What does Christianity mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Christianity
The religion of Christ; the faith which He has inspired; the teachings and moral practises inculcated by this faith; the spirit of justice, charity, of obedience to law, purity of morals, and sanctity of domestic life which characterize the manners of those who adhere to this faith; and the consequent character of the civilization which is known as Christian and which influences even those who have never believed in Christ or who have lost that faith. The institutions of mercy, of every form of sociological relief, of education, and even of religion, though they do not profess belief in Christ or inculcate Christian practises, still feel constrained to continue and imitate the benevolence, the enlightenment, and to some extent even the worship and ceremonial, to which all such institutions must trace their origin. Christianity is the inspiration to which our art, architecture, painting, music, and literatures owe what is most beautiful and elevating in them.
Webster's Dictionary - Christianity
(1):
(n.) The body of Christian believers.
(2):
(n.) Practical conformity of one's inward and outward life to the spirit of the Christian religion
(3):
(n.) The religion of Christians; the system of doctrines and precepts taught by Christ.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Christianity
CHRISTIANITY . When the name ‘Christian’ (see preceding art.) had come to be the specific designation of a follower of Jesus Christ, it was inevitable that the word ‘Christianity’ should sooner or later be used to denote the faith which Christians profess. The word does not occur in the NT, however, and first makes its appearance in the letters of Ignatius early in the 2nd century. But for 1800 years it has been the regular term for the religion which claims Jesus Christ as its founder, and recognizes in His Person and work the sum and substance of its beliefs.
Christianity presents itself to us under two aspects objective and subjective, past and present, world-historical and personal. It is a great fact of universal history, but also a truth of personal experience. It is a revelation given from above, but also an appropriation effected from within. We must think of it therefore (1) as it was historically revealed to the world; (2) as it is realized in the life of the individual.
I. Christianity as a Historical Revelation . In dealing with this part of the subject two opposite mistakes must be avoided. (1) First the mistake of those who confound history with dogma, principles with institutions, and read back into Christianity as a Divine revelation the later creeds and rites and orders of the Church. It was inevitable that the Christian religion in the course of its history should clothe itself in outward forms, but it is not to be identified with the forms it has assumed. In dealing with the subject, we are limited, of course, by the plan of this work, to the Biblical material. But apart from that, the view taken in the present article is that, in seeking to discover Christianity in its essential nature, we must accept the NT as our authority and norm, inasmuch as there alone we find the historical record of the life and self-witness of Jesus Christ, and also the writings of that Apostolic group which moved in the immediate light of His manifestation as that was given not only in His life on earth, but in His death and resurrection and their extraordinary spiritual results.
(2) On the other hand, we must avoid the error of those who, when they insist on going ‘back to Christ,’ and demand the substitution of the Christ of history for the Christ of dogma, assume that nothing that is supernatural can he historical, and that the Christ whom we find in the NT the Christ of the Incarnation and the Resurrection and the Atonement, the Christ who wrought miracles and claimed to be the Son of God, and was so accepted by those who had known Him in the flesh and subsequently knew Him in the Spirit is not the Jesus of history at all. To this it can only be said here that the reality of alleged supernatural facts, like the reality of any other alleged facts, depends upon the evidence, and is not to be ruled out by any presuppositions. Further, that while from the nature of the case there is a difference between the teaching of Jesus during His earthly ministry and the teaching of the Apostles regarding the risen Christ, the evidence of our Lord’s own consciousness and history, even as we find it in the Synoptic Gospels, points to the correctness of the Apostolic conclusions about Him. We therefore hold that whatever Christianity is, it is not what certain modern writers describe as ‘the religion of Jesus,’ but something very different; and that as it is not to be confounded with churchly dogmas and institutions, it is just as little to be identified with an ethical theism based on the beauty of Christ’s character and the pure precepts of His Sermon on the Mount. The men who were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ) had never seen Jesus or listened to His teaching, and the gospel that laid its grasp upon them and won for them this distinctive name was neither a hare repetition of the Master’s teaching nor a mere exhibition of His perfect life. On the contrary, it was such a gospel as meets us in the Epistles of St. Paul and the sermons reported in Acts the gospel of One who not only lived a spotless life and spake as never man spake, but died for our sins and was raised again for our justification, and was thereby declared to be the Son of God with power. It is in accordance, therefore, with the original application of the name ‘Christian’ that in seeking for the meaning of the word ‘Christianity’ we should make full use of the Apostolic testimony regarding Christ.
1. As a religion appearing in history, Christianity had its historical relations and its historical roots . ( a ) It was related to all the old ethnic faiths , and to every religious experience of vision and longing, of striving and despair, that the soul of man had ever known. The modern study of Comparative Religion is enabling us to realize this as it has never been realized before; but the NT makes the general truth perfectly plain. God speaks to man in the visible world ( Romans 1:20 ), He writes His law on the natural heart ( Romans 2:15 ), He never leaves Himself without witness ( Acts 14:17 ). And on their part men grope through the darkness after God ( Acts 17:27 ), being dimly conscious of the truth that they are also His offspring ( Acts 17:28 ). And so when Christ comes, He comes not only as the Light of the world ( John 8:12 ), but as the true Light which Iighteth every man that cometh into it ( John 1:9 ) a statement which implies that even apart from His historical manifestation in Judæa, the heavenly Christ was the Light and Life of all men, and that there is a sense in which a soul may be ‘naturally Christian’ as Tertullian said.
( b ) But while Christianity was and is related to all the ethnic faiths, it was deeply rooted in the soil of the OT . In the pagan religions we find many anticipations of Christianity, but in Judaism there is a definite and Divine preparation for it. Law and prophecy, priesthood and sacrifice all contributed directly to this result. St. Paul declares that ‘the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ’ ( Galatians 3:24 ). The Evangelists draw attention again and again to the fact, so evident to every discerning reader of Scripture, that the prophets were heralds of the Christ who was to come. The author of Hebrews shows us that the ministries of Tabernacle and Temple were examples and shadows of Christ’s heavenly Priesthood. In the Fourth Gospel we find Jesus Himself affirming that ‘salvation is of the Jews’ ( John 4:22 ); and in that very sermon in which He sets forth the manifesto of His own Kingdom, He proclaims that He came to fulfil and not to destroy the Law and the Prophets of Israel ( Matthew 5:17 ).
2. But notwithstanding its historical connexions with the past, Christianity was a religion absolutely new . The pagan faiths, so far from explaining its origin, serve rather to reveal the world’s great need of it. St. Paul seized on this truth when he saw in the altar at Athens inscribed ‘To an Unknown God,’ an unconscious appeal to the Christian missionary to declare the God and Father of Jesus Christ ( Acts 17:22 ff.). And even Judaism no more accounts for Christianity than the soil accounts for the mighty tree which springs out of it. While carefully relating Himself to Judaism, Jesus no less carefully discriminated between the permanent and the passing in its institutions. He claimed the right not only to give a fresh reading of its ancient laws ( Matthew 5:21 ff., Matthew 5:27 ff.), but even to abrogate certain laws altogether ( Matthew 5:33 ff., Matthew 5:38 ff., Matthew 5:43 ff.). He set Himself not merely above ‘them of old time’ ( Matthew 5:1-48 passim ), but above Moses ( Galatians 4:4-51 ff. ||, Matthew 22:24 ff. ||, John 6:32 ff.) and Solomon ( Matthew 12:42 ||), Abraham ( John 8:53 ff.) and David ( Matthew 22:41 ff. ||). It was this freedom of Jesus in dealing with the old religion that astonished His hearers: ‘He taught them as having authority, and not as their scribes’ ( Matthew 7:28 f.). Moreover, His attitude of independence towards Judaism is illustrated by the opposition of the Jewish leaders to Himself. His condemnation and crucifixion is the standing proof that He and His religion did not grow out of Judaism by any process of natural evolution. St. Paul sets the immense difference between the two faiths in the clearest light by his contrast, so fully worked out in Rom. and Gal., between the Law of Moses and the grace of Christ. And very soon in the history of the early Church there came that inevitable crisis which decided that though Judaism had been the cradle of Christianity, it was not to be its nursing-mother (cf. Fairbairn, Christ in Modern Theology , p. 52); that Christianity was not a mere spiritualized Judaism, but a new and universal religion recognizing no distinction between Jew and Greek, circumcision and uncircumcision, and seeing in Christ Himself the ‘all in all.’
3. When, with the NT as our guide, we seek for the essential features of objective Christianity, the following characteristics present themselves:
( a ) It is a revelation of God through the life and in the Person of Jesus Christ . Upon this the vast majority of those who call themselves Christians are practically agreed. ‘God was in Christ’ ( 2 Corinthians 5:19 ); and in the human face of Jesus there so shone the brightness of the Eternal Glory ( 2 Corinthians 4:6 ) that he that hath seen Him hath seen the Father ( John 14:9 ). In His teaching Jesus revealed God to us as our Father in heaven; in His own tenderness and pity and boundless love for men He showed us what the heavenly Fatherhood really means. And so, as we read the Gospels, the assurance grows that in looking on the face of Jesus Christ we are seeing right into the heart of the invisible God.
There are those, however, who, while fully admitting all this, yet hesitate to recognize in the historical Jesus a personal revelation of the Divine nature in human form. For them Jesus as the Revealer has the worth of God without being Himself God. But this is not the Christ who is presented to us in the NT; and if we fall short of the NT view of Christ, our Christianity will not be the Christianity of the NT. If, on the other hand, we take the Gospels and Epistles as our authorities, we must hold upon their evidence not only that ‘God was in Christ,’ but that He so dwelt in Christ that Christ Himself was God; and that historical Christianity is nothing less than an immediate revelation of the Divine nature through the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ.
( b ) Christianity is the religion not only of the revelation of God but of the redemption of man . The paganism that reared altars to an unknown God proved impotent to redeem human life from the dominion of evil (see Romans 1:21 ff.), while the visions of the Divine that came to true Israelites only made them more deeply conscious of their sin and need (cf. Isaiah 6:5 ). The purpose of Jesus is announced in His very name; He came ‘to save his people from their sins’ ( Matthew 1:21 ). His own testimony runs: ‘The Son of Man came to seek and to save that which was lost’ ( Luke 19:10 ). St. Paul sets Christ before us as the Divine Reconciler and Redeemer. God was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself ( 2 Corinthians 5:19 , cf. Romans 5:10 ); He sent forth His Son that we might have redemption through His blood, and might receive the adoption of sons ( 1618448629_51 , Ephesians 1:7 ). And it is the witness of the whole NT that Christ accomplished His work of seeking and saving, of reconciling and redeeming, by taking our sins upon Him, by suffering with men and for them, by dying at last on the cross the Just for the unjust, by rising from the dead and sitting down at God’s right hand to dispense those spiritual gifts and powers whereby we are enabled to overcome the world.
( c ) It follows from what has just been said that Christianity is the religion of perfected character . Whatever may be the case with other faiths, Christianity permits of no divorce between religion and morality. It is not from the pains of sin merely that Jesus comes to redeem us, but from sin itself. In keeping with this He sets up an ideal standard of personal attainment ‘Ye shall be perfect,’ He says, ‘as your heavenly Father is perfect’ ( Matthew 5:48 ). Unlike the religions of the pagan world, Judaism was based upon a moral law of wonderful purity and breadth. But the law which Jesus gave and which His Apostles enforced is broader and loftier beyond comparison a law for heart and mind as well as for the outward life, forbidding unreasonable anger equally with murder ( Matthew 5:21 ff.), and unholy desire no less than adultery ( Matthew 5:27 f.). Moreover, Christ not only enjoined this heavenly standard of character, but exemplified it personally. It is not a theoretical ideal that He sets before us, but one that has been realized in a human life. The ethics of Jesus are the ethics of His own example; ‘the mind of Christ’ is the Christian’s indwelling law ( Philippians 2:5 ).
( d ) Christianity is the religion of a regenerated society . It has the promise not of personal perfection only, but of the establishment of a Society pure, blessed, and world-wide. ‘The kingdom’ was the characteristic word of Jesus in proclaiming His message; and so both Mt. and Mk. describe His gospel as ‘the gospel of the kingdom’ ( Matthew 4:23 ; Matthew 9:35 , Mark 1:14 ). And as the rule of a Divine King is the first implication of the word, the second is the harmonious relation of the subjects of the Kingdom to one another. Love is the rule of the Kingdom ( Matthew 5:43 ff. ||, John 13:34 ; John 15:12 ; John 15:17 ); and love from its very nature is the fulfilling of all social law ( Romans 13:8 ; Romans 13:10 , Galatians 5:14 ). The Church which Christ established is the organization of this social Kingdom for moral and religious ends ( Matthew 16:18 f., Matthew 18:17 ). And when Christ’s people shall have been joined together in a perfect harmony of brotherly love and mutual co-operation, even as they are severally joined to Him who is their Head ( Romans 12:5 , 1 Corinthians 12:27 , Ephesians 1:22 f., Ephesians 4:15 f., Ephesians 5:23 ), there will come the realization of that perfect Society which is variously shadowed forth in the NT under the figures of a Kingdom from which there have been cast forth all things that cause stumbling ( Matthew 13:41 ), a glorious Church without spot or wrinkle or any such thing ( Ephesians 5:27 ), a Holy City, the New Jerusalem, ‘descending out of heaven from God’ ( Revelation 21:10 f.).
II. Christianity as a Personal Experience . Christianity is not only a revelation in history, but a reality of personal life. Without Christians there would be no Christianity. What is it then that constitutes men Christians, and so translates the historical fact of the revelation of Jesus Christ into the religion which has lived through the centuries and surrounds us to-day?
1. Here faith is the fundamental thing. Just as Christianity, regarded as a historical revelation, may all be summed up in the fact of Christ, so, when it is considered as a personal reality, it may all be included in the faith that lays hold of and appropriates Christ. The whole effort of Jesus during His earthly ministry was directed to this end to secure faith in Himself. And when His death and resurrection and the experiences of Pentecost had revealed Him to His followers in His fuller glory, faith in Christ crucified and risen became the first demand of the Christian preacher ( Acts 2:36 ff; Acts 3:15 f., Acts 8:37 , Acts 11:20 f., Acts 13:38 f. etc.). So much was this the case, that before the disciples were called ‘Christians’ they were called ‘believers’ ( Acts 5:14 ; Acts 10:45 ; Acts 16:1 , 1 Timothy 4:12 ), while others were distinguished from them as unbelievers ( Acts 14:2 , 1 Corinthians 6:8 and passim ). And as Christ had shown Himself to be not the revealer of the Father only, but the bringer of redemption to sinful men, faith in Him came to mean specifically trust in Him as One who was able to meet the sinner’s greatest need the need of redemption from sin. So St. Peter called upon the Jews in Jerusalem to repent and be baptized ‘in the name of Jesus Christ unto the remission of sins’ ( Acts 2:38 ). So St. Paul in like manner, when the Philippian jailor cried out in the night, ‘What must I do to be saved?’ replied, ‘Believe on the Lord Jesus, and thou shalt be saved’ ( Acts 16:30-31 ) words which contain in brief the essence of the Apostolic testimony as to the way of salvation. And when we would learn from the NT how the Christianity of those who have trusted in Christ is to live and increase and be perfected, we find that it is faith again, still clinging to Christ, that is the vital principle of the life which faith has begun. Through faith Christ dwells in our hearts ( Ephesians 3:17 ). This is the secret of that abiding in Christ which secures His abiding in us ( John 15:4 ), and results in the fruitfulness that makes us worthy to be called His disciples ( John 15:8 ).
2. The next principle of the Christian life is obedience . Between faith and obedience there is no opposition any more than between the roots of a tree and its fruits and flowers. And yet, in the one case as in the other, the secret spring of life and its outward manifestations may be distinguished and separately considered. The root of Christianity, as we have seen, is the religious principle of faith; but from that root there grows an ethical practice bringing life into conformity with all Divine laws. The actual conduct of professedly Christian people has always served as the world’s rough test of Christianity. As applied by the world, it is a rude, imperfect test; for the obedience wrought by faith is a product far too fine and subtle to be fully judged by ‘the world’s coarse thumb and finger.’ The law by which a Christian walks is a law that it needs a Christian mind to appreciate. But though often roughly applied, the test of obedience to God is an unfailing gauge of what claims to be Christianity. It was Christ Himself who said, ‘Therefore by their fruits ye shall know them. Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven’ ( Matthew 7:20-21 ).
3. The third great principle is love . For Christianity is social as well as ethical and religious. It is a Divine Kingdom whose subjects stand in a definite relation not only to their King but to all their fellows. Now love is the proper attitude of every Christian to all those of whatsoever name for whom Christ died; and love binds men together as they are bound by nothing else. Even worldly kingdoms are beginning to learn, through the gradual infiltration of Christian ideas into the general mind, that neither force nor mutual self-interest is
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Christianity
(See JESUS CHRIST.) The law and Mosaic system, though distinct from the gospel, yet clearly contemplates the new dispensation as that for which itself was the preparation. The original promise to Abraham, "in thee ... and thy seed ... shall all families of the earth be blessed" (Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:16), still awaited its fulfillment, and the law came in as the parenthesis between the promise of grace and its fulfillment in Christ the promised "seed." Romans 5:20; "the law entered (as a parenthesis, incidentally, Greek) that the offense might abound." Galatians 3:8-25; "the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith; but after that, faith is come we are no longer under a schoolmaster."
Jacob's prophecy contemplated the theocratic scepter passing from Judah, when Shiloh should come as the gatherer of the peoples to Himself (Genesis 49:10). Many psalms (as Psalm 2; Psalm 72; Psalm 22; Psalm 67) and all the prophets (compare Isaiah 2; Isaiah 53) look forward to the Messiah as about to introduce a new and worldwide dispensation. Nay, even Moses himself (Deuteronomy 18:15, etc.) announces the coming of another Lawgiver like him, about to promulgate God's new law; for to be like Moses He must be a lawgiver, and to be so He must have a new law, a fuller development of God's will, than Moses' law, its germ. Psalm 110 declared that His priesthood should be one "forever, after the order of Melchizeded" (the king of righteousness and king of peace), to which the Levitical priesthood did homage in the person of Abraham their ancestor, paying tithes to Melchizedek (compare Hebrew 6-7).
The law was the type; the gospel was the antitype (Hebrews 10:1-10). Christ came not to destroy it (i.e. its essence) but to fulfill (complete) it (Matthew 5:17). The letter gives place to the spirit which realizes the end of the letter (2 Corinthians 3:3-18). As also Jeremiah foretells (Jeremiah 31:31-34; compare Hebrews 8:4-13; Hebrews 10:15-18). If Christianity had not been of God, it could never have prevailed, without human might or learning, to supersede the system of the mightiest and most civilized nations (1 Corinthians 1-2). Its miracles, its fulfillment of all prophecy, and its complete adaptation to meet man's deep spiritual needs, pardon, peace, holiness, life, immortality for soul and body, are the only reasonable account to be given of its success.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is the name given to the religion founded by Jesus of Nazareth, which is professed by more than one-fourth of the human race, including the foremost nations of the world. As an abstract name for a fully developed religion, it was not, and could not be, in use from the beginning. Only gradually, as the Christian community reached self-consciousness, and more especially as need arose from without of distinguishing its adherents from those of other religions, was a distinctive name adopted.
It is not the object of this article to sketch in outline the history of Christianity, to rehearse its doctrines, describe its triumphs, or vindicate its claims. But in a Dictionary of this kind it seems desirable to inquire into (1) the history of the name itself; (2) the proper connotation of the name and the best mode of ascertaining it; hence (3) the significance of the changes which have passed over Christianity in the process of its development; and (4) the essential character of the religion named after Christ and portrayed in the Gospels.
i. History of the name.—This is fully discussed in the preceding article.
ii. Connotation of the name.—The difficulties which arise when we attempt to mark out the correct connotation of the word are obvious, and the reason why some of them are insuperable is not far to seek. A definition should be simple, comprehensive, accurate; whereas Christianity is a complex multiform phenomenon, one which it is impossible to survey from all sides at the same time, and accuracy cannot be attained when a word is employed in many different senses, and when that which is to be defined is regarded from so many subjective, diversified, and sometimes incompatible points of view. The essence of a great historical religion—with a record extending over some two thousand years, taking different shapes in many diverse nationalities, itself developing and altering its hue and character, if not its substance, in successive generations—cannot easily be summed up in a sentence. Whilst, if an attempt be made to describe that element of permanent vitality and validity in the religion which has remained the same through ages of growth, unaltered amidst the widest external and internal modifications and changes, the character of such a description obviously depends upon the viewpoint of the observer.
A religion may be viewed from without or from within, and an estimate made accordingly either of its institutions and formularies and ceremonies, or of its dominant ideas and prevailing principles. To the Roman Catholic—who represents the most widely spread and influential of the sections of modern Christianity—its essence consists in submission to the authority of a supernaturally endowed Church, to which, with the Pope at its head, the power has been committed by Christ of infallibly determining the Christian creed, and of finally directing Christian life and worship in all its details. The Catholic Church, according to Möhler and the modern school, is a prolongation of the Incarnation. To the Orthodox Church of the East, the paramount claim of the community on the allegiance of the faithful depends on its having preserved with purity and precision the formal creed, fixed more than a thousand years ago, from which, it is alleged, all other Christians have more or less seriously departed. The Protestant regards his religion from an entirely different standpoint. He may be of the ‘evangelical’ type, in which case he will probably define Christianity as the religion of those who have accepted the authority of an inspired and infallible Bible, and who trust for salvation to the merits of the death of Christ as their atoning Saviour. If he claims to be a ‘liberal’ Protestant, he will describe Christianity as a life, not a creed, and declare that all attempts to define belief concerning the Person of Christ and other details of Christian doctrine are so many mischievous restrictions, which only fetter the free thought and action of the truly emancipated followers of Jesus.
Under such circumstances, can any considerable measure of agreement as to the real essence of Christianity be reached, or a truly scientific definition be attained? The acceptance of the supernatural authority of a single community would put an end to all discussion, but those who appeal to such authority are not agreed amongst themselves. As an alternative, it has been usual of late to fall back on history as the sole possible arbiter. The historian can only recount with as much impartiality as possible the sequence of events in a long and chequered career, and leave the warring sects and parties to settle their differences as to what true Christianity is, without making any attempt to judge between them.
Both these methods—the purely dogmatic and the purely historical—virtually give up the problem. A better course than either may be adopted. The historical method must be employed at the outset; a careful induction must lay the basis for subsequent deduction and generalization. Christianity is an organism possessing a long and complex history, not yet finished. That life-history is better known and understood now than ever, from the upspringing of the earliest germ onwards, and the laws which have regulated its growth and the principles operating in its development, can be determined in broad outline by the scientific historian without much fear of contradiction. But the analogy between the growth of the Christian religion and that of an animal or vegetable organism in physical nature, fails in certain important respects. On the one hand, the growth of Christianity is not yet complete, the great consummation is as yet invisible. On the other, the origin of the religion of Christ cannot be compared with the deposit of a tiny and indeterminate and almost invisible germ. Before the period covered by the NT writings had passed, what may be called the formative and normative stage of the religion was complete. Sufficient advance had been made to enable any critical student to arrive at a standard by which the true character of subsequent developments may be judged. Criticism, for the purpose of determining the facts of history, must not be excluded from any scientific inquiry, as it virtually is by those who invoke the infallible authority of a Church or a Book. But, on the other hand, criticism must not be merely subjective and arbitrary, else religious truth is simply that which every man troweth, and Christianity nothing more than what individual Christians choose to think it. By a candid and careful comparison of the religion in its simplicity and purity with the various forms it has assumed in the course of centuries amongst various nations and races, an answer may be obtained to the question, What is Christianity? which is neither purely dogmatic on the one hand, nor purely empirical on the other. As Dr. Hort said of the Church, ‘The lesson-book of the Ecclesia is not a law-book but a history,’ so the history of Christianity becomes a lesson-book for all who would understand its real essence.
The question thus opened up is emphatically modern. As the name ‘Christian’ was not given till those outside the pale of the Church found it necessary to differentiate the believer in Christ from the adherent of other religions, so the need of a scientific definition of Christianity was never felt by faith, nor could one be formed, till the standpoint was occupied from which the young science of Comparative Religion has taken its rise. We have therefore to ask, What was precisely the nature of the religion founded by Christ as recorded in the Gospels and Epistles? Has it remained in substance the same without fundamental change? If, as is obvious, it has markedly altered during a long period of growth and expansion, has its development been legitimate or illegitimate? That is, has the original type been steadfastly maintained, or has it been seriously perverted? Is a norm fairly ascertainable and a return to type from time to time possible?
iii. Changes in Christianity in the course of its development.—During the lifetime of Jesus, discipleship was largely of the nature of personal attachment; it implied confidence created by the teaching, the character, and the works of the Master. Even during this period, however, not only was there room for reflexion and inquiry to arise, but eager inquiry was inevitable. The appearance of a unique personality who spoke as no other man spoke and wrought works such as none other man did, irresistibly suggested the question, ‘Who art thou, what sayest thou of thyself?’ Jesus Himself occasionally prompted such inquiry, and was not satisfied with an undefined loyalty. Once, at least, He pointedly asked His disciples, ‘Who say ye that I am?’ (Matthew 16:15). Again and again in the course of His ministry a sifting took place, as the Master made more exacting demands upon the allegiance of His followers, and showed that a cleavage must take place between those who really understood the drift of His teaching and were prepared at all costs to obey it, and those who did not. The tests which were applied were for the most part practical in their character, ‘Whosoever doth not bear his own cross and come after me, cannot be my disciple’ (Luke 14:27). But the ‘offences’ which caused many to forsake Him as a teacher were often occasioned by His departure from traditional and familiar teaching, His assertion of superiority to the highest Jewish law (Matthew 5:21-48), and His claims to a unique knowledge of the Father (Matthew 11:27) and such a relation to Him, that His disciples were called on to believe not only the words that He spoke, but in Himself. Christ’s ministry ended, however,—and, considering its brief and tragic character, it was bound to end,—without any clearly formulated answer to the question as to what constituted true discipleship, and how His followers were to be permanently distinguished from the rest of their nation and the world.
The question now arises, whether the normative period of the religion ends with the death of Christ, May it be said that when His life is over, the work of the prophet of Nazareth is complete, His words have all been spoken, His religion propounded—it remains that His followers obey His teaching? This position has often been taken, and is usually adopted by those who reject the supernatural element in Christianity. Lessing is the father of those who in modern times think it desirable to return from ‘the Christian religion’ to ‘the religion of Jesus.’ Harnack on the whole favours this view, as when he urges that ‘the Gospel, as Jesus proclaimed it, has to do with the Father only, and not with the Son’; or again, that it is ‘the Fatherhood of God applied to the whole of life—an inner union with God’s will and God’s kingdom, and a joyous certainty of the possession of eternal blessings and protection from evil.’ But he elsewhere rightly admits that ‘a complete answer to the question, What is Christianity? is impossible so long as we are restricted to Jesus Christ’s teaching alone.’ The more powerful a personality is, ‘the less can the sum-total of what he is be known only by what he himself says and does’; we must therefore include in our estimate the effects produced in his followers and the views taken by men of his work. See art. Back to Christ.
Further, if the miracles of Christ, and especially the great miracle of His Resurrection, be accepted, the whole point of view is changed. The disciples, during the short period of His ministry, were slow and dull scholars; only after the outpouring of the Spirit were they able to understand who their Master was and what He had done. Hence the Church with a true instinct included the Acts and the Epistles in the Canon, as well as the Gospels, and to the whole of these documents we must turn if we would understand what ‘Christianity’ meant to the Apostles and the first generation or two of those who followed Christ. Without entering into controversy such as would arise over exact definitions, we may say broadly that Christ became in thought, as He had always been in practice, the centre of His own religion. It circled round the Person, not so much of the Father as of the Son, yet the Son as revealing the Father. Personal relation to Christ continued to be—what it had been in the days of His flesh, but more consciously and completely—the all-important feature in the new religion. Significance attached not so much to what Christ said—though the authority of His words was supreme and absolute—as to what He was and what He did. His death and resurrection were seen to possess a special significance for the religious life of the individual and the community, and thus from the time of St. Paul and the Apostles onwards, but not till then, the Christian religion was fairly complete in its outline and ready for promulgation in the world.
But it is clear that the real significance of some features in the new religion could be brought out only in the course of history. The first great crisis which tested the infant Church arose over the question whether Christianity was to be a reformed and spiritualized Judaism or a universal religion, for the whole world and for all time. The controversy recorded in Acts 15, aspects of which emerge so frequently in St. Paul’s letters, was fundamental and vital; the very existence of Christianity was at stake. It was chiefly to the Apostle Paul that the Church owed her hardly won freedom from the bonds of Jewish ceremonial law and the national and religious limitations identified with it. Henceforward in Christ was to be neither Jew nor Greek, barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free, but He Himself was all and in all.
The next two changes are not so clearly definable, though they are hardly less important and far-reaching. They were never brought to a definite issue before a council or assembly, and they do not come within the limits of the NT period. None the less they were fundamental in their character. They concern respectively creed and practice, doctrine and organization. In the first flush of enthusiasm which belongs to the earliest stage of a religions movement, the emotional—which means very largely the motive or dynamical—element is both pure and powerful. Belief, worship, spontaneous fulfilment of a high ethical standard, religious assurance and confident triumph over the world—all seem to flow forth easily and naturally from the fresh springs of a new life. But, as man is now constituted, this happy condition cannot last very long. A stage succeeds in which the white-hot metal cools and must take hard and definite shape. Faith passes into a formulated creed, the spirit of free, spontaneous worship shrinks within the limits of reverently ordered forms, the general sense of brotherhood narrows down into the ordered relationships of a constituted society, charismatic gifts are exchanged for the privileges which belong to certain defined ranks and orders of clergy; and, when the whole process is over, whilst the religion may remain the same in appearance, and to a great extent in character, it is nevertheless seriously changed. In Christianity such processes of development were proceeding, gradually but on the whole rapidly, during the latter half of the 2nd and the opening of the 3rd century. By the middle of the 3rd century the transmutation was well-nigh complete.
If at this stage the question, What is Christianity? were asked, a twofold answer would be returned. So far as its intellectual aspects are concerned, the substance of the Christian faith is summed up in certain forms of words accepted and accounted orthodox by the Church. So far as external position and status are concerned, the test of a man’s Christianity lies in his association with a definitely constituted community known as the Church, possessing an organization of its own, which, with every decade, becomes more fixed and formal, less elastic in its constitution, and more exacting in its demands upon those who claim to be regarded as true Christians.
Such changes as these are in themselves not to be regarded as marking either an essential advance or a necessary retrogression. All depends on the way in which they are carried out. In human life, as we know it, they are inevitable. The mollusc must secrete its own shell if it is to live in the midst of a given environment. At the same time, in the history of a religion, such a process is critical in the extreme. The loss of enthusiasm and elasticity may be counterbalanced by increased consolidation, by the gain of a greater power of resisting attacks and retaining adherents. If the complaint is made that the expression of belief has become stiff and formal, the reply is obvious that genuine faith cannot long remain vague and indeterminate. The Christian must know what is implied in worshipping Christ as Lord, must learn the meaning of the baptismal formula, and must belong to a specific community, which for the sake of self-preservation must impose conditions of membership and translate abstract principles into definite codes and prescriptions. If a community is to exist in the presence of a hostile world, or to do its own work well as its numbers multiply, it must organize; and thus ecclesiastical orders, rules, and formulae inevitably arise.
But the mode in which such processes are carried out varies considerably. The formulation and consolidation may be inefficiently done, in which case the young community is in danger of falling to pieces like a rope of sand. Or the organization may be excessive, in which case formalism and fossilization set in. One of the chief dangers arises from the influx of unworthy or half-hearted members, those with whom religion is a tradition, not a living personal energy. ‘When those who have laid hold upon the faith as great spoil are joined by crowds of others who wrap it round them like an outer garment, a revolution always occurs.’ And especially when at such an epoch it is sought to define the essentials of a religion, there is the utmost danger lest secondary elements should be confused with the primary, lest an orthodox creed should be substituted for a living faith, and outward conformity with human prescriptions take the place of personal allegiance to a Divine and living Lord.
Whatever be thought of the way in which this all-important change was effected in the first instance,—that is to say, the transition from Christianity viewed as a life to Christianity viewed as a system of dogmatic belief and ecclesiastical organization,—few will deny that before long the alteration was so great that it may be said the religion itself was transformed. By the orthodox Roman Catholic this transformation is considered to be Divinely ordered; the process is regarded as one of steady advance and improvement—as a perfect child might pass into an equally admirable youth and man. According to Newman’s theory, the original germs of doctrine and worship were developed normally and legitimately as determined by the criteria he specifies—Preservation of type, Continuity of Principle, Power of assimilation, Logical sequence, and the rest. Loisy, who is severely critical of the documents of the NT, holds the same view of the development of an infallible Church. To the eyes of others the change effected between the 2nd and the 6th centuries appears to be one of gradual but steady degeneration. In their view a living religion has hardened into a technical theology, vital union with Christ has passed into submission to the ordinances of a fast deteriorating Church, and the happy fellowship of believers in a common salvation and the enjoyment of a new life has almost disappeared under the heavy bondage of ceremonial observances and ecclesiastical absolutism.
The substitution of the worship of the Virgin Mary as an intercessor with her Divine Son for reverent intercourse with Christ Himself; the offering of the sacrifice of the Mass by an officiating priest for the benefit of the living and the dead, instead of a simple observance of communion with Christ and fellow-disciples at the Lord’s Table; the obtaining of absolution only after private confession to a priest Divinely appointed to dispense it, in place of free and direct forgiveness granted to the penitent believer in Christ,—changes like these made in a religion are not slight and superficial. To some they represent a transition from crude infancy to vigorous maturity; to others they indicate deep-seated degeneration and the utter perversion of a pure and spiritual religious faith. An organism in process of growth depends upon its environment without, as well as its own living energies within. The history of the Christian Church does not present a complete parallel to this. No true Christian can believe either that it was left to a chance current of events, or that it was simply determined from without by natural causes. But the external factors which largely influenced the development of Christianity—Jewish beliefs and precedents, Greek philosophy and intellectual habitudes, Roman polity and law, the superstitious ideas and observances of paganism—must be taken into account by those who are studying the nature of the change which came over Christianity in the first thousand years of its history.
The point at issue in the 16th cent. between Roman Catholics and Protestants, one which still divides Christendom, concerned the real nature of this development. Had the growth of fifteen hundred years in doctrine, worship, and organization simply made explicit what was implicit in the New Testament; or were the accretions to the original faith excrescences, exaggerations, or more serious corruptions; and how was a line to be drawn between false and true? The Reformation was a protest against abuses which had become ingrained in Catholicism. The need of ‘reform in head and members’ had been felt and acknowledged long before, and only when repeated efforts to secure it peaceably had proved futile was it seen that a violent cataclysm like that brought about by Luther was necessary before effectual improvement could be attained. The Reformers claimed to be returning to original principles—to the New Testament instead of the Church; to justification by faith instead of salvation by baptism, absolution, and the Mass; and to direct acknowledgment of the Headship of Christ instead of blind submission to the edicts of His vicar upon earth. Luther, who had intended only to remove some obvious abuses which disfigured the creed and practice of the Church he loved, found himself cutting at the very roots of ecclesiastical authority and institutional religion. But, consciously or unconsciously, the movement of which he was partly the originator, partly the organ and servant, meant a resolute effort to return to the faith and spirit of primitive Christianity.
This effort was not final, of course. It is easy now to condemn Luther’s procedure as illogical and indefensible, to say that he should either have gone further or not so far. Doubtless the result of the conflict between Romanism and Protestantism in the 16th cent. was not ultimate: the issues raised by Luther went deeper than he intended, but they were not deep and far-reaching enough. To every generation and to every century its own task. But the whole Reformation movement showed that Christianity as a religion possessed remarkable recuperative power; that the organism could throw off a considerable portion of what seemed its very substance, not only without injury to its life, but with marvellous increase to its vigour; and that the essence of the religion did not lie where the Roman Catholic Church had sought to place it. Subsequent history has confirmed this. ‘Evangelical revivals,’ great missionary enterprises, remarkable extensions of the old religion in new lands and under new conditions, unexpected manifestations of new features and resuscitation of pristine energies, have during the last two or three centuries illustrated afresh the same power of recovery and spiritual reinforcement, and raised afresh the question as to what constitutes the essence of a religion which is so full of vitality and so capable of developing from within unanticipated and apparently inexhaustible energies. The Christianity of to-day embraces a multitude of systems and organizations, it includes most varied creeds and cults, it influences societies and civilizations that are worlds apart, and the question is perpetually recurring whether there be indeed one spirit and aim pervading the whole, and if so, where it lies and what it is.
This question becomes the more pressing when the future is contemplated. Many are prepared for still more striking developments in the 20th century. The spectacle of two or three great historical Churches on the one hand preserving the kind of stability which is gained by outward conformity to one doctrinal creed and ecclesiastical system, and, on the other, an almost endless diversity of sects and denominations, with a tendency to fissiparous multiplication—cannot represent the τέλος, the ideal, the goal of the Christian religion. Christianity cannot be identified with one Church, or with all the Churches. Whilst many of these are enfeebled by age, the religion itself is young with a perpetually renewed vigour, and not for centuries has it shown more certain signs of freshly budding energy. Each new age brings new problems. As they arise, the power and permanence of a religion are tested by its ability to grapple with and to solve them, and by its success or failure is it judged. The problems of the present and the near future are mainly social, and the complaint is freely made that Christianity has proved itself unable to cope with them. But the principles and capabilities of a religion cannot be gauged by those of its representatives and exponents at a particular epoch. The assailants of Christianity as it is are often the allies of Christianity as it should be and will be. History has too frequently suggested the question which the poet asks of the suffering Christ—‘Say, was not this Thy passion, to foreknow | In death’s worst hour the works of Christian men?’ What new regenerative influences, swaying the whole of society with wider and freer quickening power, will be developed in the 20th cent. none can tell. But the present state of Christendom, no less than a survey of two thousand years of history, is anew compelling men to inquire, What, then, is the essence of Christianity?
iv. Essential character of Christianity.—The interpretation of the facts thus hastily sketched appears to be this. Christianity in the concrete has been far from perfect, that is obvious; its serious and widespread corruptions have often proved a scandal and a stumbling-block. But neither has its history manifested a mere perversion of a great and noble ideal. Again and again in the darkest hour light has shone forth, and at the lowest ebb a new flood-tide of energy has arisen, making it possible to distinguish the real religion in its purity and power from its actual embodiment in decadent and unworthy representatives.
What we see in Christian history, as in the personal history of Christ upon earth, is the progressive development of a Divine Thought unfolding itself in spite of virulent opposition, under pressure of extreme difficulties, struggling against the misrepresentations of false friends and imprinting its likeness upon most unpromising and unsatisfactory material. When it first appeared on the earth, embodied in the Person and the Work, as well as the teaching, of Jesus Christ, the Divine Idea shone with the brightness of a new sun in the spiritual firmament. It was not developed out of Judaism, the Jews were its bitterest opponents; it was not indebted to Greek philosophic thought or to Roman political science, though afterwards it made use of and powerfully influenced both; it had nothing in common with the current superstitions of Oriental religions; it did not owe its origin to some cunningly devised religious syncretism, such as was not uncommon at the time when Christianity began to infuse life into the declining Roman Empire. A new idea of God, of man, and of the true reconciliation of man to God, formed the core and nucleus of the new faith. In the earliest records this idea appears as the germ of a nascent religion, a sketch in outline which remains to be filled up. In the history of nineteen centuries its likeness is to be discerned only as an image reflected in a dimly burnished mirror, in a troubled and turbid pool. None the less the dominant idea remains; as St. Paul expresses it, the light of the knowledge of the glory of God is seen in a face—the face of Jesus Christ (2 Corinthians 4:6). Lecky, writing simply as a historian of European morals, describes it thus (Hist. Eur. Mor.11 [1] (1894) ii. 8 f.)—
‘It was reserved for Christianity to present to the world an ideal character, which through all the changes of eighteen centuries has inspired the hearts of men with an impassioned love; has shown itself capable of acting on all ages, nations, temperaments, and conditions; has been not only the highest pattern of virtue but the strongest incentive to its practice; and has exercised so deep an influence that it may be truly said that the simple record of three short years of active life has done more to regenerate and to soften mankind than all the disquisitions of philosophers, and all the exhortations of moralists.’
Whether the spectacle of an ideal human character alone has done this remains to be seen, but it is possible with care to distinguish between the glory of the Divine Thought and the imperfect medium through which its light has filtered. We see truth manifested amidst crudities and insincerities, amidst falsehoods which are bad and half-truths which are often worse; a pure and lofty character struggling, mostly in vain, for adequate expression; a kingdom not come but coming, of which we cannot say ‘Lo here’ or ‘Lo there,’ for it floats only in the midst of men as they move, in their hearts as they ponder and feel and hope—not as an achievement, not as a possession, but as a magnificent conception, an earnest longing, and a never fully attained, but ever to be attained, ideal.
In what, then, lies the perennial and imperishable essence of the ever changing phenomenon called Christianity? The unknown writer of the Epistle to Diognetus wrote in the 2nd century—
‘What the soul is in the body, this the Christians are in the world. The soul is spread through all the members of the body, and Christians through the divers cities of the world. The soul hath its abode in the body, and yet it is not of the body. So Christians have their abode in the world, and yet they are not of the world.’
If for ‘Christians’ we read ‘Christianity,’ where is the soul, or vital spark, of the religion to be found? Nearly all are agreed that the centre of the Christian religion is, in some sense, the Person of its Founder. De Pressense closes an article on the subject by saying, ‘Christianity is Jesus Christ.’ But it is the sense in which such words are to be interpreted that is all-important. The relation of Christ to the religion called by His name is certainly not that of Moses to Judaism, or that of Confucius to Confucianism. But neither does He stand related to Christianity as do Buddha and Mohammed to the religions named after them. Not as a prophet of Nazareth, a religious and ethical teacher, however lofty and inspiring, does Christ stand at the centre of history. As Dr. Fairbairn has said, ‘It is not Jesus of Nazareth who has so powerfully entered into history; it is the deified Christ who has been believed, loved, and obeyed as the Saviour of the world.… If the doctrine of the Person of Christ were explicable as the mere mythical apotheosis of Jesus of Nazareth, it would become the most insole
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity
Celsus (1). Of the personal history of this, the first great polemical adversary of Christianity, we know nothing with certainty; and even Origen, from whom the whole of our knowledge of Celsus is derived, had received the work of Celsus, entitled ἀληθὴς λόγος , or the True Discourse, without any hint of the history or date of its author.
But questions far more interesting than personal ones are raised by his attack on Christianity, of which enough has been preserved by Origen in his contra Celsum to convey to us a very tolerable idea of its nature. We must be on our guard at once against disparaging it too much, and against thinking too highly of its ability. Origen, indeed, who to all appearance is a very fair antagonist, speaks of it with contempt. But Celsus was not a mere polemical assailant; he was a philosopher on his own account, and held in certain respects by no means unenlightened opinions. He had strong faith in reason. "What evil is it," he asks, "to be learned and to have cultivated the intellect with the best pursuits, to be and to appear wise? What obstacle are these things to the knowledge of God? Do not they rather lead and assist to the attainment of truth?" Nor had that similarity between the human and the animal frame, which the natural science of our own day insists upon, escaped his notice. Hence he deduces that ants "converse, have reason, notions of general truths, speech," etc. (iv. 84), and even that they have knowledge of God. It would be hard, again, to cavil at his ideas of the Divine Nature; he speaks of men "burning with the love of it" (i. 8); he is intolerant of the association of it with anything that is mortal or perishable. He was not free from superstition; he believed in magic, and declared that serpents and eagles were more skilled in it than men (iv. 86). Baur says that "in acuteness, in dialectical aptitude, in many-sided cultivation, at once philosophic and general, Celsus stands behind no opponent of Christianity." Admitting that this panegyric is not groundless, we must add, that in vital insight Celsus was deficient. As an opponent of Christianity, the chief characteristic of Celsus is a strong, narrow, intolerant common sense. To him Christianity is an "exitiabilis superstitio"; he gives credence to every story against it on which he can lay his hands; he dwells with coarse jocularity on the Jewish tradition of Panthera and the Virgin Mary (i. 28, sqq.); he unearths a certain Diagramma, a figure symbolizing the world, and consisting of a circle called Leviathan enclosing ten other circles, apparently used in the rites of some sect more or less approximating to the Christians (vi. 22). He has no idea of regarding Christianity from the inside, and of inquiring into the reason of its influence; he uses jest for argument, and interprets everything in a bad sense. Treating of the flight of Jesus into Egypt, and afterwards (as he alleges) before the betrayal, he asks, "Had God need to fly from His enemies? Does fear belong to God?"
From such instances it is evident that Celsus wholly misapprehended the force of the doctrine that he was attacking. There are cases, indeed, in which he shews himself more acute. He challenges the evidence of Christianity, and asks, "Who saw the dove lighting on the head of Jesus after His baptism?" As to the Resurrection, he makes the remark which has been copied by Renan and others, that it was Mary Magdalene, "a fanatical woman," who was the first witness of the resurrection, according to all the accounts (ii. 55); and remarks on the disbelief invariably given to such accounts as those of the resurrection of Zamolxis, Pythagoras, Orpheus, Protesilaus, Hercules, and Theseus. But the most remarkable portions of his attack are those directed against the general character of Christianity. He dwells on the numerous sects of Christians, all of whom said, "Crede, si salvus fieri velis," and asks how one is to judge between so many? Origen does not deny the fact, but maintains that it is a proof of the importance of that on which they debated, and further that they all set forth Jesus alone as the means of salvation (vi. 11). Celsus accuses the Christians of lawlessness, and of keeping wholly to themselves, and not caring for those outside. He complains vehemently of them as discouraging learning, wisdom, and thought; as rejecting the authority of reason; as being the patrons of sinners, whereas to the heathen mysteries only "the holy and virtuous" were invited. He makes a great point of the opposition between the morality of the Old and New Testaments, in respect of the earthly success which is the crowning happiness of the former, and so strongly reprobated by the latter. Finally, he maintains that no revelation of the Supreme Being can be made; but that, if it could be made, it must be of universal and compelling efficacy; that, however, all that is possible is revelation by an angel or demon, and even that he denies to Judaism or Christianity.
The form of Celsus's work, the ἀληθὴς λόγος , is well known. He begins with a dialogue between a Jew and a Christian, in which the Jew sets forth his objections to Christianity. But he had not any partiality for Judaism. He treats Moses and the Jewish Scriptures with a contempt which amusingly contrasts with the uncritical reverence which he pays to the Galactophagi of Homer, the Druids, and the Getae, whom he terms "wise and ancient nations" (i. 16); and with which he accepts the stories of Linus and Musaeus, though afterwards he rejects those of Perseus and Amphion (i. 64). In one of the most unpleasing passages of his work, he compares Jews and Christians to a set of worms or frogs squabbling in the mud, and saying, "God is, and we are next to Him, and it is for our sake that the whole world is made; and God will come and take us up to heaven, except those who are bad, whom He will burn with fire."
The work of Origen against him is, as a whole, of much controversial merit and philosophical breadth. Origen, indeed, like Celsus, is not free from the superstitions of his time; thus he defends the star whose appearance is told in the second chapter of St. Matthew by a reference to comets, which, he remarks, portend future events, such as wars and pestilences. But, on the whole, there are few works of the ancient Fathers which can be read with more pleasure and profit. F. C. Baur has written an elaborate critique on Celsus in his work on Christendom and the Christian Church in the First Three Centuries (Tübingen, 1853). But especially valuable is Prof. Theodor Keim's monograph (Celsus's Wahres Wort. Zürich, 1873). Dr. Kelm gathers together, and translates, the fragments of Celsus contained in Origen; and adds disquisitions of much interest, both on Celsus himself and on two of his contemporaries, Lucian of Samosata and Minucius Felix. Both Baur and Kelm rate Celsus too highly; but the general tendency of Christian writers has naturally been to underrate him. The date of Celsus's treatise is fixed by Keim as a.d. 177 or 178. (Cf. Renan, Marc-Aurèle ; Pelagaud, Étude sur Celse (Lyons, 1828); Aubé, Histoire des Persécutions (Paris, 1878); Lightfoot, Apost. Fath. II. i. pp. 513 ff.)
[1]
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Christianity (History Sketch)
Sketch of its History. The Christian religion was published by its great Author in Judea, a short time before the death of Herod the Great, and toward the conclusion of the long reign of Augustus. While other religions had been accommodated to the peculiar countries in which they had taken their origin, and had indeed generally grown out of incidents connected with the history of those to whom they were addressed, Christianity was so framed as to be adapted to the whole human race; and although, for the wisest reasons, it was first announced to the Jews, who had peculiar advantages for forming an accurate judgment with regard to it, it was early declared that, in conformity to predictions which had long been known, and long interpreted, as referring to a new communication of the divine will, it was to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, and was to carry salvation to the ends of the earth. Although Christianity originated in Judea, it was not long confined within the narrow limits of the Holy Land. The open manner in which it was announced, the length of time during which its Author publicly addressed his countrymen, the innumerable miracles which he performed, and, above all, the report of the resurrection under circumstances which must have been communicated to the imperial government at Rome, excited the deep attention of the numerous Jews and proselytes who, from surrounding nations, regularly went up to Jerusalem, and of whom vast numbers were actually in that city when the resurrection must have been the subject of universal discussion. They very naturally carried to the different countries in which they usually resided, the astonishing intelligence with which they had been furnished; and provision was soon made for fulfilling the prediction which Jesus had uttered, that his Gospel would, before the destruction of Jerusalem, be circulated and embraced by many through the wide extent of the Roman empire. The apostle Peter, in consequence of what he knew to be a solemn injunction from heaven, communicated to a Gentile the truths of Christianity. St. Paul, who had distinguished himself by his enmity to the Christians, and by the cruelty with which he had persecuted them, having been converted, devoted himself to lay the foundations of the Gospel through a large portion of the most enlightened part of the world; and the miraculous gift of tongues, by which humble and illiterate men found themselves at once able to speak the languages of different nations, left no doubt that they were bound to preach their faith as extensively as had been marked out to them by the last instructions which they had received from their Master. They had to struggle with the most formidable difficulties in prosecuting this undertaking; for which, had they trusted merely to their own strength, and their own natural endowments, they were wholly unqualified.
2. The Roman empire at the period of their commencing the attempt, comprehended almost the whole of the civilized world, and thus included within it nations whose habits, customs, and sentiments essentially differed, and whom it required the most dexterous policy to unite in one community, or to subject to one government. The most effectual method by which, during the commonwealth, and at the rise of the empire, this had been accomplished, was a politic respect to the religious opinions which all these nations entertained. Not only were their modes of worship treated with scrupulous reverence, but their gods, in conformity with the genius of Paganism, were incorporated or associated with the deities of Rome, and they were thus joined to their conquerors by the strongest ties by which the affections can be secured. At all times religion had been an object of prominent interest with the Romans: at the foundation of the city, Romulus had professed to be directed by Heaven; during the whole period of the republic, the most sacred attention had been paid to the rites and ceremonies sanctioned by the prevailing superstition, the prosperity of the state was invariably ascribed to the protection of the gods, and the most impressive solemnities, combined with the richest splendour and magnificence, cast around polytheism a mysterious sanctity, which even the philosophers affected to revere. Precautions accordingly had been early taken to prevent innovations upon the established ritual; foreign rites were prohibited till they had obtained the sanction of the senate; and when the solicitation of this sanction was neglected, the persons guilty of the neglect were frequently punished. From the nature of Paganism, it was perfectly consistent with its spirit to conjoin, with any particular mode of it, the forms which elsewhere prevailed. These additions left all which had been previously honoured in unimpaired vigour and influence, and, in fact, only increased the appearance of profound regard for religion, which the Romans so long assumed. But this part of the political constitution, lightly as it affected other religions, at once struck at the root of Christianity, which, unlike the prevailing modifications of idolatry, prohibited the worship of all the deities before whose altars mankind had for ages bent, and required, as essential for obtaining the divine favour, that they who believed in it should pay undivided homage to the one God, whose existence it revealed. The extension of the Gospel thus necessarily carried with it opposition to the most ancient and most revered law of the empire, and it was impossible for those who judged of it merely from this circumstance, without investigating its nature and tendency, to hesitate in directing against it the statutes which the zeal of their fathers had provided, to prevent such a revolution as would be produced by so thorough and so alarming a change in their religious principles. No sooner, however, had the message of salvation been addressed indiscriminately to all men, and, from the evidence by which it was accompanied, had brought numbers to acknowledge the heavenly source from which it is derived, than the detestation of it previously entertained burst forth in all its violence; and it is apparent that this had been widely and openly expressed before any imperial edicts were directed against the Christians. Tacitus, in the celebrated passage in which he mentions the disciples of Jesus, and which refers to a period not more than thirty years distant from the ascension, represents it as notorious in Rome, that Christ, during the reign of Tiberius, had been put to death as a criminal; he asserts that his adherents had long been odious on account of their enormities; he laments that their destructive superstition had found its way to the capital of the empire; and he attributes the melancholy fate to which they were condemned to the general persuasion, that they were actuated by hatred to the whole human race. It is necessary to keep this fact steadily in view, to form an accurate idea of that opposition which Christianity had to encounter. This opposition is not to be estimated merely by reference to particular statutes, or even to be considered as fully exhibited when we have gathered together the public proceedings which have been recorded in history, or deplored in the writings of those who sought to avert them. It is to be remembered that even when the laws which the frantic zeal of some of the emperors had enacted were repealed, the general law of the empire was still in force; that it was competent for every one who had the cruelty to do so, to turn it against the Christians; and that the firm, though mistaken, conviction that the Christian profession involved in it the most revolting impiety, the most tremendous guilt, and the most dangerous hostility to the best interests of the state, would lead numbers to indulge their antipathy, when little notice was taken of the sufferers, and would keep the disciples of the hated faith in a state of unceasing alarm. ( See PERSECUTION. ) What was the effect of this depressing situation? Did it check the dissemination of the Gospel, or confine it to the men by whom it was preached? So far was this from being the case, that from the period of the death, and, as it must here be termed, the alleged resurrection of Jesus, it was embraced by immense numbers in all the countries to which it was conveyed; and even while they were contemplating the sacrifices and the trials to which, by attaching themselves to it, they would be exposed, they did not hesitate to relinquish the religion in which they had been educated, and to exchange for misery and death all the comforts which the strongest feelings and propensities of our nature lead men to value and to pursue. Finally, imperial Rome bowed to the religion it had persecuted, and the emperor Constantine became a Christian.
3. The propagation of Christianity assumes a new aspect after it became the religion of the empire, and was guarded by the protection and surrounded by the munificence of imperial power. The causes which, in the first stage of its existence, had most powerfully acted against it, were now turned to its support; and all the motives by which men are usually guided led them to enter with, at least, apparent conviction into its sanctuaries.
Not only was persecution, after the reign of Constantine, at an end, but with the exception of the short reign of Julian, who, having apostatized from Christianity, and become intoxicated with the fascinating speculations of the Platonic philosophy, was eager to raise the temples which his predecessor had laid in ruins, promotion and wealth and honour could be most effectually secured by transferring to the Gospel the zeal which had been in vain exhausted to preserve the sinking fabric of Paganism and idolatry. The emperors, who had displayed their zeal and their attachment to the religion of Jesus, by forcing their own subjects to profess it, conceived it to be their duty to communicate so great a blessing to all the nations which they could influence; and when they found it necessary to declare war against the savage tribes which pressed upon the frontiers, or forced themselves within the precincts of the empire, they carried on hostilities with the view of rendering these instrumental no less to the diffusion of their religious tenets, than to the vindication of their authority, and the security of their dominions. The vanquished invaders felt little reluctance to purchase the forbearance or the clemency of their conquerors, by submitting to receive their religion; and this species of conversion, so little connected with the great objects which revelation was designed to accomplish, leaving, in fact, all the gross superstitious practices and all the immoral abominations which had previously existed, was boastfully held forth as a decisive proof of the triumph of the Gospel.
4. The foundation of the empire, not long after the days of Constantine, began to be shaken: and it experienced numberless assaults and convulsions, till it was finally divided into the eastern and western empires.
The luxury and wealth which had enervated their possessors, and destroyed the heroism and intrepidity by which their ancestors had been distinguished, presented the most powerful temptations to the lawless bands which, driven from the sterile regions of the north of Europe, had pressed forward to seek for new and more favoured habitations. The feeble attempts to turn aside, by bribery, these ferocious barbarians, increased the danger which they were intended to remove; and the history of Europe presents, for several ages, the disgusting spectacle of war, conducted with an atrocity eclipsing the stern virtues which sometimes were strikingly displayed. But although the insubordination of this turbulent and sanguinary period was little favourable to the mild influence of genuine Christianity, it did not prove so fatal to it as might have been apprehended; and it was even instrumental in extending its nominal dominion. Mankind, when scarcely emerged from barbarism, and attached to no particular country, but seeking wherever it can be found the food necessary for themselves and the flocks upon which they in a great measure depend, although they entertain those sentiments with regard to religion which seem almost interwoven with our nature, feel little attachment to any one system of superstition, and are open to the reception of new doctrines, which an association with what they value may have led them to venerate. When, accordingly, the tribes which finally overran the Roman empire had ceased from the destructive contests by which they got possession of the regions that had long been blessed with civilization and enlightened by science, they surveyed with amazement and with admiration the people whom they had conquered; they were delighted with the luxuries which abounded among them; they were charmed with their manners and customs; and they eagerly conformed to institutions from which they hoped that they should reap what the original inhabitants of their settlement had enjoyed. The religion of the vanquished they contemplated with reverence; they connected it with the wealth, the refinement, and the power which they saw spread around them; and they easily exchanged the rude and careless worship of their native deities, for the polished and splendid devotional rites, which, with the most imposing solemnity, were celebrated by the Christians. Hence, they soon embraced the religion by which it was believed that these rites were prescribed; and they communicated it to the nations with whom they still maintained an alliance. There is no doubt that motives very little connected with the conviction of the understanding led to the progress of Christianity now described; and, in fact, that progress was occasioned by causes so different from those which should have produced it, that, had circumstances been changed, and had the religion of Jesus been continued to be persecuted by the most powerful states, multitudes who affected to revere it would, upon the same ground on which their veneration rested, have exerted themselves to deride its tenets, and to exterminate its professors.
5. But it was not the secular arm alone that was stretched forth to lead men to the reception of Christianity. The church, after it had been firmly established, and had, amidst the riches and honours with which it was endowed, forgotten that it should not have been of this world, conceived it incumbent, as an evidence of its zeal, or, as was too often the case, for extending its power and its influence, to make attempts to substitute the cross of Christ for the emblems of Paganism. In accomplishing this object, it employed different means. But although the conversions which took place, from the establishment of Christianity till the restoration of learning, or the reformation, which forms a new aera in the dissemination of the Gospel, were often unfortunately very far from planting the word of life in the hearts of those to whom it was conveyed, they were very extensive. They reached to almost every country in Europe; to Arabia, China, Judea, and many other parts of Asia; and the obscure tribes, to whom no missionaries were despatched, gradually conformed to the religion of those more powerful states upon which they depended, or to which they looked with respect or veneration.
6. Mohammedanism, however, arrested the progress of Christianity in some of these countries, and humbled it and oppressed it in others; but since the reformation, and especially within the last century, it has been extended, not so much by conquest, as by the legitimate means of colonization, and by missions and education, to the most distant and important parts of the world, to China, India, Africa, the American Islands, and those of the Pacific Ocean. The zeal, self-denial, and successes, of those missionaries, who have been sent forth within a few years by various Protestant societies, and their great successes form, indeed, a splendid section in the modern history of the church. They have sown the seed in almost every land, and the fruit has spread itself throughout the world.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Christianity
the religion of Christians. By Christianity is here meant, not that religious system as it may be understood and set forth in any particular society calling itself Christian; but as it is contained in the sacred books acknowledged by all these societies, or churches, and which contained the only authorized rule of faith and practice.
2. The lofty profession which Christianity makes as a religion, and the promises it holds forth to mankind, entitle it to the most serious consideration of all. For it may in truth be said, that no other religion presents itself under aspects so sublime, or such as are calculated to awaken desires and hopes so enlarged and magnificent. It not only professes to be from God, but to have been taught to men by the Son of God incarnate in our nature, the Second Person in the adorable trinity of divine Persons, "the same in substance, equal in power and glory." It declares that this divine personage is the appointed Redeemer of mankind from sin, death, and misery; that he was announced as such to our first parents upon their lapse from the innocence and blessedness of their primeval state; that he was exhibited to the faith and hope of the patriarchs in express promises; and, by the institution of sacrifices, as a propitiatory sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, so that man might be reconciled to God through Him, and restored to his forfeited inheritance of eternal life. It represents all former dispensations of true religion, all revelations of God's will, and all promises of grace from God to man, as emanating from the anticipated sacrifice and sacerdotal intercession of its Author, and as all preparatory to the introduction of his perfect religion; and that as to the great political movements among the nations of antiquity, the rise and fall of empires were all either remotely or proximately connected with the designs of his advent among men. It professes to have completed the former revelations of God's will and purposes; to have accomplished ancient prophecies; fulfilled ancient types; and taken up the glory of the Mosaic religion into its own "glory that excelleth;" and to contain within itself a perfect system of faith, morals, and acceptable worship. It not only exhibits so effectual a sacrifice for sin, that remission of all offences against God flows from its merits to all who heartily confide in it; but it proclaims itself to be a remedy for all the moral disorders of our fallen nature; it casts out every vice, implants every virtue, and restores man to "the image of God in which he was created," even to "righteousness and true holiness."
3. Its promises both to individuals and to society are of the largest kind. It represents its Founder as now exercising the office of the High Priest of the human race before God, and as having sat down at his right hand, a mediatorial and reconciling government being committed to him, until he shall come to judge all nations, and distribute the rewards of eternity to his followers, and inflict its never-terminating punishments upon those who reject him. By virtue of this constitution of things, it promises pardon to the guilty, of every age and country, who seek it in penitence and prayer, comfort to the afflicted and troubled, victory over the fear of death, a happy intermediate state to the disembodied spirit, and finally the resurrection of the body from the dead, and honour and immortality to be conferred upon the whole man glorified in the immediate presence of God. It holds out the loftiest hopes also to the world at large. It promises to introduce harmony among families and nations, to terminate all wars and all oppressions, and ultimately to fill the world with truth, order, and purity. It represents the present and past state of society, as in contest with its own principles of justice, mercy, and truth; but teaches the final triumph of the latter over every thing contrary to itself. It exhibits the ambition, the policy, and the restlessness of statesmen and warriors, as but the overruled instruments by which it is working out its own purposes of wisdom and benevolence; and it not only defies the proudest array of human power, but professes to subordinate it by a secret and irresistible working to its own designs. Finally, it exhibits itself as enlarging its plans, and completing its designs, by moral suasion, the evidence of its truth, and the secret divine influence which accompanies it. Such are the professions and promises of Christianity, a religion which enters into no compromise with other systems; which represents itself as the only religion now in the world having God for its author; and in his name, and by the hope of his mercy, and the terrors of his frown, it commands the obedience of faith to all people to whom it is published upon the solemn sanction, "He that believeth shall be saved, and he that believeth not shall be damned."
4. Corresponding with these professions, which throw every other religion that pretends to offer hope to man into utter insignificance, it is allowed that the evidence of its truth ought to be adequate to sustain the weight of so vast a fabric, and that men have a right to know that they are not deluded with a grand and impressive theory, but are receiving from this professed system of truth and salvation "the true sayings of God." Such evidence it has afforded in its splendid train of MIRACLES; in its numerous appeals to the fulfilment of ancient PROPHECIES; in its own powerful INTERNAL evidence; in the INFLUENCE which it has always exercised, and continues to exert, upon the happiness of mankind; and in various collateral circumstances. Under the heads of Miracles and Prophecy, those important branches of evidence will be discussed, and to them the reader is referred.
It is only necessary here to say, that the miracles to which Christianity appeals as proofs of its divine authority, are not only those which were wrought by Christ and his Apostles, but also those which took place among the patriarchs, under the law of Moses, and by the ministry of the Prophets; for the religion of those ancient times was but Christianity in its antecedent revelations. All these miracles, therefore, must be taken collectively, and present attestations of the loftiest kind, as being manifestly the work of the "finger of God," wrought under circumstances which precluded mistake, and exhibiting an immense variety, from the staying of the very wheels of the planetary system,—as when the sun and moon paused in their course, and the shadow on the dial of Ahaz went backward,—to the supernatural changes wrought upon the elements of matter, the healing of incurable diseases, the expulsion of tormenting demons, and the raising of the dead. Magnificent as this array of miracles is, it is equalled by the prophetic evidence, founded upon the acknowledged principle, that future and distant contingencies can only be known to that Being, one of whose attributes is an absolute prescience. And here, too, the variety and the grandeur presented by the prophetic scheme exhibit attestations to the truth of Christianity suited to its great claims and its elevated character. Within the range of prophetic vision all time is included, to the final consummation of all things: and the greatest as well as the smallest events are seen with equal distinctness, from the subversion of mighty empires and gigantic cities, to the parting of the raiment of our Lord, and the casting of the lot for his robe by the Roman guard stationed at his cross.
5. These subjects are discussed under the articles assigned to them; as also the INTERNAL EVIDENCE of the truth of Christianity, which arises from the excellence and beneficial tendency of its doctrines. Of its just and sublime conceptions and exhibitions of the divine character; of the truth of that view of the moral state of man upon which its disciplinary treatment is founded; of the correspondence that there is between its views of man's mixed relation to God as a sinful creature, and yet pitied and cared for, and that actual mixture of good and evil, penalty and forbearance, which the condition of the world presents; of the connection of its doctrine of atonement with hope; of the adaptation of its doctrine of divine influence to the moral condition of mankind when rightly understood, and the affecting benevolence and condescension which it implies; and of its noble and sanctifying revelations of the blessedness of a future life, much might be said:—they are subjects indeed on which volumes have been written, and they can never be exhausted. But we confine ourselves to the MORAL
TENDENCY, and the consequent BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE, of Christianity. No where except in the Scriptures have we a perfect system of morals; and the deficiencies of Pagan morality only exalt the purity, the comprehensiveness, the practicability of ours. The character of the Being acknowledged as supreme must always impress itself upon moral feeling and practice; the obligation of which rests upon his will. The God of the Bible is "holy," without spot; "just," without partiality; "good," boundlessly benevolent and beneficent; and his law is the image of himself, "holy, just, and good." These great moral qualities are not made known to us merely in the abstract, so as to be comparatively feeble in their influence: but in the person of Christ, our God, incarnate, they are seen exemplified in action, displaying themselves amidst human relations, and the actual circumstances of human life. With Pagans the authority of moral rules was either the opinion of the wise, or the tradition of the ancient, confirmed, it is true, in some degree, by observation and experience; but to us, they are given as commands immediately issuing from the supreme Governor, and ratified as his by the most solemn and explicit attestations. With them many great moral principles, being indistinctly apprehended, were matters of doubt and debate; to us, the explicit manner in which they are given excludes both:
for it cannot be questioned, whether we are commanded to love our neighbour as ourselves; to do to others as we would that they should do to us, a precept which comprehends almost all relative morality in one plain principle; to forgive our enemies; to love all mankind; to live righteously and soberly, as well as godly; that magistrates must be a terror only to evil doers, and a praise to them that do well; that subjects are to render honour to whom honour, and tribute to whom tribute, is due; that masters are to be just and merciful, and servants faithful and obedient. These, and many other familiar precepts, are too explicit to be mistaken, and too authoritative to be disputed; two of the most powerful means of rendering law effectual. Those who never enjoyed the benefit of revelation, never conceived justly and comprehensively of that moral state of the heart from which right and beneficent conduct alone can flow; and therefore when they speak of the same virtues as those enjoined by Christianity, they are to be understood as attaching to them a lower idea. In this the infinite superiority of Christianity displays itself. The principle of obedience is not only a sense of duty to God, and the fear of his displeasure; but a tender love, excited by his infinite compassions to us in the gift of his Son, which shrinks from offending. To this influential motive as a reason of obedience, is added another, drawn from its end: one not less influential, but which Heathen moralists never knew,—the testimony that we please God, manifested in the acceptance of our prayers, and in spiritual and felicitous communion with him. By Christianity, impurity of thought and desire is restrained in an equal degree as are their overt acts in the lips and conduct. Humanity, meekness, gentleness, placability, disinterestedness, and charity are all as clearly and solemnly enjoined as the grosser vices are prohibited; and on the unruly tongue itself is impressed "the law of kindness." Nor are the injunctions feeble; they are strictly LAW, and not mere advice and recommendations: "Without holiness no man shall see the Lord;" and thus our entrance into heaven, and our escape from perdition, are made to depend upon this preparation of mind. To all this is added possibility, nay certainty, of attainment, if we use the appointed means. A Pagan could draw, though not with lines so perfect, a beau ideal of virtue, which he never thought attainable; but the "full assurance of hope" is given by the religion of Christ to all who are seeking the moral renovation of their nature; because "it is God that worketh in us to will and to do of his good pleasure."
6. When such is the moral nature of Christianity, how obvious is it that its tendency both as to individuals and to society must be in the highest sense beneficial! From every passion which wastes, and burns, and frets, and enfeebles the spirit, the individual is set free, and his inward peace renders his obedience cheerful and voluntary: and we might appeal to infidels themselves, whether, if the moral principles of the Gospel were wrought into the hearts, and embodied in the conduct, of all men, the world would not be happy; whether if governments ruled, and subjects obeyed, by the laws of Christ; whether if the rules of strict justice which are enjoined upon us regulated all the transactions of men, and all that mercy to the distressed which we are taught to feel and to practise came into operation; and whether, if the precepts which delineate and enforce the duties of husbands, wives, masters, servants, parents, children, did, in fact, fully and generally govern all these relations,—whether a better age than that called golden by the poets, would not then be realized, and Virgil's
Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna,
[1]
be far too weak to express the mighty change? [2] Such is the tendency of Christianity. On immense numbers of individuals it has superinduced these moral changes; all nations, where it has been fully and faithfully exhibited, bear, amidst their remaining vices, the impress of its hallowing and benevolent influence: it is now in active exertion in many of the darkest and worst parts of the earth, to convey the same blessings; and he who would arrest its progress, were he able, would quench the only hope which remains to our world, and prove himself an enemy, not only to himself, but to all mankind. What then, we ask, does all this prove, but that the Scriptures are worthy of God, and propose the very ends which rendered a revelation necessary? Of the whole system of practical religion which it contains we may say, as of that which is embodied in our Lord's sermon on the mount, in the words of one, who, in a course of sermons on that divine composition, has entered most deeply into its spirit, and presented a most instructive delineation of the character which it was intended to form: "Behold Christianity in its native form, as delivered by its great Author. See a picture of God, as far as he is imitable by man, drawn by God's own hand. What beauty appears in the whole! How just a symmetry! What exact proportion in every part! How desirable is the happiness here described! How venerable, how lovely is the holiness!" "If," says Bishop Taylor, "wisdom, and mercy, and justice, and simplicity, and holiness, and purity, and meekness, and contentedness, and charity, be images of God, and rays of divinity, then that doctrine, in which all these shine so gloriously, and in which nothing else is ingredient, must needs be from God. If the holy Jesus had come into the world with less splendour of power and mighty demonstrations, yet the excellency of what he taught makes him alone fit to be the master of the world;" and agreeable to all this, has been its actual influence upon mankind. Although, says Bishop Porteus, Christianity has not always been so well understood, or so honestly practised, as it ought to have been; although its spirit has been often mistaken, and its precepts misapplied, yet, under all these disadvantages, it has gradually produced a visible change in those points which most materially concern the peace and quiet of the world. Its beneficent spirit has spread itself through all the different relations and modifications of life, and communicated its kindly influence to almost every public and private concern of mankind. It has insensibly worked itself into the inmost frame and constitution of civil states. It has given a tinge to the complexion of their governments, to the temper and administration of their laws. It has restrained the spirit of the prince, and the madness of the people. It has softened the rigours of despotism, and tamed the insolence of conquest. It has, in some degree, taken away the edge of the sword, and thrown even over the horrors of war a veil of mercy. It has descended into families; has diminished the pressure of private tyranny; improved every domestic endearment; given tenderness to the parent, humanity to the master, respect to superiors, to inferiors ease; so that mankind are, upon the whole, even in a temporal view, under infinite obligations to the mild and pacific temper of the Gospel, and have reaped from it more substantial worldly benefits than from any other institution upon earth. As one proof of this, among many others, consider only the shocking carnage made in the human species by the exposure of infants, the gladiatorial shows, which sometimes cost Rome twenty or thirty lives in a month; and the exceedingly cruel usage of slaves allowed and practised by the ancient Pagans. These were not the accidental and temporary excesses of a sudden fury, but were legal and established, and constant methods of murdering and tormenting mankind. Had Christianity done nothing more than brought into disuse, as it confessedly has done, the two former of these inhuman customs entirely, and the latter to a very great degree, it has justly merited the title of the benevolent religion. But this is far from being all.
Throughout the more enlightened parts of Christendom there prevails a gentleness of manners widely different from the ferocity of the most civilized nations of antiquity; and that liberality with which every species of distress is relieved, is a virtue peculiar to the Christian name. But we may ask farther, What success has it had on the mind of man, as it respects his eternal welfare? How many thousands have felt its power, rejoiced in its benign influence, and under its dictates been constrained to devote themselves to the glory and praise of God! Burdened with guilt, incapable of finding relief from human resources, the mind has here found peace unspeakable in beholding that sacrifice which alone could atone for transgression. Here the hard and impenitent heart has been softened, the impetuous passions restrained, the ferocious temper subdued, powerful prejudices conquered, ignorance dispelled, and the obstacles to real happiness removed. Here the Christian, looking round on the glories and blandishments of this world, has been enabled, with a noble contempt, to despise all. Here death itself, the king of terrors, has lost his sting; and the soul, with a holy magnanimity, has borne up in the agonies of a dying hour, and sweetly sung itself away to everlasting bliss. In respect to its future spread, we have reason to believe that all nations shall feel its happy effects. The prophecies are pregnant with matter as to this belief. It seems that not only a nation, or a country, but the whole habitable globe, shall become the kingdom of our God, and of his Christ. And who is there that has ever known the excellency of this system; who is there that has ever experienced its happy efficacy; who is there that has ever been convinced of its divine origin, its delightful nature and peaceful tendency, but must join the benevolent and royal poet in saying, "Let the whole earth be filled with its glory? Amen and amen.
7. Among the collateral proofs of the truth and divine origin of Christianity, its rapid and wonderful success justly holds an important place. Of its early triumphs, the history of the Acts of the Apostles is a splendid record; and in process of time it made a wonderful progress through Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the third century there were Christians in the camp, in the senate, and in the palace; in short, every where, as we are informed, except in the temples and the theatres: they filled the towns, the country, and the islands. Men and women of all ages and ranks, and even those of the first dignity, embraced the Christian faith; insomuch that the Pagans complained that the revenues of their temples were ruined. They were in such great numbers in the empire, that, as Tertullian expresses it, if they had retired into another country, they would have left the Romans only a frightful solitude. (See the next article.) For the illustration of this argument, we may observe, that the Christian religion was introduced every where in opposition to the sword of the magistrate, the craft and interest of the priests, the pride of the philosophers, the passions and prejudices of the people, all closely combined in support of the national worship, and to crush the Christian faith, which aimed at the subversion of Heathenism and idolatry.
Moreover, this religion was not propagated in the dark, by persons who tacitly endeavoured to deceive the credulous; nor delivered out by little and little, so that one doctrine might prepare the way for the reception of another; but it was fully and without disguise laid before men all at once, that they might judge of the whole under one view. Consequently mankind were not deluded into the belief of it, but received it upon proper examination and conviction. Beside, the Gospel was first preached and first believed by multitudes in Judea, where Jesus exercised his ministry, and where every individual had the means of knowing whether the things that were told him were matters of fact; and in this country, the scene of the principal transactions on which its credibility depended, the history of Christ could never have been received, unless it had been true, and known to all as truth. Again: the doctrine and history of Jesus were preached and believed in the most noted countries and cities of the world, in the very age when he is said to have lived. On the fiftieth day after our Lord's crucifixion, three thousand persons were converted in Jerusalem by a single sermon of the Apostles; and a few weeks after this, five thousand who believed were present at another sermon preached also in Jerusalem, Acts 2:41 ; Acts 4:4 ; Acts 6:7 ; Acts 8:1 ; Acts 9:1 ; Acts 9:20 . About eight or ten years after our Lord's death, the disciples were become so numerous at Jerusalem and in the adjacent country, that they were objects of jealousy and alarm to Herod himself, Acts 12:1 . In the twenty-second year after the crucifixion, the disciples in Judea are said to have been many myriads, Acts 21:20 . The age in which Christianity was introduced and received, was famous for men whose faculties were improved by the most perfect state of social life, but who were good judges of the evidence offered in support of the facts recorded in the Gospel history. For it should be recollected, that the success of the Gospel was not restricted to Judea; but it was preached in all the different provinces of the Roman empire. The first triumphs of Christianity were in the heart of Greece itself, the nursery of learning and the polite arts; for churches were planted at a very early period at Corinth, Ephesus, Beraea, Thessalonica, and Philippi. Even Rome herself, the seat of wealth and empire, was not able to resist the force of truth at a time when the facts related were recent, and when they might, if they had been false, have easily been disproved. From Greece and Rome, at a period of cultivation and refinement, of general peace, and extensive intercourse, when one great empire united different nations and distant people, the confutation of these facts would very soon have passed from one country to another, to the utter confusion of the persons who endeavoured to propagate the belief of them. Nor ought it to be forgotten that the religion to which such numbers were proselyted, was an exclusive one. It denied, without reserve, the truth of every article of Heathen mythology, and the existence of every object of their worship. It accepted no compromise; it admitted of no comprehension. If it prevailed at all, it must prevail by the overthrow of every statue, altar, and temple in the world. It pronounced all other gods to be false, and all other worship vain. These are considerations which must have strengthened the opposition to it; augmented the hostility which it must encounter; and enhanced the difficulty of gaining proselytes: and more especially when we recollect, that among the converts to Christianity in the earliest age, a number of persons remarkable for their station, office, genius, education, and fortune, and who were personally interested by their emoluments and honours in either Judaism or Heathenism, appeared among the Christian proselytes. Its evidences approved themselves, not only to the multitude, but to men of the most refined sense and most distinguished abilities; and it dissolved the attachments which all powerful interest and authority created and upheld. Among the proselytes to Christianity we find Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea, members of the senate of Israel; Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue; Zaccheus, the chief of the publicans at Jericho; Apollos, distinguished for eloquence; Paul, learned in the Jewish law; Sergius Paulus, governor of the island of Cyprus; Cornelius, a Roman captain; Dionysius, a judge and senator of the Athenian areopagus; Erastus, treasurer of Corinth; Tyrannus, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric at Corinth; Publius, governor of Malta; Philemon, a person of considerable rank at Colosse; Simon, a noted sophist in Samaria; Zenas, a lawyer; and even the domestics of the emperor himself. These are noticed in the sacred writings; and the Heathen historians also mention some persons of great note who were converted at an early period. To all the preceding circumstances we may add a consideration of peculiar moment, which is, that the profession of Christianity led all, without exception, to renounce the pleasures and honours of the world, and to expose themselves to the most ignominious sufferings. And now, without adding any more to this argument, we may ask, How could the Christian religion have thus prevailed had it not been introduced by the power of God and of truth? And it has been supported in the world by the same power through a course of many ages, amidst the treachery of its friends, the opposition of its enemies, the dangers of prosperous periods, and the persecutions and violence of adverse circumstances; all which must have destroyed it, if it had not been founded in truth, and guarded by the protection of an almighty Providence.

Sentence search

Religion - See Christianity
Infidel - ...
Unbelieving disbelieving the inspiration of the Scriptures, or the divine institution of Christianity. One who disbelieves the inspiration of the Scriptures, and the divine origin of Christianity
Christianness - ) Consonance with the doctrines of Christianity
Dechristianize - ) To turn from, or divest of, Christianity
Christianization - ) The act or process of converting or being converted to a true Christianity
Evidential - ) Relating to, or affording, evidence; indicative; especially, relating to the evidences of Christianity
Justin Martyr, Saint - 100;died Rome, c165 Converted to Christianity c. 130,he devoted himself to the propagation and defense of Christianity in Asia Minor and at Rome, retaining the garb of philosopher
Martyr, Justin, Saint - 100;died Rome, c165 Converted to Christianity c. 130,he devoted himself to the propagation and defense of Christianity in Asia Minor and at Rome, retaining the garb of philosopher
Primitive Christians - Those who lived in the first ages of Christianity, especially the apostles and immediate followers of our Lord
Unchristianize - ) To turn from the Christian faith; to cause to abandon the belief and profession of Christianity
Lactantius, Lucius Caecilius Firmianus - Christian apologist of the fourth century; wrote a defense of Christianity, and an important historical account of the last persecution
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius - Christian apologist of the fourth century; wrote a defense of Christianity, and an important historical account of the last persecution
Ordination - In Christianity it is the ceremony of consecration to ministry
Damaris - An Athenian lady, honorably distinguished as one of the few who embraced Christianity at Athens under the preaching of Paul, Acts 17:34
Priscillianist - ) A follower of Priscillian, bishop of Avila in Spain, in the fourth century, who mixed various elements of Gnosticism and Manicheism with Christianity
Apostasy - The primitive Christian church distinguished several kinds of apostacy; the first, of those who went entirely from Christianity to Judaism; the second, of those who complied so far with the Jews, as to communicate with them in many of their unlawful practices, without making a formal profession of their religion; thirdly, of those who mingled Judaism and Christianity together; and, fourthly, of those who voluntarily relapsed into paganism. National, when a kingdom relinquishes the profession of Christianity;...
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Apologetics - (Greek: apologia, apology, defense) ...
The theological science which aims at explaining and justifying religious doctrine in order to show its reasonableness in answer to objections of those who deny the reasonableness of any religion, especially of a revealed religion, such as Christianity, and more particularly the reasonable grounds of the Catholic religion. Since the name of apologetics has not the same significance in English as the Greek word from which it is derived, theologians today prefer to call the science fundamental theology, which explains the grounds of religion, revelation, Christianity, and Catholicity
Canker, - Such teaching saps the vitals of Christianity
Profane - In the early days of Christianity we do not find this sin remarked on, because Christianity was then novel and unrecognized, and hostility to it was passionate rather than profane. The term ‘profane’ is applied especially to those who under cover of Christianity foist their own errors and deceits upon the Church. They simulated Christianity and brought their mischief into its very centre. Gnosticism, with all that led up to it, was peculiarly profane, because it brought into the meekness of Christianity the dialectical pride of the West and the ‘caste’ feeling of the East; it pretended to have special knowledge; it made purity into a formal distinction between matter and spirit (see Clean); it indulged in capricious philosophical views of Christian truth, and became a masquerade of sacred things. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, p
Apologist - ) One who makes an apology; one who speaks or writes in defense of a faith, a cause, or an institution; especially, one who argues in defense of Christianity
Evangelize - ) To instruct in the gospel; to preach the gospel to; to convert to Christianity; as, to evangelize the world
Millennialist - ) One who believes that Christ will reign personally on earth a thousand years; a Chiliast; also, a believer in the universal prevalence of Christianity for a long period
Damaris - A heifer, an Athenian woman converted to Christianity under the preaching of Paul (Acts 17:34 )
Manners - For the effect that Christianity has on the manners of men, see article Christianity
Monergism - Christianity is monergistic
Unchristian - ) Contrary to Christianity; not like or becoming a Christian; as, unchristian conduct
Dam'Aris - (a heifer ), an Athenian woman converted to Christianity by St
Ethnophrones - A sect of heretics in the seventh century, who made a profession of Christianity, but joined thereto all the ceremonies and follies of paganism, as judicial astrology, sortileges, auguries, and other divinations
Apostasy - , the renunciation of a religious faith; as, Julian's apostasy from Christianity
Ethnical - ) Pertaining to the gentiles, or nations not converted to Christianity; heathen; pagan; - opposed to Jewish and Christian
Judaizer - ), those Jews who accepted Christianity but still adhered to the law of Moses and worshiped in the temple at Jerusalem
Candace - The queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Acts 8:27 ). There is a tradition that Candace was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that whole region, carrying it also into Abyssinia
Cappadocia - Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1 Peter 1:1 )
Postmillennialism - The belief that through the preaching of the word of God, the entire world will be converted to Christianity and this will usher in the kingdom of Christ
Aquila And Priscilla - Converted to Christianity, they entertained Saint Paul in Corinth and later at Ephesus
Malta, Archdiocese of - Christianity was established there at an early date; Saint Paul preached in the island and the first bishop, Saint Pub1ius, lived in the 1century
Kerkuk, Kurdistan, Iraq, Archdiocese of - Christianity was introduced at an early date, several persons having been martyred there, 318
Inerrancy - In Christianity, inerrancy states that the Bible, in its original documents, is without error regarding facts, names, dates, and any other revealed information
Religion, Religious - Practical Christianity
Epiphany - ” In Western Christianity the festival of Epiphany, observed on the sixth of January, celebrates the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles, the coming of the Magi to see the child Jesus (Matthew 2:1-12 ). ”...
In much of Eastern Christianity, Epiphany is a celebration of the baptism of Jesus, a recognition of His manifestation to humanity as the Son of God (Mark 1:9-11 )
Abyssinia - According to legend, Christianity was introduced by the eunuch Candace baptized by Philip the Deacon, and was firmly established in the 4th century under Saint Frumentius, the first bishop. The Abyssinian Church is today a debased form of Christianity curiously mingled with Judaistic rites
Dionysius - (di oh nihss' ih uhss) An Athenian aristocrat who was converted to Christianity through the preaching of Paul the apostle (Acts 17:34 )
Cessationism - The position within Christianity that the Charismatic Spiritual gifts (speaking in tongues, word of knowledge, word of wisdom, intepretation of tongues, etc
Limited Atonement - The teaching held in Reformed (Calvinist) circles of Christianity that Jesus bore only the sins of the elect, and not that of the entire world
Deism - (Latin: Deus, God) ...
A form of natural religion; a philosophico-religious system in which revelation is replaced by truths deduced by unaided reason; a belief in the existence of God together with a denial of Divine providence, revelation, and Christianity
Christianize - ) To make Christian; to convert to Christianity; as, to Christianize pagans
Lukewarm - The lukewarm water which arrived at the city served as an appropriate illustration for a tasteless, good-for-nothing Christianity
Athalie - Christianity is foreshadowed in many moving passages and its destiny hangs in the balance
Ethio'Pian Eunuch, the, - , who was treasurer of Candace queen of Ethiopia, but who was converted to Christianity on a visit to Jerusalem, through philip the evangelist
Catechumen - See) One who is receiving rudimentary instruction in the doctrines of Christianity; a neophyte; in the primitive church, one officially recognized as a Christian, and admitted to instruction preliminary to admission to full membership in the church
Onesimus - (Greek: onesimos, advantageous, profitable) ...
A native of Phrygia who robbed and fled from his master, Philemon, to Rome where he was converted to Christianity by Saint Paul, and thence sent back to his master with the "Epistle of Saint Paul to Philemon
Ebionite - ) One of a sect of heretics, in the first centuries of the church, whose doctrine was a mixture of Judaism and Christianity
Apostasy - It can also describe a group or church organization that has "fallen away" from the truths of Christianity as revealed in the Bible
Thomas Buston - Wrote a grammar of the language spoken in Canara, a district on the Malabar coast of India, and various instructions in Christianity (written in Portuguese) which are the earliest writings known to have been printed in Hindustan
Cromlech - They are found chiefly in countries inhabited by the ancient Celts, and are of a period anterior to the introduction of Christianity into these countries
Nicolas - A Jewish proselyte of Antioch, who afterwards embraced Christianity, and was among the most zealous of the first Christians, so that he was chosen one of the seven to minister in the church at Jerusalem
Marshall, Thomas William - Among his writings were the sensational "Christianity in China," and "Christian Missions," exposing the weaknesses of the Anglican missions
Scythian - " Christianity is the true spring of sound culture, social and moral
Renegade - ) An apostate from Christianity or from any form of religious faith
Celsus - A Pagan philosopher of the second century, who composed a work against Christianity, in which he so expressly refers to the facts of the Gospels, and to the books of the New Testament, as to have furnished important undesigned testimony to their antiquity and truth
Onesimus - Had been a slave to Philemon of Colosse, and had run away from him, and fled to Rome; but being converted to Christianity through preaching of Paul, he was the occasion of Paul's writing the epistle to Philemon, Colossians 4:9 Philippians 1:10
Thomas Marshall 19th Century - Among his writings were the sensational "Christianity in China," and "Christian Missions," exposing the weaknesses of the Anglican missions
Lucca, Italy, Archdiocese of - Founded as a diocese in the first century during the initial spread of Christianity
Cid - ) Chief or commander; in Spanish literature, a title of Ruy Diaz, Count of Bivar, a champion of Christianity and of the old Spanish royalty, in the 11th century
Fact And Theory - —Christianity is a religion which comes to man from God. Any knowledge, therefore, of the nature of Christianity depends upon revelation. This would still be true apart from the fact of sin and the fact that Christianity is a religion of redemption. Christianity, therefore, consists in facts which have a meaning, or in the meaning of the facts, whichever way we choose to put it. Take away either the facts or their authoritative interpretation, and we have no Christianity left. The mere external facts apart from their meaning are, of course, meaningless, and therefore do not constitute Christianity; while the abandonment of the facts no less destroys the Christian religion, reducing it to a mere natural religion, or religious philosophy. Hence their interpretation of the meaning of the great facts of Christianity, according to their own account of the matter, is not mere human reflexion upon the facts. This does away with the absoluteness of Christianity, and is in direct contradiction to the account given by the Scripture writers themselves of the way in which Divine truth came to them. The evidence for their trustworthiness is just the evidence for Christianity as a supernatural religion, which, of course, takes us far beyond the limits of this article (cf. But if we accept their authority (as we do, resting it on the above mentioned evidence), then Christianity consists in certain great facts, and in the true meaning of those facts. This meaning, therefore, He must authoritatively make known to us if we are to have any Christianity. ...
In the first place, then, to attempt to hold to the great supernatural facts of Christianity and to give up their meaning, is not only impossible, but, were it possible, would result in taking from the facts just that which makes them Christian facts, and which makes them constitutive of the essence of Christianity. There has been an attempt to distinguish between the facts of Christ’s life as the permanent Divine element in Christianity and ‘theories’ as relative, human, and changing. This general tendency to separate between fact and theory in Christianity has assumed two forms: on the one hand, it is said that the Bible contains no explanation of the great facts of Christianity; on the other hand, it is admitted that the Bible does contain an explanation of the facts; but, while a special revelation in a series of supernatural acts of God is recognized, a special word-revelation is denied, and the whole doctrinal content of Christianity as contained in the Bible is reduced practically to human reflexion upon the acts of God. ...
In the former position, it is said that Christianity consists in facts, not in doctrines. And still further, a ‘bare fact’ being a meaningless thing, there is no atonement in the ‘bare fact’ of Christ’s death, and no Christianity in the events of His life regarded as ‘bare facts. It is not necessary to salvation that we should know the full and true meaning of Christ’s death; we are not speaking, however, of the conditions of salvation, but of the essence of Christianity. In short, this method of treating the facts of Christianity takes from them all that makes them constitutive of the essence of Christianity. *
But we must observe, finally, that it is not sufficient to show the necessity of an interpretation of the facts of Christianity. It is not possible, then, to assert that the NT contains no interpretation of the facts which lie at the basis of Christianity. If we are unwilling to yield to its authority, and still insist upon the distinction between the facts as Divine and the theory as merely human, we shall be in the second position mentioned, that of those who recognize a supernatural revelation in a series of facts, but who reduce the whole doctrinal content of Christianity, as contained in the Bible, to human reflexion upon these facts (see Rothe, Zur Dogmatik, pp. For it is not the account which the Scripture writers give of their interpretation of the facts of Christianity. The consequence of this will be to regard the facts of Christianity, i. its whole historical basis, no less than the Scripture doctrine, as the mere ‘husk’ which contains the ‘kernel’ either of rational truth or of Christian life; and thus Christianity will have been reduced to a mere religious philosophy or a mystical life. But rational truth and religious sentiment are not Christianity. If we are to have any Christian religion, we must have the great supernatural facts of Christianity and an authoritative interpretation of them. to the position which does not do justice to the facts of Christianity, subordinating them to a purely human theory. This tendency reduces Christianity to a philosophy of religion; the historical element being regarded as the ‘husk’ which contains the ‘kernel’ of eternal truths of reason. ...
This question of the importance of the historical element in Christianity was prominent in the 18th cent. ’ And he seemed to regard all of the historical element in Christianity as ‘accidental,’ for the ideal kernel of Christianity was just rational religious truth. Historical Christianity, he held, had clothed this with accretions which are symbolical representations of eternal truth. Fichte held practically the same position (see Anweisung zum seligen Leben) Thus by distinguishing between the ‘kernel’ and the ‘husk,’ and by finding the former in the truths of reason, the whole of Christianity was relegated to the category of husk. Christianity, accordingly, was reduced to a religious philosophy and destroyed, for it is not the product of human reflexion. An attempt at a more adequate view of history is seen in Schelling and Hegel, but with much the same result so far as historical Christianity is concerned, because of their adherence to the distinction between kernel and husk. Thus historic Christianity is but one of the forms, albeit the highest, of bare natural religion, in this case construed upon a pantheizing basis. Green has given a Neo-Hegelian construction of Christianity which subordinates its facts and the Scripture interpretation of them to a philosophical theory (Miscell. This is held to be the revelation of Christianity, but no value is attached to the historic Christ apart from the idea which He exemplified. This, it goes without saying, is Neo-Hegelianism and not Christianity. ...
The extreme result of this tendency to give up the authority of Scripture, and the consequent subordination of the facts of Christianity to a theory, is seen in an art. This, indeed, is Christianity without Christ. ...
In doing away with the historical element in Christianity, these thinkers have done away with Christianity itself. This is only to say that the great facts of Christ’s life are a part of the essence of Christianity. This type of religious philosophy may not admit the authority of the Scripture, but it should frankly admit that what it leaves us is not Christianity. of how much of Christianity they will retain as kernel and how much they will throw away as husk. That they do not differ so much in principle from the preceding philosophical solvent of Christianity can be seen from the following considerations. Accordingly we find that, while these theologians differ from the preceding construction of Christianity in laying greater emphasis upon Christ and in insisting that the essence of Christianity lies not in eternal truth so much as in Christ Himself (see esp. Christianity, he says, consists not in ideas which Christ illustrated, but in Christ Himself. But not only are the great facts of Christianity put into the category of ‘husk. ...
It is evident that the principle of external authority in religious knowledge having been abandoned by this school also, the historic facts of Christianity as well as the Scripture interpretation are given up. For this kernel of rational truth seems to differ with each theologian, and does not afford that permanency which should characterize the essence of Christianity. Accordingly it is natural that a demand for a truly undogmatic Christianity should arise, seeking to be rid not only of Scripture doctrine, but also of the rational element into which it had been distilled. Christianity is a life, not a series of facts or doctrines. The facts of Christianity fare no better at Dreyer’s hands. This arouses life in us, and this life is the essence of Christianity, which is a life, not fact or doctrine. Dogma replied to Dreyer that instead of an undogmatic Christianity we need a ‘new dogma’ which grows out of Christian faith. The essence of Christianity, therefore, is neither a series of facts nor a sum of dogmas, but a spiritual life
Milan, Edict of - Coming after more than two centuries of intermittent persecutions many of which were marked with special cruelty and ferocity, and in which the issue was between the Church and the absolute State, the edict meant much more than toleration; it was really an authoritative recognition of Christianity. Out of gratitude to the God of the Christians, Who, he believed, gave him the unexpected victory over the tyrant Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge (312), and because, no doubt, he recognized in Christianity the moral force to save the civilization of the empire, Constantine bestowed full freedom on the Church
Edict of Milan - Coming after more than two centuries of intermittent persecutions many of which were marked with special cruelty and ferocity, and in which the issue was between the Church and the absolute State, the edict meant much more than toleration; it was really an authoritative recognition of Christianity. Out of gratitude to the God of the Christians, Who, he believed, gave him the unexpected victory over the tyrant Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge (312), and because, no doubt, he recognized in Christianity the moral force to save the civilization of the empire, Constantine bestowed full freedom on the Church
Candace - The name of an Ethiopian queen, whose high treasurer was converted to Christianity under the preaching of Philip the evangelist, Acts 8:27 . Irenaeus and Eusebius ascribe to Candace's minister her own conversion to Christianity, and the promulgation of the gospel through her kingdom
Ostraka - (Greek: ostrakon, an earthen vessel) ...
Term applied to inscriptions, profane and ecclesiastical, on clay, wood, metal or other hard materials, which form a literary source for early Christianity
Eunice - No details are known about her conversion to Christianity
Paphos - Paul converted to Christianity, Acts 13:6
Nicolas - He afterwards embraced Christianity, and was among the most zealous of the first Christians; so that he was chosen one of the first seven deacons of the church at Jerusalem, Acts 6:5
Pamiers, Antoninus of, Saint - Having embraced Christianity he visited Rome, was ordained, and returned to Gaul to preach the Gospel in Aquitania, and especially on the frontier of the Rouergue where he is credited with many miracles
Marcellian, Saint - They were twin sons of pagan parents, and were cast into prison for professing Christianity
Mark, Saint Martyr - They were twin sons of pagan parents, and were cast into prison for professing Christianity
Mary - Christianity binds all in one brotherhood; a Jewess labors much for the good of Rome, Judah's oppressor
Evangelical - Agreeable to the doctrines of Christianity
Gallicanus, Saint - He was a Roman general and consul, converted to Christianity, and exiled to Egypt by Julian the Apostate
Antoninus of Pamiers, Saint - Having embraced Christianity he visited Rome, was ordained, and returned to Gaul to preach the Gospel in Aquitania, and especially on the frontier of the Rouergue where he is credited with many miracles
Liberalism - In Christianity, the movement away from traditional orthodoxy often in an attempt to harmonize biblical teachings with science, humanism, or other secular fields
Proselyte - ) A new convert especially a convert to some religion or religious sect, or to some particular opinion, system, or party; thus, a Gentile converted to Judaism, or a pagan converted to Christianity, is a proselyte
Dalmatia - Hither Titus was sent by Paul to spread the knowledge of Christianity, 2 Timothy 4:10
Free Catholicism - Peck, in the "Coming Free Catholicism," to designate a movement in the Free Churches of England towards a Catholic interpretation of Christianity which shall include an element of freedom, and for the adoption of Catholic belief and practises without a return to Rome
Catholicism, Free - Peck, in the "Coming Free Catholicism," to designate a movement in the Free Churches of England towards a Catholic interpretation of Christianity which shall include an element of freedom, and for the adoption of Catholic belief and practises without a return to Rome
Alexander - A coppersmith, and an apostate from Christianity
Alonso de Espinosa - He was led to write his important work, "Guanches of Tenerife," through his interest in Our Lady of Candelaria, an image of the Virgin and Child which had been among this people long before their conversion to Christianity
Espinosa, Alonso de - He was led to write his important work, "Guanches of Tenerife," through his interest in Our Lady of Candelaria, an image of the Virgin and Child which had been among this people long before their conversion to Christianity
Ethiopian Eunuch - He was converted to Christianity through the instrumentality of Philip (Acts 8:27 )
Martinian, Saint - Converted by them to Christianity and baptized
Theophilus - We can only say of him, in general, that most probably he was a man of some note, who lived out of Palestine, and had abjured paganism in order to embrace Christianity
Dionys'Ius - , Bacchus ) the Areop'agite, ( Acts 17:34 ) an eminent Athenian, converted to Christianity by the preaching of St
Arabia - Though Christianity in Arabia dates from Apostolic times, the Arabs, being of a lax and sensual nature, were indifferent in the practise of their religion, fell easily into the heresies of Arianism, Nestorianism, and Monophysitism, and lost all traces of Christianity after the appearance of Islam
Austria - Austria was included in the Roman provinces of Rhaetia, Noricum, and Pannonia, and received Christianity with Roman civilization, but after the fall of the Empire was overrun by wild Slavonic tribes. Reestablished in the 10th century as the East Realm or Osterreich of the Holy Roman Empire, it was closely associated with Bavaria and converted to Christianity by Saint Rupert of Worms
Vespasianus, Titus Flavius - The influences of these princes on Christianity was wholly indirect. The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple tended to hasten the complete separation of Judaism and Christianity. A long and almost unbroken chain of Christian authorities bear witness to the favourable condition of Christianity under these emperors. 146), in a passage whose style suggests it was borrowed from one of the lost books of Tacitus, states that the motive of Titus in destroying the temple was to abolish not only Judaism but Christianity, but he does not mention any hostile act on the part of Vespasian or his son against the Christians
Barnabas - He was a companion of the apostle Paul, and had a large share in the labors and sufferings which attended the early spread of Christianity
Berard of Carbio, Saint - Proficient in Arabic, and an eloquent preacher, he was sent by Saint Francis with four companions to preach Christianity in Morocco, 1219
Carbio, Berard of, Saint - Proficient in Arabic, and an eloquent preacher, he was sent by Saint Francis with four companions to preach Christianity in Morocco, 1219
Honoratus, Saint - He was born of pagan parents in northern Gaul, and after his conversion to Christianity, embarked, c
Apostolic Fathers - An appellation usually given to the writers of the first century, who employed their pens in the cause of Christianity
Ethnea, Saint - She and her sister Fedelemia, encountering Saint Patrick near the fountain of Clebach, were instructed by him in the doctrines of Christianity, were baptized, received their First Communion, and died in an ecstasy of love
Pagans - The term came into use after the establishment of Christianity, the cities and great towns affording the first converts
Eunice - Eunice had been converted to Christianity by some other preacher, Acts 16:1-2 , and not by St
Labarum - ) The standard adopted by the Emperor Constantine after his conversion to Christianity
Eithne, Saint - She and her sister Fedelemia, encountering Saint Patrick near the fountain of Clebach, were instructed by him in the doctrines of Christianity, were baptized, received their First Communion, and died in an ecstasy of love
Romanus, Saint - According to his legend he was a soldier, converted to Christianity by the example of Saint Lawrence, by whom he was baptized
Indians, Pueblo - Christianity was first preached to these tribes by the Franciscans, and the missions flourished until the revolt of the Pueblos in 1680
Lilly, William Samuel - His writings include: "Ancient Religion and Modern Thought," 1884; "A Century of Revolution," 1889; "The Claims of Christianity," 1894; "First Principles in Politics," 1899; and "Studies in Religion and Literature," 1904
Christendom - ) That portion of the world in which Christianity prevails, or which is governed under Christian institutions, in distinction from heathen or Mohammedan lands
Ibar, Saint - Abbot, Bishop of Begerin, Wexford, Ireland; died c500 A native of Ulster, he preached Christianity in the south, and later became a disciple of Saint Patrick, by whom he was consecrated to his episcopate
Iberius, Saint - Abbot, Bishop of Begerin, Wexford, Ireland; died c500 A native of Ulster, he preached Christianity in the south, and later became a disciple of Saint Patrick, by whom he was consecrated to his episcopate
Galerius, Valerius Maximianus - He is responsible for the violent persecution of Christianity begun by his father-in-law, 303, which terminated, 311, when he was menaced by Constantine and Maxentius
Grenada - Christianity was introduced into Grenada by the Spanish discoverers, and Dominicans and other missionaries labored here until the island passed to the British and was entrusted to secular clergy
Bar-Jesus - A Jewish magician in Crete, who opposed Paul and Barnabas, endeavoring to prevent Sergius Paulus from embracing Christianity, and was struck blind, "not seeing the sun for a season
Valerius Maximianus Galerius - He is responsible for the violent persecution of Christianity begun by his father-in-law, 303, which terminated, 311, when he was menaced by Constantine and Maxentius
William Lilly - His writings include: "Ancient Religion and Modern Thought," 1884; "A Century of Revolution," 1889; "The Claims of Christianity," 1894; "First Principles in Politics," 1899; and "Studies in Religion and Literature," 1904
Iraq - Christianity was probably introduced among the Mesopotamian Arabs toward the middle of the 2century, and flourished in spite of persecution by the Sassanian kings of Persia who subjugated the region. Thenceforth the history of Christianity in Iraq, including the adoption of Nestorianism, followed that of Persia, until Iraq was captured by the Turks in the 16th century, when most of the inhabitants became Mohammedan
Cappadocia - Judaism there paved the way for Christianity. Rome, by the civilization and improved roads which it carried with it every where, facilitated the spread first of Judaism, then of Christianity
Phryg'ia - In fact there was no Roman province of Phrygia till considerably after the first establishment of Christianity in the peninsula of Asia Minor. 381, showing the prevalence of Christianity at that time --ED
Disciplina, Arcani - It was a custom intended to shield the doctrines and mysteries of Christianity from ridicule or misconception
Discipline of the Secret - It was a custom intended to shield the doctrines and mysteries of Christianity from ridicule or misconception
Minucius Felix - He is best known by his "Octavius," a dialogue on Christianity, at Ostia, between Caecilius Natalie, a pagan, and Octavius Januarius, a Christian, wherein Caecilius is confounded, Minucius judging the debate
Cabral, Pedralvarez - In 1500 he was given command of a fleet about to sail for India, with the commission to establish commercial relations and introduce Christianity
Cabral, Pedro Alvarez - In 1500 he was given command of a fleet about to sail for India, with the commission to establish commercial relations and introduce Christianity
Gordianus, Saint - Gordianus was a Roman judge, converted to Christianity by the priest Januarius
Epimachus, Saint - Gordianus was a Roman judge, converted to Christianity by the priest Januarius
Onesimus - Christianity did not come in to set the world right thus: Onesimus was sent back to his master, and slaves are elsewhere exhorted to be faithful to their masters; but slavery is doubtless one of the fruits of man's sin
Distant - ) Not conformable; discrepant; repugnant; as, a practice so widely distant from Christianity
Fatalism - How this influence is worked out by God who knows all things from eternity is something apparently unexplainable in Christianity
Secret, Discipline of the - It was a custom intended to shield the doctrines and mysteries of Christianity from ridicule or misconception
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines - Christianity was introduced into Saint Vincent by the Spanish discoverers, and missions were established by the Dominicans and other religious until the British occupation, when they were replaced by secular clergy
Eclectics - The Eclectic system was brought to perfection by Ammonius Saccas, who blended Christianity with his philosophy, and founded the sect of the Ammonians, or New Platonists, in the second century. In the infancy of the Alexandrian school, not a few of the professors of Christianity were led, by the pretensions of the Eclectic sect, to imagine that a coalition might, with great advantage, be formed between its system and that of Christianity
Christianity - Christianity . ) had come to be the specific designation of a follower of Jesus Christ, it was inevitable that the word ‘Christianity’ should sooner or later be used to denote the faith which Christians profess. ...
Christianity presents itself to us under two aspects objective and subjective, past and present, world-historical and personal. Christianity as a Historical Revelation . (1) First the mistake of those who confound history with dogma, principles with institutions, and read back into Christianity as a Divine revelation the later creeds and rites and orders of the Church. But apart from that, the view taken in the present article is that, in seeking to discover Christianity in its essential nature, we must accept the NT as our authority and norm, inasmuch as there alone we find the historical record of the life and self-witness of Jesus Christ, and also the writings of that Apostolic group which moved in the immediate light of His manifestation as that was given not only in His life on earth, but in His death and resurrection and their extraordinary spiritual results. We therefore hold that whatever Christianity is, it is not what certain modern writers describe as ‘the religion of Jesus,’ but something very different; and that as it is not to be confounded with churchly dogmas and institutions, it is just as little to be identified with an ethical theism based on the beauty of Christ’s character and the pure precepts of His Sermon on the Mount. It is in accordance, therefore, with the original application of the name ‘Christian’ that in seeking for the meaning of the word ‘Christianity’ we should make full use of the Apostolic testimony regarding Christ. As a religion appearing in history, Christianity had its historical relations and its historical roots . ...
( b ) But while Christianity was and is related to all the ethnic faiths, it was deeply rooted in the soil of the OT . In the pagan religions we find many anticipations of Christianity, but in Judaism there is a definite and Divine preparation for it. But notwithstanding its historical connexions with the past, Christianity was a religion absolutely new . And even Judaism no more accounts for Christianity than the soil accounts for the mighty tree which springs out of it. And very soon in the history of the early Church there came that inevitable crisis which decided that though Judaism had been the cradle of Christianity, it was not to be its nursing-mother (cf. 52); that Christianity was not a mere spiritualized Judaism, but a new and universal religion recognizing no distinction between Jew and Greek, circumcision and uncircumcision, and seeing in Christ Himself the ‘all in all. When, with the NT as our guide, we seek for the essential features of objective Christianity, the following characteristics present themselves: ...
( a ) It is a revelation of God through the life and in the Person of Jesus Christ . But this is not the Christ who is presented to us in the NT; and if we fall short of the NT view of Christ, our Christianity will not be the Christianity of the NT. If, on the other hand, we take the Gospels and Epistles as our authorities, we must hold upon their evidence not only that ‘God was in Christ,’ but that He so dwelt in Christ that Christ Himself was God; and that historical Christianity is nothing less than an immediate revelation of the Divine nature through the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ. ...
( b ) Christianity is the religion not only of the revelation of God but of the redemption of man . ...
( c ) It follows from what has just been said that Christianity is the religion of perfected character . Whatever may be the case with other faiths, Christianity permits of no divorce between religion and morality. ...
( d ) Christianity is the religion of a regenerated society . Christianity as a Personal Experience . Christianity is not only a revelation in history, but a reality of personal life. Without Christians there would be no Christianity. Just as Christianity, regarded as a historical revelation, may all be summed up in the fact of Christ, so, when it is considered as a personal reality, it may all be included in the faith that lays hold of and appropriates Christ. And when we would learn from the NT how the Christianity of those who have trusted in Christ is to live and increase and be perfected, we find that it is faith again, still clinging to Christ, that is the vital principle of the life which faith has begun. The root of Christianity, as we have seen, is the religious principle of faith; but from that root there grows an ethical practice bringing life into conformity with all Divine laws. The actual conduct of professedly Christian people has always served as the world’s rough test of Christianity. But though often roughly applied, the test of obedience to God is an unfailing gauge of what claims to be Christianity. For Christianity is social as well as ethical and religious
Latitudinarian - The Latitudinarians sought to reconcile the "Churchly" and the Puritan elements by disregarding differences of doctrine and by emphasizing the "broad" principles of Christianity
Oracle - Communication - Christianity alone could conquer these homes of revelation; Constantine stripped Delphi and Dodona, and under Theodosius the repression was completed
Apostles' Creed - A formula of belief which contains in twelve statements or "articles" the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, and whose authorship tradition ascribes to the Apostles
Johann Schall Von Bell - During the reign of Shun-chi Christianity was tolerated
Dedication - Under Christianity dedication is only applied to a church, and is properly the consecration thereof
Guiana, British - Christianity was introduced into Guiana by Spanish Franciscans early in the 16th century
Schism - It is a sin against Christian love, and strikes at the heart of Christianity, John 17:21 Romans 12:4-21
Schall Von Bell, Johann Adam - During the reign of Shun-chi Christianity was tolerated
Salonica - Saint Paul addressed two Epistles to the community there, which was an important center of early Christianity
Saloniki - Saint Paul addressed two Epistles to the community there, which was an important center of early Christianity
Claudia - 57 (Tacitus, Annals, 3:32), probably Christianity. Claudia probably learned Christianity from Pomponia, and took from her the surname of the Pomponian clan, Rufina; so we find Rufus, a Christian in Romans 16:13
Swelling - Jeremiah 12:5 (b) This is a picture of the predicament of one who is weary and disgusted with the type of Christianity that he sees around him. One who is made miserable by the Christians on earth would be far more miserable if he were in Heaven where the highest form of pure Christianity prevails
Ecclesiastical History - That it will show us the amazing progress of Christianity through the Roman empire, through the East and West, although the powers of the world cruelly opposed it. It shows us that the increase of Christianity produced in the countries where it was received, the overthrow and extinction of paganism, which, after a feeble resistance, perished about the sixth century. It shows us how Christianity hath been continued and delivered down from the apostolical to the present age. ; Millar's Propagation of Christianity; Gillie's Historical Collections; Dr
Gallienus p. Licinius, Emperor - Accordingly, in 261 he issued a public edict, by which Christianity was for the first time put on a clearly legal footing as a religio licita. This edict is the most marked epoch in the history of the church's relation to the state since the rescript of Trajan to Pliny, which had made Christianity distinctly a religio illicita. 13), which might have been done without a legal recognition of Christianity; but Eusebius has preserved a copy of the encyclical rescript which the emperor addressed to the Christian bishops of the Egyptian province, which shews that the position of "the bishops" is perfectly recognized by the pagan government. If Christianity had not been explicitly made a religio licita , this would have been impossible
Natalis, Alexander - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Mount, Sermon on the - The sermon takes up three chapters of Saint Matthew (5,6, 7) and contains a complete outline of Christianity
Christina, Saint - The daughter of a pagan nobleman, she embraced Christianity, and in her zeal destroyed the gold and silver idols of her father, distributing them as alms among the poor
Scythian - It appears that in apostolic times there were some of this people that embraced Christianity (Colossians 3:11 )
Noel, Alexander - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Apology - ) Something said or written in defense or justification of what appears to others wrong, or of what may be liable to disapprobation; justification; as, Tertullian's Apology for Christianity
Infidel - Thus the scriptural use of the term does not imply the denial of the truth of Christianity, as it is now commonly understood
Godliness - Revelation the system of Christianity
Hermas, Shepherd of - It is an ethical rather than a theological work, preaching repentance, and consisting of five visions, twelve mandates, and two parables; particularly valuable as a contemporary record of 2century Christianity in Rome
Metaphysics - and other such ideas of a spiritual nature not generally associated with Christianity
Malice - disgraceful to rational creatures, and every way inimical to the spirit of Christianity, Matthew 5:44
Alexander Natalis - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Alexander Noel - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Cappadocia - The people of this country were formerly infamous for their vices; but after the promulgation of Christianity, it produced many great and worthy men: among these may be reckoned Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory Nyssen, and St
Reformation - Christianity is in view and anticipation of this
Sabina, Saint - She was a wealthy widow of Umbria in Italy, converted to Christianity by her servant Serapia, who was martyred for her faith
Shepherd of Hermas - It is an ethical rather than a theological work, preaching repentance, and consisting of five visions, twelve mandates, and two parables; particularly valuable as a contemporary record of 2century Christianity in Rome
Southwark, England, Archdiocese of - Saint Augustine of Canterbury landed on the coast of Kent in 597, and there Christianity was first preached in the Saxon language by him
Sermon on the Mount - The sermon takes up three chapters of Saint Matthew (5,6, 7) and contains a complete outline of Christianity
Moriscos - A name given to Spanish Mohammedans and their descendants who were permitted to remain in Spain under pretence of conversion to Christianity
Felicitas, Saint 23 Nov - She was a holy Roman widow martyred during the reign of Emperor Antoninus, with seven sons (Januarius, Felix, Philip Pius, Silvanus, Alexander, Vitalis, and Martialis), because of their defense of Christianity
Decius, Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus - This led to his attempting to crush Christianity by a more violent persecution than the Church had yet experienced
Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius - This led to his attempting to crush Christianity by a more violent persecution than the Church had yet experienced
Ninian, Saint - Confessor, bishop and apostle of Christianity in Scotland; born Cumberland; died Whithorn, c432He was the son of a converted British chieftain
Doctrine - In Christianity, for example, a true biblical doctrine is that there is only one God in all existence (Isaiah 43:10; Isa 44:6; Isa 44:8)
Edrei - Its ruins cover a large space; it was a place of some note in the early ages of Christianity and in the era of the crusades
Stoics - ...
The great quality of Stoicism, which set it above Epicureanism, and brought it into line with Christianity, was its moral earnestness . Lightfoot has said, ‘Stoicism was the only philosophy which could even pretend to rival Christianity in the earlier ages of the Church. Yet Stoicism and Christianity ran parallel rather than came into contact with one another, until through the weakness inherent in its theology and its ethics the current of Stoic philosophy was dissipated and lost
Stephen - He was a man full of the Holy Spirit, strong in faith, gifted in the working of miracles and brilliant in debating with the opponents of Christianity (Acts 6:1-10). Stephen saw that Christianity was not simply a remodelled Judaism. The result, however, was that Christianity spread throughout the region, as the expelled Christians preached the gospel wherever they went (Acts 8:4; Acts 11:19)
Apostasy - The first was that of those who relapsed from Christianity into Judaism; the second, that of those who blended Judaism and Christianity together; and the third was that of those who, after having been Christians, voluntarily relapsed into Paganism
Mustard - ...
As the parable indicates, Christendom presents a sort of Christianity that has become conformed to the principles and ways of the world, and the world has favored this debased Christianity
Christianity - CHRISTIANITY is the name given to the religion founded by Jesus of Nazareth, which is professed by more than one-fourth of the human race, including the foremost nations of the world. ...
It is not the object of this article to sketch in outline the history of Christianity, to rehearse its doctrines, describe its triumphs, or vindicate its claims. But in a Dictionary of this kind it seems desirable to inquire into (1) the history of the name itself; (2) the proper connotation of the name and the best mode of ascertaining it; hence (3) the significance of the changes which have passed over Christianity in the process of its development; and (4) the essential character of the religion named after Christ and portrayed in the Gospels. A definition should be simple, comprehensive, accurate; whereas Christianity is a complex multiform phenomenon, one which it is impossible to survey from all sides at the same time, and accuracy cannot be attained when a word is employed in many different senses, and when that which is to be defined is regarded from so many subjective, diversified, and sometimes incompatible points of view. To the Roman Catholic—who represents the most widely spread and influential of the sections of modern Christianity—its essence consists in submission to the authority of a supernaturally endowed Church, to which, with the Pope at its head, the power has been committed by Christ of infallibly determining the Christian creed, and of finally directing Christian life and worship in all its details. He may be of the ‘evangelical’ type, in which case he will probably define Christianity as the religion of those who have accepted the authority of an inspired and infallible Bible, and who trust for salvation to the merits of the death of Christ as their atoning Saviour. If he claims to be a ‘liberal’ Protestant, he will describe Christianity as a life, not a creed, and declare that all attempts to define belief concerning the Person of Christ and other details of Christian doctrine are so many mischievous restrictions, which only fetter the free thought and action of the truly emancipated followers of Jesus. ...
Under such circumstances, can any considerable measure of agreement as to the real essence of Christianity be reached, or a truly scientific definition be attained? The acceptance of the supernatural authority of a single community would put an end to all discussion, but those who appeal to such authority are not agreed amongst themselves. The historian can only recount with as much impartiality as possible the sequence of events in a long and chequered career, and leave the warring sects and parties to settle their differences as to what true Christianity is, without making any attempt to judge between them. Christianity is an organism possessing a long and complex history, not yet finished. On the one hand, the growth of Christianity is not yet complete, the great consummation is as yet invisible. But, on the other hand, criticism must not be merely subjective and arbitrary, else religious truth is simply that which every man troweth, and Christianity nothing more than what individual Christians choose to think it. By a candid and careful comparison of the religion in its simplicity and purity with the various forms it has assumed in the course of centuries amongst various nations and races, an answer may be obtained to the question, What is Christianity? which is neither purely dogmatic on the one hand, nor purely empirical on the other. Hort said of the Church, ‘The lesson-book of the Ecclesia is not a law-book but a history,’ so the history of Christianity becomes a lesson-book for all who would understand its real essence. As the name ‘Christian’ was not given till those outside the pale of the Church found it necessary to differentiate the believer in Christ from the adherent of other religions, so the need of a scientific definition of Christianity was never felt by faith, nor could one be formed, till the standpoint was occupied from which the young science of Comparative Religion has taken its rise. Changes in Christianity in the course of its development. ...
The question now arises, whether the normative period of the religion ends with the death of Christ, May it be said that when His life is over, the work of the prophet of Nazareth is complete, His words have all been spoken, His religion propounded—it remains that His followers obey His teaching? This position has often been taken, and is usually adopted by those who reject the supernatural element in Christianity. ’ But he elsewhere rightly admits that ‘a complete answer to the question, What is Christianity? is impossible so long as we are restricted to Jesus Christ’s teaching alone. Hence the Church with a true instinct included the Acts and the Epistles in the Canon, as well as the Gospels, and to the whole of these documents we must turn if we would understand what ‘Christianity’ meant to the Apostles and the first generation or two of those who followed Christ. The first great crisis which tested the infant Church arose over the question whether Christianity was to be a reformed and spiritualized Judaism or a universal religion, for the whole world and for all time. Paul’s letters, was fundamental and vital; the very existence of Christianity was at stake. In Christianity such processes of development were proceeding, gradually but on the whole rapidly, during the latter half of the 2nd and the opening of the 3rd century. ...
If at this stage the question, What is Christianity? were asked, a twofold answer would be returned. So far as external position and status are concerned, the test of a man’s Christianity lies in his association with a definitely constituted community known as the Church, possessing an organization of its own, which, with every decade, becomes more fixed and formal, less elastic in its constitution, and more exacting in its demands upon those who claim to be regarded as true Christians. ...
Whatever be thought of the way in which this all-important change was effected in the first instance,—that is to say, the transition from Christianity viewed as a life to Christianity viewed as a system of dogmatic belief and ecclesiastical organization,—few will deny that before long the alteration was so great that it may be said the religion itself was transformed. But the external factors which largely influenced the development of Christianity—Jewish beliefs and precedents, Greek philosophy and intellectual habitudes, Roman polity and law, the superstitious ideas and observances of paganism—must be taken into account by those who are studying the nature of the change which came over Christianity in the first thousand years of its history. But, consciously or unconsciously, the movement of which he was partly the originator, partly the organ and servant, meant a resolute effort to return to the faith and spirit of primitive Christianity. But the whole Reformation movement showed that Christianity as a religion possessed remarkable recuperative power; that the organism could throw off a considerable portion of what seemed its very substance, not only without injury to its life, but with marvellous increase to its vigour; and that the essence of the religion did not lie where the Roman Catholic Church had sought to place it. The Christianity of to-day embraces a multitude of systems and organizations, it includes most varied creeds and cults, it influences societies and civilizations that are worlds apart, and the question is perpetually recurring whether there be indeed one spirit and aim pervading the whole, and if so, where it lies and what it is. Christianity cannot be identified with one Church, or with all the Churches. The problems of the present and the near future are mainly social, and the complaint is freely made that Christianity has proved itself unable to cope with them. The assailants of Christianity as it is are often the allies of Christianity as it should be and will be. But the present state of Christendom, no less than a survey of two thousand years of history, is anew compelling men to inquire, What, then, is the essence of Christianity?...
iv. Essential character of Christianity. Christianity in the concrete has been far from perfect, that is obvious; its serious and widespread corruptions have often proved a scandal and a stumbling-block. It was not developed out of Judaism, the Jews were its bitterest opponents; it was not indebted to Greek philosophic thought or to Roman political science, though afterwards it made use of and powerfully influenced both; it had nothing in common with the current superstitions of Oriental religions; it did not owe its origin to some cunningly devised religious syncretism, such as was not uncommon at the time when Christianity began to infuse life into the declining Roman Empire. )—...
‘It was reserved for Christianity to present to the world an ideal character, which through all the changes of eighteen centuries has inspired the hearts of men with an impassioned love; has shown itself capable of acting on all ages, nations, temperaments, and conditions; has been not only the highest pattern of virtue but the strongest incentive to its practice; and has exercised so deep an influence that it may be truly said that the simple record of three short years of active life has done more to regenerate and to soften mankind than all the disquisitions of philosophers, and all the exhortations of moralists. ...
In what, then, lies the perennial and imperishable essence of the ever changing phenomenon called Christianity? The unknown writer of the Epistle to Diognetus wrote in the 2nd century—...
‘What the soul is in the body, this the Christians are in the world. ’...
If for ‘Christians’ we read ‘Christianity,’ where is the soul, or vital spark, of the religion to be found? Nearly all are agreed that the centre of the Christian religion is, in some sense, the Person of its Founder. De Pressense closes an article on the subject by saying, ‘Christianity is Jesus Christ. But neither does He stand related to Christianity as do Buddha and Mohammed to the religions named after them
Hairshirt - In use from the early ages of Christianity, even among lay people, it was adopted by many religious orders in the Middle Ages and worn by penitents on Ash Wednesday
Hay - Many of these activities in the name of Christianity will not stand the test of GOD's judgment, but will be destroyed in the day when GOD judges the secrets of men by JESUS CHRIST
Purification - In Christianity the purification required extends to the heart, Acts 15:9 ; James 4:8 ; the soul , 1 Peter 1:22 ; and the conscience through the blood of Christ
Alexander Severus - Severns respected Christianity and granted tolerance though there was some anti-Christian legislation in his reign
Severus, Alexander - Severns respected Christianity and granted tolerance though there was some anti-Christian legislation in his reign
Balmes, Jaime Luciano - Protestantism Compared with Catholicism in Their Relations with European Civilization (1844), a reply to Guizot's History of Civilization in Europe, is a philosophy of Christianity, with a critical analysis of the basic principles and influence of the two systems of religion
Gibraltar - Christianity was introduced during the Roman domination
Eras'Tus - (2 Timothy 4:20 ) ...
Erastus the chamberlain, or rather the public treasurer, of Corinth, who was one of the early converts to Christianity
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - Of the personal history of this, the first great polemical adversary of Christianity, we know nothing with certainty; and even Origen, from whom the whole of our knowledge of Celsus is derived, had received the work of Celsus, entitled ἀληθὴς λόγος , or the True Discourse, without any hint of the history or date of its author. ...
But questions far more interesting than personal ones are raised by his attack on Christianity, of which enough has been preserved by Origen in his contra Celsum to convey to us a very tolerable idea of its nature. Baur says that "in acuteness, in dialectical aptitude, in many-sided cultivation, at once philosophic and general, Celsus stands behind no opponent of Christianity. As an opponent of Christianity, the chief characteristic of Celsus is a strong, narrow, intolerant common sense. To him Christianity is an "exitiabilis superstitio"; he gives credence to every story against it on which he can lay his hands; he dwells with coarse jocularity on the Jewish tradition of Panthera and the Virgin Mary (i. He has no idea of regarding Christianity from the inside, and of inquiring into the reason of its influence; he uses jest for argument, and interprets everything in a bad sense. He challenges the evidence of Christianity, and asks, "Who saw the dove lighting on the head of Jesus after His baptism?" As to the Resurrection, he makes the remark which has been copied by Renan and others, that it was Mary Magdalene, "a fanatical woman," who was the first witness of the resurrection, according to all the accounts (ii. But the most remarkable portions of his attack are those directed against the general character of Christianity. Finally, he maintains that no revelation of the Supreme Being can be made; but that, if it could be made, it must be of universal and compelling efficacy; that, however, all that is possible is revelation by an angel or demon, and even that he denies to Judaism or Christianity. He begins with a dialogue between a Jew and a Christian, in which the Jew sets forth his objections to Christianity
Indians, Lillooet - The beginning of Christianity and civilization among them dates from 1837, when Fathers Norbert Blanchet and Modeste Demers came among them
Lillooet Indians - The beginning of Christianity and civilization among them dates from 1837, when Fathers Norbert Blanchet and Modeste Demers came among them
Moor, Benedict the, Saint - His parents were Ethiopian slaves, converted to Christianity
Ladislaus, Saint - He enlarged his kingdom by the conquest of Croatia and Dalmatia and expelled the Huns, Poles, Tatars, and Russians, making Christianity the national religion
Cappadocia - Christianity was preached by Saint Andrew, and, in the 4th century, by three Fathers of the Church, Saint Basil the Great, Saint Gregory of Nazianzus, and Saint Gregory of Nyssa
Gnosimachi - the studied knowledge or science of Christianity, which they rested wholly on good works; calling it a useless labour to seek for knowledge in the Scripture
Benedict of San Philadelphio, Saint - His parents were Ethiopian slaves, converted to Christianity
Benedict the Moor, Saint - His parents were Ethiopian slaves, converted to Christianity
Gnosticism - Gnostics were people who claimed to know mysteries of the universe; various pantheistic sects, antedating the Christian era and lasting to the 5th century and borrowing the formulas of various religious, particularly of Christianity, to express their view of matter as inimical to spirit, and of the universe as a depravation of the Deity
Anastasius, Saint - A Persian magician and a soldier in the army of Khusrau, he was converted to Christianity when that monarch carried the Holy Cross from Jerusalem to Persia
Spain - As to the early introduction of Christianity, compare Irenaeus 1:3 and Tertullian, Adv
Eustace, Saint - A Roman general under Trajan, Eustachius embraced Christianity after an apparition of Christ between the antlers of a deer was revealed to him one day while hunting
Eustachius, Saint - A Roman general under Trajan, Eustachius embraced Christianity after an apparition of Christ between the antlers of a deer was revealed to him one day while hunting
San Philadelphio, Benedict of, Saint - His parents were Ethiopian slaves, converted to Christianity
Religion, Comparative - The effort of many students of this science to prove that Christianity is merely an evolution of the religions of primitive races and of paganism has proved futile chiefly through the studies of Catholic experts in ethnology, and the labors of Catholic missionaries among primitive peoples, notably the members of the Society of the Divine Word
Gamaliel - His counsel as to the apostles was not from any leaning to Christianity, but from opposition to Sadduceeism in a case where the resurrection was the point at issue, and from seeing the folly of unreasoning bigotry (Acts 23:6-9). Saul his pupil was a leading persecutor when Stephen opposed Pharisaism; and probably Gamaliel would not altogether disapprove of his zeal in such a cause, though his own tendency was to leave the claims of Christianity to be tested by time
Clemens, Flavius, First Cousin of Domitian - 95, and had only just resigned the office when he and his wife Domitilla were suddenly arrested and convicted on the charge of "atheism," by which there is no reasonable doubt that Christianity is intended. The crime on which they were condemned was, according to Dio Cassius, that of "Judaizing," from which in the popular mind Christianity was hardly distinguishable
Shadow - Christianity embodies the Divine reality, whereas Mosaism was only a ‘shadow’ cast temporarily into human history by the ‘body,’ the eternal fact of the heavenly Christ yet to be revealed. The interpretation of Calvin, that ‘shadow’ means the sketch of which Christianity is the finished picture, is unlikely when the occurrence and significance of the term in Hebrews are taken into consideration. Judaism is the ‘shadow,’ Christianity is the ‘very image’ of the good things. The writer of Hebrews, who shows many signs of Alexandrian influence, uses throughout his Epistle this Philonic form of thought to show the superiority of Christianity over Judaism. Judaism is but a ‘shadow,’ Christianity is the very ‘image’ embodying and expressing God’s eternal purpose concerning mankind
Philosophy - But, as Christianity claims the whole realm of human thought and life as its sphere, it could not be indifferent to so important a subject. Moreover, as Hatch points out, the majority of those to whom Christianity was preached were not concerned with philosophy, and the former appealed to a standard which the latter did not recognize (Influence of Greek Ideas, p. Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity, Eng. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894; A. McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age
Learning - An attentive examination of ecclesiastical history will lead us to see how greatly learning is indebted to Christianity, and that Christianity, in its turn, has been much served by learning. But, whatever was good in the Mahometan religion, it is in no small measure indebted to Christianity for it, since Mahometanism is made up for the most part of Judaism and Christianity. If Christianity had been suppressed at its first appearance, it is extremely probable that the Latin and Greek tongues would have been lost in the revolution of empires, and the irruptions of barbarians in the east and in the west; for the old inhabitants would have had no conscientious and religious motives to keep up their language; and then, together with the Latin and Greek tongues, the knowledge of antiquities and the ancient writers would have been destroyed. The useful expositions of the Scriptures, the sober and sensible defences of revelation, the faithful representations of pure and undefiled Christianity; these have been the works of learned, judicious, and industrious men
Lucian - The hostile sentiments of the Heathens toward Christianity, says. There entered then upon the contest two classes of men, who have never since ceased to persecute Christianity. To him Christianity, like every other remarkable religious phenomenon, appeared only as a fit object for his sarcastic wit. Without giving himself the trouble to examine and to discriminate, he threw Christianity, superstition, and fanaticism, into the same class. He, therefore, who looked on Christianity with cold indifference, and the profane every-day feelings of worldly prudence, might easily here and there find objects for his satire. And yet even in that at which he scoffed, there was much which might have taught him to remark in Christianity no common power over the hearts of men, had he been capable of such serious impressions
Frumentius, Saint - They gained the favor of the king and propagated Christianity throughout the kingdom
Fouard, Constant - As professor of Holy Scripture at Rouen (1876), and member of the Biblical Commission (1903), he continued his study of sacred sciences and in 1880 began to publish "Les Origines de PEglise," a scholarly work written as an answer to Renan, which contains several books on the Life of Christ, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, and Saint John, presenting a faithful picture of early Christianity
Oswald of Northumbria, Saint - He built up a great kingdom, and with the aid of Saint Aidan introduced Christianity, founding many churches and monasteries
Palestine - The history of Christianity in Palestine during the ftrst three centuries is practically that of Jerusalem; the new religion spread rapidly and as early as 1229 Franciscan and Dominican missions were established here
Pantaleon, Saint - Martyr; one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers; died c305 According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, but was instructed in Christianity by his mother; he studied medicine and became court physician to Emperor Maximianus; he was denounced to the emperor as a Christian by envious colleagues, but resisted firmly the temptations offered him to apostatize, was condemned to death, subjected to atrocious tortures from which he remained miraculously immune, and was finally decapitated
Spain - The early introduction of Christianity into that country is attested by Irenaeus and Tertullian
Humanity - 1:; Robinson's Sermons on Christianity a System of Humanity; Pratt's Poem on Humanity
Nicholas i, Pope, Saint - Elected after the disintegration of the empire of Charlemagne, he found Christianity threatened by laxity in the observance of moral and civillaw
Pontus - Christianity spread to Pontus early
Northumbria, Oswald of, Saint - He built up a great kingdom, and with the aid of Saint Aidan introduced Christianity, founding many churches and monasteries
Lydda - Christianity became a strong influence in Lydda by the second century
Heresy - ) An offense against Christianity, consisting in a denial of some essential doctrine, which denial is publicly avowed, and obstinately maintained
Ernakulam-Angamaly, India, Archdiocese of - Saint Thomas the Apostle brought Christianity to the people of Malabar in the 1century
Ashdod, Azoth - It lies upon the Mediterranean Sea, about nine or ten miles north of Gaza; and in the times when Christianity flourished in these parts was made an episcopal see, and continued a fair village till the days of St
Helena, Saint - She was converted to Christianity by her son after his victory over Maxentius, and thenceforth lavished her wealth and influence on behalf of the faith
Remigius, Saint - He studied literature at Rheims, and while still a layman was elected Bishop of Rheims in 459, and made his chief aim the propagation of Christianity among the Franks
Hierapolis - Paul, but derived its Christianity from his influence (cf. The fight between native superstition and the enlightenment brought by Christianity must have been very bitter
Worship of God - The very name church, meaning assembly, implies it; and the preaching of the gospel, the great means for promoting Christianity, requires it. The directions of Paul, not to forsake the "assembling of ourselves together," to read his epistles "in all the churches," and to join in "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs," and his rules for securing the highest spiritual edification of all when they came together in the church, all indicate the established law of Christianity
Philosopher, Philosophy - It has an entirely different source, and works in the natural mind of man, which should not have any place in Christianity. ...
The philosophy of modern days has the same source, the mind of man, though it acts differently in respect to Christianity. For instance, with some, Christianity is regarded as emanating from man, and so is compared with Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, all of which are said to be branches of the same religion of man; though Christianity is judged to be the best, none are to be condemned; there is truth in them all! Others sit in judgement on the word of God, and profess to be able to cut out many parts as not being written by the professed writers, and having no claim, ought not to form a part of scripture
Mithraism - To the casual observer a superficial similarity exists between Mithraism and Christianity. Moreover, Christianity is for all people, while Mithraism excluded women, sought to attract men, particularly those in military life, and was perishable. It allowed its members to profess other religions, while Christianity is enduring, unique and sufficient for its adherents
Salamis - Christianity was early preached there ( Acts 11:19-20 ), and among early converts were Mnason ( Acts 21:16 ) and Barnabas ( Acts 4:36 )
Funeral Rites - These rites, as archreology proves, substantially date back to the first centuries of Christianity
Laodicea - At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity (Colossians 2:1 ; 4:15 ; Revelation 1:11 , etc
Examination For Holy Orders - The Evidences of Christianity, Christian Ethics and DogmaticTheology
Illuminator, Gregory the - On returning he made use of the national language in preaching and in the Liturgy; Christianity was made the official faith, and was soon embraced by the populace, so that Armenia became the first Christian state
Myra - A large Byzantine church in the gorge leading to the mountains testifies of the Christianity probably first introduced by Paul
Gregory the Illuminator, Saint - On returning he made use of the national language in preaching and in the Liturgy; Christianity was made the official faith, and was soon embraced by the populace, so that Armenia became the first Christian state
Antioch, Syria - Here Christianity received its name (Acts 11)
Baptism - In Christianity it is the believer's identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection (Romans 6:4-23)
Apathy - Clemens Alexandrinus, in particular, brought it exceedingly in vogue, thinking hereby to draw such philosophers to Christianity who aspired after such a sublime pitch of virtue
Rites, Funeral - These rites, as archreology proves, substantially date back to the first centuries of Christianity
Indifference - Indifferentism may deny that man need be concerned about religion at all of any kind, and then it is absolute, or it may hold that all religions are equally good, or, again, that any form of Christianity is as true and good as another. So far as Christianity is concerned, it is plain that if God revealed truths and moral principles to men they cannot depend on human whim or choice, but must be one and the same always and everywhere, as made known by the Church which He constituted to preserve them and make them known
Indifferentism - Indifferentism may deny that man need be concerned about religion at all of any kind, and then it is absolute, or it may hold that all religions are equally good, or, again, that any form of Christianity is as true and good as another. So far as Christianity is concerned, it is plain that if God revealed truths and moral principles to men they cannot depend on human whim or choice, but must be one and the same always and everywhere, as made known by the Church which He constituted to preserve them and make them known
Ancyra, Seven Martyrs of - When the persecution was determined upon, Theotecnus, a magician, a philosopher and pervert from Christianity, was dispatched as governor to Galatia to root out Christianity
Sabbatarians - They object to the reasons which are generally alleged for keeping the first day; and assert, that the change from the seventh to the first was affected by Constantine on his conversion to Christianity. They hold, in common with other Christians, the distinguishing doctrines of Christianity
Lydia - She thus became the first in Europe who embraced Christianity
Basilica - ) A church building of the earlier centuries of Christianity, the plan of which was taken from the basilica of the Romans
Monotheism - First and foremost in this system comes Christian Monotheism which began with the establishment of Christianity by Jesus Christ
Sergius Paulus - He became a convert to Christianity under Paul, who visited this island on his first mission to the heathen
Libertines - Humphrey conjectures that, having made their way to Jerusalem, they naturally were Stepben's bitterest opponents as having suffered so much for that religion which Christianity was supplanting
Holy Alliance - The revival of religious feeling induced him to allow the words "proper application of the principles of Christianity to politics
Christian - To learn what Christianity is according to God, we must turn, not to the great professing body, but to the scriptures, which testify clearly of the declension which was even then begun
Barnabas, Saint - 1AD; died probably there, c60 Of Jewish parents he was converted to Christianity shortly after Pentecost, 29
Evolution - ...
Though you might not expect to find the subject of evolution in a dictionary of theology, it is appropriate since it poses a challenge to Christianity by displacing the Genesis account of special creation
Apologetics - In short, it deals with giving reasons for Christianity being the true religion
Alliance, Holy - The revival of religious feeling induced him to allow the words "proper application of the principles of Christianity to politics
Charity - In the popular sense, charity is almsgiving; a duty of practical Christianity which is solemnly enjoined, and to which special promises are annexed
Saint Patrick's Breastplate - It was written in preparation for the saint's appearance at Tara before the assembled chieftains of Ireland on Easter Sunday, 433, when the final blow was given to Druidism, and the triumph of Christianity completed
Saint Lucia - Christianity was introduced into Saint Lucia by the Spanish discoverers, and the first preachers of the Faith were the Dominicans who labored here until the British occupation, when the secular clergy were placed in charge
Cappadocia - Christianity was early introduced there, 1 Peter 1:1 , among a people proverbial for dullness, faithlessness, and vice
Galatia - It was also the seat of colonies from various nations, among whom were many Jews; and from all of these Paul appears to have made many converts to Christianity, 1 Corinthians 16:1 . Four or five years afterwards Jewish teachers, professing Christianity, came among them; they denied Paul's apostolic authority, exalted the works of the law, and perverted the true gospel by intermixing with it the rites of Judaism. He indignantly rebukes his children in Christ for their sudden alienation from him and from the truth; vindicates his authority and his teachings as an apostle, by showing that he received them from Christ himself; and forcibly presents the great doctrine of Christianity, justification by faith, with its relations to the law on the one hand, and to holy living on the other
Originality - In some of the cases we have to consider, it is the question of the originality not so much of Christ as of Christianity that is involved, as the Person of Christ is either left out of account as a pure piece of fiction, or reduced to such mean proportions as rob it of all historical significance. Christianity and Graeco-Roman thought. —Occasional attempts have been made to trace the indebtedness of Christianity to Greek and Graeco-Roman thought. We do not refer here to the endeavours of such men as Hatch and Harnack to prove the influence of Greek philosophy on the development of Christian doctrine, but to the much more revolutionary tendency of such writers as Bruno Bauer and Ernest Havet, who have sought to account not only for the development of Christian doctrine, but for the origin of Christianity itself, upon such lines. 1879), Bauer seriously undertakes to prove that Christianity is not Jewish in its origin, but is really the product of Graeco-Roman thought. ...
Another factor to which Bauer attaches importance in accounting for the origin of Christianity, is the influence of the political conditions of the time. ...
Such are the lines on which Bauer seeks to ascribe the origin of Christianity to Graeco-Roman influence. If their very wildness calls for no serious refutation, it at any rate serves to demonstrate the impracticability of the attempt to assign a Hellenic origin to Christianity. ...
There are, Havet thinks, three elements to be taken into account in considering the origin of Christianity, the Hellenic, the Jewish, represented by the Prophets and the Psalms, and a third which he calls the Galilaean, by which he means the sentiments and ideas which developed at first among the turbulent population of Galilee under the misery of the Roman dominion, and then raised up Jesus, and determined His action and destiny, and which gradually spread throughout the great cities of the Roman Empire. He admits that Christianity is not to be found ‘tout entier’ in Hellenism, but insists, on the other hand, that however large may be the share of Galilaean Judaism in the Christian revolution, far more considerable is that of Hellenism in Christianity once It was established. On the appearance of Christianity it was not the faith and wisdom of Hellenism that were absorbed into Judaism, but Judaism that was absorbed into the common beliefs of the human race. In summarizing his conclusions, he paints a picture of the heathen world designed to show how nearly it approached to Christianity in its beliefs and hopes. Their moral code breathed the same spirit of self-denial as Christianity inculcated; taught men to despise riches, honours, pleasures, yea, happiness itself; inspired an abborrence of sin, a consciousness of our moral infirmity, and a passionate longing for salvation; inculcated chastity, alms, charity, a horror of war, submission to authority. How is it possible, asks Havet, with such a picture before us, to speak of Christianity as renewing the face of the earth, or to hail its advent as something entirely new and unexpected? He believes that the heathen world, if left to itself, would not have remained heathen, that its mythology and superstition would gradually have vanished, and that the feeling of human fraternity and the need of equality and justice would have developed more and more and passed into its manners and laws. ...
While Havet recognizes that Judaism thus played a considerable part in the origin of Christianity, he assigns but little importance to the Person of Christ Himself in the movement which bore His name. At the moment of His death, that which we call Christianity had no existence. ...
Such is Havet’s account of the origin of Christianity. Although his theories are not so extreme as those of Bauer, his attempt to assign Hellenic culture as the main source from which Christianity has sprung serves, equally with Bauer’s, to illustrate to what desperate expedients such a theory is reduced in order to give itself even some measure of plausibility. Both essays result in the attempt to explain Christianity without the Person of Christ; for though Havet does not, like Bauer, deny the existence of Christ altogether, there are few Christians who will recognize, in the Jewish fanatic whom he presents to us, the Saviour whom they worship. As contributions to the study of the early history of the Christian Church and the development of Christian doctrine, their works may prove of value; but as accounts of the origin of Christianity itself, we cannot assign to them any worth (Harnack, Hist. Christianity and Buddhism. —From the side of Buddhism, also, attacks have been made on the originality of Christianity. The verdict in favour of Buddhism in this third group of parallels strengthens the probability that in the second group also it is Christianity that is the debtor. He merely invents this fictitious Gospel to supply the lack of historical connexion between Buddhism and Christianity, the want of which is one of the strongest objections to his theory. 3), that the Buddhist literature which is drawn upon to supply these parallels to Christianity is so extensive, so infinitely rich in legendary lore, that the wonder would rather be if we did not find occasional points of resemblance between the Buddhist narratives and those parts of the NT which deal with a similar sphere of life. Finally, while we must admit in the abstract the possibility of Buddhist influence upon Western culture, the fact remains that we have no historical evidence of the spread of Buddhist ideas to the regions in which Christianity had its origin till a much later time. 279):...
‘That there are startling coincidences between Buddhism and Christianity cannot be denied, and it must likewise be admitted that Buddhism existed at least 400 years before Christianity. I go even further, and should feel extremely grateful if anybody would point out to me the historical channels through which Buddhism had influenced early Christianity. If I do find, in certain Buddhist works, doctrines identically the same as in Christianity, so far from being frightened, I feel delighted, for surely truth is not the less true because it is believed by the majority of the human race. Christianity and Judaism. —When we come to consider the relation of Christianity to Judaism, we feel that the case is very different from what it was in the above instances. There the possibility of contact between Christianity and those influences to which its indebtedness was alleged was remote. The roots of Christianity go deep down into Jewish soil
Barsumas, Nestorian Bishop of Nisibis - Pherozes admitted the force of this argument, and Nestorianism became the only form of Christianity tolerated in Persia. Missionaries went out from it in great multitudes, and Nestorianism became the recognized form of Christianity in Eastern Asia
Bavaria - Christianity was probably introduced into Bavaria in Roman times but it was not until after the barbarian invasions in the 5th century that the evangelization of the country progressed. The last of these, Tassilo III, who contributed much to the spread of Christianity and civilization in Europe, was deposed by Charlemagne
Apostasy - The same word is used in 2 Thessalonians 2:3 , where it is taught that the day of the Lord could not come until there came 'the apostasy,' or the falling from Christianity in connection with the manifestation of the man of sin. It is not a Christian falling into some sin, from which grace can recover him; but a definite relinquishing of Christianity
Deists - A class of people whose distinguishing character it is, not to profess any particular form or system of religion; but only to acknowledge the existence of a God, and to follow the light and law of Nature, rejecting revelation and opposing Christianity. The name of deists seems to have been first assumed, as the denomination of a party, about the middle of the 16th century, by some gentlemen in France and Italy, who were desirous of thus disguising their opposition to Christianity by a more honourable appellation than that of atheists. Those who believe the existence, perfections, and providence of God, the obligations of natural religion, and a state of future retribution, on the evidence of the light of Nature, without a divine revelation; such as these, he says, are the only true deists: but their principles, he apprehends, should lead them to embrace Christianity; and therefore he concludes that there is now no consistent scheme of deism in the world. ...
"But, " as one observes, "the friends of Christianity have no reason to regret the free and unreserved discussion which their religion has undergone. Objections have been stated and urged in their full force, and as fully answered; arguments and raillery have been repelled: and the controversy between Christians and deists has called forth a great number of excellent writers, who have illustrated both the doctrines and evidences of Christianity in a manner that will ever reflect honour on their names, and be of lasting service to the cause of genuine religion, and the best interests of mankind. " ...
See articles Christianity, INFIDELITY, INSPIRATION, and SCRIPTURE, in this work. Leland's View of Deistical Writers; Sermons at Boyle's Lecture; Halyburton's Natural Religion insufficient; Leslie's Short Method with the Deists; Bishop Watson's Apology for the Bible; Fuller's Gospel of Christ its own Witness; Bishop Porteus's Charge to the Clergy, for 1794; and his summary of the Evidences of Christianity
Demonology - Though prevalent practises surrounding both early and later Christianity were effectively restricted, popular superstition and activity continued
Iona - It soon became one of the most important centers of Celtic Christianity and culture; it is thought that the Book of Kells was written there
Influence of the Church on Civil Law - Since Christianity is an ethical religion it must influence the rules of human conduct
Law, Influence of the Church on Civil Law - Since Christianity is an ethical religion it must influence the rules of human conduct
Easter - From this Pasch the pagan festival of "Easter" was quite distinct and was introduced into the apostate Western religion, as part of the attempt to adapt pagan festivals to Christianity
Professor - A term commonly used in the religious world, to denote any person who makes an open acknowledgment of the religion of Christ, or who outwardly manifests his attachment to Christianity
Agnosticism - " The intention of the council was to reassert the historic claim of Christianity to be in accord with reason and to condemn the theory that all knowledge of God is derived from a primitive revelation
Ethiopia - A eunuch, minister of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia, was converted to Christianity by the deacon Philip (Acts 8)
Cyrene - Among the most inveterate enemies of Christianity, Luke reckons those of this province, who had a synagogue at Jerusalem, and excited the people against St
el Salvador - Christianity was introduced into this region in the 16th century by missionaries who accompanied the Spanish explorers and conquerors
Holy Angels - " It has always been a tradition of Christianity that "angelsattend at the ministration of Holy Baptism and at the celebration ofthe Holy Communion; and that as Lazarus was the object of theirtender care, so in sickness and death they are about the bed of thefaithful and carry their souls to the Presence of Christ inParadise
Netherlands - Christianity was preached in this region as early as the 7th eentury, especially by Saint Willibrord and eleven companions, who came from the British Isles; in 695 the saint was consecrated Bishop of the Friesians. Churches and schools were built, and the region became a center of Christianity for that part of Europe
Doctrine - ...
Doctrine is indispensable to Christianity. Christianity does not exist without it. Machen, Christianity and Liberalism ; D
Jugoslavia - ...
As early as the 1century Christianity was preached in parts of the country. From the 7th century the immigrant Croats and Setbs began to adopt Christianity; in the 9th century especially there was a missionary movement which reestablished the Church over the large region which included Yugoslavia and neighboring states. It was mainly Latin Christianity, with western civilization, which was adopted by the Croats and Serbs, to whom missionaries from Rome were sent by two 7th-century popes. At this time, in Croatia alone, there were 3 archdioceses and 17 dioceses with an average of over 400 parishes in each; but from then on Christianity was seriously endangered by invasions of Turks
Ethiopian Eunuch - According to Acts 8:27 , an Ethiopian eunuch, minister of Candace , queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, was met shortly after the martyrdom of Stephen by the deacon Philip when returning from a religious journey to Jerusalem, and converted to Christianity
Council of Jerusalem - The purpose of the council was to determine the terms on which Gentile converts to Christianity would be received into the church
Humility - It is a "great paradox in Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory
Ignatius of Antioch, Saint - Trajan sent him in chains to Rome; during this last journey he was welcomed by the faithful of Smyrna, Troas, and other places along the way; he addressed epistles, of supreme interest and value, to various congregations, for, as a disciple of the Apostles, Ignatius testifies to the dogmatic character of Apostolic Christianity
Michael - " So again in Revelation 12:5; Revelation 12:7; Revelation 12:9, the symbolic scenery which represents the malignity of Satan towards the "man-child "= Christianity—the child of Judaism, caught up to the throne of God, i
Bithynia - Paul and Silas were prevented by the Spirit from preaching in Bithynia ( Acts 16:7 ), and the beginnings of Christianity there are unknown
Antioch, Ignatius of, Saint - Trajan sent him in chains to Rome; during this last journey he was welcomed by the faithful of Smyrna, Troas, and other places along the way; he addressed epistles, of supreme interest and value, to various congregations, for, as a disciple of the Apostles, Ignatius testifies to the dogmatic character of Apostolic Christianity
Barbara, Saint - When she professed Christianity, she was cruelly tortured, condemned to death, and was beheaded by her father
Forgiveness - No book of religion except Christianity teaches that God completely forgives sins
Acts of the Apostles - As an eyewitness, he wrote an authentic account of the origins of Christianity
Aeneas - The cure seems to have had a very remarkable influence in the district, causing many of the dwellers in Sharon and Lydda to accept Christianity
Candace - That the queen mentioned in the Acts was converted by the instrumentality of her servant, and that the country thus received Christianity at that early period, are statements not supported by any good testimony
Pagan - This word was originally applied to the inhabitants of the country, who on the first propagation of the christian religion adhered to the worship of false gods, or refused to receive Christianity, after it had been received by the inhabitants of the cities
Paphos - Paul encountered the Roman proconsul Sergius Paulus in his first missionary journey the first presentation of Christianity before Roman authorities ( Acts 13:6-12 )
Scripture, Liberty in - Christianity brought freedom ("ascending on high, he led captivity captive
Paula, Daughter of Toxotius - Laeta embraced Christianity and wrote to consult Jerome as to Paula's education, who replied in Ep
Mithra - ...
A rival to Christianity Of all the mystery religions, Mithraism became the strongest rival to Christianity. Its rivalry with Christianity may be explained by common external features
Woman - Apostolic Christianity need not fear this test. In fact, the exaltation of womanhood is justly claimed as one of the best examples of what Christianity has done for the world. Doubtless this feature of its influence has often been exaggerated, either by painting too darkly the vices of paganism or by neglecting the actual Limitations of historical Christianity. Donaldson (one of the editors of the Ante-Nicene Christian Library) indeed went so far as to say that ‘in the first three centuries I have not been able to see that Christianity had any favourable effect on the position of women, but, on the contrary, that it tended to lower their character and contract the range of their activity’ (CR lvi. This is an important fact to remember, for the attitude of apostolic Christianity to woman is largely due to the interaction of two distinct principles-the fundamental Christian assertion of the intrinsic worth of human personality, and the eschatological foreshortening of the time, which could not fail to hinder the social application of the former principle. To the welcome which those cults gave to woman they owed no small measure of their success; by its deeper satisfaction of woman’s needs Christianity was helped to win its victory over them. There is some measure of truth in the assertion that ‘the change from the heroic to the saintly ideal, from the ideal of Paganism to the ideal of Christianity, was a change from a type which was essentially male to one which was essentially feminine’ (Lecky, History of European Morals8, vol. A larger life of social fellowship and service was thrown open to women by apostolic Christianity. Conybeare’s Monuments of Early Christianity2, London, 1896, pp. The spread of Christianity amongst women of high rank is probably exemplified in Pomponia Graecina (Tacitus, Annals, xiii. Thus Christianity met the physical needs of a class specially likely to suffer (cf. Consequently, the family life of the Hebrew-Jewish people, in some measure, prepared for the applications of the principle of woman’s religions equality made by apostolic Christianity (cf. Christianity, in principle, if not always in practice, has lifted woman above the sexual level, at which her chief raison d’être is the gratification of man’s passions, and has joined her personality to his, as contributory to a common social life. The ideals of Christianity in the 1st cent. The limitations of apostolic Christianity in regard to women were such as were inevitable from its historical origin and eschatological outlook. its moral and religious interpretation in the Christianity of the NT. Storrs, The Divine Origin of Christianity, do. , The Mission and Expansion of Christianity2, 2 vols. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh
Denmark - Christianity is said to have been introduced by the Frisian Bishop Willibrord (died 739), and in the 9th century became well established through the efforts of Saint Anschar, a Benedictine monk of Corbie
Joseph Renan - His interest in Oriental philology and early Christianity led him to adopt the scepticism and rationalism of the Kantian philosophers, and in 1845 he left the seminary
Nicolaitans - Heretics who assumed this name from Nicholas of Antioch; who, being a Gentile by birth, first embraced Judaism and than Christianity; when his zeal and devotion recommended him to the church of Jerusalem, by whom he was chosen one of the first deacons
Cyprus - At Paphos, they found Bar-Jesus, a false prophet, with Sergius Paulus, the governor: Paul struck Bar-Jesus with blindness; and the proconsul embraced Christianity
Saint - In this acceptation it continued during the early ages of Christianity; nor was it applied to individuals declared to be saints by any other act of the church than admission to its membership, till various corruptions had depraved the primitive principles
Renan, Joseph Ernest - His interest in Oriental philology and early Christianity led him to adopt the scepticism and rationalism of the Kantian philosophers, and in 1845 he left the seminary
Apollonius of Tyana - ...
The question arises, Had Philostratus in the biography any idea of attacking Christianity by setting up a rival to Christ? Hierocles, at the end of the 3rd cent. of Avranches, and coming down through Paley to our own day, have considered Philostratus a direct though concealed antagonist of Christianity. According to this view Philostratus wrote with no strictly polemical reference to Christianity, but, in the eclectic spirit of his time, strove to accommodate Christianity to the heathen religion. We are disposed to believe, without attributing to Philostratus any formal design of opposing or assimilating Christianity, that he was strongly influenced by its ideas and history. Philosophy and magic, the search after knowledge and the search after power, were familiar to men who had never heard of Christianity; but this ideal is different from either, and from both of them united. Is it possible that the age of Caracalla and Severus, so eclectic, so traditional, so unoriginal, can of its own mere motion have gone off into this new and unheard-of line?—unheard of, that is, unless, as we must, we suppose it to have been borrowed from Christianity
Galerius, Emperor - His mother was a noted votaress of the Phrygian orgies, and plied her son continually with entreaties to demolish Christianity. The winter of 302–303 was spent by Galerius at Nicomedia, where he used every effort to compel the reluctant Diocletian to annul the legislation of GALLIENUS, to break the forty years' amity between the empire and the church, and to crush Christianity. Step by step he gained his points, until Diocletian consented to proscribe the open profession of Christianity and to take all measures to suppress it, short of bloodshed (Lact. In 304, probably during a total collapse of Diocletian's health, the so-called Fourth Edict was issued by Maximian, no doubt in conjunction with Galerius, making death the penalty of Christianity. The same year saw an order to substitute mutilation for death in cases of Christianity; as Eusebius says ( Mart. Primitive Christianity is here meant by the phrase instituta veterum, and the edicts were asserted to have had no object but to bring the Christians back to it. But Galerius was now determined, under certain unspecified conditions, to allow Christianity once more and to permit the building of churches
Gnosticism - γνῶσις, ‘knowledge’) is the name of a syncretistic religion and philosophy which flourished more or less for four centuries alongside Christianity, by which it was considerably influenced, under which it sheltered, by which at last it was overcome. What may be termed the popular view of Gnosticism has been to regard it as a growth out of Christianity, an overdone theologizing on the part of Christians, who under foreign influences simply carried to extreme lengths what had been begun by apostles. Gnosticism and Christianity are two movements originally quite independent, so much so that it would scarcely be an exaggeration to say that, had there been no Christianity, there could still have been Gnosticism, in all essentials the Gnosticism we know. -Gnosticism in union with Christianity identified its Saviour, of course, with Jesus. Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity, Eng. translation , London, 1903-04; Schaff, Church History, ‘Ante-Nicene Christianity’). errorists within the Church who gradually diverged from normal Christianity, under an impulse to make a philosophy of their religion. The result of the two-fold investigation has been to show that Gnosticism is far more closely in affinity with Eastern thought than had been imagined, not only in its deviations from Christianity, but as a whole. But from those three sources, apart altogether from Christianity, Gnosticism in all essentials may be derived. And all three were in active interaction before the appearance of Christianity. Connexion with Christianity. -How is this connexion to be conceived or explained? What did Gnosticism owe to Christianity? Before Christianity we picture Gnosticism as vague, fluid, unstable. When Christianity was thrown into the mass of floating opinions in the ancient world, it afforded the vague Gnostic movements a point round which they could crystallize and attain a measure of permanence and definiteness, so that out of more or less loose speculations systems could be built. Men imbued with Gnostic views (the loose elements of the system described) would easily find points of resemblance between themselves and Christianity. In our view Gnosticism had already a considerable history, and had attained a considerable development as a system, before Christianity appeared. But in such teaching Gnosticism found points of attachment to Christianity, and other points might be adduced. ...
It is not easy to answer the question, Is the soteriology of Gnosticism borrowed from Christianity, or is it too an independent thing? Some points are quite plain which may justify our accepting the latter alternative. But under the influence of Christianity, laborious attempts were made to bring this soteriology into union with the Christian account of the historical Jesus. The most probable view is that Gnosticism in all its elements was independent of Christianity, but strove to put over itself a Christian guise, and represent itself as a fuller Christianity. -In the NT there are several clear indications that the invasion of Christianity by Gnosticism is already in progress. ) only this, that in the narrative we have an allegory of what we conceive the relation of Gnosticism to Christianity to have been
Iran - It is thought that Christianity was preached in this region in the 1century; the spread of the Faith, mainly through missionaries from Syria, was usually encouraged or tolerated until the 3century, when the Sassanian dynasty revived Zoroastrianism as the state religion of their large empire. When Christianity was adopted by Constantine and invoked on behalf of the Roman Empire, in 312, the many thousand Christians within the rival Persian Empire who were still under the ecclesiastical authority of Antioch, were regarded with increasing suspicion of political disloyalty
Epistles - The doctrines of Christianity are thus not set forth in any formal treatise, but mainly in a collection of letters. "Christianity was the first great missionary religion
Aurelian, Roman Emporor - The decree of Gallienus recognising Christianity as a religio licita had apparently stimulated church building. (2) Startled by the rapid progress of Christianity, Aurelian is said to have resolved towards the close of his reign on active measures for its repression
Bardaisan, Syrian Theologian - The more startling peculiarities of which we hear belong for the most part to an outer region of speculation, which it may easily have seemed possible to combine with Christianity, more especially with the undeveloped Christianity of Syria in the 3rd cent
Abyssinian Church - Thus we see that the doctrines and ritual of this sect form a strange compound of Judaism and Christianity, ignorance and superstition. Some, indeed, have been at a loss to know whether they are most Christians or Jews: it is to be feared, however, that there is little beside the name of Christianity among them
Maternus, Julius Firmicus - In opposition to the heathen orgies he presents the pure mysteries of Christianity in his preface, now almost completely lost, and from c. There is some reason to suppose that he was converted to Christianity and was identical with the subject of our art
Pontus - These Acts relate that she protected the Christian maiden Thecla, and was converted, through her instrumentality, to Christianity. ...
Christianity was not brought to Pontus by St. From 1Peter it is clear that about the year 80, the probable date of the Epistle, there were Christians in that country, and these converts from paganism to Christianity probably came there from the Asian coasts or from Rome. There is a well-known and valuable testimony to the prevalence of Christianity in the province, belonging to the period a. After Pliny’s time Pontus continued to be a stronghold of Christianity
Christian Life - The earliest witnesses of Christianity are more concerned with Christ than with a system of Christian morals. *
Palestinian Christianity, in spite of its reverence for Jewish law, did not escape persecution. The saint of Palestinian Christianity is undoubtedly James, the Lord’s brother, already referred to (see the glowing account of him by Hegesippus, preserved in Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. Pauline Christianity. Paul was a new departure in the Christian witness, and opened a new epoch for Christianity. His own Christianity was not in essence so much a negation of or a revolt from Judaism as a fresh inspiration, the result of a moral crisis in his inner life. One of the results of the crisis, it is true, was to reveal to him what he calls τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου (Romans 8:3), and to bring about his rejection of the Jewish ideal of salvation; but his conception of Christianity was based on the positive conviction rooted in experience that newness of life consisted in a personal union with Christ. The difference between Pauline morality and the morality of the Judaizers who were found all over the Greek-speaking world, lay in the fact that Gentile Christianity formed an independent ethic, while the ethic of the Jewish Christian ‘merely looked like an addition to the commandments, an ennobling and purifying of the rule of the pious, law-abiding Jew’ (see Weizsäcker, ii. , which is a manual of social Christianity. In dealing with social and civil responsibilities, the ethics of Pauline Christianity are opposed to revolt or agitation. His doctrine of the solidarity of society-a sin against a brother is a sin against Christ (1 Corinthians 8:12)-and of the equality of all men in Christ (Galatians 3:28, Colossians 3:11) prepared the way for the up-lifting of the masses, and identified Christianity with the spirit of brotherhood, even though the references to love of the brethren are more frequent than to love of mankind as a whole (see article Fellowship). In fact, Christianity, as we find it set forth by St. Post-Pauline Christianity
Orkney, Scotland, Diocese of - As early as 565 Celtic missionaries including Saint Columba had introduced Christianity into the islands
Philemon, Epistle to - He speaks, therefore, with that peculiar grace of humility and courtesy which has, under the reign of Christianity, developed the spirit of chivalry and what is called 'the character of a gentleman,' certainly very little known in the old Greek and Roman civilization" (Dr
Cyrene - They increased in number and influence; and we are thus prepared for the frequent references to them in connection with the early history of Christianity
Chapel - The spread of Christianity from the cities into the country must have early occasioned the erection of chapels for believers living at a distance from the bishop's church
Oracles - The pagan "oracles" ceased when Christianity supplanted paganism
Heresy - Heresy, in law, is an offense against Christianity, consisting in a denial of some of its essential doctrines, publicly avowed and obstinately maintained
Jordan - If, in the company of believers here, with their anemic and emaciated type of Christianity they are disgusted, what would these people do when brought face to face with death, and the realities that must be faced after death
Abyssinian Church - They claim there is but one nature in Christ, reject all the aecumenical councils since Ephesus, have some minor heresies of their own, and practise probably the lowest type of Christianity in the world
Titus - A Gentile by descent, and probably converted to Christianity under the preaching of Paul
Sahaptin - Christianity was introduced by the Catholic Iroquois and Canadian employees of the Hudson's Bay Company traders
Zeal - On the introduction of Christianity into Iceland, the inhabitants would be baptised only in the hot springs of Hecla; and in the torrid zone, in the plains as well as on the Cordilleras, the natives flock from all parts to the thermal waters
Judaizing - It is obvious that the transition from Judaism to Christianity could hardly be made without difficulty. that Christianity would fulfil and also succeed the older dispensation. ...
(c) Now, as the first of these incidents had dealt with the general principles regulating the relation of Christianity to Judaism, and the second had shown that Gentiles were to be admitted into the Christian body, so the third determined what requirements, if any, should be made of Gentile converts. Paul was evidently deeply stirred, as well as fully conscious of the danger to Christianity which was caused by the action of the Judaizers. Hort in his Judaistic Christianity (1894, p. to the, or in the article in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ; but the superiority of Christ over Judaism is its main burden, and the Epistle is pregnant with the difficulties of Christianity confronted with Judaizing teachers. ...
In conclusion, we may say that Judaistic Christianity was a natural product of the circumstances of the Apostolic Age, a product which was destined to be a source of internal trouble to the primitive Church. ...
Judaism decreased as Christianity increased
Gnosticism - (Gnuhss sh shssm) Modern designation for certain religious and philosophical perspectives that existed prior to the establishment of Christianity and for the specific systems of belief, characterized by these ideas, which emerged in the second century and later. ...
Importance of Gnosticism The significance of gnosticism for students of Christianity has two dimensions: the first is its prominence in the history of the church, and the second is its importance for interpreting certain features of the New Testament. Gnosticism emerged in schools of thought within the church in the early second century and soon established itself as a way of understanding Christianity in all of the church's principal centers. ...
The classic answer to the question of why gnosticism arose is that it represents the “radical Hellenizing of Christianity. ” In this view, gnosticism resulted from the attempt of early Christian thinkers to make Christianity understandable, acceptable, and respectable in a world almost totally permeated by Greek assumptions about the reality of the World. The expansion of Christianity from Palestine and its Jewish world of thought to the Roman Empire where Greek thought reigned called for an interpretation of Christianity that was more understandable. Common Hellenistic perceptions, such as the fact that matter and spirit were thought to be alien to one another, were incorporated into this re-statement of Christianity with the various gnostic systems as a result. ...
This classic view of the heretical gnostic sects as distortions of Christianity by Hellenistic thought has much strength because it is easily demonstrated how the Gnostics could use New Testament texts, bending them to their purposes. This view thus came to be almost the exact opposite of the classic view of the gnostic sects as Christian heresies and made Christianity heavily dependent on gnosticism
Filioque - The "Filioque," which expresses the ancient Christian tradition of even the Greek Fathers, first crept into the Nicene Creed in the liturgy of Spain, in the 6th century, and gradually prevailed in Western Christianity as the official and liturgical expression of the revealed truth, that the Holy Ghost proceeds at once from the Father and the Son, as He is the Spirit of the Son as well as the Father
Fideism - The exponents of this philosophy, among whom were De Bonald, De Lamennais, Bonnetty, Ventura, and Rohrbacher, were theologians and philosophers who wished to offset the prevalent materialistic scepticism and to place Christianity on a firmer basis than human reason can furnish
Christian Democracy - A political Bystem which stresses the inalienable rights of individuals and society in relation to civilauthorities in the State, guaranteeing the liberty of the individual to act according to the dictates of Christianity
Democracy, Christian - A political Bystem which stresses the inalienable rights of individuals and society in relation to civilauthorities in the State, guaranteeing the liberty of the individual to act according to the dictates of Christianity
Christ, Disciples of - Their doctrine teaches belief in the New Testament, emphasizes "the Divine Sonship of Jesus, as the fundamental fact of Holy Scriptures, the essential creed of Christianity, and the one article of faith in order to baptism and church membership
Disciples of Christ - Their doctrine teaches belief in the New Testament, emphasizes "the Divine Sonship of Jesus, as the fundamental fact of Holy Scriptures, the essential creed of Christianity, and the one article of faith in order to baptism and church membership
Origenism - He is an important witness to many of the doctrines and practises of the Christianity of his day
Christianity - Christianity is the inspiration to which our art, architecture, painting, music, and literatures owe what is most beautiful and elevating in them
Calixtins - that the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, by which he meant those elementary principles whence all its truths flow, were preserved pure in all three communions, and were contained in that ancient form of doctrine that is vulgarly known by the name of the apostles' creed
Lully, Raymond, Blessed - After a brief effort to propagate Christianity at Tunis, he was forced to leave and go to Naples
Powers of the Mind - For the influence Christianity has had on the moral and intellectual powers, see White's admirable Sermons, ser
Beginning - ...
c, The beginning of Christianity
Antoine Ozanam - From his student days he was imbued with an ardent desire to serve the Church and to make known to all the benefits of Christianity
Asia Minor - Christianity was introduced by the Apostles Peter, Paul, and John, and spread more rapidly than in any other part of the Roman Empire
Washing of Regeneration - In Titus the believer is said to be saved by the cleansing in connection with the new order of things introduced by Christianity, as indicated in baptism, and the renewal of the Holy Spirit
Allard, Paul - He was author of the following ecclesiastical histories of the early Christians: Christian Slaves from the Early Days of the Church until the End of the Roman Power in the West; Christian Art under the Pagan Emperors; History of the Persecutions; Christianity and the Roman Empire; Saint Basil; Julian the Apostate; Ten Lessons on the Martyrs
Apologies - in ecclesiastical history, were defences (so the Greek word means) of Christianity, presented to Heathen emperors, by the Christian fathers, who were therefore called Apologists
Bar-Jesus - Bar-Jesus endeavouring to hinder the pro-consul from embracing Christianity, Paul, filled with the Holy Ghost, "set his eyes upon him, and said, O full of all subtilty and mischief, thou child of the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord? Behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thee, and thou shalt be blind, not seeing the sun for a season;" which took place immediately
Iconium - Christianity was introduced here by Paul, A
Sect - Christianity was originally considered as a new sect of Judaism; hence Tertullus, accusing Paul before Felix, says that he was chief of the seditious sect of the Nazarenes, Acts 24:5 ; and the Jews of Rome said to the apostle, when he arrived in this city, "As concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is spoken against," Acts 28:22
Colossians, Epistle to the - Some Jewish philosopher professing Christianity, but mingling with it a superstitious regard for the law and other errors, seems to have gained a dangerous ascendancy in the church
Essenes - The Essenes were a Jewish monastic order, probably long preceding, not long surviving, the founding of Christianity. We have merely to give a brief outline of its main features, and deal chiefly with the influence it exerted on the development of Christianity. Relation to Christianity. -That in several points Essenism, as described, is in agreement with Christianity, is beyond question. Ginsburg, have made Christianity a development of Essenism, and represented Christ as a member of the holy Order. Acts 3:1; Acts 21:26), its views of the body, its sun-worship and magic, is in sharpest contrast to Christianity. One is that Christianity is one with Essenism-a view we have rejected. The other is that Essenism was so uninfluential, so entirely out of relation to Christianity, or any active movement of the time, that there was no occasion to mention it. McGiffert, Christianity in the Apostol. 2, xx, 3) identifies Elkesaites with Sampsœans (sun-worshippers), and calls them a remnant of the Essenes who had adopted a debased form of Christianity. There, first Judaism and later Christianity were unable to maintain themselves in their original form. And as it was with trans-Jordanic Judaism, so it was with trans-Jordanic Judaistic Christianity. ’ As has been indicated, in estimating their influence on Christianity, Catholic and heretical alike, we must beware of the tendency to exaggerate it. Our view is-the Essenes had no appreciable influence on the development of Catholic Christianity, but in Judaeo-Christian heresies their influence is considerable, while for the history of Gnosticism they are of great interest
Japan - Christianity was proscribed, and in 1597 six missionaries and twenty converts were crucified. In the meantime Christianity had been introduced from China into Korea, which belonged to the Diocese of Peking until 1831
Bertha, Wife of Ethelbert, King of Kent - Pope Gregory, in 601, when sending Mellitus to reinforce Augustine's company, addressed a letter to Bertha, in which he compliments her highly on her faith and knowledge of letters, and urges her to make still greater efforts for the spread of Christianity. As her son was unbaptized in 616, it is probable that she found considerable difficulty in promoting Christianity in her own family, or else that she died whilst her children were very young
Revelation - All these aspects of revelation are usually summed up in the term ‘natural religion,’ and do not touch the specific meaning of revelation which is associated with Christianity. ( d ) The revelation of God in Judaism and Christianity . In addition to revelation through nature, conscience, and reason, Christianity implies a special revelation in the Person of Christ. Christianity is the revelation of God’s grace for man through the historic Personality of Christ. In so doing we shall be brought face to face with the antitheses of revelation and discovery, of revelation and speculation, of revelation and evolution; and, while we recognize to the full the historical processes by which Christianity has come to us, we shall see that the gospel of Christ is not adequately accounted for except by means of a personal revelation of God, using and guiding history for the purpose, and that it cannot be explained merely in terms of history, discovery, philosophy, and evolution. ( b ) Historically , the Christian revelation comes to us commended by its witnesses in (1) miracle, (2) prophecy, and (3) spiritual adaptation to human nature, ( c ) Behind all these are the presuppositions of natural religion as seen in nature, man, and history, ( d ) But ultimately the credibility of Christianity as a revelation rests on the Person of its Founder , and all evidences converge towards and centre in Him. Christ is Christianity, and Christians believe primarily and fundamentally in the fact and trustworthiness of Christ. Herein lies the final proof of the credibility of Christianity as a Divine revelation. The genuineness of Christianity does not necessarily disprove the genuineness of other religions as ‘broken lights. When this is applied, the true relation of Christianity to other systems is at once seen. Christianity is primarily a religion of facts rather than of truths, the doctrines only arising out of the facts. Christianity, therefore, like Judaism before it, is a book religion (though it is also much more), as recording and conveying the Divine manifestation to man. There is no argument against primitive revelation which is not valid against all revelation, Christianity included. In Christ the self-disclosure of God reached its climax, and the NT is the permanent witness of the uniqueness of Christianity in the world. Christianity has all these, but is far more than them all
Liberality of Sentiment - Christianity gives us a character of God; but my God! what a character does it give! God is LOVE. Christianity teaches the doctrine of Providence; but what a providence! Upon whom doth not its light arise! Is there an animalcule so little, or a wretch so forlorn, as to be forsaken and forgotten of his God? Christianity teaches the doctrine of redemption: but the redemption of whom?...
of all tongues, kindred, nations, and people: of the infant of a span, and the sinner of a hundred years old: a redemption generous in its principle, generous in its price, generous in its effects; fixed sentiments of Divine magnificence, and revealed with a liberality for which we have no name. ' We often inquire, What was the doctrine of Christ, and what was the practice of Christ; suppose we were to institute a third question, Of what TEMPER was Christ? "Once more: We should be liberal as well as orthodox, because truth, especially the truths of Christianity, do not want any support from our illiberality. But the Christian religion, ...
is that in danger? and what human efforts can render that true which is false, that odious which is lovely? Christianity is in no danger, and therefore it gives its professors life and breath, and all things, except a power of injuring others. The dignity of Christianity is better supported by acts of liberality than by accuracy of reasoning: but when both go together, when a man of sentiment can clearly state and ably defend his religious principles, and when his heart is an generous as his principles are inflexible, he possesses strength and beauty in an eminent degree
Orestes Augustus Brownson - Principal works: "New Views of Christianity, Society and the Church"; "Charles Elwood"; "The Mediatorial Life of Jesus"; "The Spirit Rapper"; "The Convert, or Leaves from my Experience"; "The American Republic, its Constitution, Tendencies and Destiny
Miracle - There is every reason why He should do so if He wills to conflrm some truth or fact by miraculous manifestation of His power, as did Our Lord and His Apostles when it was hopeless to expect men and women, as they were at that time, to accept the teachings of Christianity without such evidence of their Divine origin as miracles
Marcion - He claimed to be interpreting true Christianity as taught by Saint Paul
Marcionites - He claimed to be interpreting true Christianity as taught by Saint Paul
Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, Diocese of - Christianity was preached in North Borneo in 1687 by Father Ventimiglia, a Theatine
Johann Pestalozzi - Of Calvinist upbringing, he became a disciple of Rousseau and ever remained outside the pale of dogmatic Christianity
Manaen - Another instance of the circle of Herod being reached by Christianity is Joanna, wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward ( Luke 8:3 ); and Antipas himself was touched by the Baptist’s preaching ( Mark 6:20 )
Lettonia - Christianity was preached in this region in the 12th century, and in 1200 the Diocese of Livonia of the Latin Rite, was established; its cathedral at Riga was built about 1206, and it became an archdiocese in 1255
Latvia - Christianity was preached in this region in the 12th century, and in 1200 the Diocese of Livonia of the Latin Rite, was established; its cathedral at Riga was built about 1206, and it became an archdiocese in 1255
Hre - The medieval union of Church and State, strengthened by the ties of morality and culture created by Christianity, founded on Christmas Day, 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor at Rome
Carthage, Cyprian of, Saint - Converted to Christianity late in life, he was ordained priest, 247, and consecrated Bishop of Carthage, c249 During the persecution of Decius, begun 250, Cyprian lived in hiding, directing his flock from his place of refuge, and for this reason he was condemned by his enemies
Partial, Partiality - "'This meaning seems to have had its beginning in near proximity to Christianity
Nonna, Mother of Gregory Nazianzen - To her example, aided by her prayers, he ascribes the conversion of his father from the strange medley of paganism and Christianity which formed the tenets of the Hypsistarian sect, to which by birth he belonged (Greg
Nazarenes - The word Nazarene was given to Jesus Christ and his disciples; and is commonly taken in a sense of derision and contempt in such authors as have written against Christianity
Omen - Paul must be convinced that it is inconsistent with the spirit of genuine Christianity
Holy Roman Empire - The medieval union of Church and State, strengthened by the ties of morality and culture created by Christianity, founded on Christmas Day, 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor at Rome
Concubine - ...
Christianity has restored the sacred institution of marriage to its original character, and concubinage is ranked with the sins of fornication and adultery (Matthew 19:5-9 ; 1 Corinthians 7:2 )
Guatemala - It was discovered in 1524 by Pedro de Alvarado, lieutenant of Cortes, and Christianity was introduced by Spanish missionaries
Albania - The Albanians were subjugated by Rome in the Illyrian wars and probably received Christianity through the Roman traders
Wolf - ...
Acts 20:29 (a) The wolf is used in this case to represent wicked, cruel leaders who, in the name of Christianity and the Church, will burn, maim, torture, kill and seek to destroy GOD's people and GOD's testimony
Hilarion, Saint - While studying at Alexandria he was converted to Christianity; he visited Saint Anthony in the desert, and stayed with him for two months
Empire, Holy Roman - The medieval union of Church and State, strengthened by the ties of morality and culture created by Christianity, founded on Christmas Day, 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor at Rome
Alexandria - Tradition relates that the apostle Mark was the first to introduce Christianity into Alexandria
Geography - Motivated by a desire to spread Christianity, missionaries of the Dominican, Franciscan, Jesuit, and other orders who were the pioneers of scientific geography discovered and opened up new territories, while other Catholic scholars by their progress in the auxiliary sciences contributed much to geographical theory
Bangorian Controversy - That prelate, in a sermon preached before George I, asserted that Christ was supreme in his own kingdom; that he had not delegated his power, like temporal lawgivers during their absence, to any persons as his vicegerents or deputies; and that the church of England, as all other national churches, was merely a civil or human institution, established for the purpose of diffusing and perpetuating the knowledge and belief of Christianity
Nazarenes - or NAZARAEANS, a name originally given to Christians in general, on account of Jesus Christ's being of the city of Nazareth; but was, in the second century, restrained to certain judaizing Christians, who blended Christianity and Judaism together
Disciple - In subsequent times, the name disciple, in the sense of learner, was sometimes given to the καταηχουμενοι , "auditores," persons who, in the primitive church, were receiving a preparatory instruction in Christianity
Salzburg, Austria, City of - Barbarian invasions destroyed the beginning of Christianity in Salzburg, and it was only c
Gamaliel - His high renown, however, among the Jewish rabbins of later ages, seems inconsistent with the tradition that he embraced Christianity
Martyr - Since the time of Stephen, Acts 7:59 22:20 , myriads of martyrs have sealed the truth of Christianity by a painful death; which they willingly endured through faith, rather than to deny Christ, and which they often eagerly desired as a special privilege
Cilicia - Many Jews dwelt in Cilicia, and maintained frequent intercourse with Jerusalem, where they joined the other Jews in opposing the progress of Christianity
Marcionites - He claimed to be interpreting true Christianity as taught by Saint Paul
Rhodo, a Christian Writer - He was a native of Asia, converted to Christianity at Rome by Tatian, as he himself says in a treatise against Marcion addressed to Callistion
Church - , we have the Epistle of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians and the Epistle of Barnabas, one representing Gentile and the other Jewish Christianity. It is sometimes supposed that if we take these simple elements and close our eyes to later developments, we get the essence of Christianity, free from unessential forms, and that this constitutes the importance of the primitive Church. ‘Christianity is not an archaeological puzzle’ (J. ...
Nevertheless, the importance of this age is real and great, (a) The spiritual essence of Christianity may be said to consist in the inner relation of each soul to God, to His Christ, and to His Spirit, and in the inner and outer relations of all believers to one another. The theory that in Christianity, as in some other religions, there was a gradual deification of the founder, continues to be advocated, but it will not bear serious investigation. Paul originated Christianity, who originated St. Who won the first Gentile converts at Antioch? Who first took Christianity to Rome? Whoever they were, there had been a long and complex preparation for their work, which goes a considerable way towards explaining its success. ...
The only thing which adequately explains the great expansion of Christianity in the 1st cent. Speculations about conscience, sin, and judgment to come, about the efficacy of sacrifices, and the possibility of forgiveness and of life after death, had prepared men for what Christianity had to offer. The great pagan world had to be won by the actual contents of Christianity, which were seen to be better than those of any religion that the world had thus far known. Christianity was at once a mirror and a ‘mystery’; it reflected life so clearly and it suggested something much higher. ...
It is impossible to say which of the forces which characterized Christianity contributed most to its success: its preaching of the life, death, and resurrection of Christ, its lofty monotheism, its hope of immortality, its doctrine of the forgiveness of sins, its practical benevolence, its inward cohesion and unity. Not long after Christianity was born, it was severed from the nation which gave it birth, and, since the final destruction of Jerusalem, it has only in rare cases found a secure hold on Jewish soil. Christianity did not come forward at first as a new religion aiming at ousting the Jews. The relation of Judaism to Christianity was, almost from the first, a hostile one. Christianity could offer to a dissatisfied and earnest pagan all that Judaism could offer and a great deal more. Christianity felt both. Jewish Christianity was far on the road towards extinction. The Judaizing Christians persisted in regarding Judaism as the Divinely appointed universal religion, of which Christianity was only a special offshoot endowed with new powers. The Judaizers could not see that Christianity, although founded on the OT and realizing an OT ideal which had been seen but not reached by the prophets, was now independent of Judaism. Judaistic Christianity, Cambridge, 1894, pp. ...
The leading facts in the history of the Apostolic Church are-the freedom won for Gentile converts, the consequent expansion of Christianity and Christendom, and the transfer of the Christian centre from Palestine to Europe. By its foundation in Jerusalem, which even the heathen regarded as no mean city, Christianity became, what it continued to be in the main for some centuries, a city-religion, a religion nearly all the adherents of which lived in large centres of population
Ausonius, Decimus Magnus, Poet - Without assenting to the extreme opinion of Trithemius, who even makes him out to have held the see of Bordeaux, we may safely pronounce in favour of his Christianity. 43); but certain of his poems testify distinctly to his Christianity in language that is only to be set aside by assuming the poems themselves to be spurious. ), displays him to us rather as a Christian by conviction, still clinging to the pagan associations of his youth, and incapable of understanding a truth which had revealed itself to his friend, that Christianity was not merely a creed but a life. Paulinus nowhere chides Ausonius for his paganism; on the contrary, he assumes his Christianity (Paulin. Probably his later Christianity would have disowned his own youthful productions
Aquila And Priscilla - 25, who, confounding Judaism with Christianity, writes: "he banished from Rome the Jews who were constantly making disturbances instigated by one Chrestus," i. She and he together, as true yokefellows in the Lord, to all within their reach; to Apollos, who became the mighty champion of Christianity, convincing the Jews from the Scriptures at Corinth; setting up "a church in their house" wherever they were: in Ephesus; then at Rome, risking their lives for Paul, and earning thanks of "all the churches of the Gentiles
Onesimus - Instead of violently convulsing society by stirring up slaves against their masters, Christianity introduces love, a principle sure to undermine slavery at last; "by christianizing the master, Christianity enfranchises the slave" (Wordsworth)
Christian - Luke’s well-established claim, as the historian of Christ and early Christianity, to have ‘traced the course of all things accurately from the first,’ his own non-employment of the word as a general designation for the disciples of Christ suggests that he had no reason other than a genuine historical one for referring to the origin of the name at all. (1) It marked the distinct emergence of Christianity from Judaism , and the recognition of its right to a separate place among the religions of the world. Hitherto, to outsiders, Christianity had been only a Jewish sect (cf. (2) It marked the fact, not heretofore realized, that Christianity was a religion for the Gentiles . Christianity appeared in Antioch as a universal religion, making no distinction between Jew and Gentile. And so Antioch became the headquarters of his missionary labours, and through him the headquarters of aggressive Christianity in the early Apostolic age ( Acts 13:1 ff. It served as a stepping-stone for that movement, inevitable from the day when Christianity was first preached unto the Gentiles, which by and by made Rome, the metropolis of the world, the mother-city also of the universal Church. (4) The name marked the fact that Christianity was not the religion of a book or a dogma, an idea or an institution, but a faith that centred in a Person . By calling the disciples Christians they became unconscious prophets of the truth that Christianity, whether regarded from the side of historical revelation or of personal experience, is all summed up in the Person of Jesus Christ
Russia - Christianity was introduced into Russia in the 9th century. Queen Olga, who is venerated as Saint Helen, was unable to convert her son to Christianity, but his son Vladimir, at the end of the 10th century, established Christianity as the official state religion in Russia. The Russians were baptized but they did not receive Christian education, so the moral influence of Christianity was not efficiently exercised upon them
Education - Practise is the special element which Christianity introduced in education. Their followers imitated them and made use of the literatures, the philosophy, history, and science of the day when instructing catechumens or candidates for the priesthood, preaching, writing, and setting forth for the world the reasonableness of Christianity. So also is the study of history, of the types and ideals in the Old and New Testament, of the leaders and heroes of Christianity and its saints. In them Greek culture was harmonized with Christianity
Pagan - (Latin: paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years.
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. The later Stoics, the Romans, although influenced by Christianity, differed little from the early Stoics
Paganism - (Latin: paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years.
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. The later Stoics, the Romans, although influenced by Christianity, differed little from the early Stoics
Abuse, Abusers - business and wealth) of life have in Christianity an emotional interest. Christianity determines them eschatologically (cf. 4, ‘Christianity and the Life that now is
Christianity - By Christianity is here meant, not that religious system as it may be understood and set forth in any particular society calling itself Christian; but as it is contained in the sacred books acknowledged by all these societies, or churches, and which contained the only authorized rule of faith and practice. The lofty profession which Christianity makes as a religion, and the promises it holds forth to mankind, entitle it to the most serious consideration of all. Such are the professions and promises of Christianity, a religion which enters into no compromise with other systems; which represents itself as the only religion now in the world having God for its author; and in his name, and by the hope of his mercy, and the terrors of his frown, it commands the obedience of faith to all people to whom it is published upon the solemn sanction, "He that believeth shall be saved, and he that believeth not shall be damned. ...
It is only necessary here to say, that the miracles to which Christianity appeals as proofs of its divine authority, are not only those which were wrought by Christ and his Apostles, but also those which took place among the patriarchs, under the law of Moses, and by the ministry of the Prophets; for the religion of those ancient times was but Christianity in its antecedent revelations. And here, too, the variety and the grandeur presented by the prophetic scheme exhibit attestations to the truth of Christianity suited to its great claims and its elevated character. These subjects are discussed under the articles assigned to them; as also the INTERNAL EVIDENCE of the truth of Christianity, which arises from the excellence and beneficial tendency of its doctrines. But we confine ourselves to the MORAL...
TENDENCY, and the consequent BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE, of Christianity. Those who never enjoyed the benefit of revelation, never conceived justly and comprehensively of that moral state of the heart from which right and beneficent conduct alone can flow; and therefore when they speak of the same virtues as those enjoined by Christianity, they are to be understood as attaching to them a lower idea. In this the infinite superiority of Christianity displays itself. By Christianity, impurity of thought and desire is restrained in an equal degree as are their overt acts in the lips and conduct. When such is the moral nature of Christianity, how obvious is it that its tendency both as to individuals and to society must be in the highest sense beneficial! From every passion which wastes, and burns, and frets, and enfeebles the spirit, the individual is set free, and his inward peace renders his obedience cheerful and voluntary: and we might appeal to infidels themselves, whether, if the moral principles of the Gospel were wrought into the hearts, and embodied in the conduct, of all men, the world would not be happy; whether if governments ruled, and subjects obeyed, by the laws of Christ; whether if the rules of strict justice which are enjoined upon us regulated all the transactions of men, and all that mercy to the distressed which we are taught to feel and to practise came into operation; and whether, if the precepts which delineate and enforce the duties of husbands, wives, masters, servants, parents, children, did, in fact, fully and generally govern all these relations,—whether a better age than that called golden by the poets, would not then be realized, and Virgil's...
Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna, ...
[1] ...
be far too weak to express the mighty change? [2] Such is the tendency of Christianity. What then, we ask, does all this prove, but that the Scriptures are worthy of God, and propose the very ends which rendered a revelation necessary? Of the whole system of practical religion which it contains we may say, as of that which is embodied in our Lord's sermon on the mount, in the words of one, who, in a course of sermons on that divine composition, has entered most deeply into its spirit, and presented a most instructive delineation of the character which it was intended to form: "Behold Christianity in its native form, as delivered by its great Author. Although, says Bishop Porteus, Christianity has not always been so well understood, or so honestly practised, as it ought to have been; although its spirit has been often mistaken, and its precepts misapplied, yet, under all these disadvantages, it has gradually produced a visible change in those points which most materially concern the peace and quiet of the world. Had Christianity done nothing more than brought into disuse, as it confessedly has done, the two former of these inhuman customs entirely, and the latter to a very great degree, it has justly merited the title of the benevolent religion. Among the collateral proofs of the truth and divine origin of Christianity, its rapid and wonderful success justly holds an important place. The age in which Christianity was introduced and received, was famous for men whose faculties were improved by the most perfect state of social life, but who were good judges of the evidence offered in support of the facts recorded in the Gospel history. The first triumphs of Christianity were in the heart of Greece itself, the nursery of learning and the polite arts; for churches were planted at a very early period at Corinth, Ephesus, Beraea, Thessalonica, and Philippi. These are considerations which must have strengthened the opposition to it; augmented the hostility which it must encounter; and enhanced the difficulty of gaining proselytes: and more especially when we recollect, that among the converts to Christianity in the earliest age, a number of persons remarkable for their station, office, genius, education, and fortune, and who were personally interested by their emoluments and honours in either Judaism or Heathenism, appeared among the Christian proselytes. Among the proselytes to Christianity we find Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea, members of the senate of Israel; Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue; Zaccheus, the chief of the publicans at Jericho; Apollos, distinguished for eloquence; Paul, learned in the Jewish law; Sergius Paulus, governor of the island of Cyprus; Cornelius, a Roman captain; Dionysius, a judge and senator of the Athenian areopagus; Erastus, treasurer of Corinth; Tyrannus, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric at Corinth; Publius, governor of Malta; Philemon, a person of considerable rank at Colosse; Simon, a noted sophist in Samaria; Zenas, a lawyer; and even the domestics of the emperor himself. To all the preceding circumstances we may add a consideration of peculiar moment, which is, that the profession of Christianity led all, without exception, to renounce the pleasures and honours of the world, and to expose themselves to the most ignominious sufferings
Temple - What is relevant here is an indication of the significance of the sanctuary and its ritualin apostolic Christianity. McGiffert (History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, London, 1894, p. -It was the protomartyr that brought Christianity into open conflict with Judaism. ‘To call Stephen a forerunner of Paul, and to think of him as anticipating in any way Paul’s treatment of the Jewish law and his assertion of a free Gentile Christianity, is to misunderstand him’ (McGiffert, op. -The recognition of the validity of a Christianity to which Jerusalem and the Temple were negligible quantities was the result of a protracted controversy in which St. He was the staunch defender not only of the primacy but of the permanence of Judaic Christianity. James’s theory of a hegemony of Judaic Christianity confuted by the remorseless logic of history
Christianity (History Sketch) - While other religions had been accommodated to the peculiar countries in which they had taken their origin, and had indeed generally grown out of incidents connected with the history of those to whom they were addressed, Christianity was so framed as to be adapted to the whole human race; and although, for the wisest reasons, it was first announced to the Jews, who had peculiar advantages for forming an accurate judgment with regard to it, it was early declared that, in conformity to predictions which had long been known, and long interpreted, as referring to a new communication of the divine will, it was to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, and was to carry salvation to the ends of the earth. Although Christianity originated in Judea, it was not long confined within the narrow limits of the Holy Land. The apostle Peter, in consequence of what he knew to be a solemn injunction from heaven, communicated to a Gentile the truths of Christianity. But this part of the political constitution, lightly as it affected other religions, at once struck at the root of Christianity, which, unlike the prevailing modifications of idolatry, prohibited the worship of all the deities before whose altars mankind had for ages bent, and required, as essential for obtaining the divine favour, that they who believed in it should pay undivided homage to the one God, whose existence it revealed. It is necessary to keep this fact steadily in view, to form an accurate idea of that opposition which Christianity had to encounter. The propagation of Christianity assumes a new aspect after it became the religion of the empire, and was guarded by the protection and surrounded by the munificence of imperial power. ...
Not only was persecution, after the reign of Constantine, at an end, but with the exception of the short reign of Julian, who, having apostatized from Christianity, and become intoxicated with the fascinating speculations of the Platonic philosophy, was eager to raise the temples which his predecessor had laid in ruins, promotion and wealth and honour could be most effectually secured by transferring to the Gospel the zeal which had been in vain exhausted to preserve the sinking fabric of Paganism and idolatry. But although the insubordination of this turbulent and sanguinary period was little favourable to the mild influence of genuine Christianity, it did not prove so fatal to it as might have been apprehended; and it was even instrumental in extending its nominal dominion. There is no doubt that motives very little connected with the conviction of the understanding led to the progress of Christianity now described; and, in fact, that progress was occasioned by causes so different from those which should have produced it, that, had circumstances been changed, and had the religion of Jesus been continued to be persecuted by the most powerful states, multitudes who affected to revere it would, upon the same ground on which their veneration rested, have exerted themselves to deride its tenets, and to exterminate its professors. But it was not the secular arm alone that was stretched forth to lead men to the reception of Christianity. But although the conversions which took place, from the establishment of Christianity till the restoration of learning, or the reformation, which forms a new aera in the dissemination of the Gospel, were often unfortunately very far from planting the word of life in the hearts of those to whom it was conveyed, they were very extensive. Mohammedanism, however, arrested the progress of Christianity in some of these countries, and humbled it and oppressed it in others; but since the reformation, and especially within the last century, it has been extended, not so much by conquest, as by the legitimate means of colonization, and by missions and education, to the most distant and important parts of the world, to China, India, Africa, the American Islands, and those of the Pacific Ocean
Gospel - ...
The term is often used to express collectively the gospel doctrines; and 'preaching the gospel' is often used to include not only the proclaiming of the good tidings, but the teaching men how to avail themselves of the offer of salvation, the declaring of all the truths, precepts, promises, and threatenings of Christianity
Evidence - Christianity
Dedication, Feast of - From ancient authors welearn that when Christianity became prosperous and flourishing,churches were everywhere erected and were solemnly consecrated,the dedications being celebrated with great festivities andrejoicing
Luxembourg - Christianity was established here very early; in 316, Trier was the seat of a diocese, extending far into Lorraine, and an important center from which the faith was preached through this part of Europe
Lycia - of Asia Minor, which played very little part in the early history of Christianity
Onesimus - Paul, and was by him converted to Christianity ( Philippians 1:10 )
Demetrius - It shows how soon Christianity, notwithstanding its seeming weakness, was felt as a mighty power threatening pagandom with all its then greatness
Stephen - ...
Stephen was in the forefront of those who saw Christianity as much more than a Jewish sect
Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint - Converted to Christianity by Origen, Gregory took up the study of philosophy and theology
Gregory Thaumaturgus, Saint - Converted to Christianity by Origen, Gregory took up the study of philosophy and theology
Heresy, Heretic - It was employed by the Jews respecting Christianity
Basilius of Ancyra, a Presybter - The zeal of Basil was still further quickened by the attempts of Julian to suppress Christianity
Archibishop - The first archbishop of Canterbury was Austin, appointed by king Ethelbert, on his conversion to Christianity, about the year 598
Alexandria, Egypt, City of - Christianity was introduced by Saint Mark, and it became illustrious as a seat of learned doctors, Pantrenus, Clement, Origen, and as the see of Athanasius and Cyril
Cosmas (1) And Damianus, Silverless Martyrs - Cosmas and Damian take the place of Aesculapius, in whose story heathenism made the nearest approach to Christianity
Blasphemy Against the Holy Ghost - However these questions may be answered, certain it is that when one can ridicule religion and its ordinances, when he can make sport with the work of the Holy Ghost in the human heart, when he can persist in a willful disbelief of the Gospel, and cast contempt upon Christianity and "the ministration of the Spirit," he is going to a fearful extremity of guilt, and provoking the final withdrawment of divine grace
Thaumaturgus, Gregory, Saint - Converted to Christianity by Origen, Gregory took up the study of philosophy and theology
Promise - The "children of the promise" are either Isaac's posterity, as distinguished from Ishmael's; Jews converted to Christianity; or all true believers, who by faith lay hold on the promise of salvation in Christ
Incarnation, the - " This great outward fact is the foundation of allthat follows: upon it Christianity depends and all Christian Doctrinehas reference to it
Felix - He also knew sufficient of Christianity to realize that Paul was innocent of the charges the Jews laid against him (Acts 23:29; Acts 24:22)
Thaddaeus - 13) gives a story, which he says he found in the archives of Edessa, that after the ascension of our Lord, the apostle Judas Thomas sent Thaddaeus, one of the seventy disciples, to Edessa, to king Abgarus the Black, and that he cured the king of a serious illness, converted him with all his people to Christianity, and died at Edessa after many years of successful labours
Damascus - Christianity was planted here as a centre (Acts 9:20 ), from which it spread to the surrounding regions. Christianity has again found a firm footing within its walls
Armenia - ...
The religion of the Armenians is a corrupt Christianity of the sect of Eutyches; that is, they own but one nature in Jesus Christ. More tolerant, indeed, than the Saracens, liberty of conscience was still not to be purchased of them but by great sacrifices, which for three centuries the Armenians have patiently endured, and exhibit to the world an honourable and solitary instance of a successful national opposition of Christianity to Mohammedanism
Antioch in Syria - ...
Christianity came to Antioch through the efforts of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians who had been driven from Jerusalem by violent Jewish persecution. Antioch became the centre from which Christianity spread west into Asia Minor and Europe
Bar-Jesus - Special interest attached to the incident as an early but typical case of the meeting of two religious systems; it was the first collision of Christianity with the great religious force of Magianism. The result was a striking manifestation of the superior power residing in the Christian missionary, by which Bar-Jesus was struck blind for a season, and which deeply impressed the proconsul in favour of Christianity. From the wider point of view it was between Paul the Roman citizen who championed Christianity, and Elymas the Greek philosopher and magician. It was not only Bar-Jesus the Jewish false prophet whom Paul blinded, but Elymas the Magian, the representative of that Oriental theosophy which Christianity was destined to meet so often
Paul - He had profited by the instructions of Gamaliel, and became learned in the law; yielding himself to the strictest discipline of the sect of the Pharisees, he had become a fierce defender of Judaism and a bitter enemy of Christianity, Acts 8:3 26:9-11 . His views of the pure and lofty spirit of Christianity, in its worship and in its practical influence, appear to have been peculiarly clear and strong; and the opposition which he was thus led to make to the rites and ceremonies of the Jewish worship, exposed him everywhere to the hatred and malice of his countrymen. ...
Most of the other apostles and teachers appear to have clung to Judaism, to the rites, ceremonies, and dogmas of the religion in which they had been educated, and to have regarded Christianity as intended to be engrafted upon the ancient stock, which was yet to remain as the trunk to support the new branches. Paul seems to have been among the first to rise above this narrow view, and to regard Christianity in its light, as a universal religion. When we review the many regions he traversed and evangelized, the converts he gathered, and the churches he founded, the toils, perils, and trials he endured, the miracles he wrought, and the revelations he received, the discourses, orations, and letters in which he so ably defends and unfolds Christianity, the immeasurable good which God by him accomplished, his heroic life, and his martyr death, he appears to us the most extraordinary of men. These epistles, in which the principles of Christianity are developed for all periods, characters, and circumstances, are among the most important of the primitive documents of the Christian religion, even apart from their inspired character; and although they seem to have been written without special premeditation, and have reference mostly to transient circumstances and temporary relations, yet they everywhere bear the stamp of the great and original mind of the apostle, as purified, elevated, and sustained by the influences of the Holy Spirit
Imitation - Francis cut his way direct to the centre of things, unhindered, if unhelped, by the overgrown and often corrupt Church system of his time, and restored new life to personal religion and personal Christianity. These are accessories—innocent and touching accessories—at which Christianity may smile, but certainly will not frown. (4) The order of Tertiaries—semi-Franciscans, men or women, living in the world; not even pledged to celibacy—was a gallant attempt to minimize the distinction between the two moralities, and to make personal Christianity, as St. Here then we see the Christianity of imitation at its very best (but, as we have noted, it is more than imitation). Francis’ Christianity is an all-round thing—living, attractive, strong, serviceable, joyous. Monasticism has left us a literary monument of a kindred type of Christianity; one of the Church’s and one of the world’s classics; à Kempis’ work known by the [1] name, The Imitation of Christ. Ordinary lay Christianity was seen to involve a ‘more perfect’ obedience than the will-worship of the monk. It is also to be recognized that Protestant Christianity, with its emphasis on the Pauline Gospel of the cross—Christ died for us had less receptiveness for the thought of Christ’s example, in several of its forms
Reason - A pamphlet was published about the middle of the last century that made a noise in its day, although it is now forgotten, entitled, "Christianity not founded on Argument," which, while to a careless reader it may seem to magnify the Gospel, does in reality tend to undermine our faith, by separating it from a rational assent; and Mr. These controversies concerning the use of reason in matters of religion are disputes, not about words, but about the essence of Christianity. ...
After the exercise of reason has established in our minds a firm belief that Christianity is of divine original, the second use of reason is to learn what are the truths revealed. Reason is of eminent use in repelling the attacks of the adversaries of Christianity. In all ages of the church there have been weak defenders of Christianity; and the only triumphs of the enemies of our religion have arisen from their being able to expose the defects of those methods of defending the truth which some of its advocates had unwarily chosen. The Christian doctrine has been vindicated by their masterly exposition from various misrepresentations; the arguments for its divine original have been placed in their true light; and the attempts to confound the miracles and prophecies upon which Christianity rests its claim, with the delusions of imposture, have been effectually repelled. Christianity has, in this way, received the most important advantages from the attacks of its enemies; and it is not improbable that its doctrines would never have been so thoroughly cleared from all the corruptions and subtleties which had attached to them in the progress of ages, nor the evidences of its truths have been so accurately understood, nor its peculiar character been so perfectly discriminated, had not the zeal and abilities which have been employed against it called forth in its defence some of the most distinguished masters of reason. They brought into the service of Christianity the same weapons which had been drawn for her destruction, and, wielding them with confidence and skill in a good cause, became the successful champions of the truth
Peter - ...
Peter's Role in the Early Church Despite Peter's role among the disciples and the promise of his leadership in the early church (see especially Matthew 16:17-19 ), Peter did not emerge as the leader of either form of primitive Christianity. ”...
Peter probably sacrificed his chances to be the leader of either one of these groups because of his commitment to serve as a bridge in the early church, doing more than any other to hold together the diverse strands of primitive Christianity. (See Peter, Epistles of; Jerusalem conference; Jerusalem church; Jewish Christianity; Disciples, Apostles
Martyr - The early Christians, who bore witness to the truth of those facts upon which Christianity rests, were liable at any time to be given a choice between death and a denial of their testimony
Alexander - A coppersmith, and apostate from Christianity, 1 Timothy 1:20 2 Timothy 4:14
Hope - "Hope is an essential and fundamental element of Christian life, so essential indeed, that, like faith and love, it can itself designate the essence of Christianity (1 Peter 3:15 ; Hebrews 10:23 )
Prescription - Others, however, think that if it can be shown that any particular doctrine of Christianity was held in the earliest ages, even approaching the apostolic, it must have very considerable weight; and, indeed, that it has so, appears from the universal appeals of all parties to those early times in support of their particular opinions
Theology - ...
See also articles Christianity, RELIGION, REVELATION, SCRIPTURES
Gospel - ...
See Christianity
Murder, Ritual - In a report to that body Pope Clement XIV declared that only two cases of so-called ritual murder had ever been proved, those of Andrew of Rinn in 1462 and Simon of Trent in 1475, and these had been motivated by hatred of Christianity, not by ritual requirements
Way - During the time of the early church, Christianity was known as ‘the way’ (Acts 9:2; Acts 19:9; Acts 19:23; Acts 22:4; Acts 24:14; Acts 24:22)
Lent - Since, from the earliest years of Christianity, it had been considered inappropriate to fast on the day of the resurrection, Sundays were not counted in the forty days
Gaul - By 314 many sees existed, and Christianity flourished in the towns
Promise - The Jews converted to Christianity, in opposition to the obstinate Jews, who would not believe in Christ
Ritual Murder - In a report to that body Pope Clement XIV declared that only two cases of so-called ritual murder had ever been proved, those of Andrew of Rinn in 1462 and Simon of Trent in 1475, and these had been motivated by hatred of Christianity, not by ritual requirements
Laodicea - We know little of its after-history, except that an important council was held there near the middle of the fourth century, and that some form of Christianity lingered there until the time of the Turks
Mark or Marcus - As he was the son of that Mary at whose house in Jerusalem the apostles were wont to convene, so it is probable that he was particularly instructed in the doctrines of Christianity by Peter, who on the account calls him son, 1 Peter 5:13
Resurrection of Christ - This is of fundamental importance in Christianity, both historically and doctrinally
Symphorianus, Martyr - He was born in Autun, of noble parentage, and trained in Christianity from his childhood
Novice - ’ The word literally means ‘newly planted,’ and describes one recently converted to Christianity
Vitus - , a youthful martyr in Diocletian's persecution; the son of a pagan gentleman in Sicily, but secretly trained in Christianity by his nurse Crescentia and her husband Modestus
Pamphylia - Christianity was slow in taking hold of Pamphylia, there is no mention of it in 1 Peter 1:1 and this was probably due partly to the absence of Jewish centres, partly to the backwardness of the district. Christianity made way most quickly in the chief centres of thought
Woman - But still greater is the contrast between the women of heathenism and those of Christianity: the former with mind and soul undeveloped, secluded, degraded, the mere toys and slaves of their husbands; the latter educated, refined, ennobled, cheering and blessing the world. Christianity forbids a man to have more than one wife, or to divorce her for any cause but one, Matthew 5:32 19:3-9 ; declares that bond and free, male and female, are all one in Christ, Galatians 3:28 ; and that in heaven they are no more given in marriage, but are as the angels of God, Matthew 22:33
Fear - ), and many of the earliest Gentile converts to Christianity were men and women whose fear of God had prepared them for the reception of the gospel. The religion of law, in which God was a Sovereign to be obeyed and a Judge to be dreaded, was consummated by the religion of love, in which God is a Father and Christ a Saviour-Brother, It is the distinctive message of Christianity that God wills men to serve Him without fear (ἀφόβως, Luke 1:74), with a love which casts out fear (1 John 4:18), with a boldness which seeks His immediate presence (Hebrews 10:19), with a freedom and familiarity which prompt the cry ‘Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15). ...
From the natural fear which listens either to the whispers of inward weakness or the threats of outward despotism, Christianity suffices to deliver men. But for the timidity which sacrifices principles and shirks duties Christianity has no mercy
Fear - ), and many of the earliest Gentile converts to Christianity were men and women whose fear of God had prepared them for the reception of the gospel. The religion of law, in which God was a Sovereign to be obeyed and a Judge to be dreaded, was consummated by the religion of love, in which God is a Father and Christ a Saviour-Brother, It is the distinctive message of Christianity that God wills men to serve Him without fear (ἀφόβως, Luke 1:74), with a love which casts out fear (1 John 4:18), with a boldness which seeks His immediate presence (Hebrews 10:19), with a freedom and familiarity which prompt the cry ‘Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15). ...
From the natural fear which listens either to the whispers of inward weakness or the threats of outward despotism, Christianity suffices to deliver men. But for the timidity which sacrifices principles and shirks duties Christianity has no mercy
Philosophy - ) of the contact of Christianity with philosophy. She was seen to stand in open enmity with "the strange woman"), who sought to draw them aside by sensuous attractions; and thus a new step was made toward the central doctrine of Christianity: --the incarnation of the Word. Christianity IN CONTACT WITH ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY. --The only direct trace of the contact of Christianity with western philosophy in the New Testament is in the account of St. 2--1), throw little light upon the relations of Christianity and philosophy. Christian philosophy may be in one sense a contradiction in terms, for Christianity confessedly derives its first principles from revelation, and not from simple reason; but there is no less a true philosophy of Christianity, which aims to show how completely these meet the instincts and aspirations of all ages
Trajanus, m. Ulpius - Pliny's letter is the earliest heathen account of the services and behaviour of the Christians, and Trajan's reply is the earliest piece of legislation about Christianity that we possess. ...
After stating that, having never been present at trials of Christians, he was ignorant of the precise nature of the crime and the usual punishment, and also how far it was the practice to pursue the inquiry, Pliny asks the emperor whether any distinction should be made on the ground of age; whether those who abjured Christianity should be pardoned, or a man who had embraced Christianity gain by renouncing it; whether the mere name apart from any crime or the crimes associated with the name should be punished? Provisionally he had taken the following course in the case of those charged before him with being Christians. Again, no statutory enactments as to Christianity existed, or Trajan would have referred to them in his rescript according to his usual custom, when senatus consulta or edicts of preceding emperors bore on the subject on which he is writing (cf. Pliny's action was therefore based on the fact that Christianity was a religio illicita , its professors members of a collegium illicitum , at what might be termed the Roman common law. When the separation between the two religions became apparent to Roman eyes, Christianity lost this shelter and its professors fell under the ban that extended to all unlawful associations. Nero does not appear to have issued any edicts against Christians in general, and if Christianity, either apart from or along with Judaism, suffered under Domitian (Dion, lxvii. Aurelius, on the occasion of the persecution of Lyons, issues a rescript following the same rule, that those who abjured Christianity should be released, those who refused should be executed (Eus
Italy - The Jews poured into Italy, especially to Rome, and had been familiar to the Italians long before Christianity came
Malta Country - There followed a glorious period in the history of the island, for it became one of the principal strongholds of Christianity against the Turks
West - Hence to-day, in the statesmanship of that Kingdom, it is unwise and wasteful to transport to the East the controversies and cleavages of Western Christianity
Bar-Jesus - 79) says, ‘the strongest influence on the human will that existed in the Roman world, an influence which must destroy or be destroyed by Christianity, if the latter tried to conquer the Empire
Anabaptists - The principal tenets were: ...
(1) rejection of baptism of infants as unscriptural, and its restriction to adults as a sign of Christian belief; ...
(2) restoration of what they considered primitive Christianity, abolition of capital punishment, oaths, and the magistracy; ...
(3) scripture as a rule of faith; ...
(4) foundation of a new kingdom of God on communistic grounds
Alaska - Christianity was introduced into Alaska by the Russians in 1794, but prior to its purchase by the United States, no Catholic priest had settled there
Hippolytus (5), Apocryphal Martyr - Bunsen's Christianity and Mankind , i
Armenia - There is some uncertainty as to the introduction of Christianity into Armenia, some historians connecting the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus with its evangelization
Ecuador - The Jesuits later joined in the labors, and Christianity spread through the country, but after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767 and the subsequent revolution, the natives relapsed into paganism
Thessalonica - During several centuries Thessalonica was an important centre of Christianity in the oriental church, and from it the Bulgarians and Slavonians were reached
Elath - Under the rule of the Romans it was a flourishing commercial town with the ordinances of Christianity
Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia - There is some uncertainty as to the introduction of Christianity into Armenia, some historians connecting the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus with its evangelization
Pale - He was born within the pale of the church within the pale of Christianity
Dispersion, the Jews of the, - The influence of the Dispersion on the rapid promulgation of Christianity can scarcely be overrated
Organizations, Church - Other organizations are TheSociety for the Increase of the Ministry, the Evangelical EducationSociety, the American Church Missionary Society, Society forPromoting Christianity among the Jews, the Guild of St
Noble - Orr, Neglected Factors in the Study of the Early Progress of Christianity, 1899, p
Bithynia - 1 Peter 1:1 affords evidence of the early introduction and rapid progress of Christianity in the province of Bithynia. While the letters describe a state of things which was true of the province as a whole, there are some indications that Amisos in the Far East was the first city on the Black Sea to which Christianity spread (Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, p
Servant - The effects of sin were in the world, and God did not introduce Christianity in order to set the world right; but, while shedding light upon everything, and proclaiming grace to all, God's purpose was "to take out of the nations a people for his name. " Christianity inculcated equal treatment of slaves, as we see in several of the epistles in which masters are addressed: 'men-stealers' are condemned
Emperor-Worship - One of the most interesting and important facts in the inner history of the Roman Empire prior to the adoption of Christianity as the State-religion was the rise of Emperor-worship. Only in recent years have the facts regarding it been adequately investigated, and their importance for the early history of Christianity recognized and appreciated. Caesarism and Christianity. -This is the most obvious and familiar point in the relation of Caesarism to Christianity. It is known to all that Rome persecuted Christianity. Persecution of Christianity was the deliberate and settled policy, not of this or that tyrant, but of the Roman State. From the time that Christianity attained any great dimensions to the day of Constantine’s Edict of Toleration, there existed between it and the Roman power a relation of antagonism; and a condition of persecution resulted for the Church. ...
With Christianity as one religion among others Rome would not have concerned herself. Because Christianity threatened what had been adopted as a political safeguard of the first importance for the coherence of the Empire, Rome, without a reversal of her adopted policy, could do nothing else than attempt to extirpate this dangerous sect. -The opposition of Christianity and Caesarism becomes more marked when we consider their resemblances. To seize as eminently suitable for their own purpose the whole vocabulary of Caesar-adoration was a bold and brilliant stroke of policy on the part of the preachers of Christianity. From another point of view this strange parallelism may be regarded as one among many aspects of a providential preparation of the pagan world for Christianity. ‘Satan’ is a symbolic expression for whatever was the great obstacle and hostile influence to Christianity; hence Pergamum was Satan’s seat par excellence (see
Ebionism And Ebionites - ...
The records of the church of Jerusalem contained in Acts prove how strong was the zeal for the Law of Moses among the Jewish converts to Christianity. Jewish Christians, with predilections for Gentile Christianity and its comparative freedom, found the way made clear to them; others, attempting to be both Jews and Christians, ended in being neither, and exposed themselves to the contempt of Rabbin as well as Christian (Grätz, p. 433); others receded farther from Christianity, and approximated more and more closely to pure Judaism. By the time of Trajan (96-117) political events had given them a definite organization, and their position as a sect opposed to Gentile Christianity became fixed by the acts which culminated in the erection of Aelia Capitolina. Judaism was to them not so much a preparation for Christianity as an institution eternally good in itself and but slightly modified in Christianity. Whatever merit Christianity had it possessed as the continuation and supplement of Judaism. ...
Their principal tenets were as follows: Christianity they identified with primitive religion or genuine Mosaism, as distinguished from what they termed accretions to Mosaism, or the post-Mosaic developments described in the later books of O. , and Essenism and Christianity , p. ...
Ebionite Christianity did not, however, last very long, neither did it exercise much influence west of Syria while it lasted. was that of men who wished to stand clear of any sympathy with Jewish customs; the language of Justin Martyr and of Hegesippus was the language of the representatives of the Samaritan and the Hebrew Christianity of the day, not of the Ebionite. ; the rest had returned to strict Judaism and the utter rejection of Christianity, or to a purer Christianity than that which Ebionism favoured
Ebionism - Ebionism is best understood as the generic name under which may be included a variety of movements, diverging more or less from Catholic Christianity, and primarily due to a conception of the permanent validity of the Jewish Law. Of these, some were merely tolerable and tolerant peculiarities; some were intolerable and intolerant perversions of Christianity. ...
As soon as Christianity became conscious of its world-wide mission, the problem arose as to its relation to the Judaism out of which it sprang. It was a liberalism which steadily advanced, a conservatism which as steadily hardened and became more intolerant, and drifted further out of likeness to normal Christianity. It is necessary, however, to add as a third group those Ebionites whose system results from a union of other elements with the original mixture of Judaism and Christianity. It is not surprising that only writers who had special opportunity of familiarity with Palestinian Christianity should be aware of the distinction. Dating from the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15), we can see not only the possibility but the actuality of the rise of three distinct groups of Jewish Christians: (a) those who embraced Christianity in all its fullness, and developed with it; (b) those who accepted the indefinite compromise represented in the finding of the Council, and did not advance beyond it, which is essentially the position of the Nazarenes; (c) those who did not agree with the finding, and continued to protest against it, which is the starting-point of the Ebionites proper. ...
In brief, then, while the Nazarenes are only Christians of a stunted growth, the Ebionites proper are heretics holding a system that is false to the real spirit of Christianity. ...
The siege and fall of Jerusalem were events of the greatest importance for Judaism (see article Pharisees) and Jewish Christianity alike
Transformations of Grace - ...
Christianity is a moral chemistry
Holy Childhood, Association of the - Its chief ends are: to draw young children near to the Infant Jesus that they may practise Christian charity and contribute to the salvation of pagan children; to procure baptism for these infidels, and educate them to spread Christianity among their countrymen
Belgium - Christianity was introduced in the west by Saint Piat as early as the second half of the 3century, but was lost through pagan invasion, and the work of conversion was not completed until the 8th century
Association of the Holy Childhood - Its chief ends are: to draw young children near to the Infant Jesus that they may practise Christian charity and contribute to the salvation of pagan children; to procure baptism for these infidels, and educate them to spread Christianity among their countrymen
Found - Christianity is founded on the rock of ages
Latitudinarians - They reduced the fundamental doctrines of Christianity to a few points
Egypt - According to tradition Saint Mark the Evangelist introduced the Catholic Faith into Alexandria which became the center of Christianity in Egypt
Perga - But Christianity did not take root there easily
Magnentius, , Flavius Popilius, Emperor - 354), prove his profession of Christianity; and he employed bishops in his negotiations with Constantius (Athan
Enlightenment - Anrich contends (Das antike Mysterienwesen, 1893) that no direct dependence of Christianity upon the Mysteries could be established. A more complete knowledge of the nature and diffusion of mystery-cults in apostolic times, together with the recognition of additional terms in the NT vocabulary drawn from them, makes it easier to accept the recent opinion of Clemen (Primitive Christianity and its non-Jewish Sources, 1912, p. ’...
In relation to the dependence which the NT shows in this subject, as in others, upon both the phraseology and religious ideas of earlier and lower cults, it must be borne in mind that a richer and fuller content has been poured by Christianity into those pagan forms of expression, and that here, as in the case of the Jewish Law, Christ came ‘not to destroy, but to fulfil. On the connexion between Christianity aniline Mysteries generally see, in addition to works mentioned above, S
Aurelius, Marcus, Roman Emperor - Under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius he had acquiesced, at least, in a policy of toleration, checking false accusations, requiring from the accusers proof of some other crime than the mere profession of Christianity. (1) The upward progress of Christianity brought its teachers into rivalry with the Stoic philosophers who up to this time, partly for good and partly for evil, had occupied the position of spiritual directors in the families in which there was any effort to rise out of the general debasement. of Christianity , bk. If this be accepted, it suggests another possible element in his scorn of Christianity
Ulfilas - The circumstances of his life raise the question of the origin of Gothic Christianity. The Goths carried back these Christian captives into Dacia, where they were settled, and where considerable numbers embraced Christianity through their instrumentality. Scott, of Cambridge, published an interesting and full monograph on Ulfilas, in which he discusses his history and that of Gothic Christianity during this period. This would sufficiently account for the Arianism of the Goths who were just then accepting Christianity
Archaeology, Christian - The Roman catacombs are the great treasure-house of the monuments of primitive Christianity; the Bible is the first indispensable literary source. He was commissioned to collect the inscriptions of the earliest days of Christianity in Gaul, and made an investigation of manuscripts, printed books, museums, churches, and the Gallo-Roman cemeteries. He wrote learned articles on the method of Christian epigraphy, on Christian art, on the origin, progress, popular beliefs, and moral influence of Christianity in ancient Gaul
Christian Archaeology - The Roman catacombs are the great treasure-house of the monuments of primitive Christianity; the Bible is the first indispensable literary source. He was commissioned to collect the inscriptions of the earliest days of Christianity in Gaul, and made an investigation of manuscripts, printed books, museums, churches, and the Gallo-Roman cemeteries. He wrote learned articles on the method of Christian epigraphy, on Christian art, on the origin, progress, popular beliefs, and moral influence of Christianity in ancient Gaul
Nag Hammadi - ...
The Contents of the Nag Hammadi Documents Practically all the materials reflect the religious outlook called gnosticism, an emerging world view that caused considerable difficulty for early Christianity. Reflect the diversity of Gnosticism and point to the diversity of early Christianity and the resultant struggle for orthodoxy. Reinforces an appreciation for the seriousness of the gnostic threat to early Christianity
Sergius Paulus - Sergius Paulus had been impressed already by the missionaries’ exposition of Christianity. It has to be said that we know nothing more of his Christian life-whether he professed Christianity openly by baptism, and used his influence to further the religion, or whether he relapsed. Paul’s preaching was one of the earliest suggestions to the Apostle that the dominant power of Rome might be an asset for Christianity rather than a hostile influence
Gregorius, Saint., the Illuminator - 284 by the help of Diocletian, whose favour he had gained and whose hatred of Christianity he had imbibed. This is one of several traces in the story of an already-existing Christianity in Armenia. This national conversion occurred before Constantine had established the church in the Roman empire, and Armenia was thus the first kingdom to adopt Christianity as the religion of the state
Diognetus, Epistle to - " We may thus say that the true traditional writer To Greeks and To Diognetus is a certain otherwise unknown Ambrosius, convert like Justin from Hellenism to Christianity—the reply To Greeks , the assailants of the writer, being naturally followed by the response To Diognetus , the inquirer. ...
It is worth noting that an Ambrose, of the consecration of Antioch, is said in a Syriac tradition to have been the third primate of Edessa and the East (Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity , p. The writer To Greeks and To Diognetus may have been this bringer of Greek Pauline Christianity to the regions beyond Euphrates conquered by Trajan and abandoned by Hadrian, and have been ancestor of the friend of Origen and of the great Milanese archbp. ...
Probably an old copy exhibited three works of Ambrosius—an avowal of Christianity, and answers To Greeks and To Diognetus , each a brave act as well as a solid work, the first now lost, the second a fine sample of a class of controversial works of which samples are numerous, the third, To Diognetus , preserved in fragments only, but unique, not apologetic merely, but catechetical, a portraiture of early Christianity not in its manifestation only, but in its springs, bringing us to the gates of the Paradise of God. ...
In free allied states like Antioch and Athens avowal of Christianity may have been tolerated when not suffered in Roman or subject regions. 1865); Bigg, Origins of Christianity ; Lightfoot and Harmer, Apost
Antioch - " Christianity was early introduced into it (Acts 11:19,21,24 ), and the name "Christian" was first applied here to its professors (Acts 11:26 )
Divination - Christianity undermined its power, and after centuries of effort it disappeared as an official system
Mani - In the 4th and 5th centuries this heresy took a westward course and became dangerous to Christianity, finding a home especially in Proconsular Africa, where many of the educated classes embraced its teachings
Manichaeism - In the 4th and 5th centuries this heresy took a westward course and became dangerous to Christianity, finding a home especially in Proconsular Africa, where many of the educated classes embraced its teachings
Manichaeus - In the 4th and 5th centuries this heresy took a westward course and became dangerous to Christianity, finding a home especially in Proconsular Africa, where many of the educated classes embraced its teachings
león, Spain - Christianity was early introduced, and there were bishops in the 3century
Areopagus - The case of Paul, therefore, would naturally come before them, for he sought to subvert their whole system of idolatry, and establish Christianity in its place
Mohammedanism - It is made up of beliefs and practises taken from Arabian heathenism, Judaism, Christianity, Sabian Gnostics and Zoroaster
Carthage - From a very early date of the Christian era it was a flourishing seat of Christianity and the scene of several synods, c
Cross - 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity
Zenas - Though a convert to Christianity, and evidently a valued worker, he did not shake off his legalism completely; he favoured the Apollos type of preaching rather than the Pauline
Concubines - Christianity disallows such evil, and recognises the relationship as established of God, and hence the sanctity of the marriage tie in those whom God joins together
Stoics - But egotism and pride are at the root, whereas humility is at the foundation of Christianity
Illuminati (2) - They maintained that one Anthony Buckuet had a system of belief and practice revealed to him which exceeded every thing Christianity had yet been acquainted with: that by this method persons might in a short time arrive at the same degrees of perfection and glory to which the saints and the Blessed Virgin have attained; and this improvement might be carried on till our actions became divine, and our minds wholly given up to the influence of the Almighty
New Birth - The heavenly things of Christianity are spoken of subsequently in John 3 as the fruit of the cross, and the love of God, but there must be new birth as the foundation in man, whatever be the nature of the blessing proposed
Aerians - He is charged with being an Arian, or Semi-Arian; but the heaviest accusation against him is an attempt to reform the church; and, by rejecting prayers for the dead, with certain fasts and festivals then superstitiously observed, to reduce Christianity as nearly as possible "to its primitive simplicity; a purpose, indeed, laudable and noble," says Dr
Philemon - He calls him his fellow-labourer; and from that expression some have thought that he was bishop or deacon of the church at Colosse; but others have been of opinion, that he was only a private Christian, who had shown a zealous and active disposition in the cause of Christianity, without holding any ecclesiastical office
Manichaeism - In the 4th and 5th centuries this heresy took a westward course and became dangerous to Christianity, finding a home especially in Proconsular Africa, where many of the educated classes embraced its teachings
Remnant - ' In every crisis in the history of Israel there has been a remnant: this was seen in the time of Ahab (1 Kings 19:18 ), and so too in the introduction of Christianity (Luke 2:38 ), and that it will be so in the future is abundantly evident from the testimony of the prophets
Philippians, Epistle to - ...
The church at Philippi was the first-fruits of European Christianity. " It is plain that Christianity was at this time making rapid advancement in Rome
Therapeutae - But this is impossible; for Philo, who wrote before Christianity appeared in Egypt, speaks of this as an established sect. How long this sect continued is uncertain; but it is not improbable that, after the appearance of Christianity in Egypt, it soon became extinct
Lying - It is the glory of Christianity that this religion reveals ‘the God who cannot lie,’ ὁ ἀψευδὴς θεός (Titus 1:2), qui non mentitur Deus (Vulgate ). To the apostolic founders of Christianity the bare thought of being ever found false witnesses of God (ψευδομάρτυρες τοῦ θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 15:15) was intolerable
Business - Christianity introduced a new ideal in this respect. The notion that some trades were necessarily degraded was abolished by Christianity, and St
Titus, Epistle to - Then follows a summary of Christianity as a practical power in man, by the teaching of grace. They had been characterised by ungodliness, but the kindness and love of the Saviour-God having appeared, He according to His mercy had saved them by the washing of regeneration (the moral cleansing connected with the new order of things in Christianity: cf
Galatians, Letter to the - ...
The central portion of the letter shows how law-keeping has no place in Christianity. Law-keeping makes true Christianity impossible (5:1-12), but freedom under the direction of the Spirit produces Christian character (5:13-26)
Genealogies - As Judaism became politically impotent, it took to dreaming of the glories of the past, and there sprang up a ‘rank growth of legend respecting the patriarchs and other heroes’ (Hort, Judaistic Christianity, Cambridge and London, 1894, p. ...
For a time Judaism bitterly opposed the Church; then, entering it as Judaistic Christianity, it sought to capture the new movement, in the interests of a sect, by binding upon it the yoke of the Law, which Peter, in the Jerusalem Council, said ‘neither our fathers nor we were able to bear’ (Acts 15:10). Without raising the question of authorship, one may feel, on general considerations, that, in the interests of the Church, the question was a vital one-should Christianity be allowed to degenerate into a blend of Mosaism and Gentile philosophy or theosophy? Even in religious controversy, rank growths are not to be eradicated with a pair of tweezers
Slave - ...
Christianity does not begin by opposing the external system prevailing, but plants the seeds of love, universal brotherhood in Christ, communion of all in one redemption from God our common Father, which silently and surely undermines slavery. Paul's sending back Onesimus to Philemon does not sanction slavery as a compulsory system, for Onesimus went back of his own free will to a master whom Christianity had made into a brother. "If called, being a slave, to Christianity, be content; but yet, if also (besides spiritual freedom) thou canst be free (bodily, a still additional good, which if thou canst not attain be satisfied without, but which if offered despise not), use the opportunity of becoming free rather than remain a slave
Pharisees - To understand the Pharisees is an aid toward understanding the spirit of pure Christianity
Emblems - Some of these are here given:...
THE CROSS is the special symbol of Christianity
Baptism For the Dead - Vicarious baptisms for the benefit of the dead, practiced on the fringe of Christianity from the second century, illustrate the influence of this verse, but not Paul's meaning
Montanists - Montanes, it is said, embraced Christianity in hopes of rising to the dignities of the church
Cappadocia - Those converted to Christianity that day must have given a good witness when they returned home because in 1 Peter 1:1 believers there are mentioned along with others in Pontus
Eunice - Paul’s second visit to Lystra (Acts 16:1), she was probably converted to Christianity on the Apostle’s first visit to the town
Fall - It refers to one who has attached himself to Christianity as glasses are attached to the face, or as earrings are attached to the ears
Galenus, Physician - He belongs to church history only because of a few incidental words referring to Christianity that occur in his voluminous writings
Works - ...
The apostle Paul, in writing to Titus, insists strongly on good works, that Christianity might not be unfruitful
Vow - These selfimposed services were more in keeping with the ancient dispensation, in which outward sacrifices and observances had so large a share, than with enlightened Christianity
Proselyte - Many converts to Christianity were gathered from among them, John 12:20 Acts 6:5 13:43 17:4
Sadducees - Many members of the Sanhedrin were Sadducees, Acts 23:6-9 ; and so was the high priest in the time of Christ seems to have added bitterness to their hatred of Christianity, Acts 4:1 ; 5:17
Resurrection of Christ - This is the great central fact on the testimony of which the structure of Christianity has been reared
Convert - ) A person who is converted from one opinion or practice to another; a person who is won over to, or heartily embraces, a creed, religious system, or party, in which he has not previously believed; especially, one who turns from the controlling power of sin to that of holiness, or from unbelief to Christianity
Berlin, Germany, City of - The spread of Christianity and the development of civilization throughout the Mark may be attributed largely to the Teutonic Knights and the Cistercian monks
Haran - The worship of the moon-god at Haran appears to have long survived the introduction of Christianity
Lithuania - In the 13th century a Diocese of Lithuania, dependent directly on Rome, was created at the request of the ruler, Prince Mendog; he and his family had embraced Christianity, but reverted to paganism before missionary work had made much progress
Montanists - 156,shortly after his conversion to Christianity, proclaimed himself a prophet of the "Spirit
Sto'Ics - The ethical system of the Stoics has been commonly supposed to have a close connection with Christian morality; but the morality of stoicism is essentially based on pride, that of Christianity on humility; the one upholds individual independence, the other absolute faith in another; the one looks for consolation in the issue of fate, the other in Providence; the one is limited by Periods of cosmical ruin, the other is consummated in a personal resurrection
Strangled - Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, p
Syntyche - The names of both Euodia and Syntyche are found frequently, and there is no reason for supposing them to be allegorical names for Jewish and Gentile Christianity, as is done so arbitrarily by the Tübingen school
Crete - Christianity won its triumphs for truth and holiness even in such an unpromising soil
Catechising - Watts, the principles of Christianity are reduced into short sentences, and easier to be understood by children
Euchites - By degrees it become a general and invidious appellation for persons of eminent piety and zeal for genuine Christianity, who opposed the vicious practices and insolent tyranny of the priesthood, much in the same manner as the Latins comprehended all the adversaries of the Roman pontiff under the general terms of Albigenses and Waldenses
Fathers, the - It is pointed out inMilman's "Latin Christianity" that "The Eastern and the WesternChurch have each four authors of note, whom they recognize asFathers par excellence
Louis ix, Saint - He made numerous judicial and legislative reforms, and promoted Christianity in his kingdom by establishing religious foundations, aiding the Mendicant Orders, and propagating the synodal decrees of the Church
Ignorance - In the NT the difference between the ‘times of ignorance’ and the light of Christianity is recognized in Acts 17:30 (cf
Hungary - Christianity was introduced into the region in the 8th century when the greater part of Hungary was included in the Diocese of Esztergom, raised to metropolitan rank by Saint Stephen (c
Luke, Gospel of Saint - After making diligent inquiries of those who had seen and conversed with the Lord, he set down the life and teachings of Jesus as the sure foundation for the truth of Christianity (Luke 1:1-4)
Elder - Ecclesiastical elders or presbyters (from whence "priest" is contracted) of the Christian church were a class of church governors borrowed naturally from the synagogue; especially as cases occurred of whole synagogues and their officers embracing Christianity
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Azazel - Christianity itself can supply many analogies to such a proceeding
Greece - The Churches of Athens and Corinth were the most important, the latter being the first center of Christianity in Greece
Argentina - Christianity was introduced by the Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and today Catholicism is the established religion, required for the presidency, though freedom of worship is granted by the constitution to all others
Gospel of Saint Luke - After making diligent inquiries of those who had seen and conversed with the Lord, he set down the life and teachings of Jesus as the sure foundation for the truth of Christianity (Luke 1:1-4)
Eastern Church - That portion of the Christian church which prevails in the countries once comprised in the Eastern Roman Empire and the countries converted to Christianity by missionaries from them
Latitudinarian - ...
As to the doctrinal part of religion, they took the system of Episcopius for their model, and, like him, reduced the fundamental doctrines of Christianity to a few points; and by this manner of proceeding they endeavoured to show the contending parties, that they had no reason to oppose each other with such animosity and bitterness, since the subjects of their debates were matters of an indifferent nature with respect to salvation
Easter - After the introduction of Christianity among Germanic nations the name Easter, denoting spring, was retained to designate the festival of the Resurrection
Antioch - Christianity gained such strength there, that in the time of Chrysostom, who was born at Antioch, one-half of the 200,000 inhabitants of the city were Christians
Excommunication - Our Savior directs that such an offender be regarded "as heathen man and a publican;" and the apostles charge the church to "withdraw from" those who trouble them, and "keep no company with them," "no, not to eat;" but this is to be understood of those offices of civility and fraternity which a man is at liberty to pay or to withhold, and not of the indispensable duties of humanity, founded on nature, the law of nations, and the spirit of Christianity, 2 Thessalonians 3:6,15 2 John 1:10-11
New Moon - The observance of this festival was discontinued soon after the establishment of Christianity, Galatians 4:9,10 Colossians 2:16 , though the Jews take some notice of the day even now
Pentecost - On this occasion, as on the Passover seven weeks before, Judaism was at the same time honored and gloriously superseded by Christianity
Undivided Church - The reasonableness of this appeal will appearwhen we consider that it is this early age of Christianity, the agenearest to the time of the Apostles, which best preserved thepersonal instructions of the Twelve, which was most likely to be inaccord with the Will of our Lord and which maintained the Church'sunity unimpaired
Nicolaus, Bishop of Myra - 124, observes that Nicolaus has taken the place of Poseidon in Oriental Christianity
Damascus - ...
The great persecutor of the early Christians, Paul, was converted to Christianity while on the way to Damascus (Acts 9:1-19)
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Thessalo'Nians, First Epistle to the, - Paul's writings --perhaps the earliest written records of Christianity. ...
Many of the distinctive doctrines of Christianity were yet not evolved and distinctly enunciated till the needs of the Church drew them out into prominence at a later date
Vengeance - ...
In the ethics of Christianity the Golden Rule solves the problem of private and personal revenge. ’...
Punishment, if it is to carry any moral weight, must involve the vindication of law, and consequently the new ethic of Christianity which controlled the conduct of the Apostolic Church is based on love, which rules out of revenge the element of private and personal malevolence (see some cogent remarks by J
Sepulchre - "...
Indeed as a confirmation to this, it is well known that the emperor Adrian, the bitter enemy of Christianity, in contempt to Christ, caused an image of heathenish idolatry to be erected in those hallowed spots where Jesus was born, and another where he was crucified, and a third at his speulchre. And all these continued to the days of Constantine, when the whole empire becoming professors of Christianity, the images were then removed, and churches built in their place
Friends - ...
The true Friends are orthodox, as to the leading doctrines of Christianity, but express themselves in peculiar phrases. The latter are considered as having departed from the original doctrines of the Friends, and very far from the leading doctrines of Christianity, as held by Protestant Christians in general
Mary - In contemporary Christianity, the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches embrace these doctrines, while most Protestant churches do not. Acts 1:14 indicates that Mary was present, along with other hero figures of early Christianity, in the upper room scene in Jerusalem. A tradition, especially prevalent in western Christianity from about A
Italy - The founders of Christianity were not so greatly influenced by Italian as by Hebraic and Hellenic ideals. ...
Some of the cities of Italy-certainly Rome and Puteoli, and probably others, though there is no definite information on the point-had felt the presence of Judaism before they were offered Christianity. On the contrary, the phrase implies that the author was absent from and writing to Italy, while there were in his company natives of Italy who had embraced Christianity, and who desired to be remembered to their believing compatriots in some part of the home-land
Augustinus, Archbaptist of Canterbury - At last Ethelbert avowed himself ready to accept Christianity, and was baptized on Whitsunday, June 2, 597, probably at St. Moreover, whenever Christianity had extended to York, he was to place there also a metropolitan with a like number of bishops under him. At the same time, through the connexion of the same monarch with the king of Essex, who was his nephew, Christianity found its way into the adjacent kingdom, and the archbishop was able to place Mellitus in the see of London, where Ethelbert built a church, dedicated to St. of Latin Christianity , ii. Christianity
Fornication - Christianity regards fornication and adultery alike as sinful. Christianity never formed itself into a ghetto, and so the danger of moral pollution was always present. Attitude of Christianity towards fornication. -Christianity opposed fornication in every form, not only overt acts but even lustful thoughts. Uhlhorn, The Conflict of Christianity, Eng
Drunkenness - ...
It was Gentile rather than Jewish wine-drinking habits that Apostolic Christianity had to combat, and Bacchus (Dionysus) was notoriously one of the most powerful of the gods of Greece and Home. ’ Christianity goes to work in a wholly different manner. ’ Yet even Omar Khayyam, after all his praise of the Vine, is obliged to confess that he has ‘drowned his glory in a shallow cup’; and, in the light of Christianity, drunkenness stands condemned as a sin against the body which is a ‘member of Christ. ’...
Christianity is a religion of principles, not of rules, and in Romans 14:21 St. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, p
Nero, Claudius Caesar - During his early reign Christianity was unmolested and seems to have spread rapidly at Rome. After describing the origin of Christianity he proceeds: "First were arrested those who confessed, then on their information a vast multitude was convicted, not so much on the charge of arson as for their hatred of the human race. The ambiguity of Tacitus leaves it doubtful whether those first arrested " confessed Christianity" or "confessed they were guilty of the burning. Paul shew how easily an outbreak of popular fury might be excited by Jews or heathens, who, either on religious or private grounds, were hostile to the new doctrine, and how easily in such an outbreak a conspicuous Christian might be murdered without any state edict against Christianity, or without the public authorities interfering at all, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that, when Nero set the example of persecution, many provincial magistrates would take a harsher view than previously of the case of any Christian brought before them. Hitherto the attitude of state officials to Christianity had on the whole been favourable; at worst they treated it with contemptuous indifference
Neology - Bretschneider, "admit universally in Christianity, a divine, benevolent, and positive appointment for the good of mankind, and Jesus as a messenger of Divine Providence, believing that the true and everlasting word of God is contained in the Holy Scripture, and that by the same the welfare of mankind will be obtained and extended. But they deny therein a supernatural and miraculous working of God, and consider the object of Christianity to be that of introducing into the world such a religion as reason can comprehend; and they distinguish the essential from the unessential, and what is local and temporary from that which is universal and permanent in Christianity. They affect to allow a revealing operation of God, but establish on internal proofs rather than on miracles the divine nature of Christianity. This is what that division of rationalists, which professes to receive Christianity, and at the same time to make reason the supreme arbiter in matters of faith, has done. What can be said for the heart which could suppose that the founders of Christianity could have taught the sublime and holy doctrines of the Gospel with a lie in their hearts and on their lips? or for the intellect which could believe that ambitious and designing men would encounter years of poverty, and shame, and danger, with no prospect but that of an ignominious death? But where the supernatural and miraculous accounts were not rejected, they were, by many of the most eminent of these writers, explained away by a monstrous ingenuity, which, on any other subject, and applied to any ancient classic or other writer, would provoke the most contemptuous ridicule. The first authors may hold the mysteries of Christianity sacred; they may fancy that they can render faith in them more easy by affecting demonstrative evidence, which, indeed, were the subjects capable of it, would render faith unnecessary; but they are equally guilty of a vain presumption in their own powers, and of a want of real reverence to God, and to his revelation. By carrying demonstrative evidence beyond its own province, they had nurtured in their followers a vain confidence in human reason; and the next and still more fatal step was, that it was the province of human reason in an enlightened and intellectual age to perfect Christianity, which, it was contended, had hitherto existed in a low and degraded state, and to perfect that system of which the elements only were contained in the Scripture. Rose, became "the most formidable weapon ever devised for the destruction of Christianity. " As far as Germany is concerned, this language is not too strong; and we may add, that it was the most impudent theory ever advocated by men professing still to be Christians, and one, the avowal of which can scarcely be accounted for, except on the ground, that as, because of their interests, it was not convenient for these teachers of theology and ministers of the German churches to disavow Christianity altogether; it was devised and maintained, in order to connect the profits of the Christian profession with substantial and almost undisguised deism. This theory was, that we are not to take all the declarations of Scripture as addressed to us; but to consider them as, in many points, purposely adapted to the feelings and dispositions of the age when they originated: but by no means to be received by another and more enlightened period; that, in fact, Jesus himself and his Apostles had accommodated themselves in their doctrines to the barbarism, ignorance, and prejudices of the Jews; and that it was therefore our duty to reject the whole of this temporary part of Christianity, and retain only what is substantial and eternal. Undisguised infidelity has in no country treated the grand evidences of the truth of Christianity with greater contumely, or been more offensive in its attacks upon the prophets, or more ridiculous in its attempts to account, on natural principles, for the miracles. Nor does it appear less a subject of blame, that various theological τοποι , and those the very chief, are here altogether omitted; that every thing is choked with the thorns of scholasticism; and that divine truths are often made secondary to the zeal for authority: nor is there sufficient reference to the language of the symbolical books, to the promotion of the peace of the church, to the exhibition of what is of real importance in controverted points, and of the unreality of the mere logomachies, with which all theology abounds; nor again, to destroy theological pedantry and a sectarian spirit, or to treat the subjects themselves in a style becoming to them: but most of all, sufficient pains are not bestowed upon that which is of chief importance, the building up the kingdom of God in the hearts of men, and the influencing their hearts more thoroughly with vivid conceptions of true Christianity. It is from a pamphlet of Bretschneider, published in 1822, and the substance is, "Indifference to religion among all classes; that formerly the Bible used to be in every house, but now the people either do not possess it, or, as formerly, read it; that few attend the churches, which are now too large, though fifty years ago they were too small; that few honour the Sabbath; that there are now few students of theology, compared with those in law and medicine; that if things go on, there will shortly not be persons to supply the various ecclesiastical offices; that preaching had fallen into contempt; and that distrust and suspicion of the doctrines of Christianity prevailed among all classes. Tittman of Dresden, on the neological interpreters: "What is the interpretation of the Scriptures, if it relies not on words, but things, not on the assistance of languages, but on the decrees of reason, that is, of modern philosophy? What is all religion, what the knowledge of divine things, what are faith and hope placed in Christ, what is all Christianity, if human reason and philosophy is the only fountain of divine wisdom, and the supreme judge in the matter of religion? What is the doctrine of Christ and the Apostles more than some philosophical system? But what, then, I pray you, is, to deny, to blaspheme Jesus the Lord, to render his divine mission doubtful, nay, vain and useless, to impugn his doctrine, to disfigure it shamefully, to attack it, to expose it to ridicule, and, if possible, to suppress it, to remove all Christianity out of religion, and to bound religion within the narrow limits of reason alone, to deride miracles, and hold them up to derision, to accuse them as vain, to bring them into disrepute, to torture sacred Scripture into seeming agreement with the fancies of human wisdom, to alloy it with human conjectures, to bring it into contempt, and to break down its divine authority, to undermine, to shake, to overthrow utterly the foundations of Christian faith? What else can be the event than this, as all history, a most weighty witness in this matter, informs us, namely, that when sacred Scripture, its grammatical interpretation and a sound knowledge of languages are, as it were, despised and banished, all religion should be contemned, shaken, corrupted, troubled, undermined, utterly overturned, and should be entirely removed and reduced to natural religion; or that it should end in a mystical theology, than which nothing was ever more pernicious to the Christian doctrine, and be converted into an empty μυχιλαγε , or even into a poetical system, hiding every thing in figures and fictions, to which latter system not a few of the sacred orators and theologians of our time seem chiefly inclined
Miracles - ...
A grand distinction peculiar to Christianity is, it won the world to it in an age of high civilization, through a few preachers of humble position, on the evidence of miracles. Early Christian writers, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Origen, occasionally appeal to miracles in proof of Christianity; but state that their pagan opponents, admitting the facts, attributed them to magic; which accounts for the fewness of their references to miracles. The early Christian apologists allege in support of Christianity:...
(1) the greatness, number, completeness, and publicity of the miracles;...
(2) the beneficial tendency of the doctrine;...
(3) the connection of the miracles with prophecy and the whole scheme of redemption from Adam to Christ. The holy character of Christ and His apostles, and the tendency of Christianity to promote truth and virtue, are against the origination of the miracles from evil spirits or jugglery. Christianity being once proved and attested to us, the analogy of God's dealings leads us to expect He would leave it to make its way by ordinary means; the edifice being erected, the scaffolding is taken down; perpetual miracle is contrary to His ways. ...
(4) Not naked history, but the history combined with the institution and with the religion of our day, as also with the time and place of the miracle recorded and of Christianity's origin. (Paley, Evidences of Christianity. The "experience" of the witnesses for Christianity attests the truth of miracles. "In whatever degree it is probable that a revelation should be communicated to mankind at all, in the same degree is it probable that miracles should be wrought" (Paley, Evidences of Christianity). The argument is the other way, namely, since palpably false religions were propped up by false miracles a pure religion like Christianity is not likely to rest on false miracles. Besides the evidential value of miracles, they are intimately and internally connected with Christianity as a new creation springing from God manifest in the flesh. The history and separate existence of the Israelite church (the sole instance of a pure theism in the ancient world) it is impossible to explain without accepting the miracles which the same Scripture records; so Christianity and Christendom can only be explained by accepting the miracles which introduced them. If the incarnation be denied, Christianity's existence is an effect without an adequate cause; grant the incarnation, and miracles are its necessary concomitant and natural consequence. The prophecies, the morality, the structure of the Bible, and Christianity's conquest of the Roman world and its public establishment about 300 years after the execution of its Founder as a malefactor, similarly confirm the miracles which attest to its divinity. The hostility of the Jewish nation to Christianity confirms the gospel miracles
Wisdom - All these influence the conception of Wisdom as it crosses the path of apostolic Christianity. It was not easy for Hellenic thought to fit itself to the new faith whose centre was a Cross, and one can sympathize with, or at least understand, men of an intellectual type who honestly thought they were doing a service to the good cause in presenting Christianity as a σοφία, and proclaiming its message in terms of the philosophy of the day. ‘When [3] eccentric teachers inculcated views which threatened to transform Christianity, to alter, as it were, its centre of gravity, or to pivot it on some new axis, resistance was instinctive’ (R. ...
Denney in illustration of this point instances a Hindu Society which had for its object to appropriate all that was good in Christianity without burdening itself with the rest. They were acute enough to see that in the words they left out the whole Christianity of the definition lay’ (Studies in Theology, London, 1894, p. ‘There is nothing esoteric in Christianity, but the presentation of it has to be adapted to the capacities of those who are taught’ (J. Humanism versus Christianity. ‘If our connection with Christianity is nothing better than a mixture of captious criticism and transient enthusiasm, with a dash of graceful posing thrown in, we are in danger … of just playing with Christ’s religion-playing, too, in the marketplace, surrounded by the realities of life and death, where business has to be done with God. The victory over the world has never been with ‘moonlight theology’ or ‘extra-mural Christianity. If a system is to be judged by its fruits, if a method of preaching is to be so judged, one may well endorse the words, ‘I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God’ (Romans 1:16) If Humanism and Christianity be placed on their trial as instruments for the regeneration of the mass of mankind, Christianity has no need to blush for its record, while philosophy, as regards the mass of mankind, has been a light only to itself and an ornament. … It is the forgetfulness of this psychological law which stultifies the so-called liberal Christianity
Christian (the Name) - The Christianity he knew was overwhelmingly a Gentile Christianity, and in Acts 11:26 he is keen to mark its debut, as well as to suggest that the name ‘Christian’ was primarily and principally applied to Gentile Christians. Christianity speaks Greek, and is now finally launched into that great vortex of the Greek and Roman world which it will never leave. martyrs’ literature, which shows how Christianity was treated as a forbidden or illicit religion, hostile to the national cult, and therefore exposing any of its adherents, without further question, to the punishment of death. When people were accused of Christianity, he writes, ‘I asked them personally whether they were Christians; if they confessed it, I asked them a second and a third time, threatening them with punishment. Christianity, ipso facto, was a challenge to these deities. And he usually employs ‘Christianity’ (which first occurs in his Epistles, cf. One is the frank denial, by Strauss and others, of any right, upon the part of modern Christians, to the title in question (see an uncompromising article in the Fortnightly Review, March 1873, entitled ‘Are we yet Christians?’), presupposing that the Apostles’ Creed is the norm of Christianity
Acts, Book of - ...
Luke wrote for a person named Theophilus, with the purpose of giving Theophilus an account of Christianity from the birth of its founder to the arrival of its greatest apostle in Rome (Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1-2). Whether he was or not, there is no doubt that at the time Luke wrote his Gospel and Acts (in the early AD 60s), the Roman government was paying increasing attention to Christianity. Luke is therefore concerned to point out that Christianity was not in any way rebellious to Roman rule and was not a threat to law and order. Christianity was not an illegal religion according to Roman law
Greece - When Christianity arose, it had Greek, which many linguists call the most flexible language ever devised, as a vehicle to spread its concepts. ...
The Greek influence on the New Testament and Christianity is immeasurable. Both gained from the relationship with people being transformed by the gospel and Christianity gaining a vehicle for its spread
Art - Christianity grew up in these surroundings, and did not find any fault with them. ...
But, if we would find in the NT the final argument in favour of art, we must turn, as Westcott says in his great essay on the subject, to the central message of Christianity—the Word became flesh. Here is the justification and the sanctification of all that is truly human: Christianity embraces all life, and ‘the inspiration of the new birth extends to every human interest and faculty. ’ The office of art, Westcott continues, is ‘to present the truth of things under the aspect of beauty’: the effect of Christianity upon art is that of ‘a new birth, a transfiguration of all human powers by the revelation of their divine connexions and destiny’; and thus ‘Christian art is the interpretation of beauty in life under the light of the Incarnation. ’...
Westcott, however, assumes an ‘antagonism of early Christians to contemporary art,’ and points to the central message of Christianity as establishing a reconciliation between supposed ‘elements of contrast. ’ Was there, we must ask any such antagonism as a matter of history? When Westcott wrote, Christian archaeology was still in its infancy; much that we now have was still undiscovered, and that which was known was uncertain in date and inaccurately reproduced; notions still held the field which have since been disproved, as, for instance, that which credits the early Church with the wanton destruction of pagan monuments, when, as a matter of fact, the ancient Roman temples were, after the triumph of Christianity, long kept in repair at the expense of the Christian State, as the chief glory of the city. ...
The question is of great importance, for modern writers frequently condemn Christianity because of its supposed depreciation of humanity. Thus the natural scientist Metchnikoff—writing, as people do, about matters which are outside his province—declares in The Nature of Man that Christianity lowered our conception of human nature, and gives as evidence this statement:—‘Sculpture, which played so great a part in the ancient world, and which was intimately associated with Greek ideals, began to decline in the Christian era,’—the real truth being, as we shall see, that sculpture had been declining for several generations in pagan hands, and that Christian artists did what they could with the decadent craft. ...
Now Westcott himself states that ‘the literary evidence is extremely scanty’ as regards the relation of Christianity to art; and, writing twenty-two years later, we may add that archaeological evidence all points in the opposite direction to that which he supposed. ...
If we wish to find a condemnation of art as such, we must turn not to Christianity, but to pre-Christian philosophy, and—in spite of all that has been said about the opposition between Hebraism and Hellenism—not to a Jewish but to a Greek writer. ...
The decline of Western art in what are called the Dark Ages is often attributed to Christianity and its supposed hatred of human nature. The truth is, that while Byzantium maintained a high culture far better and longer than used to be supposed, the whole Roman civilization well-nigh disappeared under the invasions of the northern races; these peoples were converted and gradually civilized by Christianity, and, as their civilization grew up, their art developed from the barbaric stage till it culminated in the perfection of Gothic. That art in its development had the limitations of the young races; it developed more rapidly in architecture and architectural carving than in painting or statuary; but all this has nothing to do with Christianity, as writers like Taine suppose—‘If one considers the stained glass windows, or the windows in the cathedrals, or the rude paintings, it appears as if the human race had become degenerate, and its blood had been impoverished: pale saints, distorted martyrs, hermits withered and unsubstantial,’ etc. ...
Beyond this it is not necessary to go, since we are not dealing with the history of art in general, but only with the relation between it and Christianity. It has been necessary to sketch the beginnings because of the widespread idea that Christianity started with an aversion to the fine arts, and was reconciled to them only as worldliness increased upon her
Communion of the Saints - The sheep of Jesus flock together; the social element is the genius of Christianity
Flavius Valerius Constantinus - He adorned the churches magnificently, and strictly obeyed the precepts of Christianity
Mark, Gospel of Saint - The Gospel was written in Greek between the years 50,60, and was addressed to Roman converts to Christianity
Blasphemy - are offences by the common law, and punishable by fine, imprisonment, and pillory; and, by the statute law, he that denies one of the persons in the Trinity, or asserts that there are more than one God, or denies Christianity to be true, for the first offence is rendered incapable of any office; for the second, adjudged incapable of suing, being executor or guardian, receiving any gift or legacy, and to be imprisoned for years
Dispensation - the encouragements and persuasive helps which Christianity gives us to fulfil the duties of the covenant, are much superior to those which were enjoyed under any of the former dispensations
War - ’ While, therefore, Jesus Christ did not condemn war in the abstract, the whole spirit of Christianity is against it (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible , art
Crete, Cretans - When and by whom Christianity was planted in Crete cannot be said
Indolence - —The spirit of Christ’s religion is inimical to indolence in the sphere of business (Luke 16:11, Matthew 24:48; Matthew 23:26), but more especially indolent Christianity is salt without savour (Matthew 5:13)
Jealousy - ), and exult over (κατακαυχᾶσθε) every petty triumph achieved, are an antithesis of Christianity, a lying against the truth (James 3:14)
Plant - ) To introduce and establish the principles or seeds of; as, to plant Christianity among the heathen
Great, Constantine the - He adorned the churches magnificently, and strictly obeyed the precepts of Christianity
Vail, Veil - In Christianity the believer has boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way which He has consecrated for us through the veil, that is to say, His flesh
Cilicia - By the time of the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:1 ), Christianity had already penetrated Cilicia
Christmas - When Christianity became the religion of the Empire, the church either had to suppress the festivals or transform them
Stephen - His speech in his own defense, probably recorded only in part, shows historically that the opponents of Christianity were but the children and imitators of those who had always opposed true religion
Sacramental Confession - That confession was regarded even from the first ages of Christianity as a necessary condition for the pardon of sins committed after Baptism is attested in the writings of the early Fathers, e
Revenge - According to modern usage, a malicious or spiteful infliction of pain or injury, contrary to the laws of justice and Christianity, in return for an injury or offense
Pisidia - There is no evidence that Christianity made any progress in Pisidia before the time of Constantine
Laodice'a - Christianity was introduced into Laodicea, not, however, as it would seem, through the direct agency of St
Hymns - The first hymn mentioned in the annals of Christianity wasthat sung by the angels at the Birth of our Lord, from which we havethe Gloria in Excelsis, and the second was that sung by our Lordand His Apostles immediately after the Last Supper in the upperroom, known as the Hallel
Good Friday - The observance of Good Fridayis inwoven into the very texture of the Christian Religion, havingbeen kept from the very first age of Christianity with strictestfasting and humiliation
Thomas Edessenus - The latter, originally Magian by religion, was converted to Christianity, learnt Syriac at Nisibis, and Greek at Edessa from Thomas a Jacobite, whom he afterwards took with him to Alexandria and there with his help translated the Scriptures ( or , the books) from Greek into Syriac (Gregory Bar-hebr
Tyre - The coming of Christianity to Tyre was foreshadowed when many of its inhabitants journeyed to Galilee to see the Prophet of Nazareth, and when He returned their visit (Mark 3:8, Luke 6:17, Mark 7:24, Matthew 15:21). On the beach there was enacted a sacred and pathetic scene very similar to the one at Miletus (20:36-38), and with this the story of nascent Christianity in Tyre suddenly ends
Hierapolis - ...
In such an environment Christianity had to contend not merely with a superficial Hellenic culture, but with a deep-rooted native superstition. John is also believed to have preached at Hierapolis, and the progress of Christianity there was represented as the victory over the Echidna or serpent of aesculapius, which was identified with Satan
Fable - Newman, ‘was the conflict of Christianity with the old established Paganism; with the Oriental Mysteries, flitting wildly to and fro like spectres’ (Development of Christian Doctrine, 1878, p. In 2 Peter 1:15 the writer is replying to a taunt by which the opponents of Christianity tried to turn the tables on the teachers of the Faith
Gos'Pels - He places the life and character of Jesus, as lived on earth, alongside the life and character of the Messiah, as sketched in the prophets, showing Christianity as the fulfillment of Judaism. It is the gospel of the future, of progressive Christianity, of reason and culture seeking the perfection of manhood
Sozomen, Author of a History - His family belonged to Bethelia, a small town near Gaza in Palestine, where his grandfather had been one of the first to embrace Christianity. He believed in Christianity, and even in the more ascetic forms of it, with a genuine faith, "for I would neither," he says, "be considered ungracious, and willing to consign their virtue [1] to oblivion, nor yet be thought ignorant of their history; but I would wish to leave behind me such a record of their manner of life that others, led by their example, might attain to a blessed and happy end" (i
Antichrist - It is not, however, an idea original to Christianity, but an adaptation of Jewish conceptions which, as Bousset has shown (The Antichrist Legend), had developed before the time of Christ into a full-grown Antichrist legend of a hostile counterpart of the Messiah who would make war against Him but whom He would finally overthrow. The NT references to the subject cannot be rightly appreciated without some previous consideration of the corresponding ideas that were present in Judaism before they were taken over by Christianity. -Deriving from Judaism, Christianity would naturally carry the Antichrist tradition with it as part of its inheritance. But, so far as the NT is concerned, the earlier Antichrist tradition is taken over with important changes, due to the differences between Judaism and Christianity, and especially to the differences in their conception of the Messiah Himself. ), and its form is an adaptation to Christianity of the ideas and imagery of those Jewish Apocalypses, from Daniel onwards, which were chiefly responsible for the growth of the Christian Antichrist conception. But to these pre-Christian forms of the Antichrist tradition-the dragon, Satan, and a hostile world-power-the Apocalypse contributes two others which are peculiar to Christianity and which play a large part in the Christian tradition of later times. To the Apocalyptist, writing to a Church which had known Nero’s cruelty and now under Domitian was passing through the flames once more, Antichrist was the Roman Empire represented by a ruler who was hostile to Christianity because it refused to worship him as a god. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Eng
False Worship - The world of the first century was filled with religions other than Judaism and Christianity. In late New Testament times and the years following, Mithraism became the primary competitor with Christianity. This pagan worship of Mithra, represented by sol invictus (the invincible sun) was a powerful challenge to Christianity
Establishments - ...
Religious establishments, also, it is observed, and founded in the nature of man, and interwoven with all the constituent principles of human society: the knowledge and profession of Christianity cannot be upheld without a clergy; a clergy cannot be supported without a legal provision; and a legal provision for the clergy cannot be constituted without the preference of one sect of Christians to the rest. In the three first and purest ages of Christianity, the church was a stranger to any alliance with temporal powers; and, so far from needing their aid, religion never flourished so much as while they were combined to suppress it. As to the support which Christianity, when united to civil government yields to the peace and good order of society, it is observed, that this benefit will be derived from it, at least, in as great a degree without an establishment as with it
Scythian - 28), in extolling Christianity, refers to its having room for Scythians and Persians, the ferocity of the former and the licentiousness of the latter being notorious, while the pseudo-Lucian (Philopatris, 17) satirizes Christianity for suggesting that Scythians should have any place in heaven. The opponents of Christianity, such as Celsus and the pseudo-Lucian, could not understand a religion which had a place for those so low in the scale of humanity as the Scythians
Hatred - Christianity is amor generis humani. John’s judgment of that profession of Christianity which is not attested by love: ‘He that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in the darkness even until now’ (1 John 2:9). Into a world dominated by such ideas Christianity brought that enthusiasm of humanity which is the reflexion of Christ’s own redeeming love
Antichrist - This general conception, which played an important rôle in early Christianity, was probably due to the synthesis of at least five factors, each independent in origin. see) became the typical (Jewish) prophet and magician who opposed Christianity. ...
Thus in Christian literature that fusion of the elements of the Antichrist idea which were present in Judaism and later Christianity is completed by the addition of the traits of the false prophet, and extended under the influence of the current polemic against Jewish Messianism
Fellowship - Nothing is so prominent in early Christianity as its sense of fellowship. Christianity is called a brotherhood (1 Peter 2:17; 1 Peter 5:9; 1 Peter 5:1 Clem. By these means early Christianity showed itself to be a social power far surpassing all rival organizations and religions
Philemon, Epistle to - Apart from this, the dogmatic interest lies in its illustration of Christianity at work . 321): if it is, it is rather that Onesimus may be permitted to return to continue his ministry to the imprisoned Apostle than that Christianity, as he conceives it, forbids slavery. Christians long and strenuously defended It: Christianity, and not least this letter, destroyed it
Theophilus (2) - Some critics still hold that Theophilus was simply a pagan interested in Christianity. Besides, such a title need not have been incongruous with Christianity. Luke upon the relation of the Church to the Empire, and the repeated connexions which he suggests between the political affairs of the age and the progress of Christianity (cf. Still less probable is the conjecture that the absence of the title in Acts 1:1 denotes the conversion of Theophilus to Christianity since Luke 1:3 had been written
Heathen - It was long believed to have come from the Gothic haiþi, ‘heath,’ and to have denoted the ‘dwellers on the heath,’ who, on the introduction of Christianity, stood out longest in their adherence to the ancient deities (cf. ’ The application of this word to non-Christians was long thought to be due to the fact that ‘the ancient idolatry lingered on in the rural villages and hamlets [3] after Christianity had been generally accepted in the towns and cities of the Roman Empire’ (OED Aquila And Priscilla - Thus Harnack describes them as ‘Prisca the missionary, with her husband Aquila’ (Expansion of Christianity2, i. It is probable, therefore, that Aquila and Priscilla had been influenced in Rome by Christian teaching, though it cannot be decided whether they were already converts to Christianity. Paul lodged with Aquila and Priscilla in Corinth; but their favourable attitude to Christianity must have been a strong inducement on both sides. ]'>[2] ) came to Ephesus, with his imperfect apprehension of Christianity. Harnack, Expansion of Christianity2, do. Primitive Christianity, i
Fulness of the Time - So far, therefore, both at home and abroad the Jewish people had fulfilled their mission in the moral and religious preparation of the world for the entrance of Christianity. ...
But while thus stimulating intellectual receptiveness everywhere, the most important contribution of the Greeks in the preparation for Christianity was the universal prevalence they gained for their rich and expressive language, inasmuch as by this they supplied a common vehicle of intercourse, calculated to be of immense advantage in the announcement and promulgation of the Christian Evangel. ...
It is worthy of note also that the little country of Palestine, where the Founder of Christianity was to appear, lay at the very centre of the then known world; and in view of the fact that through the provision of a common language and free means of movement and intercourse the avenues of access were opened to every land, it becomes clear that the most signal facilities were afforded for the dissemination of a faith that was destined to wield a world-wide power. ‘Roman Empire’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible; Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity (English translation 1903), i
Culdees - It is more than probable that Christianity had found its way into Scotland before the close of the second century; and that it continued to be professed by a few scattered individuals even before the arrival of Ninian, in the beginning of the fifth. 521; and, after founding many seminaries of religion there, prompted by zeal for the propagation of Christianity, set sail for Scotland with twelve companions. " It is a singular fact, that those who were first acknowledged as bishops in the northern parts of England, and were indeed instrumental in the introduction of Christianity there, were not only trained up at Iona, but received all their authority from the council of seniors in that island. From the testimony of Bede, it is evident that by means of Scottish missionaries, or of those whom they had instructed and ordained, not only the Northumbrians, but the Middle- Angles, the Mercians and East-Saxons, all the way to the river Thames, that is, the inhabitants of by far the greatest part of the country now called England, were converted to Christianity; and for some time acknowledged subjection to the ecclesiastical government of the Scots
Philemon Epistle to - Incidental instruction...
(1) Christianity and slavery. -We have in this letter an illustration of the two-fold relation of primitive Christianity to slavery. Christianity, moreover, has delivered from moral as well as from material bondage; from the bondage of spiritual ignorance and from subjection to sinful tastes and habits. ...
(2) This Epistle illustrates the refining influence of Christianity. For Christianity and slavery, see W
Pharisees - Pharisaism and Christianity. -In saying what was the attitude of Pharisees to Christianity, we are in danger of arguing from isolated and therefore perhaps exceptional cases. ...
When we remember that the Pharisees with all their faults were the leaders of Jewish piety, and the orthodox theologians, it is clear that it is difficult to overestimate the part they played in preparing the way for Christianity. Paul was a Pharisee of the Pharisees, and what would Christianity have been but for him? It was the Pharisees who settled the OT canon, and the Christian Church accepted it. The Pharisaism of the best period, when it was a progressive, democratic, missionary movement, became the inheritance of Christianity
Ephesians, Book of - ”...
Paul and the Ephesians Precise information on the introduction of Christianity to Ephesus is not available. From Acts 13:1-14:28 we know Christianity was introduced to the Asian peninsula early. 45-48, established Christianity in Cilicia, Pamphylia, and Phrygia. , what was the apostle's motive for writing? His motive was the challenge which Christianity faced in confrontation with other religions and philosophies of the day. ” Even in Judaism, the cradle in which it was born, Christianity faced that aggressive encounter. He offered instead Christianity as a religion of divine provision, salvation by faith in God's providing what humans could never attain. ...
That distinction was also what brought Christianity into conflict with Greek philosophy and with the Greco-Roman nature religions
Heshbon - ), at which time its population embraced Christianity
Acts of the Apostles - In his gospel, Luke described the founding of Christianity in what Christ did, taught, and suffered; in the Acts he illustrates its diffusion, selecting what was best fitted to show how the first followers of Christ in building up his church
Delegate, Apostolic - Hence we find the exercise of this right contemporary with the freedom and spread of Christianity
Tiberias - ...
Constantine built a church and established a bishopric at Tiberias, but Christianity never flourished there
Kabbala - It has often erroneously been used as an argument to induce Jews to accept Christianity
Lycia - But it appears to have been one of the last parts of Asia Minor to accept Christianity
Stephanas - Moreover, the baptism of a household marked a real footing gained by Christianity in the city
Apion - ...
(ii) It is not surprising that the spent wave of this antagonism should have overflowed on Judaic Christianity
Peter, Second Epistle of - ...
But before the kingdom could be displayed, it was necessary that the corruption of Christianity, which had already set in, should be complete and the course and climax of this corruption are vividly portrayed in 2 Peter 2
Apostolic Delegate - Hence we find the exercise of this right contemporary with the freedom and spread of Christianity
Conduct - Christianity has humanized the conduct of war
Isdigerdes ii, King of Persia - This document, also extant, is a lengthened apology for Christianity and contains a detailed confession of faith, with a resolution of adhering to it couched in these terms: "Do thou therefore inquire of us no further concerning these things, for our belief originates not with man
Copts - At present, however, little more than the mere shadow of Christianity can be seen in Egypt; and, in point of numbers, not more than fifty thousand Christians in all can be found in this country
Bourignonists - She conceived herself to be divinely called, and set apart to revive the true spirit of Christianity that had been extinguished by theological animosities and debates
Rome - 325, when Christianity was established as the religion of the empire
Circumcision - ...
Disputes as to the observances of this rite by the converts from heathenism to Christianity occasioned much trouble in the early church, Acts 15:1-41 ; and it was long before it was well understood that "in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature," Galatians 5:2,3 6:15
Galilee - Many of the apostles and first converts to Christianity were men of Galilee, Acts 1:11 2:7 , as well as Christ himself; and the name Galilean was often given as an insult, both to him and his followers
Principles - That there is an immense difference between the ἀρχή and the τέλος of Christianity; that Jesus is not only the Beginner but the Perfecter of our faith (ἀρχηγὸν καὶ τελειωτὴν, Hebrews 12:2)-these are the truths he wishes to drive home
Merlinus - Columba to Christianity
Patroclus, Bishop of Arles - On the ground that Arles was the fountain-head of Gallic Christianity, the pope confirmed to the see all parishes it had ever held, whether within the province or not, and gave Patroclus exclusive rights of ordination over the independent provinces of Vienne, Narbonensis Prima, and Narbonensis Secunda, and deposed Proculus, bp
Phocas, of Sinope - He states that Phocas was an honest and industrious gardener at Sinope, a convert to Christianity, and exceedingly hospitable to strangers
Probus, Sextus Anicius Petronius - It may be owing to his Christianity that Ammianus (xxvii
Theodelinda, Queen of the Lombards - The Lombards, like the other Teutonic nations, except the Franks, had received Christianity under an Arian form, to which they still adhered
Judge - Cases may arise, however, where Christians feel they should demand their legal rights in order to clear Christianity of false accusations (Acts 16:36-39; Acts 22:25; Acts 25:10-11)
America (Land) - 985,and the discovery of Vinland is ascribed to Leif, son of Eric, on his way back to Norway from Greenland where he had been sent by King Olaf of Norway to introduce Christianity (c. ...
The first French colony was established in 1534 at the mouth of the Saint Lawrence explored by Champlain, the first permanent settlement at Quebec in 1608, and French power in Canada was strengthened by the Jesuits, who strove to win the Iroquois to Christianity and friendship with France
Charities - Only under the later emperors do we find the first public charities, the support of poor children, under Nerva and TraJanuary ...
Historians admit the great change introduced by Christianity. In a word, the social work of our naturalistic age inherits from early and medieval Christianity its spirit, its ideals, and much of its actual working
Church of England - When and by whom Christianity was first introduced into Britain cannot perhaps be exactly ascertained. On the subject of the first introduction of Christianity into Britain, see the 1st vol
Shepherd - Lundy, Monumental Christianity, New York, 1876, pp. 26), and later on in Protestant Christianity of the minister of the Church in general
Martyr - ) Yet we may consider the number and fortitude of those who have suffered for Christianity as a collateral proof at least of its excellency; for the thing for which they suffered was not a point of speculation, but a plain matter of fact, in which (had it been false) they could not have been mistaken. The martyrdom, therefore, of so many wise and good men, taken with a view of the whole system of Christianity, will certainly afford something considerable in its favour
Romans - But, by whatever means Christianity had been introduced into Rome, it seems to have flourished there in great purity; for we learn from the beginning of this epistle that the faith of the Roman Christians was at this time much celebrated, Romans 1:8 . Paul takes occasion to enlarge upon the nature of the Mosaic institution; to explain the fundamental principles and doctrines of Christianity; and to show that the whole human race, formerly divided into Jews and Gentiles, were now to be admitted into the religion of Jesus, indiscriminately, and free from every other obligation
Persecution - The establishment of Christianity was opposed by the powers of the world, and occasioned several severe persecutions against Christians, during the reigns of several Roman emperors. Though the absurdities of polytheism were openly derided and exposed by the Apostles and their successors, yet it does not appear that any public laws were enacted against Christianity till the reign of Nero, A. As far the greater number of the first converts to Christianity were of the Jewish nation, one secondary cause for their being so long preserved from persecution may probably be deduced from their appearing to the Roman governors only as a sect of Jews, who had seceded from the rest of their brethren on account of some opinion, trifling in its importance, and perhaps difficult to be understood. Many things contributed toward it; as the laws of the empire, the emperor's zeal for his religion, and aversion to Christianity, and the prejudices of the Pagans, supported by falsehoods and calumnies against the Christians. This law appears, upon a first view, designed merely to impede the farther progress of Christianity; but it incited the magistracy to enforce the laws of former emperors, which were still existing, against the Christians; and during seven years they were exposed to a rigorous persecution in Palestine, Egypt, the rest of Africa, Italy, Gaul, and other parts. The death of Maximin, emperor of the east, soon after put a period to all their troubles; and this was the great epoch when Christianity triumphantly got possession of the thrones of princes. ...
Upon a subject thus enforced by precept and example, it is not to be supposed that the first converts, deriving their notions of Christianity immediately from our Lord or his Apostles, could have any opinion different in theory, at least, from that which has been now established. ...
It was after Christianity had been established as the religion of the empire, and after wealth and honour had been conferred on its ministers, that the monstrous evil of persecution acquired gigantic strength, and threw its blasting influence over the religion of the Gospel
Faith - Faith is the central concept of Christianity. ...
The New Testament sometimes uses “faith” to designate Christianity itself or that which Christians believe (Acts 6:7 ; Ephesians 4:5 ; Colossians 1:23 ; Tim. Faith is also the living out of the religion; it is Christianity in action. ...
If Christianity itself may be called “the faith,” then it is a small step to the New Testament usage of the participle of the verb form of faith to designate Christians. Conclusion Faith is what we believe, it is Christianity itself, but primarily it is the relationship we have with God through what Jesus accomplished in His death and resurrection
Proselyte - 200; Harnack, Expansion of Christianity , i. Those proselytes who had embraced Judaism in its entirety seem to have accepted the attitude of the Jews generally towards Christianity. With historical Judaism they had nothing to do, and loyalty and nationality did not appeal to them as motives to maintain it against Christianity. But Judaism had nothing to offer the Gentile that was not better provided by the Christian Church, and so it recoiled from the attack on Christianity like the spent waves from the rock-bound coast, angry but baffled. They left the field to Christianity, restricted their vision to their own people, and left the outer world alone
Simon Magus - ...
Such a system is obviously an amalgam of paganism and Christianity. It contains a good deal that is common to almost all the forms of Gnostic myths, and it borrows some of its ideas and not a little of its phraseology from Christianity. -(a) One explanation of this tradition is that it is the legendary development of the story in Acts 8, under the influence of a continued conflict between Christianity and the Simonian Gnosis. Starting from this standpoint, Baur’s school reconstructed the story of early Christianity with the conflict between Paul and Peter as the key. This theory, ingeniously applied to Patristic and Clementine literature, and worked out with much skill, won many adherents for a time, despite the fact that it proved the presence of biased and fabricated history within primitive Christianity. ’ His conclusions are: ‘(1) That all we know of the original Simon Magus is contained in Acts; (2) that from very early times he has been confused with another Simon’; and he adds: ‘Before such an amalgam of paganism and Christianity could be propounded, it is evident that Christianity must have been for some little time before the world, and that the system cannot possibly be traced back to Simon Magus. A full century must nave elapsed between the conversion of Simon Magus to Christianity and the earliest date possible … for the composition of Justin Martyr’s First Apology’ (circa, about a. ), if he identified two men who lived nearly a century apart, in a public Apology in defence of Christianity. ...
The amalgam of paganism and Christianity which was characteristic of Gnosticism, and which was specially obvious in the Simonian system, is readily explicable in the teaching of Simon Magus, who, according to the story in Acts, was brought into intimate contact with Christian teaching without becoming a genuine believer. But is it not likely that, when Simon was brought face to face with the deeper meanings of Christianity, he failed to respond? Instead of advancing in Christian knowledge, he seceded from a community with which his connexion had been anomalous. Thus he became the leader of a retrograde sect, perhaps nominally Christian and certainly using some of the Christian terminology, but in reality anti-Christian and exalting Simon himself to the central position which Christianity was giving to Jesus Christ. His religious system was apparently a syncretism of Jewish and Oriental elements, and resembled very closely some forms of second century Gnosticism, if it did not indeed give rise to them’ (A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, pp
Christian - 70) a second home of the Church and the mother-church of Gentile Christianity. Nothing could better signalize the central position of Jesus in Christianity. Not so Christianity: ‘Christianity is Christ
Son of Man - Assuming its genuineness, it is significant that the expression is used by a Hellenistic Jew recently converted to Christianity. The strange hesitation of primitive Christianity in using this title proves the sturdinèss of the growth and development of independent thought within the Church of the Apostolic Age. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh, 1912, p
Alaric - ...
The effect of Alaric's conquests on the cause of Christianity, and on the spiritual position of Rome in Western Christendom, is well traced by Dean Milman (Lat. Alaric and his Goths had embraced Christianity probably from the teaching of Ulfilas, the Arian bishop, who died in 388 (Mosheim, ed. The book in which Zosimus related the fall of Rome has been lost, so that we have to gather information from Christian sources; but it is plain that the destruction and loss was chiefly on the side of Paganism, and that little escaped which did not shelter itself under the protection of Christianity
Apostolic Fathers - An attractive apology or defense of Christianity, it is of uncertain but considerably later date than the Apostolic Fathers, perhaps as late as the third century. The writing which is a fragment from a defense of Christianity addressed to the Emperor Hadrian, is preserved by Eusebius. ...
While the writings designated Apostolic Fathers differ in the precision of their dating and authorship, as writings that predate the formation of the New Testament canon, they are invaluable resources for understanding post-apostolic Christianity
Corinthians - The advocates of it had appealed, even in Galatia, to Cephas and James, for the sake of opposing to Paul, who had banished Jewish ceremonies from Christianity, authorities which were not less admitted than his own. They were not even of the orthodox Jews, but those who adhered to the doctrines of the Sadducees; and though they were even now converted to Christianity, while they spoke zealously in favour of the law, they were undermining the hopes of the pious, and exciting doubts against the resurrection, 1 Corinthians 15:35 ; so that Paul, from regard to the teachers, whose disciples they professed to be, was obliged to refute them from the testimony of James and Cephas, 1 Corinthians 15:5 ; 1 Corinthians 15:7 . Now, as their mutual confidence in each other more and more decreased, they brought, to the disgrace of Christianity, their complaints before the Pagan tribunals, 1 Corinthians 6:1
Son of Man - Assuming its genuineness, it is significant that the expression is used by a Hellenistic Jew recently converted to Christianity. The strange hesitation of primitive Christianity in using this title proves the sturdinèss of the growth and development of independent thought within the Church of the Apostolic Age. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh, 1912, p
Roman Law in the nt - The marvellous talent of the Roman authorities for organization, and especially their wise adaptability, which saved them from enforcing a rigid uniformity in legal details in all the countries which they conquered, were to a large degree instrumental, under Divine providence, in furthering Christianity throughout the Empire, Though the Emperors and their officials became, at a comparatively late date (see below, 4) persecutors, yet there can be no doubt that the Roman system of law and organization was a most powerful help to the apostles in preaching the gospel. The existence of these kings and tetrarchs was due to the wise tolerance of the Romans, and it paved the way for direct Roman rule, and indirectly for the spread of Christianity. But no religion which was not recognized by the State was lawful, and as Christianity had never been so recognized it was from that fact a religio illicita. Many writers, especially in Germany, treat Trajan as the first real persecutor, maintaining that before his time Christianity was confused with Judaism, and that Nero and Domitian were merely capricious persecutors of individuals. But it seems highly probable, if not certain, that at least from the time of Nero Christianity was looked upon as a distinct sect, and therefore as illegal. Suetonius, who was a few years younger than Tacitus, calls Christianity ‘a novel and malignant superstition’ (Nero, 16). Even had there been confusion between the two religions in Nero’s time, by the time of Domitian, when Emperor-worship was enthusiastically pressed, and the Imperial policy thus became directly antagonistic to Christianity, there could be no possibility of confusing the two. It was not necessary that a distinct edict against Christianity should have been put out, and it is quite possible that no such edict was issued until Trajan’s time; the very fact that Christianity had never been recognized by the State made it unlawful
Unbelief - ...
Adverting to the infidelity which prevailed among the educated class of Heathens when Christianity first appeared in the world, Dr. Neander observes:—It was Christianity which first presented religion under the form of objective truth, as a system of doctrines perfectly independent of all individual conceptions of man's imagination, and calculated to meet the moral and religious wants of man's nature, and in that nature every where to find some point on which it might attach itself. This is, indeed, a sad condition of humanity, when the seed of holiness, which can develope itself only in the whole course of a life, cannot be strewn in the heart of the child, and when mature reason must destroy that which was planted in the early years of infancy! when holy truth cannot form the foundation of the future developement of life from the earliest dawn of childish consciousness! The thinking Roman statesmen also of the time at which Christianity appeared, as Varro, for instance, distinguish between the theologia philosophica [2] and the theologia civilis, [3] which contradicts the principles of the former, as Cotta in Cicero distinguished between the belief of Cotta, and the belief of the Pontifex. This belief and this desire, it must be owned, were founded on a great truth which man could rightly apprehend only through Christianity; and this desire was a kind of intimation which pointed to Christianity. Fanaticism was therefore obliged to avail itself of every kind of power in the struggle with Christianity, in order to uphold Heathenism, which was fast sinking by its own weakness. The very simplicity of Christianity became therefore a ground of hatred to it
Heresy - During the early ages of Christianity, the term heresy gradually lost the innocence of its original meaning, and came to be applied, in a reproachful sense, to any corruption of what was considered as the orthodox creed, or even to any departure from the established rites and ceremonies of the church. The heresies chiefly alluded to in the apostolical epistles are, first, those of the Judaizers, or rigid adherents to the Mosaic rites, especially that of circumcision; second, those of converted Hellenists, or Grecian Jews, who held the Greek eloquence and philosophy in too high an estimation, and corrupted, by the speculations of the latter, the simplicity of the Gospel; and third, those who endeavoured to blend Christianity with a mixed philosophy of magic, demonology, and Platonism, which was then highly popular in the world. It found its followers among Judaism as well as among the Heathens; it both introduced its speculative preparations into Christianity, and endeavoured to unite them or to adjust them to it, as well as they were able, by which means Christianity would have become deformed and unlike to itself, and would have been merged in the ocean of philosophical reveries, unless the Apostles had on this occasion defended it against the follies of men. He calls the doctrinal system of his opponents φιλοσοφια ου κατα Χριστον , "a philosophy incompatible with Christianity," Colossians 2:8 ; θρησκεια των αγγελων , "a worship of angels," Colossians 2:18 ; διδασκαλιαι δαιμονιων , "a demonology," 1 Timothy 4:1 . In like manner, in the Epistle to the Colossians, for the sake of representing to them Christianity in an exalted and important light, and of praising the divine nature of Jesus, he says, that all that exists is his creation, and is subjected to him, not even the spiritual world excepted. These, then, are the persons who passed before the Apostle's mind, and who, when they adopted Christianity, established that sect among the professors of Jesus, which gave to it the name of Gnostics, and which, together with the different varieties of this system, is accused by history of magical arts
Norway - Christianity had reached this region by the 10th century; some of the vikings were baptized in England and Normandy, and they brought back missionaries with them
Apocalypse - It is full of prophetic grandeur, and awful in its hieroglyphics and mystic symbols: seven seals opened, seven trumpets sounded, seven vials poured out; mighty antagonists and hostile powers, full of malignity against Christianity, and for a season oppressing it, but at length defeated and annihilated; the darkened heaven, tempestuous sea, and convulsed earth fighting against them, while the issue of the long combat is the universal reign of peace and truth and righteousness-the whole scene being relieved at intervals by a choral burst of praise to God the Creator, and Christ the Redeemer and Governor
Name - Profession of Christianity (Revelation 2:13)
Easter - A minority, influenced by the Jewish origins of Christianity, insisted that the celebration should occur on 14Nisan of the Jewish calendar, the day of the crucifixion according to the Gospel of John
African Church - The historical period begins with groups of martyrs, 180; in spite of persecutions Christianity rapidly spread from Carthage through the provinces
Way - Christianity is a way of living, a manner of life
Astrology - The advent of Christianity and its active antagonism to astrological teachings, as illustrated by Constantine's edict of death to the Chaldeans, Magi, and other astrologers, dealt a severe blow to it, effective for several centuries
Apollos - , who are clearly in a parallel position, do not seem to know even so much as this; and ‘instructed in the way of the Lord’ need not mean Christianity, while even the phrase ‘the things concerning Jesus’ may refer simply to the Messianic prophecies (cf
Convert - To change or turn from one religion to another, or from one party or sect to another as, to convert pagans to Christianity to convert royalists into republicans
Age, - The time when Christ was on earth is in John's first epistle repeatedly called 'the beginning:' the beginning of Christianity, though it is not called an age
Edesius - By their means Christianity was introduced among "the Indians
Judas Iscariot - Judas is a solemn instance of how far a person may be under the influence and power of Christianity, and yet become an apostate: cf
Peregrinus, Called Proteus - Peregrinus (1) , called Proteus , an apostate from Christianity and a Cynic philosopher of the 2nd cent
Remigius, Saint, Archbaptist of Rheims - His exact part in winning Clovis and his Franks to orthodox Christianity, and so probably deciding the belief of Western Europe, is not easy to define, since Gregory's account, written considerably later than the events, is plainly not to be trusted for details, and an earlier Life which apparently existed (see Greg
Unity, Church - " There is not the slightest warrant inthe Bible for the present state of our divided Christianity, which issimply the result of sin and man's waywardness
Prayer Book, the - Thus when Christianity wasintroduced into Britain we find a Liturgy in use there from thebeginning
Paul - He was a fierce defender of Judaism and a bitter enemy of Christianity. ...
45-49...
Apostolic Council at Jerusalem; conflict between Jewish and Gentile Christianity; Paul's third journey to Jerusalem, with Barnabas and Titus; settlement of the difficulty: agreement between the Jewish and Gentile apostles; Paul's return to Antioch; his difference with Peter and Barnabas at Antioch, and temporary separation from the latter...
Paul's second missionary journey from Antioch to Asia Minor, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Troas, and Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Beræa, Athens, and Corinth)
Reform - ‘Jesus’ disciple ought to be able to renounce the pursuit of his rights, and ought to co-operate in forming a nation of brothers, in which justice is done, no longer by the aid of force, but by free obedience to the good, and which is united, not by legal regulations, but by the ministry of love’ (Harnack, What is Christianity? p. ‘Christianity and Polities’; Bruce, Galilean Gospel, ch
Godliness - In the Pastoral Epistles, however, it is justification by faith and the specifically religious relation to God which are in the background; while the ethical demand of Christianity comes to the front in connexion with a fresh idea-that of adhesion to the Church, its doctrine and practice. It is in fact because of the practical and ethical character of Christianity that its doctrine in opposition to the heretical speculations of Gnosis is sound speech (Titus 2:8), sound teaching (1 Timothy 6:3, 2 Timothy 1:13, Titus 1:9; Titus 2:1), sound words (1 Timothy 1:10, 2 Timothy 4:3); cf
Clean, Unclean, Common - His vision (Acts 10) woke him, and, though he relapsed for an instant (Galatians 2:9), the work was done; and when that generation passed away, the religious nature of these distinctions had gone from Christianity; cleanliness, instead of being godliness, was next to godliness. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, chs
Ceremony - ...
Under the system of polytheism which prevailed in the most enlightened nations previous to the publication of Christianity, this was carried so far, that the connection between religion and morality was in a great degree dissolved, rites and ceremonies, sacrifices and oblations, were all that it was thought requisite to observe; when these were carefully performed, there was no hesitation in ascribing piety to the persons who did perform them, however deficient they might be in virtuous and pious dispositions. But still the Gospel finds human nature as other religions found it; and ecclesiastical history, even from the earliest periods, shows with what astonishing perverseness, and with what wonderful ingenuity, men departed from the simplicity of Christianity, and substituted in its room the most childish, and often the most pernicious, practices and observances
Germany - The first appearance of Christianity in Germany is uncertain, but Saint Irenaeus in the 2century reports that the Germans have the same faith as Spain, Gaul, the Orient, Egypt, and Africa. Once Christianity had gained a foothold, the Augustinian ideal of union of Church and State became widespread, and through the grants of princes the Church received an economic power, resulting in the development of an ecciesiastical as well as a secular aristocracy
Regeneration - And this was probably so much the case that one of the great problems before the creative personalities of Christianity, who were passionately inculcating a spiritual faith, was to put ethical content into those supernatural conceptions of the new religion with which the people were all too easily satisfied. ...
So far as Judaism is concerned, it has always been recognized that early Christianity formed itself against the background of the great faith that had come from the OT, and it has latterly been quite generally recognized that the background of NT theology is also that apocalyptic Messianism that had come to such elaborate development at the time. The continuity of revelation which has been thought of between the OT and the NT has made it easy for us to think of Christianity as accepting the language, the metaphors, and many of the externals of Judaism, giving to them a larger significance. But it is necessary also to realize that Christianity was able to take over the whole schema of apocalypticism by simply putting Jesus as the expected Messiah. , and it is possible to maintain that they have been coloured by Christianity. Clemen (Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, p. This is not to say that Christianity borrowed its ideas from paganism at the same time that it felt the most intense revulsion against the idolatries, but only that certain common religious thought-forms concerning miraculous purifications and transformations were current, and Christianity inevitably expressed its own new-born faith in the language of the day. While it is evident that much of this programme would be entirely familiar to the world of the mystery-religions, the peculiar power of primitive Christianity was manifest in its fine moral glow and its gracious charities, as well as in its religious enthusiasm. And this story of the early Church reveals, on the one hand, an utter absence of those coarser elements, from which the mystery-cults, whatever may have been their philosophical refinements, never freed themselves, and, on the other hand, a positive moral power resulting from glad allegiance to the Historical Founder of Christianity, such as was never accorded to the mythical founders of the other religions of the time
Slave, Slavery - -Slavery was a conspicuous and unchallenged feature of the social order into the midst of which Christianity was born. Christianity and slavery. So far from directly advocating efforts to effect social changes, Christianity rather counselled its adherents to acquiesce in their condition, though, as far as the servile class was concerned, their lot too commonly was degraded and hopeless. ...
Yet the principles of Christianity were bound in time to act as powerful solvents on this institution. For one thing, Christianity set up a new order of relations that did not recognize class-distinctions. ...
Again, Christianity placed a high value on what might be called servile virtues-the qualities that any master would esteem as most desirable in his slaves. The reference to enfranchisement ‘at the public expense’ found in the quotation from Ignatius given above points also to the encouragement given by Christianity to the liberation of slaves as its influence increased. It is idle to ask if humaner sentiments would have gained force in time and brought about the overthrow of slavery, had Christianity not emerged. All that we know is that Christianity, with all its imperfections, is the one power that has most effectively led to such a result. Nor has Christianity wholly failed in exemplifying both brotherhood and the passion for freedom
Martyr - The mere profession of Christianity now became matter for a capital charge (see this maintained in Hardy, Studies in Roman History, ch. 32) was Christianity (cf. ...
Under Domitian suffered three persons whose Christianity, if not absolutely certain, is highly probable. Lightfoot’s denial of his Christianity (Apostolic Fathers, I. Hardy, Studies in Roman History (formerly, Christianity and the Roman Government), do
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - Christianity produced a revival of the ancient gift of prophecy, which was so marked a feature of the religious life of Israel. Christianity did not supersede the earlier revelation but fulfilled it, as the first and greatest Prophet of the new order declared (Matthew 5:19); hence Christian prophecy is continuous with the prophecy of Israel, and the functions of both Jewish and Christian prophet are substantially the same. -It is natural to look for the prophet in the earliest environment of Christianity; and, as a matter of fact, we find prophets and prophetesses from the very beginning of the early Jewish Church. ...
‘The three members of the Christian group-apostles, prophets, teachers-were already to be met with in contemporary Judaism,’ but ‘the grouping of these three classes, and the special development of the apostleship, were the special work of the Christian church’ (Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity, Eng. Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity2, Eng. Scott-Moncrieff, Paganism and Christianity in Egypt, 1913; F
Feasting - Paul knew that just as Judaism could descend to this worldly, sensual plane of living when God was forgotten, so also could Christianity. ...
(2) It was not simply gross, licentious, heathen feasts that came into conflict with the moral earnestness of Christianity, but also feasts connected with religions cults. The weak brother might be made to stumble, the strong Christian might himself be enticed, and the heathen might conclude that the Christianity of the Christian participant meant little. That there was some ground for the charge of immorality, even Peter and Jude bear witness, but they testify also to the stern morality of true Christianity
Mediation Mediator - While no formal discussion of these matters occurs here, one cannot ignore the importance of a full knowledge of the OT teaching and the possible influence of the philosophy and religion of the Graeco-Roman world upon the minds of the apostolic teachers of Christianity. One can welcome all truth that may be taken up into Christianity (cf. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, 1912; H. Denney, The Death of Christ, 1902, and Jesus and the Gospel4, 1913, where the writer powerfully argues that Christianity is justified in the mind of Christ). Paganism has its ‘redeemer gods,’ but Christianity is rooted in the OT. Jesus Christ is central in Christianity
Jews, Judaism - ...
Christianity also began as a Jewish sect. The first revolt of the Jews against the Romans deeply affected both Judaism and Christianity. The Jewish-Christian sect in Palestine was superseded by Gentile Christianity due to the missionary efforts of Paul, the destruction of the Jerusalem temple, and the defensive efforts of rabbinical Judaism to separate the church and the synagogue. This environment stimulated Jews to develop ideas that would be important in the rise of Christianity. Strange, Archaeology, the Rabbis, and Early Christianity: The Social and Historical Setting of Palestinian Judaism and Christianity ; H
Hebrews, Epistle to - Its teaching was fitted, as it was designed, to check that tendency to apostatize from Christianity and to return to Judaism which now showed itself among certain Jewish Christians
Islands, Philippine - The natives, attracted by the zealous lives of these priests were converted to Christianity in great numbers, and the missionaries were an active influence of peace, upholding the cause of the people against the injustices of the civilgovernors
Ebionites - The Ebionites were little else than a branch of the Nazarenes; only that they altered and corrupted, in many things, the purity of the faith held among the first adherents to Christianity
Sacrament - Its founder published, in 1748, his full, true, and comprehensive view of Christianity, in two catechisms, octavo
Colossians, Epistle to the - A large part of it is directed against certain speculatists who attempted to combine the doctrines of Oriental mysticism and asceticism with Christianity, thereby promising the disciples the enjoyment of a higher spiritual life and a deeper insight into the world of spirits
God of the Fathers - In the New Testament the formula is transformed to mark the continuity between historic Israel and Christianity
Emperor Worship - ...
New Testament Emperor worship was firmly in place in the Roman Empire in the early days of Christianity
Thessaloni'ca - Paul visited Thessalonica (with Silas and Timothy) during his second missionary journey, and introduced Christianity there
Christianity - If Christianity had not been of God, it could never have prevailed, without human might or learning, to supersede the system of the mightiest and most civilized nations (1 Corinthians 1-2)
Way - We do not wonder that a word lending itself so easily to figurative use should be applied to religion as frequently as is the case in Scripture, and that Christianity should be called pre-eminently ‘the Way
God, City of - Celebrated apologetic work of Saint Augustine, constituting the most complete defense of Christianity against the attacks of paganism
Well - He may have a muscular Christianity, with lots of noise, illustrations and activities, but he gives no living water to those who listen
Commodianus - But the most important passage as affecting the date of the poem is one in which the author upbraids the Gentiles for perseverance in unbelief, though Christianity has prevailed for 200 years (§ vi
an'Tioch - The chief interest of Antioch, however, is connected with the progress of Christianity among the heathen, Here the first Gentile church was founded, ( Acts 11:20,21 ) here the disciples of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ) It was from Antioch that St
Eph'Esus - " ( 1 Corinthians 15:32 ) Connection with Christianity --The Jews were established at Ephesus in considerable numbers
Luke - His most memorable writing was a lengthy account of the development of Christianity from the birth of its founder to the arrival of its greatest missionary in Rome
Justinus - , representing in its fundamental ideas one of the oldest, perhaps the very oldest, form of Gnosticism, and as exhibiting the passage of Jewish Christianity into Gnosis
Nicetius, Archbaptist of Treves - The Franks around him were little else than barbarians, rioting in licence, and scarcely more than nominal converts to Christianity
Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria - After some opening words on the duty of so using the peace which the church was then enjoying "by means of a kindly sovereign" that God might be glorified by genuinely Christian lives, Theonas urges Lucian to thank Him for a signal opportunity of thus promoting His cause by fidelity to "an emperor who was indeed not yet enrolled in the Christian ranks," but who might be favourably impressed in regard to Christianity by the loyalty of the Christians to whose care he had "entrusted his life
Theophilus - Theophilus (13) a Christian who discussed Christianity with Simon a Jew in a treatise published by a Gallic writer named EVAGRIUS in 5th cent
Art, Christian - The triumph of Christianity under Constantine, in the 4th century, permitted a freer decoration of the catacombs, and the first churches, basilicas adapted from the plan of Roman courts, offered wall-spaces which were soon filled with mosaic figures of Christ and His Apostles, or with scenes from the Old Testament. Basilicas in Rome, Asia Minor, or northern Africa; Byzantine edifices of Constantinople, Italy, or France; Romanesque churches in southern Europe; Norman in France and England; marvels of Gothic architecture which were the glory of the 13th century, as the cathedrals at Chartres, Rheims, York, or Cologne; Renaissance churches, like Saint Peter's in Rome, which adapted the classic styles to the uses of Christianity; even the over-elaborate Barocco edifices; all these still testify to the fact that the glorification of religion was the chief preoccupation of artist and artisan almost to the 17th century
Christian Art - The triumph of Christianity under Constantine, in the 4th century, permitted a freer decoration of the catacombs, and the first churches, basilicas adapted from the plan of Roman courts, offered wall-spaces which were soon filled with mosaic figures of Christ and His Apostles, or with scenes from the Old Testament. Basilicas in Rome, Asia Minor, or northern Africa; Byzantine edifices of Constantinople, Italy, or France; Romanesque churches in southern Europe; Norman in France and England; marvels of Gothic architecture which were the glory of the 13th century, as the cathedrals at Chartres, Rheims, York, or Cologne; Renaissance churches, like Saint Peter's in Rome, which adapted the classic styles to the uses of Christianity; even the over-elaborate Barocco edifices; all these still testify to the fact that the glorification of religion was the chief preoccupation of artist and artisan almost to the 17th century
Painting, Religious - From the earliest ages of Christianity painting has served religion, and religion painting. Recent excavations in Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor have brought to light examples of religious painting dating from the first centuries after Constantine's championship of Christianity (313)
Revelation - The attestations to the early existence of Christianity are numerous from Ignatius, Polycarp, Irenxus, Justin Martyr, and Tatian, who were Christians; and by Tactitus, Sueton, Serenus, Pliny, &c. (...
See Christianity
Hasmonean - Also, the Hasmohynean period immediately predated the beginnings of Christianity, and thus it was the religious, political, social, and economic environment out of which early Christianity emerged
Damascus, Damascenes - The Hellenic city in the Levant became the first metropolis of Gentile Christianity, and organized the earliest missions to the Western nations. It is not known when or how Christianity first came to Damascus
Domitianus, the Emperor - 3) and others among the persecutors of the church, can hardly be considered as having made any systematic effort to crush Christianity as such. ...
(2) Towards the close of Domitian's reign a domestic tragedy occurred which there is good reason for connecting with the progress of Christianity
Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome - ...
Especially interesting to Englishmen is the story connecting Eleutherus with the origin of British Christianity (Bede, H. In confirmation of the story is alleged further the fact that, shortly after the time of Eleutherus writers first begin to speak of British Christianity
Religious Painting - From the earliest ages of Christianity painting has served religion, and religion painting. Recent excavations in Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor have brought to light examples of religious painting dating from the first centuries after Constantine's championship of Christianity (313)
Sculpture - The triumph of Christianity under Constantine, in the 4th century, permitted a freer decoration of the catacombs, and the first churches, basilicas adapted from the plan of Roman courts, offered wall-spaces which were soon filled with mosaic figures of Christ and His Apostles, or with scenes from the Old Testament. Basilicas in Rome, Asia Minor, or northern Africa; Byzantine edifices of Constantinople, Italy, or France; Romanesque churches in southern Europe; Norman in France and England; marvels of Gothic architecture which were the glory of the 13th century, as the cathedrals at Chartres, Rheims, York, or Cologne; Renaissance churches, like Saint Peter's in Rome, which adapted the classic styles to the uses of Christianity; even the over-elaborate Barocco edifices; all these still testify to the fact that the glorification of religion was the chief preoccupation of artist and artisan almost to the 17th century
Paul - Through his evangelistic activity, church leadership, theological insights and extensive writings, Paul had an immeasurable influence on the development of Christianity. From that time on, Paul never ceased to wonder at the work of God in saving the opponent of Christianity and turning him into an ambassador for Christianity
Womanliness - —Christianity is distinguished for the honour it assigns, the liberty it allows to woman. ‘Christianity raises woman from the slavish position which she held, both in Judaism and in heathendom, to her true moral dignity and importance, makes her an heir of the same salvation with man, and opens to her a field for the noblest and loveliest virtue’ (Schaff’s Apostolic Christianity, p
Man of Sin - Moreover, the early history of Christianity suggests that it was part of the Divine plan that the new religion should be developed for a time under the protecting shadow of Judaism as a religio licita. It was from Judaism, not from the Empire, that the opposition and persecution he had to encounter as the Apostle of Christianity invariably came (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16; cf. The philosophic historian may see in Judaism the protective sheath of the opening bud of Christianity; but it was not so that St
Jew, Jewess - The Jewish religion was tolerated in the Roman Empire, being regarded as a religio licita; and, so long as Christianity grew up and flourished in the shelter of the synagogue, it too might be regarded as enjoying the same toleration. In the Acts of the Apostles we see how the Roman proconsul Gallio (Acts 18:12-17) simply regards Christianity as an insignificant variation of Judaism, and the same view is taken by King Agrippa (Acts 26:32), as well as by the town-clerk of Ephesus (Acts 19:37). Probably, however, the popular hatred of the Jews, which was always smouldering and ready to burst forth at any moment among the excitable populace, was one of the first causes of Christian persecution, as it took some considerable time before Christianity was fully recognized as an independent religion
Debt, Debtor - This may seem all the more remarkable since Christianity touched the commerce of the Roman world at so many points and used the fine Roman roads (see article Trade And Commerce). Christianity is on the side of law and order, and recognizes the debt of the citizens to government for the maintenance of order. None the less Christianity glorifies the word
Sabbath - ...
The CHRISTIAN SABBATH is the original day of rest established in the Garden of the Eden and reenacted on Sinai, without those requirements, which were peculiar to Judaism, but with all its original moral force and with the new sanctions of Christianity. So well known was their custom, that the ordinary test question put by persecutors to those suspected of Christianity was "Hast thou kept the Lord's day?" to which the reply was, "I am a Christian; I cannot omit it. Would that it were more prevalent among us, with the spirit and piety of primitive Christianity! ...
The commandment to observe the Sabbath is worthy of its place in the decalogue; and its observance is of fundamental importance to society, which without it would fast relapse into ignorance, vice, and ungodliness
Worldliness (2) - —The teaching of Christianity concerning worldliness forms one of the most important parts of its practical message to mankind. Such a misconception, it is true, did not originate in Christian times, but was taken over by Christianity from earlier systems of religious thought. In view of the unfortunate ambiguity in meaning both of the Greek and of the English word, it is necessary to define closely the sense in which Christianity sets the ‘world’ in opposition to its own life and principles. It is in the former sense alone, as our Lord’s own life and words declare, that the material is set by Christianity over against the spiritual. The contrast of opposition established by Christianity is never between the spiritual and the material, but always between the spiritual and the anti-spiritual. In view of persistent misconception of the teaching of Christianity on this subject, clearness at this point, even at the risk of repetition, is of the utmost importance. Christianity is a religion calculated to make true lovers of Nature, and to produce good fathers, good husbands, good rulers, good servants, good men of business and men of public spirit
Papyri And Ostraca - But in any case, even if, as is not at all likely, they should prove to be of quite secondary importance as regards the history of Jesus, they would be valuable documents in the history of Christianity. Quite a number of the papyri throw fresh light on early Christianity as a whole. The papyri, as sources of popular, non-literary Late Greek, have placed the linguistic investigation of the Greek Bible on new foundations; and, as autograph memorials of the men of the ancient world from the age of the great religious revolution, they enable us better to understand these men the public to whom the great world-mission of Primitive Christianity was addressed. By reason of its popular character, the language of the first Apostles is pre-eminently a missionary language, and this language it was that really enabled Christianity to rise to a world-religion. The more we realize the missionary character of Primitive Christianity, the more clearly we grasp the greatness of the Apostle Paul working among the proletariat of the great centres of the world’s commerce Ephesus, Corinth, etc. And thus we possess in the papyri, as also in the inscriptions, excellent materials for the re-construction of the historical background of Primitive Christianity. To show that the ostraca, besides their indirect importance, have also a direct value for the history of Christianity, we may refer to the potsherds inscribed with texts from the Gospels, or the early Christian legal documents recently discovered at the town of Menas, but chiefly to the Coptic potsherds containing numerous Christian letters and illustrating particularly the inner history of Egyptian Christianity
Foundation - 48, 49): ‘Christianity is Christ. … Christianity is a Life, a Spirit’-‘ “That I may know Him, and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings, being made conformable unto His death”. What shall we think of Christianity? 1899, pp. Chadwick, Social Relationships in the Light of Christianity, 1910, p
Gnosticism - " If we fix our attention on the predominance of the speculative over the practical in Gnosticism, which, as Baur truly remarks, led men to regard Christianity less as a means of salvation than as furnishing the principles of a philosophy of the universe, we must allow that since their time very many orthodox writings have been open to the same criticism. We come very close to a definition if we make the criterion of Gnosticism to be the establishment of a dualism between spirit and matter; and, springing out of this, the doctrine that the world was created by some power different from the supreme God, yet we might not be able to establish that this characteristic belongs to every sect which we count as Gnostic; and if we are asked why we do not count such sects as the Manicheans among the Gnostics, the best answer is that usage confines the word to those sects which arose in the ferment of thought when Christianity first came into contact with heathen philosophy, excluding those which clearly began later. Lipsius notes as the characteristics of those sects which he counts as belonging to the first stage of Gnosticism that they still move almost or altogether within the circle of the Jewish religious history and that the chief problem they set themselves is the defining the relation between Christianity and Judaism. Those Jewish sects whose Essenism passed into the Ebionitism of the Clementines regarded Christianity as essentially identical with Judaism either religion being sufficient for salvation. With all their variety of results these sects agreed in the importance attached to the problem of the true relations of Judaism to Christianity. They do make use of certain heathen principles of cosmogony but these such as already had become familiar to Syriac Judaism and introduced not so much to effect a reconciliation between Christianity and heathenism as to give an explanation of the service rendered to the world by the publication of Christianity the absolute religion. The need of a third class may have first made itself felt from the necessity of finding a place for members of the Jewish religion, who stood so far above heathenism, so far below Christianity. Thus ordinary historical Christianity runs the risk of meeting the same fate in the later Gnostic systems that befell Judaism in the earlier. ...
The natural consequence of this weakening of the historic side of Christianity was the removal of all sufficient barrier against the intrusion of heathen elements into the systems; while their moral teaching was injuriously affected by the doctrine that the spiritual were secure of salvation by necessity of their nature and irrespectively of their conduct. In the system of Marcion, too, the theory of essentially different classes is abandoned; the great boast of Christianity is its universality; and the redemption of the Gospel is represented, not as the mere rousing of the pneumatic soul to consciousness of privileges all along possessed, but as the introduction of a real principle of moral life through the revelation of a God of love forgiving sins through Christ
Back to Christ - ...
(b) A second and even more important factor in the movement ‘back to Christ’ is the widespread dissatisfaction with the traditional statements of Christianity. We need not take into account a writer like Gore, who, though insisting on the importance of a knowledge of the historical Christ, yet derives his theology not from Christ, but from the Œcumenical Councils; or like Loisy, who, indeed, distinguishes between the Christ of history and the Christ of faith, but yet allows the former little significance except as the starting-point of the movement known as Christianity. The Apostolic conception of Christianity is not formally authoritative. It is the interpretation or construction that is the essential thing in Christianity. Christianity is given only when Christ is speculatively construed. To many, ‘back to Christ’ means back from historical Christianity, the religion founded upon Christ, to the religion which Christ taught, and which we see embodied in His life. Did not Christ Himself represent a reaction from the elaborate legal and ceremonial system of Judaism to the simpler and more ethical faith of the prophets? The Reformation was a return to primitive Christianity, but less to Christ than to St. It is true, indeed, that, in the NT, Christianity is not the complex tiling it afterwards became; still, the process of intellectual and ceremonial elaboration has begun. It can be said with literal truth that, for any civilized community, the choice is not between Christianity and some other religion, but between Christianity and no religion at all. For Ritschlianism, even more than for traditional orthodoxy, Christ is the sum and substance of Christianity
Historical - The amount of this is increasing with modern study and research; and the significance generally attached to affinities between primitive Christianity and other civilizations or religions is also on the increase. But what are we to say regarding the history of Israel? Or—coming closer to our ground—regarding the life as distinct from the teaching of Jesus? Or, in general, regarding the origins of Christianity? That which was higher than man or than history has appeared once for all upon the plane of human history. But the question remains, How far can metaphysics discharge its task? And, again, Can it do justice to the Christian origins? Idealistic interpreters of Christianity are very willing to undertake the championship of the Christ idea (e. Neither of these positions amounts to historical Christianity, which, amid increasing uncertainty in detail, may and ought to have increasing certainty in the fundamental outlines. Christianity, as the world knows it, is not the measure of Christ, nor His worthy interpreter
Libraries - After the introduction of Christianity each church became the nucleus of a library, as a collection of books was needed for church services
Denial - This work of inner spiritual transformation stands in sharp contrast to mere outward conformity to the ethical and moral standards of biblical Christianity and those practices associated with so-called Christian asceticism (Romans 12:1-2 ; Colossians 2:20-23 )
Dispersion - Forty years after Peter's martyrdom, Pliny, Roman governor of Pontus and Bithynia, writing to the emperor Trajan, says: "the contagion (Christianity) has seized not only cities, but the smaller towns and country, so that the temples are nearly forsaken and the sacred rites intermitted
Titus Justus - It is extremely likely that he became a convert to Christianity
Easter Day - A festival in honor of our Lord's Resurrection hasbeen observed from the very foundation of Christianity
Philippians, Letter to the - For two examples of practical Christianity, he refers them to Epaphroditus and Timothy (2:19-30)
Romans, Epistle to the - ...
It is highly probable that Christianity was planted in Rome by some of those who had been at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:10 )
Waiting - It finds varied expression in the apocalyptic atmosphere of early Christianity with its expectation of an immediate Parousia (q
Chiliasm - At the present time, outside of the circle of the pre-millenarians, chiliastic views have little influence, and the tendency is strong to substitute belief in social evolution, under the inspiration of Christianity, for the cataclysmic establishment of a literal kingdom by Jesus at His second Advent
Lycaonia - They show the wide diffusion of Christianity in this district evangelized by St
Orthodoxy - And whereas, in answer to all these inconveniences, it is pleaded, that such forms are necessary to keep the church from heresy, and it is better there should be some hypocrites under such forms of orthodoxy, than that a freedom of debate and opinion should be allowed to all teachers; the answer is plain, that, when any one begins to preach doctrines which appear to those who attend upon him dangerous and subversive of Christianity, it will be time enough to proceed to such animadversion as the nature of his error in their apprehension will require and his relation to them will admit
Jesuits - What shall I render unto him for all his revelations and gifts to me? Were there no historical evidence of the truth of Christianity, were there no well-established miracles, still I should believe that the religion propagated by the fishermen of Galilee is divine
Obedience - Actual obedience, which is the practice and exercise of the several graces and duties of Christianity
Epicureans - It takes its place as one of the negative but widening influences, leading up to ‘the fulness of time’ which saw the birth of Christianity
Millennium - At the same time, there is little question that this pre-millennial view is germane to the literalistic Messianic hope which controlled the NT Church, and is not beyond a possible harmonization with 1 Corinthians 15:23 The fundamental difficulty in erecting it into a doctrine of essential Christianity is that it presupposes conditions and expectations, carried over from Judaism, which the course of history has shown to be without foundation
Analogy of Faith - It is evident that the Almighty doth not act without a design in the system of Christianity any more than he does in the works of nature
Constantius i, Flavius Valerius, Emperor - Christianity spread in Gaul under his peaceful rule, and at the end of the 4th cent
Armenian Church - They probably received Christianity in the fourth century
Corinth - Its situation made it a leading centre of Christianity. ...
Christianity grew fast in Corinth, but the inevitable dissensions occurred
Self- Examination - Self-examination is a conspicuous element in all forms of pietism: it passed into evangelical Christianity; and chiefly in the mystical autobiographies of Quakerism, like the diaries of T. On the other hand, Apostolic Christianity lends no weight to the modern tendency to rule introspection altogether out of the religious life
Ambition - In ordinary use it implies blame; but in true Christianity, where the utmost is given for the highest, it is otherwise. For Christianity demands humility (Matthew 5:3 etc
Law of Moses - ' Christianity is not in its true power apart from death and resurrection. The law did not come up to the responsibilities of Christianity
Pontus - ...
The first cities of Pontus to receive Christianity were doubtless those of the seaboard, from which it must have rapidly spread inland. 80, carries the date of the introduction of Christianity into Pontus a good deal further back
Phrygia - The enthusiasm with which the pagan Phrygians were in the habit of throwing themselves into the worship of Cybele re-appeared in the Phrygian type of Christianity, which gave birth to Montanism with its spiritual ecstasies and prophetic visions. McGiffert, A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p
Nonnus of Panopolis - Probably it was written early in life, and Nonnus converted to Christianity after it, and the paraphrase of St. Possibly too, as has also been suggested, Nonnus may have been one of the Greek philosophers who accepted Christianity when the heathen temples were destroyed by decree of Theodosius (Socr
Gospels - ...
Luke wrote his Gospel for a person of importance (perhaps a government official) named Theophilus, to give him a trustworthy account of the origins of Christianity (Luke 1:1-4; see LUKE, GOSPEL OF). (Luke continued the story with a second volume, which recorded the spread of Christianity from Jerusalem to Rome; Acts 1:1; see ACTS, BOOK OF
Universalism (2) - —Three different, though connected, problems are raised by this word: (1) The universality of Christianity as a gospel for all races (as against the early Ebionism (wh. see) which confined Christianity to the circumcised); (2) the universal purpose of Christ’s death—for ‘all men’ (as against the Augustinian and Calvinistic doctrine of Christ’s death on behalf of those elected out of the mass of sinful mankind); (3) the ultimate salvation of all souls (as against the eternal suffering of the wicked; or, their destruction; or perhaps as against uncertainty—subjective uncertainty, due to our ignorance, or objective uncertainty, due to the indefiniteness of the sentence of the Great Day; see below). Universality of Christianity. Christianity has been known to history as a Gentile and non-Jewish institution—a strange state of matters, were we not blinded by familiarity. Yet Christianity persists in claiming that it is truly universal. Interesting recent statements, from a position of some theological latitude, in Harnack’s What is Christianity?; Wernle’s Beginnings of Christianity, and Weinel’s Jesus Christus im 19ten Jahrhundert [1]
Ebionism (2) - 1), but specifically for those Jewish Christians who, in some degree more or less pronounced, sought to maintain as essential to Christianity the now obsolete forms of the OT religion (the Fathers from the 2nd to the 4th cent. Thus Ebionism becomes a synonym for Jewish Christianity in its antithesis to the universalism of the Catholic Church; and it is in this broad and yet pretty definite sense that the word is properly to be employed (Harnack, l. Finally, with the rise of the Gnostic heresy, a Gnostic or syncretistic type of Jewish Christianity makes its appearance, to which the name of Ebionism is still applied (Epiphanius, Haer. —As against the Tübingen school, which held that primitive Christianity was itself Ebionism, and which took, in consequence, a highly exaggerated view of the influence of Ebionitic thought upon the history and the literature of the early Church, it is now admitted by nearly all modern scholars that there are no writings within the Canon of the NT which come to us directly from this circle. On the other hand, two of the Apocryphal Gospels, the Gospel according to the Hebrews and the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles (otherwise known as the Gospel of the Ebionites), are immediate products of the Judaeo-Christian spirit—the former representing Ebionism in its earlier and simpler type, and the latter that syncretistic form of Jewish Christianity which afterwards sprang up through contact with Gnosticism (see Gospels [5]; and artt. —The distinctive feature of Judaic Christianity, when we first meet it, lies in its continued adherence to the Law; but with the growth of more definite conceptions regarding the Person of Christ, the question of the keeping of the Law recedes into the background, and Christology becomes the matter of supreme importance to the Church. From the beginning it was the tendency of Jewish Christianity to shrink from the idea of the Incarnation, and to be content to regard Jesus as the last and greatest of the prophets
Immortality - of Christianity. The resemblance of the rites of the Mystery-cults to various elements in the Christian sacraments has led many scholars to trace the influence of these cults of the Graeco-Roman world upon the form which Christianity assumed as it developed a system of ritual and doctrine. of Christianity. ...
But the form which the doctrine of immortality took in primitive Christianity is by no means explained when we have examined the conditions of thought under which it grew up. Christianity gave its own definite form to all that it took up from the current thought of its time, and the outstanding factor in the form which the primitive Christian hope assumed is the Resurrection of Christ. of Christianity, we find, in the first place, that it is inseparably connected with the Resurrection of Christ, and, secondly, that it is also inseparable from primitive Christian eschatology. ‘The resurrection of the body and the life of the world to come’ is the phrase which crystallizes the growth of the idea of immortality for the popular mind during the early stages of Christianity. Paul’s scheme of things which were never grasped by the Apologists and the early interpreters of Apostolic Christianity
Acts of the Apostles (2) - ...
It is especially in the speeches contained in the second part of the book that the author reveals his conception of Christianity. The latter passage is specially important because in it the relation of Christianity to Judaism is defined to the effect that there is really no essential difference between them. Hence also the Pharisees, who believe in the resurrection of the dead, appear as the party favourable to Christianity; whereas the Sadducees, who say that ‘there is no resurrection,’ are its enemies (Acts 23:8). Peter have been preserved verbatim; all we assert is that these chapters are a true representation of the spirit of early Jewish Christianity. Peter in Acts 2:36, which is a gem to the historian of primitive Christianity: ‘This Jesus hath God made both Lord and Christ,’ namely by exalting Him to His right hand (Acts 2:33) and thereby fulfilling the words of Psalms 110:1 ‘Sit thou at my right hand. Peter’s Pentecostal address (Acts 2:14-36), whose order of thought forms a very interesting study for the historian of primitive Christianity. of Christianity in the Apostol. Age; Hort, Judaistic Christianity; Chase, Credibility of Acts; Expositor, iv
Nestorian Church - Christianity spread from Antioch, not only to the west but also eastwards, and in particular it extended to Edessa, then the capital of the little "buffer state" of Osrhoene, situated between the Roman and Parthian empires. The political independence of the state ended in 216, but it had lasted long enough to give a definite character to the local church, which was marked off by its Syriac vernacular and Oriental ways of thought from the Greek Christianity to the west of it. It made no effort to destroy the Christianity that it found existing, but, like Islam later, tolerated it as the religion of a subject race, and so put it into the position that it still occupies in those lands, though the dominant religion has changed. Apostasy from Christianity to the established faith meant worldly prosperity, but there was no persecution, though there was often oppression, by the government, until the adoption of Christianity by the Roman emperor (the standing enemy of the shah-in-shah) made every Christian politically suspect. The acceptance of Christianity by the Roman empire meant terrible suffering for the church outside it, in that any outbreak of the secular rivalry of the two empires meant thereafter persecution for the church in one of them. ...
This greatest of persecutions was not, of course, uniformly severe at all times in all provinces, and both it and others after it were rather the releasing of the "race-hatred" of Zoroastrianism against Christianity than the ordered process of law against a religio illicita . There was, however, a strong feeling among Christians that their church must be markedly independent of "Western" Christianity ( i
Heresy - According to the laws of this kingdom, heresy consists in a denial of some of the essential doctrines of Christianity, publicly and obstinately avowed. It must be acknowledged, however, that particular modes of belief or unbelief, not tending to overturn Christianity, or to sap the foundations of morality, are by no means the object of coercion by the civil magistrate. ...
Christianity being thus deformed by the daemon of persecution upon the continent, our own island could not escape its scourge
Abgar - In Moses’ account occurs the statement that after his conversion Abgarus wrote letters to the emperor Tiberius, to Narses, king of Assyria, to Ardaches, king of Persia, and others, recommending Christianity (Hist. Christianity seems to have been introduced into Osrhoëne during the 2nd cent. The first king known to have favoured Christianity was Abgar viii
Arnobius - Arnobius , an eminent Latin apologist for Christianity. He was, moreover, active as a lecturer in attacks upon Christianity. The first two are devoted to the defence of Christianity, the remainder to the exposure of paganism
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - 21) he would naturally have better means of learning the doctrines and practices of Christianity than any of his predecessors. At any rate, though he did not give Christianity the status of a religio licita, the Christians during his reign enjoyed a de facto toleration. ...
Strange to say, in later tradition the emperor, whom all writers near his time represent as a friend, nay almost a convert, to Christianity, whose chapel contained an image of Christ and whose household was filled with Christians (Eus
Happiness - ...
(2) The success of Christianity. The characteristic word of Christianity is Life; for while the moral code and example of Christ are superior to others, it is not on this that His supremacy rests. Christianity could and did; the apologists point triumphantly to the realization of the moral ideal among Christians of every standing. But Christianity rises higher
Ebionites - Lardner considers as a disciple of Cerinthus,) or from the meaning of the Hebrew word ebion, which implies poverty; and if the latter, whether they assumed the name, as affecting to be poor, like the Founder of Christianity; or whether it was conferred on them by way of reproach, as being of the lower orders. Semler, adds, "Such, it is apprehended, on grounds of reasonable probability, was the origin of Unitarianism; the child of Judaism misunderstood, and of Christianity imperfectly received. It is well known to those who have studied the Unitarian controversy, that it has been often asserted that the Cerinthians and Ebionites were the teachers of genuine Christianity, and that the doctrine of Christ's divinity, and of universal redemption through his blood, were the inventions of those who corrupted the preaching of the Apostles. To suppose that the fathers of the second century were ignorant of what was genuine and what was false in Christianity, would be a bold hypothesis; but if Irenaeus, the disciple of Polycarp, asserted, as a matter of fact, that St
Maria of Jesus - She had the gift of bilocation; in some of her trances she said she was teaching Christianity to people in foreign lands
Idol - Paul seemingly broadened the scope of idolatry for Christianity when he identified covetousness with idolatry (Colossians 3:5 )
Bishop - ...
Prior to the advent of Christianity episkopos meant “inspector,” “watchman,” or “overseer
Deacon - There was a common fund to which most disciples contributed by the sale of their property, and out of which the widows were relieved; a proof of the strong conviction of the truth of Christianity, which could constrain men to such self sacrifice
Cyprus - Yet in this unpromising soil Christianity took early root, the Jews having prepared the way
Macedonia - How Christianity, starting from that beginning, has since elevated woman socially throughout Europe!...
Epicureanism - Its influence waned considerably after the emergence of Christianity
Laodicea - A five-mile-long aqueduct supplied the city with tepid water that served as an image for “lukewarm” Christianity (Revelation 3:15-16 )
Master - Christianity should make better δοῦλοι (cf
Lydia - She holds the distinction of being the first convert to Christianity in Europe, and her household formed the nucleus of the Church of Philippi, to which St
Agreda, Maria de - She had the gift of bilocation; in some of her trances she said she was teaching Christianity to people in foreign lands
Hierocles (1), Neoplatonic Philosopher - He wrote a book against Christianity, entitled Λόγος φιλαλήθης πρὸς τοὺς Χριστιανούς , in which he brought forward various scriptural difficulties and alleged contradictions and instituted comparisons between the life and miracles of Jesus Christ and of Apollonius of Tyana
Abaddon - The serpent-like stinging tails correspond to Mohammedanism supplanting Christianity in large parts of Asia, Africa, and even Europe
Bishop - This Greek and Latin word accompanied the introduction of Christianity into the west and north of Europe
Dragon - But what is characteristic is that the figure and functions of the dragon are turned to Christian uses, so that they have a bearing upon Christ’s earthly birth and heavenly glory (Revelation 12:5), upon the present conflict of Christianity with the world’s evil powers and its victory over them by ‘the blood of the Lamb’ and ‘the testimony of Jesus Christ’ (Revelation 12:11; Revelation 12:13; Revelation 12:17), and above all upon the assurance of Christian faith that God will destroy the dragon’s present power to accuse His people and persecute them even unto death (Revelation 12:10-11; Revelation 12:13; Revelation 12:17), and will at the appointed time send forth His angel to subdue him utterly (Revelation 20:1-3)
Paphos - How long the Paphian cult maintained itself against Christianity can only be conjectured
Curse - ...
On the other hand the saying ‘Jesus be cursed’ became a common saying among the opponents of Christianity during the time of Paul
Master - Christianity should make better δοῦλοι (cf
Philippus, of Side - Another considerable fragment is reported to exist in the Imperial Library at Vienna, entitled de Christi Nativitate, et de Magis , giving the acts of a disputation held in Persia concerning Christianity between certain Persians and Christians, at which Philip was himself present
Salvianus, Priest of Marseilles - He helps us to understand the interruption of intercourse between Roman and British Christianity in 5th and 6th cents
James, Letter of - Some of the Christians held firmly to the law they had always followed, but they became so coldly legalistic that their Christianity lacked life and enthusiasm
Lydia - She holds the distinction of being the first convert to Christianity in Europe, and her household formed the nucleus of the Church of Philippi, to which St
Black People And Biblical Perspectives - Black people felt included in the embryonic spread of Christianity when seeing that representatives from African countries were among those upon whom the Holy Spirit fell at Pentecost (Acts 2:5-11 ,Acts 2:5-11,2:39 ). Historical notions were rethought when it was discovered that Christianity did not originally come to Africa through Western missionaries, but more likely from the dispersion after Pentecost, the influence of the powerful government official whom Philip baptized (Acts 8:26-37 ), and from the early church fathers
France - According to tradition, Christianity was introduced in Apostolic times into the Roman province of Gaul which is supposed to have been visited by Saint Lazarus, Saint Mary Magdalen, Saint Martha, Saint Dionysius the Areopagite, and Saint Crescens. Greek culture and Christianity were both implanted by Greek, Asiatic, and Syrian merchants and missionaries, who probably crossed the Mediterranean to Marseilles, ascended the Rhone, founded colonies in the large towns, and established the Church at Lyons with suffragan in Vienne in the 2century
Resurrection of Christ - It deserves our particular attention, because it is the grand hinge on which Christianity turns. It must be supposed that ten thousand miracles were wrought in favour of falsehood, or all these facts must be denied; and then it must be supposed that the apostles were idiots; that the enemies of Christianity were idiots; and that all the primitive Christians were idiots
Energy - Such lessons and lives are illustrations of the spirit of Christianity. But the living faith enjoined by Jesus and practised in the planting of Christianity procured an immediate possession of surprising power
James, the Lord's Brother - It is sometimes rejected as an interpolation, on the ground that Josephus makes no other mention of Jesus or of Christianity; but it may be noted that F. Farrar, Early Days of Christianity, 1882, vol
Hierocles of Alexandria, a Philosopher - ...
The approximation of heathen philosophy to Christianity is the most interesting point to be noticed in connexion with Hierocles. He never, in his extant works, directly mentions Christianity; what degree of tacit opposition is implied in his philosophy is a difficult question
Corinth - ...
Christianity was first planted at Corinth by St. But Gallio, who was equally indifferent both to Judaism and Christianity, and finding that Paul had committed no breach of morality, or of the public peace, refused to hear their complaint, and drove them all from the judgment seat
Preaching Christ - No doubt this gave its whole character to primitive Christianity; but if we accept the testimony of the Apostles to the resurrection, we shall be slow to say that it transformed its character, and made it a new and essentially an inferior thing as compared with the religion of Jesus. With the experience of the resurrection and with this dogma of the death of the Messiah, the Christ-religion, Christianity in the narrower sense, begins. The study of Comparative Religion has fostered a tendency to regard Him in this light; but it cannot be said too strongly that to admit the legitimacy of such a tendency is to abandon from the very root all that has ever been known to history as Christianity. Historical Christianity, said Emerson (Works, Bell’s ed. To talk of Him as the same in kind with other prophets or founders of religions,—with Moses and Isaiah, with Confucius or Buddha, or, what is even harder to understand, with Mohammed,—is to surrender anything that a NT Christian could have recognized as Christianity. The first name secures His unshared place in relation to men, as the latter does in relation to God; and unless He fills such a place, Christianity has no raison d’être. It is, in fact, the differentia of Christianity as a religion that the distinction which can sometimes be drawn between a person and the cause for which he stands is in it no longer valid. To preach what Jesus preached is not preaching Christianity unless the thing preached is preached in its essential relation to Him. Christianity is not abstract optimism; it is optimism based on the exaltation of Jesus, and on the knowledge of God as revealed in Him. Nothing was more characteristic of primitive Christianity; it was the very essence of what the early Church meant by hope; it was for it part of the very meaning of ‘the Christ
Salutations - Salutations are friendly greetings, literary and otherwise, which Christianity took over from the social life of antiquity, but filled with a new content of Divine love and made a symbol of a common brotherhood in Christ. Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries, Eng. The democracy of Christianity is seen both in the inscriptions or opening words of the Epistles and in the greetings at the close, where mention of ministers or officers is generally absent, in a way impossible after a. The salutation by the kiss was taken over under Christianity as a matter of course, but, like everything else, purified and sanctified
Ephesus - ...
When Ephesus came into contact with Christianity, it still retained all its ancient glory. As the city of Artemis lived largely upon the superstition of the multitude, not only the priests who enjoyed the rich revenues of the Temple, but also the artisans who made ‘shrines’ for pilgrims, felt that if Christianity triumphed their occupation would be gone. To represent Christianity as a religio licita was clearly one of the leading aims of St. Paul the Ephesian Church was injured by the activity of false teachers (Acts 20:29-30; Revelation 2:4), but the Fall of Jerusalem greatly enhanced its importance, and the influence of the Johannine school made it the centre of Eastern Christianity
Commandment - In so far as primitive Christianity, in contrast to the OT, appeals to the conscience as the supreme tribunal of moral judgment (1 Corinthians 8:7 ff. This, of course, involves the assumption that the Christian apprehends the character of God as revealed in Jesus Christ; and accordingly the ethical maxim of primitive Christianity is that the believer should have the mind of Christ (Philippians 2:5 ff. Just as the spirit of Christianity was not, even at the outset, possessed by all believers in the same degree, but was found pre-eminently in the apostles and prophets, so it was not present so fully in the later period as in the earlier. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, 1894, p
Manichees - Or MANICHEANS, (Manichaei, ) a sect of ancient heretics, who asserted two principles; so called from their author Manes, or Manichaeus, a Persian by nations, and educated among the Magi, being himself one of that number before he embraced Christianity. his successor, first protected Manes, but afterwards gave him up to the fury of the Magi, whose resentment against him was due to his having adopted the Sadduccan principles, as some say; while others attribute it to his having mingled the tenets of the Mage with the doctrines of Christianity. ...
The doctrine of Manes was a motley mixture of the tenets of Christianity with the ancient philosophy of the Persians, in which he had been instructed during his youth. They first formed to themselves a certain idea or scheme of Christianity, and to this adjusted the writings of the apostles, pretending that whatever was inconsistent with this had been foisted into the New Testament by the later writers, who were half Jews
Septuagint - ...
But the present article is concerned with that which is the chiefest importance of the LXX Septuagint —its relation to (a) the beginnings and the growth of Christianity, (b) the expression of Christian doctrines and ideas. Christianity, by the power of God and by the coming of Christ, sprang out of Judaism. There are few more interesting lines of study than to trace the debt which Christianity owed to the LXX Septuagint in the matter of words and terms, and to see how the borrowed terminology was consecrated and adapted to higher uses
Charlemagne - He waged victorious warfare against the pagan Saxons, to whom he gave the alternative of baptism or death, their leader Wittekind finally accepting Christianity in 785
Charles the Great - He waged victorious warfare against the pagan Saxons, to whom he gave the alternative of baptism or death, their leader Wittekind finally accepting Christianity in 785
Syracuse - But as to the actual introduction of Christianity into Sicily, whether then or at a later date, history is silent, though the extensive catacombs in the Achradina quarter tell their own tale
Pastor - "Prudence will direct us to lay a good foundation of knowledge in our people's souls by catechising and instructing them in the principles of Christianity, without which we labour in vain
Cappadocia - ...
Yet Christianity made rapid progress in Cappadocia, and its triumph in Caesarea, the capital, so offended Julian the Apostate that he deprived the city of its freedom
Isdigerdes i, King of Persia - of Martyropolis in Mesopotamia, who had been sent on an embassy from the Romans early in his reign, he was very favourably disposed towards Christianity and the church in Persia had peace with full liberty of worship and church-building
Gospel - It is the gospel of the future, of progressive Christianity, of reason and culture seeking the perfection of manhood
Claudius, the Emperor - (On other points connected with the rise and progress of Christianity at Rome under Claudius see "Aquila and Priscilla," and the "Proto-martyr Stephen," in the writer's Biblical Studies
Jude - ...
In the early ages of Christianity, several rejected the Epistle of St
Sixtus ii., Bishop of Rome - But in the middle of 258, when Valerian was arming for his Persian war, he sent a rescript to the senate of much severer import; ordering bishops, priests, and deacons to be summarily executed; senators and other persons of rank to be visited with loss of dignity and goods, and, on refusal to renounce Christianity, with death; matrons to be despoiled and exiled; and imperial officials (Caesarians ) to be sent in chains to labour on the imperial domains (Cyp
Tyrannus - McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, p
Church, Gallican - It has been asserted, that about the middle of the last century a conspiracy was formed to overthrow Christianity, without distinction of worship, whether Protestant or Catholic. These pretended philosophers used every artifice that impiety could invent, by union and secret correspondence, to attack, to debase, and annihilate Christianity
Circumcision - Christianity did not interfere with Jewish usages, as social ordinances (no longer religiously significant) in the case of Jews, while the Jewish polity and temple stood. To insist on them for Gentile converts would have been to make them essential to Christianity
Sadducees - Why so? Because the resurrection of the dead (the doctrine denied by the Sadducees), which was scarcely understood during the Gospels' period (Mark 9:10), became the leading doctrine of Christianity in connection with the apostles' witness for Christ's resurrection at the time described in Acts 1:22; Acts 2:32; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:2 (Greek "preached in the person of Jesus the resurrection from the dead"), Acts 4:10; Acts 5:31; Acts 10:40; and was therefore bitterly opposed by the Sadducees. The Sadducees, the Pharisees, and the Herodians of Jesus' day represent the three schools antagonistic to vital Christianity in our days: infidelity; superstition, spiritualism and spiritual pride; worldly compromise
Ananias - An early convert to Christianity, best known as the husband of Sapphira (Acts 5:1-5). Neander, Planting of Christianity, ed
Faith - ...
So basic is faith to Christianity, that the New Testament uses the name ‘believers’ as another name for Christians (Acts 5:14; Romans 3:26; 1 Timothy 4:12). Likewise it uses ‘the faith’ as another name for Christianity (1 Timothy 5:8; 1 Timothy 6:10; 1 Timothy 6:21)
Oneness - These conceptions, so eloquently unfolded, are presuppositions of Christianity, and are implied, if not explicitly taught, in the Gospels. The first years of Christianity were indeed a period of singular oneness (Acts 4:32)
Missions - —The missionary spirit and aims of Christianity have their beginnings in the history, literature, and character of the Jewish people. The OT, especially in the portions which express the ideals and spirit of prophecy, is full of principles and promises which find their fulfilment in the world-wide mission of Christianity (Horton, The Bible as a Missionary Book). But the missionary activities and aims of Christianity cannot be rightly understood apart from the gradual development of missionary ideas which took place in the course of Jewish history. He absorbed and enlarged them, giving them such definiteness and fulness that they appear to be derived entirely from Him; for the spirit, aims, and motives of missions are distinctively Christian, and Christianity is essentially a missionary religion. The great declaration, Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is no other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved’ (Acts 4:12), is meaningless, if there was not behind it a consciousness of the universal character of Christianity, and, as a consequence, the consciousness of a universal mission. The hidden cleavage between Judaism and Christianity then became apparent, and an entirely new situation resulted, which affected those within and without the Church. —Horton, Bible as a Missionary Book; Bruce, Training of the Twelve; Latham, Pastor Pastorum; Hort, Judaistic Christianity Selby, Ministry of the Lord Jesus, pp
Abstinence - While Christianity has general laws to distinguish the good from the bad, yet for each individual Christian these laws are focused in the conscience, and the function of the latter is to discriminate between the good and the bad-it cannot devolve this duty on outward rules. In the self with which Christianity deals there are sinful elements that have to be extirpated. Pharisaism, however, follows so closely on the heels of ritual that in some quarters it very early infuenced Christianity (cf. The whole spirit of apostolic Christianity regards fasting as of little or no importance, and the experience of the Christian Church seems to be that any value it may have is infinitesimal compared with the evils and perversions that seem so inseparably associated with it. While Christianity recognizes the indifferent nature of these customs, while its liberty frees Christians from their observance, yet cases may arise when this liberty has to be subordinated to love and the interests of Christian unity. Paul did not, it is true, expatiate after the manner of modern moralists on the dignity of labour,† Odd Fellows, Order of - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Freemasonry - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Independent Order of Odd Fellows - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Knights of Pythias - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
International Order of Odd Fellows - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
John Newman, Venerable - Among his works, the best of which were written after his conversion, are: Sermons to Mixed Congregations, Lectures, Loss and Gain, Callista, The Second Spring, Christianity and Scientific Investigation, On Consulting the Laity in Matters of Doctrine, Grammar of Assent, Cathedra Sempiterna, Meditations and Devotions, and Letters and Correspondence
Newman, John Henry, Venerable - Among his works, the best of which were written after his conversion, are: Sermons to Mixed Congregations, Lectures, Loss and Gain, Callista, The Second Spring, Christianity and Scientific Investigation, On Consulting the Laity in Matters of Doctrine, Grammar of Assent, Cathedra Sempiterna, Meditations and Devotions, and Letters and Correspondence
Middle Ages - The Dark Ages then would be the time of the barbarian, Islam, and northern invasions, causing eventually the downfall of the Roman Empire and the destruction of the ancient civilizations, the time of the growing ascendancy of Christianity occasionally favored by those in power, though more often hindered and even persecuted because of the ambition of worldly rulers to subordinate religion to the state and of their alliance with heretical Christians, such as the Arians in the West, the Iconoclasts in the East; the time also of the conversion, by Apostolic men like Patrick, Martin, Augustine, Boniface, of the barbarous invaders and other more peaceful nations, bringing them gradually under the influence of Christian civilization
Work, Theology of - ...
God's People Reflect Him Through Practicing Integrity in Their Work Christianity that is real shows up in the marketplace
Sheol - Generally speaking, however, the NT does not develop any new doctrine of Sheol, and is as far as possible from favouring the extreme speculation of either Rabbinic Judaism or of Patristic Christianity
Confidence - Christianity is not a mere religion humans practice; it is a confident way of living based on what God has done in Christ
Cup - ...
For the church, the cup has come to represent the central events of Christianity, the death and resurrection of Christ
Epistles - ...
The name Epistles is given, by way of eminence, to the letters written by the Apostles, or first preachers of Christianity, to particular churches or persons, on particular occasions or subjects
Evidence: Experimental - I have been informed that not long ago a certain infidel lecturer gave an opportunity to persons to reply to him after his oration, and he was of course expecting that one or two rashly zealous young men would rise to advance the common arguments for Christianity, which he was quite prepared, by hook or crook, to battle with or laugh down
Tongue - Physiologically, the tongue (γλῶσσα) is accessory both to the sense of taste and to the faculty of speech, but in the literature of apostolic Christianity (e
Pilate, Pontius - The Gospel writers sought to demonstrate that Jesus was innocent from the standpoint of Roman law and that consequently Christianity in their day was not a threat to the Roman political and social order
Masonry - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Masons - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Antichrist - This expectation accords with that of Jewish apocalyptic literature (Sybilline Oracles, Book 3; 4Esdras 5:6) and early Catholic Christianity (Didache 16:1-4)
Salt - He eliminates from it the bitterness of sarcasm and adds to it the essential grace of Christianity
Thessalonica - Thessalonica was the mainstay of Eastern Christianity in the Gothic invasion in the third century
Scribe - -In the early history of Christianity we have only three references to the scribes
Sheol - Similarly, in Christianity, believers who die go immediately to be with the Lord (2 Corinthians 5:8 ; Philippians 1:23 )
Enmity - Some who prefers Christianity are sadly called enemies of the Cross (Philippians 3:18); and a man may so habitually pursue low ends as to become an enemy of all righteousness (Acts 13:10)
Lydda - By this time Lydda had begun to have a wide fame as the reputed burial-place of a Christian soldier named Georgios, who in Nicomedia had torn down Diocletian’s edict against Christianity and welcomed martyrdom
Sidon - Nothing is known of the actual introduction of Christianity into Sidon
Ages, Middle - The Dark Ages then would be the time of the barbarian, Islam, and northern invasions, causing eventually the downfall of the Roman Empire and the destruction of the ancient civilizations, the time of the growing ascendancy of Christianity occasionally favored by those in power, though more often hindered and even persecuted because of the ambition of worldly rulers to subordinate religion to the state and of their alliance with heretical Christians, such as the Arians in the West, the Iconoclasts in the East; the time also of the conversion, by Apostolic men like Patrick, Martin, Augustine, Boniface, of the barbarous invaders and other more peaceful nations, bringing them gradually under the influence of Christian civilization
Conscience - Christianity brings the conscience into the light of God, fully revealed by His word; the believer is thus exercised to have a conscience void of offence towards God and men
Smyrna - The ferocity of the populace against the aged Polycarp is accounted for by their zealous interest in the Olympian games celebrated here, in respect to which Christianity bore an antisocial aspect
Divisions - ...
This party would perhaps point to the obedience of Christ to the Law during His life, and would strongly advocate the position that Christianity was an outcome of Judaism, and that the Gentile in accepting Christ must bow his head to the yoke of the Law as well
Antioch - ”...
In the New Testament only Jerusalem is more closely related to the spread of early Christianity
Antichrist - It is a rather late term in Christianity, although its origin can be traced back to the Old Testament book of Daniel
Coelicolae - The possible confusion of Christianity with either was by all means to be avoided
Names - In Christianity God is made known under the name of FATHER
Abyssinian Church - The Abyssinians, by the most authentic accounts, were converted to the Christian faith about the year 330; when Frumentius, being providentially raised to a high office, under the patronage of the queen of Ethiopia, and ordained bishop of that country by Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria, established Christianity, built churches, and ordained a regular clergy to officiate in them
Deists - Peter Viret, a divine of that century, mentions it as a new name assumed by those who rejected Christianity
Renaissance - In Germany and the Low Countries the return was made to the study of primitive Christianity, e
Circumcision - ...
Circumcision and Christianity Controversy arose in the early church (Acts 10-15 ) as to whether Gentile converts need be circumcised
Sons of Temperance - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Secret Societies - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Societies, Secret - " Freemasonry professes the empiric or positivist geometrical method of reason and deduction in the investigation of truth, is essentially Naturalism, hence opposed to Supernaturalism, and is opposed not only to Catholicism and Christianity, but also to the whole system of supernatural truth
Peace - The transition, from OT to NT usage strikingly illustrates the inwardness of Christianity
Phoenicia - ...
No detailed account is given in the NT of the introduction of Christianity into Phcenicia, but hints are not wanting
Pamphylia - Christianity, which always had the best chance of success where Hellenism and Judaism had already prepared the soil, was late in taking root in backward and uncivilized Pamphylia
Puteoli - Paul found Christianity already planted in that great commercial city
Tongue - Physiologically, the tongue (γλῶσσα) is accessory both to the sense of taste and to the faculty of speech, but in the literature of apostolic Christianity (e
Lactantius - The African church produced as did no other country a succession of learned advocates or rhetoricians men of the world who embraced Christianity from conviction and wrote vigorously in its defence culminating in St. 1) those who had written against the assailants of Christianity previously to himself he could scarcely have passed over the work of Arnobius if already published and still less if Arnobius besides being an African had been his old preceptor. The work of Arnobius is limited to a refutation of the polytheism of the day and the popular objections to Christianity; that of Lactantius like the City of God by St
Trinity - Consequently, instead of giving an intellectual statement of doctrine, which might have led to theological and philosophic discussion, and ended only in more Intense opposition to Christianity, the Apostles preached Jesus of Nazareth as a personal Redeemer from sin, and urged on every one the acceptance of Him and His claims. Though he and others thus proclaimed the Godhead of Christ, it is of great moment to remember that Christianity was never accused of polytheism. The function of Israel was to guard God’s transcendence and omnipresence; it was for Christianity to develop the doctrine of the Godhead into the fulness, depth, and richness that we find in the revelation of the Incarnate Son of God. Compared with other religions, Christianity makes God a reality in a way in which no other system does. It is only in Christianity that the Semitic and Aryan conceptions of God are united, blended, correlated, balanced, and preserved
Dispersion - Those whom they won over, the σεβόμενοι or φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν of the Apostolic Age, were already far on their way to the more complete satisfaction of their spiritual wants that was to be found in Christianity. Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity, i. Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries2, 1908, i. : ‘The Breach between Judaism and Christianity’ (Lavine); W. Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity, 1903-04, i
Presence (2) - Man was himself to be brought into immediate contact with God, and was to experience the deep conviction that heaven and earth had met together’ (Matheson, Growth of Spirit of Christianity, i. What then are we to gather from all this but that, according to Christianity, Christ as God incarnate is the pledge that God is present, not only Creator-like in the universe, but Father-like in the believing heart and the consecrated life? That is really the meaning of His exhibition of God in human life, and the impartation of His own Spirit. The revelation of God immanent in a redeemed humanity is the ideal towards which Christianity points (Ephesians 1-3, Colossians 1:9-20, cf. He taught that Christianity was not a matter of consent to doctrine, as with the scholastics; or a method of losing oneself in the eternal, as with the mystics; but realizing the Divine presence as found through faith in Christ in ‘the freedom of a Christian man. of Dogma, or Outlines; Matheson, Growth of the Spirit of Christianity; Fairbairn, Christ in Mod
Dispersion - Those whom they won over, the σεβόμενοι or φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν of the Apostolic Age, were already far on their way to the more complete satisfaction of their spiritual wants that was to be found in Christianity. Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity, i. Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries2, 1908, i. : ‘The Breach between Judaism and Christianity’ (Lavine); W. Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity, 1903-04, i
Clement of Alexandria - Nothing is recorded of his parentage; but his own language seems to imply that he embraced Christianity by a personal act, as in some sense a convert ( Paed. Such a conversion would not be irreconcilable with the belief that Clement, like Augustine, was of Christian parentage at least on one side; but whether Clement's parents were Christians or heathens it is evident that heathenism attracted him for a time; and though he soon overcame its attractions, his inquisitive spirit did not at once find rest in Christianity. The first is an exhortation to the heathen to embrace Christianity, based on an exposition of the comparative character of heathenism and Christianity; the second offers a system of training for the new convert, with a view to the regulation of his conduct as a Christian; the third is an introduction to Christian philosophy. ...
Its general aim is to prove the superiority of Christianity to the religions and the philosophies of heathendom, while it satisfies the cravings of humanity to which they bore witness. The first book, which is mutilated at the beginning, treats in the main of the office and the origin of Greek philosophy in relation to Christianity and Judaism. Various passages of Scripture wrongly interpreted by heretics are examined (61–101); and the two main errors are shewn to be inconsistent with Christianity (102–110). The fourth book opens with a very interesting outline of the whole plan of the comprehensive apology for Christianity on which he had entered (§§ 1–3). Other traits are added to the portraiture of "the gnostic" (55–88); and Clement then meets the general objection urged against Christianity from the conflict of rival sects (89–92)
Socialism - Hughes deliberately adopted the word ‘Socialist’ for the movement which they founded, and incurred, as Hughes has testified, much ‘anger and bitterness’ as a result; but, since then, the Socialist idea has had a secure place in the speculations and activities of modern Christianity. ...
Yet general principles are of more importance than economic theories which must necessarily shift with changing conditions of life; and Socialism, defined as the principle of fellowship, may safely claim to be an integral part of Christianity, working itself out in one age through feudalism and canon law, in another through representative government and factory legislation, and tending, through the improvement of individual character, to the ideal state. The Christian men who opposed Shaftesbury were Individualists; they left society to the laws of supply and demand—in other words, to competition; they regarded the aim of Christianity as the salvation of individuals—or perhaps of a small minority of the elect, for Calvinism was in truth the theological parent of this Individualism. As for the prayer against temptation, the temperance movement alone shows that British Christianity has appreciated the social significance of that clause; and in other matters it is clear that, if the worship of Mammon be the antithesis of the worship of God, a society based upon commercial competition is constantly leading its members into the gravest temptation of all. But his most valuable contribution to the social aspect of Christianity is his teaching about the solidarity of mankind; the social principle in its very essence is in the declaration that ‘There can be neither Jew nor Greek, there can be neither bond nor free, there can be no male and female: for ye are all one man in Christ Jesus’ (Galatians 3:28; cf. It is clear, then, that from the beginning it was taught that Christianity had an intensely strong and real practical side in secular matters, that this side—the duty to the neighbour—was equally incumbent on the believer with the duty to God, and that it is bound up with the ‘social’ ideas of brotherhood, solidarity, unity, mutual love, co-operation, voluntary equalization of condition by giving up of possessions—in some cases, as in that of the Rich Young Man (Mark 10:21). Harnack, in his Expansion of Christianity (i. Whether we call it Socialism will depend upon our conception of what Socialism is; but those to whom Socialism is an ethical ideal will not cease to find their inspiration in Christianity; and those who take Christ in thoroughness and simplicity as their Guide In secular affairs will increasingly remember that He who said ‘One is your Master,’ said also ‘and all ye are brethren
Moses - While the religion of the OT revolved around the two foci, Law and Promise, primitive Christianity-in contrast to later Judaism-laid the chief emphasis upon the Promise; and, if the Jews exploited Moses in their controversies with the Christians, the latter could always appeal to his Messianic prediction; cf. For not only is the golden rule introduced most inaptly in a formal respect, but the purely ethical character of the decree as thus transformed presupposes the conditions of a later time-a time when the Church was no longer concerned with the specific problem that had called for the attention of the Apostolic Council; in the West, where the ‘ethical’ form of the Decree took its rise, Jewish Christianity was a relatively insignificant force, and what was wanted there was a brief compendium of the anti-heathen morality of Christianity. ...
We may sum up the whole by saying that while primitive Christianity originally set Moses and Jesus side by side, it came at length, in the process of development, to contrast them with each other, and St
Ecclesiastical Polity - ...
Melancthon and the earliest reformers viewed with veneration the hierarchy which had so long subsisted, as also many of the ceremonies which for ages had been observed; and they expressed their readiness to continue that distraction of pastors which their researches into the history of the church had enabled them to trace back to the early ages of Christianity. But while they declared in favour of this form of ecclesiastical polity, they did so, not upon the ground that it was of divine institution, or positively required by the author of Christianity as inseparable from a church; but on the ground, that taking into estimation every thing connected with it, it appeared to them eminently adapted to carry into effect that renovation of piety, and that religious influence, which they were so eager to promote. Cranmer explicitly declared, that bishops and priests were of the same order at the commencement of Christianity; and this was the opinion of several of his distinguished contemporaries. At a later period, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, we find the same conviction, that it was no violation of Christianity to choose different modes of administering the church
Sacrifice - Even more closely than in other subjects, the apostolic literature assumes the genetic connexion of Christianity with Judaism in its doctrine of sacrifice. Levitical conceptions became characteristic of the Judaism with which early Christianity had such intimate and vital connexion. It was almost inevitable, in the circumstances in which Christianity arose, that the primitive Church should extensively use this as a vehicle for teaching its doctrine of redemption. Yet it is difficult to hold that this whole ceremonial system was instituted with a conscious reference to, or binding authority for, the spiritual teaching of the sacrificial principle in Christianity, in which the Jewish sacrificial system was at once fulfilled and abrogated. A reluctant admission was beginning to be made-which ultimately found its logical and historical completion in apostolic Christianity-that it was not a full expression of the relation of His people to God, and was not wholly essential for their communion with Him. -The best method of expounding the apostolic views of sacrifice is to notice in what directions and to what extent the writers in the primitive Church modified the sacrificial ideas they carried with them in their passage from Judaism to Christianity. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, Edinburgh, 1894, p
Gnostics - (from knowing, ) ancient heretics, famous from the first rise of Christianity, principally in the east. The name was adopted by this sect, on the presumption that they were the only persons who had the true knowledge of Christianity
Libertines - It consists, as Hort says, of ‘a long compound phrase,’ the Greek of which is ‘not smooth and correct on any interpretation’ (Judaistic Christianity, p. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, London, 1894, p
Theophilus - Using this clue, the interest of Theophilus in Christianity may fairly be regarded as identical with the purpose of Luke in writing. Matthew’s object is to show Christianity as the New Law, and therefore he added to Mark large sections expounding the teaching of Jesus in this light
Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - --Christianity was introduced into AEthiopia in fourth century through the labors of Frumentius and AEdesius of Tyre, who had been made slaves and sent to the king. In the early times of Syrian Christianity there was executed a version of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew, the use of which must have been as widely extended as was the Christian profession among that people
Roman Empire - ...
Christianity came as the life-giving healer to this mass of death; "gradually withdrawing some of all orders, even slaves, out of the vices, ignorance, and misery of that corrupted social system. " (Milman, Latin Christianity, 1:24, quoted in Smith's Bible Dictionary) Daniel 2; 7 refer to Rome as the fourth kingdom; compare also Deuteronomy 28:49-57; Matthew 24:15; Matthew 24:28
Ephesus - The references to Ephesus in the Epistles show that the opposition to Christianity there was as long-continued as it was virulent ( 1 Corinthians 15:32 ; 1Co 16:9 , 2 Corinthians 1:8 ; 2 Corinthians 1:10 ). The actual foundation of Christianity in Ephesus may have been due to Priscilla and Aquila ( Acts 18:19 )
Philosophy - It is clear that the first time Christianity was taught in Athens, an intellectual hub of the ancient world, the message of monotheism was equated with obtuseness. , The Philosophy in Christianity ; H
Philosophists - The man more particularly to whom the idea first occurred was Voltaire, who being weary (as he said himself) of hearing people repeat that twelve men were sufficient to establish Christianity, resolved to prove that one might be sufficient to overturn it. It is more reasonable to admit, with Manes, of a two-fold God, than of the God of Christianity
Marriage (ii.) - Such transcendental teaching is foreign to the practical temper of Christianity. —Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity; Mathews, Social Teaching of Jesus, ch
Selfishness - —The self-sacrifice which Christ demands of all who would be His followers might lead one to imagine that Christianity was a religion of asceticism; that the Gnostic dualism of good and evil, matter and spirit, was the logical outcome of the teaching of Jesus; that God required the renunciation of all earthly things, and even of life, for the sake of the sacrifice itself. It is thus manifest that there is not the slightest ground for bringing against Christianity the charge of inculcating a higher form of selfishness; for selfishness implies an opposition between the self and the not-self—that the well-being of the former is sought at the cost of the latter, whereas in the religion of Jesus there is no such opposition
Cosmopolitanism - It will thus be seen that the recognition of cosmopolitanism in the sense of a universal mission of Christianity is, in the Synoptic Gospels, only slight (cf. Harnack, Expansion of Christianity, English translation vol
Galatians, the Epistle to the - Accustomed, when pagan, to the mystic worship of Cybele prevalent in the neighboring Phrygia, they the more readily were led to believe that the full privileges of Christianity could only be attained by submitting to elaborate ceremonial symbolism (Galatians 4:9-11; Galatians 5:7-12). ...
(2) To counteract the Judaizers (Galatians 3-4), and to show that their teaching undermined Christianity itself by lowering its spirituality to external ceremonialism
Antioch - The grove at Daphne, planted by Seleucus, which, with its temple and oracle, presented, during the reigns of the Macedonian kings of Syria, the most splendid and fashionable place of resort for Pagan worship in the east, had sunk into neglect since the establishment of Christianity. This was an unpromising soil for Christianity to take root in
Type - With their view of the OT writings as prophetic of Christ and Christianity at point after point, it was natural that the NT authors should apply to the revelation in the history of Israel the principles they had already applied to its record, and should find Christ and the Christian salvation prefigured in the persons, events, and institutions of OT history, as they had already found them foretold in the OT Scriptures. Applications of the idea by apostolic Christianity...
(1) The primitive circle. , where allegory is blended with type through a deeper meaning being read into the OT narrative than it naturally bears, Sarah and Hagar, Isaac and Ishmael are used as types of Judaism in bondage to the Law and Christianity set free from its yoke. Conceiving of religion as a covenant between God and man, the author’s purpose is to prove to his Jewish readers that Christianity, the religion of the New Covenant, is better than Judaism, the religion of the Old; and the method which he employs is to draw a series of contrasts between the Old and the New regarded as type and antitype. All through the Epistle there runs a series of contrasts between Judaism as preparatory and typical and Christianity as antitypical and perfect, (a) In the opening verses the fragmentary and varying revelation ‘of old time’ by the prophets is set over against God’s speech unto us in His Son (Hebrews 1:1-2), and this is immediately followed by the contrast of angels as ministering spirits sent forth to do service for the heirs of salvation (Hebrews 1:14) with Him who was made a little lower than the angels that He might bring many sons unto glory (Hebrews 2:9-10), (b) Next comes (Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 4:13) a contrast between Moses, a faithful servant in God’s house, and Christ, a Son set over it (Hebrews 3:5 f. And the history of Israel furnishes types not only of the living Christianity within the churches, but of a false doctrine and debased morality that were making the lamps of the churches burn dim-Balaam has his antitype in the contemporary Balaamites (Revelation 2:14) and Jezebel in the false and wicked prophetess by whom God’s servants are seduced (Revelation 2:20)
Barnabas, Epistle of - It exhibits a high appreciation of many of the cardinal truths of Christianity, of the incarnation and death of Christ, of the practical aims of the Gospel, of the freedom and spirituality of Christian living; while the general conception of the relation of the N. " The second is Christianity itself, Christianity before Christ (c. He had been always thinking, not of Judaism, but of Christ and Christianity. These men, as appears from the tenor of the whole chapter, must have been Jews, and their statement could have no other meaning than that Judaism, as the Jews understood and lived it, was God's covenant, that it was to be preferred to Christianity, and that the observance of its rites and ceremonies was the true divine life to which men ought to be called. It is the spirit of a Pharisaic self-righteousness in the strictest sense of the words, not of a Judaizing Christianity, that is before us
Gospel - Christianity had been propagated in a great part of the world before any of them had written, on the testimony of thousands and tens of thousands, who had been witnesses of the great facts which they have recorded; so that the writing of these particular books is not to be considered as the cause, but rather the effect, of the belief of Christianity; nor could those books have been written and received as they were, namely, as authentic histories, of the subject of which all persons of that age were judges, if the facts they have recorded had not been well known to be true. The term Gospel is often used in Scripture to signify the whole Christian doctrine: hence, "preaching the Gospel" is declaring all the truths, precepts, promises, and threatenings of Christianity
Cross - , or actually represented in some material; the symbol of Christ's death; the ensign and chosen symbol of Christianity, of a Christian people, and of Christendom
Tadmor - The place exercised, indeed, no considerable influence on the history either of ancient Israel or of early Christianity
Titus - The Judaistic party within the Church wished to have Titus circumcised ( Galatians 2:3 ); but the Apostle and those representing Gentile Christianity strenuously resisted (v
Canon (1) - ...
See articles BIBLE, Christianity, SCRIPTURES; Blair's Canon of Scripture; Jones's Canonical authority of the New Test
Singing - and in the earliest times of Christianity
Assurance - Life with God (whether in ancient Israel or in Christianity) is a dynamic reality, not some chess game in which God moves all the pawns and kings without reference to human response (note the amazing conditional statement in Jeremiah 18:7-10 )
Judging - It is the right and duty of a moral being to judge of the goodness or badness of actions and qualities ; and Christianity, by exalting the moral standard and quickening the conscience, makes ethical judgments more obligatory than before
Grave - Christianity is still best represented by the empty grave (John 20:1-9 )
Lycaonia - Paul brought Christianity to Lycaonia, he confined his mission to that part of it which was in the province of Galatia
Meekness - ’ In 1 Peter 3:15 it is united with φόβος as a safeguard against the calumny with which the opponents of Christianity pursued the believer
Self-Suppression - In the history of Christianity both these conceptions have been adopted, and each has been regarded as the true interpretation of the spirit of the Lord
Sosthenes - Harnack, Expansion of Christianity, i
Aquila And Priscilla - As the unrest among the Jews, which led to their expulsion, arose ‘through the instigation of Chrestus,’ it is not improbable that Aquila and Priscilla were at least sympathizers with Christianity before they met St
Cilicia - Syria and Cilicia were the first centres of Gentile Christianity, from which the light radiated over Asia Minor into Europe
Aphraat (Aphrahat, Farhad - Christianisme dans l’empire perse ; Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity
Deliverance - word is found 8 times (in Matthew 26:28, Mark 1:4, Luke 3:3; Luke 1:77; Luke 24:47 it is rendered ‘remission’ [1]; in Mark 3:29 ‘forgiveness’; in Luke 4:18 bis (a) ‘deliverance’ [2], ‘release’ [1]6, (b) [4] ‘at liberty’); while the fact of deliverance underlies all that is recorded of Jesus, and has coloured the entire thought of Christianity
Hagar - He contrasts Hagar the bondwoman with Sarah, and Ishmael ‘born after the flesh’ with Isaac ‘born through promise’; thence freedom and grace appear as the characteristic qualities of Christianity
Pentecost - The tongues symbolized Christianity proclaimed by preaching; the antithesis to Babel's confusion of tongues and gathering of peoples under one ambitious will
First-Fruit - These men, with all likeminded, were the first-fruits of a new creation achieved by the spirit of Christianity, and they were the pledge of others who would follow their inspiring example
Witness - ...
In Christianity there are said to be three witnesses — "the Spirit and the water and the blood: and these three agree in one" — they affirm that God has given to the believer "eternal life, and this life is in his Son
Dorcas - This circumstance has in later Christianity given the inspiration and the name to the so-called Dorcas societies devoted to providing garments for the poor
Infidelity - If we enquire into the rise of infidelity, we shall find it does not take its origin from the result of sober enquiry, close investigation, or full conviction; but it is rather, as one observes, "The slow production of a careless and irreligious life, operating together with prejudices and erroneous conceptions concerning the nature of the leading doctrines of Christianity
Acts of the Apostles - This is the only inspired work which gives us any historical account of the progress of Christianity after our Saviour's ascension
Romania - Christianity was introduced into Rumania by the Romans, who used the Latin form and liturgy
Rumania - Christianity was introduced into Rumania by the Romans, who used the Latin form and liturgy
Greece - Their pride of intellect, and their corruption of morals, were almost insurmountable obstacles to their reception of Christianity
Philip - He was instrumental in the conversion of the chamberlain of Candace, queen of Ethiopia, thus introducing Christianity into that historic heathen country ( Acts 8:26-39 )
Revela'Tion of st. John, - (b) The Praeterist expositors, who are of opinion that the Revelation has been almost or altogether fulfilled in the time which has passed since it was written; that it refers principally to the triumph of Christianity over Judaism and Paganism, signalized in the downfall of Jerusalem and of Rome
Josephus, Catholicos of Armenia - was endeavouring to supplant the Christianity of Armenia by Zoroastrianism
Justinus ii - A Samaritan was declared incapable of having a Christian slave; if he bought one, the slave ipso facto became entitled to his freedom; while a Samaritan slave became free on embracing Christianity
Maximus of Ephesus - A "master of theurgic science," commonly reckoned among the neo-Platonic philosophers, the interest of whose life consists merely in the fact that he supplied an essential link in the transit of the emperor Julian from Christianity to paganism
Miltiades, 2nd Cent. Christian Writer - The Apology may be supposed to have been a learned plea for toleration of Christianity, the purity of whose doctrines may have been favourably contrasted with the teaching of heathen philosophy
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - ...
He was probably attracted to Christianity by complex irresistible and converging forces: "Fiunt, non nascuntur Christiani" (Apol. The name and the form only made us laugh, says Tertullian; and then he retorts: "But our opponents might well have worshipped such a biformed deity: for they have dog-headed and lion-headed gods, gods with horns, gods with wings, gods goat-limbed, fish-limbed, or serpent-limbed from the loins!"...
(b ) Tertullian turns from what Christianity was not to what it was, and the main lines of the evidences of Christianity in the 2nd cent. ) is a history of the origin of the Christian sect and name, and an account of the Founder of Christianity, such as we have in the Gospels. "that the wicked should be freed from their error, and that faith destined for so glorious a reward should be established upon difficulty"; his own opinion that Caesars (such as Tiberius) would have believed in Christ, if they could have been Caesars and Christians at the same time; the sufferings of the disciples at the hands of the Jews; and at last, through Nero's cruelty, the sowing the seed of Christianity at Rome in their blood (cf. Had Christianity tolerated repaying evil with evil, what secret vengeance could have been wrought in a single night with a torch or two! Or, had they determined to act as open enemies, what numbers and resources would they have had! "We are but of yesterday," is Tertullian's proud boast (cf. What remained? One last perversion on the part of unbelief: "Christianity was no divine institution, but simply a kind of philosophy. The treatise was occasioned by a dispute between a Christian and a heathen converted, not to Christianity but to Judaism
Acts of the Apostles - Paul; the episode of Cornelius (who was only a ‘proselyte of the gate,’ or ‘God-fearing,’ one who was brought into relation with the Jews by obeying certain elementary rules, such, probably, as those of Acts 15:29 , but not circumcised [11]; this means, therefore, a further step towards Pauline Christianity); the first meeting of Paul and Barnabas with a Roman official in the person of Sergius Paulus in Cyprus, the initial step in the great plan of St. Paul to make Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire (see § 7 ; henceforward the author calls Saul of Tarsus by his Roman name, one which he must have borne all along, for the purposes of his Roman citizenship); the Council of Jerusalem, the vindication of Pauline teaching by the Church; the call to Macedonia, not as being a passing from one continent to another, for the Romans had not this geographical idea, nor yet as a passing over to a strange people, but partly as a step forwards in the great plan, the entering into a new Roman province, and especially the association for the first time with the author (§ 3 ); the residence at Corinth, the great city on the Roman highway to the East, where Gallio’s action paved the way for the appeal to Cæsar; and the apprehension at Jerusalem. He seems to have formed the great idea of Christianity being the religion of the Roman Empire, though not confined to it. To this the preliminary history of the Twelve and of the beginnings of Christianity leads up. Paul is a sure sign of an early date, for the book could only have been written while the Imperial policy was still neutral to Christianity, or at least while the memory of that time was still green. Contrast the enmity between Christianity and this Rome worship depicted in Revelation 2:13 ; Revelation 13:15 etc
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - ...
The entire want of spiritual depth and life in Eunomius is shewn by his maintaining that the Divine nature is perfectly comprehensible by the human intellect, and charging those who denied this with an utter ignorance of the first principles of Christianity. He accused them of preaching an unknown God, and even denied their right to be called Christians at all, since without knowledge of God there could be no Christianity; while he denied to those who did not hold his views as to the nature of God and the generation of the Son the possession of any true knowledge of the Divine Being. In harmony with this formal, intellectual idea of knowledge, as the source of Christian life, Eunomius assigned a lower place to the sacraments than to the teaching of the word, depreciating the liturgical, as compared with the doctrinal, element of Christianity. As quoted by Gregory Nyssen, he asserted that "the essence of Christianity did not depend for its ratification on sacred terms, on the special virtue of customs and mystic symbols, but on accuracy of doctrine" (Greg
Common Life - Christianity is the universal faith, because it is founded upon the universal needs of the human heart (John 8:31-32; John 14:12-13). ...
It is, of course, true that Christianity is particular to this extent, that its Founder faces and combats those particular evils which chanced to be most prevalent at the time when He lived on earth. ...
But it is rather the whole tendency of the teaching and example of Jesus, than any explicit statement, that in Christianity assigns to common life a dignity which it receives in no other religion. That Christianity so early developed monkish asceticism cannot be adduced as an argument against Christ’s teaching
Christians, Names of - They describe, in part, the Old Testament Jewish roots of Christianity, the role of the Godhead within Christianity, the union of believers with God and Christ, the nature of Christian life and conduct, and the importance of the gospel. Was it Christianity or Judaism that stood directly in line with the Old Testament promises of God? This dilemma was resolved through the realization that Christians too were predestined to share in God's plan of salvation
Israel, Israelite - But that does not mean that Christianity is merely to be substituted for Judaism. Christianity is not a completely new creation fallen from heaven, but rather a growth from the religion of Israel—a growth far surpassing the germ from which it sprang, as an oak surpasses an acorn, but yet composed of elements which are discernible in the earlier dispensation in a rudimentary form. And this truth is the very fibre of Christianity; a Christian is in the truest sense a Unitarian
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - ...
Though Christianity entered into the British Isles at a very early date, it was not till the year 1380 that the English New Testament was issued, in spite of Rome, only however to be collected and burnt by the clergy so far as they could. The introduction of Christianity into that part of Africa is remarkable. God's set time however arrived: the darkness and ignorance were deplored, and one here and there was empowered by God to seek to spread the light of the holy scriptures among those professing Christianity, and more modern versions of the word of God were gradually made and printed, being hailed with delight by all who wished to know what God Himself had revealed as the only way of salvation, and to know His will concerning themselves
Passover - Paul, however, who divined most accurately the true genius of Christianity as a religion with universal aims, evidently disapproved of the continuance of Judaism as a system crippling the spiritual energies of the Church, the new liberty in Christ. Though he was, as he himself proudly claimed, ‘a Hebrew of Hebrews,’ it is more than questionable if he kept the Passover after his conversion and after he had grasped the meaning of Christianity for the Gentile world. Paul more than to any other is it due that Christianity broke away from the swaddling-clothes of Judaism and became a faith with a far more glorious redemption than the Exodus to commemorate. Paul, perhaps for the very first time, was quick to see an illustration of Christ and His redeeming work in the sacrifice of the lamb, and in the complete removal of leaven which preceded the feast (Exodus 12:15) an illustration of the moral purification which Christianity calls for. There was a meal in some form or another associated with Christianity from the very beginning. McGiffert (A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p. It is the more natural to think, considering the relation of Christianity to Judaism, that we have here a close point of connection between the old and the new
Spiritual Gifts - Paul speaks of his own powers in this respect as well known ( 1Co 2:4 ; 1 Corinthians 14:18 , 2 Corinthians 12:2 ); and Hebrews 2:4 mentions them as a recognized characteristic of the first age of Christianity. The former, indeed, are not decisive as to their origin; they are not peculiar to Christianity, and may be the accompaniment of evil and falsehood ( Matthew 7:22 ; Matthew 24:24 , 2Th 2:9 , 1 Corinthians 12:3 , Revelation 13:13-14 )
Tongues Gift of - To Huxley the Salvation Army appeared to be a kind of ‘Corybantic Christianity,’ judged by its external phenomena of religious excitement and enthusiasm. The use of strange words in magical formulas or charms which is to be found in circles alien to the apostolic communities may properly be adduced as parallels to glossolalia; but it would appear that glossolalia speedily vanished from apostolic Christianity
Service - 220; Peabody, Jesus Christ and the Social Question; Ely, Social Aspects of Christianity; Lyman Abbott, Christianity and Social Problems; S
England - Christianity was introduced into England by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in 597; it spread rapidly in southern Britain, and was brought to Northumbria by Paulinus. Saint Aidan, founder of the monastery of Lindisfarne, spread the Faith in the north; and from Lindisfarne came Saint Cedd and Saint Chad who labored as missionaries in Essex and Mercia, Saint Cuthbert who strengthened Christianity in the north, and Saint Wilfrid, who besides converting the South Saxons, reconciled the Christians of Northumberland to the Roman Easter and other institutions sanctioned by the Holy See
Judaizing Christians - It cannot, therefore, be matter of surprise that the sentiment prevailed among the whole of the Jews who had been converted to Christianity; or that even after it was opposed by the declaration of the Apostles as individuals, and by their solemn determination, when assembled to decide with respect to it, that the law was not binding upon Gentile converts, they should still have adhered to it, when from not having a written record of faith they might have imagined, either that the representation of the apostolic decision was erroneous, or that the sanction which it gave to their own adherence to their ceremonies virtually confirmed the doctrine which they felt such aversion to relinquish. He, indeed, uniformly represents the idea which he opposed as inconsistent with Christianity, as an idea which could not be held without detracting from what our Saviour has done to accomplish our redemption
Pharisees - So Pharisaism cleared the ground for Christianity. It was they who, for the most part, prepared the ground for Christianity by taking the Messianic idea and working it into the very texture of common consciousness
Philo - There is but one difference: Christianity, while maintaining the underlying allegory, nevertheless insists upon the historicity of the facts; for it rests upon historical revelation. It is open to question, however, how far his influence extended in earlier Christianity, e. They did not know, nor could they, that non-Jewish Hellenism had produced something similar, and that it also influenced early Christianity independently. Thus Philo’s importance is becoming less and less prominent, even with those scholars who are prepared to find foreign influence active in primitive Christianity. He is not a source of but a parallel to the same mixture in early Christianity; and it is certain that he prepared the soil for its seed
Hebrews Epistle to the - They felt the novelty of Christianity. Christianity had, as it seemed to them, no visible priesthood or sacrifice. His argument takes the form of a systematic contrast between Christianity and Leviticalism. Yet its logical conclusion is not simply that Christianity is the better of the two, but that Christianity is the best religion conceivable, the final, eternal revelation of God to men. Doctrine...
(1) Conception of Christianity
Sardis - Christianity survived at Sardis
Household - Just as the household was basic to society, so it was to Christianity
Luke, Gospel According to - Luke's Gospel has been called "the Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;" the "Gospel of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;" "the Gospel of womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of tolerance
Hell - Even the heathens had their tartara; and the Mahometans, we find, believe the eternity of rewards and punishments; it is not, therefore, a sentiment peculiar to Christianity
Hell - Even the heathens had their tartara; and the Mahometans, we find, believe the eternity of rewards and punishments; it is not, therefore, a sentiment peculiar to Christianity
Titus - Titus, one of the apostle Paul’s chief lieutenants, was a Greek, born probably in Antioch or its neighbourhood, and converted to Christianity perhaps by the Apostle himself (Titus 1:4)
Blasphemy - ...
This downgrading of the significance of blasphemy against Christ marks an important difference between Christianity and Islam
Right (2) - Christianity not only depicts an ideal and insists on its realization; it proclaims and provides the power to realize it, in union with Him who has Himself lived the life and fulfilled the Divine ideal, and whose grace is sufficient for all who receive it
Intermediate State - Christianity postulates that there will be a resurrection of the body at the end of the age
Judgment - Butterfield, Christianity and History ; L
Heresy - It was the harm done by strife and the absence of that spirit of unity and charity, which is the very essence of Christianity, that called for the Apostle’s rebukes
Gaza - In the time of Eusebius and Jerome it was still a notable Greek city, where paganism stoutly resisted Christianity; and it played an important part in the time of the Crusades
Gain - This is the missionary’s conception of Christianity
Labour - Rauschenbusch, Christianity and the Social Crisis, N
Oath - " Therefore, Christianity sanctions oaths, but they are to be used only to put an end to contradiction in disputes and for confirmation of solemn promises
Levites - ...
The relation of assistantship which associated the Levites with the priests was similar to that which connected deacons with bishops in the Christian Church; and it is not improbable that that connexion was suggested by the arrangement of the functions of the Temple officers with which the Jewish converts to Christianity were familiar
Greece - Thus it came about that Christianity was preached in Greek, that our NT books were written in Greek, and that the language of the Church, according to all the available evidence, remained Greek till about the middle of the 2nd cent
Apparition - Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity, London, 1903, pp
Asiarch - Christianity, with its outward respect for civil authority, seemed at first the strongest supporter of law and order
Adversary (2) - 61; Wernle, The Beginnings of Christianity, i
Accho - Christianity was planted here at an early period, and here St
Fasting - In the consideration of this, we must not overlook the peculiar nature of that hot climate in which Christianity was first promulgated
Roman Empire - ...
The condition of the Roman empire at the time when Christianity appeared has often been dwelt upon as affording obvious illustrations of St
Spirit - Paul speaks, 1 Corinthians 12:10 of the discerning of spirits as being among the miraculous gifts granted by God to the faithful at the first settlement of Christianity
Petronilla, Saint And Virgin - Flavius Sabinus, the head of that branch of the Flavii to which the supposed converts to Christianity belonged, was T
Procopius of Caesarea - The controversies of the church had done much to alienate him from doctrinal Christianity; and, though he does speak at times as if he had embraced some of its distinct tenets, it is hardly possible to think that he had done so in the sense of regarding them as an express revelation of divine truth to man
History - Christianity links Christian experience with God to certain historical occurrences. This distinctive historical dimension of Christianity needs to be stressed, especially when addressing more skeptical hearers. The resurrection (assuming the life and death of Jesus) is the crucial point of defense of the historical validity of Christianity (1 Corinthians 15:14 )
Liberty - But Christianity had gained access to the palaces of the aristocracy before the 1st cent. ...
To the rise of Christianity we very specially owe an advanced conception of conscience and its corollary, the claim to freedom to act in accord with the behests of conscience. ...
It remains briefly to point out that not only does the term ‘redemption’ (applied to the work of Christ in opening to men this new experience of life) derive from the social state in the midst of which Christianity was burn, but ‘adoption’ as used by St
Animals - Cooper, Green Christianity: C aring for the Whole Creation ; W. Linzey, Christianity and the Rights of Animals ; A. Regan, Animals and Christianity: A Book of Readings ; R
Holy Day - We must also remember that as Christianity in the course of its missionary expansion came in contact with Hellenistic Judaism, the Pagan religions spirit, with its insistence on the observance of heathen festivals, would encourage a return to and an emphasis upon ‘holy days. To follow the definite moral precepts of Judaism, taken over into Christianity, impressed them as a safer course than to venture on the broad sea of Christian freedom and the guidance of the Spirit. ...
The aim of this article has been to indicate the complexity of the movement in the Apostolic Church that issued in the gradual weaning of Christianity, as interpreted by St
Diocletian, Emperor - 303 he would have taken his place among the rulers whose general tolerance helped Christianity to obtain its victory. 259, had placed Christianity in the number of religiones licitae, and there had been no formal persecution since. In 311 Galerius died in the agonies of a loathsome and horrible disease, and before his death confessed, by an edict of toleration, that the attempt which he had made to crush Christianity had failed
Marriage - Christianity, by allowing divorce in the event of adultery, supposes, also, that the crime must be proved by proper evidence before the civil magistrate; and lest divorce should be the result of unfounded suspicion, or be made a cover for license, the decision of the case could safely be lodged no where else. For if, at least, they profess belief in Christianity, whatever duties are laid upon husbands and wives in Holy Scripture, they engage to obey by the very act of their contracting marriage. It may, indeed, be within the scope of mere moralists to show that fidelity, and affection, and all the courtesies necessary to maintain affection, are rationally obligatory upon those who are connected by the nuptial bond; but in Christianity nuptial fidelity is guarded by the express law, "Thou shalt not commit adultery;" and by our Lord's exposition of the spirit of that law which forbids the indulgence of loose thoughts and desires, and places the purity of the heart under the guardianship of that hallowed fear which his authority tends to inspire
History - Christianity links Christian experience with God to certain historical occurrences. This distinctive historical dimension of Christianity needs to be stressed, especially when addressing more skeptical hearers. The resurrection (assuming the life and death of Jesus) is the crucial point of defense of the historical validity of Christianity (1 Corinthians 15:14 )
Incarnation - It is a distinguishing feature of Christianity that it consists in faith in a person, Jesus Christ, and in faith or self-committal of such a character that faith in Him is understood to be faith in God. It developed along several distinct lines of thought and expectation, and it will be noted that these are not combined in the OT; but Christianity claims to supply the explanation and fulfilment of them all. ’ It is hardly necessary to point out that the modern teaching of evolution, if not anticipated by Christianity, at least adapts itself singularly well to the expression of this aspect of it. This teaching found ready support and sympathy among men who had not shaken off pagan habits of thought, and in opposing it the Church was contending for a true Theism, which cannot endure the multiplication of objects of worship, no less than for Christianity
Friendship - Christianity has also a high regard for friendship, has ennobled it, but has at the same time placed limitations upon it. (a) The area within which the grace may be displayed is much extended by the teaching of Christianity upon the dignity of woman, whereby marriage loses any trace of the offence with which even many enlightened Jews regarded it,* Mishnah - Since the earliest Christians were also Jews, the Mishnah may give some indication of the development of early Christianity alongside of the development of rabbinic Judaism. Understanding of the development of Judaism in this period alongside the development of Christianity may help in understanding the commonalities and strains between the two sibling religions
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - Very simple yet profound expression is given to the Christian faith and hope ( 1 Thessalonians 1:9-10 ); there is reference to Jewish hostility ( 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16 ), but no controversial insistence on an anti-Judaic Christianity a confirmation of early date. and ignores the gradual shaping of Pauline Christianity under stress of problems and controversies as yet hardly in sight
Timothy - Timothy is called "a disciple," so that his conversion must have been before the time of Acts 16:1, through Paul (1 Timothy 1:2, "my own son in the faith") probably at the apostle's former visit to Lystra (Acts 14:6), when also we may conjecture his Scripture-loving mother Eunice and grandmother Lois were converted from Judaism to Christianity (2 Timothy 3:14-15; 2 Timothy 1:5): "faith made its "dwelling" (enookesen ; John 14:23) first in Lois and Eunice," then in Timothy also through their influence. Christianity; Timothy's to "confess" it and "fight the good fight of faith," and "keep the (gospel) commandment" (John 13:34; 1 Timothy 1:5; Titus 2:12; 2 Peter 2:21; 2 Peter 3:2)
Communion - We have to start from the general view of communion which early Christianity held. ...
There can be no doubt but that early Christianity had a double conception of fellowship: all members of the Church were in close fellowship one with the other, and at the same time each and all of them were in fellowship with the heavenly Lord
Unitarians - Burgess, bishop of Salisbury, after this enumeration of the peculiar doctrines of Christianity, "does Unitarianism differ from Deism? Deists deny the essential doctrines of Christianity by rejecting the whole of the Christian revelation; Unitarians reject the Christian revelation by denying all its peculiar and essential doctrines
Proselyte (2) - ...
The account of the Acts shows that proselytes often became converts to Christianity, and this was an important factor in the establishment of the Gentile Christian Church. 291–327; Harnack, Expansion of Christianity, ii
Incarnation (2) - ...
The message of Christianity—Union with God in the Person of Christ. ‘the Fatherhood of God,’ or ‘the Kingdom of God,’ has meaning and value; but they all lie within the supreme and commanding truth, which is the declaration of Christianity, viz. ...
(b) The other system, which expresses the demand of the age for union with God, and which helps us to understand the attitude of the Greek mind toward Christianity, when it came forth with its great message of reconciliation accomplished, was that which originated with Philo, and which at a later stage, as elaborated by Plotinus, presented itself as a rival to Christianity. ...
(3) In order to complete even so hasty a sketch of the spiritual situation in the Hellenic-Roman world at the advent of Christianity, it is necessary to note the fresh and more hopeful point of view presented by the religion of Israel. ...
Into such a world, Jewish and Hellenic, Christianity entered, with the declaration that what men had been seeking had come to pass, that union with God was no longer a mere dream or a wistful hope, but an accomplished fact. Two things, however, it does effect: (a) it sets the person of Christ in the centre of Christianity as its main declaration and its most cogent proof; (b) it makes a merely humanitarian construction of His personality for ever impossible
Christ in the Early Church - A very interesting feature of the first half of the 2nd cent, is the rise of the Apologists, men of learning who had exchanged heathenism for Christianity, and who addressed heathen readers in justification or explanation of their new faith, (a) Aristides the philosopher (about a. It was, however, the necessity of meeting both outside attacks on Christianity, and misconceptions of it from within, that gradually forced Christian writers to define more clearly and exactly the nature of Christ. Early in the 2nd cent, had begun to appear the curious half-heathen travesties of Christianity which are classed under the general name of Gnosticism. The Gnostic systems really differed from Christianity on first principles, as they were generally dualistic, and assumed the essential evil of matter. Persecution ceased, Christianity tended at once to become the recognized religion of the Empire. This sudden outburst of popularity brought into the Church an influx of ill-instructed converts, who were naturally eager to assimilate Christianity as far as possible to their old heathenism. It is not one of the least evidences to a Divine power working in the Christian Church, that, in an age of cosmopolitan superstition and intellectual unrest, all attempts to assimilate Christianity to heathenism were rejected, and a clearly defined and balanced statement of truth emerged and gained almost entire possession of the field
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - Baur and the Tübingen school were wrong in explaining the development of primitive Catholic Christianity as the fruit of a compromise effected by the Pauline and Petrine parties soon after the middle of the 2nd cent. The earliest post-apostolic form of Christianity was no mere product of conflicting antitheses of the apostolic time, or of their reconciliation. That to some extent Jewish-Christian influences did operate upon Gentile Christianity during the former half of the 2nd cent. The later Gentile Christianity learned to see everywhere in O. Justin makes constant endeavours to comprehend Christianity under the then generally accepted forms of philosophical speculation, and to commend it as a manifestation of the highest reason to the cultured minds of his time. The doctrine of the Divine Logos as the "Second God," the Mediator through Whom all divine revelation is transmitted, was already for Justin an apologetic weapon, remained thence forward a standing basis for the philosophical defence of Christianity, and proved in after-times the strongest weapon in the church's armoury in the conflict with Gnostic opinions. The danger from the influx on all sides of foreign thought was all the greater because the Gentile churches had as yet but a feeble comprehension of the ideas specially belonging to Christianity
Catholic Indian Missions of the United States - ...
THE COLUMBIA REGION The tribes of this district first received knowledge of Christianity in 1820
Fertility Cult - ) Many of the mystery religions which competed with Christianity in the early centuries of the church developed the myths of the older fertility cults
Mark (John) - He had not yet grasped the idea of a worldwide Christianity, as St
Rest - 15) in which the hallowing of the Sabbath is discussed as something which will find its fulfilment in Christianity (as opposed to Judaism) in the impending Messianic Age
Undressed Cloth - —In Matthew 9:16, Mark 2:21 Christ, in reply to the question of the disciples of John the Baptist as to why His disciples did not fast, employs the figure of a piece of undressed cloth (ῥάκος ἄγναφον) sewed on an old garment, to show the incongruity between fasting according to rule and the new spirit of Christianity, ῥάκος (fr
Lord's Day - Soon after Christianity became the religion of the Roman Empire
Caesarea - Christianity early found its way here, Philip probably being the founder of the Church ( Acts 8:40 ), while Paul passed through after his first visit to Jerusalem ( Acts 19:31 )
Flesh - Paul’s Conception of Christianity , 269 ff
Spain - McGiffert, A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p
Hand - ...
The most striking and important references to the hand in apostolic Christianity occur in connexion with the ‘laying on of hands
Edification - McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, pp
Colossians, Epistle to the - Practical Christianity should be manifest in every station of life
Altar - These false altars are symbolical for the world's religious schemes and plans under the name of Christianity
Hermes (1) Trismegistus, Writings of Unknown Authorship - The historical allusions in the Asclepius distinctly point to a time when heathenism was about to perish before the increasing power of Christianity
Philemon, the Epistle to - This epistle is a beautiful sample of Christianity applied to every day life and home relations and mutual duty of master and servant (Psalms 101:2-7)
Arians - Taylor in his Apology of Ben Mordecai to his Friends for embracing Christianity; Dr Harwood, in his Five Dissertations; Dr
Calvary - This, as well as the rest of the sepulchre, is now faced with marble: partly from the false taste which prevailed in the early ages of Christianity, in disguising with profuse and ill-suited embellishments the spots rendered memorable in the history of its Founder; and partly, perhaps, to preserve it from the depredations of the visitants
Sacrifice - Revealed religions, Judaism and Christianity, have public sacrifices only, which are at the same time cult sacrifices
Peter - Whatever honor and authority he received from Christ, in establishing the first institutions of Christianity and declaring what it enjoined and from what it released, Matthew 16:18-19 , the other apostles also received, Matthew 18:18 John 20:23 1 Corinthians 5:3,5 Ephesians 2:20 Revelation 21:14
Phrygia - 50) assailed by Judaizers, who disputed his Apostolic credentials and declared his doctrine to be an imperfect form of Christianity, neglecting its Jewish basis
Nicopolis - McGiffert, A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p
Hand - ...
The most striking and important references to the hand in apostolic Christianity occur in connexion with the ‘laying on of hands
Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople. - 38), "on behalf of Christianity, consisted of murders, battles, incarcerations, and civil wars
Mesrobes - >From the introduction of Christianity Syriac had become the dominant language, a knowledge of it being deemed a necessary qualification for holy orders (cf
Colossians, Letter to the - The foundational truths of Christianity centre on him and cannot be changed to suit human philosophies (1:15-23)
Population - On the later spread of Christianity in Peraea, see Harnack’s Mission und Ausbreitung des Christentums, pp
Porphyrius, Bishop of Gaza - The heathen population, irritated at the destruction of their sacred buildings and at the spread of Christianity in Gaza, raised a tumult, in which several Christians were killed, and Porphyry himself barely escaped with his life
John, Letters of - Behaviour is the test of the genuineness of a person’s Christianity (3:11-24)
Education - The example of Priscilla, the wife of Aquila, shows that a Jewess (who did not owe all her training to Christianity) might be possessed of high gifts and attainments (Acts 18:26). Justin Martyr, a little earlier, in the account he gives of his conversion to Christianity (Dial. ), shows how the representatives of the Stoic, the Peripatetic, the Pythagorean, and the Academic (Platonic) Schools in turn failed to satisfy his yearning after truth, and satisfaction came to him when he found Christianity to be the only philosophy sure and suited to the needs of man. Christianity, brought into contact with the society in which this philosophical habit of mind had established itself, modified, stimulated, and elevated it, and in turn was modified by the habit of mind of those who accepted it. ‘It was impossible for Greeks, educated as they were with an education which penetrated their whole nature, to receive or to retain Christianity in its primitive simplicity. Their own life had become complex and artificial: it had its fixed ideas and its permanent categories: it necessarily gave to Christianity something of its own form’ (E
Paul - The boldness and success with which he enforced the truths of Christianity so irritated the unbelieving Jews, that they resolved to put him to death, Acts 9:23 ; but, this design being known, the disciples conveyed him privately out of Damascus, and he went to Jerusalem, A. " He also performed many miracles at Ephesus; and not only great numbers of people were converted to Christianity, but many also of those who in this superstitious city used incantations and magical arts, professed their belief in the Gospel, and renounced their former practices by publicly burning their books. Paul's zeal in spreading Christianity among the Gentiles, seeing him one day in the temple, endeavoured to excite a tumult, by crying out that he was the man who was aiming to destroy all distinction between Jew and Gentile; who taught things contrary to the law of Moses; and who had polluted the holy temple, by bringing into it uncircumcised Heathens. He gloried in being thought worthy of suffering for the name of Jesus, and continued with unabated zeal to maintain the truth of Christianity against its bitterest and most powerful enemies. Paul in the cause of Christianity were not confined to personal instruction: he also wrote fourteen epistles to individuals or churches which are now extant, and form a part of our canon. He, nevertheless, became all this on his conversion to Christianity and each bursting emotion of his mind subsided directly into a well regulated and noble character
Victorinus Afer - In extreme old age zealous study of Scripture and Christian literature convinced him of the truth of Christianity. of Milan, that he was a Christian, and when Simplician refused to regard him as such till he saw him "in the church," asked him in banter "whether walls, then, make Christians?"—a characteristic question from one disposed to regard Christianity rather as another school of philosophy than as a social organization. 20 ), his pre-existing "anima" and "animae," his corporeal demons, his matter the seat of corruption—all these have their source in the Plotinian system, and are only very imperfectly adapted to Christianity (see Zeller, pp. ...
This brief account will help us to recognize the "divine preparation" for Christianity involved in the independent growth of the neo-Platonic system—so many philosophic ideas needed for the intellectual presentation of Christianity being made ready to hand—and shows Victorinus as a pioneer in claiming for Christianity the products of philosophy, a pioneer whose name has well-nigh passed into undeserved oblivion
Talmud - The Talmud and Christianity . It is, moreover, well known what a conflict was waged in the infant Church regarding that question of the admittance of Gentiles, the result of which was an irreconcilable breach between Jew and Gentile, and an ever-increasing antagonism between Judaism and Christianity. These facts lead to the supposition that references to Christ and Christianity should be found in the Talmud. This is not the place to discuss the question; we can only refer to two works, which approach it from different points of view, and which deal very adequately with it: Christianity in Talmud and Midrash , by R
Gentiles - The history of the Apostolic Age is mainly the history of how Christ was brought to the Gentile world, and how the Jewish nation ‘hardened its heart more and more against the appeal of Christianity’ (Harnack, op. We agree with Justin Martyr when he says that the wise heathen lived in company with ‘The Word,’ and that all that they have truly said is part of Christianity (Apol. In the OT, it disclosed certain fundamental principles which, when we study them in the light of Christianity, we perceive to have been also promises of a purpose of mercy for the whole world. On this delay, which is one of the unsolved problems of Apostolic Christianity, something will be said later
Sorrow, Man of Sorrows - Christianity is a religion of present happiness. One of the characteristic paradoxes of Christianity is that its sorrow and happiness coexist. ]'>[4] Here Christianity is in strong contrast to Buddhism, and to all forms of morbid asceticism
Family - -On the other hand, the position of the mother in the family is a very important one; to this day in Muhammadan countries, where the women are mere in the background than among the Oriental Christians (for even there Christianity has greatly raised the position of women), the influence of the mother is immense. Christianity did not at once liberate slaves, and St. By Christianity musters and slaves become brethren (1 Timothy 6:2). It was owing to the good example set a’ Christian slaves to their heathen masters that Christianity, which at first took root in the lower social circles of society (1 Corinthians 1:26), spread rapidly upwards
Stoics - ...
(e) Relation to Christianity. And, with so many points of contact in their ethical teaching, it is small wonder that Stoicism and Christianity have been suspected of influencing each other. In the presence of such contrasts we are therefore obliged to conclude that, however many or close the resemblances between Christianity and Stoicism, they were in vital matters fundamentally different
Boethius, Anicus Manlius Severinus - It remains for us briefly to notice the most authentic facts of the philosopher's life, and to inquire how far his thoughts were coloured by the contemporaneous influence of Christianity, or exercised an influence in their turn upon the religious thought of the Middle Ages. Those who regard the "Consolation" as the work of a Christian have not unnaturally been perplexed by its total silence as to the distinctive faith of Christianity, and have been forced to suppose it incomplete (Bertius, Lips. The works of Boëthius prove his intimate knowledge of Greek literature, and were for centuries the only vehicle by which Greek philosophy penetrated to the West; but his chief work is now of value only as serving, along with the poetry of Claudian and Ausonius, to mark the point of contact between the thought of heathendom and the faith of Christianity
Macedonia - At the time of the Great Persecution of the Christians (303-311), Thessalonica was one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire and served as residence of the emperor Galerius, one of the most fanatic persecutors of Christianity. ...
Christianity in Macedonia The Christian message came to Macedonia through the preaching of the apostle Paul
Grace - Christianity first made grace a leading term in the vocabulary of religion. Paul derived from God’s grace not only the soul’s reconciliation and new hopes in Christ ( Romans 5:1-11 ), but the whole moral uplifting and rehabilitation of human life through Christianity
Bible, - Though this is to be deplored, for we should desire to ascertain in every instance the actual words which God caused to be written, yet it is a matter of deep thankfulness that the variations do not in the least affect any one of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity. brings out not only the history of redemption by the death of Christ, but gives the doctrine of the Church in its various aspects, showing that Christianity is an entirely new order of things — indeed a new creation
Apollos - Harnack says: ‘Apollos would appear to have been originally a regular missionary of John the Baptist’s movement; but the whole narrative of Acts at this point is singularly coloured and obscure’ (Expansion of Christianity, i. Christianity, do. Harnack, Expansion of Christianity2, do
Caracalla, the Nickname of m. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Bassianus - " The "Jewish superstition" has been interpreted, with great probability, to mean Christianity. He thus fostered one of the chief counterfeits of Christianity
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch - We gather from his writings that he was born a heathen, not far from the Tigris and Euphrates, and was led to embrace Christianity by studying the Holy Scriptures, especially the prophetical books (ad Autol. He makes the truth of Christianity depend on his demonstration that the books of O
Healing, Divine - Christianity and health are inextricably intertwined
Troas - McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p
Pharisees - Had the resurrection of Christianity been the Pharisaical resurrection, this difficulty would have been insurmountable; and accordingly we find the people, and even some of the Pharisees themselves, struck with the manner in which our Saviour removed it
Pentateuch - Jenkins's Reasonableness of Christianity; Watson's Apology, let
Lion - McGiffert, A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p
Gervasius - ), Isaac Taylor ( Ancient Christianity , Vol
Act of Faith - If such were the genius of Christianity, then it would be no honour to be a Christian
Bible - "The prophet Malachi, (saith Tertullian) is the bound or skirt of Judaism and Christianity
Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria - For in Eusebius the emperor's exasperation is provoked, not, as in the legend, by a refusal to abjure Christianity and to sacrifice to his gods, but by a refusal to gratify his guilty passion; and the punishment inflicted is merely exile, not torture and death
Giant - In the most ancient sepulchres of Britain, those apparently anterior to the introduction of Christianity, no remains are discovered which indicate the larger stature of the inhabitants than our own
War - ...
As the influence of Christianity diffuses itself in the world, war is becoming less excusable and less practicable; and a great advance may be observed from the customs and spirit of ancient barbarism towards the promised universal supremacy of the Prince of peace, Psalm 46:9 Isaiah 2:4 Micah 4:3
Ara'Bia - Christianity was introduced into southern Arabia toward the close of the second century, and about a century later it had made great progress
Perpetua, Vibia - He published an edict forbidding any fresh conversions from Paganism to Judaism or Christianity, while imposing no penalties on original Jews or Christians
Prochorus, a Deacon - With this, moreover; agrees the fact that the author can assume a universal diffusion of Christianity in Ephesus and the Aegean Archipelago
Profession - Wernle, The Beginnings of Christianity, Eng
Obedience - Alexander, Christianity and Ethics, 1914, p
Religion (2) - ]'>[4] Thus Christianity is like an ever new commandment, being true in Him and in us (1 John 2:8). Thus Christianity, which is essentially a life hid with Christ in God, is always in danger of being drawn down to the level of those who would reduce religion to a ritual of worship, a system of thought, or a fashion of life. In fact, ‘He reveals most because He awakens most’ (Matheson, Growth of Spirit of Christianity, p. Christianity loses its secret when it forgets the glorious egotism of the Master, who not only made Himself a law to the disciples who accompanied His ministry (Matthew 23:10), but gave Himself back to them as more than ever theirs after death (Matthew 28:20, John 20, 21). Nowhere but in Christianity is love for God identified with a passion for real righteousness and inmost cleansing
Dead Sea Scrolls - Many have made sensationalistic claims about alleged connections between the scrolls and Christianity. The long delay in publishing all of the fragments has only fueled the controversy, leading to accusations of a scholarly and/or ecclesiastical conspiracy to suppress fragments that would be detrimental to Christianity and/or Judaism. Indeed, most conjectures of any direct link between the scrolls and early Christianity (e. , The Scrolls and Christianity ; J
Gospel - But, while the term (noun and verb) is of fairly frequent occurrence in the Synoptics, it owes its predominance in apostolic Christianity to the Apostle of the Gentiles. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, p. Paul Christianity seemed anti-national. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, 1894, p
Surname - Robertson, Christianity and Mythology2, do. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-
Church - From the Greek kuriakee , "house of the Lord," a word which passed to the Gothic tongue; the Goths being the first of the northern hordes converted to Christianity, adopted the word from the Greek Christians of Constantinople, and so it came to us Anglo-Saxons (Trench, Study of Words). A visible community, consisting of various members and aggregations of members, was founded by Christ Himself, as needed for the extension and continuation of Christianity to all lands and all ages
Gnosticism - ( a ) It is an essential element of true Christianity, and is associated with the knowledge of God in Christ ( 2 Corinthians 2:14 ; 2 Corinthians 4:6 ), with the knowledge of Christ Himself ( Philippians 3:8 , 2 Peter 3:18 ), and with the personal experience of what is involved in the Christian life ( Romans 2:20 ; Rom 15:14 , 1 Corinthians 1:5 ; 1 Corinthians 3:19 , Colossians 2:3 ). Hort ( Judaistic Christianity) , on the other hand, sees nothing but Judaistic elements in the Epistle, and will not allow that there are two independent sets of ideas blended
Aeon - It is enough to quote the opinion of Hort in his Judaistic Christianity, ‘There is not the faintest sign that such words as … αἰών … have any reference [3] to what we call Gnostic terms’ (p. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, Cambridge and London, 1894, pp
Christ in Modern Thought - It was a Christianity of heart and will, as practised among the common people, which was real to him. He stood quite outside Christianity in its ecclesiastical or mystical forms. On this general idea he constructs his conception of Christianity and Christ in his treatise, Religion within the Bounds of mere Reason (1793). This is what has happened in Christianity. ’ Christianity centres in the historic Christ. ...
It is unquestionable that the broad effect of such speculation was to evaporate the facts of Christianity, and to substitute a ‘somewhat else’ (ἔτερον εὐαγγέλιον) for the firm truths of a revealed religion
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - " His style is very polished, and, as Augustine points out, became more simple and beautiful with time, and (as his critic believed) with the purer taste of Christianity. The history of Judaism, its rejection of its Messiah, and the effects which Christianity is producing in the individual and commencing on society bring him to his new standpoint. This restatement and co-ordination of previous arguments was probably not ineffective, but as yet Cyprian exhibits no conception that Christianity is to be a world-regenerating power. Monotheism, even when licensed (like Judaism), had an anti-national aspect, and Christianity could not be a licita religio , simply because it was not the established worship of any locality or race. In the first terror there was a large voluntary abjuration of Christianity, whether literally by "the majority of his flock" ( Ep. The veneration for sufferers who seemed actually to be the saviours of Christianity was intense, and many heads were turned by the adulatory language of their greatest chiefs (cf
Sadducees - Attitude to Christianity. Yet it was from the Sadducees that the most bitter persecution of Judaea n Christianity arose. Christianity conserved what was good in both, and offered a higher unity in which their differences were transcended
James, Epistle of - The type of Christianity implied in the Epistle . His Epistle then is Judaic, because it shows us Christianity as it appeared to the ordinary Jewish Christian, to whom it was a something added to his old religion, not a revolutionary force altering its whole character, as it was to St. ...
On the other hand, many Continental critics see in these conditions the description of a later age, when Christianity had had time to become formal and secularized, and moral degeneracy was covered by intellectual orthodoxy
Antioch - ‘Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch,’ who was early won to Christianity, and is named among the Seven of the Jerusalem Church (Acts 6:5), was evidently one of that great number of Antiochene Greeks who had previously felt the spell of the Jewish faith. Trade doubtless attracted others to so important a centre, and thus the Jewish leaven had been working for a long time before Christianity was introduced. ) mentions another fact which may help to explain the rapid progress of Christianity in Antioch: ‘In this place was established a priesthood of Mçn Arcaeus, having attached to it a multitude of temple slaves and tracts of sacred territory
Atonement - These are considerations which so manifestly show, from its own internal constitution, the superlative importance and excellence of Christianity, that it would be exceedingly criminal to overlook them. None of the theories which have been opposed, to Christianity affords a satisfactory solution of the problem. But other important considerations are not wanting to mark the united wisdom and goodness of that method of extending mercy to the guilty which Christianity teaches us to have been actually and exclusively adopted
Apostle - This court of the Jews was so awed and incensed, as to plot the death of the twelve Apostles, as the only effectual measure for preventing the farther spread of Christianity. Caesarea was the scene in which the Apostle Peter was to open his commission for this purpose; and Cornelius, one of the devout Gentiles, and a man distinguished by his piety and charity, was the first proselyte to Christianity. ...
When Christianity had been preached for about eight years among the Jews only, and for about three years more among the Jews and devout Gentiles, the next stage of its progress was to the idolatrous Gentiles, in the year of Christ 44, and the fourth year of the emperor Claudius
Minucius Felix, Marcus - Minucius recalls a conversation of his lately deceased friend Octavius which resulted in the conversion to Christianity of their common friend Caecilius. He traces the source of all idolatry to the operation of the demons who, having lost their first estate, desired to draw others into the same ruin as themselves, who inspired oracles, wrought fictitious cures and other pretended miracles to deceive men, and were also the inventors and instigators of the calumnies against Christianity. Is it not, then, most natural to believe that as he has drawn his arguments for Theism from Cicero, he has taken his defence of Christianity from Tertullian? In the common matter there are considerable differences as to arrangement and form of expression
Titus, Epistle to - ’ Christianity, without the discipline of a firm organization, springing up in such soil, would naturally be weakened and corrupted by the national vices
Samaritan, the Good - ; Vinet, Vital Christianity, p
Tradition - How remarkable it is that from this very chapter (2 Thessalonians 2:15), denouncing antichrist, she draws her argument for tradition which fosters antichristianity. We are no more bound to accept the fathers' interpretation (which by the way is the reverse of unanimous; but even suppose it were so) of Scripture, because we accept the New Testament canon on their testimony, than to accept the Jews' interpretation of the Old Testament because we accept the Old Testament canon on their testimony; if we were, we should be as bound to reject Jesus, with the Jews, as to reject primitive Scripture Christianity with the apostate church
Security of the Believer - Contemporary Christianity needs to deal forthrightly with the universal human problem of insecurity
Fasting - Christianity and fasting
Grecians - Their Grecian or foreign culture and education made them clever disputants; hence, their keenness in controverting the new convert who had before sided with them against Stephen; the latter also was once a Grecian (Hellenist) Jew before his conversion to Christianity (Acts 7:58; Acts 6:9-14)
Judas Iscariot - Peter’s expression, as recorded in his address, and the apostolic prayer of ordination, for which he was probably responsible and the mouthpiece, breathe much more of the spirit of primitive Christianity in their restrained and chastened style than the more outspoken and almost vindictive statements of John 13:18-19, so that one would not be altogether surprised to find that the latter are, as has been suggested, a less genuine tradition of a later age
Famine - Pfleiderer, Primitive Christianity, ii [7] 227f
Armour - The only sword of which Christianity approves is that which is the symbol of the punitive ministry of the magistrate (Romans 13:4)
Neonomianism - This is not the appellation of a separate sect, but of those both among Arminians and Calvinists who regard Christianity as a new law, mitigated in its requisitions for the sake of Christ
Mourning - Christianity, however, moderates and assuages our grief; shows us a Father's hand holding the rod, and the dark valley itself penetrated by the heavenly light into which it emerges, 1 Corinthians 15:53-55 Joel 2:13 Revelation 7:13-17 14:13
Gospel - They are appealed to under that character both by friends and enemies; and no writer impugning or defending Christianity acknowledges any other gospel as of equal or concurrent authority, although there were many others which purported to be authentic memoirs of the life and actions of Christ
Olives, Mount of - " The presence of a number of churches and other edifices must have rendered the Mount of Olives, during the early and middle ages of Christianity, entirely unlike what it was in the time of the Jewish kingdom or of our Lord
Philadelphia - ...
Christianity became strong where Hellenism had been weak
Jude, the Epistle of - The distinction between Jude and Peter is that Jude portrays adversaries of Christianity and heretics in general, Peter heretical teachers in particular
Nation - But when they all looked to Rome as mistress and mother, they were on their way to the belief in the spiritual unity of mankind proclaimed by Christianity (cf
Paulinus, Missionary to Northumbria - Edwin fell in battle at Hatfield, near Doncaster, and the disaster was so complete that the newborn Christianity of the north seemed utterly overwhelmed by the old idolatry
Theodotus, Martyr at Ancyra - THEOTECNUS, the apostate from Christianity, was sent with ample power to enforce conformity to the imperial edicts, and began by ordering all provisions sold in the market to be first presented to the gods
Sacraments - Our whole view of the nature of Christianity and of the history of the Church must be affected by the conclusions to which we come regarding sacramental practice and theory in the Apostolic Age; and these conclusions, in consequence, are themselves peculiarly liable to be biased by theological and ecclesiastical repossessions. If such rites obtained from the first, the conception of primitive Christianity as a formless spiritual impulse, a mere community of religious experience which afterwards developed its own constitutional order and embodied its worship in appropriate ceremonies, is not tenable. Primitive Christianity was undoubtedly charismatic. But the sacraments attest that primitive Christianity was ceremonial as well as charismatic
Athenagoras - in Irenaeum , 429) to this effect: "Athenagoras was the first head of the school at Alexandria, flourishing in the times of Hadrian and Antoninus, to whom also he addressed his Apology for the Christians ; a man who embraced Christianity while wearing the garb of a philosopher, and presiding over the academic school. His connexion with Athens (probably his birth there) and profession of philosophy are thus substantiated; and the manner in which he became converted to Christianity may very well have been as described by Philippus, whose account that he was head of the Academics is probably but an exaggeration of the fact that he had belonged to that sect. 41 B, to an occasional mode for arranging his arguments, it may be supposed that Athenagoras was in the habit of delivering public lectures upon Christianity. 64 B), and still more, of course, by his reception of Christianity, which necessitated the abandonment of such views as the unoriginated nature of the soul
Jesus Christ - To effect this purpose, it was absolutely necessary for these founders of Christianity to avoid confusion and obscurity of language, and to express their ideas in a cool and cautious style. Examine whether events have justified that notion of Christianity which the prophets gave their countrymen of it, if Jesus Christ be not God. That the far greater part of Christians have continued to worship Jesus, will not be doubted; now, if Christ be not God, then the Christians have been guilty of idolatry; and if they have been guilty of idolatry, then it must appear remarkable that the apostles, who foretold the corruptions of Christianity, 2 Timothy 3:1-17 : should never have foreseen nor warned us against worshiping Christ. Jamieson's View of the Doctrine of Scripture, and the Primitive Faith concerning the Deity of Christ; Owen on the Glory of Christ's Person; Hurrion's Christ Crucified; Bishop Newcome's Observation on our Lord's Conduct; and Paley's Evidences of Christianity
Progress - (4) Again, it is of consequence to state expressly what is implied in the general truth just indicated, that neither the fact nor the importance of the fact of human progress, in any true sense of the word, was admitted for many centuries to a place of recognition in the ecclesiastical and theological developments of traditional Christianity; and this remark is true even of Augustine’s Civitas Dei. , that if conditions had favoured the free and full development of all the ideas of progress and of all the progressive sentiments and strivings to which the worthiest leaders and teachers of the nation had attained in the noontide of the prophetic age, and if this development had continued until the fulness of the times had arrived for Christ’s appearance, two things would have happened: the task of His Mission, on the one hand, would have been immensely lightened; and, on the other, the task of Christianity in evolving the moral progress of mankind would have been less difficult, and its success greatly accelerated. His ideas of human progress and His faith in it are a large part of essential Christianity. Mackenzie, Christianity and the Progress of Man, 217; A
Labour (2) - Enough has been already said to show that such an accusation misinterprets completely the moving spirit of Christianity. ’ Consult also Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity; W
City - It is sometimes assumed that Christianity is possible only for a primitive community, and many modern ideals of communal life are based on the supposition that the city is wholly an artificial product, and that the way of true progress lies in reverting to village communities. The fact is noteworthy as showing the place and influence of Christianity in the natural evolution of humanity
Alexandria - ]'>[1] became, under God’s providence, a most valuable preparation for the truths of Christianity. Mark with the introduction of Christianity into Egypt
Nationality - —Matheson, Growth of the Spirit of Christianity, as well as more formal works; Wilson Harper, The Christian View of Human Life (1901), chs. Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity (1887), 35; F
Gospels (Apocryphal) - They are of service in the difficult work of reconstructing the complex environment in which Christianity grew up. We see here, in a typical instance, how strong were the external influences which played on the development of Christianity in early times. In the process of permeating the heathen world with its great thought of Redemption and its lofty ethical sentiment, Christianity, as was inevitable, was itself coloured, and in certain circles distorted, by the foreign elements of its environment. A close sympathy with the true ethical spirit of Christianity is, however, noticeable in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, in which stress is laid on acts of mercy and brotherly kindness; and in the ‘Traditions of Matthias’ mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, and possibly identical with the Gnostic Gospel of Matthias, the doctrine of Christian responsibility for others’ welfare, in its most stringent form, is very forcibly put: ‘If the neighbour of an elect person sins, the elect has sinned; for if he had lived according to the counsels of the Word, his neighbour would have so esteemed his manner of life that he would have kept free from sin. From that time onwards, the stories of the Apocryphal Gospels have had an influence on popular Christianity in Catholic countries far exceeding that of the Biblical narrative
Divinity of Christ - There is no such Christ, no such Christianity in the first century as is sought for: a Christ and a Christianity purely invariable and true for all time and in every place. Newton Clarke’s What shall we think of Christianity? Lect. Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity). The beginning of Christianity is neither a theological idea nor a moral precept; it is an experience of a Fact, the Fact of Christ, revealing and imparting the life of God
Kulturkampf - This party was composed of anti-clerical disciples of French Deism or Austrian Josephinism, of enthusiastic admirers of Germah poetry and philosophy, strictly opposed to dogmatic and ecclesiastical Christianity as represented by Rome
Ste'Phen, - He was the anticipator, as, had he lived, he would have been the propagator, of the new phase of Christianity of which St
Acts of the Apostles - " After referring to what had been recorded in a "former treatise" of the sayings and doings of Jesus Christ before his ascension, the author proceeds to give an account of the circumstances connected with that event, and then records the leading facts with reference to the spread and triumphs of Christianity over the world during a period of about thirty years
Reproach - ’ They must make their choice between Christianity and Judaism, for the two cannot be amalgamated
Leaven - Leaven here symbolizes wrong teaching that destroys true Christianity
Lasciviousness - While this was reckoned one of the ἀδιάφορα among the heathen, it was branded as deadly and loathsome by Christianity
Miletus - The Apostle’s address to the elders, with its lofty ideal of pastoral duty, reads ‘as an unconscious manifesto of the essence of the life and ministry of the most influential exponent of Christianity’ (J
Abba - It is significant however of the limited extent of strictly Jewish Christianity that we find no other original examples of the use than these three
Germanus, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre - They lay the scene of the Alleluia victory at Maes-garmon near Mold; they speak of colleges founded by German, of national customs traced to his authority; and although much of this is legendary and the stories in Nennius about his relations with king Vortigern apocryphal, he probably did more for British Christianity than Constantius records
Antichrist - To deny Jesus Christ come in the flesh is the spirit or power of the antichrist, but it eventuates in a departure from the special revelation of Christianity: 'they went out from us
Sacrifice - In illustrating this fundamental doctrine of Christianity, the Apostle Paul, in his Epistle to the Hebrews, sets forth the excellency of the sacrifice of our great High Priest above those of the law in various particulars
Out - Christianity recovered the law of nature out of all those errors
Phar'Isees, - He denounced them in the bitterest language; see ( Matthew 15:7,8 ; 23:5,13,14,15,23 ; Mark 7:6 ; Luke 11:42-44 ) and compare (Mark 7:1-5 ; 11:29 ; 12:19,20 ; Luke 6:28,37-42 ) To understand the Pharisees is by contrast an aid toward understanding the spirit of uncorrupted Christianity
Eschatology - ...
In the Hebrew period, however, there were elements which were subsequently to be utilized in the development of the eschatology of the Pharisees and of Christianity. It was these elements that were embodied in the Messianic programme of Judaism, and passed over into Christianity (see Messiah). Such a situation has proved injurious to the spread of Christianity as more than a general ethical or religious system, and it is to be hoped that the new interest which is now felt in the historical study of the NT will reinstate eschatology in its true place
Entry Into Jerusalem - Robertson’s attempt (Christianity and Mythology, p. 313), ‘an exalted position such as had not been assigned even to the Messiah,’ and, as Harnack (What is Christianity? p. —Dalman, Words of Jesus; Harnack, What is Christianity?; Stanley, SP Gifts - The Greek verbs δίδωμι and δωρέομαι are hallowed by new associations and duties to which both the theology and ethic of Christianity give notable contributions. The particular injunctions in the Pastoral Epistles as to the character of bishops and deacons point to a developing sense of Christian fitness in the official life of the Church and a growing feeling for the honour of Christianity. Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, Eng
Priscillianus And Priscillianism, Priscillian - What the Jewish religion was to Christianity that the Priscillianists considered Christianity was with regard to their own speculations. was full of types and shadows of Christianity so the N
Law - -The subject of the Law formed one of the main problems, if not indeed the main problem, of the Apostolic Church, inasmuch as it involved the fundamental relation of primitive Christianity to Judaism on the one hand and heathenism on the other. ...
To this type of Jewish Christianity corresponds generally the religious standpoint of the Epistle which is ascribed to St. He thus shows that for him the central element in Christianity consists in fulfilment of the Law (cf. It need, therefore, occasion no surprise that in his conversion Saul had become convinced of the universality of Christianity, or that thereafter he maintained that the Law was not in a religious sense binding upon either Gentile or Jewish Christians (Galatians 1:2)
Parousia - It is certain that the whole of the eschatological and apocalyptic background of primitive Christianity is due to its Jewish source. It is necessary to attempt a systematic reconstruction, if this be possible, of the eschatological scheme underlying primitive Christianity in general, and each of the apostolic writers in particular. It is also necessary to discover, if possible, the direction in which those elements peculiar to Christianity have modified the original lines of the Jewish apocalyptic. Thirdly, it is necessary to form some estimate of the place of the eschatology, and especially of its central conception, the Parousia of Christ, in the essential nature of Christianity
Apocalyptic - ...
Within Judaism apocalyptic faded out, but an apocalyptic visionary tradition has remained alive within Christianity ever since. Rowland, The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity ; H
Romans, the Epistle to the - ...
The date of the introduction of Christianity at Rome must have been very early. 184); their intellectual restlessness made them sit loosely to traditional superstitions, and to be more open than others to inquire into the claims of Christianity
Sayings (Unwritten) - But the work of converting the world was reserved for the preaching of Christ’s Apostles; and the converts’ knowledge of Christianity was derived from the traditions which were delivered by the Apostles, and which were subsequently superseded by the texts of the written Gospels. ’ This is a specimen of the traditions (2 Thessalonians 2:15) which were delivered by the first preachers of Christianity to their converts
Pharisees - ...
An undesigned coincidence confirming genuineness is the fact that throughout the Gospels hostility to Christianity shows itself mainly from the Pharisees; but throughout Acts from the Sadducees. The Pharisees therefore regarded Christians in this as their allies against the Sadducees, and so the less opposed Christianity (John 11:57; Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Acts 4:1; Acts 5:17; Acts 23:6-9)
Discipline - McGiffert, Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897; J. Henson, Apostolic Christianity, do, 1898; article ‘Discipline (Christian)’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics
Timothy, Epistles to - False doctrine, which would eat as a gangrene into the very vitals of Christianity, was abroad as to the resurrection, but the foundation of God stood sure, having this seal (God's side) "The Lord knoweth them that are his;" and (man's side) "Let everyone that nameth the name of the Lord [1] depart from iniquity. (To love the appearing of Christ, the time of His glory, is characteristic of Christianity
Alexandria - Alexandrian thought provided the categories-in themselves cold and speculative-into which Christianity, as represented by the writers of Colossians, Hebrews, and the Fourth Gospel, poured the warm life-blood of a historic and humane faith. And if the Alexandrian exegetical method was often unscientific-as when it made Moses identify Abraham with understanding, Sarah with virtue, Noah with righteousness, the four streams of Paradise with the four cardinal virtues-yet the writer of Hebrews could scarcely have built a bridge between Judaism and Christianity unless he had been trained in a school which taught its disciples to pass from symbols to ultimate realities
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - Here it must suffice to indicate his relations to the religious influence of his time, and, above all, to Christianity. ...
But what was Lucian's attitude towards Christianity, which in his age was beginning to be known as no inconsiderable power in all parts of the Roman world? Two dialogues have to be considered in answering this question—Ἀλέξανδρος ἢ Ψσευδόμαντις , Alexander, or the False Prophet; and περὶ τῆς Περεγρίνου τελευτῆς , Concerning the death of Peregrinus; for the Philopatris may be dismissed at once as pretty certainly no genuine work of its reputed author
Mystery - Christianity itself, in the transition from a national to a universal religion, necessarily passed through some of the same phases as the mystery-cults; for these had already connected themselves in a syncretizing spirit with the mythology of every people. On the influence of the Greek mysteries on early Christianity, see Lobeck, Aglaophamus, 1829; Anrich, Das antike Mysterienwesen in seinem Einfluss a
Smyrna - The city and its Christianity have survived all attacks
Abounding - It is fortunate that Christianity found at its inception such a man ready to hand as its chief exponent to the primitive churches, and that his letters remain as a record of the marvellous way in which he opened his heart to its appeal, and of the manifold response he was able to make to that appeal
Ephesus - Associated with the ministries of Paul, Timothy, and the apostle John, the city played a significant role in the spread of early Christianity
Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - We must remember that the main thrust of Christianity is on the availability of God's power and love in Jesus Christ and the Spirit
Astrology - ...
The New Testament It is against the intertestamental period's concern with angels and elemental spirits that the influence of astrology on early Christianity must be assessed
Joy - ...
Joy is more conspicuous in Christianity than in any other religion, and in the Bible than in any other literature
Waldenses - ...
Struck with this glaring contradiction between the doctrines of the pontiffs and the truths of the Gospel, and animated with zeal, he abandoned his mercantile vocation, distributed his riches among the poor (whence the Waldenses were called poor men of Lyons, ) and forming an association with other pious men who had adopted his sentiments and his turn of devotion, he began, in the year 1180, to assume the quality of a public teacher, and to instruct the multitude in the doctrines and precepts of Christianity
Blood - Salvation or Christianity is not passed down to the children through the blood stream of the father or the mother
Inspiration - The variations in the Greek manuscripts do not affect any one of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, and only in a few places are the words doubtful
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - But George was far from recommending his form of Christianity either to the orthodox or to the pagans of Alexandria
Cut - The sinner cuts himself off from the benefits of Christianity
History, Church - During this period the Greeks and Romans were the chief representatives both of civilization and Christianity
Shem - All the Japhetic nations almost are believers in the God of Shem, even the Aryan races in Asia are tending toward Christianity
Baal - The worship of Bel, Belus, Belenus, or Belinus, was general throughout the British islands; and certain of its rites and observances are still maintained among us, notwithstanding the establishment of Christianity during so many ages
Love - 1 below) present "the characteristic word of Christianity, and since the Spirit of revelation has used it to express ideas previously unknown, inquiry into its use, whether in Greek literature or in the Septuagint, throws but little light upon its distinctive meaning in the NT
Punishment - Mackintosh, Christianity and Sin, London, 1913, p
Criticism - Here the antagonism was at its height between the original Ebionitic Christianity and Paulinism. Baur had taken little or no account of Jesus Himself and His Person, and now Strauss, by withdrawing what he had conceded in the second edition of his Leben Jesu as to the greatness and moral perfection of Jesus, was in a position no less impracticable than Baur’s, so far as any satisfactory explanation of the work and person of the Founder of Christianity was concerned. Paulus, with all his faulty method, had at least recognized that the miraculous in Christianity was Christ Himself, His Person. ’ Herder, of whom it has been said that his Christliche Schriften gave the first impulse to the immense literature generally known under the name of the Life of Christ, did not forget even in his constant denunciations of the corruptions of Christianity to hold up to admiration the Person of Jesus as the Prophet of the truest humanity. The dilemma, therefore, which Ullmann proposed was really this—Did Christ create the Church, or did the Church invent Christ? If the former, Jesus must have been no mere Jewish Rabbi, but a personality of extraordinary power; if the latter, we have an invention which would make the history of Christianity quite incomprehensible
Palestine - ‘Though Asiatic in origin,’ says the former writer, ‘Christianity is the least Oriental of the creeds. ’ Similarly, the prominence given in Christianity to the command to love our neighbour as ourself, in the West will always find at least a theoretical assent, for it will be backed by the sentiment or at least the conscience of sympathy between man and man as such. ...
Yet, at the depths, Christianity rests upon distinctively Oriental foundations. His policy was to set the word of the Kingdom so fully at the explosive centre, that when the crash came it would send Christianity across the whole world. But Christianity itself had arisen at that earlier point of contact, when the Eastern factor was the Hebrew religion, and the Western was Greece and Rome
Ideas (Leading) - ...
This consideration is important, because of late years there have been efforts to show that the Kingdom, as conceived by our Lord, had no social content whatever; that, by the Kingdom of God, He meant a spiritual illumination in the heart of the individual (Harnack, What is Christianity? Lect. They conveyed to mankind one of the greatest gifts which even Christianity had to bestow: the belief that each human soul is of absolute value, above all price or estimation. —Christianity teaches us to think of love as the nature of God and as the highest law of human life. But the ideal is brought near to us in a way which is characteristic of Christianity
Immanuel - He is not divided in principle from Gunkel and Cheyne, since he admits that heathen myths had come into Christianity through Judaism, but he considers that the Virgin-birth does not as a matter of fact belong to these, and that an extra-Jewish source should not be sought when a Jewish source is at hand. This was ultimately derived from the pagan stories of children of the gods, but was not taken over directly from paganism by Jewish Christianity. After saying that the mythological representations did not make their first appearance in the later Gentile Christianity, he proceeds: ‘But this would have been impossible if Judaism itself had not previously possessed this or similar representations. What we have to learn then, and what will subsequently be shown again, is that this Judaism which found its way into primitive Christianity must have been strongly inclined to syncretism’ (Zum religionsgeschichtlichen Verstandnis des NT, p
John the Baptist - —The significance of John the Baptist for the history of Christianity is shown by the place given him in the Gospel records by every one of the four Evangelists. In accordance with this general sense of John’s great importance for Christ and Christianity is the space devoted to him in the Gospel narratives as a whole. Any attempt to dissolve the narrative into fictions of a later growth must reckon with the fact that the Evangelist is evidently making use at this point of an early Aramaic source steeped in the colours of the OT—‘the earliest documentary evidence respecting the origins of Christianity which has come down to us, evidence which may justly be called contemporary’ (Plummer, ‘St. Christianity]'>[4] with its main elements as regards personnel and views’—as striking an illustration as could well be discovered of a fallocious use of the argumentum e silentio
Colossians, Epistle to the - The stress of this new ‘philosophy’ lay not so much upon the Law as upon theosophical tenets and ascetic practices, which were supposed to constitute a higher Christianity (Colossians 2:2-3; Colossians 2:6),...
For the present this teaching had not made much headway in the Church at Colossae. As Hort has shown (Judaistic Christianity, p. writer (so Pfleiderer, Primitive Christianity, Eng. Hort (Judaistic Christianity, 116ff
Arius, Followers of - The action of his successor Julian, who had renounced Christianity, gave a still further impulse to the policy of conciliation. As between heathenism and Christianity, impartiality cannot certainly be predicated of him. The cause of genuine, practical Christianity suffered seriously under these divisions, intrigues, and acts of violence, and men of earnest and even indifferent minds were longing for peace. They were not an educated race, and Ulphilas, who converted them to Christianity, was a missionary rather than a theologian
Barnabas, Epistle of - In order to appreciate the position of this Epistle in early Christian literature, it is necessary to make a brief review of the transition from Judaism to Christianity. Christianity did not come into the world at a point where there was a religious vacuum. ...
Our author does not cut Christianity away from all historic connexion with the Jewish past; on the contrary, he denies a place of privilege to the Jews after Mount Sinai, in order to show that that place really belonged to the Christians. 21) that to the writer of this Epistle ‘Judaism was an error with which Christianity could have nothing to do, but which it must reject
Ethics - While admitting many novel elements ( Matthew 11:11 ; Matthew 13:17 ; Matthew 13:35 ; Matthew 25:41-45 , Mark 2:21-22 , John 13:34 , Ephesians 2:15 , Hebrews 10:20 , Revelation 2:17 ; Revelation 3:12 ; Revelation 5:9 ), Christianity reaffirmed the best portions of OT teaching ( Matthew 5:17 , Romans 3:31 ). ’ Christianity has respect to a man’s separateness. Faith, hope, love, transfigure and supplement the ancient virtues, temperance, courage, wisdom, justice, while around them grow many gentle excellences not recognized before Christ gave them their true rank; and yet it is not by its wealth of moral teaching so much as by its assurance of ability to resist temptation and to attain spiritual manhood that Christianity has gained preeminence
Individual - —It has almost become a commonplace of Apologetics that the significance of the individual is first recognized in Christianity. Baur’s contention, that the chief preparation for Christianity was a growing need for a universal, a moral religion, is only another way of saying that the individual, not as a free man, or a cultured man, or a member of a Greek State, but as an individual, was slowly coming to his rights. Other-worldliness, indeed, is not the mind of Christ, and the attempt to derive everything from the far-sighted selfishness which does ‘good according to the will of God and for the sake of everlasting happiness,’ leaves no room for the highest things of Christianity
Holy Spirit - This is a fact of fundamental importance for the entire subsequent history of Christianity. The expression ‘Holy Spirit,’ in its connexion with the written word, was at once taken over by Christianity (Mark 12:36, Matthew 22:43, Acts 1:16; Acts 28:25, Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:15, 1 Timothy 3:16, 2 Peter 1:21). Primitive Christianity, however, felt the overt recognition of the Spirit to be of the utmost importance, because it saw the crowning work of Divine grace, not in its general action upon human beings through the invisible government of God, or in its manifestation in the earthly work of Christ, but rather in its operations in man himself-in its quickening of his thoughts and his love, and in its enrichment of the inner life
Manicheans - Manes probably at first merely desired to blend Christianity and Zoroastrism together. This Docetic view of the Incarnation destroyed the reality of His life, His death, resurrection, and ascension, and struck at the root of all historical Christianity, so that we find at last some later Manicheans maintaining a distinction between the mundane or historical Christ, who was a bad man, and the spiritual Christ, Who was a divine deliverer (Gieseler, H. Manes derived from Christianity another element of his system
Preaching - -The function of preaching, as above outlined, is to be distinguished from teaching (διδαχή), in which the truths and duties of Christianity were more deliberately unfolded and applied. -That preaching was the Divinely ordained means for the diffusion of Christianity appears from the successful appeal it made to the capacity for faith which is latent in all men. McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p
Greece - As the religious life of mankind divides itself into the time before and after the dawn of Christianity, so the rational and political life of mankind divides itself into the time before and after the expansion of Hellenism. Christianity was preached in some of the leading cities of Greece soon after the middle of the 1st cent
Hardening - 396), it is practically enough if Christianity maintains that in relation to free beings the will of God is never an arbitrary will, enforcing itself without moral means. paul’s Conception of Christianity, do
Antioch - ...
When Christianity reached Antioch, it was a great city of over 500,000 inhabitants, called the ‘Queen of the East,’ the ‘Third Metropolis of the Roman Empire. After the fall of Jerusalem, Antioch became the true centre of Christianity
Family (Jesus) - —Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity; Peabody, Jesus Christ and the Social Problem, ch. 68–73 (for the teaching on marriage); Harnack, What is Christianity? Lect
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - —The usurpation of Magnentius in Gaul seems to have been largely a movement of paganism against Christianity and of the provincial army against the court. ...
Laws in Favour of Christianity
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - The blows against Christianity are dealt with such hearty goodwill and with so little restraint of language that a Christian would certainly have regarded it as blasphemous to invent such an attack. It has therefore been inferred that Macarius reproduces the language as well as the substance of the arguments of a heathen, and then arises the question, "Does the dialogue record a real viva voce discussion with a heathen objector, or are the heathen objections from a published work against Christianity, and if so, whose?"...
The earliest Christian apologists defended their religion against men who had a very vague knowledge of it
Haggai - One is that he laid the foundations of later Judaism on which Christianity was to build
Italy - Christianity was introduced in Rome by Saint Peter and Saint Paul a few years after the Crucifixion, and was soon extended to all parts of Italy, with converts from all ranks, so that it was strongly established before the time of Constantine
Tree of Life - All that Judaism had lost, or mythology dreamed of, or Christianity awakened in the soul in the way of immortal longing was restored and fulfilled in the world to come
Slave - ...
By encouraging Christian slaves to work with responsibility and dignity, Christianity helped to raise the status of slaves
Melita - Shortly before Paul's visit his piratical Cilician countrymen made Melita their haunt; but the Christianity which he introduced has continued since, though sadly corrupted by superstition
Syria - Syria played an important role in the early spread of Christianity
River - For the Roman armies under Nero threatened to sweep away Christianity in the wreck of the Jewish nation
Virtue - The general tendency of Christianity has been to exalt the amiable rather than the heroic qualities
Idolatry - Such a cult was bound to change the whole relationship between Christianity and the Roman power
Treasure - Such teaching would have been an appeal to selfish prudence merely, would justify, if it were correct, all that unbelievers have said about the selfishness of Christianity
Neighbor - Early Christianity showed a similar kind of "prejudiced love" (Galatians 6:10 ) and it would be wrong to vilify either Jews or Christians for their "prejudiced love" unless that love becomes neglect, or even contempt, of outsiders in need
Goodness - —As resignation is the ideal of the Buddhist, and valour of the Mohammedan, so the essence of Christianity is goodness
Church - Its first occurrence in relation to Christianity is in Matthew 16:18 , where upon Peter's confession that Jesuswas the Son of the living God, the Lord rejoins, "upon this rock I will build my assembly," etc
Cainites - = Primitive Christianity, London, 1910, vol
Antonius - From their dialectical subtleties he appealed to facts, to a Christian's contempt of death and triumph over temptation; and contrasted the decay of pagan oracles and magic with the growth of Christianity in spite of persecutions
Apollinaris the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea - He also wrote in defence of Christianity against Julian and Porphyry; of orthodoxy against the Manicheans, Arians, Marcellus, Eunomius, and other heretics; Biblical commentaries, and other works, of which only fragments remain
Attila, King And General of the Huns - Attila did not wish to wage war against Christianity though doubtless some of his followers were stimulated by polemical rancour; he fought against Rome not its church
Deceit, Deception, Guile - Wace, Christianity and Morality; R
Community of Goods - ...
It cannot be said that the references in the NT justify us in asserting that a system of community of goods was part of the normal constitution of the primitive Christian communities; but it is not impossible that the conception that this was the most perfect form of the religious life may have come into Christianity from such contemporary forms of Judaism as that of the Essenes, among whom the community of goods was apparently practised
Ascension - Like the Virgin-birth, it did not form a part of the primitive preaching, nor does it belong to the evidences of Christianity
Jansenists - ...
They maintained, also, that the people ought to be carefully instructed in all the doctrines and precepts of Christianity; and that, for this purpose, the Holy Scriptures and public liturgies should be offered to their perusal in their mother tongue; and, finally, they looked upon it as a matter of the highest moment to persuade all Christians that true piety did not consist in the observance of pompous rites, or in the performance of external acts of devotion, but in inward holiness and divine love
Friends Friendship - As Harnack puts it (Mission and Expansion of Christianity2, 1908, i. Despite the shadows of the Apostolic Age and the imperfections of a nascent infantile Christianity, it is not hard to discern the signs of true friendship
Ephesus - The glorious pomp of its Heathen worship is no longer remembered; and Christianity, which was here nursed by Apostles, and fostered by general councils, until it increased to fulness of stature, barely lingers on in an existence hardly visible
Casuistry - The Lutheran theologians walked very much in the tract which the schoolmen had opened, although their decisions were much more consonant with Christianity; and it was not uncommon in some countries for ecclesiastical assemblies to devote part of their time to the resolution of questions which might have been safely left unnoticed, which now are almost universally regarded as frivolous, and about which almost the most ignorant would be ashamed to ask an opinion
Analogy of Faith - "...
The principle of this rule has been thus stated: It is evident the Almighty doth not act without a design in the system of Christianity, any more than in the works of nature
Love to God - To serve and obey God on the conviction that it is right to serve and obey him, is in Christianity joined with that love to God which gives life and animation to service, and renders it the means of exalting our pleasures, at the same time that it accords with our convictions
Reformation - They discovered in the New Testament what Christianity really was; their representations of it were received with wonder, and read with avidity; the secession from the church of Rome became much more rapid and much more extensive than it had previously been, and all possibility of reconciliation with that church was done away
Parousia - ( f ) The historical-critical view sees in the expectations of the NT Christianity survivals of Jewish eschatology
Nature - D’Arcy, Christianity and the Supernatural, London, 1909; R
Apostle - They provided the leadership for the early church in Jerusalem (Acts 2:42; Acts 4:37; Acts 5:1-5; Acts 6:1-4), and were general overseers of the expansion of Christianity into the regions throughout Palestine and beyond (Acts 8:14-17; Acts 10:46-48)
Government - ...
The primary concern of Christianity is not to change society in the hope that people might improve, but to change people so that through them society might improve
Nazarene - The Jewish side of Christianity, which gave so much trouble to St
Profession (2) - ...
The ‘profession’ of Christ or of Christianity is at once more and less than the confession of Christ
Silvester, Bishop of Rome - His profession and patronage of Christianity were anterior to the time spoken of, and he was not actually baptized till long afterwards, at the close of his life
Hebrews, Letter to the - ...
Because of the suffering that came through the persecution, some of the discouraged Jewish Christians were doubting Christianity’s claim to be God’s new and triumphant way to the eternal kingdom. It seemed to them that the Jewish religion was as firm as ever, whereas Christianity was heading for disaster
Theodosius ii., Emperor - She inspired him with reverence for priests and other good men, and for those who in accordance with the law of Christianity had devoted themselves to philosophical asceticism
Jesuits - " They adopted the same spirit of accommodation in their missionary undertakings; and their Christianity, chamelionlike, readily assumed the colour of every religion where it happened to be introduced. They proceeded to still greater lengths; and, beside suppressing the truths of revelation, devised the most absurd falsehoods, to be used for attracting disciples, or even to be taught as parts of Christianity. It was, in fact, their own authority, not the authority of true religion, which they wished to establish; and Christianity was generally as little known, when they quitted the foreign scenes of their labours as when they entered them
Philanthropy - —Uhlhorn, Christian Charity in the Ancient Church; Wernle, Beginnings of Christianity; v. Dobschütz, Christian Life in the Primitive Church; Seeley, Ecce Homo; Harnack, Expansion of Christianity; Storrs, Divine Origin of Christianity; Brace, Gesta Christi; Church, Gifts of Civilization; and the following Sermons:—on John 13:34 by F
Property (2) - Stöcker, Christlich-soziale Reden und Aufsätze; Herron, The Larger Christianity, and Between Cœsar and Jesus; Gore, The Sermon on the Mount; Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity; Lyman Abbott, Christianity and Social Problems; S
Mss - As Christianity spread westward, it inevitably came into contact with the Latin-speaking population of the Roman Empire; and a translation of the NT into Latin might naturally be looked for at an early date. When Christianity was first introduced into the province is uncertain; but in the 2nd cent. Christianity was no doubt introduced into Egypt even in Apostolic times, but it would have come in the first instance to the Jews of Alexandria and the Greek-speaking population generally. ) was the first in point of age, since it was the version of Lower Egypt, which would have been the first to receive Christianity; but Coptic scholars are now generally agreed that the order of precedence must be inverted
Augustus (2) - The revenues from the Imperial provinces flowed into the Emperor’s fiscus, and out of it were taken the enormous sums spent on the great military roads, which became the highways for Christianity. ’ But no system of morals or philosophy had yet appeared that could show the way of attaining to the Divine likeness by the bestowal of a new nature, until Christianity came upon the scene. ’ The man of all others, who created the conditions in which Christianity was to find that supreme test, was Augustus. 14) this world-ruler from the Founder of Christianity:—Augustus, a perfect master in State-craft, merciful to his foes only when he had made his position absolutely sure, only somewhat more advanced in his morality than the men of his age, full of self-esteem, as the last scene of his life reveals, yet entitled to be considered by the world in which he lived as its ‘chief benefactor’ (Luke 22:25); Jesus, though in His twelfth year able to claim a relationship with the Father in heaven such as distinguishes Him from every other son of man, yet remaining for those 20 years of His life at Nazareth as the carpenter’s son, all unknown to the great world without, subject to His reputed father and His ‘highly favoured’ mother, ‘advancing in wisdom’ as in stature, and above all ‘in favour with God and man
Tatianus - Christianity was not, in his opinion, dependent upon it. " The Greeks should repudiate the lesson of immorality which their statues had immortalized and the foul practices inculcated by indecent writers, and turn to Christianity which enjoined truth and purity of thought and life. ...
The treatise is a defence of Christianity rather than of Christians, and not so much a defence of doctrines as an answer or oration to those who sneered at them. He depicts Christianity as contrasting by its goodness, wisdom, and truth with the heathenism which revelled in vice, foolishness, and error
Revelation, Book of - No Biblical writing, with the possible exception of the Book of Daniel, has been so subjected to the vagaries of interpreters as Revelation, ( a ) On the one extreme are those (‘Futurists’) who have seen in its pictures a forecast of universal Christian history, as well as all the enemies of Christianity, both within and without the Church. More particularly the Letters to the Churches are of value as criticism and Inspiration for various classes of Christians, while its pictures of the New Jerusalem and its insistence upon the moral qualifications for the citizens of the Messianic Kingdom are in themselves notable incentives to right living: Stript of its apocalyptic figures, the book presents a noble ideal of Christian character, an assurance of the unfailing justice of God, and a prophecy of the victory of Christianity over a brutal social order
Children of God, Sons of God - -It is natural that we should find in this writer, who was the champion and protagonist of the movement for the extension of Christianity to the Gentiles, the most unrestricted expression in the NT of the sonship of mankind as related to God. Pfleiderer, Primitive Christianity, Eng
Scripture - Nothing but the clearest evidence arising from undoubted truth could make multitudes of lawless, luxurious heathens receive, follow, and transmit to posterity, the doctrine and writings of the apostles; expecially at a time when the vanity of their pretensions to miracles and the gift of tongues, could be so easily discovered, had they been impostors; and when the profession of Christianity exposed persons of all ranks to the greatest contempt and most imminent danger. ; Jones on the figurative Language of Scripture; and books under articles BIBLE, COMMENTARY, Christianity, and REVELATION
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - The superiority of Christianity to Judaism in that the reality exceeds the type is a favorite topic of Paul. The fall of Jerusalem previous to the full growth of Christianity in N
Retribution (2) - ...
The charge that religion is only an enlightened selfishness, is valid against this position and the popular conception of Christianity. The doctrine of personal responsibility is indeed fundamental to Christianity, and it is necessary to refer to only a few typical passages: Parables (Matthew 13:24; Matthew 18:23; Matthew 22:2; Matthew 22:25, Luke 12:16; Luke 12:16), Rewards (Matthew 19:28, Luke 14:14), Punishments (Matthew 5:26; Matthew 10:28; Matthew 12:36, Mark 9:42; Mark 14:21, John 5:29)
Rufus - Harnack (What is Christianity? 106) and Gould (Com. (he is writing to Herman of Metz, one of his partisans): ‘Who can be ignorant that kings and nobles took their beginning from those who, not knowing God, by their pride, robberies, perfidy, and murders, in short, by almost every kind of crime, no doubt at the suggestion of the prince of this world, the devil, have in blind ambition and intolerable presumption had a mind to tyrannize over other men who are undoubtedly their equals?’ Milman asks, ‘Are we reading a journalist of Paris in 1791?’ (Latin Christianity, iii
Widows - Before this, evidently, they were not excluded, and the consequence was that many of them married, others, owing to their freedom, went about as busy-bodies and gossips, and indeed some succumbed to sensual temptations, with the result that Christianity was evil spoken of. Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, Eng
Luke, Gospel of - Some see Luke-Acts as an apology for the Christian faith, a defense of it designed to show Roman authorities that Christianity posed no political threat. It is possible to see in all this an attempt by Luke to calm Roman authorities' fears about any supposed subversive character of Christianity
Manliness - ‘muscular Christianity’). 20, 21, 22; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus; Speer, The Principles of Jesus; Tolstoi, The Christianity of Christ; Hughes, The Manliness of Christ; Phillips Brooks, The Candle of the Lord, p
Cross, Cross-Bearing - For the archaeological and magical history of the sign of the cross outside as well as within the pale of Christianity, see Zöckler’s Das Kreuz Christi (1875 [1]), Goblet d’Alviclla’s Migration of Symbols (1894), and his art. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, p
Apostle - Paul is meant by these false apostles’ (Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894, p. The Twelve are to be twelve Patriarchs of the larger Israel, twelve repetitions of Christ (Harnack, Expansion of Christianity, Eng
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - When Elesbaan succeeded, the Homeritae had greatly obscured the Christianity which they had received in the reign of Constantius, but the language of Cosmas Indicopleustes (Migne, Patr. Wright, Early Christianity in Arabia , p
John, the Epistles of - James and Peter represent the gradual transition from spiritualized Judaism to independent Christianity; Paul, independent Christianity contrasted with Judaism
Patricius, or Saint Patrick - 634), throws an interesting light upon the date of the introduction of Christianity into Ireland. This fixes the introduction of Christianity into Ireland in the first half of 5th cent
Rufus - Harnack (What is Christianity? 106) and Gould (Com. (he is writing to Herman of Metz, one of his partisans): ‘Who can be ignorant that kings and nobles took their beginning from those who, not knowing God, by their pride, robberies, perfidy, and murders, in short, by almost every kind of crime, no doubt at the suggestion of the prince of this world, the devil, have in blind ambition and intolerable presumption had a mind to tyrannize over other men who are undoubtedly their equals?’ Milman asks, ‘Are we reading a journalist of Paris in 1791?’ (Latin Christianity, iii
Essenes - The impassioned yet sane moral enthusiasm of early Christianity was too strong in its own kind to be deeply touched by a spirit so unlike its own
John, First Epistle of - Others held that only the germ of Christianity could be found in existing teachings, and that development must be looked for (an error prevalent also in the present day), which was met by the apostle insisting on 'that which was from the beginning' — the revelation of life in Christ Himself
Temperance - ...
Christianity, therefore, is a religion not merely for a part of our being, but for the whole man; it touches him in every relationship of life and in every aspect of that relationship
Nations - But, as in the OT a broader spirit shows itself constantly, culminating in the universalism of Christianity, so enlightened and broadminded Jews in all ages have deprecated the fanatical race-hatred which many of their compatriots have displayed
Doctrine - It is still a basic presupposition of Protestant Christianity: Scripture over tradition
Tribulation - Tribulation, then, to the early Christians meant not so much ill-health, or poverty, or loss of friends, as the sacrifices they had to make and the perils they had to meet on account of their proclamation or profession of Christianity
Sea of Glass - John 2, London, 1907; C Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh, 1912
Trajan - It was probably in the time of Vespasian or one of the other Flavian Emperors that the confession of Christianity in itself began to be regarded as an offence against the State, punishable with death
Immortality - Traditional Christianity has held a dualist or tripartite view of persons (soul-spirit and body or soul, spirit, and body) and that between death and the resurrection there is some sort of an intermediate state in which the immaterial part of the individual continues a conscious existence apart from the physical
Growth Increase - The apostolic preachers did not regard their work as finished when they had converted Jews or heathen to Christianity
Alexander - Calvin thought him a convert to Christianity from Judaism, whom the Jews would have sacrificed as a victim to the fury of the rabble
Eternity - also Samuel Davidson, Doctrine of the Last Things; Toy, Judaism and Christianity; A
Lake of Fire - Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its non-Jewish Sources, Eng
Art And Aesthetics - As Christianity gradually became more accepted, the practice of meeting in private homes was replaced by meeting in buildings which were especially designed for worship
Fast, the - Paul, indeed, took up a position even then no longer tenable when he regarded “Judaism” as still possible within the Christian fold, while he himself, by his mission to the Gentiles, had actually severed Judaism inside Christianity from its roots’ (Harnack, Date of Acts and Synoptic Gospels Flesh - Paul’s Conception of Christianity, Edinburgh, 1894, ch
Formalism - Yet the latter element also was involved, and is emphasized by his repeatedly contrasting both circumcision and un-circumcision with the inward essence and ethical manifestation of Christianity-‘a new creature’ (Galatians 6:15), ‘faith that worketh by love’ (Galatians 5:6), ‘keeping the commandments of God’ (1 Corinthians 7:19)
Forgiveness - Mackintosh, Christianity and Sin, 1913
Columba (1) Columcille - From Iona as a centre he established Christianity on a firm basis to the N
Encratites - The practice of such abstinence was older than Christianity
Maronites - Conformably to the doctrines of Christianity, they have only one wife, whom they frequently espouse without having seen, and always without having been much in her company
Miracle - ...
The chief object of miracles having been to authenticate the revelation God has made of his will, these mighty words ceased when the Scripture canon was completed and settled, and Christianity was fairly established
Muratorian Fragment - Christianity and Mankind , attempted its re-translation into Greek; an ed
New Commandment - In the Fourth Gospel we have probably the earliest phase of the reaction which ended in the formulation of Christianity as nova lex
Luke, Gospel of - In his second volume, written for the same person, Luke traced the spread of Christianity (Acts 1:1)
Sedulius, 5th-Cent. Poet - Late in life he became converted to Christianity, or, if a Christian before, began to take a serious view of his duties
Severus, l. Septimius - But in 202 he issued an edict forbidding future conversions to Judaism or Christianity ( Vita Severi, 17)
Severus Sulpicius, an Historian - According to Gennadius he was a priest, but this has been questioned, and his tone towards the bishops and clergy, against whom he constantly inveighs as vain, luxurious, self-seeking, factious foes of Christianity and envious persecutors of his hero St
Temperance - ...
Christianity, therefore, is a religion not merely for a part of our being, but for the whole man; it touches him in every relationship of life and in every aspect of that relationship
Teaching - (διδαχή, διδασκαλία)...
The place and function of teaching in the establishment of Christianity are facts of great historical interest and practical importance. The teacher might be led and guided by the Spirit,-indeed, he must be, if he were to be a true teacher and his teaching truly spiritual,-but what he said was in a real sense his own’ (History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p. The teacher began with such truths as were common to Judaism and Christianity
Vespasian - ...
Of his attitude to Christianity nothing is known for certain, but it has been plausibly conjectured that, since in Nero’s time Christians were condemned only for crimes punishable in any case, while in Trajan’s time it is clearly established that confession of Christianity was in itself a crime, the changed attitude is due to an administrative principle settled under Vespasian (W. On Vespasian’s connexion with Christianity, W
Metaphor - ’ Christianity is called ἡ ὁδός, ‘the way’ (Acts 9:2, etc. The metaphor of the sow is based on an apophthegm of Heraclitus (Wendland, quoted by Clemen in Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Eng. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, p
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - Christianity had as yet made little progress in that neighbourhood, there being only 17 Christians in the whole region (Greg. " Gregory is exhorted to study all philosophies, as a preparation for Christianity and to aid the interpretation of Holy Scripture. But the Christianity of the Neocaesareans must have been in many cases of a very imperfect kind, if we may judge from one of the most authentic documents referred to his pen, and entitled Epistola Canonica S
Atonement (2) - It may now be taken as accepted that the belief of the primitive community and the Apostolic preaching were based on this conviction (see Harnack, What is Christianity? English translation Lect. So remarkable is the unanimity of the two great primary preachers of Christianity that it leaves no room to question the statement of Harnack (What is Christianity? English translation Lect
Palestine - The extension of the word to include the entire Holy Land, both west and east of the Jordan, is subsequent to the introduction of Christianity. ...
This early Christianity received a severe blow in 611, when the country was ravaged by Chosroës ii. Worn out by immorality, by leprosy and other diseases, and by mutual dissensions, the unworthy champions of the Cross disappeared before the heroic Saladin, leaving as their legacy to the country a score or so of place names; a quantity of worthless ecclesiastical traditions; a number of castles and churches, few of which possess any special architectural interest, and many of which, by a strange irony, have been converted into mosques; and, among the Arab natives, an unquenchable hatred of Christianity
Law (2) - —The question of Christ’s relation to the Jewish law is one of fundamental importance for the origin of Christianity, but at the same time one of peculiar difficulty. Paul seemed to endanger morality, and those who could not rise to his point of view, that it was precisely in this way that morality was secured, turned Christianity into a new legalism, and explained his doctrine that the Law was abolished to mean that Christians were no longer compelled to practise Jewish ceremonies. The contemporary Judaism is most imperfectly known to us, and the documents which we have to use as our sources of information are, in many instances, centuries later than the rise of Christianity. But all this loyal recognition of the place filled by the temple and the honour due to it was combined with an inward detachment from it, which was a presage of the ultimate deliverance of Christianity from its connexion with it
Christ in Jewish Literature - Such interest as they possess is due to their significance as indications of the way in which Jews were wont to think and speak amongst themselves of the Founder of Christianity. ...
The present writer has suggested elsewhere (Christianity in Talmud and Midrash, 345 n. —Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash, 1904; Laible-Dalman, Jesus Christus im Talmud [18]; also, Mead, Did Jesus live 100 years b. The reasons for this seem to be two: (1) that in controversy with Christians the Jews were not disposed to say more than they could help upon a subject where every word was likely to give offence and draw down persecution upon themselves; and (2) that the Jews were well aware of the difference between the Founder of Christianity and His followers
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - 6), was not willing that Christianity should be accounted unlawful in the countries beyond the confines of Italy, i. ...
In the relations between Christianity and paganism there is ground for thinking that the position of Hosius at this time must have been somewhat of a representative one on the Christian side; otherwise it is difficult to understand why the emperor should have addressed to him a law declaring free such slaves as were emancipated in the presence of the bishops or clergy (a. Moreover, the great strength of Christianity lay then in the East. of Christianity, vol
Inspiration - Paul, who, being called to be an Apostle after the ascension of Jesus, received the Gospel by immediate revelation from heaven, and was thus put upon a footing with the rest, both as to his designation, which did not proceed from the choice of man, and as to his qualifications, which were imparted, not by human instruction, but by the teaching of the Author of Christianity. The Gospels are the record of the great facts which vouch the truth of Christianity. The Apostles, therefore, bring forward the evidence of Christianity in its natural order, when they speak in the Gospels as the companions and eye-witnesses of Jesus, claiming that credit which is due to honest men who had the best opportunities of knowing what they declared. ...
As, then, the authors of the Gospels appear under the character of eye- witnesses, attesting what they had seen, there would have been an impropriety in their resting the evidence of the essential facts of Christianity upon inspiration
Worship - " Christianity impelled men frequently to seek for the stillness of the inward sanctuary, and here to pour forth their heart to God, who dwells in such temples; but then the flames of love were also lighted in their hearts, which sought communion in order to strengthen each other mutually, and to unite themselves into one holy flame which pointed toward heaven. Heathens, who, like Alexander Severus, saw something divine in Christ's personal form, and sects which mixed Heathenism and Christianity together, were the first who made use of images of Christ; as, for instance, the Gnostic sect of the followers of Carpocratian, who put his image beside those of Plato and Aristotle. The first yearly festivals of the Christians proceeded from similar views; and at first the contrast which had in early times the most powerful influence on the developement as well of the churchly life, as of the doctrines of Christianity, is peculiarly prominent; I mean the contrast between the Jewish churches and those of the Gentile converts. The case must have been somewhat different with the birth of the Redeemer; human nature was to be sanctified by him from its first developement; but then this last notion could not at first come so prominently forward among the early Christians, because so many of them were first converted to Christianity when well advanced in years, after some decisive excitement of
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - Rendall's Hulsean Essay for 1876, The Emperor Julian; Paganism and Christianity is decidedly the best account of Julian's religious position in English, perhaps in any modern language. Julian had no practical Christianity to fall back upon. Julian therefore conceived of Christianity, not as a great body of truth satisfying the whole man, but as a set of formulas to be plausibly debated and distinguished. For the present, however, the fulfilment of such hopes seemed distant, and Julian for ten years pretended zeal for Christianity (Liban
Religious Experience - Primitive Christianity never imagined that a rich religious experience was not possible outside the Christian community. The self-consciousness of Jesus was the spring underneath the Temple-altar, out of which flowed the healing waters of Christianity. Each type finds its root in the Gospel teaching; but the appeal to the ‘inner witness,’ the making prominent of Christian experience, and the rise of what may be called the emotional type of Christianity, are all post-Pentecostal developments
Prophecy - Of the great use of prophecies which have been fulfilled, as a direct and strong argument to convert unbelievers to Christianity, and to establish Christians in the faith, we have the most ample proofs. "Prophecy keeps the attention of Christians alive to the truth and importance of their holy religion: to its truth, because prophecy and Christianity had one and the same origin, both being derived from the same fountain of perfection; it keeps them alive to its importance, because prophecy shows that the Supreme Being has vouchsafed, through a long succession of ages, to prepare mankind, by gradual revelations of his will, for future blessings; and has proved, by sending chosen messengers to usher in this final dispensation, that 'the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. In order to understand the prophecies, and to form a right judgment of the argument for the truth of Christianity, we must not consider them singly and apart, but as a grand whole, or a chain reaching through several thousand years, yet manifestly subservient to one and the same end
Individualism - The emphasis which the leaders put on this voluntary aspect of communism distinguishes Christianity clearly from Socialism, but still the experiment indicates that, in a more Christian society, the Socialist ideal might be accomplished in another way. ...
It is argued that the full meaning and claim of Christianity can never be explicable on the basis of Individualism, because ‘from first to last it deals with minds which are in relation with actual truth in regard to the soul, the world, and God, and which have not fully attained even the limits of their own nature till they are united in the Spirit-bearing Body, through Christ to the Father’ (Strong). Why Christianity is so individualistic is precisely that the soul is so directly, or, at all events, can, through God’s revelation and grace, be so directly in contact with actual truth, the world and God, as to make it only a distraction for another man, on merely official grounds, to come in between as a necessary channel; that the possession of such a personal relation to truth is a common bond of more power than any external tie; and that the visible organization is only vital and useful as it expresses this union
Gospels (Uncanonical) - But others were written to meet the needs of popular Christianity; their aim was to supplement rather than to rival the canonical Gospels, and in some cases they can be shown to be almost contemporary with the latter-certainly prior to the formation of the canon itself. of Early Christianity, London, 1893, i. But before turning into this rank undergrowth of popular literature in early Christianity, we must state and define one or two general principles and methods of criticism which are essential to any survey of the position
Arminianism - It is certain, at least, that he declares his willingness to subscribe to every thing that Calvin has written on that leading subject of Christianity, in the third book of his Institutes; and with this declaration the tenor of his writings invariably corresponds. While he maintained that the mercy of God is not confined to a chosen few, he conceived it to be quite inconsistent with the genius of Christianity, that men of that religion should keep at a distance from each other, and constitute separate churches, merely because they differed in their opinions as to some of its doctrinal articles.
Offence (2) - Paul by the Jews, and even by Christians who did not know what Christianity meant (Galatians 5:11): it was the reaction of their soreness against what caused it. A man may be befooled by his wisdom: if he is puffed up in the consciousness that he comprehends the principles of Christianity, he is quite capable of yielding to his natural appetites under the delusion that he is exercising a Christian liberty. 1 ‘Am I not free?’—is written in the very spirit of Mark 9:43-47, and in 1 Corinthians 10 the Apostle warns his converts of the peril which awaits them, if secure in their Christianity they slip into easy relations with paganism
Scripture (2) - The idea of a ‘canon’ of ‘Sacred Scriptures’ (and with the idea the thing) was handed down to Christianity from Judaism. The fact of importance is that there was nothing left for Christianity to invent here
Woe - Paul, as a Pharisee, was no hypocrite (Philippians 3:5-6); his Pharisaic upbringing was an important part of his providential training for his Christian Apostleship, and ‘from Pharisaism in so far as it meant zeal for the highest objects of Jewish faith he never departed, and never could depart’ (Acts 26:5; Acts 26:22; Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 108 ff. 19, 20; Harnack, What is Christianity? 92); and this would prevent our Lord’s utterances from being interpreted in a materialistic sense
Eschatology - ...
But, while emphasizing the background of ideas common to primitive Christianity and Jewish apocalyptic, we must not ignore the distinctiveness of the former; and this now claims our attention. To expect to find in the NT authoritative statements either for or against prayers for the dead, or formal distinctions between an intermediate state of purgation and a final state of bliss, is to forget the peculiar eschatological outlook of primitive Christianity, and to look for an anachronism
Confession - ) might be the pressing forward with open confession of Christianity during another man’s trial. But, as von Dobschütz says, these confessions reveal ‘the magnificent moral earnestness of the man, and not of him only, but of the Christianity of his time’ (Christian Life in the Primitive Church, p
Devotion - Harnack, What is Christianity?3 [1] 129 f. ...
That self-discipline is in itself and apart from its motives meritorious, is nowhere taught by Christ, and such a notion is quite contrary to the genius of Christianity
Acts - Perhaps Luke was writing a defense of Christianity for this official during a time of persecution to show him there was nothing subversive or sinister about the followers of Jesus. ...
In addition to Luke's possible purpose as an interpreter of Christianity to the Roman world, Paul's traveling companion seems to have perceived himself specifically as a recorder of God's saving work
Judgments of God - Herod the Great was the first persecutor of Christianity. The last Pagan prince, who was a formidable enemy to Christianity, was Radagaisus, a king of the Goths
Ireland - He labored in practically every part of Ireland, built 365 churches, consecrated as many bishops, ordained native priests, founded convents and schools, held councils, and made Christianity the predominant religion
Malachi - Malachi was Jehovah's last inspired messenger of Old Testament, announcing the advent of the great Messenger of New Testament; the transition link between the two dispensations, "the skirt and boundary of Christianity," to which is due his abrupt earnestness
Arabia - Sabeanism, or the worship of the hosts, the sun, moon, and stars, was the first lapse from original revelation (Job 31:26-27); but just before Mahomet they were divided between it, Judaism, Magianism, and corrupted Christianity
Thyatira - Christianity was probably brought to the city at the time of St
Relics - When the profession of Christianity obtained the protection of civil government, under Constantine the Great, stately churches were erected over sepulchres, and their names and memories were treated with every possible token of affection and respect
Timothy - Under whom he was converted to Christianity it is impossible to say, for there is no contradiction between 1 Corinthians 4:17 and Acts 16:1-3
Reserve - ‘The life after death, Lightfoot and I agreed, is the cardinal point of Christianity’ (In Memoriam, Author’s Notes, p
Lord's Day, the - As Christianity distanced itself from Judaism, it is not surprising that eventually the church would see its special day in terms of the special day of the Jews, the Sabbath, and would transfer the provisions of the Fourth Commandment to Sunday
Prophet, Christ as - Aune, The Messiah: Developments in Early Judaism and Christianity, pp
Polygamy - Polygamy is retained at this day among the Turks, and throughout every part of Asia in which Christianity is not professed
Corban - 90), who in many respects felt the influence of Christianity, give the same view as the Lord Jesus with regard to rash vows
Decius, Emperor - Magistrates throughout the empire were ordered under heavy penalties to put pressure upon the worshippers of Christ to abjure Christianity
Dionysius of Alexandria - His parents were Gentiles, and he was led to examine the claims of Christianity by private study ( Ep
Altar - Hort observes that ‘respecting the continued adherence to Jewish observances, nothing is said which implies either its presence or its absence’ (Judaistic Christianity, 42)
Sanhedrim - If this be the case, the Jewish sanhedrim had for president a person that was entirely disposed to embrace Christianity
Ordination - In opposition to episcopal ordination, they urge that Timothy was ordained by the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, 1 Timothy 4:14 ; that Paul and Barnabas were ordained by certain prophets and teachers in the church of Antioch, and not by any bishop presiding in that city, Acts 13:1-3 ; and that it is a well known fact, that presbyters in the church of Alexandria ordained even their own bishops for more than two hundred years in the earliest ages of Christianity
Life, Living, Lifetime, Life-Giving - 'This life' is a term equivalent to 'the gospel,' 'the faith,' 'Christianity,' Acts 5:20
Marriage - '" ...
Christianity invests the family institution with peculiar sacredness; makes true love its basis, and mutual preference of each others' happiness its rule; and even likens it to the ineffable union between Christ and his church, Ephesians 5:22-33
Altar - Hort observes that ‘respecting the continued adherence to Jewish observances, nothing is said which implies either its presence or its absence’ (Judaistic Christianity, 42)
Hebrews - It was certainly written by a person who had suffered imprisonment in the cause of Christianity; and this is known to have been the case of St. To obviate the impression which any reasoning of this sort might make upon the converts to Christianity, the writer of this epistle begins with declaring to the Hebrews, that the same God who had formerly, upon a variety of occasions, spoken to their fathers by means of his prophets, had now sent his only Son for the purpose of revealing his will; he then describes, in most sublime language, the dignity of the person of Christ, Hebrews 1; and thence refers the duty of obeying his commands, the divine authority of which was established by the performance of miracles, and by the gifts of the Holy Ghost; he points out the necessity of Christ's incarnation and passion, Hebrews 2; he shows the superiority of Christ to Moses, and warns the Hebrews against the sin of unbelief, Hebrews 3; he exhorts to steadfastness in the profession of the Gospel, and gives an animated description of Christ as our high priest, Hebrews 4-7; he shows that the Levitical priesthood and the old covenant were abolished by the priesthood of Christ, and by the new covenant, Hebrews 8; he points out the efficacy of the ceremonies and sacrifices of the law, and the sufficiency of the atonement made by the sacrifice of Christ, Hebrews 9, 10; he fully explains the nature, merit, and effects of faith, Hebrews 11; and in the last two chapters he gives a variety of exhortations and admonitions, all calculated to encourage the Hebrews to bear with patience and constancy any trials to which they might be exposed. But uniting the whole of it together; considering the intimate knowledge of Jewish rites, the wrong attachment to their ritual, and the special danger of defection from Christianity in consequence of it, which the whole texture of the epistle necessarily supposes, and combining these things with the other circumstances above discussed, I cannot resist the impression, that the universal opinion of the ancient church respecting the persons to whom this epistle was addressed, was well founded, being built upon early tradition and the contents of the epistle; and that the doubts and difficulties thrown in the way by modern and recent critics, are not of sufficient importance to justify us in relinquishing the belief that Palestine Christians were addressed by the epistle to the Hebrews
Regeneration (2) - But the newness of Christianity is nowhere more strongly felt and expressed than in this book. The latter, though relatively infrequent, occurs in passages so characteristic that we can say that Paul was no stranger to that intimate sense of kinship to God which is so notable in the Johannine type of Christianity (Romans 8:16-21, Ephesians 5:1). He could think of it only as he knew it, that is, as an ordinance administered to people confessing their sins and accepting the love of God in Christ,—an ordinance that gathered into it the whole meaning of Christianity, and in a high and solemn hour raised to its height the Christian’s sense of what it is to be a Christian
Wandering Stars - In Judaism the Semitic custom which determined the relation of the people to war as tolerated, or even under certain circumstances enjoined, by the principles of their faith, as an enterprise for which warriors were consecrated before they fought at all, had undergone a change at the period when Christianity arose in Palestine. Judaism, before Christianity, abhorred aggressiveness and discouraged military rapacity. * The problem of Christianity’s relation to war, during the primitive period, is partly determined by these two factors in the contemporary situation. Christianity did seem often to the authorities to be a secret, immoral, Eastern society, which might be harbouring political designs
Turning - The gospel made its appeal at first to those who had grown up in a world ruled by principles the very opposite of those of the Divine Kingdom, and the transition from either Judaism or paganism to Christianity was bound to be of the nature of an absolute and sudden break. For the unconscious Christianity of childhood needs to be transformed into the conscious Christianity of developed character
Lord's Day - the first day of the week appears as distinctively the sacred day of Christianity under the name of ‘the Lord’s Day. 396) and others have pointed out, the observance of Sunday is one of a number of elements which Christianity had in common with the religion of Mithras. Fisher, Beginnings of Christianity, 1877, new ed
Gospels - Not only is the rest of the vocabulary essentially Jewish, but it must come from a quarter in which the Jewish origin and relations of Christianity mere strongly marked, i. Luke 2:14; Luke 2:23; Luke 3:6); (3) prominence is given to women in both Gospel and Acts; (4) there is considerable emphasis upon prayer, the influence of the Holy Spirit, and upon Christianity as being a religion marked by thanksgiving, joy, and peace. About the second part hangs still the feeling of the joy and peace which Christianity brings with it
Logos - (1) A middle term was discovered between Christianity and the forms of Hellenic thought, and a wider development was thus rendered possible. (2) The claim of Christianity to be the absolute religion was definitely formulated in the Logos doctrine. The Logos category was in itself insufficient, and tended to confuse Christianity with metaphysical issues which were alien to its real import
Hellenism - (1) Since Droysen, it describes a particular period of Greek history and civilization; (2) it is a name for the influence of this Greek civilization on the Oriental world; (3) it marks a certain stream in Judaism; and (4) it denotes a party in primitive Christianity. Hellenism in primitive Christianity. ...
It was the Hellenists that occasioned the first struggle of Christianity with the Jewish authorities; St
Beatitude - Beatitude is the essence of Christianity, its beginning and end. Wernle says with true insight: ‘Jesus Himself made of Christianity a religion of hope. … If Paul in a later age preaches the religion of longing in words of enthralling eloquence, he is merely continuing in his own language the Beatitudes of Jesus’ (The Beginnings of Christianity, i
Peter - Paul’s thinking-an item sometimes obscured by a too one-sided emphasis upon the legalistic controversy-is further attested by the high estimate he continues to place upon Judaism, and the value he attaches to Christianity’s Jewish connexions. Paul’s point of view it was altogether essential, however, that Christianity should have had this Jewish origin; and so it was especially fitting, he thought, that those olive branches which had been temporarily severed from the Jewish trunk-as was the case with all Jews who rejected Christianity-should one day be restored to their rightful place along with the few wild olive branches that had in the meantime been grafted upon the native stock (Romans 11:11 ff. Paul’s testimony to the significance of Peter’s position in the early history of Christianity
Peter Epistles of - Henceforth, if one persistently confessed Christianity, that in itself was sufficient basis for legal action. Christianity was now, in the eyes of the law, a religio illicita. ...
1 Peter can hardly have been designed to meet the new condition of affairs following the rescript of Trajan, if, as seems probable, the mere confession of Christianity was henceforth the only point needing to be established in law (‘si deferantur et arguantur Romans, Book of - In the heated debates over this issue, it has become clear that an undue stress on either alternative leads to a distorted view of Christianity. They, however, represent the way Paul understood Christianity—what God has done for us in Christ summons us to what we ought to do for God
Paul the Apostle - Classic creedal Christianity, in this view, was never Jesus' intention but purely the brainchild of Paul. In this sense Paul was not the originator of Christianity but merely its faithful witness and divinely guided interpreter (1 Corinthians 7:40 )granted, with the advantage of hindsight available after "the time had fully come" when "God sent his Son to redeem those under law, that we might receive the full rights of sons" (Galatians 4:4-5 )
Resurrection - The collapse of the resurrection was commensurate to Christianity being fallacious for Paul. Attempts to explain the resurrection as a mere sociological phenomenon without the supernatural element minimizes the magnitude of the event and the role that it played in the formation of Christianity
Confession (of Christ) - This lies in the very nature of the case, since personal faith in Jesus Christ constitutes the essence of Christianity, and confession is the necessary utterance of faith (Romans 10:10, cf. Even if baptism ‘into the name of the Lord Jesus’ did not imply an explicit confession of Jesus as Lord (though this seems by no means improbable), at all events the Christian baptism which meets us constantly from the earliest days of the Church (Acts, passim) clearly involved, in the relations of Christianity whether to the Jewish or the Gentile world, a confessing of Christ before men
Gratianus, Emperor - His reign, coinciding with that of Theodosius, saw orthodox Christianity for the first time dominant throughout the empire. ...
In May 383, at Padua, Gratian issued a penal law against apostates, and those who try to make others apostatize from Christianity
Nazirite - of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p. Paul himself may have been about to offer sacrifices in connexion with a vow made previously, not necessarily a Nazirite vow (see Judaistic Christianity, Cambridge, 1894, p
Predestination - These passages ‘combine to show that not only in the physical world, which is generally admitted to be subject in all its provinces to the absolute control and regulation of the Almighty, but also in the moral world, all circumstances and events, dependent though they may be on the voluntary actions of His intelligent creatures, are nevertheless pre-arranged and predetermined by Him; or, in other words, that whatsoever God does by His own personal agency in any department of the universe, and whatsoever He permits to be done by the agency of His rational creatures, is done or permitted by Him purposely and designedly, in accordance with his own determinate counsels, and for the accomplishment of His own contemplated ends’ (Crawford, Mysteries of Christianity, p. Crawford, Mysteries of Christianity, 1874, p
Nazirite - of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p. Paul himself may have been about to offer sacrifices in connexion with a vow made previously, not necessarily a Nazirite vow (see Judaistic Christianity, Cambridge, 1894, p
Incarnation - ...
The Council of Chalcedon was perhaps the most significant church council for Christianity
Go - If we go over the laws of Christianity-- ...
2
Thessalonica - If his aim was to establish Christianity in the governing and commercial centres of the Empire, in order that the light might radiate over the widest areas, his choice of Thessalonica was justified by an immediate and signal success
Greek Church - That in these widely distant countries the professors of Christianity are agreed in every minute article of belief, it would be rash to assert; but there is certainly such an agreement among them, with respect both to faith and to discipline, that they mutually hold communion with each other, and are, in fact, but one church
Hutchinsonians - The Hutchinsonians have, for the most part, been men of devout minds, zealous in the cause of Christianity, and untainted with heterodox opinions, which have so often divided the church which have so often divided the church of Christ
Colossians, Epistle to the - , and are, indeed, older than Christianity
Communion - It appears that ‘the communion’ was the regular expression for that ‘community of goods’ which was so marked a feature of the Christianity of the first days, and which owed its origin not only to the unselfish enthusiasm of that Pentecostal period and the expectation of the Lord’s immediate return, but to the actual needs of the poorer Christians in Jerusalem, cut off from the means of self-support by the social ostracism attendant on excommunication from the synagogue ( John 9:22 ; John 9:34 ; John 12:42 ; John 16:2 )
Gentiles (2) - ...
A full consideration of the attitude of early Christianity towards the Gentiles requires a study of the Acts and Epistles at least, and is beyond the scope of this article: our Lord’s teaching, however, afterwards developed by His followers, is quite plainly indicated in the Gospels, and must form the basis of any adequate discussion of the subject
Learning - Greek ideas were thus diffused over the surface of Hebraic religion, and helped to enrich the thought and life of the planters of Christianity
Samaria - 1) mentions their hostility to Christianity, and numerous sects
Moses - That being a type of the heavenly blessings of Christianity, it would not have agreed with Moses, as the dispenser of the law, leading the Israelites into the land: that must be done by JOSHUA, type of Christ risen
Millennium - Some think that Christ will reign personally on earth, and that there will be a literal resurrection of the saints, Revelation 20:4 ; Revelation 20:7 ; but I rather suppose that the reign of Christ and resurrection of saints alluded to in that passage, is only figurative; and that nothing more is meant than that, before the general judgment, the Jews shall be converted, genuine Christianity be diffused through all nations, and that Christ shall reign, by his spiritual presence, in a glorious manner
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - of Christianity , vol
Callistus, Pope - Döllinger supposes that, while claiming his debts at the hands of members of the Jewish synagogue, his zeal for religion impelled him to bear witness for Christ, and that thus his exile to Sardinia was a species of martyrdom for Christianity (Döllinger, Hippolytus u
Alexandria - The theological system of Plato was introduced into both the philosophical and Christian schools of Alexandria; and of course many of his sentiments and expressions were blended with the opinions and language of the professors and teachers of Christianity
Rome, - Christianity may, perhaps, have been introduced into the city not long after the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost by the "strangers of Rome, who were then at Jerusalem, (Acts 2:10 ) It is clear that there were many Christians at Rome before St
Law - But Christianity not merely gave power; it altered man’s whole outlook on the world. James representing primitive Jewish Christianity. The maxim that ‘what enters into the man from without cannot defile,’ but only ‘the things that issue out of the man,’ was of far-reaching application, and supplied afterwards the charter of Gentile Christianity
John Epistles of - -Jews who have never accepted Christianity are not the only enemy. The Jewish War and the Destruction or Jerusalem must have profoundly affected the relation of Judaism to Christianity. It is, of course, a perversion of history to assume that Gnostic ideas first came into contact with Christianity when Christians began to think in terms of Greek philosophy, towards the middle of the 2nd century
Millenarians - Others are inclined to believe that, by the reign of Christ and the saints for a thousand years on earth, "nothing more is meant than that, before the general judgment, the Jews shall be converted, genuine Christianity be diffused through all nations, and mankind enjoy that peace and happiness which the faith and precepts of the Gospel are calculated to confer on all by whom they are sincerely embraced. Paul, in which a conversion from Paganism to Christianity, and a reformation of life is called a "resurrection from the dead," Romans 6:13 ; Ephesians 5:14 . During the reign of antichrist a corrupted form of Christianity was drawn over the nations, and established in the political constitutions of the kingdoms which were subject to that monstrous power
Paul - " ...
For some two years after Pentecost, Christianity was quietly spreading its influence in Jerusalem. He was at this time probably a member of the great Sanhedrin, and became the active leader in the furious persecution by which the rulers then sought to exterminate Christianity
Church - As Christianity spread, the local units of the brotherhood came to he called ecclesiæ ( Acts 9:31 ; Acts 13:1 ; Acts 14:23 ; Acts 15:41 ; Acts 20:17 etc. It is this community that promulgates decisions on problems created by the extension of Christianity ( Acts 15:22-29 )
Hypocrisy - Hypocrisy, as the opposite and negation of the Kingdom of Heaven, is as ready to corrupt Christianity as it was to corrupt Judaism. ...
Throughout all the Christian centuries, wherever there has been a lively sense of the reality of Christianity, there has also been a lively sense of this shadow following the sun
Hebrews, Epistle to the - The Hebrews are warned against "divers and strange doctrines," a systematic mixture of Judaism and Christianity. It is the final breach between Christianity and Judaism
Evolution (Christ And) - Historical Christianity rests on the faith that Jesus rose again and passed into the unseen world, whence He continues to send forth His personal influence and saving grace by His Spirit among believers, and through them into the world at large. It is clear that there is no rival directive or inspiring ideal among mankind that could take the place of Christianity without crying halt to all that is noblest in the life of the race
Force - And from this fact it follows that force and its activities are entirely foreign to the essential facts and truths of Christianity. Paul’s general conception of essential Christianity, does not imply the absence from them of that order of Divine working for which the word stands in the Apostle’s writings
Circumcision - Some of them continued to practise that rite, but they were probably believers of the class just mentioned; for had he thought that the rite was continued among them on any principle which affected the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, he would no doubt have been equally prompt and fearless in pointing out that apostasy from Christ which was implied in it, as when he wrote to the Galatians. Even he himself, strongly as he resisted the imposition of this conformity to Jewish customs upon the converts to Christianity as a matter of necessity, yet in practice must have conformed to many of them, when no sacrifice of principle was understood; for in order to gain the Jews, he became "as a Jew
Preaching - Christianity, it is true, is found in their writings; but how sadly incorporated with Pagan philosophy and Jewish allegory! It must, indeed, be allowed, that, in general, the simplicity of Christianity was maintained, though under gradual decay, during the first three centuries
Paul - From the information in these two sources, we piece together a reasonable picture of one of the major personalities of early Christianity. He knew the message of Christianity: Jesus' resurrection, His messiahship, and His availability to all humankind
Hypocrisy - Hypocrisy, as the opposite and negation of the Kingdom of Heaven, is as ready to corrupt Christianity as it was to corrupt Judaism. ...
Throughout all the Christian centuries, wherever there has been a lively sense of the reality of Christianity, there has also been a lively sense of this shadow following the sun
Pre-Existence of Christ - He is proclaimed as ‘both Lord and Christ’; and under the category of Messiahship this primitive gospel involves all that is characteristic in historical Christianity (see Denney, Jesus and the Gospel, p. ...
While the history of primitive Christianity proves its eclectic genius, its hospitality towards all ideas and forms of thought by which it could express its sense of the inexpressible religious value of Christ, and while there is no a priori reason to deny that it may have incidentally woven into its own web sundry hints of a pre-existent Messiah or Ideal Man, it seems impossible that the rapid Christological advance which had taken place by the time the Pauline Epistles were written can have been in any vital way influenced by the recondite speculations of apocalyptic, Rabbinical, or Hellenistic Judaism
Bereans - not founded upon revelation, or derived from it by tradition, they give up the cause of Christianity at once to the infidels; who may justly argue, as Mr
Claudius - There was no room in Roman life for weaklings; exposure of newly born children was frequent, and until Christianity came there was little care for the physically or mentally defective
Mission - ...
Christianity must not be identified with one level of society or one race
Spirituality - Kierkegaard, Practice in Christianity ; R
Elements - ) Many take στοιχεῖα in the intellectual sense: ‘the elementary things, the immature beginnings of religion, which occupy the minds of those who are still without the pale of Christianity’ (Meyer on Galatians 4:3); ‘the elements of religious training, or the ceremonial precepts common alike to the worship of Jews and of Gentiles’ (Thayer Grimm’s Gr
Liberty (2) - The practical comment of the Apostles upon this doctrine of the Gospels indicates also the immeasurable indebtedness of Christianity to that principle of liberty with which Christ inspired His disciples
Slave, Slavery (2) - Altogether the condition of slavery, as far as it existed, was much less oppressive than in Greece or Rome, and was already being superseded by the freer relationships of voluntary service, which alone are in complete accord with the genius of Christianity
Prophets, the - ...
It is of the greatest importance, both for the right understanding of these scriptures, and for a true appreciation of what Christianity is, to see that the church has no place in the prophets
Galatians, Epistle to the - Were the Gentile believers (formerly in heathen darkness, but now knowing God) going to turn back to the principles of law, which the apostle does not hesitate to call weak and beggarly elements? They observed days, and months, and times, and years, as though Christianity were a system for man in the flesh
Africanus, Julius - ...
Christian Apologists had been forced to engage in chronological discussions, to remove the heathen contempt of Christianity as a novelty, by demonstrating the great antiquity of the Jewish system, out of which the Christian sprang
Church of England - When and by whom Christianity was first introduced into Britain, cannot at this distance of time be exactly ascertained
Faith - A dead, inoperative faith is also supposed, or declared, to be possessed by wicked men, professing Christianity; for our Lord represents persons coming to him at the last day, saying, "Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name?" &c, to whom he will say, "Depart from me, I never knew you
Election - For although "the elect" have an individual interest in such an election as parts of the collective body, thus placed in possession of the ordinances of Christianity; yet many others have the same advantages, who still remain under the guilt and condemnation of sin and practical unbelief
Council - It may be reasonably supposed that as Christianity spreads, circumstances would arise which would make consultation necessary among those who had embraced the Gospel, or at least among those who were employed in its propagation
Love - A unity of love between Christians will be clear evidence to the world that the claims of Christianity are true (John 17:20-23)
Restoration - Ephesians 1:21-22) on, which Toy (Judaism and Christianity, pp. of Immortality; Petavel, The Problem of Immortality (1892); Toy, Judaism and Christianity, ch
Election - Paul’s Conception of Christianity, p. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, 1894, p
James Epistle of - Pfleiderer (Primitive Christianity, Eng. Pfleiderer (Primitive Christianity, Eng. Pfleiderer (Primitive Christianity, Eng. But were there ever any purely Jewish-Christian churches except in Palestine? And how could they be described as in the Diaspora?...
To these objections the following answers are given:...
(a) (1) While we have no evidence on the point, it is not improbable, in view of the stress laid upon faith in the teaching of Jesus, that the faith-and-works paradox may have come up in early Christianity prior to St
Humility - 9 [2] ), and the advance in ethical sentiment and the standard of judgment due to Christianity. Humility as a sovereign grace is the creation of Christianity
Children - —In the regeneration of society which has been wrought by the forces brought into the world by Christianity, the family, of course, has had its part. Uhlhorn, Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism, p
Sabbath - ...
Another explicit proof that the law of the ten commandments, and, consequently, the law of the Sabbath, is obligatory upon Christians, is found in the answer of the Apostle to an objection to the doctrine of justification by faith: "Do we then make void the law through faith?"...
Romans 3:31 ; which is equivalent to asking, Does Christianity teach that the law is no longer obligatory on Christians, because it teaches that no man can be justified by it? To this he answers, in the most solemn form of expression, "God forbid; yea, we establish the law. Whoever, therefore, denies the obligation of the Sabbath on Christians, denies the obligation of the whole decalogue; and there is no real medium between the acknowledgment of the divine authority of this sacred institution, as a universal law, and that gross corruption of Christianity, generally designated Antinomianism
Confess, Confession - And, since God has revealed himself and his truth decisively in Jesus Christ, confessing Christ becomes the hallmark of genuine Christianity
James, the Letter - ” The letter is one of exhortation for practical Christianity
Holiness - The combination of merely external and ethical holiness as the requirement of Jehovah lasted until the advent of Christianity, the proportion of the elements varying with the varying conception of God
Hope - Its goal is in heaven; and all the proximate and earthly aims of Christianity, whether in the way of personal attainment or of social betterment, are steps in the progress towards the final ‘deliverance from the bondage of corruption’ and ‘the revealing of the sons of God’ the great day of the Lord
Lord's Prayer - It may have been interpolated from a Liturgy; for it is now admitted that liturgical forms existed in the earliest days of Christianity, although perhaps at first they were unwritten, and were transmitted orally
Roman Law - The might of the Roman Empire dominated the Ancient Near East, including Palestine and the Mediterranean world in which Christianity was born
Abraham - This privilege, however, was not to be restricted to the Jews, but was also shared by adherents to the world religions of Christianity and Islam
Fall, the - Broomall, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, 4:170-74; A
Scripture - It must be admitted, however, that the new spirit of Christianity can move freely within the limits of the older Scriptures only by a frequent straining, and even ‘wresting,’ of their natural sense (see article Old Testament)
James, the General Epistle of - ...
In this epistle, the Old Testament law is put in its true relation to Christianity which brings out its inner spirit, love manifesting itself in obedience of heart and life
Hospitality - Malherbe, Social Aspects of Early Christianity ; B
Love-Feast - It would be most natural that converts to Christianity should welcome a Christian common meal, on the lines of those to which they were accustomed
King - we find a fierce hatred of Rome and longing for her destruction, She is to the author the throne of the Beast (Revelation 16:10), the very incarnation of the sin which Christianity sought to destroy, and his attitude towards the Imperial power is the direct opposite of that taken up by St
Synagogue - The Jews' malice against Christianity caused Christians to leave the term "synagogue" to the Jews (Revelation 2:9)
Duty - They are essential to the realization of any human ideal; and it is the part of practical Christianity to work out the gospel in a moral, social, and religious order, appropriate to the needs of each generation
Domitian - On Domitian and Christianity see W
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - of Christianity; Robertson, Hist
Columbanus, Abbat of Luxeuil And Bobbio - Colonies of pious monks journeyed forth under the leadership of able abbats, carrying the light of Christianity through the dangerous wilds of continental heathendom
Temple - Christianity, iii
Timotheus - Paul's leaving Lystra, in the course of his second apostolical journey, he was induced to take Timothy with him, on account of his excellent character, and the zeal which, young as he was, he had already shown in the cause of Christianity; but before they set out, St
Mary - A veil is drawn over her character and history; as though with the design to reprove that wretched idolatry of which she was made the subject when Christianity became corrupt and paganized
Leander (2) - His life covers the most important period of Visigothic Christianity, and with LEOVIGILD, HERMENIGILD , and RECCARED he plays an indispensable part in that drama, half-political, half-religious, which issued in the conversion council of 589
Purity (2) - In the Jewish world, wherein Christianity arose, purity occupied a commanding position
John, Gospel of (Critical) - 180), wrote, among other works, a defence of Christianity, addressed to Autolycus, ‘a real or imaginary heathen friend of wide learning and high culture’ (Watkins). After his conversion to Christianity, of which he gives a full account in Trypho, ii–viii. His conversion to Christianity took place at Rome about a
Church (2) - The other books of the NT, and the beliefs and practices of the early ages of Christianity, will be referred to only as far as they appear to throw light upon the teaching and actions of Christ as recorded in the Gospels. Now our knowledge of the first days of Christianity derived from the NT is but fragmentary, and the period immediately following is one of great obscurity; but from the middle of the 2nd cent. It has been maintained that the idea of the unity of the Church is an afterthought, caused by the strong tendency to religious associations which prevailed in the Empire in the early ages of Christianity
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - 74, 75), and the Donatist bishop was deposed, but the sect continued in Africa as long as Christianity did. ...
Not content with thus influencing, consolidating, and reforming the existing churches throughout the West, he was also a zealous missionary, and as such the founder of our English, as distinct from the more ancient British, Christianity. ...
The pontificate of Gregory the Great is rightly regarded as second to none in its influence on the future form of Western Christianity
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - Thus they suffered as Christians, and it has been inferred that the date must be later than the well-known letter of Trajan to Pliny which first made the profession of Christianity unlawful. And it may be argued that after the edict of Trajan obstinate profession of Christianity was liable to be punished with death, whereas in the time of Hermas it seems to have been punished only by fine or imprisonment. The inference was natural, if Pauline Christianity is so much in the background in Hermas, that he must have been an anti-Pauline Jewish Christian; and this may seem confirmed by the fact that the N
Lutherans - As we descend to particulars, it will be necessary to keep our eye upon one prominent doctrine, which was eminently conspicuous in all the controversies of the Lutherans,—the doctrine of COMPLETE REDEMPTION BY CHRIST, which in their idea their adversaries (the Papists) disregarded, who denied in effect the depravity of our nature, believed the favour of Heaven in this life recoverable by what was denominated merit of congruity, and, in the life to come, by that which was termed merit of condignity, and founded predestination upon merits of such a description; thus in every instance, while retaining the name of Christians, rendering Christianity itself superfluous. " Can we be surprised that a reformer of Luther's manly disposition, who wrote without reserve and reasoned without control, when adverting to opinions of so noxious a tendency, should sometimes, from excess of zeal, lose sight of moderation in his censures? The Lutherans commenced the attack upon these unscriptural dogmas, under a persuasion that the position of their opponents militated against the leading principles of Christianity. Allowing no medium between righteousness and unrighteousness, the approbation and disapprobation of the Almighty, characterizing that as sinful which is confessedly not holy, and thus annihilating every ground of self- presumption, they inculcated the necessity of contemplating with the eye of faith those means of reconciliation which Christianity alone affords
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - With the complete triumph of Christianity, Marcionite freedom of worship was lost. The systems of the latter often contain so many elements derived from heathenism, or drawn from the fancy of the speculators, that we feel as if we had scarcely any common ground with them; but with Marcion Christianity is plainly the starting-point, and the character of his system harmonizes with his being the son of a Christian bishop and brought up as a Christian. His form exhibits a hostility to Judaism, the Mosaic law, and the work of the Creator, of which there is not a trace in genuine Pauline Christianity
Nestorius And Nestorianism - ...
The development of theology in Syria had for some time taken a different direction from that which it had taken in Egypt, where the tendency had been to lay stress on the divine, and therefore mysterious, side of Christianity. But in Syria a school had arisen, of which Diodorus of Tarsus and the celebrated Theodore of Mopsuestia were the leaders, which devoted itself to the critical interpretation of Scripture, and favoured the application of logical investigation to the facts and doctrines of Christianity. He laid his finger on the weak spot of Cyril's anathemas—his union of two hypostases in Christ; and condemned them as "foreign to Christianity
Paul (2) - Paul seems to bar the way between the subsequent history of Christianity and its Founder. In other words, Christianity in its first stage appears to have passed through a powerful medium; and the question is, whether that medium left it substantially unchanged, whether it still is what its Founder intended it to be. Christianity consists not only in a particular body of teaching, but also in the working of great spiritual forces that flow from the incarnation of Jesus Christ
Church - If by "prophets" we are to understand persons who foretold future events, then the office was from its very nature extraordinary, and the gift of prophecy has passed away with the other miraculous endowments of the first age of Christianity. Of this number were Timothy and Titus; and as the Apostle Paul directed them to ordain bishops or presbyters in the several churches, but gave them no authority to ordain successors to themselves in their particular office as Evangelists, it is clear that the Evangelists must also be reckoned among the number of extraordinary and temporary ministers suited to the first age of Christianity
Eschatology - Early Christianity was rooted in the paradoxical conviction that the last things had “already” occurred, even though they were “not yet” fully completed. This perspective, which placed the church in sharp conflict with the Roman Empire, declined rapidly after Constantine made Christianity the Empire's favored religion
Righteous, Righteousness - It is significant in this connexion that it was Christianity that created the very conception of personality, and so ultimately the word itself. The explanation of this peculiarity of the First Gospel no doubt lies in the fact that its chief aim is to represent Christianity as the consummation of Judaism (cf
Galatians Epistle to the - -The ‘churches of Galatia’ to which the Epistle is addressed (Galatians 1:2) owed their Christianity to the preaching of St. Paul and Barnabas went up to Jerusalem together twice:* Canon - The Apostle had told them in the beginning of the chapter, to avoid the company of fornicators, &c; but it is manifest, from the tenth verse, that he apprehended that his meaning might be misunderstood, by extending the prohibition too far, so as to decline all intercourse with the world; therefore, he repeats what he had said, and informs them that it had relation only to the professors of Christianity, who should be guilty of such vices. The whole may be thus paraphrased: "I wrote to you above in my letter, that you should separate from those who were fornicators, and that you should purge them out as did leaven; but, fearing lest you should misapprehend my meaning, by inferring that I have directed you to avoid all intercourse with the Heathen around you, who are addicted to these shameful vices, which would make it necessary that you should go out of the world, I now inform you that my meaning is, that you do not associate familiarly with any who make a profession of Christianity, and yet continue in these evil practices
Propitiation - Paul’s Conception of Christianity, p. Paul’s Conception of Christianity, Edinburgh, 1894, p
Daniel, Book of - The Christian church has followed the Septuagint in placing Daniel among the prophets, but Protestant Christianity has not accepted the additions, whereas the Catholic tradition has
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - The traditional ‘antichrist’ is therefore already to be looked for ( 2 Thessalonians 2:7 ), and might well be discovered in Jewish hatred, bent on the very destruction of Christianity ( 1 Thessalonians 2:15-16 ), fortified by its secure hold of the national sanctuary ( 2 Thessalonians 2:4 ), and held in restraint only by the forces of order seated in the Roman power, or, possibly, in the better elements of Judaism itself ( 2 Thessalonians 2:6-7 )
Trinity - The focus on the triumph of Christianity crystallizes the trinitarian greeting into a doxology that acknowledges the accomplished work and the future return of Christ
Apostle - ...
It is evident that the apostles formed the nucleus of primitive Christianity
Daemoniac - His apostles too, and the first Christians, who were most active and successful in the propagation of Christianity, appear to have often exerted the miraculous powers with which they were endowed on similar occasions
Repentance (2) - In short, the history of Christianity in the past and the Christendom of the present both form a solid commentary of fact on the pregnant and potent words of St
Antiochus - Porphyry the opponent of Christianity, had to admit the accurate correspondence of the facts to the prediction, but explained it away by alleging the latter to have been written after the events
Self- Denial - Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries, Eng
Head - ), sensation was located in the brain, acting in conjunction with the nerves; but there is no evidence that such technical Greek knowledge is implied in the literature of apostolic Christianity
Goodness (Human) - Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries2, Eng
Corinthians, Epistles to the - It is the great mainspring of practical Christianity, the very nature of God, without which a person, however gifted, is nothing
Apostolic Fathers - "They prove that Christianity was Catholic from the very first, uniting a variety of forms in one faith
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - Melchizedek is referred to as having in old times been both priest and king; the devil, it is said, in imitation of him, had induced the emperors to assume the supreme pontificate; but since Christianity had revealed the truth to the world, the union of the two powers had ceased to be lawful
Psalms, Book of - ...
Unless the difference of the spirit of the Psalms from that of Christianity be observed, the full light of redemption and of the place of the Christian in Christ is not seen, and the reader is apt to be detained in a legal state
Twelve - The world of the ungodly is filled with multitudinous and multivarious methods of providing happiness for those who have shut out GOD and desire not the blessings of Christianity
Ave Maria - ...
In the service of the missionary gospel, the complaint is made to-day by Eastern heathen religions that our Western Christianity, which comes to them as the aggressive herald of a higher life, is gravely deficient in religious veneration
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, Eng
Hellenists - Neander, by which the coming of Christianity was prepared, must be placed the spreading of the Jews among the Greeks and Romans
Head - ), sensation was located in the brain, acting in conjunction with the nerves; but there is no evidence that such technical Greek knowledge is implied in the literature of apostolic Christianity
New Moon - Still the Apostle’s own doctrine of liberty as touching the observance or non-observance of such seasons (see Romans 14) must not be overlooked; and in Colossians 2:16, as Hort points out (Judaistic Christianity, Cambridge, 1894, p
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - Preserved Smith, The Bible and Islam, New York, 1897; and the missionary tract ‘Islam and Christianity,’ American Tract Society, 1891. Clair Tisdall, Muhammadan Objections to Christianity, 1904. ), the chief mystical writer of Islam, accounts for the mild, philanthropic, and non-resistent character of Christianity by the fact that its founder was fatherless
Education in Bible Times - However, three items deserve mention in the development of the educational process in Judaism because of their theological significance for the New Testament and Christianity. So much so that Paul reminded Titus that sound teaching shames the critics of Christianity because the doctrine of God is adorned by the lifestyle of "model citizens"believers in Christ trained in godliness (2:6-10)
Preaching - Christianity, it is true, is found in their writings; but how sadly incorporated with Pagan philosophy and Jewish allegory! It must, indeed, be allowed, that, in general, the simplicity of Christianity was maintained, though under gradual decay, during the three first centuries
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - In a letter probably addressed to Pulcheria he reprobates the conduct of some imperial envoys who had compromised their Christianity in the negotiation of a peace (iv. 270) yet its adherents were still voluble; they called Christianity "a new-fangled scheme of life" (ii
Humility - 9 [2] ), and the advance in ethical sentiment and the standard of judgment due to Christianity. Humility as a sovereign grace is the creation of Christianity
Wisdom - ‘Wisdom’ thus became of the greatest importance in the preparation for Christianity, the universal religion
Disciple, Discipleship - Theissen, Sociology of Early Palestinian Christianity ; M
Jacob - ...
Jacob's Religion As the religion of Israel and thus the roots of Christianity claim to derive from the patriarchs, it is necessary to attempt to understand Jacob's spiritual life
Mark, the Gospel According to - In the New Testament record of Paul's labors in and for Rome no allusion occurs to Peter in connection with Christianity there
Lazarus - Spinosa said if this were true he would tear his system in pieces and embrace Christianity
Apocrypha - Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity
Unity - Christianity is the religion of reconciliation; and, fully recognizing the radical character of the antagonisms that reveal themselves in experience, it everywhere discloses a profounder unity in which these opposites are harmonized
King, Christ as - Hahn, The Titles of Jesus in Christology: Their History in Early Christianity ; J
Headship - Paul’s Conception of Christianity, 331 ff
Stoning - McGiffert, A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p
Antichrist - Heretofore infidelity and superstition have been on opposite sides, but when these shall combine against law, liberty, and Christianity, a period mercifully brief shall ensue, unparalleled in horrors by any that has gone before (Daniel 12:1-3)
Demon - Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity, Eng
Simeon - ...
He is mentioned so vaguely, "a man in Jerusalem," that Lightfoot's view is hardly correct that he was president of the Sanhedrin and father of Gamaliel (Acts 5:34-40) who took so mild a view of Christianity, and that because of his religious opinions Simeon is not mentioned in the Mishna
Evil (2) - —Christianity may be classed philosophically as a moderate optimism
Anointing (2) - ; Vinet, Vital Christianity, p
Carpocrates, Philospher - ...
We cannot assign an exact date to Carpocrates; but there are affinities between his system and those of Saturninus and Basilides, which suggest one a little later than Basilides, from whom he may have derived his knowledge of Christianity
Docetism - Those who held that evil resulted from the inherent fault of matter found it impossible to believe that the Saviour could be Himself under the dominion of that evil from which He came to deliver men and they therefore rejected the Church's doctrine of a real union of the divine and human natures in the person of our Lord but our Lord's pre-existence and superhuman nature was regarded as so essential a part of Christianity that with two exceptions or perhaps even only one (i
Miracles - By the time the emperors professed Christianity, followed by the masses (the 4th century), Christ had been well accredited on the earth: hence there was no further need of such signs
Cabbala - Many writers have, indeed, imagined that they have found in the cabbalistic dogmas a near resemblance of the doctrines of Christianity; and they have thought that the fundamental principles of this mystical system were derived from divine revelation
Gnostics - The principles of this heresy were, however, much older than Christianity; and many of the errors alluded to in the apostolic epistles are doubtless of a character very similar to some branches of the Gnostic system
Atheist - "That the soul is material and mortal, Christianity an imposture, the Scripture a forgery, the worship of God superstition, hell a fable, and heaven a dream, our life without providence, and our death without hope, like that of asses and dogs, are part of the glorious gospel of our modern Atheists
Peter - ...
The persecution consequent on the martyrdom of Stephen, by scattering the believers, inaugurated a fresh development of Christianity, involving a bitter controversy
Power - Clarke, What shall we think of Christianity? (1899), 106; Forrest, Authority of Christ
Inspiration And Revelation - Then, on the top of all this, comes Christianity. For a complete revelation of God we must supplement the data derived from this source by those which are derived from history, and especially from the culminating series of events in all history-the events bound up in the origin and spread of Christianity
Resurrection - ...
(d) Christianity, receiving its doctrine of resurrection from both forms of Judaistic thought, but profoundly modifying the doctrine it thus received by the conception of the nature of Christ’s resurrection as interpreted by St. Paul’s general eschatological belief at the time of his conversion to Christianity
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - ), many heard him gladly, but retained with their nominal Christianity their old heathen ideas on morals. Still, the upper classes and the learned were everywhere less attracted by Christianity than were the poor, with certain conspicuous exceptions, such as St
Galatia - What more natural, ask the South Galatian theorists, than that this much-frequented district should become the storm-centre of a Judaistic controversy, and that the Apostle should write the most militant and impassioned of all his letters in defence of the spiritual liberty of the converts of his pioneer mission? On the North Galatian theory, the founding of churches, say in Pessinus, Ancyra, and Tavium, and their subsequent development, had much more to do with the extension and triumph of apostolic Christianity among the Gentiles-which was St. ’ (8) There is evidence that Christianity penetrated North Galatia much more slowly than South Galatia
Gospel (2) - Such is the distinctive mark of the Christianity of Jesus, differentiating it from the other great religions. ’* Magi - There is certainly no attempt in the narrative to contrast Christianity with Zoroastrian or Babylonian worship. 304; Toy, Judaism and Christianity, p
Matthew, Gospel According to - Each Evangelist has a certain amount of matter peculiar to himself; and it will be found that whilst in the First Gospel this is very largely matter which lends itself to the Christianity of one who was glad to emphasize the prior claim of the Jew to the blessings of the Kingdom, that in St. ...
Thus the conception of Christianity as expressed in this Gospel may be summarized as follows
Greek Versions of ot - ]'>[1] was the Bible of the Greek-speaking world at the time when Christianity spread over it. ]'>[1] were published in the two principal provinces of Greek Christianity, by Hesychius at Alexandria, and by Lucian at Antioch
Miracle - Had these clear predictions of the Author of that religion, under whom the apostles acted only as ministers not been verified, all mankind must have instantly perceived that their pretence to inspiration was false, and that Christianity was a scandalous and impudent imposture. If the testimony of the first preachers of Christianity were true, the miracles recorded in the Gospel were certainly performed, and the doctrines of our religion are derived from heaven
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - Christianity had now for nearly a century been the religion of the emperors; paganism was fast becoming a system of the past; the capture of Rome by Alaric during his pontificate, regarded as the divine judgment on the heathen city and causing the dispersion and ruin of the remains of the heathen nobility, completed the downfull of the ancient order. Undoubtedly the event was a marked one in the supersession of heathenism by Christianity
Mahometanism - When with these causes are combined the vigour of his administration, and the certainty of suffering or of death in the event of withstanding his doctrine, there is sufficient to account for the success of his religion; and there is in that success nothing which can, with the shadow of reason, be employed, as, with strange perversion of argument, it has sometimes been, to invalidate the proof for the truth of Christianity deduced from its rapid diffusion. Persia, which had long persecuted Christianity, was added to their increasing territories; Syria submitted to their yoke; and, what filled with horror and with anguish the believers in the Gospel, Palestine, that holy land from which the light of divine truth had beamed upon the nations, which had been the scene of those awful or interesting events recorded in the inspired Scriptures, which had witnessed the life, the ministry, the death, the resurrection, and ascension of the Redeemer of mankind, bent under the iron sceptre of an infidel sovereign, nominally, indeed, revering the Founder of its religion, but filled with bigoted and implacable hatred against the most attached and conscientious of his disciples
Revelation, the - Historically this church probably represents the period when Christianity was adopted by the world power ("where Satan's seat is"), which led to thousands becoming nominally Christians, and to the incorporation of heathen elements and institutions into the professing church. They are evidently souls converted after the present dispensation of the church, and may not ever have known Christianity
Hebrews - Some biblical scholars think the recipients of Hebrews had been converted to Christianity from Judaism and were tempted to return to their Jewish faith and the relative safety from persecution that being Jewish brought
Timothy, Epistles to - In a city like Ephesus, Oriental mysticism, Greek thought, Judaism, and Christianity would meet; and the Church there, if lapsing from truth, would show signs of heresy derived from all these sources
Canon of the New Testament - If the argument were true the Jews could use it with tenfold power against all Christians, for the Jews unquestionably are the witnesses and transmitters of the Old Testament to us (Romans 3:2); and on Rome's principle we should be bound to accept the Jews' interpretation of it, renounce Christianity and become Jews
Daniel, the Book of - "He who denies Daniel's prophecies undermines Christianity, which is founded on Daniel's prophecies concerning Christ" (Sir Isaac Newton)
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - The marked feature of apostolic Christianity presented to view in these passages pointed forward to the systematic provision which was made for the entertainment of strangers in the ξενοδοχία of post-apostolic times
Ishmael - relics of the primitive faith of Ishmael survived, and numbers became Karaite Jews or held the corrupt form of Christianity which was all they knew of it
Reward - One great aspect of Christianity, as depicted in this Epistle, is that it is the fulfilment of the Divine promises
World - Its content is derived partly from the OT, partly from later Judaism; but it has also assimilated an important element from Greek thought, and the peculiar experience of early Christianity has added to it a sinister significance of its own
Unbelief (2) - Like the emissaries of Vladimir, who reported in favour of Greek Christianity because the grand services at Constantinople had appealed to their imagination, they are to be reached only by that which strikes the eye
Wealth (2) - At the same time, we are not left without hints and indications as to how one inspired by the enthusiasm of Christianity will deal with wealth
Mercy - ...
The awareness in Judaism and early Christianity of the responsibility to show mercy is evident in the practice of almsgiving (eleemosyne [ Matthew 6:2-4 ), but in Luke's writings especially it is cited as an example of true spirituality
Proverbs, Theology of - Whereas Christianity thinks of itself as a "faith, " the Book of Proverbs, like most of the Bible, thinks of the faithful as following a way, a halakah, a life-path
Lord's Supper, the - The richness and importance of the Lord's Supper in Christianity are conveyed by the various names given to it
Heal, Health - ...
So concern for suffering and the impulse to heal became vital elements in Christianity
Minister Ministry - Blunt, Studies in Apostolic Christianity, 1909; C
Laughter - ...
It has been too readily inferred from the comparative absence in NT of allusions to mirth, that Jesus was characterized by a certain sobriety of demeanour which precludes us from thinking of Him as ever laughing or even smiling, and that Christianity from the first discouraged anything in the form of laughter-provoking mirth
Games - Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Eng. Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity2, 1908, i
Evangelist (2) - Beyond all doubt most of the addresses delivered by the evangelists were largely occupied by an account of the career of Jesus, and especially of His sayings and His miracles; but this was true of every person who sought to propagate Christianity, and not distinctive of the evangelist as such
Calling - They not only put in their claim to the blessings of Christianity individually, but became members of the new church, that spiritual society of believers which God now visibly owned as his people
Devil - Ives, in his travels through Persia, gives the following curious account of devil-worship: "These people (the Sanjacks, a nation inhabiting the country about Mosul, the ancient Nineveh) once professed Christianity, then Mohammedanism, and last of all devilism
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - Martin's mother, with many more in Illyricum, became a convert to Christianity; his father remained a heathen
World - Its content is derived partly from the OT, partly from later Judaism; but it has also assimilated an important element from Greek thought, and the peculiar experience of early Christianity has added to it a sinister significance of its own
Peace - Pre-Christian Judaism, while making considerable use of the idea of peace, remains at bottom particularistic, whilst Christianity is thoroughly universalistic, although the programme of political peace is not explicitly enunciated in its writings
Nero - The spread of Christianity to Western Europe presents another
Law - Stephen seems to have been the first Christian to see clearly that Christianity was not part of the Jewish system and was not bound by the Jewish law (Acts 6:13-14)
Vincentius Lirinensis - How far its leading principles have been accepted, either explicitly or implicitly, in the past; how far they made a line of demarcation between those who accepted or rejected the Reformation; to what extent they are available in the controversies between the various Christian communions, or in the contest between Christianity and unbelief—these questions have all been keenly discussed
Romans, Epistle to the - Paul if we regard him as first and foremost the theologian of primitive Christianity. ’ This is ‘a remarkable forward step, a rich and farreaching reform of the most ancient type of Christianity; now, a man does not become at one and the same moment the adherent of a new religion and its great reformer’ ( ib
New Testament - The worst manuscript extant contains all the essentials of Christianity. Said to be by Frumentius, who introduced Christianity into Ethiopia in fourth century; Pell Platt edited it; previously Bode gave a Latin version of it in 1753
Sinlessness - ...
Wherever Christianity exists—thus the argument proceeds—there holiness also is to be seen. While exceptionally advanced holiness may be of rare occurrence in any society, there is not a country, or even a town or village, in which Christianity is established but there will be found in it numbers of persons striving after a holy life
Ignatius - ) defining the legal position of Christianity: Christianity is a religio illicita, but public action can be taken against Christians only by means of the delatio; ‘Puniendi sunt, si deferantur et arguantur
Revelation (2) - ’ Does the word stand for any real disclosure of His secrets by the Eternal? Does God stoop to unveil His face to men? And if He does, what is the mode of such manifestations? What are the conditions under which we may believe that a revelation has been given? Is there any room in a rational scheme of the Universe for a revelation? It is pointed out, on the one hand, that every great religion has been promulgated in the faith of its adherents that its message was a veritable message from heaven, and not merely a well-reasoned theory about life; while, on the other hand, it is a part of the claim of Christianity that the revelation of God in Christ is unique and final. ...
Thus far, no assumption has been made which is peculiar to Christianity
Eucharist - It stands with Baptism as one of the two rites which belong to Christianity. No doubt there is a real sense in which Christianity is a mystery-religion
Josephus - Attitude to Christianity. -A question of the utmost importance is that of the attitude of Josephus to Christianity
Jerusalem - Under Constantine, Christianity was established, and the great flood of pilgrimage began. This, however, could not last under the fanatical Fatimites, or the Seljuks who succeeded them; and the sufferings of the Christians led to that extraordinary series of piratical invasions, commonly called the Crusades, by which Palestine was harried for about a hundred years, and the undying tradition of which will retard indefinitely the final triumph of Christianity over the Arab race
Jews - Their firm adherence to their religion, and being dispersed all over the earth, has furnished every age and every nation with the strongest arguments for the Christian faith; not only as these very particulars are foretold of them, but as they themselves are the depositories of these and all other prophecies which tend to their own confusion and the establishment of Christianity. Let us, says one, propose Christianity to them as Christ proposed it to them
Apocrypha - ’ The relation of the Apocrypha to Christ and Christianity, which is the subject of this article, comes especially under four heads—the Messianic idea, the doctrine of Wisdom, the anticipation of Christian doctrines other than that of the Person or mission of Christ, the use of the Apocrypha in the Christian Church. —Unlike the Prophetic and Apocalyptic literature which confessedly anticipated a great future, and so furnished a hope which Christianity subsequently claimed to fulfil, the Hebrew Wisdom writings profess to give absolute truth, and betray no consciousness of further developments
Miracles - The original propagation of Christianity was likewise an event which clearly discovered a miraculous interposition. ( See Christianity
Trinity - The discovery of the existence of this doctrine in the early ages, among the nations whose records have been the best preserved, has been of great service to the cause of Christianity, and completely refutes the assertion of infidels and skeptics, that the sublime and mysterious doctrine of the Trinity owes its origin to the philosophers of Greece. And as their great Master's instructions evidently distinguished these persons from each other, without any difference in their authority or power, all standing forth as equally dispensing the benefits of Christianity, as equally the objects of the faith required in converts upon admission into the church, they clearly understood that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, were likewise equally the objects of their grateful worship: this fully appears from their prayers, doxologies, hymns, and creeds, which are still extant
Paul - ...
Moffatt’s explanation of the sudden breaking off of the narrative in the Acts is that the purpose of the book was to relate the progress of Christianity from Jerusalem to Rome; J. Paul, the representative of Christianity, is made to appear a personage of consideration to Roman officials, who are nearly always favourable to him, not infrequently defending him not only from the violence of the mob but from officials who are not Roman; and from this he infers that the book was written at a date when persecution had been going on for a considerable time
Monophysitism - The church of Abyssinia, though its Liturgy shows some beautiful traces of the purer ages of Christianity, has fallen into many superstitions and corruptions. Yet that church has had sufficient vitality to claim representation among the numerous churches and denominations which now gather at the cradle of Christianity, and not the least imposing religious edifice to be seen at Jerusalem is the Abyssinian church
Pharisees (2) - And when the Jews attacked early Christianity, their opposition lay along these lines (Acts 6:11). Here is the great point of departure from Judaism and the Ghetto, already erected by the Pharisees in Jerusalem, towards Christianity and the gospel of humanity
Language of the nt - The presentation of Christianity to the Western world as a system of thought could never have been accomplished in Hebrew, even if that language had attained universal currency
Synagogue - ]'>[2] ) became in consequence the seed-plots of Christianity, as every student of the Book of Acts is aware
Cross, Crucifixion - The practice was abolished after the “conversion” of the emperor of Constantine to Christianity
Rome And the Roman Empire - Judaism, with its monotheistic emphasis, and Christianity, with its Judaistic origin and equally high code of ethics and morals, were anomalies
Thousand Years - ...
"When Christianity became a worldly power under Constantine, the future hope was weakened by joy over present success" (Bengel); the church becoming a harlot ceased to be the bride going to meet her Bridegroom
Baptism - But of one thing we may be sure: had the acceptance of Christianity involved anything so startling to the Jewish or the Gentile mind as a distinction between the religious standing of the father of a family and his children, the historian would have recorded it, or the Apostles would have found themselves called to explain and defend it
Life - The new life of the Spirit as a dynamic in the present and as having the promise of full fruition in eternity, is central in the Apostle’s exposition of Christianity
Gods And Goddesses, Pagan - Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel ; idem, From the Stone Age to Christianity ; idem, History, Archaeology and Christian Humanism ; idem, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan ; W
Righteousness - In 1John the doing of righteousness in terms of following Jesus Christ, the righteous One, who came in flesh and will come again in glory, is what vital Christianity is all about
Galatians, Theology of - ...
Undoubtedly, the Jewish-Gentile question was the fundamental issue facing early Christianity, and it may well be that the sixteenth-century Reformers did not sufficiently appreciate that factor as they sought to interpret Galatians
Revelation, Idea of - " For its religion is the religion of the speaking God, and a concern to maintain the continuity of contemporary Christianity with the religion of the biblical communities suggests a like understanding of God as the speaking God, and a like use of the texts that are held to record the divine speech
Brotherhood (2) - ‘Brotherly Love’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible; Westcott’s Social Aspects of Christianity; and especially Peabody’s Jesus Christ and the Social Question; Mathews’ The Social Teaching of Jesus; and Tolstoi, passim
Church Government - Christianity, do
Various Readings - ...
As explained under BIBLE, only a few passages remain really doubtful, and not one of these affect the fundamental truths of Christianity
Apocrypha, New Testament - ...
The Acts of Thomas is a third-century work, thought by most scholars to have originated in Syriac Christianity
Constantinus i - We must allow for the natural exultation of Christians over the emperor who had done so much for them and openly professed himself an instrument of Providence for the advancement of Christianity
Simon Maccabaeus - 140, presented a defence of Christianity to the emperor Antoninus Pius, in which he mentions, as a well known fact, that Simon, a native of Gittum, a village in Samaria, came to Rome in the reign of Claudius, was looked upon there as a god, and had a statue erected to him, with a Latin inscription, in the river Tiber, between the two bridges
Paraclete - It is true that even in the earliest stages of Christianity, as elsewhere, the Spirit was spoken of as possessing the quality of Deity; in knowledge, in will, in work, He has part in the creative glory of the Divine power
Church - The bridge to the Gentiles was the Hellenistic Jewish Christianity, which sprang into existence with the conversion of Jews from the dispersion who were visiting in Jerusalem and converted at Pentecost (Acts 2:5-47 )
Philippi - ...
Christianity first came to Philippi in the autumn of a
Paraclete - It is true that even in the earliest stages of Christianity, as elsewhere, the Spirit was spoken of as possessing the quality of Deity; in knowledge, in will, in work, He has part in the creative glory of the Divine power
Prudentius, Marcus (?) Aurelius Clemens Prudentius - To this and to prayer he devoted his life, seeking to spread among the educated classes a correct knowledge of Christianity, or, like a "Christian Pindar," to sing the triumphs of the martyrs on their festal days and so win them greater honour
Text of the New Testament - 700, so that the styles of writing in use at the time when the NT books were written are well known to us; but Christianity and its literature are not likely to have penetrated much beyond Lower Egypt in the first two centuries of their existence, and consequently it is perfectly natural that no manuscripts of the NT of this period are now extant. The acceptance of Christianity by the Roman Empire gave a great impulse to the circulation of the Scriptures; and simultaneously papyrus began to be superseded by vellum as the predominant literary material
Reformation - By way of eminence, the word is used for that great alteration and reformation in the corrupted system of Christianity, begun by Luther in the year 1517. After various debates the following acts were passed on the twenty-fifth of September:...
That the Protestants who followed the confession of Augsburg should be for the future considered as entirely free from the jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff and from the authority and superintendence of the bishops; that they were left at perfect liberty to enact laws for themselves relating to their religious sentiments, discipline, and worship; that all the inhabitants of the German empire should be allowed to judge for themselves in religious matters, and to join themselves to that church whose doctrine and worship they thought the most pure and consonant to the spirit of true Christianity; and that all those who should injure or prosecute any person under religious pretences, and on account of their opinions, should be declared and proceeded against as public enemies of the empire, invaders of its liberty, and disturbers of its peace
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - Moreover, at the time when the Gospel was written, the inadequacy of both presentations of Christianity was becoming apparent. The author of this Gospel interposed his powerful influence to save Christianity from being either swamped in a mythology or sublimated into a theosophy
Christ in the Middle Ages - ), that while Christ continued to be regarded by the Greek Church as the revealed wisdom of God, and stress was laid upon His prophetic office employed in the diffusion of enlightenment as embodied in the ‘orthodox faith,’ in the Latin Church He was regarded during the mediaeval time as first and foremost a King, Christianity was regarded as a means of securing power, and the hierarchy was supposed to have been appointed by Christ to occupy His place, rule in His stead, virtually to supersede Him in personal government, and to abolish any direct intercourse between Him and believers. ...
This view of Christ and the world would seem to preclude belief in a specific Incarnation; but the devotion of pseudo-Dionysius to the creed of the Church and his sense of the reality of historical Christianity held him back in some measure from sheer Docetism
Methodists, Protestant - ...
"It is come, " says Bishop Butler, "I know not how, to be taken for granted by many persons, that Christianity is not so much as a subject of enquiry; but that it is now at length discovered to be fictitious; and accordingly they treat it as if, in the present age, this were an agreement among all people of discernment, and nothing remained but to set it up as a principal subject of mirth and ridicule, as it were, by way of reprisal for its having so long interrupted the pleasures of the world. In order to favour this cause, so agreeable to the spirit of Christianity and the rights of Englishmen, several respectable preachers came forward; and by the writings which they circulated through the connection, paved the way for a plan of pacification; by which it was stipulated, that in every society where a threefold majority of class- leaders, stewards, and trustees desired it, the people should have preaching in church hours, and the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper administered to them
Confession - We shall only remark, that in one of them, the miraculous conception of Christ by the power of the Holy Ghost is distinctly mentioned; that in another, he declares it to have been the uniform doctrine from the beginning of the Gospel, that Christ was born of the virgin, both man and God, ex ea natum hominem et Deum; and that in each of these, faith in the Father, Son, and Spirit, is recognised as essential to Christianity. Though the Romish church early appropriated to itself the exclusive title of catholic, or universal; and though, for many centuries, its unscriptural tenets pervaded the far greater part of Europe; not only were there always some individuals who adhered to the doctrines of genuine Christianity, but, long before the Protestant reformation, there appear to have been whole congregations who maintained, in considerable purity, the substance of the faith contained in Scripture
Jesus Christ - If all these prophecies admit of any application to the events of the life of any individual, it can only be to that of the Author of Christianity. This prophecy, therefore, simply as a prediction prior to the event, renders the very unbelief of the Jews an evidence against them, converts the scandal of the cross into an argument in favour of Christianity, and presents us with an epitome of the truth, a miniature of the Gospel in some of its most striking features
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - , peopled by half-leavened heathen, Christianity there assumed many strange forms, sometimes hardly recognizable caricatures of the truth. It is in 12 discourses, and furnishes a very able and eloquent defence of Christianity against the ridicule and ignorant accusations of pagan philosophers, written probably before 437
Virgin Birth - ...
Jewish antagonism toward Christianity would have made the truth known if Jesus' birth had happened otherwise
Deuteronomy, the Book of - The Jews, the adversaries of Christianity, are our librarians, so that we Christians cannot have altered the passage to favor our views
Sabbath - The early propagation of the faith among Gentiles, as Christianity realized its world-wide mission, would necessarily tend in the same direction
Hebrews, Epistle to - Farrar, The Early Days of Christianity , ch
Virgin Virginity - Farrar, Early Days of Christianity, London, 1882, vol
Croisade, or Crusade - ...
The multitudes of pilgrims who now flocked to Palestine meeting with a very rough reception from the Turks, filled all Europe with complaints against those infidels, who profaned the holy city, and derided the sacred mysteries of Christianity even in the place where they were fulfilled
Satan (2) - 162, 420; Wernle, The Beginnings of Christianity, p
Trust - Earlier dogmaticians divided the function of faith into three acts: notitia, knowledge, instruction in the facts and doctrines of Christianity; assensus, assent to the teaching; fiducia, personal trust
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - ...
A sampling of the most common occupations and professions of the Bible are briefly described and grouped around the places where they were usually practiced: the home, the palace, the market place, and the religious occupations related to the church of Christianity and Temple of Judaism
Testimony - Jewish opponents of Christianity would, otherwise, have been able to find bonafide witnesses of their own (something historically they were unable to do) to refute the legitimacy of the Christian claims
Pietists - Haweis, ) observes, "that no men more rigidly contended for, or taught mere explicitly the fundamental doctrines of Christianity: from all I have read or known, I am disposed to believe they were remarkably amiable in their behavior, kind in their spirit, and compassionate to the feeble-minded
Eternal Punishment - This agrees with the LXX Septuagint, in which αἰώνιος is used of the rites and ceremonies of Judaism which are done away in Christianity (Exodus 12:24; Exodus 29:9; Exodus 40:15, Numbers 18:19 and others)
Lord (2) - If the interpretation was given by Peter when speaking to Cornelius, it provides an interesting illustration of the way in which the first preachers of Christianity adapted themselves to the new conditions in which they found themselves, when they began to preach to Gentiles