philistines, it fell into their hands. The Philistines, having gotten possession of the ark, carried it in triumph to one of their principal cities, named Ashdod, and placed it in the temple of Dagon, whose image fell to the ground and was broken. The Philistines also were so afflicted with emerods, that they afterward returned the ark with various presents; and it was lodged at Kirjath-Jearim, and afterward at Nob. David conveyed it to the house of Obededom, and from thence to his palace at Zion; and lastly, Solomon brought in into the temple which he had built at Jerusalem. It remained in the temple till the times of the last kings of Judah, who gave themselves up to idolatry, and even dared to place their idols in the holy temple itself. The priests, being unable to bear this profanation, took the ark and carried it from place to place, to preserve it from the hands of those impious princes. Josiah commanded them to bring it back to the sanctuary, and it was accordingly replaced, 2 Chronicles 35:3 . What became of the ark at the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar, is a dispute among the rabbins. Had it been carried to Babylon with the other vessels of the temple, it would, in all probability, have been brought back with them at the close of the captivity. But that this was not the case, is agreed on all hands; whence it is probable that it was destroyed with the temple.
The ark of the covenant was, as it were, the centre of worship to all those of the Hebrew nation who served God according to the Levitical law; and not only in the temple, when they came thither to worship, but every where else in their dispersions through the whole world; whenever they prayed, they turned their faces toward the place where the ark stood, and directed all their devotions that way, Daniel 6:10 . Whence the author of the book of Cosri, justly says, that the ark, with the mercy seat and cherubim, were the foundation, root, heart, and marrow of the whole temple, and all the Levitical worship performed therein; and, therefore, had there been nothing else wanting in the second temple but the ark only, this alone would have been a sufficient reason for the old men to have wept when they remembered the first temple in which it stood; and for the saying of Haggai 2:3 , that the second temple was as nothing compared with the first; so great a share had the ark of the covenant in the glory of Solomon's temple. However, the defect was supplied as to the outward form, for in the second temple there was also an ark of the same dimensions with the first, and put in the same place; but it wanted the tables of the law, Aaron's rod, and the pot of manna; nor was there any appearance of the divine glory over it; nor any oracles delivered from it. The only use that was made of it was to be a representation of the former on the great day of expiation, and to be a repository of the Holy Scriptures, that is, of the original copy of that collection of them made by Ezra after the captivity; in imitation of which the Jews, in all their synagogues, have a like ark or coffer in which they keep their Scriptures.
For the temple of Solomon a new ark was not made; but he constructed cherubim in the most holy place, which were designed to give additional state to this most sacred symbol of God's grace and mercy. These cherubim were fifteen feet high, and were placed at equal distance from the centre of the ark and from each side of the wall, so that their wings being expanded, the two wings which were extended behind touched the wall, and the other two met over the ark and so overshadowed it. When these magnificent cherubim were finished, the ark was brought in and placed under their wings, 2 Chronicles 5:7-10 .
The ark was called the ark of the covenant, because it was a symbol of the covenant between God and his people. It was also named the ark of the testimony, because the two tables which were deposited in it were witnesses against every transgression.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Covenant
The Greek word διαθηκη occurs often in the Septuagint, as the translation of a Hebrew word, which signifies covenant: it occurs also in the Gospels and the Epistles; and it is rendered in our English Bibles sometimes covenant, sometimes testament. The Greek word, according to its etymology, and according to classical use, may denote a testament, a disposition, as well as a covenant; and the Gospel may be called a testament, because it is a signification of the will of our Saviour ratified by his death, and because it conveys blessings to be enjoyed after his death. These reasons for giving the dispensation of the Gospel the name of a testament appeared to our translators so striking, that they have rendered διαθηκη more frequently by the word testament, than by the word covenant. Yet the train of argument, where διαθηκη occurs, generally appears to proceed upon its meaning a covenant; and therefore, although, when we delineate the nature of the Gospel, the beautiful idea of its being a testament, is not to be lost sight of, yet we are to remember that the word testament, which we read in the Gospels and Epistles, is the translation of a word which the sense requires to be rendered covenant. A covenant implies two parties, and mutual stipulations. The new covenant must derive its name from something in the nature of the stipulations between the parties different from that which existed before; so that we cannot understand the propriety of the name,
new, without looking back to what is called the old, or first. On examining the passages in Galatians 3, in 2 Corinthians 3, and in Hebrews 8-10, where the old and the new covenant are contrasted, it will be found that the old covenant means the dispensation given by Moses to the children of Israel; and the new covenant the dispensation of the Gospel published by Jesus Christ; and that the object of the Apostle is to illustrate the superior excellence of the latter dispensation. But, in order to preserve the consistency of the Apostle's writings, it is necessary to remember that there are two different lights in which the former dispensation may be viewed. Christians appear to draw the line between the old and the new covenant, according to the light in which they view that dispensation. It may be considered merely as a method of publishing the moral law to a particular nation; and then with whatever solemnity it was delivered, and with whatever cordiality it was accepted, it is not a covenant that could give life. For, being nothing more than what divines call a covenant of works, a directory of conduct requiring by its nature entire personal obedience, promising life to those who yielded that obedience, but making no provision for transgressors, it left under a curse "every one that continued not in all things that were written in the book of the law to do them." This is the essential imperfection of what is called the covenant of works, the name given in theology to that transaction, in which it is conceived that the supreme Lord of the universe promised to his creature, man, that he would reward that obedience to his law, which, without any such promise, was due to him as the Creator.
No sooner had Adam broken the covenant of works, than a promise of a final deliverance from the evils incurred by the breach of it was given. This promise was the foundation of that transaction which Almighty God, in treating with Abraham, condescends to call "my covenant with thee," and which, upon this authority, has received in theology the name of the Abrahamic covenant. Upon the one part, Abraham, whose faith was counted to him for righteousness, received this charge from God, "Walk before me, and be thou perfect;" upon the other part, the God whom he believed, and whose voice he obeyed, beside promising other blessings to him and his seed, uttered these significant words, "In thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed." In this transaction, then, there was the essence of a covenant; for there were mutual stipulations between two parties; and there was superadded, as a seal of the covenant, the rite of circumcision, which, being prescribed by God, was a confirmation of his promise to all who complied with it, and being submitted to by Abraham, was, on his part, an acceptance of the covenant.
The Abrahamic covenant appears, from the nature of the stipulations, to be more than a covenant of works; and, as it was not confined to Abraham, but extended to his seed, it could not be disannulled by any subsequent transactions, which fell short of a fulfilment of the blessing promised. The law of Moses, which was given to the seed of Abraham four hundred and thirty years after, did not come up to the terms of that covenant even with regard to them, for, in its form it was a covenant of works, and to other nations it did not directly convey any blessing. But although the Mosaic dispensation did not fulfil the Abrahamic covenant, it was so far from setting that covenant aside, that it cherished the expectation of its being fulfilled: for it continued the rite of circumcision, which was the seal of the covenant; and in those ceremonies which it enjoined, there was a shadow, a type, an obscure representation, of the promised blessing, Luke 1:72-73 .
Here, then, is another view of the Mosaic dispensation. "It was added, because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made," Galatians 3:19 . By delivering a moral law, which men felt themselves unable to obey; by denouncing judgments which it did not of itself provide any effectual method of escaping; and by holding forth, in various oblations, the promised and expected Saviour; "it was a schoolmaster to bring men unto Christ." The covenant made with Abraham retained its force during the dispensation of the law, and was the end of that dispensation.
The views which have been given furnish the ground upon which we defend that established language which is familiar to our ears, that there are only two covenants essentially different, and opposite to one another, the covenant of works, made with the first man, intimated by the constitution of human nature to every one of his posterity, and having for its terms, "Do this and live;" —and the covenant of grace, which was the substance of the Abrahamic covenant, and which entered into the constitution of the Sinaitic covenant, but which is more clearly revealed, and more extensively published in the Gospel. This last covenant, which the Scriptures call new in respect to the mode of its dispensation under the Gospel, although it is not new in respect of its essence, has received, in the language of theology, the name of the covenant of grace, for the two following obvious reasons: because, after man had broken the covenant of works, it was pure grace or favour in the Almighty to enter into a new covenant with him; and, because by the covenant there is conveyed that grace which enables man to comply with the terms of it. It could not be a covenant unless there were terms,— something required, as well as something promised or given,—duties to be performed, as well as blessings to be received. Accordingly, the tenor of the new covenant, founded upon the promise originally made to Abraham, is expressed by Jeremiah in words which the Apostle to the Hebrews has quoted as a description of it: "I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people," Hebrews 8:10 :—words which intimate on one part not only entire reconciliation with God, but the continued exercise of all the perfections of the Godhead in promoting the happiness of his people, and the full communication of all the blessings which flow from his unchangeable love; on the other part, the surrender of the heart and affections of his people, the dedication of all the powers of their nature to his service, and the willing uniform obedience of their lives. But, although there are mutual stipulations, the covenant retains its character of a covenant of grace, and must be regarded as having its source purely in the grace of God. For the very circumstances which rendered the new covenant necessary, take away the possibility of there being any merit upon our part: the faith by which the covenant is accepted is the gift of God; and all the good works by which Christians continue to keep the covenant, originate in that change of character which is the fruit of the operation of his Spirit.
Covenants were anciently confirmed by eating and drinking together; and chiefly by feasting on a sacrifice. In this manner, Abimelech, the Philistine, confirmed the covenant with Isaac, and Jacob with his father Laban, Genesis 26:26-31 ; Genesis 31:44-46 ; Genesis 31:54 . Sometimes they divided the parts of the victim, and passed between them, by which act the parties signified their resolution of fulfilling all the terms of the engagement, on pain of being divided or cut asunder as the sacrifice had been, if they should violate the covenant, Genesis 15:9-10 ; Genesis 15:17-18 ; Jeremiah 34:18 . Hence the Hebrew word charat, which properly signifies to divide, is applied allusively in Scripture to the making of a covenant. When the law of Moses was established, the people feasted in their peace-offerings on a part of the sacrifice, in token of their reconciliation with God, Deuteronomy 12:6-7 . See CIRCUMCISION .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Covenant
The word testamentum is often used in Latin to express the Hebrew word which signifies covenant; whence the titles, Old and New Testaments, are used to denote the old and new covenants. See TESTAMENT .
A covenant is properly an agreement between two parties. Where one of the parties is infinitely superior to the other, as in a covenant between God and man, there God's covenant assumes the nature of a promise, Isaiah 59:21 Jeremiah 31:33,34 Galatians 3:15-18 . The first covenant with the Hebrews was made when the Lord chose Abraham and his posterity for his people; a second covenant, or a solemn renewal of the former, was made at Sinai, comprehending all who observe the law of Moses. The "new covenant" of which Christ is the Mediator and Author, and which was confirmed by his blood, comprehends all who believe in him and are born again, Galatians 4:24 Hebrews 7:22 8:6-13 9:15-23 12:24 . The divine covenants were ratified by the sacrifice of a victim, to show that without an atonement there could be no communication of blessing and salvation form God to man, Genesis 15:1-8 Exodus 24:6-8 Hebrews 9:6 . Eminent believers among the covenant people of God were favored by the establishment of particular covenants, in which he promised them certain temporal favors; but these were only renewals to individuals of the "everlasting covenant," with temporal types and pledges of its fulfilment. Thus God covenanted with Noah, Abraham, and David, Genesis 9:8,9 17:4,5 Psalm 89:3,4 , and gave them faith in the Savior afterwards to be revealed, Romans 3:25 Hebrews 9:15 .
In common discourse, we usually say the old and new testaments, or covenants-the covenant between God and the posterity of Abraham, and that which he has made with believers by Jesus Christ; because these two covenants contain eminently all the rest, which are consequences, branches, or explanations of them. The most solemn and perfect of the covenants of God with men is that made through the mediation of our Redeemer, which must subsist to the end of time. The Son of God is the guarantee of it; it is confirmed with his blood; the end and object of it is eternal life, and its constitution and laws are more exalted than those of the former covenant.
Theologians use the phrase "covenant of works" to denote the constitution established by God with man before the fall, the promise of which was eternal life on condition of obedience, Hosea 6:7 Romans 3:27 Galatians 2:19 . They also use the phrase, "covenant of grace or redemption," to denote the arrangement made in the counsels of eternity, in virtue of which the Father forgives and saves sinful men redeemed by the death of the Son.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Ark of the Covenant
The first piece of the tabernacle's furniture, for which precise directions were delivered. Exodus 25 . I. Description. -- It appears to have been an oblong chest of shittim (acacia) wood, 2 1/2 cubits long by 1 1/2 broad and deep. Within and without gold was overlaid on the wood, and on the upper side or lid, which was edged round about with gold, the mercy-seat was placed. The ark was fitted with rings, one at each of the four corners, and through these were passed staves of the same wood similarly overlaid, by which it was carried by the Kohathites. ( Numbers 7:9 ; 10:21 ) The ends of the staves were visible without the veil in the holy place of the temple of Solomon. (1 Kings 8:8 ) The ark, when transported, was enveloped in the "veil" of the dismantled tabernacle, in the curtain of badgers' skins and in a blue cloth over all, and was therefore not seen. (Numbers 4:5,20 ) II. Its purpose was to contain inviolate the divine autograph of the two tables, that "covenant" from which it derived its title. It was also probably a reliquary for the pot of manna and the rod of Aaron. III. History .--Before David's time its abode was frequently shifted. It sojourned among several, probably Levitical, families, ( 1 Samuel 7:1 ; 2 Samuel 6:3,11 ; 1 Chronicles 13:13 ; 15:24,25 ) in the border villages of eastern Judah; and did not take its place in the tabernacle, but dwelt in curtains, i.e. in a separate tent pitched for it in Jerusalem by David. Subsequently the temple, when completed, received, in the installation of the ark in its shrine, the signal of its inauguration by the effulgence of divine glory instantly manifested. It was probably taken captive or destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, 2Esdr. 10:22, so that there was no ark in the second temple.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Covenant
The Heb. berith means primarily "a cutting," with reference to the custom of cutting or dividing animals in two and passing between the parts in ratifying a covenant. ( Genesis 15 ; Jeremiah 34:18,19 ) In the New Testament the corresponding word is diathece (diatheke), which is frequently translated testament in the Authorized Version. In its biblical meaning two parties the word is used--
Of a covenant between God and man; e.g. God covenanted with Noah, after the flood, that a like judgment should not be repeated. It is not precisely like a covenant between men, but was a promise or agreement by God. The principal covenants are the covenant of works --God promising to save and bless men on condition of perfect obedience --and the covenant of grace , or God's promise to save men on condition of their believing in Christ and receiving him as their Master and Saviour. The first is called the Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the bible the Old Testament, the Latin rendering of the word covenant. The second is called the New Covenant, or New Testament.
Covenant between man and man, i.e. a solemn compact or agreement, either between tribes or nations, (Joshua 9:6,15 ; 1 Samuel 11:1 ) or between individuals, (Genesis 31:44 ) by which each party bound himself to fulfill certain conditions and was assured of receiving certain advantages. In making such a covenant God was solemnly invoked as witness, (Genesis 31:50 ) and an oath was sworn. (Genesis 21:31 ) A sign or witness of the covenant was sometimes framed, such a gift, (Genesis 21:30 ) or a pillar or heap of stones erected. (Genesis 31:52 )
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Covenant-Breakers
1: ἀσύνθετος (Strong's #802 — Adjective — asunthetos — as-oon'-thet-os ) from suntithemi (see above), with the negative prefix a, hence signifies "not covenant-keeping," i.e., refusing to abide by "covenants" made, "covenant-breaking," faithless, Romans 1:31 . In the Sept. it is found in Jeremiah 3:8-11 . Cp. the corresponding verb, asuntithemi, in the Sept. of Psalm 73:15 , "to deal treacherously" (RV), and the noun asunthesia, "transgression, or covenant-breaking," e.g., Ezra 9:2,4 ; 10:6 .
Note: Trench, Syn. lii, notes the distinction between asunthetos and aspondos, "implacable," the latter, in 2 Timothy 3:3 only, being derived from sponde, "a sacrificial libation," which accompanied treaty-making; hence, with the negative prefix a, "without a treaty or covenant," thus denoting a person who cannot be persuaded to enter into a "covenant." He points out that asunthetos presumes a state of peace interrupted by the unrighteous, aspondos a state of war, which the implacable refuse to terminate equitably. The words are clearly not synonymous.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Covenant
A — 1: διαθήκη (Strong's #1242 — Noun Feminine — diatheke — dee-ath-ay'-kay ) primarily signifies "a disposition of property by will or otherwise." In its use in the Sept., it is the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning a "covenant" or agreement (from a verb signifying "to cut or divide," in allusion to a sacrificial custom in connection with "covenant-making," e.g., Genesis 15:10 , "divided" Jeremiah 34:18,19 ). In contradistinction to the English word "covenant" (lit., "a coming together"), which signifies a mutual undertaking between two parties or more, each binding himself to fulfill obligations, it does not in itself contain the idea of joint obligation, it mostly signifies an obligation undertaken by a single person. For instance, in Galatians 3:17 it is used as an alternative to a "promise" (vv. 16-18). God enjoined upon Abraham the rite of circumcision, but His promise to Abraham, here called a "covenant," was not conditional upon the observance of circumcision, though a penalty attached to its nonobservance.
"The NT uses of the word may be analyzed as follows: (a) a promise or undertaking, human or Divine, Galatians 3:15 ; (b) a promise or undertaking on the part of God, Luke 1:72 ; Acts 3:25 ; Romans 9:4 ; 11:27 ; Galatians 3:17 ; Ephesians 2:12 ; Hebrews 7:22 ; 8:6,8,10 ; 10:16 ; (c) an agreement, a mutual undertaking, between God and Israel, see Deuteronomy 29 ; 30 (described as a 'commandment,' Hebrews 7:18 , cp. Hebrews 7:22 ); Hebrews 8:9 ; 9:20 ; (d) by metonymy, the token of the covenant, or promise, made to Abraham, Acts 7:8 ; (e) by metonymy, the record of the covenant, 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; Hebrews 9:4 ; cp. Revelation 11:19 ; (f) the basis, established by the death of Christ, on which the salvation of men is secured, Matthew 26:28 ; Mark 14:24 ; Luke 22:20 ; 1 Corinthians 11:25 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; Hebrews 10:29 ; 12:24 ; 13:20 .
"This covenant is called the 'new,' Hebrews 9:15 , the 'second,' Hebrews 8:7 , the 'better,' Hebrews 7:22 . In Hebrews 9:16,17 , the translation is much disputed. There does not seem to be any sufficient reason for departing in these verses from the word used everywhere else. The English word 'Testament' is taken from the titles prefixed to the Latin Versions." * [1] See TESTAMENT.
B — 1: συντίθημι (Strong's #4934 — Verb — suntithemi — soon-tith'-em-ahee ) lit., "to put together," is used only in the Middle Voice in the NT, and, means "to determine, agree," John 9:22 ; Acts 23:20 ; "to assent," Acts 24:9 ; "to covenant," Luke 22:5 . See AGREE , ASSENT.
Note: In Matthew 26:15 the AV translates histemi, "to place (in the balances)," i.e., to weigh, "they covenanted with;" RV, "they weighed unto."
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Covenant
A covenant was an agreement between two parties that laid down conditions and guaranteed benefits, depending upon a person’s keeping or breaking the covenant. It was sealed by some form of witness (Genesis 21:22-32; Genesis 31:44-54; 1 Samuel 18:3-4; Malachi 2:14).
Covenants between God and the people he created, however, differed from purely human covenants. They were not agreements between equals, because God was always the one who gave, and people were always the ones who received. No human being could negotiate an agreement with God or make demands upon him. God’s promises originated in his sovereign grace alone, and those who received those promises could do nothing but accept his directions.
Through one man to the world
From the time of the earliest recorded covenant (God’s covenant with Noah, and with the human race through him), features of grace are prominent. The covenant originated in God’s grace and depended upon God’s grace for its fulfilment. The rainbow was the sign, or witness, that sealed the covenant (Genesis 6:18; Genesis 9:8-17; see GRACE).
Having promised to preserve the human race (Genesis 9:15-16), God then revealed that he had a plan of salvation for it. This plan again was based on a covenant that originated in God’s grace. In his sovereign will God chose one man, Abraham, promising him a multitude of descendants who would become a nation, receive Canaan as their homeland, and be God’s channel of blessing to the world (Genesis 12:1-3; Genesis 15:18-21; Genesis 17:2-8; Acts 3:25).
God confirmed his promise to Abraham by a covenant ceremony. The ancient custom was for the two parties to kill an animal, cut it in halves, then pass between the two halves, calling down the fate of the slaughtered animals upon themselves should they break the covenant (Genesis 15:9-11; Jeremiah 34:18). But in Abraham’s case, only God (symbolized by a smoking fire-pot and a flaming torch) passed between the halves of the animal. He alone made the covenant and guaranteed its fulfilment (Genesis 15:17).
Abraham, however, had a responsibility to respond to God’s grace, and his response would determine whether he would enjoy the covenant benefits. A truly spiritual relationship could exist only where people responded to God in faith and obedience. The rite of circumcision, which God gave as the sign and seal of the covenant, gave Abraham and his descendants the opportunity to demonstrate such faith and obedience. Those who responded to God’s grace by being circumcised kept the covenant; those who did not were cut off from it. The covenant depended upon God, but only those who were obedient to God experienced the communion with God that was the covenant’s central blessing (Genesis 17:9-14; see CIRCUMCISION; OBEDIENCE.)
Developed through Israel
Once the promised nation existed and was on the way to its promised homeland, God renewed the covenant made earlier with Abraham, this time applying it to the whole nation. Since Moses was the mediator through whom God worked in dealing with the people, the covenant is sometimes called the Mosaic covenant. It is also called the Sinaitic covenant, after Mt Sinai, where the ceremony took place.
God, in his sovereign grace, had saved the people of Israel from bondage in Egypt and taken them into a close relationship with himself. Grace was again the basis of God’s covenant dealings (Exodus 2:24; Exodus 3:16; Exodus 4:22; Exodus 6:6-8; Exodus 15:13; Exodus 19:4-6; Exodus 20:2). As in the covenant with Abraham, so in the covenant with his descendants, the central blessing was communion with God; for he was their God and they were his people (Genesis 17:7; Exodus 6:7; Leviticus 26:12). Again, the people would enjoy this blessing only as they were holy in life and obedient to God (Exodus 19:5-6). The people understood this and agreed to be obedient to all God’s commands. They were in no position to argue with God; they could do nothing but surrender completely to his will (Exodus 24:7-8; see also LAW).
The two parties to the covenant were then bound together in a blood ritual. Half the blood was thrown against the altar (representing God) and half sprinkled on the people (Exodus 24:3-8).
But this blood ritual was more than just a dramatic way of swearing loyalty to the covenant. The Passover had shown the people of Israel that blood symbolized life laid down to release those under condemnation of death (Exodus 12:13). Blood was linked with release from the penalty of sin; therefore, the blood ritual at Sinai was an indication to Israel that it began its formal existence as God’s covenant people in a condition of ceremonial purity (Hebrews 9:19-22; see BLOOD).
All this ceremonial procedure emphasized once more that the covenant with Israel, following the covenant with Abraham, was based on divine grace, not human effort (Galatians 3:17-18). Nevertheless, the people had to keep their part of the covenant if they were to enjoy its benefits (Exodus 19:5; cf. Genesis 17:9). God had no obligation to bless his people when they disobeyed his covenant commands, though in his mercy he was patient with them (Leviticus 26:27-33; Deuteronomy 4:25-31; Deuteronomy 7:9-10; Nehemiah 9:33; Hebrews 3:16-19).
Note on the form of the covenant
The covenant between God and Israel was of a kind that people of the time understood. It was similar in form to the common Near Eastern treaty by which a sovereign overlord made a covenant with his subject peoples.
Such a treaty was not a negotiated agreement. It was an authoritative document prepared by the overlord, declaring his sovereignty over his people and laying down the order of life he required of them. The features of these ancient documents are well illustrated in the book of Deuteronomy, which was written in the form of a covenant document. (For details see DEUTERONOMY. Concerning the illustration that likens the covenant between God and Israel to the marriage covenant see LOVE, sub-heading ‘Steadfast love’.)
Towards a specific goal through David
After the promised nation had become established in the promised land, God revealed the next stage in directing his covenant purposes towards their ultimate goal. The promised offspring of Abraham through whom God would send his salvation to the world was Jesus the Messiah (Genesis 12:3; Genesis 12:7; Galatians 3:16; Galatians 3:29).
God prepared Israel to produce the Messiah by choosing from the nation one person, King David, and promising that his dynasty would be the channel through which the Messiah would come. God gave David this promise by means of a covenant that followed on from his earlier covenants, namely, those with Abraham and with the nation Israel (2 Samuel 7:12-17; 2 Samuel 23:5; Psalms 89:3-4; Psalms 89:28-37).
Jesus therefore was the true fulfilment of all God’s covenant purposes. The Abrahamic covenant led to the Sinaitic covenant, which in turn led to the Davidic covenant, which led finally to Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world (Luke 1:32-33; Luke 1:72-73; Acts 13:17-23).
The new covenant
Former covenants, then, were but a preparation for that saving work of God through Christ which the Bible calls the new covenant. Or, to put it another way, the new covenant fully develops the features consistently displayed in the former covenants.
Like the former covenants, the new covenant originates in the sovereign grace of God (Romans 3:24; Romans 5:15-21; Ephesians 2:8-9; Titus 3:5). Through it God makes unworthy sinners his people and promises to be their God (Hebrews 8:8; Hebrews 8:10; 1 Peter 2:9-10). But if people are to enjoy that life-giving relationship with God which is the covenant’s central blessing, they must respond to God’s grace in faith and obedience (Galatians 3:14; Hebrews 5:9; 1 Peter 1:2). Also, since faith involves perseverance, they must continue in the covenant (Colossians 1:23; cf. Hebrews 8:9; see PERSEVERANCE).
Yet there are great differences between the old and new covenants. All former covenants were imperfect – not in the sense of being wrong, but in the sense of being incomplete. They belonged to the era before Christ and therefore could not in themselves bring salvation. Only the atoning death of Christ can do that (see ATONEMENT). Therefore, until Christ came, there was always the need for a new covenant, one that carried with it better promises (Hebrews 8:6-9; Hebrews 8:13; Hebrews 10:9-10).
The new covenant, in contrast to the old, is not concerned with a particular nation, nor is it concerned with any nation as a whole. Rather it is concerned with individuals, regardless of their nation. It does not demand obedience to a set of laws, but puts God’s laws in people’s hearts. It does not need priests to mediate between God and individuals, for all believers know God personally and have direct fellowship with him. There is no remembrance of sins through repetitive sacrifices, for all sins are at once removed and are gone for ever (Hebrews 8:10-12). (For further details of the contrast between the old and new covenants see HEBREWS, LETTER TO THE.)
Jesus Christ’s atoning death is the basis of the new covenant. He is the mediator through whom God makes the covenant, and he is the sacrifice whose blood seals the covenant (1 Corinthians 11:25; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). Through that same blood, sin is forgiven completely, so that God’s people enter the covenant not with mere ceremonial cleansing, but with actual cleansing (Matthew 26:28; cf. Hebrews 9:19-22). This is an eternal covenant, for there will never be another to follow it. Covenant grace is fully revealed, and the blessings that flow from it are eternal (Hebrews 10:16-18; Hebrews 13:20).

Sentence search

Covenanter - ) One who makes a Covenant. ) One who subscribed and defended the "Solemn League and Covenant. " See Covenant
Salt, Covenant of - See Covenant ; Covenant of Salt
Testament - In Scripture, usually signifies Covenant, and not a man's last will, Matthew 26:28 . Paul speaks of the New Testament, or Covenant, in the blood of the Redeemer; and calls the law the old Covenant, and the gospel the new Covenant, 1 Corinthians 1:1-16:24 11:25 2 Corinthians 3:6,14 Hebrews 7:22 10:1-39 12:24 . See BIBLE , and Covenant
Covenant Box - TEV name for the ark of the Covenant. See Ark of the Covenant
Covenant - Berı̂yth (בְּרִית, Strong's #1285), “covenant; league; confederacy. 6:18: “But with thee [1] will I establish my Covenant. Later versions may use “covenant,” “treaty,” or “compact,” but not consistently. 7:2-6, where the KJV has “covenant. ” The KJV translates berı̂yth as “covenant” 260 times. 21:32): “Thus they made a Covenant at Beer-sheba. …” David and Jonathan made a “covenant” of mutual protection that would be binding on David’s descendants forever ( Covenant with [2], and sent him away” (1 Kings 20:34). The king of Babylon “took of the king’s seed [3], and made a Covenant with him, and hath taken an oath of him …” ( Covenant [4] with them [5] in Hebron before the Lord …” (
The great majority of occurrences of berı̂yth are of God’s “covenants” with men, as in Covenant” ( Covenant” ( Covenant” ( Covenant which I commanded them …” ( Covenant. God will not reject Israel for their disobedience so as “to destroy them utterly, and to break my Covenant with them …” ( Covenant … which he sware unto them” ( Covenant,” which is always translated as in Covenant with Abram. These verbs make it plain that God takes the sole initiative in Covenant making and fulfillment. ...
“Covenant” is parallel or equivalent to the Hebrew words dabar (“word”), hoq (“statute”), piqqud (“precepts”—
Covenant. The words of the “covenant” were written in a book ( Covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people … and ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation” ( Covenant fulfillment; yet man’s action is not causative. ...
Occasionally, Israel “made a Covenant before the Lord, to walk after the Lord, and to keep his commandments … , to perform the words of this Covenant that were written in this book” (
2 Kings 23:3). They responded to God’s “covenant. ”...
The wholly gracious and effective character of God’s “covenant” is confirmed in the Septuagint by the choice of diatheke to translate berı̂yth. In the New Testament, diatheke occurs 33 times and is translated in the KJV 20 times as “covenant” and 13 times as “testament. ” In the RSV and the NASB, only “covenant” is used. ...
The use of “Old Testament” and “New Testament” as the names for the two sections of the Bible indicates that God’s “covenant” is central to the entire book. The Bible relates God’s “covenant” purpose, that man be joined to Him in loving service and know eternal fellowship with Him through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ
Covenant - Covenant. The Hebrew word bireth, for Covenant, means "a cutting," having reference to the custom of cutting or dividing animals in two and passing between the parts in ratifying a Covenant. Of a Covenant between God and man; as God's Covenant with Noah, after the flood. The Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the Bible the Old Testament, is the Covenant of works; the New Covenant, or New Testament, is that of grace. Covenant between tribes, Joshua 9:6; Joshua 9:15; 1 Samuel 11:1, or between individuals, Genesis 31:44. In making such a Covenant God was solemnly invoked as witness, Genesis 31:50, and an oath was taken. A sign or witness of the Covenant was sometimes framed, such as a gift, Genesis 21:30, or a pillar or heap of stones erected. God's Covenants, from the beginning, have been with his people and their seed—with Adam, Genesis 2:17; Romans 5:12; 1 Corinthians 15:22; with Noah, Genesis 9:9. A Covenant of salt, Numbers 18:1-32; Numbers 19:1-22; 2 Chronicles 13:5, was a compact in which salt was used in its ratification
Covenant - The convenant or testament is a central, unifying theme in Scripture, God's Covenants with individuals and the nation Israel finding final fulfillment in the new Covenant in Christ Jesus. God's Covenants can be understood by humans because they are modeled on human Covenants or treaties. ...
Near Eastern Covenants Biblical Covenants do not represent something brand new in their world. Studies of political and economic agreements in the Ancient Near East have revealed the basic structure of a treaty, agreement, or Covenant. They may also show that Israel used these forms in their worship, renewing regularly the Covenant relationship with God. No Old Testament text precisely follows the treaty forms without change, and no text states explicitly that Covenant renewal ceremonies formed the center of Israel's worship. ...
Covenants among Humans In biblical language, people “cut” a Covenant with another person or group of people. Abraham and Abimelech cut such a Covenant as equal partners, agreeing that the well at Beersheba belonged to Abraham (Genesis 21:22-34 ). Sacrifices accompanied the Covenant making. Jonathan and David cut a Covenant of friendship in which Jonathan acknowledged David's right to the throne (1 Samuel 18:3 ; Psalm 83:4-894 ). Such an agreement was a “covenant of the Lord” (1 Samuel 20:1 8 ), that is the Lord was its witness and guarantee. At the time Jonathan possessed greater authority than David, but in the Covenant he acknowledged David's coming authority over him. Abner led the tribes of northern Israel to cut a Covenant with David, making David king over the north as well as over southern Judah (2 Samuel 3:1 ; Compare 2 Samuel 5:3 ; 1 Chronicles 11:3 ). Solomon and Hiram made a Covenant of peace which apparently included certain trade agreements (1 Kings 5:12 ). Bible students differ as to whether Hiram or Solomon had authority over the other or whether the Covenant was between equals. ...
King Zedekiah made a Covenant with the people of Jerusalem, releasing the Hebrews from slavery (Jeremiah 34:8 ). A ceremony accompanied this Covenant ritual—the two sides of the Covenant agreement cut a calf in two and solemnly paraded between its parts (Jeremiah 34:18 ). This Covenant was made “before Yahweh” (Jeremiah 34:18 ). Covenant violation brought condemnation in public worship (Psalm 55:20 ). ...
Ezra reformed the restored Jewish community by leading them to make a Covenant together in God's presence. ...
The Hebrew language used different prepositions to state that a Covenant has been made between parties. ...
This is seen in comparing Isaac's Covenant concerning the digging of wells (Genesis 26:28 ) with Abraham's (Genesis 21:22-24 ) discussed above. Isaac's Covenant did involve an oath sworn before God that the parties would deal peaceably with one another. Feasting and drinking accompanied the Covenant making. ...
Hosea denounced the northern kingdom's Covenant or vassal treaty with Assyria (Hosea 12:1 ; compare Hosea 7:8-14 ; Hosea 8:9 ; Hosea 10:4 ; 2 Kings 17:3-4 ). Such treaties sought to gain military protection from foreign countries rather than relying upon Yahweh, the Covenant God. ...
When Athaliah tried to usurp the throne and kill off the royal family, the priest Jehoiada made a Covenant agreement with the army (2 Chronicles 23:1 ) and with all the people (2 Chronicles 23:3 ) to support the king Joash against Athaliah (compare 2 Kings 11:1 ). They made the Covenant in the Temple, thus in the presence of God, seeking His blessing on the Covenant and making Him a witness to it. ...
Israel's enemies plotted against Israel and made military Covenants or alliances to support an attack on Israel (1618389543_5 ). They entered into economic Covenants or agreements with one another (Isaiah 33:8 ). ...
Israel had a long history of making Covenant agreements with foreigners, despite God's warnings not to do so. This is the typical example of a political Covenant. Members of such a Covenant alliance were called “baals of the Covenant” or lords, owners of the Covenant (Genesis 14:13 ), a technical term for allies. They could also be called “men of the Covenant” (Obadiah 1:7 ). Covenant treaties carried expectations of humane and moral treatment of other members of the Covenant, the Covenant being literally a Covenant of brothers (Amos 1:9 ; compare 1 Kings 20:32-33 ). ...
Each Covenant had special conditions effecting the power in authority and the one becoming a vassal or imposing demands on each partner of a Covenant between equals. Breaking Covenant conditions meant treason and extreme punishment (Ezekiel 17:12-18 ; compare Amos 1:9 ). ...
Marriage involved Covenant obligations with God as the witness (Malachi 2:14 ). This could be used to describe the Covenant relationship between God and His people (Ezekiel 16:8 ; Hosea 2:19-20 ). ...
Isaiah spoke menacingly of a Covenant of death political leaders had made (Isaiah 28:15 ). The action behind the Covenant of death can be variously interpreted: a ritual with a foreign god of the underworld or of death, a mutual alliance to fight to the death, a treaty with a foreign power that brought God's judgment and thus death. ...
God's Covenants with His People God's grace in relating to His people by initiating Covenants with them is a major theme of the Bible. The Old Testament story can be related as the story of God making Covenants with His people and responding to them out of that Covenant relationship. The New Testament can be described as the fulfillment of the Old Testament Covenant hope in the establishment of God's new Covenant in Jesus Christ. ...
Noah received God's first Covenant (Genesis 9:9-17 ). This Covenant extended beyond Noah to all the animals who had experienced the massive destruction and death associated with the flood. This Covenant called for no human response. God's Covenant with Noah was not a divine afterthought to the flood, a way of making up to His creation for all the destruction. God established the Covenant relationship prior to the flood (Genesis 6:18 ). ” Some interpreters take this to mean that even in Genesis 6:1 God was confirming a Covenant already established, though most see this as a formula for the establishment of the Covenant. All agree that the formula underlines the lasting guarantee behind the Covenant. The Covenant is established and will stand. God's first Covenant protected life—both human and animal—in the face of massive destruction. ...
God made His second Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15:18 ; Genesis 17:2 ). As the Covenant with Noah involved a righteous man (Genesis 6:8-9 ), so the Covenant with Abraham involved a man of faith (Genesis 15:6 ). God initiated His Covenant with this type of person, but this does not mean that the person earned God's Covenant with good works. The Covenant with Abraham, like that with Noah, involved divine promises, not human obedience. He symbolized this promise through an ancient Covenant ceremony (compare Jeremiah 34:1 ), known from other cultures also, in which animals are cut and Covenant participants pass through. Normally, the human Covenant partners swear that they will abide by Covenant conditions or will face the fate of the animals. Genesis 17:1 shows the initiation of circumcision as the sign of the Covenant. God's Covenant promise was extended to include international-relations, many descendants, and to be God of the people descended from Abraham forever. ...
Redemption from Egyptian slavery found its climax in God's Covenant with Israel. This Covenant differed from those with Noah and Abraham. They were to “obey my voice indeed, and keep my Covenant. Covenant law was then revealed to God's people. They had responsibilities within the Covenant relationship. The people accepted this responsibility in a solemn ceremony in which Covenant law was read from the “book of the Covenant” and “the blood of the Covenant” was sprinkled on the altar and on the people (Exodus 24:3-8 ). The Covenant with Yahweh meant Israel could make Covenants with no other gods (Exodus 23:32 ). Within the Covenant agreement, God included the Sabbath Covenant, Israel's perpetual promise to observe the seventh day as a day of rest, reflecting God's practice in creation (Exodus 31:16 ). ...
Israel refused to take Covenant commitment seriously almost from the start. God renewed the Covenant with His people, making explicit His Covenant promise to conquer miraculously the land of Canaan promised to Abraham (Exodus 34:1 ; note Exodus 34:10 ). Again, Covenant with Israel involved Israel's pledge to make no other Covenants (Exodus 34:12 ,Exodus 34:12,34:15 ; Deuteronomy 7:2 ) and God's commandments as His expectations of a Covenant people (Exodus 34:27-28 ; Deuteronomy 4:13 ). ...
Israel's sacrificial worship included reminders of the Covenant relationship. Salt added to offerings was the “salt of the Covenant” (Leviticus 2:13 ). Salt symbolized Covenant relationships among Arabs and Greeks and probably other peoples of Israel's day. It may have reflected on understanding of salt as something eternal and thus as a sign of the everlasting effect of the agreements reached in a Covenant relationship (compare Numbers 18:19 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5 ). The bread of the altar also symbolized Israel's everlasting Covenant (Leviticus 24:8 ). ...
Israel apparently celebrated its Covenant with ceremonies helping the people identify themselves as the Covenant people as they heard, “The Lord our God made a Covenant with us in Horeb. The Lord made not this Covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day” (Deuteronomy 5:2-3 ; compare Deuteronomy 29:1 ,Deuteronomy 29:1,29:12 ,Deuteronomy 29:12,29:14-15 ; Joshua 8:30-35 ; Joshua 24:1-28 ). Israel's ceremonies had some of the same components that Near Eastern Covenants or treaties had, particularly blessings for Covenant obedience and cursings for disobedience (Exodus 23:25-30 ; Leviticus 26:1-46 ; Deuteronomy 27:11-26 ; Deuteronomy 28:1-68 ). A major element of blessing is that God will make His Covenant stand for His people (Leviticus 26:9 ). Curses come when God's people break the Covenant (Leviticus 26:15 ; Deuteronomy 29:25 ; Deuteronomy 31:16 ; Joshua 7:11 , Covenanting - ) Belonging to a Covenant. Specifically, belonging to the Scotch Covenanters. ) of Covenant...
New Testament - (Luke 22:20 ), rather "New Covenant," in contrast to the old Covenant of works, which is superseded. "The Covenant of grace is called new; it succeeds to the old broken Covenant of works
Covenant - berith means primarily "a cutting," with reference to the custom of cutting or dividing animals in two and passing between the parts in ratifying a Covenant. In its biblical meaning two parties the word is used--
Of a Covenant between God and man; e. God Covenanted with Noah, after the flood, that a like judgment should not be repeated. It is not precisely like a Covenant between men, but was a promise or agreement by God. The principal Covenants are the Covenant of works --God promising to save and bless men on condition of perfect obedience --and the Covenant of grace , or God's promise to save men on condition of their believing in Christ and receiving him as their Master and Saviour. The first is called the Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the bible the Old Testament, the Latin rendering of the word Covenant. The second is called the New Covenant, or New Testament. ...
Covenant between man and man, i. In making such a Covenant God was solemnly invoked as witness, (Genesis 31:50 ) and an oath was sworn. (Genesis 21:31 ) A sign or witness of the Covenant was sometimes framed, such a gift, (Genesis 21:30 ) or a pillar or heap of stones erected
Baal-Berith - The name Berith means the Lord of the Covenant. But what Covenant? Was Israel so far gone in idolatry, as not only to set up an idol, but to insult JEHOVAH in his gracious Covenant? To what an awful state is our nature reduced by the fall! Into what an awful apostacy may, and will, every man sink, void of grace! Reader, turn to that sweet Covenant promine, Jeremiah 32:40
New Covenant - The only explicit reference to the new Covenant in the Old Testament is found in Jeremiah 31:31-34 . The prophet contrasts the existing Covenant made with the fathers when he brought them out of Egypt (cf. Exodus 24:8 ) with a Covenant that God will make with the house of Israel and Judah in the latter days. The new Covenant is distinguished from the older Covenant in four ways: (1) God will write the law in the minds and on the hearts of those in the new Covenant; (2) God will be the God of those in the new Covenant and they will be his people; (3) those in the new Covenant will know God; (4) God will forgive the iniquities and the sins of those in the new Covenant. The new Covenant, therefore, has two basic characteristics: an internal spiritual transformation resulting in a new relationship with God and a new possibility of obedience and forgiveness of sins. ...
Synonyms for the new Covenant appear in other Old Testament texts. In Jeremiah what is denoted as the new Covenant in 31:31-33—with the exception of the explicit promise of the forgiveness of sinsis also called an everlasting Covenant (32:37-41; 50:5). Nonetheless, Yahweh will both remember the Covenant made with Israel in her youth and establish an everlasting Covenant with the nation, making expiation for all that it has done. God speaks through Isaiah, saying that he will make an everlasting Covenant with his restored people (61:8). ...
In Ezekiel 34:25 , God promises that he will gather his sheep Israel and place his servant David over them as their shepherd; then he will make a Covenant of peace with them, so that Israel will live in the land in safety and prosperity. In Ezekiel 37:24-28 , God promises that he will make a Covenant of peace with a restored Israel under a Davidic king. This Covenant of peace is also called an everlasting Covenant. His Covenant of peace will not be removed. ...
In the prophets the promises of restoration, the new possibility of obedience, and national forgiveness of sin occur frequently without being connected to the concepts of the new Covenant, eternal Covenant, or Covenant of peace. ...
Isaiah's Servant of the Lord plays a role in the realization of the (new ) Covenant. Yahweh says of his Servant in 42:6 that he will make the Servant a Covenant for the people and a light for the nations. Similarly in 49:6-8 the Servant is said to be appointed to restore the tribes of Jacob, be a light to the nations, and become a Covenant for the people. Insofar as it denotes Israel's eschatological salvation, the concept of the new Covenant permeates Jewish literature of the second temple period. Baruch 2:30-35 says that God will make an everlasting Covenant with his people at the restoration, so that he will be their God and they will be his people. In two places in the Damascus Document (text A) it is said explicitly that those who belong to the community have actually entered the new Covenant (6:19; 8:21; cf. Because of their disobedience, the members of the Covenant of the forefathers came under the wrath of God, which culminated in the exile; in contrast God made a Covenant forever with the remnant who held fast to the commandments, revealing to them the hidden things in which Israel went astray (3:10-14). It is not so much that there exists in God's purposes two different Covenants, but rather one Covenant with two different phases: a preliminary phase ending in failure and an eschatological phase ending in God's final victory over all wickedness, beginning at some point after the exile. In 1QH 4:10-12, the author speaks of the Torah engraved upon his heart, possibly implying that the promise of internal spiritual transformation in Jeremiah 31:31-34 and related passages has been realized; there is also a probable reference to the new Covenant in 1QHab 2:3. ...
Although the Feast of Weeks was understood by some Jews of the second temple period as the time when God made Covenants with human beings and became, therefore, the occasion of the annual renewal of the Covenant (cf. 6:17; 1QS ), the new Covenant by implication came to be associated with Passover, since Passover was seen as the day of eschatological salvation. At his last Passover meal Jesus said of the cup of blessing that it was the blood of the Covenant poured out for many (Mark 14:24 ); the blood of the Covenant poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins (Matthew 26:28 ); the new Covenant in my blood (1 Corinthians 11:25 ); the new Covenant in my blood poured out for you (Luke 22:20 ). In so doing he was affirming that his death was the means by which the new Covenantthe kingdom of Godwould come about. As the servant, Jesus would be a Covenant for the people and a light for the nations, but only by means of his vicarious and expiatory death. ...
Apart from its occurrence in the words of institution quoted by Paul in 1 Corinthians 11 , the concept of the new Covenant is found only twice in Paul's writings. Paul understood the new Covenant as having been realized through the death and resurrection of Christ and the giving of the Spirit, and contrasted this salvation-historical phase with that of the law. In Galatians 4:21-31 he contrasted two Covenants represented by Hagar and Sarah and their sons Ishmael and Isaac. In 2 Corinthians 3:3-18 Paul similarly contrasted the old Covenant that condemned (identified with the law or letter) with the new Covenant that brought righteousness (identified with the Spirit). Jesus as mediator of the new Covenant was superior to the Aaronic high priests, the mediators of the first Covenant; likewise, as the better sacrifice, Jesus truly expiated guilt unlike the blood of animals. The focus of the letter is on the forgiveness of sins promised in the new Covenant; the author's purpose is to prove that the levitical sacrificial system, the means of obtaining forgiveness in the first Covenant, has been rendered obsolete and will soon disappear. Jesus' blood is said to be the blood of the Covenant parallel to the blood of the first Covenant in Exodus 24:8 . ...
Two questions arise from the New Testament's statements about the new Covenant: How does the new possibility of obedience said to consist in conformity to the law relate to Paul's and other New Testament authors' claim that at least parts of the Torah are obsolete? Why when speaking about the realization of the new Covenant is the New Testament silent about the promise of Israel's restoration to the land? Dispensational theology distinguishes two fulfillments of the promise of the new Covenant, one relating to the church as a present reality and the other relating to a restored Israel as a still future reality. The benefits of the new Covenant received by the church are forgiveness and the Spirit (the means of the internal spiritual transformation) whereas restored Israel will receive in addition the promised land under the Messiah's kingship and will be subject to the law (written on the heart) as the governing code of the messianic kingdom. ) Paul's citation of Isaiah 59:20-21 in reference to the future salvation and forgiveness of empirical Israel can be interpreted as meaning that Paul believed that the new Covenant had yet another future fulfillment. Covenant theology, on the other hand, has been willing to spiritualize the new Covenant promises and to see their nonliteral fulfillment in the church. Smith...
See also Covenant ; Jeremiah, Theology of ; Lord's Supper, the ...
Bibliography . Lehne, The New Covenant in Hebrews ; W
Covenant - Covenant, n. A Covenant is created by deed in writing, sealed and executed or it may be implied in the contract. A writing containing the terms of agreement or contract between parties or the clause of agreement in a deed containing the Covenant. In theology, the Covenant of works, is that implied in the commands, prohibitions, and promises of God the promise of God to man, that mans perfect obedience should entitle him to happiness. The Covenant of redemption, is the mutual agreement between the Father and Son, respecting the redemption of sinners by Christ. ...
The Covenant of grace, is that by which God engages to bestow salvation on man, upon the condition that man shall believe in Christ and yield obedience to the terms of the gospel. Covenant, To enter into a formal agreement to stipulate to bind ones self by contract. A Covenants with B to convey to him a certain estate. ...
They Covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver. ...
Covenant, To grant or promise by Covenant
Covenant - A Covenant was an agreement between two parties that laid down conditions and guaranteed benefits, depending upon a person’s keeping or breaking the Covenant. ...
Covenants between God and the people he created, however, differed from purely human Covenants. ...
Through one man to the world...
From the time of the earliest recorded Covenant (God’s Covenant with Noah, and with the human race through him), features of grace are prominent. The Covenant originated in God’s grace and depended upon God’s grace for its fulfilment. The rainbow was the sign, or witness, that sealed the Covenant (Genesis 6:18; Genesis 9:8-17; see GRACE). This plan again was based on a Covenant that originated in God’s grace. ...
God confirmed his promise to Abraham by a Covenant ceremony. The ancient custom was for the two parties to kill an animal, cut it in halves, then pass between the two halves, calling down the fate of the slaughtered animals upon themselves should they break the Covenant (Genesis 15:9-11; Jeremiah 34:18). He alone made the Covenant and guaranteed its fulfilment (Genesis 15:17). ...
Abraham, however, had a responsibility to respond to God’s grace, and his response would determine whether he would enjoy the Covenant benefits. The rite of circumcision, which God gave as the sign and seal of the Covenant, gave Abraham and his descendants the opportunity to demonstrate such faith and obedience. Those who responded to God’s grace by being circumcised kept the Covenant; those who did not were cut off from it. The Covenant depended upon God, but only those who were obedient to God experienced the communion with God that was the Covenant’s central blessing (Genesis 17:9-14; see CIRCUMCISION; OBEDIENCE. )...
Developed through Israel...
Once the promised nation existed and was on the way to its promised homeland, God renewed the Covenant made earlier with Abraham, this time applying it to the whole nation. Since Moses was the mediator through whom God worked in dealing with the people, the Covenant is sometimes called the Mosaic Covenant. It is also called the Sinaitic Covenant, after Mt Sinai, where the ceremony took place. Grace was again the basis of God’s Covenant dealings (Exodus 2:24; Exodus 3:16; Exodus 4:22; Exodus 6:6-8; Exodus 15:13; Exodus 19:4-6; Exodus 20:2). As in the Covenant with Abraham, so in the Covenant with his descendants, the central blessing was communion with God; for he was their God and they were his people (Genesis 17:7; Exodus 6:7; Leviticus 26:12). ...
The two parties to the Covenant were then bound together in a blood ritual. ...
But this blood ritual was more than just a dramatic way of swearing loyalty to the Covenant. Blood was linked with release from the penalty of sin; therefore, the blood ritual at Sinai was an indication to Israel that it began its formal existence as God’s Covenant people in a condition of ceremonial purity (Hebrews 9:19-22; see BLOOD). ...
All this ceremonial procedure emphasized once more that the Covenant with Israel, following the Covenant with Abraham, was based on divine grace, not human effort (Galatians 3:17-18). Nevertheless, the people had to keep their part of the Covenant if they were to enjoy its benefits (Exodus 19:5; cf. God had no obligation to bless his people when they disobeyed his Covenant commands, though in his mercy he was patient with them (Leviticus 26:27-33; Deuteronomy 4:25-31; Deuteronomy 7:9-10; Nehemiah 9:33; Hebrews 3:16-19). ...
Note on the form of the Covenant...
The Covenant between God and Israel was of a kind that people of the time understood. It was similar in form to the common Near Eastern treaty by which a sovereign overlord made a Covenant with his subject peoples. The features of these ancient documents are well illustrated in the book of Deuteronomy, which was written in the form of a Covenant document. Concerning the illustration that likens the Covenant between God and Israel to the marriage Covenant see LOVE, sub-heading ‘Steadfast love’. )...
Towards a specific goal through David...
After the promised nation had become established in the promised land, God revealed the next stage in directing his Covenant purposes towards their ultimate goal. God gave David this promise by means of a Covenant that followed on from his earlier Covenants, namely, those with Abraham and with the nation Israel (2 Samuel 7:12-17; 2 Samuel 23:5; Psalms 89:3-4; Psalms 89:28-37). ...
Jesus therefore was the true fulfilment of all God’s Covenant purposes. The Abrahamic Covenant led to the Sinaitic Covenant, which in turn led to the Davidic Covenant, which led finally to Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world (Luke 1:32-33; Luke 1:72-73; Acts 13:17-23). ...
The new Covenant...
Former Covenants, then, were but a preparation for that saving work of God through Christ which the Bible calls the new Covenant. Or, to put it another way, the new Covenant fully develops the features consistently displayed in the former Covenants. ...
Like the former Covenants, the new Covenant originates in the sovereign grace of God (Romans 3:24; Romans 5:15-21; Ephesians 2:8-9; Titus 3:5). But if people are to enjoy that life-giving relationship with God which is the Covenant’s central blessing, they must respond to God’s grace in faith and obedience (Galatians 3:14; Hebrews 5:9; 1 Peter 1:2). Also, since faith involves perseverance, they must continue in the Covenant (Colossians 1:23; cf. ...
Yet there are great differences between the old and new Covenants. All former Covenants were imperfect – not in the sense of being wrong, but in the sense of being incomplete. Therefore, until Christ came, there was always the need for a new Covenant, one that carried with it better promises (Hebrews 8:6-9; Hebrews 8:13; Hebrews 10:9-10). ...
The new Covenant, in contrast to the old, is not concerned with a particular nation, nor is it concerned with any nation as a whole. (For further details of the contrast between the old and new Covenants see HEBREWS, LETTER TO THE. )...
Jesus Christ’s atoning death is the basis of the new Covenant. He is the mediator through whom God makes the Covenant, and he is the sacrifice whose blood seals the Covenant (1 Corinthians 11:25; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). Through that same blood, sin is forgiven completely, so that God’s people enter the Covenant not with mere ceremonial cleansing, but with actual cleansing (Matthew 26:28; cf. This is an eternal Covenant, for there will never be another to follow it. Covenant grace is fully revealed, and the blessings that flow from it are eternal (Hebrews 10:16-18; Hebrews 13:20)
Covenant - Berith Is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a Covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a Covenant ( Genesis 15 ; Jeremiah 34:18,19 ). It ought to be rendered, just as the word Berith of the Old Testament, "covenant. " ...
This word is used (1) of a Covenant or compact between man and man ( Genesis 21:32 ), or between tribes or nations (1 Samuel 11:1 ; Joshua 9:6,15 ). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Genesis 31:50 ), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (1 Samuel 20:8 ). The marriage compact is called "the Covenant of God" (Proverbs 2:17 ), because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isaiah 28:15,18 ). Thus God's promise to Noah after the Flood is called a Covenant (Genesis 9 ; Jeremiah 33:20 , "my Covenant"). We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham (Genesis 17 , Compare Leviticus 26:42 ), of the Covenant of the priesthood (Numbers 25:12,13 ; Deuteronomy 33:9 ; Luke 1:68-75 ), and of the Covenant of Sinai (Exodus 34:27,28 ; Leviticus 26:15 ), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel (Deuteronomy 29 ; Joshua 1:24 ; 2 Chronicles 15 ; 23 ; 29 ; 34 ; Ezra 10 ; Nehemiah 9 ). In conformity with human custom, God's Covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deuteronomy 4:31 ; Psalm 89:3 ), and to be accompanied by a sign (Genesis 9 ; 17 ). Hence the Covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (105:8-112 ; 1618389543_10 ; Hebrews 6:13-20 ; Nehemiah 13:29 ). God's Covenant consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isaiah 59:21 ; Jeremiah 31:33,34 ). The term Covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night (Jeremiah 33:20 ), the Sabbath (Exodus 31:16 ), circumcision (Genesis 17:9,10 ), and in general any ordinance of God (Jeremiah 34:13,14 ). ...
A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting Covenant, in the sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used (Numbers 18:19 ; Leviticus 2:13 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5 ). ...
Covenant OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed at his creation. In this Covenant, ...
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The contracting parties were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity (Romans 5:12-19 ). This Covenant is also called a Covenant of nature, as made with man in his natural or unfallen state; a Covenant of life, because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a legal Covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the law. ...
The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the Covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal of that Covenant. ...
This Covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. ...
The conditions of this Covenant were, ...
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On the part of the Father (a) all needful preparation to the Son for the accomplishment of his work (Hebrews 10:5 ; Isaiah 42:1-7 ); (b) support in the work (Luke 22:43 ); and (c) a glorious reward in the exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Philippians 2:6-11 ), his investiture with universal dominion (John 5:22 ; Psalm 110:1 ), his having the administration of the Covenant committed into his hands (Matthew 28:18 ; John 1:12 ; 17:2 ; Acts 2:33 ), and in the final salvation of all his people (Isaiah 35:10 ; 53:10,11 ; Jeremiah 31:33 ; Titus 1:2 ). ...
On the part of the Son the conditions were (a) his becoming incarnate (Galatians 4:4,5 ); and (b) as the second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated Covenant of works; (c) obeying the law (Psalm 40:8 ; Isaiah 42:21 ; John 9:4,5 ), and (d) suffering its penalty (Isaiah 53 ; Covenant - The Greek word διαθηκη occurs often in the Septuagint, as the translation of a Hebrew word, which signifies Covenant: it occurs also in the Gospels and the Epistles; and it is rendered in our English Bibles sometimes Covenant, sometimes testament. The Greek word, according to its etymology, and according to classical use, may denote a testament, a disposition, as well as a Covenant; and the Gospel may be called a testament, because it is a signification of the will of our Saviour ratified by his death, and because it conveys blessings to be enjoyed after his death. These reasons for giving the dispensation of the Gospel the name of a testament appeared to our translators so striking, that they have rendered διαθηκη more frequently by the word testament, than by the word Covenant. Yet the train of argument, where διαθηκη occurs, generally appears to proceed upon its meaning a Covenant; and therefore, although, when we delineate the nature of the Gospel, the beautiful idea of its being a testament, is not to be lost sight of, yet we are to remember that the word testament, which we read in the Gospels and Epistles, is the translation of a word which the sense requires to be rendered Covenant. A Covenant implies two parties, and mutual stipulations. The new Covenant must derive its name from something in the nature of the stipulations between the parties different from that which existed before; so that we cannot understand the propriety of the name, ...
new, without looking back to what is called the old, or first. On examining the passages in Galatians 3, in 2 Corinthians 3, and in Hebrews 8-10, where the old and the new Covenant are contrasted, it will be found that the old Covenant means the dispensation given by Moses to the children of Israel; and the new Covenant the dispensation of the Gospel published by Jesus Christ; and that the object of the Apostle is to illustrate the superior excellence of the latter dispensation. Christians appear to draw the line between the old and the new Covenant, according to the light in which they view that dispensation. It may be considered merely as a method of publishing the moral law to a particular nation; and then with whatever solemnity it was delivered, and with whatever cordiality it was accepted, it is not a Covenant that could give life. For, being nothing more than what divines call a Covenant of works, a directory of conduct requiring by its nature entire personal obedience, promising life to those who yielded that obedience, but making no provision for transgressors, it left under a curse "every one that continued not in all things that were written in the book of the law to do them. " This is the essential imperfection of what is called the Covenant of works, the name given in theology to that transaction, in which it is conceived that the supreme Lord of the universe promised to his creature, man, that he would reward that obedience to his law, which, without any such promise, was due to him as the Creator. ...
No sooner had Adam broken the Covenant of works, than a promise of a final deliverance from the evils incurred by the breach of it was given. This promise was the foundation of that transaction which Almighty God, in treating with Abraham, condescends to call "my Covenant with thee," and which, upon this authority, has received in theology the name of the Abrahamic Covenant. " In this transaction, then, there was the essence of a Covenant; for there were mutual stipulations between two parties; and there was superadded, as a seal of the Covenant, the rite of circumcision, which, being prescribed by God, was a confirmation of his promise to all who complied with it, and being submitted to by Abraham, was, on his part, an acceptance of the Covenant. ...
The Abrahamic Covenant appears, from the nature of the stipulations, to be more than a Covenant of works; and, as it was not confined to Abraham, but extended to his seed, it could not be disannulled by any subsequent transactions, which fell short of a fulfilment of the blessing promised. The law of Moses, which was given to the seed of Abraham four hundred and thirty years after, did not come up to the terms of that Covenant even with regard to them, for, in its form it was a Covenant of works, and to other nations it did not directly convey any blessing. But although the Mosaic dispensation did not fulfil the Abrahamic Covenant, it was so far from setting that Covenant aside, that it cherished the expectation of its being fulfilled: for it continued the rite of circumcision, which was the seal of the Covenant; and in those ceremonies which it enjoined, there was a shadow, a type, an obscure representation, of the promised blessing, Luke 1:72-73 . " The Covenant made with Abraham retained its force during the dispensation of the law, and was the end of that dispensation. ...
The views which have been given furnish the ground upon which we defend that established language which is familiar to our ears, that there are only two Covenants essentially different, and opposite to one another, the Covenant of works, made with the first man, intimated by the constitution of human nature to every one of his posterity, and having for its terms, "Do this and live;" —and the Covenant of grace, which was the substance of the Abrahamic Covenant, and which entered into the constitution of the Sinaitic Covenant, but which is more clearly revealed, and more extensively published in the Gospel. This last Covenant, which the Scriptures call new in respect to the mode of its dispensation under the Gospel, although it is not new in respect of its essence, has received, in the language of theology, the name of the Covenant of grace, for the two following obvious reasons: because, after man had broken the Covenant of works, it was pure grace or favour in the Almighty to enter into a new Covenant with him; and, because by the Covenant there is conveyed that grace which enables man to comply with the terms of it. It could not be a Covenant unless there were terms,— something required, as well as something promised or given,—duties to be performed, as well as blessings to be received. Accordingly, the tenor of the new Covenant, founded upon the promise originally made to Abraham, is expressed by Jeremiah in words which the Apostle to the Hebrews has quoted as a description of it: "I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people," Hebrews 8:10 :—words which intimate on one part not only entire reconciliation with God, but the continued exercise of all the perfections of the Godhead in promoting the happiness of his people, and the full communication of all the blessings which flow from his unchangeable love; on the other part, the surrender of the heart and affections of his people, the dedication of all the powers of their nature to his service, and the willing uniform obedience of their lives. But, although there are mutual stipulations, the Covenant retains its character of a Covenant of grace, and must be regarded as having its source purely in the grace of God. For the very circumstances which rendered the new Covenant necessary, take away the possibility of there being any merit upon our part: the faith by which the Covenant is accepted is the gift of God; and all the good works by which Christians continue to keep the Covenant, originate in that change of character which is the fruit of the operation of his Spirit. ...
Covenants were anciently confirmed by eating and drinking together; and chiefly by feasting on a sacrifice. In this manner, Abimelech, the Philistine, confirmed the Covenant with Isaac, and Jacob with his father Laban, Genesis 26:26-31 ; Genesis 31:44-46 ; Genesis 31:54 . Sometimes they divided the parts of the victim, and passed between them, by which act the parties signified their resolution of fulfilling all the terms of the engagement, on pain of being divided or cut asunder as the sacrifice had been, if they should violate the Covenant, Genesis 15:9-10 ; Genesis 15:17-18 ; Jeremiah 34:18 . Hence the Hebrew word charat, which properly signifies to divide, is applied allusively in Scripture to the making of a Covenant
Hodijah - Levites who returned from exile and sealed the Covenant. A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Baal-Berith - Worshipped at Shechem by Israel after Gideon's death (Judges 8:33; Judges 9:4) "Baal in Covenant", namely, with his worshippers; or perhaps a compromise, to combine Baal with the "covenant" of Jehovah
Baal-Berith - The name means “lord of Covenant,” and the god's temple was located at Shechem. The designation, “lord of Covenant,” may mean that a Covenant between the Israelites and the Shechemites was agreed to and annually renewed in his shrine
Berith - Covenant
Covenant - man's Covenant with his fellow, or nation with nation, in which the terms are mutually considered and agreed to: it is then ratified by an oath, or by some token, before witnesses. Such a Covenant is alluded to in Galatians 3:15 ; if a man's Covenant be confirmed it cannot be disannulled or added to. In the Covenant Jacob made with Laban, they gathered a heap of stones to be witness between them, and "they did eat there upon the heap. So to this day, if a stranger in the East can get the head of a tribe to eat with him, he knows he is safe, the eating is regarded as a Covenant. In 2 Chronicles 13:5 we read of 'a Covenant of salt;' and to eat salt together is also now regarded as a bond in the East. The Covenants made by God are of a different order. He makes His Covenants from Himself, without consulting man. With Noah God made a Covenant that he would not again destroy the world by a flood, and as a token of that Covenant, He set the rainbow in the cloud. This kind of Covenant takes the form of an unconditional promise. Such was God's Covenant with Abraham, first as to his natural posterity, Genesis 15:4-6 ; and secondly, as to his seed, Christ. He gave him also the Covenant of circumcision, Genesis 17:10-14 ; Acts 7:8 , — a seal of the righteousness of faith. ...
The Covenant with the children of Israel at Sinai, on the other hand, was conditional: if they were obedient and kept the law they would be blessed; but if disobedient they would be cursed. ...
In the Epistle to the Galatians the apostle argues that the 'promise ' made by God — "the Covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ" — could not be affected by the law which was given 430 years later
Covenant of Salt, a - (See Covenant
Testament - See Covenant
Treaty - See Covenant
Testament - See Covenant
New Covenant - See Covenant
Alliance - See Covenant
Testament - The word testament is a derivation of the Latin word testamentum, which was used in Jerome's Vulgate to translate the Hebrew word b'rith, Covenant. The Greek equivalent is diatheke, which also means Covenant. It should be understood then, that the Bible is generally to be looked at as a Covenant between God and man
Uncovenanted - ) Not having entered into relationship with God through the appointed means of grace; also, not promised or assured by the divine promises or conditions; as, uncovenanted mercies. ) Not Covenanted; not granted or entered into under a Covenant, agreement, or contract. ) Not having joined in a league, or assented to a Covenant or agreement, as to the Solemn League and Covenant of the Scottish people in the times of the Stuarts
Testator - , "the (one) making a testament (or Covenant)," virtually a noun, "the testator" (the Covenanting one); it is used of "making a Covenant" in Hebrews 8:10 ; 10:16 ; Acts 3:25 . In "covenant-making," the sacrifice of a victim was customary (Genesis 15:10 ; Jeremiah 34:18,19 ). He who "made a Covenant" did so at the cost of a life. While the terminology in Hebrews 9:16,17 has the appearance of being appropriate to the circumstances of making a will, there is excellent reason for adhering to the meaning "covenant-making. Here He who is "the Mediator of a new Covenant" ( Hebrews 9:15 ) is Himself the Victim whose death was necessary. 48, says: "There can be little doubt that the word (diatheke) must be invariably taken in this sense of 'covenant' in the NT, and especially in a book so impregnated with the language of the Sept. We may render somewhat literally thus: "For where a Covenant (is), a death (is) necessary to be brought in of the one Covenanting; for a Covenant over dead ones (victims) is sure, since never has it force when the one Covenanting lives' [1]. "To adduce the fact that in the case of wills the death of the testator is the condition of validity, is, of course, no proof at all that a death is necessary to make a Covenant valid. To support his argument, proving the necessity of Christ's death, the writer adduces the general law that he who makes a Covenant does so at the expense of life" (Marcus Dods)
Covenant-Breakers - 1: ἀσύνθετος (Strong's #802 — Adjective — asunthetos — as-oon'-thet-os ) from suntithemi (see above), with the negative prefix a, hence signifies "not Covenant-keeping," i. , refusing to abide by "covenants" made, "covenant-breaking," faithless, Romans 1:31 . of Psalm 73:15 , "to deal treacherously" (RV), and the noun asunthesia, "transgression, or Covenant-breaking," e. lii, notes the distinction between asunthetos and aspondos, "implacable," the latter, in 2 Timothy 3:3 only, being derived from sponde, "a sacrificial libation," which accompanied treaty-making; hence, with the negative prefix a, "without a treaty or Covenant," thus denoting a person who cannot be persuaded to enter into a "covenant
Works, Covenant of - Entered into by God with Adam as the representative of the human race (Compare Genesis 9:11,12 ; 17:1-21 ), so styled because perfect obedience was its condition, thus distinguishing it from the Covenant of grace. (See Covenant OF WORKS
Covenant, the New - See New Covenant ...
...
Comart - ) A Covenant
Shebani'ah - (Nehemiah 9:4,5 ) He sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah. ) ...
A priest or priestly family who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:4 ; 12:14 ) Called SHECHANIAH in (Nehemiah 12:3 ) ...
Another Levite who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Testament - (See Covenant; HEIR; WILLS
Baal-Berith - Idol of the Covenant
Testament - See Covenant, THE NEW
New Covenant - See Covenant, THE NEW...
Testament - * For TESTAMENT see Covenant ...
Brit bein habetarim - Covenant Between the Parts
Covenant - The word testamentum is often used in Latin to express the Hebrew word which signifies Covenant; whence the titles, Old and New Testaments, are used to denote the old and new Covenants. ...
A Covenant is properly an agreement between two parties. Where one of the parties is infinitely superior to the other, as in a Covenant between God and man, there God's Covenant assumes the nature of a promise, Isaiah 59:21 13 9:15-23 Galatians 3:15-18 . The first Covenant with the Hebrews was made when the Lord chose Abraham and his posterity for his people; a second Covenant, or a solemn renewal of the former, was made at Sinai, comprehending all who observe the law of Moses. The "new Covenant" of which Christ is the Mediator and Author, and which was confirmed by his blood, comprehends all who believe in him and are born again, Galatians 4:24 Hebrews 7:22 8:6-Jeremiah 31:33,34 12:24 . The divine Covenants were ratified by the sacrifice of a victim, to show that without an atonement there could be no communication of blessing and salvation form God to man, Genesis 15:1-8 Exodus 24:6-8 Hebrews 9:6 . Eminent believers among the Covenant people of God were favored by the establishment of particular Covenants, in which he promised them certain temporal favors; but these were only renewals to individuals of the "everlasting Covenant," with temporal types and pledges of its fulfilment. Thus God Covenanted with Noah, Abraham, and David, Genesis 9:8,9 17:4,5 Psalm 89:3,4 , and gave them faith in the Savior afterwards to be revealed, Romans 3:25 Hebrews 9:15 . ...
In common discourse, we usually say the old and new testaments, or Covenants-the Covenant between God and the posterity of Abraham, and that which he has made with believers by Jesus Christ; because these two Covenants contain eminently all the rest, which are consequences, branches, or explanations of them. The most solemn and perfect of the Covenants of God with men is that made through the mediation of our Redeemer, which must subsist to the end of time. The Son of God is the guarantee of it; it is confirmed with his blood; the end and object of it is eternal life, and its constitution and laws are more exalted than those of the former Covenant. ...
Theologians use the phrase "covenant of works" to denote the constitution established by God with man before the fall, the promise of which was eternal life on condition of obedience, Hosea 6:7 Romans 3:27 Galatians 2:19 . They also use the phrase, "covenant of grace or redemption," to denote the arrangement made in the counsels of eternity, in virtue of which the Father forgives and saves sinful men redeemed by the death of the Son
Shebaniah - A priest or Levite who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:4 ; Nehemiah 12:14 [1]). Another Levite who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:12 )
Covenanted - ) of Covenant...
Covenant - The word "covenant, " infrequently heard in conversation, is quite commonly used in legal, social (marriage), and religious and theological contexts. ...
The Idea of Covenant . The term "covenant" is of Latin origin (con venire ), meaning a coming together. ...
The biblical words most often translated "covenant" are berit [1]); still others have seen the ideas of perceiving or determining as root concepts. The preferred meaning of this Old Testament word is bond; a Covenant refers to two or more parties bound together. ...
The New Testament word for Covenant has usually been translated as Covenant, but testimony and testament have also been used. Marriage is a bond (covenant) for life. ...
The Covenants referred to above were between two equal parties; this means that the Covenant relationship was bilateral. Because a Covenant confirmed between two human parties was bilateral, some scholars have concluded that the Covenant Yahweh established with human beings is also bilateral. God initiated, determined the elements, and confirmed his Covenant with humanity. Once written, the Covenants were not to be altered or annulled although parts could be explicated or elaborated. Did biblical writers borrow the idea of the Covenant and its integral elements from pagan sources when the Old Testament was written—elements such as a self-presentation of the suzerain and his activities, including those done on behalf of the vassals, statements of intent, stipulations, and assurances of well-being if obedient and of curses if disobedient? The legal Covenants included provisions for continuity, with emphasis on the suzerain's claim to vassals' children, and were confirmed by an oath or a special ratification ceremony, like the cutting in half of an ox or cow or the sharing of a meal as the conclusion of the act of Covenanting. ...
These nonbiblical Covenants were intended to serve a number of purposes, two of which are especially important to understand. The suzerain's Covenant was also intended to serve an administrative function. These two purposes, the reminder of deliverance and the information on administration of affairs in daily life, appear in Yahweh God's Covenanting with his people but in radically different ways. ...
Covenants, neither suzerain-vassal nor biblical, were not made (nor did they function) in a vacuum. Covenants presupposed a king, a domain, a way of life, people, and often mediating servants. The Covenant was an important administrative means within a kingdom. ...
Did biblical writers borrow from pagan sources when they wrote about Yahweh God's Covenantal activities on behalf of and his relationships with his people? There is no reference of any kind in the Bible that this was done. There are marked similarities between biblical and the nonbiblical Covenants. The most satisfactory and acceptable position is that Yahweh God is the source and originator of the entire Covenant concept and phenomenon. He included the Covenant relationship in his creation activity and handiwork. Covenant is germane to human life; it is God-implanted and -unfolded. When did Yahweh God first establish his Covenant? What was the nature of that initial Covenant? According to biblical revelation, did Yahweh God, after the initial one, establish any more Covenants?...
The Old Testament . The Hebrew word for Covenant does not appear in Genesis 1-5 . Some scholars say that this is evidence that there was no Covenant in humankind's earliest history. Some say that the idea of Covenant arose initially in the minds of the Israelites after they had been at Mount Sinai. To account for references to the Covenant in the Noahic and patriarchal accounts, scholars have incorrectly said that later editors of Genesis inserted the idea of Covenant to give historical evidence and credence to what Israel later believed. Other scholars, who accept Genesis as a record of Yahweh's revelation, also have difficulty accepting that God established his Covenant when he created the cosmos mainly because of the lack of direct verbal reference to it. ...
Biblical testimony points to the fact that God Covenanted when he created. Hosea (6:7) refers to Adam breaking the Covenant. Jeremiah spoke of the Covenant of the day and the night that no one can alter (33:19-20); this Covenant is understood to have been initiated in creation when God separated light from darkness and gave the sun and moon their appointed place and role (Genesis 1:3-5,14 ). But he assured Noah he would uphold and cause his Covenant to continue. But why, if God Covenanted when he created, is the word "covenant" not in Genesis 1-2 ? Those who wish to speak of only the Covenant of grace, referred to briefly and indirectly in the Noahic account (Genesis 6-9 ), believe that some of the basic elements of the Covenant of grace were enunciated when Yahweh God promised victory through the woman's seed (Genesis 3:14-16 ). When Yahweh God Covenanted with David, according to 2 Samuel 7 , the term "covenant" does not appear but when David referred to what Yahweh had said and done, he said, "Has he not made with me an everlasting Covenant?" (2 Samuel 23:5 ; cf. As the elements included in Covenant were present in the account of the Covenanting with David (2 Samuel 7 ), so the elements constituting Covenant are recorded in Genesis 1-2 . ...
The basic elements of a Covenant are imbedded in the Genesis account. This social mandate thus was an integral aspect of Covenant. God blessed Adam and Eve; he thus gave them ability and authority to serve as his Covenant agents. The forbidding of eating has been referred to as the probationary command but also as the integral aspect of "the Covenant of works. " An increasing number of biblical students and scholars have come to consider, on the basis of biblical testimony, that it is preferable to speak of the Covenant of creation and that what was considered to constitute the "covenant of works" is but an integral part of the Covenant of creation. ...
Yahweh's Covenant agents were tempted by Satan. They broke the Covenantal relationship between Yahweh and themselves. But Yahweh did not break his Covenant with creation and his vicegerents. All the elements of the creation Covenant remained. Then Yahweh added another dimension to this Covenantal relationship. Yahweh revealed how this was to be done by adding to his creation Covenant the redemptive and restorative promises and implied stipulations of faith and obedience. He established what has been widely known as the Covenant of grace. God has established an all-embracing binding relationship (covenant) with his creation, of which humanity is the central establishment of a second Covenant within the context and framework of the creation Covenant. As Yahweh God continued revealing himself, and how the redemptive/restorative "second Covenant" was to be administered, it was always done with the context and framework of the creation Covenant. Because the Covenant of grace received direct and fuller "divine attention" as Yahweh God revealed his kingdom plan, goal, and certain consummation, many biblical students and scholars have concentrated their attention on it, failing to see, understand, or believe its position and role within the context and framework of the creation Covenant that Yahweh certainly maintained and continues to maintain as he carries out and fulfills his plan and goal for his ever enduring kingdom. ...
Genesis 6-9 presents Noah as a faithful Covenant man. Yahweh assured Noah that his Covenant of creation and its correlate, the Covenant of gracious redemption and restoration, would be maintained with him and his family (6:18). After the flood had removed corrupt society and then receded, Noah the Covenant man worshiped; he built an altar and sacrificed. Parts of the creation Covenant mandates were repeated; some were explicated. In confirming his creation Covenant with humanity, God said every living creature was included (9:9-10); God included the death penalty for murder (9:5-6), and meat as legitimate food for humanity (9:2-3). This assurance concerning the continuity of the creation Covenant certainly includes the implication that Yahweh would continue his gracious redemptive/restorative Covenant. Thus, Yahweh God maintained and explicated his Covenant with Noah and his offspring. ...
After Yahweh God had given absolute assurance to Noah and his sons that the creation Covenant would continue, there are not many direct references to it again. ...
Yahweh, revealing himself as the Sovereign One to Abram, gave him Covenantal promises: spiritual well-being, making a great nation of him, making him famous, and using him as a channel of blessing to all peoples. ...
The process of God's Covenanting with Abram was unfolded throughout the course of Abram's life. In this way the continuity of the Covenant was assured. A Covenant ratification ceremony was performed in a vision to Abram in which the blessing of peace for Abram and a curse (punishment) was pronounced on those enslaving Covenantal seed (15:12-21). Genesis 15 includes Covenantal elements: (1) Yahweh's sovereign presence; (2) Abram's assured rich future; (3) continuity through much seed; (4) a place to live and serve in the midst of the nations; (5) a curse on opponents of the blessed; and (6) the response of faith and blessing of justification. ...
The Covenanting process continued after Abram sinfully followed Sarai's suggestion to take Hagar the Egyptian maid as a concubine (Genesis 16 ). Yahweh came to Abram and gave further explication of the redemptive/restorative Covenant within the context of the creational Covenant. Yahweh emphasized the stipulations of the Covenant: "walk before me" (remain in constant, everyday spiritual fellowship with me); "be blameless" (live uprightly according to my will among your fellowmen). Abram had sinned spiritually and socially but Yahweh graciously confirmed his Covenant(s) with Abram. " The continuity of the Covenant with Abram was a gift of Yahweh's grace . Covenantal elements were then repeated. This emphasized repetition of seed was strongly affirmed by the change of his name to Abraham and the assurance that the Covenant with his offspring was for all time. In the context of assuring Abraham of much seed, Yahweh gave the Covenantal sign of circumcision (17:11), which sons were always to carry and by which he demonstrated that he claimed the seed as people in Covenant with him. Circumcision was given such an emphatically important role in Yahweh's Covenanting with Abraham and his offspring, that it was referred to as the "covenant of circumcision" (17:13). This was not a separate Covenant, but was such an integral part of the redemptive/restorative Covenant that it was referred to as representing the entire Covenant (a part representing the whole). Abraham pled that his son Ishmael be considered a Covenant progenitor, but Yahweh emphatically stated Isaac, to be born of Sarah, was to be that one (17:15-21). ...
After God had tested Abraham's obedience, by oath (22:1-6) he repeated and confirmed elements of his Covenant (22:17-18a). This stress on obedience is strong evidence that the Covenant with Abraham should not be considered basically as a Covenant of promise with the response of faith. Yahweh's Covenant with Abraham was characterized by promise and law. ...
As Yahweh had promised that his redemptive/ restorative Covenant in the broader context of the creation Covenant was to be continued with Isaac (17:19-20), and because Abraham had obeyed Yahweh and kept his laws (26:5), Yahweh did accordingly confirm his Covenant with Isaac (26:3-4,24). ...
The gracious character of Yahweh's Covenant with the patriarchs was highlighted in Yahweh's interactions with Jacob, who was chosen in spite of his covetousness (25:29-34), deception (27:19), and clever manipulations (30:31-43). Election to Covenantal privileges and responsibilities was not on the basis of merit, but according to Yahweh's sovereign will and mercy (Romans 9:10-18 ). ...
Yahweh God confirmed the Covenant in all its aspects and ramifications with Jacob. " With these assurances Jacob could travel, live, work, and prosper anyplace in Yahweh's cosmic kingdom, for Yahweh had repeated his determination to uphold and carry out his creation Covenant and its redemptive/restorative correlate. Jacob, having a home with his Uncle Laban, enjoyed the fulfillment of the Covenant mandate to be fruitful and multiply, and the fulfillment of the Covenant promise of seed (29:31-30:24). Jacob was blessed with prosperity (a creation Covenantal cultural reality 30:25-43; 35:23-26). When returning to the land of his fathers as Yahweh directed him (31:3) Jacob was assured of Yahweh's Covenantal promise to be with him. When the time came to confront Esau, Jacob depended on Yahweh's Covenantal relationship with his forbears and the promises made to them and him (32:9-12). Upon his return to Bethel, Yahweh God again confirmed the Covenant with him, assuring Jacob he was El Shaddai and commanding him to be fruitful (35:11), confirming that nations and kings would come from him (35:11) and that he would receive land for himself and his children (35:12). When Jacob had been in the land for some time and was advised to go to Egypt, Yahweh assured him that he was not breaking Covenant if he did (46:3-4). Rather, it was Yahweh's plan to fulfill his Covenant word to Abraham that Israel was to spend 400 years in a foreign land (15:13-14) in which a son, Joseph, proved to serve as a type of Christ, the mediator of the Covenant, and Judah was prophesied to become the ancestor of David, the Covenant servant, and of Christ (49:8-12). ...
The Book of Exodus commences with Covenantal statements. The reality was that the Israelites as a whole seemed oblivious to the Covenantal responses of faith and obedience demanded of them. It is stated categorically that Yahweh God remembered his Covenant with the patriarchs (2:24b). That he did is demonstrated by his call of Moses to be the Covenant mediator who was to serve in the Israelites' deliverance and gaining of freedom. Yahweh identified himself as the Covenant Lord of the patriarchs (3:6), as the ever faithful One (3:14) who would be with Moses (3:12a) as he served in the fulfillment of Yahweh's promise to Abraham to bring his descendants from a strange land (3:8). Moses was commanded to perform wonders before the doubting Israelites so that they would believe that their Covenantal Lord had called Moses to be the "Old Testament redeemer" (4:1-7). ...
After Yahweh had humbled and broken powerful Egypt, he instituted a second Covenantal sacrament, the Passover, a feast to commemorate Israel's deliverance and at which fathers were to instruct their children about Yahweh's faithful words and deeds (12:24-28). ...
The actual process of confirming the Covenant with Israel took place at Mount Sinai. First, Yahweh presented himself as the Covenant-keeping, delivering, guiding, and protecting God of Israel who brought Israel to himself. ...
Second, he made an all-inclusive stipulation: obey my Covenant. Rather, Yahweh revealed in what manner a rich, full-orbed, Covenantal relationship would function. Israel, responding obediently to Yahweh's Covenant demands, would realize the promises. Thus the Covenantal task of being a channel of blessing would be realized. ...
Fourth, Israel responded Covenantally: "We will do everything Yahweh has said. ...
The second stage in the process of Covenant renewal and confirmation was the speaking by Yahweh, and hearing by the people, of the law. These explicated how life and worship would meet requirements of the creational Covenant's spiritual mandate. The interrelatedness of the commandments demonstrated how integrated faithful, obedient, Covenant people would find kingdom life to be. ...
After the laws were promulgated, the people were given assurances of Yahweh's guidance, protection, and bringing them into the promised land, where they were to remain Covenantally faithful to Yahweh and not make a Covenant with the people living in the land or with their gods (23:20-33). This writing of a Covenant gave it permanence and authority. ...
The third stage in the process of Yahweh's renewing and confirming of the Covenant he had made previously with Adam, Noah, and the patriarchs was the actual ratification ceremony (24:4b-18). Then Moses read all of the Covenant material he had written, to which Israel made a third spontaneous response, saying "We will do, we will obey. " The climactic point of the ceremony followed; the people were sprinkled by the blood of the Covenant. The ratification of the Covenant was finalized by Yahweh writing the ten commandments on tablets of stone and giving them to Moses. ...
The Israelites did not remain faithful to their Covenantal vow for long. This breaking of the Covenant aroused Yahweh's anger; he spoke of carrying out the curse of the Covenant on them (32:9-10). Moses, however, served as a Covenant mediator; the people were largely spared (32:28,35). ...
The Covenant was reconfirmed when Moses interceded further for the people and Yahweh declared that he was truly Yahweh, compassionate, gracious, patient, full of love, faithful, forgiving, righteous, and just (34:6-7)
Covenant, the New - This is an unconditional Covenant that God has declared He will make with the houses of Judah and Israel: He will put His laws into their minds and write them upon their hearts; He will be their God, and will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and remember their sins no more. Sometimes it is rendered 'testament' and sometimes 'covenant. ' At the institution of the Lord's supper the Lord spoke of His blood as 'the blood of the new Covenant,' Matthew 26:28 ; 1 Corinthians 11:25 ; and 'He is the mediator of the new Covenant. From which we gather that though the making of this Covenant with Israel is still future, the principle of it, namely, that of sovereign grace, is that on which God is now acting as setting forth the terms on which He is with His people, the Lord Jesus being the Mediator, through whom allthe blessing is secured. See inter alia Romans 5:1-10 , and 2 Corinthians 3 where Paul speaks of himself and those with him as 'able ministers of the new Covenant,' not of the letter which killeth, but of the spirit which giveth life. The word διαθήκη better always translated 'covenant,' except in Hebrews 9:16,17 , where the 'will or testament' of a man is referred to
Discovenant - ) To dissolve Covenant with
Covenant - The terms are made use of in the Scriptures for Covenant in Hebrew and Greek. The former signifies choosing, or friendly parting; as in Covenants each party, in a friendly manner, consented, and so bound himself to the chosen terms; the latter signifies testament, as all the blessings of the Covenant are freely disposed to us. The word Covenant is also used for an immutable ordinance, Jeremiah 33:20 . Anciently Covenants were made and ratified with great solemnity. The Scriptures allude to the cutting of animals asunder; denoting that, in the same manner, the perjured and Covenant-breaker should be cut asunder by the vengeance of God, Jeremiah 34:18 . The Covenants which more especially relate to the human race, are generally called the Covenant of works and the Covenant of grace. ...
The Covenant of works is that whereby God requires perfect obedience from his creatures, in such a manner as to make no express provision for the pardon of offences, committed against the precepts of it on the repentance of such offenders, but pronounces a sentence of death upon them, Genesis 2:1-25 : Galatians 4:24 . The Covenant of grace is generally defined to be that which was made with Christ, as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed, Isaiah 42:1-6 . the Covenant of works was made with Adam; the condition of which was, his perseverance during the whole time of his probation; the reward annexed to this obedience was the continuance of him and his posterity in such perfect holiness and felicity he then had while upon earth, and everlasting life with God hereafter. The seals of this Covenant were, the tree of knowledge and the tree of life; and, perhaps, the Sabbath and Paradise, Genesis 2:3 : Gal 6: 24; Romans 5:12 ; Romans 5:19 . This Covenant was broken by Adam's eating of the forbidden fruit, whereby he and his posterity were all subject to ruin, Genesis 3:1-24 : Romans 5:12 ; Romans 5:19 ; and without the intervention of the divine grace and mercy, would have been lost for ever, Romans 3:23 . ...
The Divine Being, foreseeing this, in infinite wisdom and unspeakable compassion planned the Covenant of grace; by virtue of which his people are reinstated in the blessings of purity, knowledge, and felicity, and that without a possibility of any farther defalcation. The Covenant of grace. Some divines make a distinction between the Covenant of redemption and that of grace; the former, they say, was made with Christ in eternity; the latter with believers in time. Others object to this, and suppose it a needless distinction; for there is but one Covenant of grace, and not two, in which the head and members are concerned; and, besides, the Covenant of grace, properly speaking, could not be made between God and man; for what can man restipulate with God, which is in his power to do or give him, and which God has not a prior right unto? Fallen man has neither inclination to yield obedience, nor power to perform it. The parties, therefore, in this Covenant, are generally said to be the Father and the Son; but Dr. ...
If we believe, therefore, in a Trinity, it is more proper to suppose that they were all engaged in this plan of the Covenant, than to suppose that the Father and Son were engaged exclusive of the Holy Spirit, 1 John 5:6-7 . Jesus Christ, according to the divine purpose, became the representative and Covenant head of his people, Ephesians 1:1-23 ; Colossians 1:18 . He is also to be considered as the mediator of the Covenant by whom justice is satisfied, and man reconciled to God. ...
He is also the surety of this Covenant, Hebrews 7:22 . He is called the testator of the Covenant, which is denominated a Testament, Hebrews 7:1-28 . In this Covenant, as we before observed, the Holy Spirit also is engaged. He takes of the things of Christ, and shows them unto us; cleanses, enlightens, sanctifies, establishes, and comforts his people, according to the plan of the Covenant, Romans 8:15-16 . The properties of this Covenant are such as these: ...
1. These two Covenants above-mentioned agree in some things, in others they differ. In the Covenant of works, the character or relation of God is that of a supreme lawgiver, and the chief good rejoicing to communicate happiness to his creatures. In the Covenant of grace he appears as infinitely merciful, adjudging life to the elect sinner, agreeably to his wisdom and justice. In the Covenant of works there was no mediator: the Covenant of grace has a mediator, Christ. In the Covenant of works, the condition of perfect obedience was required to be performed by man himself in Covenant. In the Covenant of grace the same condition is proposed, but to be performed by a mediator. In the Covenant of works man is considered as working, and the reward as to be given of debt. In the Covenant of grace the man in Covenant is considered as believing; eternal life being given as the merit of the mediator, out of free grace, which excludes all boasting. In the Covenant of works something is required as a condition, which being performed entitles to reward. The Covenant of grace consists not of conditions, but of promises: the life to be obtained; faith, by which we are made partakers of Christ; perseverance, and, in a word, the whole of salvation, are absolutely promised. The special end of the Covenant of works was the manifestation of the holiness, goodness, and justice of God; but the special end of the Covenant of grace, is the praise of the glory of his grace, and the revelation of his unsearchable and manifold wisdom. The Covenant of works was only for a time, but the Covenant of grace stands sure for ever. The administration of the Covenant of grace. ...
The Covenant of grace, under the Old Testament, was exhibited by promises, sacrifices, types, ordinances, and prophecies. The reader, who may wish to have a more enlarged view of this subject, may peruse Witsius, Strong, or Boston on the Covenants, in the former of which especially he will find the subject masterly handled. In 1581, the general assembly of Scotland drew up a confession of faith, or national Covenant, condemning episcopal government, under the name of hierarchy, which was signed by James I. ...
This oath, annexed to the confession of faith, received the name of Covenant, as those who subscribed it were called Covenanters. Solemn league and Covenant, was established in the year 1643, and formed a bond of union between Scotland and England. declared his approbation both of this and the national Covenant by a solemn oath; and, in August of the same year, made a farther declaration at Dunfermline to the same purpose, which was also renewed on occasion of his coronation at Scone, in 1651. The Covenant was ratified by parliament in this year; and the subscription of it was required by every member, without which, the constitution of the parliament was declared null and void
Covenant of Salt - Salt was often utilized in Covenant making probably as symbolic of that which preserves and prevents decay. The hope was that the Covenant thus enacted would endure (Numbers 18:19 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5 )
Covenantor - ) The party who makes a Covenant
Covenanted - CovenantED, pp. Pledged or promised by Covenant
Contrahent - ) Entering into Covenant; contracting; as, contrahent parties
Hizkijah - (Nehemiah 10:17 ), one who sealed the Covenant
Hallohesh - One who sealed the Covenant
Hashabnah - One who sealed the Covenant
Beninu - Levite who sealed the Covenant
Hizkijah - One who sealed the Covenant
Magpiash - One who sealed the Covenant
Shobek - One who sealed the Covenant
Pileha - One who sealed the Covenant
Zidkijah - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Anan - One who sealed the Covenant
Nebai - One who sealed the Covenant
Covenant - COVENANT. —In order to a correct apprehension of the term ‘covenant,’ as it is used by our Lord in the Gospels, a brief survey of the OT usage is necessary. ...
The Covenant conception is of frequent occurrence in the OT. The earlier Covenants belonging to the time of Noah and Abraham (Genesis 6:18; Genesis 9:8-17; Genesis 15:18) do not yet possess this comprehensive character, but appear as solemn religious rites whereby some particular promise of God is made sure. At any rate, the comprehensive signification in which it stands for the whole religious relationship between God and Israel, rests on the idea of the Covenant as a two-sided agreement. It should be remembered, however, that the two-sidedness never extends so far that God and Israel appear on an equal footing in the determination of the Covenant. The planning and proposing of the Covenant belong exclusively to God. Still the fact that Israel voluntarily accepts the Covenant is as strongly emphasized (Exodus 19:5; Exodus 24:3; Exodus 24:7, and elsewhere). Indeed, the Covenant idea serves primarily to express the free, ethical, historically originated bond that exists between God and Israel. Its Covenant character marks off the religion of Israel as a religion of real, conscious, spiritual fellowship between God and His people, in distinction from the religions of paganism, in which either the Deity and the creature are pantheistically fused, or the God-head after a deistic fashion is so far removed from the creature as to render true communion impossible, and where the relation between a national god and his worshippers is not a matter of choice but of necessity on both sides. ...
In the early Prophets the conception of the Covenant is not particularly prominent. With Hosea, the figure of marriage, probably not viewed as yet by the prophet as a species of Covenant, serves the same purpose. There is no reason, however, for denying that Hosea knew the Covenant conception in its comprehensive religious sense, and on this ground to call in question the genuineness of 8:1. Greater prominence the Covenant idea obtains from the age of Jeremiah onwards. On the one hand, the Covenant idea begins to express the continuity of God’s dealings with His people; as it is a bond freely established, so it is the fruit of design and the fountain of further history, it has a prospective reference and makes Israel’s religion a growing thing; in a word, the Covenant idea gathers around itself the thoughts we have in mind when speaking of a history of redemption and revelation. On the other hand, inasmuch as God is the originator of the Covenant and has solemnly bound Himself not merely to fulfil His promises to Israel, but also to carry out His own purposes contemplated in the Covenant, the same bond which originally expresses the freedom of the relation between God and Israel can also become the pledge of the absolute certainty, that God will not finally break with His people, Israel’s infidelity notwithstanding. In Isaiah 40-66, and especially in Jeremiah, the Covenant thus stands to express the continuity and sureness of the accomplishment of the Divine purpose with reference to Israel. Out of the combination of these two ideas arises the Messianic or eschatological significance which the Covenant idea obtains in both these prophets. In two passages (Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:8) the servant of Jehovah is designated as בּרִית עָם, a somewhat obscure phrase, of which the two most plausible interpretations are, either that the servant will be the instrument of realizing the future Covenant between God and Israel, or, placing the emphasis on עָם, that he will be the means of establishing a people e, a e in which Israel, in contrast to its present scattered condition, will once more become a unified, organized nation. These two passages are of importance, because they bring the idea of the Covenant into connexion with the “figure of the Servant of Jehovah, which, assuming that the latter was Messianically interpreted by our Lord and applied to Himself, would explain that He represents Himself as the inaugurator of a new Covenant. ...
In Jeremiah the Covenant idea appears as a Messianic idea in two forms. In so far as the promise given to the house of David was a promise pledged in solemn Covenant, the Messianic blessings are a Covenant gift (Jeremiah 33:20-21; cf. This is an instance of the old application of the idea to a concrete promise, which, however, in the present case, owing to the wide scope of the promise involved, would easily become identified in the mind of later generations with the expectation of an eschatological Covenant in the comprehensive sense. The latter is the other form in which Jeremiah uses the Covenant with reference to the future (Jeremiah 31:31; Jeremiah 31:34). This is the only place where the notion of a new Covenant occurs explicitly, although the thought itself is not foreign to the older prophets. Jeremiah conceives of the new Covenant as the outcome of the Covenant character of the relation between God and Israel in general. To the prophet’s mind religion and the Covenant have become so identified that the Covenant idea becomes the stable, permanent element in the historical development; if in its old form the Covenant disappears, then in a new form it must reappear. the former sin, and that the law of Jehovah, instead of being an outward, objective Covenant obligation, will become an inward, subjective Covenant reality, written on the heart in consequence of the universal and perfect knowledge of Jehovah which will prevail. This passage in Jeremiah lies at the basis of the NT use of the phrase ‘the new Covenant. ’...
Two further passages in the prophets, to which a Messianic application of the Covenant idea could easily attach itself, are Zechariah 9:11 and Malachi 3:1. In the former passage the original reads: ‘Because of the blood of thy Covenant, I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water’; the LXX Septuagint has, in the second person of address to Jehovah, ‘Because of the blood of thy Covenant, thou hast sent forth,’ etc. On the former rendering the Covenant is the Covenant made with Israel, or, since this interpretation of the suffix ‘thy’ is deemed impossible by some, we may refer the suffix to the compound phrase ‘covenant blood,’ and understand the phrase ‘thy Covenant blood’ of the sacrificial blood by means of which Israel continually upholds and renews the Covenant with Jehovah. On the rendering of the LXX Septuagint the Covenant is represented as the Covenant made and maintained by Jehovah. In the Malachi-passage the coming of the ‘angel’ or ‘messenger of the Covenant’ is predicted. This ‘angel of the Covenant’ is not identical with the Lord, but as a distinct person he accompanies the coming of the Lord to His temple. He is called ‘the angel of the Covenant,’ either because he realizes the Covenant, or because his coming is in virtue of the existing Covenant. It is easy to see how on either view a significant connexion could be established between the Messiah and the Covenant. The latter term better expresses the idea of a two-sided agreement; but probably this was precisely the reason why the LXX Septuagint translators, desiring to emphasize the one-sided Divine origin and character of the Covenant, avoided it. It should also be remembered that in not a few instances berith in the original meant not a Covenant but an authoritative disposition, which, as stated above, is according to some scholars even the primary meaning of the word. Thus conceived, the διαθἡκη could all the more easily become the equivalent of the berith between God and Israel, because already in the OT the idea of ‘the inheritance’ had significantly attached itself to that of the Covenant. The word retains the one-sided associations of the LXX Septuagint usage, yet in most cases the NT writers show themselves aware of the peculiar Covenant-meaning descended with it from the OT. Hence in Hebrews 9:16-17 the new Covenant is represented as a testament bestowing upon believers the eternal inheritance, because the death of Christ had to intervene to make the bestowal effectual. Still, that διαθἡκη, does not here have the unmodified OT sense of ‘covenant,’ but means ‘testamentary disposition,’ is plain from the fact that ‘sonship’ and ‘heirship’ are connected with it in the course of the argument. In all these cases, except in Hebrews 9:16-17, the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 has replaced ‘testament’ by ‘covenant,’ offering, however, the former as a marginal alternative in Matthew 26:28, Mark 14:24, Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 3:14, Galatians 3:15; Galatians 3:17, Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 8:6-9 bis. The only question can be whether, in view of what was stated above, they were right in rendering ‘covenant’ and not ‘testament’ in Galatians 3:15; Galatians 3:17. The point to be determined in each case is not whether the associations of ‘testament’ were present to the speaker’s or writer’s mind, but whether those of ‘covenant’ were absent: only where the latter is the case ought ‘covenant’ to be abandoned, and Galatians 3:15; Galatians 3:17 seems to belong to this class. What motives in each case underlie the choice of ‘testament’ and ‘covenant’ in Authorized Version is not so plain. (‘a better Covenant’) Hebrews 8:7. (‘that first Covenant’) Hebrews 8:8. (‘a new Covenant’) Hebrews 8:9-10; Heb_8:13 (‘a new Covenant’), Hebrews 9:1 (‘the first Covenant’), Hebrews 12:24 (‘the new Covenant’), seem to run contrary to the explanation offered, but in each of these instances the context furnished a special reason for favouring ‘covenant’: in Hebrews 8:6-13 the discourse revolves around the quotation from Jeremiah, which had ‘covenant’; Hebrews 9:1 is still continuous with this section, and in Hebrews 12:24 the contrast between the mediatorship of Moses and that of Jesus, and the reference to the transaction of Exodus 24, suggested ‘covenant. Hebrews 9:4 (‘the ark of the Covenant’). On the whole, the Covenant idea had not been intimately associated with eschatology in the OT. The consciousness that the work of Christ had ushered in a new state of things for the present life of the people of God, distinct and detached from the legal life of Judaism, for which latter the word ‘covenant ‘had become the characteristic expression, dawned only gradually upon the early Church. ...
With this agrees the fact that the conception of Christianity as a Covenant is most familiar to precisely those two NT writers who with greatest clearness and emphasis draw the contrast between the Mosaic forms of life and those of the Christian era, viz. Paul, however, the contrast referred to finds only occasional expression in terms of the Covenant: as a rule, it is expressed in other ways, such as the antithesis between law and grace, works and faith. The Epistle to the Hebrews is the only NT writing which gives to the Covenant idea the same central dominating place as it has in the greater part of the OT. ...
In the Gospels the word ‘covenant,’ in a religious sense, occurs but twice, in Luke 1:72, and in the words spoken by our Lord at the Supper. In the former passage the Covenant with Abraham is referred to, and the Messianic salvation represented as a fulfilment of the promise of that Covenant. Of course, in a broad sense the idea of the relation between God and Israel embodied in the word ‘covenant’ underlies and pervades all our Lord’s teaching. Notwithstanding the so-called ‘intensive universalism’ and the recognition of religion as a natural bond between God and man, antedating all positive forms of intercourse, our Lord was a thoroughgoing supernaturalist, who viewed both the past relationship of God to Israel and the future relationship to be established in the Kingdom not as the outcome of the natural religion of man, but as the product of a special, historic, supernatural approach of God to man, such as the OT calls ‘covenant. Mark 8:38 and Matthew 12:39 speak of the Jews as an ‘adulterous generation,’ and probably the later prophetic representation of the Covenant as a marriage-covenant lies at the basis of this mode of statement
Pact - ) An agreement; a league; a compact; a Covenant
Trucebreaker - ) One who violates a truce, Covenant, or engagement
Pilha - A signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:24 )
Conventionist - ) One who enters into a convention, Covenant, or contract
Shobek - A signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:24 (25)
Covenantee - ) The person in whose favor a Covenant is made
Azaniah - Father of Jeshua, who sealed the Covenant
Abrahamic - ) Pertaining to Abraham, the patriarch; as, the Abrachamic Covenant
Baal-Berith - BAAL-BERITH (‘lord of the Covenant’). The ‘covenant’ may be that amongst the Canaanite peoples or that between Canaanltes and Israelites; or the title may be parallel to Zeus Horkios , the god who presides over Covenants
Hashabnah - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:25 )
Zidkijah - That is, ZEDEKIAH, a priest who signed the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:1)
Sinai - This was the place where God first met Moses and where he later established his Covenant with the travelling Israelites (Exodus 3:1; 1 Kings 19:8-188; Acts 7:30). Through that Covenant God formally made them his people and gave them this law (Exodus 19; Exodus 24:16; Exodus 34:1-4; Exodus 34:29; Leviticus 7:37-38; Leviticus 27:34; Deuteronomy 1:6; Deuteronomy 1:19; Deuteronomy 5:1-2; 1 Kings 8:9; Acts 7:38). ...
Several hundred years later, when the prophet Elijah felt that God’s Covenant people were a total failure, God brought him to Mt Sinai to reassure him. Though God would punish Israel, he would preserve the faithful minority and through them fulfil his Covenant promises (1618389543_64). ...
To Israelites, the Covenant was inseparably linked with Sinai. But it was a Covenant that was limited by time and restricted to one nation. The new Covenant, by contrast, has no such limitations or restrictions. It comes into being through Jesus Christ and is identified not with Sinai but with heaven (Galatians 4:24-27; Hebrews 12:18-29; see Covenant)
Covenant - From baarah "to divide" or" cut in two" a victim (Gesenius), between the parts of which the Covenanting parties passed (Genesis 15:9, etc. Probably the Covenanting parties eating together (which barah sometimes means) of the feast after the sacrifice entered into the idea; compare Genesis 31:46-47, Jacob and Laban. ...
"A Covenant OF SALT," taken in connection with the eastern phrase for friendship, "to eat salt together," confirms this view. So a perpetual Covenant or appointment (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5). The Covenant alluded to in Hosea 6:7 margin is not with Adam (KJV "men" is better, compare Psalms 82:7), for nowhere else is the expression "covenant" applied to Adam's relation to God, though the thing is implied in Romans 5:12-19; 1 Corinthians 15:22; but the Sinaitic Covenant which Israel transgressed as lightly as "men" break their every day Covenants with their fellow men, or else they have transgressed like other "men," though distinguished above all men by extraordinary spiritual privileges. ...
"Covenant" in the strict sense, as requiring two independent contracting parties, cannot apply to a Covenant between God and man. His Covenant must be essentially one of gratuitous promise, an act of pure grace on His part (Galatians 3:15, etc. So in Psalms 89:28 "covenant" is explained by the parallel word "mercy. " So God's Covenant not to destroy the earth again by water (Genesis 9; Jeremiah 33:20). But the Covenant, on God's part gratuitous, requires man's acceptance of and obedience to it, as the consequence of His grace experienced, and the end which He designs to His glory, not that it is the meritorious condition of it. "...
The legal Covenant of Sinai came in as a parenthesis (pareiselthee ; Romans 5:20) between the promise to Abraham and its fulfillment in his promised seed, Christ. For this end its language was that, of a more stipulating kind as between two parties mutually Covenanting, "the man that doeth these things shall live by them" (Romans 10:5). In Hebrews 9:15-18 the gospel Covenant is distinguished from the legal, as the New Testament contrasted with the Old Testament "Testament" is the better translation here, as bringing out the idea of diatheekee , God's gracious disposal or appointment of His blessings to His people, rather than suntheekee , mutual engagement between Him and them as though equals. ...
A human "testament" in this one respect illustrates the nature of the Covenant; by death Christ chose to lose all the glory and blessings which are His, that we, who were under death's bondage, might inherit all. Thus the ideas of "mediator of the Covenant," and "testator," meet in Him, who at once fulfills God's "covenant of promise," and graciously disposes to us all that is His. In most other passages "covenant" would on the whole be the better rendering. In Matthew 26:28, "this is My blood of the new testament" would perhaps better be translated "covenant," for a testament does not require blood shedding. Moses by "covenant" means one giving the heavenly inheritance (typified by Canaan) after the testator's death, which was represented by the sacrificial blood he sprinkled. Paul by testament means one with conditions, and so far a Covenant, the conditions being fulfilled by Christ, not by us. Hebrews 9:17, "a testament is in force after men are dead," just as the Old Testament Covenant was in force only in connection with slain sacrificial victims which represent the death of Christ
Zidkijah - The Lord is righteous, one who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:1 )
Nobai - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:19 )
Beninu - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:13 )
Revocable - ) Capable of being revoked; as, a revocable edict or grant; a revocable Covenant
Gin'Nethon - (gardener ), a priest who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah ( Nehemiah 10:6 ) (B
Make (Cut) a Covenant - ...
Kârath (כָּרַת, Strong's #3772), “to cut off, cut down, fell, cut or make (a Covenant or agreement). A person “cut off” in this manner is not necessarily killed but may be driven out of the family and removed from the blessings of the Covenant. God told Abraham that “the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my Covenant” ( Covenant. The process by which God made a Covenant with Abraham is called “cutting”: “In the same day the Lord made a Covenant with Abram …” ( Covenant. Furthermore, hereafter in Genesis and throughout the Bible kârath is frequently associated with making a Covenant. This verb, therefore, constitutes a rather technical term for making a Covenant. ...
Later, “cutting” a Covenant did not necessarily include this act but seems to be an allusion to the Abrahamic Covenantal process (cf. In such a Covenant the one passing through the pieces pledged his faithfulness to the Covenant
Fallow Ground - The central thrust of the prophetic message is clear: the nation Israel, “Jacob”, is to return to Yahweh by “cultivating” the Covenant values of righteousness and steadfast love. Perhaps the unplowed earth represents Israel's failure to do what was needed to keep the Covenant. Here the call is for Israel to abandon the worn out fields of unrighteousness (symbolized by thorns) and to move on to the new, fertile (Proverbs 13:23 ) ground of Covenant living
Covenant Theology - A system of theology that views God's dealings with man in respect of Covenants rather than dispensations (periods of time). It represents the whole of scripture as Covenantal in structure and theme. Some believe there is one Covenant and others believe two and still others believe in more. The two main Covenants are Covenant of works in the O. made between God and Adam, and the Covenant of Grace between the Father and the Son where the Father promised to give the Son the elect and the Son must redeem them. The Covenants have been made since before the world was made (Hebrews 13:20)
Testament (2) - word διαθήκη, translation ‘covenant’ Luke 1:72 Authorized Version , ‘testament’ Matthew 26:28 || Mark 14:24, Luke 22:20 Authorized Version and (Revised Version margin) , is in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 , ll. , uniformly ‘covenant. The rendering ‘covenant’ (wh. The following considerations are supposed to have influenced their choice:—(a) διαθήκη represented essentially a ‘one-sided Covenant,’ συνθήκη (the ordinary word) a mutual one; (b) διαθήκη was charged with religions ideas, inasmuch as the Greek will conveyed the religious institutions as well as the property of the family (cf. ?]'>[2] is to the Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15, 17). Yet the idea of a ‘new Covenant’ had been the theme of OT prophets (cf. ), and its application to the Christian Covenant was in current use among the Apostles: the ‘old’ Covenant in the implied contrast was the Mosaic not the Abrahamic (2 Corinthians 3:6, Hebrews 9:15 etc. ‘Covenant,’ ‘Testament
Baal-Berith - Covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after the death of Gideon (Judges 8:33 ; 9:4 ). " The name denotes the god of the Covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary to the command of Jehovah (Exodus 34:12 ), when they began to fall away to the worship of idols
Bilgai - (bihl' gaw i) Priest who sealed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:8 )
Pilha - ” Lay leader witnessing Ezra's Covenant renewal (Nehemiah 10:24 )
Shobek - ” Jewish leader who signed Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:24 )
Zatthu - One who sealed the Covenant
Bilgai - One who sealed the Covenant
Ginnetho, Ginnethon - Priest who sealed the Covenant: he was ancestor of Meshullam
Anan - ” Signer of Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God (Nehemiah 10:26 )
Beni'nu - (our son ), a Levite; one of those who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Anan - Cloud, one of the Israelites who sealed the Covenant after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 10:26 )
Hizkl'Jah - who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Brit milah - "covenant of circumcision"); the ritual circumcision of a Jewish boy, generally at eight days old ...
Neba'i - (fruitful ), a family of the heads of the people who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Testimony - The two stone tables of the law were a visible "testimony" or witness of God's Covenant with his people; and hence the ark of the Covenant was called sometimes the testimony, or the ark of the testimony, Exodus 25:22 34:29
Hallohesh - Sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:24)
Hashabnah - ” Signer of Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:25 )
Sho'Bek - (free ), one of the heads of the people who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Hallo'Hesh - (enchanter ), one of the chief of the people who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Covenant - Covenant . ...
As for the formalities in concluding a Covenant, the primitive way seems to have been for the two parties to swallow each a drop of the other’s blood, thus becoming Covenant-brothers. This ritual appears to have been inherited from the nomadic period, and it afterwards generally gave way to a solemn oath or invocation of God, combining a pledge to observe the Covenant ( Genesis 26:31 , Hebrews 6:17 ) and the imprecation of a curse on non-observance ( Deuteronomy 27:15 ff. ...
Of the Covenants referred to in Scripture, there are two classes. Covenants between men . By an easy metaphor, a Covenant in the sense of an imposed will may be made with the eyes ( Job 31:1 ); or, in the other sense of agreement, with the stones ( Psalms 55:203 ), but not with Leviathan ( Job 41:4 ), because of his greatness and intractability, nor wisely with death either in scorn of God ( Isaiah 28:15 ; Isaiah 28:18 ) or in yearning ( Wis 1:16 ). In Daniel 11:22 ‘the prince of the Covenant’ is sometimes rendered ‘a prince in league with him’; but if the other translation stands, ‘covenant’ will represent the nation as a religious community (cf. Similarly in Malachi 3:1 ‘the messenger of the Covenant’ may be the attendant of God, His instrument in dealing with the nation (cf. Covenants between God and men . The idea of a Covenant with Adam, beyond the simple injunction of Genesis 2:16-17 , has been found by some writers in Sir 17:12 , which is more easily interpreted of the transactions on Horeb ( Deuteronomy 5:3 ). In Psalms 25:14 , as in Psalms 55:20 , the word has its fundamental meaning of an alliance of friendship, with a specific allusion in the former case to the Deuteronomic Covenant of the tenth verse. The Noachian Covenant ( Genesis 6:18 ; Genesis 9:8-17 , Isaiah 54:9 f. The Covenant with Abraham ( Genesis 15:18 ; Genesis 17:2-21 ) was confirmed in its promise to Isaac and Jacob ( Exodus 2:24 , Leviticus 26:42 , Psalms 105:9 f. Of still greater significance was the Covenant at Horeb or Sinai ( Exodus 19:5 ; Exodus 34:10 ; Exodus 34:27 f. It was really a constitution given to Israel by God, with appointed promise and penalty, duly inscribed on the tables of the Covenant ( Deuteronomy 9:9 ; Deuteronomy 9:11 ; Deuteronomy 9:15 ), which were deposited in the ark ( Deuteronomy 10:2 ; Deu 10:5 , 1 Kings 8:9 ; 1Ki 8:21 , 2 Chronicles 5:10 , Hebrews 9:4 ). Elsewhere the Covenant is described as set forth in words ( Exodus 34:28 , Deuteronomy 29:9 ) and written in a book ( Exodus 24:7 , 2 Kings 23:2 ). Amongst other Covenants of minor importance are that with Phinehas establishing an everlasting priesthood in his line ( Numbers 25:12 f. Joshua and the people Covenant to serve Jehovah only ( Joshua 24:25 ); so Jehoiada and the people ( 2 Kings 11:17 ). Hezekiah and the people solemnly agree to reform the worship ( 2 Chronicles 29:10 ); Josiah ( 2 Kings 23:3 ) and Ezra ( Ezra 10:3 ) lead the people into a Covenant to observe the Law. ...
Whilst the Sinaitic Covenant is rightly regarded as the charter of the Jewish dispensation, the establishment by God of a new constitution was contemplated by a series of prophets (Jeremiah 31:31 ; Jeremiah 31:33 ; Jeremiah 32:40 ; Jeremiah 50:5 , Isaiah 55:3 ; Isaiah 59:21 ; Isaiah 61:8 , Ezekiel 16:60 ; Ezekiel 16:62 ; Ezekiel 20:37 ; Ezekiel 34:25 ). Some of the pledges were new, and not confined in their range to Israel, whilst the Messianic Servant becomes ‘for a Covenant of the people’ ( Isaiah 42:6 f. ‘messenger of the Covenant,’ Malachi 3:1 ). The Sinaitic Covenant is thus transformed, and, whilst continuing as a note of racial separation until the period for the Incarnation was come, gave way then to a new dispensation with increased emphasis on personal religion and the provision of means adequate to ensure it ( Daniel 9:27 ). Yet the ancient Covenant, even that with Abraham, was everlasting ( Genesis 17:7 ), and still stands in its supreme purpose ( Leviticus 26:44 f. The Exile is sometimes thought of as marking the dissolution of the Old Covenant ( Jeremiah 31:31 ff. The act of making the New Covenant is compared with the transactions in the wilderness ( Ezekiel 20:36 ff. ...
In the later OT writings the word ‘covenant,’ as appears from the previous citations, has lost much of its technical signification, and does not always denote even a formal act of agreement, but becomes almost a synonym, and that without much precision, for the conditions of religion (Psalms 103:18 ). Paul recognizes a series of Covenants ( Romans 9:4 , Ephesians 2:12 ) on an ascending scale of adequacy ( 2 Corinthians 3:6 , Galatians 4:24 ff. ‘A Covenant of salt’ (Numbers 18:19 , 2 Chronicles 13:5 ) is a perpetual Covenant, the eating of salt together being a token of friendship as sealed by sacred hospitality. ‘The salt of the Covenant’ ( Leviticus 2:13 ) has probably the same primary suggestion, as at natural accompaniment of the sacrificial meal, and with it constituting an inviolable bond. Sometimes the two great divisions of Scripture are called the books of the Old and of the New Covenant respectively. The name ‘Book of the Covenant’ (see next article) is given to Exodus 20:22-23 ; that of ‘Little Book of the Covenant’ to 1618389543_95 . A distinction is often drawn between the Covenant of Works, assumed to have been made by God with Adam ( Genesis 2:17 ), and that of Grace or Redemption ( 2 Timothy 1:9 ), whereby Christ becomes to man the medium of all spiritual blessings
Yah - Shortened form of Yahweh, the Hebrew name for the God of the Covenant
Reestablish - ) To establish anew; to fix or confirm again; to restore; as, to reestablish a Covenant; to reestablish health
Ahuzzath - Friend of Abimelech, king of the Philistines, who came with him to make a Covenant with Isaac
Mijamin - Priest who sealed the Covenant
a'Nan - (a cloud ), one of the "heads of the people" who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Zidki'Jah - (justice of Jehovah ) a priest or family of priests who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Magbish - " A person "Magpiash" is named as sealing the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:20)
Nebai - ” One of the witnesses to Ezra's renewal of the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:19 )
Bezai - One whose descendants returned from exile, and one who sealed the Covenant
Hashab'Nah - (whom Jehovah regards ), one of the chief of the "people" who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Beninu - ” A Levite who sealed the Covenant Nehemiah made to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:13 )
Baalberith - The god signifying 'covenant lord' set up at Shechem
Maaziah - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Jaddua - One who sealed the Covenant
Covenant - Thus Abraham and Abimelech entered into Covenant at Beersheba. (1 Samuel 20:42) To the same amount, in point of explanation, must we accept what is related in Scripture of God's Covenant concerning redemption, made between the sacred persons of the GODHEAD, when the holy undivided Three in One engaged to, and with, each other, for the salvation of the church of God in Christ. This is that everlasting Covenant which was entered into, and formed in the council of peace before the word began. For so the apostle was commissioned by the Holy Ghost, to inform the church concerning that eternal life which was given us, he saith, in Christ Jesus, "before the world began?" (Titus 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:9) So that this everlasting Covenant becomes the bottom and foundation in JEHOVAH'S appointment, and security of all grace and mercy for the church here, and of all glory and happiness hereafter, through the alone person, work, blood-shedding, and obedience of the Lord Jesus Christ. ...
Such are the outlines of this blessed Covenant. Hence, the patriarch David, with his dying breath, amidst all the untoward circumstances which took place in himself and his family, took refuge and consolation in this: "Although (said he,) my house be not so with God, yet hath he made with me an everlasting Covenant, ordered in all things, and sure; for this is all my salvation and all my desire, although he make it not to grow. " (2 Samuel 23:5)...
In the gospel, it is called the New Testament, or Covenant, not in respect to any thing new in it or from any change or alteration in its substance or design, but from the promises of the great things engaged for in the Old Testament dispensation being now newly confirmed and finished. And as the glorious person by whom the whole conditions of the Covenant on the part of man was to be performed, had now, according to the original settlements made in eternity, been manifested, and agreeably to the very period proposed, "in [1] the fulness of time, appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself," it was, therefore, called Covenant, in his blood. But the whole purport, plan, design and grace, originating as it did in the purposes of JEHOVAH from all eternity, had all the properties in it of an everlasting Covenant; and Christ always, and from all eternity, "was considered the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world
Jehovah-Shalom - The margin of the Bible renders this title of a Covenant God, "The Lord send peace. But seen with an eye to Christ, it is eminently blessed; here, indeed, JEHOVAH, in the Covenant of peace founded in Christ before all worlds, may, and must be called, in the strongest emphasis, JEHOVAH SHALOM
Surety - Christ is the "surety of a better testament;" that is, in the glorious and complete Covenant of grace he engages to meet all the claims of the divine law against his people, that they may be absolved, and enriched with all Covenant blessing, Hebrews 7:22
Azaniah - ” Father of Levite who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:9 )
Anan - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:26 )
Testament, New - Campbell, is frequently denominated and almost always rendered the New Testament: yet the word by itself, is generally translated Covenant. It is the Greek word, whereby the Seventy have uniformly translated the Hebrew word Berith, which our translators have invariably translated Covenant. That the Hebrew term corresponds much better to the English word Covenant than to testament, there can be no question; yet the word in classical use is more frequently rendered Testament. The proper Greek word for Covenant is not found in the New Testament, and occurs only thrice in the Septuagint, where it is never employed for rendering the word Berith. the term New is added to distinguish it from the Old Covenant, that it, the dispensation of Moses. The two Covenants are always in Scripture the two dispensations: that under Moses is the old, that under the Messiah is the new. In the latitude wherein the term is used in holy writ, the command under the sanction of death, which God gave to Adam, may, with sufficient propriety, be termed a Covenant; but it is never so called in Scripture; and when mention is made of the two Covenants, the old and the new, or the first and the second, there appears to be no reference to any thing that related to Adam
Magpiash - ” Magpiash was among the chiefs of the people who signed Ezra's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:20 )
Hezir - ...
Nehemiah 10:20 , one who sealed Nehemiah's Covenant
Azgad - One who sealed the Covenant
Harim - Priest who sealed the Covenant. A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Implacable - , "without a truce," as a libation accompanied the making of treaties and compacts; then, "one who cannot be persuaded to enter into a Covenant," "implacable," 2 Timothy 3:3 (AV, "truce-breakers"). lii) contrasts aspondos with asunthetos; see Note under CovenantBREAKERS. Aspondos may signify "untrue to one's promise," asunthetos "not abiding by one's Covenant, treacherous
Hezir - A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Jegar-Sahadutha - Heap of witness, a Chaldee name, equivalent to Galeed in Hebrew, both marking the scene of the Covenant between Jacob and Laban, Genesis 31:47
Anai'ah - (Nehemiah 8:4 ) ...
One of the "heads of the people" who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Pil'Eha - (worship ), the name of one of the chief of the people, probably a family, who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Mag'Piash - (moth-killer ) one of the heads of the people who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Circumcision - An operation (note the shedding of blood) that entered one into the Covenant in O. It was a sign of the Covenant God made with Abraham (Genesis 17:12; Romans 4:11)
Scandinavian Evangelical Bodies - Three bodies have been organized: ...
Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant
Swedish Evangelical Free Church
Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Free Church Association of North America
In doctrine the Covenant is strictly evangelical, accepting the Bible as the inspired Word of God unto men, the only infallible guide in matters of faith, doctrine, and practise, and His message regarding both this life and the life that is to come
Hezir - A lay family, which signed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:22 )
Hallohesh - An individual or a family mentioned in connexion with the repairing of the wall ( Nehemiah 3:12 ) and the sealing of the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:24 )
Kelaiah, Kelita - He assisted Ezra in explaining the law and sealed the Covenant
Jaddua -
One of the chiefs who subscribed the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:21 )
Name, the Christian - It is given in Baptism to indicate a new relationshipto God by thus being brought into Covenant with Him. Thus Abram's name was changed to Abrahamwhen God made His Covenant with him, and Jacob's name was changedto Israel when that Covenant was renewed with him, which had beenmade with Abraham. They are the sign that those who bearthem have been brought into Covenant with God, that they have been made in their Baptism, "members of Christ, the children of God,and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven
Deuteronomy, Theology of - The fifth book of the Pentateuch is not merely a recasting of the Sinai Covenant text and all its derivative materials, but a new and fresh statement of Yahweh's Covenant purposes to a new generation in a new place with new prospects. The nation with whom the Sinai Covenant had been made had died in the wilderness and so was no longer on the scene (Numbers 14:26-35 ). Deuteronomy was addressed to their offspring who were poised to enter the land of promise, and needed reassurance of Yahweh's Covenant promises in light of the challenge of impending conquest and settlement. Deuteronomy itself is thought to have originated a little earlier, being a reflection of allegedly Mosaic teaching designed to provide a Covenant standard by which to assess and judge Israel's actual history (cf. The negative tone of the "Deuteronomistic" account is attributed to the antimonarchic traditionists who first had created Deuteronomy as an antimonarchical tractate and then wrote their history to show how the monarchy had, indeed, violated the book's Covenant mandates. What is important is to recognize that Deuteronomy itself witnesses to its Mosaic authorship (1:1,3, 5; 4:44; 31:1,9, 22) and in its canonical form bears all the hallmarks of a Covenant document, specifically that of a sovereign-vassal type. In fact, it is the genre of the book as a Covenant text that is the key to its proper theological purpose and understanding. The following outline represents a fairly widely held consensus of the shape of the book as a Covenant document:...
The preamble, which provides the setting in which the Great King presents the Covenant text to the vassal (1:1-5).
The blessings and curses, which spell out the results of faithful adherence to or disobedience of the terms of the Covenant (27:1- 28:68).
The witnesses, that is, persons or other entities to which appeal can be made as to the legality of the Covenant instrument and to the commitments made by the contracting parties (30:19; 31:19; 32:1-43).
In light of the indisputable connection between form and function, it is safe to say that the concept of Covenant lies at the center of the theology of Deuteronomy. Covenant, in turn, by its very definition demands at least three elementsthe two contracting parties and the document that describes the purpose, nature, and requirements of the relationship. Thus the three major rubrics of the theology of Deuteronomy are Yahweh, the Great King and Covenant initiator; Israel, the vassal and Covenant recipient; and the book itself, the Covenant vehicle, complete with the essentials of standard treaty documents. This means, moreover, that all the revelation of the book must be seen through the prism of Covenant and not abstractly removed from the peculiar historical and ideological context in which it originated. It is precisely at the point of his making Covenant with them that the theophanic disclosure is most emphatic. That word of God in Deuteronomy is, of course, the book itself expressed in its uniquely Covenant form. But Deuteronomy is a Covenant text in a broader than normal sense inasmuch as it contains not only the sine qua non of standard documents of that genre but also itineraries, narratives, hymns, and homilies, all designed to provide both a Covenant document as well as a historical, existential, and eschatological context in which to interpret it. Thus there are the solemn and formal pronouncements of Covenant initiation (1:6b-8; 2:4b-7; 4:12-13; 5:4,6-22) as well as constant enjoinders to be faithful to its stipulations. ...
The subject of divine self-disclosure, that is, the content of Yahweh's revelation about himself, must also be seen in terms of the Covenant purposes of the Book of Deuteronomy. It is therefore not surprising that the Covenant name "Yahweh" is by far the most commonly attested to, occurring about 221 times. By this name he encountered Moses at Sinai and it is in this name that he constantly commands his people to keep the Covenant made there. The rare occurrences of Elohim (23 times) and other names and epithets (about 18 times) reinforce the Covenant character of the book and its almost exclusive attention to Israel, for these names, especially Elohim and its byforms, occur most regularly in contexts describing God's more cosmic or universal interests in creation and history. ...
The second major theme of the theology of Deuteronomythat pertaining to the recipient of the Covenant initiated by Yahwehconsists primarily of references to the single nation or people Israel. ...
The third rubric of the theology of Deuteronomy is that of the Covenant itself, both its form and its content. As has been noted, modern scholarship has drawn attention to the remarkable correspondence between Old Testament Covenant form and pattern and that of Late Bronze Age Hittite vassal treaties. But of greater theological importance than the structure of the book is its content, one so inextricably linked to its Covenant context that the theology of Deuteronomy should be viewed continually as a statement of relationshipthat of Yahweh the Great King with his elect and commissioned people Israel. ...
More particularly, Deuteronomy is a Covenant renewal document and not an initial statement of Covenant establishment. This is clear from the frequent references to the original Sinai (or Horeb) Covenant setting (1:6; 4:1-2,5, 10,15, 23,33-40) and the change in language in Deuteronomy vis-a-vis Exodus due to the changed circumstances (5:12-15; cf. Moreover, Deuteronomy is a greatly expanded and more detailed rendition of the Covenant text, for the complexities of life and expectation in the land of promise raise issues that were of little or no consequence in the wilderness of Sinai. ...
After tracing the course of events from Sinai (1:6-3:29) to the present site of Covenant renewal in Moab, Moses urged the people to obedience as a precondition to blessing (4:1,6, 40). He pointed out that the document of Covenant was inviolable (4:2), that it must be taught to future generations (4:9-10,40), and that its infraction would result in divine chastisement (4:26-28). ...
Moses next introduced the general stipulations of the Covenant in a passage that clearly establishes the technical nature of the relationship (4:44-49). The principles of the Covenant stipulations go on, however, to emphasize that all blessings, past and future, are attributable to Yahweh's grace. First, they further elucidate the fundamental Covenant theme of Deuteronomy 4:40-11:32 . Second, they define precisely the terms of the Covenant relative to cultic, ethical, and societal/interpersonal/interethnic relationships. All the themes in this section find their center in Yahweh, his people, and the Covenant that binds them together. ...
Purity laws, which deal directly or indirectly with forms of separation, testified to the need for Israel to maintain Covenant purity and separation. ...
The theological importance of proper behavior of Covenant members toward each other is reemphasized by another set of stipulations (23:20- 25:19), similar in some respects to those already addressed (especially 21:10-22:4), but with greater business and economic interests in view. If the heart of Covenant confession is the requirement of loving the Lord his God with all heart, soul, and strength (6:5), the corollary, loving neighbors as ourselves (Leviticus 19:18 ), is equally obligatory. This must find expression particularly at the time of harvest festival when worshipers, with offering in hand, recite the sacred history of their people, dedicate themselves anew to the task of Covenant-keeping, and give evidence of that commitment by the presentation of a special tithe to God's dependent ministers (26:1-15). It is fitting that this pledge of Covenant fidelity be made at precisely the place mentioned at the beginning of the special stipulation section, that is, at "the place the Lord your God will choose as a dwelling for his Name" (26:2; Covenant relationship is implied by the command that Israel, once in the land of promise, should undertake Covenant renewal at Mount Ebal, a ceremony centered on the very words of the Covenant text being composed by Moses (27:1-7). Therefore, Moses said, the present generation, as well as those to come, must commit and recommit themselves to Covenant faithfulness (30:11-20). ...
Since the Covenant was articulated in the Mosaic writings themselves, specifically in Deuteronomy (31:9), future commitment to its principles presupposed its preservation in a place that was both safe and accessible. As a reminder of the pledge the people had undertaken to keep Covenant they would also regularly sing a song whose very content was a recitation of God's redemptive work on behalf of Israel (32:1-43). Merrill...
See also Clean, Unclean ; Covenant ; Israel ; Law ; Moses ...
Bibliography
Hodijah - ...
Nehemiah 10:18 , a Levite who sealed the Covenant
Messenger - This in Malachi 3:1 it might be read, the angel of the Covenant. He is the all in all of the whole Covenant. Hence to him the Covenant of redemption was given; by him the whole Covenant was fulfilled; in his almighty hand all the blessings resulting from the Covenant are placed; and from him all must flow, in grace here, and glory hereafter, to his whole body the church. So that Jesus appears most lovely and engaging as JEHOVAH'S Covenant in the full, and as the Surety of it, the Messenger of it, the Fulfiller of it, and the Administrator of it, both in time and to all eternity. Hail, almighty Messenger of thine own and thy Father's will to mankind, "thou Messenger and Interpreter, one among a thousand, to shew unto man JEHOVAH'S uprightness! Be thou all my salvation, and all my desire; for thou hast made and finished thine everlasting Covenant, ordered in all things and sure
Covenant - , it is the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning a "covenant" or agreement (from a verb signifying "to cut or divide," in allusion to a sacrificial custom in connection with "covenant-making," e. In contradistinction to the English word "covenant" (lit. God enjoined upon Abraham the rite of circumcision, but His promise to Abraham, here called a "covenant," was not conditional upon the observance of circumcision, though a penalty attached to its nonobservance. Hebrews 7:22 ); Hebrews 8:9 ; 9:20 ; (d) by metonymy, the token of the Covenant, or promise, made to Abraham, Acts 7:8 ; (e) by metonymy, the record of the Covenant, 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; Hebrews 9:4 ; cp. ...
"This Covenant is called the 'new,' Hebrews 9:15 , the 'second,' Hebrews 8:7 , the 'better,' Hebrews 7:22 . , "to put together," is used only in the Middle Voice in the NT, and, means "to determine, agree," John 9:22 ; Acts 23:20 ; "to assent," Acts 24:9 ; "to Covenant," Luke 22:5 . , to weigh, "they Covenanted with;" RV, "they weighed unto
Circumcision - God had made a Covenant with Abraham to be his God, to give him a multitude of descendants who would be his special people, and to give those people Canaan as their homeland. Circumcision was the sign of that Covenant (Genesis 17:1-11; see Covenant). ...
As a permanent mark in the body, circumcision symbolized the permanency of God’s Covenant with his people. Because of its significance for personal cleanliness, it symbolized also the purity that the Covenant demanded of them. God required that Abraham, his household, and all his descendants throughout future generations be circumcised if they were to be his people according to the Covenant (Genesis 17:9-13; Acts 7:8). The Covenant had originated in God’s grace, but the Israelites had to respond with faithful obedience if they were to enjoy the Covenant’s blessing. If a man was not circumcised, he and his household were cut off from the Covenant (Genesis 17:14). They neglected the first requirement of the Covenant. Therefore, before they could take possession of the land promised to them in the Covenant, they had to circumcise all who had been born during the previous forty years (Joshua 5:2-9). The law of Moses set out regulations for those who had already become God’s people as a result of the Covenant he had made with Abraham. ...
No longer necessary...
Circumcision was a sign of God’s Covenant with Abraham, and that Covenant reached its fulfilment in Jesus Christ. Now that Christ has come, the legal requirements of the former Covenant no longer apply (Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 2:14-15)
Bebai - And one who sealed the Covenant
Adulterer - ) A man who violates his religious Covenant
Bigvai - Ancestor of some who returned from exile, one of whom, bearing the same name, sealed the Covenant
Bunni - One who sealed the Covenant
Hariph - A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Anaiah - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:22 )
Meshezabeel - One who sealed the Covenant
Mediator, Mediation - Moses not only served as a mediator in the innocent sense when, at God's gracious initiative, he communicated the terms of the Sinaitic Covenant with Israel (Exodus 19:9 ; 20:19 ; 24:1-2 ; 34:27-28 ; Leviticus 26:46 ; Deuteronomy 5:5 ); but he served as Israel's intercessor after they had broken the Covenant and stood in danger of God's righteous wrath according to the Covenant's terms (Exodus 32:7-14 ; 33:12-23 ; Numbers 14:13-19 ). After Moses' death, and in the face of continued violation of the Covenant, other figures arose to urge Israel's compliance with the law and to intercede for Israel during times of disobedience. Jeremiah and Ezekiel, therefore, spoke of a time when God would give his people a new heart and a new, everlasting Covenant whose terms a fresh outpouring of his Spirit would enable them to keep (Jeremiah 24:7 ; 31:31-34 ; 32:40 ; 50:5 ; Ezekiel 11:19 ; 18:31 ; 34:25 ; 37:26 ; 39:29 ). According to the New Testament, the coming of Jesus ushered in the era of this new Covenant, and Jesus himself is its mediator. ...
Paul echoes the new Covenant language of the Old Testament when he tells us that believers have peace with God (John 15:26-16 ), have experienced the outpouring of God's love in their hearts through the Holy Spirit (Romans 5:10-117 ), and have been reconciled to God (1618389543_39 ; cf. The Covenant mediated through Moses was glorious, he says, but the new Covenant is far more so, for unlike the old Covenant that punished sin and therefore brought death, the new Covenant brings life (2 Corinthians 3:4-18 ; John 1:17 ; cf. His response to this church is a carefully argued reminder of Christ's superiority to every aspect of Israel's Old Covenant, and a crucial step in this argument is that Christ is the mediator of a new Covenant (8:6; 9:15; 12:24). ...
The author observes that Moses' mediatory role not only involved communicating the terms of the Covenant from God to Israel but also serving a priestly function in light of Israel's sinfulness. Jesus, too, performed all these functions; but his work and what it effected were superior in every way to the mediatorial role of Moses, for he was the mediator of a better Covenant (8:6; 9:15). The author gives two reasons for his contention that the Covenant Jesus mediated was better than the Mosaic Covenant. First, he says, the prediction in Jeremiah 31:31-34 of a new Covenant proves that the first one was not blameless (8:7)—the very use of the word "new" in that passage implies the obsolescence of the old (8:13). As a result of this superior sacrifice, all the transgressions condemned by the old Covenant have been forgiven (9:15), and blood sacrifice of any type need never be offered again (9:18-26; Covenant was established, so Jesus "always lives to intercede" on our behalf and therefore to bring complete salvation to us (7:25; cf. He does this most clearly in 12:18-29, where he reminds his readers of the magnificent display of God's power and holiness that accompanied Moses' mediation of the first Covenant. In a way similar to Paul (2 Corinthians 3:9 ), the author argues that Moses' mediation of the old Covenant was a magnificent event, accompanied by splendid displays of God's power which, appropriately, struck terror into the hearts of God's people (vv. From this the author concludes that since Jesus is the mediator of a new Covenant of forgiveness (v. ...
For Paul and the author of Hebrews, therefore, Christ's role as mediator received a Covenantal interpretation that echoes the Old Testament at every step. Whereas Moses mediated a temporary Covenant whose primary purpose was to pronounce the just penalty of death over those who sinned, they argue, Jesus mediated the new Covenant predicted by the prophets. Since this Covenant was accompanied by Christ's superior high priestly role with its superior sacrifice, it is the answer to the plight of sin that the first Covenant made so clear
Old Law - The Mosaic dispensation, the "Old Covenant"; also the books of the Old Testament; the institutions, laws, religious rites, and traditional customs which prevailed among the Jews, prior to the coming of Christ
Pelaiah - Levite who instructed the people in the law, and who sealed the Covenant
Galeed - The name given by Jacob to the heap of stones raised to witness the Covenant made between him and Laban
Beer-Sheba - The well of an oath; So called, because here it was that Abraham made a Covenant with Abimelech
Hanan - Levite who sealed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:10 ). Another signer of Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:22 ). Another who signed Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:26 )
Meonenim, the Oak of - The inhabitants elected Abimelech king in the very place where Joshua renewed Israel's Covenant with Jehovah, the true Covenant God. Here was the temple of Baal Berith (Lord of the Covenant, Judges 9:46)
Ark of the Covenant - Also called the "Ark of the Testimony" (Exodus 30:6), "Ark of God" (1 Samuel 3:3), and the "Ark of the Covenant of the Lord" (Deuteronomy 10:8). The Ark of the Covenant was very sacred to the Ancient Jews. The Ark of the Covenant was place in the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle and later in the Temple
Meshezabel - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:21 )
Bezai - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:18 )
Parosh - A family who returned from exile, one of whom sealed the Covenant, and some had married strange wives
Kel'Ita - (Nehemiah 8:7 ) and signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
ma-Azi'ah -
One of the priests who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Henadad - Head of a Levite family who helped to rebuild the temple, and to repair the wall of the city, one of whom sealed the Covenant
Pelaiah - A Levite who helped Ezra to expound the Law ( Nehemiah 8:7 [1]), and sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:10 )
Cameronians - Group of Scotch Covenanters under the leadership of Richard Cameron who separated from the Scotch Presbyterian Church. Wishing to restore the ecclesiastical order which had existed between 1639,1649, they strictly upheld the National Covenant of 1580 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643, being dissatisfied with the moderate character of the religious settlement of 1690
Kadmiel - Levite who helped Ezra in the reaffirmation of the Covenant after the return from the Exile (Nehemiah 9:4-5 ). Levite who signed the Covenant after the Exile (Nehemiah 10:9 )
Fornication - In Ezekiel 16:1-63 , the Jewish church is symbolized as a female infant, growing up to womanhood, and then wedded to Jehovah by Covenant. When she breaks her Covenant by going after idols, she is justly reproached as an adulteress and a harlot, Jeremiah 2:20 3:8-9 Hosea 3:1
Bezai - A man who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:18 )
Maaziah - Priest who signed Ezra's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:8 )
am'Ana - (a Covenant ), apparently a mountain in or near Lebanon
Hashabni'ah - (Nehemiah 3:10 ) ...
A Levite who was among those who officiated at the great fast under Ezra and Nehemiah when the Covenant was sealed
Inflammation - Inflammation was one of the curses upon those disobedient to the Covenant (Deuteronomy 28:22 ; compare Leviticus 13:28 )
lo-Ammi - ” Son of Hosea the prophet whose name God gave to symbolize Israel's lost relationship with Him due to their sin and broken Covenant (Hosea 1:9 )
Testament - word diathçkç , elsewhere rendered ‘covenant’ (with ‘testament’ in the margin). In Hebrews 9:15-20 diathçkç is three times translated ‘covenant,’ and twice ‘testament. ’ An indication of the difficulty involved in its interpretation is given in the marginal note: ‘The Greek word here used signifies both Covenant and testament . ’...
In classical Greek diathçkç means ‘a testamentary disposition,’ and synthçkç ‘a Covenant. ’ The latter word connotes an agreement between two persons regarded as being on an equal footing ( syn- ); hence it is unsuitable as a designation of God’s gracious Covenants with men. word for ‘covenant’ ( bĕrîth ), its most frequent application being to the Divine Covenants, which are not matters of mutual arrangement between God and His people, but are rather ‘analogous to the disposition of property by testament. ]'>[2] diathçkç was extended to Covenants between man and man, but Westcott says: ‘There is not the least trace of the meaning “testament” in the Greek Old Test. ...
In the NT ‘covenant’ is unquestionably the correct translation of diathçkç when it occurs ‘in strictly Biblical and Hebraic surroundings’ [4]. Frequently, therefore, it means ‘covenant’ ( Luke 1:72 , Acts 7:3 , Romans 11:27 etc. This use of the Latin word is the explanation of the fact that, as early as the second cent of our era, the books of the Old and New Covenants were spoken of as the Old and New Testaments
mi'Cha - (2 Samuel 9:12 ) ...
A Levite who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
People of God - Group elected by God and committed to be His Covenant people. ...
Election and Covenant The election of Israel as people of God may be traced from Abraham (Genesis 12:1 ; compare Galatians 3:29 ; Romans 9:7-8 ). Exodus 19:1 represents a special Covenant form with both conditions ( Exodus 19:5 ) and promises of the Covenant (Exodus 19:5-6 ). The condition of the Covenant was obedience; the promise was that “you shall be my treasured possession out of all the peoples. See Church ; Covenant ; Election ; Israel, Spiritual . He is the Suffering Servant, who gave His life as a ransom for many and thereby inaugurated the New Covenant
Reformation - See Covenant
Hashub, Hasshub - A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Daniel - Descendant of Ithamar, he returned with Ezra and sealed the Covenant
ha'Riph - ( Nehemiah 7:24 ) The name occurs again among the "heads of the people" who sealed the Covenant
Sacrament - The bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are considered sacraments in that they are visible manifestations of the Covenant promise of our Lord: "In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, 'This cup is the new Covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you
Pahathmoab, - ' A family who returned from exile, one of whom sealed the Covenant, and several had married strange wives
Surety - In fact, the word "surety" occurs only once in our translation of the Scriptures, namely, Hebrews 7:22 : "By so much was Jesus made the surety of a better Covenant. " It is certainly true that the Son of God, in all that he has done or is still doing as Mediator, may be justly viewed as the surety of the new and everlasting Covenant, and as affording the utmost security to believers that, as the Father hath given all things into his hands, they wilt be conducted with effect, and all the exceeding great and precious promises of that Covenant assuredly be accomplished. Now, as in this passage a comparison is stated between Jesus, as a high priest, and the Levitical high priests; and as the latter were considered by the Apostle to be the mediators of the Sinai Covenant, because through their mediation the Israelites worshipped God with sacrifices; it is evident that the Apostle in this passage terms Jesus the High Priest or Mediator of the better Covenant, because, through his mediation, or in virtue of the sacrifice which he offered of himself to God, believers receive all the blessings of the new Covenant
Anaiah - He or another man of the same name signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:22 )
Phichol - He witnessed Covenants between his commander and Abraham (Genesis 21:32 ) and Isaac (Genesis 26:26-28 ). See Abimelech ; Abraham ; Covenant ; Isaac
Hariph - Leader of people who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:19 )
Hasshub - One of those who signed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:23 )
Bigvai - A signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:16 )
Phichol - He witnessed Covenants between his commander and Abraham (Genesis 21:32 ) and Isaac (Genesis 26:26-28 ). See Abimelech ; Abraham ; Covenant ; Isaac
Silo - For three centuries after the conquest of the Promised Land it was the dwelling-place of the Tabernacle and the Ark of the Covenant (Josiah 18)
az'Zur - (one who helps ), one of the heads of the People who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Massorah - (Hebrew: masoreth, bond of the Covenant) ...
The body of traditional information relating to the text of the Hebrew bible; the collection of critical notes in which this information is preserved
Micha - A Levite who sealed the Covenant
Sherebi'ah - (Nehemiah 8:7 ) He signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Hattush - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Mij'Amin - (1 Chronicles 24:9 ) ...
A family of priests who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah; probably the descendants of the preceding
Jegar-Sahadutha - Pile of testimony, the Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave to the pile of stones erected as a memorial of the Covenant between him and Jacob (Genesis 31:47 ), who, however, called it in Hebrew by an equivalent name, Galeed (q
Means of Grace - The bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are considered sacraments in that they are visible manifestations of the Covenant promise of our Lord: "In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, 'This cup is the new Covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you
Bani - Same clan apparently had members who had married foreign wives and agreed to divorce them to avoid bringing religious temptation to the Covenant community ( Ezra 10:29 ,Ezra 10:29,10:34 ,Ezra 10:34,10:38 ). May be same man who helped Ezra interpret the law to the people (Nehemiah 8:7 ), led the worship service of repentance leading to Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 9:4-5 ; a second Bani was also involved here), sealed Nehemiah's Covenant along with the second Bani (Nehemiah 10:13-14 )
Warranty - ) A Covenant real, whereby the grantor of an estate of freehold and his heirs were bound to warrant and defend the title, and, in case of eviction by title paramount, to yield other lands of equal value in recompense. This warranty has long singe become obsolete, and its place supplied by personal Covenants for title. Among these is the Covenant of warranty, which runs with the land, and is in the nature of a real Covenant
Wills - (See Covenant, (See HEIR
Testator - One who makes a will or testament, introduced in Hebrews 9:16,17 in a parenthesis, showing that as a will is of force only after a man is dead, so Christ must have died for the blessings of the new Covenant to be available
Concordat - ) A compact, Covenant, or agreement concerning anything
Pelaiah - Levite witnessing Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:10 ), perhaps identical to 2
he'Zir - ) ...
One of the heads of the people (lay-men) who sealed the solemn Covenant with Nehemiah
Rainbow - I know not how it is, but so it is, as if by natural instinct, as often as I see that beautiful arch in the heavens called the rainbow, I call to mind what JEHOVAH once said after the deluge: "I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a Covenant between me and the earth and it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud. And I will remember my Covenant which is between me and you, and every living creature of all flesh: and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting Covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the, earth. " (Genesis 9:13-16) As oft therefore as I behold the rain bow, I consider the graciousness of the Lord's renewed token of this Covenant; and I consider also the high privilege in looking in one and the same moment to the same object to which my God is looking. For surely Jesus is himself the Covenant JEHOVAH hath made with our nature in the person of his dear Son. Notwithstanding, therefore, what some men tell us of the physical causes by which the rainbow, they say, is produced, yet still I desire to look at it as the result of higher purposes in grace, and to behold it in every renewed view as the sweet and glorious token JEHOVAH hangs out in the heavens of JEHOVAH'S Covenant in Christ
Hesed - (hee' ssehd) Personal name meaning “grace” or “covenant love
Joshaphat - Priest who sounded the trumpet before the Ark of the Covenant as David brought it to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:24 ; KJV, Jehoshaphat)
Hashabneiah - Levite who led worship in Nehemiah's Covenant ceremony in which people reaffirmed their commitment to obey God (Nehemiah 9:5 )
Pela'Iah - ) ...
One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expounding the law, (Nehemiah 8:7 ) He afterward sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Hodiah - He signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:10 ). Another Levite and a leader of the people with the same name also signed the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:13 ,Nehemiah 10:13,10:18 )
Faithful - I only beg to observe, that it appears from Scripture the Lord delights to be known to his people, in his Covenant engagements, by this distinguishing perfection. That sweet passage delivered to the church by Moses, is a most decided proof of it: "Know, therefore, that the Lord thy God, he is God; the faithful God, which keepeth Covenant and mercy with the that love him and keep his commandments to a thousand generations
Deuteronomy - ...
The basis of Deuteronomy is the Covenant between Yahweh and his people. Israel could do nothing but accept God’s grace and promise to serve him with loving obedience (Deuteronomy 5:6-7; Deuteronomy 6:1-3; Deuteronomy 10:12-13; see Covenant). ...
In form Deuteronomy is similar to the normal Covenant documents of the ancient Near East. When a sovereign overlord made a Covenant with his subject peoples, he prepared a treaty document that declared his sovereignty over them and laid down the order of life he required of them. ...
Contents of the Covenant document...
Usually a treaty document began with an historical introduction in which the overlord, after announcing his name, recounted all he had done for his people. ...
After the introduction came a statement of the Covenant’s basic requirements. ...
The updated Covenant document dealt with a number of matters, including faithfulness in worship (12:1-13:18), honesty in religious and social matters (14:1-16:17), justice in government (16:18-19:21), respect for human life (20:1-21:23), sexual purity (22:1-23:25), protection for the disadvantaged in society (24:1-25:4), and integrity in family relations, business dealings and religious duties (25:5-26:15). The two parties then declared their loyalty to the Covenant (26:16-19). ...
In keeping with the form of ancient treaties, the Covenant also listed the rewards and punishments (blessings and cursings) that people could expect. Having stated the conditions under which the Covenant operated, Moses then formally renewed it (29:1-30:20). A further feature of the Covenant was the twofold provision for its maintenance. ...
Moses summarized the Covenant’s contents in a song that the people were to memorize and sing (31:30-32:47)
Hezir - A Levite who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:20 )
Zattu - A family of exiles that returned ( Ezra 2:8 = Nehemiah 7:13 [1]); several members of this family had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:27 [2]); its head sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:14 (15))
Jaddua - Levite who placed his seal on Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:22 )
Ater - The head of the clan signed Nehemiah's Covenant to keep God's Law (Nehemiah 10:17 )
Kadmiel - He led the devotions of the people and sealed the Covenant
Circumcision - God enjoined Abraham to use circumcision, as a sign of his Covenant. ...
CIRCUMCISION, Covenant of. That the Covenant with Abraham, of which circumcision was made the sign and seal, Genesis 17:7-14 , was the general Covenant of grace, and not wholly, or even chiefly, a political and national Covenant, may be satisfactorily established. The second promise in the Covenant was, that he should be "the father of many nations;" which we are also taught by St. The third stipulation in God's Covenant with the patriarch, was the gift to Abraham and to his seed of "the land of Canaan," in which the temporal promise was manifestly but the type of the higher promise of a heavenly inheritance. The final engagement in the Abrahamic Covenant was, that in Abraham's "seed, all nations of the earth should be blessed;" and this blessing, we are expressly taught by St. This Covenant with Abraham, therefore, although it respected a natural seed, Isaac, from whom a numerous progeny was to spring; and an earthly inheritance provided for this issue, the land of Canaan; and a special Covenant relation with the descendants of Isaac, through the line of Jacob, to whom Jehovah was to be "a God," visibly and specially, and they a visible and "peculiar people;" yet was, under all these temporal, earthly, and external advantages, but a higher and spiritual grace embodying itself under these circumstances, as types of a dispensation of salvation and eternal life, to all who should follow the faith of Abraham, whose justification before God was the pattern of the justification of every man, whether Jew or Gentile, in all ages. Now, of this Covenant, in its spiritual as well as in its temporal provisions, circumcision was most certainly the sacrament, that is, the "sign" and the "seal;" for St. " And as this rite was enjoined upon Abraham's posterity, so that every "uncircumcised man-child whose flesh of his foreskin was not circumcised on the eighth day," was to be "cut off from his people, by the special judgment of God, and that because "he had broken God's Covenant," Genesis 17:14 ; it therefore follows that this rite was a constant publication of God's Covenant of grace among the descendants of Abraham, and its repetition a continual confirmation of that Covenant, on the part of God, to all practising it in that faith of which it was the ostensible expression. As the Covenant of grace made with Abraham was bound up with temporal promises and privileges, so circumcision was a sign and seal of the Covenant in both its parts,—its spiritual and its temporal, its superior and inferior provisions. The spiritual promises of the Covenant continued unrestricted to all the descendants of Abraham, whether by Isaac or by Ishmael; and still lower down, to the descendants of Esau as well as to those of Jacob. Circumcision was practised among them all by virtue of its divine institution at first; and was extended to their foreign servants, and to proselytes, as well as to their children; and wherever the sign of the Covenant of grace was by divine appointment, there it was a seal of that Covenant, to all who believingly used it; for we read of no restriction of its spiritual blessings, that is, its saving engagements, to one line of descent from Abraham only. But over the temporal branch of the Covenant, and the external religious privileges arising out of it, God exercised a rightful sovereignty, and expressly restricted them first to the line of Isaac, and then to that of Jacob, with whose descendants he entered into special Covenant by the ministry of Moses. The temporal blessings and external privileges comprised under general expressions in the Covenant with Abraham, were explained and enlarged under that of Moses, while the spiritual blessings remained unrestricted as before. It was a confirmation of the temporal blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant, now, by a Covenant of peculiarity, made over to them, while it was still recognized as a consuetudinary rite which had descended to them from their fathers, and as the sign and seal of the Covenant of grace, made with Abraham and with all his descendants without exception. The Covenant with Abraham prescribed circumcision as an act of faith in its promises, and as a pledge to perform its conditions on the part of his descendants. When the Christ had come, so as fully to enter upon his redeeming offices, he could no longer be the object of faith, as still to come; and this leading promise of the Covenant being accomplished, the sign and seal of it vanished away. Circumcision also as an institution of Moses, who continued it as the sign and seal of the Abrahamic Covenant both in its spiritual and temporal provisions, but with respect to the latter made it also a sign and seal of the restriction of its temporal blessings and peculiar religious privileges to the descendants of Israel, was terminated by the entrance of our Lord upon his office of Mediator, in which office all nations were to be blessed in him. The Mosaic edition of the Covenant not only guaranteed the land of Canaan, but the peculiarity of the Israelites, as the people and visible church of God to the exclusion of others, except by proselytism. But when our Lord commanded the Gospel to be preached to "all nations," and opened the gates of the "common salvation" to all, whether Gentiles or Jews, circumcision, as the sign of a Covenant of peculiarity and religious distinction, was also done away. ) It might be taken in the simple view of its first institution, as the sign and seal of the Abrahamic Covenant; and then it was to be condemned as involving a denial that Abraham's Seed, the Christ, had already come, since, upon his coming, every old Covenant gave place to the new Covenant introduced by him. ) It might be practiced and enjoined as the sign and seal of the Mosaic Covenant, which was still the Abrahamic Covenant with its spiritual blessings, but with restriction of its temporal promises and special ecclesiastical privileges to the line of Jacob, with a law of observances which was obligatory upon all entering that Covenant by circumcision. In that case it involved, in like manner, the notion of the continuance of an old Covenant, after the establishment of the new; for thus St. The first was that of preserving an ancient national distinction on which they valued themselves; and were a converted Jew in the present day disposed to perform that rite upon his children for this purpose only, renouncing in the act all consideration of it as a sign and seal of the old Covenants, or as obliging to ceremonial acts in order to justification, no one would censure him with severity
Kadmiel - His house took part in the general confession (Nehemiah 9:4-5) and in the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:9)
Hodiah - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:18 )
Jaddua - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:21 )
Ater - A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Hashum - A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Sherebiah - A Levite who with his sons and brethren returned from exile: he assisted Ezra, sealed the Covenant, and was a chief of the choir
Adin - Signer of the Covenant of Nehemiah to obey God's Law (Nehemiah 10:16 )
Ahuzzath - ” Official who accompanied Abimelech, king of Philistines, to make Covenant of peace with Isaac (Genesis 26:26 )
Zattu - He seems to be the same as the “Zatthu” who signed the Covenant in Nehemiah's time (Ezra 10:14 )
Concision - Hence, In scripture, the Jews or those who adhered to circumcision, which, after our Saviors death, was no longer a seal of the Covenant, but a mere cutting of the flesh
a'Din - ) They joined with Nehemiah in a Covenant to separate themselves from the heathen
az'Gad - (Ezra 2:12 ; 8:12 ) With the other heads of the People they joined in the Covenant with Nehemiah
Mediator, Mediation - mesîtçs ) occurs in the NT, once of Moses as the mediator of the Law ( Galatians 3:19-20 ), in the other instances of Christ as the ‘one mediator between God and man’ ( 1 Timothy 2:5 ), and the mediator of a ‘better’ ( Hebrews 8:5 ), or ‘new’ ( Hebrews 6:13-186 , Hebrews 12:24 , in latter passage ‘new’ in sense of ‘recent’) Covenant. Mediation has a peculiar place in the formation of the great Covenants . It is the singular fact in connexion with the Covenant with Abraham of which St. It was a Covenant of promise absolutely ( Galatians 3:15-18 ). Paul’s peculiar saying, ‘Now a mediator is not a mediator of one; but God is one’ ( Galatians 3:20 ; there were not, as in the Covenant through Moses, two contracting parties; the Covenant proceeded solely from God, and was unconditional). God himself took the place of Mediator in this Covenant, and, because He could swear by no higher than Himself, ‘interposed (mediated) with an oath’ in ratification of His promise (cf. It is different in the Covenant with Israel at Sinai, where Moses is throughout (by God’s appointment and the people’s own desire, Exodus 19:10-25 ; Exodus 20:18-21 ) the mediator between God and the people ( Galatians 3:19 , point of contrast between law and promise). Finally, mediation is the law in the ‘new’ and ‘better’ Covenant, as the passages in Hebrews declare. The reason is that this perfect and eternal Covenant, procuring forgiveness of sins, and removing all barriers to access to God, could be formed only on the basis of a reconciling sacrifice; and this Jesus alone, the Son of God, had the qualification to offer. It is noticeable, therefore, that all the passages that speak of Jesus as ‘Mediator’ do it in direct connexion with His sacrificial death; 1 Timothy 2:5 ‘one mediator between God and men, himself man, Christ Jesus’ connects with 1 Timothy 2:6 ‘who gave himself a ransom for all’; Hebrews 9:15 declares: ‘For this cause he is the mediator of a new Covenant, that a death having taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first Covenant’ (cf. Romans 3:25 ); Hebrews 12:24 , where to come ‘to Jesus the mediator of a new Covenant’ is to come ‘to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better than that of Abel’; so also Hebrews 8:6 (cf
Abraham - This general promise was made specific by means of a Covenant between God and Abraham (Genesis 15:8-18 ; 17:1-14 ), which provided the offspring of the patriarch with a large tract of territory. Abraham was to father many nations (Genesis 17:5 ), and the Covenant that was to be established with him and his seed was to be perpetual in nature. ...
The idea of a Covenant, or binding agreement between two parties, was already familiar in the early Middle Bronze Age, and by mutual agreement involved penalties if one of the participants defaulted. Abraham was instructed to keep the Covenant obligations, and as a material token the institution of circumcision was imposed upon him and his descendants. He was required to be consistently obedient to God's will, however difficult that might be, and to trust without question the guidance he would receive against the background of the Covenant framework. It should be noted that Abraham was not asked to be obedient as a condition of the Covenant. Put simply, without unquestioning submission to God's stipulations there could be neither fellowship with the Lord nor blessings poured out upon the Covenant people. ...
The third was yet another occasion when the Covenant was confirmed, this time in greater detail (Genesis 17:1-27 ). God promised Abraham a son who would be named Isaac (Genesis 17:16 ), and who would be the inheritor of the everlasting Covenant (Genesis 17:19,21 ). ...
Perhaps the most serious test of Abraham's obedience and faith came when God ordered him to offer up in sacrifice the very one through whom the Covenant was to be perpetuated: his son Isaac (Genesis 22:1-2 ). For such implicit obedience Abraham was to become an example of Covenant fidelity. In Abraham's case, his unwavering faith accomplished the fulfillment of the Covenant promises in terms of a great nation that would honor him through the centuries as "their father" ( John 8:39 ; Romans 4:16 ). The saving work of Christ ushered in the new Covenant prophesied by Jeremiah (31:31) and was given definitive shape in the Christian church, a body of believers committed to serve Jesus as king and lord through Acts of obedience and faith. But while being a recipient of blessing, the Christian church is commanded to fulfill Covenant responsibilities (Matthew 28:14 ) in a manner unknown to the Covenant people of Old Testament times. The new Covenant on which the Christian church is founded is based upon an individual's relationship with God in Christ, and not upon the response of a group such as a tribe to the Lord's commands. Instead, the participants in the Abrahamic Covenant are seen as real persons with whom modern Christians are privileged to join in witness to God's power and his plan of salvation through Christ. While Christians can rejoice in the realization that the blessings of Abraham's Covenant have become their very own, it is important for them to remember that, as Jesus taught, the true children of Abraham perform the deeds of Abraham (John 8:39 ). ...
Dynamic though Abraham's Covenant was, sheer physical descent from the revered patriarch did not of itself guarantee an individual's salvation, as John the Baptist pointed out (Matthew 3:9 ). Only those members whose lives manifested the obedience and trust of the patriarch would participate in Covenant blessings
Henadad - Clan members also helped Nehemiah rebuild Jerusalem's walls (Nehemiah 3:18 ,Nehemiah 3:18,3:24 ) and signed Nehemiah's Covenant of obedience (Nehemiah 10:10 )
Holy of Holies - In the early years of the existence of the Temple the holy of holies contained the ark of the Covenant
Surety - Christ is the surety of the better Covenant (Hebrews 7:22 )
Loving Kindness - It is variously called God's election-, Covenant-keeping, or steadfast love
Meshez'Abe-el - (Nehemiah 3:4 ) ...
One of the "heads of the people," probably a family, who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Mediator - He chose Israel to be his people and gave them an order of priests and sacrifices as a means of approaching him (Exodus 19:5-6; Leviticus 4:27-30; Numbers 3:10; see Covenant; PRIEST; SACRIFICE). In making the Covenant with Israel, God used Moses as the mediator (Exodus 24:3-8; Acts 7:38; Galatians 3:19-20). ...
With the coming of Jesus Christ, the Covenant with Israel had fulfilled its purpose. God has now established a new and eternal Covenant, Jesus Christ being the mediator (Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). The basis on which this new Covenant operates is Christ’s sacrificial death (Colossians 1:21-22; 1 Timothy 2:5-6; Hebrews 9:11-15)
Hanan - ...
One of the chiefs who subscribed the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:22 )
Antiochus (1) - 144) by Jonathan the Maccabee to renew the Covenant made by Judas with the Romans, and to enter into friendly relations with the Spartans
Hariph - A family which returned with Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 7:24 ) and signed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:19 ) = Ezra 2:18 Jorah , 1Es 5:16 Arsiphurith ; one of David’s companions in 1 Chronicles 12:5 is termed a Haruphite ( Kethibh ), or Hariphite ( Qerç )
ha'Shub - (Nehemiah 3:23 ) ...
One of the heads of the people who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Kenizzite -
The name of a tribe referred to in the Covenant God made with Abraham (Genesis 15:19 )
Jaddua - One of the chief of the people who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Holy of Holies - It contained the ark of the Covenant only (Exodus 25:10-16 )
el-Berith - (el-behr' ihth) Name of god meaning, “god of the Covenant
Meshezabeel - One of the chiefs of the people witnessing Ezra's Covenant renewal (Nehemiah 10:21 )
Chest - 'Αron , always, except twice (Joseph's coffin and Jehoiada's alms chest, Genesis 50:26; 2 Kings 12:9-10), used for the ark of the Covenant; the "ark" (teebah ) of Noah, and that of bulrushes in which Moses was put, is quite distinct
Bunni - A man of same name, probably same man, signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's Law (Nehemiah 10:15 )
Mijamin - ( Nehemiah 12:5 ), and was represented at the sealing of the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:7 ) = Miniamin of Nehemiah 12:17
Meremoth - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Jaddu'a - ) ...
One of the chief of the people who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Ark - 3:20; (b) the "ark" of the Covenant in the Tabernacle, Hebrews 9:4 ; (c) the "ark" seen in vision in the Heavenly Temple, Revelation 11:19
Pare - These actions perhaps symbolized purification on entering the Covenant community
Ebal - Mountain near Shechem on which Moses set up the curse for the Covenant ceremony (Deuteronomy 11:29 ; Deuteronomy 27:13 ). Joshua carried out the Covenant ceremony on Ebal and Gerazim (Joshua 8:30-35 ; compare Joshua 24:1-27 ), building an altar on Ebal
Moreh - There he built an altar after God had appeared to him and entered into Covenant (Genesis 12:6-7 ). Joshua set up a memorial stone under the oak as a reminder of the Covenant made between God and the people (Joshua 24:26 )
Hanan - One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in reading and explaining the Law to the people ( Nehemiah 8:7 ; in 1Es 9:48 Ananias ); probably the same as the signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:10 ). Two of ‘the chiefs of the people’ who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:22 ; Nehemiah 10:26 )
Phinehas - He showed his zeal for God in slaying Zimri and Cozbi, for which he was commended by God, who promised His 'covenant of peace' to him and his seed, even 'the Covenant of an everlasting priesthood
Hagar - Hagar (AGAR) answers to the Covenant of law and to Jerusalem then in bondage; and Sarah to the Covenant of promise and to Jerusalem above, which is free. Being the seed of Abraham according to promise, that is, being 'of Christ,' or 'Christ's,' the gospel and new Covenant blessings have come to believers through Him, and they are reckoned as of God's city, Jerusalem above, that is free
Hallohesh - The same man or a man of the same name sealed his name to Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:24 )
Ichabod - His birth seems to have been precipitated by the news of the death of his father and the capture of the ark of the Covenant in battle against the Philistines
Pethahiah - Levite participating in Ezra's Covenant renewal (Nehemiah 9:5 )
Azgad - A Levite who signed the Covenant Nehemiah made to keep God's law (Nehemiah 10:15 )
Ark - (Latin: arca, chest) ...
The vessel of timber daubed with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high, which Noe constructed at the command of God for the preservation of him and his family and two of all living creatures during the Deluge; also the chest in Which were kept the tables of the Law, called the Ark of the Covenant
Adulterer - An apostate from the true faith, or one who violates his Covenant engagements a very wicked person
a'Ter - (Ezra 2:42 ; Nehemiah 7:45 ) ...
The children of ATER OF HEZEKIAH to the number of 98 returned with Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:16 ; Nehemiah 7:21 ) and were among the heads of the people who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Pelatiah - A signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:22 )
pu'Rosh - (Ezra 8:3 ) They assisted in the building of the well of Jerusalem, (Nehemiah 3:26 ) and signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Big'va-i - ) ...
Apparently one of the chiefs of Zerubbabel's expedition, (Ezra 2:2 ; Nehemiah 7:7 ) whose family afterwards signed the Covenant
Jeremiah, Theology of - , Covenant), its vocabulary (e. ...
The Dynamic of Covenant (chaps. The theological matrix for this block is primarily Covenant, a subject introduced at the outset: "Cursed is the man who does not obey the terms of this Covenant" (11:3). ...
A fundamental understanding beginning with Moses and continuing in Jeremiah was that Covenant differed from contract. Covenant was a matter of divine initiative, not mutual negotiation. In Covenant, loyalty to a person was the critical factor; in a contract performance of set stipulations was central. Failure in a Covenant relationship was a failure in interpersonal relationships, and not alone failure in adhering to a set of requirements. Moses warned against breaking the Covenant (Deuteronomy 28:15-68 ). For Jeremiah a broken Covenant was a reality; Covenant curses such as loss of land were imminent. Jeremiah, in contrast to Moses, an earlier Covenant mediator, was involved more in the dissolution of the Covenant than in its institution (1:10; but Covenant Partners . Loyalty in Covenant is demonstrated in obedience. In brief, Israel and Judah have "broken the Covenant" (11:10). God is depicted not as an umpire who upon determining that the Covenant is broken heartlessly announces the punishment. On the contrary, God coaxes his fickle Covenant partner to keep the Covenant intact. God employs every means—verbal appeals (11:4), warnings (15:7), and sign-acts—to mend a Covenant that is breaking. ...
Yet God was not bound, as another sign-act makes clear, even with a Covenant virtually shattered, to proceed with implementing the Covenant consequences (18:1-12). The declaration in Section E is that God is free to initiate a new Covenant (31:31-34). ...
Israel: A Covenant People . 11-20,39-51) turned on Covenant, especially Covenant curses, so that theme is featured here. Echoes of sin and the fracturing of the earlier Covenant remain (30:14;
Covenant formula, variously worded, points to a new reality: "I will be your God; you shall be my people" (30:22; 31:1,33; 32:38). The remarkable announcement of a new Covenant moves beyond the broken Covenant (31:31-34). By his initiative God sets in place a Covenant both like and unlike the earlier Sinai Covenant. It is as though with renewed energy God commits himself to Covenant (31:35-37; 33:19-21)
Temptation - " (Revelation 3:19) But this is not as if to see how those whom Jesus loves will improve the trials and temptations by which he is exercising their gifts and graces; for if this were the case it would be to make the event of his grace to depend upon their use or abuse of the mercies given them, and instead of a Covenant of his grace, render their final hope dependent upon a Covenant of their good works. Jesus by his death hath purchased redemption for his people; and God the Father hath engaged to bestow all the blessings of it in his Covenant. The Covenant stands firm as the ark did in the waters of Jordan, amidst all the beating waves, until the people are all clean gone over. And that sweet promise which belongs to the Covenant, and is a part of it, never hath failed, neither can fail to every one of the people—"There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man, but God is faithful, who will not suffer yon to be tempted above that ye are able, but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it
Shem - Through his line came Abraham and the Covenant of blessing
Testament - diatheke, which is twenty times rendered "covenant" in the Authorized Version, and always so in the Revised Version
Fatness - The gentile believer had become a sharer in the spiritual life and blessing bestowed by Divine Covenant upon Abraham and his descendants as set forth under the figure of "the root of (not 'and') the fatness of the olive tree
Galeed - ” Place where Jacob and his father-in-law Laban made a formal agreement or Covenant determining the boundary line between their peoples and agreeing not to harm one another (Genesis 31:43-52 )
Penalty - ) The suffering, or the sum to be forfeited, to which a person subjects himself by Covenant or agreement, in case of nonfulfillment of stipulations; forfeiture; fine
Adinu - They are mentioned among ‘the chiefs of the people’ who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:16 )
Baal - Thus Baal Berith is supposed to signify the Lord of the Covenant Baal Peor, or rather Baal Phegor, the Lord of the dead
Wisdom - That is by Covenant engagement in the ancient settlements of eternity
Propitiatory - among the Jews, was the cover or lid of the ark of the Covenant, which was lined both within and without with plates of gold, insomuch that there, was no wood to be seen
Deuteronomy, the Book of - By longstanding tradition these books have been associated with Moses, the human instrument of God's deliverance of Israel from bondage in Egypt and the negotiator of the Covenant between God and Israel. Behind that recitation lay the Covenant-making procedures at Sinai, covered by Moses in Deuteronomy 5-11 . ...
Israel's Exodus from Egypt and the Covenant at Sinai were the stages of Israel's birth as a nation. God's Covenant with Israel at Sinai was in part a renewal of earlier Covenants made with the patriarchs. Included in those Covenants were the following promises: (1) that Israel would be God's special nation, (2) that Yahweh God would be their God, (3) that they would be obedient to God, and (4) that God would give them a homeland and innumerable descendants. Moses, knowing that Israel's future hung on their obedience and commitment to God, led the people in a Covenant renewal ceremony. Moses' approaching death and resulting transfer of human leadership to Joshua, plus Israel's approaching battles in conquest of the land, formed the basis for renewal of the Covenant. The present form of Deuteronomy emphasizes the words of Moses, not the details of the Covenant renewal ceremony. The focus is upon Covenant renewal. Longstanding tradition among Christians and Jews favors Moses as the author, but third person references to Moses, the location of the writer in Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:1 ), and comparison of the laws in Deuteronomy with the laws in the Book of the Covenant (1618389543_48:19 ) all indicate that the book was produced later than the Mosaic period. The book apparently preserves genuine Mosaic Covenant-faith. Deuteronomy is a call to repentance, a plea for God's disobedient people to mend their ways and renew the Covenant God made with them at Sinai. Would they turn back in rebellion and unbelief?...
The approaching death of Moses put urgency into his appeal for Covenant renewal. He called for obedience through love to Yahweh, the loving God, who had established the Covenant with Israel. No doubt Joshua used the materials of Deuteronomy when he led Israel in a Covenant renewal ceremony at Shechem (Joshua 8:30-35 ). Later, Covenant renewal became a regular feature of Israel's cult. It shows the Ten Commandments as the center of the Covenant relationship for believers. It pronounces curses on evildoers who forsake God's Covenant and blessings on those faithful to the Covenant. Covenant faith demands total allegiance and unchanging love for God (Deuteronomy 4:44 —-Deuteronomy 4:44—-11:32 )...
B. Third Sermon: God Seeks to Renew Covenant Relationships (Deuteronomy 29:1-30:20 )
Commandments, the Ten - These tables were afterwards placed in the ark of the Covenant (Deuteronomy 10:5 ; 1 Kings 8:9 ). They are as a whole called "the Covenant" (Deuteronomy 4:13 ), and "the tables of the Covenant" (9:9,11; Hebrews 9:4 ), and "the testimony
New - Jeremiah anticipated God's establishing a new Covenant with God's all-too-often faithless people, a Covenant in which God would make knowledge of the law a matter of the heart (Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; Hebrews 8:8-13 ). Luke 22:20 points to Christ's sacrificial death as the basis for this new Covenant
Kindness - Originally, this loving kindness was considered an integral part of Covenant relations. In this sense, kindness was distinct from mercy or compassion which was more of an emotion and from grace which was not as closely associated with Covenant keeping. Primarily, kindness characterized the Covenant relation between God and his people. God's faithful love accompanied the patriarchs and dwelt with those who kept His Covenant (Genesis 24:27 ; Exodus 20:6 ). ...
Human response to the Covenant with God, however, was bewailed by the prophets as a youthful loyalty that vanished like the morning dew (Jeremiah 2:2 ; Hosea 6:4 )
Death: of a Believer - Lyford being desired, a little before his death, to let his friends know in what condition his soul was, and what his thoughts were about that eternity to which he seemed very near, he answered with a cheerfulness suitable to a believer and a minister, 'I will let you know how it is with me;' and then, stretching out a hand that was withered and consumed with age and sickness: 'Here is,' said he 'the grave, the wrath of God, and devouring flames, the just punishment of sin, on the one side; and here am I, a poor sinful soul, on the other side; but this is my comfort, the Covenant of grace which is established on so many sure promises, has saved me from all. This is the blessed privilege of all within the Covenant, among whom I am one
Hagar - ” In Galatians 4:1 Paul used the Hagar story to stand for slavery under the old Covenant in contrast to freedom of the new Covenant symbolized by Isaac
Covenant - ) To grant or promise by Covenant. ) An agreement made by the Scottish Parliament in 1638, and by the English Parliament in 1643, to preserve the reformed religion in Scotland, and to extirpate popery and prelacy; - usually called the "Solemn League and Covenant
Book - ...
And in addition to what is there said, I would beg to remark, that the Hebrews had several names for distinguishing their several books; such as "the book of the Covenant," (Exodus 24:7; 2 Kings 23:21) "the book of the law. " Here we find the characters of those whose names are written in heaven fully drawn out, and they altogether correspond to those for whom JEHOVAH gave Christ as a Covenant
Circumcision - The special meaning of circumcision for the people of Israel is found in Genesis 17 and occurs within the context of God's renewed Covenant promise to Abraham, following the initial contractual relationship ( Genesis 15 ). On the second occasion, God again promised lands and offspring to the still childless patriarch, and gave him the sign of circumcision, which was to be imposed upon Abraham and his descendants as a token of Covenant membership (Genesis 17:10 ). For the Israelites circumcision was a religious rite and was intended to mark the beginning of Covenant solidarity for Abraham's descendants rather than describing the historical origins of the procedure. This demand required them to recognize that, in addition to bearing the physical mark of Covenant membership, they were also under obligation to manifest specific spiritual qualities of commitment and obedience to the Lord's will. For him, circumcision entailed consecration to the Lord and to the high moral ideals of the Covenant, of which holiness was representative (Leviticus 11:44 ). A true Covenant member would be motivated by love of God (Deuteronomy 6:5 ) and one's neighbor (Leviticus 19:18 ). When Greek paganism threatened to swamp Judaism some two centuries before Christ was born, circumcision became a distinctive indication of Jewish fidelity to the Covenant. Thus John the Baptist was circumcised (Luke 1:59 ), as were both Jesus (Luke 2:21 ) and Saul of Tarsus (Philippians 3:5 ), on the eighth day of life, making them accredited members of the Covenant people. To counter the Judaizers' position he conceded that, while circumcision was of great value for the old Covenant, it carried no significance for the "covenants of promise" (Ephesians 2:12 ). Paul taught resolutely that, in the new Covenant, salvation came by grace and faith, not works (Ephesians 2:8 ). What really counted was the faith and obedience that have always characterized Covenants between God and humankind
Apostasy - ...
Apostatizing from God's redemptive Covenant is an act of unpardonable transgression and rebellion. ...
Israel of old repeatedly broke Covenant with God. Pentateuchal law identifies Covenantal faithlessness as apostasy (see, e. , the curses of the Covenant pronounced on Mount Ebal by the Israelites in Deuteronomy 27:9-26 ). With respect to temporal blessing in the land of promise, restoration of Israel to divine favor after Covenant breaking was always a consequence of divine grace and mercy, not because of meritorious works on Israel's part
Malachi - And Christ is called the messenger of the Covenant, by the same word Malachi, in the middle part of the same verse of the same chapter. And such views of the name tend, in my humble opinion, to confirm what I have before remarked in the former part of this Concordance, under the word Archangel, (which see) that Christ, the glorious angel of the Covenant, is the only archangel of Scripture. For to admit the supposition of any other as archangel, while Christ is expressly called the Angel of the Covenant, must imply some inferiority in Christ: a thing impossible. And as we well know that Jesus Christ is the all in all of the Covenant, both the angel or messenger of it; the fulfiller of it; the sum and substance of it; the administrator of it; in all present and everlasting concerns; we do no violence to the expression, when we express Christ's personal offices in the great work of redemption, by all and every term of character that can tend to bring home the Lord Jesus to our affections, in the most endeared and endearing manner
Ginnetho - Probably the person who signed Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:6 ) belonged to the same family
Hashum - He also signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God (Nehemiah 10:18 )
Meremoth - Priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah who assisted with the Temple treasury (Ezra 8:33 ), with the repair of the walls (Nehemiah 3:4 ,Nehemiah 3:4,3:21 ), and witnessed the renewal of the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:5 )
Pelatiah - One who sealed the Covenant
ha'Shum - ) The chief man of the family was among these who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Mediator - Thus in Hebrews 8:6 ; 9:15 ; 12:24 Christ is the Surety of "the better Covenant," "the new Covenant," guaranteeing its terms for His people. The Law was a Covenant enacted between God and the Jewish people, requiring fulfillment by both parties
Circumcision - The Jews prided themselves in the possession of this Covenant distinction (Judges 14:3 ; 15:18 ; 1 Samuel 14:6 ; 17:26 ; 2 Samuel 1:20 ; Ezekiel 31:18 ). ...
It was a sign and seal of the Covenant of grace as well as of the national Covenant between God and the Hebrews. The Covenant with Abraham was a dispensation or a specific form of the Covenant of grace, and circumcision was a sign and seal of that Covenant
Propitiation - The same Greek word is used by the Septuagint to denote "sin-offering," Ezekiel 44:27; Ezekiel 45:19; "atonement," Numbers 6:8; the "mercy-seat," Hebrews 9:5; and the covering of the ark of the Covenant Leviticus 16:14
Horesh - As David hid there from Saul, Jonathan, Saul's son, came out to help him and made a Covenant of mutual help (1 Samuel 23:15-18 )
Bigvai - One who sealed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:16 )
Mijamin - Priest witnessing Ezra's Covenant renewal (Nehemiah 10:7 )
Emerald - ...
Revelation 4:3 (c) This complete rainbow was given this color to typify the eternal character of GOD's grace and the everlasting nature of GOD's Covenant of mercy
Faithless - Not true to the marriage Covenant false as a faithless husband or wife
Zephaniah - Hence, that Scripture, "the secret of the Lord is with them that fear him, and he will shew them his Covenant
Avraham avinu - G-d commanded him to travel from his Mesopotamian homeland to Canaan, where He bequeathed the land to his descendants in the Covenant between the Parts
Rehum - One who sealed the Covenant
Obed-Edom - At Obed-edom's house David left the ark of the Covenant following the death of Uzzah at the hand of God (2 Samuel 6:6-11 ). His duties related especially to the ark of the Covenant
Establish - I will establish my Covenant with him for an everlasting Covenant
New - Except in the Gospels, in reference to the wine as above, the word νέος is used only in 1 Corinthians 5:7 , 'a new lump;' Colossians 3:10 , 'the new [1];' Hebrews 12:24 , 'the new Covenant;' and Titus 2:4 , 'young woman. ' In all other places the word employed is καινός, and this is important, as indicating the entirely different character of the new Covenant, the new creation, the new man, the new heavens and the new earth, etc
Israel, Israelite - ‘Israel’ differed from both of these as being the name of privilege given by God to Jacob, the ancestor of the race (Genesis 32:28; Genesis 35:10), and the thought of the theocratic privileges of the chosen people and of God’s Covenant with them always underlies the term. (b) Covenant. But the earlier prophets, though they do not expressly mention a Covenant—except Hosea (Hosea 6:7 doubtful, Hosea 8:1)—all teach the truth that Jahweh requires moral, ethical service from His people. And in the JE compilations of the national traditions the Covenant relationship with God is firmly established in the religious thought of Israel. The Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15) is the starting-point. The Covenant at Sinai (Matthew 15:24; Exodus 34:10-28) opens the second stage of the history. ]'>[3] has yet another Covenant, based on the contents of the Deut. But when Israel was carried into Babylon, the Old Covenant was in reality at an end; they had broken it by their sins. Jeremiah, therefore, speaks of a New Covenant (Jeremiah 31:31 ff. ‘In the visions of the new Covenant the OT becomes Christian. But there were two other crises in Israel’s history where the idea of a Covenant is prominent. God gave a Covenant, i. Thus there were several factors which went to make up the fulness of the Christian Covenant. In the Gospels, with the exception of Luke 1:72, where the Abrahamic Covenant is referred to, the only occurrence of the word is at the Last Supper (Matthew 26:28 || Mark 14:24, Luke 22:20); our Lord uses Jeremiah’s term, ‘the new Covenant,’ but at the same time the words ‘This is my blood’ refer to the Covenant at Sinai (Luke 1:54). The analogy of the Abrahamic Covenant is drawn out chiefly by St. Matthew 22:44), the priesthood (7–10), and, closely connected with the latter, the spiritual Covenant of the forgiveness of sins (Hebrews 10:15-18)
Ebenezer - During the second of two engagements in the area, the Philistines captured the ark of the Covenant
Zaccur - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:12 ), prob
Faithful - It is used also of God's word or Covenant as true and to be trusted (Psalm 119:86,138 ; Isaiah 25:1 ; 1 Timothy 1:15 ; Revelation 21:5 ; 22:6 , etc
Bochim - ” Place where angel of God announced judgment on Israel at beginning of the period of Judges because they had not destroyed pagan altars but had made Covenant treaties with the native inhabitants
Assure - ) To insure; to Covenant to indemnify for loss, or to pay a specified sum at death
Bebai - Signer of Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:15 )
Kadmiel - (the day of humiliation) and Nehemiah 10:9 (the sealing of the Covenant), Kadmiel appears to be an individual
Zaccur - A Levite who sealed the Covenant
Valid - ) Having legal strength or force; executed with the proper formalities; incapable of being rightfully overthrown or set aside; as, a valid deed; a valid Covenant; a valid instrument of any kind; a valid claim or title; a valid marriage
Sabbatical Year - The Sabbath being the sign of God's Covenant with Israel (See SABBATH), and that He purposed that they should enjoy His rest, even the land must keep its Sabbath every seventh year
Astad, Astath - Azgad appears among the leaders who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah ( Nehemiah 10:15 )
Testament - ) One of the two distinct revelations of God's purposes toward man; a Covenant; also, one of the two general divisions of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures, in which the Covenants are respectively revealed; as, the Old Testament; the New Testament; - often limited, in colloquial language, to the latter
Manoah - In the prediction of his son's birth and achievements, we see the Angel of the Covenant, who appeared to Abraham, Gideon, etc
Unclean - Not in Covenant with God
Bethel - It was the scene of the vision of Jacob's Ladder and a sacred place under the Judges where the Israelites "consulted God" (Judges 21), and where the Ark of the Covenant was probably kept for a time
Hasshub - He may be the one who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God ( Nehemiah 10:23 )
Baale - If the latter reading is correct, then Baale Judah is a place name where the ark of the Covenant was before David took it to Jerusalem
Ark of the Covenant Person - A title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary to signify her Divine motherhood, that as the ark of old, made of incorruptible wood and adorned with pure gold, contained the precious treasures of the Divine law and the manna from heaven, so she, the true ark, bore within her not merely the law but the Lawgiver, not merely the Divine presence as manifested over the ark of the Covenant, but the Divine One Himself, and the Living Bread from heaven
Zaccur - A Levite, signed the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:12)
Sacrament - ) The pledge or token of an oath or solemn Covenant; a sacred thing; a mystery
Sabaoth - By this phrase we may understand the host of heaven, or the angels and ministers of the Lord; or the stars and planets, which, as an army ranged in battle array, perform the will of God; or, lastly, the people of the Lord, both of the old and new Covenant, which is truly a great army, of which God is the Lord and commander
Pelatiah - Witness to Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:22 )
Beb'a-i - (Ezra 10:28 ) The name occurs also among those who sealed the Covenant
Table - The bread and the wine, and the salt of the Covenant, (See Leviticus 2:13) and this constantly burning, and the perfumes always shedding forth their fragrancy: what could be more expressive of the Lord Jesus, and his rich and costly salvation? He is himself the living bread, and not only the salt of the Covenant, but the whole of the Covenant
Mercy Seat - ) The atonement was for the breach of the Covenant. Appropriately, therefore the mercy-seat covered that Covenant written on the two tables of stone inside the ark
Facets - Some scholars believe the stone was a stone slab occupying the place held by the ark of the Covenant in the first Temple. In this case the seven eyes represent the full presence of God in a way corresponding to the ark of the Covenant
Article - ) To bind by articles of Covenant or stipulation; as, to article an apprentice to a mechanic. ) To agree by articles; to stipulate; to bargain; to Covenant
Abraham - God made a Covenant with Abraham, changing his name from Abram to Abraham and promised him that his descendants should be as numerous as the stars of heaven. Then followed the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha, the escape of Lot, the birth of Isaac, and the Covenant with Abimelech
Meshullam - Priest who sealed the Covenant. A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Promise - The promises of the new Covenant are called better than those of the old, Hebrews 8:6 . because they are more spiritual, clear, comprehensive, and universal than those of the Mosaic Covenant
Obedience - At Mount Sinai God established a special Covenant relationship between himself and the people of Israel. " Obedience should emanate from a commitment to live a holy life before God and others in the Covenant community. ...
The prophets called for a new Covenant, which would resolve the problem of failure to remain obedient to God. Jeremiah, after denouncing the unfaithfulness of God's people, made the pronouncement of this Covenant (31:31-34). This Covenant would be placed in the people's minds and in the people's hearts. Jeremiah provides details of how in "new Covenant" times obedience will have first and only place. ...
The reality of this new Covenant was portrayed in Jesus' supreme example of obedience to the heavenly Father, when he gave himself as the ultimate sacrifice for atonement of sin
New - The theological connotation of the word is used with both these meanings in phrases such as "new Covenant" (Luke 22:20 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; Hebrews 8:8,13 ; 9:15 ), "new creation" (2 Corinthians 5:17 ), "new commandment" (John 13:34 ), and "new self" (Ephesians 2:15 ; 4:24 ; Colossians 3:10 ). The word kainos [ Luke 22:20 ) in the sense of its being a fresh understanding of the former Covenant rather than a different and supplanting one. For example, Hebrews 8:8,13 refers to the new Covenant with the word kaine while 12:24 calls it a neos [1] Covenant
Ramath-Mizpeh - This was the Mizpeh where Jacob and Laban made a Covenant, "Mizpeh of Gilead," called also Galeed and Jegar-sahadutha
Malluch - Two of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:4 ; Nehemiah 10:27 )
Kelita - ” A Levite who assisted in interpreting the Law when it was read to the assembly of the people during the time of Ezra (Nehemiah 8:7 ) and who participated in the sealing of the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:10 )
Malluch - Four contemporaries of Ezra, two men with foreign wives (Ezra 10:29 ,Ezra 10:29,10:32 ) and a priest (Nehemiah 10:4 ) and layperson (Nehemiah 10:27 ) who witnessed the Covenant renewal
Jah - So again, when speaking of JEHOVAH in his Covenant-relation in Christ, we say Adon Jah, or Adoni, my Adoni Jah
Chest - By this word are translated in the Authorized Version two distinct Hebrew terms:
Aron ; this is invariably used for the ark of the Covenant, and, with two exceptions, for that only
Rainbow - We need not suppose that the rainbow was unknown before the flood; but God then appointed it to be the cheering seal of his Covenant with the earth, which is as steadfast as the natural laws from which the rainbow springs
Rehob - A signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:11 )
Pardon - Prayer for God's pardon for sin is based on the greatness of God's Covenant love and on the long history of God's acts of forgiveness (Numbers 14:19 ; Micah 7:18 )
Abraham - G-d commanded him to travel from his Mesopotamian homeland to Canaan, where He bequeathed the land to his descendants in the Covenant between the Parts
Avrohom - G-d commanded him to travel from his Mesopotamian homeland to Canaan, where He bequeathed the land to his descendants in the Covenant between the Parts
Mal'Luch - (Nehemiah 10:4 ) and ...
One of the heads of the people who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Rehum - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:25 (26))
Pardon - ), on the other hand, is the act of a judge, and not of a sovereign, and includes pardon and, at the same time, a title to all the rewards and blessings promised in the Covenant of life
Wool - The law prohibiting the wearing of a garment "of divers sorts, as of woollen and linen together" (Deuteronomy 22:11 ) may, like some other laws of a similar character, have been intended to express symbolically the separateness and simplicity of God's Covenant people
Access - So the Lord has many treasuries and secrets all shut up from carnal minds with locks which they cannot open; but he who walks in fellowship with Jesus possesses the master-key which will admit him to all the blessings of the Covenant; yea, to the very heart of God
Ark - Called also the Ark of the Covenant
Rehum - Witness to Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:25 )
Hattush - A priestly family that went up with Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 12:2 ) and signed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:4 )
Kelaiah - 1Es 9:48 Calitas ), and his name occurs amongst the signatories to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:10 )
Horeb - It was where God had intercourse with Moses, and where He made a Covenant with Israel
Assure - To insure to Covenant to indemnify for loss
Federal - ) Pertaining to a league or treaty; derived from an agreement or Covenant between parties, especially between nations; constituted by a compact between parties, usually governments or their representatives
Aner - One of the three Amorite chieftains, the other two being Mamre and Eshcol, who were in Covenant with Abraham ( Genesis 14:13 ; Genesis 14:24 )
Confederacy - A league, or Covenant a contract between two or more persons, bodies of men or states, combined in support of each other, in some act or enterprise mutual engagement federal compact
Dispensation, Dispensationalism - Compare to Covenant
Testimony - The two tables of stone on which the law or ten commandments were written, which were witnesses of that Covenant made between God and his people, and testified what it was that God had required of them, have the same title, Exodus 25:16 ; Exodus 25:21 ; Exodus 31:18
re'Hob - ) ...
A Levite or family of Levites who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Baana - He may be identical with the one who sealed the Covenant
Zac'Cur - ) ...
A Levite, or family of Levites, who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Rehob - Levite who sealed the Covenant
Law - ...
God’s Covenant with Israel...
In his grace God made a Covenant with Abraham to make his descendants into a great nation and to give them Canaan as their national homeland (Genesis 17:1-8). At Mt Sinai God confirmed the Covenant made previously with Abraham, this time making it with Abraham’s descendants, the nation Israel (Exodus 24:7-8; see Covenant). ...
God had chosen Israel to be his people, saved them from slavery in Egypt, and taken them into a close relationship with himself, all in fulfilment of his Covenant promise made to Abraham. But if the people were to enjoy the blessings of that Covenant, they had to respond to God’s grace in faithful obedience. Through obedience to that law the people would enjoy the life God intended for them in the Covenant relationship (Leviticus 18:5; cf. ...
Characteristics of Israelite law...
No part of the lives of the Israelites was outside the demands of the Covenant. ...
Jesus’ attitude to the law...
The Covenant made with Israel at Sinai and the law that belonged to that Covenant were not intended to be permanent. They were part of the preparation for the coming of Jesus Christ, through whom God would make a new and eternal Covenant (Galatians 3:19; Galatians 3:24; Acts 11:2-3). His death and resurrection would mark the end of the old Covenant and the beginning of the new (Hebrews 9:15). ...
Under the new Covenant people still have to respond to God’s Covenant grace with obedience, but the expression of that obedience has changed. Under the old Covenant, as under the new, they were saved only through faith in the sovereign God who, in his grace, forgave them and accepted them. Abraham, David and Paul lived respectively before, during and after the period when the old Covenant and its law-code operated in Israel, but all three alike were saved by faith (Genesis 15:6; Romans 9:31-32; Romans 4:1-16; Romans 4:22; Galatians 3:17-18; Ephesians 2:8; 1 Timothy 1:14-16). It was given to show the standard of behaviour God required from his Covenant people
Mediator - ...
There is an essential connection between the mediation of our Lord and the Covenant of grace. ( See Covenant. ) He is therefore called the Mediator of "a better Covenant," and of a "new Covenant. " The word μεσιτης literally means "a person in the middle," between two parties; and the fitness of there being a Mediator of the Covenant of grace arises from this, that the nature of the Covenant implies that the two parties were at variance. Those who hold the doctrine of the atonement understand, that Jesus is called the Mediator of the new Covenant, because he reconciles the two parties, by having appeased the wrath of God which man had deserved, and by subduing that enmity to God by which their hearts were alienated from him. If he is a Mediator in the last sense, then he is also εγγους , the sponsor, the surety, of the Covenant. He undertook, on their part, that they should keep the terms of the Covenant; and he fulfils this undertaking by the influence of his Spirit upon their hearts. ...
If a mediator be essential to the Covenant of grace, and if all who have been saved from the time of the first transgression were saved by that Covenant, it follows that the Mediator of the new Covenant acted in that character before he was manifested in the flesh. Hence the importance of that doctrine respecting the person of Christ; that all the communications which the Almighty condescended to hold with the human race were carried on from the beginning by this person; that it is he who spake to the patriarchs, who gave the law by Moses, and who is called in the Old Testament, "the angel of the Covenant. " These views open to us the full importance of a doctrine which manifestly unites in one faith all who obtain deliverance from that condition; for, according to this doctrine, not only did the virtue of the blood which he shed as a priest extend to the ages past before his manifestation, but all the intimations of the new Covenant established in his blood were given by him as the great Prophet, and the blessings of the Covenant were applied in every age by the Spirit, which he, as the King of his people, sends forth. As that nature did not exist till he was born of Mary, they do not think it possible that he could exercise the office of Mediator under the Old Testament; and as they admit that a mediator is essential to the Covenant of grace, they believe that those who lived under the Old Testament, not enjoying the benefit of his mediation, did not obtain complete remission of sins. But if Christ acted as the Mediator of the Covenant of grace from the time of the first transgression, this system becomes wholly unnecessary; and we may believe, according to the general strain of Scripture, and what we account the analogy of faith, that all who "died in faith," since the world began, entered immediately after death into that "heavenly country which they desired. "...
Although the members of the church of Rome adopt the language of Scripture, in which Jesus is styled the Mediator of the new Covenant, they differ from all Protestants in acknowledging other mediators; and the use which they make of the doctrine that Christ is Mediator only in his human nature is to justify their admitting those who had no other nature to share that office with him. In opposition to all this, we hold that Jesus Christ was qualified to act as Mediator by the union between his divine and his human nature; that his divine nature gave an infinite value to all that he did, rendering it effectual for the purpose of reconciling us to God, while the condescension by which he approached to man, in taking part of flesh and blood, fulfilled the gracious intention for which a Mediator was appointed; that the introducing any other mediator is unnecessary, derives no warrant from Scripture, and is derogatory to the honour of him who is there called the "one Mediator between God and men;" and that as the union of the divine to the human nature is the foundation of that worship which in Scripture is often paid to the Mediator of the new Covenant, this worship does not afford the smallest countenance to the idolatry and will worship of those who ascribe divine honours to any mortal
Noah - The writer of Isaiah 54:9 describes the present distresses of Israel ‘as the waters of Noah,’ to be followed by peace, according to the unchangeable Covenant of peace, as surely as the promise and the Covenant followed the Flood
Noah - The writer of Isaiah 54:9 describes the present distresses of Israel ‘as the waters of Noah,’ to be followed by peace, according to the unchangeable Covenant of peace, as surely as the promise and the Covenant followed the Flood
Adultery - ...
Old Testament Israel's Covenant law prohibited adultery (Exodus 20:14 ) and thereby made faithfulness to the marriage relationship central in the divine will for human relationships. Idolatry (Ezekiel 23:27 ) and other pagan religious practices (Jeremiah 3:6-10 ) were viewed as adulterous unfaithfulness to the exclusive Covenant that God established with His people. Marriage is a lifelong Covenant between a man and a woman
Ark - In the early accounts of the ark only the Mount Sinai Covenant tablets are so protected, giving rise to the common epithet, the "ark of the Covenant" (Exodus 25:16 ; 1 Kings 8:9 ), or a variant, "ark of the Lord's Covenant" (Numbers 14:44 ). There will be no ark because in the new kingdom God will no longer be just a God of Israel, dwelling in a limited space, but will reveal himself as the God of all nations ruling with a new Covenant. In the New Testament, Christ himself is the bearer of the new Covenant and the focus of God's presence
Ark - ...
In most occurrences, 'ârôn refers to the "ark of the Covenant. …" 'Ârôn is first modified by God's Covenant name, Yahweh, (in Joshua 4:5. Judges 20:27 is the first appearance of the "ark" as the ark of the Covenant of Elohim. Thus 'ârôn is often described as the "ark of the Covenant" (Joshua 3:6) or "the ark of the Covenant of the Lord" (Numbers 10:33)
Ark - The Septuagint and the NT use κιβωτός = a wooden chest or box, as a terminus technicus both for Noah’s ark (חֵּבָה), and for the ark (אֲרוֹן) of the Covenant. The writer of Hebrews mentions the ark of the Covenant (τὴν κιβωτὸν τῆς διαθήκης) as the innermost and most sacred piece of furniture contained in the Tabernacle. The designation ‘the ark of the Covenant,’ which was probably coined by the writer of Deut. It was a contraction for ‘the ark containing the tables of the Covenant,’ the Decalogue being a summary of the terms which Israel accepted on entering into Covenant with God. The thought of that emptiness oppressed the minds both of devout Jews and of Jewish Christians, and in Revelation 11:19, when the seventh angel has sounded, and the temple of God in heaven is opened, the ark of the Covenant is there
Dispensation - (See Covenant, Administration of
Rainbow - It existed indeed before, but it was then constituted as a sign of the Covenant
Compact - ) An agreement between parties; a Covenant or contract
Zacc(h)ur - One who sealed the Covenant of reform during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:12 )
Federal - Pertaining to a league or contract derived from an agreement or Covenant between parties, particularly between nations
Jehoiarib - The name is omitted, probably by accident, in the list of the priests that ‘sealed to the Covenant’ ( Nehemiah 10:1-39 )
Exodus - The most convenient division is the following: ...
events preceding the going out of Egypt (1-12)
the going out of Egypt and the journey to Mount Sinai (13-18)
the promulgation of the first instalments of the Mosaic Law (19-31)
the apostasy of the Jews (the golden calf), reconciliation, and renewal of the Covenant (32-34)
construction of the Tabernacle (35-40)
Amminadab - He helped carry the ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:11-29 )
Earnest - (Ephesians 1:14) It becomes the Lord's pledge, the Lord's token, and Covenant of his love to the soul
Anathoth - One of the chiefs of the people who sealed the Covenant
Mer'Emoth - (Ezra 10:36 ) ...
A priest, or more probably a family of priests, who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Propitiantion - The same Greek word is used in the Septuagint to denote an "atonement," Numbers 5:8 ; a "sin-offering," Ezekiel 44:27 ; and the covering of the Ark of the Covenant, Leviticus 16:14 Hebrews 9:5
re'Hum - ) ...
One of the chief of the people, who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Passover (ii. in Relation to Lord's Supper). - What they were concerned with were those novel and significant acts and words of their Master by which, while sitting at the table of the OT feast, He instituted the sacrament of the New Covenant. ) in which a leading rôle is assigned to ideas drawn from the modern study of Comparative Religion as to the significance of the ancient rite of the blood-covenant (see Trumbull, The Threshold Covenant, p. —(b) But further, the Passover was a Covenant-meal based on the fact of the Covenant made by sacrifice at Sinai (Exodus 24:3-8). One of the special merits of recent critical investigations into the nature of the sacrament is that they have brought fully into view the connexion between our Lord’s words about the New Covenant (Matthew 26:28 ||) and the story of the Covenant at Sinai, taken along with the great prophetic anticipations (Jeremiah 32:40, Ezekiel 34:25; Ezekiel 37:26, Isaiah 55:3) of what the author of Hebrews calls ‘a better Covenant established upon better promises’ (Hebrews 8:6). It does not follow, however, as some have thought, that the Covenant idea excludes that of the Passover, much less that the combination of them was altogether impossible (so Schultzen, Das Abendmahl in NT, p. On the contrary, the narrative of the first Passover in Egypt appears to anticipate that of the Covenant made at Sinai, while apart from the former the latter would have no historical explanation. In any case, in the time of our Lord, the Jewish Passover was an annual Covenanting feast at which the nation’s Covenant fellowship with Jehovah was solemnly renewed. The narrative of Exodus 24:3-8 makes it clear that the original Covenant rested on the fact of a Covenant-sacrifice, and there seems little reason to question that in its essence this sacrifice was of a piacular nature (cf. The annual renewal of the Covenant at the Feast of Passover evidently rested in like manner on the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb, and that this sacrifice also was conceived of as having a propitiatory effect it is hardly possible to doubt. —(c) Once more, the Passover was a joyful social meal, the meal of Jewish brotherhood, in which the participants, as members of the Divine Covenant, gave expression to their Covenant fellowship with one another as well as with Israel’s God. The Passover was a renewal on the part of the OT Church of the Covenant with God that had been made at Sinai; and every Supper is a renewal by the Christian people of the Covenant made for them upon the Cross. The Passover was not only a renewal of the Covenant fellowship with God, but a festive social meal at which the links of Jewish brotherhood were forged afresh. ‘Covenant’ (A
Alliance - This "brotherly Covenant" is referred to 250 years afterwards (Amos 1:9 ). ...
From patriarchal times a Covenant of alliance was sealed by the blood of some sacrificial victim. Such alliances were called "covenants of salt" (Numbers 18:19 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5 ), salt being the symbol of perpetuity
Earth, Land - Although the people were blessed by what the land or ground produced, they did not respond to the Covenant God who had blessed them with it. God promised Abraham that He would establish His Covenant with Abraham and with his descendants as an everlasting Covenant; all the “land of Canaan” was to be for an everlasting possession (Ezekiel 31:2,31 ). ...
Do these verses tell us who is to own and use the land? No, because Israel broke that Covenant. Paul spoke of an old Covenant and a new Covenant ( 2 Corinthians 3:6 , 2 Corinthians 3:14 ). Jeremiah spoke about both Covenants. The new Covenant was not like the old “which my Covenant brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the Lord” (Jeremiah 31:32 ). The Holy Spirit testifies to Christians about the new Covenant (Hebrews 10:15-18 )
Righteousness - ” In biblical usage righteousness is rooted in Covenants and relationships. For biblical authors, righteousness is the fulfillment of the terms of a Covenant between God and humanity or between humans in the full range of human relationships. Rather, God's righteousness is what God does in fulfillment of the terms of the Covenant that God established with the chosen people, Israel ( 2 Chronicles 12:6 ; Psalm 7:9 ; Jeremiah 9:24 ; Daniel 9:14 ). God's righteousness was not a metaphysical property but that dimension of the divine experienced by those within the Covenantal community. ...
Righteousness is a religious concept applied to humans because Israel had entered into a Covenantal relationship to God. Because God had chosen Israel, the nation had the Covenantal responsibility of fulfilling the terms of the Covenant. God acted to establish the Covenant and in so doing bestowed salvation on Israel (Exodus 19:1 ). The law was given as an act of divine mercy to provide Israel with guidelines for keeping the nation's own portion of the Covenant (Leviticus 16:1 ; Psalm 40:1 ). As Israel kept the Covenant law, the nation was righteous. ...
The concept of righteousness as faithful fulfillment of the provisions of a Covenant was also meaningful in strictly human terms. The person who met the demands of a variety of social relations was thought to be righteous, to have done righteousness, though the requirements of righteousness varied with the Covenantal/relational context. ...
New Testament Greek philosophy understood righteousness to be one of the cardinal virtues, but New Testament authors show that they understood the word in terms of Old Testament thinking about Covenantal relations. ...
On the other hand, interpreters who understand “the righteousness of God” to mean “God is righteous” contend that salvation is purely the work of God, God's saving activity in keeping the divine side of the Covenant of creation
Zephaniah, Theology of - It was correct in that followers of God would be blessed but wrong since just because Israel had entered into a Covenant relationhip with God at Sinai, their position as blessed people was not henceforth inviolable. While God was true to his Covenant, there were also responsibilities for Israel which, if violated, resulted in judgment and loss of Covenant blessing. Faithful ancestors do not assure including the next generation in the Covenant. Only fidelity to the Covenant can do that. Anachronistically translated "Lord" in most English versions, it is God's personal, Covenant name revealed to his own people (Exodus 6:2-3 ). In spite of the wrong, and the punishment God must dispense, he still reveals himself to Judah as Yahweh, their loving Covenant God even though he must punish Israel because she has abandoned him. He cannot abandon them or break his Covenant
Memorial - God remembers his Covenant with his people, whereupon God's people are enjoined to remember him. God's Covenant with his people lies behind each occasion of God's memory, whether for grace or retribution. The rainbow, which portended God's promise, symbolized the Noahic Covenant; phylacteries recalled the Law (Exodus 13:16 ); and the Sabbath commemorated God's rest from his creative activity (Exodus 20:8-11 )
Cocceians - Cocceius also taught, that the Covenant made between God and the Jews was of the same nature as the new Covenant by Jesus Christ; that the law was promulgated by Moses, not merely as a rule of obedience, but also as a representation of the Covenant of grace; that when the Jews had provoked the Deity by their various transgressions, particularly by the worship of the golden calf, the severe yoke of the ceremonial law was added as a punishment; that this yoke, which was painful in itself, became doubly so on account of its typical signification; since it admonished the Israelites from day to day of the imperfection of their state, filled them with anxiety, and was a perpetual proof that they had merited the righteous judgment of God, and could not expect, before the coming of the Messiah, the entire remission of their iniquities; that indeed good men, under the Mosaic dispensation, were, after death, made partakers of glory; but that, nevertheless, during the whole course of their lives they were far removed from that assurance of salvation, which rejoices the believer under the dispensation of the Gospel; and that their anxiety flowed from this consideration, that their sins, though they remained unpunished, were not yet pardoned; because Christ had not as yet offered himself up to make an atonement for them
Hagar - From thence we learn, that the whole of those transactions respecting Sarah and Hagar was an allegory, or figure, of the Covenants; the one of bondage in nature, the other of freedom by grace. But taught by divine instruction, from this beautiful allegory we learn the vast importance of being found belonging to a Covenant of grace, and not with the bond-woman under the law of works. ...
The apostle was commissioned to tell the church, that this allegory represented the two Covenants. Hagar and her son Ishmael, the law-covenant, gendering to bondage; Sarah and her son Isaac, the gospel-covenant, leading to freedom. The one born without an eye to the Covenant; the other wholly on account of the Covenant. " (Genesis 15:2-6) It may not be improper to add, that as in the two Covenants the one is in direct opposition to the other, so in the allegory the same is manifested. " And surely, the bond-woman and her son cannot be heir with the son of the free-woman; for all of the Hagar, the mount Sinai Covenant, are in bondage
Law - These commandments represent the minimum moral and religious requirements for those in Covenant relationship with God. ...
The Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:22-23:33 , ; partially repeated in 34:10-26) consists of cultic, humanitarian, and civil regulations. The structure of Deuteronomy follows that of second-millennium Covenant treaties in which the laws correspond to stipulations within the Covenant. ...
"Law" and "Covenant. " All biblical laws are placed in the context of God's Covenant with Israel. Covenant, not law-keeping, establishes a relationship, just as signing a contract, rather than doing the specified Job, establishes an employment relationship. The Covenant in Genesis 15 was not established by "law" but by God's gracious offer accompanied by Abram's faith (although he later in some sense kept "the law, " Genesis 26:5 ). " The commandments are given to a people who are already "saved" (Exodus 20:2 ) through a Covenant relationship based on God's gracious love and despite Israel's lack of merit (Deuteronomy 7:7-9 ; 9:4-6 ). ...
The role of law is to administrate the Covenant. Viewed from one perspective, the promises formalized by Covenant were unconditional; but from an individual's perspective, benefits could be forfeited by disobedience. Disobedience does not automatically invalidate a Covenant, any more than a husband's rudeness to a wife he vowed to cherish invalidates his marriage Covenant. In the desert a whole generation of Israelites forfeited their Covenant benefits (the promised land) through disobedience, yet the Covenant continued. ...
The Law under the New Covenant . On the one hand, some New Testament statements indicate that under the new Covenant the whole law is in some sense abrogated (Romans 6:14 , "you are not under law" Romans 10:4 , "Christ is the end of the law" ). ...
Covenant theologians have traditionally divided laws into three categories: moral, civil, and ceremonial. However, this approach takes insufficient account of the new theological and cultural setting of the new Covenant
Hizkiah - Both Ater and Hizkijah appear, however, in the list of those who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law ( Nehemiah 10:17 )
Names of the Bible - It is also known as the Old and New Testaments, Testament meaning the Covenant, the understanding between God and man, the word Old designating revelation prior to the coming of Christ, and New, His own revelation as recorded by the Apostles
Bible, Names of the - It is also known as the Old and New Testaments, Testament meaning the Covenant, the understanding between God and man, the word Old designating revelation prior to the coming of Christ, and New, His own revelation as recorded by the Apostles
Hattush - A priest who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God (Nehemiah 10:4 )
Rehob - Witness to Nehemiah's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:11 )
Moriah - After David captured the site, he purposed to build there a Temple for the ark of the Covenant
Blood - See Atonement, Clean and Unclean, Covenant, Food, Propitiation, Sacrifice
Galeed - ) A Hebrew name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban reared on mount Gilead, a memorial of their brotherly Covenant (Genesis 31:47-48)
Alter - My Covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that has gone out of my lips
Insure - To make sure or secure to ...
contract or Covenant for a consideration to secure a person against loss or to engage to indemnify another for the loss of any specified property, at a certain stipulated rate per cent, called a premium
Concord - ) Agreement by stipulation; compact; Covenant; treaty or league
Possession - Six times this word is used of Israel as God’s personally acquired (elected, delivered from Egyptian bondage, and formed into what He wanted them to be), carefully preserved, and privately possessed people: “Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my Covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure [1] unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine” ( Ahijah - One who sealed the Covenant
Scottish Confession, the - Known as the "King's Confession," or the "Scotica Secunda," later as the "National Covenant," it endorses the Confession of 1560 and proceeds with a vituperation of Catholicity
Pelati'ah - ) ...
One of the heads of the people, and probably the name of a family who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Hosea - ...
Because the Covenant between Israel and Yahweh was likened to a marriage Covenant, Israel’s association with other gods was really spiritual adultery (Hosea 4:17; Hosea 5:4; Hosea 6:10; Hosea 7:16; Hosea 8:5-6; see BAAL). Hosea, who still loved his erring wife, had remained faithful to his marriage Covenant, and when he found Gomer a slave, he bought her back (Hosea 3:1-3). Hosea’s Covenant love for Gomer pictured Yahweh’s Covenant love for his people
Micah, Theology of - In 6:1b-8 Micah is pictured as the Lord's plenipotentiary from the heavenly court, who has come to Jerusalem to accuse Israel of having broken the Mosaic Covenant. ...
Micah's theology represents both aspects of the Lord's Covenant with Israel: the Lord will sentence his Covenant people to exile out of the land of blessing if they fail to keep his righteous law, but he will always preserve from them a righteous remnant to whom he will give his sworn land after the exile (2:5) and through whom he will bless the nations (4:1-5). Each cycle begins with judgment-oracles against the nation for having failed to keep the Mosaic Covenant, followed by salvation-oracles based on God's promises to Abraham and the patriarchs to be their god foreverso reflecting both aspects of the Lord's Covenant with Israel. Their half-truth distorted the Covenant by emphasizing only Exodus 34:6 ("The Lord the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness") and omitting Exodus 34:7 ("yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished"). ...
In the third cycle (6:1-7:20), Micah begins with a Covenant law suit (6:1-8). Here the Lord clearly profiles the Covenant relationship. However, instead of responding to his grace with a total commitment of trust in him that leads to Covenant fidelity and obedience, they reduced the Covenant to a bargaining contract (vv. "Ten thousand rivers of oil" suggests that this approach to God has no limit and establishes neither a Covenant relationship with God nor assurance of salvation. 9-12), the Lord will bring on it all the curses of the Covenant: sickness, sword, and exile (vv. Micah, however, confident of God's Covenant faithfulness to the patriarchs, hopes in his saving God (v. Although Israel has been unfaithful, the Lord will remain faithful to his Covenant promises to Abraham and the fathers (v. Hillers, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea ; idem, Micah ; B
Patriarchs, the - The growth of the Hebrew nation was promised specifically to Abraham in the patriarchal Covenant (Genesis 15:1 ; Genesis 17:1 ), along with the provision of a land in which Abraham's offspring would dwell. Since several generations elapsed before this situation developed, the Covenant with Abraham must be regarded as promissory. See Covenant . ...
When Abram proposed to appoint Eliezer of Damascus as his heir (Genesis 15:2 ), God entered into a formal Covenant with Abram and promised him vast amounts of land for his descendants. Later God renewed His Covenant with Abram and instituted the sign of circumcision for Abram's household. ...
At an early period, Abraham had testified that God was the Most High God (Genesis 14:22 ), the righteous Judge of humankind (Genesis 15:14 ), and the Guarantor of the Covenant of promise. ...
The line of descent by which the Covenant was to be perpetuated consisted solely of Abraham's son Isaac; through him the Covenant promises were continued. ...
We have very little information about the maturing years of Isaac except that he was used as the supreme test of Abraham's faith in the Covenant promises. At the very moment that Isaac's life was about to be taken, his position as Covenant heir was safeguarded by the provision of an alternative sacrificial offering (Genesis 22:9-13 ). Isaac prayed earnestly to God for Covenant heirs, and in due time Rebekah became pregnant with twins when Isaac was 60 years old. Before he arrived he received a revelation from God which confirmed his inheritance in the Covenant. God intervened in a night vision, and a restrained Laban made a Covenant of peace with Jacob. Jacob trusted the God whom he had seen at Peniel to implement the Covenant promises through him; and when he died, he left behind a clearly burgeoning nation
Contract - ) To enter into, with mutual obligations; to make a bargain or Covenant for. ) To make an agreement; to Covenant; to agree; to bargain; as, to contract for carrying the mail
Salt - A "covenant of salt" (Numbers 18:19 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5 ) was a Covenant of perpetual obligation
Commandments, the Ten - They are also called 'the words of the Covenant,' in Exodus 34:28 . The two stones are also called the 'tables of the testimony,' Exodus 34:29 , and they were laid up in the ark of the Covenant, Exodus 40:20 ; 1 Kings 8:9 ; Hebrews 9:4 ; over which were the two cherubim as guardians of God's rights together with the mercy-seat
Noah - But with Noah God entered into a Covenant, with a promise of deliverance from the threatened deluge (18). ...
On leaving the ark Noah's first act was to erect an altar, the first of which there is any mention, and offer the sacrifices of adoring thanks and praise to God, who entered into a Covenant with him, the first Covenant between God and man, granting him possession of the earth by a new and special charter, which remains in force to the present time (Genesis 8:21-9:17 ). As a sign and witness of this Covenant, the rainbow was adopted and set apart by God, as a sure pledge that never again would the earth be destroyed by a flood
Anthropomorphism - ...
Perhaps the most profound anthropomorphism is the depiction of God establishing a Covenant, for the making of Covenants is a very human activity. God enters into an agreement (covenant) with Israel at Sinai (Exodus 19:5-6 ), an outgrowth of an earlier Covenant he had made with Abraham (Genesis 17:1-18 ). Later, this agreement is transformed into a new Covenant through Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:26-29 )
Thigh - Some have supposed that the oath was to remind the person taking it, that he and the person demanding it, were both circumcised: so that it was pledging himself by the Covenant relationship between them. Others carry the matter farther, and while supposing, as the former, that the oath had respect to this fraternity and relationship in one common Covenant, they add to it a reference to the person, and the expectation of the Messiah as the head and substance of the Covenant; and in confirmation of this opinion they refer to that passage, Genesis 46:26 where it is said that "all the souls which cause with Jacob into Egypt, came out of his loins," or, as the margin renders it, his thigh. By which I humbly conceive is meant, as still with an eye to the Covenant, an interest in the Messiah
Circumcise - ...
The physical act of circumcision was introduced by God as a sign of the Abrahamic Covenant: “This is my Covenant with you and your descendants after you … Every male among you shall be circumcised. You are to undergo circumcision, and it will be the sign of the Covenant between me and you” ( Covenantal relationship. Not only were the physical descendants of Abraham “circumcised,” but also those who were servants, slaves, and foreigners in the Covenant community ( Covenantal relations, God expected that His people would joyously and willingly live up to His expectations, and thus demonstrate His rule on earth
Circumcision - In the Old Testament the origin of Israelite practice was founded upon the circumcision of Abraham as a sign of the Covenant between God and the patriarch (Genesis 17:10 ). Physical hygiene and tribal distinction resulted from circumcision, but the aspect of Covenant sign which marked one's entry into the community of Yahwistic faith is the focus in the Hebrew Scriptures. ...
Israelite practice The circumcision of Abraham and the male members of his entourage followed the repetition of the Covenant promise (see Genesis 15:1 ) of land and national descendants (Genesis 17:1 ). The tie between land and circumcision in the Covenant is reflected in the purification of Israelites at Gilgal following the entry of Israel into the Promised Land (Joshua 5:2-9 )
Abinadab - Resident of Kirjath-jearim whose house was resting place of ark of the Covenant for 20 years after the Philistines returned it
Bigvai - A chief of Zerubbabel's expedition, who subsequently signed the Covenant (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7)
Saint - One separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by profession and by Covenant; a believer in Christ (Psalm 16:3 ; Romans 1:7 ; 8:27 ; Philippians 1:1 ; Hebrews 6:10 )
Kiriath-Jearim - It is chiefly remembered because during the time of Saul and David the ark of the Covenant rested there for twenty years (1 Samuel 7:1-2; 2 Samuel 6:2; for maps see BENJAMIN; JUDAH, TRIBE AND KINGDOM)
Elkanah - One of two gatekeepers for the ark of the Covenant (1 Chronicles 15:23 )
Surety - In a positive sense Jesus is said to be surety for the faithful under the new Covenant (Hebrews 7:22 )
Ark - A small close vessel, chest or coffer, such as that which was the repository of the tables of the Covenant among the Jews
Footstool - It is symbolical of 'the place of rest:' David had it on his heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the Covenant of the Lord, and for the 'footstool' of God, wherein God could find rest among His people, and where He was to be worshipped
Seth - This sense of frailty led the Sethites to calling on God in His Covenant relation to His believing people; thus began the church as a people separated from the world, and its service of prayer and praise
Adonijah - A leader of the Jews after the Exile who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:16 )
Cocceians - Cocceius also taught, that the Covenant made between God and the Jewish nation, by the ministry of Moses, was of the same nature as the new Covenant, obtained by the mediation of Jesus Christ. In consequence of this general principle, he maintained that the ten commandments were promulgated by Moses, not as a rule of obedience, but as a representation of the Covenant of grace...
that when the Jews had provoked the Deity by their various transgressions, particularly by the worship of the golden calf, the severe and servile yoke of the ceremonial law was added to the decalogue, as a punishment inflicted on them by the Supreme Being in his righteous displeasure...
that this yoke, which was painful in itself, became doubly so on account of its typical signification; since it admonished the Israelites from day to day of the imperfection and uncertainty of their state, filled them with anxiety, and was a perpetual proof that they had merited the righteous displeasure of God, and could not expect before the coming of the Messiah the entire remission of their iniquities...
that indeed good men, even under the Mosaic dispensation, were immediately after death made partakers of everlasting glory; but that they were nevertheless, during the whole course of their lives, far removed from that firm hope and assurance of salvation, which rejoices the faithful under the dispensation of the Gospel...
and that their anxiety flowed naturally from this consideration, that their sins, though they remained unpunished were not pardoned; because Christ had not as yet offered himself up a sacrifice to the Father, to make an entire atonement for them
Trumpets, Feast of - ...
As the sound of the cornet signalized Jehovah's descent on Sinai to take Israel into Covenant, so the same sound at the close of the day of atonement announced the year which restored Israel to the freedom and blessings of the Covenant (Exodus 19:16-49). This feast of trumpets reminds the people of their Covenant, and puts God in remembrance of His promises (Isaiah 43:26; Numbers 10:9)
Noah - Then the Lord promised never again to destroy living creatures as He had done in the flood and established a Covenant with Noah and his sons and sealed that Covenant with a rainbow. See Covenant
Girdle - " (Isaiah 11:5) The meaning is, that as the labourer goeth forth in the morning of the day to his labour, and strengthens himself for the work by bracing up his loins with his girdle; so the Lord, speaking after the manner of men, takes his righteousness for the girdle of his administration, which cleaves to him as the girdle to the loins of a man; and his faithfulness becomes the bandage of his word and truth to all his Covenant promises, as the rectitude of his reins. And to carry on the figure—As the Lord is thus clad with both, and they surround him like a girdle, so his people are called upon to take hold of both, or either, as occasion requires, whether before or behind, and hang upon the gracious assurances of a gracious faithful Covenant God in Christ
Scriptures - ...
A better translation of the word ‘testament’ is ‘covenant’. (For the biblical meaning of this word see Covenant. ) The Old and New Testaments are the books of the old and new Covenants. The Old Testament shows how, under the old Covenant, God chose the nation Israel as his people, and prepared it to be the channel through which he would provide a saviour for the world. The New Testament shows that this saviour, Jesus Christ, fulfilled the old Covenant, then established a new Covenant, by which people of all nations become God’s people through faith
Zedekiah - A signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:1 )
Malchiah, Malchijah - Priest who sealed the Covenant; and probably the same that assisted in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem
Binnui - Levite who sealed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:9 )
Wave Offering - In conjecturing the meaning of this rite, regard must be had that it was the accompaniment of peace offerings, which were witnesses to a ratified Covenant --an established communion between God and man
Holocaust - The chief purpose of the holocaust was ...
to recall vividly to the Hebrews of old the supreme dominion of God over His creatures;
a means of atonement for sin; and
to foreshadow the sacrifice which Jesus Christ, the true Lamb of God, was to offer in fulfilment of all the bloody sacrifices of the first Covenant (Hebrews 9)
Lord's Supper - Church groups celebrate the Lord's Supper regularly as a sign of the new Covenant sealed by Christ's death and resurrection
Fidelity - Observance of the marriage Covenant as the fidelity of a husband or wife
Asaiah - He is apparently the same as the chief of the sons of Merari, who led 220 of his clan in helping bring the ark of the Covenant from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:1 )
Aaron's Rod - According to Hebrews 9:4 , the rod was kept in the ark of the Covenant
Covenant - ...
Ultimately, the Covenants God has made with man result in our benefit. We receive eternal blessings from the Covenant of grace
Recite - ) To repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory, or the like; to deliver from a written or printed document, or from recollection; to rehearse; as, to recite the words of an author, or of a deed or Covenant
Hagar - Paul, Galatians 4:25, refers to her as the type of the old Covenant
Phinehas - On this account the Lord promised the priesthood to Phinehas by perpetual Covenant; evidently including this tacit condition, that his children should continue faithful and obedient: for we know the priesthood passed out of the family of Eleazar and Phinehas to that of Ithamar, and that it returned not to the posterity of Eleazar until after about a hundred and fifty years
Pedaiah - Witness to Ezra's renewal of the Covenant (Nehemiah 8:4 ), perhaps identical with 4
Zedekiah - A signatory to the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:1 )
Salt - It had a ceremonial use in making Covenants, where it symbolized the unbroken loyalty that the two parties promised to the Covenant (Leviticus 2:13; Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5; see Covenant)
Treaty - By becoming a party to the treaty, Israel broke its Covenant with God and so brought God’s judgment upon itself (Hosea 7:11-13; Hosea 8:8-10; see Covenant)
Meshullam - One of the priests who joined Nehemiah and others setting his seal to the Covenant between the people and God (Nehemiah 10:7 ). One of the leaders of the people who set his seal to the Covenant between the people and God (Nehemiah 10:20 )
Seventy Weeks - The 7 years are connected with the period of a Covenant between a ruler and Jerusalem, which is violated in the middle of the 7 years (Daniel 9:27 ). At that time, sacrifices under the Old Covenant ceased
Circumcision - The rite appointed by God to be a token of the Covenant that He made with Abraham and his seed, and also the seal of the righteousness of his faith. Contrary to the design of God, circumcision became a mere formal act, when the Covenant itself was disregarded, and God then speaks of Israel as having 'uncircumcised hearts
Sign - This word is used in the sense of token and pledge; as, when the Lord gave to Noah the rainbow, as a sign of his Covenant, Genesis 9:12-13 ; and when he appointed to Abraham the use of circumcision, as the seal of the Covenant he had made with him and his posterity, Genesis 17:11
Jew - in God's outward Covenant, as contrasted with "Greeks" or Gentiles (Romans 1:16; Romans 2:9, margin). ...
By the time that he wrote the Jews had definitely rejected the gospel offered to them by the apostles at home and abroad (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16); so they are no longer regarded as the Covenant people, the kingdom of God having passed from them to the Gentiles (Acts 13:45-46) The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple formally effected the transference, forever since the Jew professes a religion enjoining what God's providence makes it impossible for him to fulfil, namely, the observance of the great feasts and the sacrificial system in the temple at Jerusalem
Infant Baptism - Those who interpret baptism as the sign of God's new Covenant reserve the rite for the children of believers (compare 1 Corinthians 7:14 ). Those favoring infant baptism raise the following arguments: (1) household baptisms likely included some infants (Acts 16:5 ,Acts 16:5,16:33 ; Acts 18:8 ; 1 Corinthians 1:16 ); (2) Jesus' welcome and blessing of children is a mandate to baptize infants (Mark 10:13-16 ); “hinder” is a technical term associated with baptism (Acts 8:36 ); (3) circumcision which prefigured baptism (Colossians 2:11 ) included children (Genesis 17:12 ); (4) in the Old Testament children participated in ceremonies of Covenant renewal (Deuteronomy 29:10-13 ; Joshua 8:35 ; Joel 2:16 ). ...
Baptists and other adherents of believer's baptism raise the following arguments and counter-arguments: (1) The New Testament prerequisite of baptism is faith (Acts 18:8 ) which is evidenced by confession (Romans 10:9-10 ) and repentance (Acts 2:38 ); (2) infant baptism rests ultimately on the fear that infants are held accountable for organic sin; Baptists counter with a doctrine of an age of accountability at which conscious sin occurs (Genesis 8:21 ; Psalm 25:7 ; Jeremiah 3:25 ) and at which a conscious response to God is possible (1 Kings 18:12 ; Psalm 71:5 ,Psalms 71:5,71:17 ); (3) household baptisms need not have included children; baptism is prefigured in the salvation of Noah and his exclusively adult household in the ark (1 Peter 3:20-21 ); (4) Jesus' blessing of the children demonstrates Christ's love for children; children are presented as an example to disciples rather than as disciples themselves (Matthew 18:2-4 ); (5) circumcision is an imperfect analogy to baptism; only males participated in circumcision, whereas in baptism there is “neither male nor female” (Galatians 3:28 ); the witness of the New Testament is that “what is born of the flesh is flesh” and that a spiritual birth is necessary to enter God's kingdom (John 3:5-6 ); it is not the Israel of the flesh that inherits the promises of God but those who are spiritual Israel by a faith commitment (Romans 6-8 ; Galatians 6:16 ); (6) the responsibility of the faith community to its children is instruction in the way of the Lord (Deuteronomy 4:9-10 ; Deuteronomy 11:19 ; Proverbs 22:6 ); participation in Covenant renewal is educational for children
Law of Christ - Jeremiah 31:31-34 similarly predicts the coming of a time in which disobedient Israel will receive a new Covenant, consisting of a law written on the heart and therefore obeyed (cf. ...
Paul believed that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ marked the beginning point of God's new Covenant (2 Corinthians 3:1-18 ; Galatians 4:21-31 ; cf. Like Isaiah, he believed that this Covenant included the Gentiles (Galatians 3:7-20 ), and like Jeremiah he believed that it offered Israel a remedy for the curse that the old Sinaitic Covenant pronounced on Israel's disobedience (Galatians 3:10-13 )
Backsliding - Condition that results from spiritual apathy or disregard for the things of God, whether on the part of an individual or a group bound by a prior Covenantal pledge of commitment to uphold the doctrine and commandments of the Lord. In instances of apostasy when one spurns the grace of God by renouncing the blessings of the Covenant, there is no possibility of repentance for sin, only a divine sealing unto the day of judgment (Hebrews 6:4-6 ; 10:26-31 ). As agents of God's Covenant lawsuit against the obstinate and stiff-necked people, the prophets pleaded with Israel to repent of her sins and return to God in true faith and holiness. "Like Adam, they have broken the Covenant—they were unfaithful to me there" (Hosea 6:7 ). The restoration of Israel from exile, however, required the making of a new and better Covenant, one that could not be broken (Jeremiah 31:22-34 ). The sin of apostasy is real for Covenant confessors. The saints are to persevere in doing the will of God, remembering the Covenant he has made with us in his Son, Jesus Christ
Gilgal - As God abrogated at Kadesh the Covenant, the sons of the rejected generation were not to receive the Covenant rite. The manna and pillar of cloud were not withdrawn, because God would sustain the rising generation with the prospect of the ban being removed, and of the Covenant temporarily suspended being renewed. So now He did not require the renewal of circumcision, the Covenant sign of subjection to the law (Galatians 5:3), until He had first showed His grace in giving them victory over Og and Sihon, and in making a way through Jordan, a pledge that He would fulfill all His promises and finally give them the whole land. The circumcision at Gilgal was a practical restoration of the Covenant, and a pledge of their now receiving Canaan. the scene of Balaam's wicked counsel taking effect in Israel's sin, from the fatal effects of which I saved thee, all along to Gilgal where I renewed the Covenant with Israel by circumcision (2 Samuel 19:15)
Sacrifices - The Mosaic ritual was inaugurated by a Covenant (Exodus 24). The Covenant between Jacob and Laban (Genesis 31:54) was of a similar nature. Other Covenants are between God and Abraham (Genesis 15:18), and in Jeremiah 34:18. It was a feature of these sacrifices that the animals sacrificed were divided, or the blood was divided, so that the parties to the Covenant were assumed into a mystic unity of life. It is this particular sacrifice that is adduced in the Epistle to the Hebrews as signalizing the Covenant between God and Israel (Hebrews 9:20). We have then these points to notice—(1) Everything in the subsequent history of the relations between God and Israel depended upon the fact that this Covenant had been made. (3) The Covenant was sealed by sacrifice, and more particularly by blood. A Covenant made by sacrifice was not only dramatic and memorable, but it had a sanctity, as of a visible oath (cf. Under the general shelter of this Covenant relationship the sacrifices of the Mosaic law were instituted (Galatians 3:17; Galatians 3:19). As we have seen, the sacrifices offered at the making of the Covenant were peace-offerings. The prophecy of the New Covenant (Jeremiah 31:31) forms the principal link between the sacrifices of the OT and Christ’s fulfilment of them. For in that passage the promise of a Covenant between God and His people is connected with the forgiveness of sin; and in the NT this conjunction is all-important. But especially this reference is to be found in Christ’s words at the institution of the Supper: ‘For this is my blood of the Covenant, which is shed for many unto remission of sins’ (Matthew 26:28); and in the Epistle to the Hebrews (chs. In both these places attention is drawn to the Covenant at Sinai. As the slaying of animals, according to a well-understood language, gave sacredness to the older Covenant, so the dying of the Saviour gave greater sacredness to a greater Covenant. But these descriptions of the efficacy of Christ’s death also refer, as does the prophecy of Jeremiah, to the taking away of sin, to which there was no reference in the Old Covenant. Romans 5:1-2), which was given under the Mosaic law by the Covenant sacrifice, and continued by the sacrifices that were commanded; but for us this has been obtained once for all by Christ (Hebrews 10:10), and remains ours as we abide in Him. Accordingly, in the New Covenant provision was made for the remission of sin, for redemption, for propitiation (Romans 3:24-25, 1 John 4:10)
Harim - A lay family which appears in the list of the returning exiles ( Ezra 2:32 = Nehemiah 7:35 ); of those who had married foreign wives ( Ezra 10:31 ); and of those who signed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:27 )
Pestilence - God sent pestilence as punishment for persistent unbelief (Numbers 14:12 ) and failure to fulfill Covenant obligations (Deuteronomy 24:24 ; Deuteronomy 28:21 ) as well as to encourage repentence (Amos 4:10 )
Bond - Used figuratively to speak of the bonds of wickedness or sin (Isaiah 58:6 ; Luke 13:16 ; Acts 8:23 ), of affliction and judgment (Isaiah 28:22 ; Isaiah 52:2 ; Jeremiah 30:8 ; Nahum 1:13 ), the authority of kings (Job 12:18 ; Psalm 2:3 ), the obligation to keep the Covenant (Jeremiah 2:20 ; Jeremiah 5:5 ; see Colossians 2:14 ), the bonds of peace and love (Ephesians 4:3 ; Colossians 3:14 ), and the bonds of an evil woman (Ecclesiastes 7:26 )
Both - ...
And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them to Abimelech and both of them made a Covenant
Conspire - To agree, by oath, Covenant or otherwise, to commit a crime to plot to hatch treason
Abinadab - "
A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of the Covenant was deposited after having been brought back from the land of the Philistines (1Samuel 7:1)
Pinnacle - Tregelles translated Daniel 9:27, "upon the wing (kenaph ) of abominations shall be that which causeth desolation," namely, an idol set up on a wing or pinnacle of the temple by antichrist, who Covenants with the restored Jews for the last of the 70 weeks of years (John 5:43) and breaks the Covenant in the midst of the week, causing the daily sacrifices to cease
Amariah - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Mercy-Seat - (Exodus 25:17 ; 37:6 ; Hebrews 9:5 ) This appears to have been merely the lid of the ark of the Covenant, not another surface affixed thereto
Beersheba - or the well of the oath; so named from a well which Abraham dug in this place, and the Covenant which he here made with Abimelech, king of Gerar, Genesis 20:31
Malachi - He reproves the people for their wickedness, and the priests for their negligence in the discharge of their office; he threatens the disobedient with the judgments of God, and promises great rewards to the penitent and pious; he predicts the coming of Christ, and the preaching of John the Baptist; and with a solemnity becoming the last of the prophets, he closes the sacred canon with enjoining the strict observance of the Mosaic law, till the forerunner, already promised, should appear in the spirit of Elias, to introduce the Messiah, who was to establish a new and everlasting Covenant
Sin, Desert of - To perpetuate the memorial of "this bread from heaven" to future generations, a pot of manna, which was preserved fresh, by a standing miracle, was ordered to be laid up beside the ark of the Covenant, in the sanctuary, Exodus 16
Gold - The Ark of the Covenant was overlaid with pure gold; the mercy seat, the vessels and utensils belonging to the tabernacle, and those also of the house of the Lord, as well as the drinking-vessels of Solomon, were of gold
ha'Rim - ) They also appear among those who had married foreign wives, (Ezra 10:31 ) as well as those who sealed the Covenant- (Nehemiah 10:27 ) (B
Intercession of the Spirit - Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting Covenant
Rainbow, - the token of the Covenant which God made with Noah when he came forth from the ark that the waters should no more become a flood to destroy all flesh
Remember, Remembrance - Yahweh is bound to his elect people, Israel, by his Covenant and thus there is a unique relation between the two Covenant partners. On at least ten occasions, Yahweh is said to remember his Covenantal relation with Israel (Leviticus 26:45 ; Psalm 105:8 ; 106:45 ; 111:5 ). He also remembers his Covenant with Noah (Genesis 9:15 ). God also rememers the actual occasion of the making of his Covenant(s) (Exodus 32:13 ; Deuteronomy 9:27 ; 2 Chronicles 6:42 ). "I will remember my Covenant with Jacob and my Covenant with Abraham" (Leviticus 26:42 ). ...
The question arises, When believers remember the deeds of God and when God remembers his relation to Israel what kind of remembering is in view? Is it merely recollection of information about the past? Or is it remembering the past in such a way that the facts remembered have some impact on the present? As a minimum, this remembering within the Old Covenant would seem to imply that the God who performed the past mighty deeds, which are remembered, is the God who is present with his people as he or they remember those deeds. And he is present as the same, living God, bound to them in election and Covenant as he was to their ancestors in days past, for he is Yahweh, "I am who I am. Mary said, " [2] has helped his servant Israel, remembering to be merciful" (Luke 1:54 ); and Zechariah blessed God and recalled how God would perform the mercy promised to our fathers, remembering his holy Covenant (Luke 1:72 )
Salt - ...
The first account we meet with where salt is directed to be used in the way of a blessing is in Leviticus 2:13, "And every oblation of thy meat-offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the Covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat-offerings; with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt. " (2 Kings 2:21) And that salt was considered in the light of a blessing it is said, (2 Chronicles 13:5) "that the Lord God of Israel gave the kingdom over Israel to David for ever, even to him, and to his sons by a Covenant of salt. And what gives a strong leading feature to the whole was this, that this was called "the salt of the Covenant of JEHOVAH. It is expressly called "the salt of the Covenant of thy God. Where Christ is not, there is no savour; it is his blood which gives a fragrancy and a perfume to our most holy things, And if Jesus be the salt of the Covenant of our God, and with all our offerings he be first and last presented, both the Alpha and Omega, in our view, as he is in the view of God our Father, then is that Scripture blessedly fulfilled which the Lord delivered by the prophet: "For in mine holy mountain in the mountain of the height of Israel, saith the Lord God, there shall all the house of Israel, all of them in the land, serve me. I do not presume to say as much so as to decide upon it, but I venture to believe that the term of "curing of meat by salt" took its rise from the circumstance of the divine cure of our nature by the salt of the Covenant. So that in the salt of the Covenant we offer nothing of our own for acceptance, but what God hath first given to us. " (Exodus 20:24-25)...
Fourthly, if the reader will consult the context concerning this meat-offering with the salt of the Covenant, he will find that it was an offering also made by fire unto the Lord. (See Leviticus 2:13-16) Hence the salt of the Covenant was not simply to cleanse and render pure for acceptance, but it was to sprinkle the offering made by fire. Hence therefore, when the offering was offered with the salt of the Covenant, and the Lord gave token of his acceptance by consuming the sacrifice with fire, this formed a confirmation of the divine favour. " (Luke 2:34) Where Jesus is like the salt of the Covenant, he will preserve from putrefaction, "That little leaven shall leaven the whole lump. In short, where Jesus is there is the salt of the Covenant—"Destroy it not, there is a blessing in it. " (2 Corinthians 4:3) Where Christ, the salt of the Covenant, is rejected, that land, that people, that family, is given up to perpetual, barenness: it never can be healed
Joshua, Book of - To impress upon people the religious significance of the invasion, the narrative emphasizes such matters as the ritual cleansing of the people, the leadership of the priests, the prominence of the ark of the Covenant, the miraculous crossing of the Jordan, and the obedience to the Covenant commands by those who were till then uncircumcised. The people then reaffirmed their obedience to the Covenant by which God had given Canaan to them (8:30-35). Before he died, Joshua called Israel’s leaders to assemble for another Covenant renewal ceremony. Through them he reminded the people that if they wanted to enjoy the blessings of the Covenant, they had to be obedient to its requirements (24:1-33)
Samuel, First And Second, Theology of - It was to be a "covenantal kingship. "...
Saul's violation of his Covenantal responsibilities as king quickly led to his rejection by the word of the Lord through Samuel (chaps. ...
The dominating theological "point of view" in all of the books from Joshua to 2Kings, including 1-2Samuel, is that which found its fullest expression in the Sinai Covenant. He had delivered them out of Egypt and brought them to Sinai where he entered into Covenant with them. There he had given them his Law (the stipulations of the Covenant, found in the legal sections of Exodus and Leviticus) sanctioned by blessings for obedience and cursing for disobedience (cf. He had led and preserved them through the wilderness period, and then renewed the Covenant on the plains of Moab, at the point of transition between the leadership of Moses and that of Joshua, just prior to Israel's entrance into the land of Canaan. This renewal of the Covenant is described in detail in Deuteronomy. It is especially the theological perspectives of Deuteronomy, including blessings for obedience to the Covenant, and cursing for disobedience (chap. ...
Kingship and Covenant . It is within the overarching perspective of God's sovereignty, and men and women's responsibility to respond in faith and obedience to his Word, that Israel's history is described in 1-2Samuel in connection with the dual themes of kingship and Covenant. A number of subthemes are integrated into the structure of 1-2Samuel by virtue of their relationship to these major themes of kingship and Covenant. Among the most significant of these subthemes are: the role of the prophet in relation to the king; the significance of the ark; and the messianic idea and the Davidic Covenant. ...
Organizing the book around the concepts of kingship and Covenant yields a fourfold division of its content. ...
First, kingship as requested by the people was a denial of the Covenant (1 Samuel 1-8 ). He had already promised his people security and victory over their enemies as long as they remained faithful to their Covenant obligations (Exodus 23:22 ; 34:11 ; Deuteronomy 21:1-4 ). In fact the whole history of the period of the judges reflected in the cycles of oppression, repentance, and restoration demonstrated the reliability of God's Covenant faithfulness. ...
Second, kingship as given by Samuel was consistent with the Covenant (1 Samuel 9-12 ). After Saul led Israel to victory over the Ammonites (1 Samuel 11:1-13 ) Samuel called for an assembly at Gilgal, where he presided in the inauguration of Saul's reign at a public ceremony of Covenant renewal (1 Samuel 11:14-12:25 ). Kingship in Israel was to function in a way that was consistent with the Covenant and the continued recognition that the Lord was Israel's great King. ...
Third, the kingship of Saul failed to correspond to the Covenant ideal (1 Samuel 13-31 ). Saul quickly demonstrated that he was not prepared to submit to the requirements of a Covenantal kingship. 23a), and failed to rule in a way consistent with the requirements of a Covenantal king. ...
Fourth, the kingship of David was an imperfect, but true, representation of the Covenantal ideal (1Sam. ...
In view of this promise it is surprising that David, like Saul before him, is not presented in the narratives of 2Samuel as a king whose reign perfectly conforms to the Covenantal ideal. David is clearly not a perfect example of the Covenantal king. ...
David himself describes the Covenantal ideal for kingship in words given to him by God. It would appear that David is not claiming that his life was absolutely perfect, but that he had lived with the set purpose of serving the Lord and being faithful to his Covenant. The general pattern of his life reflected Covenant faithfulness rather than the reverse. " It is in these traits that David truly, although imperfectly, exemplifies the ideal of the Covenantal king. The king was required to submit to both the laws of the Sinai Covenant and the word of the prophet. These individuals were never afraid to call to account the kings of Israel and Judah when they went astray from the Covenant. In addition to the narratives that focus primarily on Samuel, Saul, and David there are a group of narratives in 1-2Samuel that focus on the ark of the Covenant (1 Samuel 4-6 ; 2 Samuel 6 ). This is the perspective of a Covenantal king. ...
The Messianic Idea and the Davidic Covenant . Perhaps the most significant theological feature of 1-2Samuel is its contribution to the development of the messianic idea in Scripture by virtue of its association of anointing with kingship (1 Samuel 2:10 b; 9:16 ; 10:1 ; 16:13 ), as well as by its provision of a framework for the development of this idea through its presentation of the Davidic Covenant (2 Samuel 7 ; 23:5 )
Lord's Supper (ii) - 134–146) that the Eucharist had been observed by our Lord from the first as ‘a Covenant of service’ or ‘union,’ since the language of John 6 would not have been intelligible unless the Eucharist had been already in common use. It records our Lord’s words with reference to the bread: ‘This is my body, which is for you: this do as my memorial’; and with reference to the cup: ‘This cup is the new Covenant in my blood: this do, as oft as ye drink it, as my memorial. ...
(b) The meaning of ‘This cup is the new Covenant’; ‘this do, as oft as ye drink it, as my memorial. ) ‘covenant,’ (ii. ) The sentence ‘This cup is the new Covenant in my blood,’ while recalling the phraseology and promise of Jeremiah 31:31-34, inevitably suggests a comparison with Exodus 24:1-11. The making of a Covenant between the Lord and Israel is there described. After the reading of the book of the Covenant in the audience of the people by Moses, and their promise to be obedient to all that the Lord had thus spoken, the rest of the blood was sprinkled by Moses on the people with the words, ‘Behold the blood of the Covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words. ’ The sacrifice was consummated, and the Covenant completed, by the sacred meal wherein ‘the nobles of the children of Israel’ ‘beheld God, and did eat and drink. ’ The analogy between this series of actions and the Eucharist which the words ‘This is the new Covenant in my blood’ suggest, is worked out with some detail in Hebrews 9:11-28. The death of Christ and His entrance into heaven with His own blood are there represented as the high-priesely actions of which the slaughter of the beasts and the sprinkling of their blood in the Mosaic sacrifices, alike in the Covenant of Exodus 24:1-11 and in the ceremonies of the Day of Atonement in Exodus 30:10, Leviticus 16, were an anticipation. The words ‘This is the new Covenant in my blood’ thus bring the Eucharist into close connexion with the high-priestly work wherein Christ offered Himself a sacrifice in His death on the cross, and His entrance into heaven at the Ascension. They denote that the gift by Christ of His body and blood, and the reception of these by Christians, are the means of a Covenant relation in the sacrificial action; and that Christians by participating in this rite are in contact with the death of Christ and His high-priestly acts in heaven. In relation to the context, however, it will be held to be appropriate or inappropriate to the idea of sacrifice according as the suggestion of sacrifice is recognized or ignored in the general surroundings of the Last Supper and in the words ‘covenant’ and ‘memorial. In the sentences ‘This cup is the new Covenant in my blood: this do, as oft as ye drink it, as my memorial,’ then, our Lord associated with the command for the observance of the rite which He instituted, indications that by means of it Christians would have access to His high-priestly work on the cross and in heaven, and would possess a memorial before God and a memento to themselves. As here recorded, our Lord’s words at the Institution were: ‘Take ye: this is my body’; ‘this is my blood of the Covenant, which is poured out for many. in that (1) he has ‘this is my blood of the Covenant’ instead of ‘this is the new Covenant in my blood’; (2) he omits ‘this do, as oft as ye drink it, as my memorial’; (3) he adds ‘which is poured out for many’; (4) he adds ‘Verily I say unto you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God. ’ As to these differences, it may be noticed: (α) The blood in Mark’s phrase is described as being Christ’s and as being ‘of the Covenant,’ i. it is Christ’s because it is the blood which He personally took in the Incarnation, and it is ‘of the Covenant’ because by means of it the Covenant between God and man which Christ makes is ratified and sealed. The close connexion with the word ‘covenant’ in Mark 14:24, and the general sacrificial surroundings, give strong probability that the meaning here is ‘poured out’ rather than ‘shed,’ and that the sense is ‘this is my blood,’ ‘which is sacrificially poured out,’ as in the Jewish sacrifices the blood of the slain victim was poured out as the culmination of the sacrifice; (δ) like much else in the Gospels, the words ‘when I drink it new in the kingdom of God’ appear to have a twofold reference. They refer in part to Christian Eucharists; the ‘kingdom of God’ is the Christian Church; the drinking ‘new’ is in the ‘new Covenant’ of 1 Corinthians 11:25; thus is denoted the fellowship between Christ and His people in the Eucharistic feast. Covenant. As here recorded, our Lord’s words were: ‘Take, eat, this is my body’; ‘Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the Covenant, which is poured out for many unto remission of sins
Teach, Teacher - God's gracious initiative places his people in Covenant relationship with him in which parents teach their children and spiritually gifted leaders of the people of God teach its members. God intended the promises of the Mosaic Covenant for parents and their children (Deuteronomy 6:1-2 ). The repeated stress of both Old Testament and New Testament on care for widows and orphans indicates that the Covenant community is to strengthen the family and, if necessary, serve as a sort of surrogate family setting. God's Covenant with David involved David's sons obeying the laws they were taught (Psalm 132:11 ). God's chosen Servant will reestablish the law (Deuteronomy 20:18 ) and inaugurate a new Covenant that will implant his law in Israel's hearts and supersede the former manner of teaching (Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; Ezekiel 36:24-27 ). ...
In the New Testament Jesus is the Servant of God who inaugurates the new Covenant (Matthew 12:17-21 ; 26:28 ). ...
In the Bible, then, God as Creator and Redeemer teaches his creatures through the agency of two institutions, the family and the Covenant community in which families worship God and grow in his grace. These three Old Testament motifs coalesce in Jesus the Messiah, who enables the new Covenant community to be taught by spiritually gifted teachers who lead the church
Shechem - ...
After the conquest of Canaan, the people of Israel gathered at Shechem to confirm the Covenant. The blessings of the Covenant were announced from Mt Gerizim on one side of the town, and the curses from Mt Ebal on the other. Just before Joshua’s death, the leaders of Israel gathered at Shechem once more and declared their loyalty to the Covenant (Deuteronomy 27:1-14; Joshua 8:30-35; Joshua 24:1-28)
Ordinance - Moses led a Covenant renewal ceremony in which he explained the commandments, ordinances, and statutes of the Law. God is not fooled when the wicked recite the statutes of the Covenant (Psalm 50:16 ). They are equally a part of Israel's Covenant with God
Surety - ...
The Holy Ghost by his servant the apostle Paul, hath informed the church that Jesus "was made surety of a better testament," that is the testament or Covenant of redemption by Christ's blood. (Hebrews 7:22) By which we understand that in the antient settlement of eternity, the Lord Jesus Christ stood up at the call of his Father, the Covenant Head and Surety of his people, to answer both for their debt and their duty. So that he stood in their law, room, and stead, in all he did and suffered, and it was Covenanted and agreed upon by the Almighty Covenanters, that all Jesus did and suffered should be put to their account. Blessed are they who are interested in it, and who no longer seek for justification but in him who is made the Surety of a better testament than the old Covenant of a man's own works
Exodus, Theology of - 1-19), Covenant (chaps. Continuity with the past rests in the Covenant made with their forefathers (6:4-5), but full revelation of the name will involve liberation from the slavery of Egypt, redemption by God's own mighty deeds, election as his people, relational knowledge of Yahweh as their God, and the completion of the promises involving the inheritance of a land (6:6-8). ...
As God's people, Israel must be responsible to the Covenant stipulations given at the mountain. After the Covenant commandments and ordinances are presented, the Covenant is established with blood sprinkled on the people (24:8). A survey of the Ten Words or Commandments (20:1-17) and the "Book of the Covenant" (20:22-23:33) indicates that God's instructions cover both vertical and horizontal dimensions, involving both correct attitudes and actions toward God and toward humanity. Every area of life must yield to the relationship of Covenant with the Lord, so family, social, individual, and corporate rights are presented. The Covenant is broken within forty days after it is initiated. In some inexplicable way, probably because of the Covenant, God's character now is tied up with the destiny of Israel, God's people (33:13). The Covenant is renewed (34:10-28). ...
Woven between the chapters on Covenant and its breach stand the Lord's instructions on building a symbol of the presence of Yahweh in the midst of Israel—the tabernacle. The Book of the Covenant (chaps. " God remembered his Covenant with the "fathers, " Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (2:24; 3:6; 6:3). "Covenant, " the biblical word that indicates the relationship, demands total commitment from both parties, though God has already worked and will prove faithful in the future. This establishes the Covenant upon the foundation of God's actions, actions based on his choice and grace. ...
With Yahweh at their core, Moses as intermediary, and the people in Covenant relationship, Israel may advance beyond the Book of Exodus to experience the Lord's will. Michael Hagan...
See also Covenant ; Egypt ; Moses ; Ten Commandments ...
Bibliography
Confederate - ) To unite in a league; to join in a mutual contract or Covenant; to band together
Mercy Seat - An oblong piece of solid gold, 212 by 112 cubits (about 30 by 18 inches), which was placed over the Ark of the Covenant (Exodus 25:37)
Memorial - God's Covenant name (Yahweh) was to be a “memorial name” (Exodus 3:15 NAS), a reminder of God's liberation of God's people
Perseverance of the Saints - It, moreover, follows from a consideration of (1) the immutability of the divine decrees (Jeremiah 31:3 ; Matthew 24:22-24 ; Acts 13:48 ; Romans 8:30 ); (2) the provisions of the Covenant of grace (Jeremiah 32:40 ; John 10:29 ; 17:2-6 ); (3) the atonement and intercession of Christ (Isaiah 53:6,11 ; Matthew 20:28 ; 1 Peter 2:24 ; John 11:42 ; 17:11,15,20 ; Romans 8:34 ); and (4) the indwelling of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16 ; 2 co 1:21,22 ; 5:5 ; Ephesians 1:14 ; 1 John 3:9 )
Rainbow - , "iris," the flower, describes the "rainbow" seen in the heavenly vision, "round about the throne, like an emerald to look upon," Revelation 4:3 , emblematic of the fact that, in the exercise of God's absolute sovereignty and perfect counsels, He will remember His Covenant concerning the earth (Genesis 9:9-17 ); in Revelation 10:1 , "the rainbow," RV, the definite article suggests a connection with the scene in Revelation 4:3 ; here it rests upon the head of an angel who declares that "there shall be delay no longer" (ver
Itch - The itch included among the curses on those unfaithful to the Covenant (Deuteronomy 28:27 ) was possibly eczema or prurigo
Election - It signifies God's taking a whole nation, community, or body of men, into external Covenant with himself, by giving them the advantage of revelation as the rule of their belief and practice, when other nations are without it, Deuteronomy 7:6
Shem - After it, he, with his father, brothers, sisters-in-law and wife, received the blessing of God, (Genesis 9:1 ) and entered into the Covenant
sa'Rah - Abraham's), to Sarah, princess (for all the race), was made at the same time that Abram's name was changed to Abraham, --on the establishment of the Covenant of circumcision between him and God
Chambers of Imagery - The vision is not of an actual scene, but an ideal pictorial representation of the Egyptian idolatries into which the Covenant people had relapsed; having light enough to be ashamed of their idolatries, and therefore practicing them in secret, but not decision enough to renounce them, casting away their superstitious fears and self willed devices to allay them
Marriage - In a scriptural sense, the union between Christ and his church by the Covenant of grace
Oak - Notice that in Joshua 24:26 that great leader made a Covenant with the people under an oak tree, and then died as we read in Joshua 24:29
Presbytery Reformed - They profess to adhere to the solemn league and Covenant agreed to by the nation before the restoration, in which they abjure popery and prelacy, and resolve to maintain and defend the doctrines, worship, discipline, and government of the church, as approved by the parliament and assembly at Westminster, and by the general assembly of the church and parliament of Scotland, 1645-9. It seems, they object not so much to a religious establishment, but to the religious establishment as it exists; they object not to an alliance of the church with the state, but to the alliance of the church with an uncovenanted king and government
Jeremiah - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Mediation, Mediator - He is the mediator of a better Covenant (Hebrews 8:6)
Gilead - the name given to the monument erected by Laban and Jacob, in testimony of a mutual Covenant and agreement, Genesis 31:47-48
Undertake - ) Specifically, to take upon one's self solemnly or expressly; to lay one's self under obligation, or to enter into stipulations, to perform or to execute; to Covenant; to contract
Esther, the Book of - The chief value of the book is to illustrate the wonder- working providence of God, his control of human passions, his righteous judgment of sinners, and his care for his Covenant people- whom, even when captives in a strange land, he can exalt above all their foes
Gib'Eonites, the, - (Joshua 9:23,27 ) Saul appears to have broken this Covenant, and in a fit of enthusiasm or patriotism to have killed some and devised a general massacre of the rest
Ashdod - When the Philistines captured Israel’s ark of the Covenant and placed it in the temple, the god Dagon fell down in front of the ark and broke in pieces (1 Samuel 5:1-5)
Kindness - ...
In older versions of the English Bible, kindness is one of the words used to denote God’s Covenant love for Israel (Micah 6:8; see LOVE, sub-heading ‘Steadfast love’)
Blood - At the giving of the law (Exodus 24:8 ) the blood of the sacrifices was sprinkled on the people as well as on the altar, and thus the people were consecrated to God, or entered into Covenant with him, hence the blood of the Covenant (Matthew 26:28 ; Hebrews 9:19,20 ; 10:29 ; 13:20 )
David, City of - ...
David moved the ark of the Covenant into the city of David (2 Samuel 6:12 ) and built houses in the city, including a place for the ark (1 Chronicles 15:1 ). At that time he moved the ark of the Covenant from the city of David to the new Temple (1 Kings 8:1 ) and moved his wife to the new palace (1 Kings 9:24 )
Bochim - ...
As there they entered into Covenant with the Lord with the ritual act of self consecration, and so were assured of victory from the Lord, so here at Bochim (unknown geographically) the divine Angel makes known to them that by their making peace with the Canaanites, instead of rooting them out, they have broken the Covenant and so must pay the penalty
Dispensation - In this dispensation the Gospel or Covenant of grace is revealed more perfectly and plainly than ever before; not in obscure expressions, in types and carnal metaphors, but in its own proper form and language. the encouragements and persuasive helps which Christianity gives us to fulfil the duties of the Covenant, are much superior to those which were enjoyed under any of the former dispensations
Beersheba - A halting-place of Abraham ( Genesis 21:31 ), where Hagar was sent away ( Genesis 21:14 ), and where he made a Covenant with Abimelech, from which the place is alleged to take its name (‘well of the Covenant,’ according to one interpretation)
Mizpah, Mizpeh - The place where Jacob and Laban parted, after making a Covenant and raising a heap of stones as a witness of the Covenant and as a landmark between them
Eternal - The Covenant is declared to be an everlasting Covenant, ordered in all things and sure
Vocation - The end intended is, that they who have been called answer by faith to God and to Christ who give the call, and that they thus become the Covenanted people of God through Christ the Mediator of the new Covenant; and, after having become believers and parties to the Covenant, that they love, fear, honour, and worship God and Christ, render in all things obedience to the divine precepts "in righteousness and true holiness," and that by this means they "make their calling and election sure," Proverbs 1:24 ; Hebrews 3:7 ; Revelation 3:20 ; Ephesians 2:11-16 ; Titus 3:8 ; Deuteronomy 6:4-5 ; Jeremiah 32:38-39 ; Luke 1:74-75 ; 2 Peter 1:1 ; 2 Peter 1:10
Sanctify - Ub the Old Testament, sanctification frequently denotes the ceremonial or ritual consecration of any person or thing to God: thus the Hebrews as a people were holy unto the Lord, through the Covenant with its rites and atoning sacrifices, Exodus 31:13 ; and the Jewish tabernacle, altar, priest, etc. The ultimate sanctification of every believer in Christ is a Covenant mercy purchased on the cross
Salt - A necessary accompaniment of the various altar offerings, bloody and unbloody (Leviticus 2:13, "the salt of the Covenant of thy God"; Ezekiel 43:24; Mark 9:49-50). Covenants were cemented by feasts and hospitality, the viands of which were seasoned, as all foods, with salt. Hence, "a Covenant of salt for ever before the Lord" is an indissoluble Covenant (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5; Ezra 4:14, margin). Being "salted with the salt of the (heavenly King's) palace," and bound to fidelity to Him, and brought into a Covenant of salt with Him, they are called on to have a loving, imperishable savour toward one another and to all men
Lord's Supper - ...
God had once made a Covenant with Israel and sealed it with blood (Exodus 24:6-8; see Covenant). Through Jeremiah he promised a new Covenant, one that would bring forgiveness of sins and give new life through the indwelling Spirit (Jeremiah 31:31-34; cf. Jesus established this Covenant, his blood sealed it, and the supper he instituted is a reminder of its meaning to those who believe in him. The Old Testament system, having reached its fulfilment, is replaced by the new Covenant with its unlimited blessings (Matthew 26:28; 1 Corinthians 11:25)
Forgiveness - Israel's election has its roots in God's Covenant with Abraham, renewed with Isaac and Jacob, thus giving God's relationship with the nation an unconditional basis (Genesis 12:1-3 ; 15:18 ; 17:8,21 ; 22:17 ; 26:3-5 ; 28:13-15 ; 35:11-12 ; Exodus 2:24 ; 6:4 ; 13:5,11 ; 32:13 ; 33:1 ; Deuteronomy 1:8 ; 4:37 ; 7:8 ; 10:11 ; 26:15 ; 34:4 ; Joshua 1:6 ; 21:43-44 ; 1 Kings 8:40 ; 1 Chronicles 16:16-18 ; 2 Chronicles 20:7 ; Nehemiah 9:7-8 ; Luke 12:105 ). So, in spite of Israel's disobedience, after he has punished the nation, God is committed to dealing mercifully with it because of the Covenant made with the fathers and his love for them (Leviticus 26:42 ; Deuteronomy 4:31 ; 9:26-27 ; 2 Kings 13:23 ; Psalm 106:40-46 ; Jeremiah 33:25-26 ; Micah 7:20 ). ...
Although God made a Covenant with the fathers, the generation of the exodus was required to enter into a Covenant with him as well. At Mount Sinai the people agreed to do everything that was written in the Book of the Covenant (Exodus 24:1-8 ). About forty years later the children of the generation of the exodus renewed this Covenant (Deuteronomy 27-30 ). The Covenant entered into by these two generations of Israelites, unlike the Covenant made with the fathers, was to be conditional on their obedience. God would bless them with prosperity in the land promised to the fathers, so long as they kept the law revealed through Moses; otherwise they would come under the curses of the Covenant. The Covenant made with Moses, in other words, was to be perpetually renewed by Israel. ...
A tension was thereby created between the indicative and imperative of Israel's life before God: God unconditionally promised the land and prosperity in the land to the fathers and their descendants (Abrahamic Covenant). Their descendants, however, would possess the promises only on the condition of their obedience to the Law (Mosaic Covenant), and, after they had sinned, would be restored to a state of prosperity and security in the land only on the condition of national repentance (Deuteronomy 30:1-10 ; 31:14-32:47 ; Book of Judges 1 Kings 8:33-40,46-51 ; 2 Chronicles 6:24-31,36-39 ; 7:13-16 ). ...
In addition, God forgives people who should not be forgivable; for the sake of mercy God violates the conditions of his own Covenant and often Acts more leniently than the Torah would allow. At this time God would also give to individual Israelites the means by which to meet the conditions of the Mosaic Covenant, so that the tension between God's unconditional and conditional promises (the Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants) would become irrelevant: since individual Israelites would have a heart to obey God, the nation would be obedient. This restoration is often spoken of as the establishment of another (eschatological) Covenant, which will issue in both forgiveness and the spiritual transformation of the people, and is often associated with the giving of the Spirit (Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; 32:27-41 ; 50:5,20 ; Ezekiel 16:59-63 ; 36:24-32 ). Related to the eschatological resolution of the tension is the Isaian servant, who is said to be the servant of the Covenant (Isaiah 42:6 ) and whose death is expiatory (Isaiah 53 ). He evidently assumed that Israel was the totality of Jews who were faithful to the Covenant. Jesus proclaimed the kingdom of God and later taught that his death would be the means by which the new Covenant would be realized. He also interpreted his impending death at the Last Supper as that of the eschatological Passover lamb whose sacrifice would bring about the possibility of forgiveness and the realization of the new Covenant (Matthew 26:26-28 ; Mark 14:22-24 ; Luke 22:19-20 )
Hebrew (Descendent of Eber) - After the death of Saul (1 Samuel 29:1 ), the term “Hebrew” does not appear in the historical books, pointing possibly to a distinction between Hebrew as an ethnic term and Israel and/or Judah as a religious and political term for the people of the Covenant and of God's nation
Father - ...
As denoting his Covenant relation to the Jews (Jeremiah 31:9 ; Isaiah 63:16 ; 64:8 ; John 8:41 , etc
Bondage - It is not unfrequently made use of for the whole of spiritual slavery, in those who are under a Covenant of works
Fringe - Tassels of twisted cords fastened to the four corners of the outer garment, worn by observant Jews as a reminder of Covenant obligations (Numbers 15:38-39 ; Deuteronomy 22:12 ; compare Zechariah 8:23 )
Nadab - He participated in the Covenant ceremony when the agreement was presented to the people (Exodus 24:1 )
Suretiship - ...
The Psalmist asks God to be surety for him for good, Psalm 119:122 ; and the Lord Jesus is made surety of a better testament, or Covenant, than that made with Israel
Shushan - And what is the sense of both, bearing the same name, but a confirmation of all the precious truths contained in the charter and Covenant of grace! They are the same in name, in likeness, in pursuits, desires, affections; but then let it never be forgotten it is wholly on Christ's account
Pashur - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Confirm - To strengthen to ratify as, to confirm an agreement, promise, Covenant or title
Faithful - True to the marriage Covenant as a faithful wife or husband
Circumcision - A Jewish rite which Jehovah enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the Israelites, as the token of the Covenant, which assured to him the promise of the Messiah
Nadab - He participated in the Covenant ceremony when the agreement was presented to the people (Exodus 24:1 )
Testament - The name is equivalent to Covenant, and in our use of it, we apply it to the books which contain the old and new dispensations that of Moses, and that of Jesus Christ
Atonement - The corresponding NT words are hilasmos, "propitiation," 1 John 2:2 ; 4:10 , and hilasterion, Romans 3:25 ; Hebrews 9:5 , "mercy-seat," the covering of the ark of the Covenant
Joshua, Theology of - He joins Moses in the Covenant-making process and in watching over its preservation. ...
Four theological themes appear in the descriptions of Joshua in the Pentateuch: Joshua's divine commission as leader of Israel, his military leadership, his allocation of the land, and his role in Israel's Covenant with God. Insofar as God is giving this land to his people as an inheritance, the tribal allotments, as well as the Levitical cities and the cities of refuge, take on a Covenantal character. ...
The Covenant between God and Israel . The Covenant making over which Joshua presides dominates the book. Yet the Covenantal aspect of the text is not found only here. Indeed, the circumcision and Passover celebration in chapter 5, as well as the theological role of the tribal allotments as part of Israel's Covenantal inheritance from God, suggest that fulfillment of the Covenant remains an integral part of the whole book. ...
The text that confirms God's Covenant with his people includes a divine rehearsal of the words of the Lord through Moses (24:2). In return, his Covenant requires exclusive loyalty to the Lord as the only God worshiped in Israel. These include the memorial stones set up at Gilgal to commemorate the crossing of the Jordan River (4:19-24) with a special role for the priesthood and the ark of the Covenant (chaps. 7); the erection of an altar east of the Jordan in order to remember the lordship of Israel's God (22:26- 27); and the establishment of a memorial stone at Shechem after the ceremony of Covenant renewal (24:26-27). God's gracious gift of the land and his provision for the people as their leader and guide bear witness to later generations of divinely willed leadership for Israel and of how the faithful fulfillment of the Covenant could bring upon God's people all the blessings involved in their occupation of the land. Even so, the prophetic promises looked forward to a return to the promised land and to a full claim of these blessings under a messianic leader who would rule the people in perfect fulfillment of the Covenant and in a renewal of the rich blessings of the land to which Joshua had led the people so long ago
Circumcision - The cutting off all round of the foreskin (the projecting skin in the male member, the emblem of corruption, Deuteronomy 10:16; Jeremiah 4:4) of males, appointed by God as token of His Covenant with Abraham and his seed (Genesis 17:10-14). If the rite existed before Abraham it was then first sanctioned as a token of God's Covenant with Abraham and his seed, and particular directions given by God as to the time of its being performed, the eighth day, even though it were a sabbath (John 7:22-23), and the persons to be circumcised, every male, every slave, and (at the Exodus it was added) every male foreigner before he could partake of the Passover (Genesis 17:12-13; Exodus 12:48). ...
So, the rainbow existed before the flood, but in Genesis 9:13-17 first was made token of the Covenant. The painfulness of Old Testament initiatory rite, as compared with the New Testament sacrament of baptism, marks strongly the contrast between the stern Covenant of the law and the loving gospel. "Oh wherefore bring ye here this holy Child? Such rite befits the sinful, not the clean; Why should this tender Infant undefiled Be thus espoused in blood, while we have been So gently into Covenant beguiled? No keen edged knife our bleeding foreheads scored With the sharp cross of our betrothed Lord: But we belike in quiet wonder smiled. ...
The reason of the omission of circumcision in the wilderness (Joshua 5:5-6) was, while suffering the penalty of their unbelief the Israelites were practically discovenanted by God, and so were excluded from the sign of the Covenant
Covenant, Book of the - Covenant, BOOK OF THE . It receives its name from the expression in Exodus 24:7 , while its character as a Covenant is demonstrated by the promises attached to the keeping of it ( Exodus 23:20-33 ). Owing to the confused form in which the Book of Exodus has been transmitted, doubt has been expressed as to the limits of the Book of the Covenant. But the Book of the Covenant is certainly not a law that was ‘delivered’; it is a series of decisions gradually gathered together. The Book of the Covenant was such a series, and was probably committed to writing, in the first instance, to serve as a hand-book for those who had to administer the law. As to the date of the Book of the Covenant, there is no evidence save what the document itself affords us
Mercy-Seat - , propitiatorium), the covering or lid of the ark of the Covenant (q
Malachi, Prophecies of - The first section ((1:6-2:9)) contains a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his worship and from the Covenant, and for their partiality in administering the law
Eliezer - One of the priests who blew the trumpets when the ark of the Covenant was brought to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:24 )
Mercy Seat - A slab of pure gold measuring about 45 inches by 27 inches which sat atop the ark of the Covenant which was the same size
Eliashib - Remember them, O my God, because they have defiled the priesthood and the Covenant of the priesthood
Crispites - He did not distinguish as he ought, between God's secret will in his decrees, and his revealed will in his Covenant and promises
Mercy-Seat - Mercy-seat was the name of the lid or cover of the ark of the Covenant
Beeroth - A city of the Gibeonites to which Joshua and his army came to defend the Gibeonites after making a Covenant with them (Joshua 9:17 )
Malchijah - Priest signing Ezra's Covenant (Nehemiah 10:3 ); 9
Hosea - Before the coming of the Messiah there was probably no more Christ-like teacher than the prophet of Mount Ephraim, who provided our Lord with His favourite quotation, ‘I will have mercy [1] and not sacrifice’; and it is evident that his prevision of a new Covenant, linking Divine and human love in everlasting bonds, was scarcely less precious to the Apostle of the Gentiles than to the Saviour of the world
Adriel - Five sons from this union were of the seven slain as a blood satisfaction to the Gibeonites whose blood Saul had, in violation of Israel's Covenant (Joshua 9:15), shed
Forward - ) An agreement; a Covenant; a promise
Treasure - And when the Holy Ghost explains this to the soul of the redeemed, and he sees that this is emphatically the blessing; then, and not before, he enters into an apprehension of the sense of the Covenant promise
Ahijah - One who with Nehemiah sealed the Covenant
Laban - After Jacob had rehearsed all the wrongs and hardships he had endured during the twenty years he had served Laban, they made a Covenant together and separated amicably
Overlay, Spy - The meaning in this context is “to watch” with a purpose, that of seeing that the Covenant between Laban and Jacob was kept
Law - This term is applied in the New Testament to the old Covenant and revelation, in distinction from the new; the dispensation under the law in distinction from the dispensation under the gospel; that by Moses and the prophets in distinction from the dispensation by Christ
Sanctuary - A sacred place particularly among the Israelites, the most retired part of the temple at Jerusalem, called the Holy of Holies, in which was kept the ark of the Covenant, and into which no person was permitted to enter except the high priest, and that only once a year to intercede for the people
Intercession of Christ - Thus he pleads for and obtains the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting Covenant (1 John 2:1 ; John 17:24 ; Hebrews 7:25 )
ba'Ruch - ) ...
A priest, or family of priests, who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Euphrates - It is next mentioned in connection with the Covenant which God entered into with Abraham (15:18), when he promised to his descendants the land from the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates (Compare Deuteronomy 11:24 ; Joshua 1:4 ), a Covenant promise afterwards fulfilled in the extended conquests of David (2 Samuel 8:2-14 ; 1 Chronicles 18:3 ; 1 Kings 4:24 )
Faithfulness - In the Old Testament, God's faithfulness and Covenant love are closely related (Deuteronomy 7:9 ; Psalm 25:10 ; 85:10 ). ...
The Israelites were expected to respond in faithfulness to God because he had acted faithfully to them through the Covenant
Reformation - The passage is Hebrews 9:10, in which the writer, speaking of the ordinances of the First Covenant, says that they are ‘carnal ordinances, imposed until a time of reformation’ (Revised Version ). The time of reformation referred to is the period of the New Covenant, described in Hebrews 8:8 ff
Levitical Cities - The cities formed bases of operation so that the Levites could better infiltrate each of the tribes to instruct them in God's Covenant. Certainly, the Levitical desire to secure Israel's loyalty to the Lord of the Covenant would also imply a commitment to secure loyalty to the Lord's anointed, the king. There was a blending of Covenant teaching and political involvement
Archangel - " Hence, therefore, it is plain from this passage, that the angel before whom Joshua, as a type of the church, stood, was Christ, who is elsewhere called the angel of the Covenant; (Malachi 3:1) the same as Jacob spake of. (Genesis 48:16) So that both the angel of the Covenant and the archangel are one and the same; and both spoken of in the nature of the office and character of Christ, for Christ "took not on him the nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham. If, while Jesus is called the angel of the Covenant, is there an archangel also, above this angel of the Covenant? I leave these questions with any one, not satisfied with my former observations, that the Lord Jesus Christ is the person spoken of twice in Scripture as the arch-angel
Sign - to witness to the Covenant; 6. The knowledge imparted by these signs encouraged acknowledgment of Yahweh as the only God, obedience to God's Covenant, and trust in God's word. Other signs serve as reminders of a Covenant or established relationship. The rainbow witnesses God's Covenant with Noah, insuring an orderly creation not threatened by flood (Genesis 9:12-17 ). Circumcision served as areminder of God's Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 17:11 ). The Sabbath, likewise, served as a reminder of God's Covenant with Moses (Exodus 31:13 ,Exodus 31:13,31:17 ; Ezekiel 20:12 ). Paul spoke of circumcision as a witness to the Covenant (Romans 4:11 )
Israel - ‘Israel,’ on the other hand, is pre-eminently the people of privilege, the people who had been chosen by God and received His Covenant. Paul declares, pertained ‘the adoption, and the glory, and the Covenants, and the giving of the Law, and the service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came’ (Romans 9:4-5). They are partakers of the new Covenant which has been ratified by the death of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 11:25). ...
The analogy between the first and the second Covenant is fully worked out by the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who dwells upon the ritual and ceremonial aspect of ancient Israel’s relationship to God, and shows the higher fulfilment of that relationship under the new Covenant, where there is direct personal access to God. The Mediator of the new Covenant has entered not into an earthly temple but into heaven itself, there to make continual intercession for His people (Hebrews 7:25). The writer further emphasizes the superiority of the new Covenant relationship of the spiritual Israel as being a fulfilment of the prophecy of Jeremiah 31:31-34, which presupposes that the old Covenant had proved ineffective (Hebrews 8:7)
Promise - What amounted to a Covenant was established between them, in which the participants promised not to act aggressively toward one another. In these documents the great king declares his power and beneficence to former subject states, and promises to protect the current participants in a Covenant relationship provided that they keep the terms that are agreed upon under oath. But if the Covenant conditions were observed by the subject state, the king would fulfill his promises and heap blessings upon the people. Thereafter Abraham rested his confidence in this divine power, and lived to see the Lord's assurances implemented in what Paul, millennia later, was to call the "covenants of the promise" (Ephesians 2:12 ; cf. ...
God's promises to Abraham's descendants took definite shape in the Sinai Covenant (Exodus 19-20,24 ), which resembled a Hittite vassal treaty in form. This messianic utterance still prevailed when, over the centuries, the Israelites became disobedient to God's Covenant and ultimately were punished by exile. So desperate was the nation's spiritual condition that Jeremiah promised that God would implement a new, spiritual Covenant based upon individual response to him in faith (Jeremiah 31:31-37 ). ...
When the new Covenant was initiated in the coming of Jesus Christ, it not merely represented the completion of one phase of promise, but in fact commenced a new dispensation, that of grace, which contained its own promises to be fulfilled by God in future times. The rites and ceremonies inherent in the Mosaic Covenant had become obsolete with the appearance of our great High Priest, who is the mediator of a new testament (Hebrews 9:11-15 ). Instead, while sharing in all the benefits of Abraham's Covenant (Ephesians 3:6 ), the Christian looks forward to a time when the kingdom of God, which was ushered in with the age of grace, will be realized when Christ returns to complete the kingdom of believers and establish it for all eternity before God in heaven
Exodus, Book of - The central book of the Old Testament, reporting God's basic saving act for Israel in the Exodus from Egypt and His making of His Covenant with the nation destined to be His kingdom of priests. Then Israel came to Sinai, where God called them to become His Covenant people, a holy nation to carry out Abraham's mission of blessing the nations. God gave the Ten Commandments and other laws central to the Covenant (Exodus 19-23 ), and then confirmed the Covenant in a mysterious ceremony (Exodus 24:1 ). God then gave Moses the law on two new tablets of stone and renewed the Covenant with the people, providing further basic laws for them. Salvation set up a relationship between God and the people, a relationship based on God's initiative in delivering the people and on God's initiative in inviting the people into Covenant relationship. See Covenant . God Covenants with His People (Exodus 19:1-20:21 ). God's Covenant is based upon His act of deliverance and upon the people's obedience as a kingdom of priests (Exodus 19:1-8 ). God prepares His people for His coming down to make a Covenant (Exodus 19:9-15 ). God's awesome presence confirms His Covenant (Exodus 19:16-25 ). The Ten Commandments are God's Covenant ground rules for life with Him (Exodus 20:1-17 )
Ten Commandments - The portion of Scripture known as the "Ten Commandments" (Exodus 20:3-17 ; Deuteronomy 5:7-21 ) is a key segment of the Sinai Covenant, which was entered into by God and the people of Israel. This Covenant was modeled on the political treaties of that day between a great king and a subject people. All these treaties followed the same basic format, which the Sinai Covenant, both in Exodus and in its restatement in Deuteronomy, also adheres to closely. ...
In both Exodus and Deuteronomy, the Ten Commandments are a brief summary of the more detailed Covenantal requirements that follow them. But it is very significant that the biblical commands have been placed in the context of Covenant. But in the Old Testament, the inclusion of the laws within the Covenant puts the motivation on a whole new level. Why should I treat my fellow Israelites in a certain way? Because God has said that is the way in which I can express my Covenant loyalty to him. ...
A further implication of putting the commandments in the Covenant context is the aspect of character. Thus, even though the Sinai Covenant is not binding on Christians, the moral truths revealed in it are. ...
A final important implication of the Covenant form is especially significant for the Ten Commandments. But in the political treaties, since there was only one king to whom the Covenanters were professing loyalty, that king could indeed make absolute prohibitions. Thus it is in the biblical Covenant that the One God can summarize his stipulations for his people in a series of absolute statements, the Ten Commandments. ...
The first commandment is typical of the Covenantal stipulations: no other king, or in this case, god, is to be recognized. This feature of the Covenants was a marvelous tool for beginning to teach the truth of monotheism. Instead of going into philosophical arguments about unity and origins, God merely tells his people that if they wish to be in Covenant with him, they must refuse to recognize any other god. ...
The second command has no analogue in the ancient Near Eastern Covenants, but its truth was just as vital as the first for God's education of his people. He simply makes it a requirement for a Covenantal relationship with himself that they never try to make an idol of him. We may not abuse the physical life, the sexual life, the possessions, or the reputation of those around us if we are to remain in Covenant with God. Without diminishing the seriousness of those aberrations, it is apparent that the most serious sexual sin is to break faith with one's spouse and the spouse of another, a breach of Covenant. If we are to keep the commands not to abuse our neighbors, it will be because we have made a prior surrender of all our wants and needs to the Covenant God. ...
The Covenant is designed as a teaching device: there is only one God who is not a part of this world; he is utterly holy, just, and faithful, and it is he who supplies our needs not we ourselves
Flood, the - "...
The choice of divine names throughout the flood narrative, instead of indicating separate sources, seems to highlight different aspects of God's character: the generic Elohim when his universal, transcendent sovereignty or judicial authority is emphasized; and the Covenant name Yahweh when his personal, ethical dealings with Noah and humankind are in view. ...
The Noahic Covenant . The word berit [ Genesis 6:18 ; 9:8-17 ), and the Covenant motif is an integral part of the flood narrative. The Noahic Covenant comes at God's initiative, and demonstrates his concern, faithfulness, and dependability. He Covenants never again to send a flood to destroy the earth. This Covenant promise flows from the propitiatory animal sacrifice offered by Noah (Genesis 8:20-22 ). ...
Unlike the other biblical Covenants, the Noahic Covenant is made not only with humankind but with the whole earth (Genesis 9:13 ) including every living creature (Genesis 9:10,12,15,16 ), and is thus completely unilateral and unconditional upon the response of the earth and its inhabitants. The sign of this everlasting Covenant is the rainbow, which is not primarily for humankind, but for God to see and "remember" the Covenant he has made with the earth (Genesis 9:16 ). God's grace is revealed already before the flood in his directions for the building of the ark to save those faithful to him (Genesis 6:14-21 ); and again after the flood in his Covenant/promise never again to destroy the earth with a flood, even though human nature remained evil (Genesis 8:20-22 ; 9:8-17 ). Isaiah provides an explicit verbal indicator that the flood is a type of Covenantal eschatology (54:9), along with several possible allusions to the flood in his descriptions of the eschatological salvation of Israel (24:18; 28:2; 43:2; 54:8). ...
Many lines of biblical evidence converge in affirming the universal extent of the flood and also reveal the theological significance of this conclusion: (1) the trajectory of major themes in Genesis 1-11 creation, fall, plan of redemption, spread of sinis universal in scope and calls for a matching universal judgment; (2) the genealogical lines from both Adam (Genesis 4:17-26 ; 5:1-31 ) and Noah (Genesis 10:1-32 ; 11:1-9 ) are exclusive in nature, indicating that as Adam was father of all preflood humanity, so Noah was father of all postflood humanity; (3) the same inclusive divine blessing to be fruitful and multiply is given to both Adam and Noah (Genesis 1:28 ; 9:1 ); (4) the Covenant (Genesis 9:9-10 ) and its rainbow sign (Genesis 9:12-17 ) are clearly linked with the extent of the flood (Genesis 9:16,18 ); if there was only a local flood, then the Covenant would be only a limited Covenant; (5) the viability of God's promise (Genesis 9:15 ; cf
Righteousness - They are and will be righteous because they are in a Covenant relation with the living God, who is the God of all grace and mercy and who will bring to completion what he has begun in them by declaring them righteous for Christ's sake. The major one is the Hebrew thought-world of the Old Testament and particularly the sdq [2] word group, which locates the meaning in the sphere of God's gracious, Covenantal relation to his people and the appropriate behavior of the Covenant partners (Yahweh and Israel) toward each other. First, Yahweh-Elohim, the Lord God, is righteous in that he speaks and Acts in accordance with the purity of his own holy nature; further, what he says and does for Israel is in accordance with his establishment of the Covenant with this people (see Psalm 22:31 ; 40:10 ; 51:14 ; 71:15-24 ; Amos 5:21-24 ). Micah declared the righteousness of God as his faithfulness to keep and act within the Covenant and thus to save Israel from her enemies, as well as to vindicate the penitent. ...
Second, the Covenant people of God are called to live righteously, that is, in conformity to the demands of the Covenant and according to God's will (see Psalm 1:4-6 ; 11:7 ; 72:1 ; Isaiah 1:16-17 ). Having within the Covenantal relation with God the gift of salvation, they are to behave as the people of the holy Lord. Alongside this is the righteousness in the new Covenant, which is right thinking, feeling, speaking, and behavior on the part of disciples of the kingdom, who do what God approves and commands. ...
In the Gospel of Luke, we read of Zechariah and Elizabeth, Simeon and Joseph of Arimathea being called righteous (1:6; 2:25; 23:50) because they embody genuine religion according to the norms of the Old Covenant. ...
Thus God's people are righteous when they are in a right relation with him, when they enjoy his salvation; they are considered by God as the Judge of the world as righteous when they are being and doing what he requires in his Covenant. ...
The righteousness of which Paul speaks, especially in the letters to Galatia and Rome, stands in contrast to the righteousness that is based on the fulfillment of the law by man as the Covenant partner of God. ...
So God as the righteous Judge justifiesplaces in a right relation with himself within the new Covenant of gracethose who believe the gospel of the Father concerning his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. And he justifies Jew and Greek alike on precisely the same basis, by faith alone without works, and he makes no distinction whatsoever between the people of the Old Covenant and the Gentiles
Inheritance - The career of Israel, as a nation, the influence, even the existence, of its religion, would he endangered by the dispossession of Canaan; moreover, it was recognized that as long as the people remained true to Jehovah, He on His part would remain true to them, and would not suffer them to be dispossessed, but would make them dwell securely in their own land, in order that they might establish on their side those conditions of righteousness and justice which represented the national obligations, if Jehovah’s Covenant with them was to be maintained. The possession of the land, the inheritance of Canaan, symbolized the people’s living in Covenant with their God, and all those spiritual blessings which flowed from such a Covenant. And inasmuch as the validity of the Covenant implied the continuance of Divine favour, the inheritance of the Holy Land was viewed as the outward and visible sign of God’s presence and power among His own. The more ardent spirits of the nation refused, however, to believe that these high privileges were permanently abrogated; they were only temporarily withdrawn; and they looked forward to a new Covenant whose spiritual efficacy should be guaranteed by national restoration. The idea of a restored inheritance suggested at once the glorious anticipations of the Messianic age, when the people, not by works which they had done, but by Jehovah’s grace, should recover that which they had lost; and renew the Covenant that had been broken. ( c ) The Messiah, through whom the disinheritance should be brought to a close, and the Covenant should be renewed, was naturally regarded as the supreme ‘inheritor’ or ‘heir’ of all the promises and privileges implied in the Covenant
Curtain - The tabernacle which was constructed to carry the ark of the Covenant was made of ten curtains (Exodus 26:2 )
Heifer - Heifers (or cows) were used in three different rites: to ratify a Covenant (Genesis 15:9 ); to remove the guilt associated with a murder by an unknown person (Deuteronomy 21:1-9 ); and to remove the uncleanness associated with contact with a corpse (Numbers 19:1-10 )
Marcion - Amazed at what he considered the opposition between the Old and New Dispensations, Marcion rejected the former and declared the Apostles had been in error in linking the New Covenant with the Old
Marcionites - Amazed at what he considered the opposition between the Old and New Dispensations, Marcion rejected the former and declared the Apostles had been in error in linking the New Covenant with the Old
Hilkiah - While this was in progress, he discovered in some hidden corner of the building a book called the "book of the law" (2 Kings 22:8 ) and the "book of the Covenant" (23:2)
Earnest of the Spirit: the Pledge of Heaven - The Spirit's work of comfort and sanctification is a part of heaven's Covenant blessings, a turf from the soil of Canaan, a twig from the tree of life, the key to mansions in the skies
Michal - David's dancing before the ark of the Covenant as he brought the sacred box to Jerusalem enraged Michal, who criticized the king to his face
Hivites - The Shechemite idol Baalberith, "Baal of the Covenant," was a god of peace not war
Calves, Golden - The only such pedestal Old Testament teaching allows was the ark of the Covenant
Achan - It is brought home to Joshua ( Joshua 7:8-12 ) that the defeat at Ai was due to the fact of Jahweh’s Covenant having been transgressed
Hashabiah - The ‘ruler of half the district of Keilah,’ who helped to repair the wall ( Nehemiah 3:17 ), and sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:11 ; Nehemiah 12:24 ; Nehemiah 12:26 )
Staves - In this passage the rods indicate the wandering and movable character of the ark of the Covenant
Table of Showbread - ...
This table was typical of Israel's place before God in the acceptability of Christ, who, as the true Aaron, maintains them even now before God: it is a perpetual Covenant, Leviticus 24:8 ; and possibly also of God's bounty to man through His people Israel
Anathoth - A chief that is a family or clan leader, who along with 84 other priests, Levites, and leaders signed a Covenant that the Israelites would obey the law of God given through Moses (Nehemiah 10:19 )
Alliance - Joshua and the princes of Israel were, alas, deceived by the Gibeonites, and without seeking counsel of God they made a Covenant with them
Mercy Seat - In that version, ιλαστηριον generally answers to the Hebrew כפרת , from the verb כפר , to cover, expiate, and was the lid or covering of the ark of the Covenant, made of pure gold, on and before which the high priest was to sprinkle the blood of the expiatory sacrifices on the great day of atonement, and where God promised to meet his people, Exodus 25:17 ; Exodus 25:22 ; Exodus 29:42 ; Exodus 30:36 ; Leviticus 16:2 ; Leviticus 16:14
Adonijah - One who sealed the Covenant
Sanctuary - 1 ; sometimes of the "Holy place," where the altar on incense, the golden candlestick, and the showbread stood, 2 Chronicles 26:18 Hebrews 9:2 ; and sometimes of the "Holy of Holies," the most secret and retired part of the temple, in which was the ark of the Covenant, and where none but the high priest might enter, and he only once a year on the day of solemn expiation
Oracle - The sanctuary or most holy place in the temple, in which was deposited the ark of the Covenant
Path - All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth to such as keep his Covenant
Oracle - It is also spoken of the covering of he ark of the Covenant; as if God there sat enthroned, and delivered his oracles, 2 Samuel 16:23
Hosea - It is disputed whether the marriage of the prophet was a real transaction, or an allegorical vision; in all probability the latter is the correct view; but in either case it illustrates the relations of the idolatrous Israel to her Covenant God
Undertake - To Covenant or contract to perform or execute
ha'Nan - (Nehemiah 10:10 ) ...
One of the "heads" of "the people," who also sealed the Covenant
Adonijah - One who sealed the Covenant in Nehemiah 10:16
Marcionites - Amazed at what he considered the opposition between the Old and New Dispensations, Marcion rejected the former and declared the Apostles had been in error in linking the New Covenant with the Old
Bible, Theology of - The Bible then proceeds to develop the theme of God's redemptive grace, tracing various stages of God's revelation of Himself: the call of Abraham; the establishment of the Covenant with the Israelite community as His chosen people; the institution of the sacrificial system, teaching the people the proper way to approach God for forgiveness; the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus as the provision of forgiveness and regeneration for those dead in sin; the church as the new Covenant community, the redeemed people of God on mission for Him in the world; finally, the life to come, in heaven for the redeemed, and in hell for the unregenerate. ...
The theme of the two Covenants is crucially important to the unity of the Bible. God's plan of redemption, bringing people into a right relationship to Himself, begins with the call of Abraham and the establishment of a Covenant with him. Subsequently, this Covenant was reaffirmed with his son Isaac; with Isaac's son Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel; and finally the Covenant was reaffirmed with the whole nation of Israel. It was an unconditional Covenant on God's part but a conditional Covenant from the human side: God's people must live up to the Covenant responsibilities. The major portion of the Old Testament is the story of repeated failure to live up to the Covenant responsibilities. The prophet Jeremiah looked forward to a new day when God would write His Covenant on the hearts of the people so that it could not be broken (Jeremiah 31:31-34 ), a prophecy of the new birth referred to by Jesus in John 3:1-8 . Jesus termed His death on the cross as the sacrifice instituting the new Covenant referred to by Jeremiah (Luke 22:20 ). ...
The church is seen as the new Covenant community, the fulfillment of the old Covenant community in the Old Testament. It is not a radical break with the old Covenant community but is the logical outgrowth of the people of God in the Old Testament era
Rainbow - ]'>[1] ) the rainbow appears as the token of the Covenant between God and Noah. As the Covenant is universal, so is its sign
Bow - ...
It is the pledge of "the world's Covenant, not the church's, a charter of natural blessings. It is the emblem of God's loving faithfulness to His Covenant with His people, and the pledge of sure hope to them
Promise - Israelites of the Old Testament era made their promises usually in the forms of Covenants, oaths and vows. They therefore understood the promises of God in relation to such forms (Exodus 6:8; Deuteronomy 9:5; Ephesians 2:12; Hebrews 6:13; see Covenant; OATHS; VOWS). In the New Testament, although the idea of the Covenant is present, there is little concerning oaths and vows
Circumcision - It evidently appears, from the first moment of its institution, that the ordination was with an eye to Christ, for the Covenant of redemption by Jesus had this token or seal, and it is expressly said, "that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promise made unto the fathers. Paul the apostle was so earnest on this point, that he declared to the Galatian church that an attention to circumcision virtually denied the Covenant
Mediator - As the Angel of the Covenant, Christ was the channel of all communications between heaven and earth in Old Testament days; and as the Mediator of the new Covenant, he does all that is needful to provide for a perfect reconciliation between God and man
Sponsors - It was but natural that they should adopt every precautionto ascertain the character of those whom, by Baptism, they admittedto the Christian Covenant. In the case of Baptism ofInfants, the significance of Sponsors is very great, in thatBaptism is a Covenant, in which God on the one hand is representedby His Minister, and the child is represented by his Sponsors,who answer for him and agree to see to it that this child shallbe virtuously brought up and so trained that it shall lead therest of his life according to this beginning
Names of God - God used it to make His Covenant with Abraham ( Genesis 17:1-2 ). ...
El-Berith “God of the Covenant” ( Judges 9:46 ) transforms the Canaanite Baal Berith (Judges 8:33 ) to show God alone makes and keeps Covenant. ...
The Covenant Name The Covenant name for God was “Yahweh. This name was so unique and powerful that God formed a Covenant with His people based upon his self-revelation. ” It represents God's power over the nations and was closely tied to Shiloh, to the ark of the Covenant, and to prophecy. Prophets, such as Elijah and Hosea, called the people away from these tendencies and back to the Covenant. His Covenant people were to obey Him as a Sovereign. This was a nurturing term to describe the care given to His Covenantal people
Slaughter - The “sacrifice” which was part of a Covenant ritual involved the sprinkling of the blood on the people and upon the altar, which presumably symbolized God as the Covenant partner (see Covenant with Israel. 34:15: “Lest thou make a Covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice” (cf
Rest - However, the verb and noun take on theological and/or spiritual meaning in relation to God, to the people of both the old and new Covenants, and to individual believers under both Covenants. This rest of peaceful living was granted by God as the people looked to him alone and sought to keep his Covenant. ...
With respect to the Covenant relation of Yahweh to his people, we read that his fury rested on them in judgment (Ezekiel 5:13 ; 16:42 ; 21:7 ) and that his hand and Spirit rested on them in blessing (Isaiah 11:2 ; 25:10 ; Jeremiah 6:16 ). However, the fuller meaning of the everlasting rest of God promised to his people and related to the gift of rest of the seventh day was not achieved by Joshua and the tribes under the old Covenant. ...
Finally, we note that as the Spirit of the Lord rests on the Messiah (Isaiah 11:2 ), so in the new Covenant, "If you [7] are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests on you" (1 Peter 4:14 )
Justification - The Old Testament teaches that to be righteous is to fulfill the conditions of the Covenant relationship. Therefore, to act righteously is to act in compliance with the Covenant. This Covenant was no mere abstraction. The Covenant establishes the terms of the relationship. A person who fulfills the terms of the Covenant relationship is called righteous. The elemental sense in which the Old Testament employs the idea of “justifying” is best expressed in the phrase “proclaiming to be within the Covenant relationship. ”...
Ironically, God's chosen people Israel continually displayed a bent toward rebellion which can best be rendered, in Covenantal language, as infidelity more than immorality. This is how Hosea interpreted God's judgment upon sin and unfaithfulness to the Covenant. The actions taken by God were not arbitrary; rather, they are to be seen as actions resulting directly from a major disruption in the Covenantal bond
Malachi, Theology of - God would never forget his Covenant with Abraham by abandoning his people (3:6). In fulfillment of the Abrahamic Covenant, the day would come when all the nations would call Israel blessed (3:12). His love for Israel continued in spite of their sin, and he would never forget that they were his Covenant people (3:6). Men were breaking their marriage Covenants and wedding pagans, a sure way to get entangled with idolatry (2:11-14). A second "messenger" is mentioned in 3:1, this time "the messenger of the Covenant, " who is also identified with "the Lord you are seeking. " Since "messenger" (malak [1]) can also be translated "angel, " the reference to "covenant" could be to the angel of the Lord and his involvement in the Mosaic Covenant. Christ came to fulfill the law of Moses, but he also came to establish the New Covenant by giving his life to redeem humankind
Messiah - The biblical messiah, who was symbolized and typified, as explained below, was a divine-human being, ordained by God the Father to be the mediator of the Covenant and as such to be the administrator of the kingdom of God. ...
What is the biblical portrait of the messiah?...
Adam and Eve, created in God's image, were placed in a living, loving, lasting relationship, a Covenant bond, with the Creator God. Adam and Eve were to believe, obey, and serve God in the living, loving, Covenantal relationship. He promised that the Covenantal relationship would be restored through the victory that the seed of the woman would have over Satan. Yet, God did not remove or permit Adam and Eve to abdicate their creational Covenantal position and responsibilities. ...
Satanic efforts to render the redemptive/restorative Covenant ineffective are recorded throughout the Scriptures. But God kept Covenant with righteous, blameless, obedient, believing, and serving Noah. ...
Abraham, descendant of Shem, was called and appointed to be the Covenant agent. God Covenanted in a special manner with Abraham, assuring him that via his seed God would carry out his redemptive/restorative work. That Abraham and his seed would be able to do this was confirmed by God's assuring Covenantal affirmation: "I am God Almighty I will make you very fruitful be your God and of your descendants" (Genesis 17:1-7 ). Two important messianic factors stand out: (1) the Covenant Lord would continue the seedline; and (2) Abraham was called to believe, obey, and serve as the father of all believers who would receive the benefits of the Messiah. The royal descendants of David were not all believing, obeying, serving Covenant messianic forbears of Jesus the Messiah/Christ. Once in a royal position, he became the savior of the seedline by functioning in the creational Covenantal setting, collecting, preserving, and distributing food during years of famine. Amos likewise proclaimed that the Messiah of Davidic lineage would fulfill Yahweh's Covenant promises to the nations (9:11-15). Ezekiel called the exiles' attention to the Son of Man, the Covenant mediator who would restore and shepherd his people (chaps. Postexilic prophets spoke of the Messiah as the royal, redeeming, restoring One to come (Haggai 2:20-22 ; Zechariah 4:1-14 ; 6:9-15 ; 9:9-10 ), Malachi spoke of the Messiah as a cleansing agent who, as messenger of the Covenant, would bring healing in his wings (3:1-4; 4:1-3). Robertson, The Christ of the Covenants ; G
Be - Legal passages use hâyâh in describing God’s relationship to His Covenant people, to set forth what is desired and intended (cf. When Covenants were made between two partners, the formulas usually included hâyâh ( Covenant was the God who kept the Covenant
Isaac - God promised Abraham and Sarah that, in spite of their old age, they would produce a child through whom God would carry on the process of fulfilling his Covenant promises. God declared that his Covenant people would come through Jacob, though Esau also would father a nation (Genesis 25:21-26). Later Isaac passed on the blessing of the Abrahamic Covenant to Jacob knowingly and willingly (Genesis 28:3-4)
Blood - ...
Blood of sacrifices, blood of the Covenant The great historic event of the Old Testament was the Exodus from Egypt. ...
Almost as dramatic as the Passover was the ceremony at the dedication of the Covenant treaty at Sinai between Yahweh and His Covenant people, the Israelites (Exodus 24:1-8 ). Moses declared “Behold the blood of the Covenant which the LORD hath made (literally, cut) with you concerning [2] all these words. ” The people solemnly promised to act in agreement with this Covenant (Exodus 24:3 ,Exodus 24:3,24:7 ). ...
When Jesus inaugurated the New Covenant after His last Passover with the disciples, He declared: “This is my blood of the new testament which is shed for many for the remission of sins” (Matthew 26:28 ). Testament means Covenant here. ...
In the language of sacrifice we have “expiation” (removal of sins, Romans 3:25 ); “sprinkling of the blood of Jesus” (1 Peter 1:1-2 ); “redeemed by precious blood as of a lamb without spot and without blemish” (1 Peter 1:19 ); “blood of His Son cleanses us from all sin” (1 John 1:7 ); “blood that cleanses the conscience” (Hebrews 9:14 ); and “blood of an eternal Covenant” (Hebrews 13:20 )
Ark of the Covenant - a small chest or coffer, three feet nine inches in length, two feet three inches in breadth, and two feet three inches in height; in which were contained the golden pot that had manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the Covenant, Numbers 17:10 ; Hebrews 9:4 . ...
The ark of the Covenant was, as it were, the centre of worship to all those of the Hebrew nation who served God according to the Levitical law; and not only in the temple, when they came thither to worship, but every where else in their dispersions through the whole world; whenever they prayed, they turned their faces toward the place where the ark stood, and directed all their devotions that way, Daniel 6:10 . Whence the author of the book of Cosri, justly says, that the ark, with the mercy seat and cherubim, were the foundation, root, heart, and marrow of the whole temple, and all the Levitical worship performed therein; and, therefore, had there been nothing else wanting in the second temple but the ark only, this alone would have been a sufficient reason for the old men to have wept when they remembered the first temple in which it stood; and for the saying of Haggai 2:3 , that the second temple was as nothing compared with the first; so great a share had the ark of the Covenant in the glory of Solomon's temple. ...
The ark was called the ark of the Covenant, because it was a symbol of the Covenant between God and his people
Hebrews, Letter to the - He is a new priest and he officiates according to a new Covenant (8:1-13). Priestly work under the old Covenant was limited in that it could not take away the worshipper’s sins (9:1-10), but the priestly work of Christ under the new Covenant removes sins for ever (9:11-14). Likewise sacrifices under the old Covenant were imperfect (9:15-22), but Christ’s one sacrifice under the new Covenant is perfect, complete and final (9:23-10:18)
Furnace - "A smoking furnace and a burning lamp" (Genesis 15:17 ), the symbol of the presence of the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham's sacrifice in ratification of the Covenant God made with him
Sera'Iah - (Ezra 7:1 ) ...
A priest, or priestly family, who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Jerusalem - Its most famous rulers were David, who brought the Ark of the Covenant into the city, and his son Solomon, who built the Temple, and during whose reign Jerusalem attained the height of its glory and grandeur
Mosaic Legislation - The foundation of the whole Law is the Decalogue (Exodus 20), and the nucleus is the "Book of the Covenant" (Exodus 20-23)
Imprecation, Imprecatory Psalms - These include: (1) the principle that vengeance belongs to God (Deuteronomy 32:35 ; Psalm 94:1 ) that excludes personal retaliation and necessitates appeal to God to punish the wicked (compare Romans 12:19 ); (2) the principle that God's righteousness demands judgment on the wicked (Psalm 5:6 ; Psalm 11:5-6 ); (3) the principle that God's Covenant love for the people of God necessitates intervention on their part (Psalm 5:7 ; Psalm 59:10 ,Psalms 59:10,59:16-17 ); and (4) the principle of prayer that believers trust God with all their thoughts and desires
Rainbow - The rainbow served to remind Israel and her God of His Covenant with Noah to never again destroy the earth by flooding (Genesis 9:8-17 )
Amen - Hence, in oaths, after the priest has repeated the words of the Covenant or imprecation, all those who pronounce the Amen, bind themselves by the oath, Numbers 5:22 Deuteronomy 27:15 Nehemiah 5:13 8:6 1 Chronicles 16:36
Shechinah - It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the Covenant in the most holy place
Dedicate, Dedication - of 2 Chronicles 15:8 ; then, to initate or "dedicate," Hebrews 9:18 , with reference to the first Covenant, as not "dedicated" without blood; in Hebrews 10:20 , of Christ's "dedication" of the new and living way (AV, "consecrated;" RV, "dedicated")
Propitiation - translators in Exodus 25:17 and elsewhere as the equivalent for the Hebrew Kapporeth , Which means "covering," and is used of the lid of the ark of the Covenant ( Exodus 25:21 ; 30:6 )
Nahor - Laban, in making a Covenant with Jacob, swears by the ‘God (of Abraham and the God of Nahor’ ( Genesis 31:53 )
Shi'Loh - " In this case the allusion would be to the primacy of Judah in war, (Judges 1:1,2 ; 20:18 ; Numbers 2:3 ; 10:14 ) which was to continue until the promised land was conquered and the ark of the Covenant was solemnly deposited at Shiloh
Thank Offering, - the properly eucharistic offering among the Jews, in its theory resembling the meat offering and therefore indicating that the offerer was already reconciled to and in Covenant with God
Baana - One who signed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:27 )
Kiriath-Jearim - After the Philistines returned the ark of the Covenant, it was kept at Kiriath-Jearim for a time (1 Samuel 6:21-7:2 )
Canaan - God had already blessed Ham along with Noah and had made a Covenant with him, how then could he lead Noah to curse him? Genesis 9:1,8
Jeshua, Jeshuah - Son of Azaniah: a Levite who sealed the Covenant
David - The Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, is spoken of as the seed of David; and as such, the Covenant runs in his name
Mediator - He is the Mediator of the new Covenant that will be made with Israel in the future: they will be blessed only through Him, as the saints of God are now blessed through Him and in Him
Sprinkle - ...
Ezekiel’s version of “the New Covenant” includes the “sprinkling” of the water of purification ( Ahi'ah - (1 Chronicles 26:20 ) ...
One of the "heads of the people" who joined in the Covenant with Nehemiah
Abi'Jah - (1 Chronicles 24:10 ; 2 Chronicles 8:14 ; Nehemiah 12:4,17 ) ...
One of the priests who entered into a Covenant with Nehemiah to walk in God's law, (Nehemiah 10:7 ) unless the name is rather that of a family, and the same with the preceding
Renew - To make again as, to renew a treaty or Covenant
Token - Thus the rainbow is a token of God's Covenant established with Noah
e'Sau - Mention of his unhappy marriages may be found in (Genesis 26:34 ) The next episode in the life of Esau is the loss of his father's Covenant blessing, which Jacob secured through the craft of his mother, and the anger of Esau, who vows vengeance
Shi'Loh - " In this case the allusion would be to the primacy of Judah in war, (Judges 1:1,2 ; 20:18 ; Numbers 2:3 ; 10:14 ) which was to continue until the promised land was conquered and the ark of the Covenant was solemnly deposited at Shiloh
Dancing - Dancing was part of Israel’s public expression of praise to God after the crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 15:20-21) and during the bringing of the ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6:14-15)
Obadiah, Theology of - This is the usual English rendering of the personal, Covenant name of Yahweh/Jehovah, Israel's God. This intimacy was expanded through the Covenant that Yahweh made through Moses with Abram's descendants at Mount Sinai (Exodus 19-24 ). God renewed and expanded his unique Covenant relationship with David (2 Samuel 7 ), with special places reserved for Zion as his capital and his sons as kings. Imagine their relief when he addressed them in this oracle not only with words of encouragement, but even using his special, intimate, Covenant name
Genesis - Through the flood, God eliminates all humanity except the family of Noah, then makes a Covenant with that family never again to bring such punishment (Genesis 6:1-9:17 ), but human sin continues on the individual and the societal levels, bringing necessary...
divine punishment of the nations at the tower of Babel (Genesis 9:18-11:9 ). It climaxes in God's Covenant with Abraham in which Abraham shows faithfulness in the sign of circumcision and God renews His promises. Human reflection upon the book from the point of its origin onward has not completely understood its theological richness and its call to Covenant faithfulness and hope. God's judgment is limited by His Covenant promises. He reveals Himself to, calls, enters into Covenant with, and promises to bless individual people. God renews His commission to the creature made in His image and makes a Covenant not to repeat the disastrous punishment of the flood (Genesis 9:1-17 ). Recommitment to God brings renewal of His Covenant promises (Genesis 35:1-15 ). Death and sin do not mean the end of God's Covenant people (Genesis 35:16-29 )
Beersheba - Called so from the oath of peace between Abraham and Abimelech, king of the Philistines (Genesis 21:31), else from the seven (sheba' ) ewe lambs slain there: indeed sheba' , an oath, is from the custom of binding one's self by seven things, as Abraham made the seven ewe lambs a pledge of his Covenant with Abimelech. It is found by Isaac's servants just after the Covenant made between him and Abimelech. Abraham planted here a" grove" ('eshel ) (distinct from the idol grove, Asheerah, or Astarte Baal), or tree, the tamarisk, long living, of hard wood, with long, clustering, evergreen leaves, as a type of the ever enduring grace of the faithful, Covenant keeping God (Genesis 21:33), "and called on the name (the self manifested character and person) of Jehovah, the everlasting God
Aaron - Second, he understood that God had made a Covenant with Abraham that included him and the people of Israel. ...
Second, Aaron and Moses were leader-participants in the Covenant Yahweh made between himself and the people of Israel. He ministered before Yahweh, whose presence-cloud dwelt above the mercy seat over the ark of the Covenant in the Most Holy Place of the tabernacle (Exodus 40:38 )
Noah - God bade Noah make the ark, and He would establish His Covenant with him, and would preserve alive in the ark Noah, his wife, his three sons, and their wives. God blessed Noah and his sons, and established His Covenant with them and with every living thing, and gave the bow in the cloud as a token of it. ...
Thus God, after smelling a sweet savour in the burnt offering (type of the sacrifice of Christ, and so the earth not being again cursed for man's sake) began the new earth by establishing His Covenant with Noah and his sons, blessing the earth and putting its government into their hands
Noah - God bade Noah make the ark, and He would establish His Covenant with him, and would preserve alive in the ark Noah, his wife, his three sons, and their wives. God blessed Noah and his sons, and established His Covenant with them and with every living thing, and gave the bow in the cloud as a token of it. ...
Thus God, after smelling a sweet savour in the burnt offering (type of the sacrifice of Christ, and so the earth not being again cursed for man's sake) began the new earth by establishing His Covenant with Noah and his sons, blessing the earth and putting its government into their hands
Family - The Covenant was central to understanding Old Testament family relationships as well as relationships with God. A Covenant had both an interior bonding and an exterior binding quality. Steadfast love (heed) was the basis of the Covenant which created a sense of loyalty, justice, and high regard. Covenants were personal and caring and were greater than contracts for directing the family. Hebrew marriages were Covenant marriages (Malachi 2:14 ). Marriages were based on faithfulness and vows of Covenant love. This Covenant included all family relationships and has helped to maintain the identity of the Hebrew family even until today. ...
Commitment The Old Testament concept of Covenant became the foundation for the new Covenant in Jesus Christ. Covenants and commitments, in family relationships and faith relationships, were deepened by the new Covenant of love which was infused with grace and forgiveness
Mercy - " The chief Hebrew term is hesed [1], God's Covenant "lovingkindness. ...
Mercy as the Foundation of God's Covenant . God's mercy is mediated through the Covenant, by which he becomes the God of a people promising protection, provision, guidance, and his constant presence (Psalm 23:6 ). Within the relationship, God's mercy is thus closely linked to forgiveness (Exodus 34:9 ; Numbers 14:19 ; Jeremiah 3:12 ; Daniel 9:9 ), a more basic disposition of compassion (Deuteronomy 13:17 ) leading to forgiveness, and to the steadfast love by which God sustains the Covenant and repeatedly forgives his people (Psalm 25:6 ; 40:11 ; 51:1 ; 69:16 ; 103:4 ; 119:77 ; Jeremiah 3:12 ; 16:5 ). ...
Salvation, membership in the Covenant, and the promises of God all derive logically from the constellation of divine qualities that includes mercy. ...
The Continuance of God's Covenant Mercy . The counterpart to the theme of the establishment of God's Covenant with Israel in the Old Testament is the New Testament theme of God's gracious provision of salvation through the work of Christ. Peter (1 Peter 1:3 ) reached back to the Old Testament records of God's establishment of a Covenant with Israel and connected them with the new life in Christ to describe the salvation of Christians: "By his great mercy he has given us a new birth through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead" (NRSV). Thus, showing mercy to our "neighbors" is part of the basic response of God's people to his Covenant (Luke 10:25-37 ; cf
Deuteronomy -
The second discourse forms the bulk of the book (5-26) and rehearses the whole Covenant in two parts:
(a) a general discourse concerning the duties of the Hebrews towards God (5-11);
(b) a special discourse in which fundamental points of the Law are rehearsed, concerning duties towards God, God's representatives, and the neighbor (12-26)
Hivites - ]'>[2] ) says that they were the people who, fearing to meet the Israelites in battle, by a ruse made a Covenant with them ( Joshua 9:7 )
Incest - Penalties for various forms of incest included childlessness ( Leviticus 20:20-21 ), exclusion from the Covenant people (Leviticus 18:29 ; Leviticus 20:17-18 ; compare 1Corinthians 5:2,1 Corinthians 5:5 ), and death (Leviticus 20:11-12 ,Leviticus 20:11-12,20:14 )
Restore - ...
2: ἀποκαθίστημι (Strong's #600 — Verb — apokathistemi — ap-ok-ath-is'-tay-mee ) or the alternative form apokathistano is used (a) of "restoration" to a former condition of health, Matthew 12:13 ; Mark 3:5 ; 8:25 ; Luke 6:10 ; (b) of the Divine "restoration" of Israel and conditions affected by it, including the renewal of the Covenant broken by them, Matthew 17:11 ; Mark 9:12 ; Acts 1:6 ; (c) of "giving" or "bringing" a person back, Hebrews 13:19
Sanctuary - The inner shrine, or Most Holy Place, was in particular known as the sanctuary; for there, over the ark of the Covenant, God symbolically dwelt (Leviticus 4:6; Psalms 96:6; Hebrews 13:11)
Rebekah - Though God had told her that the Covenant would be fulfilled through the younger son rather than the older (Genesis 25:23; Romans 9:10-13), she had no right to work out a scheme to deceive Isaac
Malchijah - One of those who sealed the Covenant ( Nehemiah 10:3 ), probably the same as No
Ramoth Gilead - The spot called by Jacob in his Covenant with Laban, of which the pillar and stone heap was pledge, Galeed and Mizpah
Ekron - There the ark of the Covenant was taken last before its return to Israel
Sabaoth - The title was apparently closely tied to Shiloh and the ark of the Covenant (1Samuel 1:3, 1 Samuel 1:11 ; 1 Samuel 4:4 ; 1 Samuel 6:2 )
Hoshea - A chief of the people who sealed the Covenant
Alien - In scripture, one who is a stranger to the church of Christ, or to the Covenant of grace
Maaseiah - One who sealed the Covenant
Hoshea - One of the heads of the people who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Amariah - Priest who sealed Nehemiah's Covenant to obey the law (Nehemiah 10:3 )
Esdras - There followed the renewal of the Covenant, which all solemnly agreed to keep
Mount Gerizim - There is a great sweetness in the connexion in proof of Covenant love; and I hope the reader, as oft as he calls to mind mount Gerizim, will call to recollection this view of it
Adultery - Symbolically adultery is used to express unfaithfulness to Covenant vows to God, who is represented as the husband of his people
Seal - The ring or the seal as an emblem of authority in Egypt, Persia, and elsewhere is mentioned in Genesis 41:42; 1 Kings 21:8; Esther 3:10; Esther 3:12; Esther 8:2; Daniel 6:17; and as an evidence of a Covenant, in Jeremiah 32:10; Jeremiah 32:44; Nehemiah 9:38; Nehemiah 10:1; Haggai 2:23
Pashhur - A priest who signed the Covenant with Nehemiah, probably identical with 4 , or used of the clan as a whole ( Nehemiah 10:3 )
Hoshe'a - ) ...
One of the heads of the people who sealed the Covenant with Nehemiah
Dreams - The greater number of such dreams were granted, for prediction or for warning, to those who were aliens to the Jewish Covenant
Circumcision - It was enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the nation, by God, at the institution and as the token of the Covenant, which assured to him and his descendants the promise of the Messiah
Baptism, Holy - Baptism is acovenant made between God and man; of this Covenant the Christianname, which was then given us, is the reminder; reminding us ofour new relationship with God
Denial - Denial as an act of Covenant faithlessness contrasts with the abiding faithfulness of God as Savior (2 Timothy 2:12-13 ). ...
Israel's unfaithfulness—her denial and rejection of God and of his lawresulted in the breaking of the Covenant relationship (2 Kings 17:15,20 ; Jeremiah 9:6-9 ; 11:10 ; cf
Nethinim - The Gibeonites similarly, having obtained by craft a Covenant from Joshua (Joshua 9:9; Joshua 9:27), "because of the name" and "fame of Jehovah, Israel's God," were made "hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation and altar. ...
But when the Levites were slow in coming forward at the return from Babylon, 341 only under Zerubbabel as contrasted with 4,289 priests (Ezra 2:36-58) and none under Ezra until especially called (Ezra 8:15; Ezra 8:17; Ezra 8:20), the Nethinim became more conspicuous, 392 under Zerubbabel, 220 under Ezra, "all expressed by name," registered after the Levites (1 Chronicles 9:2) and admitted to join the Covenant (Nehemiah 10:28, compare Deuteronomy 29:11)
Statute - The statutes of the Covenant range from apodictic law (thou shalt not under any circumstances), to casuistic law (if this is the case, then do this), to detailed descriptions of ritual regulations to be observed by the priests and the community. For Israel, everything required by the Covenant was a matter of life and blessing, if properly observed, or of death and cursing, if ignored or forsaken
Dove (Turtle) - Genesis 15:9 (c) This Covenant was instituted by GOD with Abram; and the animals used in establishing the Covenant were to assure Abram that though his people would be in the furnace of Egypt suffering under the lash and slavery, yet through it all the sacrifice would be effective for them, and they would be able to maintain a light for GOD through all their tribulation
Abel - (Hebrews 12:24) that blood is contrasted with ‘the blood of sprinkling,’ by which the new Covenant is confirmed. Job 16:18, Isaiah 26:21, 2 Kings 9:26; also Revelation 6:9-10): it was such a cry as is sounded in Milton’s sonnet, ‘Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints’; but the blood of the eternal Covenant intercedes for mercy
Continually - ”...
Because of his Covenant with Jonathan, David said to Mephibosheth: “… And you shall eat at my table regularly” ( Covenant
God - The name is never applied to a false god, nor to any other being except one, the ANGEL-JEHOVAH who is thereby marked as one with God, and who appears again in the New Covenant as "God manifested in the flesh. But more, it is not the expression only, or chiefly, of an absolute truth: it is a practical revelation of God, in his essential, unchangeable relation to this chosen people, the basis of his Covenant
Perfect - ...
Through a Covenant relationship with His people, and by grace, God thus offers to His people the possibility of perfection. In the New Testament, God's relationship with His people is itself fulfilled, as the old Covenant is replaced, and through Christ believers can be perfected for ever (Hebrews 10:14 )
Abel - (Hebrews 12:24) that blood is contrasted with ‘the blood of sprinkling,’ by which the new Covenant is confirmed. Job 16:18, Isaiah 26:21, 2 Kings 9:26; also Revelation 6:9-10): it was such a cry as is sounded in Milton’s sonnet, ‘Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints’; but the blood of the eternal Covenant intercedes for mercy
Book(s) - Several books are mentioned in the Bible:...
The Book of the Covenant Moses read from this book during the making of the Covenant between God and Israel on Mount Sinai (Exodus 24:7 ). The “Book of the Covenant” included at least the material now found in Exodus 20:23-23:33 . The “Book of the Covenant” is referred to at a later time (2Kings 23:2,2 Kings 23:21 ; 2 Chronicles 34:30 ). ...
The Books of Joshua Joshua wrote one book detailing the allotment of Canaan to the Israelite tribes (Joshua 18:9 ) and a book similar to the “Book of the Covenant” listed above (Joshua 24:25-26 )
Amos, Theology of - It is he who elected or chose the people of Israel for a special Covenant relationship with himself, who rescued them from slavery in Egypt, and who led them through the blistering wilderness to their territorial inheritance, which he wrested from the Amorites (2:9-10; 3:1-2; cf. Yahweh now declares that he will punish and disperse the present Covenant community, which has been unfaithful to him (2:13; 3:14; 5:26-27). As already indicated, the basis on which Yahweh relates to the Israelites is his Covenant with them. In that Covenant he sets forth his expectations regarding the way in which they ought to relate to him and to each other. He blesses in accordance with the promises of the Covenant (Deuteronomy 30:1-10 ; Amos 9:11-15 ). He judges not as a surly deity who from time to time lashes out at his people in arbitrary and petulant outbursts, but as one who causes the Covenantal curses to take effect (Amos 7:1-9 ). He has sought to jolt them out of their spiritual lethargy and to bring them to repentance by sending calamities of the sort described in the Covenant curses, but to no avail (4:6-11). In the face of detailed Covenantal provisions for the care of the poor and disadvantaged (Exodus 22:22-27 ; 23:10-11 ; Leviticus 19:9-10 ; 25:35-55 ; Deuteronomy 10:17-19 ; 15:7-15 ; 24:19-22 ), Israelites with power and wealth oppress those who have neither, further enriching themselves at the expense of these unfortunates (Amos 2:6-8 ; 3:9-10 ; 4:1 ; 5:11-12 ; 8:4,6 ). ...
Israel's doom is sealed (3:11; 5:27; 8:1-3) because she has passed up repeated chances to be reconciled to the God of the Covenant (4:6-11; 5:4-6,14-15,24). ...
The accountability of the nations to Yahweh appears to be based on a Covenant relationship analogous to the one between Yahweh and Israel. Thus all of the groups mentioned above could be considered to be connected to each other and bound to Yahweh in Covenant. With the words, "I will not turn back my wrath" (Amos 1:3,6 , 9,11 , 13 ; 2:1,4 , 6 ), he announces either his intention not to revoke the thundering pronouncement of judgment against each Covenant-breaking nation (1:2), or his decision not to take such a nation back to himself as a Covenant partner in good standing. Yahweh sends retribution on both Israel and the nations for their deliberate and repeated Covenant violations. Yahweh will thus reestablish his claim to those nations that were, in David's day, under the aegis of his Covenant with Israel. What, in the context of that Covenant, is described in imperialistic terms becomes, in the new Covenant context, a description of the establishment of Christ's universal church (Acts 15:5-17 ). ...
The second major theme of this section is the reversal of the Covenant curses (vv
Ark of the Covenant - In the thorn of man's curse appeared the angel of the Covenant to Moses, to bless man; and out of its wood was formed the ark of the Covenant, the typical source of his blessing. Its title, "the ark of the testimony," implies its purpose, namely, to keep intact God's "covenant" written by God on the two stone tables (Exodus 34:28), as the sacred deposit of the Israelite church (Exodus 25:22; Numbers 10:33). In the wilderness "the ark of the Covenant of the Lord went before them in the three days' journey to search out a resting place for them; and when the ark set forward, Moses said, Rise up, Lord, and let Thine enemies be scattered, and let them that hate Thee flee before Thee. Jerusalem, when "they shall say no more, The ark of the Covenant of the Lord, neither shall it come to mind, neither shall they re. ...
The ark was wanting in the second temple, having been probably burnt with the temple (2 Chronicles 36:19); compare (apocryphal) 2 Esdras 10:22, "the ark of our Covenant is spoiled. The ark of the Covenant on the contrary was marked by the absence of any symbol of God
Believe - 7:9: “… the faithful God, which keepeth Covenant and mercy. …” There is a good reason here to understand the word 'âman as referring to what God has done (“faithfulness”), rather than what He will do (“trustworthy”), because He has already proved Himself faithful by keeping the Covenant. Therefore, the translation would become, “… faithful God who has kept His Covenant and faithfulness, those who love Him kept …” (cf. Here 'ĕmûnâh signifies the condition of being faithful to God’s Covenant, practicing truth, or doing righteousness. Although signifying a voluntary acceptance of the conditions of a Covenant, the 'âmên was sometimes pronounced with coercion. So the 'âmên was an affirmation of a Covenant, which is the significance of the word in Covenant by voicing their 'âmên (1 Kings 1:36, 'âmên is noncovenantal
Law - Although binding on all, we are not under it as a Covenant of works (Galatians 3:17 )
Banner - " The altar is the pledge that Jehovah, in Covenant with Israel, shall enable His people to defeat utterly Amalek and all his foes
Jehovah Jireh - " He perceives he has uttered an unconscious prophecy, and that the Elohim in whom he trusted has proved Himself JEHOVAH , in Covenant with His people; so that the phrase became a Hebrew proverb, "In the mount (as He provided for Abraham in his' extremity) Jehovah will provide" (for us also in our every extremity)
Sabbath Day's Journey - As they followed the priests bearing the ark of the Covenant, they must maintain a distance of 2,000 cubits from it
Marry - In Scripture, to unite in Covenant, or in the closest connection
Holy of Holies - In the middle of the holy of holies of Solomon's temple stood the Ark of the Covenant, overshadowed by the wings of the two colossal cherubim
Zadok - One who sealed the Covenant
Confirmation - -(c) ‘Confirm’ is also the word used for κυρόω or προκυρὁω in connexion with a Covenant or will (Galatians 3:15; Galatians 3:17, which may refer to what we should call ‘registration’; see W
Baruch - A priest who sealed the Covenant
Ahijah - Signer of Nehemiah's Covenant to obey God's law ( Nehemiah 10:26 )
Confirmation - The act of ratifying as the confirmation of a promise, Covenant, or stipulation
Moriah - " And the bruises of Jesus, when it pleased JEHOVAH to put him to grief, while they affect in contemplation the heart of the redeemed, yet, like sweet dropping myrrh, they distil all spiritual blessings in a fragrancy most refreshing and delightful, in pardon, mercy, peace, grace, faith and all the blessings of the Covenant
Angel - The Lord Jesus Christ himself is called the Angel or Messenger of the Covenant
Following - 17:21: “But my Covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year” (i
Dream - It was by means of dreams that God communicated with those who were not of his Covenant people
Mercy Seat - 1: ἱλαστήριον (Strong's #2435 — Noun Neuter — hilasterion — hil-as-tay'-ree-on ) "the lid or cover of the ark of the Covenant," signifies the Propitiatory, so called on account of the expiation made once a year on the great Day of Atonement, Hebrews 9:5
Release - To free from obligation or penalty as, to release one from debt, from a promise or Covenant
Malachi - He seems to allude to the Covenant that Nehemiah renewed with the lord, together with the priests and chief of the nation
Hashabi'ah - ) ...
One of the Levites who sealed the Covenant of reformation after the return from the captivity
Hagar - Ishmael would have a notable line of descendants, but God’s Covenant people would come through the child of Sarah yet to be born, Isaac (Genesis 17:20-21)
Ephod - It was worn by Samuel (1 Samuel 2:18 ) and by David when he danced before God on the occasion of the transfer of the ark of the Covenant to David's capital city of Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6:14 ). See Priests ; Tabernacle ; Ark of the Covenant ; Teraphim
Shiloh - Years later, following a defeat at Aphek, the Israelite army sent for the ark of the Covenant from Shiloh. Supporting this was the fact that when the Philistines finally returned the ark of the Covenant, it was housed at Kiriath-jearim rather than Shiloh (1 Samuel 7:1 )
Mercy-Seat - ]'>[1] ) of the Covenant in the Holy of Holies. Ritschl maintains that in both the OT and the NT ἱλαστήριον designates ‘the piece of furniture over the ark of the Covenant in the holy of holies’ (Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung3, ii
Sabbath - The Sabbath was the sign of God's Covenant with them, and it may be that the Lord in repeatedly offending the Jews by (in their view) breaking the Sabbath by acts of mercy foreshadowed the approaching dissolution of the legal Covenant
Kedar - Hence mount Sinai Covenant is represented as a dispensation, like the mount itself, of blackness and darkness and terror; because it set forth that dread of conscience which filled the mind when under a conscious sense of having broken it. On the other hand, the Covenant of promise full of grace and mercy, giving as it doth, a joy and peace in believing to the soul, lightens the countenance, and makes the child of God comely
Choose - 9:7-8 describes God’s “choosing” (election) of persons as far back as Abram: “You are the Lord God, who chose Abram … and you made a Covenant with him” (NIV). The Covenant called men to respond to God’s election: “… I have set before you life and death … : therefore choose life …” ( King - Their failure to fulfil His Covenant resulted in the selection of the Aaronic priesthood. The bringing in of the new and better Covenant of grace has constituted all believers a spiritual kingdom, a holy and royal priesthood, 1 Peter 2:5,9
Salt - Thus they said of a Covenant, "It is a Covenant of salt for ever before the Lord," Numbers 18:19 2 Chronicles 13:5
Foreigner - They could join in some of Israel’s ceremonies (Numbers 15:14; Deuteronomy 26:11), but they could not join in the Passover unless they had formally become members of the Covenant people (Exodus 12:48-50; see CIRCUMCISION; PROSELYTE). Under the new Covenant, by contrast, there is no distinction between Israelites and foreigners
Leviticus - ...
Features of the book...
God had brought the people of Israel out of Egypt and set them on their way to Canaan, all according to the Covenant promises he had given to Abraham. After three months they arrived at Mt Sinai, and there God established his Covenant with them. The regulations that God laid down under the Covenant begin in Exodus and carry on through Leviticus into Numbers. ...
First of all God announced the Covenant’s basic principles and some of its practical requirements (Exodus 20-23)
Education in Bible Times - There was also an attendant benefit attached to this "behavior modification in Yahwistic moral values"the possession of the land of Covenant promise for those Israelites who followed through on the charge to educate their children in the way of the Lord. ...
More specifically, "the way of the Lord" denotes the particular content of the series of Covenant agreements or treaties Yahweh made with his people Israel. These Covenants formed the basis of Israel's relationship to Yahweh and were characterized by a stylized literary pattern that included legislation or stipulations necessary for maintaining that relationship. Often the Covenant or treaty concluded with the promise of blessings or curses conditioned by Israel's obedience (or lack thereof) to the specific Covenant stipulations. ...
Thus, Hebrew education was essentially instruction in Covenant obedience or "keeping the way of the Lord" (Genesis 18:19 ). Moses summarized the basic components of this Covenant obedience in his farewell address to the Israelites as loving God, walking in his ways, and keeping his commandments, statutes, and ordinances (Deuteronomy 30:16 ). Later, the psalmist condensed this Covenant content of Old Testament education into the phrase "the law of the Lord" (Psalm 119:1 ). For example, the details of Yahweh's Covenant with Abraham fills but three chapters in Genesis (12,15, 17). By contrast, the details of the Mosaic Covenant dominate the greater portions of the biblical literature found in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. ...
In time, the Hebrew poetic and wisdom traditions and the prophetic tradition were included in the Covenant content of Old Testament education. The wisdom tradition served as a practical commentary on the law or Covenant legislation, while the prophetic tradition functioned as a theological commentary on Old Testament law. Like the legal tradition associated with the Covenants, both wisdom and prophecy were rooted in the behavioral outcomes of loving God and doing righteousness and justice (Proverbs 1:3,2:9 ; Hosea 6:6 ; Micah 6:8 ). Theologically, the practice of education as outlined in Old Testament revelation resulted in God's Covenant blessing for the Hebrew people. Religiously, the practice of education sustained Covenant relationship with God through obedience and proper ritual, which prompted God's favor and presence with Israel (Leviticus 26:9-12 ). ...
Since all Israelites were bonded together in Covenant relationship as the people of God before Yahweh, the religious community also played an important role in the education of the Hebrew youth. Exodus 12:14-28 ), the public reading of the Mosaic law every seventh year (Deuteronomy 31:12-13 ), the Covenant renewal enactments (Deuteronomy 29-30 ; Joshua 23-24 ), the annual national festivals/fasts, sabbath worship, historical teaching memorials, tabernacle/temple architecture and furnishings, the sacrificial system, and priestly dress and liturgical function
Kings, First And Second, Theology of - However, using a lawsuit motif following the breach of Covenant law (see 2 Kings 17:20-23 ), the writer of Kings presents an explanation of history that shows that their tragedy was a product of God's judgment, not his weakness. Furthermore, the writer emphasizes the long-suffering mercy of God who continued to postpone the execution of judgment that disobedience to the Covenant rightly entailed. Yahweh's election and Covenant with Israel were bound with David, although the continuation of the Davidic dynasty was conditioned upon the proper cultic observances and the acceptance of the Mosaic Covenant. The belief in the Davidic Covenant was a guarantee of stability and a perseverance of hope that his line would continue (2 Kings 25:27-30 ). The release of the Davidide Jehoiachin at the end of Kings serves as a subtle reminder that the Covenant was still in effect; the people could be assured of their continuing election by God. He discerns his work in the context of Israel's salvation history, presented as a continuing history of the confederate tribes, who realized their Covenant relationship with Yahweh. Israel's distress was not accidental or haphazard, but evidence of God's character consistent with his self-revelation in the Covenant. However, the nation would now be identified by their fidelity to the Mosaic religion and the demands of the Covenant
King, Kingship - While he is king over his people in a special sense, by virtue of his Covenantal relationship to them, his kingship is at the same time universal, extending to all nations and peoples and even the natural environment. To do this also denies the close relationship that exists between the establishment of the Sinai Covenant and the acknowledgment of Yahweh's kingship over Israel. Parallels in literary structure between the Sinai Covenant and certain international treaties drawn up by the kings of the Hittite Empire in the fourteenth century b. show that in the Sinai Covenant Yahweh assumes the role of the Great King, and Israel, that of his vassal. For these scholars the establishment of the monarchy represented a return to the social model of the old Bronze Age paganism of the Canaanites, and a rejection of religious foundations derived from the Mosaic formulations of the Sinai Covenant. Moses provided for the eventual rise of kingship in Israel when he gave the "law of the king" (Deuteronomy 17:14-20 ) as part of the renewal of the Covenant in the Plains of Moab just before Israel's entrance in the promised land. This request betrayed their rejection of the kingship of Yahweh (1 Samuel 8:7 ; 10:19 ; 12:12 ) and denial of the Covenant. Samuel then inaugurated the reign of Saul, Israel's first king, in the context of a renewal of the Covenant with Yahweh (1 Samuel 11:14-12:25 ). Kingship was subordinated to Covenant. Israel's king was to be a Covenantal king. David was an imperfect but true representative of the ideal of the Covenantal king. ...
For the most part the history of the kings of Israel and Judah is a history of failure to live up to the Covenantal ideal. ...
This failure of the kings of both Israel and Judah to live up to the Covenantal ideal provided the backdrop as Israel's prophets began to speak of a future king who would be a worthy occupant of the throne of David
Election - (2) The central word in Israel's vocabulary for describing their special relationship with God was Covenant . This Covenant was not a contract between equal partners, but a bond established by God's unmerited favor and love. The gracious character of the Covenant is a major theme in Deuteronomy. (3) Within the Covenanted community God selected certain individuals to fulfill specific functions. Again and again the prophets tried to disabuse them of this false notion of security by pointing out the true meaning of the Covenant and their mission among the nations (Jeremiah 7:1-14 ; Amos 3:2 ; Jonah). ...
Election and the New Covenant The early Christians saw themselves as heirs of Israel's election, “a chosen generation, a holy nation, a peculiar people” (1 Peter 2:9 ). The second passage (Romans 9-11 ) is preoccupied with the fact of Israel's rejection of Christ which, in the purpose of God, has become the occasion for the entrance of Gentile believers into the Covenant
Moses - This godly man towers above all other persons in the Old Testament period because he was God's instrument for the introduction of Covenant law in Israel. The final stage involves him liberating the enslaved Hebrews, establishing God's Covenant with them in the Sinai desert and leading them to the borders of the promised land. ...
Dramatic though the crossing of the Re(e)d Sea is for the destiny of the Hebrews, the peak of Moses' career is attained on Mount Sinai, when God appears to him and delivers the celebrated Ten Commandments as the basis of Israel's Covenant law. Moses Acts on behalf of God at the Covenant ratification ceremony (Exodus 24:6-8 ) and thereafter is the recipient of instructions concerning the building of a sacred national shrine known as the tabernacle. ...
Of high theological significance for the Israelites, this structure was rectangular in shape and contained a tent where the cultic structure known as the Covenant ark was housed. ...
During the wilderness period Moses receives from God other laws dealing with sacrifices and offerings, rules governing social behavior, prohibitions against idolatry and immorality, and positive promises of God's blessings upon the Israelites, provided always that they keep the Covenant obligations that they had assumed under oath. ...
Yet despite his deeply spiritual life and his sense of commitment to Covenantal ideals, Moses is still a human being
Love - ...
The distinctive feature of chesed is Covenant loyalty or faithfulness. A Covenant is an agreement between two parties that carries with it obligations and blessings, and in the case of God and Israel this Covenant was likened to the marriage bond. The two parties were bound to be loyal to each other (Deuteronomy 7:9; Deuteronomy 7:12; Nehemiah 1:5; see Covenant). God exercised loyal love and Covenant faithfulness to his people, and this was to be the basis of their trust in him (1 Kings 8:23; Psalms 13:5; Psalms 25:7; Psalms 103:17; Psalms 136:25; Hosea 2:19; Micah 7:20). Their Covenant love vanished (Hosea 6:4; Hosea 11:1-4)
Dagon - Likewise the overthrow of the idol of Dagon before the ark of the Covenant demonstrated God's predominance (1 Samuel 5:1-7 )
Hunger - Hunger was one penalty of disobedience of Covenant obligations (Deuteronomy 28:48 ; Deuteronomy 32:24 )
Feast - But that oneness was primarily and chiefly a religious and not merely a political one; the people were not merely to meet as among themselves, but with Jehovah, and to present themselves before him as one body; the meeting was in its own nature a binding of themselves in fellowship with Jehovah; so that it was not politics and commerce that had here to do, but the soul of the Mosaic dispensation, the foundation of the religious and political existence of Israel, the Covenant with Jehovah
Borrow - Thus poverty was not considered to be a desirable situation for anyone in the Covenant community
Obadiah - He joined other priests along with princes and Levites in putting his seal upon the Covenant (Nehemiah 9:38 ) made between the people and God (Nehemiah 10:5 )
Beersheba - This name, signifying well of the oath, was given to the place where Abraham and Abimelech made a Covenant not to molest each other, and confirmed it by an oath
Seraiah - Priest who sealed the Covenant
Seal, Signet - ...
A Covenant was sealed by Nehemiah and those with him
Zedekiah - Signer of Nehemiah's Covenant (1 Chronicles 10:1 ), spelled Zidkijah by KJV:5
Hananiah - One who sealed the Covenant
Aphek - City whose king Joshua defeated (Joshua 12:18 ), where Philistine armies formed to face Israel in days of Samuel (1 Samuel 4:1 ) resulting in Philistine victory and capture of Israel's ark of the Covenant
Lime - The book of the law, in order to render it the more sacred, was deposited beside the ark of the Covenant
Aphek - City whose king Joshua defeated (Joshua 12:18 ), where Philistine armies formed to face Israel in days of Samuel (1 Samuel 4:1 ) resulting in Philistine victory and capture of Israel's ark of the Covenant
Lord's Supper - In the Lord's supper the Covenant is renewed between Christ and his people
Sarah - When God made a Covenant with Abraham, he changed the name of Sarai or my princess, into that of Sarah, or princess; and promised Abraham a son by her, which was fulfilled in due time
Lamentations of Jeremiah - Yet he does not forget that a Covenant God still reigns
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - The rainbow in the clouds is a sign of the Covenant (Genesis 9:13-14,16 ), and clouds themselves are presented as witnesses to the surety of the Covenant with David (Psalm 89:37 ). Withholding of rain from the clouds is seen as divine activity in fulfillment of the Covenant curses (Isaiah 5:6 ; Leviticus 26:19 ; cf. Deuteronomy 28:23-24 ), and the restoring of rain after drought is the sign of God's removing the Covenant curse from Israel (1 Kings 18:44-45 ; cf. In Ezekiel's inaugural vision, Yahweh emerges from a great cloud riding upon his celestial palanquin (1:4,28), and the temple is filled with a cloud some fourteen months later when the Covenant lawsuit is completed and executive judgment is about to be poured out (10:3-4)
Malachi - But the same evils are sought to be remedied by both: see above; also compare Malachi 2:8, "ye have corrupted the Covenant of Levi, saith the Lord of hosts," with Nehemiah 13:29, "they have defiled the Covenant of the priesthood and of the Levites. ...
(2) Against the priests for contemptible offerings, profaning instead of honoring their Master and their Father, unlike Levi of old, who walked with God in a Covenant of life and peace, turning many from iniquity, whereas they departed out of the way and caused others to stumble; therefore God will send a curse upon them, making them contemptible, even as they contemned and failed to give glory to His name (Malachi 1:6-2:9). And wherefore did He make us the one people? That He might seek a seed of God," to be the repository of the Covenant, the stock for Messiah, the witness for God against surrounding polytheism. ...
(4) In answer to their cavil, "where is the God of judgment?" Messiah's forerunner, followed by the sudden coming of Jehovah Himself the Angel of the Covenant (which they had despised) to His temple, is foretold (Malachi 2:17-4:6)
Allegory - ...
In Galatians 4:21-31Paul uses the story of the children of Sarah (Isaac) and Hagar (Ishmael) and the images of Jerusalem above and Mount Sinai as a double allegory, both pairs contrasting the Covenant of freedom and the Covenant of slavery
Hiram - So he made a "league" with his son Solomon (beriyt , "a Covenant," recognizing Jehovah, and guaranteeing to Jewish sojourners at Tyre religious liberty). ...
Tyre is threatened with punishment for delivering the Jewish captives to Edom, and not remembering "the brotherly Covenant," namely, between Hiram and David and Solomon
Isaac - ...
After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines, he returned to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of Covenant blessing, and where Abimelech entered into a Covenant of peace with him
Flood - Most notable of all was the Covenant of continued earthly security for mankind and the rainbow as the symbol of that everlasting Covenant. Now, with bow unslung and hung high in the heavens, He publicized His good will and eternal Covenant with mankind. Informed, instructed, provided for, Covenanted with to become the head of a new race and blessed to be productive and to increase on earth, Noah was made the mediator of a world-encompassing Covenant where the image of God would guarantee equality in society
Eve - The focus on the conversation is the Covenant that God initially establishes with the man (2:15-17). Although that Covenant subsequently includes her (3:2-3), she is not an original party to it. In the course of the conversation she does, in fact, misrepresent the terms of the Covenant by diminishing the generosity of the Creator's provision (3:2; "We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden"; Covenantal prohibition (3:3: "You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it"; Covenant
Ark of the Covenant - The word “covenant” in the name defines the ark from its original purpose as a container for the stone tablets upon which the Ten Commandments (sometimes called the “testimony”) were inscribed. Sometimes it is identified rather with the name of deity, “the ark of God,” or “the ark of the Lord” (Yahweh), or most ornately “the ark of the Covenant of the Lord of hosts (Yahweh Sabaoth) who is enthroned on the cherubim” (1 Samuel 4:4 ). Because the ark of the Covenant was the central symbol of God's presence with His people Israel, its mysteries remain appropriately veiled within the inner sanctuary of the living God. Revelation 11:19 shows the ark of the Covenant will be part of the heavenly temple when it is revealed
Keep, Watch, Guard - ” This meaning is usually found when man is the subject: “keeping” the Covenant ( Covenantal contexts. In such cases “keep” means “to watch over” in the sense of seeing that one observes the Covenant, keeping one to a Covenant. As God had said earlier, “Thou shalt keep my Covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations” ( Make - ...
3: διατίθημι (Strong's #1303 — Verb — diatithemi — dee-at-ith'-em-ahee ) "to Covenant," is rendered "I will make" (the noun diatheke, "a Covenant," being expressed additionally), in the Middle Voice, in Acts 3:25 ; Hebrews 8:10 ; 10:16 , lit. , "I will Covenant" (see RV , marg. ...
8: συντελέω (Strong's #4931 — Verb — sunteleo — soon-tel-eh'-o ) "to end, fulfil," is translated "I will make" in Hebrews 8:8 , said of the New Covenant
Seal - By commanding this outward observance of the old Covenant, God indicated how human beings could demonstrably consecrate themselves by faith to him. The Covenant was bilateral in the sense that it needed to be ratified (i. God takes Covenant-keeping signs and vows seriously
Pentateuch - The book of Exodus shows that God, faithful to his promise, gave them a leader (Moses) through whom he brought them out of Egypt, gave them his law, and established them in a special Covenant relationship with himself. ...
Leviticus and the beginning of Numbers give details of how the people were to maintain and enjoy their Covenant relationship with God. The deliverance from Egypt was the turning point in the people’s history, the Covenant was the basis of their existence, and the law was the framework for their behaviour
Dispensation - Human Government (Genesis 8:20 ) This is the new Covenant made with Noah, bringing about human government. Promise (Genesis 12:1 ) This is the new Covenant made with Abraham. Belief in an unconditional Covenant with Israel
Salt (2) - The preservative qualities of salt probably led to its being regarded as an essential element in the making of any enduring Covenant (cf. As a sacrificial meal was usually celebrated in connexion with the making of a Covenant, the salt of the meal naturally became the salt of the Covenant
Witness - ...
The law of Israel...
When God established his Covenant with Israel at Mt Sinai, he gave the Ten Commandments as the basis of the Covenant requirements laid upon his people. They were therefore called the testimony (1 John 5:10-11), the ark of the Covenant in which they were placed was called the ark of the testimony (Exodus 25:16), and the tabernacle (or tent) in which the ark was kept was called the tabernacle of the testimony (Exodus 38:21)
Hebrews Epistle to the - ...
(2) The mediators of the old Covenant (angels, Moses, Joshua, Aaron) inferior to the one Mediator of the new. ...
(4) The priestly ministrations of Aaron and of Christ: their sanctuaries, their basal Covenants, their sacrifices. Christ’s priestly ministry and sacrifice belong to the realm of realties, just as He is the Mediator of a new and better Covenant than that of the Jews. For we must face the fact already realized by Jeremiah-the old Covenant was imperfect and must pass away when the new and perfect Covenant is established (8). The Levitical service of the old Covenant was not lacking in outward splendour, but its magnificence served only to emphasize its ineffectiveness. ...
Thus the new Covenant rests on the death of its Mediator. Does this idea seem strange? The following analogies may help you to understand: (a) a testament is a Covenant, but it has no value unless the testator die; (b) the old Covenant was inaugurated with the offering of the life of bulls and goats; (c) in the Levitical Law every atonement is symbolized by the offering of the life of beasts. ’ He has set up the perfect Covenant (Hebrews 10:1-18). -The writer of the Epistle thinks of religion as a Covenant. The religion of Jesus Christ is the new eternal Covenant (Hebrews 13:20) of which the prophet spoke (Hebrews 8:8-13), for He alone has established a perfect Covenant relation between God and man. The symbolism of the ‘old Covenant’ pointed to this ideal. A Covenant of this kind leaves nothing to be added. -The finality of the new Covenant rests on the perfection of Him who is its Mediator (Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 10:1-43; Hebrews 12:24) and Surety (Hebrews 7:22)
Hosea, Theology of - ...
Fueling the symbolism of Hosea's marriage was the Covenant, which provided a legal form for the expression and governance of the relationship God desired with his people. ...
Impending judgment was a result of their breaking the Covenant. Punishment was outlined in the Covenant stipulations, which they had violated at every turn. ...
Hosea focuses on Israel's accountability with specific reference to the Covenant requirements. The Covenant blessings and curses (Deuteronomy 28 ) as well as the required reading of the law (Deuteronomy 31:10-13 ) were constant reminders of the people's obligation to the Lord. God wanted actioncovenant loyalty that evidenced kindness in action, justice at all levels, and a knowledge that portrayed the Lord's righteousness (6:6; 10:12; 12:6)but Israel offered insincerity and rejected God (6:4; 8:2-3). ...
Hosea's eschatology is built upon the Covenant relationship as administered by a sovereign Lord. Hosea envisioned a new betrothal (2:19) and a new relationship (1:10; 2:16) that would produce the true Covenant fruit of righteousness, justice, love, compassion, and knowledge (2:19-20)
Nazarene - ...
Though Nazareth was a priest-center in the Old Covenant, it had no national or religious status; it could be called a country village
Canticle of Zachary - He promised to show mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy Covenant
Shewbread - , and AV, "from"), "an everlasting Covenant
Benedictus, the - He promised to show mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy Covenant
Seal - (Genesis 38:18 ) The ring or the seal as an emblem of authority in Egypt, Persia and elsewhere is mentioned in (Genesis 41:42 ; 1 Kings 21:8 ; Esther 3:10,12 ; 8:2 ; Daniel 6:17 ) and as an evidence of a Covenant, in (Jeremiah 32:10,44 ; Nehemiah 9:38 ; 10:1 ; Haggai 2:23 ) Engraved signets were in use among the Hebrews in early times
Ahijah - ]'>[6] Ahiah ), a layman who joined Nehemiah in signing the Covenant
Sign - ...
Second, The ark of the Covenant from whence the Jews observed JEHOVAH gave answers by revelation
Hittites - In God's Covenant with Abraham their territory was to be possessed by his descendants
Sprinkling - The Covenant was sealed, and the people bound to it, by blood
Amariah - Nehemiah 12:2 ; Nehemiah 12:18 ; Nehemiah 10:3 , a priestly clan which returned to Jerusalem, and sealed the Covenant under Nehemiah (probably the same as Immer , 1 Chronicles 24:14 , Ezra 2:37 ; Ezra 10:20 ,