What does Circumcision mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
περιτομῆς circumcised. 15
περιτομὴν circumcised. 5
περιτομή circumcised. 5
περιτομῇ circumcised. 4
περιτομὴ circumcised. 4
περιτομήν circumcised. 2
κατατομήν to cut up 1
לַמּוּלֹֽת circumcision. 1

Definitions Related to Circumcision

G4061


   1 circumcised.
      1a the act or rite of Circumcision, “they of the Circumcision” is a term used of the Jews.
         1a1 of Christians gathered from among the Jews.
         1a2 the state of Circumcision.
      1b metaph.
         1b1 of Christians separated from the unclean multitude and truly consecrated to God.
         1b2 the extinction of passions and the removal of spiritual impurity.
         

H4139


   1 Circumcision.
   

G2699


   1 to cut up, mutilation.
   

Frequency of Circumcision (original languages)

Frequency of Circumcision (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Feast of the Circumcision
January 1, commemorates the occasion when this rite of the Jewish religion was received by Our Lord, eight days after His birth. This festival is traceable to the year 567; it may be older. The Mass and Office give prominence to the part the Mother of Our Lord has in the work of Redemption.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Circumcision
Removal of the foreskin or prepuce of the male genital organ, whether for religious reasons or as a purely hygienic measure. Circumcision was practiced in the ancient Near East by the western Semites, including the Ammonites, Moabites, Hebrews, and Edomites. The procedure was rejected by the east Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia, the Canaanites, and the Shechemites.
The Old Testament . The special meaning of circumcision for the people of Israel is found in Genesis 17 and occurs within the context of God's renewed covenant promise to Abraham, following the initial contractual relationship ( Genesis 15 ). On the second occasion, God again promised lands and offspring to the still childless patriarch, and gave him the sign of circumcision, which was to be imposed upon Abraham and his descendants as a token of covenant membership (Genesis 17:10 ). For the Israelites circumcision was a religious rite and was intended to mark the beginning of covenant solidarity for Abraham's descendants rather than describing the historical origins of the procedure.
While Abraham and his household were circumcised forthwith, the Lord's command required that hereafter male infants were to be circumcised on the eighth day of life. This in itself was distinctively different from contemporary pagan practices, which seem to have associated the rite either with puberty or with approaching marriage.
From the beginning sharp knives made from chipped flints were used for the resection, since flint maintained a superior edge. For this reason the retention of flint instruments for purposes of circumcision endured for centuries after the beginning of the Iron Age (ca. 1200 b.c.). Traditionally the head of the household administered the rite in Israel, but on special occasions a woman might officiate (Exodus 4:24-26 ).
In the Mosaic law, a spiritual interpretation was imposed upon the procedure when the Israelites were instructed to circumcise their hearts (Deuteronomy 10:16 ). This demand required them to recognize that, in addition to bearing the physical mark of covenant membership, they were also under obligation to manifest specific spiritual qualities of commitment and obedience to the Lord's will. Jeremiah (4:4) made precisely the same demands upon his contemporaries because of their evil deeds, which were the very opposite of what God required. For him, circumcision entailed consecration to the Lord and to the high moral ideals of the covenant, of which holiness was representative (Acts 15:13-2131 ). A true covenant member would be motivated by love of God (Deuteronomy 6:5 ) and one's neighbor (Leviticus 19:18 ).
The New Testament . When Greek paganism threatened to swamp Judaism some two centuries before Christ was born, circumcision became a distinctive indication of Jewish fidelity to the covenant. Thus John the Baptist was circumcised (Luke 1:59 ), as were both Jesus (Luke 2:21 ) and Saul of Tarsus (Philippians 3:5 ), on the eighth day of life, making them accredited members of the covenant people. But Jesus was already casting doubt on the preeminence of the rite when he stated that his healings made people completely whole (John 7:22-23 ). Stephen reinforced this by accusing contemporary Judaism of the very tendencies that Jeremiah had condemned (Acts 7:51 ). Although in the period of the primitive church the believers maintained Jewish religious traditions, problems began to arise when the gospel was preached among Gentiles. Christians who had come from a Jewish background felt that Gentiles should become Jews through circumcision before being able to experience Christ's saving work.
This attitude rested partly upon the contemporary notion that circumcision was a necessary part of salvation, as well as being its effective guarantee. Others repudiated this view of salvation by works, particularly when uncircumcised Gentiles received God's outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Acts 10:44-48 ). They saw that the prophecies of Ezekiel, in which the Lord promised a clean heart and an indwelling of his Holy Spirit (36:25-27), and the dramatic proclamation of Joel that God would pour out his Spirit upon all flesh (2:28; cf. Acts 2:17 ), were now being fulfilled. The spiritual significance of circumcision had been achieved by divine grace without the performance of the physical rite, thus making the latter obsolete.
Not all Jews rejoiced at their badge of pride and privilege being set aside (Philippians 3:4-6 ), and consequently a group of Pharisaic Jews known as the "circumcision party" proclaimed at Antioch (Acts 15:1-5 ) the necessity of circumcision for salvation. Peter opposed these Judaizers, affirming the saving efficacy of faith in Christ alone (Acts 15:8-11 ), and denying the necessity of circumcision for the Gentiles.
To resolve the issue Paul and Barnabas consulted with the elders in Jerusalem, where it was agreed that Gentiles should not be compelled to be circumcised (1618448999_7 ). Paul was indifferent to the Judaizers' vaunted claims of "circumcision spirituality, " and although he circumcised the partly Jewish Timothy (Acts 16:3 ) to facilitate his mission, he opposed circumcision for the Gentile Titus (Galatians 2:3 ). In Galatia, Paul resisted strenuously the Judaizers' doctrine of righteousness by works, which he stigmatized as a "different gospel" (Galatians 1:6-7 ), and reviled the proponents as "dogs" and "evil workers."
This controversy was to follow Paul throughout his ministry. To counter the Judaizers' position he conceded that, while circumcision was of great value for the old covenant, it carried no significance for the "covenants of promise" (Leviticus 11:44 ). What was fundamentally important in God's sight was being a "new creation" (Galatians 6:15 ) and keeping God's commandments (1 Corinthians 7:19 ), apart from which circumcision or uncircumcision are meaningless, and allowing faith to work through love (Galatians 5:6 ). Paul taught resolutely that, in the new covenant, salvation came by grace and faith, not works (Ephesians 2:8 ). For the believer, circumcision or the lack of it was a matter of total indifference. What really counted was the faith and obedience that have always characterized covenants between God and humankind.
R. K. Harrison
See also Judaizers
Bibliography . D. Jacobson, The Social Background of the Old Testament ; R. Patai, Sex and Family in the Bible ; R. de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions .
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Circumcision, the
A Feast of the Church observed on January 1st,in commemoration of our Lord's obedience to the Law of Circumcisionand His receiving the Name JESUS (which see, also HOLY NAME).Originally this date was observed as the Octave of Christmas. Itsfirst mention as the Feast of the Circumcision was about A.D. 1090.In the Annotated Prayer Book there is the following note: "January1st was never in any way connected with the opening of the ChristianYear; and the religious observance of this day (New Year's Day) hasnever received any sanction from the Church, except as the Octave ofChristmas and the Feast of the Circumcision. The spiritual point ofthe season all gathers about Christmas. As the modern New Year's Dayis merely conventionally so (New Year's Day being on March 25thuntil about 150 years ago), there is no reason why it should beallowed at all to dim the lustre of a day so important to allpersons and all ages as Christmas Day." The Feast of the Circumcisionis designed to be observed with great solemnity. There are ProperPsalms, being the 40th and 90th for Morning Prayer, and the 65th and103d for Evening Prayer, also Proper Lessons and Collect, Epistleand Gospel, these last to be used every day until the Epiphany. TheChurch color is, white, and the Feast is placed among the DAYS OFOBLIGATION (which see).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Circumcision
The cutting off all round of the foreskin (the projecting skin in the male member, the emblem of corruption, Deuteronomy 10:16; Jeremiah 4:4) of males, appointed by God as token of His covenant with Abraham and his seed (Genesis 17:10-14). The usage prevailed, according to Herodotus (2:104, section 36-37), among the Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Syrians. But his statement may refer only to the Egyptian priests, and those initiated in the mysteries. The Jews alone of the inhabitants of the Syrian region were circumcised. So, circumcision kept them distinct from uncircumcised Canaanite pagan around. If the rite existed before Abraham it was then first sanctioned as a token of God's covenant with Abraham and his seed, and particular directions given by God as to the time of its being performed, the eighth day, even though it were a sabbath (John 7:22-23), and the persons to be circumcised, every male, every slave, and (at the Exodus it was added) every male foreigner before he could partake of the Passover (Genesis 17:12-13; Exodus 12:48).
So, the rainbow existed before the flood, but in Genesis 9:13-17 first was made token of the covenant. The testimony of the Egyptian sculptures, mummies, and hieroglyphics, is very doubtful as to the pre-Abrahamic antiquity of circumcision. (See note Genesis 17, Speaker's Commentary.) The Hamite races of Palestine, akin to the Egyptians, as (Judges 14:3) the Philistines and Canaanites (the Hivites, Genesis 34), were certainly not circumcised. The Egyptian priests probably adopted the rite when Joseph was their governor and married to the daughter of the priest of On. The Israelites by the rite, which was associated with the idea of purity, were marked as a whole "kingdom of priests" (Exodus 19:6; Deuteronomy 7:6-7). In Jeremiah 9:25, "I will punish all them which are circumcised with the uncircumcised: Egypt, and Judah, and Edom," two classes seem distinguished: Israel circumcised in flesh, but uncircumcised in heart; and the Gentile nations uncircumcised both in flesh and heart.
Hyrcanus first compelled the Edomites to be circumcised (Josephus, Ant. 13:9, section 1; compare Ezekiel 31:18). Its significance is, the cutting the outside flesh of the organ of generation denotes corruption as inherent in us from birth, and transmitted by our parents, and symbolizes our severance from nature's defilement to a state of consecrated fellowship with God. Jehovah consecrated the nation to Himself; and whatsoever male was not circumcised on the eighth day was liable to be "cut off." Moses had neglected to circumcise his son, owing to Zipporah's repugnance to it, as a rite not generally adopted in the East, even by the descendants of Abraham and Keturah, the Midianites. Therefore he was attacked by some sudden seizure in the resting place for the night, which he and his wife were divinely admonished arose from the neglect. She took a sharp stone or flint (compare margin Joshua 5:2; Joshua 5:8), the implement sanctioned by patriarchal usage as more sacred than metal (as was the Egyptian usage also in preparing mummies), and cut off her son's foreskin, and cast it at Moses' feet, saying, "a bloody husband art thou to me," i.e., by this blood of my child I have recovered thee as my husband, and sealed our union again (Exodus 4:25).
The name was given at circumcision, as at baptism (Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21). The painfulness of Old Testament initiatory rite, as compared with the New Testament sacrament of baptism, marks strongly the contrast between the stern covenant of the law and the loving gospel. Jesus' submission to it betokened His undertaking to fulfill the law in all its requirements, and to suffer its penalty incurred by us. "Oh wherefore bring ye here this holy Child? Such rite befits the sinful, not the clean; Why should this tender Infant undefiled Be thus espoused in blood, while we have been So gently into covenant beguiled? No keen edged knife our bleeding foreheads scored With the sharp cross of our betrothed Lord: But we belike in quiet wonder smiled. While on our brow the priest, with finger cold, Traced with the hallowed drops the saving sign; While Thou, unsparing of Thy tears, the old And sterner ritual on Thyself didst take: Meet opening for a life like Thine, Changing the blood to water for our sake." - Whytehead.
"Uncircumcised" is used of the lips (Exodus 6:12; Exodus 6:20), the ears (Jeremiah 4:4; Jeremiah 6:10), the heart (Leviticus 26:41; Deuteronomy 10:16; Acts 7:51), in the sense closed by the foreskin of inborn fleshliness; impure, rebellious (Deuteronomy 30:6; Isaiah 52:1). Even the fruit of the Canaanites' trees was called "uncircumcised," i.e. unclean (Leviticus 19:23). Christians "are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands in putting off the body (not merely the foreskins, as in literal circumcision) of the sins of the flesh (i.e. the whole old fleshly nature with its sins) by the circumcision of Christ" (Colossians 2:11; Romans 2:28-29).
The reason of the omission of circumcision in the wilderness (Joshua 5:5-6) was, while suffering the penalty of their unbelief the Israelites were practically discovenanted by God, and so were excluded from the sign of the covenant. "The reproach of Egypt" was the taunt of the Egyptians that God brought them into the wilderness to slay them (Numbers 14:13-16; Deuteronomy 9:23-28); which reproach lay on them so long as they were in danger of being "cut off" in the wilderness as uncircumcised, but was rolled off the younger generation by their circumcision at Gilgal. Paul warned Christians who regarded circumcision as still possessing spiritual virtue, that thereby they made themselves "debtors to do the whole law," and "Christ should profit them nothing" (Galatians 5:2-3; Galatians 5:12). He calls its practisers "the concision," in contrast to the true circumcision (Philippians 3:2-3), a mere flesh cutting.
So he resisted the demand that Titus should be circumcised; for, being a Greek, Titus did not fall under the rule of expediency that Jewish born Christians should be circumcised, as Timothy was (Acts 15; Acts 16:1; Acts 16:3; Galatians 2:3-5). Christianity did not interfere with Jewish usages, as social ordinances (no longer religiously significant) in the case of Jews, while the Jewish polity and temple stood. After their overthrow the Jewish usages necessarily ceased. To insist on them for Gentile converts would have been to make them essential to Christianity. To violate them in the case of Jews would have been inconsistent with the charity which in matters indifferent becomes all things to all men, that by all means it may win some (1 Corinthians 9:22; Romans 14). The Arabians circumcised in the 13th year, after Ishmael's example (Genesis 17:25). The Muslims and the Abyssinian Christians practice it still.
Webster's Dictionary - Circumcision
(1):
(n.) The act of cutting off the prepuce or foreskin of males, or the internal labia of females.
(2):
(n.) The Jews, as a circumcised people.
(3):
(n.) Rejection of the sins of the flesh; spiritual purification, and acceptance of the Christian faith.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Circumcision
Cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him. It was established as a national ordinance (Genesis 17:10,11 ). In compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirteen years old (17:24-27). Slaves, whether home-born or purchased, were circumcised (17:12,13); and all foreigners must have their males circumcised before they could enjoy the privileges of Jewish citizenship (Exodus 12:48 ). During the journey through the wilderness, the practice of circumcision fell into disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they entered the Promised Land (Joshua 5:2-9 ). It was observed always afterwards among the tribes of israel, although it is not expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years. The Jews prided themselves in the possession of this covenant distinction (Judges 14:3 ; 15:18 ; 1 Samuel 14:6 ; 17:26 ; 2 Samuel 1:20 ; Ezekiel 31:18 ). As a rite of the church it ceased when the New Testament times began (Galatians 6:15 ; Colossians 3:11 ). Some Jewish Christians sought to impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the apostles resolutely resisted (Acts 15:1 ; Galatians 6:12 ). Our Lord was circumcised, for it "became him to fulfil all righteousness," as of the seed of Abraham, according to the flesh; and Paul "took and circumcised" Timothy (Acts 16:3 ), to avoid giving offence to the Jews. It would render Timothy's labours more acceptable to the Jews. But Paul would by no means consent to the demand that Titus should be circumcised (Galatians 2:3-5 ). The great point for which he contended was the free admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. He contended successfully in behalf of Titus, even in Jerusalem.
In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is attached to circumcision. It was the symbol of purity (Isaiah 52:1 ). We read of uncircumcised lips (Exodus 6:12,30 ), ears (Jeremiah 6:10 ), hearts (Leviticus 26:41 ). The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of as uncircumcised (Leviticus 19:23 ).
It was a sign and seal of the covenant of grace as well as of the national covenant between God and the Hebrews.
It sealed the promises made to Abraham, which related to the commonwealth of Israel, national promises.
But the promises made to Abraham included the promise of redemption (Galatians 3:14 ), a promise which has come upon us. The covenant with Abraham was a dispensation or a specific form of the covenant of grace, and circumcision was a sign and seal of that covenant. It had a spiritual meaning. It signified purification of the heart, inward circumcision effected by the Spirit (Deuteronomy 10:16 ; 30:6 ; Ezekiel 44:7 ; Acts 7:51 ; Romans 2:28 ; Colossians 2:11 ). Circumcision as a symbol shadowing forth sanctification by the Holy Spirit has now given way to the symbol of baptism (q.v.). But the truth embodied in both ordinances is ever the same, the removal of sin, the sanctifying effects of grace in the heart. Under the Jewish dispensation, church and state were identical. No one could be a member of the one without also being a member of the other. Circumcision was a sign and seal of membership in both. Every circumcised person bore thereby evidence that he was one of the chosen people, a member of the church of God as it then existed, and consequently also a member of the Jewish commonwealth.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Circumcision
Jeremiah 4:4 (b) Here is a type which compares the physical circumcision with the spiritual act of reckoning one's self dead unto sin and of laying aside the desires of the flesh. (See also Colossians 2:11).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Circumcision
The rite appointed by God to be a token of the covenant that He made with Abraham and his seed, and also the seal of the righteousness of his faith. Every male in Abraham's house was to be circumcised, and afterwards every male of his seed on the eighth day after birth. It signified the separation of a people from the world to God. During the 40 years in the wilderness this rite was not performed, but on entering God's land all were circumcised at Gilgal, when the reproach of Egypt was rolled away. Joshua 5:2-9 . Circumcision became a synonym for Israel, so that they could be spoken of as 'the circumcised,' and the heathen as 'the uncircumcised.' Judges 14:3 ; Ezekiel 31:18 ; Acts 11:3 . Contrary to the design of God, circumcision became a mere formal act, when the covenant itself was disregarded, and God then speaks of Israel as having 'uncircumcised hearts.' Stephen charged the Jewish council with being 'uncircumcised in heart and ears.' Leviticus 26:41 ; Acts 7:51 . In Romans 4 . Abraham is shown to be 'the father of circumcision,' that is, of all that believe as the truly separated people of God.
Hence circumcision is typical of the putting off the body of the flesh by those who accept the cross as the end of all flesh, because Christ was there cut off as to the flesh: see Colossians 2:11 : "In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the [1] flesh by the circumcision of Christ;" and again, "We are the circumcision which worship God by the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh." Philippians 3:3 . "Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth." Colossians 3:5 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Circumcision
The origin of circumcision and its practice by the Jews and other peoples may be studied in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . This article is concerned with the difficulties caused in the Apostolic Church by the desire of the Judaizing party to enforce the rite upon the Gentile Christians. The crisis thus brought about is described in Acts 15 and Galatians 2:1-10.
As the work of the Church extended, the problem of the reception of Gentile converts presented itself for solution. Should such converts be compelled to be circumcised and keep the Mosaic Law or not? The answer to this question led to great difference of opinion and threatened to cause serious division in the Church. It must be remembered that the first Christians were Jews, born and brought up in the Law and taught to observe it. To them such rites as circumcision were almost second nature. To abrogate the Law of Moses was to them inconceivable. The idea of the passing away of the Law had not yet penetrated their understanding. The headquarters of those who held these opinions were at Jerusalem, where the Temple services and the whole atmosphere served to strengthen them in this belief. The very name of the party-‘They that were of the circumcision’ (Acts 11:2)-shows how closely they were attached to the observance of this rite. On the other hand, we can trace the gradual growth in the Church of the opposite view: the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch (q.v. [1] ) by Philip; the admission of Cornelius and his friends by St. Peter; the mission of certain evangelists to the Gentiles at Antioch; and finally the work of St. Paul and St. Barnabas, who turned to the Gentiles and freely admitted them into the fellowship of the Church.
It was obvious that the question must be settled. The Judaizing party were quite definite in their teaching. ‘Certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved’ (Acts 15:1). This was a position which it was impossible for St. Paul and St. Barnabas to admit. It was destructive of their work and of the catholicity of the Church. No wonder that ‘there was no small dissension and disputation.’ An appeal was made to the mother church at Jerusalem; and, among others, St. Paul and St. Barnabas went up. St. Paul’s own statement is, ‘I went up by revelation’ (Galatians 2:2). He also tells us that Titus, an uncircumcised Gentile, accompanied him. They were well received by the church at Jerusalem, but certain of the Pharisees, who were believers, laid it down ‘that it was necessary to circumcise them’ (Acts 15:5), and thus the issue was joined.
The question was so important that it could not be settled at once. There must be an interval for consideration. How this interval was spent we are told in Galatians 2. The Judaizing party found that an uncircumcised Gentile-Titus-had been brought into their midst, and they immediately demanded his circumcision. With this demand St. Paul was not inclined to comply. The principle for which he was contending was at stake. On the other hand, circumcision to him was nothing, and there was the question whether he should yield as a matter of charity. The course which he took has always been a matter of undecided controversy, but the opinion of the majority of authorities is that Titus was not circumcised.* [2]
After this episode St. Paul had an opportunity of discussing his gospel privately with those of repute, viz. James, Cephas, and John. They were evidently moved by the account of his work among the Gentiles, and recognized the hand of God in it, and they were influenced by the fervour and spirit of the Apostle. They gave to him and St. Barnabas ‘the right hand of fellowship.’ They recognized that their sphere was among the Gentiles, as that of the other apostles was among the Jews. The result of the conference was a compromise: Gentiles were not to be circumcised, but they were to abstain from certain practices which were offensive to their Jewish brethren.
The teaching of St. Paul on circumcision may be further illustrated from his Epistles. In Romans 2:25-29 he shows that circumcision was an outward sign of being one of the chosen people, but that it was of no value unless accompanied by obedience, of which it was the symbol. The uncircumcised keeper of the Law was better than the circumcised breaker of it. The true Jew is he who is circumcised in heart, i.e. he who keeps God’s Law and walks in His ways. In ch. 4 he discusses the case of Abraham, and asks whether the Divine blessing was conferred upon him because he was the head of the chosen race and the first person of that race who was circumcised. He shows that the promise came before circumcision, and therefore not in consequence of it. Circumcision followed as the token or sign of the promise, so that he might be the father of all believers whether they were circumcised or uncircumcised.
In the Epistle to the Philippians, St. Paul utters grave warnings against those who insist on circumcision. He speaks of the rite, when thus insisted on, not as circumcision but as ‘concision’ (κατατομή, Philippians 3:2).* [3] The circumcision which the Judaizers wished to enforce was to Christians a mere mutilation such as was practised by the idolatrous heathen. The verb κατατέμνειν is used in the Septuagint of incisions forbidden by the Mosaic Law: e.g. κατετέμνοντο κατὰ τὸν ἐθισμὸν αὐτῶν (1 Kings 18:28; cf. Leviticus 21:5). In contrast to this, Christians have the true circumcision (Philippians 3:3), not of the flesh but of the heart, purified in Christ from all sin and wickedness. This contrast between circumcision of the flesh and of the spirit occurs in other passages of the Pauline Epistles, e.g. Colossians 2:11, Ephesians 2:11. No doubt the Apostle had certain OT passages in mind which use circumcision as a metaphor for purity, e.g. Leviticus 26:41, Deuteronomy 10:16, Ezekiel 44:7.
Literature.-articles on ‘Circumcision’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , Dict. of Christ and the Gospels , and Jewish Encyclopedia, with Literature there cited; the relevant Commentaries, esp. Sanday-Headlam, Romans 5 (International Critical Commentary , 1902); also E. v. Dobschütz, Christian Life in the Primitive Church, Eng. translation , 1904; K. Lake, The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul, 1911; E. B. Redlich, St. Paul and his Companions, 1913; H. Weinel, St. Paul, Eng. translation , 1906; C. v. Weizsäcker, Apostolic Age, i. 2 [4], ii. [5].
Morley Stevenson.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Circumcision
An operation (note the shedding of blood) that entered one into the covenant in O.T. times. It was instituted by God (Genesis 17:10-14) and performed on the eighth day after birth (Luke 1:59). It was a sign of the covenant God made with Abraham (Genesis 17:12; Romans 4:11). In the N.T. the physical operation is not practiced. Instead, a circumcision of the heart of the Christian is taught (Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11-12). This is the true circumcision (Romans 2:29).
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Circumcision
There is somewhat particularly interesting in this Jewish rite. And as the appointment is from God, it demands suitable attention for the proper apprehension of it. It evidently appears, from the first moment of its institution, that the ordination was with an eye to Christ, for the covenant of redemption by Jesus had this token or seal, and it is expressly said, "that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promise made unto the fathers." (Romans 15:8) And by the ceasing of this Jewish rite, and the institution of Baptism to supersede it, it should seem, that it was understood by Christ's submitting to this act, he thereby became debtor to the whole law, and fulfilled it: and hence, all his redeemed not only are freed from it, but, in fact, they are prohibited the observance. Paul the apostle was so earnest on this point, that he declared to the Galatian church that an attention to circumcision virtually denied the covenant. "Behold, I Paul (said he) say unto you, that if ye be circumcised Christ shall profit you nothing." (Galatians 5:2) And the reason seems to have been this: The seed of Abraham, by the act of circumcision, declared that they were looking for and waiting to the coming of the promised Seed, in whom all the families of the faithful were to be blessed. To be circumcised, therefore, after Christ was come, was in effect denying that Christ Was come, and by that act saying, We are looking for his coming. Hence, all the faithful posterity of Abraham were so tenacious of observing the rite of circumcision before Christ came, and so determined not to observe it after. And also, this other cause renders circumcision improper. The person circumcised, by that act, declared himself under obligations to fulfil the whole law. And hence Christ submitted to it with this view. But his redeemed are justified in Him, and therefore, to undergo circumcision would imply a defect in this justification. "I testify (said Paul,) again, to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law." (Galatians 5:3) This, then, is the proper apprehension concerning the rite of circumcision.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Circumcision
is from the Latin, circumcidere, "to cut all around," because the Jews, in circumcising their children, cut off after this manner the skin which covers the prepuce. God enjoined Abraham to use circumcision, as a sign of his covenant. In obedience to this order, Abraham, at ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised: also his son Ishmael, and all the males of his property, Genesis 17:10 . God repeated the precept of circumcision to Moses: he ordered that all who were to partake of the paschal sacrifice should receive circumcision; and that this rite should be performed on children, on the eighth day after their birth.
The Jews have always been very exact in observing this ceremony, and it appears that they did not neglect it when in Egypt. But Moses, while in Midian with Jethro his father-in-law, did not circumcise his two sons born in that country; and during the journey of the Israelites in the wilderness, their children were not circumcised. Circumcision was practised among the Arabians, Saracens, and Ishmaelites. These people, as well as the Israelites, sprung from Abraham. Circumcision was introduced with the law of Moses among the Samaritans and Cutheans. The Idumeans, though descended from Abraham and Isaac, were not circumcised till subdued by John Hircanus. Those who assert that the Phenicians were circumcised, mean, probably, the Samaritans; for we know, from other authority, that the Phenicians did not observe this ceremony. As to the Egyptians, circumcision never was of general and indispensable obligation on the whole nation; certain priests only, and particular professions, were obliged to it. Circumcision is likewise the ceremony of initiation into the Mohammedan religion. There is, indeed, no law in the Koran which enjoins it, and they have the precept only in tradition. They say that Mohammed commanded it out of respect to Abraham, the head of his race. They have no fixed day for the performance of this rite, and generally wait till the child is five or six years of age.
CIRCUMCISION, Covenant of. That the covenant with Abraham, of which circumcision was made the sign and seal, Genesis 17:7-14 , was the general covenant of grace, and not wholly, or even chiefly, a political and national covenant, may be satisfactorily established. The first engagement in it was, that God would "greatly bless" Abraham; which promise, although it comprehended temporal blessings, referred, as we learn from St. Paul, more fully to the blessing of his justification by the imputation of his faith for righteousness, with all the spiritual advantages consequent upon the relation which was thus established between him and God, in time and eternity. The second promise in the covenant was, that he should be "the father of many nations;" which we are also taught by St. Paul to interpret more with reference to his spiritual seed, the followers of that faith whereof cometh justification, than to his natural descendants. "That the promise might be sure to all the seed, not only to that which is by the law, but to that also which is by the faith, of Abraham, who is the father of us all," —of all believing Gentiles as well as Jews. The third stipulation in God's covenant with the patriarch, was the gift to Abraham and to his seed of "the land of Canaan," in which the temporal promise was manifestly but the type of the higher promise of a heavenly inheritance. Hence St. Paul says, "By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise;" but this "faith" did not respect the fulfilment of the temporal promise; for St. Paul adds, "they looked for a city which had foundations, whose builder and maker is God," Hebrews 11:19 . The next promise was, that God would always be "a God to Abraham and to his seed after him," a promise which is connected with the highest spiritual blessings, such as the remission of sins, and the sanctification of our nature, as well as with a visible church state. It is even used to express the felicitous state of the church in heaven, Revelation 21:3 . The final engagement in the Abrahamic covenant was, that in Abraham's "seed, all nations of the earth should be blessed;" and this blessing, we are expressly taught by St. Paul, was nothing less than the justification of all nations, that is, of all believers in all nations, by faith in Christ: "And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Heathen by faith, preached before the Gospel to Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed. So then they who are of faith are blessed with believing Abraham;" they receive the same blessing, justification, by the same means, faith, Galatians 3:8-9 . This covenant with Abraham, therefore, although it respected a natural seed, Isaac, from whom a numerous progeny was to spring; and an earthly inheritance provided for this issue, the land of Canaan; and a special covenant relation with the descendants of Isaac, through the line of Jacob, to whom Jehovah was to be "a God," visibly and specially, and they a visible and "peculiar people;" yet was, under all these temporal, earthly, and external advantages, but a higher and spiritual grace embodying itself under these circumstances, as types of a dispensation of salvation and eternal life, to all who should follow the faith of Abraham, whose justification before God was the pattern of the justification of every man, whether Jew or Gentile, in all ages. Now, of this covenant, in its spiritual as well as in its temporal provisions, circumcision was most certainly the sacrament, that is, the "sign" and the "seal;" for St. Paul thus explains the case: "And he received the SIGN of circumcision, a SEAL of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised." And as this rite was enjoined upon Abraham's posterity, so that every "uncircumcised man-child whose flesh of his foreskin was not circumcised on the eighth day," was to be "cut off from his people, by the special judgment of God, and that because "he had broken God's covenant," Genesis 17:14 ; it therefore follows that this rite was a constant publication of God's covenant of grace among the descendants of Abraham, and its repetition a continual confirmation of that covenant, on the part of God, to all practising it in that faith of which it was the ostensible expression.
2. As the covenant of grace made with Abraham was bound up with temporal promises and privileges, so circumcision was a sign and seal of the covenant in both its parts,—its spiritual and its temporal, its superior and inferior provisions. The spiritual promises of the covenant continued unrestricted to all the descendants of Abraham, whether by Isaac or by Ishmael; and still lower down, to the descendants of Esau as well as to those of Jacob. Circumcision was practised among them all by virtue of its divine institution at first; and was extended to their foreign servants, and to proselytes, as well as to their children; and wherever the sign of the covenant of grace was by divine appointment, there it was a seal of that covenant, to all who believingly used it; for we read of no restriction of its spiritual blessings, that is, its saving engagements, to one line of descent from Abraham only. But over the temporal branch of the covenant, and the external religious privileges arising out of it, God exercised a rightful sovereignty, and expressly restricted them first to the line of Isaac, and then to that of Jacob, with whose descendants he entered into special covenant by the ministry of Moses. The temporal blessings and external privileges comprised under general expressions in the covenant with Abraham, were explained and enlarged under that of Moses, while the spiritual blessings remained unrestricted as before. This was probably the reason why circumcision was re-enacted under the law of Moses. It was a confirmation of the temporal blessings of the Abrahamic covenant, now, by a covenant of peculiarity, made over to them, while it was still recognized as a consuetudinary rite which had descended to them from their fathers, and as the sign and seal of the covenant of grace, made with Abraham and with all his descendants without exception. This double reference of circumcision, both to the authority of Moses and to that of the patriarchs, is found in the words of our Lord, John 7:22 : "Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision, not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers;" or, as it is better translated by Campbell, "Moses instituted circumcision among you, (not that it is from Moses, but from the patriarchs,) and ye circumcise on the Sabbath. If on the Sabbath a child receive circumcision, that the law of Moses may not be violated," &c.
3. From these observations, the controversy in the Apostolic churches respecting circumcision will derive much elucidation. The covenant with Abraham prescribed circumcision as an act of faith in its promises, and as a pledge to perform its conditions on the part of his descendants. But the object on which this faith rested, was "the Seed of Abraham," in whom the nations of the earth were to be blessed: which Seed, says St. Paul, "is Christ,"—Christ as promised, not yet come. When the Christ had come, so as fully to enter upon his redeeming offices, he could no longer be the object of faith, as still to come; and this leading promise of the covenant being accomplished, the sign and seal of it vanished away. Nor could circumcision be continued in this view by any, without an implied denial that Jesus was the Christ, the expected Seed of Abraham. Circumcision also as an institution of Moses, who continued it as the sign and seal of the Abrahamic covenant both in its spiritual and temporal provisions, but with respect to the latter made it also a sign and seal of the restriction of its temporal blessings and peculiar religious privileges to the descendants of Israel, was terminated by the entrance of our Lord upon his office of Mediator, in which office all nations were to be blessed in him. The Mosaic edition of the covenant not only guaranteed the land of Canaan, but the peculiarity of the Israelites, as the people and visible church of God to the exclusion of others, except by proselytism. But when our Lord commanded the Gospel to be preached to "all nations," and opened the gates of the "common salvation" to all, whether Gentiles or Jews, circumcision, as the sign of a covenant of peculiarity and religious distinction, was also done away. It had not only no reason remaining, but the continuance of the rite involved the recognition of exclusive privileges which had been terminated by Christ. This will explain the views of the Apostle Paul on this great question. He declares that in Christ there is neither circumcision nor uncircumcision; that neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but "faith that worketh by love;" faith in the Seed of Abraham already come and already engaged in his mediatorial and redeeming work; faith, by virtue of which the Gentiles came into the church of Christ on the same terms as the Jews themselves, and were justified and saved. The doctrine of the non-necessity of circumcision, he applies to the Jews as well as to the Gentiles, although he specially resists the attempts of the Judaizers to impose this rite upon the Gentile converts; in which he was supported by the decision of the Holy Spirit when the appeal upon this question was made to the "Apostles and elders at Jerusalem," from the church at Antioch. At the same time it is clear that he takes two different views of the practice of circumcision, as it was continued among many of the first Christians. The first is that strong one which is expressed in Galatians 5:2-4 , "Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing; for I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. Christ is made of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law, ye are fallen from grace." The second is that milder view which he himself must have had when he circumcised Timothy to render him more acceptable to the Jews; and which also appears to have led him to abstain from all allusion to this practice when writing his epistle to the believing Hebrews, although many, perhaps most of them, continue to circumcise their children, as did the Jewish Christians for a long time afterward. These different views of circumcision, held by the same person, may be explained by considering the different principles on which circumcision might be practiced after it had become an obsolete ordinance.
(1.) It might be taken in the simple view of its first institution, as the sign and seal of the Abrahamic covenant; and then it was to be condemned as involving a denial that Abraham's Seed, the Christ, had already come, since, upon his coming, every old covenant gave place to the new covenant introduced by him.
(2.) It might be practiced and enjoined as the sign and seal of the Mosaic covenant, which was still the Abrahamic covenant with its spiritual blessings, but with restriction of its temporal promises and special ecclesiastical privileges to the line of Jacob, with a law of observances which was obligatory upon all entering that covenant by circumcision. In that case it involved, in like manner, the notion of the continuance of an old covenant, after the establishment of the new; for thus St. Paul states the case in Galatians 3:19 : "Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions until the Seed should come." After that therefore it had no effect:—it had waxed old, and had vanished away.
(3.) Again: circumcision might imply an obligation to observe all the ceremonial usages and the moral precepts of the Mosaic law, along with a general belief in the mission of Christ, as necessary to justification before God. This appears to have been the view of those among the Galatian Christians who submitted to circumcision, and of the Jewish teachers who enjoined it upon them; for St. Paul in that epistle constantly joins circumcision with legal observances, and as involving an obligation to do "the whole law," in order to justification.—"I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law; whosoever of you are justified by the law, ye are fallen from grace." "Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ," Galatians 2:16 . To all persons therefore practising circumcision in this view it was obvious, that "Christ was become of none effect," the very principle of justification by faith alone in him was renounced even while his divine mission was still admitted.
(4.) But there are two grounds on which circumcision may be conceived to have been innocently, though not wisely, practiced, among the Christian Jews. The first was that of preserving an ancient national distinction on which they valued themselves; and were a converted Jew in the present day disposed to perform that rite upon his children for this purpose only, renouncing in the act all consideration of it as a sign and seal of the old covenants, or as obliging to ceremonial acts in order to justification, no one would censure him with severity. It appears clear that it was under some such view that St. Paul circumcised Timothy, whose mother was a Jewess; he did it because of "the Jews which were in those quarters," that is, because of their national prejudices, "for they knew that his father was a Greek." The second was a lingering notion, that, even in the Christian church, the Jews who believed would still retain some degree of eminence, some superior relation to God; a notion which, however unfounded, was not one which demanded direct rebuke, when it did not proudly refuse spiritual communion with the converted Gentiles, but was held by men who "rejoiced that God had granted to the Gentiles repentance unto life." These considerations may account for the silence of St. Paul on the subject of circumcision in his Epistle to the Hebrews. Some of them continued to practise that rite, but they were probably believers of the class just mentioned; for had he thought that the rite was continued among them on any principle which affected the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, he would no doubt have been equally prompt and fearless in pointing out that apostasy from Christ which was implied in it, as when he wrote to the Galatians.
Not only might circumcision be practised with views so opposite that one might be wholly innocent, although an infirmity of prejudice; the other such as would involve a rejection of the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ; but some other Jewish observances also stood in the same circumstances. St. Paul in his Epistle to the Galatians, a part of his writings from which we obtain the most information on these questions, grounds his "doubts" whether the members of that church were not seeking to be "justified by the law" upon their observing "days, and months, and times, and years." Had he done more than "doubt," he would have expressed himself more positively. He saw their danger on this point; he saw that they were taking steps to this fatal result, by such an observance of these "days," &c, as had a strong leaning and dangerous approach to that dependence upon them for justification, which would destroy their faith in Christ's solely sufficient sacrifice; but his very doubting, not of the fact of their being addicted to these observances, but of the animus with which they regarded them, supposes it possible, however dangerous this Jewish conformity might be, that they might be observed for reasons which would still consist with their entire reliance upon the merits of Christ for salvation. Even he himself, strongly as he resisted the imposition of this conformity to Jewish customs upon the converts to Christianity as a matter of necessity, yet in practice must have conformed to many of them, when no sacrifice of principle was understood; for in order to gain the Jews, he became "as a Jew." See ABRAHAM , and See BAPTISM .
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Circumcision, UnCircumcision, Circumcise
A — 1: περιτομή (Strong's #4061 — Noun Feminine — peritome — per-it-om-ay' ) lit., "a cutting round, circumcision" (the verb is peritemno), was a rite enjoined by God upon Abraham and his male descendants and dependents, as a sign of the covenant made with him, Genesis 17 ; Acts 7:8 ; Romans 4:11 . Hence Israelites termed Gentiles "the uncircumcised," Judges 15:18 ; 2 Samuel 1:20 . So in the NT, but without the suggestion of contempt, e.g., Romans 2:26 ; Ephesians 2:11 .
The rite had a moral significance, Exodus 6:12,30 , where it is metaphorically applied to the lips; so to the ear, Jeremiah 6:10 , and the heart, Deuteronomy 30:6 ; Jeremiah 4:4 . Cp. Jeremiah 9:25,26 . It refers to the state of "circumcision," in Romans 2:25-28 ; 3:1 ; 4:10 ; 1 Corinthians 7:19 ; Galatians 5:6 ; 6:15 ; Colossians 3:11 .
"In the economy of grace no account is taken of any ordinance performed on the flesh; the old racial distinction is ignored in the preaching of the Gospel, and faith is the sole condition upon which the favor of God in salvation is to be obtained, Romans 10:11-13 ; 1 Corinthians 7:19 . See also Romans 4:9-12 " * [1]
Upon the preaching of the Gospel to, and the conversion of, Gentiles, a sect of Jewish believers arose who argued that the Gospel, without the fulfillment of "circumcision," would make void the Law and make salvation impossible, Acts 15:1 . Hence this party was known as "the circumcision," Acts 10:45 ; 11:2 ; Galatians 2:12 ; Colossians 4:11 ; Titus 1:10 (the term being used by metonymy, the abstract being put for the concrete, as with the application of the word to Jews generally, Romans 3:30 ; 4:9,12 ; 15:8 ; Galatians 2:7-9 ; Ephesians 2:11 ). It is used metaphorically and spiritually of believers with reference to the act, Colossians 2:11 ; Romans 2:29 ; to the condition, Philippians 3:3 .
The Apostle Paul's defense of the truth, and his contention against this propaganda, form the main subject of the Galatian epistle. Cp. katatome, "concision," Philippians 3:2 . See CONCISION.
A — 2: ἀκροβυστία (Strong's #203 — Noun Feminine — akrobustia — ak-rob-oos-tee'-ah ) "uncircumcision," is used (a) of the physical state, in contrast to the act of "circumcision," Acts 11:3 (lit., "having uncircumcision"); Romans 2:25,26 ; 4:10,11 ("through they be in uncircumcision," RV), 12; 1 Corinthians 7:18,19 ; Galatians 5:6 ; 6:15 ; Colossians 3:11 ; (b) by metonymy, for Gentiles, e.g., Romans 2:26,27 ; 3:30 ; 4:9 ; Galatians 2:7 ; Ephesians 2:11 ; (d) in a metaphorical or transferred sense, of the moral condition in which the corrupt desires of the flesh still operate, Colossians 2:13 .
Note: In Romans 4:11 , the phrase "though they be in uncircumcision" translates the Greek phrase di' akrobustias, lit., "through uncircumcision;" here dia has the local sense of proceeding from and passing out.
B — 1: ἀπερίτμητος (Strong's #564 — Adjective — aperitmetos — ap-er-eet'-may-tos ) "uncircumcised" (a, negative, peri, "around," temno, "to cut"), is used in Acts 7:51 , metaphorically, of "heart and ears."
C — 1: περιτέμνω (Strong's #4059 — Verb — peritemno — per-ee-tem'-no ) to circumcise," is used (a) lit., e.g., Luke 1:59 ; 2:21 ; of receiving circumcision, Galatians 5:2,3 ; 6:13 , RV; (b) metaphorically, of spiritual circumcision, Colossians 2:11 .
C — 2: ἐπισπάομαι (Strong's #1986 — Verb — epispaomai — ep-ee-spah'-om-ahee ) lit., "to draw over, to become uncircumcised," as if to efface Judaism, appears in 1 Corinthians 7:18 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Circumcision
Circumcision. A Jewish rite which Jehovah enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the Israelites, as the token of the covenant, which assured to him the promise of the Messiah. Genesis 17:1-27. It was thus made a necessary condition of Jewish citizenship. Every male child was to be circumcised when eight days old. Leviticus 12:3, on pain of death. The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. The rite has been found to prevail extensively in both ancient and modern times. Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised." Against having recourse to this practice, from an excessive anü-Judaistic tendency, Paul cautioned the Corinthians. 1 Corinthians 7:18.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Circumcision
A cutting around, because in this rite the foreskin was cut away. God commanded Abraham to use circumcision, as a sign of his covenant; and in obedience to this order, the patriarch, at ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised, as also his son Ishmael, and all the male of his household, Genesis 17:10-12 . God repeated the precept to Moses, and ordered that all who intended to partake of the paschal sacrifice should receive circumcision; and that this rite should be performed on children on the eighth day after their birth, Exodus 12:44 Leviticus 12:3 John 7:22 . The Jews have always been very exact in observing this ceremony, and it appears that they did not neglect it when in Egypt, Joshua 5:1-9 .
All the other nations sprung from Abraham besides the Hebrews, as the Ishmaelites, the Arabians, etc., also retained the practice of circumcision. At the present day it is an essential rite of the Mohammedan religion, and though not enjoined in the Koran, prevails wherever this religion is found. It is also practiced in some form among the Abyssinians, and various tribes of South Africa, as it was by the ancient Egyptians. But there is no proof that it was practiced upon infants, or became a general, national, or religious custom, before God enjoined it upon Abraham.
The Jews esteemed uncircumcision as a very great impurity; and the greatest offence they could receive was to be called "uncircumcised." Paul frequently mentions the Gentiles under this term, not opprobriously, Romans 2.26 , in opposition to the Jews, whom he names "the circumcision," etc.
Disputes as to the observances of this rite by the converts from heathenism to Christianity occasioned much trouble in the early church, Acts 15:1-41 ; and it was long before it was well understood that "in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature," Galatians 5:2,3 6:15 .
The true circumcision is that of the heart; and those are "uncircumcised in heart and ears," who will not obey the law of God nor embrace the gospel of Christ.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Circumcision
Circumcision is the act of removing the foreskin of the male genital. In ancient Israel this act was ritually performed on the eighth day after birth upon children of natives, servants, and aliens (Leviticus 9:3 ). Circumcision was carried out by the father initially, utilizing a flint knife (compare Joshua 5:3 ). Later specialists were employed among the Jewish people.
Origin Several theories seek to explain and describe the nature and origin of circumcision: (1) initiatory rite—before marriage (as the Shechemites in Genesis 34:14-24 ) or at puberty; (2) physical hygiene—to prevent the attraction or transmission of diseases; (3) tribal mark of distinction; (4) rite of entry into the community of faith. In the Old Testament the origin of Israelite practice was founded upon the circumcision of Abraham as a sign of the covenant between God and the patriarch (Genesis 17:10 ). Physical hygiene and tribal distinction resulted from circumcision, but the aspect of covenant sign which marked one's entry into the community of Yahwistic faith is the focus in the Hebrew Scriptures.
Ancient Near Eastern background Several Semitic and non-Semitic peoples practiced circumcision according to biblical and other sources. Jeremiah depicts Egyptians, Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites, and the desert-dwelling Arabians as circumcised peoples (Jeremiah 9:25-26 ; compare Ezekiel 32:17-32 ). On the other hand Philistines, Assyrians, and Babylonians are counted among the uncircumcised. That the Canaanites are not mentioned in either regard is noteworthy. Evidence of their perspective of circumcision is lacking. In modern times the practice exists among Mohammedan Arabs and many African and Australian tribes, as well as much of Western society.
Israelite practice The circumcision of Abraham and the male members of his entourage followed the repetition of the covenant promise (see Genesis 15:1 ) of land and national descendants (Genesis 17:1 ). Isaac, Ishmael, and other descendants of the patriarchal family were circumcised (Genesis 17:23-27 ). Moses' circumcision took place only immediately prior to his confrontation with the Pharaoh (Exodus 4:24-26 ). The tie between land and circumcision in the covenant is reflected in the purification of Israelites at Gilgal following the entry of Israel into the Promised Land (Joshua 5:2-9 ). Passover was limited to those who had been circumcised (Exodus 12:48 ; Joshua 5:10-11 ).
Ethical implications of circumcision can be observed in the metaphorical usage of the term. The uncircumcised are those who are insensitive to God's leadership. Circumcision of the heart implies total devotion to God (Deuteronomy 10:16 ; Jeremiah 4:4 ); however, the uncircumcised ear cannot hear so as to respond to the Lord (Jeremiah 6:10 ); and the uncircumcised of lips cannot speak (Exodus 6:12 ). Circumcision was therefore an external sign of an internal singularity of devotion of Yahweh.
Circumcision and Christianity Controversy arose in the early church (Acts 10-15 ) as to whether Gentile converts need be circumcised. First century A.D. Jews disdained the uncircumcised. The leadership of the apostle Paul in the Jerusalem Council was crucial in the settlement of the dispute: circumcision was not essential to Christian faith and fellowship. Circumcision of the heart via repentance and faith were the only requirements (Romans 4:9-12 ; Galatians 2:15-21 ).
R. Dennis Cole
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Vigil of the Circumcision
Commonly observed in Catholic churches by a service of reparation for the misdeeds of the year passing, and of thanksgiving and joy on the opening of the new year. The Psalm "Miserere" and the hymn "Te Deum" are chanted, and the sermon is followed by Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. It was introduced into the United States at Saint Francis Xavier's Church, New York, in 1883.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Circumcision
was peculiarly, though not exclusively, a Jewish rite. It was enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the nation, by God, at the institution and as the token of the covenant, which assured to him and his descendants the promise of the Messiah. Genesis 17 . It was thus made a necessary condition of Jewish nationality. Every male child was to be circumcised when eight days old, (Leviticus 12:3 ) on pain of death. The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. The rite has been found to prevail extensively in both ancient and modern times. Though Mohammed did not enjoin circumcision in the Koran, he was circumcised himself, according to the custom of his country; and circumcision is now as common among the Mohammedans as among the Jews. The process of restoring a circumcised person to his natural condition by a surgical operation was sometimes undergone. Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised." Against having recourse to this practice, from an excessive anti-Judaistic tendency, St. Paul cautions the Corinthians. (1 Corinthians 7:18 )
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Circumcision
Circumcision was a minor surgical operation carried out on baby boys to remove the foreskin from the penis. It was practised among various ancient Near Eastern peoples and had certain health benefits, but for the Israelites it had, in addition, a special religious significance.
Meaning of circumcision
The first person God commanded to be circumcised was Abraham. God had made a covenant with Abraham to be his God, to give him a multitude of descendants who would be his special people, and to give those people Canaan as their homeland. Circumcision was the sign of that covenant (Genesis 17:1-11; see COVENANT).
As a permanent mark in the body, circumcision symbolized the permanency of God’s covenant with his people. Because of its significance for personal cleanliness, it symbolized also the purity that the covenant demanded of them. God required that Abraham, his household, and all his descendants throughout future generations be circumcised if they were to be his people according to the covenant (Genesis 17:9-13; Acts 7:8).
Abraham believed God’s promises and acted upon his commands. His circumcision sealed his faith and demonstrated his obedience (Romans 4:11). The covenant had originated in God’s grace, but the Israelites had to respond with faithful obedience if they were to enjoy the covenant’s blessing. If a man was not circumcised, he and his household were cut off from the covenant (Genesis 17:14).
Circumcision was usually carried out when the child was eight days old (Genesis 17:12; Leviticus 12:3; Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21; Philippians 3:5). But during Israel’s years in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan, the people failed to circumcise their new-born children. They neglected the first requirement of the covenant. Therefore, before they could take possession of the land promised to them in the covenant, they had to circumcise all who had been born during the previous forty years (Joshua 5:2-9).
Jewish misunderstandings
If circumcision was a sign of cleanness, uncircumcision was a sign of uncleanness (Galatians 5:2-46; Leviticus 26:41; Isaiah 52:1). Israelites prided themselves that, because they were circumcised, they were God’s people. They called themselves ‘the circumcised’ (or ‘the circumcision’; Galatians 2:7-8; Ephesians 2:11; Colossians 4:11), and despised the Gentiles as ‘the uncircumcised’ (1 Samuel 14:6; 1 Samuel 17:26; 1 Samuel 31:4; Ephesians 2:11).
In their self-satisfaction the Israelites forgot that circumcision was also intended to be a sign of obedience (Genesis 17:10). Therefore, circumcised Israelites who were disobedient to God were no better in God’s sight than uncircumcised Gentiles. Though physically circumcised, spiritually they were uncircumcised, that is, unclean in God’s sight (Jeremiah 9:25-26; Acts 7:51; Romans 2:25; cf. Deuteronomy 10:16; Deuteronomy 30:6). In fact, the uncircumcised who obeyed God was more acceptable to God than the circumcised who disobeyed him (Romans 2:26-27).
Israelites believed also that the only people who were God’s people were those who kept the law of Moses. Since the law commanded circumcision, they believed that a person had to be circumcised to be saved (Leviticus 12:3; John 7:23; Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Acts 21:21; see LAW).
But circumcision had never been a requirement for salvation. The law of Moses set out regulations for those who had already become God’s people as a result of the covenant he had made with Abraham. The law was not a means of salvation, and neither was circumcision. Abraham was saved by faith, and that occurred before the law was given and at a time when he was still uncircumcised. He received circumcision later, as an outward sign of the inward faith that he already had (Romans 4:1-2; Romans 4:10-11; Galatians 3:17-18).
Abraham may be the physical father of the Israelites, but more importantly he is the spiritual father of all who are saved by faith, whether or not they are Israelites and whether or not they are circumcised (Romans 4:11-12). The true Israelites, the true people of God, are not those who have received circumcision, but those who have received inward cleansing from sin (Romans 2:28-29; Galatians 6:15).
No longer necessary
Circumcision was a sign of God’s covenant with Abraham, and that covenant reached its fulfilment in Jesus Christ. Through him, the one descendant of Abraham to whom all the promises pointed, people of all nations can receive the blessings of God’s salvation (Genesis 12:1-3; Luke 1:54-55; Luke 1:72-73; Romans 4:16-17; Galatians 3:6-9; Galatians 3:16; Galatians 3:29). Now that Christ has come, the legal requirements of the former covenant no longer apply (Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 2:14-15). More than that, if people try to win God’s favour by keeping those legal requirements, they cannot be saved (1618448999_7). People are saved only through faith in Christ, regardless of whether they are circumcised or uncircumcised (Romans 3:30; 1 Corinthians 7:19; Galatians 5:6).
For Christian, ‘circumcision’ is spiritual, not physical. It is the cleansing from sin and uncleanness that comes through Jesus Christ (Colossians 2:11-12). Those so cleansed are the true people of God, the true ‘circumcision’ (Philippians 3:3; cf. Romans 2:28-29).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Circumcision
The origin of circumcision and its practice by the Jews and other peoples may be studied in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . This article is concerned with the difficulties caused in the Apostolic Church by the desire of the Judaizing party to enforce the rite upon the Gentile Christians. The crisis thus brought about is described in Acts 15 and Galatians 2:1-10.
As the work of the Church extended, the problem of the reception of Gentile converts presented itself for solution. Should such converts be compelled to be circumcised and keep the Mosaic Law or not? The answer to this question led to great difference of opinion and threatened to cause serious division in the Church. It must be remembered that the first Christians were Jews, born and brought up in the Law and taught to observe it. To them such rites as circumcision were almost second nature. To abrogate the Law of Moses was to them inconceivable. The idea of the passing away of the Law had not yet penetrated their understanding. The headquarters of those who held these opinions were at Jerusalem, where the Temple services and the whole atmosphere served to strengthen them in this belief. The very name of the party-‘They that were of the circumcision’ (Acts 11:2)-shows how closely they were attached to the observance of this rite. On the other hand, we can trace the gradual growth in the Church of the opposite view: the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch (q.v. [1] ) by Philip; the admission of Cornelius and his friends by St. Peter; the mission of certain evangelists to the Gentiles at Antioch; and finally the work of St. Paul and St. Barnabas, who turned to the Gentiles and freely admitted them into the fellowship of the Church.
It was obvious that the question must be settled. The Judaizing party were quite definite in their teaching. ‘Certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved’ (Acts 15:1). This was a position which it was impossible for St. Paul and St. Barnabas to admit. It was destructive of their work and of the catholicity of the Church. No wonder that ‘there was no small dissension and disputation.’ An appeal was made to the mother church at Jerusalem; and, among others, St. Paul and St. Barnabas went up. St. Paul’s own statement is, ‘I went up by revelation’ (Galatians 2:2). He also tells us that Titus, an uncircumcised Gentile, accompanied him. They were well received by the church at Jerusalem, but certain of the Pharisees, who were believers, laid it down ‘that it was necessary to circumcise them’ (Acts 15:5), and thus the issue was joined.
The question was so important that it could not be settled at once. There must be an interval for consideration. How this interval was spent we are told in Galatians 2. The Judaizing party found that an uncircumcised Gentile-Titus-had been brought into their midst, and they immediately demanded his circumcision. With this demand St. Paul was not inclined to comply. The principle for which he was contending was at stake. On the other hand, circumcision to him was nothing, and there was the question whether he should yield as a matter of charity. The course which he took has always been a matter of undecided controversy, but the opinion of the majority of authorities is that Titus was not circumcised.* [2]
After this episode St. Paul had an opportunity of discussing his gospel privately with those of repute, viz. James, Cephas, and John. They were evidently moved by the account of his work among the Gentiles, and recognized the hand of God in it, and they were influenced by the fervour and spirit of the Apostle. They gave to him and St. Barnabas ‘the right hand of fellowship.’ They recognized that their sphere was among the Gentiles, as that of the other apostles was among the Jews. The result of the conference was a compromise: Gentiles were not to be circumcised, but they were to abstain from certain practices which were offensive to their Jewish brethren.
The teaching of St. Paul on circumcision may be further illustrated from his Epistles. In Romans 2:25-29 he shows that circumcision was an outward sign of being one of the chosen people, but that it was of no value unless accompanied by obedience, of which it was the symbol. The uncircumcised keeper of the Law was better than the circumcised breaker of it. The true Jew is he who is circumcised in heart, i.e. he who keeps God’s Law and walks in His ways. In ch. 4 he discusses the case of Abraham, and asks whether the Divine blessing was conferred upon him because he was the head of the chosen race and the first person of that race who was circumcised. He shows that the promise came before circumcision, and therefore not in consequence of it. Circumcision followed as the token or sign of the promise, so that he might be the father of all believers whether they were circumcised or uncircumcised.
In the Epistle to the Philippians, St. Paul utters grave warnings against those who insist on circumcision. He speaks of the rite, when thus insisted on, not as circumcision but as ‘concision’ (κατατομή, Philippians 3:2).* [3] The circumcision which the Judaizers wished to enforce was to Christians a mere mutilation such as was practised by the idolatrous heathen. The verb κατατέμνειν is used in the Septuagint of incisions forbidden by the Mosaic Law: e.g. κατετέμνοντο κατὰ τὸν ἐθισμὸν αὐτῶν (1 Kings 18:28; cf. Leviticus 21:5). In contrast to this, Christians have the true circumcision (Philippians 3:3), not of the flesh but of the heart, purified in Christ from all sin and wickedness. This contrast between circumcision of the flesh and of the spirit occurs in other passages of the Pauline Epistles, e.g. Colossians 2:11, Ephesians 2:11. No doubt the Apostle had certain OT passages in mind which use circumcision as a metaphor for purity, e.g. Leviticus 26:41, Deuteronomy 10:16, Ezekiel 44:7.
Literature.-articles on ‘Circumcision’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , Dict. of Christ and the Gospels , and Jewish Encyclopedia, with Literature there cited; the relevant Commentaries, esp. Sanday-Headlam, Romans 5 (International Critical Commentary , 1902); also E. v. Dobschütz, Christian Life in the Primitive Church, Eng. translation , 1904; K. Lake, The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul, 1911; E. B. Redlich, St. Paul and his Companions, 1913; H. Weinel, St. Paul, Eng. translation , 1906; C. v. Weizsäcker, Apostolic Age, i. 2 [4], ii. [5].
Morley Stevenson.

Sentence search

Brit milah - Circumcision: (lit. "covenant of Circumcision"); the ritual Circumcision of a Jewish boy, generally at eight days old ...
Concision - Paul ( Philippians 3:2 ) to the merely fleshly Circumcision (Gr. katatomç ; the ordinary word for ‘circumcision’ is peritomç )
Concision - ” KJV uses “concision” in Philippians 3:2 to describe Paul's opponents who insisted on Circumcision as necessary for right relationship with God ( Philippians 3:2 ). See Circumcision ; Paul
Concision - , "mutilation"), a term used by Paul contemptuously of those who were zealots for Circumcision (Philippians 3:2 ). Instead of the warning, "Beware of the Circumcision" (peritome) i. , of the party who pressed on Gentile converts the necessity of still observing that ordinance, he says, "Beware of the concision;" as much as to say, "This Circumcision which they vaunt of is in Christ only as the gashings and mutilations of idolatrous heathen
Circumcision - Circumcision is the act of removing the foreskin of the male genital. Circumcision was carried out by the father initially, utilizing a flint knife (compare Joshua 5:3 ). ...
Origin Several theories seek to explain and describe the nature and origin of Circumcision: (1) initiatory rite—before marriage (as the Shechemites in Genesis 34:14-24 ) or at puberty; (2) physical hygiene—to prevent the attraction or transmission of diseases; (3) tribal mark of distinction; (4) rite of entry into the community of faith. In the Old Testament the origin of Israelite practice was founded upon the Circumcision of Abraham as a sign of the covenant between God and the patriarch (Genesis 17:10 ). Physical hygiene and tribal distinction resulted from Circumcision, but the aspect of covenant sign which marked one's entry into the community of Yahwistic faith is the focus in the Hebrew Scriptures. ...
Ancient Near Eastern background Several Semitic and non-Semitic peoples practiced Circumcision according to biblical and other sources. Evidence of their perspective of Circumcision is lacking. ...
Israelite practice The Circumcision of Abraham and the male members of his entourage followed the repetition of the covenant promise (see Genesis 15:1 ) of land and national descendants (Genesis 17:1 ). Moses' Circumcision took place only immediately prior to his confrontation with the Pharaoh (Exodus 4:24-26 ). The tie between land and Circumcision in the covenant is reflected in the purification of Israelites at Gilgal following the entry of Israel into the Promised Land (Joshua 5:2-9 ). ...
Ethical implications of Circumcision can be observed in the metaphorical usage of the term. Circumcision of the heart implies total devotion to God (Deuteronomy 10:16 ; Jeremiah 4:4 ); however, the uncircumcised ear cannot hear so as to respond to the Lord (Jeremiah 6:10 ); and the uncircumcised of lips cannot speak (Exodus 6:12 ). Circumcision was therefore an external sign of an internal singularity of devotion of Yahweh. ...
Circumcision and Christianity Controversy arose in the early church (Acts 10-15 ) as to whether Gentile converts need be circumcised. The leadership of the apostle Paul in the Jerusalem Council was crucial in the settlement of the dispute: Circumcision was not essential to Christian faith and fellowship. Circumcision of the heart via repentance and faith were the only requirements (Romans 4:9-12 ; Galatians 2:15-21 )
Imlah - Plentitude; Circumcision
Uncircumcised - See Circumcision
Uncircumcision - See Circumcision
Posthetomy - ) Circumcision
Concision - See Circumcision
Mallothi - Fullness; Circumcision
Milalai - Circumcision; my talk
Circumciser - ) One who performs Circumcision
Melzar - Circumcision of a narrow place
Mohel - one who performs the ritual Circumcision...
Uncircumcised And Uncircumcision - * For UNCIRCUMCISED and UNCIRCUMCISION see Circumcision ...
Uncircumcision - Absence or want of Circumcision
Concision - , "a cutting off" (kata, "down," temno, "to cut"), "a mutilation," is a term found in Philippians 3:2 , there used by the Apostle, by a paranomasia, contemptuously, for the Jewish Circumcision with its Judaistic influence, in contrast to the true spiritual Circumcision
Circumcision - Circumcision became a synonym for Israel, so that they could be spoken of as 'the circumcised,' and the heathen as 'the uncircumcised. Contrary to the design of God, Circumcision became a mere formal act, when the covenant itself was disregarded, and God then speaks of Israel as having 'uncircumcised hearts. Abraham is shown to be 'the father of Circumcision,' that is, of all that believe as the truly separated people of God. ...
Hence Circumcision is typical of the putting off the body of the flesh by those who accept the cross as the end of all flesh, because Christ was there cut off as to the flesh: see Colossians 2:11 : "In whom also ye are circumcised with the Circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the [1] flesh by the Circumcision of Christ;" and again, "We are the Circumcision which worship God by the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh
Bimhal - BIMHAL (‘son of Circumcision’?)
Uncircumcision - ) The absence or want of Circumcision
Eighth Day - —On the eighth day after birth, as is well known, Jewish male infants received the rite of Circumcision, and, at all events by the time of our Lord, their proper name also, in memory of the change in Abraham’s name (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, art. ‘Circumcision’). Circumcision
Circumcision - Circumcision was a minor surgical operation carried out on baby boys to remove the foreskin from the penis. ...
Meaning of Circumcision...
The first person God commanded to be circumcised was Abraham. Circumcision was the sign of that covenant (Genesis 17:1-11; see COVENANT). ...
As a permanent mark in the body, Circumcision symbolized the permanency of God’s covenant with his people. His Circumcision sealed his faith and demonstrated his obedience (Romans 4:11). ...
Circumcision was usually carried out when the child was eight days old (Genesis 17:12; Leviticus 12:3; Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21; Philippians 3:5). ...
Jewish misunderstandings...
If Circumcision was a sign of cleanness, uncircumcision was a sign of uncleanness (Exodus 6:12; Leviticus 26:41; Isaiah 52:1). They called themselves ‘the circumcised’ (or ‘the Circumcision’; Galatians 2:7-8; Ephesians 2:11; Colossians 4:11), and despised the Gentiles as ‘the uncircumcised’ (1 Samuel 14:6; 1 Samuel 17:26; 1 Samuel 31:4; Ephesians 2:11). ...
In their self-satisfaction the Israelites forgot that Circumcision was also intended to be a sign of obedience (Genesis 17:10). Since the law commanded Circumcision, they believed that a person had to be circumcised to be saved (Leviticus 12:3; John 7:23; Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Acts 21:21; see LAW). ...
But Circumcision had never been a requirement for salvation. The law was not a means of salvation, and neither was Circumcision. He received Circumcision later, as an outward sign of the inward faith that he already had (Romans 4:1-2; Romans 4:10-11; Galatians 3:17-18). The true Israelites, the true people of God, are not those who have received Circumcision, but those who have received inward cleansing from sin (Romans 2:28-29; Galatians 6:15). ...
No longer necessary...
Circumcision was a sign of God’s covenant with Abraham, and that covenant reached its fulfilment in Jesus Christ. ...
For Christian, ‘circumcision’ is spiritual, not physical. Those so cleansed are the true people of God, the true ‘circumcision’ (Philippians 3:3; cf
Concision - A term used sarcastically of Judaizers who insisted on Circumcision as necessary for Gentile Christians
Circumcision - Circumcision was practiced in the ancient Near East by the western Semites, including the Ammonites, Moabites, Hebrews, and Edomites. The special meaning of Circumcision for the people of Israel is found in Genesis 17 and occurs within the context of God's renewed covenant promise to Abraham, following the initial contractual relationship ( Genesis 15 ). On the second occasion, God again promised lands and offspring to the still childless patriarch, and gave him the sign of Circumcision, which was to be imposed upon Abraham and his descendants as a token of covenant membership (Genesis 17:10 ). For the Israelites Circumcision was a religious rite and was intended to mark the beginning of covenant solidarity for Abraham's descendants rather than describing the historical origins of the procedure. For this reason the retention of flint instruments for purposes of Circumcision endured for centuries after the beginning of the Iron Age (ca. For him, Circumcision entailed consecration to the Lord and to the high moral ideals of the covenant, of which holiness was representative (Leviticus 11:44 ). When Greek paganism threatened to swamp Judaism some two centuries before Christ was born, Circumcision became a distinctive indication of Jewish fidelity to the covenant. Christians who had come from a Jewish background felt that Gentiles should become Jews through Circumcision before being able to experience Christ's saving work. ...
This attitude rested partly upon the contemporary notion that Circumcision was a necessary part of salvation, as well as being its effective guarantee. The spiritual significance of Circumcision had been achieved by divine grace without the performance of the physical rite, thus making the latter obsolete. ...
Not all Jews rejoiced at their badge of pride and privilege being set aside (Philippians 3:4-6 ), and consequently a group of Pharisaic Jews known as the "circumcision party" proclaimed at Antioch (Acts 15:1-5 ) the necessity of Circumcision for salvation. Peter opposed these Judaizers, affirming the saving efficacy of faith in Christ alone (Acts 15:8-11 ), and denying the necessity of Circumcision for the Gentiles. Paul was indifferent to the Judaizers' vaunted claims of "circumcision spirituality, " and although he circumcised the partly Jewish Timothy (Acts 16:3 ) to facilitate his mission, he opposed Circumcision for the Gentile Titus (Galatians 2:3 ). To counter the Judaizers' position he conceded that, while Circumcision was of great value for the old covenant, it carried no significance for the "covenants of promise" (Ephesians 2:12 ). What was fundamentally important in God's sight was being a "new creation" (Galatians 6:15 ) and keeping God's commandments (1 Corinthians 7:19 ), apart from which Circumcision or uncircumcision are meaningless, and allowing faith to work through love (Galatians 5:6 ). For the believer, Circumcision or the lack of it was a matter of total indifference
Circumcision - It evidently appears, from the first moment of its institution, that the ordination was with an eye to Christ, for the covenant of redemption by Jesus had this token or seal, and it is expressly said, "that Jesus Christ was a minister of the Circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promise made unto the fathers. Paul the apostle was so earnest on this point, that he declared to the Galatian church that an attention to Circumcision virtually denied the covenant. " (Galatians 5:2) And the reason seems to have been this: The seed of Abraham, by the act of Circumcision, declared that they were looking for and waiting to the coming of the promised Seed, in whom all the families of the faithful were to be blessed. Hence, all the faithful posterity of Abraham were so tenacious of observing the rite of Circumcision before Christ came, and so determined not to observe it after. And also, this other cause renders Circumcision improper. But his redeemed are justified in Him, and therefore, to undergo Circumcision would imply a defect in this justification. " (Galatians 5:3) This, then, is the proper apprehension concerning the rite of Circumcision
Circumcision - Instead, a Circumcision of the heart of the Christian is taught (Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11-12). This is the true Circumcision (Romans 2:29)
Circumcision - God commanded Abraham to use Circumcision, as a sign of his covenant; and in obedience to this order, the patriarch, at ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised, as also his son Ishmael, and all the male of his household, Genesis 17:10-12 . God repeated the precept to Moses, and ordered that all who intended to partake of the paschal sacrifice should receive Circumcision; and that this rite should be performed on children on the eighth day after their birth, Exodus 12:44 Leviticus 12:3 John 7:22 . , also retained the practice of Circumcision. ...
The Jews esteemed uncircumcision as a very great impurity; and the greatest offence they could receive was to be called "uncircumcised. 26 , in opposition to the Jews, whom he names "the Circumcision," etc. ...
Disputes as to the observances of this rite by the converts from heathenism to Christianity occasioned much trouble in the early church, Acts 15:1-41 ; and it was long before it was well understood that "in Christ Jesus neither Circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature," Galatians 5:2,3 6:15 . ...
The true Circumcision is that of the heart; and those are "uncircumcised in heart and ears," who will not obey the law of God nor embrace the gospel of Christ
Midnight Mass - Usually celebrated the first hour on Christmas morning with due permission of the bishop, and restriction as to place and admission; occasionally also on other feasts, as on the Circumcision, New Year's Day
Mass, Midnight - Usually celebrated the first hour on Christmas morning with due permission of the bishop, and restriction as to place and admission; occasionally also on other feasts, as on the Circumcision, New Year's Day
Zipporah - Zipporah as a Midianitess had delayed the Circumcision of her son; her perversity well nigh brought divine vengeance on Moses. With reluctance and anger she circumcised him, exclaiming, "A bloody husband art thou to me because of the Circumcision," which binds thee to me afresh
Circumcision - Jeremiah 4:4 (b) Here is a type which compares the physical Circumcision with the spiritual act of reckoning one's self dead unto sin and of laying aside the desires of the flesh
Knife - Joshua was ordered to make flint knives for the Circumcision of Israelite males (Joshua 5:2-3 ). Since flint was not the common material used to make knives in the days of Joshua, the command to make the knives of flint probably reflects a very ancient practice of Circumcision (see Genesis 17:11 ; Circumcision)
Concision - Cutting, a term of reproach, applied to certain Judaizing teachers at Philippi, as mere cutters of the flesh; in contrast with the true Circumcision, those who were created anew in Christ Jesus unto righteousness and true holiness, Philippians 3:2
Circumcision - The origin of Circumcision and its practice by the Jews and other peoples may be studied in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . To them such rites as Circumcision were almost second nature. The very name of the party-‘They that were of the Circumcision’ (Acts 11:2)-shows how closely they were attached to the observance of this rite. The Judaizing party found that an uncircumcised Gentile-Titus-had been brought into their midst, and they immediately demanded his Circumcision. On the other hand, Circumcision to him was nothing, and there was the question whether he should yield as a matter of charity. Paul on Circumcision may be further illustrated from his Epistles. In Romans 2:25-29 he shows that Circumcision was an outward sign of being one of the chosen people, but that it was of no value unless accompanied by obedience, of which it was the symbol. He shows that the promise came before Circumcision, and therefore not in consequence of it. Circumcision followed as the token or sign of the promise, so that he might be the father of all believers whether they were circumcised or uncircumcised. Paul utters grave warnings against those who insist on Circumcision. He speaks of the rite, when thus insisted on, not as Circumcision but as ‘concision’ (κατατομή, Philippians 3:2). ]'>[2] The Circumcision which the Judaizers wished to enforce was to Christians a mere mutilation such as was practised by the idolatrous heathen. In contrast to this, Christians have the true Circumcision (Philippians 3:3), not of the flesh but of the heart, purified in Christ from all sin and wickedness. This contrast between Circumcision of the flesh and of the spirit occurs in other passages of the Pauline Epistles, e. No doubt the Apostle had certain OT passages in mind which use Circumcision as a metaphor for purity, e. -articles on ‘Circumcision’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , Dict
Circumcision - The origin of Circumcision and its practice by the Jews and other peoples may be studied in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . To them such rites as Circumcision were almost second nature. The very name of the party-‘They that were of the Circumcision’ (Acts 11:2)-shows how closely they were attached to the observance of this rite. The Judaizing party found that an uncircumcised Gentile-Titus-had been brought into their midst, and they immediately demanded his Circumcision. On the other hand, Circumcision to him was nothing, and there was the question whether he should yield as a matter of charity. Paul on Circumcision may be further illustrated from his Epistles. In Romans 2:25-29 he shows that Circumcision was an outward sign of being one of the chosen people, but that it was of no value unless accompanied by obedience, of which it was the symbol. He shows that the promise came before Circumcision, and therefore not in consequence of it. Circumcision followed as the token or sign of the promise, so that he might be the father of all believers whether they were circumcised or uncircumcised. Paul utters grave warnings against those who insist on Circumcision. He speaks of the rite, when thus insisted on, not as Circumcision but as ‘concision’ (κατατομή, Philippians 3:2). ]'>[2]8 The Circumcision which the Judaizers wished to enforce was to Christians a mere mutilation such as was practised by the idolatrous heathen. In contrast to this, Christians have the true Circumcision (Philippians 3:3), not of the flesh but of the heart, purified in Christ from all sin and wickedness. This contrast between Circumcision of the flesh and of the spirit occurs in other passages of the Pauline Epistles, e. No doubt the Apostle had certain OT passages in mind which use Circumcision as a metaphor for purity, e. -articles on ‘Circumcision’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , Dict
Circumcision - The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the Circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. Though Mohammed did not enjoin Circumcision in the Koran, he was circumcised himself, according to the custom of his country; and Circumcision is now as common among the Mohammedans as among the Jews
Jesus - Called Justus: with Paul, at Rome, saluted the Colossians (Colossians 4:11): "of the Circumcision, a fellow worker unto the kingdom of God," and so "a comfort" to the apostle
Circumcise - 4:26: “At that time she said, ‘bridegroom of blood,’ referring to Circumcision” (NIV). ...
The physical act of Circumcision was introduced by God as a sign of the Abrahamic covenant: “This is my covenant with you and your descendants after you … Every male among you shall be circumcised. You are to undergo Circumcision, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and you” ( Circumcision was a sign of God’s gracious promise. ” The “circumcision” of the flesh is a physical sign of commitment to God. In addition to this, it also is a figure for baptism: “In him you were also circumcised, … not with a Circumcision alone by the hands of men but with the Circumcision done by Christ, having been buried with him in baptism and raised with him through your faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead” ( Circumcision - God enjoined Abraham to use Circumcision, as a sign of his covenant. God repeated the precept of Circumcision to Moses: he ordered that all who were to partake of the paschal sacrifice should receive Circumcision; and that this rite should be performed on children, on the eighth day after their birth. Circumcision was practised among the Arabians, Saracens, and Ishmaelites. Circumcision was introduced with the law of Moses among the Samaritans and Cutheans. As to the Egyptians, Circumcision never was of general and indispensable obligation on the whole nation; certain priests only, and particular professions, were obliged to it. Circumcision is likewise the ceremony of initiation into the Mohammedan religion. ...
Circumcision, Covenant of. That the covenant with Abraham, of which Circumcision was made the sign and seal, Genesis 17:7-14 , was the general covenant of grace, and not wholly, or even chiefly, a political and national covenant, may be satisfactorily established. Now, of this covenant, in its spiritual as well as in its temporal provisions, Circumcision was most certainly the sacrament, that is, the "sign" and the "seal;" for St. Paul thus explains the case: "And he received the SIGN of Circumcision, a SEAL of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised. As the covenant of grace made with Abraham was bound up with temporal promises and privileges, so Circumcision was a sign and seal of the covenant in both its parts,—its spiritual and its temporal, its superior and inferior provisions. Circumcision was practised among them all by virtue of its divine institution at first; and was extended to their foreign servants, and to proselytes, as well as to their children; and wherever the sign of the covenant of grace was by divine appointment, there it was a seal of that covenant, to all who believingly used it; for we read of no restriction of its spiritual blessings, that is, its saving engagements, to one line of descent from Abraham only. This was probably the reason why Circumcision was re-enacted under the law of Moses. This double reference of Circumcision, both to the authority of Moses and to that of the patriarchs, is found in the words of our Lord, John 7:22 : "Moses therefore gave unto you Circumcision, not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers;" or, as it is better translated by Campbell, "Moses instituted Circumcision among you, (not that it is from Moses, but from the patriarchs,) and ye circumcise on the Sabbath. If on the Sabbath a child receive Circumcision, that the law of Moses may not be violated," &c. From these observations, the controversy in the Apostolic churches respecting Circumcision will derive much elucidation. The covenant with Abraham prescribed Circumcision as an act of faith in its promises, and as a pledge to perform its conditions on the part of his descendants. Nor could Circumcision be continued in this view by any, without an implied denial that Jesus was the Christ, the expected Seed of Abraham. Circumcision also as an institution of Moses, who continued it as the sign and seal of the Abrahamic covenant both in its spiritual and temporal provisions, but with respect to the latter made it also a sign and seal of the restriction of its temporal blessings and peculiar religious privileges to the descendants of Israel, was terminated by the entrance of our Lord upon his office of Mediator, in which office all nations were to be blessed in him. But when our Lord commanded the Gospel to be preached to "all nations," and opened the gates of the "common salvation" to all, whether Gentiles or Jews, Circumcision, as the sign of a covenant of peculiarity and religious distinction, was also done away. He declares that in Christ there is neither Circumcision nor uncircumcision; that neither Circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but "faith that worketh by love;" faith in the Seed of Abraham already come and already engaged in his mediatorial and redeeming work; faith, by virtue of which the Gentiles came into the church of Christ on the same terms as the Jews themselves, and were justified and saved. The doctrine of the non-necessity of Circumcision, he applies to the Jews as well as to the Gentiles, although he specially resists the attempts of the Judaizers to impose this rite upon the Gentile converts; in which he was supported by the decision of the Holy Spirit when the appeal upon this question was made to the "Apostles and elders at Jerusalem," from the church at Antioch. At the same time it is clear that he takes two different views of the practice of Circumcision, as it was continued among many of the first Christians. These different views of Circumcision, held by the same person, may be explained by considering the different principles on which Circumcision might be practiced after it had become an obsolete ordinance. ) It might be practiced and enjoined as the sign and seal of the Mosaic covenant, which was still the Abrahamic covenant with its spiritual blessings, but with restriction of its temporal promises and special ecclesiastical privileges to the line of Jacob, with a law of observances which was obligatory upon all entering that covenant by Circumcision. ) Again: Circumcision might imply an obligation to observe all the ceremonial usages and the moral precepts of the Mosaic law, along with a general belief in the mission of Christ, as necessary to justification before God. This appears to have been the view of those among the Galatian Christians who submitted to Circumcision, and of the Jewish teachers who enjoined it upon them; for St. Paul in that epistle constantly joins Circumcision with legal observances, and as involving an obligation to do "the whole law," in order to justification. To all persons therefore practising Circumcision in this view it was obvious, that "Christ was become of none effect," the very principle of justification by faith alone in him was renounced even while his divine mission was still admitted. ) But there are two grounds on which Circumcision may be conceived to have been innocently, though not wisely, practiced, among the Christian Jews. Paul on the subject of Circumcision in his Epistle to the Hebrews. ...
Not only might Circumcision be practised with views so opposite that one might be wholly innocent, although an infirmity of prejudice; the other such as would involve a rejection of the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ; but some other Jewish observances also stood in the same circumstances
Concision - Hence, In scripture, the Jews or those who adhered to Circumcision, which, after our Saviors death, was no longer a seal of the covenant, but a mere cutting of the flesh
Zip'Porah, - ) The only incident recorded in her life is that of the Circumcision of Gershom
Circumcision - Circumcision. The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the Circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles
Circumcision, Uncircumcision, Circumcise - , "a cutting round, Circumcision" (the verb is peritemno), was a rite enjoined by God upon Abraham and his male descendants and dependents, as a sign of the covenant made with him, Genesis 17 ; Acts 7:8 ; Romans 4:11 . It refers to the state of "circumcision," in Romans 2:25-28 ; 3:1 ; 4:10 ; 1 Corinthians 7:19 ; Galatians 5:6 ; 6:15 ; Colossians 3:11 . See also Romans 4:9-12 " * [1] ...
Upon the preaching of the Gospel to, and the conversion of, Gentiles, a sect of Jewish believers arose who argued that the Gospel, without the fulfillment of "circumcision," would make void the Law and make salvation impossible, Acts 15:1 . Hence this party was known as "the Circumcision," Acts 10:45 ; 11:2 ; Galatians 2:12 ; Colossians 4:11 ; Titus 1:10 (the term being used by metonymy, the abstract being put for the concrete, as with the application of the word to Jews generally, Romans 3:30 ; 4:9,12 ; 15:8 ; Galatians 2:7-9 ; Ephesians 2:11 ). ...
A — 2: ἀκροβυστία (Strong's #203 — Noun Feminine — akrobustia — ak-rob-oos-tee'-ah ) "uncircumcision," is used (a) of the physical state, in contrast to the act of "circumcision," Acts 11:3 (lit. , "having uncircumcision"); Romans 2:25,26 ; 4:10,11 ("through they be in uncircumcision," RV), 12; 1 Corinthians 7:18,19 ; Galatians 5:6 ; 6:15 ; Colossians 3:11 ; (b) by metonymy, for Gentiles, e. ...
Note: In Romans 4:11 , the phrase "though they be in uncircumcision" translates the Greek phrase di' akrobustias, lit. , "through uncircumcision;" here dia has the local sense of proceeding from and passing out. , Luke 1:59 ; 2:21 ; of receiving Circumcision, Galatians 5:2,3 ; 6:13 , RV; (b) metaphorically, of spiritual Circumcision, Colossians 2:11
Cerinthians - Matthew, to countenance their doctrine of Circumcision; but they omitted the genealogy. Paul, because that apostle held Circumcision abolished
Fools, Feast of - Celebration of the later Middle Ages which took place in many parts of Europe, particularly in France, and occurred near the feast of the Circumcision, January 1,
Feast of Fools - Celebration of the later Middle Ages which took place in many parts of Europe, particularly in France, and occurred near the feast of the Circumcision, January 1,
Elcesaites - They kept a mean between the Jews, Christians, and Pagans: they worshipped but one God, observed the Jewish sabbath, Circumcision, and the other ceremonies of the law; yet they rejected the Pentateuch and the prophets: nor had they any more respect for the writings of the apostles
Circumcision - During the journey through the wilderness, the practice of Circumcision fell into disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they entered the Promised Land (Joshua 5:2-9 ). ...
In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is attached to Circumcision. The covenant with Abraham was a dispensation or a specific form of the covenant of grace, and Circumcision was a sign and seal of that covenant. It signified purification of the heart, inward Circumcision effected by the Spirit (Deuteronomy 10:16 ; 30:6 ; Ezekiel 44:7 ; Acts 7:51 ; Romans 2:28 ; Colossians 2:11 ). Circumcision as a symbol shadowing forth sanctification by the Holy Spirit has now given way to the symbol of baptism (q. Circumcision was a sign and seal of membership in both
Circumcision - So, Circumcision kept them distinct from uncircumcised Canaanite pagan around. The testimony of the Egyptian sculptures, mummies, and hieroglyphics, is very doubtful as to the pre-Abrahamic antiquity of Circumcision. ...
The name was given at Circumcision, as at baptism (Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21). Christians "are circumcised with the Circumcision made without hands in putting off the body (not merely the foreskins, as in literal Circumcision) of the sins of the flesh (i. the whole old fleshly nature with its sins) by the Circumcision of Christ" (Colossians 2:11; Romans 2:28-29). ...
The reason of the omission of Circumcision in the wilderness (Joshua 5:5-6) was, while suffering the penalty of their unbelief the Israelites were practically discovenanted by God, and so were excluded from the sign of the covenant. "The reproach of Egypt" was the taunt of the Egyptians that God brought them into the wilderness to slay them (Numbers 14:13-16; Deuteronomy 9:23-28); which reproach lay on them so long as they were in danger of being "cut off" in the wilderness as uncircumcised, but was rolled off the younger generation by their Circumcision at Gilgal. Paul warned Christians who regarded Circumcision as still possessing spiritual virtue, that thereby they made themselves "debtors to do the whole law," and "Christ should profit them nothing" (Galatians 5:2-3; Galatians 5:12). He calls its practisers "the concision," in contrast to the true Circumcision (Philippians 3:2-3), a mere flesh cutting
Proselyte - Among the Hebrews, proselytes were distinguished into two sorts: the first called proselytes of the gate, because suffered to live among them, and were those who observed the moral law only, and the rules imposed on the children of Noah; the second were called proselytes of justice, who engaged to receive Circumcision, and the whole law of Moses, and enjoyed all the privileges of a native Hebrew
Days of Obligation -   Feast of the Circumcision 1st January
Uncircumcised - ...
Ezekiel 44:7, Ezekiel 44:9 (a) These hearts and these people have never come under the judgment and the will of GOD as represented by Circumcision. Circumcision was a sign of obedience and confidence. ...
Romans 2:25-26 (a) Circumcision was a physical evidence of submission to GOD. If a man was circumcised and rebelled against GOD, his Circumcision was rejected
Alien - They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the congregation of the Lord by submitting to Circumcision and abandoning idolatry (Deuteronomy 23:3-8 )
Carol - The most famous is the 12th century "Prose de l'ane"(Hymn of the Ass) sung annually at Beauvais on the feast of the Circumcision
Knife - Originally of flakes of stone or flint, which was retained for sacred purposes as Circumcision, even after the introduction of bronze, iron, and steel (Exodus 4:25; Joshua 5:2, margin)
Abrahamites - Also the name of a sect in Bohemia, as late as 1782, who professed the religion of Abraham before his Circumcision, and admitted no scriptures but the decalogue and the Lord's prayer
Circumcision, the - A Feast of the Church observed on January 1st,in commemoration of our Lord's obedience to the Law of Circumcisionand His receiving the Name JESUS (which see, also HOLY NAME). Itsfirst mention as the Feast of the Circumcision was about A. In the Annotated Prayer Book there is the following note: "January1st was never in any way connected with the opening of the ChristianYear; and the religious observance of this day (New Year's Day) hasnever received any sanction from the Church, except as the Octave ofChristmas and the Feast of the Circumcision. " The Feast of the Circumcisionis designed to be observed with great solemnity
Galatians, Epistle to the - Written by Saint Paul to warn the churches of Galatia not to heed those who were urging them to submit to Circumcision. These false teachers, known as Judaizers, announced that all Christians must be circumcised in order to be saved; according to some scholars their doctrine took the milder form of teaching merely that Circumcision was necessary, if not for salvation, at least for Christian perfection. In either case they found Paul opposed to them and consequently tried to lessen his authority with the Galatians by representing him as a mere disciple of the other Apostles and as one who had failed to learn the Gospel correctly, since on this important point of Circumcision he was at variance with the real Apostles. In this epistle Paul first vindicates the supernatural origin of his doctrine showing that he had received it directly from Christ and not from men (1), and then he recalls the historic occasion when he had laid his doctrine concerning Circumcision of the Gentiles before the Apostles at Jerusalem and they had fully approved it (2). Controversy has long raged concerning the identification of the visit to Jerusalem (2); some seek to make it the same as the alms-visit of Acts 11,30, but there seems to be no doubt that it is to be identified with the visit described in Acts 15, where the question of Circumcision was decided
Epistle to the Galatians - Written by Saint Paul to warn the churches of Galatia not to heed those who were urging them to submit to Circumcision. These false teachers, known as Judaizers, announced that all Christians must be circumcised in order to be saved; according to some scholars their doctrine took the milder form of teaching merely that Circumcision was necessary, if not for salvation, at least for Christian perfection. In either case they found Paul opposed to them and consequently tried to lessen his authority with the Galatians by representing him as a mere disciple of the other Apostles and as one who had failed to learn the Gospel correctly, since on this important point of Circumcision he was at variance with the real Apostles. In this epistle Paul first vindicates the supernatural origin of his doctrine showing that he had received it directly from Christ and not from men (1), and then he recalls the historic occasion when he had laid his doctrine concerning Circumcision of the Gentiles before the Apostles at Jerusalem and they had fully approved it (2). Controversy has long raged concerning the identification of the visit to Jerusalem (2); some seek to make it the same as the alms-visit of Acts 11,30, but there seems to be no doubt that it is to be identified with the visit described in Acts 15, where the question of Circumcision was decided
Proselyte - The first dwelt in the land of Israel, or even out of that country, and, without obliging themselves to Circumcision, or to any other ceremony of the law, feared and worshipped the true God, observing the rules imposed on Noah. ...
Proselytes of justice or of righteousness were those converted to Judaism, who had engaged themselves to receive Circumcision, and to observe the whole law of Moses. The rabbins inform us that, before Circumcision was administered to them, and before they were admitted into the religion of the Hebrews, they were examined about the motives of their conversion; whether the change was voluntary, or whether it proceeded from interest, fear, ambition, &c. When the proselyte was well proved and instructed, they gave him Circumcision; and when the wound of his Circumcision healed, they gave him baptism, by plunging his whole body into a cistern of water, by only one immersion. Baptism in respect of girls had the same effect as Circumcision in respect of boys
Knife - Thus Zipporah took a sharp stone for the Circumcision of her son
Gilgal - The Israelites born in the wilderness were here circumcised with stone knives (Joshua 5:2 margin; Exodus 4:25), which "rolling" away of the reproach of uncircumcision gave the name. The sons under 20 years, when at Kadesh in the second year of the wilderness journey the murmuring nation was rejected (Numbers 14), had been already circumcised; those born subsequently needed Circumcision. Moses, himself under sentence to die, did not venture on the steppes of Moab to direct the Circumcision of the younger generation without Jehovah's command. And the rule of divine grace is first to give, then to require; so first He showed His grace to Abraham by leading him to Canaan and giving the promises, then enjoined Circumcision; also He did not give the law to Israel at Sinai until first He had redeemed them from Egypt, and thereby made them willing to promise obedience. So now He did not require the renewal of Circumcision, the covenant sign of subjection to the law (Galatians 5:3), until He had first showed His grace in giving them victory over Og and Sihon, and in making a way through Jordan, a pledge that He would fulfill all His promises and finally give them the whole land. ...
The Circumcision was performed the day after crossing Jordan, i. The Circumcision at Gilgal was a practical restoration of the covenant, and a pledge of their now receiving Canaan. the scene of Balaam's wicked counsel taking effect in Israel's sin, from the fatal effects of which I saved thee, all along to Gilgal where I renewed the covenant with Israel by Circumcision (2 Samuel 19:15)
Knife - hereb, "the waster," a sharp instrument for Circumcision (Joshua 5:2,3 , lit
Gibeath-Haaraloth - The new generation forsook the sojourner status with God and became His people through Circumcision at the cultic site near Gilgal
Sacrament - "Among the OT sacraments the rites of Circumcision and the Passover were stressed as being the OT counterparts of baptism (1618448999_54) and the Lord's Supper (1 Corinthians 5:7)
Proselyte - Our Savior rebukes the blind zeal of the Pharisees to make proselytes to ceremonial Judaism, without caring for the Circumcision of the heart, Matthew 23:15 Romans 2:28,29 . ...
These according to the rabbins, by means of Circumcision, baptism, and an offering, obtained all the rites of Jewish citizenship, Exodus 12:48-49
Sign - The word σημεῖον (‘sign’) is used (1) of the autographic part of a letter, the mark of authenticity-2 Thessalonians 3:17 (English Version ‘token’); (2) as meaning a ‘symbol’-Romans 4:11 (the ‘sign of Circumcision,’ i. Circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Sign - The word σημεῖον (‘sign’) is used (1) of the autographic part of a letter, the mark of authenticity-2 Thessalonians 3:17 (English Version ‘token’); (2) as meaning a ‘symbol’-Romans 4:11 (the ‘sign of Circumcision,’ i. Circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Infant Baptism - Those favoring infant baptism raise the following arguments: (1) household baptisms likely included some infants (Acts 16:5 ,Acts 16:5,16:33 ; Acts 18:8 ; 1 Corinthians 1:16 ); (2) Jesus' welcome and blessing of children is a mandate to baptize infants (Mark 10:13-16 ); “hinder” is a technical term associated with baptism (Acts 8:36 ); (3) Circumcision which prefigured baptism (Colossians 2:11 ) included children (Genesis 17:12 ); (4) in the Old Testament children participated in ceremonies of covenant renewal (Deuteronomy 29:10-13 ; Joshua 8:35 ; Joel 2:16 ). ...
Baptists and other adherents of believer's baptism raise the following arguments and counter-arguments: (1) The New Testament prerequisite of baptism is faith (Acts 18:8 ) which is evidenced by confession (Romans 10:9-10 ) and repentance (Acts 2:38 ); (2) infant baptism rests ultimately on the fear that infants are held accountable for organic sin; Baptists counter with a doctrine of an age of accountability at which conscious sin occurs (Genesis 8:21 ; Psalm 25:7 ; Jeremiah 3:25 ) and at which a conscious response to God is possible (1 Kings 18:12 ; Psalm 71:5 ,Psalms 71:5,71:17 ); (3) household baptisms need not have included children; baptism is prefigured in the salvation of Noah and his exclusively adult household in the ark (1 Peter 3:20-21 ); (4) Jesus' blessing of the children demonstrates Christ's love for children; children are presented as an example to disciples rather than as disciples themselves (Matthew 18:2-4 ); (5) Circumcision is an imperfect analogy to baptism; only males participated in Circumcision, whereas in baptism there is “neither male nor female” (Galatians 3:28 ); the witness of the New Testament is that “what is born of the flesh is flesh” and that a spiritual birth is necessary to enter God's kingdom (John 3:5-6 ); it is not the Israel of the flesh that inherits the promises of God but those who are spiritual Israel by a faith commitment (Romans 6-8 ; Galatians 6:16 ); (6) the responsibility of the faith community to its children is instruction in the way of the Lord (Deuteronomy 4:9-10 ; Deuteronomy 11:19 ; Proverbs 22:6 ); participation in covenant renewal is educational for children
Proselyte - The Idumaeans had the alternative offered them by John Hyrcanus of death, exile or Circumcision. Converts of thy gates this class were not bound by Circumcision and the other special laws of the Mosaic code. We learn from the Talmud that, in addition to Circumcision, baptism was also required to complete their admission to the faith
Proselyte - Perfect proselytes, who, submitting to Circumcision, embraced the Jewish religion in its full extent, and enjoyed all the rights and privileges of Jewish citizenship
Council of Jerusalem - Some maintained that all Gentile converts must submit to Circumcision and observe the whole of the Mosaic law
Knife - Of the various sorts of knives noticed in the OT mention may be made of the flint knives used for the rite of Circumcision ( Joshua 5:2 f
di'Nah - (Genesis 34:12 ) This proposal was accepted, the sons of Jacob demanding, as a condition of the proposed union, the Circumcision of the Shechemites
sa'Rah - Abraham's), to Sarah, princess (for all the race), was made at the same time that Abram's name was changed to Abraham, --on the establishment of the covenant of Circumcision between him and God
Luke - But Paul, writing to the Colossians, after mentioning all "of the Circumcision" who had been a comfort unto him, adds the salutation of" Luke, the beloved physician
Abyssinian Church - Discarded Christian customs, such as immersion and infant communion, are observed, as well as many Judaistic rites, including Circumcision and the dedication of children called "Nazarenes
Titus - He, however, refused to subject him to the rite of Circumcision, though, as some have inferred, he was strongly urged so to do
Minister - Christ came to minister, not to be ministered unto; and is called in another sense a minister "of the Circumcision," Romans 15:8 , and of the heavenly sanctuary, Hebrews 8:2
Gentiles - , preached generally to the Jews, and are called apostles of the Circumcision, Galatians 2:8
Gala'Tians, the Epistle to the, - The epistle appears to have been called forth by the machinations of Judaizing teachers, who, shortly before the date of its composition, had endeavored to seduce the churches of this province into a recognition of Circumcision, (Galatians 5:2,11,12 ; 6:12 ) seq
Festival, Fixed - , the Circumcision (January 1,), since the Jewish law prescribed this rite eight days after birth; and the Purification of the Blessed Virgin (February 2,), for this was required of a Jewish mother 40 days after the birth of a male child
Fixed Festival - , the Circumcision (January 1,), since the Jewish law prescribed this rite eight days after birth; and the Purification of the Blessed Virgin (February 2,), for this was required of a Jewish mother 40 days after the birth of a male child
Privily - 8) is translated "came in privily," of the same Judaizers, brought in by the Circumcision party to fulfill the design of establishing the ceremonial law, and thus to accomplish the overthrow of the faith; cp
Eight, Eighteen, Eighth - The Apostle shows by his being an "eighth-day" person as to Circumcision, that his parents were neither Ishmaelites (circumcised in their thirteenth year) nor other Gentiles, converted to Judaism (circumcised on becoming Jews)
Judaizers - The main principles on which they insisted were Circumcision, abstinence from unclean food, and the observance of certain Jewish festivals
Contend - They that were of the Circumcision contended with him
Titus, Epistle to - He mentioned the “circumcision group” (1 Timothy 1:10 NIV), a reference to converts to the Christian faith from Judaism who apparently taught that the rite of Circumcision was necessary to be a complete Christian. See Apollos ; Circumcision ; Holy Spirit ; Paul ; Salvation
Asenath - His Circumcision, if, as in after ages, it was then practiced in Egypt by the priests, would be a recommendation
Feasts or Festivals -   The Circumcision of our Lord
Creation, the New - "In Christ Jesus neither is Circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision; but new creation
Zacharias - He is known to us by his pious and blameless life; his vision of Gabriel in the temple, promising him a son in his old age; his hesitancy in believing, for which he was visited by a temporary dumbness; his miraculous restoration at the Circumcision of his son; and his noble and prophetic song of praise, Luke 1:52 ; 67-79
Formalism - Paul accuses the Jews of formalism with regard to Circumcision (Romans 2:25-29), admonishing them that ‘he is not a Jew who is one outwardly … Circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter,’ Otherwise it is become ‘uncircumcision,’ a falsehood against which the virtue of the unprivileged Gentile will rise up in judgment. Yet the latter element also was involved, and is emphasized by his repeatedly contrasting both Circumcision and un-circumcision with the inward essence and ethical manifestation of Christianity-‘a new creature’ (Galatians 6:15), ‘faith that worketh by love’ (Galatians 5:6), ‘keeping the commandments of God’ (1 Corinthians 7:19). Paul places ‘uncircumcision’ on the same footing with ‘circumcision. ’ If the advocates of freedom supposed that there was any virtue in uncircumcision per se, they were only substituting one fetish for another
Proselyte - Circumcision ( EGT
This spiritual enthusiasm for God’s honour and man’s salvation continued till about the time of the Maccabees, when the tenderer springs of the Jewish spirit were dried up, and the sword became the instrument of national idealism, and whole cities and tribes were given the option of Circumcision or exile, if not slaughter ( Acts 2:9-113 ; 1Ma 13:48 ; 1Ma 14:14 ; 1Ma 14:36 ; Jos. In their conflict with Rome their numbers were greatly reduced by slaughter, and their power of religious expansion was checked by the decree of Hadrian, modified later by Antoninus, in forbidding Circumcision. The ritual conditions imposed on the proselyte on entering Judaism were three: (1) Circumcision, (2) cleansing or baptism, (3) sacrifice. Baptism took place after the healing of the wound caused by Circumcision. ...
Among individual Jewish teachers there was difference of opinion as to the necessity of Circumcision and baptism, but all early usage seems to confirm their actual observance. It is true that Izates, king of Adiahene, for a time refrained from Circumcision under the guidance of his first Jewish teacher, Ananias, but this counsel was given, not because it was at the time deemed unnecessary for a proselyte to be circumcised, but because Circumcision might alienate the sympathies of his people from Izates and endanger his throne
Luke - He was of Gentile parentage before he became a Christian; as appears from Colossians 4:11,14: "Luke the beloved physician" (one of "my fellow workers unto the kingdom of God which have been a comfort unto me") is distinguished from those "of the Circumcision
Observe - In the days of Enoch, the people observed not Circumcision or the sabbath
Covenant - God enjoined upon Abraham the rite of Circumcision, but His promise to Abraham, here called a "covenant," was not conditional upon the observance of Circumcision, though a penalty attached to its nonobservance
Drusilla - This marriage did not take place, as Epiphanes refused to undergo the rite of Circumcision (Ant
James - He had a separate interview with our Lord after his resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:7 ), and is mentioned as one of the apostles of the Circumcision (Acts 1:13 )
Jethro - Zipporah's repugnance to Circumcision (Exodus 4:24-26) shows that it was not universal even among worshippers of the true God
Bar-Kochba - Circumcision was also forbidden
Luke - ...
Paul identified Luke as a physician (Colossians 4:14 ) and distinguished Luke from those “of the Circumcision” (Colossians 4:11 )
Jesus - This reference singles out the three mentioned as the only members of the ‘circumcision’ who had been helpful to the Apostle in Rome, and reminds us of the constant hatred which the narrower Jewish Christians exhibited towards St
Proselyte - times and later the proselytes were received by Circumcision and baptism; but it is very much disputed as to when the baptism was added, there being no mention of it in the O
Gershom - According to Exodus 14:25 ; Exodus 14:25 , the origin of Circumcision among the Israelites was connected with that of Gershom; the rite was performed by his mother; this was contrary to later usage, according to which this was always done by a man
Jesus - This reference singles out the three mentioned as the only members of the ‘circumcision’ who had been helpful to the Apostle in Rome, and reminds us of the constant hatred which the narrower Jewish Christians exhibited towards St
Gilgal - Here they kept their first Passover in the land of Canaan (5:10) and renewed the rite of Circumcision, and so "rolled away the reproach" of their Egyptian slavery
Proselytes - This involved fulfilling the Jewish demands of Circumcision (males) which related one to the covenant (see Galatians 5:3 ), baptism (males and females) which made one ritually clean, and an offering (males and females) in the Jerusalem Temple which atoned for sin
Apostolic Council - Paul used the council experience to show that his gospel without Circumcision was accepted by the leaders in Jerusalem to the point Titus could be with him in Jerusalem and not be circumcised
Sign - This word is used in the sense of token and pledge; as, when the Lord gave to Noah the rainbow, as a sign of his covenant, Genesis 9:12-13 ; and when he appointed to Abraham the use of Circumcision, as the seal of the covenant he had made with him and his posterity, Genesis 17:11
Dinah - But Simeon and Levi, her own brothers, eager for revenge, required the Circumcision of the Shechemites as a condition of union, a rite already known in Egypt as an act of priestly consecration; and when the feverish pain of the operation was at its height, on the third day, the two brothers, with their retainers, took cowardly advantage of their state, attacked, and killed all the males in the city. (See Circumcision
Bochim - The Angel Prince of Jehovah's host announced to Joshua at Gilgal the fall of Jericho, directly after their rolling away the reproach of Egypt by Circumcision, whence the place got its name (Gilgal "rolling") (Joshua 5:2-15)
Debtor - ...
It is used metaphorically, (a) of a person who is under an obligation, Romans 1:14 , of Paul, in the matter of preaching the Gospel; in Romans 8:12 , of believers, to mortify the deeds of the body; in Romans 15:27 , of gentile believers, to assist afflicted Jewish believers; in Galatians 5:3 , of those who would be justified by Circumcision, to do the whole Law: (b) of those who have not yet made amends to those whom they have injured, Matthew 6:12 , "our debtors;" of some whose disaster was liable to be regarded as a due punishment, Luke 13:4 (RV, "offenders;" AV, sinners;" marg
Seal - Circumcision is a seal, an attestation of the covenant (Romans 4:11 )
Feast - The principal of these are Christmas-day, Circumcision, Epiphany, Candlemas or Purification; Lady-day, or the annunciation, called also the incarnation and conception; All Saints and All Souls; besides the days of the several apostles, as St
Iconium - In this neighbourhood he took Timothy as his associate, on the recommendation of the brethren at Lystra and Iconium, and here probably took place Timothy's Circumcision and ordination (1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 1:6)
Abyssinian Church - They practise Circumcision on females as well as males
Token - ...
Genesis 17:11 (b) Circumcision is a permanent mark on the men of Israel to remind them of GOD's unconditional promises to Abraham, and their identification with that covenant
Sanctify - But that dispensation is now at an end; under the New Testament, the state of things is changed, for now "neither Circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature
Children - (Ezekiel 16:4 ; Job 38:9 ; Luke 2:7 ) On the 8th day the rite of Circumcision, in the case of a boy, was performed and a name given
Luke - He was not born a Jew, for he is not reckoned among those "of the Circumcision" by St
Mark - Over against the Circumcision they demanded as a proof of obedience to the law he set the indelible tokens, sustained in his own body, of his loyalty to the Lord Jesus
Seal - A — 1: σφραγίς (Strong's #4973 — Noun Feminine — sphragis — sfrag-ece' ) denotes (a) "a seal" or "signet," Revelation 7:2 , "the seal of the living God," an emblem of ownership and security, here combined with that of destination (as in Ezekiel 9:4 ), the persons to be "sealed" being secured from destruction and marked for reward; (b) "the impression" of a "seal" or signet, (1) literal, a "seal" on a book or roll, combining with the ideas of security and destination those of secrecy and postponement of disclosures, Revelation 5:1,2,5,9 ; 6:1,3,5,7,9,12 ; 8:1 ; (2) metaphorical, Romans 4:11 , said of "circumcision," as an authentication of the righteousness of Abraham's faith, and an external attestation of the covenant made with him by God; the rabbis called Circumcision "the seal of Abraham;" in 1 Corinthians 9:2 , of converts as a "seal" or authentication of Paul's Apostleship; in 2 Timothy 2:19 , "the firm foundation of God standeth, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are His," RV, indicating ownership, authentication, security and destination, "and, Let every one that nameth the Name of the Lord depart from unrighteousness," indicating a ratification on the part of the believer of the determining counsel of God concerning him; Revelation 9:4 distinguishes those who will be found without the "seal" of God on their foreheads Titus - He was among the earliest Gentile leaders in the Christian Church, and it has been suggested, not without plausibility, that the question of Gentile Circumcision was first raised when he, along with others, was brought into the Church. These teachers were men ‘of the Circumcision’ (Titus 1:10; Titus 1:14), who possibly made use of the fact that Titus was an uncircumcised Greek to undermine his authority
Stone - The knives of stone that were made use of by the Jews in Circumcision, were not enjoined by the law; but the use of them was founded, either upon custom, or upon the experience that this kind of instrument is found to be less dangerous than those made of metal. Joshua 5:2 , did the same, when he caused such of the Israelites to be circumcised at Gilgal, as had not received Circumcision during their journey in the wilderness
Proselytes - Circumcision was required as the condition. ...
But Jewish fanaticism sought proselytes also by force and fraud, as John Hyrcanus offered the Idumeans the alternative of death, exile, or Circumcision (Josephus, Ant. the korban (Matthew 15:4-6); and Circumcision, canceling all previous relationships, admitted of incestuous marriages. The proselytes of the gate were not bound to Circumcision, only to the seven precepts of Noah, namely, the six said to have been given to Adam:...
(1) against idolatry,...
(2) blasphemy,...
(3) bloodshed,...
(4) uncleanness,...
(5) theft,...
(6) the precept of obedience to authorities, and...
(7) that given to Noah against "flesh with the blood"; but he had not the full Israelite privileges, he must not study the law nor redeem his firstborn
Baptism - ...
As Circumcision was the painful entrance into the yoke of bondage, the law of Sinai, so baptism is the easy entrance into the light yoke of Christ, the law of liberty and love. Circumcision was the badge of Jewish exclusiveness in one aspect; baptism is the badge of God's world-wide mercy in Christ. As Circumcision bound the circumcised to obedience to the law, and also admitted him to the spiritual privileges of Judaism, so baptism binds the baptized to Christ's service, and gives him a share in all the privileges of the Christian covenant. In Colossians 2:11-12, baptism is represented as our Christian "circumcision made without hands," implying that not the minister, but God Himself, confers it; spiritual Circumcision ("putting off the body of the sins of the flesh") is realized in union with Christ, whose "circumcision" implies His having undertaken for us to keep the whole law (Luke 2:21). ...
Baptism, coincident with this spiritual Circumcision, is the burial of the old carnal life, to which immersion corresponds
Sword - In Joshua 5:2 , the word designates stone knives used in the Circumcision of the people of Israel
Gentile - Paul is commonly called the Apostle of the Gentiles, 1 Timothy 2:7 , or Greeks; because he, principally, preached Jesus Christ to them; whereas Peter, and the other Apostles, preached generally to the Jews, and are called Apostles of the Circumcision, Galatians 2:8
ti'Tus - Taking the passages in the epistles in the chronological order of the events referred to, we turn first to (Galatians 2:1,3 ) We conceive the journey mentioned here to be identical with that (recorded in Acts 15 ) in which Paul and Barnabas went from Antioch to Jerusalem to the conference which was to decide the question of the necessity of Circumcision to the Gentiles. His Circumcision was either not insisted on at Jerusalem, or, if demanded, was firmly resisted. Titus would seem on the occasion of the council to have been specially a representative of the church of the uncircumcision
Marks - The mark of Circumcision . Genesis 17:14 ), the symbol of the covenant between Him and His people (see, further, Circumcision). (2) There is the analogy of Circumcision; just as among the Israelites this was the distinguishing mark of the people of Jahweh, so those who, like the prophets, were more especially His close followers also had a special mark, a distinctive sign, which differentiated them from other men
Stranger - If he were a bondman, he was obliged to submit to Circumcision, (Exodus 12:44 ) if he were independent, it was optional with him but if he remained uncircumcised, he was prohibited from partaking of the Passover, (Exodus 12:48 ) and could not be regarded as a full citizen
Name - ) So the name was given the child at the time of Circumcision, because then he enters into a new covenant relationship to God (Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21)
Barnabas - Between Paul and Barnabas ‘there arose a sharp contention’ concerning John Mark ( Acts 15:35 ff), and they agreed to work apart; Galatians 2:13 also records Paul’s adverse judgment of Barnabas’ attitude in regard to the Circumcision controversy
Hamor - According to p ( Genesis 34:1-2 a, Genesis 34:4 ; Genesis 34:6 ; Genesis 34:8-10 ; Genesis 34:13-18 ; Genesis 34:20-25 (partly) Genesis 34:27-29 ), Hamor negotiates with Jacob and his sons for the marriage of Shechem and Dinah, with the object of amalgamating the two peoples; Circumcision is imposed by the sons of Jacob upon the whole Hamorite tribe, and then they attack the city, slaying all the males and carrying off the whole of the spoil
Law of Abstinence - ...
Canada: Fridays, except those on which may occur the feasts of Circumcision, Epiphany, All Saints, Immaculate Conception, and Christmas; ember-days; those vigils which are also fast days; Wednesdays of Lent; and Holy Saturday until noon
Sign - The rainbow served as the sign of the Noahic, as the rite of Circumcision of the Abrahamic, covenant ( Genesis 9:12 ; Genesis 17:11 ‘token,’ Romans 4:11 )
Flesh - as respects carnal ordinances (circumcision)
Stones - In early days they were made into weapons; Circumcision was practised with sharp stones
Abstinence, Law of - ...
Canada: Fridays, except those on which may occur the feasts of Circumcision, Epiphany, All Saints, Immaculate Conception, and Christmas; ember-days; those vigils which are also fast days; Wednesdays of Lent; and Holy Saturday until noon
Create, Creation, Creator, Creature - As to its use in Galatians 6:15 ; 2 Corinthians 5:17 , in the former, apparently, "the reference is to the creative act of God, whereby a man is introduced into the blessing of salvation, in contrast to Circumcision done by human hands, which the Judaizers claimed was necessary to that end
Names of Our Lord - ...
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT ...
Almighty Word, Wisdom of Solomon 18:15
Brightness of Eternal Light, Wisdom of Solomon 7:26
Child, Isaiah 9:6
Counsellor, Isaiah 9:6
Desire of Eternal Hills, Genesis 49:26
Desired of all nations, Aggeus 2:8
Emmanuel, Isaiah 7:14
Expectation of nations, Genesis
Father of World to Come, Isaiah
God the Mighty, Isaiah 9:6
Holy One of Israel, Isaiah 43:3
Holy One, Psalms 15:10
Just Branch, Jeremiah 23:5
Just, Isaiah 45:8
King of Glory, Psalms 23:7
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 9:7
Lord Our Just One, Jeremiah 23:6
Man of Sorrows, Isaiah 53:3
Man, Michah 5:5
My Just One, Isaiah 41:10
Orient, Zachariah 6:12
Prince of Peace, Isaiah 9:6
Root of Jesse, Isaiah 11:10
Ruler of the Earth, Isaiah 16:1
Sun of Justice, Malachi 4:2
Wonderful, Isaiah 9:6
USED BY HIMSELF ...
Bread of Life, John 6:35
Door, John 10:9
Good Shepherd, John 10:11
Life, John 11:25
Light of the World, John 9:5
Lord, John 13:13
Master, John 13:13
Resurrection and Life, John 11:25
Son of Man, Matthew 8:2O
Son, John 5:22
Vine, John 15:1
Way, Truth, and Life, John 14:6
USED BY THE APOSTLES and EVANGELISTS ...
Advocate, 1 John 2:1
Almighty, Apocalypse 1:8
Alpha and Omega, Apocalypse 1:8
Amen, Apocalypse 3:14
Author and Finisher of Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Author of Life, Acts 3:15
Beginning and End, Apocalypse 1:8
Blessed God, Mark 14:61
Child Jesus, Luke 2:43
Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 1:1
Christ, Matthrew 1:18
Corner-Stone, Epheisans 2:21
Day Star, 2 Peter 1:19
Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Faithful Witness, Apocalypse 1:5
First and Last, Apocalypse 1:17
First Born from the Dead, Apocalypse 1:5
Galitean, Matthew 26:69
God of the Jews, Romans 3:29
Great Pastor, Hebrews 13:20
He that is to come, Hebrews 10:37
Head, Ephesians 4:15
High Priest, Hebrews 2:17
Jesus Christ the Just, 1 John 2:1
Jesus, Matthew 27:17
Key of David, Apocalypse 3:7
King of Kings, Apocalypse 19:16
Lamb of God, John 1:29
Life Eternal, 1 John 1:2
Lion of the Tribe of Juda, Apocalypse 5:5
Living Stone, 1 Peter 2:4
Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 10:48
Lord of All, Galatians 4:1
Lord of Lords, Apocalypse 19:16
Lord Our God, Apocalypse 4:11
Mediator, Hebrews 9:15
Messias, John 1:41 (passim)
Only Begotten of the Father, John 1:14
Our Lord Jesus Ghrist, Romans 1:4
Pascha Nostrum, 1 Corinthians 5:7
Power of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Priest, Hebrews 8:4
Prince of the kings of the earth, Apocalypse 1:5
Rabbi, John 1:18
Rock of Scandal, Romans 9:33
Root of David, Apocalypse 5:6
Saviour of the world, John 4:42
Saviour, Luke 2:11
Son of David, Song of Solomon 18:153
Son of God, Matthew 8:29
Son of Joseph, Luke 3:23
Son of the Living God, Matthew 16:16
Star of the morning, Apocalypse 2:23
Stone of stumbling, 1 Peter 2:8
Stone, Matthew 21:42
Teacher, John 3:2
That which was from the beginning, 1 John 1:1
Victim, Ephesians 5:2
Wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Word, John 1:1
Word of God, Apocalypse 19:13
Word of Life, 1 John 1:1
USED BY OTHERS ...
Adonai, O Antiphons
Angel in the liturgy of the Mass
Captain of our salvation, Ephiphany, Matins
Captain of the Martyrs, Octain of Saint Stephen, Matins
Carpenter's Son, Matthew 13:55
Christ our King, First Wednesday in Advent, Matins
Christ the Lord, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Eagle, Saint Maximus, Homily 42
Eternal, Christmas Day, Lauds
Eternal Word of God made Flesh, Ember Saturday in Advent, Martins
Glory of Thy people Israel, Luke 2:32
God of God, title in Gloria
God our Saviour, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
God the Son, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Great Prophet, First Sunday in Advent, Lauds
Heavenly Bridegroom, Epiphany, Lauds
Holy, Luke 1:35
Holy One of God, Luke 4
King of all the earth, Second Monday in Advent, Vespers
King of Angel Hosts above, Circumcision, Matins
King of Heaven, Christmas Day, Matins
King of Israel, Mark 15:32
King of Righteousness, Third Thursday in Advent, Matins
King of the Gentiles, O Antiphons
King of the Jews, Matthew 2:2
King Peaceful, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, Luke 2:32
Light of Light, title in Gloria
Lord of Angels, Eve of Epiphany, Matins
Lord Our King, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Lawgiver, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Saviour, Circumcision, Matins
Lord that shall rule, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord the King, Ephiphany, Matins
Lord the Ruler, Second Sunday in Advent, Matins
Baptism - God’s covenant with Abraham, for example, included his household, and the males within that household were circumcised as the formal sign that they were part of that covenant (Genesis 17:4; Genesis 17:7; Genesis 17:10-14; Genesis 21:4; see Circumcision; COVENANT). ...
Believers who practise infant baptism, while seeing it as a parallel to the Old Testament rite of Circumcision, realize that, like Circumcision, it is no assurance of salvation (Genesis 17:23; Romans 2:25-29)
Proselyte - ) that the first term means proselytes in the technical sense, and the other two those who, without having submitted to the rite of Circumcision, joined in Jewish worship, has gained a wider acceptance. At last the proselyte took the decisive step: he received the rite of Circumcision, took the hath of purity …, and offered, doubtless in money, the sacrifice which signalized his definitive entrance into the bosom of Israel. Joḥanan declaring ‘that if after a probation of twelve months the ger toshab did not submit to the rite of Circumcision, he was to be regarded as a heathen’ (E. Paul’s words, ‘by receiving Circumcision, became a debtor to do the whole law’ (Galatians 5:3)-was always admitted with fervour
Genesis, Theology of - The third text (17:1-27) introduces Circumcision as the sign of the covenant. He rejects the suggestion that Ishmael may be the heir, and demands that Abraham and all his male descendants undergo Circumcision as the sign of the covenant. They also learned of the origin and meaning of the covenant sign of Circumcision, a sign that for Israel had the same importance as does baptism and communion for the church. He further observes that since this act of justification occurred prior to Circumcision, it demonstrates that Gentiles do not need to receive Circumcision in order to enter the company of the redeemed
Infancy - Excluding the story of the Birth, we have the following series of events:—the Circumcision, the Presentation, the Visit of the Magi, the Flight into Egypt, the Slaughter of the Innocents, the Return and Settlement at Nazareth. ) seems the most reasonable, arranging as follows:—Circumcision, Presentation (or Purification of Mary), Visit of the Magi, Flight into Egypt and Slaughter of the Innocents, Return to Nazareth. ...
The accounts of the Infancy comprise: (a) normal features—the Circumcision, the Presentation (= Purification of Mary and Redemption of the Firstborn); and (b) peculiar features—the Visit of the Magi and connected incidents. The Circumcision took place, on the eighth day (Luke 2:21), i. At the Circumcision the name Jesus was given, we are told (Luke 2:21), in accordance with an angelic intimation to Mary prior to conception (Luke 1:31), a matter in which, it may be noted, a marked contrast with the representation in Matthew 1:18-25 appears
Cornelius - " The question which perplexed the early church was not whether Gentiles might, become Christians (for that was plainly declared Mark 16:15; Luke 24:47), but whether they could be admitted without Circumcision
Cuttings - ...
Paul's bodily sears, suffered for Jesus' sake, were God's own marks that Paul was His, in contrast to the Circumcision marks in the flesh of their followers in which the Judaizing teachers gloried (Galatians 6:17; Galatians 6:13-14; Colossians 1:24; Revelation 7:3)
Covenant - He gave him also the covenant of Circumcision, Genesis 17:10-14 ; Acts 7:8 , — a seal of the righteousness of faith
Judaism - They used Circumcision as a seal of the covenant which God had made with Abraham
Names - In the case of boys this was conferred upon the eighth day, in connection with the rite of Circumcision
Consider - 1: ὁράω (Strong's #3708 — Verb — eidon — hor-ah'-o ) used as the aorist tense of horao, "to see," is translated "to consider" in Acts 15:6 , of the gathering of the Apostles and elders regarding the question of Circumcision in relation to the Gospel
Profane - ...
Will the reader indulge me with humbly offering one thought more on this subject? We find by the law that the fruits of the trees in Canaan were prohibited for three years, and the reason given was, that they were uncircumcised; but that then in the fourth year, after a Circumcision had taken place, all the fruit was declared holy unto the Lord; and the fifth year the fruits were deemed profane for use. I do not presume to speak decidedly upon the subject—I rather write humbly to enquire than to decide; but I would venture to ask, whether these things were not typical of the Lord Jesus Christ and his salvation? When, by the three years of Christ's ministry and death, redemption-work was completed, and believers by the Circumcision of the Spirit are brought into a state of regeneration and justification before God, all the fruits of the Spirit are like the plants upon Samaria; they shall then profane them as common things; they shall do as the priests did, and be blameless; they shall enter into the full enjoyment of them as common things
Judaizing - On the other hand, the keen intellect of a Stephen or a Paul saw at once that any attempt to enforce the Mosaic Law or even the initiatory rite of Circumcision upon the Gentiles, meant stagnation and death to the Church. It is not the Judaism of Jerusalem which laid stress upon the importance of Circumcision and the Law, but the Judaism of the Dispersion, which concerned itself with such questions as difference of food, difference or days, etc. But of Circumcision and the perpetual validity of the Law we have nothing’ (p
Judaizers - " It appears that these individuals agreed with much of the apostolic kerygma but sought to regulate the admission of Gentiles into the covenant people of God through Circumcision and the keeping of the ceremonial law
Offense - ...
Paul points out by asking a rhetorical question in Galatians 5:11 that the Jewish nationalistic requirement of Circumcision has been removed for Gentiles, which is the "offense of the cross
Foreigner - They could join in some of Israel’s ceremonies (Numbers 15:14; Deuteronomy 26:11), but they could not join in the Passover unless they had formally become members of the covenant people (Exodus 12:48-50; see Circumcision; PROSELYTE)
Galatians Epistle to the - Paul was silent about these conditions because he wished to curry favour with you (Galatians 1:10), yet on occasion even he has declared by his action that Circumcision is binding upon Gentile Christians (Galatians 5:11). But it must be remembered that he is not an apostle in the same sense as our teachers, the great apostles of the Circumcision, Peter, James, and John. ...
To the attack on his personal authority he replies by stating the facts of his immediate Divine call to apostleship, and of his relations with the apostles of the Circumcision (Galatians 1:9 to Galatians 2:14). In answer to the Judaizers’ insistence on the necessity of Circumcision and the observance of the Law, he sets forth the true position of the Law in God’s scheme of redemption. ]'>[3] On this visit he conferred privately with the apostles of the Circumcision, on terms of absolute equality. To follow the Judaizers and accept Circumcision is to break away from Christ and return to bondage under the yoke of the Law. Paul visited Jerusalem in company with Barnabas, and interviewed the apostles of the Circumcision
Baptize, Baptism - " The second metaphor relates to Circumcision, another "cleansing" required of Jewish proselytes, sometimes explained as "a putting off of the flesh. " Paul assures the Gentile converts at Colossae that they do not need Jewish Circumcision, as certain Judaists were insisting: "In [2] you were also circumcised in the putting off of the sinful nature, not with a Circumcision done by the hands of men but with the Circumcision done by Christ, having been buried with him in baptism" ( Colossians 2:11-12 ). That is Paul's only reference to baptism's accomplishing what Circumcision portrayed
Covenant - " In this transaction, then, there was the essence of a covenant; for there were mutual stipulations between two parties; and there was superadded, as a seal of the covenant, the rite of Circumcision, which, being prescribed by God, was a confirmation of his promise to all who complied with it, and being submitted to by Abraham, was, on his part, an acceptance of the covenant. But although the Mosaic dispensation did not fulfil the Abrahamic covenant, it was so far from setting that covenant aside, that it cherished the expectation of its being fulfilled: for it continued the rite of Circumcision, which was the seal of the covenant; and in those ceremonies which it enjoined, there was a shadow, a type, an obscure representation, of the promised blessing, Luke 1:72-73 . See Circumcision
John the Baptist - Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his Circumcision (Luke 1:64 )
Reckon, Reckoning - be reckoned," RV (AV, "counted"), of "reckoning" uncircumcision for Circumcision by God's estimate in contrast to that of the Jew regarding his own condition (ver
New Self - Baptism, unlike Circumcision, which was the putting away of a mere piece of flesh, represented rather the stripping off of the whole body of flesh (v
Father - Adam is the first father, the father of the living; Abraham is the father of the faithful, the father of the Circumcision; called also the "father of many nations," because many people sprung from him; as the Jews, Ishmaelites, Arabs, &c
Names - —Jewish children usually received their names very soon after their birth; in the case of male children, at the time of their Circumcision on the eighth day (Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21)
Tim'Othy - Timothy, though reckoned as one of the seed of Abraham, had been allowed to grow up to the age of manhood without the sign of Circumcision. With a special view to the feelings of the Jews making no sacrifice of principle, the apostle, who had refused to permit the Circumcision of Titus, "took and circumcised" Timothy
Titus - " Included in the "certain other of them" who accompanied the apostle and Barnabas when they were deputed from the church of Antioch to consult the church at Jerusalem concerning the Circumcision of Gentile converts (Acts 15:2), and agreeably to the decree of the council there was exempted from Circumcision, Paul resisting the attempt to force Titus to be so, for both his parents were Gentile, and Titus represented at the council the church of the uncircumcision (contrast TIMOTHY who was on one side of Jewish parentage: Acts 16:3
Gilgal - He also arranged for the Circumcision of all those who had been born during the years in the wilderness but had not yet been circumcised. The significance of this mass ceremony was that Circumcision was the sign of the covenant under which Israel inherited the land (Joshua 5:2-9)
Paul - ) The leading facts of his life which appear in that history, subsidiary to its design of sketching the great epochs in the commencement and development of Christ's kingdom, are: his conversion (Acts 9), his labours at Antioch (Acts 11), his first missionary journey (Acts 13; 14), the visit to Jerusalem at the council on Circumcision (Acts 15), introduction of the gospel to Europe at Philippi (Acts 16),: visit to Athens (Acts 17), to Corinth (Acts 18), stay at Ephesus (Acts 19), parting address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus (Acts 20), apprehension at Jerusalem, imprisonment at Casesarea, and voyage to Rome (Acts 21-27). An apostle, severed from legalism, and determined unbelief by an extraordinary revulsion, was better fitted for carrying forward the work among unbelieving Gentiles, which had been begun by the apostle of the Circumcision. " At Jerusalem "they declared all things that God had done with them," the facts and miracles of their mission among the Gentiles in general to the Christian multitude there; "but privately" to the apostles the details of his doctrine, in order to compare it with their teaching, to let them see that he was not "running in vain," in not requiring Circumcision of Gentile converts. So Judas Barsabas and Silas, chosen men of their own company, were sent with Paul and Barnabas to carry the decree to Antioch, the apostles having previously "given Paul the right hand of fellowship" as a colleague in the apostleship, and having recognized that the apostleship of the uncircumcision was committed to Paul as that of the Circumcision to Peter. The realization of the brotherly bond uniting the whole church (circumcision no longer separating the Jew from the Gentile) was further to be kept up by alms for the poor brethren (Galatians 2). If Paul had proselytized Gentiles as the Jews always received proselytes, namely, with Circumcision, persecution would have ceased. Unable to deny that Gentiles are admissible to the Christian covenant without Circumcision, they denied that they were so to social intercourse with Jews; pleading the authority of James, they induced Peter, in spite of his own avowed principles (Acts 15:7-11) and his practice (Acts 11:2-17), through fear of man (Proverbs 29:25), to separate himself from those Gentiles with whom he had heretofore eaten; this too at Antioch, the stronghold of universality and starting point of Paul's missions to Gentiles
Galatians, Epistle to the - Paul had changed his mind and was inconsistent, that he had refrained from preaching Circumcision to them only from a desire to be ‘all things to all men,’ but that he had preached it (at any rate as the better way) to others. It is doubtful if the Judaizers upheld Circumcision as necessary to salvation, or only as necessary to a complete Christianity. The opposition to him evidently died away with the controversy about Circumcision. Galatians 6:12 (‘compel’) suggests that they insisted on Circumcision as necessary for salvation (§ 1 ). Weber thinks that Galatians 5:2 could not have been written after the Circumcision of Timothy; but this is doubtful. An anti-Jewish Gnostic would not have used expressions of deference to the Apostles of the Circumcision; an Ebionite would not have used the arguments of the Epistle against the Mosaic Law (thus the Clementine Homilies , an Ebionite work, clearly hits at the Epistle in several passages); an orthodox forger would avoid all appearance of conflict between Peter and Paul
Naming - Naming took place near birth in the Old Testament and on the eighth day accompanying Circumcision in New Testament narratives (Luke 1:59 ; Luke 2:21 )
Peter - ...
Peter was the apostle of the Circumcision, as Paul was of the Gentiles, and was a long time getting entirely clear of Jewish prejudices
Abraham - Even after another covenantal assurance (Genesis 17:1-21 ) in which the rite of Circumcision was made a covenantal sign, Abram and Sarai still questioned God's promise of an heir
Works of the Law - , Circumcision, dietary regulations, and Sabbath observance)
Titus, Epistle to - There were at Crete many deceivers, especially those of the Circumcision, whose mouths must be stopped
Infant Communion - As for his argument from the Jewish children eating the sacrifice, it is to be considered that this was not required as Circumcision was; the males were not necessarily brought to the temple till they were twelve years old, Luke 2:42
Coelicolae - they probably combined a Christian form of baptism with the Jewish rite of Circumcision
Abolish - , He is going to render them inactive, 1 Corinthians 15:24 ; the last enemy that shall be abolished, or reduced to inactivity, is death, 1 Corinthians 15:26 ; the glory shining in the face of Moses, "was passing away," 2 Corinthians 3:7 , the transitoriness of its character being of a special significance; so in 2 Corinthians 3:11,13 ; the veil upon the heart of Israel is "done away" in Christ, 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; those who seek justification by the Law are "severed" from Christ, they are rendered inactive in relation to Him, Galatians 5:4 ; the essential effect of the preaching of the Cross would become inoperative by the preaching of Circumcision, Galatians 5:11 ; by the death of Christ the barrier between Jew and Gentile is rendered inoperative as such, Ephesians 2:15 ; the Man of Sin is to be reduced to inactivity by the manifestation of the Lord's Parousia with His people, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ; Christ has rendered death inactive for the believer, 2 Timothy 1:10 , death becoming the means of a more glorious life, with Christ; the Devil is to be reduced to inactivity through the death of Christ, Hebrews 2:14
New Creation - To base one's boast on one's confidence in the rite of Circumcision or one's refusal to be circumcised amounted to reliance on "the flesh, " or in this case on a ceremony or ritual. Verse 15 then restates this in principle form: "For neither Circumcision nor uncircumcision is anything; but a new creation is everything" (NRSV). Then, with the Jew/Gentile debate in view—circumcision versus uncircumcisionChrist's work of "creating" a "new" humanity is introduced to demonstrate how the old distinctions and privileges have been rendered obsolete
Corinthians - The Jews required Circumcision as an indispensable act of religion; while Paul's disciples attempted to lay the foundation of a new doctrine respecting it, and to extinguish all traces of Circumcision, 1 Corinthians 7:18
Galatians, Letter to the - Though there are differences in the accounts (Paul made no reference in the epistle to the decree of Acts 15:23-29 ), the principal characters (Paul, Barnabas, Peter, James), and the main issue (whether faith in Jesus is sufficient for salvation or Circumcision and obedience to the law of Moses were also necessary) in each account are the same. They taught that Circumcision was necessary for salvation (Galatians 5:2 ; Galatians 6:12-16 ), as was obedience to the law of Moses, even the observation of days, months, seasons, and years (Galatians 4:10 ). ...
Paul closed (Galatians 6:11-18 ) again urging them not to yield to Circumcision and all it represented
Law - Here the Apostle is maintaining that submission to Circumcision entails the obligation to do the whole "Law. " Circumcision belongs to the ceremonial part of the "Law," but, while the Mosaic Law is actually divisible into the ceremonial and the moral, no such distinction is made or even assumed in Scripture. ...
Notes: (1) In Galatians 5:3 , the statement that to receive Circumcision constitutes a man a debtor to do "the whole Law," views the "Law" as made up of separate commands, each essential to the whole, and predicates the unity of the "Law;" in Galatians 5:14 , the statement that "the whole law" is fulfilled in the one commandment concerning love, views the separate commandments as combined to make a complete "law
Titus - Paul on his journey from Antioch to Jerusalem a journey undertaken in connexion with the question of the Circumcision of Gentile Christians ( Galatians 2:1 )
Food Offered to Idols - According to Acts the success of Paul and Barnabas in evangelizing Gentiles led to a debate about the place of Circumcision among Christians
Make (Cut) a Covenant - ” “Cut off” may also imply cutting off in the sense of Circumcision
Flesh - That part of the “fleshly” element known as the foreskin was to be removed by Circumcision ( Acts of the Apostles - Paul; the call of Cornelius, the first Gentile convert; the persecution of the Christians by Herod Agrippa; the preaching of Paul and Barnabas to the Gentiles, by the express command of the Holy Ghost; the decree made at Jerusalem, declaring that Circumcision, and a conformity to other Jewish rites and ceremonies, were not necessary in Gentile converts; and the latter part of the book is confined to the history of St
Zacharias - ...
Godet remarks on the pleasant picture of family life presented by the scene of the Baptist’s Circumcision, It had been a custom since the birth of Isaac (who received his name at his Circumcision) to give a child his name on the same day in which he was signed as one of God’s people: for a similar reason, Christian children are named on the occasion of their entrance by baptism into the Church
Sign - Circumcision served as areminder of God's covenant with Abraham (Genesis 17:11 ). Paul spoke of Circumcision as a witness to the covenant (Romans 4:11 )
Motives - The most powerful symbols of spiritual identification (circumcision, baptism) can be undermined by one who submits to them but is not inwardly changed (Jeremiah 9:25-26 ; Matthew 3:7-8 ; Romans 2:25-29 ; 1 Peter 3:21 ). Sometimes Paul would recommend Circumcision and sometimes he would be adamantly opposed, positions that he took for different reasons that varied with circumstances (Acts 16:3 ; 1 Corinthians 7:18-20 ; Galatians 2:3 ; 5:6 ; 6:15 ), ultimately seeking to please God by his faithfulness in spreading the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:20-23 ; 10:31-33 )
Abraham - He established also the covenant of Circumcision, Genesis 17:1-27
Enter, Entering, Entrance - 1), is rendered "entered" in Romans 5:20 , AV for RV, "came in beside," the meaning being that the Law entered in addition to sin; (b) "to enter" secretly, by stealth, Galatians 2:4 , "came in privily," to accomplish the purposes of the Circumcision party
Cerinthus - ...
It is not incredible that Cerinthus judaized to the extent of teaching the obligation of Circumcision and the Sabbath (Epiph
Galatia - But some Judaizing teachers getting access among them soon after the Apostle's departure, their minds became corrupted from the simplicity that was in Christ Jesus; and, though mostly Gentiles, they were beginning to mingle Circumcision, and other Jewish observances, with their faith in Christ, in order to render it more available to their salvation
Bless - They blessed God for their present refreshment, for their deliverance out of Egypt, for the covenant of Circumcision, and for the law given by Moses; and prayed that God would be merciful to his people Israel, that he would send the Prophet Elijah, and that he would render them worthy of the kingdom of the Messiah
Idumea - Five years after the taking of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar humbled all the states around Judea, particularly Idumaea, though he did not carry them captive; and subsequently John Hyrcanus drove them from Southern Judea, into which they had penetrated, entirely conquered them, and obliged them to receive Circumcision and law
Peter - the great Apostle of the Circumcision, was the son of Jona, and born at Bethsaida, a town situated on the western shore of the lake of Gennesareth, but in what particular year we are not informed, John 1:42-43 . The effects produced on the mind of this great Apostle of the Circumcision by the resurrection of his divine Master, and the consequent effusion of the Holy Spirit, were evidently of the most extraordinary kind, and such as it is impossible to account for upon natural principles. Beside, we find him in the council of Jerusalem, which met not long after this to determine the famous question concerning the Circumcision of the Gentiles
Barnabas - Following upon this mission came a prolonged stay at Antioch, broken at length by another visit to Jerusalem, in consequence of dissensions that had arisen over the necessity of Circumcision. Such also is the view very generally held that the second and third visits of Acts were really one and the same-the visit to the Council recorded in Galatians; but that, as it was undertaken with the twofold object of bearing alms to the poor and discussing Circumcision with the leaders of the Church, two accounts of it came into existence which the author of Acts erroneously supposed to refer to separate events
Law (2) - Paul is quite explicit that this freedom is to be strenuously maintained in the sphere of Jewish ceremonies, especially Circumcision, and sacred days and seasons. On the other hand, a party in the Early Church insisted passionately on the permanent validity of the Law, and especially of Circumcision, as essential to salvation. Paul; but He, like His great Apostle, was born under the Law (Galatians 4:4), and initiated by Circumcision into the Covenant on the eighth day (Luke 2:21). It is certainly a very striking fact, in view of the immense importance attached in Judaism to the rite, that Jesus nowhere raises the question of the permanence of Circumcision. The great principle, that the external was unimportant in comparison with the inward, expressed in the abolition by Jesus of the Levitical laws as to unclean food, and in His doctrine that for worship in the material temple there was to be substituted worship in spirit and in truth, carried with it the conclusion that as a purely external rite Circumcision could have no place in the religion of the spirit. This implied the abolition of the Old Covenant, and naturally the abolition of Circumcision, which was its sign. ) of the New Covenant, but in the prophetic demand for a Circumcision of the heart (Jeremiah 4:4; Jeremiah 9:26; cf
Levi - They made Circumcision, which God gave as a pledge of His holy covenant, the instrument of hypocrisy and bloody revenge
Colossians, Epistle to the - In Christ they had the reality of the things signified in the ordinances of Circumcision and baptism
Rejoice - ...
This emotion arises at festivals, Circumcision feasts, wedding feasts, harvest feasts, the overthrow of one’s enemies, and other such events
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - ...
Peter also (2 Peter 3:15-16), the apostle of the Circumcision, in addressing the Hebrew Christians of the dispersion in the East, says, "as our beloved brother Paul . ...
The apostle of the Circumcision attests the gospel preached by the apostle of the uncircumcision; and the latter was chosen by God to confirm the Hebrew, as conversely the former was chosen to open the door to the Gentiles (Acts 10). He enjoins obedience to church rulers (Hebrews 13:7; Hebrews 13:17; Hebrews 13:24), thus meeting the possible objection that by writing this epistle he was interfering with the prerogative of Peter the apostle of the Circumcision, and with the bishop of Jerusalem (James's successor, if by this time James was martyred)
Galatians, Theology of - The word "flesh" is appropriate because of the Judaizers' emphasis on Circumcision (6:12-13), but it also suggests the weakness of human nature and thus our inability to please God (cf. ...
Central in this discussion Isaiah 5:6 , one of the most important statements in all of Paul's letters: "For in Christ Jesus neither Circumcision nor uncircumcision has any value. What he argued against in Galatians and elsewhere was the tendency to take the distinguishing marks of Judaism (circumcision, food laws, etc
Abraham - ) Up to Genesis 17:4-5, his being sealed with Circumcision, the sign of the covenant, ABRAM (father of elevation). God then gave Circumcision as seal of the covenant of righteousness by faith, which he had while yet uncircumcised (Romans 4). His name was changed at Circumcision from Abram to Abraham (father of many nations), to mark that the covenant was not to include merely his seed after the flesh, the Israelites, but the numerous Gentile nations also, who in his Seed, Christ, should be children of his faith (Galatians 3)
Timothy - Paul caused him to be circumcised ( Acts 16:3 ), judging that, as his mother was a Jewess, his not having submitted to the rite would prove an obstacle to his ministry among Jews, and, further, that from his semi-Jewish parentage, he did not come within the scope of the Church’s decree which released Gentiles from Circumcision
Seal - ...
Paul described Abraham's Circumcision as a seal, or guarantee, that Abraham was reckoned righteous by God (Romans 4:11 )
Genesis, Book of - He is separated to God by Circumcision
Fathers - The group is referred to 5 times in the Gospels (Matthew 8:11; Matthew 22:32, Mark 12:26, Luke 13:28; Luke 20:37), and probably, without the names, in one of the passages cited above (John 7:22 ‘not that it [2] is of Moses but of the fathers’)
New Testament - ...
48 Ananias nominated high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis...
49-50 Paul, after return, remains a long time at Antioch Acts 14:28 ...
Dispute concerning Circumcision, council at Jerusalem Acts 15:1 ...
50 Paul's third visit to Jerusalem with Barnabas...
(fourteen years from his conversion
Sacrament -
Pre-Christian Sacraments ...
Circumcision, both in the law of nature and the Mosaic Law
Barnabas, Epistle of - In dealing with Circumcision, our author seizes on those passages which speak of a Circumcision of the heart (Jeremiah 4:4, Deuteronomy 10:16; Jeremiah 9:26), and argues that the Jewish Circumcision ‘is abolished, for he hath said that a Circumcision not of the flesh should be practised’ (9:4). 16); thus all that is outwardly distinctive of the Jewish religion is interpreted in a spiritual sense: distinctions of clean and unclean, Circumcision, the Sabbath and the Temple
Hebrews - Under the patriarchs, they were instructed in the will of God by direct revelation, worshipped him by prayer and sacrifices, opposed idolatry and atheism, used Circumcision as the appointed seal of the covenant made by God with Abraham, and followed the laws which the light of grace and faith discovers to those who honestly and seriously seek God, his righteousness, and truth. They everywhere maintain observances peculiar to themselves: such as Circumcision, performed after the law of their fathers; the great day of expiation; also the observance of a Sabbath or day of rest on Saturday, and not on the Christian Sabbath
Covenant - The rite of Circumcision, which God gave as the sign and seal of the covenant, gave Abraham and his descendants the opportunity to demonstrate such faith and obedience. The covenant depended upon God, but only those who were obedient to God experienced the communion with God that was the covenant’s central blessing (Genesis 17:9-14; see Circumcision; OBEDIENCE
Titus, Epistle to - The chief errorists mentioned by him are unruly men, vain talkers, and deceivers, especially those of the Circumcision, who led men astray for filthy lucre’s sake ( Titus 1:10-11 ), men who professed that they knew God but denied Him in their lives ( Titus 1:16 ), and men who were ‘heretical’ (RVm Joseph - Joseph took Mary to his ancestral home, Bethlehem, was with her at Jesus' birth, and shared in the naming, Circumcision, and dedication of the child (Luke 2:8-33 )
Hasmonean - He forcibly converted the Idumeans, who were traditional enemies of ancient Judaism, by demanding Circumcision, and he profoundly alienated Judean Jews and Samaritan Jews by attacking Samaria and the Samaritan Temple at Mount Gerizim
Slave - He was admitted to the spiritual privileges of Israel: Circumcision (Genesis 17:12), the great feasts, Passover, etc
Covenant - The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night (Jeremiah 33:20 ), the Sabbath (Exodus 31:16 ), Circumcision (Genesis 17:9,10 ), and in general any ordinance of God (Jeremiah 34:13,14 )
Passover - ...
All adult male Israelites had to attend the Passover celebration (Exodus 23:14; Exodus 23:17), and so could foreigners, provided they had accepted Circumcision and so become part of the covenant people (Exodus 12:43-49)
Slave/Servant - Foreigners could be enslaved permanently, but they had the right to Circumcision (Exodus 12:44-48 ), Sabbath rest (Exodus 20:10 ), and holidays (Deuteronomy 16:11 ,Deuteronomy 16:11,16:14 )
Exclusiveness - (1) His vocation as ‘a minister of the Circumcision’ (Romans 15:8) led Him to avoid as far as possible work among Samaritans and Gentiles
Genesis - God then confirmed the covenant with Abraham, giving the rite of Circumcision as the sign and seal of the covenant (17:1-27)
Physician (2) - a lotion (Luke 10:34), an anodyne (Mark 15:23), both, we may assume, customary amongst Jews, but in neither of these cases administered by them; operations (circumcision, Luke 1:59 etc
Baptism - As their writers treat largely of the reasons for this rite, and give no hint of its being a novel institution, it is probable that this had always been the custom antecedent to the time of Moses, whose account of the rite of Circumcision, and of the manner of performing it, is by no means circumstantial. Or, baptism, after Circumcision, might have come into use gradually from the natural propriety of the thing, and its easy conformity to other Jewish customs. They believe that, as the Abrahamic and Christian covenants are the same, Genesis 17:7 ; Hebrews 8:12 ; that as children were admitted under the former; and that as baptism is now a sign, seal, or confirmation of this covenant, infants have as great a right to it as the children of the Israelites had to the seal of Circumcision under the law, Acts 2:39 ; Romans 4:11 . The objection that infants are not proper subjects for baptism, because they cannot profess faith and repentance, falls with as much weight upon the institution of Circumcision as infant baptism; since they are as capable or are as fit subjects for the one as the other
Joshua, Theology of - Indeed, the Circumcision and Passover celebration in chapter 5, as well as the theological role of the tribal allotments as part of Israel's covenantal inheritance from God, suggest that fulfillment of the covenant remains an integral part of the whole book. 3-4); the Israelite Circumcision (5:1-3); the Passover celebration (5:10); Joshua's confrontation with the commander of the Lord's army (5:13-15); the special instructions for crossing the Jordan with the ark (chaps
John the Apostle - At Paul's second visit there John (esteemed then with James and Peter a "pillar") gave him the right hand of fellowship, that he should go to the pagan and they to the Circumcision (Galatians 2:9). John took part in the first council there concerning Circumcision of the Gentiles (Acts 15:6)
Judges, Book of - The Angel of the Lord was at Gilgal during the book of Joshua (to which place the Israelites should in spirit have constantly returned: it is the place of Circumcision, that is, for the Christian, thorough separation from the first man); but now He came to Bochim, and reminded them that He had delivered them from Egypt, and had declared that He would never break His covenant with Israel; they were to make no league with the people of the land, but they had not obeyed His voice
Sacraments - Paul traces an analogy between Circumcision and the Passover the two most distinctive rites of the Old Covenant on the one hand, and Baptism ( Colossians 2:11 ) and the Lord’s Supper (cf
Babylon, Mystical - Babylon contained many Jews in the apostolic age ("one of the greatest knots of Jews in the world:" Lightfoot, quoted in Smith's Dictionary), and doubtless "the apostle of the Circumcision," Peter, who had among his hearers on Pentecost (Acts 2) "the dwellers of Mesopotamia," would visit the Jews there
Slave - They could even join in the full religious life of Israel, provided they had formally become part of the covenant people through the rite of Circumcision (Exodus 12:44; Deuteronomy 16:14)
Neighbor - ...
The problem of "neighborliness" was acute in Judaism because of the people's self-consciousness of being the chosen people (Genesis 12:1-3 ; 15:1-6 ; 17:1-8 ), sealed in the rite of Circumcision (17:9-14)
Antiochus - Circumcision and the observance of the Sabbath were forbidden under penalty of death
a'Braham - Thirteen years elapsed, during which Abram still dwelt in Hebron, when the covenant was renewed, and the rite of Circumcision established as its sign
Name - A name was given to the male child at the time of its Circumcision, but it is probable, previous to the introduction of that rite, that the name was given immediately after its birth
Theodosius ii., Emperor - 415, seem to have advanced so far as to exercise jurisdiction over Christians and to force them to receive Circumcision, while the Jewish people mocked the Christian religion and burned the cross (Socr
Ebionism And Ebionites - Of far greater moment to them and as necessary to salvation was the due observance of Circumcision the sabbath the distinction between clean and unclean food the sacrificial offerings—probably with the later Pharisaic additions (cf. They even asserted that by birth he was not a Jew but a Gentile (wresting his words in Act_21:39 who had become a proselyte in the hope of marrying the High Priest's daughter but that having failed in this he had severed himself from the Jews and occupied himself in writing against Circumcision and the observance of the sabbath (Epiph. Circumcision was sacred to them from the practice of the patriarchs and of Jesus Christ; and they declined all fellowship with the uncircumcised but repudiated the sacrifices of the altar and the reverence of the Jew for the Temple
Nation (2) - 125, when the Idumaeans, being defeated by Hyrcanus, submitted to Circumcision. This unity was expressed not only by the rite of Circumcision (John 7:22), but also by the keeping of the Sabbath (Mark 3:4), the abstinence from unclean foods, and the worship, without images, of one only God
Sacrifices in the Old Testament - Deliberate crimes were not so expiable; among these were reckoned the omission of Circumcision, the desecration of the Sabbath, blasphemy, failure to celebrate the pasch, eating of blood, working or failure to fast on the Day of Atonement
Old Testament, Sacrifices in the - Deliberate crimes were not so expiable; among these were reckoned the omission of Circumcision, the desecration of the Sabbath, blasphemy, failure to celebrate the pasch, eating of blood, working or failure to fast on the Day of Atonement
Flesh - It can also denote the opposite where the whole refers to the part, especially when referring to the sexual organs such as the Circumcision of the flesh (Genesis 17:14 ; Galatians 6:13 ; Ephesians 2:11 ; Philippians 3:3 ; Colossians 2:13 ; compare Leviticus 15:2-3 , Leviticus 15:7 , Leviticus 15:19 )
Unclean And Clean - ...
The Lord's mark of ownership, Circumcision, was on them; and that ownership appeared in every ordinary act of life, the antitype to which is our New Testament rule (1 Corinthians 10:31; 1 Peter 4:11; Colossians 3:17)
Nations, the - Among these the incident between Paul and Peter concerning the necessity of Circumcision for the non-Jewish Christian (Galatians 2 ) highlights this problem
Legalism - The forms were much the same as in Jesus' day: association with sinners, observance of the ceremonial law, and, above all, acceptance of the ritual mark of the people of Godcircumcision. While Paul can speak positively of the law (Romans 7:7,12,14 ), including Circumcision (Romans 3:1-2 ; 4:10-12 ), he also speaks of it negatively
Silas or Silyanus - As a member of the primitive Church and its agent in conveying the decree regarding Circumcision to Antioch, Silas would be a pledge of relationship between Paul and Jerusalem on the second journey, as Barnabas had been on the first; and so lie would be regarded by the author of Acts as a more appropriate associate for the Apostle
Galatians, the Epistle to the - 16:62); among these probably, as elsewhere, he began his ministry, and from them perhaps emanated the Judaizers who almost induced the Gentile Christians (Galatians 4:8-9), who constituted the majority of the Galatian church, to undergo Circumcision (Galatians 1:6; Galatians 3:1; Galatians 3:3; Galatians 5:2-3; Galatians 6:12-13)
Samaritans - They add farther, that they never defer Circumcision beyond the eighth day; never marry their nieces, as the Jews do; have but one wife; and, in fine, do nothing but what is commanded in the law; whereas the Jews frequently abandon the law to follow the inventions of their rabbins
Cerinthians - He was certainly a Gnostic in his notion of the creation of the world, which he conceived to have been formed by angels; and his attachment to that philosophy may explain what otherwise seems inconsistent, that he retained some of the Mosaic ceremonies, such as the observance of Sabbaths and Circumcision; though, like other Gnostics, he ascribed the law and the prophets to the angel who created the world
Sacrament - The greater part of Protestants, therefore, following an expression of the Apostle, Romans 4:11 , when he is speaking of Circumcision, consider the sacraments as not only signs, but also seals, of the covenant of grace
Type - Romans 3:25, Ephesians 5:2), the Temple and the Christian Church (1 Corinthians 3:16, 2 Corinthians 6:16), the ministry of the altar and the ministry of the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:13), Circumcision and baptism (Colossians 2:11-12), the sacrificial communion of Judaism and communion at the Lord’s Table in the body and blood of Christ (1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 10:18)-these are particular instances he gives of the fact that the institutions of the old dispensation were anticipative and symbolic of the new. Circumcision finds its meaning in ‘a Circumcision not made with hands’ (Colossians 2:11; cf
Barnabas, Epistle of - What he says is that a remark of Herodotus to the effect that the Syrians who live in Palestine are circumcised proves that historian's acquaintance with the Jews because the Jews were the only inhabitants of Palestine by whom that rite was practised and it must have been of them therefore that he was speaking and he quotes Herodotus and without any word of dissent as saying that the Syrians about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius that is in the northern parts of Syria did submit to Circumcision. This view of the matter is made good partly by shewing that, side by side with the institutions of Israel, there were many passages of the Prophets in which God even condemned in strong language the outward ceremony, whether sacrifice, or fasting, or Circumcision, or the temple worship (cc. ); that these things, in their formal meaning, were positively rejected by Him; and that the most important of them all, Circumcision, was fully as much a heathen as a divine rite (c
Law - , required a special revelation before he would enter the house of the uncircumcised Cornelius and admit the first Gentile convert into the Church by baptism (Acts 10:1-48)-a step which did not fail to arouse opposition on the part of those who ‘were of the Circumcision’ (cf. Paul as the Apostle of the Circumcision (Acts 15:13-21; cf. Paul is here dealing mainly with the question of Circumcision (cf
Lois And Eunice - " And thus it came about that Timothy, unhappy enough in his birth, and handicapped enough in starting on the race of life, was more than compensated for all that through the labours and the prayers of his mother and his grandmother, and through the beneficial operation of that noble New Testament law,-"He is not a Jew who is one outwardly: neither is that Circumcision which is outward in the flesh. But he is a Jew who is one inwardly: and Circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter whose praise is not of men but of God
Pentateuch - " Compare also as to the ark, Joshua 3:3; Joshua 3:6; Joshua 3:8; Joshua 7:6; Circumcision, Joshua 5:2; Passover, Joshua 5:10; with the Pentateuch. Circumcision is Israel's distinguishing badge (Judges 14:3; Judges 15:18)
Abel - " Thus he argues that Abraham believed God, "and it was accounted to him for righteousness,"—"that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness,"—"that he received the sign of Circumcision, a seal," a visible confirmatory, declaratory, and witnessing mark "of the righteousness which he had by faith. In both, sinful men are placed in the condition of righteous men; the instrument in both cases, is ...
faith; and the transaction is, in both cases also, publicly and sensibly witnessed, —as to Abraham, by the sign of Circumcision; as to Abel, by a visible acceptance of his sacrifice, and the rejection of that of Cain
Tools - It has been suggested that the command to use flint knives for Circumcision (Joshua 5:2 NIV) reflects a taboo on using new technology for ancient rites
Love - The Bible's ways of describing this process of correction are numerous: "circumcision of the heart" (Deuteronomy 30:6 ); God's "writing his laws" on our hearts (Jeremiah 31:33 ); God's substituting a "heart of flesh" for a "heart of stone" (Ezekiel 11:19 ); being "born again" by the Spirit (John 3:3 ; 1 John 5:1-2 ); removing old clothing and replacing it with new (Colossians 3:12-14 ); dying to a sinful life and resurrecting to a new one (Colossians 3:1-4 ); moving out of darkness into light (1 John 2:9 )
Israel - They had the sign of Circumcision
Service - Paul calls Him the διάκονος of the Circumcision (Romans 15:8), while he says that He took upon Him the μορφὴν δούλου (Philippians 2:7)
Numbers as Symbols - Circumcision was on the eighth day, when a new communion was entered into
Sign - ...
Romans 4:11 (a) The Circumcision of the Old Testament was a constant testimony to Israel; first, that they belonged to GOD; and second, that they were not to live according to the lusts and desires of the flesh, but according to the will of GOD
Pharisees - The cause of their justification they derived from the merits of Abraham, from their knowledge of God, from their practising the right of Circumcision, and from the sacrifices they offered
Judaizing Christians - The Apostle earnestly presses upon the churches, that by the works of the law we cannot be justified, that Circumcision is of no avail, that by grace we are saved, and that Christ hath redeemed us by his blood
Colossians, Epistle to the - Paul’s anxiety in Colossians 4:11 to show how few among his helpers are of Jewish race-‘who alone of the Circumcision are my fellow-workers …’). ’ The references to Circumcision (Colossians 2:11; Colossians 3:11) show that the false teachers assigned some value to it. (e) The allusions to ‘sabbaths’ and Circumcision in Col
Abram - Children born in this manner had the privileges of legitimacy; but fourteen years afterward, when Abraham was a hundred years old, and Sarah ninety, the Lord appeared to him again, established his covenant with him and with his seed, changed his name to Abraham, "the father of many nations," promised that Sarah herself should bring forth the son to whom the preceding promises had referred; instituted Circumcision as the sign of the covenant; and changed the name of his wife from Sarai, my princess, to Sarah, the princess, that is, of many people to descend from her. But a visible church relation was established between Abraham's family and the Most High, signified by the visible and distinguishing sacrament of Circumcision, and followed by new and enlarged revelations of truth. A covenant of gratuitous justification through faith was made with him and his believing descendants; and the rite of Circumcision, which was not confined to his posterity by Sarah, but appointed in every branch of his family, was the sign or sacrament of this covenant of grace, and so remained till it was displaced by the sacraments appointed by Christ
Joshua - It recounts the Circumcision at Gilgal, which it views as a novelty (‘the second time’ of Joshua 5:2 is absent from the LXX Paul the Apostle - Instead, as Paul himself suggests, he was a Jew in terms of his Circumcision, Benjaminite lineage, Hebrew ancestry, and Pharisaic training (Philippians 3:5 ). The Galatian letter was occasioned by a move within a number of churches to establish Circumcision and other traditional Jewish observances as necessaryand sufficientfor salvation
Baptism - (The metaphor is used in Romans 4:11 of Circumcision; and otherwise in John 3:33; John 6:27, Romans 15:28, 1 Corinthians 9:2, 2 Timothy 2:19. full proselytes, with baptism, Circumcision, and sacrifice
Expediency - ’ Possibly the reference here is to his action in the matter of the Jerusalem Decree (Acts 15) and the Circumcision of Timothy (Acts 16:3). Titus, on the other hand, was a pure Gentile, and his Circumcision was urged as necessary, on principle, and not as a voluntary sacrifice to expediency for the greater good of others
Baptism, Christian - Circumcision was the sign and seal of their membership
Timothy - His self-denying character is shown by his leaving home at once to accompany Paul, and his submitting to Circumcision for the gospel's sake; also by his abstemiousness (1 Timothy 5:23) notwithstanding bodily "infirmities," so that Paul had to urge him to "use a little wine for his stomach's sake
Communion - When the Jerusalem Apostles gave ‘the right hands of communion’ to Paul and Barnabas ( Galatians 2:9 ), that was a symbolic recognition on their part that these missionaries to the uncircumcision were true disciples and Apostles of Christ, sharers with themselves in all the blessings of the Christian faith. The right hands of communion given to Paul and Barnabas were not only a recognition of grace received in common, but mutual pledges of an Apostolic service to the Circumcision on the one hand and the heathen on the other ( Galatians 2:9 )
Ephesians, Epistle to - , the Christian citizenship ( Ephesians 2:12 ; Ephesians 2:19 , Philippians 1:27 ; Philippians 3:20 ), the exaltation of Christ ( Ephesians 1:20 , Philippians 2:9 ), the true Circumcision ( Ephesians 2:11 , Philippians 3:3 ), unity and stability ( Ephesians 2:18 ff; Ephesians 4:3 ; Ephesians 6:13 , Philippians 1:27 )
Elijah - Traversing in the close company of Elisha the spots which, however now perverted, told of certain great truths — Gilgal, of the necessity of the judgement of self, the place of Circumcision — Bethel, of the faithfulness of God and the resources which are His for His own, the place where God had appeared to Jacob — Jericho, of the power of God as against all that of the enemy — they reached the Jordan through which they passed dry shod, the waters being separated hither and thither by Elijah smiting them with his mantle
Elijah - Traversing in the close company of Elisha the spots which, however now perverted, told of certain great truths — Gilgal, of the necessity of the judgement of self, the place of Circumcision — Bethel, of the faithfulness of God and the resources which are His for His own, the place where God had appeared to Jacob — Jericho, of the power of God as against all that of the enemy — they reached the Jordan through which they passed dry shod, the waters being separated hither and thither by Elijah smiting them with his mantle
Proselyte (2) - Three observances were required for their admission: (1) Circumcision
John the Baptist - At his Circumcision on the eighth day Zacharias gave his name John; and his returning faith was rewarded with returning speech, of which his first use was to pour forth a thanksgiving hymn, in which he makes it his son's chief honour that he should be "prophet of the Highest, going before the Lord's face to prepare His ways" as His harbinger
Covenant - In the context of assuring Abraham of much seed, Yahweh gave the covenantal sign of Circumcision (17:11), which sons were always to carry and by which he demonstrated that he claimed the seed as people in covenant with him. Circumcision was given such an emphatically important role in Yahweh's covenanting with Abraham and his offspring, that it was referred to as the "covenant of Circumcision" (17:13)
Colossians, Theology of - This transfer is pictured as a "circumcision" God performs as he buries us in baptism and raises us to new life through faith (2:11-12). That is also why salvation can be described as "Christ's Circumcision, " since they are set apart for him (2:11)
Baptism - viii 12; that as children were admitted under the former; and that as baptism is now a seal, sign, or confirmation of this covenant, infants have as great a right to it as the children had a right to the seal of Circumcision under the law. This objection falls with as much weight upon the institution of Circumcision as infant baptism; since they are as capable, or are as fit subjects for the one as the other
Clean And Unclean - ...
Uncircumcision was regarded as unclean. The reason for this is not obvious; rites of Circumcision were performed by many primitive nations at the time of puberty (whether for decorative purposes, or in order to prepare a young man or woman for marriage, or for some other reason), and it is possible that among the Jews this custom had been thrown back to an earlier period of life. Or it may be that they regarded Circumcision as imposing a distinct tribe-mark on the infant. The condition of uncircumcision might be held as unclean because it implied foreign nationality
Peter, the Epistles of - Thus the apostle of the Circumcision seconded the apostle of the uncircumcision in uniting Jew and Gentile in the one Christ. The apostle of the Circumcision would naturally be at Chaldaean Babylon where was "a great multitude of Jews" (Josephus, Preaching - Again, ‘the baptism which John preached’ (ἐκήρυξεν, Acts 10:37), and to ‘preach Circumcision’ (Galatians 5:11), indicate clearly other and wider contents than ‘baptism’ and ‘circumcision
Bereans - As to their practice and discipline, they consider infant baptism as a divine ordinance, instituted in the room of Circumcision; and think it absurd to suppose that infants, who all agree are admissible to the kingdom of God in heaven, should, nevertheless, be incapable of being admitted into his visible church on earth
Wine - diluted (implying that strength rather than sweetness characterized sobe' ); the prophet glances at their tendency to rely on the outward Circumcision without the inward spirit, the true wine of the ordinance
Slave, Slavery (2) - Laws of an earlier date required the Circumcision of slaves (Genesis 17:12) and their participation in feast and sacrifice (Deuteronomy 12:18; Deuteronomy 16:11)
Galatians, Epistle to the - The scandal of the cross was done away if Circumcision was preached, for it was rehabilitating the flesh
Philistia - Their uncircumcision was due to their having left Egypt at a date anterior to the Egyptians' adoption (Herodotus ii. 36) of Circumcision (compare Jeremiah 9:25-26)
Abraham - 17, of the institution of Circumcision as the sign of the covenant between God and Abraham, round which are gathered all the promises which in the earlier documents are connected with various experiences in the patriarch’s life
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - He describes the sect as still existing observing the Sabbath Circumcision and other Jewish ordinances abstaining from animal food and many of them from sexual intercourse either altogether or at least after having had children; but the reading here is uncertain
People - For Divine righteousness and the obedience of faith, the only real and permanent, because moral, conditions on which the relations between God and His people repose, it substituted ancestral descent from Abraham, and the observance of the national rite of Circumcision
People - For Divine righteousness and the obedience of faith, the only real and permanent, because moral, conditions on which the relations between God and His people repose, it substituted ancestral descent from Abraham, and the observance of the national rite of Circumcision
Temptation, Trial - The same Apostle asserts that the brethren are ‘tempting’ God by wishing to subject the Gentile converts to Circumcision (Acts 15:10)
Joseph (2) - At the Circumcision, on the eighth day after the birth, the child received the name ‘Jesus’ which Joseph had been commanded to give Him; and on a later day, when Mary’s purification was accomplished (cf
Abraham - When Ishmael was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham (Genesis 17:4,5 ), and the rite of Circumcision was instituted as a sign of the covenant
Abraham - Abraham was instructed to keep the covenant obligations, and as a material token the institution of Circumcision was imposed upon him and his descendants
James, the General Epistle of - Peter, the apostle of the Circumcision, tacitly confirms the inspiration of the first president of the Jerusalem church, with whose Jewish sympathies he had much in common, by incorporating with his own inspired writings ten passages from James (compare James 1:1 with 1 Peter 1:1; James 1:2 with 1 Peter 1:6; 1 Peter 4:12-13; James 1:11 with 1 Peter 1:24; James 1:18 with 1 Peter 1:3; James 2:7 with 1 Peter 4:14; James 3:13 with 1 Peter 2:12; James 4:1 with 1 Peter 2:11; James 4:6 with 1 Peter 5:5-6; James 4:7 with 1 Peter 5:6; 1 Peter 5:9; James 4:10 with 1 Peter 5:6; James 5:20 with 1 Peter 4:8)
Covenant - ), and ensured a blessing through their seed to all nations, Circumcision being adopted as the token (cf
Freedom - Interestingly, the central concern of this letter parallels the issue reflected in John 8 : What is the relationship between freedom and being a descendant of Abraham? The Gentile Christians of Galatia were being persuaded by some Judaizing groups to adopt Circumcision and other distinctive Jewish ceremonies
Stephen - Perceiving their resistance to the truth he broke off with a direct charge: "ye stiffnecked (with unbending neck and head haughtily thrown back), and (with all your boast of Circumcision) uncircumcised in heart and ears (which ye close against conviction!), ye do always resist the Holy Spirit" (compare Nehemiah 9:29-30); with all your phylacteries "ye have not kept (efulaxate ) the law," of which you boast
John the Baptist - The single narrative of John’s birth and Circumcision ( Luke 1:1-80 ) states that, as the child of promise ( Luke 1:13 ), he was born in ‘a city of Judah’ ( Luke 1:39 ), when his parents were old ( Luke 1:7 )
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - He insisted upon a partial observance of the "divine" law such as Circumcision and the ordinances of the sabbath; resembling in this severance of the genuine from the spurious elements of the law the school which produced the Clementina and the Book of Baruch
Colossians - (3) The heresy apparently involved the legalistic observance of “traditions,” Circumcision, and various dietary and festival laws (Colossians 2:8 ,Colossians 2:8,2:11 ,Colossians 2:11,2:16 ,Colossians 2:16,2:21 ; Colossians 3:11 )
Passover And Feast of Unleavened Bread - ’...
Exodus 12:43-49 forbids any foreigner or hired servant or sojourner to eat the Passover unless he first submits to Circumcision
Peter - From this point Peter becomes "apostle of the Circumcision," giving place, in respect to prominence, to Paul, "apostle of the uncircumcision. " Peter the apostle of the Circumcision appropriately, as representing God's ancient church, opens the gates to the Gentiles...
It was calculated also to open his own mind, naturally prejudiced on the side of Jewish exclusiveness
Genesis - It climaxes in God's covenant with Abraham in which Abraham shows faithfulness in the sign of Circumcision and God renews His promises
Preach, Proclaim - The second (5:11) is a hypothetical argument with the intended conclusion that Paul no longer proclaims Circumcision
Antiochus - " He "had intelligence (correspondence) with them that forsook the holy covenant," Menelaus and others, who had cast off Circumcision and treated all religions as equally good for keeping the masses in check, and adopted Greek customs and philosophy
Genesis - , the Creation, when the Sabbath was instituted; the Flood, followed by the prohibition of eating the blood; and the Abrahamic Covenant, of which Circumcision was the perpetual seal
Benedictus - Luke introduces it immediately after his narrative of the Circumcision and naming of the future Baptist, with the copulative and, in these terms: ‘And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying’ (Luke 1:67)
Hellenists - The proselytes in the strict sense of the word, the proselytes, of righteousness, who underwent Circumcision and took upon themselves the whole of the ceremonial law, were very different from the proselytes of the gate, who only bound themselves to renounce idolatry, to the worship of the one God, and to abstinence from all Heathenish excess, as well as from every thing which appeared to have any connection with idolatry
Abram - The covenant was now made more definite: Sarai was included in the promise; the names of the pair were changed to Abraham and Sarah; and the sign of Circumcision was added, to be a token throughout all generations that God had been with and was blessing Abraham his friend
Missions - The accusation which was brought against him at Jerusalem by those who were of the Circumcision was, not that lie had preached the gospel to a Gentile, but that he had gone in to ‘men uncircumcised and had eaten with them’ (Acts 11:3). It was ‘they of the Circumcision,’ and not the first disciples, who glorified God, saying, ‘Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life’ (Acts 11:18)
Romans, Theology of - Paul addresses Jewish believers more directly in 2:14-16 and again in 2:17-3:8 for their pride and ineffectiveness as witnesses, and then makes the notable observation that being a Jew in the true sense is a matter of inner not outer Circumcision (2:28-29), thus establishing an inclusive category of Jew-Gentile that Jesus had already intimated in his teaching on inward intention (Matthew 6:4,6,18 ). ...
Paul now proceeds to show the continuity between the old and the new by citing Abraham as a primary example of the person of faith and humility (4:1-25), making the point that the faith principle was operating before Abraham became technically a Jew by Circumcision
Saul - ), the Circumcision name of the apostle, given to him, perhaps, in memory of King Saul ( Acts 7:58 ; 8:1 ; 9:1 )
Antichrist - ) Distinct from the" little horn" of Daniel 8, which is connected with the third, not the fourth, kingdom; ANTIOCHUS Epiphanes, of the Syrian fourth part of the divided Graeco-Macedonian or third kingdom, who persecuted the Jews, prohibited Circumcision, and substituted the worship of Jupiter Olympius, with whom he identified himself as if God, instead of that of Jehovah, in the templeat Jerusalem
Patriarchs, the - Later God renewed His covenant with Abram and instituted the sign of Circumcision for Abram's household
Calendar, the Christian - ) as possessing a ‘mysterious import,’ which the seventh day had not; he is referring to the Jewish Circumcision as a type of ‘the true Circumcision by which we are circumcised from deceit and iniquity, through Him who rose from the dead on the first day after the Sabbath’ (Dial
Timothy, Epistles to - We read of would-be ‘teachers of the law’ ( 1 Timothy 1:7 ), of ‘they of the Circumcision’ ( Titus 1:10 ), of ‘Jewish fables’ ( Titus 1:14 ) of ‘fightings about the law’ ( Titus 3:9 )
Holy Day - Accordingly we may conjecture that, apart from the demand for Circumcision, St
Antioch - Here also the dispute regarding the Circumcision of Gentile converts broke out ( Acts 15:1-22 ), and here Paul withstood Peter for his inconsistency ( Galatians 2:11-21 )
Marriage - " A man was at liberty to marry not only in the twelve tribes, but even out of them, provided it was among such nations as used Circumcision; such were the Midianites, Ishmaelites, Edomites, Moabites, and Egyptians
Baptism - (The metaphor is used in Romans 4:11 of Circumcision; and otherwise in John 3:33; John 6:27, Romans 15:28, 1 Corinthians 9:2, 2 Timothy 2:19
Presentation - To the narrative of His nativity accordingly he subjoins (Luke 2:21) a notice of His Circumcision on the eighth day, in obedience to Genesis 17:12; and now on the fortieth day He is brought to Jerusalem to be offered or presented (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 , παραστῆσαι) to the Lord, in accordance with the legal requirements of Exodus 13:2 (freely quoted in Luke 2:23) and Numbers 3, 12, 18
Romans, Epistle to the - Neither the Law nor Circumcision will cover transgression. This blessing came to Abraham before Circumcision, on which clearly it did not depend
Law - The operation of this benevolence, thus solemnly required, was not to be confined to their own countrymen; it was to extend to the stranger, who, having renounced idolatry, was permitted to live among them, worshipping the true God, though without submitting to Circumcision or the other ceremonial parts of the Mosaic law: "If a stranger," says the law, "sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him. ...
Thus, on a review of the topics we have discussed, it appears that the Jewish law promulgated the great principles of moral duty in the decalogue, with a solemnity suited to their high preeminence; that it enjoined love to God with the most unceasing solicitude, and love to our neighbour, as extensively and forcibly, as the peculiar design of the Jewish economy, and the peculiar character of the Jewish people, would permit; that it impressed the deepest conviction of God's requiring, not mere external observances, but heart-felt piety, well regulated desires, and active benevolence; that it taught sacrifice could not obtain pardon without repentance, or repentance without reformation and restitution; that it described Circumcision itself, and, by consequence, every other legal rite, as designed to typify and inculcate internal holiness, which alone could render men acceptable to God; that it represented the love of God as designed to act as a practical principle, stimulating to the constant and sincere cultivation of purity, mercy, and truth; and that it enforced all these principles and precepts by sanctions the most likely to operate powerfully on minds unaccustomed to abstract speculations and remote views, even by temporal rewards and punishments; the assurance of which was confirmed from the immediate experience of similar rewards and punishments, dispensed to their enemies and to themselves by that supernatural Power which had delivered the Hebrew nation out of Egypt, conducted them through the wilderness, planted them in the land of Canaan, regulated their government, distributed their possessions, and to which alone they could look to obtain new blessings, or secure those already enjoyed
Paul - Paul and Barnabas; and after much deliberation it was agreed, that neither Circumcision, nor conformity to any part of the ritual law of Moses, was necessary in Gentile converts; but that it should be recommended to them to abstain from certain specified things prohibited by that law, lest their indulgence in them should give offence to their brethren of the Circumcision, who were still very zealous for the observance of the ceremonial part of their ancient religion
Targums - ‘And the glory of the Lord was revealed to him in the valley of Mamre; and he, being ill from the pain of Circumcision, sat at the door of the tabernacle in the beat of the day
Rome And the Roman Empire - Hadrian will be best remembered by those of the Judaeo-Christian tradition, however, because of his attempt to hellenize Jerusalem by changing the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina, by erecting a temple to himself and Zeus on the site of the previous Temple of Solomon, and by prohibiting Circumcision
Baptism - There was sufficient parallelism between baptism and Circumcision (cf
Moses - ...
Thus too had come the time when the believing Gentiles must be fully recognized as brethren, and received into the Church without Circumcision
Assyria - Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the Circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks
Egypt - Circumcision was frequent in Egypt, but how far it was a general custom (cf. It has been suggested that in this and in the custom of Circumcision are to be seen the most notable influences of Egypt on the people of Israel
Covenant - Genesis 17:1 shows the initiation of Circumcision as the sign of the covenant
Sanctification, Sanctify - ), and such proximity necessitates congeniality that congruity of nature whereof Circumcision and the ceremonial cleansings were symbolical ( Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 24:3-6 ; cf
Deuteronomy, the Book of - Circumcision itself had been omitted (Joshua 5:2)
Law - The sabbath, marriage, sacrifices (Genesis 2; Genesis 4; Exodus 16:23-29), distinction of clean and unclean (Genesis 7:2), the shedding of blood for blood (Genesis 9:6), Circumcision (Genesis 17), the penalty for fornication, and the Levirate usage (a brother being bound to marry and raise up seed by a deceased brother's widow, Genesis 38:8; Genesis 38:24) were some of the patriarchal customs which were adopted with modifications by the Mosaic code
Law - Food laws, Circumcision, sacrifices, temple, and priesthood have been superseded (Mark 7:19 ; 1 Corinthians 7:19 ; Hebrews 7:11-19,28 ; 8:13 ; 10:1-9 )
Heir Heritage Inheritance - They inherit Abraham’s faith, and are therefore his sons; the promise did not depend on Abraham’s Circumcision, but was before it, though it was confirmed by it; nor was it dependent on the Law
Mary, the Virgin - There is no need to linger on the next events,—the Circumcision, the Presentation and Purification in the Temple, the visit of the Magi, the Flight into and Return from Egypt,—for these all belong rather to the life of Christ than to that of Mary
Adoption - In the case of the ‘potential’ adoption of the Jews (to borrow Lightfoot’s phrase), it is the expression of the covenant between God and His people, and therefore must be ascribed to the moment of entering into the covenant at Circumcision, the analogue of baptism
Apostle - Barnabas and Saul were selected for this purpose, and constituted in an extraordinary manner Apostles of the Gentiles, or uncircumcision. Peter was for Jews, who is therefore styled the Apostle of the Circumcision
Joshua - Jesus is the minister of the true Circumcision (Joshua 5:2-9; compare Romans 15:8; Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11; Colossians 2:13)
Sacrifice And Offering - Still more numerous were the special occasions of sacrifice the installation of a king ( 1 Samuel 11:15 , the arrival of an honoured guest, family events such as the weaning of a child, a Circumcision, a marriage, the dedication of a house ( Deuteronomy 20:5 ): no compact or agreement was completed until sealed by a sacrifice ( Genesis 31:54 etc
Exodus, the Book of - (See Circumcision
Edom - John Hyrcanus entirely conquered the Idumeans, whom he obliged to receive Circumcision and the law
Heresy - The heresies chiefly alluded to in the apostolical epistles are, first, those of the Judaizers, or rigid adherents to the Mosaic rites, especially that of Circumcision; second, those of converted Hellenists, or Grecian Jews, who held the Greek eloquence and philosophy in too high an estimation, and corrupted, by the speculations of the latter, the simplicity of the Gospel; and third, those who endeavoured to blend Christianity with a mixed philosophy of magic, demonology, and Platonism, which was then highly popular in the world
Church, the - ); "a chosen people" (Romans 12:1-2 ); "the true Circumcision" (Romans 2:28-29 ; Romans 6:3-68 ; Colossians 2:11 ; etc
Church - Membership in Abraham’s covenanted race, of which Circumcision was the sign ( Genesis 17:8 ), brought the Israelite into relation with Jehovah
Diseases - ...
Surgery The only surgical procedure mentioned in the Bible is Circumcision
War, Holy War - He cripples his entire fighting force for two weeks by subjecting them to the painful act of Circumcision (Joshua 5:2 )
Justification - ), not of the law written in the heart, the uncircumcision (Romans 2:15). It is not by Circumcision or outward privilege (Romans 4:9-11); it leaves no room for boasting or self-righteous confidence (Romans 3:27, Romans 4:2)
Collection - There can scarcely be a doubt that the halting decision of the apostles of the Circumcision, while it left the cardinal point of difference much where it had been, quickened St
Sarah - Chaldea, and Canaan, and Egypt; Hagar and Ishmael; the promise of Isaac, and then the birth, the Circumcision, the sacrifice, and the deliverance of Isaac; all the trials and all the triumphs of his father's and his mother's faith; all their falls; all their victories; all God's promises, and all His wonderful and adorable providences in their so exercised lives; all their attainments in truth and in obedience; and then, to crown all, the complete fulfilment of God's so long delayed promise-all that, and much more that has not been told-it all arose out of this, that Sarah had no child
Temple of Jerusalem - The offering by Joseph and Mary at the Circumcision of baby Jesus was brought there
Christianity - 52); that Christianity was not a mere spiritualized Judaism, but a new and universal religion recognizing no distinction between Jew and Greek, Circumcision and uncircumcision, and seeing in Christ Himself the ‘all in all
Universalism (2) - Paul justifies his attitude of antagonism by declaring that the Gentile Christian, who accepts Circumcision and the Law, renounces Christ (Galatians 5:2-4)
Election - It is fitting that the Apostle of the Circumcision should speak of Him as ‘a living stone, rejected indeed of man, but with God elect, precious’ (1 Peter 2:4; cf
Gospel - This he acknowledges when, speaking of the evangelical mission of the Church, he says (Galatians 2:7), ‘I had been entrusted with the gospel of (for) the uncircumcision, even as Peter with the gospel of (for) the Circumcision
Woman - As an initiation rite that included women (unlike Jewish Circumcision), baptism publicly affirmed the equal value of women and men in a way that suggests that the church should continue to seek outward, visible forms for demonstrating this equality
High Priest - A gymnasium at Jerusalem was built for the apostate Jews, and they endeavoured to conceal their Circumcision when stripped at the games
Sacraments - There is no trace of a period anterior to the practice of sacramental rites; no record of the subsequent introduction of such a practice; no vestige of any controversy, like that concerning Circumcision, upon the question of obligation or propriety
Union With Christ - They have been circumcised by the "circumcision done by Christ" (v
Passover - So the Passover kept in faith was a kind of sacrament, analogous to the Lord's supper as Circumcision was to baptism
Assumption of Moses - The king of the kings of the earth (Antiochus Epiphanes) crucifies those who confess to Circumcision, and compels them to blaspheme the law and beat idols, and persecutes them with tortures
Priests And Levites - It comprised the whole of Leviticus and the ritual portions of Numbers, all the regulations connected with the Tabernacle in Exodus, together with certain narrative portions especially connected with religious institutions the Sabbath, Circumcision, and the like and statistical statements throughout the Hexateuch
Philippians Epistle to the - Paul says is that ‘we who worship in the spirit of God and put no confidence in the flesh’ are the true Circumcision, and this would apply to Pauline Christians generally, not simply to St
Old Testament - Thus the promise to Abraham is extended to all who walk in the steps of his faith, whether in Circumcision or in uncircumcision (Romans 4:12), while ‘it was not written for his sake alone, that it (his faith) was reckoned unto him (for righteousness), but for our sake also, unto whom it shall be reckoned, who believe on him that raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was delivered up for our trespasses, and was raised for our justification’ (Romans 4:23 ff
Moses - (On Zipporah's [1] Circumcision of her son
Biblical Theology - They then submit to Circumcision (Joshua 5 ), a reaffirmation of submission to the Lord revealed at Sinai in contrast to their parents' chronic disbelief (1 Corinthians 10:5 ; Hebrews 3:19 )
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - The Cephas-party would be the party of the Circumcision, as in Galatia
Galatia - ’ (5) The charge which the Judaizers apparently made against the self-constituted Apostle of freedom of being still a preacher of Circumcision (Galatians 5:11) is best explained by a reference to the case of Timothy (Acts 16:1-8), in which the South Galatian churches had a special interest, Timothy being a native of Lystra
Gospels (2) - Paul as it is in the Gospels: Luke 1:72-73 ‘Christ hath been made a minister of the Circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given unto the fathers’; words which echo those of Zacharias (Romans 15:8); Romans 1:3 ‘Born of the seed of David according to the flesh’; 2 Timothy 2:8 ‘Of the seed of David, according to my gospel
Hellenism - They took the moral injunctions from the Law without being compelled to take Circumcision and other strange rites; they accepted these moral views, together with the great hope of the Jewish people, from the Greek Bible
Day of Judgment - In the case of the party of the Circumcision, at least, it was the belief of the Jerusalem Church that believing Jews and prosclytes alone were to be acquitted in the Day of Judgment
Jeremiah - It effected no ‘circumcision of the heart,’ no inward turning to Jehovah, no such ‘breaking up of the fallow ground’ as Jeremiah had called for; the good seed of the Deuteronomic teaching was ‘sown among thorns’ ( Jeremiah 4:3-4 ), which sprang up and choked it
Samaria, Samaritans - They practise Circumcision, and keep the Law strictly
Law - in the stricter sense, the body of Mosaic statutes regulating Israelite life and worship included ( a ) the personal and free submission to it, due to His birth and Circumcision as a son of Israel ( Galatians 4:4 ; cf
Freedom of the Will - But in the Galatian church he was confronted with a return to the Jewish Law by those who ought to have learnt that Circumcision could profit nothing
Gnosticism - to Timothy and Titus dealing with a somewhat later development of Gnosticism describe the false teachers as "of the Circumcision," "professing to be teachers of the law" and propounders of "Jewish fables
Christ in Jewish Literature - After his death another Christian teacher arose in Rome, who annulled the laws given by Simon Kepha, and gave new ones, instituting baptism instead of Circumcision, and the Sunday in place of the Sabbath
Church (2) - Circumcision had been such to the Jews
Synods - It originated in the attempt made to oblige the Gentile converts at Antioch to submit to the rite of Circumcision
Originality - With faith in Christ and His resurrection, the Gentile converts to the new faith accepted also the worship of the one God alone, and the denial of idolatry; while in their turn they set aside, in the name of Christ, the more repugnant elements of Judaism, particularly Circumcision
Perfection (of Jesus) - He rather inspired a spirit which sooner or later would burst all the swaddling-bands that confined humanity, and which expressed itself in the words of him who understood best the spirit of the Master, ‘Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, Circumcision nor uncircumcision, barbarian, Seythian, bond nor free’ (Colossians 3:11)
Mahometanism - alms, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca, and Circumcision