What does Canon mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - New Code of Canon Law
The authentic compilation of the disciplinary laws of the Catholic Church which was officially promulgated by Pope Benedict XV, May 27, 1917, and became binding throughout the Western Church May 19, 1918. The Church has from Christ the power to legislate. She has exercised this in the course of centuries according to the varying conditions of society. In the 13th century especially canon law became the object of scientific study and different compilations were made by the Roman pontiffs. The most important of these were the Five Books of the Decretals of Gregory IX and the Sixth of Boniface VIII. Legislation grew with time. Some of it became obsolete and contradictions crept in so that it became difficult in recent times to discover what was of obligation and where to find the law on a particular question. When the Vatican Council met in 1869 a number of bishops of different countries petitioned for a new compilation of church law that would be clear and easily studied. The council never finished its work and no attempt was made to bring the legislation up to date. Finally, Pope Pius X in his Letter, March 19, 1904, announced his intention of revising the unwieldy mass of past legislation and appointed a commission of cardinals and learned consultors to undertake this difficult work. The Catholic universities of the world and the bishops of all countries were asked to cooperate. The scholars began the work and a copy of the first draft was sent to the bishops for suggestions. In 1916 the New Code was completed and on Pentecost Sunday, 1917, officially promulgated. In order however to grant sufficient time for the study of the New Code the pope allowed a respite of a year. On Pentecost Sunday, May 19, 1918, it became operative.
The New Code is divided into five books. The first treats of general rules; the second of ecclesiastical persons; the third of sacred things such as sacramentals, altars, etc.; the fourth of canonical trials; and the last of crimes and punishments. The whole work contains 2414 canons. For the most part past legislation has been retained; in some cases the law modified, and in others entirely new. As the Code is not always easy of interpretation, Pope Benedict XV, in 1917, established a special commission with authority to interpret it. This body alone can give the authentic interpretation. The Code is universal in binding power in the Latin Church; it is authentic and the only source of universal legislation. It clears up many disputed points and has in view order, peace, and sanctity of life.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Medicine And Canon Law
The practise of medicine and surgery is forbidden to the clergy, except by Apostolic indult. This prohibition embraces all grades of the clergy, as well as all religious and their novices. A cleric would not infringe on the law, however, were he, in case of necessity, to use knowledge that he has, nor would he be considered to be practising if he were to suggest some simple remedies. Even though one receives an indult to practise medicine, a special permission is needed to practise surgery. Religious charged with the care of hospitals have permission to practise medicine through the approval of their rule.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law, Canon
The statutes and regulations enacted by the highest Church authorities for the government of ecclesiastical affairs.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon
(Greek: kanon, rule)
A practical law or rule of guidance; a standard, or criterion; a catalog or list of such rules.
In art, an established rule.
In biblical usage, the official catalog of inspired writings known as the Old and New Testament See also: Canon of the Holy Scriptures.
In ecclesiastical usage, a short dogmatic definition, with an anathema attached, made by a general council; a rule of the Church. See also Canon Law; Canon Law, New Code of.
The fundamental part of the Mass, coming after the Offertory. See also Canon of the Mass.
The rules of religious orders and the books comprising these rules.
The catalog of canonized saints.
Certain ecclesiastical persons. See Canons, Chapters of; Canon Penitentiary; Canons and Canonesses Regular; Canons Regular of Saint Augustine; Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception; Canons Regular of the Lateran.
In music, a composition consisting of the imitation or repetition of the same melody by one or more voices in turn, in such a manner as to produce harmony.
In printing, a size of type almost equal to four-line picar 48-point type; it is said to be so called because it was used for printing the Canon of the Mass and church books.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon Penitentiary
(Latin: prenitentia, penance)
A member of the chapter at cathedral or collegiate churches, who acts as a general confessor of the diocese. He has ordinary jurisdiction in the internal forum, which power, however, he may not delegate to others, and may absolve residents and strangers in the diocese and subjects of the diocese also outside of same. His power extends also to sins and censures reserved to the bishop. The office of general confessor is foreshadowed in the early history of penitential discipline. Distinct legisation concerning the office is found in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), but especially in the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Canon
See Bible, Canon of the
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon Law, New Code of
The authentic compilation of the disciplinary laws of the Catholic Church which was officially promulgated by Pope Benedict XV, May 27, 1917, and became binding throughout the Western Church May 19, 1918. The Church has from Christ the power to legislate. She has exercised this in the course of centuries according to the varying conditions of society. In the 13th century especially canon law became the object of scientific study and different compilations were made by the Roman pontiffs. The most important of these were the Five Books of the Decretals of Gregory IX and the Sixth of Boniface VIII. Legislation grew with time. Some of it became obsolete and contradictions crept in so that it became difficult in recent times to discover what was of obligation and where to find the law on a particular question. When the Vatican Council met in 1869 a number of bishops of different countries petitioned for a new compilation of church law that would be clear and easily studied. The council never finished its work and no attempt was made to bring the legislation up to date. Finally, Pope Pius X in his Letter, March 19, 1904, announced his intention of revising the unwieldy mass of past legislation and appointed a commission of cardinals and learned consultors to undertake this difficult work. The Catholic universities of the world and the bishops of all countries were asked to cooperate. The scholars began the work and a copy of the first draft was sent to the bishops for suggestions. In 1916 the New Code was completed and on Pentecost Sunday, 1917, officially promulgated. In order however to grant sufficient time for the study of the New Code the pope allowed a respite of a year. On Pentecost Sunday, May 19, 1918, it became operative.
The New Code is divided into five books. The first treats of general rules; the second of ecclesiastical persons; the third of sacred things such as sacramentals, altars, etc.; the fourth of canonical trials; and the last of crimes and punishments. The whole work contains 2414 canons. For the most part past legislation has been retained; in some cases the law modified, and in others entirely new. As the Code is not always easy of interpretation, Pope Benedict XV, in 1917, established a special commission with authority to interpret it. This body alone can give the authentic interpretation. The Code is universal in binding power in the Latin Church; it is authentic and the only source of universal legislation. It clears up many disputed points and has in view order, peace, and sanctity of life.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon, Muratorian
The first part of a fragmentary Roman document of c.170,named after its discoverer L. A. Muratori, which preserves an almost complete list of the writings of the New Testament.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon of the Mass
The most solemn part of the Mass in which the Sacrificial Act proper takes place, the Consecration and change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ. It begins with an oblation and prayer for all the faithful, followed by commemorations of the living, and of the saints, a renewal of the oblation, the Consecration, a further offering of the consecrated species, a commemoration of the departed, recommendation of the priest and clergy, the little oblation, the Our Father, invocation to the Lamb of God, prayers before the Communion, and the consumption of the sacred species. In certain liturgies it is called the Action of the Mass, because during it the great Act of Sacrifice occurs. The essential part, the Consecration, has always been the same from the time of the Apostles. The present arrangement of the ceremonies and prayers dates with very slight change from the 6th century.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon of the Holy Scriptures
The official catalog of inspired writings, known as the Old and New Testament.
Before the close of the 4th century there was much uncertainty concerning this list of Divinely-inspired books, due to conflicting Jewish and Christian traditions. For the Old Testament the Jews distinguished the books contained in the Hebrew Bible (see Protocanonical) from the additional writings (see Deutebocanonical) preserved by the Jews of Alexandria in their venerated Greek version, the Septuagint. Early Christian writers bear witness to a widespread influence of this distinction within the Church, until official decrees established uniformity regarding the extent of the canon. The formation of the New Testament canon also shows a gradual development. The earliest collections of the Apostolic writings were made for the purpose of public reading in the churches (Colossians 4). However, since other edifying books were also so used by the first Christians, the special Divine character of some of the inspired writings was lost sight of in the approved reading-lists. Thus the Muratorian Canon (c.170 AD) mentions all the New Testament books, except Hebrews, James, and probably 1,2Peter, but also includes vith reservations, the apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter and the Shepherd of Hermas. Forgeries of heretics under the imputed authorship of one or the other of the Apostles, as well as erroneous interpolations into the sacred text, made the faithful suspicious and, as a result, doubt was for some time cast upon the following books and passages: Hebrews; James; Jude; 2Peter; 2,3John; Apocalypse; Mark 16,9-20; Luke 22,43-44; and John 7,53, to 8,11. The oldest extant catalog which includes all the canonical books is that of Saint Athanasius (39th Festival Letter in 367).
The first official decision concerning the canon of the Holy Scriptures was given at a Roman synod under Pope Damasus in 382, approving without distinction the entire list of our present canon. In the same manner the Synod of Hippo in 392 and the Third Council of Carthage in 397 accepted the complete canon. In a letter to Exsuperius, Bishop of Toulouse, Pope Innocent I in 405 pronounced in favor of all the books. The question of a distinction was again discussed during the Council of Florence, whereupon Pope Eugene IV published a Bull, 1441, in which he attributed the inspiration of the same Holy Ghost to all the books received by the Church. With an appeal to these earlier voices, the Fathers of the Council of Trent in their famous decree of April 8, 1546, definitely declared as "sacred and canonical" all the books of the Old and New Testament contained in the Vulgate, listing them as follows. Of the Old Testament: the five books of Moses; Josue; Judges; Ruth; four books of Kings; two of Paralipomenon; two of Esdras; Tobias; Judith; Esther; Job; the Psalter; Proverbs; Ecclesiastes; Canticle of Canticles; Wisdom; Ecclesiasticus; Isaias; Jeremias with Baruch; Ezechiel; Daniel; the 12 minor prophets; and two books of Machabees. Of the New Testament: the four Gospels; the Acts of the Apostles; 14Epistles of the Apostle Paul; two Epistles of Peter the Apostle; three Epistles of John the Apostle; one of James the Apostle; one of Jude the Apostle; and the Apocalypse of John the Apostle. The Protestant reformers of the 16th century adhered to the narrower canon of the Hebrew Bible, and in the New Testament rejected Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse. Modern Protestant Bibles, however, usually contain all the New Testament books.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon Law, Medicine And
The practise of medicine and surgery is forbidden to the clergy, except by Apostolic indult. This prohibition embraces all grades of the clergy, as well as all religious and their novices. A cleric would not infringe on the law, however, were he, in case of necessity, to use knowledge that he has, nor would he be considered to be practising if he were to suggest some simple remedies. Even though one receives an indult to practise medicine, a special permission is needed to practise surgery. Religious charged with the care of hospitals have permission to practise medicine through the approval of their rule.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon Law
The statutes and regulations enacted by the highest Church authorities for the government of ecclesiastical affairs.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Canon of the New Testament
"The prophets" in the Christian church, speaking themselves under inspiration, and those having the Spirit's gift," the discerning of spirits," acted as checks on the transmission of error orally before the completion of the written word. Secondly it was under their inspired superintendence that. the New Testament Scriptures were put forth as they were successively written. 1 Corinthians 14:37; "if any man ... be a prophet or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write ... are the commandments of the Lord." Thus by the twofold sanction of inspiration, that of the authors and that of the judges, the canonicity of each book is established. By God's gracious providence most of the books of the New Testament were in the church's possession years before the death of leading apostles, all of them before the death of John. If spurious books had crept into the cycle of professedly inspired books, they would have been at once removed by apostolic authority.
The history of the New Testament canon in its collected form is not so clear as the evidence for the inspiration of its separate books. Probably each leading church made for itself a collection of those books which were proved on good testimony to have been written by inspired men, and sanctioned as such originally by men having the "discerning of spirits," as well as by uninspired men in the several churches. See 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 John 4:1. Thus, many collections would be made. Their mutual accordance in the main, as that of independent witnesses, is the strongest proof of the correctness of our canon, especially when we consider the jealous care with which the early churches discriminated between spurious and authentic compositions. This view is confirmed by the doubts of some, churches at first concerning certain New Testament books, proving that each church claimed the right to judge for itself; while their mutual love led to the freest communication of the inspired writings to one another.
At last, when the evidence for the inspiration of the few doubted ones was fully sifted, all agreed. And the third council of Carthage (A.D. 397) declared that agreement by ratifying the canon of the New Testament as it is now universally accepted. The earliest notice of a collection is in 2 Peter 3:16, which speaks of "all the epistles" of Paul as if some collection of them then existed and was received in the churches as on a par with "the other Scriptures." The earliest uninspired notice is that of the anonymous fragment of "the canon of the New Testament" attributed to Caius, a Roman presbyter, published by Muratori (Ant. Ital., 3:854). It recognizes all the books except Epp. Hebrew, James, the 2 Epp. Peter, and perhaps 3 John. It condemns as spurious "the Shepherd, written very recently in our own times at Rome by Hermes, while his brother Plus was bishop of the see of Rome," i.e. between A.D. 140 and 150.
Thus the canon in far the greater part is proved as received in the first half of the 2nd century, while some of John's contemporaries were still living. In the same age the Peshito or Syriac version remarkably complements the Muratorian fragment's canon, by including also Hebrew and James. In the latter part of the 2nd century Clement of Alexandria refers to "the gospel" collection and that of all the epistles of "the apostles." The anonymous epistle to Diognetus still earlier speaks of "the law, the prophets, the gospels, and the apostles." Ignatius of Antioch, a hearer of John (Ep. ad Philad., section 5), terms the written gospel "the flesh of Jesus," and the apostles, i.e. their epistles, "the presbytery of the church." Theophilus of Antioch (Ad Autolycum, 3:11) and Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., 2:27) term the New Testament writings "the Holy Scriptures." Tertullian (Adv. Marc, 4:2) uses for the first time the term" New Testament," and calls the whole Bible "the whole instrument of both Testaments."
Thus, there is a continuous chain of evidence from the apostles down to the 3rd century. The quotations by the fathers (of whom Origen quotes at least two thirds of New Testament), and the oldest versions, the Syriac, Latin, and Egyptian, prove that their Scriptures were the same as ours. Eusebius the ecclesiastical historian (A.D. 330) mentions (3:25) all the 27 books of the New Testament, dividing them into the universally acknowledged and the debated; the latter the epistles of James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 John, and 3 John, and Apocalypse, "received by the majority," and at last received by all the churches when the evidence had been more fully tested. A third class he calls "the spurious," as "the Shepherd of Hermas," "the Epistle of Barnabas," "the Acts of Paul," which all rejected. Moreover all our oldest Greek manuscripts of the epistles contain those epistles once doubted by some; so do all the versions except the Syriac; see above.
The church of Rome was certainly not infallible when it once rejected the Epistle to the Hebrew. Afterward it acknowledged its error and accepted it. Rome says we received the canon from the church (meaning herself), and that therefore we are bound to receive her authority as infallible in interpreting it. But we did not receive her original view of the spuriousness of the Epistle to the Hebrew. Nor have we received most of our manuscripts, testimonies of fathers and versions, from Rome, but, from the Greek, Syrian, and African churches. Further, even if the premises were true the conclusion is false. Because a body of men witness to and transmit a work deriving all its authority from God, it does not follow they are its infallible interpreters. If the argument were true the Jews could use it with tenfold power against all Christians, for the Jews unquestionably are the witnesses and transmitters of the Old Testament to us (Romans 3:2); and on Rome's principle we should be bound to accept the Jews' interpretation of it, renounce Christianity and become Jews.
Nothing but almighty Providence could have constrained both the Jews (in the case of the Old Testament) and the Roman and Greek apostate churches (in the case of the New Testament) to witness for the very Scriptures which condemn them. It utterly disproves the infidel allegation of collusion and corruption of the Scriptures. Again Rome argues, since the rule of faith must be known, and since some books of Scripture were not universally received until the 4th century, Scripture cannot be the rule of faith. The answer is: those portions of Scripture are not the rule of faith to those to whom they are not given with full means of knowing them as such. But all Scripture is the rule of faith to all to whom it is given, and who may, if they will, know it. That could not become a portion of inspired Scripture in the 4th century which was not so before. Man can never make that inspired which God has not; nor can the doubts of some divest of inspiration that which God has inspired.
The council of Carthage did not make aught part of Scripture which was not so before. It merely sealed by declaration the decision which the churches previously came to by carefully sifting the testimony for each book's inspiration. Even at the council of Nicea (A.D. 325) Constantine appeals to "the books of the evangelists, apostles; and prophets" as "the divinely inspired books for deciding their controversies." Accordingly in the Nicene Creed, "according to the Scriptures," quoted from 1 Corinthians 15:4, implies their being recognized as the standard. The Diocletian persecution (A.D. 303) was directed against the Christian Scriptures; whoever delivered them were stigmatized as "traitors" (tradilores), so that they must have then existed as a definite collection. They were publicly read in the churches (Colossians 4:16) as an essential part of worship, just as the law and the prophets were in the synagogue (Justin Martyr, Apol., 1:66).
Practically, as soon as they were severally thus read and accepted in the apostolic age by men in the churches having the discernment of spirits, they were canonized, i.e. immediately after having been written. The transition from oral to written teaching was gradual. Catechizing, i.e. instructing by word of mouth, was the mode at first, and "faith" then "came by hearing" (Luke 1:4; Romans 10:17), in which however there was always an appeal to Old Testament Scripture (Acts 17:11). But that the orally taught might know more fully "the (unerring) certainty ten asphaleian of those things wherein they had been instructed," and to guard against the dangers of oral tradition (illustrated in John 21:23-24), the word was committed to writing by apostles and evangelists, and was accredited publicly by the churches in the lifetime of the writers.
The approach of their death, their departure to foreign lands, their imprisonment, and the need of a touchstone to test heretical writings and teachings in their absence, all made a written record needful. The cessation of miracles and personal inspiration was about the same time as the written inspired word was completed. Bishop Kaye (Ecclesiastes Hist., 98-100) observes that Justin Martyr, Theophilus, etc., only make general assertions of miracles still continuing, being loath to see what seemingly weakened their cause, the cessation of miracles; but they give no specific instance. The cessation was so gradual as hardly to be perceived at first. The power probably did not extend beyond those younger disciples on whom the apostles conferred it by laying on hands (Acts 8:17; Acts 8:19). Thus miracles would cease early in the 2nd century, shortly after John's death and the completion of the canon.
The scantiness of direct quotations from Scripture in the apostolic fathers arises from their being so full of all they had seen and heard, and so dwelling less on the written word. But they take it for granted, and imitate the tone and salutations of the apostolic epistles. All four make some express references to New Testament Scripture. With much that is good in the apostolic fathers, their works "remind us what the apostles would have been, had they not been inspired, and what we ourselves should be, if we had not the written word" (Wordsworth, Canon Scr., p. 137). So far from there being a gradual waning of inspiration from the writings of the apostles and evangelists to those of succeeding Christian writers, there is so wide a chasm (the more remarkable as the early fathers had the apostolic writings to guide them) that this alone is a strong proof that the Scripture writers were guided by an extraordinary divine power.
Their previous habits (as being some of them illiterate, and all bigoted Jew) prove that nothing but divine power could have so changed them from their former selves as to be the founders of a spiritual and worldwide dispensation (see Luke 24:25; Luke 24:49), utterly alien to their Jewish prejudices. Their style accords with their supposed position, simple and unlearned (except Paul's), yet free from aught offensive to the polished. If it be asked why we do not receive the epistles of Barnabas and of Clement, the Acts of Paul and Thecla (one of the earliest apocryphal writings), etc., we answer not because (as Rome would have us say) the churches could not err in judgment in rejecting them, but because as a matter of evidence we believe they did not err. These works were not received by contemporary Christians who had the best opportunity of knowing evidences of authenticity and inspiration. If one or two cite them it is the exception, not invalidating the otherwise uniform testimony against them.
The internal evidence of their style is fatal to their pretensions. So "The Acts of Paul"; Tertullian (De Bapt., 17) testifies its author was excluded by John from the office of presbyter for having written it. The New Testament is a complete organic whole, so that even one book could not be omitted without loss to the completeness of the Christian cycle of truth. As the Old Testament is made up of the law, and the doctrinal, historical, and prophetical books; so in the New Testament the four Gospels are the fundamental law, based, as in the Pentateuch, on the included history; the Acts unfold the continued history; the Epistles are the doctrinal, the Apocalyptic revelations the prophetical, elements. Canonical is sometimes used in the Christian fathers, not in the sense divinely authoritative, but proper for public reading in church. Thus Gregory of Nazianzum calls the Apocalypse the last work of grace, and yet apocryphal, i.e. fit for private not public reading in church.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Canon of Scripture
(See BIBLE.) The collection of sacred books constituting the Christian church's authoritative RULE (Greek canon) of faith and practice. The word occurs in Galatians 6:16; 2 Corinthians 10:13-16. The law, i.e. the Pentateuch or five books of Moses, is the groundwork of the whole. The after written sacred books rest on it. The Psalms, divided into five books to correspond with it, begin, "Blessed is the man" whose "delight is in the law of the Lord; and in His law will he meditate day and night." In Joshua (Joshua 1:8) similarly the Lord saith, "this book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night." Moses directed the Levites, "Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God" (Deuteronomy 31:25-26). "The testimony," or Decalogue written by God's finger on the tables of stone, was put into the ark (Exodus 25:16; Exodus 40:20; 1 Kings 8:9).
Hilkiah "found the book of the law in the house of the Lord," where it had lain neglected during the reigns that preceded godly Josiah's reign (2 Kings 22:8; 2 Chronicles 34:14), "the law of the Lord by (the hand of) Moses." Joshua under inspiration added his record, "writing these words in the book of the law of God" (Joshua 24:26). Samuel further wrote "the manner of the kingdom in a book" (1 Samuel 10:25). Isaiah (Isaiah 8:20) as representative of the prophets makes the law the standard of appeal: "to the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them." The earlier sacred writings by his time seem to have been gathered into one whole, called "the book of the Lord": "seek ye out of the book of the Lord" (Isaiah 33:16; Isaiah 29:18). Just as our Lord saith" Search the Scriptures" (John 5:39).
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Canon
A Greek word meaning rule, and in the usage of the Churchhas various applications, as follows:
1. THE CANON OF SCRIPTURE means those books of Scripture which theChurch has received or accepted as inspired, and therefore declaresthem to be canonical, to distinguish them from profane, apocryphalor disputed books.
2. CANON LAW means the body of ecclesiastical laws enacted by theChurch for the rule and discipline of its clergy and people. Thereare ecumenical canons, including the Apostolic canons of unknowndate, and the canons of the undisputed General Councils; the canonsof the English Church which are regarded as binding in this countrywhere they do not conflict with enactments of the American Church;the General canons of the American Church, and the Diocesan canonsenacted by the various Dioceses.
3. THE CANON OF THE LITURGY, by which is meant the rule for thecelebration of the Holy Communion by which it is always to beoffered. This includes the Prayer of Consecration, which was formerlycalled the "Canon of the Mass."
4. CANON, the name given to a clergyman connected with a cathedral;an officer of the cathedral staff; a member of the cathedralchapter.
Canonical—Pertaining, or according to the Canons.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Canon (2)
A person who possesses a prebend or revenue allotted for the performance of divine service in a cathedral or collegiate church. Canons are of no great antiquity. Paschier observes, that the name was not know before Charlemagne: at least, the first we hear of are in Gregory de Tours, who mentions a college of canons instituted by Baldwin XVI, archbishop of that city, in the time of Clotharius I. The common opinion attributes the institution of this order to Chrodegangus, bishop of Mentz, about the middle of the eighth century.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Canon (1)
A word used to denote the authorised catalogue of the sacred writings. "The Greek word" says Dr. Owen, "which gives rise to the term canonical, seems to be derived from the Hebrew kaneh, which in general signifies any reed whatever, 1 Kings 14:15 . Isaiah 43:3 . and particularly a reed made into an instrument, wherewith they measured their buildings, containing six cubits in length, Ezekiel 40:7 .xliii. 16. and hence indefinitely it is taken for a rule or measure. Besides, it signifies the beam and tongue of a balance. Isaiah 46:6 . 'they weighed silver on the cane; that is, saith the Targum, 'in the balance.' This also is the primary and proper signification of the Greek word. Hence common, wherein it signifies a moral rule. Aristotle calls the law the rule of the administration; and hence it is that the written word of God being in itself absolutely right, and appointed to be the rule of faith and obedience, is eminently called 'canonical.'"
The ancient canon of the books of the Old Testament, ordinarily attributed to Ezra, was divided into the law, the prophets, and the hagiographia, to which our Saviour refers, Luke 24:45 . The same division is also mentioned by Josephus. This is the canon allowed to have been followed by the primitive church till the council of Carthage; and, according to Jerome, this consisted of no more than twenty-two books, answering to the number of the Hebrew alphabet, though at present they are classed into twenty-four divisions. That council enlarged the canon very considerably, taking into it the apocryphal books; which the council of Trent farther enforced, enjoining them to be received as books of holy Scripture, upon pain of anathema. The Romanists, in defense of this canon, say, that it is the same with that of the council of Hippo, held in 393; and with that of the third council of Carthage of 397, at which were present forty-six bishops, and among the rest St. Augustine.
Their canon of the New Testament, however, perfectly agrees with ours. It consists of books that are well known, some of which have been universally acknowledged; such are the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, thirteen epistles of St. Paul, first of St. Peter, and first of St. John; and others, concerning which doubts were entertained, but which were afterwards received as genuine; such are the Epistle to the Hebrews, that of James, the second of Peter, the second and third of John, that of Jude, and the Revelation. These books were written at different times; and they are authenticated, not by the decrees of councils or infallible authority, but by such evidence as is thought sufficient in the case of any other ancient writings. They were extensively diffused, and read in every Christian society; they were valued and preserved with care by the first Christians; they were cited by Christian writers of the second, third, and fourth centuries, as Irenxus, Clement the Alexandrian, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, &c.; and their genuineness is proved by the testimony of those who were contemporary with the apostles themselves. The four Gospels, and most of the other books of the New Testament, were collected either by one of the apostles, or some of their disciples and successors, before the end of the first century. The catalogue of canonical books furnished by the more ancient Christian writers, as Origen, about A.D. 210, Eusebius and Athanasius in 315, Epiphanius in 370, Jerome in 382, austin in 394, and many others, agrees with that which is now received among Christians.
See articles BIBLE, CHRISTIANITY, SCRIPTURES; Blair's Canon of Scripture; Jones's Canonical authority of the New Test.; Michaelis's Lect. on the New Test.; Du Pin's Canon of Script. 5: 1.; Pridaux's Connections 5:1.; Dr. Owen on the Hebrews, Introd.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Canon (3)
In an ecclesiastical sense, is a rule either of doctrine or discipline, enacted especially by a council, and confirmed by the authority of the sovereign. Canons are properly decisions of matters of religion, or regulations of the policy and discipline of a church made by councils, either general, national, or provincial; such are the canons of the council of Nice, of Trent, &c.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Canon of the Old Testament
The spirit of prophecy continued in the Israelite church, with intervals of intermission, down to Malachi. If any uninspired writing had been put forward as inspired it would have been immediately tested and rejected. Compare the instances, 1 Kings 22:5-28; Jeremiah 28; Jeremiah 29:8-32. At the same time the presence of the living prophets in the church caused the exact definition of the completed canon to be less needful, until the spirit of prophecy had departed. Accordingly (as the rabbis allege, compare 2 Esdras) it was at the return from the Babylonian captivity that Ezra and "the great synagogue" (a college of 120 scholars) collected and promulgated all the Old Testament Scriptures in connection with their reconstruction of the Jewish church. Nehemiah, according to 2 Maccabees 2:13, "gathered together the acts of the kings, and the prophets, and of David."
Zechariah (Jeremiah 29:1-1071) speaks of "the law" and "the former prophets" upon which the later prophets rested; the succeeding sacred writers, under inspiration, setting their seal to their predecessors by quotations from them as Scripture. Nehemiah (Nehemiah 9:30) saith, "Thou testifiedst by Thy Spirit in Thy prophets." Daniel (Zechariah 7:12) "understood by THE books (so the Hebrew) the number of the years whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolation of Jerusalem"; probably Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon (1618480831_7), others explain it the books of the Old Testament or of the prophets. "The book of the law of the Lord" (2 Chronicles 17:9) was what the Levites under Jehoshaphat taught throughout all Judah. An increased attention to the law, the sanctified result of affliction during the captivity, was the probable cause under God of the complete abandonment of idolatry on their return (Psalms 119:67; Psalms 119:71).
Psalm 119, one continued glorification of the law or word of God, was probably the composition of Ezra "the priest and ready scribe in the law of Moses" (Ezra 7:6; Nehemiah 8:9). The restorer of the national polity based it on the law, the Magna Charta of the theocracy. Israel is the real speaker throughout; and the features of the psalm suit the Jews' position just after their return from Babylon. Their keenness to return to the law appears in Nehemiah 8:1-8; Ezra the priest read to "all the people gathered as one man into the street before the water gate ... from the morning until the midday." The arrangement and completion of the canon accounts for Ezra's honorable title "priest" becoming merged in that of" scribe." "The synagogue of scribes" (1 Maccabees 7:12) was a continuation probably of that founded by Ezra. Nehemiah and Malachi added their own writings as the seal to the canon.
The translator of Ecclesiasticus (131 B.C.) mentions the three integral parts, "the law, the prophets, and the remainder of the books," as constituting a completed whole; just as the Lord Jesus refers to the whole Old Testament: "the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" (answering to the hagiographa or the Kethubim), Luke 24:44, compare Acts 28:23; and comprehends all the instances of innocent blood shedding in the formula "from Abel to Zacharias," i.e. from Genesis the first book to 2 Chronicles, the last of the Hebrew Bible (Matthew 23:35). So Philo, our Lord's contemporary, refers to "the laws, ... the prophets, ... and the other books." The law is the basis of the whole, the prophets apply the law to the national life, the hagiographa apply it to the individual. (See BIBLE.) Josephus refers to the 22 books of Scripture, namely, 5 of Moses, 13 of the prophets extending to the reign of Artaxerxes (the time of Nehemiah), 4 containing hymns and directions for life (c. Apion, 1:8): i.e. the FIVE of MOSES; THIRTEEN prophetical books, namely,
(1) Joshua,
(2) Judges and Ruth,
(3) the two of Samuel,
(4) the two of Kings
(5) the two of Chronicles,
(6) Ezra and Nehemiah,
(7) Esther,
(8) Isaiah,
(9) Jeremiah and Lamentations,
(10) Ezekiel,
(11) Daniel,
(12) the twelve minor prophets,
(13) Job; and FOUR remaining, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon: the 22 thus being made to answer to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Joshua Judges, Job, etc., are reckoned, in the Jewish use of the term "prophet" for inspired historian or writer, among" the former prophets."
These sacred 22 are distinct from other Hebrew writings such as Ecclesiastes 12:12. Josephus says: "it is an innate principle with every Jew to regard them as announcements of the divine will, perseveringly to adhere to them, and if necessary willingly to die for them." "The faith with which we receive our Scriptures is manifest; for though so long a period has elapsed, no one has dared to add to, detract from, or alter them in any respect." The warnings: "add thou not to His words, lest He reprove thee and thou be found a liar" (Proverbs 30:6), "neither shall ye diminish ought from it" (Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32), fenced in the Old Testament canon as Revelation 22:18-19 fences in the New Testament The Lord and His apostles quote all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, the Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Ezekiel.
Josephus denies the Apocrypha the same authority: "from the time of Artaxerxes to our own everything has been recorded; but these accounts are not worthy of the same credit, owing to the absence of the regular succession of prophets." The Apocrypha was never in the Hebrew canon. The cessation of the prophetic gift marks the point of time in both Testaments when the canon was complete. Antiochus Epiphanes (168 B.C.) in persecuting the Jews sought out "the books of the law" and burnt them (1 Maccabees 1:56). To possess a book of the covenant was made a capital offense. Just so the persecution of Diocletian in New Testament times was especially directed against those possessing the Christian Scriptures. The New Testament writers have not one authoritative quotation from the Apocrypha.
Some quotations in the New Testament are not directly found in the canonical books; thus Judges 1:17 takes a portion of the uninspired book of Enoch, and by inspiration stamps that portion as true; Paul also refers to facts unrecorded in Old Testament (2 Timothy 3:8; Ephesians 5:14; Hebrews 11:24); see also John 7:38; James 4:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:8. Melito of Sardis (A.D. 179), after an exact inquiry in the East gives the Old Testament books substantially the stone as ours, including under "Esdras" Nehemiah, Ezra, and Esther. Origen excludes expressly 1 Maccabees from the canon though written in Hebrew Jerome gives our canon exactly, which is also the Hebrew one, and designates all others apocryphal. "Whatever is not included in the enumeration here made is to be placed among the Apocrypha" He puts Daniel in the hagiographa.
The Alexandrine Jews, though more lax in their views, had at the beginning of the Christian era the same canon as the Hebrew of Palestine. But by admitting into the Septuagint Greek version of Old Testament the Apocrypha they insensibly influenced those Christian fathers who depended on that version for their knowledge of Old Testament, so that the latter lost sight of the gulf that separates the Hebrew canon from the Apocrypha. To the Jews, saith Scripture," were committed the oracles of God" (Romans 3:2). It never accuses them of altering the Scriptures. Their testimony condemns the decree of Rome's council of Trent that the apocryphal books deserve "equal veneration" as Scripture, and that all are "accursed" who do" not receive the entire books with all their parts as sacred and canonical." (See APOCRYPHA.)
Webster's Dictionary - Canon Bit
That part of a bit which is put in a horse's mouth.
Webster's Dictionary - Canon Bone
The shank bone, or great bone above the fetlock, in the fore and hind legs of the horse and allied animals, corresponding to the middle metacarpal or metatarsal bone of most mammals. See Horse.
Webster's Dictionary - Canon
(1):
(n.) The largest size of type having a specific name; - so called from having been used for printing the canons of the church.
(2):
(n.) A catalogue of saints acknowledged and canonized in the Roman Catholic Church.
(3):
(n.) A member of a cathedral chapter; a person who possesses a prebend in a cathedral or collegiate church.
(4):
(n.) A musical composition in which the voices begin one after another, at regular intervals, successively taking up the same subject. It either winds up with a coda (tailpiece), or, as each voice finishes, commences anew, thus forming a perpetual fugue or round. It is the strictest form of imitation. See Imitation.
(5):
(n.) See Carom.
(6):
(n.) The part of a bell by which it is suspended; - called also ear and shank.
(7):
(n.) In monasteries, a book containing the rules of a religious order.
(8):
(n.) The collection of books received as genuine Holy Scriptures, called the sacred canon, or general rule of moral and religious duty, given by inspiration; the Bible; also, any one of the canonical Scriptures. See Canonical books, under Canonical, a.
(9):
(n.) A law or rule.
(10):
(n.) A law, or rule of doctrine or discipline, enacted by a council and confirmed by the pope or the sovereign; a decision, regulation, code, or constitution made by ecclesiastical authority.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Muratorian Canon
The first part of a fragmentary Roman document of c.170,named after its discoverer L. A. Muratori, which preserves an almost complete list of the writings of the New Testament.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Bible, Canon of the
The word "canon" derives from the Hebrew term qaneh and the Greek term kanon , both of which refer to a measuring rod. It designates the exclusive collection of documents in the Judeo-Christian tradition that have come to be regarded as Scripture. The Jewish canon was written in both Hebrew and Aramaic, while the Christian canon was written in Greek.
Theology and Criteria of Canonicity The historic Christian belief is that the Holy Spirit who inspired the writing of the books also controlled their selection and that this is something to be discerned by spiritual insight rather than by historical research. It is felt that statements in the writings themselves (such as 1 Corinthians 2:13 ; 14:37 ; Galatians 1:8-9 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:13 ) would cause local churches to preserve them and eventually collect them in a general canon.
A number of criteria were involved in the church's choice of the books it acknowledged as genuine and used in worship services. Irenaeus and other authors of the first three centuries, who wrote against heretical movements and their literature, reveal some of the criteria that the early church used in evaluating its literature.
The basic criterion of acceptance was apostolicity : Was a document written by an apostle? Books known to have been written by apostles were eagerly embraced and churches that knew the legacy of books written by men who were not apostles, such as Mark and Luke, accepted them as well. But other churches, which were not familiar with this legacy, were hesitant to receive such books, especially those that did not contain the name of an author, such as the Gospels, Acts, and Hebrews.
A second and related question, then, was asked. If a book was not written by an apostle, is its content apostolic ? This was an early problem with Revelation, because its theological content was difficult to discern. Tertullian valued Hebrews highly, but thought it was written by Barnabas.
A third criterion was the claim to inspiration. Does the author claim inspiration ? Some did not.
A fourth question was: Is it accepted by loyal churches ? This was a very important consideration. What was the attitude of the church in the city to which it was originally written?
People of every generation have inherently asked about each book of the Bible: Does it have the "ring of genuineness "? The testimony of the Spirit was important. In the Old Testament canon there were questions about Esther for a period of time because it does not contain the name of God. Many questioned Revelation in those early years because it did not have this "ring of genuineness."
The Old Testament Canon Although Christians include both Old and New Testaments in their canon, Jews do not accept a "New" Testament and repudiate the identification of their canon as the "Old" Testament. The proper designation for the Jewish Bible is Tanak, an acronym constituted from the initial letters of the three divisions of that canon—Law (Torah), Prophets (Naviim), and Writings (Kethubim).
The terms "obsolete" and "aging" are used in Hebrews 8:13 with reference to the Jewish covenant. However, early church writers before the latter part of the second century do not use the terms "old" and "new" to designate two different covenants. They considered the second covenant to be a continuation of the first. It was new in the sense of fresh, not in the sense of different. Even in the third century, authors such as Clement of Alexandria and Origen used the expression "new covenant" to refer to the covenant rather than to the documents containing it.
There are also important differences in the content and order of the early canons. Extant Greek Old Testament manuscripts, whose text is quoted often in the New Testament, contain apocryphal books. But the Hebrew Old Testament canon recognized by Palestinian Jews (Tanak) did not include the fourteen books of the Apocrypha. Since the Hebrew Bible was preferred by the Reformers during the Protestant Reformation in their struggle against the Catholic Church, whose Bible contained the Apocrypha, translators of Protestant Bibles excluded the Apocrypha. Thus Protestant and evangelical Bibles duplicate the content of the Hebrew Bible (the current thirty-nine books).
However, the arrangement of books is that of the Latin Vulgate, from which the earliest English translations were made, including the first English translation by John Wycliffe. Even though the New Testament was written in Greek, Protestant and evangelical Bibles do not embrace either the content or the arrangement of the Greek Old Testament. Greek Old Testament manuscripts typically preserve the Alexandrian order, which arranged books according to their subject matter (narrative, history, poetry, and prophecy). Apocryphal books were appropriately interspersed into these categories. The arrangement of the books in the Hebrew Bible is different from both the Greek and the Latin.
According to the testimony of Talmudic and rabbinic sources, the thirty-nine books of the Hebrew Bible were originally divided into only twenty-four. This included three categories embracing five books of Law (Torah), eight Prophets, and eleven Writings. The Law contained the first five books, the Penteteuch. The eight Prophets included Joshua, Judges, Samuel (1,2), Kings (1,2), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Minor Prophets (12). The eleven books of the Writings contained the subdivisions of poetry (Psalms, Proverbs, Job), the five Megilloth or Rolls (Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther), and the three books of history (Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles 1-2).
The Hebrew canon was a thousand years in formation and nothing is known about this process. The Torah of Moses, the oldest portion, was probably written in the fifteenth century b.c., and Malachi, the latest portion, was produced in the fifth century b.c. Some date Daniel in the second century. The Torah or Pentateuch was immediately acknowledged as authoritative and never questioned thereafter. The Prophets and Writings were produced over a period of centuries and gradually won their place in the hearts of the people. Therefore, the Jewish people of Bible times never had the complete Old Testament as we know it.
The Old Testament refers to about fifteen books not contained in it, such as the Book of Jashar (Joshua 10:13 ) and the Book of the Annals of Solomon (1 Kings 11:41 ). Although some books of the Old Testament were discussed in Judea at the Pharisaic Council of Jamnia in a.d. 90, the canon itself was not a topic of consideration and this group had no decision-making power. Historically, Jewish scholars have considered the canon closed since the time of Malachi, and have not included the Apocrypha, which was written in subsequent times.
The New Testament Canon The formation of the New Testament canon, like the Old, was a process rather than an event. Analysis of the process is more historical than biblical, since the church of the New Testament, like the Israel of the Old Testament, never had the complete canon during the time spanned by its canonical literature. However, an occasional indication of the attitude of first-century Christians about their literature is found in the New Testament. Second Peter 3:16 refers to Paul's letters as being misapplied, presumably using the word "scripture" in its usual biblical sense as the Scripture.
Paul refers to a previous letter he wrote to Corinth (1 Corinthians 5:9 ) and to a letter to the Laodiceans (Colossians 4:16 ), neither of which the early church preserved in its canon. The followers of inspired men of God would have regarded everything written by them as authoritative, but not all of their writings were equally useful to the church throughout the ancient world, and so not all of them found universal acceptance. This is what is meant by the term "canon"that which was finally accepted on an empirewide basis.
Throughout the Roman Empire there existed local canons that often represented no wider usage than that of a particular city and its immediate surroundings. Two of our earliest and best manuscripts of the Greek Testament contain books not accepted by the church as a whole. Codex Sinaiticus (ca. a.d. 350) contained the books Hermas and Barnabas, and Codex Alexandrinus (ca. a.d. 450) contained 1,2Clement. These probably represented only the environs of Alexandria. The Muratorian Canon, probably representative of the church in Rome in the second century, includes books not in our canon, and differentiates those that can be read in public to the whole church from those which are to be read only in private devotion.
Evidence of a collection of Paul's letters is found as early as 2 Peter 3:16 , and Paul instructed the churches in Colossae and Laodicea to exchange his letters to them for public reading. This indicates that some letters were intended to be circulated among the churches from the day they were received. The seven churches of Asia were clearly all expected to receive a copy of the Revelation of John for reading in their assemblies.
Thus, the process of collecting and preserving documents would have been underway from the very beginning. Every church receiving such literature would have asked questions concerning authenticity. Such is the process of canonization. Local canons, which often contained some books not utilized by other local churches, were eventually replaced by those lists that represented the general usage of churches throughout the empire.
Of necessity, the process was gradual. It was initially motivated by the desire of various churches to have as many authentic documents of apostolic men as possible, and later motivated by the interaction of church leaders struggling with the question of which books could be appealed to in their debates about the nature of Christ and the church. These discussions began as early as the second century and escalated in the christological controversies of the fourth century, when we have our first full lists of canonical New Testament books.
There are no extant lists from the third century, and only the Muratorian Canon remains from the second, although its form is only a discussion of various books and not a canon in the proper sense of the term. The earliest known collection of Paul's letters is in the Chester Beatty Papyri, which gives us clear evidence of a collection of Paul's letters at the end of the second century.
The earliest extant use of the term "canon" is from the fourth century in the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius of Caesarea (6.25; cf. related words in 3.3.1; 3.25.1-6; 3.31.6). Correspondingly, the first record of discussions about the canon and the differentiation of various categories within it is from this century.
Eusebius distinguishes four groups of books: (1) accepted (most of our twenty-seven), (2) disputed (James, Jude, 2Peter, 2,3John), (3) rejected (various apocryphal New Testament books), and (4) heretical (primarily pseudepigraphical books). He has Revelation in both the accepted and rejected categories, saying opinion on it at the time was divided.
The first exclusive list of our twenty-seven books is in the festal letter #96 of Athanasius (a.d. 367). However, the order is different with the General Epistles following Acts and Hebrews following 2Thessalonians. The first exclusive list of our twenty-seven books in their current familiar order is in the writings of Amphilocius of Iconium in a.d. 380.
There is no "proper" order of New Testament books; several different arrangements exist in early manuscripts. More than 284 different sequences of biblical books (Old and New Testament) have been found in Latin manuscripts alone, and more than twenty different arrangements of Paul's letters have been found in ancient authors and manuscripts.
Division of individual books of the canon into smaller sections is first indicated in the fourth century, in Codex Vaticanus, which uses paragraph divisions, somewhat comparable to the Hebrew Bible. Our familiar chapter and verse divisions were introduced into the Bible quite late in the history of the canon. Stephen Langton introduced the chapters into the Latin Bible prior to his death in 1228, and Stephanus added the verses in the New Testament in 1551 and his publication of a Greek and Latin edition of the New Testament. Verses are attested in the Hebrew Bible as far back as the Mishnah (Megillah 4:4). The first English Bible to include verse divisions was the Geneva Bible of 1560. Thus, our English translations reflect the divisions as well as the order of the Latin Vulgate.
John McRay
See also Apocrypha ; Bible, Authority of the ; Bible, Inspiration of the
Bibliography . F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture ; idem, The Books and the Parchments ; H. von Campenhausen, The Formation of the Christian Bible ; B. S. Childs, The New Testament as Canon ; E. J. Goodspeed, The Formation of the New Testament ; R. M. Grant, The Formation of the New Testament ; B. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament ; H. E. Ryle, The Canon of the Old Testament ; J. Sanders, Torah and Canon ; B. F. Westcott, The Canon of the New Testament .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the New Testament
CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
1. Title . The Greek word ‘canon,’ meaning originally a ‘rod’ and so a ‘rule for measuring,’ is used in a variety of senses by the Patristic writers, among the most familiar instances being the expressions ‘rule of truth’ and ‘rule of faith’ for the doctrinal teaching officially recognized by the bishops. Hence, since we meet with the phrase ‘canonical books’ in Origen, as rendered by Rufinus’ translation, before we see the substantive ‘canon’ applied to the list of NT books, it has been argued that the adjective was first used in the sense of ‘regulative,’ so that the phrase means ‘the books that regulate faith or morals.’ But the substantive must mean the’ list’ of books, and in Athanasius we have a passive participle in the phrase ‘ canonized books,’ i.e. books belonging to the Canon; soon after which the actual word ‘canon’ is applied to the books of the NT by Amphilochius, the bishop of Iconium (end of 4th cent. a.d.). The NT Canon, then, is the list of NT books, and this simple meaning, rather than ‘the regulative books,’ is the more likely Interpretation of the expression to have occurred to people who were in the habit of using the term for lists of officials, lists of festivals, etc. The question of the Canon differs from questions of the authenticity, genuineness, historicity, inspiration, value, and authority of the several NT books in concerning itself simply with their acceptance in the Church. Primarily the question was as to what books were read in the churches at public worship. Those so used became in course of time the Christian Scriptures. Then, having the value of Scripture gradually associated with them, they came to be treated as authoritative. The first stage is that of use in the form of Church lessons; the second that of a standard of authority to be employed as the basis of instruction, and to be appealed to in disputed cases of doctrine or discipline.
2. The Formation of the Canon in the 2nd Century . The very earliest reading of NT books in the churches must have occurred in the case of epistles addressed to particular churches, which of course were read in those churches; next come the circular letters ( e.g. Ephesians 1:1-23 Petereter), which were passed round a group of churches. Still this involved no repeated liturgical use of these writings as in a church lectionary. During the obscure period of the sub-Apostolic age we have no indication of the use of epistles in church worship. Clement of Rome assumed that the church at Corinth was acquainted with 1 Corinthians, although he was writing nearly 40 years after St. Paul had sent that Epistle to the church, and a new generation had arisen in the interval; but there is no proof or probability that it was regularly read at the services. The earliest references to any such reading point to the Synoptic Gospels as alone having this place of honour, together with the OT prophets. This was the case in the worship described by Justin Martyr (1 Apol . lxvii.). A little later Justin’s disciple Tatian prepared his Harmony ( Diatessaron ) for use in the church at Edessa. This was constructed out of all four Gospels; i.e. it included John, a Gospel probably known to Justin, though not included in his Memoirs of the Apostles. As yet no epistles are seen in the place of honour of church reading side by side with OT Scriptures. But long before this a collection had been made by Marcion ( c [1] . a.d. 140) in his effort to reform the Church by recalling attention to the Pauline teaching which had fallen into neglect. Marcion’s Canon consisted of a mutilated Gospel of St. Luke 10:1-42 Epistles of St. Paul (the 3 Pastoral Epistles being omitted). Although other early Church writers evidently allude to several of the Epistles ( e.g. Clemens Rom., Ignatius, Polycarp, ‘Barnabas’), that is only by way of individual citation, without any hint that they are used in a collection or treated as authoritative Scripture. Marcion is the earliest who is known to have honoured any of the Epistles in this way. But when we come to Irenæus (180) we seem to be in another world. Irenæus cites as authoritative most of the books of the Christian Scriptures, though he does not appear to have known Hebrews. We now have a NT side by side with the OT; or at all events we have Christian books appealed to as authoritative Scripture, just as in the previous generation the LXX [2] was appealed to as authoritative Scripture. Here is evidence of a double advance: (1) in the addition of the Epistles to the Gospels as a collection, (2) in the enhancement of the value of all these books for the settlement of questions of doctrine.
This is one of the most important developments in the thought and practice of the Church. And yet history is absolutely silent as to how, when, where, and by whom it was brought about. Nothing is more amazing in the history of the Christian Church than the absence of all extant contemporary references to so great a movement. The 30 years from Justin Martyr, who knew only a collection of 3 Gospels as specially authoritative, and that simply as records of the life and teaching of Christ, to Irenæus, with his frequent appeals to the Epistles as well as the Gospels, saw the birth of a NT Canon, but left no record of so great an event. Irenæus, though bishop of Lyons and Vienne in Gaul, was in close communication with Asia Minor where he had been brought up, and Prof. Harnack conjectures that bishops of Asia Minor in agreement with the Church at Rome deliberately drew up and settled the Canon, although we have no historical record of so significant an event. It may be, however, that Irenæus was himself a pioneer in a movement the necessity of which was recognized as by common consent. Some authoritative standard of appeal was wanted to save the essence of Christian teaching from being engulfed in the speculations of Gnosticism. The Gospels were not sufficient for this purpose, because they were accepted by the Gnostics, who, however, interpreted them allegorically. What was needed was a standard of doctrinal truth, and that was found in the Epistles.
Near this time we have the earliest known Canon after that of Marcion, the most ancient extant list of NT books in the Catholic Church. This is named the ‘Muratorian Fragment,’ after its discoverer Muratori, who found it in a 7th or 8th cent. monk’s commonplace book in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, and published it in 1740. The fragment is a mutilated extract of a list of NT books made at Rome probably before the end of the 2nd cent., since the author refers to the episcopate of Pius as recent ( nuperrime temporibus nostris ), and Pius I., who died in a.d. 157, is the only bishop of Rome of that name in the early age to which unquestionably, as internal evidence indicates, the original composition must be assigned. The fragment begins in the middle of a sentence which appears to allude to St. Peter’s connexion with our Second Gospel, and goes on to mention Luke as the Third Gospel and John as the Fourth. Therefore it evidently acknowledged the 4 Gospels. Then it has Acts, which it ascribes to Luke, and it acknowledges 13 Epistles of Paul admitting the Pastorals, but excluding Hebrews, though it subsequently refers to ‘an Epistle to the Laodiceans,’ and another ‘to the Alexandrians forged under the name of Paul,’ as well as ‘many others’ which are not received in the Catholic Church ‘because gall ought not to be mixed with honey.’ Further, this Canon includes Judges 1:2 Epistles of John, and the Apocalypse, which it ascribes to John. It also has the Book of Wisdom, which it says was ‘written by the friends of Solomon in his honour,’ and the Apocalypse of Peter, although acknowledging that there is a minority which rejects the latter work, for we read ‘we receive moreover the Apocalypses of John and Peter only, which [3] some of our body will not have read in the church.’ This indicates that the author’s church as a whole acknowledges the Apocalypse of Peter, and that he associates himself with the majority of his brethren in so doing, while he candidly admits that there are some dissentients. Lastly, the Canon admits Hermas for private reading, but not for use in the church services. We have here, then, most of our NT books; but, on the one hand, Hebrews 1:1-14 ; Hebrews 2:1-18 Petereter, James, and one of the 3 Epistles of John are not mentioned. They are not named to be excluded, like the forged works referred to above; possibly the author did not know of their existence. At all events he did not find them used in his church. On the other hand, Wisdom, without question, and the Apocalypse of Peter, though rejected by some, are included in this canon, and Hermas is added for private reading.
Passing on to the commencement of the 3rd cent., we come upon another anonymous writing, an anti-gambling tract entitled ‘Concerning dice-players’ ( de Aleatoribus ), which Prof. Harnack attributes to Victor of Rome (a.d. 200 230). In this tract the Shepherd of Hermas and the Didache are both quoted as ‘Scripture.’ The author refers to three divisions of Scripture: (1) Prophetic writings the OT Prophets, the Apocalypse, Hermas; (2) the Gospels; (3) the Apostolic Writings Paul, 1 John, Hebrews.
Neither of these Canons can be regarded as authoritative either ecclesiastically or scientifically, since we are ignorant of their sources. But they both indicate a crystallizing process, in the Church at Rome about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd centuries, that was tending towards our NT, though with some curious variations. The writings of the Fathers of this period agree in the main with Irenæus in their citations from most of the NT books as authoritative a condition very different from that of Justin Martyr half a century earlier. Two influences may be recognized as bringing this result about: (1) use in churches at public worship, (2) authoritative appeals against heresy especially Gnosticism. It was necessary to settle what books should be read in church and what books should be appealed to in discussion. The former was the primary question. The books used at their services by the churches, and therefore admitted by them as having a right to be so employed, were the books to be appealed to in controversy. The testing fact was church usage. Canonical books were the books read at public worship. How it came about that certain books were so used and others not is by no means clear. Prof. Harnack’s theory would solve the problem if we could be sure it was valid. Apart from this, (1) traditional usage and (2) assurance of Apostolic authorship appear to have been two grounds relied upon.
Turning to the East, we find Clement of Alexandria (a.d. 165 220) acknowledging the 4 Gospels and Acts 14:1-28 Epistles of Paul (Hebrews being included), and quoting 1 and 2 John 1:1 Petereter, Jude, and the Apocalypse. He makes no reference to James 2:1-26 Petereter, or 3 John, any of which he may perhaps have known, as we have no list of NT books from his hand, for he does not name these books to reject them. Still, the probability as regards some, if not all, of them is that he did not know them. In the true Alexandrian spirit, Clement has a wide and comprehensive idea of inspiration, and therefore no very definite conception of Scriptural exclusiveness or fixed boundaries to the Canon. Thus he quotes Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Hermas, the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter, and the Sibylline Writings as in some way authoritative. He was a literary eclectic who delighted to welcome Christian truth in unexpected places. Still he had a NT in two volumes which he knew respectively as ‘The Gospel’ and ‘The Apostle’ (see Euseb. HE vi. 14). Origen (a.d. 184 253), who was a more critical scholar, treated questions of canonicity more scientifically. He acknowledged our books of the OT and some parts of the Apocrypha, such as 1 Mac.; and in the NT the 4 Gospels, Acts 13:1-52 Epistles of Paul, Hebrews (though the latter as of doubtful authorship; nevertheless in his homily on Joshua he seems to include it among St. Paul’s works, since he makes them 14, when he writes that ‘God, thundering on the 14 trumpets of his [4] Epistles, threw down even the walls of Jericho, that is all the instruments of idolatry and the doctrines of the philosophers’), 1Peter , 1 John, Revelation. He does not directly mention the Epistles of James or Jude, although he seems to refer to them once in a rhetorical way, classing Peter, James, and Jude with the 4 Evangelists as represented by Isaac’s servants if we are to trust Rufinus’ version. He mentions 2 Peter 2:1-22 and 3 John as of disputed genuineness, and refers to the Gospel of the Hebrews in an apologetic tone, the Gospels of Peter and James, and the Acts of Paul, and quotes Hermas and Barnabas as ‘Scripture,’ while he admits that, though widely circulated, Hermas was not accepted by all. It is a significant fact, however, that he wrote no commentaries on any of those books that are not included in our NT.
3. The Settlement of the Canon in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries . An important step towards the settlement of the Canon on historical and scientific lines was taken by Eusebius, who, with his wide reading and the great library of Pamphilus to resort to, also brought a fair and judicious mind to face the problems involved. Eusebius saw clearly that it is not always possible to give a definite affirmative or negative answer to the question whether a certain book should be in the Canon. Therefore he drew up three lists of books (1) The books that are admitted by all, (2) the books which he is disposed to admit although there are some who reject them, (3) the books that he regards as spurious. A fourth class, which really does not come into the competition for a place in the Canon, consists of heretical works which ‘are to be rejected as altogether absurd and impious’ ( HE iii. 25). The first class, consisting of the books universally acknowledged, contains the 4 Gospels; Acts; the Epistles of Paul which in one place (iii. 3) are reckoned to be 14, and therefore to include Hebrews, although in another place (vi. 14) Hebrews is placed in the second class, among the disputed books; 1Peter ; 1 John; and Revelation (doubtfully). The second class, consisting of books widely accepted, though disputed by some (but apparently all admitted by Eusebius himself), contains James; Judges 1:2 Petereter regarded in another place (iii. 3) as spurious; 2 and 3 John. The third class, consisting of spurious works, contains the Acts of Paul; the Shepherd of Hermas; the Apocalypse of Peter; the Didache; and perhaps, according to some, the Revelation. Under the orders of Constantine, Eusebius had 50 copies of the Scriptures sumptuously produced on vellum for use in the churches of Constantinople. Of course these would correspond to his own Canon and so help to fix it and spread its influence. After this the fluctuations that we meet with are very slight. Athanasius in one of his Festal Letters (a.d. 365) undertakes to set forth in order the books that are canonical and handed down and believed to be Divine. His NT exactly agrees with our Canon, as does the NT of Epiphanius ( c [1] . a.d. 403). Cyril of Jerusalem (who died a.d. 386) gives a list of ‘Divine Scriptures’ which contains all the NT except the Revelation; and Amphilochius of Iconium (a.d. 395) has a versified catalogue of the Biblical books, in which also all our NT books appear except the Revelation, which he regards as spurious; Amphilochius refers to doubts concerning Hebrews and to a question as to whether the number of Catholic Epistles Isaiah 7 or 3. Even Chrysostom (who died a.d. 405) never alludes to the Revelation or the last 4 Catholic Epistles. But then he gives no list of the Canon. One of the Apostolical Canons (No. 85), which stand as an appendix to the 8th book of the Apostolical Constitutions (85), and cannot be dated earlier than the 4th cent. in their present form, gives a list of the books of Scripture. Sirach is here placed between the OT and the NT with a special recommendation to ‘take care that your young persons learn the wisdom of the very learned Sirach.’ Then follow the NT books the 4 Gospels, 14 Epistles of Paul (Hebrews therefore included in this category), 2 Epistles of Peter, 3 of John, James, Judges 1:2 Epistles of Clement, the 8 books of the Constitutions , Acts. Thus, while Clement and even the Apostolical Constitutions are included, the Revelation is left out, after a common custom in the East. Manifestly this is an erratic Canon.
Returning to the West, at this later period we have an elaborate discussion on the Canon by Augustine (a.d. 430), who lays down rules by which the canonicity of the several books claimed for the NT may be determined. (1) There are the books received and acknowledged by all the churches, which should therefore be treated as canonical. (2) There are some books not yet universally accepted. With regard to these, two tests are to be applied: ( a ) such as are received by the majority of the churches are to be acknowledged, and ( b ) such as are received by the Apostolic churches are to be preferred to those received only by a smaller number of churches and these of less authority, i.e. not having been founded by Apostles. In case ( a ) and ( b ) conflict, Augustine considers that ‘the authority on the two sides is to be looked upon as equal’ ( Christian Doctrine , II. viii. 12). Thus the tests are simply Church reception, though with discrimination as to the respective authority of the several churches. The application of these tests gives Augustine just our NT.
Jerome (a.d. 420) also accepts our NT, saying concerning Hebrews and the Revelation that he adopts both on the authority of ancient writers, not on that of present custom. He is aware that James has been questioned; but he states that little by little in course of time it has obtained authority. Jude was even rejected by most people because it contained quotations from Apocryphal writings. Nevertheless he himself accepts it. He notes that 2 and 3 John have been attributed to a presbyter whose tomb at Ephesus is still pointed out. The immense personal influence of Augustine and the acceptance of Jerome’s Vulgate as the standard Bible of the Christian Church gave fixity to the Canon, which was not disturbed for a thousand years. No General Council had pronounced on the subject. The first Council claiming to be (Ecumenical which committed itself to a decision on the subject was as late as the 16th cent. (the Council of Trent). We may be thankful that the delicate and yet vital question of determining the Canon was not flung into the arena of ecclesiastical debate to be settled by the triumph of partisan churchmanship, but was allowed to mature slowly and come to its final settlement under the twofold influences of honest scholarship and Christian experience. There were indeed local councils that dealt with the question; but their decisions were binding only on the provinces they represented, although, in so far as they were not disputed, they would be regarded as more or less normative by those other churches to which they were sent. As representing the East we have a Canon attributed to the Council of Laodicea ( c [1] . a.d. 360). There is a dispute as to whether this is genuine. It is given in the MSS variously as a 60th canon and as part of the 59th appended in red ink. Half the Latin versions are without it; so are the Syriac versions, which are much older than our oldest MSS of the canons. It closely resembles the Canon of Cyril of Jerusalem, from which Westcott supposed that it was inserted into the canons of Laodicea by a Latin hand. Its genuineness was defended by Hefele and Davidson. Jülicher regards it as probably genuine. This Canon contains the OT with Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy, and all our NT except the Revelation. Then in the West we have the 3rd Council of Carthage (a.d. 397), which orders that ‘besides the Canonical Scriptures nothing be read in the Church under the title of Divine Scriptures,’ and appends a list of the books thus authorized in which we have the OT, the Apocrypha, and just our NT books. Here we have a whole province speaking for those books; when we add the great authority of Augustine, who belongs to this very province, and the influence of the Vulgate, we can well understand how the Canon should now be considered fixed and inviolable. Thus the matter rested for ten centuries.
4. Treatment of the Canon at the Renaissance and the Reformation . The question of the Canon was revived by the Renaissance and the Reformation, the one movement directing critical, scholarly attention to what was essentially a literary question, the other facing it in the interest of religious controversy. Erasmus writes: ‘The arguments of criticism, estimated by the rules of logic, lead me to disbelieve that the Epistle to the Hebrews is by Paul or Luke, or that the Second of Peter is the work of that Apostle, or that the Apocalypse was written by the Evangelist John. All the same, I have nothing to say against the contents of these books, which seem to me to be in perfect conformity with the truth. If, however, the Church were to declare the titles they bear to be canonical, then I would condemn my doubt, for the opinion formulated by the Church has more value in my eyes than human reasons, whatever they may be’ a most characteristic statement, revealing the scholar, the critic, the timid soul and the satirist (?). Within the Church of Rome even Cardinal Cajetan Luther’s opponent at Augsburg freely discusses the Canon, doubting whether Hebrews is St. Paul’s work, and whether, if it is not, it can be canonical. He also mentions doubts concerning the five General Epistles, and gives less authority to 2 and 3 John and Jude than to those books which he regards as certainly in the Holy Scriptures. The Reformation forced the question of the authority of the Bible to the front, because it set that authority in the place of the old authority of the Church. While this chiefly concerned the book as a whole, it could not preclude inquiries as to its contents and the rights of the several parts to hold their places there. The general answer as to the authority of Scripture is an appeal to ‘the testimony of the Holy Spirit.’ Calvin especially works out this conception very distinctly. The difficulty was to apply it to particular books of the Bible so as to determine in each case whether they should be allowed in the Canon. Clearly a further test was requisite here. This was found in the ‘analogy of faith’ ( Analogia fidei ), which was more especially Luther’s principle, while the testimony of the Holy Spirit was Calvin’s. With Luther the Reformation was based on justification by faith. This truth Luther held to be confirmed ( a ) by its necessity, nothing else availing, and ( b ) by its effects, since in practice it brought peace, assurance, and the new life. Then those Scriptures which manifestly supported the fundamental principle were held to be ipso facto inspired, and the measure of their support of it determined the degree of their authority. Thus the doctrine of justification by faith is not accepted because it is found in the Bible; but the Bible is accepted because it contains this doctrine. Moreover, the Bible is sorted and arranged in grades according as it does so more or less clearly, and to Luther there is ‘a NT within the NT,’ a kernel of all Scripture, consisting of those books which he sees most clearly set forth the gospel. Thus he wrote: ‘John’s Gospel, the Epistles of Paul, especially Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, and 1Peter these are the books which show thee Christ, and teach all that it is needful and blessed for thee to know even if you never see or hear any other book, or any other doctrine. Therefore is the Epistle of James a mere epistle of straw ( eine rechte stroherne Epistel ) since it has no character of the gospel is it’ (Preface to NT, 1522; the passage was omitted from later editions). Luther places Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse at the end of his translation, after the other NT books, which he designates ‘the true and certain capital books of the NT, for these have been regarded in former times in a different light.’ He regards Jude as ‘indisputably an extract or copy from 2Peter.’ Nevertheless, while thus discriminating between the values of the several books of the NT, he includes them all in his translation. Luther’s friend Carlstadt has a curious arrangement of Scripture in three classes, viz. (1) The Pentateuch and the 4 Gospels, as being ‘the clearest luminaries of the whole Divine truth’; (2) The Prophets ‘of Hebrew reckoning’ and the acknowledged Epistles of the NT, viz. 13 of Paul, 1Peter , 1 John; (3) the Hagiographa of the Hebrew Canon, and the 7 disputed books of the NT. Dr. Westcott suggested that the omission of Acts was due to its being included with Luke. Calvin is more conservative with regard to Scripture than the Lutherans. Still in his Commentaries he passes over 2 and 3 John and the Revelation without notice, and he refers to 1 John as ‘the Epistle of John,’ and expresses doubts as to 2Peter; but he adds, with regard to the latter,’ Since the majesty of the Spirit of Christ exhibits itself in every part of the Epistle, I feel a scruple in rejecting it wholly, however much I fail to recognize in it the genuine language of Peter’ ( Com. on 2Peter , Argument). Further, Calvin acknowledges the existence of doubts with respect both to James and to Jude; but he accepts them both. He allows full liberty of opinion concerning the authorship of Hebrews; but he states that he has no hesitation in classing it among Apostolical writings. In spite of these varieties of opinion, the NT Canon remained unaltered. At the Council of Trent (1546) for the first time the Roman Catholic Church made an authoritative statement on the Canon, uttering an anathema ( ‘anathema sit ’) on anybody who did not accept in their integrity all the books contained in the Vulgate. Thus the Apocrypha is treated as equally canonical with the OT books; but the NT Canon is the same in Roman Catholic and Protestant Canons. Translations of the Bible into the vernacular of various languages laid the question of the Canon to rest again, by familiarizing readers with the same series of books in all versions and editions.
5. The Canon in Modern Criticism . In the 18th cent. the very idea of a Canon was attacked by the Deists and Rationalists (Toland, Diderot, etc.); but the critical study of the subject began with Semler (1771 5), who pointed out the early variations in the Canon and attacked the very idea of a Canon as an authoritative standard, while he criticised the usefulness and theological value of the several books of the NT. Subsequent controversy has dealt less with the Canon as such than with the authenticity and genuineness of the books that it contains. In the views of extreme negative criticism canonicity as such has no meaning except as a historical record of Church opinion. On the other hand, those who accept a doctrine of inspiration in relation to the NT do not connect this very closely with critical questions in such a way as to affect the Canon. Thus doubts as to the authorship of the Pastoral Epistles, 2Peter, James, etc., have not given rise to any serious proposal to remove these books from the NT. The Canon rests mainly on tradition and usage. But the justification for it when this is sought is usually found (1) in the Apostolic authorship of most of the NT books; (2) in the Apostolic atmosphere and association of the remaining books; (3) in the general acceptance and continuous use of them in the churches for centuries as a test of their value; (4) in their inherent worth to-day as realized in Christian experience. It cannot be said that these four tests would give an indefeasible right to every book to claim a place in the Canon if it were not already there e.g. the small Epistle of Jude; but they throw the burden of proof on those who would disturb the Canon by a serious proposal to eject any of its contents; and in fact no such proposal as distinct from critical questions of the dates, authorship, historicity, etc., of the several books is now engaging the attention of scholars or churches.
W. F. Adeney.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the Old Testament
CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
1. Explanation of terms . The word ‘Testament’ is the Eng. tr. [1] Of the Gr. Diathçkç , which in its turn represents the Heh. Berîth or ‘Covenant.’ The epithet ‘Old’ was introduced by Christians after the NT had come into being. Jews recognize no NT, and have a polemic interest in avoiding this designation of their Holy Scripture. The Gr. word kanôn , meaning primarily a measuring-rod, a rule, a catalogue, was applied by Christian authors of the 4th cent. to the list of books which the Church acknowledged to be authoritative as the source of doctrine and ethics. In investigating how the Hebrew race formed their Bible, these later appellations of their sacred books have to be used with the reservations indicated.
2. The three periods of formation . Briefly stated, the process of forming the OT Canon includes three main stages. Under the influence of Ezra and Nehemiah, the Law ( Torah ) as in the Pentateuch was set apart as Holy Scripture; at some date prior to b.c. 200, the Prophets ( Nebîîm ), including the prophetic interpretation of history in the four books Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings had been constituted into a second canonical group; by b.c. 132, most, though not all, of the remaining books ranked as Scripture. This third group was defined, and the OT Canon finally fixed, by the Synod of Palestinian Jews held at Jamnia, near Joppa, about the year a.d. 90.
3. Pre-canonical conditions
( a ) The art of writing . The formation of language and the invention of writing must precede the adoption of a sacred book. An illiterate race can have no Scripture. Israel’s language was in its main features an inheritance from the common ancestors of the Semites; even its religious vocabulary was only in part its own creation. As to writing, the Semites in Babylonia had used the cuneiform syllabic script, and Egypt had Invented the hieroglyphs before the Hebrews had arisen as a separate race. But, happily for the Canon, an alphabet had become the possession of some of the Semitic family before the Hebrews had anything to put on record. The provincial governors of Canaan about b.c. 1400 sent their reports to Egypt in Babylonian cuneiform; whereas Mesha, king of Moab, and Panammu, king of Ya’di in North Syria, in extant Inscriptions from about b.c. 900, make use of an Aramaic alphabet. After b.c. 1400, and some time before b.c. 900, must therefore be placed the genesis of the Hebrew alphabet.
( b ) Absence of any precedent . In the case of other sacred books, the influence of a historical precedent has contributed to their adoption. Recognizing the OT, Christians were predisposed to use a literary record in preserving the revelation they had received. Similarly Islam admitted the superiority of ‘the people of a book’ (Jews and Christians), and were easily induced to accord like sanctity to their own Koran. But such a precedent did not come into operation in the early religion of Israel. It is true that the Code of Hammurabi ( c [2] . b.c. 2200) was recorded on stone, and publicly set forth as the rule of civil life in Babylonia. But this method of regulating communal life can hardly have affected the earliest legislators in Israel. The relation of the Code of Hammurabi to the Mosaic Laws appears to be correctly indicated by Mr. Johns: ‘The coexisting likenesses and differences argue for an independent recension of ancient custom deeply influenced by Babylonian law.’ Egypt also had literature before Moses, but the Hebrews appear to have acted on an independent initiative in producing and collecting their religious literature. The OT Canon is thus peculiar in being formed as the first of its kind.
( c ) Religious experience . Other conditions of a less general kind have also to be noted. The religious leaders of the people must have had definite convictions as to the attributes of Jehovah before they could judge whether any given prophet or document were true or false. The life depicted in the book of Genesis reveals a non-writing age, when religious experience and unwritten tradition were the sole guides to duty. The Sinaitic legislation, although it formed the basis of national life, did not till late in the monarchy penetrate the popular consciousness. Mosaic Law provided that Divine guidance would be given through the voice of prophets and of priests ( Deuteronomy 18:18 ; Deuteronomy 19:17 ; Deuteronomy 21:5 ; Leviticus 25:1-55 ); with these living sources of direction, it would be less easy to feel dependence on a book. The symbolism of a sacrificial system compensated for the want of literature. It was only after books of various kinds had become prevalent that the utility of writing began to be appreciated. Isaiah ( Isaiah 30:8 ), about b.c. 740, perceives that what is inscribed in a book will be permanent and indisputable. On the other hand, Hosea ( Hosea 8:12 ), about b.c. 745, sees a limit to the efficacy of a copious literature. The exponents of the traditional Law appear to have applied it with arbitrary freedom. Even a high priest in Josiah’s reign had apparently had no occasion to consult the Law-book for a long period. Variations appear in the reasons annexed even to the Decalogue; and the priests who offered incense to the brazen serpent in the Temple in the days of Hezekiah cannot have regarded the Tables of the Law in the light of canonical Scripture.
4. Josiah’s reformation . The first trace of a Canon is to be found in the reign of King Josiah about b.c. 621. By this time the Northern Kingdom had disappeared with the Fall of Samaria (b.c. 722). It had left behind, as its contribution to the future Bible, at least the works of Hosea and the Elohist historian. The prophets, Isaiah I., Amos, and Micah, had delivered their message a century ago, and their words were in the possession of their disciples. The fate of the ten tribes had vindicated the prophetic warnings. The beginnings of Israel’s history were made familiar by the beautiful narratives of the Jahwist historian. Many songs were known by heart, and contributed to the growth of a feeling that the nation had a Divine mission to fulfil. Laws, that had been kept for rare reference in the sanctuary, were studied by disciples of the prophets, and were expounded with a new sense of their Divine obligation. The annals of the monarchy had been duly recorded by the official scribes, but their religious significance was as yet unthought of. Other books, which afterwards disappeared, were also in circulation. Such were ‘the Book of the Wars of the Lord’ ( Numbers 21:14 ), and ‘the Book of Jashar’ ( Joshua 10:13 , 2 Samuel 1:18 ). In such conditions at Jerusalem there came about Josiah’s reformation, described in 2 Kings 22:1-20 ; 2 Kings 23:1-37 .
5. Inspiration recognized in the Bk. of Deuteronomy . A book identified on satisfactory grounds with our Deuteronomy (excluding possibly the preface and the appendix) was discovered in the Temple and read to the king. In consequence, Josiah convened a general assembly at Jerusalem, and read the words of the book to all the people. All parties agreed that this Lawbook should constitute a solemn league and coveoant between themselves and Jehovah. The grounds of its acceptance are its inherent spiritual power, the conviction it produced that it truly expressed the will of Jehovah, and also its connexion with the great name of Moses. The book was not imposed merely by royal authority; the people also ‘stood to the covenant.’ These conditions combine to give Deuteronomy canonical authority of an incipient kind from that date onwards (b.c. 622).
6. Pentateuch made canonical . The next stage in the growth of the Canon is found in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (b.c. 457 444). Much had happened in the intervening 170 years. The captivity in Babylon (b.c. 586 536) intensified national feeling and made their books more precious to the exiles. Temple ceremonial had now no place in religious practice; and spiritual aspiration turned to prayer and reading, both public and private. Fresh expositions of the Mosaic Law were prepared by the prophet Ezekiel (b.c. 592 570), and by the anonymous priest who put the Law of Holiness ( Leviticus 17:1-16 ; Leviticus 18:1-30 ; Leviticus 19:1-37 ; Leviticus 20:1-27 ; Leviticus 21:1-24 ; Leviticus 22:1-33 ; Leviticus 23:1-44 ; Leviticus 24:1-23 ; Deuteronomy 24:8 ; Leviticus 26:1-46 ) into written form. Just as the Fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70 supplied the Incentive for recording in the Mishna the oral tradition of the Pharisees, so in Babylon expatriation impelled the priestly families to write out their hereditary usages, thus forming the document known as the Priestly Code. The problem of suffering, national and individual, was considered in the work of the Second Isaiah and in the book of Job. The past history of Israel was edited so as to show the method of Divine Providence. The Restoration of the Temple (b.c. 516) and the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah began a new chapter in the story of Judaism. Many of the Jews remained in Babylon, and continued their activity in the study of the national literature. From Babylon they sent Ezra the scribe (b.c. 457) and Nehemiah (b.c. 444) with help for the Jerusalem community. Under the influence of these leaders the Pentateuch was made canonical ( Nehemiah 8:1-18 ; Nehemiah 9:1-38 ; Nehemiah 10:1-39 ). This work had been formed by constructing a ‘Harmony’ of the various expositions of Mosaic Law ( Exodus 20:1-26 ; Exodus 21:1-36 ; Exodus 22:1-31 ; Exodus 23:1-33 , Deut., Leviticus 17:1-16 ; Leviticus 18:1-30 ; Leviticus 19:1-37 ; Leviticus 20:1-27 ; Leviticus 21:1-24 ; Leviticus 22:1-33 ; Leviticus 23:1-44 ; Leviticus 24:1-23 ; Leviticus 25:1-55 ; Leviticus 26:1-46 , and the Priestly Code) and combining these with the histories of the Jahwist and the Elohist. The initial cosmology shows the high plane of religious thought that had now been attained. Some opposition appears to have come from the priests, who favoured mixed marriages and a Samaritan alliance; but the people as a whole ‘make a sure covenant and write it. And our princes, our Levites, and our priests seal unto it’ ( Nehemiah 9:38 ). That this Canon included only the Torah is proved by the fact that the Samaritans, who were severed from Judaism shortly after Nehemiah’s time, never had any Canon beyond the Pentateuch. Their apocryphal Joshua does not prove that Ezra’s Canon was the Hexateuch. Had Joshua been attached to the Law, the LXX [3] version of it would have been less inaccurate. Nor is it easy to see how a book so solemnly adopted could ever after have been relegated to a secondary place.
7. Canon of the Prophets . The next addition to the Canon consists of the Prophets, reckoned as 8 books Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve (Minor Prophets) forming one book. No account of their canonization is available, and the process has to be inferred from what is known of the period. The books themselves give some guidance. Under the influence of Deut., history was studied so as to reveal the progress of a Divine purpose. The books of Kings record events down to about b.c. 560, hence their preparation for the Canon must have been some time later. Isaiah includes the works of the first and second of that name, besides chapters from later sources. The redaction of the whole must have been made at a time when the separate authorship was forgotten. Jeremiah (b.c. 627 586) is supplemented by extracts from the book of Kings written after 560. The Twelve include Malacbi, who wrote between b.c. 458 and 432. Jonah and Zechariah are also late, and the latter book has a supplement of uncertain date. Internal evidence thus implies that when the Law was made canonical, the prophets had not been carefully edited or collected into one group. The Chronicler, writing about b.c. 300, recognizes that the Law has become Holy Scripture, but he makes the freest use of the history in Samuel and Kings. After Malachi the people became well aware that the voice of true prophecy had ceased ( Zechariah 13:3 , Nehemiah 6:7 ; Nehemiah 6:14 , Psalms 74:9 , 1Ma 9:27 , etc.). The predictions of the prophets had been ominously vindicated by the course of history. Such observations would tend continually to increase the veneration for the prophetic literature. The rivalry of Hellenic culture after the cooquests of Alexander the Great ( c. [4] b.c. 300) may possibly have suggested to the Jews an Increase of their own sacred Canon. At all events, the canonization of the prophetic literature had become matter of past history by b.c. 200. This limit is fixed by the testimony of Jesus ben-Sira, who writes the book in the Apocrypha called Ecclesiasticus. His praise of the famous men in Israel (chs. 44 50) shows that the Law and the Prophets were invested with canonical authority in his day. The Lectionary of the Synagogue would quickly establish the unique position of the Law and the Prophets as Holy Scripture (cf. Acts 13:15 ; Acts 13:27 ).
8. The Hagiographa made canonical . The third division of the OT is called in Hebrew Kethûbhîm , i.e. ‘Writings.’ In Greek the name is Hagiographa , i.e. ‘Sacred Writings.’ In a Hebrew Bible these books are arranged in the following order:
1. The Poetical Books: Psalms, Proverbs, Job.
2. The Five Megilloth (‘Rolls’): Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther.
3. Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, Chronicles.
This group is much more varied in form and substance than the first two parts of the Canon. Several of these books may have been prized as highly as the Prophets, though their inclusion in the Second Canon would have been incongruous. The Psalter, for instance, had been for long familiar through its use in Temple services; and its influence on religious life was great, apart from any declaration of canonicity. But as some Psalms ( e.g. 74, 79) appear to have been composed about b.c. 170 160, the final collection of the smaller hymnaries into the Psalter of five books cannot have been made before b.c. 150. The priestly summary of history in Chron., Ezr.-Neh. would be widely acceptable in an age when the Priestly Code was the dominant influence. The book about Daniel, published during the Maccabæan persecutions (b.c. 165), quickly won recognition and proved its religious worth.
( a ) Disputed books . A hesitating approval was extended to Esther, Canticles, and Eccleslastes, owing to the nature of their contents. Other books, apocalyptic and apocryphal, were competing for a place in the religious library. There is no means of showing how or when the third group was separated from other books. The conjecture is probable that the effort of Antiochus Epiphanes to destroy the copies of the Law may have evoked the determination to preserve the later religious literature by giving it a place in the Canon.
( b ) Prologue to Sirach . The earliest testimony to the existence of sacred books in addition to the Law and the Prophets is given in the Prologue to Ecclesiasticus. The grandson of ben-Sira wrote in Egypt about b.c. 132, and made a Greek translation of his kinsman’s ‘Wisdom.’ In the preface he refers three times to ‘the Law, the Prophets, and the other books of our fathers.’ He speaks of Greek versions of these books. But this statement does not say that the third group was definitely completed. In the 1st cent. a.d., the schools of Hillel and Shammal differed as to whether Ecclesiastes was in the Canon or not.
( c ) New Testament . The NT expresses a doctrine of Holy Scripture; it acknowledges a threefold division ( Luke 24:44 ); it implies that Chronicles was the last book in the roll of the OT ( Matthew 23:35 , Luke 11:51 ); but it does not quote Esther, Cant., Eccl., and leaves undecided the question whether these disputed books were as yet admitted to the Canon.
( d ) Philo . Philo of Alexandria (d. a.d. 40) acknowledges the inspiration of Scripture (the Mosaic Law pre-eminently), and quotes many of, but not nearly all, the OT books. His use of the Greek Apocrypha for information only, suggests, however, that he did know of a Palestinian limit to the third group.
( e ) Josephus . Josephus (a.d. 100), defending his earlier books against adverse reviews, maintains that Jewish records had been made by trained historians. The elegant inconsistencies of Greek narratives had no place in his authorities.
‘It is not the case with us,’ he says ( c. Apion . i. 8), ‘to have vast numbers of books disagreeing and conflicting with one another. We have but two-and-twenty, containing the history of all time, books that are justly believe din.… Though so great an interval of time has passed, no one has ventured either to add or to remove or to alter a syllable; and it is the instinct of every Jew from the day of his birth to consider these books as the teaching of God, to abide by them, and, if need be, cheerfully to lay down life in their behalf.’
The number 22 is probably due to his reckoning, with the LXX [3] , Ruth and Judges as one, and Lamentations and Jeremiah as one. It is less likely that he refused to count Cant, and Eccl. as Scripture. His words reveal the profound reverence now entertained for the OT as a whole, although individuals may still have cherished objections to particular books.
( f ) Synod of Jamnia . The completion of the Hebrew Canon must be associated with a synod held at Jamnia, near Joppa, where the Sanhedrin settled after Jerusalem was taken by Titus (a.d. 70). The popularity of the Alexandrian OT, including Apocrypha, and the growing influence of NT books caused the Rabbinical teachers to remove all doubt as to the limits of their Scripture. ‘All Holy Scriptures defile the hands (the Hebrew phrase for ‘are canonical’): Canticles and Eccleslastes defile the hands.’ Such was the dictum at Jamnia ( c [2] . a.d. 90) to which Rabbi’ Akiba (d. a.d. 135) appealed in dismissing the possibility of reopening discussion on the limits of the Canon.
9. Text . The Hebrew Bible was now complete. Elaborate precautions were taken to secure an unchangeable text; and a system of vowel-signs was invented some centuries later to preserve the old pronunciation. It has been considered strange that the oldest dated MS of the OT should be so recent as a.d. 916, whereas the Greek Bible and NT are found in MSS of the 4th and 5th centuries. This may be due to the requirement of the Synagogue that the copy in use should be perfect, and that any roll deficient in a word or letter should be suppressed, if not destroyed. The vigilant care of copies in use lessened the interest in superseded MSS.
10. Relation of the Church to the OT . The NT freely acknowledges Divine inspiration in the OT. Such a formula as ‘All this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet’ ( Matthew 1:22 ), Implies that the Supreme Disposer of events had Intimated His purpose through the prophets. Posterity, therefore, rightly apprehends any occurrence when it has detected its place in the scheme of things foretold by the prophets. But it is also recognized that Scripture may be misapplied, and that therefore criticism is essential. The Interpretation of the OT must differ among Jews and Christians. The logic of events cannot be Ignored, and the Advent of the Messiah cannot be treated as a negligible accident. The attitude of our Lord has the effect of making the OT a subordinate standard as compared with His own words and the teaching of the Apostles. He did not report the word of the Lord as received by vision or prophecy; in His own name He supplied what was wanting in Law and Prophets. He did not pronounce any book in Itself adequate to determine the communion between the Living God and living men; all Scripture must be illuminated by the testimonium Spiritus Sancti . The 24 Hebrew books are valid for the Church only in so far as their authority is sanctioned by the NT. But, subject to this limitation, the OT remains ‘profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for Instruction which is in righteousness’ ( 2 Timothy 3:16 ).
D. M. Kay.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Bible, Formation And Canon of
The word “Bible” was formed from a Greek term meaning books in the plural. Our Bible is, in fact, the collection of books written by various authors that possesses final authority in Christian communities. It has no rival in its pervasive influence upon Western culture, and increasingly over world culture. It is a perennial best-seller and has been translated into more than two thousand languages and dialects.
Why does the Bible exist? The answer has to do with the transmission of the gospel down through the generations. Once God had revealed Himself and His plan of salvation to Israel and to the believers surrounding Jesus, the question arose how this truth would be passed along to posterity without its suffering distortion from later interpreters. The only obvious answer to this question was written documentation. It would be necessary to secure the revelation in a fixed, written, and authentic form so that the truth would not be lost in the transmission. Both from a human and a divine standpoint, then, a Bible was required to be the vehicle of transmission of the gospel, conveying the revelation intact to succeeding generations.
Does the Bible itself give this answer? You can see that it does when you consider, first, the fact that leading figures in the Bible, such as Moses, Jeremiah, Luke, and Paul, are described as writing things down precisely for people who are unable to talk with them directly. Second, you find that Jesus and the apostles in the New Testament had a very high view of the divine authority of the Hebrew Scriptures which they believed God gave by inspiration (2 Timothy 3:16 ). The idea of the Bible was not a late afterthought in the history of salvation but was in the process of being formed almost from the first. It seems reasonable to conclude that God's plan of salvation included the Bible as a book which would convey the truth of the gospel down through the years.
How did the Bible take shape? A general acquaintance with the book goes a long way toward answering this question. In the case of the Old Testament, people must have told and retold the stories of God's interaction with Israel before they were collected into the books we now possess. They carefully preserved the law of God given through Moses and accepted it as binding on them. The inspired prophecies could not be allowed to be forgotten even when they were painful. Of course, the wisdom of the sages and the hymns of the people had to be preserved. The process of formation can thus be viewed both from the point of view of God's purpose and with an eye on the natural historical dynamics. In the case of the New Testament, it is clear that four writers undertook the task of presenting the life of Jesus, each of them with some special emphases and with a particular audience in view. The apostle Paul, as well as some others, had the practice of writing letters to groups of people to communicate with them when visiting was difficult. Writing was a way of instructing them in the things of God from a distance. One can see how the Bible must have been formed just by looking at it. Each of its parts was created and preserved because it met a need in the covenant community and qualified to be treasured for transmission to posterity.
How was the canon of Scripture decided on? The word canon comes from a Sumerian term meaning “reed,” and it came to designate the list of books which were normative and sacred. The simplest answer to this question is a practical one: the books which ended up on the canonical lists in the end were those which proved themselves in a variety of ways to be God's Word to His people as they used them over the years. The historical answer is a little less clear. We just do not know as much about the process of canonization as we would like. The best clues are in the Bible itself. The law of Moses was written down and became the core of the later Old Testament. This is the assumption of all the later documents. There is much less said about the composition and preservation of the other writings. Certainly the divine authority claimed by the great prophets of Israel attached to the books which preserved their preaching. It is possible that the Old Testament canon as we know it took shape under the influence of the scribe Ezra who rounded off the task long in process. This would explain the tenacity of the Jews ever since to preserve their Hebrew canon. As for the New Testament, the books involved are many fewer and were composed over a mere half century. The respect for the words and deeds of Jesus is obvious and would explain both the preparation and the respect accorded the four Gospels. Paul's apostolic authority guaranteed respect for his epistles from the beginning. Respect grew later when the original witnesses began to die off and the epistles circulated among the churches. The authority of a prophecy like the Revelation of John, if deemed authentic, would be automatic. An extraneous factor which speeded the process toward developing a canon was the work of second century reformer Marcion, who proposed dropping the Old Testament and much of the New Testament as well, forcing orthodox Christians to make up their minds on the question of the canonical list. The die was already cast in the Muratorian Canon of 170 A.D. where one finds the essential New Testaent as we know it today.
Is there an interplay then of subjective and objective factors in the determination of the canon of Scripture? Yes, we need to view it in terms of God's providence guiding and directing His people in this matter. God sent His messengers and the Scriptures in their wake. God's Word to the people had to make its own impact upon human minds. There is the historical solidity of God's revelation in history, but there is also the need for God's sheep to hear the voice of their Shepherd. God has given us His written Word and allowed it quietly and unhurriedly to make its impact upon us. It did not require a big council when the decision would come down from the leaders of the churches. All that was needed was that God's people be satisfied in the matter of the historical authenticity and then of the practical efficacy of the books in question. The fact that substantially the whole church came to recognize the same books as canonical is remarkable when we remember the agreement was not at all contrived.
The body of our canon is solid and well-supported, and proves itself over again in our use of the Bible. Therefore, we can live happily with a little uncertainty around the edges.
With the writer of Psalm 119:1 , we should give thanks to God for His gift of the Scriptures, in which we can hear His voice and meet with Him. We know the Bible is God's Word, not because we are scholars, but because we are people of faith and experience its authority and truth. The formation of the Bible was in part a human process, directed, we believe, by God. We have reason to feel full confidence when we accept the sixty-six books as God's inspired Word to us. We treasure the Bible because it gives us firm anchorage in history and is the source from which we can continually draw inspiration for renewing our faith and finding the path to follow in serving the Lord.
Clark Pinnock
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Canon of Scripture
The word κανών signified a rod or rule by which things were tested. It is thus used by Paul in Galatians 6:16 ; Philippians 3:16 . As to the scriptures the expression refers to what books should be included: thus the 'canon' of scripture is often spoken of, and the books are called 'canonical' or 'uncanonical.' Happily most Christians are not troubled with such questions. In christian simplicity they believe that in the Bible they have nothing but what God caused to be written, and that it contains all that He intended to form a part of His book. Still, as everything is now challenged it may be well to examine the subject a little.
In the first place, the Church of Rome boldly declared that it was only 'thechurch' that could decide what books were canonical: as early as the Council of Carthage (about A.D. 400) lists of the books were made out, and at the Council of Trent they dogmatically settled what books constituted the scripture. They decided to include the books now known as the APOCRYPHA (q.v. ), as may be seen in the Latin Vulgate, which is the version used by that church. Now the scripture informs us that to the Jews were committed the oracles of God, Romans 3:2 , and as is well known they most carefully guarded the O.T. scriptures for centuries before there was any christian church. The books were written in the Jews' language — the Hebrew — with which the Apocrypha never had a place. They were written in Greek, and were first added to the LXX. The above principle — that the scriptures require to be accredited by the church — is false. Surely God could make a revelation that would in no wise need to have the seal of a body of men placed upon it, be they ever so holy. But the Church of Rome was not holy, nor was it universal, so that even if the alleged principle were correct, that corrupt section of the church would be the last to be taken as an authoritative guide.
The N.T. has also had its perils. With the Greek MSS apocryphal books are found, parts of which were read in the churches in early days. Later on several of the Fathers of the church so called had their doubts respecting some of the Epistles. Even as late as the Reformers it was the same. Luther spoke disrespectfully of the Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Revelation, and set them apart at the end of his version. Calvin doubted the authenticity of James, 2Peter, and Jude. In modern times many portions of books in the O.T. and N.T. are being called in question. But the Bible needs not to be accredited by man. It carries its own credentials to the heart and conscience of the Christian in the power of the Holy Spirit. The natural man is not competent to judge of such a question. The Bible has the stamp of God upon it, and the more it is studied by the Christian the more perfect it is found to be — no part redundant, and no part lacking.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Canon
The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament writers. Their evidence is conclusive. The quotations in the New from the Old are very numerous, and the references are much more numerous. These quotations and references by our Lord and the apostles most clearly imply the existence at that time of a well-known and publicly acknowledged collection of Hebrew writings under the designation of "The Scriptures;" "The Law and the Prophets and the Psalms;" "Moses and the Prophets," etc. The appeals to these books, moreover, show that they were regarded as of divine authority, finally deciding all questions of which they treat; and that the whole collection so recognized consisted only of the thirty-nine books which we now posses. Thus they endorse as genuine and authentic the canon of the Jewish Scriptures. The Septuagint Version (q.v.) also contained every book we now have in the Old Testament Scriptures. As to the time at which the Old Testament canon was closed, there are many considerations which point to that of Ezra and Nehemiah, immediately after the return from Babylonian exile. (See BIBLE, EZRA, QUOTATIONS .)
CARM Theological Dictionary - Canon
This is another word for scripture. The Canon consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New. The Canon is closed which means there is no more revelation to become Scripture.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Canon
a word used to denote the authorized catalogue of the sacred writings. The word is originally Greek, κανων , and signifies a rule or standard, by which other things are to be examined and judged. Accordingly, the same word has been applied to the tongue of a balance, or that small part which, by its perpendicular position, determines the even poise or weight, or, by its inclination, either, way, the uneven poise of the things which are weighed. Hence it appears, that as the writings of the Prophets, Apostles, and Evangelists contain an authentic account of the revealed will of God, they are the rule of the belief and practice of those who receive them. Canon is also equivalent to a list or catalogue, in which are inserted those books which contain the rule of faith.
For an account of the settling of the canon of Scripture, see Bible. The following observations of Dr. Alexander, in his work on the canon, proving that no canonical book of the Old or New Testament has been lost, may here be properly introduced.—No canonical book of the Old Testament has been lost. On this subject, there has existed some diversity of opinion. Chrysostom is cited by Bellarmine as saying, "that many of the writings of the prophets had perished, which may readily be proved from the history in Chronicles. For the Jews were negligent, and not only negligent, but impious; so that some books were lost through carelessness, and others were burned, or otherwise destroyed." In confirmation of this opinion, an appeal is made to 1 Kings 4:32-33 , where it is said of Solomon, "that he spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes." All these productions, it is acknowledged, have perished. Again, it is said in 1 Chronicles 29:29-30 : "Now, the acts of David the king, first and last, behold they are written in the book of Samuel the seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer; with all his reign, and his might, and the times that went over him, and over Israel, and over all the kingdoms of the countries." The book of Jasher, also, is twice mentioned in Scripture. In Joshua 10:13 : "And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves on their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher?" And in 2 Samuel 1:18 : "And he bade them teach the children of Israel the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the book of Jasher."
The book of the wars of the Lord is referred to in Numbers 21:14 . But we have in the canon no books under the name of Nathan and Gad, nor any book of Jasher, nor of the wars of the Lord. Moreover, we frequently are referred, in the sacred history, to other chronicles or annals, for a fuller account of the matters spoken of, which chronicles are not now extant.
And in 2 Chronicles 9:29 , it is said, "Now, the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are they not written in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer, against Jeroboam, the son of Nebat?" Now, it is well known that none of these writings of the prophets are in the canon; at least, none of them under their names. It is said, also, in 2 Chronicles 12:15 , "Now, the acts of Rehoboam, first and last, are they not written in the book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the seer, concerning genealogies?" Of which works nothing remains under the names of these prophets.
1. The first observation which may be made on this subject is, that every book referred to or quoted in the sacred writings is not necessarily an inspired or canonical book. Because St. Paul cites passages from the Greek poets, it does not follow that we must receive their poems as inspired.
2. A book may be written by an inspired man, and yet be neither inspired nor canonical. Inspiration was not constantly afforded to the prophets; but was occasional, and for particular important purposes. In common matters and especially in things no way connected with religion, it is reasonable to suppose that the Prophets and Apostles were left to the same guidance of reason and common sense as other men. A man, therefore, inspired to deliver some prophecy, or even to write a canonical book, might write other books with no greater assistance than other good men receive. Because Solomon was inspired to write some canonical books, it does not follow that what he wrote on natural history was also inspired, any more than Solomon's private letters to his friends, if ever he wrote any. Let it be remembered that the Prophets and Apostles were only inspired on special occasions, and on particular subjects, and all difficulties respecting such works as these will vanish. How many of the books referred to in the Bible, and mentioned above, may have been of this description, it is now impossible to tell; but probably several of them belong to this class. No doubt there were many books of annals much more minute and particular in the narration of facts than those which we have. It was often enough merely to refer to these state papers, or public documents, as being sufficiently correct, in regard to the facts on account of which the reference was made. The book of the wars of the Lord might, for aught that appears, have been merely a muster roll of the army. The word translated book has so extensive a meaning in Hebrew, that it is not even necessary to suppose that it was a writing at all. The book of Jasher (or of Rectitude. if we translate the word) might have been some useful compend taken from Scripture, or composed by the wise, for the regulation of justice and equity between man and man. Augustine, in his "City of God," has distinguished accurately on this subject. "I think," says he, "that those books which should have authority in religion were revealed by the Holy Spirit, and that men composed others by historical diligence, as the prophets did these by inspiration. And these two classes of books are so distinct, that it is only by those written by inspiration that we are to suppose that God, through them, is speaking unto us. The one class is useful for fulness of knowledge; the other, for authority in religion; in which authority the canon is preserved."
3. But again: it may be maintained, without any prejudice to the completeness of the canon, that there may have been inspired writings which were not intended for the instruction of the church in all ages, but composed by the prophets for some special occasion. These writings though inspired, were not canonical. They were temporary in their design; and when that was accomplished, they were no longer needed. We know that the prophets delivered, by inspiration, many discourses to the people, of which we have not a trace on record. Many true prophets are mentioned, who wrote nothing that we know of; and several are mentioned, whose names are not even given. The same is true of the Apostles. Very few of them had any concern in writing the canonical Scriptures, and yet they all possessed plenary inspiration. And if they wrote letters on special occasions, to the churches planted by them; yet these were not designed for the perpetual instruction of the universal church. Therefore, Shemaiah, and Iddo, and Nathan, and Gad, might have written some things by inspiration which were never intended to form a part of the sacred volume. It is not asserted that there certainly existed such temporary inspired writings: all that is necessary to be maintained is, that, supposing such to have existed, which is not improbable, it does not follow that the canon is incomplete by reason of their loss.
4. The last remark in relation to the books of the Old Testament supposed to be lost is, that it is highly probable that we have several of them now in the canon, under another name. The books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, were, probably, not written by one, but by a succession of prophets. There is reason to believe that, until the canon of sacred Scripture was closed, the succession of prophets was never interrupted. Whatever was necessary to be added, by way of explanation, to any book already received into the canon, they were competent to annex; or, whatever annals or histories it was the purpose of God to have transmitted to posterity, they would be directed and inspired to prepare. Thus, different parts of these books might have been penned by Gad, Nathan, Iddo, Shemaiah, &c. That some parts of these histories were prepared by prophets, we have clear proof in one instance; for Isaiah has inserted in his prophecy several chapters which are contained in 2 Kings, and which, I think, there can be no doubt were originally written by himself. The Jewish doctors are of opinion that the book of Jasher is one of the books of the Pentateuch, or the whole law. The book of the wars of the Lord has by many been supposed to be no other than the book of Numbers.
Thus, it sufficiently appears from an examination of particulars, that there exists no evidence that any canonical book of the Old Testament has been lost. To which we may add, that there are many general considerations of great weight which go to prove that no part of the Scriptures of the Old Testament has been lost. The translation of these books into Greek is sufficient to show that the same books existed nearly two hundred years before the advent of Christ. And, above all, the unqualified testimony to the Scriptures of the Old Testament, by Christ and his Apostles, ought to satisfy us that we have lost none of the inspired books of the canon. The Scriptures are constantly referred to, and quoted as infallible authority by them, as we have before shown. These oracles were committed to the Jews as a sacred deposit, and they are never charged with unfaithfulness in this trust. The Scriptures are declared to have been written "for our learning;" and no intimation is given that they had ever been mutilated, or in any degree corrupted.
As to the New Testament, the same author proceeds: With respect to the New Testament, I am ready to concede, as was before done, that there may have been books written by inspired men that have been lost: for inspiration was occasional, not constant; and confined to matters of faith, and not afforded on the affairs of this life, or in matters of mere science. And if such writings have been lost, the canon of Scripture has suffered no more by this means, than by the loss of any other uninspired books. But again: I am willing to go farther, and say that it is possible (although I know no evidence of the fact) that some things, written under the influence of inspiration, for a particular, occasion, and to rectify some disorder in a particular church, may have been lost, without injury to the canon. For, since much that the Apostles preached by inspiration is undoubtedly lost, so there is no reason why every word which they wrote must necessarily be preserved, and form a part of the canonical volume. For example: suppose that when St. Paul said, "I wrote to you in an epistle not to company with fornicators," 1 Corinthians 5:9 , he referred to an epistle which he had written to the Corinthians, before the one now called the First; it might never have been intended that this letter should form a constituent part of the canon; for although it treated of subjects connected with Christian faith or practice, yet, an occasion having arisen, in a short time, of treating these subjects more at large, every thing in that epistle (supposing it ever to have been written) may have been included in the two Epistles to the Corinthians which are now in the canon.
1. The first argument to prove that no canonical book has been lost, is derived from the watchful care of providence over the sacred Scriptures. Now, to suppose that a book written by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and intended to form a part of the canon, which is the rule of faith to the church, should be utterly and irrecoverably lost, is surely not very honourable to the wisdom of God, and in no way consonant with the ordinary method of his dispensations, in regard to his precious truth. There is good reason to think that, if God saw it needful, and for the edification of the church, that such books should be written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, by his providence he would have taken care to preserve them from destruction. We do know that this treasure of divine truth has been, in all ages, and in the worst times, the special care of God, or not one of the sacred books would now be in existence. And if one canonical book might be lost through the negligence or unfaithfulness of men, why not all? And thus the end of God, in making a revelation of his will, might have been defeated. But whatever other corruptions have crept into the Jewish or Christian churches, it does not appear that either of them, as a body, ever incurred the censure of having been careless in preserving the oracles of God. Our Saviour never charges the Jews, who perverted the sacred Scriptures to their own ruin, with having lost any portion of the sacred deposit intrusted to them. History informs us of the fierce and malignant design of Antiochus Epiphanes, to abolish every vestige of the sacred volume; but the same history assures us that the Jewish people manifested a heroic fortitude and invincible patience in resisting and defeating his impious purpose. They chose rather to sacrifice their lives, and suffer a cruel death, than to deliver up the copies of the sacred volume in their possession. And the same spirit was manifested, and with the same result, in the Dioclesian persecution of the Christians. Every effort was made to obliterate the sacred writings of Christians; and multitudes suffered death for refusing to deliver up the New Testament. Some, indeed, overcome by the terrors of a cruel persecution, did, in the hour of temptation, consent to surrender the holy book; but they were ever afterward called traitors; and it was with the utmost difficulty that any of them could be received again into the communion of the church, after a long repentance, and the most humbling confessions of their fault. Now, if any canonical book was ever lost, it must have been in these early times, when the word of God was valued far above life, and when every Christian stood ready to seal the truth with his blood.
2. Another argument which appears to me to be convincing is, that in a little time, all the sacred books were dispersed over the whole world. If a book had, by some accident or violence, been destroyed in one region, the loss could soon have been repaired, by sending for copies to other countries. The considerations just mentioned would, I presume, be satisfactory to all candid minds, were it not that it is supposed that there is evidence that some things were written by the Apostles which are not now in the canon. We have already referred to an epistle to the Corinthians, which St. Paul is supposed to have written to them, previously to the writing of those which we now possess. But it is by no means certain, or even probable, that St. Paul ever did write such an epistle; for not one ancient writer makes the least mention of any such letter, nor is there any where to be found any citation from it, or any reference to it. It is a matter of testimony, in which all the fathers concur, as with one voice, that St. Paul wrote no more than fourteen epistles, all of which we now have. But still, St. Paul's own declaration stands in the way of our opinion "I wrote to you in an epistle," 1 Corinthians 5:9 ; 1 Corinthians 5:11 . The words in the original are, ‘Εγραψα υμιν εν τη επιστολη : the literal, version of which is, "I have written to you in the epistle," or "in this epistle;" that is, in the former part of it; where, in fact, we find the very thing which he says that he had written. See 1 Corinthians 5:2 ; 1 Corinthians 5:5-6 . But it is thought by learned and judicious commentators, that the words following, Νυνι δε εγραψα
υμιν , But now I have written unto you," require that we should understand the former clause, as relating to some former time; but a careful attention to the context will convince us that this reference is by no means necessary. The Apostle had told them in the beginning of the chapter, to avoid the company of fornicators, &c; but it is manifest, from the tenth verse, that he apprehended that his meaning might be misunderstood, by extending the prohibition too far, so as to decline all intercourse with the world; therefore, he repeats what he had said, and informs them that it had relation only to the professors of Christianity, who should be guilty of such vices. The whole may be thus paraphrased: "I wrote to you above in my letter, that you should separate from those who were fornicators, and that you should purge them out as did leaven; but, fearing lest you should misapprehend my meaning, by inferring that I have directed you to avoid all intercourse with the Heathen around you, who are addicted to these shameful vices, which would make it necessary that you should go out of the world, I now inform you that my meaning is, that you do not associate familiarly with any who make a profession of Christianity, and yet continue in these evil practices." In confirmation of this interpretation, we can adduce the old Syriac version, which, having been made soon after the days of the Apostles, is good testimony in relation to this matter of fact. In this venerable version, the meaning of the eleventh verse is thus given: "This is what I have written unto you," or, "the meaning of what I have written unto you."
The only other passage in the New Testament which has been thought to refer to an epistle of St. Paul not now extant, is that in Colossians 4:16 : "And when this epistle is read among you, cause also that it be read in the church of the Laodiceans, and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea." But what evidence is there that St. Paul ever wrote an epistle to the Laodiceans? The text on which this opinion has been founded, in ancient and modern times, correctly interpreted, has no such import. The words in the original are, και την εκ Λαοδικειας ινα και υμεις
αναγνωτε , "and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea,"
Colossians 4:16 . These words have been differently taken; for, by them some understand that an epistle had been written by St. Paul to the Laodiceans, which he desired might be read in the church at Colosse. Chrysostom seems to have understood them thus; and the Romish writers almost universally have adopted this opinion. "Therefore," says Bellarmine, "it is certain that St. Paul's epistle to the Laodiceans is now lost." And their opinion is favoured by the Latin Vulgate, where we read, eamque Laodicensium, "that which is of the Laodiceans;" but even these words admit of another construction. Many learned Protestants, also, have embraced the same interpretation; while others suppose that St. Paul here refers to the epistle to the Ephesians, which they think he sent to the Laodiceans, and that the present inscription is spurious. But that neither of these opinions is correct, may be rendered very probable. That St. Paul could not intend, by the language used in the passage under consideration, an epistle written by himself, will appear by the following arguments:
(1.) St. Paul could not, with any propriety of speech, have called an epistle written by himself, and sent to the Laodiceans, an epistle from Laodicea. He certainly would have said, προς Λαοδικειαν , [1] or some such thing. Who ever heard of an epistle addressed to any individual, or to any society, denominated an epistle from them?
(2.) If the epistle referred to in this passage had been one written by St. Paul, it would have been most natural for him to call it his epistle; and this would have rendered his meaning incapable of misconstruction.
(3.) All those best qualified to judge of the fact, and who were well acquainted with St. Paul's history and writings, never mention any such epistle: neither Clement, Hermas, nor the Syriac interpreter, knew any thing of such an epistle of St. Paul.
But it may be asked, To what epistle, then, does St. Paul refer? It seems safest in such a case, where testimony is deficient, to follow the literal sense of the words, and to believe that it was an epistle written by the Laodiceans, probably to himself, which he had sent to the Colossians, together with his own epistle, for their perusal.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Stark, Canon a
(died 1839) Astronomer. Did researches valuable in ascertaining sun-spot periodicity.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Canon
The Greek word denotes, primarily, a straight rod; hence a rule or standard, by a reference to which the rectitude of opinions or actions may be decided. In the latter sense it is used in Galatians 6:16 Philippians 3:16 . In the same sense it was used by the Greek fathers. As the standard to which they sought to appeal on all questions was the will of God contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, they came naturally to apply this term to the collective body of those writings, and to speak of them as the canon or rule. Canon is also equivalent to a list of catalogue, in which are inserted those books which contain the inspired rule of faith.
In order to establish the canon of Scripture, it must be shown that all the books are of divine authority; that they are entire and incorrupt; that it is complete without addition from any foreign source; and that the whole of the books for which divine authority can be proved are included. See BIBLE .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Canon of Scripture, the,
may be generally described as the "collection of books which form the original and authoritative written rule of the faith and practice of the Christian Church," i.e. the Old and New Testaments. The word canon , in classical Greek, is properly a straight rod , "a rule" in the widest sense, and especially in the phrases "the rule of the Church," "the rule of faith," "the rule of truth," The first direct application of the term canon to the Scriptures seems to be in the verses of Amphilochius (cir. 380 A.D.), where the word indicates the rule by which the contents of the Bible must be determined, and thus secondarily an index of the constituent books. The uncanonical books were described simply as "those without" or "those uncanonized." The canonical books were also called "books of the testament," and Jerome styled the whole collection by the striking name of "the holy library," which happily expresses the unity and variety of the Bible. After the Maccabean persecution the history of the formation of the Canon is merged in the history of its contents. The Old Testament appears from that time as a whole. The complete Canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at present, was ratified at the third Council of Carthage (A.D. 397), and from that time was accepted throughout the Latin Church. Respecting the books of which the Canon is composed, see the article BIBLE . (The books of Scripture were not made canonical by act of any council, but the council gave its sanction to the results of long and careful investigations as to what books were really of divine authority and expressed the universally-accepted decisions of the church. The Old Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude. --ED.)
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Canon
According to the word’s early usages, a canon was a rule, standard, measure or list. According to popular Christian usage, the ‘canon’ of Scripture is that collection of writings that the church acknowledges as the authoritative Word of God. In other words, it is the list of books that make up the Bible. It consists of the Old Testament canon, which had become established during the centuries before the time of Christ, and the New Testament canon, which became established during the early centuries of the Christian era.
Canonical books are those acknowledged as being written through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit (see INSPIRATION). Non-canonical books are religious books of the biblical era that are not acknowledged as being the inspired Word of God and have therefore not been collected in the Bible. They may be useful, and may even be referred to by the writers of the Bible (e.g. Numbers 21:14; 2 Peter 3:15-169; 1 Chronicles 29:29; Judges 1:9; Judges 1:14), but they have no divine authority.
Israelite writers
From the beginning of their history as a nation, Israelites kept written accounts of their law and significant events in their history (Exodus 24:4; Numbers 33:2; Joshua 24:26; 1 Kings 11:41). Some of these writings were regarded as sacred and were kept at Israel’s sanctuary (Deuteronomy 31:24-26; 2 Kings 22:8). Others were used as sources of information for the writing of books that later became part of the Bible (1 Kings 14:19; 1 Kings 15:7; 2 Chronicles 9:29; 2 Chronicles 12:15; 2 Chronicles 20:34).
While some people made written records of laws and events, others made collections of proverbs and psalms (1 Kings 4:32; Psalms 72:20; Proverbs 25:1). In addition prophets often wrote down their messages (Isaiah 30:8; Isaiah 34:16; Jeremiah 36:2; Jeremiah 51:60) and people who recognized these messages as God’s Word quoted them as authoritative (Jeremiah 26:17-18; Daniel 9:2).
The Old Testament collection
Under the guiding control of God, a recognized body of sacred writings was growing up in Israel. However, the formation of an official canon was not something that people planned. No person or group of persons decided to make an Old Testament canon. From the time of Moses people had clearly recognized certain writings as being the voice of God speaking to them, and as the years passed the collection of authoritative books grew. No one gave the books their authority. The books had authority within themselves, and people could do no more than acknowledge this.
No one knows for certain when the collection of sacred writings that we call the Old Testament was completed, but there are good reasons for thinking that Ezra and Nehemiah helped shape it towards its final form. They had come to Jerusalem in 458 and 445 BC respectively (Ezra 7:1-10; Nehemiah 2:1-8), and played an important part in establishing the sacred writings as the basis of Israel’s religious life in the post-captivity period (Nehemiah 8:1-3; Nehemiah 8:8; Nehemiah 9:1-3). Leaders of following generations probably completed the work that Ezra and Nehemiah had begun.
It seems clear that the Jewish canon (i.e. our Old Testament) was firmly established by the time of Christ (Matthew 21:42; Luke 24:27; John 5:39). Towards the end of the first century AD a council of Jewish leaders confirmed that Jews recognized these books, and no others, as canonical. (For the composition of the Old Testament see SCRIPTURES. For the authority of the Old Testament canon that Jesus and New Testament writers acknowledged see INSPIRATION.)
Apocryphal writings
The third and second centuries BC produced many new Jewish writings. Some of these were vividly written and therefore were very popular, particularly in an age when great changes were occurring in the Jewish world. But their popularity did not give them authority, and they were never accepted into the Jewish canon.
These non-canonical books are in two groups. One group is known as the Apocrypha (literally, ‘hidden’, but meaning ‘disapproved’ or ‘outside’; i.e. outside the canon). The other group is known as the Pseudepigrapha (meaning ‘written under a false name’). In popular usage, ‘Apocrypha’ often refers to the two groups together. Early Christians may have read the books (e.g. Judges 1:9; Judges 1:14), but they did not regard them as Scripture.
Early Christian writings
In the early days of the church, the ‘Bible’ that the Christians used was what we call the Old Testament (Luke 24:27; Luke 24:44; Acts 8:32; Acts 17:2; Acts 17:11; Romans 1:2; Romans 4:3; Romans 9:17; 2 Timothy 3:15-16). But with the coming of Jesus, Christians saw that God’s revelation did not end with the Old Testament.
Jesus had promised the apostles that after he returned to his Father, the Holy Spirit would come to indwell them, enabling them to recall, interpret and apply his teachings (John 14:25-26; John 16:13-15). The writings of the New Testament are part of the fulfilment of that promise. Apostles had God-given authority, and Christians recognized their teachings and writings as having the same authority as the Old Testament Scriptures (1 Corinthians 14:37; 1 Thessalonians 5:27; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:14; 2 Peter 3:2; Revelation 1:1-3).
A growing collection
As the writings of the apostles circulated, they gradually grew into a new collection in addition to, yet equal to, the Old Testament collection (1618480831_74). It seems that when the early Christians evaluated the worth of the writings available to them, an important consideration was whether those writings came from the apostles or those who had the apostles’ approval. The Gospels, the letters of Paul, the book of Acts, and the letters 1 Peter and 1 John were accepted everywhere as authoritative from the time they began to circulate.
During the latter part of the first century and the early part of the second, a number of other Christian writings were circulating widely. Some of these were useful, but they were not accepted by the churches as authoritative. In time Christians in general acknowledged that these writings were not inspired Scripture, with the result that they were excluded from the developing New Testament canon.
On the other hand people in some regions took longer to accept all the writings that are now part of the New Testament. Although a particular church or group of churches may have accepted an apostolic letter as having authority for them, churches elsewhere may not have immediately seen the relevance of the letter for all churches. No doubt there were many letters which, though having apostolic authority, were not preserved (1 Corinthians 5:9
Completion of the canon
By the middle of the second century, churches in some places had a collection of books approximately equal to the present New Testament. But in other places people still had doubts about a small minority of books.
The damaging activity of false teachers was one factor that prompted church leaders to consider more closely which books were to be regarded as canonical and which were not. Church Councils met to discuss the matter at length, and by the end of the fourth century there was general agreement that the New Testament canon consists of the twenty-seven books that we recognize today.
Church Councils may have performed a useful service, but they could give no authority to the biblical books. The authority lay within the books themselves. They were the living Word of God (John 7:17; 1 Thessalonians 2:13), and the Councils could do no more than acknowledge that authority. They did not create the canon, but merely acknowledged that Christians and churches everywhere recognized the books as being God’s inspired and authoritative Word.

Sentence search

Cannonical - ) Of or pertaining to a Canon; established by, or according to a , Canon or Canons
Auditor - He is appointed by the Ordinary permanently or for a specific case, otherwise by the presiding judge (canon 1580), and is chosen from the synodal judges, or from the respective religious institute involved (canon 1581). The auditor is never allowed to pronounce final sentence (canon 1582)
Canon - The Canon consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New. The Canon is closed which means there is no more revelation to become Scripture
Apocrypha - See Canon
Can. - = Canonicus (a Canon) ...
Cannon Bone - See Canon Bone
Canon - ...
In biblical usage, the official catalog of inspired writings known as the Old and New Testament See also: Canon of the Holy Scriptures. See also Canon Law; Canon Law, New Code of. See also Canon of the Mass. ...
The catalog of Canonized saints. See Canons, Chapters of; Canon Penitentiary; Canons and Canonesses Regular; Canons Regular of Saint Augustine; Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception; Canons Regular of the Lateran. ...
In printing, a size of type almost equal to four-line picar 48-point type; it is said to be so called because it was used for printing the Canon of the Mass and church books
Canon - See Bible, Canon of the ...
...
Megilloth - See Canon of OT, § 8
Hagiographa - See Canon of OT, § 8
Canonicate - ) The office of a Canon; a Canonry
Canon - THE Canon OF SCRIPTURE means those books of Scripture which theChurch has received or accepted as inspired, and therefore declaresthem to be Canonical, to distinguish them from profane, apocryphalor disputed books. Canon LAW means the body of ecclesiastical laws enacted by theChurch for the rule and discipline of its clergy and people. Thereare ecumenical Canons, including the Apostolic Canons of unknowndate, and the Canons of the undisputed General Councils; the Canonsof the English Church which are regarded as binding in this countrywhere they do not conflict with enactments of the American Church;the General Canons of the American Church, and the Diocesan Canonsenacted by the various Dioceses. THE Canon OF THE LITURGY, by which is meant the rule for thecelebration of the Holy Communion by which it is always to beoffered. This includes the Prayer of Consecration, which was formerlycalled the "Canon of the Mass. Canon, the name given to a clergyman connected with a cathedral;an officer of the cathedral staff; a member of the cathedralchapter. ...
Canonical—Pertaining, or according to the Canons
j.u.d. - = Juris Utriusque Doctor [1] ...
New Testament - See Bible, Canon of NT
Old Testament - See Bible, Canon of OT, Text of OT
b.u.j. - = Baccalaureus Utriusque Juris; Bachelor of Both Laws (civil and Canon) ...
Canonicity - ) The state or quality of being Canonical; agreement with the Canon
Scripture - See Bible, Authority of the ; Bible, Canon of the ; Bible, Inspiration of the ...
...
Canon of Scripture, the, - The word Canon , in classical Greek, is properly a straight rod , "a rule" in the widest sense, and especially in the phrases "the rule of the Church," "the rule of faith," "the rule of truth," The first direct application of the term Canon to the Scriptures seems to be in the verses of Amphilochius (cir. The uncanonical books were described simply as "those without" or "those uncanonized. " The Canonical books were also called "books of the testament," and Jerome styled the whole collection by the striking name of "the holy library," which happily expresses the unity and variety of the Bible. After the Maccabean persecution the history of the formation of the Canon is merged in the history of its contents. The complete Canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at present, was ratified at the third Council of Carthage (A. Respecting the books of which the Canon is composed, see the article BIBLE . (The books of Scripture were not made Canonical by act of any council, but the council gave its sanction to the results of long and careful investigations as to what books were really of divine authority and expressed the universally-accepted decisions of the church. The Old Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude
d.c.l. - Doctor Civilis Legis (Doctor of Civil Law) ...
- or - ...
Doctor Canonicæ Legis (Doctor of Canon Law) ...
j.c.d. - = Juris Canonici Doctor (Doctor of Canon Law); or Juris Civilis Doctor (Doctor of Civil Law) ...
Holy Cross Abbey, Colorado - Canon City, Colorado, founded by the Benedictines, 1886; abbey since 1925; conducts the Abbey School
Abbey, Holy Cross, Colorado - Canon City, Colorado, founded by the Benedictines, 1886; abbey since 1925; conducts the Abbey School
b.c.l. - = Baccalwureus Civilis Legis (Bachelor of Civil Law); or Baccalaureus Canonicre Legis (Bachelor of Canon Law)
Canonist - ) A professor of Canon law; one skilled in the knowledge and practice of ecclesiastical law
Johann Reiffenstuel - Canonist. He taught philosophy at Freising, Landshut, and Munich, and Canon law at Freising. His works on moral theology and Canon law give him first rank among the Canonists of his time, and have gone through numerous editions, with additions by other authors
Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg - Canonist. He taught philosophy at Freising, Landshut, and Munich, and Canon law at Freising. His works on moral theology and Canon law give him first rank among the Canonists of his time, and have gone through numerous editions, with additions by other authors
Samaritan Pentateuch - The Canon or “Bible” of the Samaritans, who revere the Torah as God's revelation to Moses on Mount Sinai and do not regard the rest of the Hebrew Bible as Canon
Liturgical Commixture - In the Canon of the Mass, the dropping of the Sacred Particle into the chalice after the Pater Noster
Deuterocanonical - ) Pertaining to a second Canon, or ecclesiastical writing of inferior authority; - said of the Apocrypha, certain Epistles, etc
Canonicals - ) The dress prescribed by Canon to be worn by a clergyman when officiating
Deuterocanonical - In the school theology, an appellation given to certain books of holy Scripture, which were added to the Canon after the rest, either by reason they were not wrote till after the compilation of the Canon, or by reason of some dispute as to their Canonicity. the word is Greek, being compounded of second; and Canonical. The Jews, it is certain, acknowledged several books in their Canon, which were put there later than the rest. And the Romish church has since added others to the Canon, that were not, and could not be, in the Canon of the Jews, by reason some of them were not composed till after: such as the book of Ecclesiasticus, with several of the apocryphal books, as the Macabees, Wisdom, &c. ...
Others were added still later, by reason their Canonicity had not been yet examined; and till such examen and judgment they might be set aside at pleasure. But since that church has pronounced as to the Canonicity of those books, there is no more room now for her members to doubt of them, than there was for the Jews to doubt of those of the Canon of Esdras. And the deuterocanonical books are with them as Canonical as the proto- Canonical; the only difference between them consisting in this, that the Canonicity of the one was not generally known, examined, and settled, as soon as that of the others. The deuterocanonical books in the modern Canon are, the book of Esther, either the whole, or at least the seven last chapters thereof; the epistle to the Hebrews; that of James, and that of Jude; the second of St. The deuterocanonical parts of books are, the hymn of the three children; the prayer of Azariah; the histories of Susannah, or Bel and the Dragon; the last chapter of St. 8: ...
See Canon
Maccabees - ) Books of the Apocrypha: interesting as giving a Jewish history of many events which occurred after the sacred Canon closed with Malachi; especially the heroic and successful struggle of the Maccabees for Judah's independence against the Old Testament antichrist and persecutor, Antiochus Epiphanes, of whom Daniel 8; Daniel 11 foretells. (See Canon; BIBLE; DANIEL; JERUSALEM
Protocanonical - ) Of or pertaining to the first Canon, or that which contains the authorized collection of the books of Scripture; - opposed to deutero-canonical
Froissart, Jean - He was made Canon of Lille, 1393, and Canon and treasurer to Chimay, 1394
Jean Froissart - He was made Canon of Lille, 1393, and Canon and treasurer to Chimay, 1394
Deuterogamy - ) A second marriage, after the death of the first husband of wife; - in distinction from bigamy, as defined in the old Canon law
Residentiary - ) Having residence; as, a Canon residentary; a residentiary guardian
Bible, Study of the - Due to their devout as well as scientific labors we have what is called an Introduction to the Bible, treating the inspiration of the Sacred Books, their Canon, their meaning (exegesis) and the rules which guide students in determining this (hermeneutics), as well as the late studies necessitated by the criticism, higher as it is called, of the Sacred Books. See ...
Canon of Holy Scriptures
Biblcical criticism
exegesis
hermeneutics
Biblical introduction
Study of the Bible - Due to their devout as well as scientific labors we have what is called an Introduction to the Bible, treating the inspiration of the Sacred Books, their Canon, their meaning (exegesis) and the rules which guide students in determining this (hermeneutics), as well as the late studies necessitated by the criticism, higher as it is called, of the Sacred Books. See ...
Canon of Holy Scriptures
Biblcical criticism
exegesis
hermeneutics
Biblical introduction
Time, Paschal - In Canon law, period during which every Catholic must receive Holy Communion
Clementine - and his compilations of Canon law
Bible, Canon of the - The word "canon" derives from the Hebrew term qaneh and the Greek term kanon , both of which refer to a measuring rod. The Jewish Canon was written in both Hebrew and Aramaic, while the Christian Canon was written in Greek. ...
Theology and Criteria of Canonicity The historic Christian belief is that the Holy Spirit who inspired the writing of the books also controlled their selection and that this is something to be discerned by spiritual insight rather than by historical research. It is felt that statements in the writings themselves (such as 1 Corinthians 2:13 ; 14:37 ; Galatians 1:8-9 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:13 ) would cause local churches to preserve them and eventually collect them in a general Canon. In the Old Testament Canon there were questions about Esther for a period of time because it does not contain the name of God. "
The Old Testament Canon Although Christians include both Old and New Testaments in their Canon, Jews do not accept a "New" Testament and repudiate the identification of their Canon as the "Old" Testament. The proper designation for the Jewish Bible is Tanak, an acronym constituted from the initial letters of the three divisions of that Canon—Law (Torah), Prophets (Naviim), and Writings (Kethubim). ...
There are also important differences in the content and order of the early Canons. But the Hebrew Old Testament Canon recognized by Palestinian Jews (Tanak) did not include the fourteen books of the Apocrypha. ...
The Hebrew Canon was a thousand years in formation and nothing is known about this process. 90, the Canon itself was not a topic of consideration and this group had no decision-making power. Historically, Jewish scholars have considered the Canon closed since the time of Malachi, and have not included the Apocrypha, which was written in subsequent times. ...
The New Testament Canon The formation of the New Testament Canon, like the Old, was a process rather than an event. Analysis of the process is more historical than biblical, since the church of the New Testament, like the Israel of the Old Testament, never had the complete Canon during the time spanned by its Canonical literature. ...
Paul refers to a previous letter he wrote to Corinth (1 Corinthians 5:9 ) and to a letter to the Laodiceans (Colossians 4:16 ), neither of which the early church preserved in its Canon. This is what is meant by the term "canon"that which was finally accepted on an empirewide basis. ...
Throughout the Roman Empire there existed local Canons that often represented no wider usage than that of a particular city and its immediate surroundings. The Muratorian Canon, probably representative of the church in Rome in the second century, includes books not in our Canon, and differentiates those that can be read in public to the whole church from those which are to be read only in private devotion. Such is the process of Canonization. Local Canons, which often contained some books not utilized by other local churches, were eventually replaced by those lists that represented the general usage of churches throughout the empire. These discussions began as early as the second century and escalated in the christological controversies of the fourth century, when we have our first full lists of Canonical New Testament books. ...
There are no extant lists from the third century, and only the Muratorian Canon remains from the second, although its form is only a discussion of various books and not a Canon in the proper sense of the term. ...
The earliest extant use of the term "canon" is from the fourth century in the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius of Caesarea (6. Correspondingly, the first record of discussions about the Canon and the differentiation of various categories within it is from this century. ...
Division of individual books of the Canon into smaller sections is first indicated in the fourth century, in Codex Vaticanus, which uses paragraph divisions, somewhat comparable to the Hebrew Bible. Our familiar chapter and verse divisions were introduced into the Bible quite late in the history of the Canon. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture ; idem, The Books and the Parchments ; H. Childs, The New Testament as Canon ; E. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament ; H. Ryle, The Canon of the Old Testament ; J. Sanders, Torah and Canon ; B. Westcott, The Canon of the New Testament
Canon - As the standard to which they sought to appeal on all questions was the will of God contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, they came naturally to apply this term to the collective body of those writings, and to speak of them as the Canon or rule. Canon is also equivalent to a list of catalogue, in which are inserted those books which contain the inspired rule of faith. ...
In order to establish the Canon of Scripture, it must be shown that all the books are of divine authority; that they are entire and incorrupt; that it is complete without addition from any foreign source; and that the whole of the books for which divine authority can be proved are included
in Commendam - (Latin: in trust) ...
In Canon law denotes that an ecclesiastical benefice was collated so that the beneficiary should be entitled to the revenue from the benefice without having any jurisdiction over spiritual matters
Canonry - ) A benefice or prebend in a cathedral or collegiate church; a right to a place in chapter and to a portion of its revenues; the dignity or emoluments of a Canon
Book - A sacred or Canonical document ( Daniel 9:2 ); see Canon of OT
Dignitary - (Latin: dignus, worthy) ...
A person of high rank, especially clerical; in Canon law, a member of a chapter, possessing not only a foremost rank but a certain jurisdiction, e
Apocrypha - Signifies properly hidden, concealed; and as applied to books, it means those which assume a claim to a sacred character, but are really uninspired, and have not been publicly admitted into the Canon. Those which were in existence in the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the Jews into the Canon of the Old Testament, because they had no Hebrew original and were regarded as not divinely inspired. The most important of these are collected in the Apocrypha often bound up with the English Bible; but in the Septuagint and Vulgate they stand as Canonical. Josephus and Philo, of the first century, exclude them from the Canon. The Talmud contains no trace of them; and from the various lists of the Old Testament Scriptures in the early centuries, it is clear that then as now they formed no part of the Hebrew Canon. Those which were written after the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the churches into the Canon of the New Testament, as not being divinely inspired
Mannyng, Robert - Gilbertine Canon, born Bourne, Lincolnshire, England, c
Adeste Fideles - There are 40 translations; the one commonly used is by Canon Oakeley
Year, Claustral - (Latin: annus claustralis) A year of strict residence, signifying the first year following the appointment of a Canon, when he was bound by such strict rules as to suggest the sacredness of enclosure in monastic life
Robert Mannyng - Gilbertine Canon, born Bourne, Lincolnshire, England, c
a Kempis, Thomas - A Canon Regular, his principal occupation was copying works of piety, particularly the Bible
Anaphora - (Greek: offering, sacrifice) ...
In the Greek Rite: ...
(1) part of the service which corresponds to Latin Canon of the Mass; ...
(2) offering of Eucharistic bread; ...
(3) aer (veil); ...
(4) procession in which offerings are brought to the altar
Canon - The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament writers. Thus they endorse as genuine and authentic the Canon of the Jewish Scriptures. As to the time at which the Old Testament Canon was closed, there are many considerations which point to that of Ezra and Nehemiah, immediately after the return from Babylonian exile
Cessationism - ) ceased with the closing of the Canon of scripture and/or the death of the last apostle
Preponderancy - ) The excess of weight of that part of a Canon behind the trunnions over that in front of them
Catholic University of America - Washington, DC; founded, 1889; conducted by the bishops of the United States; schools of philosophy, letters, sciences, law, sacred sciences, Canon law; summer school; professors, 114; students (including Sisters College, Trinity College, and Summer School), 2,245; degrees conferred in 1929,237
Canonization - ) The final process or decree (following beatifacation) by which the name of a deceased person is placed in the catalogue (canon) of saints and commended to perpetual veneration and invocation. ) The state of being Canonized or sainted
Andrew of Crete, Saint - He was the author of many scriptural discourses, but is principally interesting as the inventor of the "Greek Canon," a form of hymnology previously unknown
Bowing - The late Canon Liddon, in one of his sermons, said, "Thereverence of the soul is best secured when the body, its companionand instrument, is reverent also. Thus in regard to bowing towards the Altar, the 7th Canon of theEnglish Church of 1640, which enjoins the custom, declares, "doingreverence and obeisance both at their coming in and going out ofchurches, chancels, or chapels was a most ancient custom of thePrimitive Church in the purest times. "At the Name of Jesus every knee shouldbow," and is enjoined by the 18th Canon of 1604 in these words,"When in the time of divine service the Lord Jesus shall bementioned, due and lowly reverence shall be done by all personspresent
Rescript - ) The official written answer of the pope upon a question of Canon law, or morals
Irremovability - (Latin: in, not; removere, to remove) ...
The quality of not being liable to, or capable of, displacement; in Canon Law, a quality of the tenure of certain offices; e
Canonize - ) To rate as inspired; to include in the Canon. ) To declare (a deceased person) a saint; to put in the catalogue of saints; as, Thomas a Becket was Canonized
Rehabilitate - ) To invest or clothe again with some right, authority, or dignity; to restore to a former capacity; to reinstate; to qualify again; to restore, as a delinquent, to a former right, rank, or privilege lost or forfeited; - a term of civil and Canon law
Access - ...
(2) In Canon law, a right at some future time to a certain benefice which is in abeyance through lack of age or other condition
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - For the Old Testament the Jews distinguished the books contained in the Hebrew Bible (see Protocanonical) from the additional writings (see Deutebocanonical) preserved by the Jews of Alexandria in their venerated Greek version, the Septuagint. Early Christian writers bear witness to a widespread influence of this distinction within the Church, until official decrees established uniformity regarding the extent of the Canon. The formation of the New Testament Canon also shows a gradual development. Thus the Muratorian Canon (c. The oldest extant catalog which includes all the Canonical books is that of Saint Athanasius (39th Festival Letter in 367). ...
The first official decision concerning the Canon of the Holy Scriptures was given at a Roman synod under Pope Damasus in 382, approving without distinction the entire list of our present Canon. In the same manner the Synod of Hippo in 392 and the Third Council of Carthage in 397 accepted the complete Canon. With an appeal to these earlier voices, the Fathers of the Council of Trent in their famous decree of April 8, 1546, definitely declared as "sacred and Canonical" all the books of the Old and New Testament contained in the Vulgate, listing them as follows. The Protestant reformers of the 16th century adhered to the narrower Canon of the Hebrew Bible, and in the New Testament rejected Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse
Acta Apostolicre Sedis - A monthly publication established by Constitution, "Promulgandi," September 29, 1908, as official journal of the Holy See; its authoritative and official character is reasserted in Canon 9 of the Code
Viaticum - A Canon of the Nicene Council (A
Forgery - In Canon law, forgery may be by word, as false testimony; or by writing, as falsifiication of a document; or by deed, as counterfeiting money; and finally it is also the conscious utilization of such forgery
Obreption - In Canon law, the making of a false statement in a petition for a favor
Office, Abuse of - Is taken in Canon law in the very wide sense of the evil and unlawful use of ecclesiastical power or office and the term is not restricted to tyrannical use. The first Canon of the title states: "Abuse of ecclesiastical power shall, at the prudent judgment of the legitimate superior, be punished according to the gravity of the fault, the prescriptions of the Canons which enact a certain punishment for the same abuses being observed. " The remaining Canons give the special sanctions decreed against abuses which take place in the general government of dioceses and of religious communities
Chaplains of Sisters - According to Canon Law (canon 464) such chapels are under the spiritual care of the pastor in whose parish they are situated
Abuse of Office - Is taken in Canon law in the very wide sense of the evil and unlawful use of ecclesiastical power or office and the term is not restricted to tyrannical use. The first Canon of the title states: "Abuse of ecclesiastical power shall, at the prudent judgment of the legitimate superior, be punished according to the gravity of the fault, the prescriptions of the Canons which enact a certain punishment for the same abuses being observed. " The remaining Canons give the special sanctions decreed against abuses which take place in the general government of dioceses and of religious communities
Abuse of Power - Is taken in Canon law in the very wide sense of the evil and unlawful use of ecclesiastical power or office and the term is not restricted to tyrannical use. The first Canon of the title states: "Abuse of ecclesiastical power shall, at the prudent judgment of the legitimate superior, be punished according to the gravity of the fault, the prescriptions of the Canons which enact a certain punishment for the same abuses being observed. " The remaining Canons give the special sanctions decreed against abuses which take place in the general government of dioceses and of religious communities
Sisters, Chaplains of - According to Canon Law (canon 464) such chapels are under the spiritual care of the pastor in whose parish they are situated
Schmid, Christoph Von - Ordained in 1791, he taught school and in 1826 was appointed Canon of Augsburg Cathedral
Dispensation - A formal license, granted by ecclesiastical authority,to do something which is not ordinarily permitted by the Canons,or to leave undone something that may be prescribed. In the AmericanCanons, dispensation has special reference to an official act by theBishop whereby he may excuse candidates for Holy Orders from pursuingcertain studies required by Canon
Herring Procession - The Canons went in single file from the cathedral to Saint Remi, each dragging a herring, symbol of abstinence, and trying to put his foot on the one dragged by the next Canon ahead of him
Canon (1) - Owen, "which gives rise to the term Canonical, seems to be derived from the Hebrew kaneh, which in general signifies any reed whatever, 1 Kings 14:15 . Aristotle calls the law the rule of the administration; and hence it is that the written word of God being in itself absolutely right, and appointed to be the rule of faith and obedience, is eminently called 'canonical. '" ...
The ancient Canon of the books of the Old Testament, ordinarily attributed to Ezra, was divided into the law, the prophets, and the hagiographia, to which our Saviour refers, Luke 24:45 . This is the Canon allowed to have been followed by the primitive church till the council of Carthage; and, according to Jerome, this consisted of no more than twenty-two books, answering to the number of the Hebrew alphabet, though at present they are classed into twenty-four divisions. That council enlarged the Canon very considerably, taking into it the apocryphal books; which the council of Trent farther enforced, enjoining them to be received as books of holy Scripture, upon pain of anathema. The Romanists, in defense of this Canon, say, that it is the same with that of the council of Hippo, held in 393; and with that of the third council of Carthage of 397, at which were present forty-six bishops, and among the rest St. ...
Their Canon of the New Testament, however, perfectly agrees with ours. The catalogue of Canonical books furnished by the more ancient Christian writers, as Origen, about A. ...
See articles BIBLE, CHRISTIANITY, SCRIPTURES; Blair's Canon of Scripture; Jones's Canonical authority of the New Test. ; Du Pin's Canon of Script
Institute of Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy - Founded at Mechlin, 1839, by Canon J
Canonical Age - The age fixed by Canon law at which the Church permits or requires her members to receive the sacraments, enjoins observaooe of the rules of fasting and abstinence, determines for entrance into the religious state, for making simple or solemn vows, holding ecclesiastical offices, or receiving benefices
Gregory vi - Anti-Pope - The latter forbade him to act as pope and promised to have his claim settled by Canon law
Jaddu'a - He is the last of the high priests mentioned in the Old Testament, and probably altogether the latest name in the Canon
Canon of the New Testament - Canon OF THE NEW TESTAMENT...
1. The Greek word ‘canon,’ meaning originally a ‘rod’ and so a ‘rule for measuring,’ is used in a variety of senses by the Patristic writers, among the most familiar instances being the expressions ‘rule of truth’ and ‘rule of faith’ for the doctrinal teaching officially recognized by the bishops. Hence, since we meet with the phrase ‘canonical books’ in Origen, as rendered by Rufinus’ translation, before we see the substantive ‘canon’ applied to the list of NT books, it has been argued that the adjective was first used in the sense of ‘regulative,’ so that the phrase means ‘the books that regulate faith or morals. ’ But the substantive must mean the’ list’ of books, and in Athanasius we have a passive participle in the phrase ‘ Canonized books,’ i. books belonging to the Canon; soon after which the actual word ‘canon’ is applied to the books of the NT by Amphilochius, the bishop of Iconium (end of 4th cent. The NT Canon, then, is the list of NT books, and this simple meaning, rather than ‘the regulative books,’ is the more likely Interpretation of the expression to have occurred to people who were in the habit of using the term for lists of officials, lists of festivals, etc. The question of the Canon differs from questions of the authenticity, genuineness, historicity, inspiration, value, and authority of the several NT books in concerning itself simply with their acceptance in the Church. The Formation of the Canon in the 2nd Century . Marcion’s Canon consisted of a mutilated Gospel of St. The 30 years from Justin Martyr, who knew only a collection of 3 Gospels as specially authoritative, and that simply as records of the life and teaching of Christ, to Irenæus, with his frequent appeals to the Epistles as well as the Gospels, saw the birth of a NT Canon, but left no record of so great an event. Harnack conjectures that bishops of Asia Minor in agreement with the Church at Rome deliberately drew up and settled the Canon, although we have no historical record of so significant an event. ...
Near this time we have the earliest known Canon after that of Marcion, the most ancient extant list of NT books in the Catholic Church. ’ Further, this Canon includes Judges 1:2 Epistles of John, and the Apocalypse, which it ascribes to John. Lastly, the Canon admits Hermas for private reading, but not for use in the church services. On the other hand, Wisdom, without question, and the Apocalypse of Peter, though rejected by some, are included in this Canon, and Hermas is added for private reading. ...
Neither of these Canons can be regarded as authoritative either ecclesiastically or scientifically, since we are ignorant of their sources. Canonical books were the books read at public worship. In the true Alexandrian spirit, Clement has a wide and comprehensive idea of inspiration, and therefore no very definite conception of Scriptural exclusiveness or fixed boundaries to the Canon. 184 253), who was a more critical scholar, treated questions of Canonicity more scientifically. The Settlement of the Canon in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries . An important step towards the settlement of the Canon on historical and scientific lines was taken by Eusebius, who, with his wide reading and the great library of Pamphilus to resort to, also brought a fair and judicious mind to face the problems involved. Eusebius saw clearly that it is not always possible to give a definite affirmative or negative answer to the question whether a certain book should be in the Canon. A fourth class, which really does not come into the competition for a place in the Canon, consists of heretical works which ‘are to be rejected as altogether absurd and impious’ ( HE iii. Of course these would correspond to his own Canon and so help to fix it and spread its influence. 365) undertakes to set forth in order the books that are Canonical and handed down and believed to be Divine. His NT exactly agrees with our Canon, as does the NT of Epiphanius ( c
Returning to the West, at this later period we have an elaborate discussion on the Canon by Augustine (a. 430), who lays down rules by which the Canonicity of the several books claimed for the NT may be determined. (1) There are the books received and acknowledged by all the churches, which should therefore be treated as Canonical. The immense personal influence of Augustine and the acceptance of Jerome’s Vulgate as the standard Bible of the Christian Church gave fixity to the Canon, which was not disturbed for a thousand years. We may be thankful that the delicate and yet vital question of determining the Canon was not flung into the arena of ecclesiastical debate to be settled by the triumph of partisan churchmanship, but was allowed to mature slowly and come to its final settlement under the twofold influences of honest scholarship and Christian experience. As representing the East we have a Canon attributed to the Council of Laodicea ( c Oratory - (Latin: oratorium, from orare, to pray) ...
As a general term, signifies a place of prayer, but in Canon law means a structure, other than a parish church, set aside by ecclesiastical authority for prayer and the celebration of Mass. The code of Canon law distinguishes three kinds of oratories: ...
public, which is intended for the use of the members of a religious community or of an institution, but which the faithful at large may legitimately attend, at least during divine services, and to which they have access directly from the outside
semi-public, which is intended principally for the use of the religious community in whose house it is erected, and to which the faithful have no right of entry, though they may occasionally be allowed to attend some special function
private, or domestic, which is erected in a private house for the convenience of a private family
Manifestation of Conscience - Canon 530 of the Code of Canon Law forbids all religious superiors to induce their subjects in any way to make such a manifestation of conscience
Scripture - The Old Testament Canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same as that which we now possess under that name. (See BIBLE; Canon
Linus, Pope Saint - His name is mentioned in the prayer "Communicantes" in the Canon of the Mass
Revelation - ) Specifically, the last book of the sacred Canon, containing the prophecies of St
h'Eron, - Canon Cook and others think the bird intended is the plover ( Charadrius aedicnemus ), a greedy, thick kneed, high-flying migratory bird, very common in the East, on the banks of rivers and shores of lakes
Postulant - The Canonical name for one who desires to become aCandidate for Holy Orders and whose name is entered by the Bishopupon the list of Postulants, as required by Canon 2, Title I of theDigest
Canon - According to the word’s early usages, a Canon was a rule, standard, measure or list. According to popular Christian usage, the ‘canon’ of Scripture is that collection of writings that the church acknowledges as the authoritative Word of God. It consists of the Old Testament Canon, which had become established during the centuries before the time of Christ, and the New Testament Canon, which became established during the early centuries of the Christian era. ...
Canonical books are those acknowledged as being written through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit (see INSPIRATION). Non-canonical books are religious books of the biblical era that are not acknowledged as being the inspired Word of God and have therefore not been collected in the Bible. However, the formation of an official Canon was not something that people planned. No person or group of persons decided to make an Old Testament Canon. ...
It seems clear that the Jewish Canon (i. Towards the end of the first century AD a council of Jewish leaders confirmed that Jews recognized these books, and no others, as Canonical. For the authority of the Old Testament Canon that Jesus and New Testament writers acknowledged see INSPIRATION. But their popularity did not give them authority, and they were never accepted into the Jewish Canon. ...
These non-canonical books are in two groups. outside the Canon). In time Christians in general acknowledged that these writings were not inspired Scripture, with the result that they were excluded from the developing New Testament Canon. No doubt there were many letters which, though having apostolic authority, were not preserved (1 Corinthians 5:9...
Completion of the Canon...
By the middle of the second century, churches in some places had a collection of books approximately equal to the present New Testament. ...
The damaging activity of false teachers was one factor that prompted church leaders to consider more closely which books were to be regarded as Canonical and which were not. Church Councils met to discuss the matter at length, and by the end of the fourth century there was general agreement that the New Testament Canon consists of the twenty-seven books that we recognize today. They did not create the Canon, but merely acknowledged that Christians and churches everywhere recognized the books as being God’s inspired and authoritative Word
Preface - ) The prelude or introduction to the Canon of the Mass
Dimissorial Letters - Such letters testify that the subject has all the qualities demanded by Canon law for the reception of the order in question, and request the bishop to whom they are addressed to ordain him
Letters, Dimissorial - Such letters testify that the subject has all the qualities demanded by Canon law for the reception of the order in question, and request the bishop to whom they are addressed to ordain him
Inquisition, Canonical - (Latin: inquirere, to investigate) ...
The preliminary inquiry that must be made according to Canon law into any accusation against a cleric before admonishing or putting him on trial
Douai, University of - Founded by Philip II of Spain, 1562, with five faculties, theology, Canon and civillaw, medicine, and arts; sanctioned by Bulls of Paul IV, 1559, and Pius IV, 1560
Flagellation - In the fifth and succeeding centuries it was employed as a sanction in monastic discipline, and in the 13th century Canon law recognized it as a punishment for ecclesiastics
Ordinary of the Mass - It is distinct from the Proper of the Mass and from the Canon
Order of the Mass - It is distinct from the Proper of the Mass and from the Canon
Faith, Profession of - Bishops and priests, according to Canon law, must make official profession under certain circumstances
Canonical Inquisition - (Latin: inquirere, to investigate) ...
The preliminary inquiry that must be made according to Canon law into any accusation against a cleric before admonishing or putting him on trial
Canoness - The term corresponds to that of Canon, the origin and rules being common to both. Among the Canonesses, differences in the observance of the rule gave rise to a distinction between regular and secular Canonesses
Lyndwood, William - 1375-1446) Bishop of Saint David's, and the greatest English Canonist. His "Provinciale" forms a complete gloss on local church legislation in England and refutes the pet historical figment of the Anglicans that the Roman Canon law was not binding on English ecclesiastical courts
Extravagant - ) Certain constitutions or decretal epistles, not at first included with others, but subsequently made a part of the Canon law
Anacletus i - He is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass as Cletus, was martyred, and buried near Saint Peter
Anacletus, Saint, Pope - He is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass as Cletus, was martyred, and buried near Saint Peter
Anastasia, Saint - Her name occurs in the prayer "Nobis quoque peccatoribus" in the Canon of the Mass, and she has the unique distinction of a special commemoration in the second Mass on Christmas
Decretal - The decretals form the second part of the Canon law
William Lyndwood - 1375-1446) Bishop of Saint David's, and the greatest English Canonist. His "Provinciale" forms a complete gloss on local church legislation in England and refutes the pet historical figment of the Anglicans that the Roman Canon law was not binding on English ecclesiastical courts
University of Douai, France - Founded by Philip II of Spain, 1562, with five faculties, theology, Canon and civillaw, medicine, and arts; sanctioned by Bulls of Paul IV, 1559, and Pius IV, 1560
Qualifications For Holy Orders - These are stated in the Preface tothe Ordinal set forth in the Prayer-book as follows: that theCandidate be of the age required by the Canon in that case provided;that he be a man of virtuous conversation and without crime; and,after examination and trial, found to be sufficiently instructed inthe Holy Scripture and otherwise learned as the Canons require
Bit - Bits are of various kinds, as the musrol, snaffle,or watering bit the Canon mouth, jointed in the middle the Canon or fast mouth, all of a piece, kneed in the middle the scatch-mouth the masticador,or slavering bit &c
Sentence - (Latin: sententia, judgment) ...
In Canon law the decision of the court upon any issue brought before it. Canon law, as opposed to civil,draws a unique distinction between penalties inflicted latae sententiae and ferendae sententiae, two expressions indicating the manner in which guilt is declared and a penalty contracted
Jean de Beaumont - Geologist, born Canon, near Caen, France, 1798; died there, 1874
Elie de Beaumont, Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonc - Geologist, born Canon, near Caen, France, 1798; died there, 1874
Her'Mas - It was never received into the Canon, but yet was generally cited with respect only second to that which was paid to the authoritative books of the New Testament
Housel - Thus an oldEnglish Canon of A
Pul (2) - Smith regard Pul as the Babylonian name of Taglath Pileser, and as the "Porus" in the astronomical Canon who began to reign at Babylon 781 B. , the very year in which the cuneiform records date Taglath Pileser's overthrow of Chinzir king of Babylon, whom the Canon makes the immediate predecessor of Porus (a name identical with Pal). The last year of Porus in the cuneiform Canon of kings is also the last year of Taglath Pileser
Deacon - The diaconate is of divine institution (Trent, session 23, Canon 6)
Indult - If not revoked and still in use they are not abolished by the Code of Canon Law
Font, Baptismal - The new Code of Canon Law reaffirms the traditional view that every parish church should have its own baptismal font
Andrea, Giovanni d' - Canonist, born near Florence, Italy c. He was educated at the University of Bologna, taught at Padua and Pisa, and became professor of Canon law at Bologna
Baptismal Font - The new Code of Canon Law reaffirms the traditional view that every parish church should have its own baptismal font
Andrew of Wyntoun - He was a Canon regular of the Priory of Saint Andrews, and before 1395 prior of the monastery of Lochleven
Abel - He is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass, and his name holds first place in the Litany for the Dying
Esdras - the name of two apocryphal books which were always excluded the Jewish Canon, and are too absurd to be admitted as Canonical by the Papists themselves
Election - In Canon law, its ordinary meaning is the appointment, by legitimate electors, of a fit person to an ecclesiastical office
Esser, Thomas - Appointed to the chair for the study of Saint Thomas at Maynooth College, he was recalled, 1891, to lecture on Canon law at the University of Freiburg, Switzerland. Summoned to Rome, 1894, to edit the new Index Librorum Prohibitorum, he became professor of Canon law at the University of Saint Thomas
Thomas Esser - Appointed to the chair for the study of Saint Thomas at Maynooth College, he was recalled, 1891, to lecture on Canon law at the University of Freiburg, Switzerland. Summoned to Rome, 1894, to edit the new Index Librorum Prohibitorum, he became professor of Canon law at the University of Saint Thomas
Lucius ii, Pope - Before his election he was a Canon in Bologna, cardinal-priest, papal legate to Germany, papal chancellor, and papal librarian
Armagh, Book of - It was known as the Canon of Patrick, but was discovered to be really the work of Ferdomnach of Armagh (died c
Alexander i, Saint, Pope - As commemorated in the ninth lesson of Nocturn for his feast, he inserted in the Canon of the Mass the words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist beginning "Qui pridie," introduced the use of holy water for blessing Christian homes, and suffered martyrdom
Gherardo Caccianemici Dal Orbo - Before his election he was a Canon in Bologna, cardinal-priest, papal legate to Germany, papal chancellor, and papal librarian
Pastoral Letter - Perhaps the most important ofsuch Pastoral Letters is that which is issued by the House ofBishops at the close of each General Convention, touching on gravequestions of the day or on the prospects of the Church throughoutthe nation, and which is required by Canon to be read in all thechurches
Diriment Impediment - Under the present Code of Canon Law these impediments are: defect of age, impotence, difference of worship (baptized and unbaptized), Sacred Orders, solemn vows, abduction, crime (adultery, homicide, or both), relationship, or affinity, within proscribed degrees, spiritual relationship, legal relationship (adoption when State forbids marriage between adopter and adopted), clandestinity, public decency
Impediment, Diriment - Under the present Code of Canon Law these impediments are: defect of age, impotence, difference of worship (baptized and unbaptized), Sacred Orders, solemn vows, abduction, crime (adultery, homicide, or both), relationship, or affinity, within proscribed degrees, spiritual relationship, legal relationship (adoption when State forbids marriage between adopter and adopted), clandestinity, public decency
John, Saint - Their names occur in the "Communicantes" in the Canon of the Mass
Deuterocanonical - ...
Of the Old Testament these are: ...
1,2Machabees
Baruch
Ecclesiasticus
Judith
Tobias
Wisdom
parts of Daniel (3,24-90; 13,14)
parts of Esther (10:4, to 16:14)
Of the New Testament these are: ...
2,3John
2Peter
Apocalypse
Hebrews
James
John (7,53, to 8,11)
Luke (22,43-44)
Mark (16,9-20)
Protestants commonly reject the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament as apocryphal. See also: Canon of the Holy Scriptures
Cannon - See Canon
Abrech - Canon Cook (Speaker's Commentary) makes it imperative, from the Egyptian," Rejoice thou;" but Harkevy understands it as Αp-Rach , "Chief of the Rech", or "men of learning
Enclosure - Present Canon law requires every convent or monastery of regulars, on its completion, to be encloistered
Higga'Ion - (Canon Cook says that it probably means an interlude giving musical expression to the feelings suggested by the preceding words
Letter of Transfer - Canon 12, Section I, Title 2 of the Digestprovides that, "A communicant removing from one parish to anothershall procure from the Rector (if any) of the parish of his lastresidence, or if there be no Rector, from one of the Wardens, acertificate stating that he or she is a communicant in good standing;and the Rector of the Parish or Congregation to which he or sheremoves shall not be required to receive him or her as a communicantuntil such letter be produced
Ordain, Ordination - ) The times ofOrdination prescribed by Canon Law are the Sundays after the EMBERDAYS (which see)
Master, Novice - Strictly speaking, he is not a religious superior according to the definition of Canon law although he has the same rights and duties over the novices as a true religious superior has over his subjects. Canon law has prescribed that he must be at least 35 years of age, have been ten years a religious from his first profession and be eminent in prudence, charity, piety, and in the observance of the rules and regulations of his religious society
Master of Novices - Strictly speaking, he is not a religious superior according to the definition of Canon law although he has the same rights and duties over the novices as a true religious superior has over his subjects. Canon law has prescribed that he must be at least 35 years of age, have been ten years a religious from his first profession and be eminent in prudence, charity, piety, and in the observance of the rules and regulations of his religious society
Chapter - , cathedral, collegiate, secular, regular, and consist of dignities and Canonicates. Some of the principal offices are those of Canon theologian and Canon penitentiary
Novice Master - Strictly speaking, he is not a religious superior according to the definition of Canon law although he has the same rights and duties over the novices as a true religious superior has over his subjects. Canon law has prescribed that he must be at least 35 years of age, have been ten years a religious from his first profession and be eminent in prudence, charity, piety, and in the observance of the rules and regulations of his religious society
Novices, Master of - Strictly speaking, he is not a religious superior according to the definition of Canon law although he has the same rights and duties over the novices as a true religious superior has over his subjects. Canon law has prescribed that he must be at least 35 years of age, have been ten years a religious from his first profession and be eminent in prudence, charity, piety, and in the observance of the rules and regulations of his religious society
Liturgy, Ethiopic - There are also a number of other anaphoras which, on occasion, are joined to the first part of the liturgy, in place of its own Canon
Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint - A model of holiness from childhood, he excelled in his studies and at an early age was made Canon of Saint Saviour's Church. Canonized, 1446
Advocates of Roman Congregations - Besides Canon and civillaw they must know dogmatic and moral theology and profane and church history
Ethiopic Liturgy - There are also a number of other anaphoras which, on occasion, are joined to the first part of the liturgy, in place of its own Canon
Tolentino, Nicholas of, Saint - A model of holiness from childhood, he excelled in his studies and at an early age was made Canon of Saint Saviour's Church. Canonized, 1446
Hero'Dians - Canon Cook describes these persons as "that party among the Jews who were supporters of the Herodian family as the last hope of retaining for the Jews a fragment of national government, as distinguished from absolute dependence upon Rome as a province of the empire
Novice - No specific length of time for the novitiate is required by Canon law; hence it varies with different orders
Forum - In Canon law, internal forum, the realm of conscience, is contrasted with the external or outward forum; thus, a marriage might be null and void in the internal forum, but binding outwardly, i
Liturgy, Maronite - The Canon of the Mass varies according to the feast celebrated
Maronite Liturgy - The Canon of the Mass varies according to the feast celebrated
Cases of Conscience - Problems in the application of the moral and Canon law to the conduct of men and women in various circumstances
Chancellor - In the first ages of the church the bishops had those officers, who were called church lawyers, and were bred up in the knowledge of the civil and Canon law: their business was to assist the bishop in his diocese
Novitiate - No specific length of time for the novitiate is required by Canon law; hence it varies with different orders
Sub Deacon - They were so subordinate to the superior rules of the church, that, by a Canon of the council of Laodicea, they were forbidden to sit in the presence of a deacon without his leave
Bether - The site was recognized by Canon Williams at Bittîr , south-west of Jerusalem a village on a cliff in a strong position, with a ruin near it called ‘Ruin of the Jews,’ from a tradition of a great Jewish massacre at this place
Gaetano Sanseverino - He became Canon of the cathedral and scrittore in the National Library, and founded La Scienza e la Fede (1840), a periodical in the interest of Christian philosophy
Herodians - Canon Cook describes these persons as "that party among the Jews who were supporters of the Herodian family as the last hope of retaining for the Jews a fragment of national government, as distinguished from absolute dependence upon Rome as a province of the empire
Ecclesiastical Privileges - Such are, properly speaking, only those mentioned in the Code of Canon Law, viz. , the clerical privileges of protection against violence (privilegium Canonis), of ecclesiastical court (privilegium fori), of personal immunity, of benefit in case of insolvency
Alcala, University of - The studies included theology, Canon law, logic, philosophy, medicine, Hebrew, Greek, rhetoric, and gramMarch In 1836 it was removed to Madrid where it now forms a part of the University of Madrid
Abraham in Liturgy - The patriarch Abraham is specifically mentioned in the Roman Martyrology (October 9,); in the Litany for the Dying; in the Breviary, at Quinquagesima, Shrove Tuesday, Passion Sunday, and in the Magnificat, Benedictus and Psaltery; in the Missal, in the third Prophecy on Holy Saturday, Epistle of the thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost, Offertory of the Mass for the Dead, blessing in a Nuptial Mass, and in the Canon of the Mass; in the Pontifical, in the preface of the consecration of an altar, blessing of a cemetery, and blessing and coronation of a king
Reparation - (Latin: reparare, to repair) ...
Term used in Canon law in reference to the reparation of churches; in asceticism, to express the prayers, actions, or sufferings offered to God to make good the evil done by men, particularly on certain occasions of excess, e
University of Alcala - The studies included theology, Canon law, logic, philosophy, medicine, Hebrew, Greek, rhetoric, and gramMarch In 1836 it was removed to Madrid where it now forms a part of the University of Madrid
Sanseverino, Gaetano - He became Canon of the cathedral and scrittore in the National Library, and founded La Scienza e la Fede (1840), a periodical in the interest of Christian philosophy
Incense - It is more of a Scriptural usagethan a Roman use, and while there is no Canon or enactment forbiddingits use, yet in the present state of our Church life it is notlikely to become a very popular restoration for some time to come
Bishop's Visitation - Title I, Canon 19, Sec. X of the generalcanons of the American Church provides that, "Every Bishop in thisChurch shall visit the Churches within his Diocese at least oncein three years, for the purpose of examining the state of hisChurch, inspecting the behavior of his Clergy, administering theApostolic rite of Confirmation, ministering the word, and, if hethink fit, administering the Sacrament of the Lord's Supperto the people committed to his charge
Dionysius Exiguus - He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of Canon law in Western Christendom are due to him
Dionysius the Little - He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of Canon law in Western Christendom are due to him
Little, Dionysius the - He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of Canon law in Western Christendom are due to him
John of Sahagun, Saint - Educated at Salamanca and Burgos, he was ordained, 1445, and made Canon in the cathedral at Burgos. Canonized, 1696
Granderath, Theodor - Entering the Society of Jesus, he was appointed professor of Canon law in the college of Ditton Hall, England
Liturgy, Peace in - In word and ceremony jt oocurs frequently, particularly at Holy Mass, in the Canon, in prayers six times, and twice in action as the priest drops the particle of the Host into the chalice, and as he gives the kiss of peace to the deacon, who in turn passes it on to the assisting clergy
Marcellinus, Saint - Their names occur in the prayer, "Nobis quoque peccatoribus," in the Canon of the Mass
Innocent v, Pope, Blessed - " The author of several works on philosophy, theology, and Canon law, he sought to bring about peace between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, Pisa and Lucca, Rudolph of Hapsburg and Charles of Anjou
Calumny - In Canon law, the oath taken to attest that the litigation on both sides is in good faith is called juramentum calumnire (oath disclaiming calumny)
Cathedraticum - The bishop's right to this tax is stated explicitly in Canon 1504 of the Code
Battandier, Albert - Educated at the Jesuit college of Mongre, near Lyons, and at the seminary of Viviers, he was ordained, 1875, and won his degree in theology and Canon law at the French seminary in Rome, 1879
Exiguus, Dionysius - He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of Canon law in Western Christendom are due to him
Joel - The prophet, whose writings form part of the sacred Canon of Scripture, and are quoted by Peter in his sermon on the day of Pentecost
Micah - He is one of what is called the lesser prophets; and his prophecy forms a part of the sacred Canon of Scripture
Theodor Granderath - Entering the Society of Jesus, he was appointed professor of Canon law in the college of Ditton Hall, England
Sahagun, John of, Saint - Educated at Salamanca and Burgos, he was ordained, 1445, and made Canon in the cathedral at Burgos. Canonized, 1696
Rebaptism - This traditional teaching is emphasized in the New Code of Canon Law
Lay-Reader - The American Church has a Canon on the subject, settingforth the method of appointment and regulating his work, from whichit is learned that the lay-reader is very much limited in theservice he renders being permitted to use only those portions ofthe service which do not belong properly to the Ministry
Bidding Prayer - The 55th Canon of the English Church in 1603enjoined a Bidding Prayer in the form of an Exhortation to be usedbefore all sermons, each petition or exhortation beginning, "Let uspray for," or "Ye shall pray for," to which the people responded
Title - In the and Canon laws, a chapter or division of a book. In the Canon law, that by which a beneficiary holds a benefice
Canon of the Old Testament - At the same time the presence of the living prophets in the church caused the exact definition of the completed Canon to be less needful, until the spirit of prophecy had departed. " The arrangement and completion of the Canon accounts for Ezra's honorable title "priest" becoming merged in that of" scribe. Nehemiah and Malachi added their own writings as the seal to the Canon. " The warnings: "add thou not to His words, lest He reprove thee and thou be found a liar" (Proverbs 30:6), "neither shall ye diminish ought from it" (Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32), fenced in the Old Testament Canon as Revelation 22:18-19 fences in the New Testament The Lord and His apostles quote all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, the Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. " The Apocrypha was never in the Hebrew Canon. The cessation of the prophetic gift marks the point of time in both Testaments when the Canon was complete. ...
Some quotations in the New Testament are not directly found in the Canonical books; thus Judges 1:17 takes a portion of the uninspired book of Enoch, and by inspiration stamps that portion as true; Paul also refers to facts unrecorded in Old Testament (2 Timothy 3:8; Ephesians 5:14; Hebrews 11:24); see also John 7:38; James 4:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:8. Origen excludes expressly 1 Maccabees from the Canon though written in Hebrew Jerome gives our Canon exactly, which is also the Hebrew one, and designates all others apocryphal. ...
The Alexandrine Jews, though more lax in their views, had at the beginning of the Christian era the same Canon as the Hebrew of Palestine. But by admitting into the Septuagint Greek version of Old Testament the Apocrypha they insensibly influenced those Christian fathers who depended on that version for their knowledge of Old Testament, so that the latter lost sight of the gulf that separates the Hebrew Canon from the Apocrypha. Their testimony condemns the decree of Rome's council of Trent that the apocryphal books deserve "equal veneration" as Scripture, and that all are "accursed" who do" not receive the entire books with all their parts as sacred and Canonical
Irregularity - The new Code of Canon Law limits once for all the number and kind of irregularities as pertaining to the common law of the Church
Domenico Capranica - Cardinal, theologian, Canonist, and statesman. A Doctor of Canon and Civil Law, 1421, he became secretary to Martin V and was made cardinal "in petto" by the pope, 1423 or 1426, the first known instance of the use of this reservation
Bernardine of Siena, Saint - In 1397 he completed a course in civiland Canon law, whereupon he joined the Confraternity of Our Lady, connected with the hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, ministered to the plague-stricken, and distributed his fortune among the poor. Canonized, 1450
Missionaries of the Consolata of Turin - Institute founded at Turin in 1901 by Canon Giuseppe Allamano, to train foreign missionaries for the evangelization of Africa
Damian, Saint - They are mentioned in the Canon of the Mass and the Litany of the Saints
Christian Names - This accords with a venerable Catholic custom always insisted upon by the Church, and now reaffirmed as a law in the new Code of Canon Law
Names, Christian - This accords with a venerable Catholic custom always insisted upon by the Church, and now reaffirmed as a law in the new Code of Canon Law
Kirchenlexikon - The first successful attempt to unite all the Catholic German savants in the composition of one great work, it secured the noteworthy efforts of such men as Hergenrother, Hefele, Funk, church historian, Thalhofer, Wetzer, the orientalist, who named the completed work and edited it jointly with Canon Welte, the exegete, Drs
Moyes, James - He was appointed Canon theologian of Salford Chapter, 1891, and of the Westminster Chapter, 1895
Capranica, Domenico - Cardinal, theologian, Canonist, and statesman. A Doctor of Canon and Civil Law, 1421, he became secretary to Martin V and was made cardinal "in petto" by the pope, 1423 or 1426, the first known instance of the use of this reservation
James Moyes - He was appointed Canon theologian of Salford Chapter, 1891, and of the Westminster Chapter, 1895
Examination For Holy Orders - Title I, Canon 6 of the Digestprovides that "There shall be assigned to every Candidate forPriest's Orders three separate examinations. Church History, Ecclesiastical Polity, the Book of CommonPrayer, the Constitution and Canons of the Church and those ofthe Diocese to which the candidate belongs
Bar-Hebraeus - His principal works are: The Storehouse of Secrets, a doctrinal and critical commentary on the entire Bible; The Cream of Science, an encyclopedia of human learning; Chronicon, a universal history; compendiums of logic, dialectics, physics, and metaphysics; treatises on theology, Canon law, ethics, rhetoric, mathematics, medicine, and other sciences; and an autobiography
Abulfaraj - His principal works are: The Storehouse of Secrets, a doctrinal and critical commentary on the entire Bible; The Cream of Science, an encyclopedia of human learning; Chronicon, a universal history; compendiums of logic, dialectics, physics, and metaphysics; treatises on theology, Canon law, ethics, rhetoric, mathematics, medicine, and other sciences; and an autobiography
Espenius, Zeger Bernhard Van - Canonist; born Louvain, Belgium, 1646; died Amersfoort, Netherlands, 1728. While teaching Canon law at the University of Louvain, he wrote his famous work "Jus Canonicum universum
Espen, Zeger Bernhard Van - Canonist; born Louvain, Belgium, 1646; died Amersfoort, Netherlands, 1728. While teaching Canon law at the University of Louvain, he wrote his famous work "Jus Canonicum universum
Zeger Van Espen - Canonist; born Louvain, Belgium, 1646; died Amersfoort, Netherlands, 1728. While teaching Canon law at the University of Louvain, he wrote his famous work "Jus Canonicum universum
Zeger Van Espenius - Canonist; born Louvain, Belgium, 1646; died Amersfoort, Netherlands, 1728. While teaching Canon law at the University of Louvain, he wrote his famous work "Jus Canonicum universum
Siena, Bernardine of, Saint - In 1397 he completed a course in civiland Canon law, whereupon he joined the Confraternity of Our Lady, connected with the hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, ministered to the plague-stricken, and distributed his fortune among the poor. Canonized, 1450
Sabbatius, Bishop of Constantinople - He became bishop of a small sect, called after him Sabbatiani, whose baptism was recognized in the 7th Canon of the 2nd general council
Institution, Office of - "Canon 18, Title I of the Digest requires "that on the election of aMinister into any Church or Parish, the Vestry shall notify theBishop of such election, in writing; and if the Minister be a Priest,the Bishop may, if requested by the Vestry to do so, institute himaccording to the Office established by this Church. By thewording of the Canon this service is not obligatory and adds nothingto the contract or agreement already made between the Minister andVestry
Diocesan Archives - Canon law requires that a catalog or an index of all the documents, with a summary of the individual papers, be made
Following of Christ - Its authorship, once in dispute, is now attributed to Thomas a Kempis, a Canon of Windesheim, Netherlands, whose autographed manuscript of the work appeared in 1441
Canons, Chapters of - These clerics may be Canons secular or regular, exempt or non-exempt, major (cathedral) or minor (collegiate church) according to the chapter to which they belong. The principal development of Canon chapters received its impetus from the Carolingian period, Charlemagne demanding that clerics live either in monasteries or in chapters
Chapters of Canons - These clerics may be Canons secular or regular, exempt or non-exempt, major (cathedral) or minor (collegiate church) according to the chapter to which they belong. The principal development of Canon chapters received its impetus from the Carolingian period, Charlemagne demanding that clerics live either in monasteries or in chapters
Census - In Canon law, census means a tax or tribute imposed on a benefice, usually by a bishop and payable to himself
Benedict Xiv, Pope - He wrote a useful work on Canon law
Imitation of Christ - Its authorship, once in dispute, is now attributed to Thomas a Kempis, a Canon of Windesheim, Netherlands, whose autographed manuscript of the work appeared in 1441
Agatha, Saint - Her popular veneration was of very early date; her name occurs in the prayer, "Nobis quoque peccatoribus," in the Canon of the Mass, and in some places bread is blessed after the Consecration of the Mass on her feast and called Agatha bread
Archives, Diocesan - Canon law requires that a catalog or an index of all the documents, with a summary of the individual papers, be made
Agnes of Rome, Saint - Her virginity and heroism are renowned, and her name occurs in the prayer "Nobis quoque peccatoribus," in the Canon of the Mass
Purgation - It was either Canonical, which was prescribed by the Canon law, the form whereof used in the spiritual court was, that the person suspected take his oath that he was clear of the matter objected against him, and bring his honest neighbors with him to make oath that they believes he swore truly; or vulgar, which was by fire or water ordeal, or by combat
Revelation - The Apocalypse the last book of the sacred Canon, containing the prophecies of St
Rome, Agnes of, Saint - Her virginity and heroism are renowned, and her name occurs in the prayer "Nobis quoque peccatoribus," in the Canon of the Mass
Bible, Formation And Canon of - ...
How was the Canon of Scripture decided on? The word Canon comes from a Sumerian term meaning “reed,” and it came to designate the list of books which were normative and sacred. The simplest answer to this question is a practical one: the books which ended up on the Canonical lists in the end were those which proved themselves in a variety of ways to be God's Word to His people as they used them over the years. We just do not know as much about the process of Canonization as we would like. It is possible that the Old Testament Canon as we know it took shape under the influence of the scribe Ezra who rounded off the task long in process. This would explain the tenacity of the Jews ever since to preserve their Hebrew Canon. An extraneous factor which speeded the process toward developing a Canon was the work of second century reformer Marcion, who proposed dropping the Old Testament and much of the New Testament as well, forcing orthodox Christians to make up their minds on the question of the Canonical list. The die was already cast in the Muratorian Canon of 170 A. ...
Is there an interplay then of subjective and objective factors in the determination of the Canon of Scripture? Yes, we need to view it in terms of God's providence guiding and directing His people in this matter. The fact that substantially the whole church came to recognize the same books as Canonical is remarkable when we remember the agreement was not at all contrived. ...
The body of our Canon is solid and well-supported, and proves itself over again in our use of the Bible
Legitimation - In Canon law all children of marriage are presumed to be legitimate even though the marriage be invalid but reputed valid, or declared null after the birth of the children
Milanese Rite - In its present form it is greatly Romanized, having the whole Roman Canon in the Mass
Didascalia Apostolorum - Often called the earliest attempt to compile a corpus (body) of Canon law, it never had a great vogue and was superseded by the Apostolic Constitutions
Instructions of the Apostles - Often called the earliest attempt to compile a corpus (body) of Canon law, it never had a great vogue and was superseded by the Apostolic Constitutions
Judge, Ecclesastical - All judges appointed by the bishop take an oath on assuming their office and should be above suspicion and be well versed in Canon law
Life, Common - Though common life is not essential for the religious state, still the Church has always esteemed it as an important help in fostering the religious life, for which, according to present legislation, it is a requisite (canon 487)
Joseph Cottolengo, Blessed - He became a Canon of the Church of Corpus Christi at Turin, where, in imitation of Saint Vincent de Paul, he worked among the poor and sick, and completed the Casa della Providenza, a group of hospitals and asylums with accommodation for 7000 patients
Lamberto Scannabecchi - He was Archdeacon of Bologna, Canon of the Lateran, and cardinal-priest
Godfather - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent
Leonine Sacramentary - It contains neither Canon nor Ordinary of the Mass, but a collection of Propers (Collects, Secrets, Prefaces, Postcommunions, and Orationes super Populum), of various Masses, together with ordination forms arranged according to the civilyear and with much disorder
Immunity of Clergy - By this privilege clerics, according to the Code of Canon Law, are exempt from military service, and from all civilpublic offices that are not in keeping with the clerical state
Honorius ii, Pope - He was Archdeacon of Bologna, Canon of the Lateran, and cardinal-priest
Ambrosian Rite - In its present form it is greatly Romanized, having the whole Roman Canon in the Mass
Artillery - Canon great guns ordinance, including guns, mortars and grenades, with their furniture of carriages, balls, bombs and shot of all kinds
Apostolic Union of Secular Priests - It had its origin in the association of secular clergy founded in Bavaria in the 11th century by Venerable Bartholomew Holzhauser, was revived and reorganized in France in the 19th century by Canon Lebeurier, and was established by papal brief, 1862
Infinite - Infinite Canon, in music, a perpetual fugue
Godmother - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent
Godparents - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent
Exemption - (Latin: ex, out; emere, to take; release or freedom) ...
In Canon law, the withdrawal of a physical or moral person or of a place from the jurisdiction of an inferior authority and the immediate subjection of the same to some higher power
Ease, Chapel of - For the convenience of the faithful, however, the bishop may permit, or even order, that a baptismal font be placed in such churches (canon 174, § 2)
Ecclesiastical Judge - All judges appointed by the bishop take an oath on assuming their office and should be above suspicion and be well versed in Canon law
Rite, Ambrosian - In its present form it is greatly Romanized, having the whole Roman Canon in the Mass
Rite, Milanese - In its present form it is greatly Romanized, having the whole Roman Canon in the Mass
Succursal Church - For the convenience of the faithful, however, the bishop may permit, or even order, that a baptismal font be placed in such churches (canon 174, § 2)
Scannabecchi, Lamberto - He was Archdeacon of Bologna, Canon of the Lateran, and cardinal-priest
Sureties - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent
Sacramentary, Leonine - It contains neither Canon nor Ordinary of the Mass, but a collection of Propers (Collects, Secrets, Prefaces, Postcommunions, and Orationes super Populum), of various Masses, together with ordination forms arranged according to the civilyear and with much disorder
Apochrypha - Books not admitted into the Canon of scripture, being either spurious, or at least not acknowledged as divine. Origen, Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril of Jerusalem, and all the orthodox writers who have given catalogues of the Canonical books of scripture, unanimously concur in rejecting these out of the Canon. The Protestants acknowledge such books of scripture only to be Canonical as were esteemed to be so in the first ages of the church; such as are cited by the earliest writers among the Christians as of divine authority, and after the most diligent enquiry were received and judged to be so by the council of Laodicea. The apocryphal books are in general believed to be Canonical by the church of Rome; and, even by the sixth article of the church of England, they are ordered to be read for example of life and instruction of manners, though it doth not apply them to establish any doctrine
Canon of the Old Testament - Canon OF THE OLD TESTAMENT...
1. Briefly stated, the process of forming the OT Canon includes three main stages. 200, the Prophets ( Nebîîm ), including the prophetic interpretation of history in the four books Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings had been constituted into a second Canonical group; by b. This third group was defined, and the OT Canon finally fixed, by the Synod of Palestinian Jews held at Jamnia, near Joppa, about the year a. Pre-canonical conditions...
( a ) The art of writing . But, happily for the Canon, an alphabet had become the possession of some of the Semitic family before the Hebrews had anything to put on record. The OT Canon is thus peculiar in being formed as the first of its kind. Variations appear in the reasons annexed even to the Decalogue; and the priests who offered incense to the brazen serpent in the Temple in the days of Hezekiah cannot have regarded the Tables of the Law in the light of Canonical Scripture. The first trace of a Canon is to be found in the reign of King Josiah about b. ’ These conditions combine to give Deuteronomy Canonical authority of an incipient kind from that date onwards (b. Pentateuch made Canonical . The next stage in the growth of the Canon is found in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (b. Under the influence of these leaders the Pentateuch was made Canonical ( Nehemiah 8:1-18 ; Nehemiah 9:1-38 ; Nehemiah 10:1-39 ). That this Canon included only the Torah is proved by the fact that the Samaritans, who were severed from Judaism shortly after Nehemiah’s time, never had any Canon beyond the Pentateuch. Their apocryphal Joshua does not prove that Ezra’s Canon was the Hexateuch. Canon of the Prophets . The next addition to the Canon consists of the Prophets, reckoned as 8 books Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve (Minor Prophets) forming one book. No account of their Canonization is available, and the process has to be inferred from what is known of the period. 560, hence their preparation for the Canon must have been some time later. Internal evidence thus implies that when the Law was made Canonical, the prophets had not been carefully edited or collected into one group. 300) may possibly have suggested to the Jews an Increase of their own sacred Canon. At all events, the Canonization of the prophetic literature had become matter of past history by b. 44 50) shows that the Law and the Prophets were invested with Canonical authority in his day. The Hagiographa made Canonical . ...
This group is much more varied in form and substance than the first two parts of the Canon. Several of these books may have been prized as highly as the Prophets, though their inclusion in the Second Canon would have been incongruous. The Psalter, for instance, had been for long familiar through its use in Temple services; and its influence on religious life was great, apart from any declaration of Canonicity. The conjecture is probable that the effort of Antiochus Epiphanes to destroy the copies of the Law may have evoked the determination to preserve the later religious literature by giving it a place in the Canon. , the schools of Hillel and Shammal differed as to whether Ecclesiastes was in the Canon or not. , and leaves undecided the question whether these disputed books were as yet admitted to the Canon. The completion of the Hebrew Canon must be associated with a synod held at Jamnia, near Joppa, where the Sanhedrin settled after Jerusalem was taken by Titus (a. ‘All Holy Scriptures defile the hands (the Hebrew phrase for ‘are Canonical’): Canticles and Eccleslastes defile the hands. 135) appealed in dismissing the possibility of reopening discussion on the limits of the Canon
Affinity - Under the older laws there was an impediment of illicit affinity, resulting from sexual relations with certain near relatives of the party with whom marriage was desired; this has been abolished by the new Code of Canon Law
Ivo of Chartres, Saint - Confessor, Bishop of Chartres, Canonist, born Beauvais, France, c. Having studied philosophy at Paris, and theology at the Abbey of Bec in Normandy, he was made provost of the Canons of Saint Quentin at Beauvais, 1080. Consecrated bishop by Urban II (1090), he became one of the best teachers in France and an authority on theology, liturgy, politics, and Canon law. His works are divided into three categories: Canonical writings like the "Decretum," the "Panormia," composed before 1096, and the "Prologus"; letters on religious and political questions of the day (he took a moderate position in the investiture struggle); and sermons which reveal his piety and science
John Baptist de la Salle, Saint - After completing his education, he decided to serve the Church, was installed as a Canon of the metropolitan See of Rheims, 1667, ordained priest, 1678, and in 1680 took his doctorate in theology. Canonized, 1900
Decretal - The decretals compose the second part of the Canon law
Ignatius of Antioch, Saint - His name occurs in the "Nobis quoque peccatoribus" in the Canon of the Mass
Illuminati Bavarian - Lay professor of Canon law at the University of Ingolstadt (1773), he soon became influenced by rationalism and felt the need of a society to support his principles
Malachi - The last of the prophets of the Old Testament, and called "the seal" because his prophecies form the closing book of the Canon of the Old Testament
Apostasy - ...
Apostasy from religious life is the unauthorized departure from a religious house of an inmate under perpetual vows, with the intention of not returning; or, if the departure be legitimate, a subsequent refusal to return in order thus to withdraw from the obligations of religious obedience (canon 644)
Joakim - The name is spelt Jehoiakim in Canon
Antioch, Ignatius of, Saint - His name occurs in the "Nobis quoque peccatoribus" in the Canon of the Mass
Barbara, Saint - Emblems: a tower, palm, chalice, and Canon
Malachi - He reproves the people for their wickedness, and the priests for their negligence in the discharge of their office; he threatens the disobedient with the judgments of God, and promises great rewards to the penitent and pious; he predicts the coming of Christ, and the preaching of John the Baptist; and with a solemnity becoming the last of the prophets, he closes the sacred Canon with enjoining the strict observance of the Mosaic law, till the forerunner, already promised, should appear in the spirit of Elias, to introduce the Messiah, who was to establish a new and everlasting covenant
Reservation - ) A term of Canon law, which signifies that the pope reserves to himself appointment to certain benefices
Astronomer -
OTHER CHRISTIAN ASTRONOMERS ...
Johann Bayer
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
Tycho Brahe
Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane
Johann Franze Encke
John Flamsteed
Sir William Herschel
Sir John Frederick William Herschel
Johann Hevelius
Sir William Huggins
Johann Kepler
Joseph Louis Lagrange
Canon A
Dataria, Apostolic - The Code of Canon Law outlines its fupctions as noted above
Metropolitan And City Police Catholic Guild - Inaugurated on the feast of Corpus Christi, 1914 as the Metropolitan and City Police Catholic Guild, the founder being Monsignor Canon Martin Howlett, D
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - Her name occurs in the Ambrosian Canon of the Mass
Catholic Police Guild - Inaugurated on the feast of Corpus Christi, 1914 as the Metropolitan and City Police Catholic Guild, the founder being Monsignor Canon Martin Howlett, D
Avellino, Andrew, Saint - After studying Canon and civillaw at Naples, he took his degree and was ordained priest, 1547. Canonized, 1712
Andrew Avellino, Saint - After studying Canon and civillaw at Naples, he took his degree and was ordained priest, 1547. Canonized, 1712
Guild, Catholic Police - Inaugurated on the feast of Corpus Christi, 1914 as the Metropolitan and City Police Catholic Guild, the founder being Monsignor Canon Martin Howlett, D
Astronomy -
OTHER CHRISTIAN ASTRONOMERS ...
Johann Bayer
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
Tycho Brahe
Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane
Johann Franze Encke
John Flamsteed
Sir William Herschel
Sir John Frederick William Herschel
Johann Hevelius
Sir William Huggins
Johann Kepler
Joseph Louis Lagrange
Canon A
Antonio Rosmini-Serbati - He studied first at home, then at the University of Padua, being ordained, 1821; became Doctor of Canon Law and Theology, 1822; and later made extensive studies in philosophy
Alexandria, Catherine of, Saint - Her name occurs in the Ambrosian Canon of the Mass
Wisdom - But it is certain Solomon was not the author of it; for it was not written in Hebrew, nor was it inserted in the Jewish Canon, nor is the style like that of Solomon; and therefore St
Sacramentary - , and the Canon), the prayers used at special functions in connection with the Mass (e
Rosmini-Serbati, Antonio - He studied first at home, then at the University of Padua, being ordained, 1821; became Doctor of Canon Law and Theology, 1822; and later made extensive studies in philosophy
Kings - In the Hebrew Canon they formed one book, as did the books of Samuel, which were also called books of the Kings. They have always had a place in the Jewish Canon
Photius, Bishop of Tyre - With easy versatility Photius took his place among the orthodox prelates at Chalcedon, regularly voted on the right side, signed the decisions of the council, voted for the restoration of Theodoret to his bishopric, presented a résumé of the proceedings at Berytus favourable to Ibas, and signed the 28th Canon conferring on Constantinople the same primacy, πρησβεῖα , as that enjoyed by Rome (Labbe, iv. 542–546; Canon
Tradition - Only those words of the apostles for which they claim inspiration (their words afterward embodied in Canonical writing) are inspired, not their every spoken word, e. Oral inspiration was needed until the Canon of the written word was completed. ...
When the Canon was complete the infallibility was transferred from living men's inspired sayings to the written word, now the sole unerring guide, interpreted by the Holy Spirit; comparison of Scripture with Scripture being the best commentary (1 Corinthians 2:12-16; 1 John 2:20; 1 John 2:27; John 1:33; John 3:34; John 15:26; John 16:13-14). Paul's tradition in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 is inspired, and only continued oral in part until the Scripture Canon was completed by John; altogether different from Rome's supplementary oral tradition professing to complete the word which is complete, and which we are forbidden to add to, on penalty of God's plagues written therein (Revelation 22:18). We are no more bound to accept the fathers' interpretation (which by the way is the reverse of unanimous; but even suppose it were so) of Scripture, because we accept the New Testament Canon on their testimony, than to accept the Jews' interpretation of the Old Testament because we accept the Old Testament Canon on their testimony; if we were, we should be as bound to reject Jesus, with the Jews, as to reject primitive Scripture Christianity with the apostate church
Fathers of the Holy Cross - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Josephites - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Fourier, Peter, Saint - He was educated at the University of Pont-a-Mousson and was ordained in 1589, having become a Canon Regular of Saint Augustine. Canonized, 1897
Consistory - The bishop's chancellor is the judge of this court, supposed to be skilled in the civil and Canon law; and in places of the diocese far remote from the bishop's consistory, the bishop appoints a commissary to judge in all causes within a certain district, and a register to enter his decrees, &c
Holy Cross, Congregation of the - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Holy Cross, Fathers of the - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Holy Cross, Priests of the - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Holy Cross, Religious of the - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Agatha - 580; inserted in the Canon of the Mass by Gregory the Great according to Aldhelm (u
Abyssinian Church - " Their Canon of Scripture contains many apocryphal books
Religious of the Holy Cross - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Religious of the Notre Dame of the Holy Cross - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Salvatorists - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Saint Joseph, Brothers of - At the General Chapter of 1920 the rules and constitutions were thoroughly revised to conform to the New Code of Canon Law
Apocrypha - Our Lord and his apostles confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish Canon, which was the same in all respects as we now have it
Infamy - (Latin: in, not; fama, reputation) ...
A vindictive, Canonical penalty by which one is deprived in whole or part of good name, on account of grave moral fault or crime, often accompanied by public disgrace. Canonically there are two kinds, infamia juris (infamy of or by law) and infamia facti (infamy of or by fact). Canon law enumerates the grave effects of infamy, such as irregularity, disqualification for ecclesiastical office, exclusion from the Holy Eucharist, etc
Dupanloup, Felix Antoine Philibert - Canon of Notre Dame in 1848 he was made Bishop of Orleans in the following year and during the 28 years of his episcopate showed remarkable activity
Dominic de Guzman, Saint - After a brilliant career at the University of Palencia, where he studied philosophy and theology, he was ordained priest, and appointed Canon in the cathedral of Osma. Canonized, 1234
Lawrence, Saint - His name occurs in the Canon of the Mass
Judgment, Private - " Against the claim of private judgment the Church holds that since she, under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, settled the Canon of Scripture, and since the Scriptures are committed to her charge, she is the only lawful interpreter of them
Migne, Jacques Paul - Later he erected a printing-house in the suburb Petit-Montrouge where he published reference works on Scripture, theology, history, apologetics, sacred oratory, philosophy, science, monasticism, Canon law, liturgy, and most important of all, collections of the Greek and Latin Fathers
Jacques Migne - Later he erected a printing-house in the suburb Petit-Montrouge where he published reference works on Scripture, theology, history, apologetics, sacred oratory, philosophy, science, monasticism, Canon law, liturgy, and most important of all, collections of the Greek and Latin Fathers
Simony - It was by the Canon law a very grievous crime; and is so much the more odious, because, as Sir Edward Coke observes, it is ever accompanied with perjury; for the presentee is sworn to have committed no simony
Ecclesiastical Burial - The general practise of the Church is to interpret these prohibitions as mildly as possible; doubtful cases should be referred to the bishop (canon 1204,1239, 1240)
Lice - --Canon Cook
Apocrypha - books not admitted into the sacred Canon, being either spurious, or at least not acknowledged to be divine. They possess no authority whatever, either external or internal, to procure their admission into the sacred Canon. Not one of the writers in direct terms advances a claim to inspiration; nor were they ever received into the sacred Canon by the Jewish church, and therefore they were not sanctioned by our Saviour. The apocryphal books were not admitted into the Canon of Scripture during the first four centuries of the Christian church. They are not mentioned in the catalogue of inspired writings made by Melito, bishop of Sardis, who flourished in the second century, nor in those of Origen in the third century, of Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Gregory Nazianzen, Amphilochius, Jerom, Rufinus, and others of the fourth century; nor in the catalogue of Canonical books recognised by the council of Laodicea, held in the same century, whose Canons were received by the catholic church; so that as Bishop Burnet well observes, we have the concurring sense of the whole church of God in this matter. To this decisive evidence against the Canonical authority of the apocryphal books, we may add that they were never read in the Christian church until the fourth century; when, as Jerom informs us, they were read "for example of life, and instruction of manners; but were not applied to establish any doctrine. " And contemporary writers state, that although they were not approved as Canonical or inspired writings, yet some of them, particularly Judith, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus, were allowed to be perused by catechumens. As a proof that they were not regarded as Canonical in the fifth century, Augustine relates, that when the book of Wisdom and other writings of the same class were publicly read in the church, they were given to the readers or inferior ecclesiastical officers, who read them in a lower place than those which were universally acknowledged to be Canonical, which were read by the bishops, and presbyters in a more eminent and conspicuous manner
Canon - Canon is also equivalent to a list or catalogue, in which are inserted those books which contain the rule of faith. ...
For an account of the settling of the Canon of Scripture, see Bible. Alexander, in his work on the Canon, proving that no Canonical book of the Old or New Testament has been lost, may here be properly introduced. —No Canonical book of the Old Testament has been lost. But we have in the Canon no books under the name of Nathan and Gad, nor any book of Jasher, nor of the wars of the Lord. ...
And in 2 Chronicles 9:29 , it is said, "Now, the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are they not written in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer, against Jeroboam, the son of Nebat?" Now, it is well known that none of these writings of the prophets are in the Canon; at least, none of them under their names. The first observation which may be made on this subject is, that every book referred to or quoted in the sacred writings is not necessarily an inspired or Canonical book. A book may be written by an inspired man, and yet be neither inspired nor Canonical. A man, therefore, inspired to deliver some prophecy, or even to write a Canonical book, might write other books with no greater assistance than other good men receive. Because Solomon was inspired to write some Canonical books, it does not follow that what he wrote on natural history was also inspired, any more than Solomon's private letters to his friends, if ever he wrote any. The one class is useful for fulness of knowledge; the other, for authority in religion; in which authority the Canon is preserved. But again: it may be maintained, without any prejudice to the completeness of the Canon, that there may have been inspired writings which were not intended for the instruction of the church in all ages, but composed by the prophets for some special occasion. These writings though inspired, were not Canonical. Very few of them had any concern in writing the Canonical Scriptures, and yet they all possessed plenary inspiration. It is not asserted that there certainly existed such temporary inspired writings: all that is necessary to be maintained is, that, supposing such to have existed, which is not improbable, it does not follow that the Canon is incomplete by reason of their loss. The last remark in relation to the books of the Old Testament supposed to be lost is, that it is highly probable that we have several of them now in the Canon, under another name. There is reason to believe that, until the Canon of sacred Scripture was closed, the succession of prophets was never interrupted. Whatever was necessary to be added, by way of explanation, to any book already received into the Canon, they were competent to annex; or, whatever annals or histories it was the purpose of God to have transmitted to posterity, they would be directed and inspired to prepare. ...
Thus, it sufficiently appears from an examination of particulars, that there exists no evidence that any Canonical book of the Old Testament has been lost. And, above all, the unqualified testimony to the Scriptures of the Old Testament, by Christ and his Apostles, ought to satisfy us that we have lost none of the inspired books of the Canon. And if such writings have been lost, the Canon of Scripture has suffered no more by this means, than by the loss of any other uninspired books. But again: I am willing to go farther, and say that it is possible (although I know no evidence of the fact) that some things, written under the influence of inspiration, for a particular, occasion, and to rectify some disorder in a particular church, may have been lost, without injury to the Canon. For, since much that the Apostles preached by inspiration is undoubtedly lost, so there is no reason why every word which they wrote must necessarily be preserved, and form a part of the Canonical volume. Paul said, "I wrote to you in an epistle not to company with fornicators," 1 Corinthians 5:9 , he referred to an epistle which he had written to the Corinthians, before the one now called the First; it might never have been intended that this letter should form a constituent part of the Canon; for although it treated of subjects connected with Christian faith or practice, yet, an occasion having arisen, in a short time, of treating these subjects more at large, every thing in that epistle (supposing it ever to have been written) may have been included in the two Epistles to the Corinthians which are now in the Canon. The first argument to prove that no Canonical book has been lost, is derived from the watchful care of providence over the sacred Scriptures. Now, to suppose that a book written by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and intended to form a part of the Canon, which is the rule of faith to the church, should be utterly and irrecoverably lost, is surely not very honourable to the wisdom of God, and in no way consonant with the ordinary method of his dispensations, in regard to his precious truth. And if one Canonical book might be lost through the negligence or unfaithfulness of men, why not all? And thus the end of God, in making a revelation of his will, might have been defeated. Now, if any Canonical book was ever lost, it must have been in these early times, when the word of God was valued far above life, and when every Christian stood ready to seal the truth with his blood. The considerations just mentioned would, I presume, be satisfactory to all candid minds, were it not that it is supposed that there is evidence that some things were written by the Apostles which are not now in the Canon
Durandus, William, the Elder - Canonist and liturgist, born Puimisson, Provence, France, c. His most famous liturgical work is the "Rationale divinorum officiorum," written in 1286, which consists of eight books treating of church buildings and their appointments, of the ministers, vestments, the Mass, Canonical hours, the Proper of the Season, the Proper of the Saints, the calendar, etc. He wrote several other books on Canon law
Carthage, Cyprian of, Saint - His name occurs in the Communicantes in the Canon of the Mass
Malachi - Messenger or angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament Canon (Malachi 4:4,5,6 )
Lucy, Saint - Her name occurs in the prayer "Nobis quoque peccatoribus" in the Canon of the Mass
Old Testament - See Bible, Formation and Canon
Gratian, Decree of - A collection of Canonical decrees and excerpts from the Fathers and from Roman Law, published on his private authority by John Gratian, a monk and professor at the University of Bologna, c1150 Before his time there were many decrees of particular councils in the East, in Africa, Spain, and Gaul. " The first part deals with the written sources of Canon law and of ecclesiastical persons; the second treats of ecclesiastical administration, marriage, and penance; the third comments upon Sacraments and Sacramentals
Glasgow University - Glasgow, Scotland, founded by William Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow, and erected by Bull of Pope Nicholas V, 1450, as a studium generale, with faculties of theology, arts, Canon and civillaw, after the pattern of the papal university of Bologna; the bishop and his successors were to be ex-officio chancellore
Shalman - The Assyrian Canon agrees with Scripture in making Shalman king directly after Tiglath Pileser
Ascension - Early customs connected with the liturgy were the blessing of beans and grapes after the Commemoration of the Dead in the Canon of the Mass, blessing of first fruits, blessing of a candle, wearing of miters by deacon and subdeacon
Hazor - 4 Hezron, which is Hazor, Joshua 15:25; rendered by Canon Cook "Kerioth Hezron, which is Hazor
Nehemiah - He was made governor of Judea, upon his own application, by Artaxerxes Longimanus; and his book, which in the Hebrew Canon was joined to that of Ezra, gives an account of his appointment and administration through a space of about thirty-six years to A
Edward Pusey - Educated at Eton and Oxford, Pusey took high rank as a scholar, and in 1828 was appointed Regius Professor of Hebrew and Canon of Christ Church
William Durandus the Elder - Canonist and liturgist, born Puimisson, Provence, France, c. His most famous liturgical work is the "Rationale divinorum officiorum," written in 1286, which consists of eight books treating of church buildings and their appointments, of the ministers, vestments, the Mass, Canonical hours, the Proper of the Season, the Proper of the Saints, the calendar, etc. He wrote several other books on Canon law
University, Glasgow - Glasgow, Scotland, founded by William Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow, and erected by Bull of Pope Nicholas V, 1450, as a studium generale, with faculties of theology, arts, Canon and civillaw, after the pattern of the papal university of Bologna; the bishop and his successors were to be ex-officio chancellore
Sixtus i., Bishop of Rome - The Felician Catalogue and the Martyrologies represent him as a martyr, and he is commemorated among the apostles and martyrs, after Linus, Cletus, Clemens, in the Canon of the mass
Holy Name, the - The 18th Canon of the English Church (1604) gives the meaningof this custom as follows: "When in time of Divine Service the LordJesus shall be mentioned, due and lowly reverence shall be doneby all persons present, as it hath been accustomed, testifying bythese outward ceremonies and gestures their inward humility,Christian resolution, and due acknowledgment that the Lord JESUSCHRIST, the true and Eternal Son of God, is the only Saviour of theworld, in whom alone all mercies, graces and promises of God tomankind, for this life and the life to come, are fully and whollycomprised
Merodach Baladan - Read in the Assyrian inscriptions Mardoc Erapad, or Empalin Ptolemy's Canon, Merodach Baldan in Polyhistor (Eusebius, Chron. Baladan was his ancestor; but his father according to the inscriptions was Yagin or Jugaeus in Ptolemy's Canon
Scripture - -The Canon of the NT writers was that inherited from the Jewish Church, and thus corresponded to our OT. There is frequent reference to the Canonical groups of the ‘Law’ and the ‘Prophets. Though the remaining books are passed over in silence, there is no real reason to doubt that the writers knew and recognized the full Jewish Canon. It is remarkable, however, that the usual formula of Scriptural quotation is nowhere attached to apocryphal texts, the only approach to such Canonical recognition being found in the ‘prophesying’ of Enoch in Judges 1:14. Though the NT writers follow the Septuagint , they apparently regard the Palestinian Canon as alone authoritative in the full sense of the term. , and the application to these writings of the technical term γραφαί shows how easy and inevitable was the extension of the Canon to cover both the OT and the NT. On the formation of the Canon see F. Ryle, The Canon of the OT, 1892; K. Budde, article ‘Canon (OT),’ in Encyclopaedia Biblica ; F. Woods, article ‘OT Canon,’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols)
Leo ix, Pope Saint - A cousin of Emperor Conrad, Canon of Saint Stephen's (Toul), deacon, he was consecrated Bishop of Toul, 1021
Cecilia, Saint - She is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass
Bithiah - (See EGYPT, where is stated Canon Cook's view that Thothmes II, much earlier; was the Pharaoh drowned; Amenophis III had a wife not Egyptian in creed, and not of royal birth, named Tel, and her parents Juaa and Tuaa, names not unlike Bithia
Benedict xv, Pope - Benedict promulgated the new Code of Canon Law, established the Coptic College at Rome, enlarged the foreign mission field, and in his first Encyclical condemned errors in modern philosophical systems
Muratori, Luigi Antonio - Antiquitates italicae medii revi (Italian antiquities of the Middle Ages), Milan, 1738-1742, contained, in its third volume, the Muratori an Canon
Luigi Muratori - Antiquitates italicae medii revi (Italian antiquities of the Middle Ages), Milan, 1738-1742, contained, in its third volume, the Muratori an Canon
Nicholas Breakspear - He went abroad as a wandering scholar, and became an Augustine Canon at Saint Rufus, near Avignon
Dispensation - The granting of a license, or the license itself, to do what is forbidden by laws or Canons, or to omit something which is commanded that is, the dispensing with a law or Canon, or the exemption of a particular person from the obligation to comply with its injunctions. The pope has power to dispense with the Canons of the church, but has no right to grant dispensations to the injury of a third person
Gregory Xiii, Pope - Elected pope, he carried out the Tridentine reforms zealously, promulgated the revised Canon laws, revised the Martyrology, condemned the errors of Baius, and stemmed the tide of Protestantism by raising the educational standards of the seminaries
Title - (Roman & Canon Laws), a chapter or division of a law book
Abelard, Peter - At the height of his popularity when still a cleric in the minor orders, he fell in love with Heloise, niece of Canon Fulbert; the discovery of their alliance wrecked his academic career
Adrian iv, Pope - He went abroad as a wandering scholar, and became an Augustine Canon at Saint Rufus, near Avignon
Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament - The days on which this exposition may take place are defined and outlined in the, Code of Canon Law and the pespective folios of faculties granted by bishops to their priests
John - We have abundant cause to bless God for the ministry of this man, on account of the precious gospel which bears his name, and also for those three Epistles, as well as the Book of the Revelations, with which the sacred Canon of Scripture closeth
Unbelief - " (Mark 16:16) And his servant, the beloved apostle, confirms the awful account, when in the close of the Canon of Scripture, he saith that "the fearful and unbelieving shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death
Cosmas (1) And Damianus, Silverless Martyrs - The names were early inserted in the Canon of the Mass
Ugo Buoncompagni - Elected pope, he carried out the Tridentine reforms zealously, promulgated the revised Canon laws, revised the Martyrology, condemned the errors of Baius, and stemmed the tide of Protestantism by raising the educational standards of the seminaries
Zachari'as - ) He is mentioned as being the martyr last recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures (as Abel was the first) -d Chronicles being the last book in their Canon
Nehemi'ah, the Book of, - The whole narrative gives us a graphic and interesting account of the state of Jerusalem and the returned captives in the writer's times, and, incidentally, of the nature of the Persian government and the condition of its remote provinces, The book of Nehemiah has always had an undisputed place in the Canon, being included by the Hebrews under the general head of the book of Ezra, and, as Jerome tells us in the Prolog
Canon of the New Testament - " Thus by the twofold sanction of inspiration, that of the authors and that of the judges, the Canonicity of each book is established. ...
The history of the New Testament Canon in its collected form is not so clear as the evidence for the inspiration of its separate books. Their mutual accordance in the main, as that of independent witnesses, is the strongest proof of the correctness of our Canon, especially when we consider the jealous care with which the early churches discriminated between spurious and authentic compositions. 397) declared that agreement by ratifying the Canon of the New Testament as it is now universally accepted. " The earliest uninspired notice is that of the anonymous fragment of "the Canon of the New Testament" attributed to Caius, a Roman presbyter, published by Muratori (Ant. ...
Thus the Canon in far the greater part is proved as received in the first half of the 2nd century, while some of John's contemporaries were still living. In the same age the Peshito or Syriac version remarkably complements the Muratorian fragment's Canon, by including also Hebrew and James. Rome says we received the Canon from the church (meaning herself), and that therefore we are bound to receive her authority as infallible in interpreting it. ...
Practically, as soon as they were severally thus read and accepted in the apostolic age by men in the churches having the discernment of spirits, they were Canonized, i. Thus miracles would cease early in the 2nd century, shortly after John's death and the completion of the Canon. With much that is good in the apostolic fathers, their works "remind us what the apostles would have been, had they not been inspired, and what we ourselves should be, if we had not the written word" (Wordsworth, Canon Scr. Canonical is sometimes used in the Christian fathers, not in the sense divinely authoritative, but proper for public reading in church
Delegation - (Latin: de legare, to delegate) ...
In Canon law, the spiritual jurisdiction or power which a person exercises in virtue of a commission from one having ordinary jurisdiction, with the understanding that he must act in the name of the one delegating; he may not proceed to the exercise of his power until it be formally notified to him
Doctor - In medieval times, this title was given at first only to professors of civillaw, was later "applied also to Canonists by a decretal of Innocent III (1198-1216), and in the 13th century some universities granted it to students of grammar, medicine, logic, and philosophy. The curriculum, the examination, and the length of the course of study differed in the various universities, Bologna requiring six years for the doctorate in Canon law, and Paris five years, according to the statutes of 1215
Mass, Saints of the - Outside the Canon, the Blessed Virgin, Saint John the Baptist, Saint Peter the Apostle and Saint Paul the Apostle are mentioned in the Confiteor and in the prayer before the Orate Fratres, Saint Michael the Archangel, in the Confiteor
Josephites (2) - Congregation founded at Ghent, Belgium in 1817 by Canon van Crombrugghe for the Christian education of the poor
Bible, Books of the - (Greek: biblion, book) ...
These number 73, according to the Catholic Canon of books which really contain the revelation of God to man. According to the Council of Trent, there are three groups in the Old Testament, embracing 46 books: ...
21 historical books:
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Josue
Judges
Ruth
1,2Kings (1,2Samuel)
3,4Kings (1,2Kings)
1,2Paralipomenon (1,2Chronicles)
Esdras
Nehemiah
Tobias
Judith
Esther
1,2Machabees
7 didactical books:
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Canticle of Canticles (Song of Solomon)
Wisdom and
Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)
18 prophetical books:
Isaias
Jeremias (with Lamentations)
the major prophets
Baruch
Ezechiel
Daniel
the minor prophets
Osee
Joel
Amos
Abdias or Obadiah
Jonas
Micah
Nahum
Habacuc
Sophonias or Zephaniah
Aggeus or Haggai
Zacharias
Malachias
The difference between the Jewish and Catholic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books
Synagogue, the Great - To this end they collected all the sacred writings of the former ages and their own and so completed the Canon of the Old Testament
Cartographers -
Canon Martin Waldseemüller (1475-1522) was responsible for the naming of America, being the first to use this name on a wall map and a globe
Cartography -
Canon Martin Waldseemüller (1475-1522) was responsible for the naming of America, being the first to use this name on a wall map and a globe
Asenath - ...
Canon Cook makes it a compound of "Isis" and "Neith," two goddesses akin
Elphinstone, William - He is famous as the real founder of Aberdeen University; he gave salaries to the professors of theology, Canon law, civillaw, medicine, languages, and philosophy, and pensions to several poor students
Sanctuary - The practise of sanctuary ceased towards the end of the 18th century, though the Church still claims her right in the code of Canon law
William Elphinstone - He is famous as the real founder of Aberdeen University; he gave salaries to the professors of theology, Canon law, civillaw, medicine, languages, and philosophy, and pensions to several poor students
Saints of the Mass - Outside the Canon, the Blessed Virgin, Saint John the Baptist, Saint Peter the Apostle and Saint Paul the Apostle are mentioned in the Confiteor and in the prayer before the Orate Fratres, Saint Michael the Archangel, in the Confiteor
Sons of Saint Joseph - Congregation founded at Ghent, Belgium in 1817 by Canon van Crombrugghe for the Christian education of the poor
Saint Joseph, Sons of - Congregation founded at Ghent, Belgium in 1817 by Canon van Crombrugghe for the Christian education of the poor
Romanum, Rituale - The last official publication adapted to the New Code of Canon Law is by Pope Pius XI in 1925
Ritual - The last official publication adapted to the New Code of Canon Law is by Pope Pius XI in 1925
Rituale Romanum - The last official publication adapted to the New Code of Canon Law is by Pope Pius XI in 1925
Koppernick, Niclas - Canon of Frauenburg, Dominican tertiary, author of the heliocentric planetary theory, born Thorn, Poland, 1473; died Frauenburg, East Prussia, 1543
Censors of Books - Clerics, in practise always priests, appointed according to Canon law by the bishop of a diocese to examine, before publication, those writings or other things that are to be submitted to ecclesiastical supervision
Canon - ) The largest size of type having a specific name; - so called from having been used for printing the Canons of the church. ) A catalogue of saints acknowledged and Canonized in the Roman Catholic Church. ) The collection of books received as genuine Holy Scriptures, called the sacred Canon, or general rule of moral and religious duty, given by inspiration; the Bible; also, any one of the Canonical Scriptures. See Canonical books, under Canonical, a
Niclas Koppernick - Canon of Frauenburg, Dominican tertiary, author of the heliocentric planetary theory, born Thorn, Poland, 1473; died Frauenburg, East Prussia, 1543
Nicolaus Copernicus - Canon of Frauenburg, Dominican tertiary, author of the heliocentric planetary theory, born Thorn, Poland, 1473; died Frauenburg, East Prussia, 1543
Nihil Obstat - Clerics, in practise always priests, appointed according to Canon law by the bishop of a diocese to examine, before publication, those writings or other things that are to be submitted to ecclesiastical supervision
Lot - ” This word is attested 77 times and in all periods of the language (if a traditional view of the formation of the Canon is accepted)
Lion - (1 Kings 13:24 ; 20:36 ) Among the Hebrews, and throughout the Old Testament, the lion was the achievement of the princely tribe of Judah, while in the closing book of the Canon it received a deeper significance as the emblem of him who "prevailed to open the book and loose the seven seals thereof
Nehemiah, the Book of - Nehemiah 12:10-11-22-23 mentions Jaddua and Darius the Persian; it is probably the addition of those who closed the Old Testament Canon, testifying the continuance to their time of the ordinances and word of God. (See Canon OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. )...
Nehemiah and Malachi, under Ezra, the arranger and finisher of the Canon, added their inspired writings as a seal to complete the whole
Bible - " Augustine also informs up, "that some called all the Canonical Scriptures one book, on account of their wonderful harmony and unity of design throughout. " By Christians the Bible, comprehending the Old and New Testament, is usually denominated "Scripture;" sometimes also the "Sacred Canon," which signifies the rule of faith and practice. The list of the books contained in the Bible constitutes what is called the Canon of Scripture. Those books that are contained in the catalogue to which the name of Canon has been appropriated, are called Canonical, by way of contradistinction from others called deutero-canonical, apocryphal, pseudo-apocryphal, &c, which either are not acknowledged as divine books, or are rejected as heretical and spurious ( See APOCRYPHA. ) The first Canon or catalogue of the sacred books was made by the Jews; but the original author of it is not satisfactorily ascertained. Hence the first Canon of the sacred writings consisted of the five books of Moses; for a farther account of which see Pentateuch. But these books do not seem to have been collected into one body, or comprised under one and the same Canon, before the Babylonish captivity. This was not done till after their return from the captivity, about which time the Jews had a certain number of books digested into a Canon, which comprehended none of those books that were written since the time of Nehemiah. The book of Ecclesiasticus affords sufficient evidence that the Canon of the sacred books was completed when that tract was composed; for that author, in chapter 49, having mentioned among the famous men and sacred writers, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, adds the twelve minor prophets who follow those three in the Jewish Canon; and from this circumstance we may infer that the prophecies of these twelve men were already collected and digested into one body. It is farther evident, that in the time of our Saviour the Canon of the Holy Scriptures was drawn up, since he cites the law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms, which are the three kinds of books of which that Canon is composed, and which he often styles, "the Scriptures," or, "the Holy Scripture," Matthew 21:42 ; Matthew 22:29 ; Matthew 26:54 ; John 5:39 ; and by him therefore the Jewish Canon, as it existed in his day, was fully authenticated, by whomsoever or at what time it had been formed. The person who compiled this Canon is generally allowed to be Ezra. The Canon of the whole Hebrew Bible seems, says Kennicott, to have been closed by Malachi, the latest of the Jewish prophets, about fifty years after Ezra had collected together all the sacred books which had been composed before and during his time. Prideaux supposes the Canon was completed by Simon the Just, about one hundred and fifty years after Malachi: but, as his opinion is rounded merely on a few proper names at the end of the two genealogies, 1 Chronicles 3:19 ; Nehemiah 12:22 , which few names might very easily be added by a transcriber afterward, it is more probable, as Kennicott thinks, that the Canon was finished by the last of the prophets, about four hundred years before Christ. It is an inquiry of considerable importance, in its relation to the subject of this article, what books were contained in the Canon of the Jews. We have, however, unquestionable testimony of the genuineness of the Old Testament, in the fact that its Canon was fixed some centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ. The Christian fathers too, Origen, Athanasius, Hilary, Gregory, Nazianzen, Epiphanius, and Jerom, speaking of the books that are allowed by the Jews as sacred and Canonical, agree in saying that they are the same in number with the letters in the Hebrew alphabet, that is, twenty-two, and reckon particularly those books which we have already mentioned. Nothing can be more satisfactory and conclusive than all the parts of the evidence for the authenticity and integrity of the Canon of the Old Testament scriptures. These, of course, could not be so soon received into the Canon as the rest
Plagues of Egypt - Canon Cook, in the Bible Commentary, distributes them thus: The first was toward the end of June, when the Nile begins to overflow
Diptych - The contents of the diptychs were read aloud from the ambo or altar, and traces of the fixed usage of the Church in the 5th century may still be found in the Canon of the Mass
Obadiah - ...
...
A prophet, fourth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew Canon, and fifth in the LXX
Bastard - By the and Canon laws, a bastard becomes a legitimate child, by the intermarriage of the parents, at any future time
Apostolic Signatura - The method of procedure is determined by the Code of Canon Law and by certain rules established for this tribunal
Ecclesiastical Seminary - At least two years are devoted to philosophy and kindred sciences; the theological course consists of four full years in the study of dogmatic and moral theology, Sacred Scripture, church history, Canon law, liturgy, homiletics, and ecclesiastical chant; lectures in pastoral theology and practical exercises, especially in catechetical method, administering the Sacraments, attending the sick and the dying, complete the curriculum
Signatura, Apostolic - The method of procedure is determined by the Code of Canon Law and by certain rules established for this tribunal
Seminary, Ecclesiastical - At least two years are devoted to philosophy and kindred sciences; the theological course consists of four full years in the study of dogmatic and moral theology, Sacred Scripture, church history, Canon law, liturgy, homiletics, and ecclesiastical chant; lectures in pastoral theology and practical exercises, especially in catechetical method, administering the Sacraments, attending the sick and the dying, complete the curriculum
University of Coimbra, Portugal - In 1308 it was removed to Coimbra where Canon and civillaw, medicine, dialectics, and grammar were taught. During the reign of John III (1521-1557) important reforms were carried out, the faculties were brought together under one roof and illustrious professors were invited from Castile, among them the theologian Alfonso de Prado, the Canonist Martin de Aspilcueta (Doctor Navarrus), and the physician, Francisco Franco
Apoc'Rypha - Their relation to the Canonical books of the Old Testament is discussed under Canon
Chronology - By this term we understand the technical and historical chronology of the Jews and their ancestors from the earliest time to the close of the New Testament Canon
Excommunication - (Latin: ex, out of; communicatio, communion) ...
A spiritual censure by which one is excluded from the communion of the faithful and suffers consequences inseparably attached by Canon law to such exclusion. In particular, the definitely classified Canonical effects follow: exclusion from divine services of the Church, deprivation of the Sacraments (and sometimes sacramentals); exclusion from the public prayers of the Church, either by way of satisfaction or impetration; loss of the right to participate in legal acts of the Church; loss of income from ecclesiastical office; and loss of right to social intercourse in case of vitandus. Canon law distinguishes two fora or courts: the sacramental, or the tribunal of Penance, and the non-sacramental, either public or private
See, Roman - To the Roman Church we owe the closing of the Canon of the Scriptures, and the beginnings of Canon Law
Roman See - To the Roman Church we owe the closing of the Canon of the Scriptures, and the beginnings of Canon Law
Joannes Scholasticus, Bishop of Constantinople - When Justinian, towards the close of his life, tried to raise the sect of the Aphthartodocetae to the rank of orthodoxy, and determined to expel the blameless Eutychius for his opposition, the able lawyer-ecclesiastic of Antioch, who had already distinguished himself by his great edition of the Canons, was chosen to carry out the imperial will. ...
One of the most useful works of that period was the Digest of Canon Law formed by John at Antioch. To the Canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Ephesus, and Constantinople, already collected and received in the Greek church, John added 89 "Apostolical Canons," the 21 of Sardica, and the 68 of the Canonical letter of Basil. cites a harmony of the Canons which includes those of Sardica, which could only be that of John the Lawyer. When John came to Constantinople, he edited the Nomocanon , an abridgment of his former work, with the addition of a comparison of the imperial rescripts and civil laws (especially the Novels of Justinian) under each head. Balsamon cites this without naming the author, in his notes on the first Canon of the Trullan council of Constantinople. of the Paris library the Nomocanon is attributed to Theodoret, but in all others to John. Theodoret would not have inserted the "apostolical Canons" and those of Sardica, and the style has no resemblance to his. of the Bibliotheca Canonica of Justellus, at Paris. Fabricius considers that the Digest or Harmony and the Nomocanon are probably rightly assigned to John the Lawyer
Lectures Bampton - A course of eight sermons preached annually at the university of Oxford, set on foot by the Reverend John Bampton, Canon of Salisbury
Ordinary - In the common and Canon law, one who has ordinary or immediate jurisdiction in matters ecclesiastical an ecclesiastical judge
Canticles - Canonicity. -- The book has been rejected from the Canon by some critics; but in no case has its rejection been defended on external grounds. It is contained in the catalog given in the Talmud,a nd in the catalogue of Melito; and in short we have the same evidence for its Canonicity as that which is commonly adduced for the Canonicity of any book of the Old Testament
Septuagint - Holmes, Canon of Christ Church, was employed for some years on a correct edition of the Septuagint. Textibus; Prideaux's Connections; Owen's Inquiry into the Septuagint Version; Blair's Lectures on the Canon; and Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament; Clarke's Bibliotheca
Sing - While this love “song” continues to create questions in the minds of many regarding its inclusion in the biblical Canon, it must have had some special meaning to have earned the title it has. Rather than rationalize its place in the Canon by stating that it is an allegory of the love between God and Israel, and then Christ and the church, perhaps one should simply recognize that it is a love “song,” pure and simple, and that love has its rightful place in the divine plan for mature men and women
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - , at the instance of Acacius, confirming the 28th Canon of Chalcedon. This Canon, said to have been passed unanimously by all present except the legates of pope Leo I. , not only confirmed the 3rd Canon of Constantinople, which had given to the bp. Pope Leo had subsequently objected to this Canon and never gave it his assent. He claimed that it was an infringement of the Canons of Nice and entrenched on the rights of other patriarchs. ...
Acacius, by inducing the emperor to confirm the 28th Canon of Chalcedon by a special edict, hoped to make it plain that the eminence and authority thereby assigned to his see were still maintained and had not been conceded to the remonstrances of pope Leo. John Talaias was elected Canonically by a synod of the orthodox at Alexandria in the room of Salofaciolus
Order of Friars Preachers - Literary and scientific writings of the Dominicans embrace a wide field, including works on the Bible, apologetics, Canon law, history, philosophy, theology, and catechetical, pedagogical, and humanistic writings
Order of Preachers - Literary and scientific writings of the Dominicans embrace a wide field, including works on the Bible, apologetics, Canon law, history, philosophy, theology, and catechetical, pedagogical, and humanistic writings
Dominicans - Literary and scientific writings of the Dominicans embrace a wide field, including works on the Bible, apologetics, Canon law, history, philosophy, theology, and catechetical, pedagogical, and humanistic writings
Revelation, Book of - The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament Canon
Gifts, Spiritual Gifts - Some believe they ceased with the apostles and the closing of the Canon (the completion of the writings of the Bible) and they are no longer needed for the building up of the body of Christ (Ephesians 4:12)
Alexander vi, Pope - He was well versed in Canon law, a patron of literature and science, a promoter of education, and the originator of missions to the New World
Pastorals - The interpreter's presuppositions concerning the permissibility of pseudonymous writings in the Canon and concerning the development of the early church generally determine his or her weighing of the evidence
Peter, Second Epistle of - Doubts as to its genuineness were entertained by the early Church; in the time of Eusebius it was reckoned among the disputed books, and was not formally admitted into the Canon until the year 393, at the Council of Hippo
Alexandria - Some non-canonical Jewish books of pre-Christian times were written in Alexandria (see Canon)
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch - the Canon of Scripture" ( Patriarch
Letter, Papal - They were early incorporated in collections of Canon law and ranked with Canons of synods in importance and obligation. According to the Canonists, Gratian in particular, every papal letter of general character was authoritative for the entire Church
Messiah - , of those prophets whose works form a part of the Old Testament Canon
Cancellarius - In Canon law, the bishop of each diocese appoints a priest as diocesan chancellor, who in virtue of this office becomes an ecclesiastical notary and is charged with the care, arrangement, and indexing of the diocesan archives, records of dispensations, of ecclesiastical trials, etc
Chancellor - In Canon law, the bishop of each diocese appoints a priest as diocesan chancellor, who in virtue of this office becomes an ecclesiastical notary and is charged with the care, arrangement, and indexing of the diocesan archives, records of dispensations, of ecclesiastical trials, etc
Solomon the Song of - This book, called also Canticles, and according to its Hebrew appellation "the Song of Songs," always had a place in the Jewish Canon, and has consequently been received into that of the Christian church
Jeremi'ah, Book of - " --Canon Cook
ez'ra - The principal works ascribed to him by the Jews are--
The instruction of the great synagogue; ...
The settling the Canon of Scripture, and restoring, correcting and editing the whole sacred volume; ...
The introduction of the Chaldee character instead of the old Hebrew or Samaritan; ...
The authorship of the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and, some add, Esther; and, many of the Jews say, also of the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, and the twelve prophets; ...
The establishment of synagogues
Undivided Church - It was during this time, because the Church wasone and undivided, that the Canon of Scripture was established,that it was possible to hold the Ecumenical Councils which defined"the Faith once delivered to the Saints," and gave us the Creeds asthe "Rule of Faith
Laurentius (36) - St Laurentius is commemorated in the Canon of the Roman Mass
Valerius - When Valerius felt his own infirmities increase, he obtained the consent of the other bishops, but at first not that of Megalius of Calama, primate of Numidia, to ordain Augustine as coadjutor to himself, contrary to the usual practice of the church and to the express wish of Augustine, who refused on this ground to accept the office, though, as he said afterwards, he was not then aware of the Canon of the council of Nicaea, forbidding two bishops in the same place
Ezra - We learn from the account of his labours in the book of Nehemiah that he was careful to have the whole people instructed in the law of Moses; and there is no reason to reject the constant tradition of the Jews which connects his name with the collecting and editing of the Old Testament Canon. The final completion of the Canon may have been, and probably was, the work of a later generation; but Ezra seems to have put it much into the shape in which it is still found in the Hebrew Bible
Bible And the Popes, the - In the year 382 he convoked a synod in Rome to settle the question of the Canonicity of the so-called Deutero-Canonical Books. This synod formulated and published the Damasan catalog of the Sacred Scriptures, a complete and perfect Canon, whieh has ever since been received in the Church. During the two centuries following several Roman pontiffs, as witnessed by the letter of Innocent I to Saint Exsuperius (405), the Canons of Gelasius (496), and Hormisdas (523), republished the Canon of Damasus, lest the faithful be erroneously led into repudiating any of the Sacred Books. Nor did the popes of this period confine their interests in the Bible to the Canonization of its various books, and to keeping pure its text, for several of them, notably Saint Leo the Great (461) and Saint Gregory the Great (604), have left numerous homilies which proved them profound students and splendid exegetes of Holy Writ
Mass - The fixed or Ordinary part of the Mass consists of: ...
Confession at the foot of the altar which is always the same, except at Passiontide and at Requiems, when Psalms 42 is omitted
the Introit, entrance or opening prayer, at the priest's right hand corner of the altar, to the Offertory, all of which part is variable except the Gloria and Credo, which are not always said
the Offertory, which is fixed or Common, except for the Secret prayer and the Preface which is adapted for certain feasts
the Canon, which varies slightly on Easter and Pentecost Sundays
the Communion, always Proper, and the rest to the end Common as a rule, except the Postcommunion, the Ite Missa Est when the vestments are purple or black, and the Last Gospel in Lent, on vigils, and Sundays when a special Feast is celebrated. ...
Confession
Introit
Kyrie Eleison
Gloria in Excelsis
Collect
Epistle (Lesson)
Gradual
Tract
Alleluia
Sequence
Gospel
Credo
Offertory
Secret
Preface
Canon (variations)
Communion
Postcommunion
Dismissal
Ite missa est, or Sequence Benedicamus
Blessing
Last Gospel
(Incensing before Introit, at and before Gospel; at the Offertory, and Consecration) ...
Zacharias - Though Urijah was slain subsequently to Zacharias (Jeremiah 26:23), yet Zacharias is the last as the Canon was arranged, Chronicles standing in it last; Christ names Zacharias as the last and Abel as the first martyr in the Scripture Canon
Apocrypha - The name given to those Books which were attached to the MSS copies of the LXX, but which do not form a part of the Canon of scripture. The above fourteen books formed part of the English Authorised Version of 1611, but are now seldom attached to the Canonical books. That the Canonical books of the O. , though both the Lord and the apostles constantly quote the Canonical books. in the Greek) and to the Latin translation of the LXX, some of the early Christian writers were in doubt as to whether they should be received or not, and this uncertainty existed more or less until the before mentioned Council of Trent decided that the greater part of the Apocrypha was to be regarded as Canonical. Nor can it be granted that we need the judgement of the church, could a universal judgement be arrived at, as to what is to be regarded as the Canon of scripture
Ruth - But the Hebrew Canon puts Ruth in the hagiographa among the five megilloth (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther), read in the synagogue at the feast of weeks. The three classes of the Old Testament Canon were arranged according to the relation in which their authors stood to God and the theocracy, and in which the books themselves stood in contents and spirit to the divine revelation. (See Canon
Song of Solomon - ...
Canon and Interpretation Because of its erotic language and the difficulty of its interpretation, the rabbis questioned the place of the Song of Solomon in the Canon. ”...
The problems of the book's place in the Canon and its interpretation are closely related
Lamb of God (2) - A formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass (excepting on Good Friday and Holy Saturday) and occurring shortly before Communion near the end of the Canon and after the prayer "Haec commixtio," etc
Lavigerie, Charles Martial Allemand - After his ordination, June 2, 1849, he attended the Ecole des Carmes, taking at the Sorbonne the doctorates of letters (1850) and theology (1853), to which he added later the Roman doctorates of civiland Canon law
Ephesians, Epistle to the - The right of this epistle to a place in the Canon of inspired books has never been contested, while its Pauline authorship is proclaimed both by its style and contents, and by the universal testimony of antiquity
Canon of Scripture - ) The collection of sacred books constituting the Christian church's authoritative RULE (Greek Canon) of faith and practice
Jasher - In this respect, and in its being uninspired or at least not preserved as part of our inspired Canon, this book differs from the Pentateuch; both alike record successively the exploits of Jeshurun, the ideally upright nation
Anatolius, Bishop of Constantinople - By the famous 28th Canon, passed at the conclusion of the council, equal dignity was ascribed to Constantinople with Rome (Labbe, iv
Epistle to the Ephesians - The right of this epistle to a place in the Canon of inspired books has never been contested, while its Pauline authorship is proclaimed both by its style and contents, and by the universal testimony of antiquity
Bible, Inspiration of the - We may therefore say that this doctrine serves as the point of connection between the Canon of Holy Scripture and the God who is its author; it is the ground of Scripture's authority that itself entails its revelatory character. By analogy with the Old Testament, we might anticipate that the Spirit would ensure a further Canonical record of the work of God in Christ. " Already, within the pages of the New Testament, Paul's letters are accorded the status of Scripture, setting the pattern for the recognition of all the books of the second Testament as inspired and therefore Canonical for the church of Jesus Christ. Cameron...
See also Bible, Authority of the ; Bible, Canon of the ...
Bibliography . , Scripture and Truth ; idem, Hermeneutics, Authority, and Canon ; C
Authors of Articles - , Professor of Hebrew in the University of Oxford, and Canon of Christ Church. , Canon of Down, and Rector of Seapatrick, Banbridge. Canon of Birmingham. , Principal of Warrington Training College, and Canon of Liverpool
New Testament - The Canonical reception of NT writings. 160), which, according to Westcott, gives ‘a summary of the opinion of the Western Church on the Canon shortly after the middle of the 2nd century. ’ (γ) Canonical (ἐνδιάθηκοι) and un-canonical (ἀπόκρυφοι) books: generally, e. Hence δημοσιεύεσθαι under the former conditions refers merely to the fact of public reading; under the latter it is a declaration of Canonical authority. Succeeding Councils dealt with the Canon, esp. The catalogue of Canonical books which bears the name of the former is held to be spurious: to the catalogue of Carthage Christendom adheres to-day. For special information see Sanday, Inspiration; Wright, Synopsis (oral theory); Westcott, Canon of NT and Bible in the Church; Moffatt, The Historical NT. A work on the ‘Canon and Text of the NT’ (Gregory) is to form part of the International Theol
Apostolic Fathers - (Canon. 117 (see Westcott Canon p. ...
All the genuine writings of these three Apostolic Fathers are epistolary in form, modelled more or less after the pattern of the Canonical Epistles, especially those of St. ...
Their Relation to the Apostolic Teaching and to the Canonical Scriptures . They are the proper link between the Canonical Scriptures and the church Fathers of the succeeding ages. They shew that the great facts of the Gospel narrative, and the substance of the Apostolic letters, formed the basis and moulded the expression of the common creed" (Westcott, Canon , p. ...
For the relation of these writers to the Canonical Scriptures the reader is referred to the thorough investigation in Westcott's Hist. of the Canon pp. It will be sufficient here to state the more important results: (1) The Apostolic Fathers do not as a rule quote by name the Canonical writings of the N. are not quoted by name fragments of most of the Canonical Epistles lie embedded in the writings of these Fathers whose language is thoroughly leavened with the Apostolic diction. For (3) there is no decisive evidence that these Fathers recognized a Canon of the N. (5) Lastly though the language of the Canonical Gospels is frequently not quoted word for word yet there is no distinct allusion to any apocryphal narrative
Delegate, Apostolic - ...
The Apostolic delegation is not a tribunal of justice, but the delegate may decide conflicts in competence, as specified by church law (canon 1612,2)
Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools - Founded 1680 by Saint John Baptist de La Salle, then Canon at Rheims, France
Jainism - The White-Robed Sect's Canon consists of 45 Agamas or sacred texts in Prakrit with estimated origin c
Felicitas, Martyr at Carthage - Their names are in the Canon of the Roman Mass, which mentions none but really primitive martyrs
Jeremiah - Canon Cook says of Jeremiah: "His character is most interesting
Apostolic Delegate - ...
The Apostolic delegation is not a tribunal of justice, but the delegate may decide conflicts in competence, as specified by church law (canon 1612,2)
Office - In the Canon law, a benefice which has no jurisdiction annexed to it
Lamentations of Jeremiah - --The poems included in this collection appear in the Hebrew Canon with no name attached to them, but Jeremiah has been almost universally regarded as their author
Apocrypha - " "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not Canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as Canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not. ...
The Old Testament Apocrypha, often referred to simply as "the Apocrypha, " is a collection of Jewish books that are included in the Old Testament Canons of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians, but not of Protestants. Most of the books were composed in Hebrew prior to the Christian era, but they apparently never were accepted by the Jews as part of the Hebrew Canon. The Protestant Reformers, while affirming the unique authority of the Hebrew Canon, allowed that the books of the Apocrypha were useful for reading. The Roman Catholic Canon places the Prayer of Manasseh, 1Esdras, and 2Esdras in an appendix without implying Canonicity. ...
The Jews wrote numerous other works that are not included in any Christian Canon. Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as Canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. ...
Apart from the issue of Canonicity, the Old Testament Apocrypha has had a pronounced and pervasive influence on Western culture. Trafton...
See also Bible, Canon of the ...
Bibliography
Catch - ) A humorous Canon or round, so contrived that the singers catch up each other's words
Sychar - Canon Williams first suggested Identification with ‘Askar , a village on the skirt of Ebal, about two miles E
Zachariah, Zacharias - The reference is clearly to the death of Zechariah, son of Jehoiada ( 2 Chronicles 24:20-22 ); and as Chronicles was the last book of the Jewish Canon, the phrase ‘ from Abel to Zechariah ’ would be equivalent to our ‘from Genesis to Revelation
Charles Borromeo, Saint - Charles received the tonsure at the age of 12, and later was made titular abbot of Saint Gratian and Saint Felinus at Arona; in 1552 he matriculated at the University of Pavia, where he received his doctorate in civiland Canon law, 1559. Under his protection were placed the orders of Saint Francis, the Carmelites, the Humiliati, and the Canons Regular of the Holy Cross of Christ in Portugal. Canonized, 1610
Catholic Prisoners' Aid Society - The society came into existence under the auspices of Cardinal Vaughan through the efforts of Canon John Cooney, at that time chaplain at Wandsworth prison
Book - ...
The book of the wars of the Lord (Numbers 21:14 ), the book of Jasher (Joshua 10:13 ), and the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel (2 Chronicles 25:26 ), were probably ancient documents known to the Hebrews, but not forming a part of the Canon
Province - So in music, a Canon is a composition in which a given melody is the model for the formation of all the parts
Casuistry - The doctrine and science of conscience and its cases, with the rules and principles of resolving the same; drawn partly from natural reason or equity, and partly from the authority of Scripture, the Canon law, councils, fathers, &c
Divorce - of which impediments the Canon law allows no less than 14
Barnabas - For the spurious Epistle attributed to Barnabas, see Canon of NT, § 2
Malachi - The last of the prophets, in closing the sacred Canon of the Old Testament Scripture
Scriptures - (See BIBLE; Canon; INSPIRATION; OLD TESTAMENT; NEW TESTAMENT
Bonosus, Founder Bonosiani Sect - Their baptism was pronounced valid by the 17th Canon of the second synod of Arles, a
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - This being the first occasion of the translation of a bishop, as well as of the appointment of a coadjutor bishop, and in apparent violation of the Canons of the church, it was deemed essential to obtain the sanction of the whole episcopate of Palestine. dedicated his Canon Ecclesiasticus to him (Eus
Abortion - The Code of Canon Law, #2350, says: ...
Persons perpetrating abortion, not even excepting the mother, incur, if the act meets its effect, excommunication reserved to the Ordinary, and if such persons are clerics, they are to be deposed
Roman Rite - It is the constant tradition that Gregory was the last to make any change in the Canon
Rite, Roman - It is the constant tradition that Gregory was the last to make any change in the Canon
Society, Catholic Prisoners' Aid - The society came into existence under the auspices of Cardinal Vaughan through the efforts of Canon John Cooney, at that time chaplain at Wandsworth prison
Bishop - ...
Bishop's Charge—Title I, Canon 19, Sec. IX of the Canons of theGeneral Convention makes the following provision: "It is deemedproper that every Bishop of this Church shall deliver, at leastonce in three years, a charge to the Clergy of his Diocese, unlessprevented by reasonable cause
Timotheus i., Archbaptist of Alexandria - The third Canon gave to the see of Constantinople the second rank throughout the church; Neale says that Timotheus "refused to allow" its "validity" (Hist. His 18 "canonical answers" to requests by his clergy for direction are interesting, and became part of the church law of the East (see Beveridge, Pand
Scripture - Later the reception of the Hagiographa and the Prophets into the Canon led to those collections being regarded also as Scripture, though never with quite the authority attached to the Law. For an explanation of this remarkable development, see Canon of NT
Catholic Epistles - 25) shows us that it cannot bear the meaning of ‘canonical’ or ‘apostolic,’ since he there employs it simply in the sense of Epistles not addressed to a definite and relatively narrow circle of readers. The change by which the attribute ‘catholic’ came to signify the opposite of ‘non-apostolic’ or ‘uncanonical’ took place in the West, and it was there also that this group of seven Epistles in the NT came to be known generally as the Canonical Epistles (cf. In would thus appear that these terms were resorted to as a mere makeshift, and that they are of very little service to us either as regards the history of the Canon or from the literary point of view. -Histories of the NT Canon, and Introductions to the NT, esp
Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church - His collection of Canons laid the foundation of Canon law. Stephen, to whom he dedicates his collection of Canons, he admits the existence of an earlier, but defective, Latin translation, of which copies have been printed and named, after his naming of it, Prisca Versio by Justellus and others. His own was a corrected edition of that earlier version, so far as regards the Canons of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, and Constantinople—165 in all—together with 27 of Chalcedon: all originally published in Greek, and all, except the Laodicean, already translated in the Prisca Versio. The Laodicean, unlike the rest, are given in an abbreviated form, and the chronological order is interrupted to place the Nicene Canons first. He specifies as having been translated by himself the 50 so-called Canons of the Apostles, which stand at the head of his collection, which he admits were not then universally received: and, as having been appended by himself, the Sardican and African Canons, which he says were published in Latin, and with which his collection ends. It seems certain, from what Cassiodorus says, that Dionysius either translated or revised an earlier translation of the official documents of the 3rd and 4th councils, as well as the Canons of the 1James , 2 nd. His attestation of the true text and consequent rendering of the 6th Nicene Canon, his translating the 9th of Chalcedon into plain Latin, after suppressing the 28th, which, as it was not passed in full council he could omit with perfect honesty, and, most of all, the publicity which he first gave to the Canons against transmarine appeals in the African code and to the stand made by the African bishops against the encroachments of pope Zosimus and his successors in the matter of Apiarius, are historical stumbling-blocks which are fatal to the papal claims. Misquotations of the Sardican Canons, by which those claims were supported, are, moreover, exposed by his preservation of them in the language in which he avers they were published. 1875), is quite willing to abandon the Sardican Canons in order to get rid also of the African code, which is a thorn in his side
Hebrews, Epistle to -
Its Canonicity. All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament Canon among the other inspired books
Introduction, Biblical - Inspiration, the Canon or collection of the sacred books, their text and translations, the laws and history of their interpretation are properly regarded today as general introductory questions; see also hermeneutics and exegesis. Since the Bible is a Divinely inspired book committed to the custodianship of the Church whose duty is to safeguard Holy Writ and its exposition against erroneous, capricious, and wilful treatment, biblical introduction must not be considered merely as a chapter of universal literature, but as a theological science which calls literary and historical criticism to its aid, and thus offers scientific proof that all the books of the Bible are what the Church teaches them to be, Canonical and inspired, and preserved to us substantially unaltered and free from falsification
New Code of Canon Law - In the 13th century especially Canon law became the object of scientific study and different compilations were made by the Roman pontiffs. ; the fourth of Canonical trials; and the last of crimes and punishments. The whole work contains 2414 Canons
Biblical Introduction - Inspiration, the Canon or collection of the sacred books, their text and translations, the laws and history of their interpretation are properly regarded today as general introductory questions; see also hermeneutics and exegesis. Since the Bible is a Divinely inspired book committed to the custodianship of the Church whose duty is to safeguard Holy Writ and its exposition against erroneous, capricious, and wilful treatment, biblical introduction must not be considered merely as a chapter of universal literature, but as a theological science which calls literary and historical criticism to its aid, and thus offers scientific proof that all the books of the Bible are what the Church teaches them to be, Canonical and inspired, and preserved to us substantially unaltered and free from falsification
Canon Law, New Code of - In the 13th century especially Canon law became the object of scientific study and different compilations were made by the Roman pontiffs. ; the fourth of Canonical trials; and the last of crimes and punishments. The whole work contains 2414 Canons
Ebionites - ...
They differed from the Nazarenes, however, in several things, chiefly as to what regards the authority of the sacred writings; for the Nazarenes received all for Scripture contained in the Jewish Canon; whereas the Ebionites rejected all the prophets, and held the very names of David, Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, in abhorrence
Prophecy - ...
But the great body of Old Testament prophecy relates directly to the advent of the Messiah, beginning with Genesis 3:15 , the first great promise, and extending in ever-increasing fulness and clearness all through to the very close of the Canon
Tree - It has been thought so by some writers, and there is reason for the opinion; and when we consider how God the Holy Ghost, from the description of the garden of Eden, in the very opening of the Bible, to the closing the Canon of Scripture, in the description of the Paradise of God, makes use of the several names of "the tree of life, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil," which were evidently symbolical and sacramental, I cannot but pause over the several elegantly and highly finished representations which the whole Book of God abounds with, more or less, from beginning to end, and accept them as such
Apocrypha - (Greek: apokryphos, hidden) ...
Originally writings that claimed a sacred origin and were supposed to have been hidden for generations; later, a well-defined class of literature with scriptural or quasi-scriptural pretensions, but lacking genuineness and Canonicity, which were composed during the two centuries before Christ and the early centuries of our era. Protestants apply the term improperly to denote also Old Testament books, not contained in the Jewish Canon, but received by Catholics under the name of deuterocanonical
High Priest - In the years succeeding the close of the Canon the office became a tool in the hands of the rulers of the land
Eraclius, Deacon of the Church of Hippo - Only, though he had himself been ordained bishop in the lifetime of his predecessor, Valerius, he now held that this had been an unconscious violation of the Nicene Canon against having two bishops in the same church, and therefore resolved that Eraclius, while discharging all the secular duties of the see, should remain a presbyter until his own death
Epistle - Being placed in our Canon without reference to their chronological order, they are perused under considerable disadvantages; and it would be well to read them occasionally in connection with what the history in the Acts of the Apostles relates respecting the several churches to which they are addressed
Theology, Pastoral - It presupposes a knowledge of dogmatic and moral theology, including Canon law and other branches which enter into his ecclesiastical training
University of Bologna - It was a "jurist" university in origin, owing to the organization by Imerius of a school of law, distinct from the arts school in the early 12th century and the adoption of the "Decretum Gratiani" of the Camaldolese (or Benedictine) monk, Gratian, as the recognized text-book of Canon law (c
John, Gospel of - (Canon Cook places it toward the close of John's life, A
Majorianus, Julius Valerius - 33) states that Leo the Great forbad a woman taking the veil before 60 years of age, or according to a various reading 40, and that the 19th Canon of the council of Agde (Mansi, viii
Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria - The date is determined by the first words of this set of 14 "canons" or regulations "Since we are approaching the fourth Easter from the beginning of the persecution," i. 324 where these "canons" are assigned to 311. (4) is not strictly speaking a Canon but a lamentation over lapsi who had not repented (Neale i. These "canons" were ratified by the council in Trullo c. ) ...
Very soon after these "canons" were drawn up the persecution was intensified by the pagan fanaticism of Maximin Daza. Peter felt it his duty to follow the precedents he had cited in his 8th Canon and the example of his great predecessor Dionysius by "seeking for safety in flight" (Burton, H. ...
Johnson and Routh reckon as a "fifteenth" Canon what is, in fact, a fragment of a work on the Paschal Festival. 20; Bright, Notes on the Canons of the First Four Councils, p
Bible - The apocryphal books are never found in the Hebrew Canon, and exist only in the Greek Septuagint. Moreover, anyone book cannot be taken from the Canon without breaking a link in the complete chain. The sacred Canon of the Old Testament was completed under Ezra. (See Canon. Daille remarked, "God has allowed a fosse to be drawn by human weakness round the sacred Canon, to keep it from invasion. Also for 14 centuries the church, though in various sections of it falling into various unscriptural heresies, has never added to, nor taken from, the New Testament Canon. ...
But in the New Testament, where she might have done mischief, she has been divinely constrained to maintain, without addition or subtraction, the Canon which testifies against herself
Chronicles, i - Position in Canon . As the first part of this large work dealt with a period which was already covered by Samuel and Kings, it was omitted, to begin with, in the formation of the Canon; while the latter part of the book, dealing with the ecclesiastical life of Jerusalem after the Exile, was granted a place. Hence the book was included in the Canon after Ezr. is the last book in the Hebrew Canon
Apocrypha, New Testament - is a collective term referring to a large body of religious writings dating back to the early Christian centuries that are similar in form to the New Testament (Gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses) but were never included as a part of the Canon of Scripture. In the formation of the Christian Canon of Scripture, “apocrypha” came to mean works that were not divinely inspired and authoritative. , apostolic fathers), it seems best to restrict the term to material that was not received into the Canon of Scripture, yet, by form and content, claimed for itself a status and authority equal to Scripture. The writers of these apocryphal infancy gospels attempted to correct what they viewed as deficiencies in the Canonical accounts and to fill in the gaps they believed existed. ...
Passion Gospels, another class of apocryphal gospel, are concerned with supplementing the Canonical accounts by describing events surrounding the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. The Gospel of the Hebrews , perhaps the most prominent, appears to have been in some ways a paraphrase of the Canonical Gospel of Matthew and places a special emphasis on James, the brother of the Lord. The heretical emphases of the Gospel of Thomas are countered in advance by the Canonical Epistle of 1John, which emphasizes the gospel of Jesus Christ as the message of life, available for every person to experience. The most popular of these, the Apocalypse of Peter , seems to have enjoyed a degree of Canonical status for a time. Even though these writings were not included in the Canon, they are not worthless. The New Testament Apocrypha also serves as a point of comparison with the writings contained in the Canon of the New Testament
Leviticus - Canon Tristram, speaking of the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the Holy Land by the Palestine Exploration officers, makes the following statement:, "Take these two catalogues of the clean and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus [1] and Deuteronomy [2]
Lamentations, Book of - Called in the Hebrew Canon 'Ekhah , Meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing
Scripture - See Bible, Formation and Canon; Inspiration
Ascension - Jewish literature outside the Canon of the Bible developed long stories and explanations of the ascension of many religious heroes
Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, , Disciple And Companion of Ruspe - by Wagenmann; Petrus Pithaeus, in preface Lectori , prefixed to Breviatio Canonum Ferrandi , Cod. Canonum, p. He is also the author of a Breviatio Canonum ecclesiasticorum ( Codex Canonum , F. ), a collection and digest of 232 Canons of the earliest councils, Nicaea, Laodicea, Sardica, Constantinople, Carthage, etc. Ferrandus appears to have had his knowledge of the Greek councils through a translation and digest of such Canons as had been previously in use in Spain. Chrysogonus, Martyr Under Diocletian - Chrysogonus (1), martyr in the persecution of Diocletian, whose name was inserted in the Canon of the Mass from a very early period, which shews his importance, though little is now known of him
Chancellor - ...
Chancellor of an Ecclesiastical Court, is the bishops lawyer, versed in the and Canon law, to direct the bishop in causes of the church, and criminal
Esther, Theology of - In spite of this, the Book of Esther was included in the Canon and has significant theological value. In fact, the inclusion of Esther in the Christian Canon has mitigated the attempt to spiritualize the concept of Israel
Revelation of John, the - ...
The Muratorian Canon (A. ...
Papias, John's hearer and Polycarp's associate and bishop of Hierapolis near Laodicea (one of the seven churches), attests its Canonicity and inspiration (according to a scholium of Andreas of Cappadocia). ) reckons Revelation among the Canonical Scriptures to which none must add and from which none must take away. ) enumerates Revelation as in the Canon, saying: "it has as many mysteries as words. "...
Thus a continuous chain of witnesses proves its authenticity and Canonicity. 39) through antimillennial bias wavers as to whether to count Revelation Canonical or not. The 60th Canon (if genuine) of the Laodicean council (fourth century A. ) omits Revelation from the Canon; but the council of Carthage (A. 397) recognizes its Canonicity. Andreas of Caesarea in Cappadocia recognized its genuineness and Canonicity, and wrote the first connected commentary on it. "...
Relation of Revelation to the rest of the Canon. 100) came to John at Ephesus, bringing him copies of the Gospels, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and requested his apostolic judgment concerning them; he pronounced them genuine, authentic, and inspired, and at their request added his Gospel to complete the fourfold aspect of Christ (Muratori Canon; Eusebius iii. " Revelation is "the seal of the whole Bible" (a Greek divine in Allatius), the completion of the Canon
Pseudepigrapha - (pssewd eh pih' gra fuh) Intertestamental literature not accepted into the Christian or Jewish Canon of Scripture and often attributed to an ancient hero of faith. Some of the writings are anonymous; thus some scholars prefer the name “outside books” for all of these writings, emphasizing that they did not become part of Canon. Some ancient Christians and the Roman church have used the term “Apocrypha,” since for them what Protestants call Apocrypha is part of their Canon
Esther, Book of - Place in the Canon . The Book of Esther belongs to the second group of the third division of the Hebrew Canon the Kethubim , or ‘Writings’ a group which comprises the Megilloth , or ‘Rolls,’ of which there are five, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lam. It was not without much discussion that Esther was admitted into the Canon, for its right to be there was disputed both by the Jewish authorities and by the early Christian Church. the greatest Jewish teacher of his day, Rabbi Jehudah, said, ‘The Book of Esther defileth not the hands’ [1]. 373) regarded it as uncanonical, so too Gregory Nazianzen (d
Hosea - Hosea began to prophecy very early in the church, prehaps, as some think, the first of all the prophets whose writings have been preserved in the Canon of Scripture; and he continued through several reigns, as the preface in his first chapter shews
Scripture - , James 4:5 (see RV , a separate rhetorical question from the one which follows); in 2 Peter 1:20 , "no prophecy of Scripture," a description of all, with special application to the OT in the next verse; (b) of the OT Scriptures (those accepted by the Jews as Canonical) and all those of the NT which were to be accepted by Christians as authoritative, 2 Timothy 3:16 ; these latter were to be discriminated from the many forged epistles and other religious "writings" already produced and circulated in Timothy's time. The AV states truth concerning the completed Canon of Scripture, but that was not complete when the Apostle wrote to Timothy
Prophecy, Prophesy, Prophesying - ...
"With the completion of the Canon of Scripture prophecy apparently passed away, 1 Corinthians 13:8,9
Ordinance - They are a part of the Canon and not to be neglected
Ezra, Book of - It would appear that after the great work of the Chronicler had been completed (1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah), the part which contained narratives of otherwise unrecorded events was first received into the Canon. Hence, in the Jewish Canon, Ezra-Nehemiah precedes the Books of Chronicles
Greek Versions of ot - ]'>[1] and the Hebrew OT, namely, in the books included in their respective Canons; for the Apocrypha, as it stands to-day in our Bibles, consists (with the exception of 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh) of books which form an integral part of the LXX [1] Canon, but were excluded from the Hebrew Canon when that was finally determined about the end of the 1st century [21]. In place of divisions which substantially represent three different stages of Canonization, it classifies the books in groups according to the character of their subject-matter Law, History, Poetry, and Prophecy. ]'>[1] Canon was generally accepted by the early Christian Church. Through the medium of the Old Latin Version it passed into the West, and in spite of Jerome’s adoption of the Hebrew Canon in his Vulgate, the impugned books made their way back into all Latin Bibles, and have remained there from that day to this. ] In the Reformed Churches their fate has been different; for the German and English translators followed Jerome in adopting the Hebrew Canon, and relegated the remaining books to the limbo of the Apocrypha. ]'>[1] and Massoretic Canons respectively is a matter of controversy which cannot be settled offhand; but the fact of their divergence is certain and historically important. ]'>[1] had come down to us in the state in which it was at the time when its Canon was complete (say in the 1st cent. , to which period the fixing of the Massoretic Canon and text may be assigned with fair certainty, they definitely repudiated it
Canon of Scripture - As to the scriptures the expression refers to what books should be included: thus the 'canon' of scripture is often spoken of, and the books are called 'canonical' or 'uncanonical. ...
In the first place, the Church of Rome boldly declared that it was only 'thechurch' that could decide what books were Canonical: as early as the Council of Carthage (about A
Kings - These two books formed only one in the Hebrew Canon, and they were probably compiled by Ezra from the records which were regularly kept, both in Jerusalem and Samaria, of all public transactions
Daniel, Book of - , and it is now generally abandoned, for such reasons as the following: (1) In the Jewish Canon Dn. ( d ) The likeliest suggestion is that the entire book was Aramaic, but would not have found admission into the Canon if it had not been enclosed, so to speak, in a frame of Heb
Prophet - So successful were these institutions that from the time of Samuel to the closing of the Canon of the Old Testament there seems never to have been wanting due supply of men to keep up the line of official prophets. ( Amos 7:14 ) The sixteen prophets whose books are in the Canon have that place of honor because they were endowed with the prophetic gift us well as ordinarily (so far as we know) belonging to the prophetic order
Gospels (Uncanonical) - A century earlier, with the rise of the Gospel Canon, a sharp distinction had been drawn between the four Gospels of the NT and all other writings of this class. One is, that while the Church had only four Gospels in the sense of Scriptures relating to the life of Jesus, which were authorized to be used in public worship and for purposes of doctrine, the early Christians did not by any means confine their reading to the Canonical Gospels. Their piety was nourished upon some Gospels which found no place in the Canon. We can see, for example, from the evidence which Eusebius rather grudgingly furnishes for the repute of the Gospel of the Hebrews in certain circles, that an uncanonical Gospel like this had a vogue which was only partially affected by the necessity of excluding it from the Canon. Also, before the Canon gained its full authority, a Gospel like that of Peter could still keep some footing within a community. Nor again-and this is the second remark to be made-did the fixing of the Canon put a stop to the composition or the editing of such Gospel material. Still, it followed in the wake of the Canonical Gospels, and what has survived the wreck, reaching us partly on the planks of versions and partly on broken pieces of the original, forms a considerable section of the material for our present survey. ...
To study these Gospels against the background of the Canonical, and to measure them by the standards of the latter, is to do them too much honour. As we shall see, it is a mistake to speak of the uncanonical Gospels as if they were a homogeneous product. ] and were never meant to be anything else; the motive for their composition was to adapt one or more of the Canonical Gospels to the tenets of a sect or party on the borders of the catholic Church. But others were written to meet the needs of popular Christianity; their aim was to supplement rather than to rival the Canonical Gospels, and in some cases they can be shown to be almost contemporary with the latter-certainly prior to the formation of the Canon itself. †
In several NT Introductions the uncanonical Gospels are included, especially by F. ...
The Muratorian Canon, in its extant form, does not happen to mention any uncanonical Gospels which are to be avoided by the faithful, unless we are meant to understand some of them as included in the obscure closing words. 23) ends his catalogue of the Canonical or accepted Scriptures with the remark that his object in drawing it up has been ‘that we may know both these works and those cited by heretics under the name of the apostles, including, for example, such books as the Gospels of Peter, of Thomas, of Matthias, or of any others besides them … They are not to be placed even among the rejected writings (ἐν νόθοις), but are all to be put aside as absurd and impious. He admits that some of these un-canonical Gospels are read by orthodox Christians, e. 346-420) also mentions some of the uncanonical Gospels, but his information adds nothing to the data supplied by Origen, from whom he probably derived in the main his knowledge of those documents. Bishop Exsuperius of Toulouse, the Canonical list is followed by a note of ‘cetera autem quae uel sub nomine Mathiae siue Iacobi minoris; uel sub nomine Petri et Iohanuis, quae a quodam Leucio scripta sunt; uel sub nomine Andreae, quae a Xenocaride et Leonida philosophic;*
It is not necessary to go further down for ecclesiastical strictures upon uncanonical Gospels. We now pass from verdicts upon the uncanonical Gospels to an outline of the information yielded by their extant fragments. ) Several uncanonical Gospels are still unedited, from the standpoint of modern critical research; even the extant Greek and Latin Manuscripts are not properly collated, in many cases. The numerous versions of some uncanonical Gospels might seem to compensate for the fragmentary condition of others, but in reality the versions are often equivalent to fresh editions rather than to translations, and in this way the recovery of the primitive nucleus is sometimes rendered more difficult than ever. ) Finally, the form and the content of the uncanonical Gospels open problems of their own. ‘Les évangiles apocryphes,’ says Renan, ‘sont les Pouranas du christianisme; ils out pour base les évangiles Canoniques. ’ But it was not simply Semitic methods of compiling a midrash that were followed by the authors of the uncanonical Gospels
Sargon - " Sargon mounted the throne the same year that Merodach Baladan ascended the Babylonian throne, according to Ptolemy's Canon 721 B
Rephidim - But Holland (Canon Cook's essay on Exodus 16; 17; 19; Speaker's Commentary) places Rephidim after Israel traversed the wady es Sheikh at the pass el Watiyeh shut in by perpendicular rocks on either side; a choice position for Amalek as it commands the entrance to the wadies round the central group of Sinai
Sardis - Melito, bishop of Sardis in the second century, was eminent for piety; he visited Palestine to investigate concerning the Old Testament Canon, and wrote an epistle on it (Eusebius 4:26; Jerome Catal
Liturgy - We have many things out of the Greek liturgies of Basil and Chrysostom; more out of the litanies of Ambrose and Gregory; very much out of the ancient forms of the church dispersed in the works of the fathers, who wrote long before the Roman Breviary, and Canon of the Mass
Deists - Others, as Blount, Collins, and Morgan, have endeavoured to gain the same purpose, by attacking particular parts of the Christian scheme, by explaining away the literal sense and meaning of certain passages, or by placing one portion of the sacred Canon in opposition to the other
Kings, First And Second Books of, - originally only one book in the Hebrew Canon, from in the LXX. --Their Canonical authority having never been disputed, it is needless to bring forward the testimonies to their authenticity which may be found in Josephus, Eusebius, jerome, Augustine, etc
Montanus, Bishop of Toledo - The bishops began by expressing their intention of adding to the Codex Canonum certain provisions not already contained in the ancient Canons on the one hand, and of reviving such prescriptions as had fallen into disuse on the other. The material of these Canons is common to most of the various Spanish councils of the first half of 6th cent. "According to the decrees of ancient Canons, we declare that, God willing, the council shall be held in future 'apud' our brother, the bishop Montanus, so that it will be the duty of our brother and co-bishop Montanus, who is in the metropolis , to forward to our co-principals, bishops of the Lord, letters convening the synod when the proper time shall arrive. It took some time to accomplish, but the Decretum Gundemari as a first step, and the Primacy Canon of the 12th council of Toledo as a second, were the inevitable ecclesiastical complements of physical and political facts
Synods - The fourth was that of Elvira, which rejected by its thirty-sixth Canon any use whatever even of pictures. The tenth Canon, decreed by the latter, shows the sense of the fathers on the subject of celibacy; namely, "If deacons declare at the time of their ordination that they would marry, they should not be deprived of their function if they did marry. On the latter appealing to him for support, Zosimus sent the Sardican Canon to a council held at the time in Carthage, as if that Canon had been decreed by the council of Nice; because it allowed the right of appeal to the see of Rome. The African council rejected it with disdain, having found, on reference to the eastern patriarchs, that no such Canons belonged to the Nicene council, or were ever before heard of. They amount in number to twenty-six; and, like the rest of the minor class which preceded them, Canons are interspersed among their acts which have in view the security of church property, and the rights, privileges, and powers of the different ranks of the clergy. The remaining, Canons relate to discipline, with the exception of the few which were at different times ordained for the suppression of heretical opinions, for the regulation of both the married and celibate clergy, and of the fees to which they should be entitled on the performance of certain duties. They maintained the principle laid down in the Canons, that the judgment passed on any individual, either by an eastern or western synod, ought to be confirmed by the other. " Here neither Canon nor Scripture is referred to; while it is left optional with the assembly whether deference was or was not to be paid to Julius, who is simply styled συνεπισκοπος , "a fellow bishop. " The fourth Canon of this synod ordains, "that an archbishop, &c, deposed by a provincial synod, must not be expelled, until the bishop of Rome shall determine whether the cause shall be reexamined;" and the fifth Canon decrees, "that the bishop of Rome, if he deem it proper, shall order a rehearing of the matter; that, if convenient, he shall send deputies for the purpose; if not, that he should leave the decision of the case to the synod itself. " From the third and fourth Canons it appears that a novelty in discipline is established, and made obligatory on the churches of both empires, but only by a handful of bishops belonging to one of them; and from the fifth, that the bishop of Rome, if he deemed a judgment erroneous, might convene a new council and send deputies to it, for the purpose of reconsidering the matter. These Canons, no doubt, were very flattering to the ambition of the Roman pontiff, and, accordingly, they are pleaded in behalf of his supremacy; but how preposterous is it to ascribe that to a human law, which, it is asserted, belongs to him by the law of God! There are other Canons regulating the intercourse between bishops and the imperial court; after such a manner, however, as to make the bishop of Rome the judge of the propriety of the petitions which they intended to prefer. This pontiff forthwith sent them the Sardican Canon, which conferred on him the right of appeal. This they indignantly rejected, inasmuch as their predecessors, who attended the council of Sardica, left no record of it; and because the eastern patriarchs, whom they consulted on the occasion, not only disclaimed all knowledge of any such Canon being in existence, but furnished their brethren with an exact copy of the Nicene Canons, among which the Sardican one was not to be found. The Sardican Canons were not inserted in the code of Canons approved of by the council of Chalcedon
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - Canonicity. ) refers to it oftener than any other Canonical New Testament book, adopting its words as on a level with the rest of the New Testament. Westcott (Canon, 22) observes, it seems transfused into Clement's mind. ...
The Canon fragment of Muratori omits it, in the beginning of the third century. (See Canon. Muratori's Canon does not notice it. ...
When in the fourth century at last they found it was received as Pauline and Canonical (the Alexandrians only doubted its authorship, not its authority) on good grounds in the Greek churches, they universally accepted it. Augustine too held its Canonicity
Genesis, Theology of - This is the attempt to determine what the meaning of the book is apart from its place in the larger Canon of Scripture, and particularly relates to the question of what it might have meant to its original readers. The second level of study concerns the theology of Genesis within the Old Testament Canon. Some critics have attempted to bridge the gap between critical theory and biblical theology with "canon criticism" (following especially Brevard Childs) and thus have a theology of the whole book of Genesis without abandoning the reigning critical theories. Finally, Revelation closes the Canon by looking back to the early chapters of Genesis
Psalms - Title and place in Canon . Origin and history...
(1) Reception into the Canon . Conclusive external evidence for the existence of the Psalter in its present extent does not carry us very far back beyond the close of the Jewish Canon (see Canon of OT); but the mode of allusion to the Psalms in the NT renders it very unlikely that the book was still open to additions in the 1st cent. ; and the fact that none of the ‘Psalms of Solomon’ (see § 1 , end) gained admission, and that this collection by its title perhaps presupposes the Canonical ‘Psalms of David,’ renders it probable that the Psalter was complete, and not open to further additions, some time before b
Calendar, the Christian - It is a valid objection to this view that it would practically make the Apocalypse deal only with the future, and that almost the earliest ecclesiastical authors after the Canonical writers use κυριακή in the sense of the first day of the week (see below). 7), who traces it to Apostolic times; and it was afterwards laid down in the 20th Canon of Nicaea. There is a possible local and temporary exception in the Hippolytcan Canons (§ 217, ed. These Canons allow a bishop to celebrate the Eucharist when he pleases. ’ The Canons of Hippolytus perhaps mention Saturday, though Achelis gives ‘in ea … hebdomade’; but the Arabic for ‘Saturday’ and ‘week’ are pronounced alike (see Rahmani, Test. But this first appears in Peter of Alexandria († 311), who gives this explanation in his Canonical Epistle (canon xv. ...
Other early authorities for week-day fasts are Hennas, Tertullian, Hippolytus, the Hippolytcan Canons, and Origen. The Hippolytcan Canons, which, whether they represent Roman usage or Alexandrian, probably date from the first half of the 3rd cent. ...
But hereafter there is a break, except that Peter of Alexandria gives evidence for Egypt, and that in the Edessene Canons of the first half of the 4th cent. there are directions for the Eucharist on Sundays, for service ‘on the fourth day,’ and for service ‘on the eve’ [10] at the ninth hour (canons 2, 3). ’ The Apostolic Canon makes it incumbent on all, under penalty, to keep these days, unless in sickness. ) ordered superpositions each month except in July and August (canon 23); and in Canon 26 says that the error is to be corrected ‘ut omni sabbati die superpositiones celebremus,’ which may mean that superpositions were to be held every Saturday (Hefele), or that this weekly fast was henceforward forbidden (Bp. The latter meaning would suit Canon 23 better, but Hefele’s construction suits Canon 43
Obadiah - He stands fourth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew Canon, fifth in the Septuagint Jerome makes him contemporary with Hosea, Joel, and Amos. He evidently belongs to the same prophetic cycle as Joel and Amos, and so is connected with them in the Canon
Lamentations, Book of - Position in the Canon . is placed in the third division of the OT Canon
Apostolic Fathers - ...
Identified by the Muratorian Canon as the brother of Pius, Bishop of Rome around 140-150, Hermas indicates that he had been brought to Rome after being taken captive and was purchased by a woman named Rhoda. ...
While the writings designated Apostolic Fathers differ in the precision of their dating and authorship, as writings that predate the formation of the New Testament Canon, they are invaluable resources for understanding post-apostolic Christianity
Muratorian Fragment - 394; Tregelles, Canon Muratorianus ; Hesse, op. Canon , 208 seq
Peter, the Epistles of - of Canon omits it. ...
If Peter were not the author the epistle would be false, as it expressly claims to be his; then the Canon of the council of Laodicea, A. "God has allowed a fosse to be drawn by human weakness around the sacred Canon, to protect it from all invasion" (Daille). Canon do not mention it. (See Canon; NEW TESTAMENT
Nail - Isaiah 22:23-25,3; "fastened (the idol) with nails" to keep it steady in its place! Jeremiah 10:4; 1 Chronicles 22:3; 2 Chronicles 3:9, where the "fifty shekels of gold" were to gild the nails fastening the sheet gold on the wainscoting; Ecclesiastes 12:11, "words of the wise are as nails fastened (by) the master of assemblies," rather "the masters" or "associates in the collection (of the Canonical Scriptures), i. A Canon whereby to judge sermons: they are worth nothing unless, like Scripture, they resemble goads and nails
Laodicea - 361, that the Scripture Canon was defined
Esarhaddon - " Ptolemy's Canon shows he reigned 13 years in Babylon, and probably reigned in all 20 years, dying about 660 B
Allegory - For example, interpreting the Song of Solomon as an allegory of God's love for Israel rather than as a collection of romantic love songs may have played a role in the acceptance of that book into the Old Testament Canon
Caius, Ecclesiastical Writer - Muratori attributed to Caius the celebrated fragment on the Canon published by him, which concludes with a rejection of Montanist documents. The strongest reason for thinking that the book intended is the Canonical book of the Revelation is that Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus
Eustathius (22), Bishop of Berytus - As a reward for his support of the court party at the "Latrocinium," Eustathius had obtained from Theodosius a decree giving metropolitical rank to Berytus (Lupus, in Canon
Esther - Ezra and the men of the great synagogue at Jerusalem probably edited and added it to the Canon, having previously received it, and the book of Daniel, while at the Persian court. The Canon contained it at latest by that time, and how long earlier is unknown. ...
The purity of the Hebrew Canon stands out in striking contrast with the laxity of the Alexandrian Greek version
Gospels (Apocryphal) - —In the sense in which the term is popularly understood, ‘apocryphal’ is synonymous with ‘spurious’ or ‘false’; when, however, it is applied as a title to writings of the early Christian centuries, it bears the significance of ‘extra-canonical. ’ By Apocryphal Gospels are, accordingly, meant all writings claiming to be Gospels which are not included in the Canon of the NT, without any implication that their contents are necessarily false or of questionable origin. ) can be said with any certainty to have survived;*
The majority of extra-canonical Gospels are due, however, to other causes. Written at a time when the present Four Gospels were gaining, or had already gained, a place of exceptional authority,†
Even in the earlier Apocryphal Gospels, which are of the Synoptic type, it is clear that theological prepossessions played a considerable part, as indeed they did to some extent in the Canonical Gospels. Relation to Canonical Gospels. —The fragmentary condition and the uncertain text of many of the Apocryphal Gospels render a confident judgment as to their relation to the Canonical Gospels exceedingly difficult. Where the question of affinity is raised, the problem to be solved is whether the uncanonical Gospels are dependent on the Canonical, or draw from a common oral source. ...
While a large degree of dependence on the Canonical Gospels must in general be maintained in regard to the Apocryphal Gospels, this must not be pressed so far as to exclude the possibility of their embodying details drawn from reliable oral sources. The fact must steadily be borne in mind that the stream of living oral tradition continued to flow for several generations, though in ever decreasing volume, alongside of the written Gospels;*
[9] accordingly, where the uncanonical Gospels deviate from the Canonical record, either by slight interpolations into common matter or by additions peculiarly their own, the possibility is always open that in these additions we have early and reliable traditions, either unknown to the four Evangelists or passed over by them as unsuitable for their purpose. In the first place, the authoritative position which the Canonical Gospels early reached as authentic sources of the life and teaching of Jesus entitles them to be used as a touchstone of the probable authenticity of the additional matter contained in the Apocryphal Gospels. Secondly, when we keep in view the undoubted fact that fictitious writings were common in which the life and teaching of Christ were freely handled in the interest of heretical sects, it is clear that extreme caution must be observed in receiving as authentic any addition to the Canonical record. If it would be less than just to say that all the Apocryphal Gospels stand in the position of suspect witnesses, with a presumption of unreliability against them in respect of their peculiar matter, it is nevertheless true that their exclusion from the Canon, as well as the notoriously tainted origin of some of them, render it imperative that their claim to embody a genuine tradition must be carefully sifted, and allowed only after the clearest proof. From what has been already said about their origin and their relation to the Canonical Gospels, their value in this respect will appear to be extremely slight. A comparison of the Apocryphal Gospels with those in the Canon makes the pre-eminence of the latter incontestably clear, and shows that as sources of Christ’s life the former, for all practical purposes, may be neglected. The proverbial simplicity of truth receives a striking commentary when (for example) the miracles of the Canonical Gospels are compared with those of the Apocryphal writings. The conclusion, based on the comparison of the Apocryphal with the Canonical Gospels, is amply warranted, that in rejecting the former and choosing the latter as authoritative Scriptures the Church showed a true feeling for what was original and authentic. ...
Though the Apocryphal Gospels afford us little additional knowledge about Christ, they are invaluable as enabling us to realize more clearly the conditions under which the four Gospels were received in the Church, until they were finally established as authoritative in the Gospel Canon. The existence of so many Evangelic writings shows that for some time after the Canonical Gospels appeared, they had no position of commanding influence. By the time of Irenaeus (circa (about) 180) the Gospel Canon may be regarded as definitely fixed; and although Apocryphal Gospels continued to circulate, the authoritative position of the four Gospels was finally assured. It is true of them, equally with the Canonical Gospels, that they were written in the interests of faith, ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν; the writers were not mere chroniclers of past events, giving information about One in whose life and personality they had no vital concern; they were believers, for whom Christ was Lord. no Gospels were reckoned as authoritative except those now in the Canon, the Apocryphal Gospels continued to be read for purposes of edification, both in public and in private. Those which were distinctly heretical gradually disappeared as the power of the Church grew, while those which were of a type similar to the Canonical Gospels were unable for any lengthened period to maintain their position alongside their authoritative rivals. In all sections and in all languages of the Church this literature is perhaps the most strongly represented alongside of the Canonical writings, in a form, as one would expect, that is always changing to suit the taste of the age
Caesarius, Bishop of Arles - , Canon Bright's Church History, ch. The following propositions are laid down in Canon 25: "This also do we believe, in accordance with the Catholic faith, that after grace received through baptism, all the baptized are able and ought, with the aid and co-operation of Christ, to fulfil all duties needful for salvation, provided they are willing to labour faithfully. " On the express ground that these doctrines are as needful for the laity as for the clergy, certain distinguished laymen ( illustres ac magnifci viri ) were invited to sign these Canons. A book he wrote against the semi-Pelagians, entitled de Gratiâ et Libero Arbitrio , was sanctioned by pope Felix; and the Canons passed at Orange were approved by Boniface II
Prophet - ...
Of the Old Testament prophets there are sixteen, whose prophecies form part of the inspired Canon
Masora - In regard, therefore, the sacred writings had undergone an infinite number of alterations; whence various readings had arisen, and the original was become much mangled and disguised, the Jews had recourse to a Canon, which they judged infallible, to fix and ascertain the reading of the Hebrew text; and this rule they call masora; "tradition, " from tradit, as if this critique were nothing but a tradition which they had received from their forefathers
Jeremi'ah - --Canon Cook says of Jeremiah, "His character is most interesting
Gen'Esis - --Canon Cook
Jeremi'ah - --Canon Cook says of Jeremiah, "His character is most interesting
Leo i, Emperor - Acacius obtained from Leo an edict confirming the 28th Canon of Chalcedon, which raised Constantinople to the same ecclesiastical level as Rome
Isaiah, Book of - Still, rigorous proof that the Book of Isaiah contained all that it now contains much before the final close of the Canon (see Canon of OT), is wanting. 180, make it wisest, failing strong evidence to the contrary, to reckon with the probability that by about that time the book was substantially of the same extent as at present, are ( a ) the history of the formation of the Canon (see Canon of OT), and ( b ) the probability, created by the allusions in the prologue (about b
Wisdom of Solomon - Place in Canon. ...
The work was, therefore, accepted by the early Church as part of the OT, and figures as such in the Canon of Melito (c. ’ In the Muratorian Canon it is said to have been written by Solomon’s friends in his honour. its place in the Canon became insecure. There are, indeed, numerous cases in which the matter contained in Wisdom is parallel to passages in the other books of the OT; in some of these, if we could trust the Canon that the author of a passage is the person who understands it best, we should certainly assign the priority to Wisdom
Communion (1) - The twenty-eighth Canon of the council of Clermont enjoins the communion to be received under both kinds distinctly; adding, however, two exceptions, ...
the one of necessity, the other of caution; the first in favour of the sick, and the second of the abstemious, or those who had an aversion for wine. It was formerly a kind of Canonical punishment for clerks guilty of any crime to be reduced to lay communion; 1:e. They had another punishment of the same nature, though under a different name, called foreign communion, to which the Canons frequently condemned their bishops and other clerks
Scriptures - During the time of the early church, Christians recognized the writings of Jesus’ apostles and other leading Christians also as Scripture, and therefore as having equal authority with the Old Testament writings (1 Corinthians 14:37; 1 Timothy 5:18; 2 Peter 3:16; see Canon)
Samar'Itans - the five books of Moses) was their sole code; for they rejected every other book in the Jewish Canon
Clergy - per month, and total avoidance of the lease; nor upon like pain to keep any tap-house or brewhouse; nor engage in any trade, nor sell any merchandise, under forfeiture of the treble value; which prohibition is consonant to the Canon law
Spain - There are only two authorities for a Spanish journey-the Muratorian Fragment on the Canon, and Clement of Rome
Heraldry, Ecclesiastical - Precentors denote their office by placing a baton behind their shields and the arms of a Canon are often displayed upon his almuce (tippet or hood)
Philemon, the Epistle to - 3:25) ranks it among "the universally acknowledged (homologoumena ) epistles of the Canon
Ecclesiastical Heraldry - Precentors denote their office by placing a baton behind their shields and the arms of a Canon are often displayed upon his almuce (tippet or hood)
Julianus, Bishop of Cos - He displeased Leo by not resisting the 28th Canon of the council in favour of the claims of Constantinople (Ep
Lucianus, Priest of Antioch, Martyr - of Canon, p
Revelation, Book of - Canonicity . The Revelation was not universally accepted by the early Church as Canonical. The fact that it appears in the Canon of the Muratorian Fragment is evidence that by the middle of the 2nd cent. Jerome is, in fact, the only Western theologian of importance who doubts it, and he puts it among those books which are ‘under discussion,’ neither Canonical nor apocryphal. as Canonical, and was finally recognized by the Eastern Church. Yet as late as 692 a Synod could publish two decrees, the one including the Apocalypse in the Canon, the other excluding it. Its literary form is so remarkable, the passages descriptive of the triumph of the Messianic Kingdom are so exquisite, its religious teaching is so impressive, as not only to warrant its inclusion in the Canon, but also to make it of lasting value to the devotional life
Revelation, Idea of - Certainly, the prevalence of quoted divine speech, which peppers the Canon, suggests a presumption in favor of speech as the category within which to understand God's communication with his creatures. The sheer abundance of the speech of God in the Canonical texts may actually help explain the lack of attention that has been paid to this very remarkable fact, which is surely the most evident of all phenomena in the Canon. The discussion is anchored in a concern to recover specifically Canonical authority, and inevitably we must engage in complex historical and theoretical discussion about the process of Canonical recognition. Here again our identification with the ancient believing communities in common Canonical obedience is both a goal and a means of resolving our own uncertainties. ...
Needless to say, such observations do not absolve the theologian of the need to address the range of interpretive questions posed by any ancient texts, and therefore by the texts contained in the Canon
Proverbs, the Book of - ...
Canonicity. The New Testament quotes and so Canonizes (Proverbs 1:16; Romans 3:10; Romans 3:15. The Holy Spirit did not appoint all Solomon's proverbs indiscriminately to be put into the Canon for all ages, but a selection suited for the ends of revelation. The introduction of a foreigner's (Lemuel) words into the inspired Canon of Israel is paralleled by Balaam's and Job's words being part of Scripture
Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch - A body, called after him Paulianists, or Pauliani, or Samosatensians, existed in sufficient numbers at the time of the council of Nicaea for the enactment of a Canon requiring their rebaptism and the reordination of their clergy on their return to the Catholic church, on the ground that orthodox formulas were used with a heterodox meaning (Canon
Archaeology, Christian - ...
Joseph Alexandre Martigny (1808-1880) Canon of Belley, published Dictionnaire des antiquites chretiennes, Paris, 1865, the first work of its kind; the vast erudition displayed therein has caused the book to be justly valuable
Christian Archaeology - ...
Joseph Alexandre Martigny (1808-1880) Canon of Belley, published Dictionnaire des antiquites chretiennes, Paris, 1865, the first work of its kind; the vast erudition displayed therein has caused the book to be justly valuable
Matthew - ’ We also find in Eusebius’ review of the Canon of Scripture the statement: ‘The first (Gospel) is written according to Matthew, the same that was once a publican but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, who, having published it for the Jewish converts, wrote it in the Hebrew’ (Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc
Burnt-Offering - This is probably due to the fact that the more generic word for sacrifice (θυσία) is commonly used, since the distinctions of the Old Covenant, which was vanishing away, did not require to be perpetuated in the NT Canon
Barachiah - is the last book of the Hebrew Canon)
Marcianus, Flavius, Emperor of the East - 13), by which proceedings against the oeconomus or other clerics of the churches in Constantinople were to be taken at the plaintiff's desire either before the archbishop or the prefect of the city, and no oaths tendered to clerics, who were forbidden to swear by the laws of the church and an ancient Canon
Polychronius, Bishop of Apamea - With regard to the Canon, Polychronius assumes an independent attitude
Scribes - associates in the collected Canon, given (Ephesians 4:11) from the Spirit of Jesus Christ the one Shepherd (Ezekiel 37:24; 1 Peter 5:2-4). The scribes by whom the Old Testament was written in its present characters and form, and its Canon settled, are collectively in later times called "the men of the great synagogue, the true successors of the prophets" (Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers"), i
Apocrypha - The term ‘Apocrypha’ is applied to a body of literature that has come down to us in close connexion with the Canonical books of the Bible, and yet is not of them. These names were not sufficient of themselves to carry the books over into the Canonical collection of the Bible. Jerome incorporated in his revision and translation, in the main as he found them in the Old Latin Version, certain books not found in the Hebrew Canonical writings. Bibles to-day are to be traced to the different ideas of the Canon on the part of the Jews of Palestine, where the Hebrew Bible was on its native soil, and on the part of the Jews of Alexandria who translated that same Hebrew Bible into Greek. The Church Fathers made some use of them, by quotation and allusion, but were not so emphatic in their favour as to secure their incorporation in the regular Canonical books of the Bible. ...
Jerome, in his revision of the Old Latin Bible, found the Apocryphal books therein, as carried over from the Septuagint; but in his translation of the OT he was careful not to include in the OT proper any hooks not found in the Hebrew Canon. This Council names as Canonical the following hooks and parts of books: First and Second Maccabees, Additions to Esther, History of Susanna, Song of the Three Holy Children, Bel and the Dragon, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Sirach, and Wisdom of Solomon; omitting from the above list the Prayer of Manasses, First and Second Esdras [3]. ...
The Council of Trent settled the Canon of Scripture for the Roman Catholic Church, and decreed an anathema against any one who did not agree with its statement. ]'>[5] of 1895, eleven of which are regarded as Canonical by the Roman Catholic Church. First Esdras (Third in the Vulgate) is the Canonical book of Ezra in Greek, which in reconstructed form tells the story of the decline and fall of the kingdom of Judah from the time of Josiah. The Council of Trent placed it in an appendix to the NT as Third Esdras, and not among their regular Canonical books. The Canonical Esther concludes with Esther 10:3 ; this chapter is filled out by the addition of seven verses, and the book concludes with six additional chapters (11 16). If First Esdras is the reconstructed Ezra, and the Canonical Ezra and Nehemiah are taken as one book, then this is Third Esdras (as in the Septuagint)
Symbol - The name ‘symbol’ is applied to the selection of generally accepted truths forming the Christian creed, or Canon of belief
Torah - ...
New Testament During New Testament times the limits on the Old Testament Canon were being finalized
Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea - 351, and in accordance with the 7th Nicene Canon claimed a right of priority for the metropolitical see of Caesarea over that of Jerusalem
Pius i., Bishop of Rome - Westcott (Canon of N
Gospels - The Canon of the Old Testament having been completed, and prophecy having ceased before the Sept. ...
Thus, by the two-fold inspiration, that of the authors and that of the judges, the Canonicity of the four Gospels, as of the other books of New Testament, is established. The anonymous fragment of the Canon of the New Testament attributed to Caius a presbyter of Rome (published by Muratori, Antiq. 202; Origen, speaking of the four Gospels as "the elements of the church's faith"; Eusebius; and not only these orthodox writers but heretics, Marcion dud others, appeal to the Gospels as the inspired standard Canon. (See Canon
Barnabas, Epistle of - Eusebius disputes its Canonicity, but is hardly less decided in favour of its authenticity. , it is enumerated among the uncanonical books; and, at the close of that cent. That she refused to allow its Canonicity is little to the purpose. The very fact that many thought it entitled to a place in the Canon is a conclusive proof of the opinion that had been formed of its authorship. to the Hebrews, were received into the Canon, the connexion between the writers of these books and one or other of the apostles was believed to be such that the authority of the latter could be transferred to the former. Of his eight arguments five may be at once rejected: The first that the words of Augustine regarding the Apocrypha of Andrew and John si illorum essent recepta essent ab ecclesia show that our epistle would have been placed in the Canon had it been deemed authentic; for Andrew and John were apostles Barnabas was not. by Clement and Origen; that some would have assigned it a place in the Canon; and that, even by those who denied it that place, it was regarded as a most useful and edifying work
Psalms, Book of - ...
The Psalms as a collection is found in the third division of the Hebrew Canon known as the Writings (Hebrew, ketubim ). In its present Canonical form, the Psalter has five divisions in the current Hebrew text. Psalms has been understood as both the “hymnal” and prayerbook of the postexilic congregation of Israel with its final compilation and its inclusion within the Canon
Tiglath-Pileser - In the Babylonian chronological list he is called Pulu , the Pul of 2 Kings 15:19 , and the Poros of the Canon of Ptolemy
Ezra - ...
He and Malachi probably settled the inspired Canon of Scripture, comprising the three, "the law, the prophets, and the hagiographa"; the division of verses, the vowel pointings, and the keri or margin readings, and the Chaldee characters instead of the old Hebrew or Samaritan, are also attributed to him
Proverbs - These, either preserved in writing, or handed down by oral communication, were subsequently collected into one volume, and constitute the book in the sacred Canon, entitled, "The Proverbs of Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel
Inspiration - At that date certain of the books eventually included in the OT had not been definitely admitted to Canonical authority; but, speaking generally, the writings of the OT were universally held to be Divine, sacred, in some true sense the word of God. (For these titles, see Ryle, Canon of OT, p. And it is His words, spoken under the influence of the Divine Spirit, that form the nucleus of the NT Canon. They were the first portion of that Canon to be recognized as authoritative, and however difficult certain writings found it to gain access to the Canon, the words of our Lord were from the first, and universally, regarded as Divine by all Christians
Romans, the Epistle to the - The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin versions, have it. Heretics admitted its Canonicity; so the Ophites (Hippol. 4, Romans 1:20), and Marcion's Canon
the Angel of the Church in Thyatira - Our classical scholars have a recognised Canon of their own when they are engaged on their editorial work among old and disputed manuscripts; a Canon of criticism to this effect that the more difficult to receive any offered reading is the more likely it is to be the true reading
ba'Bel - The "Canon of Ptolemy" gives us the succession of Babylonian monarchs from B
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - Peter as of a disciple to a teacher; and he bespeaks the support of the Alexandrian see in this resistance to the unprincipled ambition of Constantinople, which in the 28th Canon, so called, of Chalcedon had injured the "dignity" of the other great bishoprics ( Ep
Romans Epistle to the - ]'>[13] It implies that Marcion had a greater influence than is altogether probable on the formation of the Canon of the Pauline Epistles and on the text of the NT; von Soden’s estimate of the extent of this influence has not been generally accepted. He calls attention to the fact that in the Muratorian Canon Romans stood last of the Epistles to the Churches, and that it was also last in Tertullian’s, Cyprian’s, and Origen’s collections. We may remark that, being the longest and most important of the Epistles, it might equally well stand first, as in our own Canon, or last, as in these, there being no attempt at chronological order in either. In the Muratorian Canon it stands the last of the seven Epistles to the Churches
Colossians, Epistle to the - It is interesting that more than one attempt was made to supply this gap in the Pauline Canon during the early days of the Church. also Westcott, Canon of NT5, 1881, Appendix E; A. Souter, Text and Canon of NT, 1913, p. It is mentioned by name in the Muratorian Canon
John, Epistles of - The three Epistles known by this name have from the beginning been attributed to the Apostle John, and were admitted as Canonical in the 3rd century. According to the Muratorian Canon, Epistle and Gospel were closely associated: ‘What wonder that John makes so many references to the Fourth Gospel in his Epistle, saying of himself’ and then follows a quotation of 1 John 1:1 . ’ All the ancient versions include the Epistle among those Canonically recognized, including the Peshitta and the Old Latin. They are found among the Antilegomena of the early Church in their relation to the Canon: apparently not because they were unknown, or because their authorship was questioned, but because their nature made them unsuitable for use in the public worship of the Church. The Muratorian Canon (a. they were fully acknowledged and received into the Canon. , and they were included together in the lists of Canonical books at the end of the 4th cent
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - His pontificate is specially notable for his defence of Athanasius, and for the Canons of Sardica enacted during it. They prepared Canons and three creeds, designed to convince the Western church of their orthodoxy, confirmed the sentence of the council of Tyre against Athanasius, and endeavoured to prevent his restoration by a Canon with retrospective force, debarring even from a hearing any bishop or priest who should have officiated after a Canonical deposition. He dwells on the uncanonical intrusion of Gregory the Cappadocian by military force into the Alexandrian see, and on the atrocities committed to enforce acceptance of him. "It is you," he adds, "who have set at nought the Canons, and disturbed the church's peace; not we, as you allege, who have entertained a just appeal, and acquitted the innocent. "If," he says, "they were guilty, as you say they were, they ought to have been judged Canonically, not after your method. All that Julius insists on is that charges against the bishops of great sees ought, according to apostolic tradition and Canonical rule, to be referred to the whole episcopate; and that, in the case of a bp. Still, the action of Julius may have served as a step towards subsequent papal claims of a more advanced kind; and it probably suggested the Canons of Sardica, pregnant with results, which will be noticed presently. It also passed 21 Canons of discipline, 3 being of special historic importance. Canon III. " Canon IV. " Canon V. " In these Canons we notice, firstly , they were designed to provide what recent events had shewn the need of, and what the existing church system did not adequately furnish—a recognized court of appeal in ecclesiastical causes. The Canons of Nice had provided none beyond the provincial synod, for beyond that the only strictly Canonical appeal was to a general council, which could be but a rare event and was dependent on the will of princes. The Canons, on the face of them, were not a confirmation of a traditional prerogative of Rome. Fifthly , since it was the causes of Eastern bishops that led to the enactment, the Canons were probably meant to apply to the whole church, and not to the Western only. The Greek Canonists, Balsamon and Zonaras, maintain their narrower scope; and it is true that, the council having consisted of Westerns only, they were never accepted by the churches of the East. But though the council of Sardica was not in fact oecumenical, the emperors had intended it to be so, and the Roman Canonists call it so in virtue of the general summons. They, however, regard it as an appendage to that of Nice; and probably its Canons were from the first added at Rome to those of Nice as supplementary to them, since in the well-known case of Apiarius, the African presbyter (A. In the African case the error was eventually exposed by reference to the copies of the Nicene Canons preserved at Constantinople and Alexandria, and the Africans thereupon distinctly repudiated the claims of Rome which rested upon this false foundation. But Boniface and Celestine, the successors of Zosimus, refer to these Canons as Nicene, as did Leo I. The scope also of the Canons came in time to be unduly extended, being made to involve the power of the pope to summon at his will all cases to be heard before himself at Rome
Prophet - The prophets were a marked advance on the ceremonial of Leviticus and its priests: this was dumb show, prophecy was a spoken revelation of Christ more explicitly, therefore it fittingly stands in the Canon between the law and the New Testament The same principles whereon God governed Israel in its relation to the world, in the nation's history narrated in the books of Samuel and Kings, are those whereon the prophecies rest. This accounts for those historical books being in the Canon reckoned among "the prophets. Of the hundreds trained in the colleges of prophets only sixteen have a place in the Canon, for these alone had the special call to the office and God's inspiration qualifying them for it
Acts of the Apostles - The date of Acts and reception in the Canon-...
1. Reception in the Canon. 1; and the Canon of Muratori)
Canticles; the Song of Solomon - The fourth of the hagiographa (chethubim, "writings") or the third division of the Old Testament (See Canon) and (See BIBLE. ) Its divine Canonicity and authority are certain, as it is found in all Hebrew manuscripts of Scripture; also in the Greek Septuagint version; in the catalogues of Melito, bishop of Sardis A. ...
But had it been a representation of merely human love, it would have been positively indelicate and never would have been inserted in the holy Canon (see Song of Solomon 5:2-6; Song of Solomon 7:2-3)
Daniel, the Book of - Being a "seer," having the gift and spirit, not the theocratical office and work, of a prophet, his book stands in the third rank in the Hebrew Canon, namely, in the Hagiographa (Kethubim) between Esther and Ezra, the three relating to the captivity. Its position there, not among the prophets as one would expect, shows it was not an interpolation of later times, but deliberately placed where it is by Ezra and the establishers of the Jewish Canon
Chronicles, Books of - ...
Significance of Chronicles' Place in the Canon Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah stand among the Hagiographa , meaning “holy writings,” which is the third division of the Old Testament. One is the view that Chronicles was the last book to be accepted in the Old Testament Canon
Nahum (2) - Nahum is seventh in position in the Canon, and seventh in date
Colosse - In the 4th century the council of Laodicea (in the same region) in its 35th Canon prohibited calling upon angels
Poetry - Poetic sections of the Old Testament are listed below in the order they appear in the Protestant Canon
Song of Solomon, Theology of - ...
The Song serves an important Canonical function with its explicit language of love. When read in the context of the Canon as a whole, the book forcefully communicates the intensely intimate relationship that Israel enjoys with God
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - The council had also enacted Canons of discipline, the 9th and the 17th giving to the patriarchal throne of Constantinople the final determination of causes against metropolitans in the East; and the 28th assigning to the most holy throne of Constantinople, or new Rome, equal privileges with the elder Rome in ecclesiastical matters, as being the second after her, with the right of ordaining metropolitans in the Pontic and Asian and Thracian dioceses, and bishops among the barbarians therein. This last Canon the legates of pope Leo had protested against at the council, and Leo himself had afterwards repudiated it, as contrary (so he expressed himself) to the Nicene Canons, and an undue usurpation on the part of Constantinople. In connexion with the heresy condemned by the council of Chalcedon and with the privileges assigned by its Canons to Constantinople, the schism between the East and West ensued during the pontificate of Felix
Illuminati (3) - Adam Weishaupt, professor of Canon law in the university of Ingoldstadt
Andrew - xxxv; History of NT Canon, p
Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria - This was done by what are known as the Ammonian Sections together with the Eusebian Canons. Fixed lessons for public worship no doubt passed from the synagogue into the Christian church, at least as soon as the Canon was settled
Casuistry - the doctrine and science of conscience and its cases, with the rules and principles of resolving the same; drawn partly from natural reason, or equity, and partly from the authority of Scripture, the Canon law, councils, fathers, &c
Agur - Scripture history, indeed, affords us no information respecting their situation and character; but there must have been sufficient reason for regarding their works in the light of inspired productions, or they would not have been admitted into the sacred Canon
Maccabees - " It is also named with two other books of the Maccabees in the eighty-fifth of the apostolic Canons. But it is uncertain when that Canon was added
Law - Ecclesiastical law, a rule of action prescribed for the government of a church otherwise called Canon law
Bible - The Jews ascribe to Ezra the honor of arranging and completing the Canon of the Old Testament books, being inspired for this work by the Spirit of God, and aided by the learned and pious Jews of his day
Lord's Supper - Why did Christ ordain bread to be used in the Lord's Supper, and not a lamb ? Canon Walsham How replies, "Because the types and shadows were to cease when the real Sacrifice was come
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - On his way home he visited Ephesus, and gratified its clergy and laity by declaring their church (the fifth in Christendom in point of dignity) to be free from that subjection to Constantinople which had been imposed on it by the 28th Canon of Chalcedon ( ib
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - But no text betrays any awareness that New Testament writers suspected the close of an age with the death of the apostles or the completion of the Canon. ...
Unlike the Old Testament, in which divinely accredited prophets were not subject to constant reassessment, New Testament prophecy seems less immediate or infallible (apart from the exceptional instances that created the New Testament Canon). Precisely because such prophecy is not on a par with Scripture and does not in any way supplement the Canon, the argument that prophecy must have ceased with the apostolic age becomes fallacious
Montanus - Montanism and the Canon. Canon. Canon that they were shocked that any modern writing should be made equal to the inspired books of the apostolic age. Canon was found by Montanism and not then created
Papias - also Westcott, Canon (1889), p. The Canon, or ‘rule’ of faith, consisted of the Lord’s words, however obtained, if only it were in purity (cf. These constituted ‘the Gospel’ that lay behind the Gospels, and secured their general use, particularly in public worship—out of which Canonical authority itself gradually grew (see B. But once it is allowed for, Papias becomes a valuable positive witness to our Canonical Gospels, as distinct from other Gospel writings which, no doubt, existed at that time in considerable numbers. —and varying as between Syria and Rome, Asia Minor and Egypt—gradually sifted out; until by the close of the century, and a good deal earlier in some places, our four authentie Gospels emerged as the Church’s standard, or Canon, of the Lord’s own teaching and its true significance. 142–216; Sanday, Gospels in the Second Century; Westcott, Canon of the NT; Salmon in Dict
Scripture - " It is, however, commonly used to denote the writings of the Old and New Testaments, which are called sometimes the Scriptures, sometimes the sacred or holy Scriptures, and sometimes Canonical Scriptures. ...
They are said to be holy or sacred on account of the sacred doctrines which they teach; and they are termed Canonical, because, when their number and authenticity were ascertained, their names were inserted in ecclesiastical Canons, to distinguish them from other books, which, being of no authority, were kept out of sight, and therefore styled apocryphal. If the public reading of the Scriptures was so necessary and important in those religious assemblies which had Timothy for their minister, how much more must it be in our assemblies, and even in those which enjoy the labours of our most able and eminent ministers!" ...
On the subject of the Scriptures, we must refer the reader to the articles BIBLE, Canon, INSPIRATION, PROPHECY, and REVELATION. of the Canon of Scrip
Nineveh - Rawlinson published 1862 an Assyrian Canon from the monuments. Then Shalmaneser IV (not in the Canon) (2 Kings 17:3-4) assailed Samaria, upon Hoshea's leaguing with So of Egypt, and withholding tribute
Moses - Just as, in the Synagogue, the Law (the Torah), was accounted the most important division of the Canon, and as Holy Scripture in its entirety might thus a parte potiori be designated the ‘Law’ (ὁ νόμος, the tôrâh), so in the primitive Church Moses was regarded as the supreme figure of the OT. But as long as Moses remained the great Canonical standard, the Church could not renounce his legislative authority. ), and that nothing is to be enforced according to the letter which killeth (2 Corinthians 3:5), the regulative Canon being that the external statutes, ‘the commandments in ordinances’ (Ephesians 2:15), are merely the shadow of things to come, while the body is Christ’s (Colossians 2:17)-whence it follows that the outward regulations of the Law are to be applied in a typological (or allegorical) way
Paul as Sold Under Sin - ...
It is an old Canon of interpretation that Paul alone is his own true interpreter. And the true student will take the Canon down
Jonah - ...
CANONICITY, DESIGN. It seemed strange to Kimchi that this book is in the Canon, as its only prophecy concerns Nineveh, a pagan city, and does not mention Israel, of whom all the other prophets prophesy. The strangeness is an argument for the inspiration of the sacred Canon; but the solution is, Israel is tacitly reproved
John, the Epistles of - ...
Muratori's Fragment on the Canon states "there are two (the Gospel and epistle) of John esteemed universal," quoting 1 John 1:3. (See Canon OF SCRIPTURE
Habakkuk - He asked two questions, the responses to which give Habakkuk a unique niche in the prophetic Canon
Essenes - To popularize monotheism, to build up the OT Canon, organize and hold together the widely separated parts of the Jewish race this work called for a new form of social order which mixed the ecclesiastical with the political
Micah - Sixth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew Canon, third in the Septuagint
Doctrine - Intellect The church has framed the Canon, creeds, and confessions as a means of giving coherent interpretation to the witness of the earliest church
Hosea - Placed first of the minor prophets in the Canon (one collective whole "the book of the prophets," Acts 7:42), probably because of the length, vivid earnestness, and patriotism of his prophecies, as well as their resemblance to those of the greater prophets, Chronologically Jonah was before him, 862 B
Peter, Second, Theology of - Yet early Christian evidence affirms the apostolicity of the letter, and, unlike some more popular writing, it was actually accepted into the Canon
Didymus, Head of the Catechetical School - Peter but sets it aside as spurious and "not in the Canon," although (see infra) in the de Trinitate he cites it as Petrine. Peter as genuine: perhaps the opinion he had formerly held as to its non-canonicity had been reconsidered
James - But though the antiquity of this epistle had been always undisputed, some few formerly doubted its right to be admitted into the Canon. Eusebius says, that in his time it was generally, though not universally, received as Canonical; and publicly read in most, but not in all, churches; and Estius affirms, that after the fourth century, no church or ecclesiastical writer is found who ever doubted its authenticity; but that, on the contrary, it is included in all subsequent catalogues of Canonical Scripture, whether published by councils, churches, or individuals. It has, indeed, been the uniform tradition of the church, that this epistle was written by James the Just; but it was not universally admitted till after the fourth century, that James the Just was the same person as James the less, one of the twelve Apostles; that point being ascertained, the Canonical authority of this epistle was no longer doubted
Miracle - ...
The chief object of miracles having been to authenticate the revelation God has made of his will, these mighty words ceased when the Scripture Canon was completed and settled, and Christianity was fairly established
Joel - The position of his book in the Hebrew Canon between Hosea and Amos implies that he was Hosea's contemporary, slightly preceding Amos who at Tekoa probably heard him, and so under the Spirit reproduces his words (Joel 3:16, compare Amos 1:2)
Nectarius, Archbaptist of Constantinople - His name heads the 150 signatures to the Canons of the second general council. The 3rd Canon declares that "the bp
Hebrews, Epistle to - Indeed, the Western Church as a whole seems to have allowed its presence in the Canon only after a period of uncertainty, and even then to have regarded it as of secondary importance because of its lack of Apostolic authority. , see Westcott, Canon of the NT , App
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - At the end of the eighth book come 85 ‘Apostolic Canons,’ which have attracted special attention. ...
In 692 the Trullan Council of Constantinople repudiated the ‘Constitutions’ as having been tampered with by heretics, but accepted the 85 Canons; while, although in the Gelasian Decree they are called apocryphal, Dionysius Exiguus (circa, about a. 500) had translated 50 of the Canons into Latin, and thus these 50 obtained acceptance in the West. The 85 Canons were translated into Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Arabic; and, though the ‘Constitutions’ was not translated as a whole, and, in the West, remained unknown, we find Nicetas (a. The main source is thought to be the ‘Egyptian Church Order,’ originally in Greek, but known through its Coptic and Ethiopic versions, this in turn being based upon the ‘Canons of Hippolytus’ (circa, about a. The dependence of the ‘Constitutions’ on these Canons, though not noted in the complete Manuscripts (unless, indeed, the old conjecture were revived that in the title, after Κλήμεντος … ἐπισκόπου should be read καὶ Ἱππολύτου, instead of τε καὶ πολίτου), is pointed out by the title Διατάξεις τῶν ἁγίων ἀποστόλων περὶ χειροτονιῶν διὰ Ἱππολύτου, in excerpts from book viii. and the ‘Canons of Hippolytus’ has teen disputed. ...
The 85 ‘Canons’ at the end of book viii. ’ The most remarkable is that which enumerates the Canonical books of Scripture, omitting the Apocalypse from the NT Canon, but inserting the two epistles of Clement and the ‘Apostolic Constitutions,’ and, after this audacity, with an artistic touch modestly placing ‘the Acts of us Apostles’ at the bottom of the list. Canon 50 orders trine immersion
Peter, First, Theology of - Peter's authorship is also supported by the early use of the letter, the consistent affirmation in Christian tradition that he was its author, and its early acceptance in the developing Canon
Bible - Concerning the formation of the Bible and the organization of its contents see Canon; MANUSCRIPTS; SCRIBES; SCRIPTURES; SEPTUAGINT; WRITING
Apocalypse - ]'>[2] It thus appears that, while there is an apocalyptic element in practically all the books of the NT (see below), there is only one writing belonging to the Apostolic Age which is as a whole of the apocalyptic class, and which, despite much controversy in the early centuries,‡ [5] an explicit reference to other apocalypses, a list may here be given of the non-canonical apocalypses, either wholly or partly extant, and of others whose existence may be inferred from quotations of them found in the early Fathers. 1:9), taken along with the implicit references to apocalyptic writings which are found in the Apocalypse and other books of the NT (see below), reveals a tendency among the Christians to extend the range of the Canon; it points at the same time to the large amount of matter, both within and beyond the Canon, that was common to Jews and Christians. Strong claims to Canonicity were made for it in early times, and its teaching largely influenced later Christian ideas of heaven and hell. It is a question of some moment how far such criticism applies to the Canonical Apocalypse of the NT. Whatever difficulties were felt by the early Fathers in giving it a place in the Canon, there is no book of the NT whose claim, once admitted, has been less a matter of subsequent doubt
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - , Augustine says:...
‘Habetis etiam hoc in scripturis apocryphis, quas Canon quidem catholicus non admittit, vobis autem [4] tanto graviores sunt, quanto a catholico Canone secluduntur … in actibus scriptis a Leucio (codd. (b) A quite late tradition regarded him as the author of the corpus of five Acts-Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, and Thomas-which the Manichaeans used as a substitute for the Canonical Acts, and the Priscillianists in addition to the Canonical Acts. He begins by referring to those who use ‘apocryfa, id est secreta,’ instead of the Canonical OT and NT, and mentions as the chief of those who do this the ‘Manichaei, Gnostici, Nicolaitae, Valentiniani et alii quam plurimi qui apocryfa prophetarum et apostolorum, id est Actus separatos habentes, Canonicas legere scripturas contemnunt. ’...
Whatever may be the true text of this passage, it clearly implies (a) that the Manichaeans used a corpus of Apocryphal Acts in place of the Canonical Acts of the Apostles; (b) that this corpus contained the Acts of Andrew, John, Peter, and Paul; (c) the Acts of Thomas is not mentioned (Schmidt [10] exclusistis ex Canone, facileque mente sacrilega vestra daemoniorum his potestis importare doctrinas. It is now, however, fairly certain that this latter document in its present form is merely an extract from the older Acts of Paul; there is no reason, therefore, to doubt that Augustine and Faustus both recognized the Acts of Paul, which had not yet been entirely deposed from the Canon. They used this corpus instead of the Canonical Acts, and the Priscillianists used it in addition to the Canon. (d) In this way the Acts of Paul, which was originally recognized as orthodox if not Canonical, came to be regarded as heretical. He apparently regards the Acts as only slightly inferior to the Canonical Scriptures
Ecclesiastes, Theology of - Some early Jewish interpreters even suspected the Canonicity of the book. ...
While, for these reasons, some Jewish interpreters turned away from Ecclesiastes, others justified its inclusion in the Canon by straining its interpretation. When the structure of the book is taken into account, then we can understand how this rather unorthodox teacher can stand in the Canon
Joel - The position of the book among the early prophets in the Hebrew Canon is considered as evidence for an early date
Inspiration - As a result a new collection of writings began to take shape, known to us as the New Testament (see Canon)
Philaster, Bishop of Brixia - Canon, Philaster states (c
Vigilantius - Gilly, Canon of Durham, published a work on Vigilantius and his Times (Seeley), bringing together all the known facts, and shewing the true significance of his protest by describing the life of Severus, Paulinus, and Jerome from their own writings
Bible - Afterwards the Jews reckoned twenty-four books in their Canon of scripture; in disposing of which the law stood as in the former division, and the prophets were distributed into former and latter: the former prophets are Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings; the latter prophets are Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets. ...
The Jewish Canon of Scripture was then settled by Ezra, yet not so but that several variations have been made in it. It may be added, that, in the first book of Chronicles, the genealogy of the sons of Zerubbabel is carried down for so many generations as must necessarily bring it to the time of Alexander; and consequently this book, or at least this part of it, could not be in the Canon in Ezra's days. Protestants, while they agree with the Roman Catholics in rejecting all those as uncanonical, have also justly rejected the books of Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch 1:1-21 st and 2 nd Maccabees
Song of Songs - Place in the Canon, interpretation, structure . ( a ) The Song of Songs is one of the Kethûbîm, Hagiographa , or Writings, the third of the three classes into which the Jewish Canon was divided. ...
Grave doubts were long entertained by the Rabbis respecting the Canonicity of Canticles (a common name of the book, from Vulg. But the Canonicity of the book would not have remained an open question until the 1st cent
Inspiration of Scripture - This is evident both in the content of each book and also in the preservation of all the books in the Canon of the Bible
Chronology of the Old Testament - By the Babylonian Canon we are now able to correct its figures
Timothy, the First Epistle to - Its authenticity as Paul's writing, and its Canonical authority as inspired, were universally recognized by the early church with the solitary exception of the Gnostic Marcion. The Muratorian Fragment on the Canon in the same century acknowledges them
Criticism - Eichhorn went further in raising a criticism of the NT Canon (1804), and was opposed by Hug, a Roman Catholic writer, in a very scholarly work
Samuel, Books of - Ninth and tenth books of English Bible following the order of the earliest Greek translation but combined as the eighth book of the Hebrew Canon named for the major figure of its opening section
Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament - Composite quotations combine two or more Old Testament texts drawn from one or more of the sections of the Hebrew Old Testament Canon (The Law, Prophets, and Writings)
Septuagint - , for the Torah alone was complete by that time, secure in its position as a collection of sacred books and ready for translation (Ryle, Canon of the OT, p. But other books would be translated from time to time when they reached Egypt with Palestinian recognition of their Canonicity
Interpretation - They were doubtless familiar with the three-fold division of the Jewish Canon-the ‘Law,’ the ‘Prophets,’ and the ‘Writings’ (Luke 24:44[8]), but they probably did not discuss questions of Canonicity
Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia - of his works is that of Paolo Gagliardi (Galeardus), Canon of Brescia, pub
Providence - The translation of the Jewish Scriptures into the language of a large part of the civilized world, Greek, by the Septuagint (by it the history of providence and the prophecies of Messiah became accessible to the learned everywhere; all possibility of questioning the existence or falsifying the contents of the prophecies was taken away; the closing of the Canon just before proved that the Scriptures, so translated, supplied complete all that God revealed in Old Testament times); the expectation throughout the East of a great King and Deliverer to arise in Judaea; the increasing light of philosophy; the comprehension of most of the known world by the Roman empire, breaking down the barrier between E
Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylaeum - 23) he signed the much-contested 28th Canon of the council on the position to be held by the see of Constantinople
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch - His direct evidence respecting the Canon of N
Ephesians Epistle to the - Marcion included it in his Pauline Canon, under the title ‘to the Laodiceans’ (see below). 11) and given in the Muratorian Canon, does
Kings, the Books of - ...
The book is not a mere chronicle of kings' deeds and fortunes, but of their reigns in their spiritual relation to Jehovah the true, though invisible, King of the theocracy; hence it is ranked in the Canon among "the prophets. Canonical authority. The books have always stood in the second division of the Jewish Canon, "the prophets" (nibiyim ), being of prophetic composition and theme (see above, the beginning), namely, God's administration through His prophets in developing the theocratic kingdom under kings
James Epistle of - -Re-ascending the stream of tradition from the point at which our present NT Canon may be considered as definitely established in the Western Church (Third Council of Carthage, a. The Muratorian Canon omits it, along with Hebrews , 1 and 2 Peter (on the other hand, the Peshitta includes it, while omitting Jude, 2 Peter , 2 and 3 John, and the Apocalypse)
John, the Letters of - It was regarded as the work of the apostle John by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the Muratorian Canon
Obadiah, Book of - has been known as ‘The Twelve’ (see Canon of OT; cf
Circumstantiality in the Parables - But great difference of opinion exists, even among those who profess to observe Chrysostom’s Canon, as to where the πολυπραγμονεῖν begins
Synagogue - , to have succeeded the prophets, and to have been succeeded by the scribes, Ezra presiding; among the members Joshua, the high priest Zerubbabel, Daniel, the three children Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Nehemiah, Mordecai; their aim being to restore the crown or glory of Israel, the name of God as great, mighty, and terrible (Daniel 9:4; Jeremiah 32:18; Deuteronomy 7:21); so they completed the Old Testament Canon, revising the text, introducing the vowel points which the Masorete editors have handed down to us, instituting "the feast" Ρurim , organizing the synagogue ritual
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - ; Westcott, Canon of N. Canons, vol
Leander (2) - —Eighteen months after the conversion council, Leander, as metropolitan of Baetica, and in obedience to the 18th Canon of the council of 589, summoned the bishops of Baetica to a provincial synod in the cathedral of Seville, "in ecclesia Hispalensi Sancta Jerusalem" (cf
John, Gospel of (Critical) - ...
(4) The Muratorian Fragment on the Canon. —This fragment contains the earliest known list of the books that were regarded at the date at which it was written as Canonical. He strongly protests, for example, against the inclusion of Hermas in the Canon, though he has no objection to its being ‘read. Throughout the whole history of the NT Canon the admission of a book was not decided solely on the question of authorship, but far more on the general consideration whether its teaching was congruent with the received doctrine of the Church
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - This book was treated with respect bordering on that paid to the Canonical Scriptures of N. They are carefully separated from quotations from the Canonical books and he generally adds a saving clause giving the reader permission to reject them; he speaks of it (in Matt. 963) classes it with some of the deutero-canonical books of O. and with The Teaching of the Apostles as not Canonical but useful for catechetical instruction. The MURATORIAN FRAGMENT on the Canon tells us that it had been written during the episcopate of Pius by his brother Hernias, a period which the writer speaks of as within then living memory. The statement that the book not only might but ought to be read is a high recognition of the value attributed to it by the writer, and we gather that at least in some places its use in church was then such as to lead some to regard it as on a level with the Canonical Scriptures. Some ten years later, after Tertullian had become a Montanist, and the authority of The Shepherd is urged in behalf of readmitting adulterers to communion, he rejects the book as not counted worthy of inclusion in the Canon, but placed by every council, even those of the Catholic party, among false and apocryphal writings ( de Pudic. we find f rom the list in the Codex Claromontanus (Westcott, Canon N. If we suppose it really was sent to them stamped as a prophetic writing by the authority of the Roman church, we have an explanation of the consideration, only second to that of the Canonical Scriptures, which it enjoyed in so many distant churches. The ensuing controversy led the church to insist more strongly on the distinction between the inspiration of the Canonical writers and that of holy men of later times and the Muratorian fragment exhibits the feeling entertained towards the end of the cent
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - 104), doubtless on the ground that Leo was endeavouring to quash the Canonical decisions of a legitimate council. the Ephesian decree against adding to the Nicene faith, Eusebius broke in, "He lied! There is no such definition, no Canon prescribing this. What bishops have defined, is it not a definition? It is not a Canon: a Canon is a different thing. The magistrates asked whether the Canonical letters of Cyril, recently read (i. It was received with applause, "A just sentence! Christ has deposed Dioscorus! God has vindicated the martyrs!" The magistrates desired that each bishop should give in a carefully framed statement of belief conformable to the Nicene "exposition," to that of the 150 Fathers (of Constantinople, in 381), to the Canonical epistles and expositions of the Fathers, Gregory, Basil, Athanasius, Hilary, Ambrose, and Cyril's two Canonical epistles published and confirmed in the first Ephesian council, adding that Leo had written a letter to Flavian against Eutyches. After some discussion as to making an exposition of faith, which led to the reading of the creed in its two forms—both of which were accepted—and of Cyril's "two Canonical epistles," and of Leo's letter to Flavian (the Tome), which was greeted with "Peter has spoken by Leo; Cyril taught thus; Leo and Cyril have taught alike," but to parts of which some objection was taken by one bishop, and time given for consideration, the usual exclamations were made, among which we find that of the Illyrians, "Restore Dioscorus to the synod, to the churches! We have all offended, let all be forgiven!" while the enemies of Dioscorus called for his banishment, and the clerics of Constantinople said that he who communicated with him was a Jew ( ib. " One bishop said bitterly, "When he murdered holy Flavian, he did not adduce Canons, nor proceed by church forms
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - It had been translated into various languages, and is the foundation of Egyptian Canon Law. Earliest is Eusebius, who to his list of Canonical Scriptures ( H. 39) adds to his list of Canonical Scriptures a list of non-canonical books useful in the catechetical instruction of converts, viz. Canon we find the διδαχὴ ἀποστόλων . Canon , p. 38) gives a list of Canonical books which bears marks of derivation from that of Athanasius; but where the Didaché should come he has "qui appellatur Duae Viae vel Judicium Petri
Daniel, Book of - ...
Canon and Authority The basic twelve chapters of Daniel appear in the Hebrew Bible between Esther and Ezra in the last section called the Writings rather than in the Law or the Prophets
Tradition - See Bible, Formation and Canon of ; Inspiration; Revelation
Captivity - 2 Kings 24:67 years elapsed from that time to the taking of Babylon (Ptolemy's Canon)
Language of Christ - That some one should have undertaken a work of that nature is highly probable; but the circulation would be limited, for the native Jewish Church did not long retain the position of importance it possessed at first (Acts 21:20 ), and the collection of sacred writings into a Canon was the work of Greek-speaking Christians
Sermon on the Mount - Following Matthew's introduction to the person of Jesus (1:1-4:25), the sermon comprises the first words of Jesus to confront the reader and because of the arrangement of the Canon, it holds the place of honor in the New Testament
Old Testament - -A history of the text of the Old Testament should properly commence from the date of the completion of the Canon
Philemon Epistle to - It is also included in the Muratorian Canon (c
Pharisees - Paul was a Pharisee of the Pharisees, and what would Christianity have been but for him? It was the Pharisees who settled the OT Canon, and the Christian Church accepted it
Old Testament - -By the opening of the Christian era the limits of the OT Canon had been practically fixed, and a high doctrine of its inspiration developed within the Jewish Church. The real Author of the books embraced within the Canon was God Himself; and, charged as they were with His Spirit, they were holy as He was, and ‘defiled the hands’ of those who touched them
Nestorian Church - Canons were also passed for the proper organization of the body, and some of these are based on Nicene rules. The church shewed its independence, however, by dealing very freely with the Canons even of that council. By another Canon of this council marriage was expressly allowed to all ranks of the hierarchy. His reign saw the breach with the "Westerns" healed more or less, as the council of Bait Lapat was repudiated (though the Canon on episcopal marriage was allowed to stand) and another confession of faith was drawn up
Novatianus And Novatianism - This Canon was passed in the absence of Agelius of Constantinople, Maximus of Nice, and the bishops of Nicomedia and Cotyaeum, their leading men (iv. A formal notice of their existence in the East occurs in the 95th Canon of the Trullan (Quinisext) Council a
Violence - The Gospel was not a release from, but a deepening and widening and spiritualizing of the Law’s requirements’ (Canon Bindley, who advocates this view in a paper entitled ‘The Method of the Christ,’ Expos
Diognetus, Epistle to - 420, 425 (Bohn); Westcott, Canon (ed
Isaiah - Beside the volume of prophecies, which we are now to consider, it appears from 2 Chronicles 26:22 , that Isaiah wrote an account of "the acts of Uzziah," king of Judah: this has perished with some other writings of the prophets, which, as probably not written by inspiration, were never admitted into the Canon of Scripture
Plagues, the Ten, - --Canon Cook
Lord's Day - Canon 20 of the Council of Nicaea plainly reflects a very old custom, as it enjoins that ‘seeing there are some who kneel on Sunday and in the days of Pentecost … men should offer their prayers to God standing. ...
Considerable light on this point is incidentally gained from the 29th Canon or the Council of Laodicea (4th cent
Hermas Shepherd of - The author of the Muratorian Canon, while seeking to deprecate the public reading of the Shepherd in church, commends it for private use. Taylor (The Witness of Hermas to the Four Gospels) has investigated these allusions minutely, and considers Hermas to be a valuable witness to the Canon, especially in the case of the four Gospels
Job - The Book of Job...
(1) Place in the Canon . ( Baba bathra 14 b ), which probably gives the most ancient order (Ryle, Canon of OT , 232), it comes after Ruth and Ps
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - The Nicene Canon about the Novatianists, he says, applied to them only, and the condonation by Anysius had only been a temporary expedient. (4) Greater causes, after the judgment of the bishops, are to be referred to the apostolic see, "as the synod [1] has decreed. Lastly, a list is given of the Canonical books of Scripture, the same as are now received by the church of Rome; while certain books, bearing the names of Matthias, James the Less, Peter, John, and Thomas, are repudiated and condemned. He condemns those who refused to communicate with reconciled Priscillianists, and directs the bishops to inquire into the cases of Rufinus and Minicius and to enforce the Canons. (2) The names of such as offer oblations at the Eucharist are not to be recited by the priest before the sacrifice, or the Canon. Innocent's brief reply, is that he cannot renounce communion with Chrysostom on the strength of the past futile proceedings and demands that Theophilus should proffer his charges before a proper council, according to the Nicene Canons. Alexander having, later, consulted the pope as to the jurisdiction of his patriarchal see of Antioch, Innocent replied that in accordance with the Canons of Nice (Can
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - 52) that Eusebius is not wont without some special reason to copy references made by his predecessors to undisputed books of the Canon. For Eusebius thought meanly of Papias and, if he had known him to have held wrong opinions about the Canon, would have been likely to have mentioned it in disparagement of his authority in support of Chiliasm
Hebrews - Hebrews was not accepted as part of the New Testament Canon in the Western church until after A
Timothy, Epistles to - Paul for its author a claim which the Church has consistently allowed ‘ever since the idea of a Canon of the NT came into clear consciousness
Hymn - the Canonical Bk. This, of course, applies to the period subsequent to the fixing of the Canon
Dominicans - The Dominican take their name from their founder, Dominic de Guzman, a Spaniard, born in 1170, at Calaroga, in Old Castile: he was first Canon and archdeacon of Ossuna; and afterwards preached with great zeal and vehemence against the Albigenses in Languedoc, where he laid the first foundation of his order. Dominic at first only took the habit of the regular Canons; that is, a black cassock and rochet: but this he quitted, in 1219, for that which they have ever since worn, which, it is pretended, was shown by the Blessed Virgin herself to the beatified Renaud d'Orleans
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - This epistle is in the Muratorian Canon, that of Marcion, and Laodicea, A
Micah, Theology of - Clements, Canon and Authority ; E
Jude Epistle of - Jude is reckoned as Canonical in the Muratorian Canon; it is quoted by Tertullian (de Cultu Fem. These objections simply rest on a theoretical assumption of what a Canonical work ought to be; no historical evidence lies behind them
Heracleon, a Gnostic - Canon
Hermogenes (1), a Teacher of Heretical Doctrine - But the authority, and apparently the Canon, of Scripture were subjects on which both were agreed
Joel, Book of - The place of the book in the Canon is not conclusive, for the Book of Jonah, which was manifestly written after the fall of Nineveh, is also found in the former part of the collection of the Twelve, and comes before Micah, the earliest portions of which are beyond doubt much older
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - It would take too long to recount the disgraceful proceedings at the council of Arles in 353, where the legates of the new Pope Liberius were misled, or at Milan in 355, when Constantius declared that his own will should serve the Westerns for a Canon as it had served the Syrian bishops, and proceeded to banish and imprison no less than 147 of the chief orthodox clergy and laity (Hist
Baptism - 59), who lays down the oft-quoted Canon that ‘while a literal construction will stand, the farthest from the letter is commonly the worst’ (see below, 8)
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - The Canon of edification is conspicuous in the remarkable set of rules laid down in 1 Corinthians 14:26 f. 11, which is the clearest evidence afforded by extra-canonical literature of the established influence of Christian prophecy in the Church
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - The phrase "the Canon of the N
New Testament - (See BIBLE; Canon; INSPIRATION. The fragment of Muratori's (See Canon , Melito, Irenaeus, and Origen, arrange the Gospels as we have them
Gospels, Apocryphal - Among these were not only the sources of our Canonical Gospels, but also a number of other writings purporting to come from various companions of Jesus and to record His life and words. The Gospels were supplemented by others, until there resulted a literature that stands related to the NT Canon much as the OT Apocrypha stand related to the OT Canon. The Gospels of this sort undertake to complete the account of Jesus’ life by supplying fictitious incidents, often by way of accounting for sayings in the Canonical Gospels. ...
In this collection may be included further a number of other Gospels about which we know little or nothing, being in ignorance even as to whether they were merely mutilated editions of Canonical Gospels or those belonging to the third class. Even the most superficial reader of these Gospels recognizes their inferiority to the Canonical, not merely in point of literary style, but also in general soberness of view. With the exception of a few sayings, mostly from the Gospel according to the Hebrews, the teaching they contain is obviously a working up of that of the Canonical Gospels, or clearly imagined. In the entire literature there are few sayings attributed to Jesus that are at the same time authentic and extra-canonical (see Unwritten Sayings). From the point of view of criticism, however, they are of small importance beyond heightening our estimation of the soberness and simplicity of the Canonical narratives. ...
These Gospels, when employing Canonical material, usually modify it in the interest of some peculiar doctrinal view. (1) The earliest Patristic statements regarding our NT literature contain references to events in the life of Jesus which are not to be found in our Canonical Gospels. Caution, however, is needed in taking this position, as the quotations which have been preserved from it differ markedly from those of any of the sources of our Canonical Gospels which can be gained by criticism. At all events, the Gospel is to be distinguished from the Hebrew original of the Canonical Gospel of Matthew mentioned by Papias (Euseb. , and that in general it was composed of material similar to that of the Canonical Gospels, but contained also sayings of Jesus which our Canonical Gospels have not preserved for us. It is particularly interesting as indicating how Canonical material could be elaborated and changed in the interests of the Docetic heresy. This Gospel undertakes to explain the non-appearance of Joseph in the account of the Canonical Gospels. To judge from these quotations, it was a re-writing of the Canonical Gospels in the interest of some sect of Christians opposed to sacrifice. It is, however, not in the least improbable that Basilides, as the founder of a school, re-worked the Canonical Gospels, something after the fashion of Tatian, into a continuous narrative containing sayings of the Canonical Gospels favourable to Gnostic tenets. Probably a re-writing of some Canonical Gospel. It contains the words of Christ to Peter at the Last Supper, but in a different form from that of the Canonical Gospels. ...
( m ) The Logia , found by Grenfell and Hunt at Oxyrhynchus, contains a few sayings, some like and some unlike the Canonical Gospels
Apocrypha - Accordingly the treatment of the later stage of that teaching as erratic and unauthoritative, not fit for inclusion in the Canon, involved the result that the remaining more sober literature, which was recognized as nearer to the standard of Scripture, and in Egypt included in the later Canon (at all events as in one collection of sacred books), was for the most part associated with those schools in which the Messianic hope was not cultivated
Monophysitism - Neander, Dorner, Canon Bright, and, more recently, Mr. Canon Bright has also translated and edited Leo's Sermons on the Incarnation
Synagogue - To ‘the men of the Great Synagogue,’ or rather ‘of the Great Assembly,’ were ascribed the composition of some of the later OT books, the close of the Canon, and a general care for the development of religion under the Law
Bible, Authority of the - And, in light of the fact that every doctrine believed by the church is in turn authorized by appeal to Holy Scripture (theological proposals are grounded "according to the Scriptures, " in the words of the creed), it is no exaggeration to say that the entire structure of Christian theology stands or falls by the authority of Scripture, the major premise for every theological statement that would claim the allegiance of the Canonical community that is the church of Jesus Christ. The Canonical claim takes the form of interlocking claims and evidences that include the phenomena of the divine speech, the particular testimony of Jesus Christ to the character of what we call the Old Testament, and the authoritative use of Canonical books by the writers of others. He assures the believer that this Canonical Scripture is verily the word of God written. Perhaps the most striking, if often least noticed, testimony is the sustained interweaving of the direct speech of God in the text of the Canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. ...
The second thread of internal testimony within Scripture may be traced through apostolic use of other Canonical books. It draws our attention to the character of the church of Jesus Christ as a Canonical communitythe people of the book. Cameron...
See also Bible, Canon of the ; Bible, Inspiration of the ...
Bibliography
Ezekiel - , although it had been recognized as part of the Canon for several centuries
Flood, the - The flood narrative contains the first mention in the biblical Canon of the motif and terminology of remnant: "Only Noah and those who were with him in the ark remained [2]" (Genesis 7:23 )
Ezekiel - , 4:26), Origen, Jerome, and the Talmud mention it as part of the Canon
Chronology - Ptolemy's famous Canon counts it 66 years; but if the Jewish years meant be the prophetical ones of 360 days each, as in Daniel 12:7, the sum will be about 69 tropical years
Bible, Texts And Versions - The study of the process by which the documents (66 in all) were written, used, collected into groups, and elevated to the authoritative place that they occupy today is called the study of the Canon
Thessalonians, First And Second, Theology of - ...
Place in the Canon
Hilarius Arelatensis, Saint, Bishop of Arles - ...
The Canons passed by the councils of Riez and of Orange, over which Hilary presided in 439 and 442 respectively, were in the main of a disciplinary character; at Riez a special Canon, the seventh, insisted strongly on the rights of the metropolitan. Canons Bright (Hist. Presenting himself to Leo, he respectfully requested him to act in conformity with the Canons and usages of the universal church. If Leo found this to be the case, let him, as quietly and secretly as he pleased, put a stop to such violation of the Canons. As regards Projectus, he may have strayed beyond the ill-defined limits of his province and most certainly violated Canonical rule
Various Readings - In the third century Ammonius of Alexandria arranged this numerical system to aid the reader in finding parallel passages in the Gospels; and in the fourth century Eusebius, the historian, in a set of Canons arranged the Ammonian Sections so as to make any particular one more easily found. 51 of John, which was to be found in Eusebius' Canon Δ, that is, No
Apocrypha - They did not attain Canonical status, but some of them were cited by early Christians almost on a level with the Old Testament writings, and a few were copied in biblical manuscripts. Some New Testament authors were familiar with various non-canonical works, and the Epistle of Jude made specific reference to at least one of these books. All except 1,2Esdras and the Prayer of Mannasseh are considered Canonical (in the Bible) and authoritative by the Roman Catholic Church. From the time of the Reformation, the apocryphal books have been omitted from the Canon of the Protestant churches. It is believed that this writing drew from some of the same sources used by the writers of the Canonical Old Testament books. These sections contain such matters as the dream of Mordecai, the interpretation of that dream, the texts of the letters referred to in the Canonical book, (Esther 1:22 ; Esther 3:13 ; Esther 8:5 ,Esther 8:5,8:10 ; Esther 9:20 ,Esther 9:20,9:25-30 ) and the prayers of Esther and Mordecai. Twenty-four are a rewrite of the Canonical Old Testament while the other seventy are to be given to the wise
Joannes Presbyter - Canon
Christ in the Early Church - (a) The earliest Christian writing extant outside the limits of the NT, and one which was for long on the verge of admission into the Canon, is the Epistle to the Corinthians, usually assigned to Clement, bishop of Rome. ...
(e) A mystical work which enjoyed considerable popularity in the early Church, the Shepherd, attributed in the Muratorian Canon to that Hermas who was brother of Pope Pius i
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - The very first Canon, indeed, decrees that adults who have sacrificed to idols have committed a capital crime and can never again be received into communion. The Novatianist discipline was very rigid in other respects also, especially with reference to carnal sins, and many of the Canons of Elvira relate to such offences, and their stern and austere spirit shews how deeply the Fathers at Elvira were influenced by Novatianist principles. Though we cannot trace the hand of Hosius in the composition of these Canons, yet as he was a leading member of the synod, its decrees would doubtless be in harmony with his convictions. of Rome held the first place among all his brethren, partly because Rome was the principal city in the world, yet his ecclesiastical jurisdiction does not appear to have extended beyond the churches of the ten provinces of Italy, called in the versio prisca of the 6th Nicene Canon "suburbicaria loca. " The Acts shew him as the life and soul of the synod, proposing most of the Canons and taking the foremost part in the proceedings
Archaeology And Biblical Study - ...
Related to the matter of text is the question of Canon. For example, some parts of the Canon were still not finalized during the time of this Jewish community (ca
Clemens Romanus of Rome - Now the Roman Canon of the Mass to this day, next after the names of the apostles, recites the names of Linus, Cletus, Clemens; and there is some evidence that the liturgy contained the same names in the same order as early as the 2nd cent; Probably, then, this commemoration dates from Clement's own time. extra Canonem Receptum ; Lightfoot's (Camb. Many of the quotations, however, differ from our Canonical gospels, and since one of them agrees with a passage referred by Clement of Alexandria to the gospel of the Egyptians, this was probably the source of other quotations also. to the Hebrews, the last in the Peshitta Canon, the scribe adds a doxology, and a note with personal details by which we can date the MS
Nestorius And Nestorianism - It may not be amiss to sum up these remarks on the question at issue in the words of Canon Bright, who certainly cannot be charged with undue tenderness for Nestorius, on the title θεοτόκος . To attain this end, there is evidence extant—though Canon Bright has failed to notice it—(in a letter from Epiphanius, Cyril's archdeacon and syncellus, to the patriarch Maximian, see below), that he made a lavish use of money and presents of other kinds
Ezra, the Book of - ...
Ezra's placing of Daniel in the Canon immediately before his own book and Nehemiah's implies that his commission began the fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy; Christ's 30th year in beginning His ministry would be A
Lord - Paul is concerned); but it is evident from some of the cases already quoted that such a Canon cannot be consistently observed
Scripture (2) - The idea of a ‘canon’ of ‘Sacred Scriptures’ (and with the idea the thing) was handed down to Christianity from Judaism
Jews, Judaism - Other works similar to the Apocrypha written in the same period were never considered for inclusion in the Canon. ...
The noncanonical writings of the intertestamental period attest to the development of Jewish religious thought
Hebrews, Theology of - Likely this factor more than any other secured its prominent place in the early church's Canon of Scripture in spite of doubts concerning its apostolic origin in the West (Carthage and Rome) prior to the fourth century
Gestures - ]'>[2] (Mark 11:25, where see Swete’s note, Luke 18:11; Luke 18:13), we must interpret this kneeling or prostration as specially signifying deep distress, as in the early Church it signified special penitence, being forbidden by the 20th Canon of Nicaea on festival occasions like Sundays and Eastertide (so Tertullian, de Cor
Sanballat - With my own ears I once heard the late Canon Liddon, when preaching in St
Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - " That persons should be sent from Rome to decide causes in Africa had been "ordained by no synod"; and they had proved to Celestine's predecessor, by authentic copies of Nicene Canons, that such a claim was wholly baseless ( Cod. "Dominentur nobis regulae," writes Celestine, "non regulis dominemur; simus subjecti Canonibus," etc. But, says Tillemont significantly, "it is difficult to see how he practised this excellent maxim"; for by the sixth Nicene Canon the Illyrian bishops would be subject to their several metropolitans and provincial synods (xiv. ...
With this letter may be compared a short one (Ephesians 5 ), written in 429, to urge the Apulian and Calabrian bishops to observe the Canons, and not to gratify any popular wish for the consecration of a person who had not served in the ministry
Inspiration - Yet a remarkable providence has watched over Scripture, keeping the Jews from mutilating the Old Testament and the Roman and Greek Catholics from mutilating the New Testament though witnessing against themselves, (See Canon
Revelation - We pass at once from writings unsurpassed in creative power to writings of marked intellectual poverty, … the distinction commonly made between the books of the Canon and the rest is fully justified’ (Gwatkin, Knowledge of God , ii
Ephesians, Theology of - It is included among Paul's letters as the Muratorian Canon, which is generally regarded as second century, and acknowledged as Paul's even by the heretic Marcion, who called it "Laodiceans
Woman - Nor must we forget that the just rights of married women were much more fully recognized by Roman law than by the ecclesiastical law which replaced it: ‘it is by the tendency of their doctrines to keep alive and consolidate the former [1], that the expositors of the Canon Law have deeply injured civilisation’ (H
Eschatology - ...
The later books of the Canon (Psalms 49:1-20 ; Psalms 73:18-25 ) refer more frequently to immortality, both of good and of evil men, but continue to deny activity to the dead in Sheol ( Job 14:21 ; Job 26:6 , Psalms 88:12 ; Psalms 94:17 ; Psalms 115:17 , Ecclesiastes 9:10 ), and less distinctly ( Isaiah 26:19 ) refer to a resurrection, although with just what content it is not possible to state. ...
( d ) The tendencies of later Canonical thought are obviously eschatological
Joshua - Place in the Canon
Beda, Historian - Alcuin has preserved one of his sayings: "I know that the angels visit the Canonical hours and gatherings of the brethren; what if they find not me there among the brethren? Will they not say, Where is Bede: why does he not come with the brethren to the prescribed prayers?" (Alc. Browne (1879) and Canon H
Baptism - 59), who lays down the oft-quoted Canon that ‘while a literal construction will stand, the farthest from the letter is commonly the worst’ (see below, 8)
Nehemiah - I should have remembered what Canon Gore puts so well in Lux Mundi: 'At starting, each of us, according to our disposition, is conscious of liking some books of Scripture better than others
Demoniac - Beside, as various instances are recorded in Scripture, and as several cases are given at considerable length, might we not expect, if possessions were really nothing more than ordinary diseases, that the truth would be somewhere told or hinted at? that, within the compass of the sacred Canon, something would be said, or something insinuated, which would lead us to understand that the language, though inaccurate and improper, was used in accommodation to the popular belief? Might we not expect that Christ himself would have declared, in one unequivocal affirmation, or in some intelligible way, the exact truth of the case? Or, at all events, when the Holy Ghost had descended upon the Apostles on the day of pentecost, and when the full disclosure of the revelation appears to have been made, might it not reasonably have been looked for that the popular error would have been rectified, and the language reduced from its figurative character to a state of simple correctness? What conceivable motive could influence our Saviour, or his Apostles, to sanction the delusion of the multitude? And does it not strike at the root of the Christian religion itself, to have it thought, for a single moment, that its "Author and Finisher," who came to enlighten and to reform the world, should have, on so many occasions, not only countenanced, but confirmed, an opinion which he must have known to be "the reverse of the truth?"...
Let us then, say they, beware how we relinquish the literal sense of holy writ, in search of allegorical or figurative interpretations
Poetry - Some of the poems inserted in the prose books are written and printed line by line, as Exodus 15:1-27 , Deuteronomy 32:1-52 , Judges 5:1-31 , 2 Samuel 22:1-51 ; and for the three poetical books of the Canon the Massoretes of later times provided a special system of pointing, thereby recognizing a distinction that must have had its basis in tradition, although the special pointing was not to preserve the poetic value
Peter, Second Epistle of - This Epistle cannot rank with 1Peter as a Christian classic; indeed, very many would agree with Jülicher that ‘2Peter is not only the latest document of the NT, but also the least deserving of a place in the Canon
Matthew, the Gospel According to - Our Greek Gospel superseded the Hebrew, and was designed by the Holy Spirit (as its early acceptance, universal use, and sole preservation prove) to be the more universal Canonical Gospel. How unlikely that Matthew's name should be substituted for the lost name of the unknown translator, and this in apostolic times; for John lived to see the completion of the Canon; he never would have sanctioned as the authentic Gospel of Matthew a fragmentary compilation "in arrangement and selection of events not such as would have proceeded from an apostle and eye witness" (Alford). ...
CANONICAL AUTHORITY
Church - Thus the Biblical view of the Church differs alike from the materialized conception of Augustine, which identifies it with the constitutionally incorporated and œcumenical society of the Roman Empire, with its Canon law and hierarchical jurisdiction, and from that Kingdom of Christ which Luther, as interpreted by Ritschl, regarded as ‘the inward spiritual union of believers with Christ’ ( Justification and Reconciliation , Eng
Canaan, History And Religion of - The biblical record affirms that Yahweh, the Lord of history, has used the reality of historical encounter as a means to bring biblical religion to its mature development as revealed in the full Canon of Scripture
Elect, Election - ...
The variant reading ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος instead of ὁ ἀγατητός (Mark 9:7 = Matthew 17:5) is generally recognized as the genuine one, not only on account of the high authority of א and B, but also because, according to an obvious Canon of textual criticism, it is the more likely reading of the two (see Scrivener’s
Language of Christ - While, however, Aramaic thus gradually superseded Hebrew as the living tongue of Palestine, and by the time of Alexander the Great had probably reached a position of ascendency, if it had not gained entire possession of the field, yet Hebrew remained, though with some loss of its ancient purity, the language of sacred literature, the language in which Prophet and Psalmist wrote, and as the language of the books ultimately embraced in the OT Canon, continued to be read, with an accompanying translation into Aramaic, in the synagogues, and to be diligently studied by the professional interpreters of the Scriptures
Egypt - , about 100 years later, as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, by Canon Cook
Preaching - of the sacred writings, and arranged and published the books of the holy Canon in their present form. Instead of appealing to popes and Canons, and founders and fathers, they only quoted them, and referred their auditors to the Holy Scriptures for law
Manicheans - Canon
Psalms of Solomon - On the other hand, in most of the Greek MSS_, including R and J, nearly every individual psalm is entitled ‘of Solomon,’ τῷ Ζαλωμών, with which we may compare the τῷ Δαυείδ in the LXX_ version of the Canonical Psalter. ...
Rather earlier indirect external evidence of the existence of the Psalms has sometimes been sought elsewhere; but it is at least doubtful whether the fifty-ninth Canon of the Council of Laodicea (c. ...
The inclusion of these Psalms originally in the Codex Alexandrinus, and perhaps, too, in the Codex Sinaiticus, the association of them in most of the eight Greek MSS_ in which they now survive with other Solomonic works, Canonical and apocryphal-the Psalms commonly standing between Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus-indicate the position which they occupied in the early history of the Church; but the paucity of references to them and quotations from them shows at the same time that they proved neither very attractive nor very influential: they probably owed their preservation to the fact that they bore the name of Solomon
Union With God - , outside the Canon of Scripture, including the epistles of Clement and Barnabas and perhaps the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, fragments of Papias, and the Shepherd of Hermas, so popular in the Church during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, contains nothing new or distinctive bearing on the subject of union with God as compared with the apostolic writings
Ebionism (2) - —As against the Tübingen school, which held that primitive Christianity was itself Ebionism, and which took, in consequence, a highly exaggerated view of the influence of Ebionitic thought upon the history and the literature of the early Church, it is now admitted by nearly all modern scholars that there are no writings within the Canon of the NT which come to us directly from this circle. The extant fragments of the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles show that its value is quite secondary, and that the author has simply compiled it from the Canonical, and especially from the Synoptic Gospels, adapting it at the same time to the views and practices of Gnostic Ebionism. Ebionism and the Canonical Gospels. —Apart from the existence of special Ebionite Gospels, the idea has been common, both in ancient and modern times, that certain of the Canonical Gospels owe something of their substance or their form to the positive or negative influence of Ebionite sources or Ebionite surroundings. Irenaeus does not seem to have been aware of the existence of the Gospel according to the Hebrews, and apparently confounded that work with the Canonical Matthew. But it may be said that while the whole trend of recent scholarship is unfavourable to the views of those who would make the Gospel according to the Hebrews either the ‘Ur-Matthaeus’ itself or an expanded edition of it, some grounds can be alleged for thinking that it represents an early Aramaic tradition of the Gospel story which was in existence when the author of Canonical Matthew wrote his book, and upon which to some extent he may have drawn,—a tradition which would naturally be more Jewish and national in its outlook than that represented by the Greek written sources on which he placed his main dependence (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, Extra Vol
Logia - ) of sacred authority; partly (b) designates a compilation, or compilations, antecedent to or parallel with the Canonical Gospels, supposed to have been entitled or called τὰ λόγια; cf. Biblia = τὰ βιβλία), to mean ‘the (sacred) books’ of the Canon. ...
(a) Of the former (correct) use it is enough to say that science has no better designation for the apothegms of Jesus in the form wherein tradition has transmitted them, whether in the Synoptic Gospels or as uncanonical agrapha. ...
More important for its bearing on the question of the name to be applied to the Matthaean syntagma are the structural phenomena of the Canonical Mt. ) makes it certain that for him, if not already for Polycarp, τὰ λόγια meant the precepts of Jesus as embodied in narrative Gospels, pre-eminently in Canonical Matthew. In later authorities, who take over the tradition, the term is gradually extended to cover the embodying narrative as well, until with Irenaeus and Tertullian the Divine utterance is coextensive with the Canonical Gospel (‘ait Spiritus Sanctus per Matthaeum,’ applied by Irenaeus to utterances of the Evangelist). ’ For Papias, and a fortiori for the later authorities who repeat the tradition in partly independent forms, it was a testimony to our Canonical Matthew. In Papias’ time the Hebrew syntagma had disappeared from use (ἡρμήνευσεν), if ever known in his region; his idea of its relation to Canonical Mt. —Modern critics attribute great value to the tradition reported by Papias, partly because of its inapplicability to Canonical Mt. ...
Its inapplicability to Canonical Mt. It is characteristic of the Gospels which continued to circulate in Palestine independently of the Canonical four so late as the time of Jerome and Epiphanius, that, while they conflate material drawn from the Greek Gospels with their own, they continue to represent their tradition in all cases as delivered by the Apostle Matthew (Preuschen, Antilegomena, Frgs
Old Testament - The Septuagint is two centuries later than the last book of Old Testament It is only in the period immediately following the closing of the Old Testament Canon that its few corruptions have arisen, for subsequently the jealous care of its purity has been continually on the increase
Woman - Apart from the ministry of the New Testament writers, Christian prophecy does not supplement or contradict the Canon but applies spiritual truth to specific contexts in the lives of God's people
High Priest - Simon the Just, second after Jaddua, was reputed the last of the Great Synagogue and the finisher of the Old Testament Canon
Holy Spirit - ...
Of all the Canonical Wisdom literature, the Spirit appears unambiguously only in the psalms. Five distinct functions can be discerned in these passages: The Spirit will help Jesus' followers, remaining with them forever (14:15-21); he will enable them to interpret Jesus' words (14:15-17); he will testify to the world who Jesus is (15:26-16:4); he will prosecute sinners, convicting them of their offenses (16:5-11); and he will reveal further truth (16:12-15), doubtless including though not explicitly specified as the New Testament Canon
Bethlehem - ‘In the cradle of his royal race,’ says Canon Tristram (Bible Places, p
Absolution - ‘Penance’; Canon Carter’s The Doctrine of Confession in the Church of England; Dean Wace’s Confession, and Absolution; Dr
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - 447) appeals to Acts of the four apostles mentioned by Photius (Peter, Andrew, Thomas, and John), charging the Catholic party with wrongly excluding them from their Canon. 378) and from this source probably so many of the Fathers have derived their opinion of John's virginity concerning which the Canonical Scriptures say nothing (Ambros
Education in Bible Times - Brueggemann, The Creative Word: Canon as Model for Biblical Education ; R
Amos, Theology of - Whether or not the last section of the Book of Amos comes directly from the prophet of that name, there is no more reason for believers to doubt its place within the inspired Canon of Scripture than one would any of the biblical books for which the question of authorship remains open
Preaching - He collected and collated manuscripts of the sacred writings, and arranged and published the holy Canon in its present form. Instead of appealing to popes, and Canons, and founders, and fathers, they only quoted them, and referred their auditors to the Holy Scriptures for law
Rufinus of Aquileia - Besides these there are several prefaces to the translations from Greek authors, on which his chief labour was expended, and which include The Monastic Rule of Basil , and his 8 Homilies ; the Apology for Origen , written by Pamphilus and Eusebius; Origen's Περὶ Ἀρχῶν and many of his commentaries; 10 works of Gregory Nazianzen; the Sentences of Sixtus or Xystus; the Sentences of Evagrius, and his book addressed to Virgins; the Recognitions of Clement; the 10 books of Eusebius's History; the Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria
Hebrews - It appears, indeed, from the following expression of Jerom, that this epistle was not generally received as Canonical Scripture by the Latin church in his time: "Licet eam Latina consuetudo inter Canonicas Scripturas non recipiat. " Aristion (Aristo) - 156, who thinks it was simply appended at the end of the Gospel Canon
Religion (2) - The OT provided Him not only with illustrations of His own original thought (Matthew 12:39-42, Luke 4:25-27), but with Canons of judgment and standards of authority (Matthew 5:18), and even with personal assurance in the time of moral temptation (Matthew 4:4; Matthew 4:7; Matthew 4:10) and of mortal weakness (Matthew 27:46, Luke 23:46). The partial records of His life, first in the flesh and then in the spirit, which are ours through the NT, are certainly means whereby the Divine grace and truth are mediated to us, providing, indeed, our Canon of spiritual judgment
Trial of Jesus - The later Gospels treat the account in their own way, omitting, adapting, and adding, to suit their own religious interests; and one of the tasks of criticism is to determine how far these may preserve some authentic traits, for it is as erroneous to presuppose that all later additions to the Markan outline are unhistorical as to assume that the details of the four Canonical stories can be harmonized into a protocol of the actual proceedings. But while devout feeling is seldom perturbed by any discrepancies, such differences do exist both in conception and in detail, and the juxtaposition of the four Gospels in the Canon obliges faith to look at the variety of the records and make some attempt at a historical estimate of their relative contents. But even within the circle of the Canonical Gospels it is possible to trace the beginnings of that tendency to compare Pilate favourably with the Jews, which afterwards went to quite extravagant lengths
Bible - , when it was thus employed by Greek Church writers in lists of the Canonical books. ]'>[3] , which represents the enlarged Greek Canon of Alexandria
Judges (1) - In the three divisions of which the Hebrew Canon is made up, the Book of Judges comes in the first section of the second division, being reckoned among the ‘Former Prophets’ (Joshua, Judges 1:1-36 Judges 1:1-36 ; Judges 2:1-23 Samam
Slave, Slavery - 300) could legislate for the possibility that a Christian mistress might whip her handmaid to death (Canon v
Boyhood - There was not perhaps a definite ‘Canon’ in our modern sense
Boyhood of Jesus - But Christ acquired such a knowledge of the Old Testament, and perhaps of some books outside the Palestinian Canon, that the teachers in the temple ‘were astonished at his understanding and answers’ (Luke 2:47)
John, Gospel of - The full and explicit evidence of the Muratorian Canon may also be dated about a. The Muratorian Fragment, which gives a list of the Canonical books recognized in the Western Church of the period, ascribes the Fourth Gospel to ‘John, one of the disciples,’ and whilst recognizing that ‘in the single books of the Gospels different principles are taught,’ the writer adds that they all alike confirm the faith of believers by their agreement in their teaching about Christ’s birth, passion, death, resurrection, and twofold advent. Fabulous additions to the Canonical Gospels are extant, and their character is well known
Ascension of Isaiah - The Ethiopic, Slavonic, and Latin texts of 6:1 imply the title ‘Vision of Isaiah,’ and so does Montfaucon’s Canon
Joseph - He put his signet ring (the names of the Pharaohs were always written in an elongated, signet like, ring) on Joseph's hand in token of delegated sovereignty, a gold chain about his neck, and arrayed him in the fine linen peculiar to the Egyptian priests; and made him ride in his second chariot, while the attendants cried "Abrech," ("Rejoice thou") (Egyptian), calling upon him to rejoice with all the people at his exaltation (Canon Cook, Speaker's Commentary) Pharaoh named Joseph "Zaphnath Paaneah
Mss - ) was not included in the Syriac Canon
Elijah - When the Old Testament Canon was being closed, Malachi, its last prophet, threw a ray over the dark period of 400 years that intervened until the New Testament return of revelation, by announcing, "Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord
Text of the Gospels - 68) says that ‘Canon Cook elaborately discussed Hort’s eight cases, contending that in every one of them the conflation hypothesis gives the less probable account of the facts
Babel - ...
The "canon of Ptolemy" gives the succession of Babylonian kings and their lengths of reign, from 747 B
Revelation (2) - Is not revelation rather a gradual disclosure than a sudden unveiling? And may it not be that what men have taken for an act of God should rather be described as an acquisition on man’s part which came to him, as all natural knowledge has come, by the gradual quickening of his spiritual faculty, in response to the discipline of life!* Science (2) - Hence the indiscriminate Jewish doctrine of inspiration, which made no distinction between styles of literature, ascribing to all passages of the Canon an equal measure of truth. He judged them according to their spiritual and religious value, not according to any Canons of textual criticism, modern or ancient
Socialism - ...
Yet general principles are of more importance than economic theories which must necessarily shift with changing conditions of life; and Socialism, defined as the principle of fellowship, may safely claim to be an integral part of Christianity, working itself out in one age through feudalism and Canon law, in another through representative government and factory legislation, and tending, through the improvement of individual character, to the ideal state
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - ...
Hilary's respect for the LXX led him to embrace the Alexandrian rather than the Palestinian Canon of O
Koran - ...
They have likewise their casuists, and a kind of Canon law, wherein they distinguish between what is of divine and what of positive right. They have their beneficiaries, too, chaplains, almoners, and Canons, who read a chapter every day out of the Alcoran in their mosques, and have prebends annexed to their office
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - The first charge which Eusebius encouraged the Meletians to bring against Athanasius concerned his taxing the people of Egypt for linen vestments, and turned upon the supposed violence of Macarius, the representative of Athanasius, in overthrowing the altar and the chalice, when reproving (for uncanonical proceedings) Ischyras, a priest of the Colluthian sect. 19) accuses Eusebius of unlawful translation from Nicomedia to Constantinople "in direct violation of that Canon which prohibits bishops and presbyters from going from one city to another," and asserts that this took place on the death of Alexander. In 341 (May) the council developed into the celebrated council in Encaeniis , held also at Antioch, at which, under the presidency of Eusebius or Placetus of Antioch, and with the assent and presence of Constantius, divers Canons were passed, which are esteemed of authority by later oecumenical councils
Paul - Paul in the cause of Christianity were not confined to personal instruction: he also wrote fourteen epistles to individuals or churches which are now extant, and form a part of our Canon
Text of the New Testament - Consequently there could be no collected ‘New Testament’ at this early stage, and no question (so far as the conditions of literary transmission were concerned) of fixing a Canon of books to be included in such a collection. Before the Epistle to the Hebrews is a list of the books of the NT, with the number of stichoi (or normal lines of 16 syllables each) in each of them, which must be descended from a very early archetype, since it places the books in an unusual order, and includes in the list several uncanonical books (cf
Vulgate - The Canonical Books of the OT, except the Psalms, were Jerome’s fresh translation from the Massoretic Hebrew. Of the deutero-canonical books, or Apocrypha, Judith and Tobit, with the additions to Daniel, were in Jerome’s very hasty version; the remainder, which he had refused to touch (as not recognized by the Massoretic Canon), continued to circulate in the OL. ]'>[1] ); and it was Canonized, so to speak, by its use in the decree of the Council of Trent, which speaks of it as ‘hæc ipsa vetus et vulgata editio
Christianity - Hence the Church with a true instinct included the Acts and the Epistles in the Canon, as well as the Gospels, and to the whole of these documents we must turn if we would understand what ‘Christianity’ meant to the Apostles and the first generation or two of those who followed Christ
Criticism - Michaelis was followed by Semler in his Treatise on the Free Investigation of the Canon, the very title of which seemed to mark the new principle of inquiry which was abroad
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - But subjection to any other see was soon felt to be inconsistent with the dignity of an imperial city, and by the third Canon of the oecumenical council held within its walls, a
Eutyches And Eutychianism - They took with them a note saying that if he still refused to appear, it might be necessary to deal with him according to Canonical law, and that his determination not to leave his cell was simply an evasion. They took a letter exhorting Eutyches not to compel the synod to put in force Canonical censure, and summoning him before them two days later (Nov. To prove their own orthodoxy they appended their signatures to that creed and to the Ephesian Canon which confirmed it
Lutherans - They admit, also, into their sacred Canon the Epistle of St
Jews - But it was in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, called in Scripture Ahasuerus, that Ezra obtained his commission, and was made governor of the Jews in their own land, which government he held thirteen years: then Nehemiah was appointed with fresh powers, probably through the interest of Queen Esther; and Ezra applied himself solely to correcting the Canon of the Scriptures, and restoring and providing for the continuance of the worship of God in its original purity
Leo i, the Great - Migne) to inform Leo that Pelagian ecclesiastics are being admitted to communion in that province without recantation, are being reinstated into their ecclesiastical degrees, and allowed, contrary to the Canons, to wander from church to church. The ground of the request is especially the appeal of Flavian to Rome an appeal for the justification of which Leo offers the authority of a Nicene Canon ( Ep
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - ...
Canon of Scripture
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - With the rest of the Antiochians he probably followed the old Syrian Canon in rejecting II