What does Bethlehem mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
לָֽחֶם a city in Judah 12
לֶ֙חֶם֙ a city in Judah 8
לֶ֖חֶם a city in Judah 6
βηθλέεμ a village about six miles (10 km) south of Jerusalem. 5
לָ֑חֶם a city in Judah 5
לֶ֣חֶם a city in Judah 4
לֶ֔חֶם a city in Judah 3
βηθλεὲμ a village about six miles (10 km) south of Jerusalem. 2
לָ֔חֶם a city in Judah 2
βηθλεέμ a village about six miles (10 km) south of Jerusalem. 1
לֶ֛חֶם a city in Judah 1

Definitions Related to Bethlehem

H1035


   1 a city in Judah, birthplace of David.
   2 a place in Zebulun.
   Additional Information: Beth-lehem = “house of bread (food)”.
   

G965


   1 a village about six miles (10 km) south of Jerusalem.
   Additional Information: Bethlehem = “house of bread”.
   

Frequency of Bethlehem (original languages)

Frequency of Bethlehem (English)

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - Bethlehem
(1):
(n.) In the Ethiopic church, a small building attached to a church edifice, in which the bread for the eucharist is made.
(2):
(n.) A hospital for lunatics; - corrupted into bedlam.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Bethlehem
(Hebrew: house of bread)
(1) Bethlehem of Zebulon (Josiah 19), a small town 7 miles northwest of Nazareth.
(2) Bethlehem of Judea, less correctly known as Bethlehem of Juda (Judges 17; 19; 1 Kings 17), originally known as Ephrata (Michah 5), city, Palestine, 5 miles south of Jerusalem, closely connected with patriarchal history as the place of death of Rachel, Jacob's wife (Genesis 35), the site of the romance of Ruth and Booz, and the birthplace of David. It became sacred to Christians as the birthplace of Our Lord, and the church of the Nativity now occupies the traditional site.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem
Created by Innocent III, had its inception in the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, Rome, and spread throughout the Christian world, rendering invaluable services. Repeated attempts were made to make the Hospitallers of the Holy Ghost military, although they never resorted to arms. The institution was granted several privileges by Innocent III, among them exemption from all spiritual and temporal jurisdiction save his own, the right to build chapels, etc., which provided an impetus to the rise of other houses modeled on the one at Rome enjoying the same privileges, provided they submitted to periodical visitation and contributed alms to their metropolitan. The central authority was a commander, resident at Rome. By 1400, the order numbered in France more than 180 houses and a century later nearly 400. The great temporal wealth of the order was responsible for an administration similar to that of the military orders, and the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem was founded by Pope Pius II in 1459 from the revenues of these commanderies. Due to the amount of wealth, abuses crept in, including indiscriminate bestowal of honors, including the Militia of the Holy Ghost. These actions required reform measures, culminating in 1700 when religious of the order published an edict declaring the order regular and in no way military. Under papal government the Arcispedale di Santo Spirito of Rome was open to all Catholics without regard to country, condition, or fortune, but later became a municipal institution restricted to inhabitants of Rome. This order must not be confused with the Royal Order of the Holy Spirit founded in France by King Henry III in 1578 in to supersede the Order of Saint Michael of Louis XI.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Bethlehem, of Noblest Cities
Hymn for Lauds on the Feast of the Epiphany. It was written by Prudentius (348-413), and has 22 translations. The English title given is by E. Caswall.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem
House of bread.
A city in the "hill country" of Judah. It was originally called Ephrath (Genesis 35:16,19 ; 48:7 ; Ruth 4:11 ). It was also called Beth-lehem Ephratah (Micah 5:2 ), Beth-lehem-judah (1 Samuel 17:12 ), and "the city of David" (Luke 2:4 ). It is first noticed in Scripture as the place where Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside," directly to the north of the city (Genesis 48:7 ). The valley to the east was the scene of the story of Ruth the Moabitess. There are the fields in which she gleaned, and the path by which she and Naomi returned to the town. Here was David's birth-place, and here also, in after years, he was anointed as king by Samuel (1 Samuel 16:4-13 ); and it was from the well of Bethlehem that three of his heroes brought water for him at the risk of their lives when he was in the cave of Adullam (2 Samuel 23:13-17 ). But it was distinguished above every other city as the birth-place of "Him whose goings forth have been of old" (Matthew 2:6 ; Compare Micah 5:2 ). Afterwards Herod, "when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men," sent and slew "all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under" (Matthew 2:16,18 ; Jeremiah 31:15 ). Bethlehem bears the modern name of Beit-Lahm, i.e., "house of flesh." It is about 5 miles south of Jerusalem, standing at an elevation of about 2,550 feet above the sea, thus 100 feet higher than Jerusalem.
There is a church still existing, built by Constantine the Great (A.D. 330), called the "Church of the Nativity," over a grotto or cave called the "holy crypt," and said to be the "stable" in which Jesus was born. This is perhaps the oldest existing Christian church in the world. Close to it is another grotto, where Jerome the Latin father is said to have spent thirty years of his life in translating the Scriptures into Latin. (See VERSION .)
A city of Zebulun, mentioned only in Joshua 19:15 . Now Beit-Lahm, a ruined village about 6 miles west-north-west of Nazareth.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem
("house of bread"), i.e. in a fertile region. Two hours journey, in a southward or rather southwesterly direction from Jerusalem, by the Jaffa gate. Existing at the time of Jacob's return to Palestine; originally called Ephrath or Ephrath, i.e. fruitful (Genesis 35:16; Genesis 35:19; Genesis 48:7; Psalms 132:6). Hur and Salma, Hur's son, both have the title "father of Bethlehem" (1 Chronicles 2:51; 1 Chronicles 4:4). Hur is the father of Uri, father of Bezaleel (1 Chronicles 2:20; Exodus 31:2-11). Tradition made Jesse "a weaver of the veils of the sanctuary"; and as trades are hereditary in the E. he may have inherited the embroidering skill of his forefather whom Moses employed for the tabernacles being "filled with the spirit of God" (Exodus 25:35). Hence appears the appropriateness of the allusions to the "weaver's beam" in representing the spears of giants slain by David and his heroes.
After the conquest of Canaan it bears the name Bethlehem Judah; distinguishing it from Bethlehem in Zebulun (Joshua 19:15-16; now Beit-lahm, six miles W. of Nazareth). It was occupied once by a Philistine garrison, when David desired a draught from the well by the gate, so familiar to his childhood (2 Samuel 23:14-15; 1 Chronicles 11:15-19). The Levite Jonathan, son of Gershom, who became the Danites' priest at their northern settlement, and the Levite's concubine whose cruel death at Gibeah caused the destruction of Benjamin, came from Bethlehem (Judges 17:7; Judges 18:30; Judges 19:9.) The connection of Bethlehem with Moab appears in the book of Ruth. Hence the undesigned propriety appears of David, Ruth's descendant, choosing the king of Moab's house at Mizpeh as the safest retreat for his parents, when he was outlawed by Saul (1 Samuel 22:3-4).
Bethlehem was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:6). In Jeremiah's time (Jeremiah 41:17) the caravansary of Chimham near Bethlehem (see 2 Samuel 19:37-40) was the usual starting place for Egypt. The inn (kataluma ) mentioned in Luke 2 was a similar one, and possibly the same. At the return from Babylon, 123 "children of Bethlehem" accompanied Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:21; Nehemiah 7:26). Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4), but the "town (Greek village) where David was" in John 7:42. Now Beitlahm, "the house of flesh." Solomon's pools and "gardens" (Ecclesiastes 2:5) lay S. of Bethlehem. Thekoa, built (fortified)by Rehoboam, lay S.E., the place of Amos' (Amos 1:1) birth (Amos 7:10-15). S.W. is the valley of Sennacherib's overthrow. N.E. is the traditional scene of the angels' vision to the shepherds; but the hills were more likely to have been the scene of the flocks being kept than the grain abounding valley.
Dr. Clarke identified a well of pure water here with that which David thirsted for; but the traditional site is a group of three cisterns half a mile away on the other side of the wady on the N., and Robinson denies the existence of any well of living water in or near the town (2 Samuel 23:15-18). Bethlehem is now a village with one chief street, and population (wholly Christian) of 3,000. The slopes outside abound in figs, vines, almonds and olives. The Church of the Nativity at the N. side was originally built by the empress Helena over the Lord's presumed birthplace; Justin Martyr in the 2nd century said that our Lord's birth took place in a cave close to the village. Justinian erected a more sumptuous church, with gray limestone columns and a lofty roof of cedar wood; but the present roof is of English oak, presented by Edward IV. The grotto of the nativity is beneath a crypt, 39 feet long, 11 broad, 9 high, hewn out of the rock and lined with marble.
A rich altar is over the supposed site of the Savior's birth, and a star of silver inlaid in white marble, with the inscription "Ηie de virgine Μaria Jesus Christus natus est." A manger too is there of white marble (Luke 2:12). Jerome's sepulchre is near; Bethlehem being where he lived for 30 years, and diligently studied the Hebrew Scriptures, to prepare the Vulgate translation. In Micah 5:2, "Thou Bethlehem Ephratah, (though) thou be little among the thousands of Judah, (yet) out of thee shall He come forth unto Me (that is) to be ruler in Israel" seems to contradict Matthew 2:6, "Thou art not the least among the princes of Juda."
Really, Matthew by independent inspiration unfolds further Micah's prophecy. For "Ephratah," now become obsolete, he substitutes" in the land of Jude"; furthermore he implies, "though thou art little in a worldly point of view, thou art the reverse of least among Jude's princes, in the spiritual glory of being Messiah's birthplace" (1 Corinthians 1:27-28). The low state of David's line when Messiah was born is also implied in Micah (Isaiah 53:2).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem
(behth' lih hehm) Place name meaning, “house of bread,” “fighting,” or “Lahamu” [1]. 1. Approximately five miles southwest of Jerusalem just off the major road from Jerusalem to the Negeb lies the modern Arabic village Bethlehem. The popular understanding is that the name, beth lehem, means “house of bread.” Perhaps the first mention of the village occurred before 1300 B.C. in the Amarna letters (No. 290) where the ruler of Jerusalem complained to the Egyptian pharaoh that the people of Bit-Lahmi had gone over to the side of the “Apiru,” apparently a people without local citizenship who caused disturbances in Canaanite society.
In the Old Testament the parenthetical reference to Bethlehem in Genesis 35:19 is perhaps derived from a traditional burial site for Rachel near the village. Bethlehem appears in Judges 17:7-13 as the home of the Levite who became priest to Micah. The concubine of the Levite of Ephraim was from the village of Bethlehem ( Judges 19:1 ). The Book of Ruth takes place in the region of Bethlehem (Ruth 1:1-2 ,Ruth 1:1-2,1:19 ,Ruth 1:19,1:22 ; Ruth 2:4 ; Ruth 4:11 ). This story leads to the events that gave major importance to the village as the home and place of anointing of David (1 Samuel 16:1-13 ; 1Samuel 17:12,1 Samuel 17:15 ).
Other Old Testament references to the village include the mention of a Philistine garrison being there during David's early kingship (2 Samuel 23:14 ), Elhanan's home (2 Samuel 23:24 ), the burial place of Asahel (2 Samuel 2:32 ), and a fort of Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:6 ). Bethlehem is also mentioned with reference to the Babylonian Exile (Jeremiah 41:17 ; Ezra 2:21 ).
It is the relationship of Bethlehem to Christ that has insured its place in Christian history. Micah 5:2 was understood to indicate that the Messiah, like David, would be born in Bethlehem not Jerusalem. Matthew ( Matthew 2:1-12 ), Luke (Luke 2:4-20 ), and John (John 7:42 ) report that Jesus was born in that humble village. It appears that early Christians believed that some caves east of the village were the holy site of the birth. After the Bar-Kochba revolution during Hadrian's reign, Jews were expelled from Bethlehem. Tertullian indicated that no Jews lived there even at the end of the second century A.D. During the reign of the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire, Constantine, the Church of the Nativity was constructed (ca. 326 A.D.), supposedly by his mother Helena. It was destroyed during the Samaritan revolt (ca. 529 A.D.) and rebuilt by Justinian I (527-565). That structure forms the basic unit that is still in use today although many modifications have occurred, especially during the Middle Ages. (According to “Christian legend” during the Persian Conquest, 614 A.D., the church was preserved when the invaders saw the three magi in a mosaic of the birth of Jesus and recognized their clothing as Persian.)
A field southeast of town has been identified as the place where the shepherds had the vision of the angels. 2. A town in the territory of Zebulun, about seven miles northwest of Nazareth (Joshua 19:15 ), which was the burial site of Ibzan (Judges 12:10 ), in modern beit Lahm. 3. A personal name as in 1 Chronicles 2:51 , 1 Chronicles 2:54 .
George W. Knight
Holman Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem-Ephratah
(KJV) or BETHLEHEM-EPHRATHAH (NAS, NIV, NRSV) Place name used by Micah 5:2 to designate birthplace of new David who would come from Bethlehem, David's birthplace, and of the clan of Ephratah, that of Jesse, David's father ( 1 Samuel 17:12 ). See Bethlehem .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Bethlehem
BETHLEHEM (‘house of bread’ or, according to some, ‘of the god Lakhmu’). The name of two places in Palestine.
1 . Bethlehem of Judah, otherwise Ephrath or Ephrathah , now represented by the town of Beit Lahm , 5 miles S. of Jerusalem. On the way thither Rachel was buried ( Genesis 35:19 ; Genesis 48:7 ). Hence came the two Levites whose adventures are related in Judges 17:1-13 ; Judges 19:1-30 . It was the home of Elimelech, the father-in-law of Ruth ( Ruth 1:1 ), and here Ruth settled with her second husband Boaz, and became the ancestress of the family of David, whose connexion with Bethlehem is emphasized throughout his history ( 1 Samuel 16:1-18 ; 1 Samuel 17:12 ; 1 Samuel 20:6 etc.). The Philistines had here a garrison during David’s outlawry ( 2 Samuel 23:14 , 1 Chronicles 11:16 ). Here Asahel was huried ( 2 Samuel 2:32 ), and hence came Elhanan, one of the mighty men ( 2 Samuel 23:24 ; cf. 2 Samuel 21:19 ). Rehoboam fortified it ( 2 Chronicles 11:6 ), and here the murderers of Gedaliah took refuge ( Jeremiah 41:17 ). Whether the Salma referred to in 1 Chronicles 2:51 ; 1 Chronicles 2:54 as ‘father of Bethlehem’ (whatever that expression may exactly mean) be the same as the Salmon who was father of Boaz ( Ruth 4:20 ) a theory the Greek version seems to justify is doubtful. The town had some sanctity, and is indicated ( Psalms 132:6 ) as a suitable place for the Tabernacle. The birth of the Messiah there is prophesied in Micah 5:2 (quoted Matthew 2:6 , John 7:42 ), a prophecy fulfilled by the birth of Christ ( Matthew 2:1 ; Matthew 2:5 , Luke 2:4 ; Luke 2:15 ). Here Herod sent to seek the new-born Christ, and not finding Him ordered the massacre of the infants of the city ( Matthew 2:8 ; Matthew 2:16 ). The modern town, containing about 8000 inhabitants, is Christian and comparatively prosperous. Within it stands the basilica of the Nativity, founded by Constantine (about 330), and restored by Justinian (about 550) and many later emperors. Within it are shown grottoes in which the various events of the Nativity are localized with the usual unreasoning definiteness.
2 . Bethlehem of Zebulun, a place named but once ( Joshua 19:15 ), in enumerating the towns of that tribe. It is identified with Beit Lahm , 7 miles N.W. of Nazareth. It is probable that this was the home of Ibzan, the judge ( Judges 12:8-10 ), as almost all the judges belonged to the northern tribes.
R. A. S. Macalister.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Bethlehem
Ruth 1:1 (c) From Bethlehem to Moab represents the backsliding of a child of GOD who leaves the "House of Bread" (which is the meaning of the word), the place where GOD blesses, and travels back into the world to enjoy the things that strangers have to offer. He forgets that there are tears and graves in Moab.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem
1. City of Judah, also called BETH-LEHEM-JUDAH (Judges 17:7-9 ). It is first mentioned in connection with the death and burial of Rachel. Genesis 35:19 . The history of Ruth is also connected with Beth-lehem. Ruth 1:1-22 ; Ruth 2:4 . David was anointed in the house of Jesse the Bethlehemite, so that apparently it was the place of David's birth, 1 Samuel 16:4 ; 1 Samuel 17:12,15 ; and this accounts for its being called in Luke 2:11 the 'city of David.' It was also the birth-place of Jesus: though it was "little among the thousands of Judah," it the better agreed with His humiliation. Beth-lehem, signifying 'house of bread,' is a very appropriate name for a place whence the Saviour should proceed as a man — He who was the living bread that came down from heaven.
Apparently it was originally called EPHRATH, Genesis 35:16,19 ; Genesis 48:7 ; and was afterwards called EPHRATAH, Ruth 4:11 ; Psalm 132:6 . It is once called BETH-LEHEM EPHRATAH, that is, the fruitful, for the ruler of Israel was to come from thence. Micah 5:2 ; Luke 2:4,15 ; John 7:42 . This led to the massacre of the infants by Herod. Matthew 2:16-18 .
In 1 Chronicles 2:51,54 ; 1 Chronicles 4:4 , 'father of Beth-lehem' may signify 'prince of Beth-lehem.' It is identified with Beit Lahm, 31 42' N, 35 12' E , situated 6 miles south of Jerusalem, on a narrow ridge which runs from the central range of hills. The ridge is cut into terraces, which are covered with olives and vines. There are now about 5,000 inhabitants, almost all called Christian, with convents for the Latins, Greeks, and Armenians. An enormous pile of buildings called the 'Church of the Nativity' is connected with the convents.
2. Town in Zebulun, mentioned only in Joshua 19:15 , also called Beit Lahm, 32 44' N, 35 10' E , described as a most miserable village. (It is not known which of the above places is referred to in Judges 12:8,10 .)
King James Dictionary - Bethlehem
BETH'LEHEM, n. Heb. the house of food or bread.
1. A town or village in Judea, about six miles south-east of Jerusalem famous for its being the place of Christ's nativity. 2. A hospital for lunatics corrupted into bedlam.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Bethlehem
BETHLEHEM.—Two towns of this name are mentioned in the Old Testament. 1. Bethlehem (בֵּית לֶחָם ‘house of bread’) of Zebulun, Joshua 19:15. The site is now occupied by a miserable village, 6 miles south-west of Sepphoris and about the same distance north-west of Nazareth, in a well-wooded district of country, planted with oaks (Robinson, Researches, iii. 113). That this Bethlehem cannot have been the scene of the Nativity, near as it is to Nazareth, is clear from the fact that both St. Matthew and St. Luke expressly place the birth of Christ at Bethlehem of Judaea. These narratives being independent of each other and derived from different sources, we have for the southern Bethlehem the convergence of two distinct traditions. These two Evangelists are joined in their testimony by the author of the Fourth Gospel, who assumes acquaintance on the part of his readers with the story of the birth of Christ at Bethlehem, the Bethlehem associated with David and his royal line. ‘Some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? Hath not the Scripture said that Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem where David was?’ (John 7:41-42). It is noteworthy that Bethlehem is never mentioned as having been visited by our Lord or in any way associated with His ministry. But all Christian history and tradition maintain that the southern Bethlehem was the scene of the Nativity.
2. Bethlehem of Judah (בּ״ יְהוּדָה Judges 17:7; Judges 17:9, Ruth 1:1-2 etc.) or Judaea (Matthew 2:1, Luke 2:4). This town (the modern Lahm) is situated about 6 miles S.S.W. of Jerusalem, lying high up on a grey limestone ridge running from east to west, and occupying the projecting summits at each end, with a sort of saddle between. The ridge rises to a height of 2550 ft. above sea-level, and falls away in terraced slopes on all sides, the descent to the north and east being specially steep. The terraces, as they sweep in graceful curves round the ridge from top to bottom, give to the little town the appearance of an amphitheatre, and serve to make to the approaching traveller a picture which closer acquaintance does not wholly disappoint. The names by which it has been known for millenniums, and is still known, are expressive of the fertility of the place—-lehcm, ‘house of bread,’ and -Lahm, ‘house of flesh.’ The hillsides around, merging into the hill country of Judaea, though they look bare to the eye at a distance, afford pastures for flocks of sheep and goats. The valleys below and the fields lying to the east produce crops of wheat and barley, as in the days when Ruth gleaned in the fields of Boaz; and the terraced slopes, under diligent cultivation, bear olives, almonds, pomegranates, figs, and vines. Wine and honey are named among the most notable of its natural products, and the wine of Bethlehem is said to be preferable to that of Jerusalem.
The modern town is highly picturesque. There is just one main street or thoroughfare, extending about half a mile, and largely occupied by workshops, which are little better than arches open to the street. The population is differently given as from 4000 to 8000 souls. Palmer (‘Das jetzige Bethlehem’ in ZDPV [1] xvii. 90), writing in 1893, and founding upon personally ascertained figures, gives 8035 as the population, which he classifies in respect of religion as follows: Latins, 3827; Greeks, 3662; Moslems, 260; Armenians, 185; Protestants, 54; Copts and Syrians, 47. The small number of Moslems is said to be due to the severity of Ibrahim Pasha, who drove out the Moslem inhabitants and demolished their houses in the insurrection of 1834. It will be observed from the above enumeration that Bethlehem does not contain a single Jew. As in Nazareth so in Bethlehem, the associations with Jesus make residence repugnant to the Jews, and they have accordingly no desire to settle in the Christian Holy Places. They are, in fact, tolerated only as temporary visitors, but not as residents. ‘In the cradle of his royal race,’ says Canon Tristram (Bible Places, p. 72), ‘the Jew is even more a stranger than in any other spot of his own land; and during the Middle Ages neither Crusader nor Saracen suffered him to settle there.’ The inhabitants of Bethlehem are of superior physique and comeliness. The men have a character for energy and even turbulence; the women are noticeable for their graceful carriage and becoming attire. In the crowds which throng the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem at the Easter services, the women of Bethlehem, wearing a light veil descending on each side of the face, and closed across the bosom, with a low but handsome headdress composed of strings of silver coins plaited in among the hair and hanging down below the chin as a sort of necklace,—are easily recognizable, and make a favourable impression. The industries of Bethlehem, apart from the cultivation of the soil, are intimately associated with the Nativity, consisting of memorial relics and souvenirs manufactured for sale to the thousands of pilgrims and tourists who visit Jerusalem and Bethlehem every year. Models of the cave of the Nativity, figures of Christ and the Virgin, apostles and saints, are in great demand. Olive wood, and mother-of-pearl obtained from the Red Sea, with basaltic stone from the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, are carved and wrought into useful and ornamental articles with no small degree of skill and taste. Palmer mentions (l.c. p. 91) that an increasing number of the inhabitants go abroad with their products,—their mother-of-pearl carvings and other wares,—and, especially in America, find a good return for their enterprise.
Bethlehem, notwithstanding its royal associations and its renown as the birthplace of the world’s Redeemer, has never been, and is never likely to be, more in the eye of the world than ‘little among the thousands of Judah’ (Micah 5:2). ‘In spite,’ says Palmer, ‘of the numerous visits of strangers and pilgrims, which are year by year on the increase, and in spite of the market-place which Bethlehem affords for the whole neighbourhood, and especially for the Bedawîn, who come from long distances from the southern end of the Dead Sea to make their purchases of clothing, tools, and weapons, and to leave the produce of their harvest and their pastures, Bethlehem appears likely to remain, unencumbered by trade and progress, what it has been for many years bygone—a shrunken, untidy village.’ Even so, it can never be deprived of its associations with the Messianic King of Israel, ‘whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting’ (Micah 5:2), associations which exalt it to the loftiest eminence, and surround it with a glory that cannot fade. These associations in their salient features are now to be set forth.
It is in the early patriarchal history that we meet first with Bethlehem, under its ancient name of Ephrath.* [2] ‘When I came from Padan,’ said Jacob on his deathbed, recounting to Joseph in Egypt his chequered history, ‘Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem’ (Genesis 48:7; cf. Genesis 35:9 ff.). The sacred historian records that Jacob set a pillar upon her grave: ‘that is the pillar of Rachel’s grave unto this day’ (Genesis 35:20). Rachel’s grave is marked now by a Mohammedan wely, or monumental mosque, at the point where the Bethlehem road breaks off the road leading from Jerusalem to Hebron; and though the monument has been repaired and renewed from generation to generation, it serves still to recall a real event, and to distinguish the spot where Rachel’s ‘strength failed her, and she sank, as did all the ancient saints, on the way to the birthplace of hope’ (Dr. John Ker, Sermons, 8th ed. p. 153). Bethlehem becomes more definitely associated with the Messianic hope when it becomes the home of Ruth the Moabitess, the ancestress of David and of David’s greater Son. From the heights near Bethlehem a glimpse is obtained of the Dead Sea—the sea of Lot—shimmering at the foot of the long blue wall of the mountains of Moab; and the land of Moab seems to have had close relations with Bethlehem and its people in patriarchal as well as later times. With Ruth the Moabitess, through her marriage with Boaz, the ‘mighty man of wealth’ of Bethlehem-judah (Ruth 2:1), there entered a strain of Gentile blood,—although we remember that Lot, the ancestor of Moab, was the nephew of the great ancestor of Israel—into the pedigree of Christ according to the flesh (Matthew 1:5), as if in token that, in a day still far off, Jew and Gentile should be one in Him. With David, the great-grandson of Ruth, there entered the royal element into the genealogy of Jesus; and Bethlehem has no associations more sacred and tender than its associations with the shepherd king of Israel, unless it be those that link it for ever with God manifest in the flesh. The stream of Messianic hope, as it flows onwards and broadens from age to age, is not unlike that river of Spain which for a considerable part of its course flows underground, and only at intervals miles apart throws up pools to the surface, which the inhabitants call ‘the eyes’ of the Guadiana. The pools trace the onward progress of the river, till at length it bursts forth in a broad stream seeking the distant sea. So the hope of a great Deliverer from spiritual misery and death flows onward in the story of God’s ancient people, throwing up its pools in the days of Abraham, Moses, David, Isaiah and the prophets; and Micah indicates the direction of its flow with more explicitness than any who went before when he says: ‘But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be Ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting’ (Micah 5:2). When the fulness of the time had come, the Messianic hope became the place of broad rivers and streams which we so happily know and enjoy, and the glad tidings was heard on the plains of Bethlehem, addressed to the watchful shepherds: ‘Fear not: for, behold, I bring you glad tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord’ (Luke 2:10-11).
The story of the Nativity is told by St. Matthew and St. Luke with a simplicity and delicacy and beauty which are of themselves an evidence of its historical truth. Both narratives, as has been indicated, assign to Bethlehem the high honour of being the place of the Nativity and the scene of the stupendous fact of the Incarnation. The details are too familiar to require rehearsal here.
There is one particular handed down by early Christian tradition which may be regarded not as a variation from, but an addition to, the Evangelic narrative,—the statement made by Justin Martyr (a.d. 140–150), and repeated in the Apocryphal Gospels, that the birth of Jesus took place in a cave. Justin (Dialogue with Trypho, ch. 78) relates that, since Joseph had in that village no place where to lodge, he lodged in a cave near by. Justin relates other particulars which may have come to him—he was a native of Nablûs, not 40 miles from Bethlehem—by oral tradition or from apocryphal narratives: such as that the Magi came from Arabia, and that Herod slew all the children of Bethlehem. That the stable where the Infant Saviour was born may have been a cava is quite in keeping with the practice of utilizing the limestone caves of the hill country of Judaea as places of shelter for cattle and other beasts. Those Apocryphal Gospels which deal with the infancy, notably the Protevangelium Jacobi and the pseudo-Matthaeus, make mention of the cave. Pseudo-Matthaeus (ch. 13) says, ‘The angel commanded the beast to stop, for her time to bear had come; and he directed the Blessed Mary to come down from the animal and to enter a cave below a cavern in which there was never any light, but always darkness, because it could not receive the light of day. And when the Blessed Mary had entered it, it began to become light with all lightness, as if it had been the sixth hour of the day.… And then she brought forth a male child, whom angels instantly surrounded at His birth, and whom, when born and standing at once upon His feet, they adored, saying, Glory to God on high, and on earth peace to men of good will.’ The Protevangelium relates the story with curious imagery (ch. 18). ‘And he [3] found a cave there and took her in, and set his sons by her, and he went out and sought a midwife in the country of Bethlehem. And I Joseph walked and I walked not; and I looked up into the sky and saw the sky violently agitated; and I looked up at the pole of heaven, and I saw it standing still and the birds of the air still; and I directed my gaze on the earth, and I saw a vessel lying and workmen reclining by it and their hands in the vessel, and those who handled did not handle it, and those who presented it to the mouth did not present it, but the faces of all were looking up; and I saw the sheep scattered and the sheep stood, and the shepherd lifted up his hand to strike them and his hand remained up; and I looked at the stream of the river, and I saw that the mouths of the kids were down and not drinking; and everything which was being impelled forward was intercepted in its course.’
The Protevangelium Jacobi is generally recognized as belonging to the 2nd cent., and its testimony is a valuable confirmation of the early Christian tradition. Few scholars, if any, will agree in assigning it the place of importance attributed to it recently by the fantastic theory of Conrady (Die Quelle der kanonischen Kindheitsgeschichten Jesu, Göttingen, 1900), who regarda the Protevangelium as the source of the Gospel narrative a of the Infancy. The author of it, according to him, in an Egyptian, most likely of Alexandria, who introduces Bethlehem into the narrative not because of its place in Hebrew prophecy, but because it was formerly a seat of the worship of Isis, and he wishes to incorporate this worship with Christianity. In concert with the priests of Isis and Serapis, he aided with his inventive pen the appropriation of this sacred site by the Church, and it was from the Protevangelium that the writers of the First and Third Gospels drew their separate narratives of the Infancy. Conrady returns to the subject with an article full of equally curious and perverted learning in SK [4] , 1904, Heft 2, ‘Die Flucht nach aegypten.’
It is in the 4th century that Bethlehem begins to receive that veneration as a Christian Holy Place in which it is now equalled only by Jerusalem and Nazareth. As early as Justin Martyr attention is specially directed to Bethlehem as the birthplace of the world’s Redeemer. In addition to the reference, already mentioned, to the cave, we find Justin quoting the well-known prophecy of Isaiah (33:16ff.), ‘He shall dwell in a lofty cave of a strong rock,’ in the same connexion (Dialogue with Trypho, ch. 70). Even earlier than Justin’s day it would appear that this particular cave was venerated by the followers of Christ; for, as Jerome tells in one of his letters to Paulinus, the emperor Hadrian (a.d. 117–138), in his zeal to extirpate the very remembrance of Christ, caused a grove sacred to Adonis to be planted over the grotto of the Nativity, as he caused a temple to Venus to be erected over the site of the sepulchre of our Lord. Origen (circa (about) Celsum, i. 51) says: ‘If any one desires certainty as to the birth of Jesus at Bethlehem apart from the Gospels and Micah’s prophecy, let him know that in conformity with the narrative in the Gospel regarding His birth there is shown at Bethlehem the cave where He was born and the manger in the cave where He was wrapped in swaddling clothes. And this sign is greatly talked of in surrounding places, even among the enemies of the faith, it being said that in this cave was born that Jesus who is worshipped and reverenced by the Christians.’ The site is now marked by the oldest church in Christendom, the Church of St. Mary of the Nativity, built by order of the Emperor Constantine. It is a massive pile of buildings extending along the ridge from west to east, and comprising the church proper with the three convents, Latin, Greek, and Armenian, abutting respectively upon its north-eastern, south-eastern, and south-western extremities. The proportions of the church and its related structures are more commanding from its elevation and from the shabbiness of the town in comparison. The nave of the church is common to all the sects, and is shared by them together—Latins, Greeks, Armenians. From the double line of Corinthian pillars sustaining the basilica sixteen centuries look down upon the visitor, and the footsteps of nearly fifty generations of Christians have trodden the ground upon which he treads. Says Dean Stanley: ‘The long double lines of Corinthian pillars, the faded mosaics, the rough ceiling of beams of cedar from Lebanon still preserve the outlines of the church, once blazing with gold and marble, in which Baldwin was crowned, and which received its latest repairs from our own English Edward iv.’ (Sinai and Palestine, p. 433). It is the subterranean vault that continues to be of perennial interest. Descending the steps from the raised floor of the eastern end of the nave, and turning sharply to the left, the visitor finds a half-sunk arched doorway which leads down by thirteen steps to the Chapel of the Nativity—the rude cave now paved: and walled with marble and lighted up by numerous lamps. This chamber is about 40 feet from east to west, 16 feet wide, and 10 feet high. The roof is covered with what had once been striped cloth of gold. At the east end there is a shrine where fifteen silver lamps burn night and day, and in the floor, let into the pavement, a silver star of Greek pattern marks the very spot of the Nativity with the inscription: ‘Hic de Virgine Mariâ Jesus Christus natus est.’ To the Christian the associations of the place make it full of impressiveness, and the visitor has no more sacred or tender recollections of holy ground than those which cluster round the Church and the Grotto of the Nativity. Not far off is a cave, cut out of the same limestone ridge, which was the abode of St. Jerome for over thirty years. Here, with the noble ladies whom he had won to the religious life, Paula and her daughter Eustochium, he laboured totus in lectione, totus in libris, preparing the Vulgate translation of the Holy Scriptures, which for more than a thousand years was the Bible of Western Christendom, and is a powerful tribute to his piety and learning. ‘It is the touch of Christ that has made Bethlehem’ (Kelman and Fnlleylove, The Holy Land, p. 234). And the touch of Christ is making itself felt still in the works of Christian philanthropy and missionary zeal that are being performed there. There are schools and other missionary agencies maintained by Protestants and Roman Catholics to instruct in His truth and to enrich with His grace the community who occupy the place of His birth. Bethlehem appears among the stations of the Church Missionary Society, and the work done there among women and girls has borne good fruit. The Germans have built an Evangelical Church, which was dedicated in 1893. There is much superstition and error among the nominally Christian inhabitants of the place, but the efforts of the Protestant and Roman Catholic missionaries have stirred up the Greek Orthodox and Armenian Christians to activity for the moral and spiritual welfare of their people.
Literature.—Andrews, Life of our Lord2 [5] , p. 82; Cunningham Geikie, The Holy Land and the Bible; Stanley, Sinai and Palestine; Kelman, The Holy Land; Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels; G. A. Smith, Histor. Geog. of Holy Land; The Survey of Western Palestine, vol. iii.; Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?; Palmer, ‘Das jetzige Bethlehem’ in ZDPV [1] xvii.; articles in Kitto’s Cyclop., PRE [7] 3 [5] , Vigonroux’s) Dictionnaire de la Bible, Smith’s DB [9] , Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, and Encyclopaedia Biblica.
T. Nicol.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Bethlehem
This was a city in Judah. (Joshua 17:7) The name means, house of bread; from Beth, house; and lechem, or lehem bread. It was beautifully significant of Christ, who was from everlasting appointed to be born there, (Micah 5:2) and was, and is, and ever will be, the bread of life, and the living bread to his people; of which whosoever eateth shall live for ever! Lord! I would say with the disciples, evermore give me this bread. There was another Bethlehem in Zebulun, though it is but rarely spoken of in Scripture. (Joshua 19:15) But this Bethlehem must be ever dear to every follower of Jesus. It was connected with and formed part of Ephratah. Here Jacob buried his beloved Rachel. (Genesis 35:19-20) I would have the reader compare what Micah saith concerning this Bethlehem, with an eye to Christ, and look at what Matthew hath observed also on the subject. (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-6) The Holy Ghost evidently had Jesus in view in that sweet history of Ruth, when the certain man, Eli-melech, representing our whole nature, left Bethlehem the land of bread, for the Moab of the world; and when with his children Mahlon and Chillon, sickness and disease overtook him and all his posterity. (Ruth 1:1) David's cry for the waters of Bethlehem, (see 2 Samuel 23:15-17) hath always been considered as typical of the soul's thirst for Jesus, the bread of life.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Bethlehem
a city in the tribe of Judah, Judges 17:7 ; and likewise called Ephrath, Genesis 48:7 ; or Ephratah, Micah 5:2 ; and the inhabitants of it, Ephrathites, Ruth 1:2 ; 2 Samuel 23:8-91 . Here David was born, and spent his early years as a shepherd. And here also the scene of the beautiful narrative of Ruth is supposed to be laid. But its highest honour is, that here our divine Lord condescended to be born of woman:—"And thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me, that is to be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been of old, from everlasting." Travellers describe the first view of Bethlehem as imposing. The town appears covering the ridge of a hill on the southern side of a deep and extensive valley, and reaching from east to west. The most conspicuous object is the monastery erected over the supposed "Cave of the Nativity;" its walls and battlements have the air of a large fortress. From this same point, the Dead Sea is seen below on the left, seemingly very near, "but," says Sandys, "not so found by the traveller; for these high, declining mountains are not to be directly descended." The road winds round the top of a valley which tradition has fixed on as the scene of the angelic vision which announced the birth of our Lord to the shepherds; but different spots have been selected, the Romish authorities not being agreed on this head. Bethlehem (called in the New Testament Bethlehem Ephrata and Bethlehem of Judea, to distinguish it from Bethlehem of Zabulon) is situated on a rising ground, about two hours' distance, or not quite six miles from Jerusalem. Here the traveller meets with a repetition of the same puerilities and disgusting mummery which he has witnessed at the church of the sepulchre. "The stable," to use the words of Pococke, "in which our Lord was born, is a grotto cut out of the rock, according to the eastern custom." It is astonishing to find so intelligent a writer as Dr. E. D. Clarke gravely citing St. Jerom, who wrote in the fifth century, as an authority for the truth of the absurd legend by which the cave of the nativity is supposed to be identified. The ancient tombs and excavations are occasionally used by the Arabs as places of shelter; but the Gospel narrative affords no countenance to the notion that the Virgin took refuge in any cave of this description. On the contrary, it was evidently a manger belonging to the inn or khan: in other words, the upper rooms being wholly occupied, the holy family were compelled to take up their abode in the court allotted to the mules and horses, or other animals. But the New Testament was not the guide which was followed by the mother of Constantine, to whom the original church owed its foundation. The present edifice is represented by Chateaubriand as of undoubtedly high antiquity; yet Doubdan, an old traveller, says that the monastery was destroyed in the year 1263 by the Moslems; and in its present state, at all events, it cannot lay claim to a higher date. The convent is divided among the Greek, Roman, and Armenian Christians, to each of whom separate parts are assigned as places of worship and habitations for the monks, but, on certain days, all may perform their devotions at the altars erected over the consecrated spots. The church is built in the form of a cross; the nave being adorned with forty-eight Corinthian columns in four rows, each column being two feet six inches in diameter, and eighteen feet high, including the base and the capital. The nave, which is in possession of the Armenians, is separated from the three other branches of the cross by a wall, so that the unity of the edifice is destroyed. The top of the cross is occupied by the choir, which belongs to the Greeks. Here is an altar dedicated to the wise men of the east, at the foot of which is a marble star, corresponding, as the monks say, to the point of the heavens where the miraculous meteor became stationary, and directly over the spot where the Saviour was born in the subterranean church below! A flight of fifteen steps, and a long narrow passage, conduct to the sacred crypt or grotto of the nativity, which is thirty-seven feet six inches long, by eleven feet three inches in breadth, and nine feet high. It is lined and floored with marble, and provided on each side with five oratories, "answering precisely to the ten cribs or stalls for horses that the stable in which our Saviour was born contained!" The precise spot of the birth is marked by a glory in the floor, composed of marble and jasper encircled with silver, around which are inscribed the words, Hic de Virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est [1] Over it is a marble table or altar, which rests against the side of the rock, here cut into an arcade. The manager is at the distance of seven paces from the altar; it is in a low recess hewn out of the rock, to which you descend by two steps, and consists of a block of marble, raised about a foot and a half above the floor, and hollowed out in the form of a manger. Before it is the altar of the Magi. The chapel is illuminated by thirty-two lamps, presented by different princes of Christendom. Chateaubriand has described the scene in his usual florid and imaginative style: "Nothing can be more pleasing, or better calculated to excite devotional sentiments, than this subterraneous church. It is adorned with pictures of the Italian and Spanish schools, which represent the mysteries of the place. The usual ornaments of the manger are of blue satin, embroidered with silver. Incense is continually burning before the cradle of our Saviour. I have heard an organ, touched by no ordinary hand, play, during mass, the sweetest and most tender tunes of the best Italian composers. These concerts charm the Christian Arab, who, leaving his camels to feed, repairs, like the shepherds of old, to Bethlehem, to adore the King of kings in the manger. I have seen this inhabitant of the desert communicate at the altar of the Magi, with a fervour, a piety, a devotion, unknown among the Christians of the west. The continual arrival of caravans from all the nations of Christendom; the public prayers; the prostrations; nay, even the richness of the presents sent here by the Christian princes, altogether produce feelings in the soul, which it is much easier to conceive than to describe."
Such are the illusions which the Roman superstition casts over this extraordinary scene! In another subterraneous chapel, tradition places the sepulchre of the Innocents. From this, the pilgrim is conducted to the grotto of St. Jerom, where they show the tomb of that father, who passed great part of his life in this place; and who, in the grotto shown as his oratory, is said to have translated that version of the Bible which has been adopted by the church of Rome, and is called the Vulgate. He died at the advanced age of ninety-one, A.D. 422. The village of Bethlehem contains about three hundred inhabitants, the greater part of whom gain their livelihood by making beads, carving mother-of-pearl shells with sacred subjects, and manufacturing small tables and crucifixes, all which are eagerly purchased by the pilgrims.
Bethlehem has been visited by many modern travellers. The following notice of it by Dr. E. D. Clarke will be read with interest: "After travelling for about an hour from the time of our leaving Jerusalem, we came in view of Bethlehem, and halted to enjoy the interesting sight. The town appeared covering the ridge of a hill on the southern side of a deep and extensive valley, and reaching from east to west; the most conspicuous object being the monastery, erected over the cave of the nativity, in the suburbs, and upon the eastern side. The battlements and walls of this building seemed like those of a vast fortress. The Dead Sea below, upon our left, appeared so near to us that we thought we could have rode thither in a very short space of time. Still nearer stood a mountain upon its western shore, resembling in its form the cone of Vesuvius near Naples, and having also a crater upon its top which was plainly discernible. The distance, however, is much greater than it appears to be; the magnitude of the objects beheld in this fine prospect causing them to appear less remote than they really are. The atmosphere was remarkably clear and serene; but we saw none of those clouds of smoke, which, by some writers, are said to exhale from the surface of the lake, nor from any neighbouring mountain. Every thing about it was in the highest degree grand and awful. Bethlehem is six miles from Jerusalem. Josephus describes the interval between the two cities as equal only to twenty stadia; and in the passage referred to, he makes an allusion to a celebrated well, which, both from the account given by him of its situation, and more especially from the text of the sacred Scriptures, 2 Samuel 23:15 , seems to have contained the identical fountain, of whose pure and delicious water we were now drinking. Considered merely in point of interest, the narrative is not likely to be surpassed by any circumstance of Pagan history. David, being a native of Bethlehem, calls to mind, during the sultry days of harvest, 2 Samuel 23:13 , a well near the gate of the town, the delicious waters of which he had often tasted; and expresses an earnest desire to assuage his thirst by drinking of that limpid spring. ‘And David longed, and said, O that one would give me to drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate!' The exclamation is overheard by ‘three of the mighty men whom David had,' namely, Adino, Eleazar, and Shamnah, 1618481419_61 ; 2 Samuel 23:11 . These men sallied forth, and having fought their way through the garrison of the Philistines at Bethlehem, 2 Samuel 23:14 , ‘drew water from the well that was by the gate,' on the other side of the town, and brought it to David. Coming into his presence, they present to him the surprising testimony of their valour and affection. The aged monarch receives from their hands a pledge they had so dearly earned, but refuses to drink of water every drop of which had been purchased with blood, 2 Samuel 23:17 . He returns thanks to the Almighty, who had vouchsafed the deliverance of his warriors from the jeopardy they had encountered; and pouring out the water as a libation on the ground, makes an offering of it to the Lord. The well still retains its pristine renown; and many an expatriated Bethlehemite has made it the theme of his longing and regret."
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Bethlehem
Bethlehem (bĕth'le-hem), house of bread. 1. A town in the "hill-country," about six miles south of Jerusalem, situated on a narrow ridge running eastward, which breaks down in abrupt terraced slopes to the deep valleys below. The town is 2527 feet above the sea. It is one of the oldest in Palestine. Nearby was Rachel's burial-place (still marked by a white mosque near the town), and called Ephrath, Genesis 35:19; the home of Naomi, Boaz, and Ruth, Ruth 1:19; birthplace of David, 1 Samuel 17:12; burial-place of Joab's family, 2 Samuel 2:32; taken by the Philistines, and had a noted well, 2 Samuel 23:14-15; fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chronicles 11:6; foretold as the birthplace of Christ, Micah 5:2; the birthplace of Jesus, Matthew 2:1; was visited by the shepherds, Luke 2:15-17, and by the Magi, Matthew 2:1-23. It is noticed over 40 times in the Bible. It has existed as a town for over 4000 years. It was a small place until after the time of Christ; was improved and its wall rebuilt by Justinian; now has about 5000 inhabitants, nearly all nominally Christians, mostly of the Greek church. It Is now called Beit-lahm. It is surrounded by nicely-kept terraces covered with vine, olive, and fig trees. The church of the Nativity, the oldest in Christendom, built in a.d. 330 by the empress Helena, stands over the grotto reputed to be the place of our Lord's birth, and is the joint property of the Greeks, Latins, and Armenians, who have separate convents adjoining it. The "plain of the Shepherds" is about a mile from the town.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem
House of bread,
1. A celebrated city, the birthplace of David and of Christ. It was in the tribe of Judah, six miles south by west of Jerusalem, and probably received its appellation from the fertility of the circumjacent country. This also gave it its ancient name Ephrath, fruitful, Genesis 48:7 Micah 5:2 . It was beautifully situated on an oblong ridge, twenty-seven hundred feet above the level of the sea, and affording a fine view in every direction. The hills around it were terraced, and clothed with vines, fig trees, and almonds; and the valleys around it bore rich crops of grain. It was fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chronicles 11:6 , but was comparatively an unimportant place, Micah 5:1 , and is not mentioned by Joshua or Nehemiah among the cities of Judah. Its memory is delightfully associated with the names of Boaz and Ruth; it is celebrated as the birthplace and city of David, 1 Samuel 17:12,15 20:6 2 Samuel 23:14-17 but above all, it is hallowed as the place where the Redeemer was born. Over that lovely spot the guiding star hovered; there the eastern sages worshipped the King of kings, and there where David watched his flock and praised God, were heard the songs of the angelic host at the Savior's birth, Luke 2:8 . Bethlehem is now called Beit-lahm, and contains about three thousand inhabitants, almost exclusively nominal Christians. Half a mile north is the spot pointed out by traditional as Rachel's tomb, Genesis 35:16-20 ; and about two miles south-west are the great reservoirs described under Solomon's Pools.
2. An unknown place in Zebulun, Joshua 19:15 Judges 12:10 , in distinction from which the city of David was often called Bethlehem-Judah.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem
Known originally as Ephrath, Bethlehem was a small town a few kilometres south of Jerusalem. It was already an established settlement in the time of Jacob. Not far from the town was the place where Jacob buried his wife Rachel (Genesis 35:19-20).
Bethlehem was situated in the tribal territory of Judah, in country that was hilly but suitable for growing grain and raising sheep (Ruth 1:1; Ruth 2:1-4; 1 Samuel 17:15; Luke 2:8-15). It was the home of Israel’s greatest king, David (1 Samuel 17:12; 1 Samuel 20:6; 2 Samuel 23:14-16; cf. Ruth 4:11-17), and the birthplace of the great ‘son of David’, the promised Messiah, Jesus (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-6; Luke 2:4; Luke 2:11; Luke 2:15; John 7:42).

Sentence search

Bethlehemite - Citizen of Bethlehem. See Bethlehem
Edar - Tower of the flock, a tower between Bethlehem and Hebron, near which Jacob first halted after leaving Bethlehem (Genesis 35:21 ). , "Edar"), and is used as a designation of Bethlehem, which figuratively represents the royal line of David as sprung from Bethlehem
Bethlehem-Ephratah - (KJV) or Bethlehem-EPHRATHAH (NAS, NIV, NRSV) Place name used by Micah 5:2 to designate birthplace of new David who would come from Bethlehem, David's birthplace, and of the clan of Ephratah, that of Jesse, David's father ( 1 Samuel 17:12 ). See Bethlehem
Ephrathite - A citizen of Ephratah, the old name of Bethlehem (Ruth 1:2 ; 1 Samuel 17:12 ), or Bethlehem-Judah
Odollam - (1) Chanaanite city west of Bethlehem. ...
(2) Cave which sheltered David and his followers (1 Kings 22), said to be situated 6 miles southeast of Bethlehem
Adullam - (1) Chanaanite city west of Bethlehem. ...
(2) Cave which sheltered David and his followers (1 Kings 22), said to be situated 6 miles southeast of Bethlehem
Ephratah - Ephrath, Ephratah...
This is the same as Bethlehem, where Christ was born. ...
See Bethlehem...
Ibzan - He came from Bethlehem, probably the Bethlehem in Zebulun ( Joshua 19:15 ), 7 miles N. He judged Israel 7 years, and was buried at Bethlehem
Ephratah - The name of Bethlehem Judah in Jacob's time (Genesis 35:16; Genesis 35:19; Genesis 48:7). Whence probably Ephraim the mother of Hur took her name, being a native and owner of the town and district; which accounts for his being called "the father of Bethlehem. " In Micah 5:2 it is called Bethlehem Ephraim. As Bethlehem means "house of bread," so Ephraim "fruitful," the region abounding in grain. while David was still a youth at Bethlehem) heard of it," namely, the ark, as a mere matter of hearsay, so neglected was the ark then while in the forest town of Kirjath Jearim
Idalah - ” Town in tribal territory of Zebulun (Joshua 19:15 ), probably modern khirbet el-Hawarah south of Bethlehem in Zebulun, not to be confused with the more famous Bethlehem in Judah
Salmon - He is named the father of Bethlehem, because his descendants peopled Bethlehem
Netophah - Distillation; dropping, a town in Judah, in the neighbourhood, probably, of Bethlehem (Nehemiah 7:26 ; 1 Chronicles 2:54 ). It has been identified with the ruins of Metoba, or Um Toba, to the north-east of Bethlehem
Ephratah - ...
...
The ancient name of Bethlehem in Judah (Genesis 35:16,19 ; 48:7 ). In Ruth 1:2 it is called "Bethlehem-Judah," but the inhabitants are called "Ephrathites;" in Micah 5:2 , "Bethlehem-Ephratah;" in Matthew 2:6 , "Bethlehem in the land of Judah
Ephrath, Ephrathah - See Bethlehem, and Caleb-ephrathah
Ephratah - Genesis 35:19 , however, identifies Ephrath(ah) with Bethlehem. Micah 5:2 also appears to equate Bethlehem and Ephrath(ah) as the home of the coming Messiah. This, in turn, was based on Bethlehem ( 1 Samuel 16:1 ) and Ephrath(ah) (1 Samuel 17:12 ) as the home of David's father Jesse and thus of David. Naomi's husband Elimelech was an Ephrathite from Bethlehem (Ruth 1:2 ). In Ruth 4:11 Bethlehem and Ephrathah are apparently identified in poetic parallelism. It may be that Ephrathah was a clan name of a family in Bethlehem whose importance made the clan name a synonym for the city. This would be Kiriath-jearim, though two different resting points of the ark—Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim—may be intended here. In 1 Chronicles 4:4 Ephrathah's son Hur was the father of Bethlehem. Ephrathah may have been a clan name associated with several different geographical localities, the most famous of which was Bethlehem
Bethlehem - (Hebrew: house of bread) ...
(1) Bethlehem of Zebulon (Josiah 19), a small town 7 miles northwest of Nazareth. ...
(2) Bethlehem of Judea, less correctly known as Bethlehem of Juda (Judges 17; 19; 1 Kings 17), originally known as Ephrata (Michah 5), city, Palestine, 5 miles south of Jerusalem, closely connected with patriarchal history as the place of death of Rachel, Jacob's wife (Genesis 35), the site of the romance of Ruth and Booz, and the birthplace of David
Beth-Lomon - For Bethlehem of Judah
Caleb Ephratah - Ephrathah was another name for Bethlehem. See Bethlehem ; Ephrathah
Salma - Son of Caleb, and father or founder of Bethlehem
Ephrata - Early name of Bethlehem (Genesis 35; Mich
Eph'Rathite -
An inhabitant of Bethlehem
Christmas Crib - Manger in the stable of Bethlehem which held the new-born Christ, hence any representation of same. Tradition attests the authenticity of the place of the crib now venerated at Bethlehem, where a grotto and basilica have been erected
Eustochium Julia, Saint - 368;died Bethlehem, 420. She was the daughter of the Roman senator Toxotius and his wife Saint Paula, with whom she, founded the monastic center at Bethlehem under the direction of Saint Jerome
Etam - A town in Judah near Bethlehem and Tekoa; a favorite resort of Solomon, and fortified by Rehoboam, 1 Chronicles 4:3,32 2 Chronicles 11:6 . Its supposed site is now occupied by a ruined village balled Urtas, a mile and a half southwest of Bethlehem, not far Solomon's Pools
Migdal-Edar - Tower of the flock, a place 2 miles south of Jerusalem, near the Bethlehem road (Genesis 35:21 )
Jesse - An important figure in the Bethlehem community
ib'Zan - (illustrious ), a native of Bethlehem of Zebulun, who judged Israel for seven years after Jephthah
id'Alah - (memorial of God ), one of the cities of the tribe of Zebulun, named between Shimron and Bethlehem
David, City of - Bethlehem, Luke 2:11 : so called because David was born there
Bethlehem - There was another Bethlehem in Zebulun, though it is but rarely spoken of in Scripture. (Joshua 19:15) But this Bethlehem must be ever dear to every follower of Jesus. (Genesis 35:19-20) I would have the reader compare what Micah saith concerning this Bethlehem, with an eye to Christ, and look at what Matthew hath observed also on the subject. (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-6) The Holy Ghost evidently had Jesus in view in that sweet history of Ruth, when the certain man, Eli-melech, representing our whole nature, left Bethlehem the land of bread, for the Moab of the world; and when with his children Mahlon and Chillon, sickness and disease overtook him and all his posterity. (Ruth 1:1) David's cry for the waters of Bethlehem, (see 2 Samuel 23:15-17) hath always been considered as typical of the soul's thirst for Jesus, the bread of life
Beth-Gader - BETH-GADER ( 1 Chronicles 2:51 ), mentioned with Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim
e'Dar, Tower of - EDER , a flock ), a place named only in ( Genesis 35:21 ) According to Jerome it was one thousand paces from Bethlehem
Rachel - Her sepulchre, half an hour's walk north of Bethlehem, is shown unto this day, the spot being marked by a Mohammedan wely or tomb, a stone enclosure and a dome. The prophecy, Jeremiah 31:15 , representing her as mourning over her posterity, the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin, is quoted in Matthew 2:18 , in reference to the massacre at Bethlehem, in which undoubtedly many of her descendants suffered. It is supposed that one of the many places called Ramah was adjacent to Bethlehem
Hushah - ” Member of tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 4:4 ) listed along with Bethlehem and thus probably original ancestor of clan who lived in town of Hushah, perhaps modern Husan near Bethlehem
Geruth - ” Fugitives stopped there near Bethlehem on their way to Egypt fleeing from Ishmael, who had killed Gedaliah, whom Babylon had appointed governor of Judah after the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B. It apparently designated an inn or lodging place near Bethlehem
Ephrathite - A native of Bethlehem ( Ruth 1:2 )
Childermas Day - A day (December 28) observed by mass or festival in commemoration of the children slain by Herod at Bethlehem; - called also Holy Innocent's Day
Chilion - An Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah (formerly Ephrath, Genesis 35:19)
Jesse - Jesse of the tribe of Juda, lived at Bethlehem (Ruth 4). He was an old man, when Samuel came to Bethlehem to anoint David, the new King of Israel (1 Kings 16)
Jaare-Oregim - ” Father of Elhanan from Bethlehem, who killed Goliath. This is partly based on 2 Samuel 23:24 , where an Elhanan of Bethlehem is identified as the son of Dodo
Netophah - ) A town coupled with Bethlehem in Nehemiah 7:26, also in 1 Chronicles 2:54; therefore near it. Between Bethlehem and Anathoth. of Bethlehem on the edge of the Mar Saba desert
Bedlam - (contraction of Bethlehem) Famous asylum, London, originally on the site of the present Liverpool Street railway station; founded, 1247, by Simon FitzMary, sheriff of London, for the Order of Saint Mary of Bethlehem, as a general hospital for the poor, with the special duty of entertaining the bishops and canons of Saint Mary of Bethlehem, as often as they might come to England
Solomon's Pools - Among these may perhaps be included the ancient structures now so called, two or three miles southwest of Bethlehem. They are built of large stones, and plastered within; and the water collected in them, and in several fountains in the vicinity, was conveyed in an aqueduct to Bethlehem and Jerusalem. At present they contain comparatively little water; yet they are of incalculable importance to Bethlehem, and might easily be made so to Jerusalem
ma'ra - (sad, bitter ), the name which Naomi adopted in the exclamation forced from her by the recognition of her fellow citizens at Bethlehem
Tom o' Bedlam - Formerly, a wandering mendicant discharged as incurable from Bethlehem Hospitel, Eng
Netophah - Netophah is frequently associated with Bethlehem, suggesting a site near that town. The site is most likely khirbet Bedd Faluh about three and a half miles southeast of Bethlehem
Bethlemite - ) An inhabitant of Bethlehem in Judea
Ibzan - ” Judge of Israel from Bethlehem who participated in royal practice of marrying children to foreigners (Judges 12:8-10 )
Netophah - A town near Bethlehem, of which little more than the name is known, 2 Samuel 24:25,25 ; 2 Kings 25:23 ; Ezra 2:22 ; Nehemiah 7:26
Beth-Hac'Cerem - ( Nehemiah 3:14 ; Jeremiah 6:1 ) A beacon station near Tekoa, supposed to be the Frank Mountain , a few miles southeast of Bethlehem
Etam - It has been identified with Beit 'Atab, west of Bethlehem, near Zorah and Eshtaol. It was near Bethlehem and Tekoah, and some distance apparently to the north of (1). It seems to have been in the district called Nephtoah (or Netophah), where were the sources of the water from which Solomon's gardens and pleasure-grounds and pools, as well as Bethlehem and the temple, were supplied
Arimathea - Trelawney Saunders places it east of Bethlehem
Chimham - He may have received from David the place near Bethlehem called Chimham, Jeremiah 41:17
Ibzan - The tenth "judge of Israel," born in Bethlehem
Bethlehem - Approximately five miles southwest of Jerusalem just off the major road from Jerusalem to the Negeb lies the modern Arabic village Bethlehem. ...
In the Old Testament the parenthetical reference to Bethlehem in Genesis 35:19 is perhaps derived from a traditional burial site for Rachel near the village. Bethlehem appears in Judges 17:7-13 as the home of the Levite who became priest to Micah. The concubine of the Levite of Ephraim was from the village of Bethlehem ( Judges 19:1 ). The Book of Ruth takes place in the region of Bethlehem (Ruth 1:1-2 ,Ruth 1:1-2,1:19 ,Ruth 1:19,1:22 ; Ruth 2:4 ; Ruth 4:11 ). Bethlehem is also mentioned with reference to the Babylonian Exile (Jeremiah 41:17 ; Ezra 2:21 ). ...
It is the relationship of Bethlehem to Christ that has insured its place in Christian history. Micah 5:2 was understood to indicate that the Messiah, like David, would be born in Bethlehem not Jerusalem. After the Bar-Kochba revolution during Hadrian's reign, Jews were expelled from Bethlehem
Bethlehem - Hur and Salma, Hur's son, both have the title "father of Bethlehem" (1 Chronicles 2:51; 1 Chronicles 4:4). ...
After the conquest of Canaan it bears the name Bethlehem Judah; distinguishing it from Bethlehem in Zebulun (Joshua 19:15-16; now Beit-lahm, six miles W. The Levite Jonathan, son of Gershom, who became the Danites' priest at their northern settlement, and the Levite's concubine whose cruel death at Gibeah caused the destruction of Benjamin, came from Bethlehem (Judges 17:7; Judges 18:30; Judges 19:9. ) The connection of Bethlehem with Moab appears in the book of Ruth. ...
Bethlehem was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:6). In Jeremiah's time (Jeremiah 41:17) the caravansary of Chimham near Bethlehem (see 2 Samuel 19:37-40) was the usual starting place for Egypt. At the return from Babylon, 123 "children of Bethlehem" accompanied Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:21; Nehemiah 7:26). Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4), but the "town (Greek village) where David was" in John 7:42. of Bethlehem. Bethlehem is now a village with one chief street, and population (wholly Christian) of 3,000. Jerome's sepulchre is near; Bethlehem being where he lived for 30 years, and diligently studied the Hebrew Scriptures, to prepare the Vulgate translation. In Micah 5:2, "Thou Bethlehem Ephratah, (though) thou be little among the thousands of Judah, (yet) out of thee shall He come forth unto Me (that is) to be ruler in Israel" seems to contradict Matthew 2:6, "Thou art not the least among the princes of Juda
Gibeah of Judah - (Joshua 15:57 ), a city in the mountains of Judah, the modern Jeba, on a hill in the Wady Musurr, about 7 1/2 miles west-south-west of Bethlehem
Beth-Haccerem - Conjectured to be the Frank mountain, between Tekoa and Bethlehem, Nehemiah 3:14 ; Jeremiah 6:1
Ruth, Book of - One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, containing a beautifully written story of a family of Bethlehem in the time of the Judges. Elimelech, under the pressure of famine, left Bethlehem with his wife Noemi and his two sons, to settle in the land of Moab. After the death of her husband and her sons, Noemi returned to Bethlehem accompanied by Ruth, one of her daughters-in-law, whose filial devotion is expressed in most touching terms (Ruth 1:16). At Bethlehem Ruth married Booz, a relative of Elimelech
Irnahash - Jerome thought Irnahash to be Bethlehem, Nahash being Jesse
Tabor, Oak of - NAS, NRSV designation of a site between Rachel's tomb (near Bethlehem) and Gibeah of Saul (1 Samuel 10:3 )
Naomi - She had migrated to Moab in a time of famine, and returned to Bethlehem after her husband's death
Elimelech - Inhabitant of Bethlehem-judah, husband of Naomi, and father-in-law of Ruth
Noemi - She had migrated to Moab in a time of famine, and returned to Bethlehem after her husband's death
Evaristus, Pope Saint - He was the son of a Hellenist Jew of Bethlehem
Rachel - Mother of Joseph and Benjamin (Genesis 30-35), she died giving birth to the latter and was buried near Bethlehem
Naomi - Elimelech and his wife left the district of Bethlehem-Judah, and found a new home in the uplands of Moab. Naomi longs to return now to her own land, to Bethlehem
Eltekon - Its location is unknown, though some have suggested khirbet ed-Deir west of Bethlehem
ge'Dor - Robinson discovered a Jedur halfway between Bethlehem and Hebron, about two miles west of the road
Beth-Zacharias - A village on the mountain pass, south of Jerusalem and west of Bethlehem, now the ruin Beit Sakaria
Mahlon - An Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah, son of Elimelech and Naomi
Mana'Hetbites - "Half the Manahethites" are named in the genealogies of Judah as descended from Shobal, the father of Kirjath-jearim ( 1 Chronicles 2:52 ) and half from Salma, the founder of Bethlehem
Orpah - On the death of her husband she accompanied Naomi, her mother-in-law, part of the way to Bethlehem, and then returned to Moab
Laishah - If Gallim be Beit Jâla near Bethlehem, Laishah would also be in that neighbourhood
Atroth - ” A “descendant” of Caleb and Hur (1 Chronicles 2:54 ), the name apparently refers to a village near Bethlehem
Chimham - In Jeremiah 41:17, ages after, the Jewish refugees from the Babylonians "dwelt in the habitation of Chimham, which is by Bethlehem, to go to enter into Egypt. " David's patrimony was at Bethlehem; and this incidental notice leads to the inference that, having undertaken to provide for Chimham, he conferred on him his personal patrimony, subject to the reversion to David's heirs at the year of Jubilee; hence it was called "the habitation of Chimham
Ephratah , Ephrath - Ancient name of Bethlehem-judah
Ephai - Ephai was from Netophah near Bethlehem
Rachel - She died after giving birth to Benjamin, and was buried near the road from Bethlehem to Jerusalem
Ber'Achah, Valley of, - (2 Chronicles 20:26 ) It is now called Bereikut , and lies between Tekua and the main road from Bethlehem to Hebron
Water - The heat of summer and many mouths of drought necessitated also appliances for storing and conveying water; and remains still exist of the (See POOLS of Solomon situated near Bethlehem, and of the aqueduct near Jericho which was constructed by the Romans
Etam - ), fortified the city ( 2 Chronicles 11:6 ), which seems to indicate that Etam stood between Bethlehem and Tekoa. A road ran along the ridge through or near Hebron, Beth-zur, and Bethlehem to Jerusalem. Etam is located at khirbet el-Khohk, southwest of Bethlehem
Ibzan - A man of Bethlehem, perhaps the city in Zebulon, and if so, he was judge of Israel in the N
Bethlehem - BETHLEHEM. Bethlehem (בֵּית לֶחָם ‘house of bread’) of Zebulun, Joshua 19:15. That this Bethlehem cannot have been the scene of the Nativity, near as it is to Nazareth, is clear from the fact that both St. Luke expressly place the birth of Christ at Bethlehem of Judaea. These narratives being independent of each other and derived from different sources, we have for the southern Bethlehem the convergence of two distinct traditions. These two Evangelists are joined in their testimony by the author of the Fourth Gospel, who assumes acquaintance on the part of his readers with the story of the birth of Christ at Bethlehem, the Bethlehem associated with David and his royal line. ‘Some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? Hath not the Scripture said that Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem where David was?’ (John 7:41-42). It is noteworthy that Bethlehem is never mentioned as having been visited by our Lord or in any way associated with His ministry. But all Christian history and tradition maintain that the southern Bethlehem was the scene of the Nativity. Bethlehem of Judah (בּ״ יְהוּדָה Judges 17:7; Judges 17:9, Ruth 1:1-2 etc. Wine and honey are named among the most notable of its natural products, and the wine of Bethlehem is said to be preferable to that of Jerusalem. Palmer (‘Das jetzige Bethlehem’ in ZDPV
Bethlehem, notwithstanding its royal associations and its renown as the birthplace of the world’s Redeemer, has never been, and is never likely to be, more in the eye of the world than ‘little among the thousands of Judah’ (Micah 5:2). ‘In spite,’ says Palmer, ‘of the numerous visits of strangers and pilgrims, which are year by year on the increase, and in spite of the market-place which Bethlehem affords for the whole neighbourhood, and especially for the Bedawîn, who come from long distances from the southern end of the Dead Sea to make their purchases of clothing, tools, and weapons, and to leave the produce of their harvest and their pastures, Bethlehem appears likely to remain, unencumbered by trade and progress, what it has been for many years bygone—a shrunken, untidy village. ...
It is in the early patriarchal history that we meet first with Bethlehem, under its ancient name of Ephrath. ]'>[2] ‘When I came from Padan,’ said Jacob on his deathbed, recounting to Joseph in Egypt his chequered history, ‘Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem’ (Genesis 48:7; cf. Rachel’s grave is marked now by a Mohammedan wely, or monumental mosque, at the point where the Bethlehem road breaks off the road leading from Jerusalem to Hebron; and though the monument has been repaired and renewed from generation to generation, it serves still to recall a real event, and to distinguish the spot where Rachel’s ‘strength failed her, and she sank, as did all the ancient saints, on the way to the birthplace of hope’ (Dr. Bethlehem becomes more definitely associated with the Messianic hope when it becomes the home of Ruth the Moabitess, the ancestress of David and of David’s greater Son. From the heights near Bethlehem a glimpse is obtained of the Dead Sea—the sea of Lot—shimmering at the foot of the long blue wall of the mountains of Moab; and the land of Moab seems to have had close relations with Bethlehem and its people in patriarchal as well as later times. With Ruth the Moabitess, through her marriage with Boaz, the ‘mighty man of wealth’ of Bethlehem-judah (Ruth 2:1), there entered a strain of Gentile blood,—although we remember that Lot, the ancestor of Moab, was the nephew of the great ancestor of Israel—into the pedigree of Christ according to the flesh (Matthew 1:5), as if in token that, in a day still far off, Jew and Gentile should be one in Him. With David, the great-grandson of Ruth, there entered the royal element into the genealogy of Jesus; and Bethlehem has no associations more sacred and tender than its associations with the shepherd king of Israel, unless it be those that link it for ever with God manifest in the flesh. So the hope of a great Deliverer from spiritual misery and death flows onward in the story of God’s ancient people, throwing up its pools in the days of Abraham, Moses, David, Isaiah and the prophets; and Micah indicates the direction of its flow with more explicitness than any who went before when he says: ‘But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be Ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting’ (Micah 5:2). When the fulness of the time had come, the Messianic hope became the place of broad rivers and streams which we so happily know and enjoy, and the glad tidings was heard on the plains of Bethlehem, addressed to the watchful shepherds: ‘Fear not: for, behold, I bring you glad tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. Both narratives, as has been indicated, assign to Bethlehem the high honour of being the place of the Nativity and the scene of the stupendous fact of the Incarnation. Justin relates other particulars which may have come to him—he was a native of Nablûs, not 40 miles from Bethlehem—by oral tradition or from apocryphal narratives: such as that the Magi came from Arabia, and that Herod slew all the children of Bethlehem. ‘And he [3] found a cave there and took her in, and set his sons by her, and he went out and sought a midwife in the country of Bethlehem. The author of it, according to him, in an Egyptian, most likely of Alexandria, who introduces Bethlehem into the narrative not because of its place in Hebrew prophecy, but because it was formerly a seat of the worship of Isis, and he wishes to incorporate this worship with Christianity. ’...
It is in the 4th century that Bethlehem begins to receive that veneration as a Christian Holy Place in which it is now equalled only by Jerusalem and Nazareth. As early as Justin Martyr attention is specially directed to Bethlehem as the birthplace of the world’s Redeemer. 51) says: ‘If any one desires certainty as to the birth of Jesus at Bethlehem apart from the Gospels and Micah’s prophecy, let him know that in conformity with the narrative in the Gospel regarding His birth there is shown at Bethlehem the cave where He was born and the manger in the cave where He was wrapped in swaddling clothes. ‘It is the touch of Christ that has made Bethlehem’ (Kelman and Fnlleylove, The Holy Land, p. Bethlehem appears among the stations of the Church Missionary Society, and the work done there among women and girls has borne good fruit. ; Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?; Palmer, ‘Das jetzige Bethlehem’ in ZDPV Bethlehemites - (1) Military order dedicated to Our Lady of Bethlehem, wearing a habit like the Dominicans and a red star. ...
(2) Order of knights dedicated to Our Lady of Bethlehem, founded by Pope Pius II, 1453, for the defense of the island of Lemnos, but soon suppressed owing to the recapture of the island by the Turks
Bezaleel - Hur was the offspring of Caleb and Ephrath, and one of his descendants was Salmon, or Salmah, figuratively "father of Bethlehem," actually father of Boaz, and progenitor of the royal house of David of Bethlehem (1 Chronicles 2:19; 1 Chronicles 2:50-51; 1 Chronicles 2:54; Ruth 4:20-21)
Augustus - Augustus was the emperor who appointed the enrolment, Luke 2:1 , which obliged Joseph and the Virgin to go to Bethlehem, the place where the Messiah was to be born
Elimelech - ” The husband of Naomi, who led his family from Bethlehem to Moab to escape famine and then died in Moab
Rachel - Buried in Rachel’s Tomb near Bethlehem
Nephtoah - The site was formerly identified with Atam south of Bethlehem
Eph'Ratah, - ) ...
The ancient name of Bethlehem-judah
ra'Chel - "Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. " (Genesis 35:19,20 ) The site of Rachel's tomb, "on the way to Bethlehem," "a little way to come to Ephrath," "in the border of Benjamin," never been questioned. It Is about two miles south of Jerusalem and one mile north of Bethlehem
Jashubilehem - Hebrew text has two words which modern interpreters read in different ways: but returned to Lehem (NRSV); then settled in Bethlehem (NEV)
Chim'Ham - ) David appears to have bestowed on him a possession at Bethlehem, on which, in later times, an inn or khan was standing
Per'Azim - (a breach ), Mount, a name which occurs in ( Isaiah 28:21 ) only --unless the place which it designates is identical with the Baal-perazim mentioned as the scene of one of David's victories over the Philistines, which was in the valley of Rephaim, south of Jerusalem, on the road to Bethlehem
Bethlehem - Known originally as Ephrath, Bethlehem was a small town a few kilometres south of Jerusalem. ...
Bethlehem was situated in the tribal territory of Judah, in country that was hilly but suitable for growing grain and raising sheep (Ruth 1:1; Ruth 2:1-4; 1 Samuel 17:15; Luke 2:8-15)
Herodium - A fortress-palace built by Herod the Great about four miles southeast of Bethlehem
ja'Bez - (1 Chronicles 2:55 ) ...
The name occurs again in the genealogies of Judah, (1 Chronicles 4:9,10 ) in a passage of remarkable detail inserted in a genealogy again connected with Bethlehem
Ephrath - From her, it is believed that the city of Ephratah, otherwise called Bethlehem, where our Lord was born, had its name; and this city is more than once known in Scripture by the name of Ephrath, Genesis 35:16
Gedor - It is now called Jedur, and lies about eight miles southwest of Bethlehem
Bethlehem - Bethlehem (‘house of bread’ or, according to some, ‘of the god Lakhmu’). Bethlehem of Judah, otherwise Ephrath or Ephrathah , now represented by the town of Beit Lahm , 5 miles S. It was the home of Elimelech, the father-in-law of Ruth ( Ruth 1:1 ), and here Ruth settled with her second husband Boaz, and became the ancestress of the family of David, whose connexion with Bethlehem is emphasized throughout his history ( 1 Samuel 16:1-18 ; 1 Samuel 17:12 ; 1 Samuel 20:6 etc. Whether the Salma referred to in 1 Chronicles 2:51 ; 1 Chronicles 2:54 as ‘father of Bethlehem’ (whatever that expression may exactly mean) be the same as the Salmon who was father of Boaz ( Ruth 4:20 ) a theory the Greek version seems to justify is doubtful. Bethlehem of Zebulun, a place named but once ( Joshua 19:15 ), in enumerating the towns of that tribe
Dodo - Citizen of Bethlehem and father of Elhanan, one of David's warriors ( 2 Samuel 23:24 )
Rachel - In other places, however ( Ruth 1:2 ; Ruth 4:11 , Micah 5:2 ), Ephrath is another name for Bethlehem , as it is also explained in Genesis 35:19 ; Genesis 48:7 . of Bethlehem. In that case ‘that is Bethlehem’ is an incorrect gloss
do'do -
A man of Bethlehem, father of Elhanan, who was one of David's thirty captains
Elimelech - ) Of the family of Hezron of Judah, kinsman of Boaz, residing in Bethlehem Ephratah under the judges
Lehem - REB, TEV emend the text to read, “came back to” or “settled in Bethlehem
Beth-Haccherem - Tradition fixed on Herodium south of Bethlehem, probably because it was a conspicuous site near Tekoa, with which it is noticed
Elimelech - The husband of Naomi and father of Mahlon and Chilion, Ephrathites of Bethlehem-Judah (cf
Bethlehem - Ruth 1:1 (c) From Bethlehem to Moab represents the backsliding of a child of GOD who leaves the "House of Bread" (which is the meaning of the word), the place where GOD blesses, and travels back into the world to enjoy the things that strangers have to offer
Berachah - A valley between Bethlehem and Hebron where Jehoshaphat overcame Moab and Ammon, and where he blessed the Lord because of the victory: hence its name 'Valley of Blessing
Chimham - David appears to have bestowed on him a possession at Bethlehem, on which, in later times, an inn or khan was standing
Jerome, Saint - 340;died Bethlehem, 420. After visiting Rome, and journeying through the Holy Land, he retired to a monastery in Bethlehem
Rephaim, Valley of - Its proximity to Bethlehem is implied in 2 Samuel 23:13-17. Bethlehem was S. along the road to Bethlehem, but gradually bends W
Ruth - A severe famine in the land of Judah induced Elimelech, a native of Bethlehem --ephratah, to emigrate into the land of Moab, with his wife Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion. At the end of ten years Naomi now left a widow and childless, having heard that there was plenty again in Judah, resolved to return to Bethlehem, and her daughter-in-law Ruth returned with her. They arrived at Bethlehem just at the beginning of barley harvest, and Ruth, going out to glean, chanced to go into the field of wheat, a wealthy man and a near kinsman of her father-in-law, Elimelech
Coast - Herod ‘slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof’ ( Matthew 2:16 )
Sal'ma, - ) Bethlehem-ephratah, which was Salmon's inheritance, was part of the territory of Caleb, the grandson of Ephratah; and this caused him to be reckoned among the sons of Caleb
Jashubi-Lehem - The Jewish doctors explained the name in this verse as "Naomi and Ruth" who returned from "Moab" to bread (lechem ) or Bethlehem; the "ancient things" or "words" answer to the book of Ruth which records concerning them
Dodai - DODO of Bethlehem (2 Samuel 23:24; 1 Chronicles 11:12)
Edar, Tower of - It was apparently a little south of Bethlehem
Ibzan - Of Bethlehem (probably in Zebulun, as "Ephratah" or" Judah" is not added, Joshua 19:15)
Epiphany - ) A church festival celebrated on the 6th of January, the twelfth day after Christmas, in commemoration of the visit of the Magi of the East to Bethlehem, to see and worship the child Jesus; or, as others maintain, to commemorate the appearance of the star to the Magi, symbolizing the manifestation of Christ to the Gentles; Twelfthtide
Ephratah - The ancient name of Bethlehem-judah
Jashobeam - He was the first of the three who broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem (2 Samuel 23:13-17 )
Beth'Lehem - See (Genesis 35:16,19 ; 48:7 ) After the conquest Bethlehem appears under its own name, Bethlehem-JUDAH. (Judges 17:7 ; 1 Samuel 17:12 ; Ruth 1:1,2 ) The book of Ruth is a page from the domestic history of Bethlehem
Adullam - The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's triumph, and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained
Jesse - He is commonly designated as "Jesse, the Bethlehemite," 1 Samuel 16:1; 1 Samuel 16:18; 1 Samuel 17:58; but his full title is "the Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah. He was an "old man" when noticed in 1 Samuel 17:12, with eight sons, 1 Samuel 16:10; 1 Samuel 17:12, residing at Bethlehem
Salma - , by residence or marriage becoming head of Bethlehem in Caleb's territory, Salma was reckoned of Caleb's family). founder or headman, of Bethlehem
Reph'a-im, the Valley of, - Since the latter part of the sixteenth century the name has been attached to the upland plain which stretches south of Jerusalem and is crossed by the road to Bethlehem --the el Buk'ah of the modern Arabs. (This valley begins near the valley of Hinnom, southwest of Jerusalem extending toward Bethlehem
Berachah, Valley of - Now Bereikut, in a valley between Tekua and the road from Bethlehem to Hebron
Chimham - A village near Bethlehem
e'Tam - (2 Chronicles 11:6 ) Here, according to the statements of Josephus and the Talmudists, were the sources of the water from which Solomon's gardens and the pleasure-grounds were fed, and Bethlehem and the temple supplied
Elim'Elech - (my God is king ), a man of the tribe of Judah and of the family of the Hezronites, who dwelt in Bethlehem-Ephratah in the days of the Judges
Bethhaccerem - Herod's residence is supposed to have been here; its nearness to Bethlehem, the scene of his massacre of the innocents, well accords with this
Jesse - He was a Judahite who lived in Bethlehem, the son of Obed and the grandson of Boaz and Ruth (1 Samuel 16:1 ; Ruth 4:17 )
Abbey, Saint Maurice of Agaunum - Since 1840 its abbots have also been titular bishops of Bethlehem (Annuaire pontifical catholique, 1911,595)
Saint Maurice of Agaunum Abbey - Since 1840 its abbots have also been titular bishops of Bethlehem (Annuaire pontifical catholique, 1911,595)
Tekoa - of Bethlehem. Bethlehem, the Mt
Manger - However there are limestone caverns in the narrow long gray hill on which stands Bethlehem; and Justin Martyr, born at Sichem, only 40 miles off, A. 103, states that "Joseph lodged in a cave near Bethlehem
Mahlon - (Amos 8:11) In this state this house in Israel left Bethlehem-Judah, the land of bread, and the bread of JEHUDAH, (for so Bethlehem-Judah means) and went to sojourn in Moab
Jes'se - , (Ruth 4:18-22 ) and 1 Chronicles 2:5-12 He is commonly designated as "Jesse the Bethlehemite," ( 1 Samuel 16:1,18 ; 17:58 ) but his full title is "the Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah. (1 Samuel 16:10 ; 17:12 ) residing at Bethlehem
Paulinianus - He shared his brother's journeys in Palestine and settled with him in Bethlehem, where he probably remained to the end of his life. But Epiphanius, coming to Jerusalem in 394, and finding (or rather promoting) a schism between the monasteries of Bethlehem and bp
Salmon - If the Salma of 1 Chronicles 2:51 ; 1 Chronicles 2:54 is the same person, he was the ‘father’ or founder of Bethlehem, but it is to be noticed that that Salma is reckoned as one of the sons of Caleb the son of Hur
Elhanan - Son of Jaare-Oregim, or Jair, the Bethlehemitc. " "The Bethlehemite" is an alteration of eth Lahmi, a confusion being made with...
2. Elhanan son of Dodo of Bethlehem; first of "the thirty" of David's guard (2 Samuel 23:24; 1 Chronicles 11:26)
Ephrath - Elimelech was an Ephrathite of Bethlehem, Ruth 1:2 4:11 ; so also was David, 1 Samuel 17:12
City of David - In Luke 2:4 ,Luke 2:4,2:11 the reference is to Bethlehem, the birth place of David (see John 7:42 )
Pool - (Isaiah 42:15 ) Of the various pools mentioned in Scripture, perhaps the most celebrated are the pools of Solomon near Bethlehem called by the Arabs el-Burak , from which an aqueduct was carried which still supplies Jerusalem with wafer
Jabez (2) - of Judea, not far from Bethlehem
Inn - Paula, Jerome's friend, built several on the way to Bethlehem; the Scotch and Irish built some for pilgrims of their nation going to Rome. 103), who was born only 40 miles off, says Jesus was born in a cave near Bethlehem, one of the caverns in the narrow long grey hill on which it stands, for caves in rocky countries are often used as stables; in the manger in it Jesus was laid. "The habitation of Chimham by Bethlehem" (gerut Chimham ) (Jeremiah 41:17) was a halting place or station in or at the patrimony of David, made over to Barzillai's son Chimham for his father's loyalty (2 Samuel 19:34-40)
Barzillai - Chimham's name appears ages subsequently in Jeremiah's time, "the habitation of Chimham by Bethlehem" being the gift of David to him out of his own patrimony, and bearing that name to late generations: an undesigned coincidence and mark of truth (Jeremiah 41:17). (See Bethlehem
Cave - ), in recounting the story of the birth of Christ, says that it took place in a cave (ἐν σπηλαίῳ τινι) near the village of Bethlehem. also Tobler, Bethlehem in Palästina, pp. 145–159; Palmer, ‘Das jetzige Bethlehem’ in ZDPV xvii. ]'>[9] says that there are ‘innumerable instances of stables cut in rock, resembling the Bethlehem grotto. Such stables I have planned and measured at Tekoa, ’Aziz, and other places south of Bethlehem, and the mangers existing in them leave no doubt as to their use and character. Bethlehem. Tobler, Bethlehem in Palatstina, pp
Edar, Tower of - Jacob's first halting place between Bethlehem and Hebron was "beyond" this
Jaar - The ark was brought from the region of Bethlehem (Ephrathah), yea, from the woody heights of Kiriath-jearim
e'Tam, the Rock, - (Judges 15:9,14,17,19 ) The name Etam was held by a city in the neighborhood of Bethlehem, (2 Chronicles 11:6 ) which is known to have been situated in the extremely uneven and broken country round the modern Urtas
na'Omi - Here her husband and sons died; and on her return to Bethlehem she wished to be known as Mara, bitterness , instead of Naomi, sweetness
Naomi - Once back in Bethlehem, she wished to be known by the name Mara—"bitterness
Judea - Under Herod, its king, Our Lord was born at Bethlehem (Luke 1)
Taxing - The decree for the enrolment was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem
Augustus - His decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy (Micah 5:2 ), in Bethlehem
Zamzummims - as far as the valley of the Rephaim near Hinnom and Bethlehem, S
Benjamin - Jacob, being on his journey from Mesopotamia, as he was proceeding southward with Rachel in the company, Genesis 35:16-17 , &c, the pains of child-bearing came upon her, about a quarter of a league from Bethlehem, and she died after the delivery of a son, whom, with her last breath, she named Benoni, that is, "the son of my sorrow;" but soon afterward Jacob changed his name, and called him Benjamin, that is, "the son of my right hand
David, City of - (2) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4,11 ), because it was David's birth-place and early home (1 Samuel 17:12 )
Hazelelponi - They would restore the text to read, “these were the sons of Hareph: the father of Etam,” Since many of the other names in the list are names of towns (for example, Penuel, Bethlehem), Hazeleponi may also represent a town name
Chimham - The "habitation of Chimham" (Jeremiah 41:17 ) was probably an inn or khan, which is the proper meaning of the Hebrew Geruth , Rendered "habitation", established in later times in his possession at Bethlehem, which David gave to him as a reward for his loyalty in accompanying him to Jerusalem after the defeat of Absalom ( 1 Kings 2:7 )
Dove's Dung - , bird-milk, the star-of-Bethlehem
Eder - Tower near Bethlehem (Genesis 35:21 ; compare Genesis 35:19 )
Emmaus - 4 Urtâs, a poor village about 2 miles southwest of Bethlehem
Augustus - This is the emperor who appointed the enrolment mentioned Luke 2:1 , which obliged Joseph and the Virgin Mary to go to Bethlehem, the place where Jesus Christ was born
Bethlehem - But its highest honour is, that here our divine Lord condescended to be born of woman:—"And thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me, that is to be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been of old, from everlasting. " Travellers describe the first view of Bethlehem as imposing. Bethlehem (called in the New Testament Bethlehem Ephrata and Bethlehem of Judea, to distinguish it from Bethlehem of Zabulon) is situated on a rising ground, about two hours' distance, or not quite six miles from Jerusalem. These concerts charm the Christian Arab, who, leaving his camels to feed, repairs, like the shepherds of old, to Bethlehem, to adore the King of kings in the manger. The village of Bethlehem contains about three hundred inhabitants, the greater part of whom gain their livelihood by making beads, carving mother-of-pearl shells with sacred subjects, and manufacturing small tables and crucifixes, all which are eagerly purchased by the pilgrims. ...
Bethlehem has been visited by many modern travellers. Clarke will be read with interest: "After travelling for about an hour from the time of our leaving Jerusalem, we came in view of Bethlehem, and halted to enjoy the interesting sight. Bethlehem is six miles from Jerusalem. David, being a native of Bethlehem, calls to mind, during the sultry days of harvest, 2 Samuel 23:13 , a well near the gate of the town, the delicious waters of which he had often tasted; and expresses an earnest desire to assuage his thirst by drinking of that limpid spring. ‘And David longed, and said, O that one would give me to drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate!' The exclamation is overheard by ‘three of the mighty men whom David had,' namely, Adino, Eleazar, and Shamnah, 2 Samuel 23:8-9 ; 2 Samuel 23:11 . These men sallied forth, and having fought their way through the garrison of the Philistines at Bethlehem, 2 Samuel 23:14 , ‘drew water from the well that was by the gate,' on the other side of the town, and brought it to David. The well still retains its pristine renown; and many an expatriated Bethlehemite has made it the theme of his longing and regret
Conduit - The pools of Solomon beyond Bethlehem for irrigating his garden (Ecclesiastes 2:6) were probably connected with the supply of water for Jerusalem, which Talmudic tradition assigns to him. of Bethlehem
Bethlehem - Here was David's birth-place, and here also, in after years, he was anointed as king by Samuel (1 Samuel 16:4-13 ); and it was from the well of Bethlehem that three of his heroes brought water for him at the risk of their lives when he was in the cave of Adullam (2 Samuel 23:13-17 ). Afterwards Herod, "when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men," sent and slew "all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under" (Matthew 2:16,18 ; Jeremiah 31:15 ). Bethlehem bears the modern name of Beit-Lahm, i
King david - (a) (907-837 BCE) A Bethlehem native, youngest son of Jesse and Nitzevet
David, king - (a) (907-837 BCE) A Bethlehem native, youngest son of Jesse and Nitzevet
Beth-Haccerem - It is probably modern Ramat Rahel halfway between Jerusalem and Bethlehem
Tappuah - City in the Shephelah district of Judah (Joshua 15:34 ), possibly Beit Nettif about twelve miles west of Bethlehem
Naomi - Her return was a matter of surprise to the people of Bethlehem, and they said, ‘Is this Naomi?’ Her answer included a double play of words on her own name, ‘Call me not Naomi (‘pleasant’), call me Mara (‘bitter’): for the Almighty hath dealt very bitterly with me … why call ye me Naomi, seeing the Lord hath testified ( ’ânâh ) against me?’ ( Ruth 1:2-21 )
Nephtoah - of Bethlehem (Neuhauer, Géog
Orpah - ) On her husband's death accompanied Naomi toward Bethlehem a short distance, but, in spite of professions of attachment and tears, she went back to "her people and her gods," and lost the golden opportunity which Ruth embraced of having Israel's God for her God
Rachel - Matthew made application of it to what happened at Bethlehem, when Herod put to death the children of two years old and under
Neto'Phah - (Nehemiah 12:28 ) To judge from (Nehemiah 7:26 ) the town was in the neighborhood of, or closely connected with, Bethlehem
Jesse - Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Samuel 17:17,18,20 ; Psalm 78:71 )
Adullam - of the wady Urtas, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea. of Bethlehem (his parents' residence) would be more likely as the place whence David took his parents to Moab close by, than the region of the city Adullam in the far West. David's familiarity with it, as a Bethlehemite, would naturally lead him to it. On the edge of the country between Philistia and Judah, he collected his band into Adullam (Ayd el Mieh); thence, by the prophet's direction, to the hills, a four miles' march to Hareth, still within reach of his own Bethlehem. " The expedition of David's three mighty men from Ayd el Mieh to Bethlehem would be then 12 leagues, not too far for what is described as an exploit (2 Samuel 23:13-17; 1 Chronicles 11:15-19)
Fabiola, a Noble Roman Lady - In 395 she suddenly appeared at Bethlehem, making the journey with her kinsman Oceanus. Several causes prevented Bethlehem from becoming her home. Jerome, with Paula and Eustochium, returned to Bethlehem; but Fabiola went on to Rome. In conjunction with Pammachius she instituted at Portus a hospice (xenodochium), perhaps taking her model from that established by Jerome at Bethlehem; and it was so successful that, as Jerome says, in one year it become known from Parthia to Britain
Census - A census or enrollment of the people is mentioned several times in the Old Testament and notably in the New Testament (Luke 2), the enrollment of "the whole world" which occasioned the journey of Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem wherc Christ was born
Myrtle - There are many near Bethlehem and about Hebron, especially near Dewir Dan, the ancient Debir
Star in the East - From the account given of this star it is evident that it was one specially sent for the nativity, for it not only appeared to the Magi in the East, but guided them from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, and 'stood over' where the young child was
Augustus - Augustus was the emperor who appointed the enrollment, Luke 2:1, causing Joseph and Mary to go to Bethlehem, the place where Jesus was born
Dove's Dung - Later authorities incline to think it the bulbous root of the Star of Bethlehem (ornithogalum , i
Micah - The birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem is also expressly foretold; and the Jews are directed to look to the establishment and extent of his kingdom, as an unfailing source of comfort amidst general distress. It crowns the whole chain of predictions respecting the several limitations of the promised seed: to the line of Shem; to the family of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob; to the tribe of Judah; and to the royal house of David, terminating in his birth at Bethlehem, "the city of David. This prophecy, therefore, forms the basis of the New Testament revelation which commences with the birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem, the miraculous circumstances of which are recorded by St
Innocents - They quoted to him the words of Micah (Micah 5:2), who speaks of the governor ruling Israel, who is to come out of Bethlehem in Judah, the city of David. When the Magi, having offered their gifts before the young child at Bethlehem, refused to inform Herod, but returned to their own country another way, the enraged king gave orders that all the children from two years old and under should be slain. This was done with much cruelty, so that in Bethlehem and the surrounding country there was great lamentation
Rama - Rachel, whose tomb lies close to Bethlehem, is represented as weeping in Ramah (Jeremiah 31:15 ) for her slaughtered children. This prophecy is illustrated and fulfilled in the re-awakening of Rachel's grief at the slaughter of the infants in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:18 )
Posthumianus, of Aquitania - After the first, when he made the acquaintance of Jerome at Bethlehem, he appears to have visited Campania to see Paulinus (S. Alexandria was then convulsed by the quarrel between the patriarch Theophilus and the monks about the writings of Origen, and Posthumianus went on by land to Bethlehem, where he spent six months with Jerome, whom he praises highly both for virtue and learning
Adullam - Tradition places it in the hill country, about six miles south-east of Bethlehem, the city of David; a large and fine cave, visited by many travellers
Jair - ” His name is Jaare-oregim in 2 Samuel 21:19 , though some translators would read the text “Jair of Bethlehem” (REB)
a'Mos - (burden ), native of Tekoa in Judah, about six miles south of Bethlehem, originally a shepherd and dresser of sycamore trees, who was called by God s Spirit to be a prophet, although not trained in any of the regular prophetic schools
Vincentius - We do not hear of him during Jerome's stay, but they left Rome together in 385 and settled at Bethlehem ( cont. On his return to Bethlehem in 400 he was full of the subject
Certain - So again, when it is said, (as in Ruth 1:1-22) a certain man of Bethlehem-judah went to sojourn in the country of Moab. All men, from our first father, have left Bethlehem-judah, the land of bread, for so the name means; and Jerusalem, the holy city; and by going down to the Moabs and the Jerichos of the world, have fallen among thieves, and been left more than half dead by the great enemy of souls
Bethlehem - Bethlehem is now called Beit-lahm, and contains about three thousand inhabitants, almost exclusively nominal Christians. An unknown place in Zebulun, Joshua 19:15 Judges 12:10 , in distinction from which the city of David was often called Bethlehem-Judah
Eusebius (99), Presbyter of Cremona - He was with Jerome at Bethlehem in 393, and became the unconscious means of extending into Italy the strife concerning Origenism which had begun at Jerusalem. Eusebius remained at Bethlehem till Easter, 398, when he was obliged to return hastily to Italy. Eusebius sent a copy of this to Bethlehem, where Jerome denounced it as a mistranslation
John Cassian - With his friend Germanus he visited the holy places in Palestine and they became monks at Bethlehem
Fabiola, Saint - In 395 she went to Bethlehem, where she lived in the hospice of the convent directed by Saint Paula, and under the direction of Saint Jerome applied herself to the study of Scripture and to ascetic exercises
Cassian, John - With his friend Germanus he visited the holy places in Palestine and they became monks at Bethlehem
Tekoa, Tekoah - ...
It is now the village of Teku'a, on the top of a hill among ruins, 5 miles south of Bethlehem, and close to Beth-haccerem ("Herod's mountain")
Divine Goodness: Unceasing - Providential goodness is an endless chain, a ream which follows the pilgrim, a wheel perpetually revolving, a star for ever shining, and leading us to the place here he is who was once a babe in Bethlehem
Nativity of Christ - Joseph and Mary were providentially led to go up to Bethlehem at this period, and there Christ was born (Matthew 2:1,6 ; Luke 2:1,7 )
East - Balaam, Cyrus, and the wise men who visited Bethlehem at the time Christ was born, are said to come from the east, Numbers 23:7 ; Isaiah 46:11 ; Matthew 2:1
Bambino - (Italian: child) ...
A figure of the Infant Jesus, usually of wax, represented as in the manger or crib at Bethlehem, and exposed in Catholic churches from Christmas to Epiphany
Peor - ]'>[2] places a Peor (Phagor) in Judah not far from Bethlehem, which is evidently the modern Khirbel Faghûr , to the S
Paula, Daughter of Toxotius - He desires that she should lead the ascetic life and prepare to consecrate herself to Christ in virginity; and begs that, if she could not carry out at Rome the system of instruction in scriptural knowledge which he prescribed, she might be sent to Bethlehem
Garrison - the Philistines had garrisons deep in Jewish territory at Gibeath-elohim (1 Samuel 10:5 ), Geba (1 Samuel 13:3 ), and Bethlehem (2 Samuel 23:14 )
Star in the East - ...
The eastern magi apparently were not only apprized of the coming birth of a royal and divine being in Judea, but were miraculously guided to Bethlehem by a meteoric light, appearing in the right direction for their course, Matthew 2:9
Ben'Jamin - His birth took place on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, near the latter, B
Pools of Solomon - From the lower pool an aqueduct has been traced conveying the water through Bethlehem and across the valley of Gihon, and along the west slope of the Tyropoeon valley, till it finds its way into the great cisterns underneath the temple hill. The water, however, from the pools reaches now only to Bethlehem
Tower - It is said this tower was in the neighbourhood of Bethlehem, Genesis 35:21 , and that the shepherds to whom the angels revealed the birth of our Saviour were near to this tower, Luke 2:8 ; Luke 2:15 . Many interpreters assert, that the passage of Micah: in which mention is made of the tower of the flock: "And thou tower of the flock, the strong hold of the daughter of Zion," is to be understood of the city of Bethlehem, out of which our Saviour was to come
Magi or Wise Men - The captivity of the Jews beyond the Euphrates had dispersed throughout the East much knowledge of the true God; and these philosophers and astronomers, in their search after wisdom, had found and believed the prophecies respecting the Messiah, and were divinely guided to his presence at Bethlehem
Ramah - " But the only "Rachel's sepulchre" we know of was near Bethlehem, many miles south of the direct road from Arimathea to Gibeah. Accordingly, if we suppose this interview took place at Arimathea, we seem obliged to suppose another Rachel's sepulchre between it and Gibeah; or if "Rachel's sepulchre" was at Bethlehem, to infer that the city where Saul actually found Samuel, and at which the prophet had only that day arrived, 1 Samuel 9:10 , was not his usual residence, but some place south or south-west of Bethlehem, only visited by him at intervals in his annual circuits as judge
Caleb Ephratah - Others suppose Caleb Ephratah named jointly from husband and wife, and identify it with Bethlehem Ephratah
Sea, the Molten - It was capable of containing two or three thousand baths of water (Compare 2 Chronicles 4:5 ), which was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from the pools of Bethlehem
Tekoa - ” A city in the highlands of Judah six miles south of Bethlehem and ten miles south of Jerusalem; home of the prophet Amos
Ramah - ’ The mention of Ramah in the NT quotation is a detail which has no significance in relation to the massacre of the Innocents, since Bethlehem was 10 miles away, on the other side of Jerusalem
Micah - The prediction that Christ should be born in Bethlehem belongs to Conduit - ) There are also the remains of a conduit which conducted water from the so-called "Pools of Solomon," beyond Bethlehem, into the city
Gedor - Perhaps now Jedur between Bethlehem and Hebron, two miles W
Myrrh - The magi, who came from the east to worship our Saviour at Bethlehem, made him a present of myrrh among other things, Matthew 2:11
Ramah - The latest map of the Palestine fund places it a short distance east of Bethlehem
Eder - The tower here mentioned lay between Bethlehem and Hebron (cf
Taxing - For the enrolment is mentioned in order to explain why Joseph and Mary came from Nazareth to Bethlehem at the time when Jesus was born. Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?) that, in Egypt at least, enrolments took place every fourteen years, that traces of the same arrangement have been found in other parts of the Empire, and that it may have extended to Palestine
Land of Chanaan - Among the famous places in what constituted the former country of Chanaan are Jerusalem, the Holy City; Bethlehem, the birthplace of Our Lord; Nazareth, the scene of His private life; Joppe, Hebron, Gaza, and Bersabee
Canaan, Land of - Among the famous places in what constituted the former country of Chanaan are Jerusalem, the Holy City; Bethlehem, the birthplace of Our Lord; Nazareth, the scene of His private life; Joppe, Hebron, Gaza, and Bersabee
Chanaan, Land of - Among the famous places in what constituted the former country of Chanaan are Jerusalem, the Holy City; Bethlehem, the birthplace of Our Lord; Nazareth, the scene of His private life; Joppe, Hebron, Gaza, and Bersabee
Ephron - of Bethlehem seems intended
Pool - The three pools of Solomon near Bethlehem are famous, and still supply Jerusalem with water by an aqueduct (Ecclesiastes 2:6)
Abishai - He broke through their host around Bethlehem, and lifted up his spear against 300, and slew them, 2 Samuel 23:14-18 : and was with David in the matters of Shimei, Absalom, and Sheba
Jesse - His designation "the Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah" (1 Samuel 17:12) implies that he was of a very old family in the place
Etam - In Judah, garrisoned by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:6); near Bethlehem and Tekoah. 3) mentions an Etham 50 furlongs from Jerusalem, where were the sources from which Solomon's pleasure grounds were watered, and Bethlehem and the temple supplied
Gibeah - of Bethlehem ( Onomast . road from Bethlehem, between Jerusalem and Ramah
Pinianus, Husband of Melania the Younger - Melania the elder having died at Bethlehem, they inherited her vast estates. Being now free, though poor, Pinianus, with his wife and mother-in-law, went to Egypt, saw the monasteries of the Thebaid, and thence to Palestine, settling at Bethlehem
Birth of Christ - Bethlehem as our Lord’s birthplace. Luke’s account gives us not only a picture of Jewish home life, but it also reveals the workings of a Jewish mother’s heart; it gives us with unmistakable clearness, and yet with the utmost delicacy and reserve, information which could scarcely have come from any one in the first instance but a woman (this is admirably shown by Ramsay in the second chapter of Was Christ born at Bethlehem?). Bethlehem as our Lord’s birthplace. Luke from the gross geographical blunder which he has been accused of making at the outset of his history, the blunder of confusing Bethlehem-Judah with another Bethlehem in Galilee (see, in relation to this alleged blunder, Knowling, Our Lord’s Virgin Birth and the Criticism of To-day, pp. 25):—...
‘There are two Bethlehems, the second in Galilee, about seven miles west of Nazareth, and it has recently been suggested in the Encyc. Biblica that the Galilean Bethlehem was the true scene of the Nativity. There would be real advantages if Bethlehem could be thought of as near to Nazareth. Luke are express in placing the birth of Christ at Bethlehem of Judaea. , and sees in it the hidden path by which Bethlehem found its way into the Gospel tradition (Encyc. But there is no reason for supposing that the writer of the Fourth Gospel was himself unaware of our Lord’s birth at Bethlehem, because he expresses the popular expectation of the ignorant multitude. xxii–xlv); and from a comparison of Isaiah 11:2 and Isaiah 11:12 it can scarcely be doubted that Bethlehem-Judah was meant throughout the narrative as the scene of our Lord’s birth. ]'>[8] an inference which might equally seem to follow from the passage before us, unless we remember that the Evangelist is presupposing that his readers would be well aware of the true descent of Jesus and the actual place of His birth (see this point admirably put by Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem? p. ...
Nor does the fact that our Lord was popularly known as Jesus of Nazareth in any way interfere with the truth that He was born at Bethlehem. It will, of course, be said that prophecy pointed to our Lord’s birth at Bethlehem, and that St. Luke’s accuracy, so well attested in other respects, would have saved him from making an initial and needless error, and that the least consideration would have prevented him from connecting such an event as an enrolment of the people with the birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem, unless it was true. Undoubtedly both OT prediction and Rabbinic teaching pointed to Bethlehem, yet the prophecy was fulfilled according to the Gospel story by the introduction of a set of circumstances which were strangely alien to Jewish national thought and prestige: ‘a counting of the people, or census, and that census taken at the bidding of a heathen emperor, and executed by one so universally hated as Herod, would represent the ne plus ultra of all that was most repugnant to Jewish feeling’ (Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i. If it is urged that the story of the Nativity was bound in any case to bring Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, the city of David, it would have been easier and more significant to have adopted the theory of Strauss, to the effect that the parents were led to go to Bethlehem by the appearance of an angel, especially when we remember that the frequent introduction of angelic visitors is described as one of the special characteristics of the writings of St
Holy Innocents - Matthew 2, recounts that Herod, angered because he had been deluded by the wise men, ordered the massacre of all male children of two years or under in Bethlehem
Innocents, Holy - Matthew 2, recounts that Herod, angered because he had been deluded by the wise men, ordered the massacre of all male children of two years or under in Bethlehem
Rephaim, Valley of - Thus all communication between Bethlehem and Jerusalem was intercepted
Ruth - On the death of Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law, who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which Elimelech had migrated
Augustus Caesar - His decree that all the world should be taxed, each going to his own city, was the divinely ordered (Micah 5:2) occasion of Jesus' birth taking place at Bethlehem
Elah, Valley of - Ekron is 17 miles and Bethlehem 12 from Shocoh
Stars - Probably the most famous and intriguing of all the stars mentioned in Scripture is the star of Bethlehem, (Matthew 2:1 )
Augustus - He ruled the Roman Empire, including Palestine, when Jesus was born and ordered the taxation that brought Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem (Luke 2:1 )
Babe - To contemplate the Ancient of days as the Babe of Bethlehem; and to behold the church in every individual member, as babes in Christ, the imagination finds large scope for the indulgence of the most solemn meditation, when the subject is opened to the believer by God the Holy Ghost
Caleb - Son of Hor, whose children people the country about Bethlehem, etc
Melania the Younger, Daughter of Publicola - When through the rapacity of the rebel count Heraclian she was denuded of her property, and thus set free from the promise to remain at Hippo, she accompanied her husband to Egypt, and, after staying among the monastic establishments of the Thebaid and visiting Cyril at Alexandria, eventually went to Palestine, and, together with her mother Albina, settled at Bethlehem in 414. By the settlement of Melania at Bethlehem the feud was extinguished which had separated the followers of Rufinus from those of Jerome; and although in his letter to Ctesiphon (cxxiii
Paula, a Roman Lady - Paula (2) , a noble and wealthy Roman lady, who accompanied Jerome to Palestine in 385, and lived the rest of her life at Bethlehem, dying in 404. With him she braved the winter's journey through Lebanon to Palestine [1] and Egypt, from whence returning the whole party settled in Bethlehem in the autumn of 386. Her scriptural studies, begun in Rome, were carried on earnestly at Bethlehem. John of Jerusalem, who only four years before had been at strife with the convents of Bethlehem, was there
Faber, Frederick William - They are: "All for Jesus"; "Growth in Holiness"; "The Blessed Sacrament"; "The Creator and the Creature"; "The Foot of the Cross"; "Spiritual Conferences"; "The Precious Blood"; "Bethlehem"; "Notes on Doctrinal Subjects
Frederick William Faber - They are: "All for Jesus"; "Growth in Holiness"; "The Blessed Sacrament"; "The Creator and the Creature"; "The Foot of the Cross"; "Spiritual Conferences"; "The Precious Blood"; "Bethlehem"; "Notes on Doctrinal Subjects
Innocents, Slaughter of the - When the Magi failed to report back their finding of the Christ-child, Herod ordered the slaughter of all male children in Bethlehem two years of age or less
Hur - "The father (founder) of Bethlehem," which as late as the 13th century A
Hedibia, a Lady in Gaul - Jerome (then at Bethlehem) c
Elimelech - The certain man, there spoken of, going down from Bethlehem-judah, the land of bread, to sojourn in Moab, the city of destruction, becomes no unapt representation of our first father, who, like the Samaritan our Lord describes, going down from Jerusalem, the holy city, to Jericho, the cursed city, fell among thieves
Nativity of Christ, Feast of the - This was originally reserved to the pope alone; beginning about the 4th century he celebrated a midnight Mass in the Lateran Basilica (in which according to tradition, the manger of Bethlehem is preserved), a second in the church of Saint Anastasia, whose feast comes on December 25, and a third at the Vatican Basilica
Christmas - This was originally reserved to the pope alone; beginning about the 4th century he celebrated a midnight Mass in the Lateran Basilica (in which according to tradition, the manger of Bethlehem is preserved), a second in the church of Saint Anastasia, whose feast comes on December 25, and a third at the Vatican Basilica
Joseph, Saint - Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord, born probably Bethlehem; died probably Nazareth
Pain (And Forms) - ...
Isaiah 66:7 (a) Evidently Israel was in great trouble just before the Saviour was born in Bethlehem, but they did not realize that their deliverer was so near
Joannes ii, Bishop of Jerusalem - It had also a special interest from the settlements of distinguished persons from the West, which made it during his episcopate a focus of Christian and literary activity, and with two of which, that of Rufinus and Melania on the Mount of Olives, and of Jerome and Paula at Bethlehem, he was destined to have close but similar relations. ...
When John became bishop, Rufinus had already been settled on the Mount of Olives some nine years, and Jerome and his friends were just entering on their work at Bethlehem. The reconciliation of John with the monks of Bethlehem is further attested by Sulpicius Severus ( Dial. 8), who had stayed six months at Bethlehem, and says that John had entrusted to Jerome and his brother the charge of the parish of Bethlehem. The dialogue of Jerome against the Pelagians, though mild compared with his other controversial works, incensed them, and they proceeded to burn the monasteries of Bethlehem. Complaints, however, of the ill-treatment of Jerome and the Roman ladies at Bethlehem reached pope Innocent, who wrote to John a letter (Hieron
Bastard - ...
Bastard-Star of Bethlehem, a plant, a species of Albuca
Father - the word ab is at times used as 'founder:' thus in 1 Chronicles 4:4 one is mentioned as the 'father' of Bethlehem
Abishai - In the same war probably he, as chief of the three "mighties," chivalrously broke through the Philistine host to procure water for David from the well of his native Bethlehem (2 Samuel 23:14-17)
Jesse - A Bethlehemite, best known as the father of David. , in which Samuel is sent to Bethlehem to anoint David; and 1 Samuel 16:18 , in which Jesse’s son is sent for to play the harp before Saul
Teko'a, - Jerome says that Tekoa was six Roman miles from Bethlehem, and that as he wrote he had that village daily before his eyes
Nob - 1 Samuel 20:6 ) that David went to Nob with the intention of proceeding to Bethlehem (5 miles S
Sophronius, Ecclesiastical Writer - He had, while still young, composed a book on the glories of Bethlehem, and, just before the catalogue was written, a book on the destruction of the Serapeum, and had translated into Greek Jerome's letter to Eustochium on virginity, his Life of Hilarion, and his Latin version of the Psalms and Prophets
Hittites - This included the towns of Bethel, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron and Beersheba (Genesis 23:2-16; Genesis 26:34; Judges 1:23; Judges 1:26; 2 Samuel 23:39; Ezekiel 16:3)
Rama - of Bethlehem; but explain Jeremiah 31:15 as above. The city where Samuel anointed Saul (1 Samuel 9-10) was probably not Samuel's own city Rama, for the city of Saul's anointing was near Rachel's sepulchre adjoining Bethlehem (1 Samuel 10:2), whereas Mount Ephraim wherein was Ramathaim Zophim did not reach so far S
Jesus - ...
In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter (Matthew 1:1 ; Luke 3:23 ; Compare John 7:42 ). Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King of the Jews," bringing gifts with them (Matthew 2:1-12 )
Joseph (2) - ...
Before the birth of Christ there was an Imperial decree that all the world should be taxed, and Joseph, being of the house and lineage of David, had to leave Nazareth and go to Bethlehem, to be taxed with Mary. ]'>[2] In Bethlehem Jesus was born; and there the shepherds, to whom the angel had announced the birth of the Saviour, found Mary and Joseph and ‘the babe lying in a manger’ (Luke 2:16). Joseph fulfilled the law as if he were the father of Jesus; and after the ceremonies in the temple he must have returned with Mary and her son to Bethlehem, which was 6 miles distant from Jerusalem. In Bethlehem the Wise Men who had come from the East saw Mary and ‘the young child’ and worshipped Him; and after their departure the angel of the Lord appeared again to Joseph, bidding him take Mary and the child and flee into Egypt on account of Herod, who would seek to destroy Him (Matthew 2:13)
Vigilantius - 3), then living at Bethlehem, where he was received with great respect (lviii. The schism between the monasteries of Bethlehem and the bp. He was for a time favourably impressed by what he saw at Bethlehem, and on one occasion, when Jerome was preaching upon the reality of the body at the resurrection, sprang up, and with applause of hands and feet saluted Jerome as champion of orthodoxy ( Ep. It was not written hastily, under provocation, such as he may have felt in leaving Bethlehem, but after the lapse of six or seven years. Jerome gave little attention to it at first, but finding Sisinnius obliged to leave Bethlehem in haste, sat down, and in one night wrote his treatise contra Vigilantium
Rachel - A little way from Ephrath, which is Bethlehem, Rachel died and was buried, and Jacob set a pillar on her grave. " Rachel, who pined so for children and died in bearing "the son of her sorrow," and was buried in the neighborhood of Ramah (of Benjamin) and Bethlehem, is poetically represented as "weeping" for her Ephraimite sons carried off by the Chaldees. each Bethlehemite mother had but one child to lament, as Herod's limit, "two years old and under," implies; a coincidence the more remarkable as not obvious. of Bethlehem; Muslims, Jews, and Christians agree as to the site
Moravian Church - During colonial times Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, in Pennsylvania, and Salem, North Carolina, were organized as exclusive Moravian villages
Herod the Great - " Alarmed by the tidings of one "born King of the Jews," he sent forth and "slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under" (Matthew 2:16 )
Boaz - Of Bethlehem: Elimelech's (Naomi's husband's) kinsman
Unitas Fratrom - During colonial times Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, in Pennsylvania, and Salem, North Carolina, were organized as exclusive Moravian villages
Unity of Brethren - During colonial times Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, in Pennsylvania, and Salem, North Carolina, were organized as exclusive Moravian villages
mi'Cah, the Book of - He it is who says that the Ruler shall spring from Bethlehem
Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem - The great temporal wealth of the order was responsible for an administration similar to that of the military orders, and the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem was founded by Pope Pius II in 1459 from the revenues of these commanderies
Order of the Holy Ghost - The great temporal wealth of the order was responsible for an administration similar to that of the military orders, and the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem was founded by Pope Pius II in 1459 from the revenues of these commanderies
Holy Ghost, Order of the - The great temporal wealth of the order was responsible for an administration similar to that of the military orders, and the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem was founded by Pope Pius II in 1459 from the revenues of these commanderies
David, King - Prophet and king of Israel, born Bethlehem, c
Soco, Socoh - Such a defensible site, lying close to main roads from Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron, etc
Fortified Cities - Among the more important cities in these lists are Hazor in Naphtali and Bethlehem, Tekoa, Hebron, Gath, and Lachish in Judah
Cistern - The largest of the innumerable cisterns of Jerusalem, the ‘great sea’ in the Haram area, which is estimated to have held 3,000,000 gallons, derived its water-supply partly from surface drainage and partly from water brought by a conduit from Solomon’s Pools near Bethlehem (Wilson)
Manger - Ancient tradition places Jesus’ birth in a cave near Bethlehem
Tekoa - Six Roman miles from Bethlehem, (to the S
Bethlehem - Bethlehem (bĕth'le-hem), house of bread
Micah - He proclaims the coming of the Messiah, "whose going forth have been from of old, from everlasting," as the foundation of all hope for the glorious and blessed future he describes; and specifies Bethlehem in Judah as the place where He should be born of woman, Micah 5:2,3
Judea - Judea was little frequented by our Lord, except Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Bethany (compare John 7:1 for the reason in part)
Torch - ...
The other custom, the use of torches fed with oil, is said by the German writer, Ludwig Schneller, who was born in Jerusalem, and was for a time a minister in Bethlehem, to be in force in the Holy Land at the present day. The maidens of Bethlehem, says the same writer (ib
David, City of - Luke used “city of David” to refer to Bethlehem, where both David and Jesus were born (Luke 2:4 ,Luke 2:4,2:11 )
Joab - His father's name is nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre at Bethlehem is mentioned (2 Samuel 2:32 )
Inn - ...
In Bethlehem, Joseph and Mary could find no room at the inn (Luke 2:7 )
Engedi - Clarke has described similar retreats in the rocks near Bethlehem; others, between Jerusalem and Jericho, are mentioned by Mr
City - In Luke 2:11 , Bethlehem his native city is meant
Adullam - This is in the low country and all David's house went down from the hills of Bethlehem to him
Moabite - The story of Ruth, however, shows the existence of friendly relations between Moab and Bethlehem
Rachel - She was buried near Ramah, on the road from Bethel to Bethlehem (Genesis 35:16-20; 1 Samuel 10:2; Jeremiah 31:15)
Nazareth, Nazarene - Following Jesus' birth in Bethlehem and the sojourn in Egypt, Joseph and Mary returned with Jesus to Nazareth (Matthew 2:19-23 ), where Jesus grew from boyhood to manhood (Luke 2:39-40 ; Luke 4:16 ), being stamped as a Nazarene (Matthew 2:23 ), apparently a midrashic play on the Hebrew term netser , “shoot” in Isaiah 11:1
Elhanan - passage; in both the texts the word which should be the equivalent of Jair is wrongly written; the words ‘the Bethlehemite’ (2Sam. The original text, of which each of these two verses is a corruption, probably ran: ‘And Elhanan the son of Jair, the Bethlehemite, slew Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam. In 2 Samuel 23:24 and 1 Chronicles 11:26 Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem is numbered among David’s ‘mighty men
Census - Luke used this benchmark both as a general time reference and, more importantly, to set the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, the ancestral city of David
Ruth, Book of - On the death of Elimelech and his sons, Naomi the widow returned to Bethlehem, accompanied by Ruth, who clave to her, declaring that Naomi's God should be her God, and Naomi's people should be her people
Genealogies - At the census Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem, for they were of the lineage of David; Anna was of the tribe of Asher, and Paul of the tribe of Benjamin
Oceanus, a Roman of Noble Birth - Either in 397 or 396 Oceanus, with Fabiola, visited Jerome at Bethlehem, whence they were driven by fear of Hunnish invasion
Ruth - Story place is given as the agrarian world of Moab and the environs of Bethlehem. Episode A (Ruth 1:6-22 ) narrates her return to and reception in Bethlehem, and how Ruth came to be with her
Micah - " After all this the mountain of the Lord shall be exalted; God's People will be renewed; suffering is the road to glory; the Lord of this glory will be born in Bethlehem and His kingdom will be blessed, triumphant, and peaceful
Micheas - " After all this the mountain of the Lord shall be exalted; God's People will be renewed; suffering is the road to glory; the Lord of this glory will be born in Bethlehem and His kingdom will be blessed, triumphant, and peaceful
John Hus - " As no effort was made to imprison him he returned to Prague, 1414, and posted his treatise "De sex erroribus" on the walls of the Bethlehem chapel, where he had been preacher
Benjamin - His birth took place at Ephrath, on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, at a short distance from the latter place
Nazarene - Had the prophets expressly foretold He should be of Nazareth, it would not have been so despised; nor would the Pharisees, who were able from Micah 5 to tell Herod where Messiah's birthplace was - Bethlehem (Matthew 2) - have been so ignorant of the prophecy of His connection with Nazareth as to say, "out of Galilee ariseth no prophet" (John 7:52)
Hus, John - " As no effort was made to imprison him he returned to Prague, 1414, and posted his treatise "De sex erroribus" on the walls of the Bethlehem chapel, where he had been preacher
Taxes - An enrollment for the purposes of taxation under the Roman emperor brought Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born (Luke 2:1-7 )
Heliodorus, Bishop of Altinum - of Aquileia, and they both kept up communications with Jerome, then residing at Bethlehem
Archelaus - According to Jerome, the tomb of Archelaus was pointed out near Bethlehem (de Situ et Nomin
Agabus - , and Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, 1898, p
Eustochium, 3rd Daughter of Paula - At Bethlehem they built and managed the hospice and convent, and from her mother's death in 404 Eustochium was its head till her own death in 418, two years before that of Jerome
Naz'Areth - (the guarded one ) the ordinary residence of our Saviour, is not mentioned in the Old Testament, but occurs first in ( Matthew 2:23 ) It derives its celebrity from its connection with the history of Christ, and in that respect has a hold on the imagination and feelings of men which it shares only with Jerusalem and Bethlehem
Eleazar - ...
...
The son of Dodo the Ahohite, of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the three most eminent of David's thirty-seven heroes (1 Chronicles 11:12 ) who broke through the Philistine host and brought him water from the well of Bethlehem (2 Samuel 23:9,16 )
Irrigation - Water for Jerusalem was carried northward through an elaborate series of canals and pools from the Bethlehem area
Nob - "The hill of God" (1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Samuel 10:10), where the Spirit came on Saul on his way from Bethlehem after Samuel's anointing, was probably Nob, the seat then of the tabernacle, and meaning "prophecy
Nazareth - ...
Jesus’ parents were originally from Nazareth, but before his birth they moved south to Bethlehem in Judea (Luke 2:4)
Italian Band - Ramsay regards this suspicion as groundless, and makes effective use (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, 1898, p
Astrology - Travelling to Palestine, they ascertained at Jerusalem that the Messiah was expected to be born in Bethlehem, and directing their steps thither they saw the ‘star’ in front of them all the way, till they came to the house where the infant Jesus was found
Census - For the discussion of this intricate question see articles Birth of Christ, Dates, and Quirinius,...
The nature of the census of Luke 2:1-3 is a topic of some interest, on which light has been shed by Ramsay in Was Christ born at Bethlehem? (1898). 147 note); and if that was the case also in Palestine, this fact may possibly explain why, on the first occasion when the enrolment that was the basis of the poll-tax was made, Mary accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem despite her critical condition. Luke; articles in Bible Dictionaries, as Smith, Kitto, and Hastings; Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem? (1898); Zumpt, Das Geburtsjahr Christi (1869); Zahn, art
Archelaus - So he was dethroned, and exiled to Vienne in Gaul, where he died; but Jerome says his sepulchre was near Bethlehem
City - Bethlehem is also so called as being David's native town (Luke 2:4 )
Amos - (meaning not clear; perhaps "a burden") ...
Third among the Minor Prophets, a subject of the Kingdom of Juda, born Thecua, 6 miles south of Bethlehem
Judea - See Luke 1:39,65 , including Bethlehem, Hebron, etc
ma'ry the Virgin, - Her history at this time, her residence at Bethlehem, flight to Egypt, and return to her early home st Nazareth, are well known
Manger - A similar statement is made by Origen, who affirms that in his day there was shown at Bethlehem ‘the cave where Jesus was born, and the manger in the cave where He was wrapped in swaddling bands’ (c. Bethlehem and Cave
je'Sus Christ - --Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, God being his father, at Bethlehem of Judea, six miles south of Jerusalem. --Jesus, having a manger at Bethlehem for his cradle, received a visit of adoration from the three wise men of the East. At forty days old he was taken to the temple at Jerusalem; and returning to Bethlehem, was soon taken to Egypt to escape Herod's massacre of the infants there
Move - When they had come to Bethlehem, all the city was moved about them
Caves - ...
Eight caves on the eastern slopes of the Judean hills southeast of Bethlehem show a long period of prehistoric occupation
Manger - It is to be hoped, that in Bethlehem, whose very name means the land of bread, there was sufficient provision of this kind for, the Lord of life and glory
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 500), and began his translation of the work of Didymus, the blind Origenistic teacher of Alexandria, on the Holy Spirit, which he did not complete till after his settlement at Bethlehem, probably because of the increasing suspicions and enmity of clergy and people, whom he speaks of as the senate of the Pharisees, against all that had any connexion with Origen (pref. At one time they were almost persuaded to remain in the Egyptian desert, but the attractions of the holy places of Palestine prevailed; and sailing from Alexandria to Majoma, they settled at Bethlehem, in the autumn of 386. ...
Bethlehem, First Period , 386–392. —Their first work was to establish themselves at Bethlehem. The agitated state of the empire also was felt in the hermitage of Bethlehem. ) created a panic in Palestine, so that, in 395, ships had been provided at Joppa to carry away the virgins of Bethlehem, who hurried to the coast to embark, when the danger passed away. These invasions caused great lack of means at Bethlehem (cxiv. Immediately on settling at Bethlehem, he set to work to perfect his knowledge of Hebrew with the aid of a Jew named Bar Anina (called Barabbas by Jerome's adversaries, who conceived that through this teacher his version was tainted with Judaism; see Ruf. ...
To this period belong the many external difficulties at Bethlehem already mentioned. He was disturbed also by the controversy or schism between the monks of Bethlehem and the bp
Judges, Theology of - In the earlier story a Levite from the hill country of Ephraim travels to Bethlehem to retrieve his concubine from her father's house. In Bethlehem he is treated royally and shown every courtesy. Underlying the details of the story is a political allegory addressed to those from Ephraim and the northern tribes: Who will treat you well? [2] Who will treat you poorly? [3] Who will remove the aliens from Jebus and make it safe? Everyone reading the story knows that David and his lineage were from Bethlehem, and that David had made Jebus/Jerusalem a safe city. The story appears to advocate loyalty from the northern tribes to a family from Bethlehem, rather than to a family from the corrupt Gibeah (Saul and his descendants)
Tabor - Identified by Ewald with the oak of Deborah (or Tabor differently pronounced), Rebekah's nurse (Genesis 35:8), and the palm of Deborah the prophetess (Judges 4:5; the distance from Rachel's sepulchre at Bethlehem is an objection), and the oak of the prophet of Bethel (1 Kings 13:14)
Father - The father of Sichem, the father of Tekoah, the father of Bethlehem, &c, signify the chief persons who inhabited these cities; he who built or rebuilt them
Benjamin - The youngest son of Jacob, born in Palestine, not far from Bethlehem, after the return from Padan-aram
Magi - (For details, see JESUS CHRIST, Bethlehem, and HEROD. But the Child had escaped, and the Magi, being warned of God in a dream (they were famed for interpretation of dreams), had returned a different way, before Herod's cruel decree for the slaughter of the infants took effect at Bethlehem
David - Beloved, the youngest son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah, born in Bethlehem B. Though first sung by Hebrew tongues in the vales of Bethlehem and on the heights of Zion, they sound as sweetly in languages then unknown, and are dear to Christian hearts all around the world
Nazareth - The Jews believed that, according to Micah 5:2 , the birth of the Messiah would take place at Bethlehem, and nowhere else
Gibeah - This Gibeah has usually been located at el-Jeba, seven and a half miles southwest of Bethlehem, but this is too far north to be connected with clans of Caleb
Tower - 279) of a stone tower in the Hauran constructed of black basalt, with a stone loft at the height of 14 feet, reached by a spiral staircase (see also Porter, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Bethany, p
Mary, the Mother of Jesus - ...
An enrolment, or census, decreed by the imperial power of Rome, caused Joseph, to whom Mary had been espoused, to take her to the city of Bethlehem, where, according to prophecy, Jesus was born
Elder; Aged - In a given city, the governing council was made up of the “elders,” who were charged with the well-being of the town: “And Samuel did that which the Lord spake, and came to Bethlehem
Sion - From the top of the hill you see, to the south, the valley of Ben Hinnom; beyond this, the field of blood, purchased with the thirty pieces of silver given to Judas; the hill of Evil Counsel, the tombs of the judges, and the whole desert toward Hebron and Bethlehem
Only Begotten - In 1 John 4:9 the statement "God hath sent His only begotten son into the world" does not mean that God sent out into the world one who at His birth in Bethlehem had become His Son
Jonathan - Bethlehem was not a Levitical city
Marcella, Friend of Jerome - A letter written by those two ladies on their settlement at Bethlehem (in Jerome, Ep
Price of Blood - When the three mighty men at the risk of their lives brought the king a draught of water from the well of Bethlehem, he scrupled to drink it, because it was so closely associated with the blood of the men who had risked their lives to procure it
Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis - Jerome also visited Epiphanius, on his way to Bethlehem, bringing a train of monks to Cyprus, to salute "the father of almost the whole episcopate, the last relic of ancient piety. He then hastened to join Jerome at Bethlehem, and required the monks there to renounce at once all church fellowship with the bp. From there he continued to press the monks of Bethlehem to renounce church fellowship with the Origenist bp. John, and finally availed himself of the occasion provided by a deputation from Bethlehem, to ordain as presbyter Jerome's brother Paulinianus, and impose him on the community, as one who should administer the sacraments among them. His excuses were far from satisfying the bishop, who reported to other bishops this violation of the canons, and threatened the monks of Bethlehem with ecclesiastical penalties so long as they should recognize Paulinianus or persist in separation
Rufus - —Matthew 2:6 ‘And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘be shepherd of’) my people Israel’ (ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ). A new David comes forth from little Bethlehem, and the rest of his brethren return to the children of Israel—that is, the kindred Hebrew nations again accept the sway of the new king, who stands and feeds his flock in the strength of Jehovah, in the majesty of the name of Jehovah his God. ‘And art thou, Bethlehem, little for being (=so little as not to be) among the thousands of Juda?’—following Grotius (Opera, ii. Micah says that the ideal king is to come out of Bethlehem, a town held in little estimation; and Mt
Infancy - , the use made of dream-warnings (Matthew 2:12-13; Matthew 2:19; Matthew 2:22); the peculiarities in the leading of the ‘star’ (seen first in the East, then lost sight of—else they had not gone to Jerusalem instead of Bethlehem—only to reappear and go before them to Bethlehem, moving in the heavens, and at last stopping ‘over where the young child was’); the symbolic character of the threefold offering (Matthew 2:11); and, lastly, the dominant interest in the element of prophetic fulfilment, making each turn in the story answer to some passage from the prophets (Matthew 2:6; Matthew 2:15; Matthew 2:17; Matthew 2:23), the correspondence in some cases being but remote and obscure. , in the implication that Joseph and Mary were continuously resident at Bethlehem probably until Jesus was nearly two years old, and that they went to Nazareth to live only after their return from Egypt. ‘Jesus Christ’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible; Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?; Resch, ‘Das Kindheits-evangelium’ (TU Rufus - —Matthew 2:6 ‘And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘be shepherd of’) my people Israel’ (ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ). A new David comes forth from little Bethlehem, and the rest of his brethren return to the children of Israel—that is, the kindred Hebrew nations again accept the sway of the new king, who stands and feeds his flock in the strength of Jehovah, in the majesty of the name of Jehovah his God. ‘And art thou, Bethlehem, little for being (=so little as not to be) among the thousands of Juda?’—following Grotius (Opera, ii. Micah says that the ideal king is to come out of Bethlehem, a town held in little estimation; and Mt
Raca - The application of this passage to the massacre at Bethlehem seems to have been suggested by the fact that another tradition placed Rachel’s tomb in the vicinity of that town (Genesis 35:19-20; Genesis 48:7). , about 4 miles south of Jerusalem, and one mile north of Bethlehem
Ramah - A city of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:25 ) between which and Bethel was the palm of Deborah ( Judges 4:5 ); one of the alternatives which the Levite of Bethlehem had to choose for a lodging on his fatal journey ( Judges 19:13 ); yielded with Geba 621 men to the post-exilic census of Ezra ( Ezra 2:26 ); re-settled by Benjamites ( Nehemiah 11:33 )
Tiberius (2) - 25–26 (Ramsay, Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? p
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Possibly "the valley of Berachah", where between Tekoa and the main road from Bethlehem to Hebron Jehoshaphat assembled the people to bless Jehovah for the victory over Ammon, Moab, etc
mo'ab - (Judges 3:12-30 ) The story of Ruth, on the other hand, testifies to the existence of a friendly intercourse between Moab and Bethlehem, one of the towns of Judah
Melania, a Roman Lady - of Jerusalem intimately, and no doubt shared with Rufinus in the friendship of Jerome and Paula when they settled at Bethlehem in 386, and afterwards in his contention with them
Benjamin - Jesus the antitype was first "a man of sorrows" (Isaiah 53:3), the mother's sorrows attending tits birth also at Bethlehem; afterward "the man of God's right hand," on whom God's hand was laid strengthening Him (Revelation 1:17; Psalms 80:17; Psalms 89:21; Acts 5:31). Rachel's second son, the only son of Jacob born in Palestine (Genesis 35:16-19), on the road between Betheland Bethlehem Ephrath, near the latter (Genesis 48:7) (probably "the fertile", from parah , corresponding to the town's other name, Bethlehem, "bread-house
David - He was the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, of Bethlehem and of the tribe of Judah. When the Lord, because of the ungodly conduct of Saul, had determined to choose another king, Samuel was directed to go to Bethlehem: and from the sons of Jesse anoint another as king over Israel. And, in answer to the king's query, David replies, "I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite, 1 Samuel 17:58, adopting the style by which he was first named to the king. After he had married Saul's younger daughter Michal, instead of the elder Merab, who had been promised him, Saul, further enraged by David's increasing credit with the nation, and understanding, it is likely, by this time, that the young Bethlehemite was the chosen of the Lord, to whom the kingdom was to be transferred, sent to arrest him in his house. To this period, belong the circumstances narrated in the concluding chapters of the first book of Samuel—the adventure with Nabal, and David's marriage with Abigail; his twice sparing Saul's life; perhaps the battle for the water of the well of Bethlehem, 1 Chronicles 11:15-19; and also the residence with Achish, who gave him Ziklag
Cassianus (11) Johannes, Founder of Western Monachism - 1), sent him to be educated in a monastery at Bethlehem; and there he would have frequent intercourse with pilgrims from the West. At the end of seven years they revisited Bethlehem; and thence returned very soon to the Egyptian deserts ( Coll
David - Beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem. ...
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Samuel 16:1-13 ). After this he went home to Bethlehem. The armies of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who were then fighting on the side of the king. It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed (2 Samuel 23:13-17 ), but which he would not drink
Gibeah - The Levite left Bethlehem at "the tent pitching time of day" (Judges 19:9, margin), about three in the afternoon
Governor - 6–9 (Ramsay, Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? ch
Herod - It was some time before his fatal illness that he must have caused the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem
Prince - hçgemôn , used of Bethlehem, ‘not least among the princes of Judah’ ( Matthew 2:6 )
Peace - The multitude of them that came flying, down to the Jewish shepherds at Bethlehem in the morning of Christ's nativity, hailed them with this joyful sound
Presentation - ...
The reading adopted in the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 (Luke 2:22), ‘the days of their (not ‘her,’ Authorized Version ) purification,’ has the highest MS authority, and is that expressly of Origen and Cyril: it is explained when we remember that while the ceremonial uncleanness was directly that of the mother only, Joseph and the Child could hardly help—especially while living in such circumstances as were theirs at Bethlehem—contracting a like defilement, in the legal sense, by contact with her. ’ The Virgin’s humility appears in her availing herself of this merciful provision; she disdained not to admit her poverty; we may be sure she did not (as some, thinking to exalt her, have imagined) assume a false appearance of it: even if Joseph and she had not been extremely poor before, the expenses of the journey to Bethlehem, and of living there six weeks, and the five shekels for the Child, could not have failed to make deep inroads on their purse. , did not observe an inconsistency of this kind, and that in point of fact the Third Gospel is marked by its homogeneity (see Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?)
Herod - ...
Herod, of course, was king of Judea under the Roman authority when Jesus was born in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:1 ). He gave the orders to kill the babies of Bethlehem two years old and under, in hopes of getting this One whom he saw as a successor to his throne (Matthew 2:16 )
Gate - One instance of these judgments appears in that given at the gate of Bethlehem, between Boaz and a relation of Naomi, on the subject of Ruth, Ruth 4:2 ; another in Abraham's purchase of a field to bury Sarah, Genesis 23:10 ; Genesis 23:18
Giants - , for the valley of "Rephaim" was near the valley of Hinnom and Bethlehem, S
Hesychius (25), Presbyter of Jerusalem - Hesychius compares Bethlehem and Sion, to the great advantage of the latter, and, in a manner very natural in a presbyter of Jerusalem, elevates St
Shepherd - As agriculture increased pasturage decreased, and was limited to particular spots, the border of the wilderness of Judah, Carmel (1 Samuel 25:2), Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:11; Luke 2:8), Tekoa (Amos 1:1), and Gedor (1 Chronicles 4:39)
Augustus (2) - ’ In ‘drawing up his narrative’ he makes it evident that Nazareth, not Bethlehem, was the home of Joseph and Mary, and that the ‘enrolment,’ originating in a decree of Caesar Augustus, was the occasion of the journey from Nazareth within a little time of the expected birth. Even the Massacre of the Innocents ‘from two years old and under’ in Bethlehem may never have been heard of in the palace of Augustus, or, if heard of, would have made very little impression, owing to the many acts of cruelty that had marked Herod’s reign. Luke, with his wider outlook as a cultured Greek writing to a Roman official, it was quite natural to give a distinct place in his record to the decree about the census as leading up to the birth in Bethlehem. Ramsay in his volume Was Christ born at Bethlehem? The tombs and even the dust-heaps of Egypt are proving that enrolments of households there were quite common, and even that a cycle of 14 years was observed. ...
As this new era approached, signs were multiplying of a desire for peace on the part of ruler and ruled, though it is scarcely true that the actual year of the birth at Bethlehem was distinguished by the prevalence of universal peace. Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, The Church in the Roman Empire; Shuckburgh, The Life and Times of the Founder of the Roman Empire; John B
Jesus Christ - He was to be born in Bethlehem, a small village, Micah 5:2; he was to be a king with a universal and perpetual empire, Psalms 2:6; Psalms 45:2-7; Psalms 72:1-20; Isaiah 9:6-7; yet would be despised and rejected. Mary, a virgin, betrothed to Joseph of Nazareth, gave birth to Jesus at Bethlehem according to Micah's prophecy
Capernaum - Visited by Jesus for a few days (John 2:12); afterward "His own city" and home, to which He retired from Nazareth (where He was reared, as in Bethlehem He was born), when He heard that Herod Antipas, who often resided at Sepphoris, or Diocaesarea, near Nazareth, had imprisoned John the Baptist
Olive - In recent years this cultivation has been largely revived, and extensive groves of olives may be found in many parts, notably near Beit Jala on the Bethlehem road, and near Nâblus
Fulfill - The suffering of Israel's mothers (Jeremiah 31:15 ) was echoed by the mothers of Bethlehem (Matthew 2:17-18 )
Dove - ...
Linnaeus identified it with the Οrnithogalum umbellatum , with eatable bulbs, "the star of Bethlehem"; the color of the flowers, white mixed with green, originated the name "dove's dung," which is of like color
Roads - (c) To the west, another road ran from Jerusalem to Jaffa, passing Gibeah, Bethhoron, and Lydda; while (d) to the south the road went through Bethlehem to Hebron, where it split in two: one going through the wilderness by way of Beersheba, and the other going west to the coast and passing through Gaza
Foreknowledge - And Isaiah's contemporary, Micah, prophesied that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem (5:2)
Garden - ...
The site near Bethlehem assigned to Solomon's garden is probably correct
David - The youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:11); great grandson of Ruth and Boaz, "a mighty man of wealth" (Ruth 2:1; Ruth 4:21;Ruth 4:22). His birthplace was Bethlehem (as it was of his Antitype, Messiah: Luke 2:4, etc. His early associations with Bethlehem made him when in a hold desire a drink of water from its well while the Philistines held it. ) A yearly sacrificial feast used to be held at Bethlehem, whereat Jesse, as chief landowner, presided with the elders (1 Samuel 16; 1 Samuel 20:6; compare at Saul's selection, 1 Samuel 9:12). But 1 Samuel 17:12; 1 Samuel 17:15 show that Saul already had David in attendance upon him, for Jesse his father is called "that Ephrathite" (namely, that one spoken of above), and it is said before David's going forth to meet Goliath that "David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem
Mary - An edict of Caesar Augustus having decreed, that all subjects of the empire should go to their own cities, to register their names according to their families, Joseph and Mary, who were both of the lineage of David, went to Bethlehem, from whence sprung their family. Angels made this event known to shepherds, who were in the fields near Bethlehem, and these came in the night to Joseph and Mary and saw the child laying in the manger, and paid him their adoration
Joab - The father is not named; his sepulchre was in Bethlehem (2 Samuel 2:32). Besides his usual residence at Jerusalem Joab had a house and barley fields in the country not far from the capital (2 Samuel 14:30; 1 Kings 2:34); and "he was buried in his own house in the wilderness," probably that of Judah, as Joab's mother, David's step sister, would naturally dwell near Bethlehem
Mary, the Virgin - When Joseph went up to Bethlehem to get himself enrolled, Mary went also, not because it was necessary, but because ‘she would be anxious at all risks not to be separated from Joseph’ (Plummer, in loc. At Bethlehem, perhaps in the cave where now is the Church of the Nativity, she brought forth her firstborn Son, and there, too, she received the visit of the shepherds, whose words as to the sign given them from heaven she ‘kept, pondering them in her heart. Whether he received his information directly from her, as Ramsay supposes (Was Christ born at Bethlehem? p
Joseph - Joseph took Mary to his ancestral home, Bethlehem, was with her at Jesus' birth, and shared in the naming, circumcision, and dedication of the child (Luke 2:8-33 )
Reverence - In these passages we have reference to the adoration of Jesus by the Magi, Herod’s desire to do homage to the child at Bethlehem, the request of the devil that Jesus should worship him, the disciples doing homage to their Lord by the sea, the Canaanite woman humbling herself before Jesus, the mother of James and John as she made her bold request for her two sons, the disciples after the resurrection of Christ, the demoniac of Gadara before Jesus, the mock homage paid to Jesus on the Cross
Mary - ...
Some months later, Joseph and Mary moved to Bethlehem in Judea for a census, and there the baby was born (Luke 2:1-7; Luke 2:19)
Benjamin - A later interpolation identifies Ephrath with Bethlehem, but cf
Judah - Canaan and obtained its early seat around Bethlehem it is impossible to say
Bar-Jesus - Was Christ born in Bethlehem?, do
Pre-Existence - The most remarkable of these are the titles ‘Mighty God’ and ‘Father of Eternity’ in Isaiah 9:6; the statement of Micah 5:2, that the Ruler who is to come forth from Bethlehem will be one ‘whose goings forth are from of old, from ancient days
Mizpah - of the Dead Sea; on the mountains Abarim or Pisgah (Deuteronomy 34:1), which David could easily reach from Bethlehem by crossing the Jordan near its entrance into the Dead Sea
Amos - of Bethlehem
Guest-Chamber - Some think that the ‘inn’ of Bethlehem (Luke 2:7) was of this character, but others are of opinion that it was rather an inn under the care of a host, like the πανδοχεῖον of Luke 10:34
Prince (2) - The description of Bethlehem as ‘in no wise least among the princes of Judah’ is perplexing in view of Micah 5:2 [1]) from which the quotation is taken
Jerusalem - however the hills at Bethlehem are a little higher, 2,704; Hebron, 3,029. The central ravine half way up sends a lateral valley running up to the general level at the Jaffa or Bethlehem gate. of which are Ophel), supplied from Bethlehem and Solomon's pools. ) He built also a palace for his Egyptian queen, not in the city of David (in the New Testament this phrase means Bethlehem): 1 Kings 7:8; 1 Kings 9:24; 2 Chronicles 8:11
Zebulun - Of the five cities mentioned in Deuteronomy 19:15 Bethlehem is the only one whose site is identified with certainty
Decrees - The decree of Caesar Augustus for a census (Luke 2:1 ) is providentially used to ensure the fulfillment of the prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2 ; cf
Adoption - So Mary, being daughter of Heli, and Joseph her husband being adopted by him on marrying his daughter, an heiress (as appears from her going to Bethlehem to be registered in her pregnancy), Joseph is called in Luke's genealogy son of Heli
Theudas - Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, London, 1898, pp
Matthew, the Gospel According to - For the Jews; to show Jewish, readers (to whom were committed the Old Testament "oracles of God") that Jesus is the Messiah of the Old Testament, fulfilling Old Testament prophecies, as born of a virgin in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:6); fleeing to Egypt and called out of it; heralded by John Baptist (Matthew 3:3); laboring in Galilee of the Gentiles (Matthew 4:14-16); healing (Matthew 8:17); teaching in parables (Matthew 13:14 ff). Matthew 2: Christ worshipped by the wise men, Herod's massacre of the children at Bethlehem, Herod's death, and Christ's return to Nazareth. ...
QUOTATIONS IN MATTHEW Matthew 1:23 "Behold, a virgin" Isaiah 7:14 Matthew 2:6 "Thou Bethlehem" Micah 5:2 Matthew 2:15 "Out of Egypt" Hosea 11:1 Matthew 2:18 "In Rama a voice" Jeremiah 31:15 Matthew 3:3 "The voice of one crying" Isaiah 40:3 Matthew 4:4 "Man shall not live by bread" Deuteronomy 8:3 Matthew 4:6 "He shall give His angels charge" Psalms 91:11-12 Matthew 4:7 "Thou shalt not tempt " Deuteronomy 6:16 Matthew 4:10 "Thou shalt worship the Lord" Deuteronomy 6:13 Matthew 4:15-16 "The land of Zabulon" Isaiah 9:1-2 Matthew 5:5 "Blessed are the meek: they shall Psalms 37:11 inherit the earth" Matthew 5:21 "Thou shalt not kill" Exodus 20:13 Matthew 5:27 "Thou shalt not commit adultery" Exodus 20:14 Matthew 5:31 "Give her a writing of divorcement" Deuteronomy 24:1 Matthew 5:33 "Thou shalt not forswear"...
Deuteronomy 23:23; Leviticus 19:12 Matthew 5:38 "An eye for an eye" Psalms 78:2-3 Matthew 5:43 "Love thy neighbor
Mary, the Virgin - ) Augustus' decree (Luke 2) obliged them to go to Bethlehem, God thereby causing His prophecy (Micah 5:2) to be fulfilled, Mary there giving birth to the Savior. The flight to Egypt followed; then the return, at first designed to be back to Bethlehem, but through fear of Archelaus to Nazareth of Galilee, their former home
Micah, Theology of - ...
In the fifth vision and at the center of these glorious prophecies (5:1-6), Micah now predicts that the remnant will give birth to the Messiah, who will be born in lowly Bethlehem, David's cradle (v. He predicts the Babylonian exile and the survival of the remnant, and the birth of his Messiah in Bethlehem and the triumph of his rule, and brings them to pass
the Man Who Took a Rain of Mustard Seed And Sowed it in His Field - What could be a smaller seed, at the time, than the emigration of the son of Terah out of Ur of the Chaldees and into the land of the Canaanites? Again, what seed could well be smaller than that ark of bulrushes, daubed with slime and pitch, and hidden away among the flags by the river's brink? And, then, what less likely to spring up into all the psalms and hymns and spiritual songs of the Church of God than those little snatches of sacred psalmody that a shepherd boy sang to his few sheep on the plains of Bethlehem? And to come to Old Testament institutions and ordinances also. Would you see with your own eyes the most wonderful mustard seed that ever was sown in all the world? Come and look at that Holy Thing that lies in the manger of Bethlehem, because there is no room in the inn
Temple, Solomon's - Solomon also provided for a sufficient water supply for the temple by hewing in the rocky hill vast cisterns, into which water was conveyed by channels from the "pools" near Bethlehem
Eclipse - But it is certain from Scripture, that Christ was born during Herod's reign; and from the visit of the magi to Jerusalem "from the east," απο ανατολων , from the Parthian empire, to inquire for the true "born King of the Jews," whose star they had seen "at its rising," εν τη ανατολη , and also from the age of the infants massacred at Bethlehem, "from two years old and under," Matthew 2:1-16
Harvest - "And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, The Lord be with you
Nazarene - The incident of the census was the occasion of His birth taking place at Bethlehem according to prophetic intimation
Dates (2) - Although Matthew 2:11 τὸ παιδίον does not suggest an infant babe, the stay of the Holy Family in Bethlehem, where the Magi found them, cannot have been long, the presentation in the Temple following 40 days after the Nativity. But this would be too early for the star that stood over Bethlehem. 4 stood over Bethlehem. Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?) builds on these
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - Rather, He was born (as the Jewish messiah must be) in Bethlehem, the “city of David,” as a descendant of David's royal line (Matthew 1:1-17 ; Matthew 2:1-6 ). This Child born in Bethlehem ended up as an adult in Nazareth, described sarcastically by his enemies as a “Nazarene” (literally, “Nazarite” Matthew 2:23 )
Mary - Soon after this the decree of Augustus (Luke 2:1 ) required that they should proceed to Bethlehem (Micah 5:2 ), some 80 or 90 miles from Nazareth; and while they were there they found shelter in the inn or khan provided for strangers (Luke 2:6,7 )
Micah - ...
He is abrupt in transitions, and elliptical, and so obscure; the contrast between Babylon, which triumphs over carnal Israel, and humble Bethlehem out of which shall come forth Israel's Deliverer and Babylon's Destroyer, is a striking instance: Micah 4:8-5:7
Time (2) - Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem? v
Micah, Book of - God plans to raise up a Shepherd from Bethlehem to bring peace and victory to His beleagured flock (Micah 5:1-9 )
Alaric - Jerome at Bethlehem and by St
Luke - This Gospel contains many things which are not found in the other Gospels; among which are the following: the birth of John the Baptist; the Roman census in Judea; the circumstances attending Christ's birth at Bethlehem; the vision granted to the shepherds; the early testimony of Simeon and Anna; Christ's conversation with the doctors in the temple when he was twelve years old; the parables of the good Samaritan, of the prodigal son, of Dives and Lazarus, of the wicked judge, and of the publican and Pharisee; the miraculous cure of the woman who had been bowed down by illness eighteen years; the cleansing of the ten lepers; and the restoring to life the son of a widow at Nain; the account of Zaccheus, and of the penitent thief; and the particulars of the journey to Emmaus
Jacob - While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin (35:16-20), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph
David - From humble beginnings as the youngest son of a Bethlehem shepherd named Jesse, David rose to become Israel’s greatest king
Severus Sulpicius, an Historian - Jerome at his church in Bethlehem, and the monks and hermits of the Thebaid
Genealogies of Jesus Christ - Peter in his speech on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:30) mentions God’s promise to David, ‘that of the fruit of his loins he would set one upon his throne,’ and points to its fulfilment in Christ; but in addressing Cornelius (Acts 10:38) he speaks of Christ as ‘Jesus of Nazareth’; and this would seem to imply that the birth at Bethlehem, which brought into prominence the claim to Davidic descent, did not form part of his ordinary missionary preaching. , 52 that He was regarded by both the crowd and the rulers at Jerusalem as being of Galilaean, and therefore presumably not Davidie, parentage; it is by no means certain, and to many it may seem in no way probable, that the writer, in the interest of a ‘tragic irony’ (see Westcott, Speaker’s Commentary on John 7:42), refrained from noting the fact of the birth at Bethlehem, and the Davidie lineage of Joseph or Mary. show clearly that He did not choose to support His claim by an appeal to fleshly parentage; while the words of Philip (John 1:45 ‘We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph’), and of the crowd at Capernaum (John 6:42 ‘Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know?’), left, as they are, without comment by the Evangelist, suggest that he was unacquainted with the story of the birth at Bethlehem, and laid no stress on the Davidie descent
Pelagianism And Pelagius - In Palestine he was introduced to Jerome in his monastery at Bethlehem. After giving him the instruction he required, he sent him to Jerome at Bethlehem, ostensibly to obtain further instruction, but really to watch the proceedings of Pelagius, and announce to the church in Palestine the steps taken in the African church to suppress the rising heresy. ...
A renewed effort to quell Pelagianism the result Pelagius says of the influence of Jerome and a small knot of ardent sympathizers at Bethlehem was made towards the end of 415 when two deposed Western bishops Heros of Arles and Lazarus of Aix laid a formal accusation against Pelagius before a synod at Diospolis (the ancient Lydda) at which Eulogius bp. Jerome was regarded as a chief mover in the prosecution of Pelagius and apparently by way of vengeance a violent and outrageous assault was made upon his monastery at Bethlehem which was ascribed to some of the Pelagian party with what justice it is not easy to ascertain
Rufinus of Aquileia - Palladius, who was at Jerusalem and Bethlehem for some time before he went to Egypt in 388, says of Rufinus: "He was a man of noble birth and manners, but very strong in following out his own independent resolutions. Eusebius of Cremona, who came to Rome from Bethlehem early in 398 (Hieron. But, being in uncertainty as to the value of the translation, Pammachius and Oceanus sent the books and prefaces to Jerome at Bethlehem, who sat down at once, made a literal translation of the Περὶ Ἀρχῶν , and sent it to his friends with a letter (84) written to refute the insinuations through which, as he considered, Rufinus's preface had associated him with Origenism
Samuel - 16) to go to Bethlehem and anoint David, the son of Jesse, as king over Israel instead of Saul
Son of God - ...
When Jesus was born in Bethlehem, the Son of God added humanity to the deity that he already had
Quirinius - Zumpt (Commentatio de Syria Romanorum provincia ab Cesare Augusto ad Titum Vespasianum) has shown that Quirinius seems to have been governor of Syria on two occasions; and this clue has been followed up by independent studies of Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?)
Minister - 0 that men were half as diligent in securing the precious gifts of the Spirit, which are priceless beyond compare! Alas! how few have David's thirst for the well of Bethlehem
Gardens - Doubdan found a very fruitful vineyard, full of olives, fig trees, and vines, about eight miles south-west from Bethlehem, enclosed with a hedge; and that part of it adjoining to the road, strongly formed of thorns and rose bushes, intermingled with pomegranate trees of surpassing beauty and fragrance
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - 387, visited Bethlehem, where he received a very unfavourable impression of Jerome from the solitary Posidonius ( ib
Jesus Christ - ...
A census decreed by Caesar Augustus sent Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem where, during the last years of Herod the Great, Jesus was born to the acclaim of angels and shepherds. They returned to Bethlehem were, apparently, they intended to stay. , the family decided to return to Nazareth after hearing that Archelaus was ruling over Judea (where Bethlehem was) in place of his father
John the Baptist - Luke makes the story of John’s birth the prelude to his wonderful narrative of the greater birth at Bethlehem (Luke 1:5 ff. , Was Christ born at Bethlehem?; Chase, The Credibility of Acts), it is impossible to set his narrative aside as if it rested on no basis of historical fact. A tradition as early as the Crusades assigns the honour to Ain Karim, a village which lay between Jerusalem and Bethlehem
Magi - By ancient writers it was usually supposed that they arrived at Bethlehem on the 13th day inclusive after the birth of Christ, i. ; Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem? pp. of Tours it was still, in his time, to be seen in a well at Bethlehem (Mirac
Entry Into Jerusalem - The Messiah was not to come from Galilee but from Bethlehem (Matthew 2:5), was king of the Jews (Matthew 2:2), was to perform miracles (John 7:31), to be a prophet (John 4:29), to appear mysteriously (John 7:27), to be a descendant of David (Matthew 9:27), and to restore again the kingdom to Israel (Acts 1:6). ]'>[10] 191) mentions that in recent times the people of Bethlehem cast their cloaks before the horse of the consul of Damascus
Bride - " The Evangelist Luke gives her the same title: "And Joseph also went up from Galilee unto Bethlehem, to be taxed, with Mary his espoused wife," Luke 2:4-5 . And in times long posterior to the age of Isaac, when Ruth, the Moabitess, was espoused to Boaz, "all the people that were in the gate, and the elders, said, We are witnesses: the Lord make the woman that is come into thine house like Rachel, and like Leah, which two did build the house of Israel; and do thou worthily in Ephratah, and be famous in Bethlehem," 1618481419_1
Jerusalem - Helena, the mother of Constantine, built two churches in Bethlehem and on mount Olivet, about A. There are now in use only four gates: the Jaffa or Bethlehem gate on the west, the Damascus gate on the north, St
David - ...
Selection as King When Saul failed to meet God's standards for kingship (1Samuel 15:23,1 Samuel 15:35 ; 1 Samuel 16:1 ), God sent Samuel to anoint a replacement from among the sons of Jesse, who lived in Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:1 )
Drink - ...
Even the water that David's mighty men had obtained from the well at Bethlehem at dire risk to their lives was viewed so dearly by David that he would not drink it but poured it out as an offering to God (2 Samuel 23:13-17 )
Theophilus (2) - Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem? ch
Egypt - * Manifestation - And this manifestation, first in the manger at Bethlehem, then in the home at Nazareth, was the outward setting of the Divine Life, both simple and natural
Matthew - Matthew's Gospel, and not found in any other, are the following: the visit of the eastern magi; our Saviour's flight into Egypt; the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem; the parable of the ten virgins; the dream of Pilate's wife; the resurrection of many saints at our Saviour's crucifixion; and the bribing of the Roman guard appointed to watch at the holy sepulchre by the chief priests and elders
Commerce - It was situated near the city of Bethlehem
Egypt - * Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - On the latter spot a beautiful basilica erected by Constantine is noticed, as also on Mount Olivet and at Bethlehem. He tells us that Constantine built a house of prayer on the site of the Resurrection and beautified the caves connected with our Lord's Birth and Ascension, and that he did so in memory of his mother, who had built two churches, one at Bethlehem, the other on the Mount of Ascension
Joseph - His family belonged to Bethlehem, David’s city, but he had migrated to Nazareth ( Luke 2:4 ), where he followed the trade of carpenter ( Matthew 13:55 ). On being summoned to Bethlehem by the requirements of the census, he would not leave her at home to suffer the slanders of misjudging neighbours, but took her with him and treated her very gently in her time of need ( Luke 2:1-7 )
Claudius - , Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, do
Nativity of Christ - The place of his birth was Bethlehem, Micah 5:2
Genealogy - In New Testament times, when Augustus ordered the registration for taxing, the Jews went severally to the town of their tribe, family, and father; and so Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, the town of their forefather David (Luke 2)
Luke (2) - See also his Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? A Study in the Credibility of St
Marriage (i.) - In the larger villages, such as Bethlehem and Nazareth, the robing of the bride was more elaborate, and was carried out by the help of women after her arrival at the new home
Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - Trees and statues were placed on the platform of the temple and a grove to Adonis near the cave of the nativity at Bethlehem
Idatius (3), Author of Well-Known Chronicle - Jerome at Bethlehem, John bp
Philistia - of Jerusalem, and to Bethlehem (1 Chronicles 11:16-18; 1618481419_40), taking their images, and pursuing them to Gazer, then taking Gath and so wresting the supremacy from the Philistines (1 Chronicles 18:1; 2 Samuel 8:1), so that encounters with the Philistines henceforth were in their own land (2 Samuel 21:15-22)
Jeru'Salem - Hebron indeed is higher still by some hundred feet, and from the south, accordingly (even from Bethlehem), the approach to Jerusalem is by a slight descent. It brought water from the spring Elam, on the south, beyond Bethlehem, into the reservoirs under the temple enclosure
John, the Gospel of - John does not tell of Jesus' birth in Bethlehem
Jerusalem - She caused a church to be built on what was then supposed to be the place of the nativity at Bethlehem
Jonathan - Micah afterwards found a Levite for the service, who had sojourned in Bethlehem Judah and left it to seek maintenance where he could, in Mount Ephraim
Judah - and to Maon, Tekoah, and Bethlehem toward the W
Province - Ramsay, Was Christ born in Bethlehem?, London, 1898, and G
Jesus Christ - He was to be an Israelite, of the tribe of Judah, of the family of David, and of the town of Bethlehem. That all these predictions were fulfilled in Jesus Christ; that he was of that country, tribe, and family, of the house and lineage of David, and born in Bethlehem, we have the fullest evidence in the testimony of all the evangelists; in two distinct accounts of the genealogies, by natural and legal succession, which, according to the custom of the Jews, were carefully preserved; in the acquiescence of the enemies of Christ in the truth of the fact, against which there is not a single surmise in history; and in the appeal made by some of the earliest Christian writers to the unquestionable testimony of the records of the census, taken at the very time of our Saviour's birth by order of Caesar. " Daniel terms him the "Ancient of Days," or "The Immortal;" and Micah declares, in a passage which the council of the Jews, assembled by Herod, applied to the Messiah, that he who was to be born in Bethlehem was "even he whose comings forth are from eternity, from the days of the everlasting period
Jerusalem - Hebron, indeed, is higher still by some hundred feet, and from the south, accordingly (even from Bethlehem), the approach to Jerusalem is by a slight descent. There was also the route from Hebron, Bethlehem, and Solomon's pools on the south
Bible, Translations - Jerome completed the new translation after eighteen years of work at Bethlehem
Stone - —(a) Whether or not we accept the ancient tradition that Jesus was born in one of the limestone caves of Bethlehem, it is very likely that His manger would be a manger of stone—built with stones and mortar if not hollowed out of the solid rock (see Thomson, LB Jeremiah, Book of - Some judge it to have been a vision only, and others that Ephrath (that is Bethlehem) is meant instead of the Euphrates
City - Bethlehem and Bethsaida, though generally classed as cities, are spoken of as κῶμαι in John 7:42, Mark 8:23; Mark 8:26, the natural inference from which is that the words ‘city,’ ‘town,’ and ‘village,’ though having, as with us, a technical signification, were occasionally used in a looser and less precise manner
Genealogy - ), and Kiriath-jearim and Bethlehem are descendants of Hur ( 1 Chronicles 2:51 )
Herod - Matthew, by the massacre of the children of Bethlehem
da'Vid - It appears that David was the youngest son, probably the youngest child, of a family of ten, and was born in Bethlehem B
Jesus Christ - The census of the Roman empire ordered by Augustus led Joseph and Mary from Nazareth to Bethlehem, the city of David their ancestor, in fulfillment of Micah's prophecy (Micah 5). The grotto at Bethlehem is mentioned by Justin Martyr in the second century as the scene of His birth
Jesus Christ - But Bethlehem was not the beginning of the story
King, Christ as - Isaiah's contemporary, Micah, likewise prophesied that he would be born in Bethlehem, but his origins were "from of old, from ancient times" (5:2-5)
Amos - Amos, the earliest of the prophets whose writings have come down to us, and the initiator of one of the greatest movements in spiritual history, was a herdsman, or small sheep-farmer, in Tekoa, a small town lying on the uplands some six miles south of Bethlehem
Alexandria - ]'>[5] ), the learned and eloquent (λόγιος, δυνατὸς ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς), was a true Alexandrian, not impossibly ‘of the Museum’; and Luther was happily inspired in suggesting that he may have been the writer who used the Hebrew-Hellenic theology of Egypt to interpret the manger of Bethlehem
Anointing (2) - 281–283; Ramsay, Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? pp
Nathanael - At this time Philip would know nothing of the virgin birth at Bethlehem: he quite naturally describes Jesus as He was commonly known
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - He visited Bethlehem, Golgotha, the Mount of Olives, and the Anastasis. He asserts the religious superiority of Cappadocia, which had more churches than any part of the world, and inquires in plain terms whether a man will believe the virgin birth of Christ the more by seeing Bethlehem, or His resurrection by visiting His tomb, or His ascension by standing on the Mount of Olives" (Milman, Hist
Palestine - Large oak roots are all that attest the former existence of trees along the road between Bethlehem and Hebron. of Bethlehem, abounding in springs, and the pools of Solomon, are exceptions to the general dryness of the S
Annunciation, the - Both state that at the time of the announcement Mary was espoused to Joseph, that the child was to be named ‘Jesus,’ that He was born at Bethlehem in Judaea, and that the parents brought Him up at Nazareth. ’ Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem? p
Jerusalem - This energetic ruler constructed a theater, amphitheater, hippodrome, a new palace, fortified towers, and an aqueduct to bring water from the Bethlehem area
Tiberius - Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, London, 1898, p
Prophecy, Prophets - (1) Some prophecies seem to have a direct, literal fulfillment: the Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:5-6 ; Micah 5:2 )
Angel - The birth of Jesus was announced to Bethlehem shepherds by the angel of the Lord, and since he was accompanied by the divine glory he may well have been the Lord himself
Zebedee - The tribe had given two judges to Israel, Ibzan of Bethlehem (Judges 12:8) and Elon (Judges 12:11), while 3 miles from Nazareth was Gath-hepher, the birthplace of Jonah, the first prophet to the Gentiles, and his tomb is still shown there
Census - God's providence overruled Augustus' order for the provincial enrollment of all persons and estates under Roman sway, to effect His foretold purpose that Bethlehem should be the scene of Jesus' nativity (Micah 5:2) Micah 5:4 B
Emmaus - Finn grounds her theory that Emmaus = Urtas, to the south of Bethlehem, near Solomon’s Pools, 60 furlongs from Jerusalem (see PEFSt Impotence - Local relations: (a) ‘in,’ ‘at,’ or ‘on,’ of simple locality (Matthew 2:1 ‘in Bethlehem,’ Matthew 24:40 ‘in the field,’ John 4:20 ‘in this mountain’); (b) that with which one is covered or clothed (Mark 12:38 ‘walk in long robes,’ Matthew 7:15 ‘in sheep’s clothing,’ Matthew 11:21 ‘repented in sackcloth and ashes,’ John 20:12 ‘two angels in white’); (c) direct cohesion (John 15:4 ‘except it abide in the vine’); (d) position in a writing or book (Matthew 21:42 ‘in the scriptures,’ Mark 1:2 ‘in Isaiah,’ Luke 20:42 ‘in the book of Psalms’)
Glory - To this the term δόξα is frequently applied-at Bethlehem (Luke 2:9), and at the Transfiguration (2 Peter 1:17); the ‘glory’ of God is the light of the New Jerusalem; Stephen looking up saw the ‘glory of God’ (Acts 7:55); and the redeemed are at last presented faultless before the presence of His glory (Judges 1:24; Jude cf
Keeping - When the shepherds made known concerning the saying which had been spoken to them about the child in Bethlehem, ‘all that heard it wondered
Magnificat - Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem? p
Samuel, First Book of - Samuel was then sent to Bethlehem to anoint David
Family (Jesus) - In the one authentic account of any event in the boyhood of Jesus (Luke 2:41-51), received perhaps from the Virgin herself (see Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem? ch
Nazarene - Luke; where I hope we shall discover, under the teaching of God the Holy Ghost, that Jesus, though born at Bethlehem to fulfil another prophecy, was literally and truly conceived at Nazareth, and as such became a real Nazarene
Chronology of the New Testament - 10), followed as to his results provisionally by Ramsay ( Was Christ born at Bethlehem ? 3 , p
Transportation And Travel - The hilly spine of central Palestine forced the traveler to zigzag around steep ascents (such as that between Jericho and Jerusalem), or follow ridges along the hill tops (the Beth Horon route northwest of Jerusalem), or go along watersheds (Bethlehem to Mizpah)
Star (2) - —In its main outlines the story of the visit of the Magi to Jerusalem and Bethlehem is probably based upon what the compiler of the First Gospel believed to be facts
Sepulchre - The one probably best known to the student of the Bible is the so-called Tomb of Rachel at the fork of the road leading to Bethlehem
Lazarus - Yes; God may have as terrible a service to ask of you, when you are ready for it, as when He asked His own Son to go down to Bethlehem, and to Nazareth, and to Gethsemane, and to Calvary
Priest - ...
However, it seems that, on certain occasions, the judges and the kings of the Hebrews offered sacrifices unto the Lord, especially before a constant place of worship was fixed at Jerusalem; for in 1 Samuel 7:8 , we are told that Samuel, who was no priest, offered a lamb for a burnt-sacrifice to the Lord; and in 1 Samuel 9:13 , it is said that this prophet was to bless the offering of the people, which should seem to be a function appropriated to the priests; lastly, 1 Samuel 16:5 , he goes to Bethlehem, where he offers a sacrifice at the inauguration or anointing of David
Mount of Olives - in a gap in the hills lies the convent of Mar Elias on the road to Bethlehem; and to its left a crater-shaped hill—the Herodium—the burial-place of Herod the Great
Nation (2) - The frenzied act of massacre of the babes of Bethlehem, for which Matthew 2:16 is the only authority, is quite in accord with his temper in the later years of his life
Jews - In the thirty-sixth year of the reign of Herod, while Augustus was emperor of Rome, the Saviour of mankind was born of the virgin Mary, of the lineage of David, in the city of Bethlehem of Judea, according to the word of prophecy. Herod, misled by the opinion, which was then common among the Jews, that the Messiah was to appear as the temporal prince, and judging from the inquiries of the wise men of the east, that the child was actually born, sent to Bethlehem, and ordered that all the children of two years old and under should be put to death, with the hope of destroying one whom he considered as the rival of himself, or at least of his family
Tombs - near, at, Bethlehem) the city of David (Nehemiah 3:16)
House - Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, 1898, p
Body (2) - In due time, according to the laws of human life, He was born at Bethlehem (Luke 2:5; Luke 2:7)
Judgments of God - He attempted to destroy Jesus Christ himself, while he was yet but a child, and for that wicked purpose slew all the male children that were in and about Bethlehem
Jacob - , Jeremiah 31:15 ); and therefore the gloss ‘the same is Bethlehem’ must be due to a confusion with the other Ephrath ( Ruth 4:11 , Micah 5:2 ), which was south of Jerusalem
Michal, Saul's Daughter - David's overflowing joy that day had its deep and full spring in that far-off but never-to-be-forgotten day when Samuel came to Bethlehem with his horn of oil
Gospel - The fact they were invited to the manger of Bethlehem indicates Jesus' openness to everyone
Luke, Gospel According to - Ramsay ( Was Christ born at Bethlehem p
Abortion - The incarnation took place not in a Bethlehem stable but nine months earlier in Nazareth, as the Holy Spirit caused a virgin to conceive
Ministry - ...
Bethlehem
Angels (2) - We gather this from the evident joy with which angels announced the advent of the Messiah to the shepherds at Bethlehem
Jesus Christ - ...
As the eternally existent Son of God, Jesus had no beginning (John 8:58; Colossians 1:17; Revelation 1:8), but as a human being he had a beginning when he was born as a baby in Bethlehem
Necessity - Matthew, Christ is born of a virgin at Bethlehem, is named Jesus, sojourns in Egypt, resides at Nazareth, migrates to Capernaum, heals the sick, speaks in parables, enters Jerusalem riding an ass, is deserted by the disciples, is betrayed and put to death, ‘that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet’ (ἵνα πληρωθῆ το ῥηθεν ὑτὸ τον Κυρίου διὰ τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος, κ
Humility - His cradle in the manger at Bethlehem and His subjection in the home at Nazareth, His quiet entrance, at the hands of the Baptist, on public life, His restraint in the use of His supernatural powers, and His dislike of consequent honour and fame, His frequent periods of retirement, His choice of followers and friends, His sympathies with little children and humble suppliants (Mark 10:13-16; Mark 7:24-30), His appreciation of the smallest offering and the simplest service (Luke 21:1-4, Matthew 10:42), and, finally, His submission to the experiences concentrated in the week of His Passion and Crucifixion, all attest the consistency of His character as One who was ‘meek and lowly in heart,’ and who, at every step of His career, plainly and profoundly ‘humbled himself’ (Philippians 2:8)
David - The second and greatest of the kings of Israel; the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; he belonged to the tribe of Judah. David is here represented as having been designated by Jahweh as Saul’s successor; Samuel is sent to Bethlehem to anoint him; all the seven sons of Jesse pass before the prophet, but the Spirit does not move him to anoint any of them; in perplexity he asks the father if he has any more children, whereupon the youngest is produced, and Samuel anoints him
Judea - In the southeast quarter of the province were situated Bethlehem, or Ephrath, about six miles south from the capital; Bethzur, now St
Roman Law in the nt - The position of Herod the Great in this respect is well drawn by Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, London, 1898, ch
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - He was to be the son of David (Matthew 22:42 ) and, like David, come from Bethlehem (John 7:41-42 )
Atonement (2) - We are therefore entitled to hold that any interpretation of the Christian facts which shifts the focus from Calvary to Bethlehem or Galilee represents a departure from the historic faith, and tends to distort the Christian revelation
Fall (2) - ...
On Virgin Birth and Sinlessness of Christ: Sanday, Bampton Lectures; Gore, Bampton Lectures: all critical Lives of Christ: Griffith-Jones, Ascent through Christ; and for trustworthiness of Luke’s narrative, Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem?...
On Christ’s teaching: all good treatises, such as Wendt’s; and works on NT Theology, as those of Weiss and Beyschlag
Herod - It was at this time that he ordered the slaughter of all males, from two years old and under, in and about Bethlehem, the foretold birthplace of the expected Messiah
Humility - His cradle in the manger at Bethlehem and His subjection in the home at Nazareth, His quiet entrance, at the hands of the Baptist, on public life, His restraint in the use of His supernatural powers, and His dislike of consequent honour and fame, His frequent periods of retirement, His choice of followers and friends, His sympathies with little children and humble suppliants (Mark 10:13-16; Mark 7:24-30), His appreciation of the smallest offering and the simplest service (Luke 21:1-4, Matthew 10:42), and, finally, His submission to the experiences concentrated in the week of His Passion and Crucifixion, all attest the consistency of His character as One who was ‘meek and lowly in heart,’ and who, at every step of His career, plainly and profoundly ‘humbled himself’ (Philippians 2:8)
Immanuel - The birth of Christ from the Virgin through the Divine Spirit had, we may assume, already belonged to the Christological dogma before Jesus, just as His birth in Bethlehem and from David’s race, and has been transferred to Jesus only at a later time
Matthew, Gospel According to - Hosea had foreseen the flight into Egypt, Jeremiah the massacre of the infants at Bethlehem (Matthew 2:17); and the settlement of His parents at the ill-famed village of Nazareth had been the subject of prophecy (Matthew 2:23)
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - Jerome had been attacked in his cell at Bethlehem by a band of ruffians and had narrowly escaped; the two noble virgins, Eustochium and her niece Paula, living in retirement under his spiritual direction, had been driven from their house, which had been burnt, and some of their attendants killed
Ascension of Isaiah - After Hezekiah’s death, Manasseh, as foretold, forsakes the service of God and serves Satan, whereupon Isaiah withdraws first to Bethlehem and then to the desert with his companions (2:1-11)
Palesti'na - The valley of Urtas , south of Bethlehem contains springs which in abundance and excellence rival even those of Nablus the huge "Pools of Solomon" are enough to supply a district for many miles round them; and the cultivation now going on in that Neighborhood shows whet might be done with a soil which required only irrigation and a moderate amount of labor to evoke a boundless produce
Israel - (2) A movement on the part of the tribe of Judah followed by the Simeonites, south-westward from Jericho into the hill-country about Bethlehem and Hebron
Messiah - In a similar spirit Micah localizes the new Kingdom established through Divine guidance in Zion ( Micah 4:1-5 ), and declares that the King is to come from Bethlehem, that is to say, shall be Davidic ( Micah 5:2-5 )
Christ in Art - Often the Lamb was accompanied by twelve other lambs issuing from Bethlehem and Jerusalem, to represent the Apostles, as in the apse of SS
Jerusalem - Another (the ‘low-level aqueduct’) is traditionally ascribed to Solomon: it brings water from reservoirs beyond Bethlehem; and a third (the ‘high-level aqueduct’) is of Roman date
Jews - Adrian built a city on Mount Calvary, and erected a marble statue of swine over the gate that led to Bethlehem
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - Such features of the Christian tradition as the Birth at Bethlehem and the Ascension must have been well known by any well-instructed Christian at the beginning of the 2nd cent
Jerusalem (2) - It is specially remarkable for the way it crossed a valley on the Bethlehem road by means of an inverted syphon
Christ in Jewish Literature - He says: ‘Jesus the Nazarene was born in Bethlehem, a “parsah” and a half from Jerusalem, in the year 3761 from the Creation, i
Art - ...
‘It is needless,’ she says, describing her experiences in Syria, ‘to write what was the ornamenting on that day of the Church of the Anastasis, or of the cross in Jerusalem or in Bethlehem; for there you would see nothing but gold and gems or silk; for if you see the veils, they are all of silk, with stripes of gold; if you see the curtains, they are the same
Archaeology And Biblical Study - ...
The location of places like Jerusalem and Bethlehem were never forgotten
Jerusalem - without uttering a prayer that God would have mercy on the darkness of Judah; and that the Day Star of Bethlehem might arise in their hearts
Palestine - South of that, through the pasture-lands about Bethlehem and the wilderness of Judaea to the east of them, the land slopes down the rolling ‘South Country’ to the Arabian desert
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - ’ When the days of her confinement drew near, Mary was told to go to Bethlehem, lest her people should injure the child