What does Caesarea Philippi mean in the Bible?


Holman Bible Dictionary - Caesarea Philippi
(cawehss uh ree' uh fihl' ihp pi) About 1,150 feet above sea level, Caesarea Philippi is located on a triangular plain in the upper Jordan Valley along the southwestern slopes of Mt. Hermon. Behind it rise bluffs and rugged mountain peaks. The area is one of the most lush and beautiful in Palestine, with groves of trees and grassy fields abounding. Water is in abundance, for the city is near the spot where the spring Nahr Baniyas, one of the sources of the Jordan, gushes from a cave in the bluffs. The city is also in a strategic location, guarding the plains in the area. The extent of its ruins indicate that it was a city of considerable size. The modern town, which has dwindled drastically, is known as Banyas.
History Caesarea Philippi seems to have been a religious center from its earliest days. The Canaanite god Baal-gad, the god of good fortune, was worshiped here in Old Testament times. Later, in the Greek period, a shrine in the cave was dedicated to the god Pan. In addition, many niches in the cave held statues of the Nymphs. When Herod the Great was king of the Jews, he built a temple out of white marble near the same spot and dedicated it to Emperor Augustus.
The city also has an important place in the history of the area. Paneas, as it was called before its name was changed, was the site of a famous battle (198 B.C.) in which Antiochus the Great defeated the Egyptians and thereby took control of Palestine for the Seleucids. In 20 B.C., the Romans under Augustus, who then controlled the area, gave the territory to Herod the Great. After Herod's death, it passed to his son Philip who ruled there from 4 B.C. until his death in A.D. 34. Philip rebuilt the city into a beautiful place and renamed it Caesarea Philippi in honor of Tiberias Caesar and himself.
When Herod Agrippa II (grandson of Herod the Great) inherited the city, he renamed it Neronias in honor of the emperor Nero. But, after Nero's death the name was dropped. During the Jewish-Roman War of A.D. 66-70, the Roman general Vespasian rested his army here. After the war, Titus, who succeeded his father as general of the Roman armies, held gladiatorial shows here during which a number of Jewish prisoners were put to death. After subduing the Jews, the Romans changed its name back to Paneas.
New Testament Near here Jesus asked His disciples the famous question about His identity. When He asked them who men said He was, they answered that people were identifying Him with Elijah, John the Baptist, or one of the prophets (Mark 8:27-33 ; Matthew 16:13-23 ). Jesus then asked them, “But whom say ye that I am?” (Matthew 16:15 ). Peter, acting as the group's spokesman, replied with his famous statement that Jesus is the Christ. Although in John's gospel Jesus was acknowledged as Christ before this event, in the Synoptic Gospels this is the first time that anyone openly confessed Jesus as the Messiah.
Immediately after Peter's confession, Jesus congratulated him for being receptive to God's revelation, changed his name from Cephas to Peter, and then pronounced the founding words of the church. This occasion is also important because for the first time Jesus predicted His coming arrest, death, and resurrection in Jerusalem. That Peter and the other disciples did not fully understand the nature of Jesus' messiahship is evidenced by Peter's rebuke of Jesus. This marked the turning point in Jesus' ministry. After this He confined His ministry mostly to the twelve to reinterpret to them the meaning of His messiahship and to prepare them for the events to come.
The transfiguration, which occurred about a week after the confession at Caesarea Philippi, was probably also in the area. Caesarea Philippi, which had been the center for pagan worship, thus became an important site for Christians because of Jesus' association with it. See Agrippa II; Augustus ; Baal ; Herod the Great; Herod Philip; Nero .
W. T. Edwards
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Caesarea Philippi
CÆSAREA PHILIPPI . The scene of Christ’s charge to Peter ( Matthew 16:13-20 , Mark 8:27 ). Here was a sanctuary of Pan a fact still remembered in the modern name Banias and when Herod the Great received the territory from Augustus in b.c. 20, he erected here a temple. His son Philip refounded the city, and changed its name from Paneas to Cæsarea in honour of Augustus adding his own name to distinguish the town from the similarly named city founded by his father on the sea-coast. For a while it was called Neronias , but ultimately the old name came once more to the surface and ousted the others. Here Titus celebrated with gladiatorial shows the capture of Jerusalem. It was captured by the Crusaders in 1130, and finally lost by them to the Moslems in 1165. It lies 1150 ft. above the sea in a recess of the Hermon mountains, and is well watered. Under the ancient castle of the Crusaders a copious stream issued from a cave, now much choked with fallen fragments of rock, where was the shrine of Pan. The modern village is small, and the remains of the Roman city meagre.
R. A. S. Macalister.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Caesarea Philippi
The former name of this city was Panium, but Herod Philip, the tetrarch, enlarged it and named it after Caesar and himself. It is situated in the north of Palestine, near one of the sources of the Jordan. The Lord visited the villages in its district. Matthew 16:13 ; Mark 8:27 . It is now called Banias, 33 15' N, 35 41' E , a small village, with the remains of an ancient castle and other ruins, amid beautiful scenery.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Caesarea Philippi
CaeSAREA PHILIPPI.—The town called Caesarea Philippi in the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 16:17-1994 Mark 8:27, cf. Josephus Ant. xx. ix. 4, BJ iii. ix. 7, vii. ii. I) bore at one time, certainly as early as b.c. 198 (Polybius, Hist. xvi. 18, xxviii. 1), the name Panias (Πανιάς or, ΠΑΝΕά), which is still preserved in the modern Banias. Situated to the north of the Sea of Galilee on a plateau at the southern foothills of Mount Hermon, it lay in the territory that Philip received from his father, Herod the Great. The place, as well as the surrounding country, received its original name from a cave or grotto in a hill near by, which was called τὸ Πάνειον, because sacred to Pan and the Nymphs. In the face of the cliff there are still several niches with inscriptions in which Pan is mentioned. From the cave (Mugharet Ras en-Neba’), now partly filled with fallen stone, issues a strong stream of water which has long been reckoned one of the chief sources of the Jordan (Josephus Ant. xv. x. 3). On the hill above, Herod built a white marble temple in honour of Augustus (Josephus Ant. xv. x. 3, BJ i. xxi. 3), and here the Crusaders built a castle, the ruins of which still stand some fifteen hundred feet above the town, and about a mile and a quarter to the east (Kula’t Subeibeh). Philip enlarged and beautified Panias, and called it Caesarea (Καισάρεια) in honour of Augustus. The statement of Eusebius (Chron. ed. Schoene, pp. 146–147) that Philip built Panias, and called it Caesarea, in the reign of Tiberius, is rendered improbable by coins which show that Caesarea had an era dating from b.c. 3 or 2. To distinguish it from Caesarea on the seacoast (Καισάρεια Στράτωνος or Καισάρεια τῆς Παλαιστίνης), it was commonly called Caesarea Philippi (Καισάρεια ἡ Φιλίππου). Under Agrippa ii. it received and bore for a short time the name Neronias (Νερωνιάς, Josephus Ant. xx. ix. 4). The place has probably no part in OT history, since its identification with Dan (Smith, HGHL [1] pp. 473, 480) is not certain (Buhl, GAP [2] p. 238).
Into this region Jesus came with His disciples during one of His tours of retirement from the common scenes of His Galilaean activity; but He does not seem to have entered Caesarea itself. St. Matthew (Matthew 16:13; cf. Mat_15:21) tells us that Jesus came into the region (εἰς τὰ μέρη); St. Mark (Mark 8:27) mentions more specifically and vividly the villages of Caesarea (εἰς τὰς κώμας). In the territory of which Caesarea was the chief city there were smaller towns, and it was through these that Jesus moved with His disciples and others who followed Him. St. Luke alone (Luke 9:18 ff.) of the Synoptists seems to have lost the touch of local colour fixed so indelibly upon the narratives of Mt. and Mk.—an authenticating element whose force even those who question the Synoptic tradition at this point find it difficult to escape (cf. Wrede, Messiasgeheimnis, p. 239). The narrative in Lk. lends itself, however, to the setting of Mt. and Mk., both by the way in which it is introduced without definite localization (καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν προσευχόμενον), and by the fact that in Lk.’s order it follows the feeding of the five thousand in the neighbourhood of Bethsaida. According to Mark 8:22; Mark 8:27, it was from Bethsaida that Jesus went into the villages of Caesarea, and in John 6:68 ff. we read of a confession of Peter immediately after the discourse of Jesus in Capernaum, occasioned by the feeding of the five thousand. St. Luke’s material may have come to him in the form of a group centring around a saying of Jesus, but without definite localization. By inserting it after the feeding of the five thousand he has preserved the historical order without, however, giving us the exact local setting. For this we must look to St. Matthew and St. Mark.
By our First and Second Evangelists the same group of events is not only connected with a place which lends peculiar significance to them, but set in a larger context which extends to the feeding of the five thousand. Mt. and Mk. alike represent Jesus’ arrival in the region of Caesarea Philippi as part of a course decided upon shortly after that event. The decision which led to the retirement into the region of Tyre and Sidon must have been confirmed by His experience on returning to Galilee. For Jesus withdrew again, this time going north into the region of Caesarea Philippi. Located at Caesarea and standing in the period of retirement, this group of events points back to the beginning of the period for the explanation of its characteristic features. The Gospels do not enumerate the causes which led to such a change in the scene of Jesus’ activity, but their narratives do indicate a situation which will in a measure account for it.
But, besides change of scene, this group of events reveals, as do the earlier events of the period of retirement, a change in the method of Jesus’ work. His retirement from Galilee is from the people and their religious leaders into more intimate companionship with His disciples, from His popular instruction of the multitudes and beneficent activity in their midst to teach His faithful followers in more secluded intercourse the significance of His own person for the Kingdom He had been proclaiming, and to prepare them for His Passion. The period has fittingly been called, from its chief characteristic, the Training of the Twelve, and in no incident does this characteristic more clearly appear than in the events of Caesarea Philippi.
The immediate occasion of Jesus’ retirement from Galilee and the change in His method of work are indicated in Mt. and Mk. by their account of His attitude towards the traditions of the elders (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23). The fundamental opposition between Jesus and the legalism of the Pharisees which had appeared in His attitude towards the Sabbath customs, and in the Sermon on the Mount, came now to sharp expression in His attack on the whole system of external formalism in religion. The people, moreover, had shown themselves unprepared to receive and unable to appreciate His teaching, even after the work of John the Baptist and His own labours in their behalf. And so the form of His teaching had changed from the gnomic to the parabolic, causing a separation between the mass and those who had ears to hear. How utterly the people had failed to comprehend Him is revealed by their attempt after the feeding of the five thousand to take Him and make Him king (John 6:15). After His discourse in Capernaum (John 6:26 ff.), St. John tells us that many of His disciples walked no more with Him (John 6:66). Finally, the mission of the Twelve had widely extended His work, and shortly thereafter we are told that Herod (Antipas) heard of Jesus (Mark 6:14, Matthew 14:1, Luke 9:7 ff.). Bitter hostility from the religious leaders, failure on the part of the people to understand the character of His work, interested attention from the murderer of John the Baptist,—in the midst of such conditions Jesus withdrew from Galilee, and from His popular preaching activity, to devote Himself to His disciples.
Jesus’ first retirement is into the region of Tyre and Sidon, part of the Roman province of Syria. Returning to Galilee, He feeds the four thousand, refuses the request of the Pharisees and Sadducees for a sign from heaven, with its evident Messianic implication, warns His disciples against the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees (so Matthew 16:6; Mark 8:15 has ‘Pharisees and Herod’), heals a blind man near Bethsaida (Mark 8:22 ff.), and retires from Galilee for the second time, coming with His disciples into the region of Caesarea Philippi.
The key to the situation at Caesarea, its controlling idea, is to be sought neither in the confession of Peter nor in the promise to Peter, but in Jesus’ announcement of His approaching Passion. To this Peter’s confession leads up; around it Jesus’ instruction of the disciples regarding Himself and the conditions of discipleship centres. The theme, moreover, becomes characteristic of His subsequent teaching (Mark 9:12; Mark 9:31; Mark 10:33 f., Mark 12:7; Mark 14:8 etc.).
St. Luke tells us that Jesus had been praying alone (Luke 9:18; cf. Luke 3:21), and that His disciples were with Him. St. Mark vividly locates the question that Jesus put to His disciples, as ‘in the way’ (Mark 8:27). St. Mark and St. Luke agree in the form of the question, ‘Who do men (Mk. οἱ ἄνθρωποι, Lk. οἱ ὄχλοι) say that I am?’ St. Matthew, however, gives it in the third person, and introduces the title ‘Son of Man’—‘Who do men say that the Son of man is?’* [3] In either form the question is a striking one, by reason of the prominence it gives to Jesus’ person. Emphasis until now had been placed by Him on His message and on His works of mercy, though both had stood in intimate relation to His person. He desires to know now what men think of the messenger.
The form given to Jesus’ question in Mt. has been regarded as secondary, on the ground that by calling Himself the Son of Man, Jesus suggested the answer to His question in asking it. As a matter of fact, however, the answer is not given in terms of this title. In the Synoptic Gospels the title ‘Son of Man’ is always a self-designation of Jesus. Even where it appears in the Fourth Gospel in the mouth of others, this is in evident dependence on its use by Jesus (John 12:34). St. Stephen’s use of it also looks back to Jesus’ words (Acts 7:56, cf. Luke 22:69), and the usage of the Apocalypse is probably to be explained by the influence of Daniel 7:13 (cf. Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14). There can, moreover, be no doubt that Jesus so designated Himself during the conversation with the disciples at Caesarea Philippi. The phrase occurs in Mark 8:31 and Luke 9:22, but it is neither more adequately motived than in Mt., nor is it explained. The disciples must have been familiar with it as a self-designation of Jesus, even if they did not understand its full significance. The way in which it is introduced both in Mt. and Mk.-Lk. makes it difficult for us to think that it was now used for the first time; and the Synoptic Gospels do indeed give earlier instances of its use (Mark 2:10; Mark 2:28, Matthew 8:20; Matthew 9:6; Matthew 10:23; Matthew 11:19; Matthew 12:8; Matthew 12:32; Matthew 12:40; Matthew 13:37; Matthew 13:41, Luke 5:24; Luke 6:5; Luke 6:22; Luke 7:34). Dalman questions this order, regarding it as improbable that Jesus called Himself Son of Man at an earlier time (Worte Jesu, p. 216), and Holtzmann holds that if Jesus did so it was in a different sense (NT Theol. i. pp. 257, 263). The Synoptic representation is self-consistent, however, in presupposing its earlier use, and this we must accept even while admitting that the meaning of the term cannot be fully determined apart from its usage here and subsequently, where it is associated with Jesus’ suffering, resurrection, exaltation, and coming again in judgment. See, further, art. Son of Man.
In answer to Jesus’ question, the disciples report the opinions current among the people concerning Him. The report must have been discouraging. Not only was there variety of opinion, some thinking that He was John the Baptist (cf. Mark 6:14), others Elijah, and still others Jeremiah (Matthew 16:14) or one of the prophets; but in the midst of this variety there was general agreement that Jesus, whoever else He might be, was not the Messiah. A forerunner of the Messianic Kingdom He might be, but not the Messianic King. His activity in proclaiming the Kingdom, whatever Messianic expectations it may have aroused, had resulted only in the popular recognition of His prophetic character, and in His association with the Messianic Kingdom in some preparatory sense. Manifestly Jesus was not the popular Messiah. His work, directed as it was towards spiritual ends, did not accord with the popular conception of the Messianic Kingdom. Moreover, Jesus had not spoken plainly in Galilee of His Messiahship. He had not assumed a popular Messianic title, and when individuals had recognized in Him the Messiah, He had commanded silence. His work, however, like that of John the Baptist, had excited interest, and called forth opinions which associated Him with the coming Messianic Kingdom. The report of the disciples so accurately describes the situation and so faithfully represents the tenor of popular opinion, that it cannot be regarded merely as the background sketched by the Evangelists for the purpose of bringing into sharp relief the confession of Peter.
In the Synoptic narratives the question of Jesus about the opinion of the people leads up to a similar question addressed to the disciples about their own, and the answer in the one case stands in sharp contrast to the report given in the other,—a contrast which is vivid and real because true to the historical situation. To the question addressed to the disciples, ‘But who say ye that I am?’ Peter answers, ‘Thou art the Christ’ (so Mk.; Lk. gives simply ‘the Christ of God,’ and Mt. ‘Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God’). Unlike the people, the disciples had recognized in Jesus the Messiah, and to this conviction Peter gave brief expression. However inadequate may have been the content which Peter and his companions gave to this formal statement of their faith, it was a matter of great importance that they were able to affirm clearly, and in opposition to the opinion of the people, their belief that in Jesus the Messianic King had come. The readiness and decision with which Peter formulated the faith of the disciples are an indication that their faith, though now expressed in this form for the first time, did not originate here (cf. J. Weiss, Das alteste Evang. p. 51). Their very presence with Jesus at this time gave evidence of such a conviction (cf. John 6:68 ff.). In this faith they had answered His call to discipleship; in it they had associated with Him, heard His teaching, and seen His wonderful works; their appointment as Apostles implied it, as did their subsequent mission to Israel. They had seen opposition arise and develop into bitter hostility; but when Jesus withdrew into the region of Tyre and Sidon, and again into the region of Caesarea Philippi, they still companied with Him. They knew the popular opinion, but they still adhered to their own conviction.
The significance of Peter’s confession, however, lies not simply in the fact that it gave expression to a deep and long-cherished conviction, thus evidencing the permanent, unchanged character of his faith; it had reference also to the future. It was made in answer to a question of Jesus which had as its occasion His intention to reveal to the disciples the necessity of His suffering. The faith of the disciples had stood all the tests to which it had been subjected in the past. Jesus, however, clearly foresaw a still greater test in the near future. In order to prepare them for it, there was need that definite expression be given to their faith. The revelation which was to be made to them would thus serve the purpose of clarifying the content of their faith. In Mk. and Lk. the confession of Peter is accordingly brought into close connexion with the announcement of the Passion. Mt. alone gives the words of Jesus to Peter (1618533732_9), not only confirming what we may infer from Jesus’ reception of the confession (Mk.-Lk.), its essential correspondence with His own consciousness, but going further and giving us positive knowledge of Jesus’ estimate and appreciation of Peter’s faith.
Addressing Peter as Simon Bar-Jona,* [4] Jesus declares him to be blessed in the possession of a faith which, transcending the human sphere of flesh and blood, has its origin in the heavenly sphere and from His Father. In thus describing the revelation-character of Peter’s faith, Jesus does not define more nearly the process or time of origin, the psychological moment, but treats his faith simply as a definite fact of the past. Continuing with the emphatic ‘But I,’ Jesus makes Peter’s confession the occasion of revealing His plan for the future, and the part that Peter is to fulfil in it. With the words ‘Thou art Peter,’ Jesus recalls the name He had given to His disciple and apostle (cf. John 1:42, Mark 3:16, Matthew 10:2, Luke 6:14). The Greek Πέτρος, like the Aramaic Kçphâ, means a rock, and suggests the idea of firmness or strength. In giving such a name to Simon, Jesus had looked beneath the surface and read the character of Peter in terms of motive and underlying disposition. A man of decision, he was full of energy and strength, a man of action rather than of contemplation, a natural leader; and if at times impulsive, rebuking his Master and even denying Him, he was in the one case loyal to his faith, however unwisely so, and in the other was following Jesus to be near Him when he fell. In maintaining and confessing his faith in Jesus, Peter had shown himself true to the character which Jesus recognized when He named him Peter. Upon this rock Jesus now affirms His intention of founding His Church: not upon any rock, and therefore not simply upon a strong and firm foundation, but upon this rock indicated by the name Peter. In the Greek the word for Peter (Πέτρος) and the word for rock (πέτρα) differ in form, but in Aramaic the same form was probably used. The Pesh. has kiphâ in both instances (cf. also Matthew 27:60; in Matthew 7:24 f. šû‘â is used). The rock intended by Jesus to be the future foundation of His Church is Peter, realizing the character indicated in his name. The function thus assigned to Peter is indeed not apart from his confession, nor is the fact that he evidently spoke in a representative capacity to be overlooked. The address of Jesus, however, is distinctly to Peter, and it is his name that is interpreted. The confession which precedes is indeed closely related to the words of Jesus, but it cannot be understood as the rock-foundation intended by Jesus. In itself it furnishes the occasion rather than the ground of Jesus’ promise. It cannot therefore be treated abstractedly as something separate from Peter, but must be regarded as a manifestation and, in its measure, a realization of the character which Jesus saw in Peter when He gave him his name. The content of Peter’s faith, moreover, was entirely inadequate when measured by Jesus’ conception of what His Messiahship involved. Much had still to be learned in the school of experience (Mark 8:31 ff; Mark 14:66 ff., Luke 22:31, John 21:15 ff., 1 Corinthians 15:5), but the character was fixed in principle. Jesus saw its strength, and chose the man for the work He had for him to do. The opening chapters of the Acts of the Apostles give some account of the way in which he accomplished his charge.
The figure of a rock-foundation, used to describe Peter’s future function in the Church, suggests naturally a single rock underlying a whole structure, and not one stone among a number built together into a foundation (cf. Matthew 7:24 ff.). Neither the figure nor the function thus assigned to Peter excludes the work of the other Apostles (Ephesians 2:20), much less the work of Jesus (1 Corinthians 3:10 f.), which is clearly indicated in οἱκοδομήσω. The figure describes simply what Peter, by reason of his strong, energetic character, and in view of Jesus’ intention, is to be for the Church which Jesus will build. The idea of building a community or Church was familiar from the OT (cf. Psalms 28:5, Jeremiah 18:9; Jeremiah 31:4; Jeremiah 33:7), and recurs in the NT (cf. Matthew 21:42, Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 2:4 ff., Romans 15:20, 1 Corinthians 3:9 ff., 2 Timothy 2:18 ff., Hebrews 3:1 ff.). By the use of the future tense and the choice of the word meaning to build rather than to rebuild (ἀνοικοδομέω, cf. Acts 15:16), Jesus not only points to the future for the origin of His Church, but declares that it will be His own creation. It was expected that the Messiah would have a people and would rule over them in an organized community. The idea of such a community cannot have been strange to the disciples who had just confessed their faith in Him. It would have been strange had Jesus made no reference to His Church. By speaking of it He made plain to them that the idea was included in His purpose, and thus formed an element in His Messianic consciousness. The future founding of the Church is set by Him in evident contrast to present conditions, but the fact that this is included in Jesus’ present purpose and thus made part of His Messianic work brings it into vital and organic relation with the present. His work had, indeed, not yet taken on its Church-form, but this was not due to the fact that the idea of such a Messianic community was foreign to His purpose. He thus encourages His disciples in the midst of popular disaffection and unbelief, by giving them assurance with regard to His intention.
The disciples had confessed their faith in Him, and He now tells them that however little promise present conditions may give of such a future, He will found His Church. And He will do this in the face of conditions which may seem to them to make such a future impossible. Instead of improving, the conditions will become worse. With His conception of the spiritual nature of His work and the consequent character of His Church, Jesus saw the necessity of His completed work and final exaltation in order to the full realization of His Messianic functions in such a Messianic community, and hence speaks of its building as a future event (Acts 2:36, Romans 1:4). It is not strange, therefore, that He speaks but seldom of His Church, and dwells on the ideas of the Kingdom, faith and discipleship, in which its spiritual character and principles are set forth.
The word
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Caesarea Philippi
was first called Laish or Leshem, Judges 18:7 . After it was subdued by the Danites, Judges 5:29 , it received the name of Dan; and is by Heathen writers called Paneas. Philip, the youngest son of Herod the Great, made it the capital of his tetrarchy, enlarged and embellished it, and gave it the name of Caesarea Philippi. It was situated at the foot of Mount Hermon, near the head of the Jordan; and was about fifty miles from Damascus, and thirty from Tyre. Our Saviour visited and taught in this place, and healed one who was possessed of an evil spirit:
here also he gave the memorable rebuke to Peter, Mark 8.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Caesarea-Philippi
A city three or four miles east of Dan, near the eastern source of the Jordan; anciently called Paneas, now Banias, from an adjacent grotto dedicated to Pan, from which one of the sources of the Jordan flowed. It stood where the mountains south-west of Hermon join the plain above lake Huleh, on an elevated plateau surrounded by ravines and water-courses; and its walls were thick and strong. It was enlarged and embellished by Philip the tetrarch of Trachonitis, and called Caesarea in honor of Tiberius Caesar; and the name Philippi was added to distinguish it from Caesarea on the Mediterranean. Our Savior visited this place shortly before his transfiguration, Matthew 16:13-28 Mark 8:27-38 Luke 9:18,27 . After the destruction of Jerusalem, Titus here made the captive Jews fight and kill each other in gladiatorial shows. In the time of the crusades it underwent many changes, and is now a paltry village amid extensive ruins.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Caesarea Philippi
According to the biblical record, Caesarea Philippi was the most northerly town of Palestine that Jesus visited. It was located in northern Galilee, near the source of the Jordan River (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27). Like the much larger town of Caesarea on the Mediterranean coast, it was named in honour of the Roman Emperor. It was given the additional name Philippi in honour of Herod Philip, the provincial governor in whose territory it was located (cf. Luke 3:1).

Sentence search

Binding And Loosing - —See Caesarea Philippi, Keys
Baalgad - Identified by some with Caesarea Philippi
Baal-Hermon - Others, modern Baneas or Caesarea Philippi
Herod Philip ii. - He rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which was the seat of the Roman government
Caesarea - Caesarea Philippi. The streams which flow from beneath a limestone rock unite in one stream near Caesarea Philippi. ) Herod's son Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, enlarged and called it from himself, as well as Caesar, Caesarea Philippi. which rears its majestic head 7,000 feet above Caesarea Philippi. The allusion to "snow" agrees with this, and the mention of Caesarea Philippi in the context (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27; Mark 9:3). The remoteness and privacy of Caesarea Philippi fitted it for being the place where Jesus retired to prepare His disciples for His approaching death of shame and His subsequent resurrection; there it was that Peter received the Lord's praise, and afterward censure
Caesarea - Caesarea Philippi, supposed to have been built by Philip, no great distance from Zidon
Herod Arippa ii. - He enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi, and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero
Caesarea Philippi - According to the biblical record, Caesarea Philippi was the most northerly town of Palestine that Jesus visited
Caesarea Philippi - (cawehss uh ree' uh fihl' ihp pi) About 1,150 feet above sea level, Caesarea Philippi is located on a triangular plain in the upper Jordan Valley along the southwestern slopes of Mt. ...
History Caesarea Philippi seems to have been a religious center from its earliest days. Philip rebuilt the city into a beautiful place and renamed it Caesarea Philippi in honor of Tiberias Caesar and himself. ...
The transfiguration, which occurred about a week after the confession at Caesarea Philippi, was probably also in the area. Caesarea Philippi, which had been the center for pagan worship, thus became an important site for Christians because of Jesus' association with it
Villages - So in the New Testament, Mark 8:27, "villages of Caesarea Philippi
Caesarea Philippi - Philip, the youngest son of Herod the Great, made it the capital of his tetrarchy, enlarged and embellished it, and gave it the name of Caesarea Philippi
Caesarea - ...
This coastal city of Caesarea is not to be confused with the inland town of Caesarea Philippi. The latter was in the hill country of northern Galilee (Matthew 16:13; see Caesarea Philippi)
Augustus Caesar - Herod gave unreserved allegiance to Augustus, and built a marble temple to his honour at Caesarea Philippi
Laish (2) - of Bantus or Caesarea Philippi
Golan - Jordan, from the sea of Galilee to its source at Dan and Caesarea Philippi, was its western boundary
Caesare'a Philip'pi - Caesarea Philippi has no Old Testament history, though it has been not unreasonably identified with Baal-gad
Transfiguration - This remarkable event in the life of Christ probably took place on Hermon or some other mountain not far from Caesarea Philippi; the tradition which assigns it to Tabor not being sustained
Caesara Philippi - This town was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was called by him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that of the emperor Tiberius Caesar
Her'Mon - (It is more than probable that some part of Hermon was the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands near Caesarea Philippi, where we know Christ was just before that event --ED
Transfiguration - These temporal designations tie this event intimately with the events of Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:13-28 ; Mark 8:27-38 ; Luke 9:18-27 ). The temporal tie between the transfiguration and the events of Caesarea Philippi extends to how this event is to be interpreted. "Listen to him" is best interpreted in light of what had taken place at Caesarea Philippi, for Jesus does not speak in the present account
Hermon - " The next day they descended to Caesarea Philippi
Hermon - That Hermon, rather than Tabor (on which there was then a fortified city), is the ‘high mountain’ referred to, seems clear from the fact that the conversation (Matthew 16:21-28) which preceded the Transfiguration by six days was closely connected with Peter’s confession; and this occurred at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:13-18), which stood just at the base of Hermon by the springs of Jordan
Transfiguration, the - ...
The Accounts The event took place shortly after the confession at Caesarea Philippi, the first passion prediction, and a discourse on the cost of discipleship. Much more likely is Mount Hermon (9,100 feet) to the north of Caesarea Philippi
Herod the Great - Of these, Philip had the land east of Jordan, between Caesarea Philippi and Bethabara, Antipas had Galilee and Peraea, while Archelaus had Judea and Samaria
Bethsaida - Thus, Caesarea Philippi is mentioned presently after, Bethsaida being on the road to it; and the mount of the transfiguration, part of the Hermon range, above the source of the Jordan (Mark 9:2-3); the snow of Hermon suggested the image, "His raiment became white as snow
Transfiguration - Jesus’ transfiguration took place on a high mountain, possibly Mt Hermon, not far from Caesarea Philippi in northern Palestine (Matthew 16:13; Matthew 17:1)
Philip - From him the city of Caesarea Philippi took its name
Philip - He was the founder of Caesarea Philippi
Rock (2) - At Caesarea Philippi, Christ asked His disciples about the various opinions men were holding regarding Him. Caesarea Philippi and Church
Caesarea Philippi - CaeSAREA PHILIPPI. —The town called Caesarea Philippi in the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 16:13, Mark 8:27, cf. To distinguish it from Caesarea on the seacoast (Καισάρεια Στράτωνος or Καισάρεια τῆς Παλαιστίνης), it was commonly called Caesarea Philippi (Καισάρεια ἡ Φιλίππου). alike represent Jesus’ arrival in the region of Caesarea Philippi as part of a course decided upon shortly after that event. For Jesus withdrew again, this time going north into the region of Caesarea Philippi. The period has fittingly been called, from its chief characteristic, the Training of the Twelve, and in no incident does this characteristic more clearly appear than in the events of Caesarea Philippi. ), and retires from Galilee for the second time, coming with His disciples into the region of Caesarea Philippi. There can, moreover, be no doubt that Jesus so designated Himself during the conversation with the disciples at Caesarea Philippi. They had seen opposition arise and develop into bitter hostility; but when Jesus withdrew into the region of Tyre and Sidon, and again into the region of Caesarea Philippi, they still companied with Him
Veronica - 18) relates that she was a native of Caesarea Philippi and adds that "at the gates of her house on an elevated stone stands a brazen image of a woman on a bended knee with her hands stretched out before her like one entreating
Ptolemies - , Antiochus III defeated the Egyptian army at Banyas (later Caesarea Philippi) and seized control of Palestine
Dan - " It stands about four miles below Caesarea Philippi, in the midst of a region of surpassing richness and beauty
Tabor - Moreover, the transfiguration took place near Caesarea Philippi; this fact, and the reference to the "snow," accord best with Mount Hermon being the scene (Mark 8:27; Mark 9:1-3)
Profession (2) - So He prized the bold testimony of Peter at Caesarea Philippi as being a sign of the rock-fast loyalty of His disciple (Matthew 16:17-19); so also He mourned over the later weakness of the disciples and the verbal denial of Peter, as betokening a certain diminution of their allegiance (Mark 14:27; Mark 14:30, Luke 22:61). So in cases of healing He charges those who have seen or experienced His power to tell no man what He has done (Mark 3:12; Mark 5:43; Mark 7:36), and after the scenes at Caesarea Philippi and on the Mount of Transfiguration the same injunction follows (Mark 8:30, Mark 9:9)
Keys - Caesarea Philippi, p
Caesarea - (Καισάρεια or Καισάρεια Σεβαστή, named in honour of Augustus; known also as Caesarea Palaestinae, and in modern Arabic as el-Kaiṣârîyeh; to be distinguished clearly from Caesarea Philippi)...
Caesarea was situated on the Mediterranean coast, 32 miles N
Leb'Anon, - --The main chain of Anti-Libanus commences in the plateau of Bashan, near the parallel of Caesarea Philippi, runs north to Hermon, and then northeast in a straight line till it stinks down into the great plain of Emesa, not far from the site of Riblah
Titus (Emperor) - Later he retired to Ptolemais, then to Caesarea on the coast, and afterwards to Caesarea Philippi, Scythopolis, and Tiberias. Return home by sea was impossible during the winter, and Titus went from Caesarea Philippi to Caesarea Stratonis, then to Berytos
Jordan - ...
Beside the ruins of Banias, the ancient Caesarea Philippi and the yet more ancient Panium, is a lofty cliff of limestone, at the base of which is a fountain
Struggles of Soul - The language He used shows that He felt as temptations to turn from His Divinely appointed path, His mother’s appeal at Cana (John 2:4), and Peter’s remonstrance at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:23); and even the request of the Greeks for an interview (John 12:27)
Elijah (2) - This notion appears in its simplest form in the accounts of the avowal of the Messiahship of Jesus at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:13 ff
Jordan - One of these, near Banias, anciently Caesarea Philippi, issues from a large cave in a rocky mountain side, and flows several miles towards the south-west, where it is joined by the second and larger stream, which originates in a fountain at Tellel-Kady, three miles west of Banias
Confession (of Christ) - Peter’s grand utterance at Caesarea Philippi, ‘Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God’ (Matthew 16:16 ||; cf. But, above all, we see it in the words addressed at Caesarea Philippi to this same Apostle, who, though afterwards he fell so far in an hour of weakness, rose nevertheless on this occasion to the height of a glorious confession (Matthew 16:17-19). Peter at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:15-16); and this was the occasion on which Jesus for the first time spoke of His Church, and declared that on the rock of Christian confession that Church was to be built (Matthew 16:18)
Image - 18, ) who says, that in his time there were to be seen two brass statues in the city of Paneas, or Caesarea Philippi; the one of a woman on her knees, with her arm stretched out; the other of a man over against her, with his hand extended to receive her; these statues were said to be the images of our Saviour, and the woman whom he cured of an issue of blood
Plan - (3) At Caesarea Philippi, when He at last broke the silence, He elicited a spontaneous confession from His disciples. It is difficult, however, to avoid the conclusion that from Caesarea Philippi onward His original plan was set aside
Denial - ) This is to reduce the person of the Messiah to a compendious formula for His teachings, and ignores the fact that, after the great confession at Caesarea Philippi, Christ grounded on His Messiahship a claim to absolute self-surrender and self-sacrifice (Mark 8:34 f
Galilee - Its principal city was Caesarea Philippi
Herod - He built Caesarea Philippi and was governor of the Northeastern districts of Iturea, Gaulinitis, Trachonitis, and Decapolis
Ministry - After Peter’s confession near Caesarea Philippi, Jesus began to impress on His disciples the certainty of His approaching death (Matthew 16:16; Matthew 16:21); at the Transfiguration, Moses and Elijah talked with Him of His ‘decease (ἔξοδος) which he was to accomplish at Jerusalem’ (Luke 9:31); soon after (Matthew 17:22 f
Messiah - In the Synoptic Gospels the way Jesus acted and spoke led naturally to the dialogue at Caesarea Philippi ( Mark 8:29 )
Herod - Agrippa showed his gratitude by changing the name of his capital from Caesarea Philippi to Neronias, in honour of the Emperor, on whose birthday also he had Greek plays annually performed in a theatre which he erected at Berytus
Jordan - The Jewish historian, Josephus, on the contrary, places its source at Phiala, a fountain which rises about fifteen miles from Caesarea Philippi, a little on the right hand, and not much out of the way to Trachonitis
Peter - It is he who utters that notable profession of faith at Capernaum (John 6:66-69 ), and again at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:13-20 ; Mark 8:27-30 ; Luke 9:18-20 )
City - Inland, Caesarea Philippi nestled at the base of Mt
Headship - Peter at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:18-19), and in a passage from the same Gospel, in many respects similar, in which He repeats His promise of power to bind and to loose (Matthew 18:18-20)
Jordan - Caesarea Philippi (the scene of Peter's confession, Matthew 16:16); a large pool beneath a high cliff, fed by gushing streamlets, rising at the mouth of a deep cave; thence the Jordan flows, a considerable stream
Parousia (2) - ...
It was at Caesarea Philippi, after His first announcement of the tragic end awaiting Him at the hands of men, that Jesus made also the first announcement of His future glorious return (Matthew 16:27, Mark 8:38, Luke 9:26)
Son of God - If they were, they anticipated, in a remarkable manner, the subsequent confession at Caesarea Philippi; and this raises a doubt which may incline us to understand their language rather as an involuntary recognition of the Divine in Jesus, occasioned by the sight of a remarkable miracle. Peter, at Caesarea Philippi; because, whereas St
Peter - According to Mark 3:16, Luke 6:14, early in his Galilaean ministry Jesus set apart the Twelve to be His helpers and gave Simon the surname Peter (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πἐτρον) In referring to the same incident, Matthew (Matthew 10:2) speaks of ‘the so-called Peter’ (ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος), but seemingly intends to make the Apostle’s famous confession at Caesarea Philippi the occasion for the Messiah to bestow upon him the name ‘Peter’ and to designate him formal head of the Church (Matthew 16:17-19)
Mark, the Gospel of - When the disciples finally offered their superlative confession of faith at Caesarea Philippi (Mark 8:27-30 ), they failed to understand the full implications of Jesus' messiahship (Mark 8:31-38 )
Silence - The first indication of any recognition of His true nature is to be found in the striking incident near Caesarea Philippi, and it is significant that it is the spontaneous acclamation of His own disciples
Tares - It is only at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:18) and afterwards (only Matthew 18:17), that Jesus begins to introduce that idea in a very rudimentary way, by what Aramaic word we know not
Disciple (2) - He leads them away from the crowds, taking them now to ‘a desert place’ (Mark 6:31), and again to the remote ‘parts of Caesarea Philippi’ (Matthew 16:13)
Multitude - Even in the region of Caesarea Philippi, whither He had gone for retirement, we are surprised to find mention of a multitude, which may indeed have consisted mainly of Gentiles (Mark 8:34)
Reality - When Peter at Caesarea Philippi ventured to dissuade Him from carrying His principles to the point, of personal danger, He treated the suggestion as a voice from the realm of darkness (Matthew 16:22 f
Gennesaret, Land of - (γ) ‘Ain et-Tabigha, or ‘Fountain of the Ruined Mill,’ formerly supposed to be the scene of the miracle of the feeding of the 5000 (Mark 6:30-44), is another large spring of water—according to Tristram, the largest in Galilee, and about one-half as large as the fountain at Caesarea Philippi
Man (2) - Peter is called blessed when, at Caesarea Philippi, he answers Christ’s question and confesses, ‘Thou art the Christ of God’ (Luke 9:20); and John is the disciple whom Jesus loved (John 19:26), the man who at the Last Supper sat next to His Master and leaned upon His breast (John 21:20), and the one to whom Mary the mother of Jesus was entrusted by Jesus as He hung on the cross (John 19:26-27)
Palestine - ...
For the purposes of this article, Palestine extends to the north ten to fifteen miles beyond the ancient site of Dan and New Testament Caesarea Philippi into the gorges and mountains just south of Mount Hermon
Political Conditions - Like most of the Herods, he had a passion for building; and to the quiet and well-governed city of Caesarea Philippi, near the alleged source of the Jordan, Jesus withdrew (Matthew 16:13, Mark 8:27) when the multitudes were crowding upon Him and His enemies tempting Him (Matthew 16:1); just as Bethsaida, another of Philip’s cities, was His refuge when news reached Him of the Baptist’s death (Luke 9:10, cf
Mission - The Evangelists record sayings which prove that the great sacrifice was present to our Lord’s mind at an early stage of His ministry, so that there is no need to regard the explicit references to the death by violence made near Caesarea Philippi (Mark 8:31 ff
Gentiles - ...
(2) He accepted the confession at Caesarea Philippi, ‘Thou art the Christ,’ with an emotion of which we feel the glow every time we read Matthew 16:16-17
Judea - Auranitis, or Ituraea, a mountainous and barren tract north of Batantaea, and bounded on the west by a branch of Mount Hermon, contained Bostra, or Bozra, about fifty miles east from the sea of Tiberias, bordering on Arabia Petraea, afterward enlarged by Trajan, and named Trajana Bostra; and Trachonitis, in 33 15' north latitude, between Hermon and Antilibanus, eastward from the sources of Jordan, and containing Baal-gad, Mispah, Paneas, or Caesarea Philippi, and AEnos, nearly twenty-five miles east of Panaeas, and as far south south-west of Damascus
Vespasian - Vespasian himself joined Herod Agrippa at Caesarea Philippi, and after twenty days marched against the cities Tarichea and Tiberias, which had revolted from him
Transfiguration (2) - Tabor, lying near Nazareth, far to the south from Caesarea Philippi in the N
Peter - ...
He repeated this testimony at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:16)
Herod - He built Caesarea Philippi at the site of Paneas, near the sources of the Jordan (Matthew 16:13)
Mark, Gospel According to - Even after Peter’s confession at Caesarea Philippi, when the Galilaean ministry was nearly ended, the disciples were charged to tell no man (Mark 8:30)
Teaching of Jesus - This fact comes out in several connexions,* Jesus Christ - Fourth, during Jesus' second trip outside of Galilee, he disclosed at Caesarea Philippi and at his transfiguration who he really was and what his ultimate task was to be (Mark 8:27-38 ; 9:2 )
Announcements of Death - —(a) The new departure at Caesarea Philippi
Joram - Lastly, we find the ‘river of Banias,’ Nahr-Banias, which starts at 1200 feet above the sea from a grotto, the ancient shrine of the Semitic, and then of the Graeco-Roman, gods, well known under the name of Paneion, and round which arose the city known under the names of Caesarea Philippi and Paneas, and now called Banias, a corruption of the latter name
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - ), whereas in the Synoptics the question and answer at Caesarea Philippi are clearly intended to be of crucial importance (Matthew 16:13 ff
Preaching Christ - In the teaching of Jesus these associations cluster round the title ‘the Son of Man,’ which, at least after the confession of Peter at Caesarea Philippi, is used as synonymous with ‘the Christ’; the Son of Man is identified with Jesus, and comes again, after His suffering and death, to establish the Kingdom, in the glory of His Father with the holy angels (Mark 8:31; Mark 8:38, Matthew 10:33; Matthew 16:27)