CONCORDANCES . The Latin word concordantiÅ , for an alphabetical list of the words of Scripture drawn up for purposes of reference to the places where they occur, was first used by Hugo de Sancto Caro, who compiled a Concordance to the Vulgate in 1244. This was revised by Arbottus (1290), and became the basis of a Hebrew Concordance by Isaac Nathan (1437 45). Nathan’s work was revised and enlarged by John Buxtorf, the elder, whose ConcordantiÅ Bibliorum HebraicÅ (1632) held the place of standard Concordance for two centuries, and served as the model for many others. John Taylor’s Hebrew Concordance adapted to the English Bible, disposed after the manner of Buxtorf (2 vols. folio, Norwich, 1754 57), is another link in the succession. The first Concordance to the English Bible is that of John Marbeck (folio, London, 1550). The earliest Concordance to the Septuagint is Conrad Kircher’s (1607). The first Greek NT Concordance was published at Basle anonymously in 1546. In the use of the following lists it will be understood that, while the most recent works, other things being equal, are to be preferred, there is so much common material that many of the older works are by no means obsolete.
1. Hebrew . Fuerst, Libr. Sacrorum Vet. Test. ConcordantiÅ Heb. atque Chald . (1840); The Englishman’s Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of OT (2 vols., Bagster); B. Davidson, A Concordance of the Heb. and Chaldee Scriptures (Bagster, 1876); Bagster’s Handy Hebrew Concordance
; Mandelkern, Vet. Test. ConcordantiÅ (folio, Leipzig, 1896), and a smaller edition without quotations (Leipzig, 1897).
( a ) The Septuagint. Bagster’s Handy Concordance of the Septuagint ; Hatch-Redpath’s Concordance of the Septuagint and other Greek Versions of the OT , with two supplemental fasciculi (Clarendon Press, 1892 97). This is the standard work, replacing Trommius’ ConcordantiÅ GrÅcÅ Versionis vulgo dictÅ LXX
Interpretum (2 vols. Amst. 1718).
( b ) The NT. The Englishman’s Greek Concordance of the NT (Bagster); C. F. Hudson, Greek Concordance to NT , revised by Ezra Abbot (do.); Schmoller, ConcordantiÅ manuales NT grÅci (1890); Bruder, ConcordantiÅ omnium vocum NT grÅci 4 (1888). All these works are now superseded by Moulton-Geden’s Concordance to the Greek Testament (Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1897).
3. English . Until recent times the standard work was Cruden’s Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures (1st ed. 1738. Cruden’s is truly a marvellous work, and was frequently copied, without acknowledgment, in subsequent productions. It was even issued in abridgment the most useless and provoking of all literary products). More recent works are Eadie’s Analytical Concordance ; Young’s Analytical Bible Concordance (Edin. 1879 84), with supplem. vol. by W. B. Stevenson; Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance (Hodder & Stoughton, 1894); Thoms’s Concordance to RV
of NT (1882).
W. F. Adeney and J. S. Banks.