1 the surname of Julius Caesar, which adopted by Octavius Augustus and his successors afterwards became a title, and was appropriated by the Roman emperors as part of their title. Additional Information: Caesar = “severed”.
Frequency of Caesar (original languages)
Song of Solomon
Frequency of Caesar (English)
Song of Solomon
CARM Theological Dictionary - Caesar
A title used for a Roman emperor from about 30 B.C. to 70 A.D., derived from the line of Julian. There were several Caesars: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius I, and Nero. The word then became the title to designate the Ruler of the Roman Empire. References to Caesar in the Bible can be found in Matthew 22:17; Luke 2:1; John 19:12; Acts 25:11-12; etc.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tiberius Caesar
I.e., as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only mentioned in Luke 3:1 . He was the stepson of Augustus, whom he succeeded on the throne, A.D. 14. He was noted for his vicious and infamous life. In the fifteenth year of his reign John the Baptist entered on his public ministry, and under him also our Lord taught and suffered. He died A.D. 37. He is frequently referred to simply as "Caesar" (Matthew 22:17,21 ; Mark 12:14,16,17 ; Luke 20:22,24,25 ; 23:2 ; John 19:12,15 ).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Caesar
The name of all the Roman emperors from the time of Julius Caesar to the fall of the Roman empire. It was the family name of Caius Julius Caesar. The Caesar of Luke 2, is Augustus; of Matthew 22, Tiberius; of Acts 25, Nero.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Julius Caesar
See Rome, Roman Empire.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Caesar
The common title of the successive Roman emperors, taken from Julius Caesar. In the New Testament Augustus in Luke 2:1, Tiberius in Luke 3:1, Claudius in Acts 11:28, Nero in Acts 25:11, etc. Roman citizens as Paul had the right of "appeal to Caesar," and in criminal cases were sent for judgment to Rome, where was the emperor's court (Philippians 4:22; compare Philippians 1:13); Nero is the emperor meant. John's exile to Patmos (Revelation 1:9) was probably in Domitian's reign. The current coin bore Caesar's image, the argument which Jesus used to show Caesar could claim tribute (Matthew 22:17, etc.). Though Caesar did not call himself "king," the Jews did (John 19:15), in which respect Josephus (B. J. 5:2, section 2) confirms the gospel undesignedly.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Augustus Caesar
The first Roman emperor, reigning at Christ's birth (Luke 2:1, etc.). His decree that all the world should be taxed, each going to his own city, was the divinely ordered (Micah 5:2) occasion of Jesus' birth taking place at Bethlehem. Born 63 B.C. Also called Octavius and Octavianus from his father, who died while he was young. Educated by his great uncle Julius Caesar, triumvir with Antony and Lepidus. Dissension having arisen, Octavianus overcame Antony, and gained supreme power at the battle of Actium, 31 B.C.
Saluted emperor (imperator, military commander in chief originally), and surnamed Augustus Caesar, "majestic." Leaving the names and rights of the chief republican officers unchanged, he united them all, one by one, in himself. Herod, who had been on Antony's side, he not only pardoned, but even increased in power; Herod thereby became attached to his dynasty, and built him a temple of marble near the sources of the Jordan. Augustus Caesar died at Nola in Campania, in his 76th year, A.D. 14. Some time before his death he associated Tiberius with himself in the empire (Luke 3:1).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Tiberius Caesar
(Ti buhr' ih uhss ssee' ssuhr) The person who had the unenviable task of following Augustus as Roman emperor. He ruled the empire from A.D. 14-37. Tiberius was especially ill suited to follow Augustus. A solid, taciturn man, he lacked the public relations ability of Augustus.
Tiberius was 54 when he ascended to the throne. He was a republican at heart, so he must have felt very uncomfortable with the system of government which Augustus left him. He had a deep respect for the Senate, and he took great pains to preserve the dignity of that body. Yet even Tiberius came to realize that it was too late to make the Senate an equal partner in government.
During the reign of Tiberius, Jesus began His ministry; and He was crucified. This event was probably not noted at the emperor's court. Tiberius died in A.D. 37. He was 79 years old. See Rome.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Titus, Caesar
(ti' tuhss) Roman emperor A.D. 79-81, eldest son of Vespasian.
Titus, like his father, was a soldier. He served in Germany and Britain and later in the Middle East. When Vespasian left his Middle East command to become emperor in A.D. 69, he left Titus in charge of crushing the Jewish revolt. In A.D. 70, his troops captured the Temple in Jerusalem. They took the last stronghold, Masada, in A.D. 73. His victory over the Jews was vividly depicted on the Triumphal Arch erected in Rome which still stands today.
Titus was deeply admired by his soldiers; when he later became emperor, the populace loved him. He was considered an honest ruler and an efficient administrator. An adherent of Stoic philosophy, he believed that the Roman emperor was the servant of the people. He and his father before him (the so-called Flavian emperors) struggled after the excesses of Nero to reestablish stability in the empire and in the government. They managed to return the empire to sound financial footing.
Titus was constantly plagued by the activities of his younger brother, Domitian. Even though he did not believe that Domitian was worthy to be his successor, he would not dispose of him. See Jerusalem ; Rome.
Webster's Dictionary - Caesar
(n.) A Roman emperor, as being the successor of Augustus Caesar. Hence, a kaiser, or emperor of Germany, or any emperor or powerful ruler. See Kaiser, Kesar.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Caesar
(caye'ssuhr) Family name of Julius Caesar assumed by following emperors as a title. Some Pharisees and Herodians asked Jesus about the propriety of paying taxes to Caesar. In reply, the Lord said that those things pertaining to Caesar should be rendered to Caesar and those things pertaining to God should be rendered to Him (Matthew 22:15-21 ). In this passage, the name Caesar is virtually a symbol for civil authority. Originally, Caesar was the family name of the founder of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar was assassinated on March 15,44 B.C. His successors kept Caesar's memory alive, and eventually his name came to be used as a title. Caesars mentioned or referred to in the New Testament include Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and probably Nero. See Rome; Roman Empire.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Caesar
CÃSAR . This is the cognomen or surname of the gens Julia , which was borne, for example, by its most illustrious representative, Caius Julius CÃ¦sar. The emperor Augustus (b.c. 23 a.d. 14) had it by adoption, and was officially named ‘Imperator CÃ¦sar Augustus.’ His stepson, the emperor Tiberius, officially ‘Tiberius CÃ¦sar Augustus’ (a.d. 14 37), had it through his adoption by Augustus. It was borne also, amongst other less important persons, by the emperor Caius CÃ¦sar Germanicus (nicknamed ‘Caligula,’ ‘Boots’) (a.d. 37 41), who was a son of Germanicus, the adopted son of the emperor Tiberius. These alone among the Roman emperors had it as a family name, but all the emperors bore it as a title except Vitellius (a.d. 69), and hence we find it continued in the titles Kaiser and Czar . The beginning of this use is seen in the NT. There the name is found always, except twice ( Luke 2:1 ; Luke 3:1 ), by itself, simply equal to ‘the Emperor.’ The remaining emperors of the 1st cent. are Claudius (wh. see), Nero (wh. see), Galba (9 June 68 15 Jan. 69), Otho (15 Jan. 25 Apr. 69), Vitellius (2 Jan. 69 20  Dec. 70), Vespasian (69 79), Titus (71 79 81), Domitian (81 96), Nerva (96 98), Trajan (97 98 117).
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Caesar
Matthew 22:21 (b) He represents anyone who rightfully rules over us and to whom certain obligations are due.
John 19:12 (c) Here he is a type of any earthly relationship which replaces or displaces the Lordship of CHRIST.
The first Roman emperor, son of Cains Octavius and Atia, niece of Julius Caesar. He was one of the Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and upon the death of the latter he shared the empire with Antony: but both being too ambitious to share the kingdom, the battle of Actium, B.C. 31, resulted in Caesar's favour, and he reigned alone: four years later he was confirmed as 'emperor,' and 'Augustus' in B.C. 27. He became associated with Palestine at the defeat of Antony, whom Herod had supported. He behaved, contrary to expectation, kindly to Herod, confirmed him as king, and added Samaria and Gadara to his dominions. Herod gave unreserved allegiance to Augustus, and built a marble temple to his honour at Caesarea Philippi. The emperor died A.D. 14. The Lord Jesus was born during his reign. Luke 2:1 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Caesar
CaeSAR (Καῖσαρ).—In the Gospel record this name occurs 18 times, in 16 of which it answers to ‘reigning emperor,’ who in each case was Tiberius Caesar; in the remaining two the more individual name is found,—in the one case Augustus (Luke 2:1), and in the other Tiberius (3:1).
The name ‘Caesar’ was assumed by Augustus in 44 b.c., immediately after the tragic death of his grand-uncle, Julius Caesar, being considered by him part of the inheritance left to him. We have Cicero’s authority (ad Att. xiv. 5, 10, 11, 12) for saying that the friends of Octavius began to address him as ‘Caesar’ within a week or two of the Dictator’s assassination. Augustus himself soon gave evidence that he meant to gather up and concentrate on himself all the fame that was associated with ‘Caesar.’ Not many years passed till he came to exercise a world-wide sway, such as the great Julius had never known. He handed on the title to his successors very much as we find it used by the writers of the NT, in the sense of the great ruler or Kaiser. His own name (Gr. Σεβαστός, Lat. Augustus) was quite familiar to them as applied to the reigning emperor (Acts 25:21; Acts 25:25, Nero). The fame of the first Caesar had come to be overshadowed by the remarkable career of the founder of the Empire. The way was thus prepared for the still later development, when the title of ‘Caesar’ was given to the junior partner of the two joint-emperors, and ‘Augustus’ remained the distinguishing name of the supreme ruler. In the Gospel record there is clear confirmation of the first part of this historical development, and there is at the same time no contradiction of the second.
In the majority of the cases of the use of the title ‘Caesar’ in the Gospel writings, the question of paying the tribute has come up. This reveals the great change that had taken place from the time of the ‘census’ under Augustus, when ‘everyone went to enrol himself in his own city’ (Luke 2:3), to that of the trial before Pilate, when the chief charge against Jesus was said to be ‘the forbidding to give tribute to Caesar’ (Luke 23:2). In those thirty-three years of interval the relation between the Roman power, as represented by ‘Caesar,’ and the Jewish people, had undergone a radical change. Judaea had become a Roman province, and was under obligation to ‘pay tribute as well as submit to an enrolment of its heads of households. In perfect accord with this historical fact, St. Luke wrote (Luke 3:1): ‘Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea,’ with the tetrarchs for Galilee, Ituraea, and Abilene, desiring to mark the period in the reign of Tiberius Caesar when ‘the word of God came to John in the wilderness.’ The change came with the death of Herod the Great in 4 b.c. While Varus, the governor of Syria, was engaged in quelling serious outbreaks of rebellion in Jerusalem, the sons of Herod were in Rome waiting the decision of Augustus as to their conflicting claims. At length all parties were heard by the emperor in an assembly that met in the celebrated temple of Apollo, behind his own house on the Palatine. The imperial verdict, announced after a few days, upheld substantially the will of Herod. To Archelaus were assigned Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea—not as king, but as ethnarch; to Antipas, Galilee and Peraea as tetrarch; Batanaea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, Gaulanitis, and Paneas to Philip, also as tetrarch (Josephus Ant. xvii. viii. 1, xi. 4). The kingdom of Herod was thus divided into three separate territories after his death. As it was in Jerusalem that the question as to the tribute money was raised, our subject in this article has to do only with Archelaus. After some nine years of rule over Judaea, Archelaus was summoned to Rome to answer charges brought against him by a deputation of leading men from Judaea and Samaria. He was deposed and banished by Augustus to Vienne in Gaul in a.d. 6. His territory was put under direct Roman rule, becoming a part of the province of Syria, with a Roman of equestrian rank for its governor. An end was thus put to the uniform consideration for Jewish traditions and national prejudices shown by Herod and his sons. The first notable instance of this in history is met with in the rebellion of a.d. 6, on the occasion of the great census, while Quirinius was governor of Syria, which is referred to in Acts 5:37. The tumult, with its accompanying bloodshed, must have been of no slight moment, when a quarter of a century thereafter Gamaliel could effectually use it in restraining the Council from slaying the Apostles. Between a.d. 6 and a.d. 30, whichever length of cycle for the imperial census be taken, there must have been at least another ‘enrolment’ for purposes of taxation. We do not read of a serious revolt having taken place then as in 6 a.d. The Roman authorities, no doubt, were better prepared for what might happen, and the Jewish people also had learned the fruitlessness of rebellion. As the time of Christ’s public ministry approached, their spirit nevertheless became more and more embittered. It was inevitable that at some point or other in that ministry the question should be pressed upon Him, ‘Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar or not?’ (Matthew 22:17 ||). It was one of the burning questions of His time. A distinction must here be drawn between the ‘customs’ or duties upon goods and the land tax with poll tax. The latter only passed into the ‘Fiscus’ or imperial treasury. With perfect accuracy, therefore, it could be described as ‘tribute to Caesar.’ This tax was exacted annually, and as the Jews were not yet subject to military conscription, it formed the chief sign of their subjection to the Roman yoke. Officers of state collected it, the procurator for the tax in the case of Judaea being also the governor, Pilate. It was different with the ‘customs,’ which were farmed out to the highest bidder, thus creating that intense antipathy which is revealed in the phrase ‘publicans and sinners.’
The tribute payment after all was based on the fact of the kingship of Caesar. The combination of ‘Caesar’ with ‘king’ sounds entirely unhistorical to one familiar with the rise and growth of the Roman Empire. ‘King’ was a term which Augustus was most careful to avoid from the time that it may be said to have cost the first ‘Caesar’ his life. Among Eastern peoples, however, it was the most usual title for their ruler. During the long reign of Herod no name was more familiar to the Jews than ‘king.’ It was most natural for them to transfer it to ‘Caesar.’ Any one claiming to be a ‘king’ within the wide dominion of Caesar was seeking to establish a rival authority. This was the charge which they found it so easy to frame against Jesus when He and they were in the presence of Pilate: ‘forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king’ (Luke 23:2). No more powerful appeal could they have made to Pilate’s fears, as they thought, than when they cried out, ‘If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend: whosoever maketh himself a king, speaketh against Caesar’ (John 19:12). The title on the cross, ‘Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews’ (John 19:19), as Pilate actually wrote it, served him better than their proposed modification, ‘He said, I am king of the Jews’ (John 19:31). Should he ever be called in question by Caesar for giving Jesus up to death, that title, written out by his own hand, would form an ample justification. The greater probability lies in the supposition that Pilate so named Him to spite the Jews, in accordance with those other words, ‘Shall I crucify your king?’ (John 19:15). The whole attitude of Jesus towards Caesar, not only in the question of the tribute, but throughout the trial before Pilate, must have entirely disarmed the Roman governor of any fear that He was, or ever had been, a rival of Caesar’s.
J. Gordon Gray.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Gallus, Caesar
Gallus (1) Caesar, son of Julius Constantius (youngest brother of Constantine the Great) and his first wife Galla; born A.D. 325 at Massa Veternensis near Siena in Tuscany (Amm. xiv. 11, 27). In the general massacre of the younger branches of the imperial family on the death of Constantine in 337, two young brothers were alone preserved—Gallus who was ill of a sickness which seemed likely to be mortal, and Julian a child of seven.
Both were brought up as Christians, and entered with apparent zeal into the externals of the Christian life. In 350 Gallus received the dignity of Caesar, which the childless Constantius bestowed upon him on succeeding to the sole government of the empire by the death of his brother Constans. In the West Constantius was distracted by the usurpation of Magnentius in Gaul, while in the East the Persians were a perpetual source of alarm. Gallus had to make a solemn oath upon the Gospels not to undertake anything against the rights of his cousin, who similarly pledged himself to Gallus. He received at the same time the strong-minded and unfeminine Constantina as his wife, and Lucilianus, the count of the East, as his general (Zos. 2, 45. Philost. iv. 1 refers to the oath between Constantius and Gallus; cf. Chron. Pasch. p. 540 ; Zonaras, xiii. 8).
The records of his short reign at Antioch come to us chiefly from Ammianus (lib. xiv.). They are almost entirely unfavourable to him. His defence of the frontier against the Persians was indeed successful (Zos. 3, 1; Philost. iii. 28, speaks strongly on this point), but his internal policy was disastrous.
Besides the report of his harsh and open misgovernment, accounts of secret treason meditated by him were conveyed to Constantius. The emperor, with his usual craft, sent an affectionate letter and desired his presence, as he wished to consult him on urgent public business (Amm. xiv. 11, 1). When he arrived at Petovio in Noricum, he was seized by the count Barbatio, deprived of his imperial insignia, and conveyed, with many protestations that his life was safe, to Flanon in Dalmatia, where he was closely guarded. The all-powerful eunuch Eusebius was then sent to interrogate him upon his various crimes. Gallus did not deny them, but blamed his wife. Constantius ordered his execution, which took place towards the close of 354.
His instruction had been Arian under the direction of Constantius, and he seems to have been influenced not a little by the Anomoean Aetius. This notorious man had been sent to him to be put to death as a heretic. Gallus spared him on the intercession of Leontius, bp. of Antioch, and became very friendly with him. According to Philostorgius, he made him his religious instructor, and attempted by his means to recall Julian to the faith, when he heard that he was wavering (Philost. H. E. iii. 27). There is no reason to doubt that the young Caesar was a zealous Christian after a sort, and that he was distressed by his brother's danger of apostasy.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Caesar, Caesar's Household
In origin the name ‘Caesar,’ which has had such a wonderful history, culminating in the German Kaiser and the Russian Tsar, was simply a cognomen (or surname), indicating one branch of the gens Iulia, one of the old patrician families of Rome, which was said to have been descended from aeneas of Troy and Venus, through their son lulus (Ascanius). The earliest known member of the family is Sex. Iulius Caesar, praetor in 208 b.c.; the greatest is of course C. Iulius Caesar, the dictator (lived from about 100 to 44 b.c.). The name was kept by all the early Emperors except Vitellius (and even he used it sometimes), in spite of the fact that after Nero no Emperor had a drop of Caesarian blood in his veins. The complete official names of the Emperors who reigned during the hundred years following the birth of Christ are Imperator Caesar Augustus (see Augustus), Tiberius Caesar Augustus (see Tiberius), Gains Caesar Germanicus (nicknamed Caligula  ]) (a.d. 37-41), Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (see Claudius), Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (see Nero), Imperator Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus (9 June 68-15 Jan. 69) (see Galba), Imperator Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus (15 Jan. 25-Apr. 69) (see Otho), Imperator Aulus Vitellius Caesar or Aulus Vitellius Imperator Germanicus (2 Jan. 69-20 Dec. 70) (see Vitellius), Imperator Vespasianus Caesar Augustus (69-79) (see Vespasian), Imperator Titus Vespasianus Caesar Augustus (71-81) (see Titus), Imperator Domitianus Caesar Augustus (81-96) (see Domitian), Imperator Nerva Augustus Caesar (96-98) (see Nerva), Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus (97-117) (see Trajan). This enumeration shows how fixed the name Caesar had become as part of the Emperor’s name, quite irrespective of relationship. It will also explain how in all the places of the NT but two the name ‘Caesar’ alone (with or without the article) is familiarly used, as equivalent simply to ‘the Emperor.’ In the Gospels the reference is to Tiberius (cf. Mark 12:14-17 and parallels), in Acts and Philippians (4:22) to Nero. Where the historian seeks to date an event, he is naturally more precise (Caesar Augustus, Luke 2:1, Tiberius Caesar, Luke 3:1).
There are two aspects in which the Caesar appears in the Gospels. In the section Mark 12:13-17 it is the question of giving tribute to Caesar that comes up. The inhabitants of Judaea , a Roman Imperial province, governed by one of the Emperor’s agents, called a procurator, were by law bound to pay tax to the Emperor. The term used, κῆνσος, is the Latin word census, which means ‘census’ in our sense, but much more. The census paper was in the Roman Empire also an income- and property-tax return, on the basis of which the assessment of tax was made by the Imperial officials. Hence the word in the Gospels might almost be translated ‘income-tax.’ Luke alters his original to the good Greek word φόρος (Lat. tributum, war-tax; cf. Luke 23:2). The second aspect in which the Caesar appears in the Gospels is that of the Messiah’s rival to lordship over the chosen people. Jesus is charged with ‘saying that he is an anointed king’ (Luke 23:2; cf. John 19:12-15,Acts 17:7), for so we ought to translate it. When Pilate asks Him if He is the King of the Jews, He casts the word back to him, ‘You say it, the word is yours’ (Burkitt, Evangelion da-Mepharreshê, 1904, ii. 58). Throughout the Apostolic Age and later, the Christians continue to use of their King in the spiritual sense the very same epithets as the pagans use of the Emperor. This tact must have accentuated the hostility of the Empire to the Church.
In Acts 25 and following, the Caesar is appealed to by St. Paul, after his unjust arrest at Jerusalem. The right of appeal (provocatio) was one of the bulwarks of the original republican constitution. By it a citizen could appeal to his fellow-citizens in assembly against any injustice on the part of a magistrate. The plebeians were later also protected by their special officials, the tribuni plebis. By the Imperial constitution the Emperor possessed tribunicia potestas (see Augustus). Any aggrieved citizen could thus appeal to him, and the Emperor could quash the verdict of a lower court, and substitute his own verdict. The Emperor had also the ius gladii, the right of life and death, and this he could delegate to subordinates. St. Paul’s experiences before purely Roman tribunals had been on the whole so satisfactory that he decided to risk appeal to the highest tribunal of all, knowing how valuable for the success of his mission a favourable verdict would be. His appeal was received by Festus, and he proceeded to Rome. Hartmann (see below under Literature) does not consider that St. Paul’s appeal was an appeal in the proper sense of the term, but it seems better to follow Ramsay, especially as Luke’s language is quite plain. In the silence of history, scholars are divided as to the result of the Apostle’s appeal. Some consider that the conclusion of Acts (q.v.  ) means that it was unsuccessful, and that he was condemned and beheaded. Those who accept the genuineness of the Pastoral Epistles believe that he was acquitted and released.
Caesar’s household.-St. Paul, writing from Rome to the Philippian Church in a.d. 60 or 61, sends greetings from all the Christians in Rome, but ‘especially’ from ‘them that are of Caesar’s household’ (Philippians 4:22). The date shows that the ‘Caesar’ is Nero, and the word οἰκία, translated ‘household,’ is doubtless a translation of the Latin familia. The word familia is the later form of the older famulia, derived from famulus, a household-slave, and in Latin conies with it the idea especially of the collection of slaves and freedmen in a house. The relations between slaves and masters in the Roman world were generally good, the slave being regarded more as an integral part of the family than hired servants are in modern times. In the Imperial palace at Rome they can hardly have numbered fewer than 2000, and an idea of the variety of their occupations can be got from a study of the list of nouns joined to a, ab in J. C. Rolfe’s article in the Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie, vol. x.  p. 481ff. or the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, vol. i.  cols. 22 and 23. It is remarkable that the list of names in Romans 16 coincides almost exactly with names of members of the Imperial household recovered in Roman inscriptions, as Lightfoot first showed at length. The number of examples has since increased. No epigraphist could doubt that ch. 16 is an integral part of the Epistle to the Romans, and that most of the persons there named were ‘of Caesar’s household.’ Our knowledge of the life of such persons is mainly derived from Statius (e.g. Siluae v. 1) and Martial.
For Caesar-worship, see Emperor-Worship and Roman Empire.
Literature.-Official names of Roman Emperors in R. Cagnat, Cours d’épigraphie latine3, Paris, 1898, p. 177ff.; on the tributum see A. H. J. Greenidge, Roman Public Life, London, 1901, p. 429ff.; on Caesar and the Messiah as rivals cf. the article of P. Wendland in Zeitschrift für die neutest. Wissenschaft v.  335-353 and H. A. A. Kennedy in Expositor, 7th ser. vii.  289-307; on the appeal (provocatio, appellatio) see T. Mommsen, Röm. Strafrecht, 1899. 8er Abschnitt, p. 468ff., Gesammelte Schriften, iii.  431-446, reprinted from Zeitschrift für die neutest. Wissenschaft ii.  81ff.; article ‘Appellatio’ by Hartmann in Pauly-Wissowa  ; J. S. Reid in Journal of Roman Studies, i.  68ff.; W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveler, 1895, p. 311ff. On Caesar’s Household see the excursus in Lightfoot, Epistle to the Philippians4, 1878, p. 171, and E. Riggenbach, in Neue Jahrbücher für deutsche Theologie, i.  498ff.; best collection of inscriptions in H. Dessau, Inscr. Lat. Selectœ, i.  ch. vi.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Augustus, Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus
Born 62 B.C.; died 14 A.D. Roman emperor at the time of the birth of Christ, born Rome. He was the heir of Julius Cresar and formed a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus to control the affairs of Rome. After punishing Caesar's murderers, he eliminated Lepidus, and with Antony governed the Roman world. Antony's repudiation of his wife Octavia, sister of Augustus, led to civilwar, and with the defeat of the former at Actium, Augustus soon welded the Roman state into a compact whole. The emperor patronized art and science, and legislated to reform public morals. He confirmed Herod as King of the Jews, and on Herod's death divided his territory among his sons. The census taken by Augustus's legate is important in fixing the date of the Nativity of Christ (Luke 2).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Caesar
The title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive proper names (John 19:15 ; Acts 17:7 ). The Jews paid tribute to Caesar (Matthew 22:17 ), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Acts 25:11 ). The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1 ), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28 ), and Nero (Acts 25:8 ; Philippians 4:22 ).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Tiberius Caesar
Son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, his name in full being the same as his father's. He was step-son of Augustus, and was the second emperor of Rome. There is only an incidental reference to him under this name in the N.T. — the fifteenth year of his reign being the time when John the Baptist began his ministry. Luke 3:1 . His reign is put down as A.D. 14-37, but there is evidence that he reigned two or three years with Augustus, and the above 'fifteenth year' is reckoned from the earlier date. By comparing this with Luke 3:22,23 , it will be seen that it could not have been later than A.D. 25 or 26; for Christ was born four years before the Era A.D., and now He 'began to be about 30 years old.' Tiberius was a most profligate man, and his government was despotic and cruel.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Appeal to Caesar
When Paul was brought before Festus for trial on charges made against him by Jews from Jerusalem, Festus asked him if he wanted to return to Jerusalem for trial. Paul, fearing the Jews would kill him, asked that his case be heard by the emperor as he had done nothing deserving of death (Acts 25:1-12 ). By all appearances, Paul's Roman citizenship gave him the right to have his case heard by the emperor. There are cases, however, where Roman citizens in Africa were refused the right of appeal and were crucified by Galba, the governor of the province. Paul was granted his appeal, though it was later determined that he need not have appealed his case as he had done nothing wrong (Acts 26:32 ). We do not know the results of Paul's appeal since Acts ends with Paul still in prison awaiting trial. It is probable that Paul's case was dismissed after two years and he was released from prison.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Caesar
Perhaps the reader doth not know, or recollect, that this name was used by all the Roman Emperors, whatever their other name might be. Thus Tiberius was the Emperor in the days of our Lord. (See Luke 3:1) But our Lord only called him Caesar. (See Matthew 22:21) And Paul the apostle, when compelled to appeal against the injustice of Festus, said, I appeal unto Caesar; whereas, Nero was at that time the Emperor. (See Acts 25:10-11)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Caesar
a title borne by all the Roman emperors till the destruction of the empire. It took its rise from the surname of the first emperor, Caius Julius Caesar; and this title, by a decree of the senate, all the succeeding emperors were to bear. In Scripture, the reigning emperor is generally mentioned by the name of Caesar, without expressing any other distinction:
so in Matthew 22:21 ," Render unto Caesar," &c, Tiberius is meant; and in Acts 25:10 , "I appeal unto Caesar," Nero is intended.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Claudius Caesar
Fifth emperor of Rome, succeeded Caius Caligula, A. D. 41, and was followed by Nero, after a reign of thirteen years. He endowed Agrippa with royal authority over Judea, which on the death of Agrippa again became a province of Rome, A. D. 45. About this time probably occurred the famine foretold by Agabus, Acts 11:28 . In the ninth year of his reign, he banished all Jews from Rome, Acts 18:2 . In A. D. 43-44, he made a military expedition to Britain. His death was caused by poison, from the hand of his wife and niece Agrippina.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Caesar
Originally the surname of the Julian family at Rome. After being dignified in the person of Julias Caesar, it became the usual appellation of those of his family who ascended the throne. The last of these was Nero, but the name was still retained by his successors as a sort of title belonging to the imperial dignity. The emperors alluded to by this title in the New Testament, are Augustus, Luke 2:1 ; Tiberius, Luke 3:1 20:22 ; Claudius, Acts 11:28 ; and Nero, Acts 25:8Philippians 4:22 . Caligula, who succeeded Tiberius, is not mentioned.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Nero, Claudius Caesar
Nero (1), Claudius Caesar, emperor (Oct. 13, 54, to June 9, 68). For our purpose the interest of Nero's life centres in his persecution of the Christians. For his general history see Merivale, cc. lii.–lv. During his early reign Christianity was unmolested and seems to have spread rapidly at Rome. No doubt it received a great impetus from the preaching of St. Paul during the two years after his arrival, probably early in 61. But before long a terrible storm was to burst on the infant church. On the night of July 16, 64, a fire broke out in the valley between the Palatine and the Aventine. That part of the city was crowded with humble dwellings and shops full of inflammable contents. The lower parts of the city became a sea of flame. For six days the fire raged till it reached the foot of the Esquiline, where it was stopped by pulling down a number of houses. Soon after a second fire broke out in the gardens of Tigellinus near the Pincian, and raged for three days in the N. parts of the city. Though the loss of life was less in the second fire, the destruction of temples and public buildings was more serious. By the two fires three of the 14 regions were utterly destroyed, four escaped entirely, in the remaining seven but few houses were left standing. Nero was at Antium when the fire broke out, and did not return to Rome till it had almost reached the vast edifice he had constructed to connect his palace on the Palatine with the gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline.
The horrible suspicion that Nero himself was the author of the fire gained strength. This is asserted as a positive fact by Suetonius (c. 38), Dion (lxii. 16), and Pliny the Elder (xvii. 1), the last being a contemporary, but Tacitus alludes to it only as a prevalent rumour. Whether well founded or not, and whether, supposing it true, the emperor's motive was to clear away the crooked, narrow streets of the old town in order to rebuild it on a new and regular plan, or whether it was a freak of madness, need not be discussed here. At any rate Nero found it necessary to divert from himself the rage of the people and put the blame upon the Christians.
The only author living near the time of the persecution who gives an account of it is Tacitus. After describing the origin of Christianity he proceeds: "First were arrested those who confessed, then on their information a vast multitude was convicted, not so much on the charge of arson as for their hatred of the human race. Their deaths were made more cruel by the mockery that accompanied them. Some were covered with the skins of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs; others perished on the cross or in the flames; and others again were burnt after sunset as torches to light up the darkness. Nero himself granted his gardens (on the Vatican) for the show, and gave an exhibition in the circus, and, dressed as a charioteer, mixed with the people or drove his chariot himself. Thus, guilty and deserving the severest punishment as they were, yet they were pitied, as they seemed to be put to death, not for the benefit of the state but to gratify the cruelty of an individual" (Ann. xv. 44). This narrative has been the subject of very various interpretations. Lightfoot ( Phil. 24–27) considers that the Christians were at this time sufficiently numerous and conspicuous to attract the fury of the populace. The ambiguity of Tacitus leaves it doubtful whether those first arrested " confessed Christianity" or "confessed they were guilty of the burning." Schiller ( Geschichte des röm. Kaiserreichs unter Nero , 435) argues that "fateri" in Tacitus is always used of the confession of a crime. According to his view, as many of the shops near the circus where the fire originated were occupied by Jews, suspicion would fall upon them, which would be strengthened by the fact that the Transtiberine, the Ghetto of that time, was one of the few quarters that had escaped the fire. At that time Jews and Christians lived in the same part of the town and in the same manner. Weiszäcker (Jahrbücher für Deutsche Theologie , xxi. 269, etc.) considers, with much probability, that Nero and his advisers having selected the Christians as the victims of the popular indignation, those first seized were conspicuous members and were charged as incendiaries, and from them the names of others were ascertained and these treated in the same way. Thus a vast number were arrested, so many that all could not have been guilty of arson. Why Nero selected the Christians must remain uncertain. The Jews, who at first sight would seem more likely scapegoats, as being more conspicuous and probably more unpopular, were strong enough to make Nero hesitate to attack them. A Jewish persecution in Rome might excite a dangerous revolt in Judea. The Christians, however, were conspicuous and numerous enough to furnish a plentiful supply of victims, but too few and weak to be formidable. From the allusions of St. Clement (Ep. to Cor. c. 6), a little more information can be obtained. Like Tacitus, he speaks of the vast multitude, and mentions that women underwent terrible and unholy tortures.
The persecution was probably confined to Rome. There is little evidence of it extending to the rest of the empire. The Acts of the saints mentioned by Tillemont (Mém. eccl. ii. 73–89) are all more or less fabulous, and even if authentic there seems little or no ground for placing them in the reign of Nero. The accounts in Acts of the journeys of St. Paul shew how easily an outbreak of popular fury might be excited by Jews or heathens, who, either on religious or private grounds, were hostile to the new doctrine, and how easily in such an outbreak a conspicuous Christian might be murdered without any state edict against Christianity, or without the public authorities interfering at all, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that, when Nero set the example of persecution, many provincial magistrates would take a harsher view than previously of the case of any Christian brought before them.
The question of the connexion between Nero and Antichrist was brought into prominence by M. Renan. The significance of the Neronian persecution lies in the fact that it was the first. Hitherto the attitude of state officials to Christianity had on the whole been favourable; at worst they treated it with contemptuous indifference. All this was now suddenly changed. The head of the state had made a ferocious attack on the infant church. Henceforth the two powers were in more or less violent antagonism till the struggle of 250 years was closed by the conversion of Constantine. Whatever the date of the Apocalypse, it can hardly be doubted that the Neronian persecution with .all its horrors was vividly present to the mind of the author. To have perished obscurely by his own hand seemed both to pagans and Christians too commonplace an end for a monster who for 14 years had filled such a place in the eyes and the minds of men. Few had witnessed his death, so that the notion easily arose that he was still alive, had taken refuge with the Parthians, and would reappear. Tacitus mentions (Hist. i. 2; ii. 8, 9) the appearance of two false Neros, and Suetonius (c. 56) alludes to another. In the days of his prosperity diviners had predicted his fall and that he would gain a new dominion in the East and Jerusalem and at last regain the empire ( ib. c. 40).
According to the theory of M. Reuss (Hist. de la théol. chrétienne , i. 429–452), adopted by Renan, the Apocalypse was written during the reign of Galba, i.e. at the end of 68 or beginning of 69, when men's minds were agitated, especially in Asia Minor, by the appearance of a false Nero in the island of Cythnus (Tac. Hist. ii. 8). M. Reuss interprets the first six heads of the first beast as the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, Nero, and Galba, of whom the first five were dead, while the sixth, Galba, was then reigning. As he was 73 years old his reign must soon terminate; a seventh was to follow and reign for a short time, after which one of the emperors supposed to be dead was to reappear as Antichrist. The first four emperors had not been hostile to the Christians, and none of them, except Caius, had died a violent death. Nero therefore alone answers the description. Finally M. Reuss interprets the number of the beast as the numerical value of the letters of the words Νέρων Καῖσαρ when written in Hebrew, and explains the existence of the ancient variant reading 616 by supposing it due to a Latin reader who had found the solution, but pronounced the name Nero and not Neron. Whether this theory be well founded or not, the opinion that Nero would return as Antichrist certainly continued for centuries. Commodianus, who probably wrote c. 250, alludes to it (xli. in Migne, Patr. Lat. v. 231), and even in the 5th cent. St. Augustine ( de Civ. Dei , xx. 19, in ib. xli. 686) mentions that some then believed he would rise again and reappear as Antichrist, and that others thought he had never died, but would appear at the appointed time and recover his kingdom. Another view was that Nero would be the precursor of Antichrist (Lact. Mortes 2, Sulp. Sev. Dial. ii. 14 in Patr. Lat. vii. 197; xx. 211.)
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Caesar
The name ‘Caesar’ was a Roman family name that became famous through Caesar Augustus, the man who in 27 BC introduced a new era in Roman affairs. Out of the disorder that characterized Rome and its colonies, Caesar Augustus founded what became known as the Roman Empire (Luke 2:1). People held him in such honour that later rulers took his name Caesar as their title (Luke 3:1). By New Testament times the common practice was to refer to the Emperor simply as Caesar (Mark 12:14; Luke 20:22; John 19:15; Acts 17:7; Acts 25:11; Acts 25:25). For further details see ROME.
Caesar - (caye'ssuhr) Family name of Julius Caesar assumed by following emperors as a title. Some Pharisees and Herodians asked Jesus about the propriety of paying taxes to Caesar. In reply, the Lord said that those things pertaining to Caesar should be rendered to Caesar and those things pertaining to God should be rendered to Him (Matthew 22:15-21 ). In this passage, the name Caesar is virtually a symbol for civil authority. Originally, Caesar was the family name of the founder of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar was assassinated on March 15,44 B. His successors kept Caesar's memory alive, and eventually his name came to be used as a title. Caesars mentioned or referred to in the New Testament include Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and probably Nero
Caesar - The name of all the Roman emperors from the time of Julius Caesar to the fall of the Roman empire. It was the family name of Caius Julius Caesar. The Caesar of Luke 2, is Augustus; of Matthew 22, Tiberius; of Acts 25, Nero
Caesar - The name ‘Caesar’ was a Roman family name that became famous through Caesar Augustus, the man who in 27 BC introduced a new era in Roman affairs. Out of the disorder that characterized Rome and its colonies, Caesar Augustus founded what became known as the Roman Empire (Luke 2:1). People held him in such honour that later rulers took his name Caesar as their title (Luke 3:1). By New Testament times the common practice was to refer to the Emperor simply as Caesar (Mark 12:14; Luke 20:22; John 19:15; Acts 17:7; Acts 25:11; Acts 25:25)
Caesar - It took its rise from the surname of the first emperor, Caius Julius Caesar; and this title, by a decree of the senate, all the succeeding emperors were to bear. In Scripture, the reigning emperor is generally mentioned by the name of Caesar, without expressing any other distinction:...
so in Matthew 22:21 ," Render unto Caesar," &c, Tiberius is meant; and in Acts 25:10 , "I appeal unto Caesar," Nero is intended
Augustus - Title given to the Roman Emperors after Augustus Caesar, named in Luke 2:1 . In Acts 25:21,25 the Augustus or Caesar at that time wasNero
Caesar - The common title of the successive Roman emperors, taken from Julius Caesar. Roman citizens as Paul had the right of "appeal to Caesar," and in criminal cases were sent for judgment to Rome, where was the emperor's court (Philippians 4:22; compare Philippians 1:13); Nero is the emperor meant. The current coin bore Caesar's image, the argument which Jesus used to show Caesar could claim tribute (Matthew 22:17, etc. Though Caesar did not call himself "king," the Jews did (John 19:15), in which respect Josephus (B
Julian - ) Relating to, or derived from, Julius Caesar
Caesarian - ) Of or pertaining to Caesar or the Caesars; imperial
Caesar, Caesar's Household - In origin the name ‘Caesar,’ which has had such a wonderful history, culminating in the German Kaiser and the Russian Tsar, was simply a cognomen (or surname), indicating one branch of the gens Iulia, one of the old patrician families of Rome, which was said to have been descended from aeneas of Troy and Venus, through their son lulus (Ascanius). Iulius Caesar, praetor in 208 b. Iulius Caesar, the dictator (lived from about 100 to 44 b. The name was kept by all the early Emperors except Vitellius (and even he used it sometimes), in spite of the fact that after Nero no Emperor had a drop of Caesarian blood in his veins. The complete official names of the Emperors who reigned during the hundred years following the birth of Christ are Imperator Caesar Augustus (see Augustus), Tiberius Caesar Augustus (see Tiberius), Gains Caesar Germanicus (nicknamed Caligula
There are two aspects in which the Caesar appears in the Gospels. In the section Mark 12:13-17 it is the question of giving tribute to Caesar that comes up. The second aspect in which the Caesar appears in the Gospels is that of the Messiah’s rival to lordship over the chosen people. ...
In Acts 25 and following, the Caesar is appealed to by St. ...
Caesar’s household. 60 or 61, sends greetings from all the Christians in Rome, but ‘especially’ from ‘them that are of Caesar’s household’ (Philippians 4:22). The date shows that the ‘Caesar’ is Nero, and the word οἰκία, translated ‘household,’ is doubtless a translation of the Latin familia. 16 is an integral part of the Epistle to the Romans, and that most of the persons there named were ‘of Caesar’s household. ...
For Caesar-worship, see Emperor-Worship and Roman Empire. ; on Caesar and the Messiah as rivals cf. On Caesar’s Household see the excursus in Lightfoot, Epistle to the Philippians4, 1878, p
July, Month of - Named in honor of Julius Caesar, is given over to special devotion to the Precious Blood
Month of July - Named in honor of Julius Caesar, is given over to special devotion to the Precious Blood
Rubicon - ) A small river which separated Italy from Cisalpine Gaul, the province alloted to Julius Caesar
Augustan - ) Of or pertaining to Augustus Caesar or to his times
Caesar - (See Luke 3:1) But our Lord only called him Caesar. (See Matthew 22:21) And Paul the apostle, when compelled to appeal against the injustice of Festus, said, I appeal unto Caesar; whereas, Nero was at that time the Emperor
Caesar - CaeSAR (Καῖσαρ). —In the Gospel record this name occurs 18 times, in 16 of which it answers to ‘reigning emperor,’ who in each case was Tiberius Caesar; in the remaining two the more individual name is found,—in the one case Augustus (Luke 2:1), and in the other Tiberius (3:1). ...
The name ‘Caesar’ was assumed by Augustus in 44 b. , immediately after the tragic death of his grand-uncle, Julius Caesar, being considered by him part of the inheritance left to him. 5, 10, 11, 12) for saying that the friends of Octavius began to address him as ‘Caesar’ within a week or two of the Dictator’s assassination. Augustus himself soon gave evidence that he meant to gather up and concentrate on himself all the fame that was associated with ‘Caesar. The fame of the first Caesar had come to be overshadowed by the remarkable career of the founder of the Empire. The way was thus prepared for the still later development, when the title of ‘Caesar’ was given to the junior partner of the two joint-emperors, and ‘Augustus’ remained the distinguishing name of the supreme ruler. ...
In the majority of the cases of the use of the title ‘Caesar’ in the Gospel writings, the question of paying the tribute has come up. This reveals the great change that had taken place from the time of the ‘census’ under Augustus, when ‘everyone went to enrol himself in his own city’ (Luke 2:3), to that of the trial before Pilate, when the chief charge against Jesus was said to be ‘the forbidding to give tribute to Caesar’ (Luke 23:2). In those thirty-three years of interval the relation between the Roman power, as represented by ‘Caesar,’ and the Jewish people, had undergone a radical change. Luke wrote (Luke 3:1): ‘Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea,’ with the tetrarchs for Galilee, Ituraea, and Abilene, desiring to mark the period in the reign of Tiberius Caesar when ‘the word of God came to John in the wilderness. It was inevitable that at some point or other in that ministry the question should be pressed upon Him, ‘Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar or not?’ (Matthew 22:17 ||). With perfect accuracy, therefore, it could be described as ‘tribute to Caesar. ’...
The tribute payment after all was based on the fact of the kingship of Caesar. The combination of ‘Caesar’ with ‘king’ sounds entirely unhistorical to one familiar with the rise and growth of the Roman Empire. ‘King’ was a term which Augustus was most careful to avoid from the time that it may be said to have cost the first ‘Caesar’ his life. ’ It was most natural for them to transfer it to ‘Caesar. ’ Any one claiming to be a ‘king’ within the wide dominion of Caesar was seeking to establish a rival authority. This was the charge which they found it so easy to frame against Jesus when He and they were in the presence of Pilate: ‘forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king’ (Luke 23:2). No more powerful appeal could they have made to Pilate’s fears, as they thought, than when they cried out, ‘If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend: whosoever maketh himself a king, speaketh against Caesar’ (John 19:12). Should he ever be called in question by Caesar for giving Jesus up to death, that title, written out by his own hand, would form an ample justification. The whole attitude of Jesus towards Caesar, not only in the question of the tribute, but throughout the trial before Pilate, must have entirely disarmed the Roman governor of any fear that He was, or ever had been, a rival of Caesar’s
Augustus Caesar - Educated by his great uncle Julius Caesar, triumvir with Antony and Lepidus. ...
Saluted emperor (imperator, military commander in chief originally), and surnamed Augustus Caesar, "majestic. Augustus Caesar died at Nola in Campania, in his 76th year, A
Colony - Roman colonization as practiced under Julius Caesar provided land for healthy individuals on the relief rolls of Rome and veteran soldiers. The cities of Corinth and Philippi were Roman colonies during the time of Caesar
Caesarism - ) A system of government in which unrestricted power is exercised by a single person, to whom, as Caesar or emperor, it has been committed by the popular will; imperialism; also, advocacy or support of such a system of government
Aurochs - It is distinct from the Urus of Caesar, with which it has often been confused
Augus'Tus - Julius Caesar. He was principally educated by his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and was made his heir. After his murder, the young Octavius, then Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was taken into the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and, after the removal of the latter, divided the empire with Antony
Herodians - Herod was dependent on the Roman power, and his adherents on the Roman power, and his adherents therefore maintained the propriety of paying tribute to Caesar, which the Pharisees denied
Urus - It appears to have still existed in the time of Julius Caesar
Italy - The Roman Empire was created when Octavian became Augustus Caesar (27 B. ) after the murder of Julius Caesar and of the demise of the Republic (44 B
Caesar - The common title given to succeeding Roman emperors, adopted from the name of Julius Caesar
Heaven: an Incentive to Diligence - Julius Caesar coming towards Rome with his army, and hearing that the senate and people had fled from it, said, 'They that will not fight for this city, what city will they fight for?' If we will not take pains for the kingdom of heaven, what kingdom will we take pains for? ...
Adria - (ay' dri a) or ADRIATIC SEA (NAS, NIV) The sea separating Italy and Greece in which Paul's ship drifted for fourteen days as he sailed toward Rome to appeal his case to Caesar (Acts 27:27 )
Festus - Paul the apostle appealed to Porcius Festus for the opportunity of being tried before Caesar, and Festus granted that request
Adramyttium - Paul used a ship whose home port was Adramyttium to sail from Caesarea to Italy to appeal his case to Caesar (Acts 27:2 )
Deify - ) To make a god of; to exalt to the rank of a deity; to enroll among the deities; to apotheosize; as, Julius Caesar was deified
Herodians - With flattering words to Him as "not accepting the person of any" (by which compliment they "tempted" Him to pronounce against Caesar) they asked "Is it lawful for us to give tribute to Caesar?" designing if He said "no" to give Him up to the Roman governor, if "yes" to stir up the people against Him as violating the law (Deuteronomy 17:15). "...
Their acceptance of Caesar's currency showed they accepted as a fact Caesar's rule: "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. Because Judah had not given herself to (God, she was now under Caesar. Obedience to Caesar is an application of the higher principle of obedience to God, from whom all power is; Christ's reply unites rather than separates the Christian's political and religious duties. Yet, such is man's perversity, they had the impudence soon after at Jesus' trial before Pilate to say, "We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ a king" (Luke 23:2)
Galerius, Valerius Maximianus - In 293 he was made Caesar, receiving the Danubian territories, and succeeding Diocletian as Emperor of the East, 305
Festus - Before him Paul had to defend himself, but removed his cause from the provincial tribunal by appeal to Caesar
Valerius Maximianus Galerius - In 293 he was made Caesar, receiving the Danubian territories, and succeeding Diocletian as Emperor of the East, 305
Emperor-Worship - Julius Caesar was honoured in his lifetime in an Ephesian inscription as ‘the God descended from Mars and Venus, who has appeared in human form, and the universal Saviour of the life of men’ (Dittenberger, Sylloge Gr. ’ A similar temple rose at Ancyra in Galatia, and the recognition of the deity of Caesar became wide-spread in the Orient. It was a sincere sentiment of gratitude that led the East to confer on Caesar the highest honour conceivable. Viewed through a medium of Eastern poetic emotion, Caesar easily appeared invested with essential qualities of godhead-limitless power wielded for the good of the subject. Many inscriptions might be quoted which show that the Eastern pagan world found its Messiah in Caesar, the language in some cases bearing a resemblance to Jewish Messianic psalms and prophecies. )...
Nor was it only in the Orient that Caesar appeared a being worthy of divine honour. Thus Rome was prepared for the deification of the reigning Caesar; in fact, it was reluctance on the part of Augustus to accept it that somewhat retarded the process. He limited the worship of Romans to the dead Julius Caesar who had received apotheosis in 42 b. ...
Thus we see that deification was an honour spontaneously offered to Caesar by grateful, enthusiastic, and devoted subjects. But the same practical mind, with its genius for government, soon perceived that in Caesar-worship the Empire would secure what it lacked-a bond of unity and a powerful safeguard of loyalty. 115, 127) of the place filled by Caesar-worship as the great bond or Empire in that region. Caesar could not be a god in one province if he were mere man in another. Hence Caesar-worship rapidly became organized and highly developed as the State-religion of the Empire; the Caesars so far conquered their reluctance to pose as gods that Domitian proudly designated himself as Dominus et Deus, ‘Lord and God’ (Suet. Caesar-worship was enforced by the whole might of the State; refusal to worship the Emperor was high treason. Caesarism and paganism. In no sense was the worship of Caesar either enforced or adopted as a substitute for other religions. The old gods did not leave the stage to make room for Caesar. ...
But a further stage was reached, and first of all in Asia, at which the new religion became conscious that it could maintain itself only by closely allying itself with other religions, by associating Caesar with the local divinities. How Caesarism came to need this buttress is intelligible enough. It was only one or two generations that could have adequate experience of the vast benefit that Caesar’s rule brought with it. The previous state of social misery became more and more a dim memory as time passed, and the fervour with which Caesar was greeted as divine could not and did not last. Hence, while during the 1st cent, the State-religion was simply the worship of Rome and Caesar, in the 2nd cent, a modification was necessary; and, as indicated, this consisted in associating Caesar with a local god who could call forth a genuine religious feeling. Thus it is entirely erroneous to say that the new religion owed any of its strength to the decay of the old paganism; it was only in close alliance with the old that Caesarism as a religion could continue in existence. Caesarism and Christianity. -It will be convenient to treat of this under three heads: (a) the antagonism; (b) the resemblances; (c) Caesarism in the NT. -This is the most obvious and familiar point in the relation of Caesarism to Christianity. Caesar-worship was the bond of Empire, the test of loyalty, and Christians refused to worship Caesar. Other charges were preferred against them, but this came to be the one capital charge-treason to the State manifest in refusing to worship Caesar. ...
‘The Christian who refused this sacrifice (to the image of Caesar) fell automatically under the charge of majestas, i. -The opposition of Christianity and Caesarism becomes more marked when we consider their resemblances. ’ As noted above, Caesar’s praise was celebrated in phrases closely parallel to the praises of Messiah in Isaiah or the Psalms. The Church proclaimed Jesus, the pagan world acclaimed Caesar. (γ) All the great designations by which Christians expressed the dignity of Christ had already been used of Caesar. ‘Son of God,’ certainly had a root quite independent of Caesarism, and all as applied to Christ and Christians had a different content from the same terms applied to Caesar by pagans, the parallelism is too complete to be pure coincidence. To seize as eminently suitable for their own purpose the whole vocabulary of Caesar-adoration was a bold and brilliant stroke of policy on the part of the preachers of Christianity. Any religiously-minded pagan must have felt the difficulty of the real godhead of Caesar. Caesarism after all could not satisfy any religious instinct. ...
The proclamation of a spiritual Kingdom with a King to whom all the highest titles borne by Caesar really applied cannot but have made a strong appeal to the interest of many of the more serious in pagan cities (cf. -Outside the Apocalypse there is only one clear reference to Caesarism, and it is slight, viz. The provinces were united in communes for Caesar-worship, and the president or high priest of the commune of Asia was termed ‘Asiarch. ...
It is scarcely too much to say that in Caesarism we have a key to the Apocalypse. Knowledge of the history of Caesarism makes it clear why Pergamum is described as ‘Satan’s seat’ (Revelation 2:13), At Pergamum, the administrative capital of the province, the first temple to Augustus was built. for 40 years it was the sole centre of Caesarism for the province; and, after other temples were established, it retained its primacy. 294), We cannot here deal with the whole subject of Caesarism in the Apocalypse. 13, which Caesarism explains, and which makes a contribution to our knowledge of Caesarism. ’ ‘It maketh all to worship,’ and orders images of Caesar to be made (vv. Verses 13-15 add to our knowledge the fact that pseudo-miracles were practised by the priests of Caesarism. Iverach, article ‘Caesarism’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics iii
Nicopolis - The one here referred to was most probably that in Epirus, which was built by Augustus Caesar to commemorate his victory at the battle of Actium (B
Augustus - He was the adopted son of Julius Caesar. he first gained power with Antony and Lepidus at Julius Caesar's death in 44 B. Herod built temples to Augustus as a god in Caesaria and Samaria. Thus it is applied to Nero in Acts 25:21 ,Acts 25:21,25:25 , when Paul appealed to Caesar
Caesarea Philippi - The former name of this city was Panium, but Herod Philip, the tetrarch, enlarged it and named it after Caesar and himself
Tiberias - Tiberias was erected by Herod Antipas, and so called in honour of Tiberius Caesar
Caesara Philippi - Here Herod built a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar. This town was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was called by him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that of the emperor Tiberius Caesar. It is thus distinguished from the Caesarea of Palestine
Julian Calendar - An attempt made by Julius Caesar to adapt the calendar year to the time actually required for the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun
Calendar, Julian - An attempt made by Julius Caesar to adapt the calendar year to the time actually required for the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun
Caesar's Household - In Philippians 4:22 , Paul the apostle sent greetings to the Philippian Christians from certain believers who were of Caesar's household. Quite possibly, some members of the praetorian guard were included among the believers of Caesar's household. See Caesar ; Rome
Augustus - Julius Caesar Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luke 2:1 )
Agabus - His prophecy was fulfilled about ten years later in the reign of Claudius Caesar (Acts 11:27-29 ). Later, Agabus went to Caesarea and predicted that Paul would be arrested by the Jews in Jerusalem (Acts 21:10-11 )
Appeal - In the more strictly legal sense the word is used only of Paul's "appeal" to Caesar, Acts 25:11,12,21,25 ; 26:32 ; 28:19
Appeal - ...
In the case of Paul appealing to Caesar, it was not an appeal from a judgement already given, as is the case in what is now called an appeal; but Paul, knowing the deadly enmity of the Jews, and the corruption of the governors, elected to be judged at the court of Caesar, which, as a Roman, he had the right to do
Augustus - emperor of Rome, and successor of Julius Caesar
Tarsus - Some think it obtained the privileges of a Roman colony because of its firm adherence to Julius Caesar; and this procured the inhabitants the favour of being acknowledged citizens of Rome, which St
Caesar - After being dignified in the person of Julias Caesar, it became the usual appellation of those of his family who ascended the throne
Amiens, France - It was the Samarobriva of Caesar, and capital of the Ambiani, from whom it derives its name, and later the countship of Amienois
Festus, Porcius - A few weeks after he had entered on his office the case of Paul, then a prisoner at Caesarea, was reported to him. The "next day," after he had gone down to Caesarea, he heard Paul defend himself in the presence of Herod Agrippa II. and his sister Bernice, and not finding in him anything worthy of death or of bonds, would have set him free had he not appealed unto Caesar (Acts 25:11,12 )
Agabus - A prophet who came from Jerusalem to Antioch, and foretold a famine "throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar
Shambles - A plan, drawn by Lietzmann, of a forum in Pompeii, shows both the slaughterhouse and the meat shop next to the chapel of Caesar
Troas - Suetonius says Julius Caesar designed to establish there the seat of his empire (Caesar, 79); Augustus and Constantine meditated the same project
Tiberius (2) - it is stated that a word of God came upon John the Baptist, in the 15th year of the rule of Tiberius Caesar. ...
Tiberius Claudius Nero, named after his adoption Tiberius Julius Caesar, on the monuments bears the name Tiberius Caesar Augustus. 23) and Gaius and Lucius Caesar were marked out as successors
Festus - Paul in bonds at Caesarea, in Palestine, Acts 24:27 . Paul at Caesarea. Paul appealed to Caesar, and by this means secured himself from the prosecution of the Jews, and the wicked intentions of Festus, whom they had corrupted
Agabus - In the wider sense of "the world," as the prophecy fixes on no year, but "in the days of Claudius Caesar," it may include other famines elsewhere in his reign, one in Greece, two in Rome
Augustus Caesar - The first Roman emperor, son of Cains Octavius and Atia, niece of Julius Caesar. 31, resulted in Caesar's favour, and he reigned alone: four years later he was confirmed as 'emperor,' and 'Augustus' in B. Herod gave unreserved allegiance to Augustus, and built a marble temple to his honour at Caesarea Philippi
Flavius Claudius Julianus - In 355 he was presented to the army as Caesar and he married Helena, sister of the Emperor Constantius, who was his cousin, and was sent as Governor to Gaul
Julian the Apostate - In 355 he was presented to the army as Caesar and he married Helena, sister of the Emperor Constantius, who was his cousin, and was sent as Governor to Gaul
Julianus, Flavius Claudius - In 355 he was presented to the army as Caesar and he married Helena, sister of the Emperor Constantius, who was his cousin, and was sent as Governor to Gaul
Unicorn - This was the auerochs of the Germans, and the urus described by Caesar (Gal
Apostate, Julian the - In 355 he was presented to the army as Caesar and he married Helena, sister of the Emperor Constantius, who was his cousin, and was sent as Governor to Gaul
Caesare'a Philip'pi - It was enlarged by Herod Philip, and named after Caesar, with his own name added to distinguish it from Caesarea. Caesarea Philippi has no Old Testament history, though it has been not unreasonably identified with Baal-gad
Gallus, Caesar - Gallus (1) Caesar, son of Julius Constantius (youngest brother of Constantine the Great) and his first wife Galla; born A. In 350 Gallus received the dignity of Caesar, which the childless Constantius bestowed upon him on succeeding to the sole government of the empire by the death of his brother Constans. There is no reason to doubt that the young Caesar was a zealous Christian after a sort, and that he was distressed by his brother's danger of apostasy
Galileans - Jerome observes, that the Pharisees laid a snare for him, asking, Whether it were lawful to give tribute to Caesar? that in case he denied it, they might have an occasion of accusing him
Citizenship - All Roman citizens had the right of appeal to Caesar (25:11)
Corinth - The city visited by Paul was founded by Julius Caesar about a century after the fall of a former Corinth on the same site
Caesarea-Philippi - It was enlarged and embellished by Philip the tetrarch of Trachonitis, and called Caesarea in honor of Tiberius Caesar; and the name Philippi was added to distinguish it from Caesarea on the Mediterranean
Florence, Italy, City of - It was a flourishing municipium under Caesar; its first bishop was probably Saint Frontinus, disciple of Saint Peter
Festus, Porcius - The Jews at once informed Festus against Paul, but he did not consent to their request that Paul should be fetched to Jerusalem; he said he should be tried at Caesarea. Paul, knowing the plots of the Jews to kill him, appealed to Caesar
Candace - It is somewhat singular that female sovereignty seems to have prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace (compare "Pharaoh," "Ptolemy," "Caesar") being a title common to several successive queens
Administration - ...
The administration of the Roman Empire is never directly referred to in the NT, and is best considered under its various aspects (Caesar, Proconsul, etc
Citizenship - Paul's Roman citizenship was of the lower kind, which though not entitling him to vote with the tribes and enjoy a magistracy, yet secured to him the protection of the laws of the empire, and the right of appeal from his own hostile countrymen to Caesar, as also exemption from scourging (Acts 16:37; Acts 22:25-28; Acts 25:11)
Constrain - ...
I was constrained to appeal to Caesar
Unicorn - , and in the Hercynian forest, described by Caesar as almost the size of an elephant, fierce, sparing neither man nor beast) stands in contrast to the tame ox used in plowing, Job 39:11-12;...
(5) playfulness of its young, Psalms 29:6;...
(6) association with "bullocks and bulls" for sacrifice, Isaiah 34:6-7;...
(7) lifting up the horn, Psalms 92:10, as bovine animals lower the head and toss up the horn
Gaul - , and Julius Caesar conquered northern Gaul, 58-51 B
Compel - 1: ἀναγκάζω (Strong's #315 — Verb — anankazo — an-ang-kad'-zo ) denotes "to put constraint upon (from ananke, 'necessity'), to constrain," whether by threat, entreaty, force or persuasion; Christ "constrained" the disciples to get into a boat, Matthew 14:22 ; Mark 6:45 ; the servants of the man who made a great supper were to constrain people to come in, Luke 14:23 (RV, "constrain"); Saul of Tarsus "strove" to make saints blaspheme, Acts 26:11 , RV (AV, "compelled"); Titus, though a Greek, was not "compelled" to be circumcised, Galatians 2:3 , as Galatian converts were, Galatians 6:12 , RV; Peter was "compelling" Gentiles to live as Jews, Galatians 2:14 ; Paul was "constrained" to appeal to Caesar, Acts 28:19 , and was "compelled" by the church at Corinth to become foolish in speaking of himself, 2 Corinthians 12:11
Felix - A Roman governor of Judea; originally a slave, but manumitted and promoted by Claudius Caesar, from whom he received the name of Claudius. Paul having been sent by Lysias to Caesarea, then the seat of government, Felix gave him an audience, and was convinced of his innocence
Festus, Portius - To oblige the Jews, Felix, when he resigned his government, left Paul in bonds at Caesarea in Palestine, Acts 24:27 ; and when Festus arrived, he was entreated by the principal Jews to condemn the apostle, or to order him up to Jerusalem-they having conspired to assassinate him in the way. Festus, however, answered that it was not customary with the Romans to condemn any man without hearing him; and promised to hear their accusations at Caesarea. But Paul appealed to Caesar; and so secured himself from the prosecution of the Jews, and the intentions of Festus
Maximianus i., m. Aurelius Valerius - A Pannonian soldier of humble birth but great military ability and unresting activity, he was created Caesar in 285 by Diocletian, and Augustus in 286
Vitellius - He postponed the adoption of the title Augustus, and refused at first the name of Caesar. He entered Rome, apparently in May, and was henceforth known officially sometimes as Imperator Aulus Vitellius Caesar, sometimes as Aulus Vitellius Imperator Germanicus
Festus, Porcius - To ingratiate himself with the Jews he asked Paul would he go up to Jerusalem for judgment there P But Paul, knowing there was little hope of an impartial trial there, as a Roman citizen appealed to Caesar (Acts 25-26). Had Agrippa yielded himself "altogether" to the convictions of conscience then, what an eternal blessing would have ensued to himself, what a reflex blessing probably to Festus! Compare in Caesar's palace at Rome, Philippians 1:12-14. ...
Both certainly were touched; and Festus, forgetting that it was his own proposal to try Paul at Jerusalem, the place where already Paul's life had been conspired against (Acts 23), and virtually to deliver him up to the Jews (Acts 25:11), that drove Paul in self defense to appeal to Rome, said, "This man doeth nothing worthy of death and bonds" (why then had he not released him?); and Agrippa, in compliment to Festus, laid the blame of his detention on Paul himself instead of on Festus, "This man might have been set at liberty if he had not appealed to Caesar
Roman Empire - 6, Judaea became an appendage of Syria, governed by a Roman procurator residing at Caesarea. ...
In the New Testament we find such notices of Roman dominion as the Jews recognizing Caesar as sole king (Acts 25:10-1152); Cyrenius "governor of Syria" (Luke 2:2); Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus, "governors," i. procurators of Judaea; the "tetrarchs" Herod, Philip, and Lysanias (Luke 3:1); "king Agrippa" (Acts 25:13); Roman soldiers, legions, centurions, publicans; "tribute money" (Matthew 22:19); the "taxing of the whole world" (Luke 2:1); Italian and Augustan cohorts (Acts 10:1; Acts 27:1); an "appeal to Caesar" (Acts 25:11). Nero is alluded to as "Augustus" and "Caesar" (1618737094_2-21-25-26; Philippians 4:22), and "my lord" (compare also 1 Peter 2:17; Romans 13:1). As "emperor" (imperato r) he had full military authority over the army; Julius Caesar changed this title (commander in chief) into a permanent one, implying paramount military authority over the state. "Caesar" was the family name, "Augustus" the sacred name of majesty
Envy - ) Chagrin, mortification, discontent, or uneasiness at the sight of another's excellence or good fortune, accompanied with some degree of hatred and a desire to possess equal advantages; malicious grudging; - usually followed by of; as, they did this in envy of Caesar
Galileans - It was in reference to this sect that the captious question was proposed in Matthew 22:17 , &c; namely, whether it was lawful to give tribute to Caesar
Province - The classification of provinces supposed to need military control and therefore placed under the immediate government of the Caesar, and those still belonging theoretically to the republic and administered by the senate, and of the latter again into proconsular and praetorian, is recognized, more or less distinctly, in the Gospels and the Acts
Bethsa'Ida - This eastern portion was built up into a beautiful city by Herod Philip, and named by him Bethsaida Julias , after Julia the daughter of the Roman emperor Tiberius Caesar
Nero - The Emperor Nero is not named in Scripture; but he is indicated by his title of emperor, and by his surname Caesar. Here he continued two years, preaching the Gospel with freedom, till he became famous even in the emperor's court, in which were many Christians; for he salutes the Philippians in the name of the brethren who were of the household of Caesar, that is, of Nero's court, Php_1:12-13 ; Php_4:22
Scillitan Martyrs - According to their Acta, one of the women, Donata, when they were called upon by the consul, Saturninus, to sacrifice, replied, "We render honour to Caesar as Caesar, but worship and prayers to God alone
Caligula - Caligula (‘little boots’) was a pet name given by the soldiers in his father’s army to the boy who was afterwards known officially as Gaius Caesar Germanicus. In a similar way the name ‘Caracalla’ or ‘Caracallus’ was applied popularly to Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (a. 198-217), and ‘Elagabalus’ to Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (a. Caligula, who was named at birth Gains Iulius Caesar, was the third son of the distinguished general Germanicus, and Agrippina (the elder)
Cyrenius - Throughout his varied career, Quirinius served as consul of Rome, military leader, tutor to Gaius Caesar, and legate (governor)
Bull - Caesar describes wild bulls of the Hercynian forest, strong and swift, almost as large as elephants, and savage
Towel - 26) of the humbling of distinguished senators by the mad Caesar Caligula, by allowing them to stand at his couch or his feet, girt with towels (suceinctos linteo)
Archelaus - In revolt, the people sent deputations to Caesar to have Archelaus denounced
Answer - His defence was skilfully directed in each case to the rebutting of the charges, to the conciliation of his judges, and to the demand that as a Roman citizen he should be tried before Caesar. Before Agrippa and Festus he defended himself so successfully that they agreed that, if he had not appealed to Caesar, he might have been set at liberty, but having made the appeal he could no longer withdraw. Paul is represented as complaining that at his ‘first answer’ (before Caesar) no man took his part, but that ‘all men forsook him’ (cf
Decree - Some important decrees include: Cyrus' decree on rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 6:3-5 ); Esther's decree on the celebration of Purim (Esther 9:32 ); and the decree of Caesar Augustus which set the scene for the birth of Christ (Luke 2:1 )
Mauritania - it was an organized state and was divided later into two kingdoms which received additional territory in return for aid given to Julius Caesar
Mauretania - it was an organized state and was divided later into two kingdoms which received additional territory in return for aid given to Julius Caesar
Character - ) A unique or extraordinary individuality; a person characterized by peculiar or notable traits; a person who illustrates certain phases of character; as, Randolph was a character; Caesar is a great historical character
Gabbatha - And while with that contempt which marked Pilate's character, we hear him say, "Shall I crucify your king?"the chief priests, unconscious of what they said, answered,"We have no king but Caesar;"thereby fulfilling the dying patriarch Jacob's prophecy (that "the sceptre should not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come;" Genesis 49:10 and thus proving from their own testimony, that the Shiloh was come
Otho - Otho is the name most often given to Marcus Saluius Otho, who, on becoming Emperor, was styled Imperator Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus
Sama'Ria - He called it Sebaste=Augusta , after the name of his patron, Augustus Caesar. The wall around it was 2 1/2 miles long, and in the centre of the city was a park 900 feet square containing a magnificent temple dedicated to Caesar
Caesarea - Carmel is the city of Caesarea, known also as Caesarea-on-the-Sea (Maritima), Caesarea Sebaste, Caesarea of Palestine, and Caesarea of Judea. Mark Anthony gave it to Cleopatra, but Octavian or Augustus defeated Antony at Actuim and placed Caesarea under Herod in 30 B. The city was Hellenistic in design and style and named Caesarea for Caesar. In addition to the many buildings a platform was raised near the harbor upon which a temple was built for Caesar with a Colossus of Caesar. , Caesarea became the capital of the province of Judea and served as the official home of the procurators. Philip, having witnessed to the Ethiopian eunuch, is mentioned as arriving at Caesarea after a preaching mission
Herod the Great - 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a "wily Idumaean," procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony (B. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea (q. Of these, Philip had the land east of Jordan, between Caesarea Philippi and Bethabara, Antipas had Galilee and Peraea, while Archelaus had Judea and Samaria
Julius - ...
As Julius was the family name of the members of the Roman Imperial house, it was assumed by many of the vassal kings from the days of Julius Caesar onwards
Bison - ...
Pennant alleges that the bison of America is the same species of animal as the bison and aurochs of Europe, the bonasus of Aristotle, the urus of Caesar, the bos ferus or wild ox of Strabo,the bison of Pliny, and the biston of Oppian
Envy - They did this in envy of Caesar, or in envy to his genius
Abim'Elech - (father of the king ), the name of several Philistine kings, was probably a common title of these kings, like that of Pharaoh among the Egyptians and that of Caesar and Augustus among the Romans
Trophimus - Paul to Rome after his appeal to Caesar, but we find him again in the Apostle’s company after the first imprisonment
Tarsus - Julius Caesar rewarded Tarsus for fidelity, and Augustus made it a free city, i
Christian - And the people of Antioch were famous for their readiness in giving names: Partisans of Christ, Christiani, as Caesariani, partisans of Caesar; a Latin name, as Antioch had become a Latin city
Tribute (2) - The tribute to Caesar (φόρος, φόροι, κῆνσος) denoted the taxes payable by the Jews, as Roman subjects, into the Imperial treasury (fiscus)
Constans i - 320 and made Caesar in 333; he reigned as Augustus 337–350 when he was killed by the conspiracy of Magnentius
On - They were taken to Alexandria by Augustus Caesar A
On - They were taken to Alexandria by Augustus Caesar A
Caesarea - It had a harbor 300 yards across, and vast breakwater, (the mole still remains,) and a temple with colossal statues sacred to Caesar and to Rome. Caesarea Philippi. The streams which flow from beneath a limestone rock unite in one stream near Caesarea Philippi. ) Herod's son Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, enlarged and called it from himself, as well as Caesar, Caesarea Philippi. which rears its majestic head 7,000 feet above Caesarea Philippi. The allusion to "snow" agrees with this, and the mention of Caesarea Philippi in the context (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27; Mark 9:3). The remoteness and privacy of Caesarea Philippi fitted it for being the place where Jesus retired to prepare His disciples for His approaching death of shame and His subsequent resurrection; there it was that Peter received the Lord's praise, and afterward censure
Festus - 11), and permitting an appeal to Caesar-an interesting combination in view of the narrative in Acts. ‘I appeal unto Caesar,’ is the lasting condemnation of Festus
Unicorn, - (It is probable that it was the gigantic Bos primigeniua , or aurochs, now extinct, but of which Caesar says, "These uri are scarcely less than elephants in size, but in their nature, color and form are bulls
Proseuchae - That the Jews had houses, or places for prayer, called προσευχαι , appears from a variety of passages in Philo; and, particularly in his oration against Flaccus, he complains that their προσευχαι were pulled down, and there was no place left in which they might worship God and pray for Caesar
Roman Empire - 6, Judea became a mere appendage of the province of Syria, and was governed by a Roman procurator, who resided at Caesarea. --Cicero's description of the Greek states and colonies as a "fringe on the skirts of barbarism" has been well applied to the Roman dominions before the conquests of Pompey and Caesar. Caesar added Gaul. ( Acts 13:7 ; 18:12 ; 19:38 ) For the governor of an imperial province, properly styled "legatus Caesaris," the word hegemon (governor) is used in the New Testament
Lord - In the era of the Roman Caesars, the title kurios symbolized the Caesar's position as absolute monarch. It did not mean that the Caesar was a god. Kurios was not used in the cults devoted to the worship of the Caesars. When the early Christians confessed Jesus as Lord, they protested against the religious claims of the state but not against the rulership of the Caesar as such. On the other hand, the Jewish rebels denied the political authority of the Caesar. Being exempt from the cult of the Caesar, Jews could easily call the Caesar: “lord. ” Christians had to dispute the Caesar's claim to be lord when that claim was understood to mean the Caesar was divine
Census - ...
The first census referred to in the New Testament concerns the decree by Caesar Augustus “that all the world should be taxed
Smoke - The smoke of the torment of Caesar-worshippers goes up for ever in sight of the holy angels and the Lamb (Revelation 14:11), a weird conception suggested by Enoch, xxvii
Captain of the Temple - In the time of Claudius Caesar, one Ananus, the commander of the Temple, was sent in bonds to Rome to answer for his actions in a Jewish-Samaritan tumult (Jos
Elagabalus, Emperor - His jealousy and suspicion led him to imprison Alexander Severus, whose virtue attracted the admiration both of soldiers and people, and whom, at his mother's advice, he had adopted and proclaimed as Caesar soon after arriving in Rome
Ethiopia - The Romans in the reign of Augustus Caesar, b
Offend - Nor yet against Caesar have I offended any thing at all
Corinth - It was afterwards restored by Julius Caesar, who planted in it a Roman colony; but though it soon regained its ancient splendor, it also relapsed into all its former dissipation and licentiousness
Galba - Seruius Sulpicius Galba (after his elevation to the purple, Seruius Galba Imperator Caesar Augustus), son of Seruius Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica, and great-grandson of Quintus Lutatius Catulus, was born on 24 Dec. When the news of the death of Nero reached him, he accepted the title of Caesar from his soldiers, and marched to Rome. He was the earliest of all the Emperors not of Caesarian blood, and he first manifested clearly that the election to the principate lay in the hands of the army
Herod the Great - His father having aided Caesar in his war with Egypt was rewarded by being made procurator of all Judaea, and he made his son Herod, then only fifteen years of age, governor of Galilee. On the death of Julius Caesar the country was in anarchy; but eventually Herod contrived to ingratiate himself with Antony and Octavian, and was appointed KING OF JUDAEA
Herodians - The conjunction of the Herodians, therefore, with the Pharisees, against Christ, is a memorable proof of the keenness of their resentment and malice against him; especially when we consider that they united together in proposing to him an ensnaring question, on a subject which was the ground of their mutual dissension; namely, whether it was lawful to pay tribute to Caesar. Herod had introduced several Heathen idolatrous usages; for, as Josephus says, he built a temple to Caesar, near the head of the river Jordan; he erected a magnificent theatre at Jerusalem, instituted Pagan games, and placed a golden eagle over the gate of the temple of Jehovah; and he furnished the temples, which he reared in several places out of Judea, with images for idolatrous worship, in order to ingratiate himself with the emperor and the people of Rome; though to the Jews he pretended that he did it against his will, and in obedience to the imperial command
Citizenship - , and a law of Julius Caesar (49 b. Such communities were created also outside Italy by Julius Caesar, Claudius, Vespasian, and others, until in a. It was probably either from him or from Julius Caesar that the father or grandfather of St
Insurrection - But the hollowness of their newfound zeal for Caesar was thereby exposed, seeing that Barabbas was admittedly guilty of the crime which they alleged against Jesus
Value - Caesar is well acquainted with your virtue, and therefore sets this value on your life
Year - ...
Julian year, established by Julius Caesar, consists of 365 days, 6 hours
Envy (2) - When the members of the Jewish hierarchy sought the death of Jesus at the hands of Pilate, they attempted to veil their motives under the pretence of loyalty to Caesar. ’...
Since envy is an ill-will or malice aroused by the success or good gifts of another, it is the fitting word to designate the motive of the priests who protested their loyalty to Caesar
Thessalonica - ” Several other inscriptions from Thessalonica, one of them dating from the reign of Augustus Caesar, mention politarchs
Cenchreae - 67, Nero, impressed by an idea which had previously commended itself to greater minds-notably to that of Julius Caesar-made an abortive attempt to cut a canal across the Isthmus, a piece of engineering which was not accomplished till the end of the 19th century (1881-1893)
Pilate, Pontius - " Pilate was not satisfied with this, and they further accused him (1) of sedition, (2) preventing the payment of the tribute to Caesar, and (3) of assuming the title of king (Luke 23:2 ). The crowd perceiving this cried out, "If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend. They madly exclaimed, "We have no king but Caesar;" and now Jesus is given up to them, and led away to be crucified
Mark of the Beast - A rare rendering of his name into Neron Caesar, transliterated into Hebrew as nrwn qsr, renders the number 666 (nun/50, resh/200, waw/6, nun/50, qof/100, samech/60, and resh/200 = 666). " The transliteration of the normal Nero Caesar into the Hebrew nrw qsr, renders the number 616
Blasphemy - Towards the cult of Caesar, which was still kept within some bounds, the Apostle always maintained the same correct attitude. ’ In Asia Minor the deification of Caesar, the erection of temples in his honour, and the establishment of communes for the promotion of his worship became imperative, while the offering of incense to his statue was made the ordinary test of loyalty to the Empire
Nerva - Cocceius Nerva, who on being chosen Emperor was henceforth known as Imperator Nerva Caesar (sometimes Caesar Nerva) Augustus, son of M. 3), Aurelius Victor (Epitome de Caesaribus), Pliny the Younger (Letters and Panegyric of Trajan), Philostratus (Apollonius of Tyana), Dio Chrysostom (Orations), Frontinus (De Aquis Urbis Romae) are the chief ancient authorities
Money - The accuracy of the first three Gospels, and their date soon after the ascension, appear from their making Caesar's head be on the denarius. So, the penny coin extant of Tiberius has the title "Caesar," whereas most later emperors have the title Augustus. The most interesting extant coin is that struck by Pontius Pilate: on the obverse an augur's wand with "Tiberius Caesar" round; on the reverse the date in a wreath. Also a Greek coin has Titus' head, and the legend "the emperor Titus Caesar"; reverse, Victory writing on a shield, before her a palm
Augustus (2) - Julius Caesar, grand-nephew of the Dictator and ultimately his adopted son and heir. Of these one only (Acts 27:1) can be held as possibly pointing to him, the other two (Acts 25:21; Acts 25:25) mean the reigning Caesar ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘Emperor’), in both cases Nero. Even that solitary allusion to Caesar Augustus might have had no place in the Gospel record, had it not been St. ’ In ‘drawing up his narrative’ he makes it evident that Nazareth, not Bethlehem, was the home of Joseph and Mary, and that the ‘enrolment,’ originating in a decree of Caesar Augustus, was the occasion of the journey from Nazareth within a little time of the expected birth. 4 is the generally accepted year of Herod’s death, the possibility of a governorship of Quirinius at the time of the execution of the decree of Caesar Augustus is thereby excluded. A Volumnius is named in relation to Sentius Saturninus as ‘the hegemon of Caesar’ (Schürer, HJP
There was another remarkable preparation for the world-census in the ordnance survey initiated by Julius Caesar, and completed only after 25 years of labour on the part of four of the greatest surveyors of the age. ...
The same moulding hand that built up the Empire can be traced in the modification through which Caesar-worship passed under Augustus. Firth, Augustus Caesar and the Organization of the Empire of Rome; Baring Gould, The Tragedy of the Caesars; T
pi'Late - One of his first acts was to remove the headquarters of the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem. The people poured down in crowds to Caesarea, where the procurator was then residing, and besought him to remove the images. Pilate then yielded, and the standards were by his orders brought down to Caesarea. We learn from Josephus that Pilate's anxiety to avoid giving offence to Caesar did not save him from political disaster
Rome, - Julius Caesar showed them some kindness; they were favored also by Augustus, and by Tiberius during the latter part of his reign. In illustration of that history it may be useful to give some account of Rome in the time of Nero, the "Caesar" to whom St. (Acts 28:30,31 ) It is generally believed that on his "appeal to Caesar" he was acquitted, and after some time spent in freedom, was a second time imprisoned at Rome. ( Acts 28:15 )  (2) "The palace," Or "Caesar's court" (praetorium,) (Philippians 1:13 ) This may mean either the great camp of the Praetorian guards which Tiberius established outside the walls on the northeast of the city, or, as seems more probable, a barrack attached to the imperial residence on the Palatine. (John 18:28 ; Acts 23:35 ) the mention of "Caesar's household," (Philippians 4:22 ) confirms the notion that St
Merom, Waters of - Huleh is the same as Ulatla, the region between Trachon and Galilee which Herod received from Caesar (Josephus Master - The use of κύριος for Nero makes ‘a polemical parallelism between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar’ (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, Eng
Magistrate (2) - Similarly, Christ taught that, the political circumstances being what they were, tribute should be paid to Caesar, the supreme magistrate (Matthew 22:21)
Ethnarch - 4), where Caesar Augustus makes Archelaus not βασιλεύς, but ἐθνάρχης, of half of the territory that had belonged to Herod, promising him the higher title later, if certain conditions were fulfilled; and in Pseudo-Lucian (Macrob
Image - The Lord when shown a penny asked 'whose image' is this? They said, Caesar's. It may also have been very much battered, as money often is, yet that would not have interfered with its being the image of Caesar: it represented him, and no one else
Hierocles (1), Neoplatonic Philosopher - 133) his name occurs as ruler of that city under Diocletian and Maximian, Galerius and Constantius being Caesars. Here he probably came in contact with Galerius and impressed the Caesar with a respect for his abilities on his famous Persian expedition, when the first seeds of the persecution were sown, 297–302
Decree - This word occurs only three times in the NT, once in the singular (Luke 2:1), where it is the decree of Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed, and twice in the plural (Acts 16:4; Acts 17:7), the reference in the one case being to the decisions of the Apostolic Church at Jerusalem, and in the other to the decrees of the Roman Emperors against treason
Caesarius, of Nazianzus - Caesarius ( 2 ), St. The name is simply a derivative from Caesar, originally adopted in compliment to the reigning family. the 10th); two letters addressed by Gregory to Caesarius and one to the Praeses Sophronius (numbered 17, 18, 19, or, more commonly, 50, 51, 52), and a few lines in the Carmen de Vitâ Suâ of the same. —According to the testimony of his brother, Caesarius owed much to the careful training received from his parents. The oration seems to depict Caesarius as from the first spurning all offers of Julian, but the letter severely rebukes Caesarius for becoming a member of the imperial household, and taking charge of the treasury. Caesarius, however, finally avowed himself a Christian, and broke with Julian. His conduct, together with that of Gregory, caused Julian to exclaim, "Oh happy father! oh unhappy sons!" Under subsequent emperors, more especially under Valens, Caesarius more than regained his former honours, and became a quaestor of Bithynia. 367 or 368, to which many distinguished men fell victims, induced Caesarius, at his brother's suggestion, to arrange for retirement from worldly cares. ...
The Πύστεις or Quaestiones ( sive Dialogi ) de Rebus Divinis, attributed to this physician, may be safely ascribed to some Caesarius. But the name was not an uncommon one, and some considerations seem to shew that the author was not Caesarius of Nazianzus
Master - The use of κύριος for Nero makes ‘a polemical parallelism between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar’ (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, Eng
Decree - This word occurs only three times in the NT, once in the singular (Luke 2:1), where it is the decree of Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed, and twice in the plural (Acts 16:4; Acts 17:7), the reference in the one case being to the decisions of the Apostolic Church at Jerusalem, and in the other to the decrees of the Roman Emperors against treason
Trial of Jesus - ...
Pilate interrogated Jesus long enough to be convinced that He was no political rival to Caesar (John 18:33-37 ). ...
When Pilate seemed to waver one more time concerning crucifixion, the Jews threatened to report his conduct to Caesar (John 19:12 )
Hypocrisy - Luke noted that the religious leaders pretended to be sincere when they asked Jesus about paying tribute to Caesar (Luke 20:20 )
Hadad - 31), friend of Augustus Caesar (Josephus, Mouth - ...
I'll bellow out for Rome and for my country, ...
And mouth at Caesar, till I shake the senate
Wages - In the time of Julius Caesar, a foot soldier received ⅔ of a denarius a day
Tribute - Matthew 22:16-17 , &c, the answer that Jesus Christ returned to the Pharisee, who came with an insidious design of tempting him, and asked him, whether or not it was lawful to pay tribute to Caesar? and in John 8:33 , where the Jews boast of having never been slaves to any body, of being a free nation, that acknowledged God only for master and sovereign
Mean - The Roman legions and great Caesar found ...
Our fathers no mean foes
Council - The confirmation and execution of a capital sentence rested with the Roman procurator, from whence they took Jesus before Pontius Pilate on a different charge from that of blasphemy, for which the Sanhedrin condemned Him, namely, that of treason against Caesar, the only one which Pilate would have entertained
Pilate, Pontius - The New Testament refers to him as “governor,” while other sources call him “procurator” or “prefect” (an inscription found in Caesarea in 1961). He broke all precedent by bringing into Jerusalem military insignia bearing the image of Caesar in flagrant defiance of Jewish law
Salt - ’ The meaning of the word is usually indicated by the context in which it occurs: ‘Sale vero et facetiis Caesar … vicit omnes’ (Cic
Salamis - Their numbers were doubtless greatly increased in the time of Herod the Great, when ‘Caesar made him a present of half the copper mines in Cyprus, and committed the care of the other half to him’ (Jos
Master - Caesar, the world's great master and his own
Antichrist - In Revelation, the Roman Caesar is the evil force
Ptolemais - Ptolemais had an era dating from a visit of Julius Caesar in 47 b. Paul touched it in sailing from Tyre to Caesarea (Acts 21:7). Philip the Evangelist, who laboured in Caesarea, has been suggested
Titus (Emperor) - Titus, who was officially styled sometimes Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus, sometimes Imperator Titus Vespasianus Caesar Augustus, was originally named Titus Flavius Vespasianus. Later he retired to Ptolemais, then to Caesarea on the coast, and afterwards to Caesarea Philippi, Scythopolis, and Tiberias. Return home by sea was impossible during the winter, and Titus went from Caesarea Philippi to Caesarea Stratonis, then to Berytos. Titus’ fondness for her, though she was thirteen years his senior (see Berenice), was notorious; but the Romans had still much of the same strong feeling against close association between their rulers and foreign women that they had shown in the days of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra, and Titus felt compelled to dismiss her. ; Suetonius, Titus; Sextus Aurelius Victor, de Caesaribus Liber; numerous inscriptions collected to 1901 in H
Roman Law - Most important of all is the right of “appeal to Caesar” and trial at Rome (Acts 25:10-12 ). While Roman citizens possessed the right of appeal to Caesar, provincial subjects had little to protect them against abuses of the life and death power wielded by proconsuls and lesser governors such as Pilate. A Roman citizen who felt that the ordo was misapplied could appeal to Caesar
Augustus - Atius Balbus and Julia, the sister of the great dictator Julius Caesar. Though only eighteen and a half years of age, he, having been adopted into the Julian family by the will of his grand-uncle, whose heir he was at the same time constituted, took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, and immediately left for Italy, to claim not only the private but also the public inheritance of his grand-uncle. article Caesar
Joppa - Augustus Caesar added it to the kingdom of Herod the Great
Games (2) - 1) to have instituted solemn games in honour of Caesar; but such practices never won the approval of the Rabbis, or of the nation as a whole
Alexandrian Library - In the war which Julius Caesar waged with the inhabitants of Alexandria, the library of Bruchion was accidentally, but unfortunately, burnt
Quirinius - 12, for he was then consul at Rome; and even if it were of any service, we cannot place him later, for he became tutor of Caius Caesar and governor of Asia; so that there is a difficulty in fixing his earlier period of holding office in Syria, if, indeed, he was twice governor. 2, when he became rector to Caius Caesar
Man of Sin - Paul, not only because it had not yet begun to persecute the Church, but because he sincerely respected its authority as a power ordained of God (Romans 13:1-7), and did not hesitate to appeal to Caesar himself against his Jewish enemies (Acts 25:10 f. ...
(2) The other and more probable theory, accordingly, takes the man of lawlessness to be anti-Christian Judaism coming to a head in the person of a pseudo-Messiah, and the restraining power to be the Roman Empire personified in the Caesar himself
Bethsaida - It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, though it frequently occurs in the New: the reason is, that it was but a village, as Josephus tells us, till Philip the tetrarch enlarged it, making it a magnificent city, and gave it the name of Julias, out of respect to Julia, the daughter of Augustus Caesar. ...
The evangelists speak of Bethsaida; and yet it then possessed that name no longer: it was enlarged and beautified nearly at the same time as Caesarea, and called Julias
Caesarea Philippi - (cawehss uh ree' uh fihl' ihp pi) About 1,150 feet above sea level, Caesarea Philippi is located on a triangular plain in the upper Jordan Valley along the southwestern slopes of Mt. ...
History Caesarea Philippi seems to have been a religious center from its earliest days. Philip rebuilt the city into a beautiful place and renamed it Caesarea Philippi in honor of Tiberias Caesar and himself. ...
The transfiguration, which occurred about a week after the confession at Caesarea Philippi, was probably also in the area. Caesarea Philippi, which had been the center for pagan worship, thus became an important site for Christians because of Jesus' association with it
Abimelech - ) A common title of many Philistine kings, as Pharaoh of the Egyptians, and Caesar and Augustus of the Roman: Padishah (father king) is similarly a title of the Persian king
Asiarch - Paul, whose preaching so threatened the authority of Artemis, may have appeared in a favourable light to the representatives of Caesar-worship, as likely to create more enthusiasm in that direction
Throne - ) Tiridates, in this manner, did homage to Nero, laying the ensigns of his royalty at the statue of Caesar, to receive them again from his hand. In the inauguration of the Byzantine Caesars, when the emperor comes to receive the sacrament, he puts off his crown
Pavement - Julius Caesar is described by Suctonius (Vit. 3: καθίσας ἐπὶ βήματος ἐν τῷ μεγάλῳ σταδίῳ) has been cited in support of a view that Pilate used ‘the open market-place’ (so Whiston, followed by many) at Jerusalem for the administration of justice; but the passage refers to Caesarea, and the rendering of στάδιον as a synonym of ἀγορά is not well established. 5), as did also the procurator at Caesarea (Acts 23:35)
Nero - In the year 50 Claudius adopted Domitius, who thus became Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus Caesar (according to another view, Lucius Claudius Nero). Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, or, as he is later called, Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, was saluted Imperator by the soldiers, and their acclamation was ratified by the Senate. With him the Caesarian race, weakened by intermarriage, debauchery, and madness, came to an end. Haverfield have recently pointed out (see under Literature) that this opinion, put into the mouth of the Emperor Trajan by the late compiler Aurelius Victor (Liber de Caesaribus, ch
Priscillianus And Priscillianism, Priscillian - At length a synod was to be held at Caesar-Augusta (Saragossa) on the Ebro, a site sufficiently far north from the localities where the Priscillianists and the orthodox were in hostility to be neutral ground, and also having the advantage of nearness to Gaul. At Trèves resided the Caesar who ruled Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Priscillian resolved to forestall the expected hostile judgment and "appeal unto Caesar. Their "appeal unto Caesar" was truly an appeal to a pitiless Nero
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - 331; appointed Caesar, Nov. Julian as Caesar from Nov. In this tragedy there perished the father and eldest brother of Julian, his paternal uncle, his cousins the Caesars Delmatius and Hanniballian, and four other members of the family. ...
In the spring of 351 Constantius felt himself forced by the burden of empire to take a colleague, and Gallus was appointed Caesar. Julian as Caesar (from Nov. Constantius soon returned, and determined, under the persevering pressure of his wife and notwithstanding strong opposition, to give the dignity of Caesar to his sole remaining relative (Amm. ...
During the next five years the young Caesar appears as a strenuous and successful general and a popular ruler. His table was very plainly furnished, and he refused all the luxuries which Constantius had written down for him as proper for a Caesar's board (Amm. ...
The irritation against Constantius was further increased by an arrogant letter, addressed of course to the Caesar Julian, requiring his immediate submission and merely promising him his life
Veil - ’ Compare Plutarch’s account of the prodigies which foreshadowed the murder of Caesar
Guard - 57) indicates that the proper course to take with a certain Bithynian prisoner is to hand him over in chains ‘ad praefectos praetorii mei,’ and the case seems to be parallel to that of the Apostle, who made an appeal unto Caesar (Acts 25:11; Acts 25:21)
Spain - ), and by the days of Cicero and Caesar the southern districts were almost wholly Italian
Caesarea - a city and port of Palestine, built by Herod the Great, and thus called in honour of Augustus Caesar. At Caesarea the Prophet Agabus foretold that Paul would be bound and persecuted at Jerusalem. Lastly, the Apostle himself continued two years a prisoner at Caesarea, till he was conducted to Rome. When Judea was reduced to the state of a Roman province, Caesarea became the stated residence of the proconsul, which accounts for the circumstance of Paul being carried thither from Jerusalem, to defend himself. By day break, the next morning, we were off the coast of Caesarea; and so near with the land that we could very distinctly perceive the appearance of its numerous and extensive ruins. Pococke mentions the curious fact of the former existence of crocodiles in the river of Caesarea. Perhaps there has not been in the history of the world an example of any city, that in so short a space of time rose to such an extraordinary height of splendour as did this of Caesarea; or that exhibits a more awful contrast to its former magnificence, by the present desolate appearance of its ruins. It was named Caesarea by Herod, in honour of Augustus, and dedicated by him to that emperor, in the twenty-eighth year of his reign
Veil - ’ Compare Plutarch’s account of the prodigies which foreshadowed the murder of Caesar
Family - ...
(c) οἰκία is similarly used for a ‘household’ in Philippians 4:22 (Caesar), Matthew 10:13; Matthew 12:25,John 4:53 (the Capernaum royal officer), 1 Corinthians 16:15 (Stephanas); and therefore for ‘possessions’ in the phrase ‘widows’ houses,’ Mark 12:40,1 Peter 3:1-71 and inferior Manuscripts of Matthew 23:14. ...
Under this head we may notice four households mentioned in the NT: the ‘household of Caesar’ (ἠ Καίσαρος οἰκία), Philippians 4:22; ‘they of Aristobulus,’ Romans 16:10; ‘they of Narcissus,’ Romans 16:11; and ‘they of Chloe,’ 1 Corinthians 1:11. For the last see above (b); but the first three households wore probably all part of the Imperial ‘family’ at Rome, That ‘Caesar’s household’ does not necessarily or even probably mean near relations of the Emperor is shown by Light-foot (Philippians, p. ); the meaning seems to be ‘the slaves and freedmen of Caesar. 425), and that their households were absorbed in that of Caesar, but still retained their old names, ‘They of Aristobulus1 would be equivalent to ‘Aristobuliani,’ and ‘they of Narcissus’ to ‘Narcissiani
Rome And the Roman Empire - The senate lost political control of the state, and into that vacuum Julius Caesar stepped with ambitions of control that the senate found intolerable. Caesar's generals, Antony and Lepidus along with Caesar's heir Octavian, formed a temporary ruling triumvirate. They defeated Caesar's assassins in the battle at Philippi in 42 B. took the name: Augustus Caesar. Augustus added another forum to the already existing Roman Forum and Forum of (Julius) Caesar
Constantinus i - The Caesares and the Epitome , current under the name of Aurelius Victor, were doubtless the work of different authors. Augustae contain several contemporary references to Constantine; those in Julian's Caesars are, as might be expected, unfriendly and satirical. A few years later we find him high in favour with Carus, who intended, it was said, to make him Caesar. His father, on becoming Caesar and taking another wife, sent him, when about 16 years old, as a sort of hostage to Diocletian at Nicomedia, who treated him with kindness. In 307 Maximian, who had quarrelled with his son, crossed the Alps and allied himself with the Caesar of the West
Claudius - Claudius, or, to give him his full Imperial style, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (to which the honorary titles Britannicus and Sarmaticus Troas - 79), Julius Caesar had thoughts of making it the capital of the Empire instead of Rome, and Augustus may have played with the same idea (Hor
Reform - When asked about the lawfulness of tribute, He said, ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s’ (Matthew 22:21)
Mari - This era in Mesopotamian history has been compared by one noted historian to the age of Pericles in Greek history or of Caesar Augustus in Rome
Alexandrians - 90) one could still see standing in Alexandria ‘the pillar containing the privileges which the great Caesar (Julius) bestowed upon the Jews’ (τὴν στήλην … τὰ δικαιώματα περιέχουσαν ἃ Καῖσαρ ὁ μέγας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ἔδωκεν Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria - ; Baronius (Caesar), Annales Ecclesiastici (Barri Ducis, 1864, 4to, tom
Herod - He was the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, who was in high favor with Julius Caesar
Maximinus ii., Emperor - Those emperors were succeeded as Augusti by GALERIUS and CONSTANTIUS, who appointed as Caesars Daza, under the name of Maximinus, and Severus. 306) Galerius assigned the provinces beyond the Alps to Constantine, but conferred the vacant title of Augustus on Severus, leaving that of Caesar to Constantine and Maximin. Heralds were sent through Caesarea ordering all men to sacrifice to the gods, and on his refusal, Appian, a youth of twenty, was tortured and slain. Ulpian and his brother Aedesius were slain at Tyre, Agapius was thrown into the amphitheatre at Caesarea to fight with a bear and so lacerated that he died the next day
Image - the worship of the bust of Caesar. ), and its counterpart, a monster from the land (afterwards described as the false prophet), who represents the Caesar-cult and its priests in the Eastern provinces
Domitian - Henceforth his title was Imperator Caesar Domitianus (Domitianus Caesar) Augustus
Games - Orthodox Jews were repelled by nude athletes and games dedicated to Caesar
Joppa - 4); and Julius Caesar decreed ‘that the city of Joppa, which the Jews had originally when they made a league of friendship with the Romans, shall belong to them as it formerly did’ (x. Peter, always impulsive and uncalculating, went straight to pagan Caesarea, and delivered a speech which opened the gates of Christ’s Church to ‘every nation’ (Acts 10:35)
Armour - ), and Julius Caesar to those of Palestine (ib. The Roman auxiliaries who garrisoned Judaea were recruited wholly from the Greek cities of Palestine, such as Sebaste and Caesarea
Vespasian - 69 to 24th June (other authorities, 23rd July) 79, and ruled under the style Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (sometimes Imperator Vespasianus Caesar Augustus). He sprang from an obscure family, his grandfather having been a citizen of the Sabine country-town Reate, who served as a centurion on the side of Pompey against Julius Caesar in the Civil War till the battle of Pharsalus (48 b. On 5th July Vespasian left for Ptolemais, and thence he went to Caesarea on the coast. Vespasian himself joined Herod Agrippa at Caesarea Philippi, and after twenty days marched against the cities Tarichea and Tiberias, which had revolted from him. Titus brought the army from Caesarea and met his father at Scythopolis. ...
One legion being sent to Scythopolis, with the other two he marched again to Caesarea on the coast. Having heard reports of the rising of Vindex in Gaul, he returned hurriedly from Caesarea by Antipatris, Thamna, Lydda, and Jamnia to Ammaus, where he established one of his legions. ...
On returning to Caesarea he learned of Nero’s murder. Leaving Herod to go on his way, Titus returned to Vespasian at Caesarea. On returning to Caesarea from a short journey to the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, Vespasian learned that Vitellius had become Emperor, having been recognized as such by the senate on 19th April. Domitian was welcomed by the army as Caesar, and the next day the senate recognized Vespasian as Emperor
Nationality - Although He allowed the rights of Caesar (Matthew 22:21), and authorized His disciples to pay the tribute-money that was due, He reserved the right to consider it an unrighteous infliction (Matthew 17:26). ’ It was on the charge of having spoken against Caesar (Luke 23:2) that Pilate was induced to condemn Jesus (John 19:12; John 19:16)
Lasciviousness - From the imperial Caesar down to the horde of slaves, it seemed as though every class of society had abandoned itself to the horrid practices of lust’ (G
Italy - At a later time, it is true, Gallia Cisalpina was officially regarded as part of Caesar’s province, and therefore not strictly in Italy, which he did not enter till he crossed the Rubicon; but from the Augustan Age onward the word had its present-day meaning. ...
Italy was the destination of the prisoner Paul when he made his appeal to Caesar (Acts 27:1). The narrative of his journey from point to point-Caesarea, Myra, Melita, Puteoli, and then overland by the oldest and most famous of Roman roads, the Via Appia-illustrates the fact that ‘most of the realms of the ancient Roman Empire had better connections than ever afterwards or even now
Fear - To this fear it gives a special name, calling it not φόβος but δειλία (2 Timothy 1:7), a fearfulness which is synonymous with cowardice, and the fearful (δειλοί, Revelation 21:8), who prove apostates in the hour of danger, denying Christ and worshipping Caesar, stand first in the black list of those who go down to the second death
Aretas - ...
Augustus ‘was angry that Aretas had not sent to him first before he took the kingdom; yet did aeneas send an epistle and presents to Caesar, and a crown of gold of the weight of many talents
Rome - The dictatorship and the oligarchy led naturally to the monarchy, of which Julius Caesar was the first acknowledged exponent
Fear - To this fear it gives a special name, calling it not φόβος but δειλία (2 Timothy 1:7), a fearfulness which is synonymous with cowardice, and the fearful (δειλοί, Revelation 21:8), who prove apostates in the hour of danger, denying Christ and worshipping Caesar, stand first in the black list of those who go down to the second death
Dispersion - Amongst their friends must also be included Julius Caesar, who with the prescience of genius saw in them the true connecting link between the East and West, and would not have relished their being made the butt of Roman wits. Iulius Caesar, 84) reminds us of the mourning of the Jews in London for Edward VII. ’...
That Julius Caesar had regarded them as his friends was not forgotten by those who came after him. The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad
Dispersion - Amongst their friends must also be included Julius Caesar, who with the prescience of genius saw in them the true connecting link between the East and West, and would not have relished their being made the butt of Roman wits. Iulius Caesar, 84) reminds us of the mourning of the Jews in London for Edward VII. ’...
That Julius Caesar had regarded them as his friends was not forgotten by those who came after him. The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad
King, Christ as - ...
The New Testament In the time of Herod king of Judea ( Matthew 2:1 ; Luke 1:5 ) and Caesar Augustus who reigned over the Roman world (Luke 2:1 ), Jesus was born. This emphasis upon Jesus Christ the King brought persecution to the church, for Jesus was viewed as a rival to Caesar and the laws of the Roman Empire
Decrees - The decree of Caesar Augustus for a census (Luke 2:1 ) is providentially used to ensure the fulfillment of the prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2 ; cf
Matthew (2) - Yet the fact that he belonged to the publican class, among whom were Jews who outraged patriotism by gathering tribute for Caesar, subjected him to the scorn of the Pharisees and their party (cf
Corinth - It was afterward restored to its former splendour by Julius Caesar. A late French writer, who visited this country, observes, "When the Caesars rebuilt the walls of Corinth, and the temples of the gods rose from their ruins more magnificent than ever, an obscure architect was rearing in silence an edifice which still remains standing amidst the ruins of Greece
Roman Empire - -The next stage in the growth of the Roman Empire is the acquisition of Gaul, which corresponds roughly to modern France, by the generalship of Gains Julius Caesar (58-49 b. Caesar was one of the three most powerful men in the State, but was without means, and was anxious to obtain a command which would enable him to emulate Pompey’s achievements in the East and eventually obtain supreme power. The details of Caesar’s stubborn campaigns need not be here entered into. Mauritania was taken over and afterwards (under Claudius) divided into two provinces, named Caesariensis and Tingitana. Britain had been invaded twice by Julius Caesar, but had never been conquered, still less annexed. Hamilton, A Junior History of Rome to the Death of Caesar, 1910
Jesus Christ - We learn that Jesus lived during the reign of Tiberius Caesar (a. ...
A census decreed by Caesar Augustus sent Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem where, during the last years of Herod the Great, Jesus was born to the acclaim of angels and shepherds. Fourth, during Jesus' second trip outside of Galilee, he disclosed at Caesarea Philippi and at his transfiguration who he really was and what his ultimate task was to be (Mark 8:27-38 ; 9:2 ). They charged that Jesus had actively misled the people, opposed payment of taxes to Caesar, and claimed to be the Messiah, a king (Luke 23:2 ). With mingled contempt and fear, Pilate granted them their wish when they accused him of being unfaithful to Caesar, by allowing one who claimed to be a king to live
Revelation, Theology of - The choice was between Caesar and Christ. The policy of beheading any who refuse to worship Caesar (20:4) is depicted as a war against Christ and the saints (11:7; 13:7; 16:14,16; 17:14; 19:19). Elsewhere hearers are warned against, among other things, idolatry (9:20; 21:8) and telling lies (14:5; 21:8,27), reminders that were apropos when Christians were induced to honor images of Caesar
Tiberius - In 48 he distinguished himself as quaestor and admiral of the fleet to Julius Caesar in the Alexandrian war. For the historian Luke tells us that it was in the 15th year of the rule of Tiberius Caesar that ‘the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias’ (Luke 3:1-2)
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - It is an undesigned coincidence confirming the authenticity of the history and of the epistles that the very charge which Jason's assailants brought against the brethren was "these do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus" (Acts 17:5-9). So in Jesus' own case they perverted His doctrine of His coming kingdom into a charge of treason against Caesar
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - Between these two events Constantius named his cousin, Gallus, Caesar and attended the first council of Sirmium. At the end of the same year, 355, he determined to make his younger brother, Julian, Caesar in his place, putting him over the provinces of Gaul, and marrying him to his sister Helena
Corinth - ...
Julius Caesar rebuilt the city in 44 B
False Worship - However, the Christian standard was to “render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's” (Luke 20:25 )
Burial - ...
Fine ranges of tombs, said to be of the kings, judges, and prophets, still remain near Jerusalem; but these, many think, are the tomb of Helena, the widow of the king of Adiabene, who settled at Jerusalem and relieved poor Jews in the famine foretold by Agabus under Claudius Caesar
Idolatry - After the death of Julius Caesar a temple in his honour was erected at Ephesus (29 b
Army - The time for great field forces, such as Scipio and Caesar had wielded, was now past. ...
As Judaea was a province of the second rank, governed by a procurator, it was not (like Syria) garrisoned by legionaries, but by auxiliaries, who had their headquarters in Caesarea. Julius Caesar’s edict granting this privilege is preserved by Josephus (Ant. 44), an ala of cavalry and five cohorts were stationed at Caesarea (Jos. Paul’s arrest at Jerusalem and transference to Caesarea (Acts 21-23) certainly belonged to the Judaea n auxilia. At the Jewish festivals a stronger body of troops was drafted from Caesarea for the purpose of keeping order among the pilgrims in the crowded Temple precincts, as the Turkish soldiers now do at Easter among the Christian sects in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Paul was escorted from Jerusalem to Antipatris by 200 foot-soldiers, 70 horsemen (ἱππεῖς), and 200 spearmen (δεξιολάβοι), and thence to Caesarea by the horsemen alone
Prison - , that of the apostle Peter in Acts 12:3-10, and that of the apostle Paul at Jerusalem, Caesarea, and Rome. (2) The discovery of the plot aiming at his assassination led to his being transferred to Caesarea, where he was detained for upwards of two years in the praetorium of Herod, now the residence of the procurator (Acts 23:35). (3) On his being transferred to Rome, as the result of his appeal to Caesar, a still larger measure of liberty was granted him
Nation (2) - temples of Caesar) in many towns’ outside Judaea (Josephus Ant. His strength lay in his bodyguard of 3000, who were drawn from the Samaritan population, and in the fortified palaces which he built at Jerusalem and Caesarea. Being an Imperial province, the taxes of Judaea were paid to the account not of the Senate, but of Caesar (Mark 12:14)
Sin - 1 (c)]'>; in 1 John 5:16 (twice) the present tense indicates the condition resulting from an act, "unto death" signifying "tending towards death;" (b) against Christ, 1 Corinthians 8:12 ; (c) against man, (1) a brother, Matthew 18:15 , RV, "sin" (AV, "tresspass"); Matthew 18:21 ; Luke 17:3,4 , RV, "sin" (AV, "trespass"); 1 Corinthians 8:12 ; (2) in Luke 15:18,21 , against the father by the Prodigal Son, "in thy sight" being suggestive of befitting reverence; (d) against Jewish law, the Temple, and Caesar, Acts 25:8 , RV, "sinned" (AV, "offended"); (e) against one's own body, by fornication, 1 Corinthians 6:18 ; (f) against earthly masters by servants, 1 Peter 2:20 , RV, "(when) ye sin (and are buffeted for it)," AV, "(when ye be buffeted) for your faults," lit
Time (2) - The one date given with any apparent precision is in Luke 3:1 ‘in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar
Trajan - The aged Nerva on 27th October 97 adopted him as his son and successor, and he thus took the name Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus
Jealousy (2) - by paying tribute to Caesar) as a form of treason
Galerius, Emperor - Without education or virtues, he raised himself by undoubted military gifts, until he was selected (together with Constantius) by Diocletian to fill the office of Caesar of the East in Diocletian's famous scheme for the reorganization of the empire, a. Five years after his call to the Caesarship (a
World - Before Jesus' birth Caesar Augustus attempted to take a census of "the whole world" (really only the Roman Empire Luke 2:1 )
Fast, the - ) when sailing was regarded as attended with great risk (Caesar, Bell
Rome - Julius Caesar, after crossing the Rubicon and thus declaring civil war, forced his way in and seized £300,000 of coined money, as well as 15,000 gold and 30,000 silver ingots. It was constructed by Julius Caesar. it was again restored by yet another aemilius-it was a sort of monument of this family-with Julius Caesar’s approval and at his expense. From this platform many a historic speech, many a funeral oration, including that of Mark Antony on Julius Caesar, was delivered. and was dedicated, though not yet finished, by the dictator Julius Caesar on the day of the celebration of the victory over his Pompeian enemies at Thapsus in 46 b
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - Maximianus Herculius was made Caesar in 285, and Augustus in 286, as is shewn by coins and inscriptions (cf. In 292 a further partition of the empire took place by the appointment of two Caesars, Constantius Chlorus (the father of Constantine) and Galerius Maximianus. When Constantius was made Caesar in 292, Maximian's half of the empire was subdivided. de Caesar, xxxix. Probably it was in some special and local persecution carried out under the orders of Maximianus Herculius while he was sole ruler of the West, before Constantius was appointed Caesar in 292, and much before the general persecution authorized by the edicts of Diocletian in 303. It is very unlikely that he could have of himself given such a philosophical explanation of the Homoousion as he did (see the letter addressed by Eusebius to the Christians at Caesarea and preserved by Socrates, H
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - After a year he was removed to an island, where he remained 18 months, when the Caesar Tiberius ordered his release. 3) that he has already written a history of the church, "beginning from the times of Julius Caesar, as far as to the sixth year of the reign of Justin II
Census - ...
The discovery of the household-enrolment papers in Egypt throws light on the statement of Luke 2:1 ‘there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled
Rome, Romans - Other important buildings in the immediate neighbourhood were the Temple of Janus, the Temple of Caesar, the Arch of Augustus, the Temple of Vesta, the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and the Temple of Saturn, where was the treasury, with the Tabularium (record-office) behind. In the Imperial period four additional fora were built, devoted entirely to legal, literary, and religious purposes—the Forum Julium begun by Julius Caesar, the Forum Augustum built by Augustus, the Forum Transitorium completed by Nerva, and the Forum Trajani built by Trajan, the most splendid work of Imperial times
Antichrist - That Nero is referred to in Revelation 13:18 is most probable, the number 666 being the equivalent of Nero Caesar (ΝΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ) when written in Heb. It is most probable that the false prophet represents the Imperial priesthood as propagandists of the Caesar-cult, but it seems not unlikely that elements in the representation are taken from the legend that had grown up around the name of Simon Magus (cf
Thessalonica - The Messianic hope cherished by every devout Israelite was counted no crime, yet the actual proclamation of ‘another king, Jesus,’ is set down as an act of open rebellion, and the Jews of Thessalonica, like those of Jerusalem, have no king but Caesar
King - The rule ("one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee," Deuteronomy 17:15) that no stronger should reign gives point to the question (See JESUS CHRIST), Matthew 22:17, "is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar?" (Jeremiah 30:21)
Friend, Friendship - When the Jews accuse Pilate of not being "a friend of Caesar" (John 19:12 ), they are questioning his loyalty to the emperor
je'Sus Christ - At the time of Christ's birth Augustus Caesar was emperor of Rome, and Herod the Great king of Judea, but subject of Rome
Gods - Castor, Pollux, Helena, and Iris, have also been preferred from meteors to be gods; and the like has been practised in regard to comets: witness that which appeared at the murder of Caesar
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - Severus (2), Aurelius Alexander, emperor, born at Arca Caesarea in Syria, Oct. Created Caesar by the emperor in 221; on Feb
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - ...
After living with Constantius some 20 years Helena was divorced on the occasion of his elevation to the dignity of Caesar in 292; the Augustus Maximian, in choosing him for his colleague, requiring this, as a matter of policy, in order that Constanius might marry his own step-daughter, Theodora (Eutrop. 22; Victor, de Caesaribus , 39; Epitome , 54)—a proceeding which has parallels in Roman history. nobilissima femina , with a head on one side and a star in a laurel crown upon the other, perhaps struck in her honour whilst Constantine was still Caesar. ...
The following inscription from Salerno marks the power of Helena in her son's court: "To our sovereign lady Flavia Augusta Helena, the most chaste wife of the divine Constantius, the mother of our Lord Constantine, the greatest, most pious and victorious Augustus, the grandmother of our Lords Crispus and Constantine and Constantius, the most blessed and fortunate Caesars, this is erected by Alpinius Magnus, vir clarissimus, corrector of Lucania and Bruttii, devoted to her excellence and piety" (Mommsen, u
Philippians - If Philippians was written from Caesarea, we would assign a date in the late 50s; if from Ephesus, the mid-50s. Acts records Pauline imprisonments in Caesarea and in Rome. Reference to Caesar's household (Philippians 4:22 ), the praetorium or palace guard (Philippians 1:13 NIV), as well as the ability to receive visitors ( Acts 28:16 ,Acts 28:16,28:30-31 ) like Epaphroditus and the possibility of execution (Philippians 1:20-26 ) seem to mesh well with the imprisonment described in the closing verses of Acts. A provincial governor's guard occupied a “praetorium,” and the governor's residence was termed “Caesar's household. ...
A Caesarean origin for Philippians has had fewer supporters over the years. Its detractors point out Paul's intent to go to Rome (not visit Philippi) upon his release and doubt that Paul ever feared execution in Caesarea, as Philippians implies, since he always had the option of appealing to Caesar
Messiah - In the Synoptic Gospels the way Jesus acted and spoke led naturally to the dialogue at Caesarea Philippi ( Mark 8:29 ). Pilate sentenced Him as a messianic pretender who claimed (according to the false charges brought against Him) to be a rival to Caesar (Mark 15:9 ; Luke 23:2 ; John 19:14-15 )
Macedonia - During the time of Augustus, some of the Macedonian cities were refounded as Roman colonies: Dion, at the foot of Mount Olympus, became Colonia Julia Augusta Diensis; Philip pi , where Marc Antony had defeated the assassins of Caesar—Brutus and Cassius—was settled with Roman veterans and renamed Colonia Augusta Julia Philip pensium
Liberty (2) - ’ There are times when Christ seems deliberately to lead His hearers, and especially the formalists among them, into problems that find no solution in ‘the Law,’ but that compel an exercise of liberty of judgment, as in the ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s’ (Luke 20:25,2 Corinthians 3:6-89), ‘the baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?’ (Luke 20:4), and the question, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath day, or not?’ (Mark 3:4,Luke 6:9; Luke 14:3)
Samaria - ...
Travellers give the following account of its present state:—Sebaste is the name which Herod gave to the name of the ancient Samaria, the imperial city of the ten tribes, in honour of Augustus (Sebastos) Caesar, when he rebuilt and fortified it, converting the greater part of it into a citadel, and erecting here a noble temple
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - " The whole period (after an idea common in Augustine) is divided into six ages, ending with Noah, Abraham, Samuel, Zedekiah, Julius Caesar, Heraclius. The angered king who sent his armies and destroyed those murderers and burnt up their city is interpreted of God the Father, who sent Vespasian Caesar to destroy Jerusalem
Sadducees (2) - They thought to inveigle Him with the Roman power by asking whether it was lawful to give tribute to Caesar (Luke 20:22), and they attempted to discredit His teaching by presenting to Him the problem of the woman who had been married to seven brethren, and asking whose wife she should be in the resurrection; but they only brought upon themselves discomfiture, and the reproof that they knew neither the Scriptures nor the power of God (Matthew 22:23 ||)
Claim - His kingdom is declared to be entirely distinct from that of the world, and it is only when challenged on a question of right conduct that He lays down the principle that whatever Caesar has an undisputed claim upon ought to be regarded as his, and whatever belongs to God should be rendered to Him only
Mary - An edict of Caesar Augustus having decreed, that all subjects of the empire should go to their own cities, to register their names according to their families, Joseph and Mary, who were both of the lineage of David, went to Bethlehem, from whence sprung their family
Peraea - 39 by Caius Caesar, who added his tetrarchy to the dominions of Agrippa (Ant
Province - Dickson, The Provinces of the Roman Empire from Caesar to Diocletian, 2 vols
Temptation - ...
Tests or trials which were not felt by Jesus as temptations, but which were intended by His enemies either to discredit Him with the multitude or to obtain some ground of accusation against Him, were the questions addressed to Him about the tribute to Caesar, the resurrection, and the greatest commandment (John 6:6,), and divorce (Matthew 19:3)
Blasphemy (2) - Therefore a third charge, never mentioned in the Jewish trial,—laesae majestatis, treason against Caesar,—was concocted for use at the Roman trial
Herod - In the civil war between the republican and Caesarian parties, Herod joined Cassius, and was made governor of Coelo-Syria; and when Mark Antony arrived victorious in Syria, Herod and his brother found means to ingratiate themselves with him, and were appointed as tetrarchs in Judea; but in a short time an invasion of Antigonus, who was aided by the Jews, obliged Herod to make his escape from Jerusalem, and retire first to Idumea, and then to Egypt. Hyrcanus had been for a considerable time prince and high priest of the Jewish nation; but while the Roman empire was in an unsettled state, after the death of Julius Caesar, Antigonus, son of Aristobulus, brother of Hyrcanus, made himself master of the city and all Judea. He next built Samaria, which he named Sebaste, and adorned it with the most sumptuous edifices; and for his security he built several fortresses throughout the whole of Judea, of which the principal was called Caesarea, in honour of the emperor. Another act deserving of notice, performed by Herod, was the dedication of his new city of Caesarea, at which time he displayed such profuse magnificence, that Augustus said his soul was too great for his kingdom
Temptation - ...
Tests or trials which were not felt by Jesus as temptations, but which were intended by His enemies either to discredit Him with the multitude or to obtain some ground of accusation against Him, were the questions addressed to Him about the tribute to Caesar, the resurrection, and the greatest commandment (Matthew 22:15-40), and divorce (Matthew 19:3)
Herod - HEROD THE GREAT (Matthew 2; Luke 1:5), second son of Antipater (who was appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea, 47 B. He built a theater and amphitheater, and introduced pagan games in honour of Caesar every fifth year at Jerusalem. He rebuilt Samaria and its temple, and called it Sebaste (Greek for Augusta) in honour of Augustus; also Caesarea on the site of Straton, and made provision at it for pagan worship. So Pilate's usual residence was at Caesarea, the abode of the Roman governors of Judea ( Caesarea Philippi at the site of Paneas, near the sources of the Jordan (Matthew 16:13). 44) he attended games at Caesarea "in behalf of the emperor's safety" (possibly on his return from Britain), according to Josephus (Acts 25:13 represents his losing no time in going to Caesarea to salute the new Roman governor
Samaria - In the Middle Ages there were colonies of them in Nâblus, Caesarea, Damascus, and Cairo. Its second period of royal splendour began when Augustus presented it to Herod the Great, who made it an impregnable fortress with a wall 2½ miles in circumference, built in it a magnificent temple to Divus Caesar, adorned it with public buildings, colonnades and gateways, settled in it thousands of his veterans along with people from the neighbourhood, and renamed it ‘Sebaste’ (=Augusta) in honour of his Imperial patron (Ant
Alexandria - ]'> of Alexander, the palaces of the Egyptian kings, the Temple of Poseidon, and, at a later date, the Caesarium† no'ah - Thus, for instance, it is said that " all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn and that" a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed
no'ah - Thus, for instance, it is said that " all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn and that" a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed
Galatia - ...
Like Caesar’s Gaul, the country was divided into three parts, formed by the rivers Halys and Sangarius. 1, 2, 4), contrived to seize the territories of the others, and, in spite of the hostility of Julius Caesar, ultimately got himself recognized as king of all Galatia. ...
John - ...
According to Luke, John began his ministry around the Jordan River in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar (Luke 3:1-3 ), which must have been A
Greece - New Corinth, Caesar’s Roman colony, the least Hellenic of the cities of Greece, became the seat of government. They preferred Pompey to Caesar, Brutus to Antony, and they were compelled in the end to raise levies for Antony’s campaign against Octavian
Martyr - It became a political crime through its incompatibility with Caesar-worship, its refusal to ‘worship the image of the beast’ (Revelation 13:15), which led the Roman authorities to regard it as anarchy
Diocletian, Emperor - 286 he chose Maximian as his colleague, gave him the title first of Caesar and then of Augustus, and sent him to command in the West, while he remained in the East, chiefly at Nicomedia, which he tried to make, by lavish outlay on its buildings, a new capital for the empire. 293 as Caesars under the two Augusti introduced new elements. The two Caesars were to become Augusti
Dates (2) - 1) was concluded in the 37th year of Caesar’s victory at Actium (a. 3, reckoning from the death of Julius Caesar b. The Baptism of Jesus might be settled, but not very approximately, by (1) the statement (Luke 3:23) that He was ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα ἀρχόμενος (at the beginning of His ministry); (2) the date of the Baptist’s preaching, Luke 3:1 ‘Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar … the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness’; and (3) by the retort of the Jews in John 2:20 ‘Forty and six years was this temple in building
Paul - He was,therefore, again urged to flee; and by way of Caesarea betook himself to his native city, Tarsus. Leaving Ephesus, he sailed to Caesarea, and from thence went up to Jerusalem, spring, A. From Tyre they sailed to Ptolemais, where they spent one day, and from Ptolemais proceeded, apparently by land, to Caesarea. They now "tarried many days" at Caesarea. At this stage a final effort was made to dissuade Paul from going up to Jerusalem, by the Christians of Caesarea and by his travelling companions. The chief captain, Claudius Lysias determined to send him to Caesarea to Felix, the governor or procurator of Judea. From thence a smaller detachment conveyed him to Caesarea, where they delivered up their prisoner into the hands of the governor. Imprisonment at Caesarea. Upon his arrival in the province, Festus went up without delay from Caesarea to Jerusalem, and the leading Jews seized the opportunity of asking that Paul might be brought up there for trial intending to assassinate him by the way. But Festus would not comply with their request, He invited them to follow him on his speedy return to Caesarea, and a trial took place there, closely resembling that before Felix. Paul's appeal to Caesar. "Agrippa"s final answer to the inquiry of Festus was, "This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar
Polycarp - Herod the irenarch (the chief of the municipal police) pressed him to do sacrifice: ‘What harm is there in saying: κύριος καῖσαρ (“Caesar is lord”)?’ He evidently wanted to suggest an equivocation to Polycarp, to save him (cf. The proconsul called upon Polycarp to swear by the fortune of Caesar (ὄμοσον τὴν καίσαρος τύχην) and to say: ‘Away with the atheists’ (αἶρε τοὺς ἀθέους)
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - Herod accompanied by his father Nicetes took Polycarp to sit in his carriage and both earnestly urged him to save his life: "Why what harm was it to say Lord Caesar and to sacrifice and so on and escape all danger?" Polycarp at first silent at last bluntly answered "I will not do as you would have me. The proconsul pressed Polycarp to have pity on his old age: "Swear by the fortune of Caesar say 'Away with the atheists!'"
Cross, Crucifixion - By the first century, however, it was used for any enemy of the state, though citizens could only be crucified by direct edict of Caesar
Corinth - The early Greek Corinth had been left desolate for 100 years; its merchants had withdrawn to Delos, and the presidency of the isthmian games had been transferred to Sicyon, when Julius Caesar refounded the city as a Roman colony
Luke, the Gospel According to - Luke, after being left behind at Luke 17:1, where the third person is resumed, went again with Paul to Asia (Luke 20:6) and to Jerusalem (Luke 21:15), and was with him in his captivity at Caesarea (Luke 24:23) and at Rome (Luke 28:16). Abruptly it closes without informing us of the result of his appeal to Caesar, doubtless because when he wrote no event subsequent to the two years had transpired; this was A. the Gospel, was probably written at Caesarea during Paul's imprisonment there, A
Luke, Gospel of - Agrippa remarked to Festus that Paul could have been freed if he had not appealed to Caesar (Acts 26:32 ). Luke was with Paul in Palestine in the late 50s, especially in Caesarea and Jerusalem (Acts 21:1-27:2 )
Jordanis, Historian of the Goths - Cyrus, Xerxes, Alexander the Great, Caesar and Tiberius are mentioned. of Caesarea, and then, fearing the emperor's wrath, took sanctuary in the basilica of St
Simon Magus - According to the Homilies, in the course of his wanderings Clement met Peter at Caesarea in Palestine. ...
In the Recognitions only one dispute is described-in Caesarea. There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called Gitta, who in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in him. For even among yourselves, as we said before, Simon was in the royal city Rome in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and so greatly astonished the sacred senate and people of the Romans, that he was considered a god, and honoured, like the others whom you honour as gods, with a statue
Jews - Julius Caesar confirmed Hyrcanus in the pontificate, and granted fresh privileges to the Jews; but about four years after the death of Julius Caesar, Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, with the assistance of the Parthians, while the empire of Rome was in an unsettled state, deposed his uncle Hyrcanus, (B. It was this younger Agrippa, who was also called king, before whom Paul pleaded at Caesarea, which was at that time the place of residence of the governor of Judea
Lord - But when politics invaded the sphere of religion and Caesar laid claim to the things that are Christ’s, it became the duty of the Christian to maintain the sovereignty of his Lord
Virgin Virginity - Had the words ‘with women’ been wanting, this meaning would be the natural one, and the reference would be to those who as the true bride of Christ refused to give worship to Caesar; but the words ‘with women’ make the literal interpretation practically certain, and the passage indicates not so much a depreciation of marriage as an ascetic horror of immorality. -(a) In Acts 21:9 we read of Philip the evangelist at Caesarea and his four virgin daughters who were prophetesses
Money - A variety of monetary systems are represented in the Bible, corresponding to the political powers that dominated the cultures represented there, from the darics named after the Persian monarch Darius (these are the first actual coins mentioned in the Bible see 1 Chronicles 29:7 ; Ezra 8:27 ; Nehemiah 7:70-72 ) to the coins of the Roman Empire that bore Caesar's image (Matthew 22:20-21 ). ...
Expressing allegiance to a human authority in this fashion raises a dilemma for the one whose first allegiance is to God, a dilemma that Jesus resolves by insisting that one should return to any sovereign whatever has the sovereign's mark of ownership on it: "Whose portrait is this? Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's" (Matthew 22:20-21 )
Simon Magus - He states that he was a Samaritan, born at a village called Gitta; he describes him as a formidable magician, who came to Rome in the days of Claudius Caesar and made such an impression by his magical powers that he was honoured as a god, a statue being erected to him on the Tiber, between the two bridges, bearing the inscription "Simoni deo Sancto
Palestine - ...
For the purposes of this article, Palestine extends to the north ten to fifteen miles beyond the ancient site of Dan and New Testament Caesarea Philippi into the gorges and mountains just south of Mount Hermon. Herod the Great developed Caesarea Maritima into an artificial port of considerable efficiency. See Caesare. 25 by Herod Antipas and named after the reigning Caesar, became the capital and the most important city during the New Testament era
Pilate - ...
(3) Luke, at the beginning of the accusation before Pilate, mentions the charge (Luke 23:2): ‘We found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself was an anointed king
Time - ...
In the New Testament events are associated with the reigns of contemporary rulers (‘In the days of Herod the king’ , ‘in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea ,’ etc
Diseases - Julius Caesar granted Roman citizenship to Greek physicians practicing in Rome
Kingdom of God - Such teachings as Matthew 5:9 ("Blessed are the peacemakers"); 38-42 ("If someone  forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles"); 43-47 ("Love your enemies"); Matthew 26:52 ("all who draw the sword will die by the sword"); Mark 12:13-17 ("Give to Caesar what is Caesar's") simply do not permit such an interpretation
Ministry - After Peter’s confession near Caesarea Philippi, Jesus began to impress on His disciples the certainty of His approaching death (Matthew 16:16; Matthew 16:21); at the Transfiguration, Moses and Elijah talked with Him of His ‘decease (ἔξοδος) which he was to accomplish at Jerusalem’ (Luke 9:31); soon after (Matthew 17:22 f. ...
(b) For the Baptism, we know that it took place at some time within the ‘fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’ (Luke 3:1-2), for this was the time that John began to baptize, and Jesus was among those who received the rite at his hands (Matthew 3:13,Mark 1:9,Luke 3:21); but none of the accounts gives any definite note as to the exact point during the ministry of John when the baptism occurred. (e) Several visits to districts contiguous to Galilee, to the east and north, are mentioned, namely, the visit to Gerasa or Gadara during His Galilaean ministry (Matthew 8:28,Mark 5:1,Luke 8:26), to Decapolis (Mark 7:31), to the unknown Magadan (Matthew 15:39) or Dalmanutha (Mark 8:10), and Caesarea-Philippi (Matthew 16:13,Mark 8:27)
Persecution - The most violent promoters of it were Hierocles the philosopher, who wrote against the Christian religion, and Galerius, whom Diocletian had declared Caesar
Christ, Christology - More significantly, “Lord” was an appellation of honor and divinity that came to be associated with emperor worship and applied to the Roman Caesar
Ephesians Epistle to the - This in itself makes it natural to date the Epistle from Rome rather than from Caesarea. The phrase ‘I am a chained ambassador’ (Ephesians 6:20) certainly has more point after the appeal to Caesar, and suggests that St
Kingdom Kingdom of God - Paul, in the Catholic Epistles, or in Hebrews is the term applied to Christ, But in Acts 17:7 the accusation is made against Christians that they acted contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there was another king, one Jesus
Egypt - 30 Octavius Caesar entered Egypt, and it became a Roman province
Money (2) - ...
Of special interest is the reference to the denarius in Matthew 22:19 = Mark 12:15 = Luke 20:24 in connexion with the Pharisees’ question as to the lawfulness of paying tribute to Caesar. It was issued by the Imperial authority, even the Roman Senate having only the right to mint copper coins, and could thus must appropriately be spoken of as ‘that which is Caesar’s. Few coins of this denomination were issued from the Phœnician cities or from Antioch, and the city of Caesarea in Cappadocia had only recently begun to coin drachms on the Phœnician standard (of 55 grains) for use in the provinces of Syria and Cappadocia (Mommsen, op
Paul - After staying only 15 days at Jerusalem, wherein there was not time for his deriving his gospel commission from Peter with whom he abode, having had a vision that he should depart to the Gentiles (Acts 22:18-19), and being plotted against by Hellenistic Jews (Acts 9:29), he withdrew to the seaport Caesarea (Acts 9:30), thence by sea to Tarsus in Cilicia (Galatians 1:21), and thence to Syria. )...
Desiring a helper he fetched Saul from Tarsus to Antioch, and for a whole year they laboured together, and in leaving for Jerusalem (Paul's second visit there, not mentioned in Galatians, being for a special object and for but "few days," Acts 11:30; Acts 12:25) brought with them a token of brotherly love, a contribution for the brethren in Judaea during the famine which was foretold by Agabus and came on under Claudius Caesar (Acts 11:22-30; A
Physician - all Greeks, and therefore Greek physicians, were made freedmen by Julius Caesar
Gospels (2) - It is not that Jesus Christ is important and significant to the historian as the originator and promulgator of a singularly lofty code of morals, but rather that in the days of Caesar Augustus, ‘the eternal life which was with the Father was manifested unto us’ (1 John 1:2); and from that life so manifested certain new commandments of love resulted as a necessary consequence, and ‘old commandments which we had from the beginning’ (1 John 2:7) awoke into new life, and put on a strength which they had not had before
John the Baptist - —It was in the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar that the word of God came to John in the wilderness summoning him to enter upon his work as a prophet (Luke 3:1-2)
Magi - The evidence for this is a Syriac document, ascribed to Eusebius of Caesarea, which was published with an English translation by W. 119), in the reign of Hadrianus Caesar. This belief is first unambiguously stated in a sermon ascribed to Caesarius of Arles (Aug
John, the Gospel by - They call for His crucifixion, declaring that they have 'no king but Caesar
Peter Epistles of - He had called upon believers to revile Christ and worship Caesar, and they are especially admonished in 1 Peter to sanctify in their hearts Christ as Lord (1 Peter 3:15 ff
Sanctification - Thus we are called on to ‘render unto God the things that are God’s,’ as to ‘Caesar the things that are Caesar’s
Josephus - Here Josephus writes as follows:...
‘Now when  had reigned three years over all Judaea he came to the city of Caesarea, which was formerly called Strato’s Tower, and there he provided games in honour of Caesar, thus instituting a festival for the emperor’s health
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - ...
At Caesarea in Cappadocia probably was commenced Gregory's friendship with Basil, which, tried by many a shock, survived them all, and was the chief influence which moulded not only the life of both friends, but also the theology of the Christian church. Gregory and his brother went to Caesarea in Palestine to pursue the study of oratory (Orat. 201); Caesarius departing thence to Alexandria, and Gregory remaining to study in the school made famous by Origen, Pamphilus, and Eusebius. Here he unexpectedly met his brother Caesarius, journeying to Nazianzus from Alexandria. >From Caesarea he again wrote to Gregory, after which Gregory set out for Pontus. 11, 361, and persuaded Gregory's brother Caesarius to remain at court. The effect of this letter upon Caesarius we may judge from his declaration before Julian: "In a word, I am a Christian, and I mean to be one," and from the exclamation of the emperor: "O happy father of such unhappy children!" ( Orat. Gregory esteemed the victory of Caesarius as a more precious gift than the half of the empire (Orat. ) Gregory, indeed, speaks elsewhere of three things of which Constantius repented when dying: (1) the murder of his relations; (2) that he had named Julian Caesar; (3) that he had given himself to the dogma of the newer creed ( Orat. ...
While Gregory was thus employed at Nazianzus, Basil returned from Pontus to Caesarea, where Eusebius had been made bishop, and was ordained against his will. Hereupon Basil returned to Caesarea, and gave his powerful aid to the bishop in the dangers threatening the church, or rather became bishop in reality, while Eusebius was still so in name—"the keeper of the lion, the leader of the leader" (Orat. Caesarius had been chosen by Valens to be treasurer of Bithynia, and once more his brother was distressed at seeing him among the servants of an adversary of the true faith. Gregory made this the ground of an earnest appeal to Caesarius to abandon his office ( Ep. The death of Caesarius brought trouble to Gregory from the administration of his estate which had been left to the poor. In 370 Eusebius died in the arms of Basil, who at once invited Gregory to Caesarea on the plea that he was himself in extremis . He wrote also to Eusebius of Samosata by the hands of the deacon Eustathius, urging him to go to Caesarea and promote Basil's election ( Ep. of Caesarea—i. 40), to visit and support his friend and went to Caesarea
Jerusalem - Nor did Jerusalem long after enjoy the dignity of a metropolis, that honour being transferred to Caesarea. Julius Caesar, having defeated Pompey, continued Hyrcanus in the high priesthood, but bestowed the government of Judea upon Antipater, an Idumaean by birth, but a Jewish proselyte, and father of Herod the Great
Jesus Christ - That all these predictions were fulfilled in Jesus Christ; that he was of that country, tribe, and family, of the house and lineage of David, and born in Bethlehem, we have the fullest evidence in the testimony of all the evangelists; in two distinct accounts of the genealogies, by natural and legal succession, which, according to the custom of the Jews, were carefully preserved; in the acquiescence of the enemies of Christ in the truth of the fact, against which there is not a single surmise in history; and in the appeal made by some of the earliest Christian writers to the unquestionable testimony of the records of the census, taken at the very time of our Saviour's birth by order of Caesar
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - "that the wicked should be freed from their error, and that faith destined for so glorious a reward should be established upon difficulty"; his own opinion that Caesars (such as Tiberius) would have believed in Christ, if they could have been Caesars and Christians at the same time; the sufferings of the disciples at the hands of the Jews; and at last, through Nero's cruelty, the sowing the seed of Christianity at Rome in their blood (cf. Ironically does Tertullian commend in the heathen the dread with which they regarded Caesar as more profound and reverential than that which they accorded to the Olympian Jupiter