What does Claudius mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
κλαυδίου C. 1
κλαύδιον C. 1
κλαύδιος C. 1

Definitions Related to Claudius

G2804


   1 C.
   Caesar the name of the fourth Roman emperor, who came to power in 41 A.
   D.
   and was poisoned by his wife Agrippina, in 54 A.
   D.
   2 C.
   Lysias a tribune of the Roman cohort who rescued Paul from the hands of the mob at Jerusalem.
   Additional Information: Claudius = “lame”.
   

Frequency of Claudius (original languages)

Frequency of Claudius (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Flavius Claudius Julianus
Also known as Flavius Claudius Julianus
Profile Roman Emperor. He was a son of Julius Constantius, the half-brother of Constantine the Great. He received a Christian training which was modified by his interest in neo-Platonism and other philosophy, chiefly Hellenic. In 355 he was presented to the army as Caesar and he married Helena, sister of the Emperor Constantius, who was his cousin, and was sent as Governor to Gaul. There he completely routed the Alamanni near Strasbourg. He demanded higher recognition and, when Constantius refused, advanced to Illyricum. Constantius died on the way to meet him, in 361; Julian advanced in triumph to Constantinople, and immediately ordered a return to pagan worship and issued many decrees against Christians. The dying words attributed to him are (of Christ): "Thou hast conquered, O Galilean."
Born 331 in Constantinople
Died 363 in Persia of wounds received during the Persian war
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Julianus, Flavius Claudius
Also known as Flavius Claudius Julianus
Profile Roman Emperor. He was a son of Julius Constantius, the half-brother of Constantine the Great. He received a Christian training which was modified by his interest in neo-Platonism and other philosophy, chiefly Hellenic. In 355 he was presented to the army as Caesar and he married Helena, sister of the Emperor Constantius, who was his cousin, and was sent as Governor to Gaul. There he completely routed the Alamanni near Strasbourg. He demanded higher recognition and, when Constantius refused, advanced to Illyricum. Constantius died on the way to meet him, in 361; Julian advanced in triumph to Constantinople, and immediately ordered a return to pagan worship and issued many decrees against Christians. The dying words attributed to him are (of Christ): "Thou hast conquered, O Galilean."
Born 331 in Constantinople
Died 363 in Persia of wounds received during the Persian war
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Fulgentius, Fabius Claudius Gordianus, Saint
Father of the Church (468-533), Bishop of Ruspe, Africa, born Telepte. He was appointed provincial fiscal procurator, but soon entered a monastery, was ordained, and became superior. At that time the Arian persecutions had ceased, but the election of Catholic bishops was forbidden. In 508 it became necessary to defy the law, and bishops were consecrated, Fulgentius being chosen for Ruspe. Soon all the new bishops were exiled to Sardinia. Fulgentius was invited back to Carthage to hold a disputation, c.515,and successfully refuted his Arian opponents. He was sent back to Sardinia where he erected a monastery, and wrote many fine treatises, sermons, and letters. In 523 the accession of Hilderic brought peace to the African church and Fulgentius returned to his diocese. Relics partly at Bourges. Feast, January 1,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius, Saint
Father of the Church (468-533), Bishop of Ruspe, Africa, born Telepte. He was appointed provincial fiscal procurator, but soon entered a monastery, was ordained, and became superior. At that time the Arian persecutions had ceased, but the election of Catholic bishops was forbidden. In 508 it became necessary to defy the law, and bishops were consecrated, Fulgentius being chosen for Ruspe. Soon all the new bishops were exiled to Sardinia. Fulgentius was invited back to Carthage to hold a disputation, c.515,and successfully refuted his Arian opponents. He was sent back to Sardinia where he erected a monastery, and wrote many fine treatises, sermons, and letters. In 523 the accession of Hilderic brought peace to the African church and Fulgentius returned to his diocese. Relics partly at Bourges. Feast, January 1,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Flavius Claudius Jovianus
Roman emperor, born c.332;died Dadastana, Bithynia, 364. He was captain in the imperial bodyguard of the army, which was warring against Persia, and was proclaimed emperor at the death of Julian the Apostate, 363. In order to protect his army from further molestation in its retreat to the right bank of the Tigris, he relinquished the four satrapies east of the Tigris. A zealous and orthodox Christian, he reintroduced the religious toleration proclaimed by Constantine in his Milan Edict, 313.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jovianus, Flavius Claudius
Roman emperor, born c.332;died Dadastana, Bithynia, 364. He was captain in the imperial bodyguard of the army, which was warring against Persia, and was proclaimed emperor at the death of Julian the Apostate, 363. In order to protect his army from further molestation in its retreat to the right bank of the Tigris, he relinquished the four satrapies east of the Tigris. A zealous and orthodox Christian, he reintroduced the religious toleration proclaimed by Constantine in his Milan Edict, 313.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Claudius
Claudius, or, to give him his full Imperial style, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (to which the honorary titles Britannicus and Sarmaticus [1] are sometimes added), the son of Nero Claudius Drusus (38-9 b.c.), stepson of Augustus, and Antonia Minor (the younger daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia, sister of Augustus), was born on 1 Aug. 10 b.c. at Lugudunum (Lyons). His father died the year after. The boy inherited both physical and mental weakness, and was in consequence neglected. There was no room in Roman life for weaklings; exposure of newly born children was frequent, and until Christianity came there was little care for the physically or mentally defective. Claudius was left to the society of his social inferiors, and coarse tastes were developed in him. The one bright side in his life was his devotion to scientific, especially historical, studies. Augustus saw some good in him, but kept him from the public gaze. At the succession of Tiberius in a.d. 14 he began to take some slight part in public life, but most of his time was spent on country estates. Gaius, grandnephew of Tiberius and nephew of Claudius, succeeded to the purple in a.d. 37, and raised his uncle to the consulship at once. Soon after, however, the feelings of the maddest of all the Emperors changed, and Claudius was once more in a position of disgrace. Claudius had married Plautia Urgulanilla (before a.d. 20), who bore him a son and a daughter, but was afterwards divorced for adultery. His marriage with aelia Paetina, by whom he had a daughter, had the same end. The notorious Valeria Messalina was his third wife, and by her a daughter was born about the year 40, and a son called Britannicus in 41. It is said that Claudius, after the murder of his nephew, was dragged from a remote part of the palace, where he was cowering in terror, and made Emperor almost unawares (25 Jan. 41) by the army. He now changed his name from Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus to that given above. His reign of thirteen years was very much more I successful than might have been anticipated.
Some of the more important events of his reign may be enumerated in the order of their occurrence.
In a.d. 41 certain reforms were made in the regulation of the corn supply, etc., which had suffered in Gaius’ reign. Many of these reforms were doubtless due to the Emperor’s freedmen, Narcissus, the ab epistulis, M. Antonius Pallas, the a rationibus, etc., who exercised a tremendous influence during his reign and acquired colossal fortunes in his service. In this year successes were gained in Mauretania and also against the Catti and Chauci in Germany; the eagle of Varus, captured in a.d. 9, was now recovered. Privileges were granted to the Jews of Alexandria; Agrippa (q.v. [2] ) had his kingdom extended by the addition of Judaea and Samaria, and was thus ruler of all the territory that had once been Herod’s (a.d. 42). To facilitate the supply of corn to Rome, the building of a harbour at Ostia, the mouth of the Tiber, was decided on. War in Mauretania continued, and the district was made into two provinces, Mauritania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis, which were each put under the command of an Imperial procurator. Pretenders to the Imperial throne were crushed (a.d. 42). Lycia, owing to disturbances, was made an Imperial province, under a legatus pro praetore. Britain was invaded for the first time since Julius Caesar (55 b.c.). A. Plautius landed with a strong army and fought against the Trinouantes in the south of the island. Claudius followed in person, defeated the enemy on the Thames, captured their chief city Camulodunum (Colchester), and returned to the continent after a sixteen days’ stay. The southern half of England was made into a province, and A. Plautius was appointed the first governor (43). King Agrippa of Judaea died, and his kingdom was again made a Roman province and put under a procurator. In this and next year (44-45) the pacification of Britain was continued. In a.d. 46 King Rhœmetalces ii. of Thrace having been murdered, his territory was made into a Roman province and put under a procurator. This was also the year of the great famine in Palestine (Acts 11:23; Ramsay, St. Paul, pp. 49, 68, Expositor, 6th ser. xii. [3] 299). In 47 the censorship was revived after a long period of disuse, the Emperor taking the office, and endeavouring to improve public morality. The eight-hundredth anniversary of Rome was celebrated with great éclat. New aqueducts and roads were built, and three letters were added to the alphabet. These last were to represent sounds as yet imperfectly represented, but they did not survive Claudius’ reign. A number of edicts were issued by the Emperor. A. Plautius was recalled from Britain, given an ovation, and succeeded by P. Ostorius Scapula, who had to repel an attack immediately on arrival. Cn. Domitius Corbulo gained victories in Germania Inferior. A census taken in the year 48 revealed a total of 5,984,072 Roman citizens (other reports vary, the largest number given being 6,941,000). Messalina was married according to legal form to C. Silius in October; immediately afterwards they and all their accomplices were put to death. Claudius married as his fourth wife his own niece, Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus. Her son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the future Emperor Nero, had the way thus paved for his accession. On the death of Herod, king of Chalcis, or soon after, his kingdom was given to Agrippa II., son of Claudius’ old friend. In the year 49, we see Agrippina at once occupying a position of authority in the State equal to if not greater than that of her husband. She betrothed her son to Octavia, Claudius’ daughter, and put him under the tuition of the great philosopher L. Annaeus Seneca. The Ituraean country and perhaps also Abilene were added to the Province Syria. Scapula was successful in Britain. In a.d. 50 the young Domitius was adopted by Claudius, as future colleague to his own son Britannicus. Other events are the war in Germany; the great success of Scapula-the wife, daughter, and brothers of Caratacus falling into the hands of the conqueror; Claudius’ edict expelling the Jews from Rome (Acts 18:2), on account of their dissensions. The result of this edict was that for the four years 50-54 the Church of Rome was bereft of its Jewish members. The year 51 saw the danger of famine and the Emperor’s relief measures. In 52 astrologers were banished from Italy. Laws were passed as to children born of unions between free and slaves. Quarrels arose between Jews and Samaritans. Felix received the government of the whole of Judaea , Samaria, Galilee, and Peraea. Scapula warred against the Silures and died; he was succeeded by A. Didius Gallus, who drove the Silures out of Roman territory. In 53 Nero advanced, and Britannicus kept in the background. Agrippa ii. received, in place of his district Chalcis, the former tetrarchy of Trachonitis, Batanaea, Gaulanitis, and Abilene as his kingdom. In 54 Claudius was poisoned at the instance of Agrippina on 13 October.
Claudius was deified after his death. A skit preserved among the works of Seneca, and called ‘The Pumpkinification of Claudius,’ is among the most amusing relics of Latin literature.
This bald enumeration will show that much was done during the reign of Claudius. It is true that at all times he was too much under the dominion of evil women, and that he never thoroughly cast off the brutish habits contracted in his youth, but yet his reign was the most important for the Roman Empire in the period between the reigns of Augustus and of Trajan. The Empire was extended in various directions; much social legislation was carried out; and great public works, such as roads, aqueducts, harbours, were accomplished. The Emperor, like most of his class, was a hard worker, or countenanced the hard work of his freedmen. The position of importance occupied by these men is in fact a leading characteristic of the reign, and was most obnoxious to the old aristocracy, which may be said to have thus received its death-blow. The power of the Senate was greatly circumscribed. Claudius was, inter alia, something of an author. It was in fact the rule rather than the exception that Romans of high birth should, among their other accomplishments, be wielders of the pen. He began to write a history, but abandoned it unfinished. A second historical work was published, and some fragments of it have survived. He also wrote eight books of autobiography, and worked at Etrurian and Carthaginian history. The greater part of a speech he delivered in the Senate has been preserved on a bronze tablet at Lyons. His style is not without merits.
Literature.-Much valuable material has been found in the article by Groag and Gaheis in Pauly-Wissowa [4] , iii. cols. 2778-2839: cf. also A. v. Domaszewski, Gesch. der röm. Kaiser, ii. [5] pp. 21-46. On the chronology of events in the Claudian period referred to in the NT see W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen, London, 1895, pp. 48ff., 68f., Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, do. 1898, p. 223f., Expositor, 6th series, xii. [3] 299; the latest general treatment of Pauline chronology by the erudite French scholar, M. Goguel, in ‘Essai sur la chronologie paulinienne’ (RHR [7] lxv. [8] 285-339).
A. Souter.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Claudius
CLAUDIUS . Claudius, the fourth Roman emperor, who bore the names Tiberius Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus, reigned from (24th) 25th Jan. 41 till his murder on 13th Oct. 54 a.d. He was a son of Nero Claudius Drusus (the brother of the emperor Tiberius) and Antonia minor (a daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia, sister of the emperor Augustus), and was born on 1st August 10 b.c. at Lyons. From childhood he was weakly, and a prey to disease, which affected his mind as well as his body. This caused him to be neglected and despised. He was, however, a man of considerable ability, both literary and administrative, as he showed when he was called to succeed his own nephew Gains (Caligula) as emperor. He has been compared with James I. (VI. of Scotland) in both his weak and his strong points. It was in his reign that the first real occupation of Britain by the Romans took place. He is twice mentioned in Acts ( Acts 11:28 ; Acts 18:2 ). The great famine over the whole of the Roman world which Agabus foretold took place in his reign. The expulsion of Jews from Rome, due to dissensions amongst them, occurred in the year 50. This latter date is one of the few fixed points of chronology in the Book of Acts. The reign of Claudius was satisfactory to the Empire beyond the average. The government of the provinces was excellent, and a marked feature was the large number of public works executed under the emperor’s supervision.
A. Souter.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Claudius Lysias
CLAUDIUS LYSIAS . See Lysias.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Claudius
Tiberius Nero Drusus Germanicus; fourth Roman emperor; reigned from A.D. 41 to 54; successor of Caligula; son of Nero Drusus; born 9 B.C.; lived in privacy until he became emperor (A.D. 41) mainly through the influence of Herod Agrippa I (Josephus, Ant. 19:2, section 1, 3, 4), whose territory therefore he enlarged by adding Judaea, Samaria, and part of Lebanon. He appointed Herod's brother to Chalcis and the presidency over the temple at Jerusalem.
In Claudius' reign occurred the famine in Palestine and Syria (Acts 11:28-30) under the procurators Cuspins Fadus and Tiberius Alexander. Suetonius (Claud., 25) writes: "Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome, as they were constantly raising disturbances under the instigation of one Christ" (this was between A.D. 50 and 52): a sample of the ignorance of pagan writers in respect to Christ and Judaism. Claudius was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina Nero's mother (A.D. 54), after a weak reign in which, according to Suetonius (29), "he showed himself not a prince but a servant" in the hands of others.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Claudius
Lame.
The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D. 41). Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome (Acts 18:2 ). In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned to Rome. During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was "killed" (12:2). He died A.D. 54.
Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase the privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius (Acts 21:31-40 ; 22:28 ; 23:26 ).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Claudius
Fourth Roman emperor, A.D. 41-54. His full name was Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus. Herod Agrippa I: used his influence in favour of Claudius being chosen as emperor, and in return for these efforts the emperor added to Agrippa's territories Judaea, Samaria, and some parts of Lebanon. It was Claudius who, on account of a tumult of the Jews, banished all Jews from Rome. He was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina, the mother of Nero. Acts 11:28 ; Acts 18:2 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Claudius Lysias
The Roman officer at Jerusalem who, when Paul was arrested, protected him and acted promptly in sending him away from his murderous enemies. Acts 23:26 ; Acts 24:7,22 .
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius
Apolinaris , or Apolinarius Claudius. Ἀπολινάριος : so spelt in the most ancient Gk. MSS.; Latin writers generally use the form Apollinaris), bp. of Hierapolis, in Phrygia A.D. 171 and onwards (Eus. Chron. ); one of the most active and esteemed Christian writers of the day, he is praised by Photius for his style (Phot. Cod. 14). Jerome enumerates him among the ecclesiastical writers who were acquainted with heathen literature, and who made use of this knowledge in the refutation of heresy ( Ep. ad Magnum , iv. 83, p. 656. Cf. Theod. Haer. Fab. Compend. iii. 2).
Only a few fragments of his works have been preserved. Eusebius (H. E. iv. 27) gives the following list of those which had fallen into his hands; and his list is repeated by St. Jerome ( de Vir. Ill. c. 26) and Nicephorus ( H. E. iv. 11). (1) An apology addressed to Marcus Aurelius, probably written after A.D. 174, since it is likely that it contained the reference to the miracle of the Thundering Legion elsewhere quoted by Eusebius from Apolinaris ( H. E. v. 5). (2) Five books πρὸς Ἕλληνας , written according to Nicephorus in the form of a dialogue. (3) Two books περὶ ἀληθείας . (4) Two books πρὸς Ἰουδαίους : these are not mentioned by St. Jerome, and the reference to them is absent from some copies of Eusebius. (5) Writings against the Phrygian heresy, published when Montanus was first propounding his heresy; i.e. according to the Chronicon of Eusebius, c. 172. These writings, which were probably in the form of letters, are appealed to by Serapion, bp. of Antioch (Eus. H. E. v. 19); and Eusebius elsewhere (v. 16) describes Apolinaris as raised up as a strong and irresistible weapon against Montanism. The situation of his see sufficiently accounts for the prominent part taken by Apolinaris in this controversy. We are told indeed by an anonymous writer who probably wrote at the end of the 9th cent. (Auctor, Libelli Synodici apud Labbe et Cossart, i. 599) that Apolinaris on this occasion assembled twenty-six other bishops in council, and excommunicated Montanus and Maximilla, as well as the shoemaker Theodotus. Besides the works mentioned by Eusebius, who does not give his list as a complete one, Theodoret ( Haer. Fab. ii. 21) mentions (6) that Apolinaris wrote against the Encratites of the school of Severus ( πρὸς τοὺς Σεουηριανοὺς Ἐγκρατίτας ). (7) Photius (Cod. 14) mentions having read Apolinaris's work πρὸς Ἐλληνας καὶ περὶ ἀληθείας καὶ περὶ εὐσεβείας . (8) In the preface to the Alexandrian Chronicle a work περὶ τοῦ πάσχα is attributed to Apolinaris, from which two extracts are furnished which have given rise to much controversy; the main point being whether (if the fragments are genuine) Apolinaris wrote on the side of the practice of the Roman church, or on that of the Quartodecimans of Asia Minor. In support of the former view is urged the similarity of the language of these fragments with that of Clement of Alexandria and of Hippolytus, who advocated the Western practice; and also the fact that Apolinaris is not claimed as a Quartodeciman by Polycrates, bp. of Ephesus, in his letter to Victor of Rome. On the other side it is urged that Apolinaris speaks of his antagonists as "some who raise contention through ignorance," language which would rather convey the impression that Apolinaris was writing against the opinions of some small sect than that he was combating the belief of the whole church of Asia Minor to which he belonged; and it is further urged that if Apolinaris had been the first to defend in the East the practice which ultimately prevailed, it is incredible that neither Eusebius nor any early writer mentions this early champion of the Catholic practice. Socrates the historian ( H. E. iii. 7) names Apolinaris, together with Irenaeus, Clement, and Serapion, as holding the doctrine that our Lord when He became man had a human soul ( ἔμψυχον τὸν ἐνανθρωπήσαντα ).
Apolinaris had been set down as a Chiliast on St. Jerome's authority (de Vir. Ill. c. 18), but Routh ( Rel. Sac. i. 174) has given good reason for thinking that the Apollinaris intended is the younger Apollinaris, of Laodicea; since Jerome speaks of Irenaeus and Apollinaris as the first and the last of the Greek Millenarians (lib. xi. Comm. in Ezech. c. 36, iii. 952), and also states that Apollinaris answered Dionysius of Alexandria ( Prooem. in lib. xviii. Comm. Esaiae iii. 478).
The Martyrologies commemorate the death of Apollinaris on Feb. 7. Of the year or of the place and manner of his death nothing is known; but that it was before the end of the 2nd cent. may be inferred from the language in which he is described in the letter of Serapion written about that time (Κλαυδίου Ἀπολιναρίου τοῦ μακαριωτάτου γενομένου ἐν Ιεραπόλει τῆς Ἀσίας ἐπισκόπου ).
[1]
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Claudius Lysias
See Lysias.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Apollinaris Claudius, Saint
(2century) Bishop of Hierapolis, Phrygia. He wrote against heretics. His eloquent "Apologia" (c.177) for Christians was addressed to Marcus Aurelius. Feast, January 8,.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Claudius, the Emperor
Claudius (1) a.d. 41–54. The reign of this emperor has special interest in being that to which we must refer the earliest distinct traces of the origines of the church of Rome. Even before his accession the new faith may have found its way there. The "strangers of Rome Jews and proselytes " (Act_2:10) who were at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost or some of the "synagogue of the Libertines" (Act_6:9) yielding to the arguments of Stephen may have brought it thither. "Andronicus and Junia or Junias," who were "in Christ" before the conversion of St. Paul (Rom_16:7) and at Rome when that apostle wrote to the church there may have been among those earlier converts. When Herod Antipas and Herodias came to court the favour of Caligula (Joseph. Antiq. xviii. 7) and gain for the former the title of king they must have had some in their train who had known—perhaps those who had reported to him (Mat_14:1-2)—the "mighty works" of the prophet of Nazareth. The frequent visits of Herod Agrippa would make events in Judaea common topics at Rome. His presence there when Claudius came to the throne (Joseph. Antiq. xix. 4 5) may reasonably be connected with the indulgence then extended to the Jews by that emperor (ib. xix. 5). The decree mentioned in Act_18:2 and by Suetonius (Claudius c. 25) indicates a change of policy and the account of Suetonius probably tells the cause of the change "Judaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes Româ expulit." He does not give the date of the expulsion but it was probably between a.d. 43 when Agrippa left Rome and a.d. 51 when St. Paul arrived at Corinth and when the decree is mentioned as recent. The explanation turns upon the interpretation of the words "impulsore Chresto." We know from Tertullian (Apol. c. 3) that "Christianus" was commonly pronounced "Chrestianus" by those ignorant of its derivation; and that the name of Christ was for long similarly mispronounced we learn from Lactantius ("immutatâ literâ Chrestum solent dicere," Ver. Sap. iv. 7). It seems legitimate therefore to assume that the name "Christ" had been heard in the disputings of Jews and Christians and that the prefects and Roman population ignorant of its true significance conceived it to be the name of some local ringleader in a seditious riot. Many indications in Acts and Romans imply a considerable growth of the Christian community before the accession of Nero.
It is obvious further, (1) that the expulsion of Christians who had been Jews or proselytes would leave a certain proportion of purely Gentile Christians whom the edict would not touch; and (2) that those who returned would naturally settle, not in the Jewish trans-Tiberine quarter of the city, but in some safer locality, and that thus the church at Rome, at or soon after the death of Claudius, would gradually become more and more free from Jewish or Judaizing influences. (On other points connected with the rise and progress of Christianity at Rome under Claudius see "Aquila and Priscilla," and the "Proto-martyr Stephen," in the writer's Biblical Studies. )
[1]
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Claudius
a Roman emperor; he succeeded Caius Caligula, A.D. 41, and reigned thirteen years, eight months, and nineteen days, dying A.D. 54. King Agrippa was the principal means of persuading Claudius to accept the empire, which was tendered him by the soldiers. As an acknowledgment for this service, he gave Agrippa all Judea, and the kingdom of Chalcis to his brother Herod. He put an end to the dispute which had for some time existed between the Jews of Alexandria and the other freemen of that city, and confirmed the Jews in the possession of their right of freedom, which they had enjoyed from the beginning, and every where maintained them in the free exercise of their religion. But he would not permit them to hold any assemblies at Rome. King Agrippa dying A.D. 44, the emperor again reduced Judea into a province, and sent Cuspius Fadus to be governor. About the same time the famine happened which is mentioned Acts 11:28-30 , and was foretold by the Prophet Agabus. Claudius, in the ninth year of his reign, published an edict for expelling all Jews out of Rome, Acts 18:2 . It is very probable that the Christians, who were at that time confounded with the Jews, were banished likewise.
2. CLAUDIUS FELIX, successor of Cumanus in the government of Judea. Felix found means to solicit and engage Drusilla, sister of Agrippa the Younger, to leave her husband Azizus, king of the Emessenians, and to marry him, A.D. 53. Felix sent to Rome Eleazar, son of Dinaeus, captain of a band of robbers, who had committed great ravages in Palestine; he procured the death of Jonathan, the high priest, who sometimes freely represented to him his duty; he defeated a body of three thousand men, whom an Egyptian, a false prophet, had assembled upon the Mount of Olives. St. Paul being brought to Cesarea, where Felix usually resided, was well treated by this governor, who permitted his friends to see him, and render him services, hoping the Apostle would procure his redemption by a sum of money. He however neither condemned Paul, nor set him at liberty, when the Jews accused him; but adjourned the determination of this affair till the arrival of Lysias, who commanded the troops at Jerusalem, where he had taken Paul into custody, and who was expected at Cesarea, Acts 23:26-27 , &c; Acts 24:1-3 , &c.
While the Apostle was thus detained, Felix, with his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess, sent for him, and desired him to explain the religion of Jesus Christ. The Apostle spoke with his usual boldness, and discoursed to them on justice, temperance, and the last judgment. Felix trembled before this powerful exhibition of truths so arousing to his conscience; but he remanded St. Paul to his confinement. He farther detained him two years at Cesarea, in compliance with the wishes of the Jews, and in order to do something to propitiate them, because they were extremely dissatisfied with his government. Being recalled to Rome, A.D. 60; and many Jews going thither to complain of the extortions and violence committed by him in Judea, he would have been put to death, if his brother Pallas, who had been Claudius's slave, and was now his freedman, had not preserved him. Felix was succeeded in the government of Judea by Porcius Festus.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Claudius (2)
Claudius (klaw'di-ŭs). Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus, the son of Nero Drusus, born at Lyons 9 or 10 b.c.; became fourth Roman emperor on the assassination of Caius Caligula, and reigned 41-54 a.d. He was a weak and indolent man, and was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina. Several famines occurred in the reign of Claudius, one of which extended to Palestine and Syria. Acts 11:28-30. And there was an edict of his which, in consequence of a tumult, expelled the Jews from Rome. Acts 18:2. It is not agreed when this edict was issued. It is variously assigned to years between 49 and 53 a.d.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Claudius
Claudius Lysias (klaw'di-ŭs lĭsh'ĭ-as or lĭs'ĭ-as). A Roman tribune, commanding in Jerusalem. His conduct on two occasions, in reference to Paul, is creditable to his efficiency and humanity. Acts 21:31-40; Acts 22:1-30; Acts 23:1-35.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Claudius
(clayyoo' dih uhss) 1. Roman emperor from A.D. 41 to 54. He made Judea a Roman province in A.D. 44. He expelled Jews from Rome in about A.D. 49 (Acts 18:2 ), probably due to conflict between Jews and Christians in Rome. Apparently his fourth wife Agrippina poisoned him in A.D. 54 and took charge of the empire for her son Nero. The prophet Agabus announced a coming famine during Claudius' reign (Acts 11:28 ). See Caesar .
2. Roman army captain who protected Paul from Jews who wanted to assassinate him (Acts 23:26 ).
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Claudius Caesar
Fifth emperor of Rome, succeeded Caius Caligula, A. D. 41, and was followed by Nero, after a reign of thirteen years. He endowed Agrippa with royal authority over Judea, which on the death of Agrippa again became a province of Rome, A. D. 45. About this time probably occurred the famine foretold by Agabus, Acts 11:28 . In the ninth year of his reign, he banished all Jews from Rome, Acts 18:2 . In A. D. 43-44, he made a military expedition to Britain. His death was caused by poison, from the hand of his wife and niece Agrippina.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Claudius Felix
See FELIX .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Claudius Lysias
See LYSIAS .
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor
Julianus (103), Flavius Claudius, emperor, often called Julian the Apostate; born A.D. 331; appointed Caesar, Nov. 6, 355; proclaimed Augustus, Apr. 360; succeeded Constantius as sole emperor, Nov. 3, 361; died in Persia, June 27, 363. For the authorities for Julian's life, see D. C. B. (4-vol. ed.), s.v.
The first and still in some respects the best English account of Julian is to be found in Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , cc. 19, 22–24—a forcible and on the whole very just picture. Like some other cold and sceptical people (e.g. Strauss), Gibbon despised Julian's superstitious enthusiasm, and, though he cannot restrain some sneers at the church and the orthodox faith, this part of his history has generally met with comparative favour at the hands of Christian critics. Mr. J. W. Barlow on Gibbon and Julian in the Dublin Hermathena for 1877 endeavours to shew that Gibbon, in order to gain a reputation for impartiality, is unfair to the emperor, whom he thinks morally and intellectually the best man "of the whole series." In the first three quarters of the last century little or nothing was published in England specially on this subject. An interesting and valuable essay, written for a Cambridge historical prize by the Hon. Arthur Lyttelton, has been kindly placed at the disposal of the writer of this article, who owes to it several important references. It is embodied in the Church Qtly. Rev. for Oct. 1880, Vol. xi. pp. 24–58, The Pagan Reaction under Julian , which gives a fresh and vigorous view of the subject. Mr. Gerald H. Rendall's Hulsean Essay for 1876, The Emperor Julian; Paganism and Christianity is decidedly the best account of Julian's religious position in English, perhaps in any modern language. In French, we have the invaluable Tillemont and other writers of church history. Besides the articles in vol. iv. of the Empereurs there is a special treatise on the Persécution de l᾿Eglise par J. l᾿Apostat , in vol. vii. of the Mémoires . We miss, however, a critical treatment of the authorities and wide generalizations in Tillemont. He also seems to exaggerate the scope of the law against Christian professors. The fullest history of Julian is that of Albert de Broglie in vols. iii. and iv. of his L᾿Eglise et l᾿empire romain au quatrième siècle (Paris, 1866, etc.). This is indispensable to the student of the period. Its general attitude is that taken in this article, but he is too anxious to make points to be careful of minute accuracy, and therefore of entire fairness, and his references often want correction. These volumes were reviewed by C. Martha in the Revue des deux mondes for Mar 1867, vol. lxviii. pp. 137–169, who paints the emperor more favourably. In German J. F. A. Mücke, Flavius Claudius Julianus: nach den Quellen (Gotha, 1867 and 1869, 2 parts) is the most complete modern account. Fr. Rode, Geschichte der Reaction Kaiser Julians gegen die christliche Kirche (Jena, 1877); a useful study, and generally very accurate, paying proper attention to chronology. The writer takes up something of the same position is Keim does in his essay on Constantine's conversion—striving after fairness towards the church, without accepting its doctrines. He admires Julian's books against the Christians as anticipating the line of modem critical theology in many points, pp. 102, 103; cf. p. 32, n. 10.
§ 1. Early years of Julian as a Christian. (A.D. 331–351). § 2. Conversion to heathenism 351–355. § 3. Julian as Caesar from Nov. 6, 355 to Nov. 3, 361. § 4. Residence at Constantinople as Augustus , Nov. 3, 361 to May, 362. § 5. Journey through Asia Minor , May to July, 362. § 6. Residence at Antioch , July, 362 to March 5, 363. § 7. Persian campaign and death , March 5 to June 27, 363.
§ 1. Early Years of Julian as a Christian (A.D. 331–351).—Flavius Claudius Julianus was the youngest son of Julius Constantius, the half-brother of Constantine the Great. His mother, Basilina, was of the noble family of the Anicii, and daughter of Julianus the praetorian prefect, whose name was given to her son. Julian was born at Constantinople in the latter part of A.D. 331, the year after the dedication of the new capital.
Upon the death of Constantine in May 337, and the accession of his three sons, there was a general massacre of the male branches of the younger line of the Flavian family descended from Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Theodora. In this tragedy there perished the father and eldest brother of Julian, his paternal uncle, his cousins the Caesars Delmatius and Hanniballian, and four other members of the family. Julian and his elder half-brother Gallus, who was sick of an illness which was expected to be mortal, were alone preserved, by the compassion or the policy of Constantius (cf. Socr. H. E. iii. 1; Greg. Naz. Or. iii. p. 58 B . Julian, ad S. P. Q. Athen. p. 270 C , gives the list of those who perished, and ascribes their deaths to Constantius, who he says wished at first to slay both himself and Gallus). Julian is said to have owed his life to the interference of Mark, bp. of Arethusa, who gave him sanctuary in a church (Greg. Naz. Or. iii. p. 80 C ). The boy was taken charge of by his mother's family, and his education conducted under the direction of the Arian Eusebius, bp. of Nicomedia, who was distantly related to him (Amm. xxii. 9. 4; Cf. Soz. v. 2). When Eusebius was translated in 388 to the see of Constantinople Julian probably went with him, and attended the schools of that city (cf. Libanius, ἐπιτάφιος , ed. Reiske, i. p. 525; Julian, Ep. 58; and Rode, Die Reaction Julians , p. 22, n. 10). His constant attendant and guardian was his mother's slave Mardonius, whose influence evidently had great power in moulding the character and tastes of his pupil, and who insisted strongly on a staid and perhaps rather pedantic demeanour (Liban. l.c. ; Jul. Misopogon , pp. 351 seq.; Mücke, in his Julianus nach den Quellen , zweite Abtheilung, pp. 6. and 9, makes a curious blunder in supposing that Julian disliked Mardonius). Though educating him only for a private position, he set before him a high standard, and particularly held up to his imitation the names and characters of "Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, and Theophrastus" (Misop. p. 353 B). He kept him from the theatre and the circus, and taught him rather to love the Homeric descriptions of Phaeacia and Demodocus and Calypso's isle, and the cave of Circe ( ib. 351 D). Such teaching doubtless fed the naturally dreamy temperament of his pupil. Julian tells us that from a child he had a strange desire of gazing at the sun, and that he loved to spend a clear night in looking fixedly at the moon and stars, so that he almost gained the character of an astrologer (Jul. Or. iv. ad regem Solem ad init.; cf. the fable, Or. vii. p. 229, in which he speaks of himself as entrusted by Zeus to the sun's guardianship).
These pleasant days of freedom .were brought to an abrupt conclusion by the command of Constantius. The death of his relative Eusebius (in 342) deprived Julian of a powerful protector, when he was about 11 years old; and soon after (probably in 343 or 344) the emperor recalled Gallus from exile, and sent the two brothers to the distant palace of Macellum in Cappadocia. Here for six years they were kept under surveillance, with no lack of material comforts, but apart from young men of their own age and with only the society of their slaves (Greg. Naz. Or. iii. p. 58 B; Julian, ad Ath. p. 271 C). Their seclusion was only once broken by a visit from Constantius (Jul. ad Ath. p. 274, probably in 347, see laws of the Cod. Theod. in this year). Masters and teachers were not wanting, especially of that form of Arianism to which Constantius was devoted; and Julian now, if not before, made a considerable verbal acquaintance with the Bible, an acquaintance which frequently appears in his writings. He and Gallus were admitted to the office of Reader in the church—a proof that he had been baptized, though no mention of his baptism is recorded. They interested themselves zealously in the building of chapels over the relics of certain martyrs (Greg. Naz. Or. iii. p. 58; Soz. v. 2). The success of Gallus in this building and the ill-success of Julian was remarked at the time, and was (afterwards, at any rate) considered as an omen of his apostasy (Greg. Naz. l.c. p. 59).
In the spring of 351 Constantius felt himself forced by the burden of empire to take a colleague, and Gallus was appointed Caesar. Julian with difficulty was permitted to leave Macellum, and seems to have returned for a short time to Constantinople; there he studied grammar with Nicocles, and rhetoric with Hecebolius then a zealous Christian (Socr. H. E. iii. 1). Constantius, fearing lest his presence in the capital might lead to his becoming too popular, ordered him to remove to Nicomedia (Liban. Epitaph. p. 526, προσφωνητικός , p. 408). Hecebolius exacted a promise from his pupil that he would not attend the lectures of the famous heathen sophist Libanius; Julian kept his promise, perhaps fearing to excite suspicion by outward intercourse with a chief partisan of the old religion, but contented himself with a study of the written lectures of the master (Liban. l.c. 526 seq. Libanius does not name Hecebolius, but the description seems to point to him: Sievers, Libanius , p. 54, n. 5, supposes Nicocles to be meant). Others, however, in Nicomedia besides Libanius attracted the attention of the young prince. He here learnt to know some of the more mystical of the heathen party, to whom paganism was still a reality and the gods living beings, visions of whom were to be seen by night and whose power still worked signs and wonders. "He is sent to the city of Nicomedes," says Libanius, "as a place of less importance than Constantinople. But this was the beginning of the greatest blessings both to himself and the world. For there was there a spark of the mantic art still. smouldering, which had with difficulty escaped the hands of the impious. By the light of this" (turning to Julian) "you first tracked out what was obscure, and learnt to curb your vehement hatred of the gods, being rendered gentle by the revelations of divination " (Liban. Prosphoneticus , ed. Reiske, 1, p. 408.
While Julian was thus having his first experience of the inner circle of heathen life, Gallus met his brother for the last time as he passed through Bithynia to undertake the government of the East with which Constantius had invested him (Liban. Epitaph. p. 527, διὰ τῆς Βιθυνίας ). The two brothers, according to Julian's account, corresponded but rarely after this, and on few subjects (Jul. ad Ath. p. 273; Liban. Epitaph. p. 530). Gallus, it is said, having reason at a later date to suspect his brother's change of belief, sent the Arian Aetius to confer with him (Philostorgius, 3, 27). Julian, if we may believe Libanus, sent Galllus good advice on his political conduct, which had he followed he might have preserved both the empire and his life (Liban. ad Jul. cos. p. 376, ed. Reiske).
§ 2. Conversion to Heathenism (A.D. 351–355).—The secret apostasy of Julian was the result of his residence at Nicomedia, though it was not completed there. The chief agent in effecting it was the neo-Platonist Maximus of Ephesus, a philosopher, magician, and political schemer. The fame of the wisdom of Aedesius first attracted Julian to Pergamus but he, being old and infirm, recommended him to his pupils, Chrysanthius and Eusebius. The latter was, or pretended to be, an adversary of the theurgic methods of Maximus, and a follower of the higher and more intellectual Platonism, and used to finish every lecture by a general warning against trickery and charlatans. Julian, much struck with this, took the advice of Chrysanthius upon the point, and asked Eusebius to explain what he meant. The latter replied by an account of Maximus, which gave a new edge of the already keen curiosity of Julian. "Some days ago" (he went on) "he ran in and called our company together to the temple of Hecate, thus making a large body of witnesses against himself. . . . When we came before the goddess and saluted her, he cried, 'Sit down, dearest friends, and see what will happen, and whether I am superior to ordinary men.' We all sat down, then he burnt a grain of frankincense, and as he repeated some sort of chant to himself he so far succeeded in the exhibition of his power that first the image smiled and then even appeared to laugh. We were confounded at the sight, but he said, 'Let none of you be disturbed at this, for in a moment the torches which the goddess has in her hands will be lighted up'—and before he had done speaking light actually burned in the. torches. We then retired, being amazed and in doubt at the wonder which had taken place. But do not you wonder at anything of this kind, just as I also through the purifying effects of reason conceive it is nothing of great importance." Julian (says Eunapius) hearing this, exclaimed, "Farewell, and keep to your books, if you will; you have revealed to me the man I was in search of" (Eunapius, Vita Maximi, pp. 48–51, ed. Boissonade). It is difficult to believe that Eusebius was not in league with Chrysanthius to bring Julian under the influence of Maximus. The young prince hurried off to Ephesus, and there threw himself with eagerness into the teaching of his new master, which seems exactly to have suited his fantastic temperament. Julian had no practical Christianity to fall back upon. The sense of being watched and suspected had sunk deeply into his mind at Macellum, and he had learnt to look upon Constantius not only as his jailor, but as the murderer of his nearest relations. This naturally did not incline him to the religion inculcated by Arian or semi-Arian court bishops, who probably laid stress upon their peculiar points of divergence from the orthodox faith, and neglected the rest of Christian theology. Julian therefore conceived of Christianity, not as a great body of truth satisfying the whole man, but as a set of formulas to be plausibly debated and distinguished. On the other hand, he had a real, though pedantic, love of Hellenic authors and literature, and a natural dislike to those who destroyed the ancient monuments of the old faith. His characteristic dreaminess and love of mystery found satisfaction in the secret cults to which men like Maximus were addicted—all the more zealously as public sacrifice was difficult or dangerous. He was by nature ardent and superstitious, and never fell into good hands. The pagan coterie soon discovered the importance of their convert, and imbued him with the notion that he was the chosen servant of the gods to bring back again Hellenic life and religion. By the arts of divination a speedy call to the throne was promised him, and he vowed to restore to the temples if he became emperor. (Libanius Epitaph. pp. 529 and 565, who agrees substantially with Socrates, iii. 1, p. 168, and Sozomen, v. 2, p. 181; cf. Theod. iii. 1). For the present, however, the fulfilment of such hopes seemed distant, and Julian for ten years pretended zeal for Christianity (Liban. Epitaph. p. 528; Amm. xxii. 5, 1; Sol iii. 1; Soz. v. 2). He had, indeed, good reason to fear the suspicions of his cousin. In 354 [1], was craftily removed from his government and executed, and Julian was apprehended, on obscure charges (Amm. xv. 2, 7—the charge of leaving Macellum without permission seems strange, since the brothers had been released from their retirement some four years before). For seven months he was confined in N. Italy near the court, being removed from place to place (Jul. ad Ath. p. 272 D; Liban. Epitaph. p. 530; cf. Jul. ad Themist. p. 260 A)—an imprisonment brought to an end by the intervention of the gentle empress Eusebia, who procured for him an interview with Constantius, and leave to return to his studies (Jul. ad Ath. pp. 272, 274; Or. 3, p. 118 B). At first he determined to retire to his mother's property in Bithynia, Constantius having confiscated all the estates of his father (Jul. ad Ath. p. 273; Ep. 40, p. 417 A, to Iamblichus—an interesting letter written 3 years later, and not concealing his religious opinions). He had hardly arrived in Asia Minor when the suspicions of Constantius were aroused by two reports brought by informers, one of treasonable proceedings at a banquet given by Africanus, the governor of Pannonia Secunda at Sirmium, the other of the rising of Silvanus in Gaul (Jul., ad Ath. p. 273 C, D; cf. Amm. xv. 3, 7 seq.). The first was no doubt connected in his mind with Julian, who had just passed through that country, and whom he in consequence recalled, but on his way back received permission, or rather command, to turn aside into Greece, a privilege which Eusebia had procured for him ( ad Ath. 273 D; Or. 3, p. 118 C). He thus could gratify a long-cherished wish of visiting Athens. The young prince was naturally well received by professors and sophists, such as Prohaeresius and Himerius, then teaching at Athens. He had a turn for philosophy, and could discourse eagerly, in the modern neo-Platonic fashion, about the descent and the ascent of souls. He was surrounded by a swarm of young and old men, philosophers and rhetoricians, and (if we may believe Libanius) gained favour as much by his modesty and gentleness as by the qualities of his intelligence (Liban. Epitaph. p. 532). Two of the most distinguished of his familiars among his fellow-students at this time were the future bishops Basil and Gregory Nazianzen, then as always close and intimate friends. Gregory, however, seems to have detected something of his real character; he noticed an air of wildness and unsteadiness, a wandering eye, an uneven gait, a nervous agitation of the features, an unreasoning and disdainful laugh, an abrupt, irregular way of talking, which betrayed a mind ill at ease with itself, and exclaimed, "What a plague the Roman empire is breeding! God grant I may be a false prophet!" ( Or. pp. 161, 162). Gregory, who had many friends among the professors, may well have been aware of the real state of the young prince's mind, and of his nightly visits to Eleusis, where he could indulge his religious feelings without reserve. Maximus had introduced him to the hierophant there, a great miracle-worker who was in league with the heathen party in Asia Minor (Eunapius, Vita Maximi , pp. 52, 53).
§ 3. Julian as Caesar (from Nov. 6, 355, to Nov. 3, 361—death of Constantius).—About May 355 Julian was permitted to go to Athens, but a few months later was summoned again to the court (Jul. ad Ath. p. 273 D). He left the city in low spirits and with many tears, and, stretching out his hands to the Acropolis, besought Athena to save her suppliant—an act which, he tells us, many saw him perform ( ib. p. 475 A). Those who did so could hardly have doubted his change of religion, and there were doubtless many sympathizers who looked to him as the future restorer of the old faith. He first crossed the Aegean to Ilium Novum, where he visited the antiquities under the guidance of the then Christian bp. Pegasius, who delighted him by omitting the sign of the cross in the temples, and otherwise shewing heathen sympathies (Jul. Ep. 78—the letter, first edited by C. Henning, in Hermes , Vol. ix.). On his arrival at Milan, Constantius was absent, but Julian was well received by the eunuchs of the empress (ad Ath. pp. 274, 275 B). His first impulse was to write to his protectress and implore her to obtain leave for him to return home; but on demanding a revelation from the gods, he received an intimation of their displeasure and a threat of disgraceful death if he did so, and, in consequence; schooled himself to yield his will to theirs, and to become their instrument for whatever purposes they chose ( ib. pp. 275, 276 ; cf. Liban. ad Jul. consulem , t. 1, p. 378). Constantius soon returned, and determined, under the persevering pressure of his wife and notwithstanding strong opposition, to give the dignity of Caesar to his sole remaining relative (Amm. xv. 8, 3; Zos. 3, 1). On Nov. 6, 355, Julian received the insignia in the presence of the army at Milan, and was given control of the prefecture of Gaul (i.e. Spain, Gaul, Britain, and Germany), and especially of the defence of the frontiers ( ad Ath. p. 277 A; Amm. l.c. ). As he drew the unwonted garb around him in place of his beloved pallium, he was heard to mutter the line of Homer, to which his wit gave a new shade of meaning:
"Him purple death and destiny embraced"
(Amm. xv. 8, 17). At the same time he received, through the management of Eusebia, the emperor's sister Helena as his bride, and the gift of a library from the empress herself (Or. iii. p. 123 D). Thus the reconciliation of the cousins was apparently complete. Julian produced a spirited panegyric upon the reign and just actions of Constantius, which it seems right to assign to this date ( Or. 1; cf. Spanheim's notes, p. 5). He set out, on Dec. 1, for his new duties with a small retinue, from which almost all his personal followers were carefully excluded (Amm. xv. 8, 17, 18; Jul., ad Ath. p. 277 B, C). Of his four slaves, one was his only confidant in religious matters, an African named Euhemerus ( ad Ath. p. 277 B; Eunap. Vita Maximi , p. 54). His physician, Oribasius, who had charge of his library, was only allowed to accompany him through ignorance of their intimacy (ad Ath. l.c. ; Eunap. Vita Oribasii , p. 104). He entered Vienne with great popular rejoicing (for the province was hard-pressed by the barbarians) and possibly with secret expectations amongst the heathen party, which had been strong in the time of Magnentius. A blind old woman, learning his name and office as he passed, cried out, "There goes he who will restore the temples of the gods!" (Amm. xv. 8, 22).
During the next five years the young Caesar appears as a strenuous and successful general and a popular ruler. The details of his wars with the Franks and Alamanns, the Salii and Chamavi, will be found in Ammianus and Zosimus. Perhaps we ought to recollect that he was his own historian, writing "commentaries" (now no longer extant) which were no doubt intended to rival those of the author of the Gallic War. After an expedition against the Franks in the autumn of 357 he wintered for the first time at Paris, which became a favourite abode of his. He gives a well-known description of his φίλη Λουκετία in the Misopogon (pp. 340 seq.). His military successes endeared him to both troops and people. His internal government, particularly as lightening public burdens, was equally popular. He had specially to contend with the avarice of Florentius, the praetorian prefect, who desired to increase the capitatio , and who, on Julian's refusal to sign the indiction, complained of him to Constantius (Amm. xvii. 3, 2, and 5, in 357). Constantius, while reproving him for discrediting his officer, left him a practically free hand, and the tax, which on his entering Gaul was 25 aurei a head, had been reduced to 7 when he left (Amm. xvi. 5, 24; cf. xvii. 3, 6).
His ambition was to imitate Marcus Aurelius as a philosopher upon the throne, and Alexander the Great as a model in warfare (ad Themist. p. 253). His table was very plainly furnished, and he refused all the luxuries which Constantius had written down for him as proper for a Caesar's board (Amm. xvi. 5, 3). His bed was a mat and a rug of skins, from which he rose at midnight, and, after secret prayer to Mercury, addressed himself first to public business and then to literature. He studied philosophy first, then poetry, rhetoric, and history, making himself also fairly proficient in Latin. His chamber was ordinarily never warmed; and one very cold night, at Paris, he was nearly suffocated by some charcoal in a brazier, but erroneously attributed it to the dampness of the room ( Misopogon , p. 341). All this attracted the people, but was not agreeable to many of the courtiers. Julian knew that he was surrounded by disaffected officials and other spies upon his conduct, and continued to conceal his religious sentiments, and to act cautiously towards his cousin. During his administration of Gaul he produced another panegyric upon Constantius, and one upon Eusebia, though the exact occasion of neither can be determined (Or. 2 and 3). In these orations Julian, though indulging to the full in classical parallels and illustrations, takes care to hide his change of religion. He speaks even of his prayers to God for Constantius, naturally indeed and not in a canting way ( Or. 3, p. 118 D). Nor did he hesitate to join with him in issuing a law denouncing a capital penalty against those who sacrifice to or worship idols ( Cod. Theod. xvi. 10, 6, Apr. 356), in repressing magic and all kinds of divination with very severe edicts ( ib. ix. 16, 4–6, in 357 and 358), in punishing renegade Christians who had become Jews ( ib. xvi. 8, 7), and in granting new privileges to the church and clergy, and regulating those already given ( ib. xvi. 2, 13–16; the last as late as Mar 361). To have hinted at dislike to any of these measures would, indeed, have aroused at once the strongest suspicions. One of the edicts against magic, which threatens torture for every kind of divination, seems almost personally directed against Julian ( Cod. Theod. ix. 16, 6, dated July 5, 358, from Ariminum). The effect upon his conscience of condemning as a public officer what he was secretly practising must have been hardening and demoralizing. For Julian was not without thought on such subjects. At another time he declared he would rather die than sign the oppressive edict brought him by Florentius (Amm. xvii. 3, 2); and in his later famous decree against Christian professors he writes vehemently of the wickedness of thinking one thing and teaching another ( Ep. 42).
In Apr. 360 Constantius ordered the flower of the Gallic auxiliaries to be sent to aid him in his expedition against the Persians (Amm. xx. 4). This request produced great irritation among men who had enlisted on the understanding that they were not to be required to cross the Alps—an irritation fomented no doubt by the friends of Julian, particularly, it is said, by Oribasius (Eunap. Vita Oribasii , p. 104). The troops surrounded the palace at Paris and demanded that their favourite should take the title of Augustus (ad Ath. p. 284; Amm. xx. 4, 14). Julian, according to his own account, was quite unprepared for such a step, and would not accede till Jupiter had given him a sign from heaven. This sign was no doubt the vision of the Genius of the Empire, who declared that he had long been waiting on his threshold and was now unwilling to be turned away from it. Yet he warned him (so Julian told his intimates) that his residence with him would in no case be for long (Amm. xx. 5, 10; cf. Lib. ad Jul. cos. p. 386). We have no reason, however, to think that Julian had any real hesitation, except as to the opportuneness of the moment. When he came down to address the troops, he still appeared reluctant, but the enthusiasm of the soldiers would take no denial, and he was raised in Gallic fashion upon a shield, and hastily crowned with a gold chain which a dragoon ( draconarius ) tore from his own accoutrements. He promised the accustomed donative (Amm. xx. 4, 18), which the friends of Constantius, it would seem, secretly tried to outdo by bribes (ad Ath. p. 285 A). The discovery of their intrigue only raised the popular enthusiasm to a higher pitch, and Julian felt strong enough to treat with his cousin. He dispatched an embassy with a letter declining to send the Gallic troops, who (he declared) positively refused to go, and could not be spared with safety; but he offered some small corps of barbarian auxiliaries. He related the action of the army in proclaiming him Augustus, but said nothing of his own wish to bear the title. As a compromise he proposed that Constantius should still appoint the praetorian prefect, the chief governor of that quarter of the empire, but that all lesser offices should be under his own administration ( ib. D, and for particulars, Amm. xx. 8, 5–17), who gives the substance of the letter at length). But to these public and open requests he added a threatening and bitter private missive, which had the effect, whether intentionally or not, of rendering his negotiations abortive (Amm. l.c. ).
Such a state of things could only end in war, but neither party was in a hurry to precipitate it. In Vienne Julian celebrated the fifth anniversary of his appointment, and appeared for the first tune in the jewelled diadem which had become the symbol of imperial dignity (Amm. xxi. 1, 4). Meanwhile both Eusebia and Helena had been removed by death, and with them almost the last links which united the cousins. Julian still kept up the pretence of being a Christian. At Epiphany, 361, he kept the festival solemnly and even ostentatiously, joining in the public prayers and devotions (ib. 2). He witnessed calmly the triumphant return of St. Hilary after his exile, and permitted the Gallic bishops to hold a council at Paris (S. Hilarii, Frag. Hist. pp. 1353, 1354). His name also appears, after that of Constantius, attached to a law issued on Mark 1 at Antioch, giving privileges to Christian ascetics. But all this was mere dissimulation for the sake of popularity. In secret he was anxiously trying, by all possible heathen means, to divine the future (Amm. xxi. x1 6 seq.). He sent in particular for the hierophant of Eleusis, with whose aid he performed rites known to themselves alone (Eunap. Vita Maximi , p. 53; cf. Amm. xxi. 5, 1, "placata ritu secretiori Bellona").
The irritation against Constantius was further increased by an arrogant letter, addressed of course to the Caesar Julian, requiring his immediate submission and merely promising him his life. Julian, on receiving this, uttered an exclamation which betrayed his religion: "He would rather commit himself and his life to the gods than to Constantius" (Zos. iii. 9, 7). The moment seemed now come for action. In a speech to the soldiers in which he referred in ambiguous language to the will of the God of heaven—"arbitrium dei caelestis"—he called upon them to take the oath of allegiance and follow him across the Alps. He spoke in general terms of occupying Illyricum and Dacia, and then deciding what was to be done (Amm. xxi. 5). Having thus secured the Western provinces, he made a rapid and successful passage through N. Italy, receiving its submission. He reached Sirmium without opposition, having ordered the different divisions of his army to concentrate there. Then he took and garrisoned the important pass of Succi (Ssulu Derbend) on the Balkans, between Sardica and Philippopolis, thus securing the power to descend into Thrace. For the time he established his quarters at Naissus (Nish), and awaited further news. From there he wrote to the senate of Rome against Constantius, and in self-defence to the Athenians, Lacedemonians, and Corinthians (Zos. iii. 10).
The Athenian letter was possibly entrusted to the Eleusinian hierophant, who returned home about this time. It was perhaps also under his guidance that Julian underwent the secret ceremonies of initiation described by Gregory Nazianzen (Or. 4, 52–56, pp. 101–103). According to common report, he submitted to the disgusting bath of blood,
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Nero, Claudius Caesar
Nero (1), Claudius Caesar, emperor (Oct. 13, 54, to June 9, 68). For our purpose the interest of Nero's life centres in his persecution of the Christians. For his general history see Merivale, cc. lii.–lv. During his early reign Christianity was unmolested and seems to have spread rapidly at Rome. No doubt it received a great impetus from the preaching of St. Paul during the two years after his arrival, probably early in 61. But before long a terrible storm was to burst on the infant church. On the night of July 16, 64, a fire broke out in the valley between the Palatine and the Aventine. That part of the city was crowded with humble dwellings and shops full of inflammable contents. The lower parts of the city became a sea of flame. For six days the fire raged till it reached the foot of the Esquiline, where it was stopped by pulling down a number of houses. Soon after a second fire broke out in the gardens of Tigellinus near the Pincian, and raged for three days in the N. parts of the city. Though the loss of life was less in the second fire, the destruction of temples and public buildings was more serious. By the two fires three of the 14 regions were utterly destroyed, four escaped entirely, in the remaining seven but few houses were left standing. Nero was at Antium when the fire broke out, and did not return to Rome till it had almost reached the vast edifice he had constructed to connect his palace on the Palatine with the gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline.
The horrible suspicion that Nero himself was the author of the fire gained strength. This is asserted as a positive fact by Suetonius (c. 38), Dion (lxii. 16), and Pliny the Elder (xvii. 1), the last being a contemporary, but Tacitus alludes to it only as a prevalent rumour. Whether well founded or not, and whether, supposing it true, the emperor's motive was to clear away the crooked, narrow streets of the old town in order to rebuild it on a new and regular plan, or whether it was a freak of madness, need not be discussed here. At any rate Nero found it necessary to divert from himself the rage of the people and put the blame upon the Christians.
The only author living near the time of the persecution who gives an account of it is Tacitus. After describing the origin of Christianity he proceeds: "First were arrested those who confessed, then on their information a vast multitude was convicted, not so much on the charge of arson as for their hatred of the human race. Their deaths were made more cruel by the mockery that accompanied them. Some were covered with the skins of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs; others perished on the cross or in the flames; and others again were burnt after sunset as torches to light up the darkness. Nero himself granted his gardens (on the Vatican) for the show, and gave an exhibition in the circus, and, dressed as a charioteer, mixed with the people or drove his chariot himself. Thus, guilty and deserving the severest punishment as they were, yet they were pitied, as they seemed to be put to death, not for the benefit of the state but to gratify the cruelty of an individual" (Ann. xv. 44). This narrative has been the subject of very various interpretations. Lightfoot ( Phil. 24–27) considers that the Christians were at this time sufficiently numerous and conspicuous to attract the fury of the populace. The ambiguity of Tacitus leaves it doubtful whether those first arrested " confessed Christianity" or "confessed they were guilty of the burning." Schiller ( Geschichte des röm. Kaiserreichs unter Nero , 435) argues that "fateri" in Tacitus is always used of the confession of a crime. According to his view, as many of the shops near the circus where the fire originated were occupied by Jews, suspicion would fall upon them, which would be strengthened by the fact that the Transtiberine, the Ghetto of that time, was one of the few quarters that had escaped the fire. At that time Jews and Christians lived in the same part of the town and in the same manner. Weiszäcker (Jahrbücher für Deutsche Theologie , xxi. 269, etc.) considers, with much probability, that Nero and his advisers having selected the Christians as the victims of the popular indignation, those first seized were conspicuous members and were charged as incendiaries, and from them the names of others were ascertained and these treated in the same way. Thus a vast number were arrested, so many that all could not have been guilty of arson. Why Nero selected the Christians must remain uncertain. The Jews, who at first sight would seem more likely scapegoats, as being more conspicuous and probably more unpopular, were strong enough to make Nero hesitate to attack them. A Jewish persecution in Rome might excite a dangerous revolt in Judea. The Christians, however, were conspicuous and numerous enough to furnish a plentiful supply of victims, but too few and weak to be formidable. From the allusions of St. Clement (Ep. to Cor. c. 6), a little more information can be obtained. Like Tacitus, he speaks of the vast multitude, and mentions that women underwent terrible and unholy tortures.
The persecution was probably confined to Rome. There is little evidence of it extending to the rest of the empire. The Acts of the saints mentioned by Tillemont (Mém. eccl. ii. 73–89) are all more or less fabulous, and even if authentic there seems little or no ground for placing them in the reign of Nero. The accounts in Acts of the journeys of St. Paul shew how easily an outbreak of popular fury might be excited by Jews or heathens, who, either on religious or private grounds, were hostile to the new doctrine, and how easily in such an outbreak a conspicuous Christian might be murdered without any state edict against Christianity, or without the public authorities interfering at all, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that, when Nero set the example of persecution, many provincial magistrates would take a harsher view than previously of the case of any Christian brought before them.
The question of the connexion between Nero and Antichrist was brought into prominence by M. Renan. The significance of the Neronian persecution lies in the fact that it was the first. Hitherto the attitude of state officials to Christianity had on the whole been favourable; at worst they treated it with contemptuous indifference. All this was now suddenly changed. The head of the state had made a ferocious attack on the infant church. Henceforth the two powers were in more or less violent antagonism till the struggle of 250 years was closed by the conversion of Constantine. Whatever the date of the Apocalypse, it can hardly be doubted that the Neronian persecution with .all its horrors was vividly present to the mind of the author. To have perished obscurely by his own hand seemed both to pagans and Christians too commonplace an end for a monster who for 14 years had filled such a place in the eyes and the minds of men. Few had witnessed his death, so that the notion easily arose that he was still alive, had taken refuge with the Parthians, and would reappear. Tacitus mentions (Hist. i. 2; ii. 8, 9) the appearance of two false Neros, and Suetonius (c. 56) alludes to another. In the days of his prosperity diviners had predicted his fall and that he would gain a new dominion in the East and Jerusalem and at last regain the empire ( ib. c. 40).
According to the theory of M. Reuss (Hist. de la théol. chrétienne , i. 429–452), adopted by Renan, the Apocalypse was written during the reign of Galba, i.e. at the end of 68 or beginning of 69, when men's minds were agitated, especially in Asia Minor, by the appearance of a false Nero in the island of Cythnus (Tac. Hist. ii. 8). M. Reuss interprets the first six heads of the first beast as the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, Nero, and Galba, of whom the first five were dead, while the sixth, Galba, was then reigning. As he was 73 years old his reign must soon terminate; a seventh was to follow and reign for a short time, after which one of the emperors supposed to be dead was to reappear as Antichrist. The first four emperors had not been hostile to the Christians, and none of them, except Caius, had died a violent death. Nero therefore alone answers the description. Finally M. Reuss interprets the number of the beast as the numerical value of the letters of the words Νέρων Καῖσαρ when written in Hebrew, and explains the existence of the ancient variant reading 616 by supposing it due to a Latin reader who had found the solution, but pronounced the name Nero and not Neron. Whether this theory be well founded or not, the opinion that Nero would return as Antichrist certainly continued for centuries. Commodianus, who probably wrote c. 250, alludes to it (xli. in Migne, Patr. Lat. v. 231), and even in the 5th cent. St. Augustine ( de Civ. Dei , xx. 19, in ib. xli. 686) mentions that some then believed he would rise again and reappear as Antichrist, and that others thought he had never died, but would appear at the appointed time and recover his kingdom. Another view was that Nero would be the precursor of Antichrist (Lact. Mortes 2, Sulp. Sev. Dial. ii. 14 in Patr. Lat. vii. 197; xx. 211.)
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Victor, Claudius Marius
Victor ( 39 ) (Victorius, Victorinus ), Claudius Marius, the author of three books in hexameter verse, containing the narrative of Genesis down to the destruction of the cities of the Plain; author also of a letter to "Salmon," or Solomon, an abbat, in hexameter verse, on the corrupt manners of his time. He is probably the Victorius, or Victorinus, mentioned by Gennadius ( de Vir. Ill. 60) as a rhetorician of Marseilles, who died "Theodosio et Valentiano regnantibus" ( i.e. 425–450), and who addressed to his son Aetherius a commentary on Genesis. Gennadius says "a principio libri usque ad obitum patriarchae Abrahae tres diversos edidit libros." This does not accurately describe the work we have under the name of Cl. M. Victor. But there is a diversity of reading in the passage of Gennadius. In Erasmus's ed. of St. Jerome the passage stands " quatuor versuum edidit libros." If this be the right reading, it seems almost certain that the three books we have of Cl. M. Victor, ending as they now do at a point which seems to call for some explanation, are the first three books of those mentioned by Gennadius, and that a fourth book, now lost, carried on the narrative to Abraham's death, where a natural halting-place for the work is presented. The three books correspond very well with what Gennadius says of the work of Victorius; they are written in a pious and Christian spirit, but without depth or great force of treatment. They are, mainly, a paraphrase in verse of part of Genesis with but few reflections; the narrative, with one or two exceptions, keeping closely to that of Scripture. The most notable variation is the introduction of a prayer by Adam on his expulsion from Paradise, which is followed by a strange episode. The serpent is discerned by Eve, who urges Adam to take vengeance on him. In assailing him with stones, a spark is struck from a flint, which sets fire to the wood in which Adam and Eve had taken shelter, and they are threatened with destruction. This mishap is the means of revealing to them metals, forced from the ground by the heat, and of preparing the earth, by the action of the fire, for the production of corn. The style of the poem and its language are in no way remarkable; its versification is generally tolerable, but there are instances of wrong quantities of syllables. The Ep. to Salomon is a poem of about 100 hexameters, and more original, though not of special interest. Both are in De la Bigne's Bibl. Patr. viii. 278, and Appendix; and in Maittaires' Corpus Poetarum Lat. ii. 1567.
[1]

Sentence search

Felix - Claudius. See Claudius
Claudia - Claudius
Claudius - His full name was Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus. Herod Agrippa I: used his influence in favour of Claudius being chosen as emperor, and in return for these efforts the emperor added to Agrippa's territories Judaea, Samaria, and some parts of Lebanon. It was Claudius who, on account of a tumult of the Jews, banished all Jews from Rome
Claudius Lysias - Claudius LYSIAS
Claudius (2) - Claudius (klaw'di-ŭs). Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus, the son of Nero Drusus, born at Lyons 9 or 10 b. Several famines occurred in the reign of Claudius, one of which extended to Palestine and Syria
Claudius - Claudius . Claudius, the fourth Roman emperor, who bore the names Tiberius Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus, reigned from (24th) 25th Jan. He was a son of Nero Claudius Drusus (the brother of the emperor Tiberius) and Antonia minor (a daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia, sister of the emperor Augustus), and was born on 1st August 10 b. The reign of Claudius was satisfactory to the Empire beyond the average
Tiberius - Tiberius Claudius Nero, the second Roman emperor, from a. He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, and hence a stepson of Augustus
c Sar - , and is applied to Augustus, Luke 2:1; Tiberius, Luke 3:1; Claudius, Acts 11:28; and Nero, Acts 25:8. For an account of these, see Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero
Narcissus - He is supposed to have been the private secretary of the emperor Claudius
Clau'Dius - In the reign of Claudius there were several famines, arising from unfavorable harvests, and one such occurred in Palestine and Syria. ( Acts 11:28-30 ) Claudius was induced by a tumult of the Jews in Rome to expel them from the city
Claudius - ...
In Claudius' reign occurred the famine in Palestine and Syria (Acts 11:28-30) under the procurators Cuspins Fadus and Tiberius Alexander. , 25) writes: "Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome, as they were constantly raising disturbances under the instigation of one Christ" (this was between A. Claudius was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina Nero's mother (A
Lysias - Or Claudius Lysias, commander of the Roman guard at Jerusalem during Paul's last visit there
Narcis'Sus - Some have assumed the identity of this Narcissus with the secretary of the emperor Claudius; but this is quite uncertain
Claudius - Claudius, or, to give him his full Imperial style, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (to which the honorary titles Britannicus and Sarmaticus [1] are sometimes added), the son of Nero Claudius Drusus (38-9 b. Claudius was left to the society of his social inferiors, and coarse tastes were developed in him. Gaius, grandnephew of Tiberius and nephew of Claudius, succeeded to the purple in a. Soon after, however, the feelings of the maddest of all the Emperors changed, and Claudius was once more in a position of disgrace. Claudius had married Plautia Urgulanilla (before a. It is said that Claudius, after the murder of his nephew, was dragged from a remote part of the palace, where he was cowering in terror, and made Emperor almost unawares (25 Jan. He now changed his name from Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus to that given above. Claudius followed in person, defeated the enemy on the Thames, captured their chief city Camulodunum (Colchester), and returned to the continent after a sixteen days’ stay. These last were to represent sounds as yet imperfectly represented, but they did not survive Claudius’ reign. Claudius married as his fourth wife his own niece, Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus. , son of Claudius’ old friend. She betrothed her son to Octavia, Claudius’ daughter, and put him under the tuition of the great philosopher L. 50 the young Domitius was adopted by Claudius, as future colleague to his own son Britannicus. Other events are the war in Germany; the great success of Scapula-the wife, daughter, and brothers of Caratacus falling into the hands of the conqueror; Claudius’ edict expelling the Jews from Rome (Acts 18:2), on account of their dissensions. In 54 Claudius was poisoned at the instance of Agrippina on 13 October. ...
Claudius was deified after his death. A skit preserved among the works of Seneca, and called ‘The Pumpkinification of Claudius,’ is among the most amusing relics of Latin literature. ...
This bald enumeration will show that much was done during the reign of Claudius. Claudius was, inter alia, something of an author
Claudius - Claudius Lysias (klaw'di-ŭs lĭsh'ĭ-as or lĭs'ĭ-as)
Narcissus - ’ The name was not uncommon, but many have identified the person mentioned here with the secretary of the Emperor Claudius, who was put to death by Agrippina in the first year of Nero’s reign, about three years before this Epistle was written. According to the custom of those times, the household of the freedman of Claudius would pass into the possession of Nero, retaining the name of their deceased owner
Appian Way - Road constructed by Appius Claudius in 312 B
Gallio - , proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12 ). Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a province was called a "proconsul
Claudius - ...
...
...
Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase the privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius (Acts 21:31-40 ; 22:28 ; 23:26 )
Appii Forum - Called from Appius Claudius, who constructed this part of the road
Narcissus - Two men of this name are mentioned in Roman histories of that time; one, executed three or four years before Paul wrote, was a favorite of the emperor Claudius; the other, of Nero his successor
Caesar - The history of the New Testament fell under the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero
Claudia - It is a conjecture having some probability that she was a British maiden, the daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed the name of the emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that she was the wife of Pudens
Appii Forum - It was constructed by Appius Claudius, hence its name
Lycia - In the reign of Claudius it became a Roman province
Appii Forum - It probably had its name from the statue of Appius Claudius, a Roman consul, who paved the famous way from Rome to Capua, and whose statue was set up here
Gal'Lio - 53, under the emperor Claudius
Acquaviva, Rudolph, Blessed - A nephew of Claudius Acquaviva
Ostia - (ahss tee uh) Roman city at the mouth of the Tiber about fifteen miles from Rome which, following construction of an artificial harbor by Claudius (A
Rudolph Acquaviva, Blessed - A nephew of Claudius Acquaviva
Agabus - He foretold the famine, of which Suetonious and others speak, in the days of Claudius, A
Caesar - There were several Caesars: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius I, and Nero
Agabus - The famine happened, not simultaneously in all countries, in Claudius’ reign (Suetonius, Tacitus)
Gallio - He was proconsul of Achaia, under the Emperor Claudius, about 53 and 54 a
Appii - It doubtless derived its name from Appius Claudius, who constructed the road
Aquila - When the Jews were banished from that city by the emperor Claudius, Aquilla and his wife retired to Corinth
Appii-Forum - Market place of Appius, a village or market town, founded by Appius Claudius on the great road (via Appia) which he constructed from Rome to Capua
Narcisus - The most famous Narcissus was a freedman who served as an advisor to Emperor Claudius (A
Ananias - He was acquitted by Claudius of Rome from an accusation of permitting violence, and murdered at the beginning of the Jewish war (Acts 23; 24)
Claudius, the Emperor - Claudius (1) a. His presence there when Claudius came to the throne (Joseph. The decree mentioned in Act_18:2 and by Suetonius (Claudius c. ...
It is obvious further, (1) that the expulsion of Christians who had been Jews or proselytes would leave a certain proportion of purely Gentile Christians whom the edict would not touch; and (2) that those who returned would naturally settle, not in the Jewish trans-Tiberine quarter of the city, but in some safer locality, and that thus the church at Rome, at or soon after the death of Claudius, would gradually become more and more free from Jewish or Judaizing influences. (On other points connected with the rise and progress of Christianity at Rome under Claudius see "Aquila and Priscilla," and the "Proto-martyr Stephen," in the writer's Biblical Studies
Tibe'Rius - (in full, Tiberius Claudius Nero), the second Roman emperor, successor of Augustus, who began to reign A. He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, and hence a stepson of Augustus
Claudia - 52, while Claudius was emperor. In 1772 a marble was dug up at Chichester (now in the gardens at Goodwood) mentioning Cogidunus, with the surname Claudius from his patron the emperor's name
Herod Arippa ii. - The emperor Claudius made him tetrarch of the provinces of Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king (Acts 25:13 ; 26:2,7 )
Aristobulus - The grandson lived as a private Individual at Rome, and was a friend of the Emperor Claudius; those greeted by St
Egyptian, the - An unnamed leader of the ‘Assassins’ or ‘Sicarii’ for whom Claudius Lysias took St
Felix - A Roman governor of Judea; originally a slave, but manumitted and promoted by Claudius Caesar, from whom he received the name of Claudius
Achaia - Tiberias united the two districts into an imperial province under procurators; but Claudius again restored it to the senate under a proconsul, so that Luke was correct in calling Gallio a proconsul (ἀνθύπατος)or deputy
Dungal - In 815 he was appointed master of the imperial school at Pavia, and several years later he appeared against Claudius, Bishop of Turin, in a work defending the veneration of images
Tiberius Caesar - , as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only mentioned in Luke 3:1
Agabus - His prophecy was fulfilled about ten years later in the reign of Claudius Caesar (Acts 11:27-29 )
Caesar - The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1 ), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28 ), and Nero (Acts 25:8 ; Philippians 4:22 )
Claudius - The prophet Agabus announced a coming famine during Claudius' reign (Acts 11:28 )
Felix - 5:9) Claudius (Suidas), Roman procurator of Judaea, appointed by the emperor Claudius, whose freedman he was, to succeed Ventidius Cumanus, who was banished A. Having the powerful support of his brother Pallas, Claudius' freedman and favorite, he thought he could do what he liked with impunity. Claudius Lysias, the chief captain, sent Paul for judgment to Felix at Caesarea
Lycia - Its two chief towns Patara and Myra Paul visited, during the period when Lycia and Pamphylia in Claudius' reign were combined under one proconsul (Acts 21:1; Acts 27:5)
Dearth - In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in Palestine (Acts 11:28 ) in the fourth year of the reign of the emperor Claudius (A
Theu'Das - Josephus speaks of a Theudas who played a similar part in the time of Claudius, about A
Vespasian - He was born into a wealthy family and became a military hero as commander of a legion under Emperor Claudius
Herod Agrippa i - Eventually he had the government of Judaea and Samaria given to him by Claudius
Caesar - The emperors alluded to by this title in the New Testament, are Augustus, Luke 2:1 ; Tiberius, Luke 3:1 20:22 ; Claudius, Acts 11:28 ; and Nero, Acts 25:8 Philippians 4:22
Theudas - ), under Claudius, i. after Archelaus' dethronement), a very turbulent period in which Josephus names three disturbers, leaving the rest unnamed; among the latter was probably Theudas; it is not strange that 50 years later another Theudas, an insurgent in Claudius' time, should arise
Agrippa ii. - The Emperor Claudius (A
Acha'ia - ( Acts 18:12 ; 19:21 ; Romans 15:26 ; 16:5 ; 1 Corinthians 16:15 ; 2 Corinthians 7:5 ; 9:2 ; 11:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:7,8 ) In the time of the emperor Claudius it was governed by a proconsul, translated in the Authorized Version "deputy," of Achaia
aq'Uila - D, 52,) He was a native of Pontus, but had fled with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Pamphyl'ia - Paul's time it was not only a regular province, but the emperor Claudius had united Lycia with it, and probably also a good part of Pisidia
león, Spain - The numerous martyrs in the Roman persecutions included Saint Facundus (from which Sahagun is derived), Saint Marcellus and Saint Nonia with their sons Claudius, Victoricus, and Lupercus, Saint Vincent, and Saint Ramirus. In the 4th century a monastery was built on the site of the death of Claudius and his brothers
Tiberius - Tiberias Claudius Nero, Augustus' step-son and successor as emperor. Son of Tiberias Claudius Nero and Livia
Sergius Paulus - On a boundary stone of Claudius his name is found, among others, as having been appointed (A
Achaia - Achaia had only just been restored under Claudius to the senate, whose representatives in the provinces were proconsuls, from having been an imperial province under Tiberius, whose representatives were procurators
Agabus - A prophet who came from Jerusalem to Antioch, and foretold a famine "throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar
Gallio - A proconsul of Archaia, under the emperor Claudius, in the time of Paul, Acts 18:12-17
Abilene - 41 by Claudius (xix. 53 some parts of them, including Abilene, were granted by Claudius to Agrippa II
Four Crowned Martyrs - Since the names of these soldiers could not be authentically established, they are celebrated under the names of Saint Claudius, Saint Nicostratus, Saint Symphorianus, Saint Castor, and Saint Simplicius
Caesar - In the New Testament Augustus in Luke 2:1, Tiberius in Luke 3:1, Claudius in Acts 11:28, Nero in Acts 25:11, etc
Caesar - Caesars mentioned or referred to in the New Testament include Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and probably Nero
Agabus - In the wider sense of "the world," as the prophecy fixes on no year, but "in the days of Claudius Caesar," it may include other famines elsewhere in his reign, one in Greece, two in Rome
Aquila - Aquila and Priscilla had been driven from Rome as Jews by an edict of the emperor Claudius
Achaia - Tiberius changed it into a province imperial under procurators; and Claudius restored it to the senate
Aquila - He had fled, with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Felix - A Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in a
Tiberius - Claudius Drusus Nero, the second emperor of Rome, was the son of Livia, and stepson of Augustus; and being adopted by that emperor, he succeeded to his throne, A
Nero - Domitius Nero succeeded Claudius as emperor of Rome, 54 a
Nero - Gnaeus died in the year 40 when his son was barely three years old, and Agrippina, possessed by limitless ambition, schemed soon after for a second marriage, with no less a person than the reigning Claudius himself (Emperor a. 41-54; see under Claudius), in spite of the fact that he was her uncle. Agrippina became the fourth wife of Claudius in a. At the same time he was betrothed to Claudius’ daughter Octavia. In the year 50 Claudius adopted Domitius, who thus became Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus Caesar (according to another view, Lucius Claudius Nero). Claudius’ own son Britannicus (born 12th Feb. This gave Agrippina her opportunity, and with the help of two professional poisoners Claudius was put to death on 13th October. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, or, as he is later called, Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, was saluted Imperator by the soldiers, and their acclamation was ratified by the Senate. All the savings of the Emperor Claudius were dispersed by his wastefulness, as were those of Tiberius by his successor Gains (Caligula)
Flavius Claudius Julianus - Also known as Flavius Claudius Julianus ...
Profile Roman Emperor
Julian the Apostate - Also known as Flavius Claudius Julianus ...
Profile Roman Emperor
Julianus, Flavius Claudius - Also known as Flavius Claudius Julianus ...
Profile Roman Emperor
Apostate, Julian the - Also known as Flavius Claudius Julianus ...
Profile Roman Emperor
Agabus - He foretold that there would be a great famine over all the earth; which came to pass accordingly, under the emperor Claudius, in the fourth year of his reign, A
fe'Lix - (happy ), a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A
Lyc'ia - It was not till the reign of Claudius that Lycia became part of the Roman provincial system
Aquila - 50) by Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Deputy - ...
Achaia had been imperial, governed by a procurator, but was restored to the senate by Claudius (Tacitus, Annals 1:76; Suet
Felix - One of the freedmen of the Emperor Claudius, and by him appointed to be procurator or governor of Judaea, A
Tiberius Caesar - Son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, his name in full being the same as his father's
Claudius - King Agrippa was the principal means of persuading Claudius to accept the empire, which was tendered him by the soldiers. Claudius, in the ninth year of his reign, published an edict for expelling all Jews out of Rome, Acts 18:2 . Claudius FELIX, successor of Cumanus in the government of Judea. 60; and many Jews going thither to complain of the extortions and violence committed by him in Judea, he would have been put to death, if his brother Pallas, who had been Claudius's slave, and was now his freedman, had not preserved him
Gamaliel - He was noted for his learning, and was president of the Sanhedrim during the regins of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius, and died, it is said, about eighteen years before the destruction of Jerusalem
Pamphylia - In Paul's time it with Lycia formed a province under the emperor Claudius
Geography - ...
Albertus Magnus
Alexander Neckam
Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie
Christopher Columbus
Claudius Clavus
Elie Colin
Ferdinand Magellan
Fra Mauro
Heinrich Scherer
Jacques Marquette
Joseph Tieffentaller
Juan de la Cosa
Louis Joliet
Martin Behaim
Martin Martini
Martin Waldseemuller
Olaus Magnus, Bishop
Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle
Vasco da Gama
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Roman Empire - The references to the Roman dominion in the Bible chiefly allude to the empire in its earlier history, including the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero
Gamaliel - He possessed great influence among the Jews, and is said by some to have presided over the Sanhedrin during the reigns of Tiberius, Cains, and Claudius
Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Associations were formed in many schools in Europe and, at the request of Claudius Acquaviva, S
Agabus - The writer of the Acts tells ns that this famine took place in the reign of Claudius. Claudius, xviii
Agrippa - 41, Agrippa, who was then at Rome, contributed much by his advice to maintain Claudius in possession of the imperial dignity, to which he had been advanced by the army. At Caesarea, he had games performed in honour of Claudius. ...
AGRIPPA, son of the former Agrippa, was at Rome with the emperor Claudius when his father died. 53; when, Claudius taking from him the kingdom of Chalcis, gave him the provinces of Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, Batanaea, Paneas, and Abylene, which formerly had been in the possession of Lysanias. After the death of Claudius, his successor, Nero, who had a great affection for Agrippa, to his other dominions added Julias in Persia, and that part of Galilee to which Tarichaea and Tiberias belonged
Tiberius - TIBERIUS , whose designation as Emperor was Tiberius Cæsar Augustus, was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero (a Roman noble) and Livia, whose second husband was the Emperor Augustus
Lycia - Lycia was made a Roman province by Claudius in a
Famine - 49): ‘he merely says that famine occurred over the whole (civilized) world in the time of Claudius: of course the year varied in different lands. ‘Claudius’) in lands other than Judaea . Acts 21:11), himself reviews the situation from a point outside the reign of Claudius, which terminated in a. -Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , article ‘Claudius’; Encyclopaedia Biblica , article ‘Chronology’ (§ 76): E
Ananias - He was sent as a prisoner to Rome by Quadratus, the governor of Syria, and Jonathon was appointed in his place; but being discharged by the emperor Claudius, he returned to Palestine, and Jonathon being murdered through the treachery of Felix, Ananias appears to have performed the functions of the high priest as a substitute, until Ishmael was appointed by Agrippa
Felix, Antonius - Felix was brother of Pallas, Claudius’ powerful freedman, whose influence continued him in office under Nero, and on his disgrace (due to a riot at Cæsarea) procured him his life
Gallio - According to Acts ( Acts 18:12-17 ), he was proconsul of Achala under the Emperor Claudius a
Aquila And Priscilla - were a married couple who came from Italy to Corinth after the emperor Claudius ordered Jews expelled from Rome, became Christians, and assisted Paul in his ministry
Dates - Caligula was succeeded by Claudius in 41. Nero followed Claudius in 54, and was supplanted in 68 by Galba. ...
Tiberius...
14-37...
Caligula...
37-41...
Claudius...
41-54...
Nero...
54-68...
Galba...
68-69...
Otho...
69-70...
Vespasian...
70-79...
Titus...
79-81...
Domitian...
81-96...
Nerva...
96-98...
Trajan...
98-117...
III. His immediate successor Abia ruled under Claudius and was a contemporary of Izates, of Adiabene, against whom he waged war upon invitation of certain malcontents and traitors (Ant. 6), Agrippa died at the age of 54, at the end of the seventh year of his reign, four of which had been passed under Caligula and three under Claudius; Josephus also makes it plain that the three years that fell under the reign of Claudius were the period of Agrippa’s sole rule over the whole of Palestine, and that he had been made king over the whole of Palestine by Claudius immediately after his accession (Ant. Since Claudius succeeded Caligula on 24th Jan. 470), 53-54,...
This uncertainty has been altogether removed by the discovery at Delphi of four fragment of an inscription naming Gallio and linking his proconsulship with the 26th acclamation of Claudius as Imperator. It was a letter sent by Claudius when he bore the title of Imperator XXVI. The exact date of the acclamation of Claudius as Imperator XXVI. 478) it appears that at the beginning of 52 Claudius was Imperator XXIV. But if Gallio was proconsul when the document was sent to Delphi, since the proconsular year was fixed by Claudius as beginning April 1 (Dio Cassius, lvii. -The appointment of Felix was one of the later acts of the Emperor Claudius; and Nero on his accession confirmed it (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. ]'>[18] and some Manuscripts of Jerome’s translation ]) as the 11th year of Claudius. The famine under Claudius
Gallio - Gallio's name appears on an inscription at Delphi that refers to the 26th acclamation of Claudius as emperor
Caesar - are Claudius (wh
Gamaliel - "...
Son of rabbi Simeon, and grandson of Hillel; president of the Sanhedrin under Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius; he died 18 years before the fall of Jerusalem
Agrippa ii - Being only 17 years old at his father's death, the emperor Claudius sent him to rule over the principality of Chalcis in the slopes of Lebanon until he should come of a age. At the age of 21Claudius gave him the tetrarchies of Trachonitis, Abilene, and other parts of the North East of Palestine
Noble - (2) κράτιστος, ‘most mighty,’ or, as a title of honour, ‘most noble or excellent,’ is used by Claudius Lysias in his letter to Felix (Acts 23:26); by Tertullus in addressing Felix (Acts 24:3); and by St
Gallio - 53, under the emperor Claudius. The accuracy of Scripture appears in the title "proconsul" (deputy), for Achaia was made a senatorial province by Claudius seven or eight years before Paul's visit, having been previously an imperial province governed by a legate; and the senatorial provinces alone had "proconsuls
Aquila - Aquila came thither, not long before, from Italy, being obliged to leave Rome upon the edict which the emperor Claudius had published, banishing the Jews from that city
Mauritania - 42 annexed to the Roman empire by Claudius and divided into two provinces
Mauretania - 42 annexed to the Roman empire by Claudius and divided into two provinces
Herod Agrippa i. - On the second day of a festival held in honour of the emperor Claudius, he appeared in the great theatre of Caesarea
Malchion, a Presbyter of Antioch - Malchion, a presbyter of Antioch in the reigns of Claudius and Aurelian, conspicuous for his prominent part in the deposition of the bp
Claudia - 15066) to the memory of the infant child of Claudius Pudens and Claudia Quinctilla has given rise to the conjecture that this was the Claudia of St. This Claudia of Martial has again been identified with an imaginary Claudia suggested by a fragmentary inscription found at Chichester in 1722 which seems to record the erection of a temple by a certain Pudens with the approval of Claudius Cogidubnus, who is supposed to be a British king mentioned in Tacitus (Agricola, xiv
Galenus, Physician - Galenus, Claudius, physician, born a
Gallio - The Emperor Claudius made him proconsul of Achaia
Nero - ) and Iulia Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus (the adopted son of the Emperor Tiberius), who became wife of the Emperor Claudius in 48 a. On the murder of Claudius his sole rule began in 54, and during it he was officially known as Imperator Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus. The Roman hold on Britain, which his predecessor Claudius had obtained, was further strengthened under Nero
Felix (1) i, Bishop of Rome - 30, 274, in the reigns of Claudius and Aurelian
Agrippa - 41, and having used his influence in the election of Caligula's successor Claudius, this emperor not only confirmed the previous grants, but added those of Judaea, Samaria, and Abilene, so that his possessions were nearly identical with those of his grandfather Herod the Great
Acts of the Apostles, - The history given in the Acts occupies about 33 years, and the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero
Tiberius (2) - ...
Tiberius Claudius Nero, named after his adoption Tiberius Julius Caesar, on the monuments bears the name Tiberius Caesar Augustus. He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero (a Roman noble) and Livia (whom Augustus took to wife while her husband was still alive), and was born in b
Caesarea - Here on a "set day," when games were celebrated in the theatre in honour of the emperor Claudius, Herod Agrippa I
Nero - He succeeded his stepfather, Claudius, who was probably murdered at the behest of Agrippina, Nero's mother
Captain of the Temple - In the time of Claudius Caesar, one Ananus, the commander of the Temple, was sent in bonds to Rome to answer for his actions in a Jewish-Samaritan tumult (Jos
Apion - His early date (for he flourished in the reigns of Tiberius, Caius, and Claudius) renders this improbable
Galba - He attended the Emperor Claudius on his expedition to Britain (see under Claudius), and attained the proconsulship of Africa, the blue ribbon of a senatorial career
Herod - 41 Claudius, on his succession to the throne, still further enlarged his possessions with the gift of Samaria and Judaea , and raised him to consular rank. According to Josephus, the occasion of Agrippa’s display at Caesarea was a series of games in honour of Claudius; no angel of the Lord smote him, but an owl appeared as a portent before the fatal seizure; he was carried to his palace, and lingered in agony for five days. Disposed at first to grant him the succession to the Jewish kingdom, Claudius allowed himself to the dissuaded by his ministers, and re-transformed it into a Roman province. A year before his death, Claudius allowed Agrippa to exchange the meagre principality of Chalcis for those parts of his father’s dominions, east and north-east of the Sea of Galilee, which had formerly been the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias (Batanaea, Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, and Abila)
Roman Empire - Three Roman emperors are named; Augustus, Tiberius (Luke 2:1; Luke 3:1), and Claudius (Acts 11:28; Acts 18:2). Claudius added Britain, and Trajan Dacia, to the empire. Gibbon guesses the population of the empire in the time of the emperor Claudius at 120 million
Aquila And Priscilla - They had been driven from Rome by Claudius' decree (mentioned also by Suetonius, Claud
Flute-Players - At the funeral of the Emperor Claudius in 54 a
Caesar, Caesar's Household - 37-41), Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (see Claudius), Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (see Nero), Imperator Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus (9 June 68-15 Jan
Rome And the Roman Empire - 37-41) and that of his successor, his aging uncle Claudius (A. Claudius is reported to have expelled Jews from Rome who were creating disturbances at the instigation of Christ (compare Acts 18:2 ). Initially, his contemporaries viewed Claudius as inept, but he proved to have considerable hidden talents of administration and turned out to be one of Rome's more proficient emperors. She poisoned Claudius in A. Vitellius's successor was Vespasian, one of the commanders who had taken Britain for Claudius and who was in Judea squelching the first Jewish revolt
Lycaonia - ...
Under Claudius and Nero, when St
Vitellius - His addiction to chariot-racing made him a friend of Gaius (Caligula), and his fondness for dice-playing brought him the favour of Claudius; nor was he less acceptable to Nero
Creed, Apostles' - Baronius and others conjecture that they did not compose it till the second year of Claudius, a little before their dispersion; but there are many reasons which induce us to question whether the apostles composed any such creed
Constantius i, Flavius Valerius, Emperor - 305, 306, father of Constantine the Great, son of Eutropius, of a noble Dardanian family, by Claudia, daughter of Crispus, brother of the emperors Claudius II
Narcissus - 329), whose influence was very great in the intrigues of the reign of Claudius, and who had been put to death by Agrippina shortly after the accession of Nero (Tac
Victor, Claudius Marius - Victor ( 39 ) (Victorius, Victorinus ), Claudius Marius, the author of three books in hexameter verse, containing the narrative of Genesis down to the destruction of the cities of the Plain; author also of a letter to "Salmon," or Solomon, an abbat, in hexameter verse, on the corrupt manners of his time
Famine - But famines were characteristic of the reign of Claudius (Suetonius mentions ‘assiduae sterilitates’), so that the exact reference remains uncertain
Iconium, - In the time of the Emperor Claudius, it, along with Derbe, received the honorary prefix Claudio-, becoming Claudiconium (compare our Royal Burghs), but it was not till Hadrian’s time (a
Herodians - "Their question therefore was as if an adulterer were to ask, was it lawful for him to pay the penalty of his adultery" (Claudius)
Crown - Afterward, they consisted of two bandelets; by degrees, they took branches of trees of divers kinds, &c; at length they added flowers; and Claudius Saturninus says there was not any plant of which crowns had not been made
Pamphylia - 17) indicates that Claudius instituted the province of Lycia-Pamphylia in a
Ptolemais - 7), and Claudius established it as a colonia (Pliny, HN_ v
Puteoli - All this was changed by the construction at Ostia of the Portus Augusti, begun in the reign of Claudius and finished in that of Nero, close to the time (a
Procurator - Antonius Felix was brother of Claudius’ great minister of finance (a rationibus), Pallas, and, probably on account of his marriage into a higher class, was raised to the equestrian order before his appointment to Judaea . , probably, Claudius Lysias, Acts 23:26)
Lycaonia - This arrangement lasted for nearly a century, except that Claudius apparently presented the S
Aquila And Priscilla - ...
From Rome , Aquila and Priscilla were driven by the edict of Claudius (a
Christ - " Accordingly, Suetonius, speaking of Claudius, and of his expelling the Jews from Rome, says, that "he banished them because they were continually promoting tumults, under the influence of one Chrestus: " "Judaeos, impulsore Chresto, assidue tumultuantes, Roma expulit," taking Christ to be a proper name
Jew, Jewess - Probably the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius (Acts 18:2) was the result of dissensions regarding the new religion, which had sprung from Judaism and threatened to overwhelm it. The reference of Suetonius (Claudius, 25) to Chrestus, which is probably a mistake for Christus, seems to favour this idea, although various views have been taken of the passage (cf
Reccared - Claudius, the dux Lusitaniae, put down the rising, Sunna being banished to Mauritania and Seggo to Galicia. It was defeated with great loss by the Goths under Claudius
Gaza - In the time of Claudius, Mela describes it as ‘ingens et munita admodum’ (i
Ananias - 52 sent him to be tried before the emperor Claudius on the charge of oppressing the Samaritans
Roman Empire - The only subsequent conquests of importance were those of Britain by Claudius and of Dacia by Trajan
Tiberius - His father, Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of another Tiberius, appears in history in 54 b. Julia had been married in 25 to young Claudius Marcellus, who died in 23. A supposed letter from Pilate to Tiberius or Claudius contained in the apocryphal Acts of Peter and Paul (Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, ed
Felix - )...
A freedman, and a brother of Pallas, Felix was the favourite of the Emperor Claudius
Achaia - 15 Tiberius took it from the Senate, adding it to Macedonia to form an Imperial province under the government of a legatus; but in 44 Claudius restored it to the Senate
Romans - Paul, when he wrote this epistle, had not been at Rome, Romans 1:13 ; Romans 15:23 ; but he had heard an account of the state of the church in that city from Aquila and Priscilla, two Christians who were banished from thence by the edict of Claudius, and with whom he lived during his first visit to Corinth
Nero, Claudius Caesar - Nero (1), Claudius Caesar, emperor (Oct. Reuss interprets the first six heads of the first beast as the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, Nero, and Galba, of whom the first five were dead, while the sixth, Galba, was then reigning
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - Apolinaris , or Apolinarius Claudius
Alexandrians - But one of the first acts of Claudius was to re-affirm the earlier edicts, and Josephus states that in his own day (circa, about a
New Testament - ...
41 Claudius emperor of Rome; reigns 13 years...
Judaea and Samaria united, under Herod Agrippa as king...
Herod (brother of Agrippa) king of Chalcis...
Gospel preached to the Gentiles at Antioch Acts 11:20 ...
Barnabas goes to Antioch; fetches Paul Acts 11:26 ...
42-3 They remain a year at Antioch...
Herod Agrippa's persecution
Giant - History, however, acquaints us that, in the reign of Claudius, a giant named Galbara, ten feet high, was brought to Rome from the coast of Africa
Herod - HEROD AGRIPPA MINOR or II, Acts 25:1-26:32 , was the son of Herod Agrippa I, and was educated at Rome, under the care of the emperor Claudius
Masona, Bishop of Merida - Sunna joined with two Gothic Comes , Segga and Witteric, in a plot for murdering Masona which was miraculously frustrated, and Witteric, afterwards the Gothic king of that name, confessed all to Masona, who was not only protected by miracles, but by the strong arm of the Catholic Claudius Dux of Lusitania (known to us from other sources as are Sunna and Segga, cf
Augustus - Immediately after the second divorce he robbed Tiberius Claudius Nero of his wife, Livia Drusilla (38 b. ) regulated the status of manumitted slaves, a large class of growing influence in the State (see Claudius)
Rome - All nationalities in the Empire were represented among them many Jews, who were expelled by Claudius in a
Iconium - Under Claudius the city was honoured with the name of Claud-Iconium, a proof of its strong Roman sympathies, but it was not raised to the rank of a Colonia till the reign of Hadrian
Pontus - The daughter of this Polemon, Queen Tryphæna, is mentioned in the apocryphal book, The Acts of Paul and Thecla , as having been present at a great Imperial festival at Pisidian Antioch in the reign of the Emperor Claudius, whose blood-relation she was
Italy - According to Acts 18:2 Claudius went the length of expelling all the Jews from Rome (cf
Aretas - 34, and the fact that none has been found with the image of Caius or Claudius is significant of a change of régime; but the image of Nero appears from 62 onwards
Marcellinus, Bishop of Rome - The Felician Catalogue (530) says: "In which time was a great persecution: within 30 days 16,000 persons of both sexes were crowned with martyrdom through divers provinces; in the course of it Marcellinus himself was led to sacrifice, that he might offer incense, which thing he also did; and having after a few days been brought to penitence, he was by the same Diocletian, for the faith of Christ, together with Claudius Quirinus and Antoninus, beheaded and crowned with martyrdom
Macedonia - 15, and Claudius restored it to the senate in a
Captain - Josephus mentions the ‘captain’ (στρατηγός) of the Levitical guard in the time of Claudius (Ant
Corinth - Paul, who resided here eighteen months, between the years 51 and 53; during which time he enjoyed the friendship of Aquila and his wife Priscilla, two Jewish Christians, who had been expelled from Italy, with other Jews, by an edict of Claudius
Roman Empire - Mauritania was taken over and afterwards (under Claudius) divided into two provinces, named Caesariensis and Tingitana. Under Claudius (41-54) many important administrative changes were made in the provinces. ...
The most interesting event of Claudius’ reign is, however, the annexation of Britain. It was reserved for Claudius to make the southern half of England into the province Britannia, which he visited in person
Hebrews - These circumstances would fit the edict of Claudius in A. This confirms the experience of a milder form of persecution in the past (such as the one of Claudius in 49) but suggests the intensity of the persecution to come (such as the one of Nero in 64)
Burial - ...
Fine ranges of tombs, said to be of the kings, judges, and prophets, still remain near Jerusalem; but these, many think, are the tomb of Helena, the widow of the king of Adiabene, who settled at Jerusalem and relieved poor Jews in the famine foretold by Agabus under Claudius Caesar
Faustus (11), Sometimes Called the Breton - Claudius Mamertus, in his de Statu Animae , wrote against Faustus on this point
Ananias - Paul before Claudius Lysias in Jerusalem (Acts 23:1 ff
Corinth - ...
Gallio the philosopher, Seneca's brother, was proconsul during Paul's first residence, in Claudius' reign. At the time of Paul's visit Claudius' decree banishing the Jews from Rome caused an influx of them to Corinth
Simon Maccabaeus - 140, presented a defence of Christianity to the emperor Antoninus Pius, in which he mentions, as a well known fact, that Simon, a native of Gittum, a village in Samaria, came to Rome in the reign of Claudius, was looked upon there as a god, and had a statue erected to him, with a Latin inscription, in the river Tiber, between the two bridges. I should be inclined, for the reasons given above, to believe the account of Justin Martyr, who says that Simon Magus went to Rome in the reign of Claudius, and attracted numerous followers
Alexander - A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius
Citizenship - Such communities were created also outside Italy by Julius Caesar, Claudius, Vespasian, and others, until in a
Arabia - The fact that no Damascene coins bearing the Emperor’s image occur in the reigns of Caligula and Claudius is in harmony with this theory (Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng
Galilee - From Claudius (in a. 44, Claudius reverted to the method of government by procurator-a change which greatly displeased the Jews as a whole and especially stirred the animosity of the zealots
Iconoclastes - However, the Iconoclastes still had their adherents among the Latins; the most eminent of whom was Claudius, bishop of Turin, who, in 823, ordered all images, and even the crosses to be cast out of the churches, and committed to the flames; and he wrote a treatise, in which he declared both against the use and worship of them
Dispersion - The only occasion on which they were seriously threatened with the loss of their privileges occurred under Claudius, who, in the words of the historian, ‘Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit’ (Suet. The edict of Claudius was probably found unworkable (Ramsay, St
Dispersion - The only occasion on which they were seriously threatened with the loss of their privileges occurred under Claudius, who, in the words of the historian, ‘Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit’ (Suet. The edict of Claudius was probably found unworkable (Ramsay, St
Aquila And Priscilla - ...
Aquila and Priscilla came from Italy to Corinth, ‘because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome’ (Acts 18:2)
Slave, Slavery (2) - By the Lex Petronia, which may have been first enacted in the time of Augustus, a slave could not be punished by condemnation to fight with gladiators or wild beasts; and the master’s power of life and death was threatened, if not actually restricted, by Claudius
Christian - Suetonius says that Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome because they were always raising tumult under the instigation of Chrestus
Philo - 8 one might infer that Philo remained at Rome until the time of Claudius (Jerome thinks rather of a second voyage), and that under the new régime Philo was honoured by the Senate, while his works, (in particular in Flaccum and de Legatione ad Gaium) found a place in the public library. The papyri report, in the time of Claudius, a hearing of the Alexandrian anti-Semites against King Agrippa, but do not mention Philo
Titus (Emperor) - Titus was brought up and taught along with Britannicus, son of the Emperor Claudius (q
Domitian - 51 in Rome, during the principate of Claudius, almost twelve years after his brother Titus
Leander (2) - 599 Gregory wrote to Reccared, Claudius Dux of Lusitania, and Leander
Simon Magus - There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called Gitta, who in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in him. For even among yourselves, as we said before, Simon was in the royal city Rome in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and so greatly astonished the sacred senate and people of the Romans, that he was considered a god, and honoured, like the others whom you honour as gods, with a statue. 26 and 56) such a flagrant error as bringing Simon to Rome in the reign of Claudius and ascribing public honours to him, if the man Simon was not a generation older than himself, as Salmon’s theory suggests
Jews - The Emperor Claudius gave him Judea, Samaria, the southern parts of Idumea, and Abilene; and thus at last the dominions of Herod Agrippa became nearly the same as those of his grandfather, Herod the Great. He died in the seventh year of his reign, and left a son called also Agrippa, then seventeen years old; and Claudius, thinking him too young to govern his father's extensive dominions, made Cuspus Fadus governor of Judea. Fadus was soon succeeded by Tiberius, and he was followed by Alexander Cumanus, Felix, and Festus; but Claudius afterward gave Trachonitis and Abilene to Agrippa, and Nero added a part of Galilee and some other cities
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - Julianus (103), Flavius Claudius, emperor, often called Julian the Apostate; born A. Mücke, Flavius Claudius Julianus: nach den Quellen (Gotha, 1867 and 1869, 2 parts) is the most complete modern account. —Flavius Claudius Julianus was the youngest son of Julius Constantius, the half-brother of Constantine the Great
Roman Law in the nt - The senatorial provinces mentioned in the NT are: Macedonia (senatorial after the time of Claudius); Achaia; Asia (the western part of Asia Minor); Bithynia-Pontus, a united province in NT times (part of ancient Pontus was joined to Galatia, part given to the Polemonian kingdom; see below, c); Cyprus (see above); Crete-Cyrene, a joint province. ); but citizenship might be acquired by purchase, in the corrupt times of the Emperor Claudius, though at a high price (Acts 22:28), or by birth, as in St
Vespasian - His patron Narcissus, the powerful freedman of Claudius, died in 54, and Agrippina, widow of Claudius and mother of Nero, pursued his former friends with hatred
Herod - By services to Claudius, Caligula's successor, he secured in return the addition of Judaea and Samaria, so that now his kingdom equaled that of Herod the Great. 50) the emperor Claudius conferred on him Chalcis which had been under his uncle, shortly before deceased (A
Mark, the Gospel According to - In exact agreement with the date which this would presume, Eusebius (Chronicle) fixes on the third year of Claudius, A
Asia Minor, Cities of - Several years after Paul's visit, the Emperor Claudius allowed the town to be renamed Claudiconium in his honor, a reminder of the strong ties it shared with Rome
Phoenicia, phNicians - Claudius (a
Liberty - Paul is able to say quite simply (yet with a touch of pride), ‘But I am a Roman born,’ and Claudius, the captain, turns out to be but a parvenu who had had to spend a lot of money, somehow or other, to acquire the citizenship
Salutations - It can easily be proved by inscriptions in the time of Claudius and Nero that all the names in Romans 16 were Roman names
Greece - 44, when Claudius restored the province to the senate; whence there was once more a proconsul (ἀνθύπατος) in Corinth (Acts 18:12)
Roads And Travel - In Claudius’ time we hear of curatores of particular roads, men who had already held the praetorship. 2, 12), deserves mention as the oldest of the great Roman roads, built by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 b
Constantinus i - He was of a good family, being nephew by the mother's side of the emperor Claudius
Judgments of God - Claudius Herminianus was a cruel persecutor of the Christians in the second century, and he was eaten of worms while he lived
Antioch - The work of pacification was in especially active progress during the reign of Claudius (a
Apostle - ...
When Christianity had been preached for about eight years among the Jews only, and for about three years more among the Jews and devout Gentiles, the next stage of its progress was to the idolatrous Gentiles, in the year of Christ 44, and the fourth year of the emperor Claudius
Simon Magus - He states that he was a Samaritan, born at a village called Gitta; he describes him as a formidable magician, who came to Rome in the days of Claudius Caesar and made such an impression by his magical powers that he was honoured as a god, a statue being erected to him on the Tiber, between the two bridges, bearing the inscription "Simoni deo Sancto
Pilate - Acts of Peter and Paul) a so-called Letter of Pilate to Claudius (or Tiberius), which, though possibly interpolated at a later date, gives an impression of real antiquity, and is no doubt the document referred to by Tertullian
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - Constantius when he made her acquaintance was a young officer in the army, of good family and position, nearly related, by the female line, to the emperor Claudius, and appears to have at first united her to himself by the looser tie then customary between persons of such different conditions (Hieron
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - of Cordova; to duke Claudius, whom he congratulates on his victories; to Massona, bp
John the Baptist - Epiphanius says that John was banished by command of Claudius; but this deserves the less credit; because there was no persecution of the Christians in the time of that emperor, and his edicts against the Jews did not extend to the provinces
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - Other names in the same context are Claudius, Merinthus, and the Pauline Demas and Hermogenes; concerning whom see the Acts of Thecla and the so-called Dorotheus ( Paschal Chron
Romans, Theology of - Briefly, the church at Rome, which originally had strong Jewish Christian leadership (its founders may have been Roman Jewish pilgrims to Jerusalem at Pentecost who carried the gospel back to Rome), defaulted to Gentile leadership at the expulsion of Jews from Rome by edict of Emperor Claudius in the 40s
Acts of the Apostles - Contrast the account of the conduct of the Greek magistrates at Iconium and Thessalonica who were active against him, or of the Court of the Areopagus at Athens who were contemptuous, with the silence about the action of the Roman magistrates of Pisidian Antioch and Lystra, or the explicit statements about Sergius Paulus, Gallio, Felix, Festus, Claudius Lysias and Julius the centurion, who were more or less fair or friendly
Paul - )...
Desiring a helper he fetched Saul from Tarsus to Antioch, and for a whole year they laboured together, and in leaving for Jerusalem (Paul's second visit there, not mentioned in Galatians, being for a special object and for but "few days," Acts 11:30; Acts 12:25) brought with them a token of brotherly love, a contribution for the brethren in Judaea during the famine which was foretold by Agabus and came on under Claudius Caesar (Acts 11:22-30; A
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - 218); that the 70 weeks extended from the 20th year of Artaxerxes to the 8th of Claudius (iii
Novatianus And Novatianism - The Separatist tendency begotten of Novatianism in this district and continued through Priscillianism, Adoptionism, and Claudius of Turin (Neander, H
Physician - 47) dedicated to Claudius, whom he had accompanied on an expedition to Great Britain, a collection of 271 formulae for treatment of every portion of the body, from head to foot
Galatia - ]'>[6] ) were remodelled in Roman style by Claudius, and named Claud-Iconium and Claudio-Derbe
Slave, Slavery - 47) mentions a wealthy Roman, named Claudius Isidorus, of the time of Augustus, who left by will 4116 slaves as part of his possessions
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - 6), when speaking of the Alogi, mentions as famous heretics Cerinthus and Ebion, Merinthus and Cleobius or Cleobulus, Claudius, Demas, and Hermogenes, and says they were controverted by St
Paul the Apostle - He had not, like so many under Claudius, bought the citizenship through the infamous favourites of the Court
Revelation, the - Some judge that it was Claudius (A
Samaria, Samaritans - This led to civil war for a time, then to the intervention of the Roman authorities, and ultimately to a decision in favour of the Jews by Claudius himself (a
Education - Roman Emperors like Claudius and Nero had done much to encourage Greek culture and to introduce it into Rome itself, where the Athenaeum was a great centre of learning
Jerusalem - 41 on a colossal plan; but, suspicion having been aroused, operations had to be suspended by order of Claudius
Josephus - the period of the Emperors Gains and Claudius-otherwise the reign of Agrippa I
John (the Apostle) - 12) assigns it to the reign of Claudius, while Clement of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Jerome place it in the reign of Domitian
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - We commend Claudius Ephebus, and Valerius Bito, who, with Fortunatus also, are the bearers of this letter
Jesus Christ - 44; Suetonius, Lives of Claudius and Nero ; the younger Pliny, Epp
Paul - This famine happened soon after in the fourth or fifth year of the Emperor Claudius. 51, and lived in the house of Aquila and Priscilla, two Jews, who, being compelled to leave Rome in consequence of Claudius's edict against the Jews, had lately settled at Corinth
Paul - The chief captain, Claudius Lysias determined to send him to Caesarea to Felix, the governor or procurator of Judea
Paul - -The chronology is an extremely difficult question, because the fixed points that seem to be obtained by the sacred history touching on profane history (Aretas, 2 Corinthians 11:32; Herod, Acts 12:20-23; Claudius, Acts 11:27-30, Acts 12:25; Felix and Festus, Acts 24:27) fail, when closely scrutinized, to remain fixed
Montanus - Their case was stated by one of their most eminent bishops, Claudius Apolinarius of Hierapolis